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Sample records for actual-ideal weight discrepancy

  1. Weight-related actual and ideal self-states, discrepancies, and shame, guilt, and pride: examining associations within the process model of self-conscious emotions.

    PubMed

    Castonguay, Andree L; Brunet, Jennifer; Ferguson, Leah; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between women's actual:ideal weight-related self-discrepancies and experiences of weight-related shame, guilt, and authentic pride using self-discrepancy (Higgins, 1987) and self-conscious emotion (Tracy & Robins, 2004) theories as guiding frameworks. Participants (N=398) completed self-report questionnaires. Main analyses involved polynomial regressions, followed by the computation and evaluation of response surface values. Actual and ideal weight self-states were related to shame (R2 = .35), guilt (R2 = .25), and authentic pride (R2 = .08). When the discrepancy between actual and ideal weights increased, shame and guilt also increased, while authentic pride decreased. Findings provide partial support for self-discrepancy theory and the process model of self-conscious emotions. Experiencing weight-related self-discrepancies may be important cognitive appraisals related to shame, guilt, and authentic pride. Further research is needed exploring the relations between self-discrepancies and a range of weight-related self-conscious emotions.

  2. Discrepancies in Communication Versus Documentation of Weight-Management Benchmarks

    PubMed Central

    Turer, Christy B.; Barlow, Sarah E.; Montaño, Sergio; Flores, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    To examine gaps in communication versus documentation of weight-management clinical practices, communication was recorded during primary care visits with 6- to 12-year-old overweight/obese Latino children. Communication/documentation content was coded by 3 reviewers using communication transcripts and health-record documentation. Discrepancies in communication/documentation content codes were resolved through consensus. Bivariate/multivariable analyses examined factors associated with discrepancies in benchmark communication/documentation. Benchmarks were neither communicated nor documented in up to 42% of visits, and communicated but not documented or documented but not communicated in up to 20% of visits. Lowest benchmark performance rates were for laboratory studies (35%) and nutrition/weight-management referrals (42%). In multivariable analysis, overweight (vs obesity) was associated with 1.6 more discrepancies in communication versus documentation (P = .03). Many weight-management benchmarks are not met, not documented, or performed without being communicated. Enhanced communication with families and documentation in health records may promote lifestyle changes in overweight children and higher quality care for overweight children in primary care. PMID:28239625

  3. Misleading University Rankings: Cause and Cure for Discrepancies between Nominal and Attained Weights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soh, Kaycheng

    2013-01-01

    Recent research into university ranking methodologies uncovered several methodological problems among the systems currently in vogue. One of these is the discrepancy between the nominal and attained weights. The problem is the summation of unstandardized indicators for the total scores used in ranking. It is demonstrated that weight discrepancy…

  4. Rectifying an Honest Error in World University Rankings: A Solution to the Problem of Indicator Weight Discrepancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soh, Kaycheng

    2013-01-01

    Discrepancies between the nominal and attained indicator weights misinform rank consumers as to the relative importance of the indicators. This may lead to unwarranted institutional judgements and misdirected actions, causing resources being wasted unnecessarily. As a follow-up to two earlier studies, data from the Academic Ranking of World…

  5. Childhood Obesity, Gender, Actual-Ideal Body Image Discrepancies, and Physical Self-Concept in Hong Kong Children: Cultural Differences in the Value of Moderation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Hau, K. T.; Sung, R. Y. T.; Yu, C. W.

    2007-01-01

    Childhood obesity is increasingly prevalent in Western and non-Western societies. The authors related multiple dimensions of physical self-concept to body composition for 763 Chinese children aged 8 to 15 and compared the results with Western research. Compared with Western research, gender differences favoring boys were generally much smaller for…

  6. Adolescent Psychological and Academic Adjustment as a Function of Discrepancies between Actual and Ideal Self-Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gail M.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Laursen, Brett

    2010-01-01

    Actual-ideal discrepancies are associated with adolescent emotional distress and there is evidence that the size of discrepancies matters. However, the direction of discrepancies has not been examined, perhaps due to limitations of widely used self-discrepancy measures. Two hundred and twelve 7th, 9th and 11th grade students (59% female) in a…

  7. Evaluation of discrepancies in weights of fresh and fixed specimens in breast surgery: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Handling of breast specimen is not well monitored and there is limited data on the impact of fixative solutions on specimen weights. Weight of resected breast tissue acts as a guide for future reconstructive and symmetrisation procedures. The aim is to quantitatively evaluate the discrepancies in weight of fresh breast specimen and the weight of specimen after being kept in a fixative solution for a variable length of time. Methods Single centre retrospective cohort study including patients undergone breast surgery for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes between January of 2013 and June 2015. Demographic details were collected from case notes, pathology reports and operation room management information system (ORMIS). Results A total of 229 patients with a median age of 63 [interquartile range (IQR) 51–73] years were included. The median body mass index (BMI) was 27.9 (IQR 24.3–31.75) kg/m2. Median weight of the fresh specimens was 104 (IQR 44–535) g and that of fixed specimen was 99 (IQR 43–525) g (P value <0.05, Wilcoxon test). The variation was not unidirectional and factors which were important in influencing this variation were: inclusion of overlying skin and larger specimens (P value <0.05, Mann-Whitney U test). Age, BMI, duration of preservation in fixative solution and density of breast did not have significant influence. Conclusions Fixative solution does have significant influence on breast specimen weights. This is more pronounced with heavier specimens and those including overlying skin. It is advisable to measure the weight and volume of fresh breast specimen to aid future surgery with best aesthetic outcome. PMID:28210549

  8. Adolescent psychological and academic adjustment as a function of discrepancies between actual and ideal self-perceptions.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Gail M; Hafen, Christopher A; Laursen, Brett

    2010-12-01

    Actual-ideal discrepancies are associated with adolescent emotional distress and there is evidence that the size of discrepancies matters. However, the direction of discrepancies has not been examined, perhaps due to limitations of widely used self-discrepancy measures. Two hundred and twelve 7th, 9th and 11th grade students (59% female) in a public school in Jamaica described their actual and ideal selves in several different domains--friendship, dating, schoolwork, family, sports, and religion/spirituality--using a Pie measure. Students also completed measures of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and academic achievement. Discrepancies favoring the ideal self and those favoring the actual self were linked to depressive symptoms, low self-esteem, and poor school grades in the domains of friendship, dating, and schoolwork. Effects were stronger among older adolescents than among younger adolescents. Theories of actual/ideal self-discrepancies have focused on problems arising when the ideal self overshadows the actual self; however, the present study finds that self-discrepancies, regardless of their direction, are a liability. Implications for self-discrepancy measurement, adolescent development, and clinical practice are discussed.

  9. Body self-discrepancies and women's social physique anxiety: the moderating role of the feared body.

    PubMed

    Woodman, Tim; Steer, Rebecca

    2011-05-01

    We explored ideal, ought, and feared body image self-discrepancies as predictors of social physique anxiety within Carver, Lawrence, and Scheier's and Woodman and Hemmings' interaction frameworks. One hundred women completed actual, ideal, ought, and feared body self-discrepancy visual analogue scales, the Social Physique Anxiety Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Moderated hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the relationship between ought body fat discrepancies and social physique anxiety was moderated by proximity to the feared fat self. Specifically, the positive relationship between ought fat discrepancies and social physique anxiety was stronger when women were far from their feared body self. The results highlight the importance of considering the feared self in order to more fully understand the relationship between body image and social physique anxiety.

  10. Discrepancy Reporting Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Tonja M.; Lin, James C.; Chatillon, Mark L.

    2004-01-01

    Discrepancy Reporting Management System (DRMS) is a computer program designed for use in the stations of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) to help establish the operational history of equipment items; acquire data on the quality of service provided to DSN customers; enable measurement of service performance; provide early insight into the need to improve processes, procedures, and interfaces; and enable the tracing of a data outage to a change in software or hardware. DRMS is a Web-based software system designed to include a distributed database and replication feature to achieve location-specific autonomy while maintaining a consistent high quality of data. DRMS incorporates commercial Web and database software. DRMS collects, processes, replicates, communicates, and manages information on spacecraft data discrepancies, equipment resets, and physical equipment status, and maintains an internal station log. All discrepancy reports (DRs), Master discrepancy reports (MDRs), and Reset data are replicated to a master server at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory; Master DR data are replicated to all the DSN sites; and Station Logs are internal to each of the DSN sites and are not replicated. Data are validated according to several logical mathematical criteria. Queries can be performed on any combination of data.

  11. The association between physical self-discrepancies and women's physical activity: the mediating role of motivation.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine; Castonguay, Andree; Ferguson, Leah; Bessette, Natalia

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the associations between physical self-discrepancies (actual:ideal and actual:ought) and physical activity behavior, and to examine whether motivational regulations mediate these associations using self-discrepancy (Higgins, 1987) and organismic integration (Deci & Ryan, 1985) theories as guiding frameworks. Young women (N = 205; M(age) = 18.87 years, SD = 1.83) completed self-report questionnaires. Main analyses involved path analysis using a polynomial regression approach, estimation of direct and indirect effects, and evaluation of response surface values. Agreement between actual and ideal (or ought) physical self-perceptions was related to physical activity both directly and indirectly as mediated by the motivational regulations (R(2) = .24-.30). Specifically, when actual and ideal self-perceptions scores were similar, physical activity levels increased as actual and ideal scores increased. Furthermore, physical activity levels were lower when the discrepancy was such that ideal or ought self were higher than actual self. These findings provide support for integrating self-discrepancy and organismic integration theories to advance research in this area.

  12. Infant Attention to Auditory Discrepancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Dennis K.; Kagan, Jerome

    1976-01-01

    Groups of 7 1/2-month-old infants heard 1 of 8 episodes consisting of no, slight, moderate, or large discrepancy between a habituated standard and a transformed auditory stimulus. Patterns of cardiac deceleration supported the hypothesis that attentiveness is an inverted-U function of the degree of discrepancy between stimulus event and schema.…

  13. Diagnostic discrepancies in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Victor Sarli; Dinardi, Layara Fernanda Lipari; Pereira, Thiago Vicente; de Almeida, Lyna Kyria Rodrigues; Barbosa, Thaisa Silveira; Benvenutti, Luiz Alberto; Ayub-Ferreira, Silvia Moreira; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Autopsies are the gold standard for diagnostic accuracy; however, no recent study has analyzed autopsies in heart failure (HF). We reviewed 1241 autopsies (January 2000–May 2005) and selected 232 patients with HF. Clinical and autopsy diagnoses were analyzed and discrepancies categorized according to their importance regarding therapy and prognosis. Mean age was 63.3 ± 15.9 years; 154 (66.4%) patients were male. The causes of death at autopsy were end-stage HF (40.9%), acute myocardial infarction (17.2%), infection (15.9), and pulmonary embolism 36 (15.5). Diagnostic discrepancies occurred in 191 (82.3%) cases; in 56 (24.1%), discrepancies were related to major diagnoses with potential influence on survival or treatment; pulmonary embolism was the cause of death for 24 (42.9%) of these patients. In 35 (15.1%), discrepancies were related to a major diagnosis with equivocal influence on survival or treatment; in 100 (43.1%), discrepancies did not influence survival or treatment. In multivariate analysis, age (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.008–1.052, P = 0.007) and presence of diabetes mellitus (OR: 0.359, 95% CI: 0.168–0.767, P = 0.008) influenced the occurrence discrepancies. Diagnostic discrepancies with a potential impact on prognosis are frequent in HF. These findings warrant reconsideration in diagnostic and therapeutic practices with HF patients. PMID:28121951

  14. Dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in male university students.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Ligia; Grunert, Klaus G; Sepúlveda, José; Lobos, Germán; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Mora, Marcos; Etchebarne, Soledad; Salinas-Oñate, Natalia; Schnettler, Berta

    2016-04-01

    Self-discrepancy describes the distance between an ideal and the actual self. Research suggests that self-discrepancy and dietary restraint are related, causing a significant impact on the person's well-being. However, this relationship has been mostly reported in female and mixed populations. In order to further explore dietary behaviors and their relations to self-discrepancy and well-being-related variables in men, a survey was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 119 male students from five Chilean state universities (mean age=21.8, SD=2.75). The questionnaire included the Revised Restraint Scale (RRS) with the subscales weight fluctuations (WF) and diet concern (DC), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Satisfaction with Food-Related Life Scale (SWFL), the Nutrition Interest Scale (NIS), and the Self-discrepancy Index (SDI). Questions were asked about socio-demographic characteristics, eating and drinking habits, and approximate weight and height. A cluster analysis applied to the Z-scores of the RRS classified the following typologies: Group 1 (22.7%), men concerned about weight fluctuations; Group 2 (37.0%), men concerned about diet and weight fluctuations; Group 3 (40.3%), unconcerned about diet and weight fluctuations. The typologies differed in their SDI score, restriction on pastry consumption and reported body mass index (BMI). Students with higher DC and WF scores had a higher BMI, and tended to report high self-discrepancy not only on a physical level, but also on social, emotional, economic and personal levels. This study contributes to the literature on subjective well-being, dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in men from non-clinical samples.

  15. Effective discrepancy and numerical experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varet, Suzanne; Lefebvre, Sidonie; Durand, Gérard; Roblin, Antoine; Cohen, Serge

    2012-12-01

    Many problems require the computation of a high dimensional integral, typically with a few tens of input factors, with a low number of integrand evaluations. To avoid the curse of dimensionality, we reduce the dimension before applying the Quasi-Monte Carlo method. We will show how to reduce the dimension by computing approximate Sobol indices of the variables with a two-levels fractional factorial design. Then, we will use the Sobol indices to define the effective discrepancy, which turns out to be correlated with the QMC error and thus enables one to choose a good sequence for the integral estimation.

  16. 40 CFR 761.210 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 761.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.210 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest discrepancies are differences between the quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or...

  17. 40 CFR 761.210 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 761.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.210 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest discrepancies are differences between the quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or...

  18. 40 CFR 761.210 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 761.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.210 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest discrepancies are differences between the quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or...

  19. Belief Discrepancy Reasoning in the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enright, Robert D.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined the development of belief discrepancy reasoning, or how people evaluate disagreeing others, with 44 college and elderly respondents. Results showed the elderly were significantly lower in belief discrepancy reasoning and higher in dogmatism than the college sample. The elderly sample did not evidence intolerance, but rather relativism.…

  20. Functional scoliosis caused by leg length discrepancy

    PubMed Central

    Daniszewska, Barbara; Zolynski, Krystian

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Leg length discrepancy (LLD) causes pelvic obliquity in the frontal plane and lumbar scoliosis with convexity towards the shorter extremity. Leg length discrepancy is observed in 3-15% of the population. Unequalized lower limb length discrepancy leads to posture deformation, gait asymmetry, low back pain and discopathy. Material and methods In the years 1998-2006, 369 children, aged 5 to 17 years (209 girls, 160 boys) with LLD-related functional scoliosis were treated. An external or internal shoe lift was applied. Results Among 369 children the discrepancy of 0.5 cm was observed in 27, 1 cm in 329, 1.5 cm in 9 and 2 cm in 4 children. During the first follow-up examination, within 2 weeks, the adjustment of the spine to new static conditions was noted and correction of the curve in 316 examined children (83.7%). In 53 children (14.7%) the correction was observed later and was accompanied by slight low back pain. The time needed for real equalization of limbs was 3 to 24 months. The time needed for real equalization of the discrepancy was 11.3 months. Conclusions Leg length discrepancy equalization results in elimination of scoliosis. Leg length discrepancy < 2 cm is a static disorder; that is why measurements should be performed in a standing position using blocks of adequate thickness and the position of the posterior superior iliac spine should be estimated. PMID:22371777

  1. Discrepant Events: A Challenge to Students' Intuition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Espada, Wilson J.; Birriel, Jennifer; Birriel, Ignacio

    2010-11-01

    Studies on cognitive aspects of science education, especially how students achieve conceptual change, have been a focus of interest for many years. Researchers of student learning and conceptual change have developed several easily applicable teaching strategies. One of these strategies is known as discrepant events. Discrepant events are very powerful ways to stimulate interest, motivate students to challenge their covert science misconceptions, and promote higher-order thinking skills. The key point is that directly challenging students' naive ideas will lead to more quality science learning going on in the classroom. In this paper, we summarize the research-based role of discrepant events in conceptual change and we share several highly successful discrepant events we use in our own classes.

  2. Parent-Child Discrepancies in Educational Expectations: Differential Effects of Actual versus Perceived Discrepancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yijie; Benner, Aprile D.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored how discrepancies between parents' and adolescents' educational expectations influenced adolescents' achievement using a nationally representative, longitudinal sample of 14,041 students (14 years old at baseline). "Actual" discrepancies (i.e., those between parents' and adolescents' actual…

  3. 40 CFR 267.72 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the discrepancy with the waste generator or transporter (e.g., with telephone conversations). If the... 267.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED...

  4. 40 CFR 267.72 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the discrepancy with the waste generator or transporter (e.g., with telephone conversations). If the... 267.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED...

  5. 40 CFR 761.215 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... delivery of the waste to the first transporter designated on the manifest prepared under paragraph (e) or... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.215 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest... quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or shipping paper, and the quantity and type...

  6. 40 CFR 267.72 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the discrepancy with the waste generator or transporter (e.g., with telephone conversations). If the... 267.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED...

  7. 40 CFR 761.215 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 761.215 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.215 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest... quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or shipping paper, and the quantity and type...

  8. Discrepancy between Snack Choice Intentions and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weijzen, Pascalle L. G.; de Graaf, Cees; Dijksterhuis, Garmt B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate dietary constructs that affect the discrepancy between intentioned and actual snack choice. Design: Participants indicated their intentioned snack choice from a set of 4 snacks (2 healthful, 2 unhealthful). One week later, they actually chose a snack from the same set. Within 1 week after the actual choice, they completed…

  9. Real vs. Ideal Self Discrepancy in Bulimics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosak, Karen

    Bulimia is an eating disorder prevalent among young women, characterized by binge eating episodes followed by purging with subsequent depressive moods and self-deprecating thoughts. To determine whether bulimic women exhibit a greater discrepancy between their perceived and ideal selves than do nonbulimics, three samples of women were assessed.…

  10. Discrepancy between actual and ideal body images; Impact on eating and exercise behaviors.

    PubMed

    Anton, S D; Perri, M G; Riley, J R

    2000-12-01

    This study examined how discrepancies between actual and ideal body images are related to eating and exercise patterns. A total of 115 college-age women completed the Body Discrepancy Scale (BDS, a measure of the discrepancy between one's "actual" vs. "ideal" weight and size), a leisure-time physical activity survey, and questionnaires assessing the intake of fat and fiber (i.e., fruits and vegetables), as well as measures of maladaptive eating attitudes and behaviors. Partial correlations (controlling for Body Mass Index, BMI) showed that scores on the BDS were significantly (P's<.05) associated with low levels of physical activity (r=-.28), with low levels of fruit and vegetable consumption (r=-.19), and with high levels of body image dissatisfaction (r=.32) and binge eating (r=.32). Collectively, these findings suggest that discrepancies between actual and ideal body images are associated with maladaptive eating and exercise patterns.

  11. Frequency based localization of structural discrepancies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, G. D.; Milani, J.

    1988-01-01

    The intent of modal analysis is to develop a reliable model of a structure by working with the analytical and experimental modal properties of frequency, damping and mode shape. In addition to identifying these modal properties, it would be desirable to determine spatially which parts of the structure are modelled poorly or well. It is shown how the pattern of discrepancies in the analytical and experimental test values for the pole and the driving point zero frequencies of a structure can be linked to discrepancies in the mass or stiffness of the structural elements. The success of the procedure depends on the numerical conditioning of a modal reference matrix. Strategies to insure adequate numerical conditioning require a formulation which avoids geometric and energy storage symmetries of the structure, and ignores structural elements which contribute negligibly small potential or kinetic energy to the excited modes. Physical insight into the numerical conditioning problem is provided by a numerical example and by localization of a mass discrepancy in a real structure based on lab tests.

  12. Association between Bolton discrepancy and Angle malocclusions.

    PubMed

    Cançado, Rodrigo Hermont; Gonçalves Júnior, Waldir; Valarelli, Fabrício Pinelli; Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore de; Crêspo, Janaina Aparecida Lima

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess and compare the overall and anterior ratios of tooth size discrepancies in all Angle malocclusion groups. The following null hypothesis (H0) was tested: no difference between tooth size discrepancies (overall and anterior) would be observed among Angle malocclusion groups. The sample comprised of 711 pre-orthodontic treatment study casts of Brazilian patients with a mean age of 17.42 years selected from private practices in Brazil. The casts were divided into 3 groups according to the type of malocclusion: Class I (n = 321), Class II (n = 324), and Class III patients (n = 66). The measurement of the greatest mesiodistal width of the teeth was performed using a centesimal precision digital caliper directly on the study casts, from the distal surface of the left first molar to the distal surface of the right first molar. The overall and anterior ratios between the maxillary and mandibular teeth were evaluated using Bolton's method. The following statistical tests were applied: chi-square, independent t-test, and one-way ANOVA. Results showed that all Angle malocclusions groups exhibited a ratio compatible with those recommended by Bolton. With respect to the overall and anterior ratios among the malocclusion groups, no statistically significant differences were found. The null hypothesis was accepted because the results showed no differences in the overall and anterior ratios of tooth size discrepancies among different Angle malocclusion groups.

  13. Relationship Between Body Image Discrepancy and Intuitive Eating.

    PubMed

    Spoor, Kesha Dorsey; Madanat, Hala

    2016-04-01

    Dieting is widespread among college women despite being ineffective and harmful long term. Intuitive eating is a dieting alternative that teaches eating in response to hunger and satiety cues. It has been associated with improved physical and psychological health and studied in association with various body image dimensions. A sample of college first years completed baseline measurements during an intuitive eating intervention to test the association between intuitive eating and body image discrepancy (BID). BID represents whether a respondent believes her current body is larger or smaller than ideal. Greater BID was negatively associated with intuitive eating (p ≤ .05); participants who believed that their current bodies were larger than ideal were less likely to attend to hunger and satiety cues than participants who expressed little or no BID. These women should be targeted in future weight management interventions in order to avoid negative health outcomes of dieting.

  14. From direct-space discrepancy functions to crystallographic least squares.

    PubMed

    Giacovazzo, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    Crystallographic least squares are a fundamental tool for crystal structure analysis. In this paper their properties are derived from functions estimating the degree of similarity between two electron-density maps. The new approach leads also to modifications of the standard least-squares procedures, potentially able to improve their efficiency. The role of the scaling factor between observed and model amplitudes is analysed: the concept of unlocated model is discussed and its scattering contribution is combined with that arising from the located model. Also, the possible use of an ancillary parameter, to be associated with the classical weight related to the variance of the observed amplitudes, is studied. The crystallographic discrepancy factors, basic tools often combined with least-squares procedures in phasing approaches, are analysed. The mathematical approach here described includes, as a special case, the so-called vector refinement, used when accurate estimates of the target phases are available.

  15. Discrepancies between film and digital mammography interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, Poonam; Kallergi, Maria; Alexander, Dominik; Berman, Claudia G.; Gardner, Mary; Hersh, Marla R.; Hooper, Lisa; Kim, Jihai J.; Venugopal, Priya

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency and reasons of disagreement between film and full-field digital mammography (FFDM) interpretations observed in a prospective clinical trial performed with the GE Senographe 2000D system. The data from 643 mammography examinations comprising both digital and film mammograms were analyzed for this purpose. Reports indicated that 455 findings were identified on the digital softcopy reading and 457 findings on the standard film mammography with 408 discrepancies. Findings with discrepancies were matched and analyzed. A reason was identified and a relative conspicuity score of 0 to 10 was assigned to each finding at the time of resolution; 0 corresponded to a finding highly conspicuous on digital, 10 to a finding highly conspicuous on film, and 5 denoted equal visibility on both. After review, agreement was established between the two modalities in 73.3% of the findings; 13.5% of findings were seen better on digital and 13.2% of the findings were seen better on film. Approximately 63% of the discrepancies occurred due to variability in the reporting style of the radiologists and/or unavailability of prior films for comparison. Three cancer cases were identified in this study; two were seen on both modalities and one only on film. In conclusion, no statistically significant differences were observed between digital and film mammography, a result that despite the small size of our dataset is in agreement with previous reports. Inter-observer variability, display differences, and presentation disagreements are the main reasons for interpretation differences that are primarily identified in the classification and BIRADS assignment.

  16. 14 CFR 60.20 - Logging FSTD discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... training, evaluation, or flight experience, and each person conducting the preflight inspection who... write or cause to be written a description of that discrepancy into the discrepancy log at the end...

  17. 31 CFR 306.44 - Discrepancies in names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrepancies in names. 306.44.... SECURITIES Assignments of Registered Securities-General § 306.44 Discrepancies in names. The Department will ordinarily require an explanation of discrepancies in the names which appear in inscriptions,...

  18. Discrepancy Score Reliabilities in the WISC-IV Standardization Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Laura A.; Ryan, Joseph J.; Charter, Richard A.; Bartels, Jared M.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation provides internal consistency reliabilities for Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) subtest and index discrepancy scores using the standardization sample as the data source. Reliabilities range from 0.50 to 0.82 for subtest discrepancy scores and from 0.78 to 0.88 for index discrepancy scores.…

  19. Further Investigations of NIST Water Sphere Discrepancies

    SciTech Connect

    Broadhead, B.L.

    2001-01-11

    Measurements have been performed on a family of water spheres at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) facilities. These measurements are important for criticality safety studies in that, frequently, difficulties have arisen in predicting the reactivity of individually subcritical components assembled in a critical array. It has been postulated that errors in the neutron leakage from individual elements in the array could be responsible for these problems. In these NIST measurements, an accurate determination of the leakage from a fission spectrum, modified by water scattering, is available. Previously, results for 3-, 4-, and 5-in. diam. water-filled spheres, both with and without cadmium covers over the fission chambers, were presented for four fissionable materials: {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, and {sup 239}Pu. Results were also given for ''dry'' systems, in which the water spheres were drained of water, with the results corresponding to essentially measurements of unmoderated {sup 252}Cf spontaneous-fission neutrons. The calculated-to-experimental (C/E) values ranged from 0.94 to 1.01 for the dry systems and 0.93 to 1.05 for the wet systems, with experimental uncertainties ranging from 1.5 to 1.9%. These results indicated discrepancies that were clearly outside of the experimental uncertainties, and further investigation was suggested. This work updates the previous calculations with a comparison of the predicted C/E values with ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI transport cross sections. Variations in the predicted C/E values that arise from the use of ENDF/B-V, ENDF/B-VI, ENDL92, and LLLDOS for the response fission cross sections are also tabulated. The use of both a 45-group NIST fission spectrum and a continuous-energy fission spectrum for {sup 252}Cf are evaluated. The use of the generalized-linear-least-squares (GLLSM) procedures to investigate the reported discrepancies in the water sphere results for {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu

  20. Development of WAIS-III General Ability Index Minus WMS-III memory discrepancy scores.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Chelune, Gordon J; Tulsky, David S

    2006-09-01

    Analysis of the discrepancy between intellectual functioning and memory ability has received some support as a useful means for evaluating memory impairment. In recent additions to Wechlser scale interpretation, the WAIS-III General Ability Index (GAI) and the WMS-III Delayed Memory Index (DMI) were developed. The purpose of this investigation is to develop base rate data for GAI-IMI, GAI-GMI, and GAI-DMI discrepancy scores using data from the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample (weighted N = 1250). Base rate tables were developed using the predicted-difference method and two simple-difference methods (i.e., stratified and non-stratified). These tables provide valuable data for clinical reference purposes to determine the frequency of GAI-IMI, GAI-GMI, and GAI-DMI discrepancy scores in the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample.

  1. Discrepancies in parents' and children's reports of child emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Hourigan, Shannon E; Goodman, Kimberly L; Southam-Gerow, Michael A

    2011-10-01

    The ability to regulate one's emotions effectively has been linked with many aspects of well-being. The current study examined discrepancies between mothers' and children's reports of child emotion regulation. This investigation examined patterns of discrepancies for key aspects of emotion regulation (i.e., inhibition and dysregulated expression) and for three emotions (anger, sadness, worry). A total of 61 mother-child dyads (mean children's age=9.3 years) participated. As hypothesized, discrepancies for inhibition subscales were of a larger magnitude than those for dysregulated expression subscales. Furthermore, age was related to discrepancies in both anger subscales, parent reports of child externalizing symptoms were related to anger dysregulated expression discrepancies, and child reports of internalizing symptoms were related to sadness dysregulated expression discrepancies. Overall, the findings suggest that patterns of discrepant reports are not random but rather may provide meaningful and useful information about the nature of emotion regulation.

  2. Temporary epiphyseodesis for limb-length discrepancy

    PubMed Central

    Siedhoff, Markus; Ridderbusch, Karsten; Breyer, Sandra; Stücker, Ralf; Rupprecht, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose — For the treatment of leg-length discrepancies (LLDs) of between 2 and 5 cm in adolescent patients, several epiphyseodesis options exist and various complications have been reported. We reviewed the 8- to 15-year outcome after temporary epiphyseodesis in patients with LLD. Patients and methods — 34 children with LLD of up to 5 cm were included in the study. Mean age at epiphyseodesis was 12.8 (10–16) years. Temporary epiphyseodesis was performed with Blount staples or 8-plates. The LLD was reviewed preoperatively, at the time of implant removal, and at follow-up. Every child had reached skeletal maturity at follow-up. Long-standing anteroposterior radiographs were analyzed with respect to the mechanical axis and remaining LLD at the time of follow-up. Possible complications were noted. Results — The mean LLD changed from 2.3 (0.9–4.5) cm to 0.8 (–1.0 to 2.6) cm at follow-up (p < 0.001). 21 patients had a final LLD of < 1 cm, and 10 had LLD of < 0.5 cm. At the time of follow-up, in 32 patients the mechanical axis crossed within Steven’s zone 1. No deep infections or neurovascular lesions were seen. 4 implant failures occurred, which were managed by revision. Interpretation — Temporary epiphyseodesis is an effective and safe option for the treatment of LLD. The timing of the procedure has to be chosen according to the remaining growth, facilitating a full correction of the LLD. If inaccurate placement of staples is avoided, substantial differences between the mechanical axes of both legs at skeletal maturity are rare. PMID:25191935

  3. A Discrepancy-Based Methodology for Nuclear Training Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Jeffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    A three-phase comprehensive process for commercial nuclear power training program evaluation is presented. The discrepancy-based methodology was developed after the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor accident. It facilitates analysis of program components to identify discrepancies among program specifications, actual outcomes, and industry…

  4. 41 CFR 128-50.103 - Investigation of any discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Investigation of any discrepancy. 128-50.103 Section 128-50.103 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Care of Seized Personal Property § 128-50.103 Investigation of any discrepancy. (a) Upon discovery...

  5. 41 CFR 128-50.103 - Investigation of any discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investigation of any discrepancy. 128-50.103 Section 128-50.103 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Care of Seized Personal Property § 128-50.103 Investigation of any discrepancy. (a) Upon discovery...

  6. 41 CFR 128-50.103 - Investigation of any discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Investigation of any discrepancy. 128-50.103 Section 128-50.103 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Care of Seized Personal Property § 128-50.103 Investigation of any discrepancy. (a) Upon discovery...

  7. Discrepancy Score Reliabilities in the WAIS-IV Standardization Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Laura A.; Ryan, Joseph J.; Charter, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    In the present investigation, the authors provide internal consistency reliabilities for Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtest and Index discrepancy scores using the standardization sample as the data source. Reliabilities ranged from 0.55 to 0.88 for subtest discrepancy scores and 0.80 to 0.91 for Index discrepancy…

  8. Discrepancies in Parents' and Children's Reports of Child Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hourigan, Shannon E.; Goodman, Kimberly L.; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to regulate one's emotions effectively has been linked with many aspects of well-being. The current study examined discrepancies between mothers' and children's reports of child emotion regulation. This investigation examined patterns of discrepancies for key aspects of emotion regulation (i.e., inhibition and dysregulated expression)…

  9. Discrepancies between L2 Teacher and L2 Learner Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabillon, Zehra

    2012-01-01

    This state of the art article overviews the literature on discrepancies between foreign language teacher and learner beliefs. In the first section, the author draws the reader's attention to the significance of discrepancies between the L2 teacher and L2 learner perceptions and provides a synopsis of both practical-anecdotal and empirical evidence…

  10. Role of Discrepant Questioning Leading to Model Element Modification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rea-Ramirez, Mary Anne; Nunez-Oviedo, Maria Cecilia; Clement, John

    2009-01-01

    Discrepant questioning is a teaching technique that can help students "unlearn" misconceptions and process science ideas for deep understanding. Discrepant questioning is a technique in which teachers question students in a way that requires them to examine their ideas or models, without giving information prematurely to the student or passing…

  11. Toward Reconciling Magnitude Discrepancies Estimated from Paleoearthquake Data

    SciTech Connect

    N. Seth Carpenter; Suzette J. Payne; Annette L. Schafer

    2012-06-01

    We recognize a discrepancy in magnitudes estimated for several Basin and Range, U.S.A. faults. For example, magnitudes predicted for the Wasatch (Utah), Lost River (Idaho), and Lemhi (Idaho) faults from fault segment lengths (L{sub seg}) where lengths are defined between geometrical, structural, and/or behavioral discontinuities assumed to persistently arrest rupture, are consistently less than magnitudes calculated from displacements (D) along these same segments. For self-similarity, empirical relationships (e.g. Wells and Coppersmith, 1994) should predict consistent magnitudes (M) using diverse fault dimension values for a given fault (i.e. M {approx} L{sub seg}, should equal M {approx} D). Typically, the empirical relationships are derived from historical earthquake data and parameter values used as input into these relationships are determined from field investigations of paleoearthquakes. A commonly used assumption - grounded in the characteristic-earthquake model of Schwartz and Coppersmith (1984) - is equating L{sub seg} with surface rupture length (SRL). Many large historical events yielded secondary and/or sympathetic faulting (e.g. 1983 Borah Peak, Idaho earthquake) which are included in the measurement of SRL and used to derive empirical relationships. Therefore, calculating magnitude from the M {approx} SRL relationship using L{sub seg} as SRL leads to an underestimation of magnitude and the M {approx} L{sub seg} and M {approx} D discrepancy. Here, we propose an alternative approach to earthquake magnitude estimation involving a relationship between moment magnitude (Mw) and length, where length is L{sub seg} instead of SRL. We analyze seven historical, surface-rupturing, strike-slip and normal faulting earthquakes for which segmentation of the causative fault and displacement data are available and whose rupture included at least one entire fault segment, but not two or more. The preliminary Mw {approx} L{sub seg} results are strikingly consistent

  12. 41 CFR 101-26.803-1 - Reporting discrepancies or deficiencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Billings § 101-26.803-1 Reporting discrepancies or deficiencies. Discrepancies or deficiencies in shipments..., transportation discrepancies, and billing discrepancies. When discrepancies or deficiencies occur, activities... publication, Discrepancies or Deficiencies in GSA or DOD Shipments, Material, or Billings, issued by...

  13. 41 CFR 101-26.803-1 - Reporting discrepancies or deficiencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Billings § 101-26.803-1 Reporting discrepancies or deficiencies. Discrepancies or deficiencies in shipments..., transportation discrepancies, and billing discrepancies. When discrepancies or deficiencies occur, activities... publication, Discrepancies or Deficiencies in GSA or DOD Shipments, Material, or Billings, issued by...

  14. Extinction of Conservation and Transitivity of Weight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Scott A.; Lipps, Leann

    This study attempted to determine whether children will relinquish their belief in Piagetian concepts upon presentation of disconfirming evidence. Two age groups were tested: third- and fourth-grade and sixth-grade. Conservation of weight and transitivity of weight were the concepts examined; the discrepant feedback consisted of three trials with…

  15. Anxiety, self-discrepancy, and regulatory focus theory: acculturation matters.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Cheri A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L

    2013-03-01

    Previous research has found that Asians (vs. Caucasians) exhibit higher levels of ought and undesired self-discrepancies and prevention focus, all of which have been linked with anxiety. We examined these ethnic differences in the context of acculturation. Participants (N=155) completed two sessions scheduled a week apart. In Session 1, participants completed a computer task to measure self-discrepancy and prevention focus. In Session 2, participants' ought self-discrepancies and closeness to an undesired self were primed. Moderation analyses indicated that Asian participants who were highly assimilated to an Asian culture exhibited higher levels of a prevention focus. Acculturation also had significant moderation effects for affect when self-discrepancies were primed. Our results suggest that interventions based on these systems (i.e., self-system therapy) should consider acculturation when treating diverse individuals.

  16. Weight and weddings. Engaged men's body weight ideals and wedding weight management behaviors.

    PubMed

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-01-01

    Most adults marry at some point in life, and many invest substantial resources in a wedding ceremony. Previous research reports that brides often strive towards culturally-bound appearance norms and engage in weight management behaviors in preparation for their wedding. However, little is known about wedding weight ideals and behaviors among engaged men. A cross-sectional survey of 163 engaged men asked them to complete a questionnaire about their current height and weight, ideal wedding body weight, wedding weight importance, weight management behaviors, formality of their upcoming wedding ceremony, and demographics. Results indicated that the discrepancy between men's current weight and reported ideal wedding weight averaged 9.61 lb. Most men considered being at a certain weight at their wedding to be somewhat important. About 39% were attempting to lose weight for their wedding, and 37% were not trying to change their weight. Attempting weight loss was more frequent among men with higher BMI's, those planning more formal weddings, and those who considered being the right weight at their wedding as important. Overall, these findings suggest that weight-related appearance norms and weight loss behaviors are evident among engaged men.

  17. Discrepancies between Radar Data and the Lunar Ephemeris.

    PubMed

    Smith, C R; Pettengill, G H; Shapiro, I I; Weinstein, F S

    1968-05-24

    Precise measurements of the Doppler shift of radar waves reflected from Moon disclose unexpectedly large discrepancies-averaging about 0.6 centimeter per second-between the radial velocities and the predictions based on the Eckert-Brown lunar ephemeris. These residuals have a rapidly changing component corresponding to a relatively large, variable, and unexplained discrepancy in radial acceleration of about 10(-4) centimeter per second, per second, in magnitude and about 1 day in period.

  18. Computational investigations of low-discrepancy point sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warnock, T. T.

    1971-01-01

    The quasi-Monte Carlo method of integration offers an attractive solution to the problem of evaluating integrals in a large number of dimensions; however, the associated error bounds are difficult to obtain theoretically. Since these bounds are associated with the L2 discrepancy of the set of points used in the integration. Numerical calculations of the L2 discrepancy for several types of quasi-Monte Carlo formulae are presented.

  19. Multiple constraints in inverse problems: The importance of model discrepancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wutzler, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In model-data integration it is important to acknowledge model discrepancy, the difference between the process underlying the observations and the prediction of a calibrated model. This becomes especially important when using multiple data streams that strongly differ in their number of records. By using a basic example we illustrate that without precautions, posterior uncertainty is underestimated and parameters are adjusted so that model predictions match the richest data stream, i.e the stream with most records. Model discrepancy is preferentially allocated to sparse data streams. This impedes both, the inference about the model parameters, and the identification of process formulations that need to be improved. Here we show that explicitly modelling discrepancies by Gaussian processes (GP) is a natural approach of penalizing those discrepancies in a balanced way across imbalanced data streams. The GP-approach correctly attributed the discrepancy to the rich data stream in a basic example. We present an model-data-integration of the DALEC terrestrial biogeochemical model with 10 year of observations of NEE, respiration and litter fall at the Howland forest site. The GP approach balances model discrepancy across multiple data streams. Its allows improved inference on model parameters and model processes.

  20. Weight Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weight share What It Takes to Lose Weight: Calorie Basics When you’re trying to lose weight... ... wcdapps.hhs.gov/Badges/Handlers/Badge.ashx?js=0&widgetname=betobaccofreew200short</NOFRAMES& ...

  1. Body mass index distribution affects discrepancies in weight classifications in children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of body mass index (BMI) distribution, ethnicity, and age at menarche on the consistency in the prevalence of underweight and overweight as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the International Obesity Task Fo...

  2. The Goldberger-Treiman Discrepancy in SU(3)

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Goity; R. Lewis; M. Schvellinger; L. Zhang

    1999-01-01

    The Goldberger-Treiman discrepancy in SU(3) is analyzed in the framework of heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory (HBChPT). It is shown that the discrepancy at leading order is entirely given by counterterms from the order p{sup 3} Lagrangian, and that the first subleading corrections are suppressed by two powers in the HBChPT expansion. These subleading corrections include meson-loop contributions as well as counterterms from the order p{sup 5} Lagrangian. Some one-loop contributions are calculated and found to be small. Using the three discrepancies ({pi}NN, KN{Lambda} and KN{Sigma}) which can be extracted from existing experimental data, the authors find that the HBChPT calculation favors the smaller g({pi}NN) values obtained in recent partial wave analyses.

  3. The influence of intersensory discrepancy on visuo-haptic integration is similar in 6-year-old children and adults.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Bianca; Drewing, Knut

    2014-01-01

    When participants are given the opportunity to simultaneously feel an object and see it through a magnifying or reducing lens, adults estimate object size to be in-between visual and haptic size. Studies with young children, however, seem to demonstrate that their estimates are dominated by a single sense. In the present study, we examined whether this age difference observed in previous studies, can be accounted for by the large discrepancy between felt and seen size in the stimuli used in those studies. In addition, we studied the processes involved in combining the visual and haptic inputs. Adults and 6-year-old children judged objects that were presented to vision, haptics or simultaneously to both senses. The seen object length was reduced or magnified by different lenses. In the condition inducing large intersensory discrepancies, children's judgments in visuo-haptic conditions were almost dominated by vision, whereas adults weighted vision just by ~40%. Neither the adults' nor the children's discrimination thresholds were predicted by models of visuo-haptic integration. With smaller discrepancies, the children's visual weight approximated that of the adults and both the children's and adults' discrimination thresholds were well predicted by an integration model, which assumes that both visual and haptic inputs contribute to each single judgment. We conclude that children integrate seemingly corresponding multisensory information in similar ways as adults do, but focus on a single sense, when information from different senses is strongly discrepant.

  4. Will the real discrepant learning disability please stand up?

    PubMed

    Van den Broeck, Wim

    2002-01-01

    Willson and Reynolds (in this issue) challenged my thesis that the regression-based discrepancy method (RDM) is not a valid tool to detect aptitude-achievement discrepancies. In this response, I show that the statistical and theoretical counterarguments of Willson and Reynolds are based on a misreading of the statistical models presented. Furthermore, I demonstrate that the regression adjustment, which is largest for lower correlations, is the direct source of the lack of validity of the RDM procedure. Nevertheless, RDM can be considered a valid method to measure an achievement component that is unrelated to intelligence.

  5. Are In-Bed Electronic Weights Recorded in the Medical Record Accurate?

    PubMed

    Gerl, Heather; Miko, Alexandra; Nelson, Mandy; Godaire, Lori

    2016-01-01

    This study found large discrepancies between in-bed weights recorded in the medical record and carefully obtained standing weights with a calibrated, electronic bedside scale. This discrepancy appears to be related to inadequate bed calibration before patient admission and having excessive linen, clothing, and/or equipment on the bed during weighing by caregivers.

  6. Comparing Multiple Discrepancies Theory to Affective Models of Subjective Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blore, Jed D.; Stokes, Mark A.; Mellor, David; Firth, Lucy; Cummins, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The Subjective Wellbeing (SWB) literature is replete with competing theories detailing the mechanisms underlying the construction and maintenance of SWB. The current study aimed to compare and contrast two of these approaches: multiple discrepancies theory (MDT) and an affective-cognitive theory of SWB. MDT posits SWB to be the result of perceived…

  7. Learning Discrepancy in Relation to Personality Factors among Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravi, R.

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on discrepant achievers, that is, overachiever and underachiever in relation to certain personality factors among the primary school students. In the present study, the investigator has adopted the correlation method of normative survey research design. The data were collected into two phases for the present study. In the first…

  8. Revisiting "Discrepancy Analysis in Continuing Medical Education: A Conceptual Model"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Based upon a review and analysis of selected literature, the author presents a conceptual model of discrepancy analysis evaluation for planning, implementing, and assessing the impact of continuing medical education (CME). The model is described in terms of its value as a means of diagnosing errors in the development and implementation of CME. The…

  9. Gender Discrepancies and Victimization of Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Cynthia G.; Rose, Chad A.; Ellis, Stephanie K.

    2016-01-01

    Students with disabilities have been recognized as disproportionately involved within the bullying dynamic. However, few studies have examined the interaction between disability status, gender, and grade level. The current study explored the gender discrepancies among students with and without disabilities in middle and high school on bullying,…

  10. Measuring grade inflation: a clinical grade discrepancy score.

    PubMed

    Paskausky, Anna L; Simonelli, M Colleen

    2014-08-01

    Grade inflation presents pedagogical and safety concerns for nursing educators and is defined as a "greater percentage of excellent scores than student performances warrant" (Speer et al., 2000, p. 112). This descriptive correlational study evaluated the relationship of licensure exam-style final written exams and faculty assigned clinical grades from undergraduate students (N = 281) for evidence of grade inflation at a private undergraduate nursing program in the Northeast of the United States and developed a new measurement of grade inflation, the clinical grade discrepancy score. This measurement can be used in programs where clinical competency is graded on a numeric scale. Evidence suggested grade inflation was present and the clinical grade discrepancy score was an indicator of the severity of grade inflation. The correlation between licensure-style final written exams and faculty assigned clinical grades was moderate to low at 0.357. The clinical grade discrepancy scores were 98% positive indicating likely grade inflation. Some 70% of clinical grade discrepancy scores indicated a difference of student licensure-style final written exams and faculty assigned clinical grades of at least one full letter grade (10 points out of 100). Use of this new measure as a tool in exploring the prevalence of grade inflation and implications for patient safety are discussed.

  11. Gender-Related Self-Discrepancies and Bulimic Eating Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingenspor, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Explored the link between development of bulimic eating behavior and suppression of masculine traits in adolescence. German high school students completed a sex role inventory. Among girls, higher risk of developing bulimia appeared to be caused by increasing discrepancies between actual and ideal self-concept on masculine-typed personality…

  12. Discrepancies between Parents' and Children's Attitudes toward TV Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baiocco, Roberto; D'Alessio, Maria; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2009-01-01

    The authors conducted a study with 500 parent-child dyads. The sample comprised 254 boys and 246 girls. The children were grouped into 5 age groups (1 group for each age from 7 to 11 years), with each group comprising 100 children. The survey regards discrepancies between children and their parents on attitudes toward TV advertising to determine…

  13. Binarity and the Abundance Discrepancy Problem in Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradi, Romano L. M.; García-Rojas, Jorge; Jones, David; Rodríguez-Gil, Pablo

    2015-04-01

    The discrepancy between abundances computed using optical recombination lines and collisionally excited lines is a major unresolved problem in nebular astrophysics. Here, we show that the largest abundance discrepancies are reached in planetary nebulae with close binary central stars. We illustrate this using deep spectroscopy of three nebulae with a post common-envelope (CE) binary star. Abell 46 and Ou 5 have O2+/H+ abundance discrepancy factors larger than 50, and as high as 300 in the inner regions of Abell 46. Abell 63 has a smaller discrepancy factor around 10, which is still above the typical values in ionized nebulae. Our spectroscopic analysis supports previous conclusions that, in addition to “standard” hot ({{T}e} ˜ 104 K) gas, there exists a colder ({{T}e} ˜ 103 K), ionized component that is highly enriched in heavy elements. These nebulae have low ionized masses, between 10-3 and 10-1 M⊙ depending on the adopted electron densities and temperatures. Since the much more massive red giant envelope is expected to be entirely ejected in the CE phase, the currently observed nebulae would be produced much later, during post-CE mass loss episodes when the envelope has already dispersed. These observations add constraints to the abundance discrepancy problem. We revise possible explanations. Some explanations are naturally linked to binarity such as, for instance, high-metallicity nova ejecta, but it is difficult at this stage to depict an evolutionary scenario consistent with all of the observed properties. We also introduce the hypothesis that these nebulae are the result of tidal destruction, accretion, and ejection of Jupiter-like planets.

  14. Whose Depression Relates to Discrepancies? Testing Relations between Informant Characteristics and Informant Discrepancies from Both Informants' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Goodman, Kimberly L.; Kliewer, Wendy; Reid-Quinones, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether mothers' and children's depressive symptoms were each uniquely related to mother-child rating discrepancies on a multidimensional dyadic construct: domains associated with parental monitoring (i.e., Child Disclosure, Parental Knowledge, and Parental Solicitation). Participants included a community sample of 335…

  15. Self-awareness and the emotional consequences of self-discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Ann G; Silvia, Paul J

    2005-05-01

    Several self theories explore the effects of discrepant self-beliefs on motivation and emotion. This research intersected two self theories: self-discrepancy theory and objective self-awareness theory. Self-discrepancy theory predicts that ideal and ought discrepancies cause different negative emotions; objective self-awareness theory predicts that high self-awareness will strengthen the relationship between self-discrepancies and emotions. People (N =112) completed measures of self-discrepancies and emotions (dejection, agitation, positive affect, and negative affect). Self-focused attention was manipulated with a large mirror. When self-awareness was low, self-discrepancies had weak, nonsignificant relations to emotion. When self-awareness was high, however, self-discrepancies strongly predicted emotional experience. These effects were general-ideal and ought discrepancies affected emotions because of their substantial shared variance, not their unique variance. Implications for theories of self-discrepancies and emotions are considered.

  16. Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ... it comes to weight loss, there's no lack of fad diets promising fast results. But such diets limit your nutritional intake, can be unhealthy, and tend to fail ...

  17. Weight Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... Together Understanding Adult Overweight & Obesity About Food Portions Bariatric Surgery for Severe Obesity More Weight Management Topics Healthy ... Sleep Apnea Weight Management Topics About Food Portions Bariatric Surgery for Severe Obesity Being Healthy is a Big ...

  18. Interdisciplinary team training identifies discrepancies in institutional policies and practices.

    PubMed

    Andreatta, Pamela; Frankel, Jennifer; Boblick Smith, Sara; Bullough, Alexandra; Marzano, David

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of an interdisciplinary team-training program in obstetric emergencies on identifying unsupportive institutional policies and systems-based practices. We implemented a qualitative study design with a purposive sample of interdisciplinary physicians, nurses, and ancillary allied health professionals from 4 specialties (n = 79) to conduct a 6-month, weekly simulation-based intervention for managing obstetric emergencies. Debriefing focused on identifying discrepancies between clinical practice and institutional policies. Our data yielded 5 categories of discrepancies between institutional or departmental policy and actual clinical practice. Specific institutional policies and system-based practices were recommended to health system administration for reevaluation. Simulation-based interdisciplinary team training can inform system-wide quality improvement objectives that could lead to increased patient safety.

  19. Discrepancy and Disliking Do Not Induce Negative Opinion Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Flache, Andreas; Mäs, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both classical social psychological theories and recent formal models of opinion differentiation and bi-polarization assign a prominent role to negative social influence. Negative influence is defined as shifts away from the opinion of others and hypothesized to be induced by discrepancy with or disliking of the source of influence. There is strong empirical support for the presence of positive social influence (a shift towards the opinion of others), but evidence that large opinion differences or disliking could trigger negative shifts is mixed. We examine positive and negative influence with controlled exposure to opinions of other individuals in one experiment and with opinion exchange in another study. Results confirm that similarities induce attraction, but results do not support that discrepancy or disliking entails negative influence. Instead, our findings suggest a robust positive linear relationship between opinion distance and opinion shifts. PMID:27333160

  20. Outcome Discrepancies and Selective Reporting: Impacting the Leading Journals?

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Padhraig S.; Koletsi, Despina; Dwan, Kerry; Pandis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Background Selective outcome reporting of either interesting or positive research findings is problematic, running the risk of poorly-informed treatment decisions. We aimed to assess the extent of outcome and other discrepancies and possible selective reporting between registry entries and published reports among leading medical journals. Methods Randomized controlled trials published over a 6-month period from July to December 31st, 2013, were identified in five high impact medical journals: The Lancet, British Medical Journal, New England Journal of Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine and Journal of American Medical Association were obtained. Discrepancies between published studies and registry entries were identified and related to factors including registration timing, source of funding and presence of statistically significant results. Results Over the 6-month period, 137 RCTs were found. Of these, 18% (n = 25) had discrepancies related to primary outcomes with the primary outcome changed in 15% (n = 20). Moreover, differences relating to non-primary outcomes were found in 64% (n = 87) with both omission of pre-specified non-primary outcomes (39%) and introduction of new non-primary outcomes (44%) common. No relationship between primary or non-primary outcome change and registration timing (prospective or retrospective; P = 0.11), source of funding (P = 0.92) and presence of statistically significant results (P = 0.92) was found. Conclusions Discrepancies between registry entries and published articles for primary and non-primary outcomes were common among trials published in leading medical journals. Novel approaches are required to address this problem. PMID:25996928

  1. Investigation of an MSIS00 Density Modeling Discrepancy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-20

    region known as the exosphere. This region of the atmosphere is where the mean free path of air particles become comparable to the pressure scale...density, p is atmospheric pressure , Ra is the specific gas constant at the altitude z, T is temperature, and H is the pressure scale height given by...apparent discrepancy between densities predicted by the latest version of the MSIS atmospheric model, MSIS00, and observed data from the on-orbit satellites

  2. Discrepancies in reporting the CAG repeat lengths for Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Quarrell, Oliver W; Handley, Olivia; O'Donovan, Kirsty; Dumoulin, Christine; Ramos-Arroyo, Maria; Biunno, Ida; Bauer, Peter; Kline, Margaret; Landwehrmeyer, G Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Huntington's disease results from a CAG repeat expansion within the Huntingtin gene; this is measured routinely in diagnostic laboratories. The European Huntington's Disease Network REGISTRY project centrally measures CAG repeat lengths on fresh samples; these were compared with the original results from 121 laboratories across 15 countries. We report on 1326 duplicate results; a discrepancy in reporting the upper allele occurred in 51% of cases, this reduced to 13.3% and 9.7% when we applied acceptable measurement errors proposed by the American College of Medical Genetics and the Draft European Best Practice Guidelines, respectively. Duplicate results were available for 1250 lower alleles; discrepancies occurred in 40% of cases. Clinically significant discrepancies occurred in 4.0% of cases with a potential unexplained misdiagnosis rate of 0.3%. There was considerable variation in the discrepancy rate among 10 of the countries participating in this study. Out of 1326 samples, 348 were re-analysed by an accredited diagnostic laboratory, based in Germany, with concordance rates of 93% and 94% for the upper and lower alleles, respectively. This became 100% if the acceptable measurement errors were applied. The central laboratory correctly reported allele sizes for six standard reference samples, blind to the known result. Our study differs from external quality assessment (EQA) schemes in that these are duplicate results obtained from a large sample of patients across the whole diagnostic range. We strongly recommend that laboratories state an error rate for their measurement on the report, participate in EQA schemes and use reference materials regularly to adjust their own internal standards. PMID:21811303

  3. Discrepancies in reporting the CAG repeat lengths for Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Quarrell, Oliver W; Handley, Olivia; O'Donovan, Kirsty; Dumoulin, Christine; Ramos-Arroyo, Maria; Biunno, Ida; Bauer, Peter; Kline, Margaret; Landwehrmeyer, G Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Huntington's disease results from a CAG repeat expansion within the Huntingtin gene; this is measured routinely in diagnostic laboratories. The European Huntington's Disease Network REGISTRY project centrally measures CAG repeat lengths on fresh samples; these were compared with the original results from 121 laboratories across 15 countries. We report on 1326 duplicate results; a discrepancy in reporting the upper allele occurred in 51% of cases, this reduced to 13.3% and 9.7% when we applied acceptable measurement errors proposed by the American College of Medical Genetics and the Draft European Best Practice Guidelines, respectively. Duplicate results were available for 1250 lower alleles; discrepancies occurred in 40% of cases. Clinically significant discrepancies occurred in 4.0% of cases with a potential unexplained misdiagnosis rate of 0.3%. There was considerable variation in the discrepancy rate among 10 of the countries participating in this study. Out of 1326 samples, 348 were re-analysed by an accredited diagnostic laboratory, based in Germany, with concordance rates of 93% and 94% for the upper and lower alleles, respectively. This became 100% if the acceptable measurement errors were applied. The central laboratory correctly reported allele sizes for six standard reference samples, blind to the known result. Our study differs from external quality assessment (EQA) schemes in that these are duplicate results obtained from a large sample of patients across the whole diagnostic range. We strongly recommend that laboratories state an error rate for their measurement on the report, participate in EQA schemes and use reference materials regularly to adjust their own internal standards.

  4. Discrepancies between proceedings abstracts and posters at a scientific meeting.

    PubMed

    Zelle, Boris A; Zlowodzki, Michael; Bhandari, Mohit

    2005-06-01

    The proceedings handbook of abstracts from scientific meetings aims to provide meeting attendees with an accurate summary of scientific presentations. Given that posters are prepared closer to the meeting than the abstracts for the proceedings book, we hypothesized that there is a high rate of inconsistency between abstracts in the proceedings handbook and the corresponding posters. We compared the poster abstracts printed in the proceedings handbook with the actual posters at the 71st annual meeting of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons in 2004. Our comparison included all 50 trauma posters and 52 adult reconstruction knee posters. This comparison revealed discrepancies in 76% of the presented posters. These changes were detected in all parts of the posters including titles (33%), authorship (49%), methods (8%), results (30%), and conclusions (2%). The sample size changed in 15% of the studies. Discrepancies between the trauma posters versus the adult reconstruction knee posters were similar. Our findings suggest that discrepancies between the poster abstracts in the proceedings handbook and actual poster presentations are common, but changes in conclusions are rare. Meeting attendees should not assume that the proceedings handbook provides an accurate reflection of poster presentations. Visiting the poster section is recommended.

  5. Prevalence of tooth size discrepancy among North Indian orthodontic patients

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rekha; Kumar, Sushil; Singla, Anu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of tooth size discrepancy (TSD) in a representative orthodontics population, to explore how many millimeters of TSD is clinically significant and to determine the ability of simple visual inspection to detect such a discrepancy. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised 150 pretreatment study casts with fully erupted and complete permanent dentitions from first molar to first molar, which were selected randomly from records of the orthodontic patients. The mesiodistal diameters of the teeth were measured at contact points using digital calipers and the Bolton's analysis was carried out on them. Simple visual estimation of Bolton discrepancy was also performed. Results: In the sample group, 24% of the patients had anterior tooth width ratios and 8% had total arch ratios greater than ±2 standard deviation (SD) from Bolton's means. For the anterior analysis, correction greater than ±2 mm was required for 24% of patients in the upper arch or 14% in the lower arch. For the total arch analysis, correction greater than ±2 mm was required for 36% of patients in the upper arch or 32% in the lower arch. Conclusion: Bolton's analysis should be routinely performed in all orthodontic patients and the findings should be included in orthodontic treatment planning. 2 mm of the required tooth size correction is an appropriate threshold for clinical significance. Visual estimation of TSD has low sensitivity and specificity. Careful measurement is more frequently required in clinical practice than visual estimation would suggest. PMID:22090759

  6. The discrepancy between risky and riskless utilities: a matter of framing?

    PubMed

    Stalmeier, P F; Bezembinder, T G

    1999-01-01

    Utilities differ according to whether they are derived from risky (gamble) and riskless (visual analog scale, time-tradeoff) assessment methods. The discrepancies are usually explained by assuming that the utilities elicited by risky methods incorporate attitudes towards risk, whereas riskless utilities do not. In (cumulative) prospect theory, risk attitude is conceived as consisting of two components: a decision-weight function (attentiveness to changes in, or sensitivity towards, chance) and a utility function (sensitivity towards outcomes). The authors' data suggest that a framing effect is a hitherto unrecognized and important factor in causing discrepancies between risky and riskless utilities. They collected risky evaluations with the gamble method, and riskless evaluations with difference measurement. Risky utilities were derived using expected-utility theory and prospect theory. With the latter approach, sensitivity towards outcomes and sensitivity towards chance are modeled separately. When the hypothesis that risky utilities from prospect theory coincide with riskless utilities was tested, it was rejected (n = 8, F(1,7) = 132, p = 0.000), suggesting that a correction for sensitivity towards chance is not sufficient to resolve the difference between risky and riskless utilities. Next, it was assumed that different gain/loss frames are induced by risky and riskless elicitation methods. Indeed, identical utility functions were obtained when the gain/loss frames were made identical across methods (n = 7), suggesting that framing was operative. The results suggest that risky and riskless utilities are identical after corrections for sensitivity towards chance and framing.

  7. Weighted Automata and Weighted Logics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droste, Manfred; Gastin, Paul

    In automata theory, a fundamental result of Büchi and Elgot states that the recognizable languages are precisely the ones definable by sentences of monadic second order logic. We will present a generalization of this result to the context of weighted automata. We develop syntax and semantics of a quantitative logic; like the behaviors of weighted automata, the semantics of sentences of our logic are formal power series describing ‘how often’ the sentence is true for a given word. Our main result shows that if the weights are taken in an arbitrary semiring, then the behaviors of weighted automata are precisely the series definable by sentences of our quantitative logic. We achieve a similar characterization for weighted Büchi automata acting on infinite words, if the underlying semiring satisfies suitable completeness assumptions. Moreover, if the semiring is additively locally finite or locally finite, then natural extensions of our weighted logic still have the same expressive power as weighted automata.

  8. Neuropsychological and Academic Achievement Correlates of Abnormal WISC-R Verbal-Performance Discrepancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lueger, Robert J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined neuropsychological and academic achievement correlates of statistically abnormal verbal-performance discrepancies on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised). Results indicated that abnormal discrepancies reflect specific aphasia deficits rather than generalized neuropsychological dysfunction and that academic achievement…

  9. Prevalence of tooth-size discrepancy among different malocclusion groups.

    PubMed

    Laino, Alberto; Quaremba, Giuseppe; Paduano, Sergio; Stanzione, Simona

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of tooth-size discrepancy as a factor of skeletal malocclusion in the orthodontic patient population of the Campania region. The study employed the pretreatment models of 94 patients. The mesiodistal diameters of teeth were measured by digital electronic calipers (accurate to 0.01 mm) and Bolton's indices were calculated. The sample was grouped into three malocclusion groups based on the values of Steiner cephalometric analysis. Multiple regression analysis data indicated a significant linear relationship (r2 = 0.99, P = 0.0000) for Bolton's posterior, anterior and total indices. The discriminant multivariate analysis, based on stepwise Wilke's lambda, revealed five variables capable of classifying 88.6% of the sample in the four malocclusion groups. As no relationship between the four groups identified by the discriminant analysis and the types of skeletal malocclusions exists, it was unequivocally concluded that there is no evidence of any predisposition for a tooth-size discrepancy in any of the malocclusion groups.

  10. Lower limb-length discrepancy. An epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Guichet, J M; Spivak, J M; Trouilloud, P; Grammont, P M

    1991-11-01

    Two retrospective epidemiologic studies have examined the incidence and prevalence of significant lower limb-length discrepancy and the number of surgical corrections by lengthening in 1987 in France. The incidence of apparatus prescriptions for asymmetry correction filled was 2.16 per 100,000 population. The prevalence of people using a corrective apparatus was one per 1000 population. The male-to-female ratio was 1.95:1. Because of biases in the study population, the actual incidence and prevalence of significant limb-length discrepancies is likely to be considerably higher. A questionnaire administered to surgeons of the French Orthopedic Society revealed that the majority of surgical lengthenings were performed by large orthopedic teams. In the 418 procedures reported, the tibia was lengthened more often than the femur (ratio 1.1:1). Gradual distraction techniques were used in 89.4% of cases, with the Ilizarov apparatus used in 57.4%, the Wagner apparatus in 20.6%, and the Orthofix fixator in 11.2%. Immediate distraction techniques were used in 7.9% of cases, 85% of which were done on the femur. Average total lengthening was 51 mm for tibia and femur. Average lengthening was greater for methods of gradual distraction (53.5 mm) than for immediate distraction (31.4 mm).

  11. F -Discrepancy for Efficient Sampling in Approximate Dynamic Programming.

    PubMed

    Cervellera, Cristiano; Maccio, Danilo

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of generating efficient state sample points for the solution of continuous-state finite-horizon Markovian decision problems through approximate dynamic programming. It is known that the selection of sampling points at which the value function is observed is a key factor when such function is approximated by a model based on a finite number of evaluations. A standard approach consists in generating these points through a random or deterministic procedure, aiming at a balanced covering of the state space. Yet, this solution may not be efficient if the state trajectories are not uniformly distributed. Here, we propose to exploit F -discrepancy, a quantity that measures how closely a set of random points represents a probability distribution, and introduce an example of an algorithm based on such concept to automatically select point sets that are efficient with respect to the underlying Markovian process. An error analysis of the approximate solution is provided, showing how the proposed algorithm enables convergence under suitable regularity hypotheses. Then, simulation results are provided concerning an inventory forecasting test problem. The tests confirm in general the important role of F -discrepancy, and show how the proposed algorithm is able to yield better results than uniform sampling, using sets even 50 times smaller.

  12. A probable stellar solution to the cosmological lithium discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Korn, A J; Grundahl, F; Richard, O; Barklem, P S; Mashonkina, L; Collet, R; Piskunov, N; Gustafsson, B

    2006-08-10

    The measurement of the cosmic microwave background has strongly constrained the cosmological parameters of the Universe. When the measured density of baryons (ordinary matter) is combined with standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis calculations, the amounts of hydrogen, helium and lithium produced shortly after the Big Bang can be predicted with unprecedented precision. The predicted primordial lithium abundance is a factor of two to three higher than the value measured in the atmospheres of old stars. With estimated errors of 10 to 25%, this cosmological lithium discrepancy seriously challenges our understanding of stellar physics, Big Bang nucleosynthesis or both. Certain modifications to nucleosynthesis have been proposed, but found experimentally not to be viable. Diffusion theory, however, predicts atmospheric abundances of stars to vary with time, which offers a possible explanation of the discrepancy. Here we report spectroscopic observations of stars in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC 6397 that reveal trends of atmospheric abundance with evolutionary stage for various elements. These element-specific trends are reproduced by stellar-evolution models with diffusion and turbulent mixing. We thus conclude that diffusion is predominantly responsible for the low apparent stellar lithium abundance in the atmospheres of old stars by transporting the lithium deep into the star.

  13. The Counterintuitive Psychological Benefits of Intergenerational Discrepancies in Family Prioritization for Jamaican Adolescent-Parent Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gail M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study tests a prediction of Relational Discrepancy Theory (RDT; i.e., emotional distress will not accompany discrepancies in hierarchical relationships) for family obligations discrepancies among adolescent-parent dyads in Jamaica, a moderately collectivistic and hierarchical society. Ninety-five dyads reported psychological adjustment…

  14. Use of Innovative Practices: Exploring the Discrepancy Measure as a Tool for Studying Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Douglas C.; Turnbull, Brenda J.

    This report explores the possibility of using the discrepancy measures to assess the implementation of educational innovations. The discrepancy measure was derived from the decision to segment the educational market, and to select or develop marketing strategies, on the basis of discrepancies between the potential user and the requirements of a…

  15. 41 CFR 101-26.803-3 - Reporting of discrepancies in transportation, shipments, material, or billings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... discrepancies in transportation, shipments, material, or billings. 101-26.803-3 Section 101-26.803-3 Public... GSA or DOD Shipments, Material, or Billings § 101-26.803-3 Reporting of discrepancies in transportation, shipments, material, or billings. (a) Transportation-type discrepancies shall be processed...

  16. 41 CFR 101-26.803-3 - Reporting of discrepancies in transportation, shipments, material, or billings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... discrepancies in transportation, shipments, material, or billings. 101-26.803-3 Section 101-26.803-3 Public... GSA or DOD Shipments, Material, or Billings § 101-26.803-3 Reporting of discrepancies in transportation, shipments, material, or billings. (a) Transportation-type discrepancies shall be processed...

  17. Consistency of Intermanual Discrepancies in Normal and Unilateral Brain Lesion Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of intermanual discrepancies on three motor tests (Grooved Pegboard, Finger Tapping and Dynamometer) were examined in normal and unilateral brain lesion samples. Considerable variability in the intermanual discrepancies was observed in all three samples. Therefore, the consistency of discrepancies across tasks was examined. The…

  18. Weight simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    Device applies compressive force to bone to minimize loss of bone calcium during weightlessness or bedrest. Force is applied through weights, or hydraulic, pneumatic or electrically actuated devices. Device is lightweight and easy to maintain and operate.

  19. Discrepancies between parents' and children's attitudes toward TV advertising.

    PubMed

    Baiocco, Roberto; D'Alessio, Maria; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2009-06-01

    The authors conducted a study with 500 parent-child dyads. The sample comprised 254 boys and 246 girls. The children were grouped into 5 age groups (1 group for each age from 7 to 11 years), with each group comprising 100 children. The survey regards discrepancies between children and their parents on attitudes toward TV advertising to determine how TV commercials affect children's developmental stages and, particularly, their credence, behavioral intentions, and TV enjoyment. Regarding enjoyment and purchase dimensions, the group of 7-year-old children claimed that they enjoyed and are influenced in their consumer attitude more than did the groups of 8-11-year-old children. Credence decreased significantly with age. This study showed that parents tended to undervalue TV advertising's influence on their children. Parents' conformity was a significant predictor of children's attitude toward TV advertising. Results indicated that a high level of parental conformity was linked to the number of brands children claimed to possess.

  20. Aircraft recognition based on the discrepancy of polygon intersection area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiujian; Wang, Yanfang; Feng, Qi

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new algorithm that based on discrepancy of polygon intersection area for aircraft recognition is presented. The recognition algorithm process involves three parts: generating polygon of aircraft, placing overlapping plane polygons and computing the area of total intersecting polygons. For the purpose of getting the polygon of aircraft, the picture that was ready to be recognized has gone through a series of pre-processing and the smallest circumference polygon algorithm was used to get approximate polygon of the target contour. To make the two compared polygons have the approximate area, the similar principle was utilized. The matching procedure was divided into four steps including computing intersecting points, computing polygon intersecting sets, computing the intersecting area and getting the intersecting rate to recognize the aircraft. The data structure of algorithm is based on doubly liked list principle. A mass of simulations illustrate that the proposed algorithm is effective and reasonable.

  1. Discrepancies in expert decision-making in forensic fingerprint examination.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Virpi; Hakkarainen, Kai; Tuunainen, Juha; Pohjola, Pasi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyse professional fingerprint examiners' investigative practices in the context of discrepancy decisions concerning challenging latents during fingerprint analysis and identification. The participants were fingerprint experts from the Forensic Laboratory of the Finnish National Bureau of Investigation. The data were from five audio-recorded "discrepancy meetings" where two examiners were discussing the rationale and justification for their differing interpretations of challenging and distorted fingerprint evidence. The meetings were chaired by the quality manager of the fingerprint group, who also in the first author of this article. The research questions addressed were as follows: What does the examiner see in the latent fingerprints? What does the examiner actively do with the latents? How were decisions made during the investigative process? In accordance with Goodwin's professional vision framework, the results revealed how the participants used partial and limited information in making judgments about the difficult and distorted latents. The examiners appeared to be involved in active, constructive efforts, mentally, to repair poor latents by supplementing with missing information. They also highlighted various aspects of latents by colour coding as well as manipulated fingerprint images in several ways so as to make the significant patterns easier to recognize. Because the methods and practices of characterizing latents were only vaguely specified, the examiners used locally developed ad hoc practices to facilitate their investigations, ending up with different interpretations. It is concluded in the article that the fingerprint community in Finland should make strong efforts to develop the methods of fingerprint investigation and determine clearer criteria for decision making and documentation practices. Furthermore, the interpretations made by fingerprint experts should be made more transparent to the customers.

  2. Masculine discrepancy stress, substance use, assault and injury in a survey of US men.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Dennis E; Berke, Danielle S; Gentile, Brittany; Zeichner, Amos

    2016-10-01

    To understand and ultimately prevent injury and behavioural health outcomes associated with masculinity, we assessed the influence of masculine discrepancy stress (stress that occurs when men perceive themselves as falling short of the traditional gender norms) on the propensity to engage in stereotypically masculine behaviours (eg, substance use, risk taking and violence) as a means of demonstrating masculinity. Six-hundred men from the USA were recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) online data collection site to complete surveys assessing self-perceptions of gender role discrepancy and consequent discrepancy stress, substance use/abuse, driving while intoxicated (DWI) and violent assaults. Negative binomial regression analyses indicated significant interactive effects wherein men high on gender role discrepancy and attendant discrepancy stress reported significantly more assaults with a weapon (B=1.01; SE=0.63; IRR=2.74; p=0.05) and assaults causing injury (B=1.01; SE=0.51; IRR=2.74; p<0.05). There was no association of discrepancy stress to substance abuse, but there was a protective effect of gender role discrepancy for DWI among men low on discrepancy stress (B=-1.19, SE=0.48; IRR=0.30; p=0.01). These findings suggest that gender role discrepancy and associated discrepancy stress, in particular, represent important injury risk factors and that prevention of discrepancy stress may prevent acts of violence with the greatest consequences and costs to the victim, offender and society.

  3. Discrepancies between eddy covariance and lysimeter measurements in the assessment of energy balance modeling in vineyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Juan M.; López-Urrea, Ramón; Doña, Carolina; Montoro, Amelia; Caselles, Vicente; Galve, Joan M.

    2016-10-01

    Remote sensing-based models are a potential technique when evapotranspiration (ET) estimates are needed on a regional scale. These remote sensing methods are typically validated and calibrated using in situ measurements. Eddy covariance (EC) and lysimetry are two of the most prevalent techniques for measuring ET. Some discrepancies arise between these two techniques consequence of the measurement footprint or the spatial variability in atmospheric and surface conditions. An experiment was carried out in the growing season of 2015 in a 4 ha row-crop vineyard in a semi-arid advective location in Central Spain, encouraged by the necessity to assess the feasibility of EC measurements in this area and under these conditions. A 9-m2 monolithic weighting lysimeter was available. An EC system was deployed together with a net radiometer and a set of soil heat flux plates. Data of the different terms of the energy balance equation were stored every 15 min, and then averaged at an hourly and daily scales. In this work we focus on the comparison between ET measurements from the two methods, EC and lysimetry. The imbalance in the surface energy budget was first analyzed. A lack of closure around 20% was observed. After forcing the closure, discrepancies between EC and lysimeter measurements still remained. Average estimation errors of +/-0.09 mm h-1 and +/-0.5 mm d-1 were obtained at hourly and daily scales, respectively, whereas a deviation of only 2% was observed in the accumulated ET for the entire experiment. These results support the use of adjusted EC technique to monitor accurate ET in vineyards.

  4. Discrepancy of whiteness and UV protection in wet state.

    PubMed

    Tarbuk, Anita; Grancarić, Ana Marija; Situm, Mirna

    2014-12-01

    The incidence of skin cancer is increasing by epidemic proportions. Basal cell cancer remains the most common skin neoplasm, and simple excision is generally curative. On the other hand, aggressive local growth and metastasis are common features of malignant melanoma, which accounts for 75 percent of all deaths associated with skin cancer. In Croatia only, more than 20,000 new cases of skin cancer has been diagnosed in 2008 of which melanoma 286 new cases and 118 yearly deaths in men, and 275 new cases and 79 deaths in women population. The back sides in men and women, as well as the lower limbs in women, are the most common site for melanomas. The primary cause of skin cancer is believed to be a long exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation crossed with the amount of skin pigmentation in the population. There are indications that other parts of solar spectrum (e.g., blue light) might also have effects on skin and eyes. Most people think all clothing will protect them, but that's not the case. UV clothing can show UVprotection, but in the most cases it does not provide full sun screening properties. UV protection ability highly depends on large number of factors such are type of fiber, fabric surface and construction, type and concentration of dyestuff, fluorescent whitening agent (FWA), UV-B protective agents, as well as nanoparticles, if applied. For that reason, jeans and tightly woven fabrics offer a very good level of protection. However, on a hot summer day, those aren't the kinds of clothing people usually reach for. More often, when they are on the beach, they wear T-shirt, as well during the swimming in the sea, thinking that it will protect them. Therefore, in this paper the discrepancy of UVprotection in wet state was researched. For the purpose, FWA and UVabsorber were applied in wide concentration range to white cotton knit fabrics commonly used for T-shirts. Afterwards, the discrepancy in whiteness and UVprotection was research in distilled water

  5. Accelerometer thresholds: Accounting for body mass reduces discrepancies between measures of physical activity for individuals with overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Raiber, Lilian; Christensen, Rebecca A G; Jamnik, Veronica K; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore whether accelerometer thresholds that are adjusted to account for differences in body mass influence discrepancies between self-report and accelerometer-measured physical activity (PA) volume for individuals with overweight and obesity. We analyzed 6164 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2003-2006. Established accelerometer thresholds were adjusted to account for differences in body mass to produce a similar energy expenditure (EE) rate as individuals with normal weight. Moderate-, vigorous-, and moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA) durations were measured using established and adjusted accelerometer thresholds and compared with self-report. Durations of self-report were longer than accelerometer-measured MVPA using established thresholds (normal weight: 57.8 ± 2.4 vs 9.0 ± 0.5 min/day, overweight: 56.1 ± 2.7 vs 7.4 ± 0.5 min/day, and obesity: 46.5 ± 2.2 vs 3.7 ± 0.3 min/day). Durations of subjective and objective PA were negatively associated with body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.05). Using adjusted thresholds increased MVPA durations, and reduced discrepancies between accelerometer and self-report measures for overweight and obese groups by 6.0 ± 0.3 min/day and 17.7 ± 0.8 min/day, respectively (P < 0.05). Using accelerometer thresholds that represent equal EE rates across BMI categories reduced the discrepancies between durations of subjective and objective PA for overweight and obese groups. However, accelerometer-measured PA generally remained shorter than durations of self-report within all BMI categories. Further research may be necessary to improve analytical approaches when using objective measures of PA for individuals with overweight or obesity.

  6. DISCREPANT HARDENING OBSERVED IN COSMIC-RAY ELEMENTAL SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, H. S.; Ganel, O.; Han, J. H.; Kim, K. C.; Lee, M. H.; Lutz, L.; Malinin, A.; Allison, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Bagliesi, M. G.; Bigongiari, G.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Childers, J. T.; DuVernois, M. A.; Conklin, N. B.; Coutu, S.; Mognet, S. I.; Jeon, J. A.; Minnick, S.

    2010-05-01

    The balloon-borne Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass experiment launched five times from Antarctica has achieved a cumulative flight duration of about 156 days above 99.5% of the atmosphere. The instrument is configured with complementary and redundant particle detectors designed to extend direct measurements of cosmic-ray composition to the highest energies practical with balloon flights. All elements from protons to iron nuclei are separated with excellent charge resolution. Here, we report results from the first two flights of {approx}70 days, which indicate hardening of the elemental spectra above {approx}200 GeV/nucleon and a spectral difference between the two most abundant species, protons and helium nuclei. These results challenge the view that cosmic-ray spectra are simple power laws below the so-called knee at {approx}10{sup 15} eV. This discrepant hardening may result from a relatively nearby source, or it could represent spectral concavity caused by interactions of cosmic rays with the accelerating shock. Other possible explanations should also be investigated.

  7. Energy budget discrepancy between rock fracturing and associated microseismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grob, M.; Chorney, D.; Jain, P.; Van der Baan, M.

    2013-12-01

    Many studies of hydraulic fracturing of oil and gas reservoirs have raised the issue of energy balance between the injected fluid volume and the recorded microseismicity. Indeed the injected energy is 10e4-10e7 times larger than the estimated radiated seismic energy, and the fracture energy is about 15-40% of the input energy. The computation of the different energy components are based on several assumptions, including the well-known empirical energy-magnitude relation (Kanamori, 1977) inferred for large magnitude events with a double-couple failure mechanism. To address this problem, we use a bonded-particle geomechanical modelling approach (Chorney et al., 2012), which allows us to compute each energy component independently (injected energy, strain energy and radiated energy). To test our model, we simulate triaxial compression on sandstone samples. Based on our independent computation of the radiated energy, we propose an updated empirical energy-magnitude relation. This relation should be more suitable for microseismic events with various rupture mechanisms including volumetric changes. However we still find a discrepancy between the radiated energy and the strain energy: the radiated energy only represents 2.5% of the strain energy (and 0.2% of the injected energy). Aseismic deformation could partly explain the difference, but further investigation is needed before eliminating other theories.

  8. Randomized discrepancy bounded local search for transmission expansion planning

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Russell W; Daniel, William B

    2010-11-23

    In recent years the transmission network expansion planning problem (TNEP) has become increasingly complex. As the TNEP is a non-linear and non-convex optimization problem, researchers have traditionally focused on approximate models of power flows to solve the TNEP. Existing approaches are often tightly coupled to the approximation choice. Until recently these approximations have produced results that are straight-forward to adapt to the more complex (real) problem. However, the power grid is evolving towards a state where the adaptations are no longer easy (e.g. large amounts of limited control, renewable generation) and necessitates new approaches. Recent work on deterministic Discrepancy Bounded Local Search (DBLS) has shown it to be quite effective in addressing this question. DBLS encapsulates the complexity of power flow modeling in a black box that may be queried for information about the quality of proposed expansions. In this paper, we propose a randomization strategy that builds on DBLS and dramatically increases the computational efficiency of the algorithm.

  9. Study on the Abundance Discrepancy Problem in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toribio San Cipriano, L.; Esteban, C.; Domínguez-Guzmán, G.; García-Rojas, J.

    2017-03-01

    We present chemical abundances of carbon (C) and oxygen (O) in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds from deep and high-quality optical spectra of H II regions. The data have been taken using the Ultraviolet-Visual Echelle Spectrograph at the 8.2-m Very Large Telescope with the goal of detecting the faint C II and O II recombination lines. For all the objects of the sample, we determine C^{2+}abundances from recombination lines and O^{2+} abundances from recombination lines and collisionally excited lines. In addition, we calculate the abundance discrepancy factors (ADFs) for O^{2+} and C^{2+}, as well as the O/H, C/H and C/O ratios. We study the behaviour of the ADF comparing the values obtained in the Magellanic Clouds with those obtained for other H_{II} regions in different galaxies. We also compare the nebular and stellar abundances in two regions of the sample. Finally, we discuss the chemical evolution of the MCs through the O/H, C/H and C/O radial gradients and the changes of the C/O ratio as a function of O/H.

  10. Discrepancy between clinical and pathological diagnoses of CBD and PSP.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Toshiki; Shiga, Kensuke; Nakata, Yuriko; Nagura, Junko; Nakase, Taizen; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Takanashi, Yoshiaki; Urasaki, Kohji; Oyamada, Yumiko; Fushiki, Shinji; Nishikawa, Junji; Yasuhara, Masahiro; Nakajima, Kenji; Nakagawa, Masanori

    2005-06-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD) are often clinically confused with each other. Moreover, the discrepancy between clinical and pathological diagnoses of CBD and PSP are still controversial. We report here two atypical cases of PSP and CBD. A 73-year old woman was admitted with right hand rigidity, limb kinetic apraxia and cortical sensory loss. Brain atrophy, hypoperfusion and hypometabolism predominantly in the left frontoparietal lobes indicated CBD clinically. Pathological studies revealed neuronal loss and spongy change without ballooned neurons (BN) in the cerebral cortex. Modified Gallyas-Braak (G-B) staining revealed neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and tufted astrocytes, indicating pathological diagnosis of PSP. A 75-year-old man admitted with vertical gaze palsy, neck dystonia, parkinsonism and dementia. Atrophy of the frontal lobes and tegmentum of the midbrain and symmetrical frontal hypoperfusion in SPECT indicated PSP. However, neuronal loss and BN in the frontal lobes and clusters of astrocytic plaques indicated CBD pathologically. The G-B staining was useful for differentiating between CBD and PSP, but our atypical cases bring up a new issue about differential diagnosis of CBD and PSP.

  11. Neutron discrepancies in the DS86 Hiroshima dosimetry system.

    PubMed

    Straume, T; Egbert, S D; Woolson, W A; Finkel, R C; Kubik, P W; Gove, H E; Sharma, P; Hoshi, M

    1992-10-01

    More than a decade has passed since a complete revision was initiated of the radiation doses received by survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings. The new dosimetry system (DS86) was completed in 1986 and adopted shortly thereafter. Overall, DS86 was noted to be a clear improvement over the old dosimetry system. However, based on limited validation measurements, troublesome inconsistencies were suggested for neutrons. Since 1986, a substantial number of additional neutron activation measurements have been made in mineral and metal samples from Hiroshima. Importantly, a large number of measurements have now been made at distances beyond 1 km. Here, inconsistencies between neutron activation measurements and DS86 calculations for Hiroshima are examined using all available measurement data, including new measurements for 36Cl which extend the measurement range to more than 1.7 km from the epicenter, and Monte Carlo modeling calculations for each sample measured. Results show that thermal neutron activation measured beyond approximately 1 km in Hiroshima (at distances most relevant for radiation-risk evaluation) is two to 10, or more, times higher than that calculated based on DS86. Similar trends observed when comparing results by several independent measurement laboratories, using different analytical methods, suggest that the DS86 calculations for low-energy neutrons are in error. Because of the importance of the Hiroshima data in radiation risk evaluation, this large discrepancy is in need of resolution.

  12. Quantifying discrepancies in opinion spectra from online and offline networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Deokjae; Hahn, Kyu S; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Park, Juyong

    2015-01-01

    Online social media such as Twitter are widely used for mining public opinions and sentiments on various issues and topics. The sheer volume of the data generated and the eager adoption by the online-savvy public are helping to raise the profile of online media as a convenient source of news and public opinions on social and political issues as well. Due to the uncontrollable biases in the population who heavily use the media, however, it is often difficult to measure how accurately the online sphere reflects the offline world at large, undermining the usefulness of online media. One way of identifying and overcoming the online-offline discrepancies is to apply a common analytical and modeling framework to comparable data sets from online and offline sources and cross-analyzing the patterns found therein. In this paper we study the political spectra constructed from Twitter and from legislators' voting records as an example to demonstrate the potential limits of online media as the source for accurate public opinion mining, and how to overcome the limits by using offline data simultaneously.

  13. Quantifying Discrepancies in Opinion Spectra from Online and Offline Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Deokjae; Hahn, Kyu S.; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Park, Juyong

    2015-01-01

    Online social media such as Twitter are widely used for mining public opinions and sentiments on various issues and topics. The sheer volume of the data generated and the eager adoption by the online-savvy public are helping to raise the profile of online media as a convenient source of news and public opinions on social and political issues as well. Due to the uncontrollable biases in the population who heavily use the media, however, it is often difficult to measure how accurately the online sphere reflects the offline world at large, undermining the usefulness of online media. One way of identifying and overcoming the online–offline discrepancies is to apply a common analytical and modeling framework to comparable data sets from online and offline sources and cross-analyzing the patterns found therein. In this paper we study the political spectra constructed from Twitter and from legislators' voting records as an example to demonstrate the potential limits of online media as the source for accurate public opinion mining, and how to overcome the limits by using offline data simultaneously. PMID:25915931

  14. A Discrepancy between Two Criteria of Stability for Hybrid Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachdeva, Pratik; Alford, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Neutron stars, along with other compact matter, are some of the most stable structures in the universe. Their stability can be disrupted, however, by radial oscillations, which may cause them to collapse into black holes. John Bardeen, in his Catalogue of Methods, detailed two methods by which we can determine the stability of compact stars for a given equation of state: direct calculation of the oscillation frequency with Chandrasekhar's equation or a qualitative examination of a mass-radius plot. These two methods were believed to agree until Glendenning et al. proposed the existence of a white dwarf with a strange quark core. We observed that Glendenning's white dwarf showed disagreement between Bardeen's methods. With this motivation, we examined the stability of a similar family of hybrid stars which contain a quark matter core surrounded by a nuclear matter envelope. The equations of state for such stars exhibit either a kink or discontinuity. By reproducing the calculations of these methods, we observed that Bardeen's methods do not agree for these stars as well. We believe that this discrepancy stems from the fact that Chandrasekhar's equation is incompatible with discontinuous equations of state and are working to resolve this incompatibility.

  15. A statistical investigation of the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmond, Harry

    2017-02-01

    We use the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation (the correlation between the ratio of total-to-visible mass and acceleration in galaxies; MDAR) to test the galaxy-halo connection. We analyse the MDAR using a set of 16 statistics that quantify its four most important features: shape, scatter, the presence of a `characteristic acceleration scale', and the correlation of its residuals with other galaxy properties. We construct an empirical framework for the galaxy-halo connection in LCDM to generate predictions for these statistics, starting with conventional correlations (halo abundance matching; AM) and introducing more where required. Comparing to the SPARC data, we find that: (1) the approximate shape of the MDAR is readily reproduced by AM, and there is no evidence that the acceleration at which dark matter becomes negligible has less spread in the data than in AM mocks; (2) even under conservative assumptions, AM significantly overpredicts the scatter in the relation and its normalization at low acceleration, and furthermore positions dark matter too close to galaxies' centres on average; (3) the MDAR affords 2σ evidence for an anticorrelation of galaxy size and Hubble type with halo mass or concentration at fixed stellar mass. Our analysis lays the groundwork for a bottom-up determination of the galaxy-halo connection from relations such as the MDAR, provides concrete statistical tests for specific galaxy formation models, and brings into sharper focus the relative evidence accorded by galaxy kinematics to LCDM and modified gravity alternatives.

  16. Report on the Radar/PIREP Cloud Top Discrepancy Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Mark M.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Applied Meteorology Unit's (AMU) investigation of inconsistencies between pilot reported cloud top heights and weather radar indicated echo top heights (assumed to be cloud tops) as identified by the 45 Weather Squadron (45WS). The objective for this study is to document and understand the differences in echo top characteristics as displayed on both the WSR-88D and WSR-74C radars and cloud top heights reported by the contract weather aircraft in support of space launch operations at Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS), Florida. These inconsistencies are of operational concern since various Launch Commit Criteria (LCC) and Flight Rules (FR) in part describe safe and unsafe conditions as a function of cloud thickness. Some background radar information was presented. Scan strategies for the WSR-74C and WSR-88D were reviewed along with a description of normal radar beam propagation influenced by the Effective Earth Radius Model. Atmospheric conditions prior to and leading up to both launch operations were detailed. Through the analysis of rawinsonde and radar data, atmospheric refraction or bending of the radar beam was identified as the cause of the discrepancies between reported cloud top heights by the contract weather aircraft and those as identified by both radars. The atmospheric refraction caused the radar beam to be further bent toward the Earth than normal. This radar beam bending causes the radar target to be displayed erroneously, with higher cloud top heights and a very blocky or skewed appearance.

  17. Low Critical Micelle Concentration Discrepancy between Theory and Experiment.

    PubMed

    García Daza, Fabián A; Mackie, Allan D

    2014-06-05

    Experimental measurements for a variety of surfactants unexpectedly show that the critical micelle concentration (CMC) becomes constant with respect to increasing the size of the hydrophobic tail. This observation disagrees with theoretical models where it is expected to continue to decrease exponentially. Because of the lack of a satisfactory explanation for such a discrepancy from theory, we have studied these systems using a coarse-grained model within the single-chain mean field (SCMF) theory combined with relevant micellar kinetic effects. In particular, a microscopic model for poly(ethylene oxide) alkyl ether was applied to describe a series of nonionic gemini surfactants. When kinetic effects are used to correct the equilibrium CMC values from the SCMF scheme together with the loss of surfactants due to adsorption on the experimental recipient, it is possible to reproduce the correct order of magnitude of the experimental CMC results. Hence it appears that the experimental values disagree with the theoretical predictions because they are not true equilibrium values due to the fact that the time scales for these low CMC values become astronomically large.

  18. Relationship between self-discrepancy and worries about penis size in men with body dysmorphic disorder.

    PubMed

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Bramley, Sally; Troglia, Andrea; Carmona, Lina; Fiorito, Chiara; Wells, Hannah; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2016-06-01

    We explored self-discrepancy in men with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) concerned about penis size, men without BDD but anxious about penis size, and controls. Men with BDD (n=26) were compared to those with small penis anxiety (SPA; n=31) and controls (n=33), objectively (by measuring) and investigating self-discrepancy: actual size, ideal size, and size they felt they should be according to self and other. Most men under-estimated their penis size, with the BDD group showing the greatest discrepancy between perceived and ideal size. The SPA group showed a larger discrepancy than controls. This was replicated for the perceptions of others, suggesting the BDD group internalised the belief that they should have a larger penis size. There was a significant correlation between symptoms of BDD and this discrepancy. This self-actual and self-ideal/self-should discrepancy and the role of comparing could be targeted in therapy.

  19. Understanding and using informants' reporting discrepancies of youth victimization: a conceptual model and recommendations for research.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Kimberly L; De Los Reyes, Andres; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2010-12-01

    Discrepancies often occur among informants' reports of various domains of child and family functioning and are particularly common between parent and child reports of youth violence exposure. However, recent work suggests that discrepancies between parent and child reports predict subsequent poorer child outcomes. We propose a preliminary conceptual model (Discrepancies in Victimization Implicate Developmental Effects [DiVIDE]) that considers how and why discrepancies between parents' and youths' ratings of child victimization may be related to poor adjustment outcomes. The model addresses how dyadic processes, such as the parent-youth relationship and youths' information management, might contribute to discrepancies. We also consider coping processes that explain why discrepancies may predict increases in youth maladjustment. Based on this preliminary conceptual framework, we offer suggestions and future directions for researchers who encounter conflicting reports of community violence exposure and discuss why the proposed model is relevant to interventions for victimized youths.

  20. [The effects of ideal-real self discrepancy and irrational belief on self acceptance].

    PubMed

    Arai, S

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to clarify the effects of positive ideal-real self discrepancy, negative ideal-real self discrepancy, and irrational belief on self acceptance. A total of 464 university and vocational school students, an average of 21.1 years old, participated. Results confirmed the prediction that the smaller the positive ideal-real discrepancy, and the larger negative ideal-real discrepancy, the higher is the self acceptance score. It was also found that the effects of the positive ideal-real self discrepancy depended on the intensity of irrational belief, and the belief was thus a moderator of the effect. On the other hand, the intensity of irrational belief did not moderate the effect of negative ideal-real self discrepancy. Finally, the findings were discussed in relation to the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic and counseling efforts to enhance self acceptance.

  1. Discrepancies confer vulnerability to depressive symptoms: a three-wave longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Sherry, Simon B; Mackinnon, Sean P; Macneil, Matthew A; Fitzpatrick, Skye

    2013-01-01

    Discrepancies (i.e., a subjective sense of falling short of one's own standards) are a key part of the perfectionism construct. Theory suggests discrepancies confer vulnerability to depressive symptoms. Since most research in this area is cross-sectional, longitudinal research is needed to disentangle directionality of relationships and to permit stronger causal inferences. Determining whether discrepancies are an antecedent of depressive symptoms, a consequence of depressive symptoms, or both is critical to understanding the discrepancies-depressive symptoms relationship. Knowledge about the temporal stability of discrepancies is also only starting to emerge, and it is unclear whether discrepancies predict incremental variance in depressive symptoms above and beyond neuroticism (i.e., a dispositional tendency to experience negative emotional states). The present study tested relationships among discrepancies, neuroticism, and depressive symptoms in 127 1st-year undergraduates using a 3-wave longitudinal design. Results suggest discrepancies may be understood as a trait-state where people are both highly consistent in their rank order on discrepancies and fluctuate somewhat in the level of discrepancies they experience at a particular point in time. As hypothesized, discrepancies predicted increases in depressive symptoms, even after controlling for neuroticism. Contrary to hypotheses, depressive symptoms did not predict changes in discrepancies. This study extends a long tradition of theory noting the depressing consequences of believing that one has fallen short of one's own standards. Harsh self-criticism and unobtainable self-expectations involving a strong sense of imperfection may be part of the premorbid personality of people vulnerable to depressive symptoms.

  2. Discrepancies between descriptions and illustrations of colours in Congo red-stained amyloid, and explanation of discrepant colours.

    PubMed

    Howie, Alexander J; Owen-Casey, Mared P

    2010-09-01

    Congo red-stained sections of amyloid may show various colours between crossed polariser and analyser. The aims were to see how papers described the colours, to compare descriptions with illustrations, and to explain the colours. In 160 papers on Congo red-stained amyloid, the commonest descriptions were 'green birefringence' and 'apple-green birefringence'. In 191 figures in 82 papers, 59 (31%) showed a pure green colour, 62 (32%) showed green and yellow or blue and yellow, 38 (20%) showed green and a colour other than yellow, mostly red, and 32 (17%) showed other colours. Discrepancies between colours reported and illustrated were noted in 127 figures (66%). Most (77) were between green alone in descriptions and green and another colour in figures, and 30 were between green in descriptions and no green at all in figures. Pure green can be seen in ideal conditions, but more often there are green and yellow, explained by strain birefringence, and green and red or other combinations, explained by uncrossing of polariser and analyser. These other anomalous colours are just as characteristic of amyloid as the pure green colour. Many papers on Congo red-stained amyloid appear to describe what is expected theoretically rather than what is actually seen.

  3. Discrepancy in behavior of different solar proxies in cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukianova, R.

    2009-04-01

    The Sun can influence the Earth climate through mechanisms that are not fully understood but which can be linked to solar variations of luminosity, magnetic field, UV radiation, solar flares and modulation of the cosmic ray intensity. Several proxies are used to characterize the Sun behavior and its influence on the geospheres. Solar activity over long time scales has usually been studied with the use of sunspot numbers (SN). The integrated radio flux from the solar disc (F10.7 index) follows the SN. Regular direct monitoring of solar irradiance has been made by satellites since 1978, resulting in time series of total solar irradiance (TSI) and variations of solar EUV irradiance (MgII index). The long-term components of all four solar proxies are expected to correlate linearly with each other. The situation was stable until the last solar maximum. Actually, cycle 23 had two maxima: one near middle of 2000 and another near end of 2001. According to SN, the magnitude of the first maximum was larger, whereas according to irradiance proxies, TSI and MgII, the second maximum was significantly higher. After this episode of enhanced irradiance (and until now) the mutual correspondence between published solar indices has been changed resulting in significant divergence. The present paper is aimed to the evaluation of discrepancy observed in different solar proxies. We examine the solar activity, namely the SN, F10.7, TSIs and MgII time series, in order to emphasis its unusual mutual behavior during the declining phase of cycle 23. Behavior of the solar indices is compared with the global ionospheric response using the F2 layer critical frequency from many observatories spread over the globe.

  4. Scuba Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Attitude Adjuster is a system for weight repositioning corresponding to a SCUBA diver's changing positions. Compact tubes on the diver's air tank permit controlled movement of lead balls within the Adjuster, automatically repositioning when the diver changes position. Manufactured by Think Tank Technologies, the system is light and small, reducing drag and energy requirements and contributing to lower air consumption. The Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center helped the company with both technical and business information and arranged for the testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's Weightlessness Environmental Training Facility for astronauts.

  5. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment.

    PubMed

    Kay, Daniel B; Buysse, Daniel J; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H

    2015-02-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement reported by older adults with insomnia. Participants were 63 adults >60 years of age with insomnia, and 51 controls. At baseline, participants completed sleep diaries for 7 days while wearing wrist actigraphs. After receiving cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia, insomnia patients repeated this sleep assessment. Sleep discrepancy variables were calculated by subtracting actigraphic sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset from respective self-reported estimates, pre- and post-treatment. Mean level and night-to-night variability in sleep discrepancy were investigated. Baseline sleep discrepancies were compared between groups. Pre-post-treatment changes in Insomnia Severity Index score and sleep discrepancy variables were investigated within older adults with insomnia. Sleep discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable across nights in older adults with insomnia than controls, P ≤ 0.001 for all. Treatment with cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia was associated with significant reduction in the Insomnia Severity Index score that correlated with changes in mean level and night-to-night variability in wake after sleep onset discrepancy, P < 0.001 for all. Study of sleep discrepancy patterns may guide more targeted treatments for late-life insomnia.

  6. A rationale for treating leg length discrepancy using photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisland, Stuart K.; Johnson, Crystal; Diab, Mohammed; Wilson, Brian C.; Burch, Shane

    2005-09-01

    This study investigates the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in regulating bone development with a view to its potential role in treating Juvenile leg length discrepancy (LLD). Transgenic mice expressing the luciferase firefly gene upon activation of a promoter sequence specific to the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene were subject to benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid (BPD-MA)-mediated PDT in the right, tibial epiphyseal growth plate at the age of 3 weeks. BPD-MA was administered intracardially (2mg/kg) followed 10 mins later by a laser light (690 +/- 5 nm) at a range of doses (5-27J, 50 mW output) delivered either as a single or repeat regimen (x2-3). Contra-lateral legs served as no-light controls. Further controls included animals that received light treatment in the absence of photosensitizer or no treatment. Mice were imaged for VEGF related bioluminescence (photons/sec/steradian) at t= 0, 24, 48, 72 h and 1-4 weeks post PDT. FaxitronTM x-ray images provided accurate assessment of bone morphometry. Upon sacrifice, the tibia and femur of the treated and untreated limbs were harvested, imaged and measured again and prepared for histology. A number of animals were sacrificed at 24 h post PDT to allow immunohistochemical staining for CD31, VEGF and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1 alpha) within the bone. PDT-treated (10 J, x2) mice displayed enhanced bioluminescence at the treatment site (and ear nick) for up to 4 weeks post treatment while control mice were bioluminescent at the ear-nick site only. Repeat regimens provided greater shortening of the limb than the corresponding single treatment. PDT-treated limbs were shorter by 3-4 mm on average as compared to the contra lateral and light only controls (10 J, x2). Immunohistochemistry confirmed the enhanced expression VEGF and CD31 at 4 weeks post-treatment although no increase in HIF-1α was evident at either 24 h or 4 weeks post PDT treatment. Results confirm the utility of PDT to provide localized

  7. Can the Media Affect Us? Social Comparison, Self-Discrepancy, and the Thin Ideal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessenoff, Gayle R.

    2006-01-01

    The current study explored body image self-discrepancy as moderator and social comparison as mediator in the effects on women from thin-ideal images in the media. Female undergraduates (N = 112) with high and low body image self-discrepancy were exposed to advertisements either with thin women (thin ideal) or without thin women…

  8. Maximizing the Impact of Program Evaluation: A Discrepancy-Based Process for Educational Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Jeffrey A.

    This paper describes a formative/summative process for educational program evaluation, which is appropriate for higher education programs and is based on M. Provus' Discrepancy Evaluation Model and the principles of instructional design. The Discrepancy Based Methodology for Educational Program Evaluation facilitates systematic and detailed…

  9. Discrepancies Confer Vulnerability to Depressive Symptoms: A Three-Wave Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherry, Simon B.; Mackinnon, Sean P.; Macneil, Matthew A.; Fitzpatrick, Skye

    2013-01-01

    Discrepancies (i.e., a subjective sense of falling short of one's own standards) are a key part of the perfectionism construct. Theory suggests discrepancies confer vulnerability to depressive symptoms. Since most research in this area is cross-sectional, longitudinal research is needed to disentangle directionality of relationships and to permit…

  10. Working Memory in Children with Learning Disabilities: Rethinking the Criterion of Discrepancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehler, Claudia; Schuchardt, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    The criterion of discrepancy is used to distinguish children with learning disorders from children with intellectual disabilities. The justification of the criterion of discrepancy for the diagnosis of learning disorders relies on the conviction of fundamental differences between children with learning difficulties with versus without discrepancy…

  11. Revisiting Discrepancy Theory in Learning Disabilities: What Went Wrong and Why We Should Go Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callinan, Sarah; Cunningham, Everarda; Theiler, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The rise in popularity of Response to Intervention (RTI) as a method of identifying Learning Disabilities (LD) is partially due to the psychometric and theoretical issues inherent to the use of IQ tests in the once popular discrepancy method of identification. However, both RTI and discrepancy theories have their shortcomings, and criticisms…

  12. College Students' Affective Distress: The Role of Expectation Discrepancies and Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agliata, Allison Kanter; Renk, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    The discrepancy between college students' performance and parents' expectations may be related to college students' affective distress. Further, the role that parent-college student communication reciprocity may play in the context of these discrepancies has not been examined. As a result, this study examined parent-college student expectation…

  13. A Social Domain Approach to Informant Discrepancies in Parental Solicitation and Family Rules.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Aaron; Babskie, Elizabeth; Olson, Rebecca; Romm, Katelyn

    2016-10-01

    An extensive body of research has explored the effects of parental monitoring on adolescent outcomes, but studies consistently find substantial discrepancies between parent and adolescent reports of different monitoring behaviors. Little research has examined whether parents and adolescents are more or less discrepant when reporting on parents' rules or solicitation for different adolescent problem and health risk behaviors and few studies have explored potential explanatory variables to explicate individual variability in parent-adolescent discrepant reporting. To address this gap in the literature, the current study examined discrepancies in mother-adolescent reports of family rules and solicitation across five distinct adolescent behaviors: personal behaviors and four different risk behaviors (alcohol-related, cyber, over- and under-eating). Participants were 143 mother-adolescent dyads (Adolescent M age  = 14.42, SD = 1.73, range = 12-18, 81 % white, 60 % female). Mean-level discrepancies between maternal and adolescent reports significantly differed by category of adolescent behavior and also varied as a function of reported parental monitoring behavior (rules vs. solicitation). Discrepancies in mother-adolescent reports of behavior-specific rules and solicitation were positively associated with discrepancies in mother and adolescent judgments of the harmfulness of the activities. The results demonstrate that discrepancies in mother-adolescent reports of family process differ by category of adolescent behavior and may be undergirded by differences in mother and adolescent informational assumptions about the potential harm involved with different activities.

  14. Discrepant Questioning as a Tool To Build Complex Mental Models of Respiration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rea-Ramirez, Mary Anne; Nunez-Oviedo, Maria C.

    Discrepant questioning is a teaching technique that can help students "unlearn" misconceptions and process science ideas for deep understanding. Discrepant questioning is a technique in which teachers question students in a way that requires them to examine their ideas or models, without giving information prematurely to the student or passing…

  15. 41 CFR 101-26.803 - Discrepancies or deficiencies in shipments, material, or billings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrepancies or deficiencies in shipments, material, or billings. 101-26.803 Section 101-26.803 Public Contracts and Property..., Material, or Billings § 101-26.803 Discrepancies or deficiencies in shipments, material, or billings....

  16. 41 CFR 101-26.803 - Discrepancies or deficiencies in shipments, material, or billings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Discrepancies or deficiencies in shipments, material, or billings. 101-26.803 Section 101-26.803 Public Contracts and Property..., Material, or Billings § 101-26.803 Discrepancies or deficiencies in shipments, material, or billings....

  17. Understanding Parent-Child Social Informant Discrepancy in Youth with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Matthew D.; Calhoun, Casey D.; Mikami, Amori Yee; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2012-01-01

    We investigated discrepancies between parent- and self-reported social functioning among youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Three distinct samples showed discrepancies indicating that parents viewed their children as performing one standard deviation below a standardization mean, while youth viewed themselves as comparably-skilled…

  18. Great Expectations: Examining the Discrepancy between Expectations and Experiences on College Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleitz, Jacob D.; MacDougall, Alexandra E.; Terry, Robert A.; Buckley, M. Ronald; Campbell, Nicole J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to build upon previous efforts evaluating the degree to which the discrepancy between student expectations and experiences can result in greater rates of attrition in education. Data were collected from 225 students at a large Midwestern public university and analyzed to assess the discrepancy between expectations…

  19. Does Hot Water Freeze Faster Than Cold? Or Why Mpemba's Ice Cream Is a Discrepant Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Bill

    1993-01-01

    A discrepant event is a happening contrary to our current beliefs. Discrepant events are said to be useful in clarifying concepts. This is one of the interesting features of current theories of constructivism. The story of Mpemba's ice cream is quite well known, but it is the educational aspects of the experiment that are of interest in this…

  20. 19 CFR 125.34 - Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Countersigning of documents and notation of bad... and Receipt § 125.34 Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy. When a... and shall note thereon any bad order or discrepancy. When available, the importing carrier's...

  1. 19 CFR 125.34 - Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Countersigning of documents and notation of bad... and Receipt § 125.34 Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy. When a... and shall note thereon any bad order or discrepancy. When available, the importing carrier's...

  2. Acute kidney injury as a risk factor for diagnostic discrepancy among geriatric patients: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Chia-Ter; Tsai, Hung-Bin; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Shih, Chih-Yuan; Hsu, Su-Hsuan; Hung, Yu-Chien; Lai, Chun-Fu; Chan, Derrick Ding-Cheng; Yen, Chung-Jen; Chu, Tzong-Shinn

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic discrepancy, defined as different admission and discharge diagnoses, could be a potential source of diagnostic error. We evaluated whether acute kidney injury (AKI) in the elderly affected their risk for diagnostic discrepancy. Patients aged ≥60 years from the general medical wards were prospectively enrolled and divided according to AKI status upon admission, using the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. We compared their discharge and admission diagnoses and identified patients with a diagnostic discrepancy, using multiple logistic regression analysis to evaluate the relationship between initial AKI and the presence of a diagnostic discrepancy. A total of 188 participants (mean age, 77.9 years) were recruited. Regression analysis showed that initial AKI on admission was associated with a higher risk of diagnostic discrepancy upon discharge (odds ratio [OR] 3.3; p < 0.01). In contrast, higher AKI severity was also associated with an increased risk of diagnostic discrepancy (for KDIGO grade 1, 2, and 3; OR 2.92, 3.91, and 4.32; p = 0.04, 0.03, and 0.02, respectively), suggesting that initial AKI upon admission could be an important risk factor for diagnostic discrepancy. Consequently, reducing geriatric AKI might have the potential to reduce diagnostic discrepancy among these patients. PMID:27982065

  3. Does Third Grade Discrepancy Status Predict the Course of Reading Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Lynn; Meyer, Marianne; Lovato, James; Felton, Rebecca; Wood, Frank

    2001-01-01

    A study employed mixed effects regression growth curve analysis to assess the developmental course of discrepant (n=51) and nondiscrepant (n=89) poor readers identified in third grade and retested in fifth, eight, and twelfth grades. Discrepancy status did not differentiate the developmental course of basic reading skills or reading comprehension.…

  4. Nonverbal and Verbal Cognitive Discrepancy Profiles in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Influence of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ankenman, Katy; Elgin, Jenna; Sullivan, Katherine; Vincent, Logan; Bernier, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that discrepant cognitive abilities are more common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and may indicate an important ASD endophenotype. The current study examined the frequency of IQ discrepancy profiles (nonverbal IQ greater than verbal IQ [NVIQ greater than VIQ], verbal IQ greater than nonverbal IQ [VIQ greater…

  5. Discrepancy between Mother and Child Reports of Parental Knowledge and the Relation to Risk Behavior Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; MacPherson, Laura; Matusiewicz, Alexis K.; Schreiber, Whitney M.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2011-01-01

    The study examined discrepancies in mother and child reports of parental knowledge (PK) of a child's whereabouts, activities, and companions, as well as the extent to which discrepancies in reports of PK are related to child risk-taking behavior concurrently and prospectively across two time points. The sample consisted of 219 mother and early…

  6. 75 FR 67453 - Identity Theft Red Flags and Address Discrepancies Under the Fair and Accurate Credit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Identity Theft Red Flags and Address Discrepancies Under the Fair and...: Identity Theft Red Flags and Address Discrepancies under the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of... issue jointly guidelines for financial institutions and creditors regarding identity theft with...

  7. Predictive Value of Informant Discrepancies in Reports of Parenting: Relations to Early Adolescents' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guion, Kim; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Research has demonstrated a lack of agreement between parent and child reports across a range of parent and child variables. These discrepancies hinder the interpretation of research findings as well as diagnostic and treatment decisions in clinical practice. The current study examined the hypothesis that discrepancies between parent and child…

  8. Identifying and Characterizing Discrepancies Between Test and Analysis Results of Compression-Loaded Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornburgh, Robert P.; Hilburger, Mark W.

    2005-01-01

    Results from a study to identify and characterize discrepancies between validation tests and high-fidelity analyses of compression-loaded panels are presented. First, potential sources of the discrepancies in both the experimental method and corresponding high-fidelity analysis models were identified. Then, a series of laboratory tests and numerical simulations were conducted to quantify the discrepancies and develop test and analysis methods to account for the discrepancies. The results indicate that the discrepancies between the validation tests and high-fidelity analyses can be attributed to imperfections in the test fixture and specimen geometry; test-fixture-induced changes in specimen geometry; and test-fixture-induced friction on the loaded edges of the test specimen. The results also show that accurate predictions of the panel response can be obtained when these specimen imperfections and edge conditions are accounted for in the analysis. The errors in the tests and analyses, and the methods used to characterize these errors are presented.

  9. Discrepancy-based and anticipated emotions in behavioral self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christina M; McConnell, Allen R

    2011-10-01

    Discrepancies between one's current and desired states evoke negative emotions, which presumably guide self-regulation. In the current work we evaluated the function of discrepancy-based emotions in behavioral self-regulation. Contrary to classic theories of self-regulation, discrepancy-based emotions did not predict the degree to which people engaged in self-regulatory behavior. Instead, expectations about how future self-discrepancies would make one feel (i.e., anticipated emotions) predicted self-regulation. However, anticipated emotions were influenced by previous discrepancy-based emotional experiences, suggesting that the latter do not directly motivate self-regulation but rather guide expectations. These findings are consistent with the perspective that emotions do not necessarily direct immediate behavior, but rather have an indirect effect by guiding expectations, which in turn predict goal-directed action.

  10. Discrepancies Between Laboratory Shock Experiments on Minerals and Natural Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Carli, P. S.; Xie, Z.; Sharp, T. G.

    2009-12-01

    Numerous laboratory shock recovery experiments performed over the past 50 years have provided substantial data on the effects of shock waves on rocks and minerals. However, it has become increasingly clear that the pressure "calibrations" based on shock effects observed in these experiments are inconsistent with interpretations based on static high-pressure data. A fundamental question is whether shock pressures are somehow different from static high pressures. Fifty years ago, many journal reviewers doubted that phase transformations could take place on a sub-microsecond time scale. Shock wave workers responded by invoking "special" properties of shock compression. However, all available evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that phase transitions under shock pressure are no different from phase transitions under static high pressures. The discrepancies noted above result from the fact that the parameter space, especially shock pressure duration, accessible to shock recovery experiments is so small by comparison with natural events. Furthermore virtually all shock recovery experiments on rocks and minerals have used high impedance sample containers, with the result that the samples have been subjected to thermodynamic loading paths substantially from a natural event. Consider the case of a chondritic meteorite made up of minerals having a wide range of shock properties. In a natural shock event the transient (nano-second scale) shock pressure at the shock front can vary by as much as an order of magnitude from grain to grain or even within a single grain. There are corresponding local differences in shock temperature. Assuming a mineral grain size of about a mm, the pressure inhomogeneities will equilibrate in less than a microsecond, wheras the temperature inhomogenities will require seconds to equilibrate. Recent studies of high-pressure phases in meteorites have provided evidence for pressure durations in the range of seconds, long enough for high pressure

  11. Your Child's Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) Overweight and Obesity Weight and Diabetes Growth Charts ... Losing Weight: Brandon's Story (Video) Managing Your Weight Weight Loss Surgery When Being Overweight Is a Health Problem Who ...

  12. Large discrepancies between planned and actually delivered dose in IMRT of head and neck cancer. A case report.

    PubMed

    Piermattei, Angelo; Cilla, Savino; D'Onofrio, Guido; Grimaldi, Luca; Digesù, Cinzia; Macchia, Gabriella; Deodato, Francesco; Morganti, Alessio G

    2007-01-01

    The case is reported of a patient with locally recurrent carcinoma of the tongue treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) (simultaneous integrated boost) plus concurrent chemotherapy, who during the third week of radiotherapy developed grade 3 mucositis. Treatment was interrupted for 10 days until significant resolution of the symptoms. At the time of treatment resumption the patient showed 8% weight loss, and in vivo portal dose verification revealed large discrepancies between the computed and measured doses. A new CT scan showed marked tumor shrinkage and modifications to the critical structures. The comparison between the original plan and the hybrid IMRT showed a minimal dose increase in the new target volumes and a marked dose increase in the organs at risk. This case confirms the need for a robust quality assurance program when using IMRT, the feasibility and efficacy of in vivo dosimetry to detect significant discrepancies between planned and delivered dose, and the need to combine IMRT with 4-dimensional radiotherapy, at least for head and neck cancer.

  13. Gender Role Discrepancy Stress, High-Risk Sexual Behavior, and Sexually Transmitted Disease.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Dennis E; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A; Gentile, Brittany; Berke, Danielle S; Zeichner, Amos

    2016-02-01

    Nearly 20 million new sexually transmitted infections occur every year in the United States. Traditionally, men have demonstrated much greater risk for contraction of and mortality from STDs perhaps because they tend to engage in a number of risky sexual activities. Research on masculinity suggests that gender roles influence males' sexual health by encouraging risk-taking behavior, discouraging access to health services, and narrowly defining their roles as partners. However, despite the propensity of highly masculine men to engage in high-risk sexual behavior, there is reason to suspect that men at the other end of the continuum may still be driven to engage in similar high-risk behaviors as a consequence of gender socialization. Discrepancy stress is a form of gender role stress that occurs when men fail to live up to the ideal manhood derived from societal prescriptions (i.e., Gender Role Discrepancy). In the present study, we surveyed a national sample of 600 men via Amazon Mechanical Turk to assess perceived gender role discrepancy, experience of discrepancy stress, and the associations with risky sexual behavior and potential contraction of STDs. Results indicated that men who believe they are less masculine than the typical man (i.e., gender role discrepancy) and experience distress stemming from this discrepancy (i.e., discrepancy stress) engage in high-risk sexual behavior and are subsequently diagnosed with more STDs. Findings are discussed in relation to implications for primary prevention strategies.

  14. Discrepancies in Leader and Follower Ratings of Transformational Leadership: Relationship with Organizational Culture in Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Aarons, Gregory A; Ehrhart, Mark G; Farahnak, Lauren R; Sklar, Marisa; Horowitz, Jonathan

    2015-07-12

    The role of leadership in the management and delivery of health and allied health services is often discussed but lacks empirical research. Discrepancies are often found between leaders' self-ratings and followers' ratings of the leader. To our knowledge no research has examined leader-follower discrepancies and their association with organizational culture in mental health clinics. The current study examines congruence, discrepancy, and directionality of discrepancy in relation to organizational culture in 38 mental health teams (N = 276). Supervisors and providers completed surveys including ratings of the supervisor transformational leadership and organizational culture. Polynomial regression and response surface analysis models were computed examining the associations of leadership discrepancy and defensive organizational culture and its subscales. Discrepancies between supervisor and provider reports of transformational leadership were associated with a more negative organizational culture. Culture suffered more where supervisors rated themselves more positively than providers, in contrast to supervisors rating themselves lower than the provider ratings of the supervisor. Leadership and leader discrepancy should be a consideration in improving organizational culture and for strategic initiatives such as quality of care and the implementation and sustainment of evidence-based practice.

  15. En Route to Depression: Self-Esteem Discrepancies and Habitual Rumination.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Wendy J; Hine, Donald W

    2016-02-01

    Dual-process models of cognitive vulnerability to depression suggest that some individuals possess discrepant implicit and explicit self-views, such as high explicit and low implicit self-esteem (fragile self-esteem) or low explicit and high implicit self-esteem (damaged self-esteem). This study investigated whether individuals with discrepant self-esteem may employ depressive rumination in an effort to reduce discrepancy-related dissonance, and whether the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and future depressive symptoms varies as a function of rumination tendencies. Hierarchical regressions examined whether self-esteem discrepancy was associated with rumination in an Australian undergraduate sample at Time 1 (N = 306; M(age) = 29.9), and whether rumination tendencies moderated the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and depressive symptoms assessed 3 months later (n = 160). Damaged self-esteem was associated with rumination at Time 1. As hypothesized, rumination moderated the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and depressive symptoms at Time 2, where fragile self-esteem and high rumination tendencies at Time 1 predicted the highest levels of subsequent dysphoria. Results are consistent with dual-process propositions that (a) explicit self-regulation strategies may be triggered when explicit and implicit self-beliefs are incongruent, and (b) rumination may increase the likelihood of depression by expending cognitive resources and/or amplifying negative implicit biases.

  16. Diagnostic discrepancies in clinical practice: An autopsy study in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Issa, Victor Sarli; Dinardi, Layara Fernanda Lipari; Pereira, Thiago Vicente; de Almeida, Lyna Kyria Rodrigues; Barbosa, Thaisa Silveira; Benvenutti, Luiz Alberto; Ayub-Ferreira, Silvia Moreira; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides

    2017-01-01

    Autopsies are the gold standard for diagnostic accuracy; however, no recent study has analyzed autopsies in heart failure (HF).We reviewed 1241 autopsies (January 2000-May 2005) and selected 232 patients with HF. Clinical and autopsy diagnoses were analyzed and discrepancies categorized according to their importance regarding therapy and prognosis.Mean age was 63.3 ± 15.9 years; 154 (66.4%) patients were male. The causes of death at autopsy were end-stage HF (40.9%), acute myocardial infarction (17.2%), infection (15.9), and pulmonary embolism 36 (15.5). Diagnostic discrepancies occurred in 191 (82.3%) cases; in 56 (24.1%), discrepancies were related to major diagnoses with potential influence on survival or treatment; pulmonary embolism was the cause of death for 24 (42.9%) of these patients. In 35 (15.1%), discrepancies were related to a major diagnosis with equivocal influence on survival or treatment; in 100 (43.1%), discrepancies did not influence survival or treatment. In multivariate analysis, age (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.008-1.052, P = 0.007) and presence of diabetes mellitus (OR: 0.359, 95% CI: 0.168-0.767, P = 0.008) influenced the occurrence discrepancies.Diagnostic discrepancies with a potential impact on prognosis are frequent in HF. These findings warrant reconsideration in diagnostic and therapeutic practices with HF patients.

  17. Intergenerational value discrepancies in immigrant and host-national families and their impact on psychological adaptation.

    PubMed

    Sam, David Lackland; Virta, Erkki

    2003-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between intergenerational value discrepancies and psychological adaptation among adolescents with immigrant background (mean age=15.5 years) in Norway and Sweden. Results from two cohorts (parents and their children) of immigrant and host-national families in the two countries (n=574) indicated that immigrant adolescents on the whole neither differed from their host peers with respect to psychological adaptation nor on value discrepancies. Value discrepancies were weakly related to psychological adaptation. Results are discussed as to whether the findings may reflect a general phenomenon for all adolescents or specific to those with immigrant background.

  18. Assessing dependency using self-report and indirect measures: examining the significance of discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Cogswell, Alex; Alloy, Lauren B; Karpinski, Andrew; Grant, David A

    2010-07-01

    The present study addressed convergence between self-report and indirect approaches to assessing dependency. We were moderately successful in validating an implicit measure, which was found to be reliable, orthogonal to 2 self-report instruments, and predictive of external criteria. This study also examined discrepancies between scores on self-report and implicit measures, and has implications for their significance. The possibility that discrepancies themselves are pathological was not supported, although discrepancies were associated with particular personality profiles. Finally, this study offered additional evidence for the relation between dependency and depressive symptomatology and identified implicit dependency as contributing unique variance in predicting past major depression.

  19. Self-esteem discrepancies and identity-expressive consumption: Evidence from Norwegian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tunca, Burak

    2016-01-24

    Prior research established that simultaneously holding discrepant explicit (deliberate, controlled) and implicit (automatic, uncontrolled) self-esteem gives rise to self-enhancing behaviours. Given that individuals tend to enhance their self-concepts with brands that are associated with positive identities, this study examined whether self-esteem discrepancy was related to the extent to which individuals developed connections with brands that are associated with their in-groups. Findings from an adolescent sample (ages 16-18) indicated that adolescents with larger discrepancies between explicit and implicit self-esteem were more likely to construct their self-concepts using in-group-linked brands.

  20. Inter-Method Discrepancies in Brain Volume Estimation May Drive Inconsistent Findings in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Katuwal, Gajendra J.; Baum, Stefi A.; Cahill, Nathan D.; Dougherty, Chase C.; Evans, Eli; Evans, David W.; Moore, Gregory J.; Michael, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies applying automatic preprocessing methods on Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI) report inconsistent neuroanatomical abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In this study we investigate inter-method differences as a possible cause behind these inconsistent findings. In particular, we focus on the estimation of the following brain volumes: gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and total intra cranial volume (TIV). T1-weighted sMRIs of 417 ASD subjects and 459 typically developing controls (TDC) from the ABIDE dataset were estimated using three popular preprocessing methods: SPM, FSL, and FreeSurfer (FS). Brain volumes estimated by the three methods were correlated but had significant inter-method differences; except TIVSPM vs. TIVFS, all inter-method differences were significant. ASD vs. TDC group differences in all brain volume estimates were dependent on the method used. SPM showed that TIV, GM, and CSF volumes of ASD were larger than TDC with statistical significance, whereas FS and FSL did not show significant differences in any of the volumes; in some cases, the direction of the differences were opposite to SPM. When methods were compared with each other, they showed differential biases for autism, and several biases were larger than ASD vs. TDC differences of the respective methods. After manual inspection, we found inter-method segmentation mismatches in the cerebellum, sub-cortical structures, and inter-sulcal CSF. In addition, to validate automated TIV estimates we performed manual segmentation on a subset of subjects. Results indicate that SPM estimates are closest to manual segmentation, followed by FS while FSL estimates were significantly lower. In summary, we show that ASD vs. TDC brain volume differences are method dependent and that these inter-method discrepancies can contribute to inconsistent neuroimaging findings in general. We suggest cross-validation across methods and emphasize the

  1. Inter-Method Discrepancies in Brain Volume Estimation May Drive Inconsistent Findings in Autism.

    PubMed

    Katuwal, Gajendra J; Baum, Stefi A; Cahill, Nathan D; Dougherty, Chase C; Evans, Eli; Evans, David W; Moore, Gregory J; Michael, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies applying automatic preprocessing methods on Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI) report inconsistent neuroanatomical abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In this study we investigate inter-method differences as a possible cause behind these inconsistent findings. In particular, we focus on the estimation of the following brain volumes: gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and total intra cranial volume (TIV). T1-weighted sMRIs of 417 ASD subjects and 459 typically developing controls (TDC) from the ABIDE dataset were estimated using three popular preprocessing methods: SPM, FSL, and FreeSurfer (FS). Brain volumes estimated by the three methods were correlated but had significant inter-method differences; except TIVSPM vs. TIVFS, all inter-method differences were significant. ASD vs. TDC group differences in all brain volume estimates were dependent on the method used. SPM showed that TIV, GM, and CSF volumes of ASD were larger than TDC with statistical significance, whereas FS and FSL did not show significant differences in any of the volumes; in some cases, the direction of the differences were opposite to SPM. When methods were compared with each other, they showed differential biases for autism, and several biases were larger than ASD vs. TDC differences of the respective methods. After manual inspection, we found inter-method segmentation mismatches in the cerebellum, sub-cortical structures, and inter-sulcal CSF. In addition, to validate automated TIV estimates we performed manual segmentation on a subset of subjects. Results indicate that SPM estimates are closest to manual segmentation, followed by FS while FSL estimates were significantly lower. In summary, we show that ASD vs. TDC brain volume differences are method dependent and that these inter-method discrepancies can contribute to inconsistent neuroimaging findings in general. We suggest cross-validation across methods and emphasize the

  2. 12 CFR 222.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Identity Theft § 222.82 Duties of users regarding address discrepancies. (a) Scope. This section applies to... consumer's identity in accordance with the requirements of the Customer Identification Program (CIP)...

  3. 12 CFR 222.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Identity Theft § 222.82 Duties of users regarding address discrepancies. (a) Scope. This section applies to... consumer's identity in accordance with the requirements of the Customer Identification Program (CIP)...

  4. 12 CFR 222.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Reports Regarding Identity Theft § 222.82 Duties of users regarding address discrepancies. (a) Scope. This... consumer's identity in accordance with the requirements of the Customer Identification Program (CIP)...

  5. 12 CFR 222.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Identity Theft § 222.82 Duties of users regarding address discrepancies. (a) Scope. This section applies to... consumer's identity in accordance with the requirements of the Customer Identification Program (CIP)...

  6. 12 CFR 222.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Reports Regarding Identity Theft § 222.82 Duties of users regarding address discrepancies. (a) Scope. This... consumer's identity in accordance with the requirements of the Customer Identification Program (CIP)...

  7. Medication Discrepancies in Resident Sign-Outs and Their Potential to Harm

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Julia; Lovinger, David; Seiden, Samuel C.; Meltzer, David

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND The accuracy of information transferred during hand-offs is uncertain. OBJECTIVE To describe the frequency, types, and harm potential of medication discrepancies in resident-written sign-outs. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS Internal Medicine interns and their patients at a single hospital in January 2006. MEASUREMENTS Daily written sign-outs were compared to daily medication lists in patient charts (gold standard). Medication discrepancies were labeled omissions (medication in chart, but not on sign-out) or commissions (medication on sign-out, but not in chart). Discrepancies were also classified as index errors (the first time an error was made) and the proportion of index errors that persisted on subsequent days. Using a modified classification scheme, discrepancies were rated as having minimal, moderate, or severe potential to harm. RESULTS One hundred eighty-six of 247 (75%) patients and 10 of 10(100%) interns consented. In the 165 (89%) patients’ charts abstracted and compared with the sign-out, there were 1,876 of 6,942 (27%) medication chart entries that were discrepant with the sign-out with 80% (1,490/1,876) labeled omissions. These discrepancies originated from 758 index errors, of which 63% (481) persisted past the first day. Omissions were more likely to persist than commissions (68% [382 of 580] vs 53% [99 of 188], p < .001). Greater than half (54%) of index discrepancies were moderate or severely harmful. Although omissions were more frequent, commissions were more likely to be severely harmful (38% [72 of 188] vs 11% [65 of 580], p < .0001). CONCLUSIONS Written sign-outs contain potentially harmful medication discrepancies. Whereas linking sign-outs to electronic medical records can address this problem, current efforts should also emphasize the importance of vigilant updating in the many hospitals without this technology. PMID:17963009

  8. Physics-informed machine learning approach for reconstructing Reynolds stress modeling discrepancies based on DNS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-Xun; Wu, Jin-Long; Xiao, Heng

    2017-03-01

    Turbulence modeling is a critical component in numerical simulations of industrial flows based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. However, after decades of efforts in the turbulence modeling community, universally applicable RANS models with predictive capabilities are still lacking. Large discrepancies in the RANS-modeled Reynolds stresses are the main source that limits the predictive accuracy of RANS models. Identifying these discrepancies is of significance to possibly improve the RANS modeling. In this work, we propose a data-driven, physics-informed machine learning approach for reconstructing discrepancies in RANS modeled Reynolds stresses. The discrepancies are formulated as functions of the mean flow features. By using a modern machine learning technique based on random forests, the discrepancy functions are trained by existing direct numerical simulation (DNS) databases and then used to predict Reynolds stress discrepancies in different flows where data are not available. The proposed method is evaluated by two classes of flows: (1) fully developed turbulent flows in a square duct at various Reynolds numbers and (2) flows with massive separations. In separated flows, two training flow scenarios of increasing difficulties are considered: (1) the flow in the same periodic hills geometry yet at a lower Reynolds number and (2) the flow in a different hill geometry with a similar recirculation zone. Excellent predictive performances were observed in both scenarios, demonstrating the merits of the proposed method.

  9. Discrepant Perspectives on Conflict Situations Among Urban Parent-Adolescent Dyads.

    PubMed

    Parker, Elizabeth M; Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah R; Jones, Vanya C; Haynie, Denise L; Cheng, Tina L

    2016-03-01

    Parents influence urban youths' violence-related behaviors. To provide effective guidance, parents should understand how youth perceive conflict, yet little empirical research has been conducted regarding parent and youth perceptions of conflict. The aims of this article are to (a) report on the nature of discrepancies in attribution of fault, (b) present qualitative data about the varying rationales for fault attribution, and (c) use quantitative data to identify correlates of discrepancy including report of attitudes toward violence, parental communication, and parents' messages about retaliatory violence. Interviews were conducted with 101 parent/adolescent dyads. The study population consisted of African American female caretakers (n = 92; that is, mothers, grandmothers, aunts) and fathers (n = 9) and their early adolescents (mean age = 13.6). A total of 53 dyads were discrepant in identifying instigators in one or both videos. When discrepancy was present, the parent was more likely to identify the actor who reacted to the situation as at fault. In the logistic regression models, parental attitudes about retaliatory violence were a significant correlate of discrepancy, such that as parent attitudes supporting retaliatory violence increased, the odds of discrepancy decreased. The results suggest that parents and adolescents do not always view conflict situations similarly, which may inhibit effective parent-child communication, parental advice, and discipline. Individuals developing and implementing family-based violence prevention interventions need to be cognizant of the complexity of fault attribution and design strategies to promote conversations around attribution of fault and effective conflict management.

  10. Discrepancy in perception of bullying experiences and later internalizing and externalizing behavior: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Soonjo; Kim, Young Shin; Koh, Yun-Joo; Bishop, Somer; Leventhal, Bennett L

    2017-03-22

    Discrepancy in perception of bullying experiences may lead to later internalizing or externalizing behavior in adolescents. A 1,663 South Korean 7th and 8th graders (mean age: 13.1 and 14.1 years old), were seen for a follow-up study to examine the relationships between the discrepancy in perception of their bullying experiences (defined as discrepancy between self- and peer-reports of bullying experiences) and internalizing or externalizing behavior at follow-up. Bullying was assessed by self- and peer-report. The discrepancy in perception of bullying experiences was defined by the concordance or discordance between self- and peer-reports. Internalizing and externalizing behavior was evaluated using the Youth Self Report and Child Behavior Checklist, at baseline and follow-up. Two by two ANCOVA was performed with a factorial design, categorizing discrepancy in perception of bullying experiences based on the agreement between self-report and peer-report. Internalizing/externalizing behavior-at-follow-up was used as an outcome, adjusting for other known risk factors for internalizing/externalizing behavior, including baseline internalizing/externalizing behavior, and bullying experiences. Adolescents with perceptions of bullying experiences discrepant from peer-reports showed increased internalizing/externalizing behavior at follow-up. Bullying also stands out as an independent risk factor for the development of future externalizing behavior even among adolescents with accurate perceptions of bullying experiences. These specific groups of youth warrant more focused assessment and intervention.

  11. Commentary: Definitely More than Measurement Error--But How Should We Understand and Deal with Informant Discrepancies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achenbach, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    The special section articles demonstrate the importance of informant discrepancies. They also illustrate challenges posed by discrepancies, plus opportunities for advancing research and practice. This commentary addresses these cross-cutting issues: (a) Discrepancies affect many kinds of assessment besides ratings of children's problems. (b)…

  12. WISC-R Verbal and Performance IQ Discrepancy in an Unselected Cohort: Clinical Significance and Longitudinal Stability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; Silva, P. A.

    1987-01-01

    Examined children whose Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) verbal and performance Intelligence Quotient discrepancies placed them beyond the 90th percentile. Longitudinal study showed 23 percent of the discrepant cases to be discrepant at two or more ages. Studied frequency of perinatal difficulties, early childhood…

  13. Informant Discrepancies in the Assessment of Childhood Psychopathology: A Critical Review, Theoretical Framework, and Recommendations for Further Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Kazdin, Alan E.

    2005-01-01

    Discrepancies often exist among different informants' (e.g., parents, children, teachers) ratings of child psychopathology. Informant discrepancies have an impact on the assessment, classification, and treatment of childhood psychopathology. Empirical work has identified informant characteristics that may influence informant discrepancies.…

  14. What Factors Moderate Self-Other Discrepancies in Decision Making? Results from a Vaccination Scenario.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Dafina; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; van der Pligt, Joop

    2016-09-20

    When we make risky decisions for others, we tend to follow social norms about risks. This often results in making different decisions for others than we would make for ourselves in a similar situation (i.e., self-other discrepancies). In an experiment, we investigated self-other discrepancies in young adults' decisions to purchase a vaccine against a sexually-transmitted virus for themselves or for another person (i.e., the target of the decision). When the target's preferences were in line with social norms, surrogates showed large self-other discrepancies in line with these norms. When the target's preferences were contrary to social norms, surrogates did not show self-other discrepancies in line with these preferences; instead they still followed social norms, F(1, 140) = 21.45, p < .001, η p 2 = .13. Surrogates with lower numeracy, F(2, 128) = 3.44, p = .035, η p 2 = .05, and higher empathy, F(2, 128) = 3.72, p = .027, η p 2 = .06, showed self-other discrepancies more in line with the target's preferences, even when these were contrary to the norm. Surrogates whose own risk attitudes were contrary to social norms showed larger self-other discrepancies, F(1, 128) = 5.38, p = .022, η p 2 = .04. These results demonstrate that perceived social norms about risk can predict self-other discrepancies in risky decisions, even when the target's preferences are known and at odds with the social norm. Further, the surrogates' numeracy, empathy, and propensity to take risks influence the extent to which risky decisions for others resemble risky decisions for oneself.

  15. Incidence and Variation of Discrepancies in Recording Chronic Conditions in Australian Hospital Administrative Data

    PubMed Central

    Assareh, Hassan; Achat, Helen M.; Stubbs, Joanne M.; Guevarra, Veth M.; Hill, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic data routinely collected for hospital admitted patients and used for case-mix adjustment in care provider comparisons and reimbursement are prone to biases. We aim to measure discrepancies, variations and associated factors in recorded chronic morbidities for hospital admitted patients in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Of all admissions between July 2010 and June 2014 in all NSW public and private acute hospitals, admissions with over 24 hours stay and one or more of the chronic conditions of diabetes, smoking, hepatitis, HIV, and hypertension were included. The incidence of a non-recorded chronic condition in an admission occurring after the first admission with a recorded chronic condition (index admission) was considered as a discrepancy. Poisson models were employed to (i) derive adjusted discrepancy incidence rates (IR) and rate ratios (IRR) accounting for patient, admission, comorbidity and hospital characteristics and (ii) quantify variation in rates among hospitals. The discrepancy incidence rate was highest for hypertension (51% of 262,664 admissions), followed by hepatitis (37% of 12,107), smoking (33% of 548,965), HIV (27% of 1500) and diabetes (19% of 228,687). Adjusted rates for all conditions declined over the four-year period; with the sharpest drop of over 80% for diabetes (47.7% in 2010 vs. 7.3% in 2014), and 20% to 55% for the other conditions. Discrepancies were more common in private hospitals and smaller public hospitals. Inter-hospital differences were responsible for 1% (HIV) to 9.4% (smoking) of variation in adjusted discrepancy incidences, with an increasing trend for diabetes and HIV. Chronic conditions are recorded inconsistently in hospital administrative datasets, and hospitals contribute to the discrepancies. Adjustment for patterns and stratification in risk adjustments; and furthermore longitudinal accumulation of clinical data at patient level, refinement of clinical coding systems and standardisation of comorbidity

  16. Effect of clothing weight on body weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight with weather, season, and gender. Methods: Fifty adults (35 wom...

  17. A newly identified calculation discrepancy of the Sunset semi-continuous carbon analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, G.; Cheng, Y.; He, K.; Duan, F.; Ma, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Sunset Semi-Continuous Carbon Analyzer (SCCA) is an instrument widely used for carbonaceous aerosol measurement. Despite previous validation work, here we identified a new type of SCCA calculation discrepancy caused by the default multi-point baseline correction method. When exceeding a certain threshold carbon load, multi-point correction could cause significant Total Carbon (TC) underestimation. This calculation discrepancy was characterized for both sucrose and ambient samples with three temperature protocols. For ambient samples, 22%, 36% and 12% TC was underestimated by the three protocols, respectively, with corresponding threshold being ~0, 20 and 25 μg C. For sucrose, however, such discrepancy was observed with only one of these protocols, indicating the need of more refractory SCCA calibration substance. The discrepancy was less significant for the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)-like protocol compared with the other two protocols based on IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments). Although the calculation discrepancy could be largely reduced by the single-point baseline correction method, the instrumental blanks of single-point method were higher. Proposed correction method was to use multi-point corrected data when below the determined threshold, while use single-point results when beyond that threshold. The effectiveness of this correction method was supported by correlation with optical data.

  18. Postmortem CT versus forensic autopsy: frequent discrepancies of tracheobronchial content findings.

    PubMed

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Jackowski, Christian; Schwendener, Nicole; Brencicova, Eva; Schuster, Frederick; Lombardo, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    In their daily forensic casework, the authors experienced discrepancies of tracheobronchial content findings between postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) and autopsy to an extent previously unnoticed in the literature. The goal of this study was to evaluate such discrepancies in routine forensic cases. A total of 327 cases that underwent PMCT prior to routine forensic autopsy were retrospectively evaluated for tracheal and bronchial contents according to PMCT and autopsy findings. Hounsfield unit (HU) values of tracheobronchial contents, causes of death, and presence of pulmonary edema were assessed in mismatching and matching cases. Comparing contents in PMCT and autopsy in each of the separately evaluated compartments of the respiratory tract low positive predictive values were assessed (trachea, 38.2%; main bronchi, 40%; peripheral bronchi, 69.1%) indicating high discrepancy rates. The majority of tracheobronchial contents were viscous stomach contents in matching cases and low radiodensity materials (i.e., HU < 30) in mismatching cases. The majority of causes of death were cardiac related in the matching cases and skull/brain trauma in the mismatching cases. In mismatching cases, frequency of pulmonary edema was significantly higher than in matching cases. It can be concluded that discrepancies in tracheobronchial contents observed between PMCT and routine forensic autopsy occur in a considerable number of cases. Discrepancies may be explained by the runoff of contents via nose and mouth during external examination and the flow back of tracheal and main bronchial contents into the lungs caused by upright movement of the respiratory tract at autopsy.

  19. Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies Regarding Adolescents' Peer-Related Loneliness: Associations with Adolescent Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Spithoven, Annette W M; Vanhalst, Janne; Lodder, Gerine; Bijttebier, Patricia; Goossens, Luc

    2017-05-01

    Because loneliness is a subjective experience, it is often examined using self-reports. Yet, researchers have started to use other-reports to examine loneliness. As previous research suggests that discrepancies between self- and other views might have important implications for adolescents' mental health, the current study examines discrepancies in multi-informant reports on adolescents' loneliness in relation with prosocial behavior, aggression, and adolescents' parent-related loneliness. The sample consisted of 374 mother-adolescent dyads and 318 father-adolescent dyads (41.80% male, M age  = 15.67 years, SD = 1.25). Results indicated that informants used different reference points to assess adolescents' peer-related loneliness, but were otherwise comparable. Moreover, informant discrepancies were associated with greater adolescents' reported parent-related loneliness. The current study did not provide evidence that discrepancies were related to prosocial or aggressive behavior. The current study adds to the notion that other-reports on loneliness show substantial convergence with self-reports. In addition, this study indicates that the discrepancy between other- and self-reports on loneliness holds valuable information for adolescent socio-emotional adjustment.

  20. Noise properties of CT images reconstructed by use of constrained total-variation, data-discrepancy minimization

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Sean; Andersen, Martin S.; Sidky, Emil Y.; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The authors develop and investigate iterative image reconstruction algorithms based on data-discrepancy minimization with a total-variation (TV) constraint. The various algorithms are derived with different data-discrepancy measures reflecting the maximum likelihood (ML) principle. Simulations demonstrate the iterative algorithms and the resulting image statistical properties for low-dose CT data acquired with sparse projection view angle sampling. Of particular interest is to quantify improvement of image statistical properties by use of the ML data fidelity term. Methods: An incremental algorithm framework is developed for this purpose. The instances of the incremental algorithms are derived for solving optimization problems including a data fidelity objective function combined with a constraint on the image TV. For the data fidelity term the authors, compare application of the maximum likelihood principle, in the form of weighted least-squares (WLSQ) and Poisson-likelihood (PL), with the use of unweighted least-squares (LSQ). Results: The incremental algorithms are applied to projection data generated by a simulation modeling the breast computed tomography (bCT) imaging application. The only source of data inconsistency in the bCT projections is due to noise, and a Poisson distribution is assumed for the transmitted x-ray photon intensity. In the simulations involving the incremental algorithms an ensemble of images, reconstructed from 1000 noise realizations of the x-ray transmission data, is used to estimate the image statistical properties. The WLSQ and PL incremental algorithms are seen to reduce image variance as compared to that of LSQ without sacrificing image bias. The difference is also seen at few iterations—short of numerical convergence of the corresponding optimization problems. Conclusions: The proposed incremental algorithms prove effective and efficient for iterative image reconstruction in low-dose CT applications particularly with

  1. Somatotypes of weight lifters.

    PubMed

    Orvanová, E

    1990-01-01

    The present paper reviews published studies on the body shape of weight lifters. The differences between the somatotype ratings of weight lifters studied using the Sheldon and the Heath-Carter methods, and the differences between performance levels and age groups of weight lifters are discussed. The differences in mean somatoplots among the weight lifters studied as a whole group, weight lifters divided into two, three or four groups according to body weight, and weight lifters considered according to the official weight classes, are assessed. Weight lifters in the lighter weight classes are found to be ectomorphic or balanced mesomorphs, while those in the heavier weight classes tend to be endomorphic mesomorphs. Ectomorphy decreases, whereas mesomorphy and endomorphy increase with weight class. When three age groups of weight lifters were compared within each weight class, the same pattern of differences between ages occurs. The younger lifters in each weight class have higher endomorphy and lower mesomorphy than the senior lifters. Ectomorphy is higher in the younger lifters below the weight class of 82.5 kg. Since significant differences in all three somatotype components between 10 weight classes of weight lifters and also within three age groups were noted, it will be necessary in future studies to consider the somatotypes of weight lifters according to the official weight classes.

  2. Informed Test Component Weighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2001-01-01

    Identifies and evaluates alternative methods for weighting tests. Presents formulas for composite reliability and validity as a function of component weights and suggests a rational process that identifies and considers trade-offs in determining weights. Discusses drawbacks to implicit weighting and explicit weighting and the difficulty of…

  3. WAIS-III VIQ-PIQ and VCI-POI discrepancies in lateralized cerebral damage.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Joseph J; Bartels, Jared M; Morris, Jeri; Cluff, Richard B; Gontkovsky, Samuel T

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated Verbal IQ (VIQ)-Performance IQ (PIQ) and Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI)-Perceptual Organization Index (POI) discrepancies among 16 patients with right-sided and 20 with left-sided cerebral lesions. Means for age and education among left hemisphere-damaged patients were 46.25 years (SD = 17.42) and 12.17 years (SD = 2.87). Means and standard deviations for age and education were 47.86 years (SD = 16.83) and 12.27 years (SD = 2.46) for those with right-sided damage. Left hemisphere lesions produced nonsignificant VIQ < PIQ and VCI < POI means, whereas right hemisphere damage resulted in significant VIQ > PIQ and VCI > POI mean discrepancies. Additional analyses indicated that neither discrepancy score was effective in identifying lateralized brain damage.

  4. Reliabilities of the WAIS-III for discrepancy scores: generalization to a clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kristina I; Ryan, Joseph J

    2004-12-01

    Internal consistency reliabilities for WAIS-III IQ, Index, and subtest discrepancy scores are provided for 100 men in a treatment program for substance abuse disorders. There were 63 Euro-Americans and 37 African Americans. Means for age, education, and Full Scale IQ were 46.1 yr. (SD=8.8), 12.7 yr. (SD=1.5), and 93.8 (SD=14.0), respectively. Reliabilities ranged from .34 to .86. Compared with the WAIS-III standardization sample, discrepancy score reliability coefficients differed only for the Verbal Comprehension Index vs Perceptual Organization Index contrast, which was higher in the patient sample. Interpretation of discrepancy scores for the WAIS-III appears to be useful in a clinical sample with substance abuse as in a purportedly normal sample.

  5. Nonverbal and verbal cognitive discrepancy profiles in autism spectrum disorders: influence of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Ankenman, Katy; Elgin, Jenna; Sullivan, Katherine; Vincent, Logan; Bernier, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that discrepant cognitive abilities are more common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and may indicate an important ASD endophenotype. The current study examined the frequency of IQ discrepancy profiles (nonverbal IQ > verbal IQ [NVIQ > VIQ], verbal IQ > nonverbal IQ [VIQ > NVIQ], and no split) and the relationship of gender, age, and ASD symptomatology to IQ discrepancy profile in a large sample of children with ASD. The NVIQ > VIQ profile occurred at a higher frequency than expected, had more young males, and showed more autism symptoms than the other groups. Results suggest that the NVIQ > VIQ profile may be less likely to represent a subtype of ASD, but rather a common developmental pathway for children with ASD and other disorders.

  6. Controllability discrepancy and irreducibility/reducibility of Floquet factorisations in linear continuous-time periodic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jun; Lu, Xinbiao; Qian, Huimin

    2016-09-01

    The paper reports interesting but unnoticed facts about irreducibility (resp., reducibility) of Flouqet factorisations and their harmonic implication in term of controllability in finite-dimensional linear continuous-time periodic (FDLCP) systems. Reducibility and irreducibility are attributed to matrix logarithm algorithms during computing Floquet factorisations in FDLCP systems, which are a pair of essential features but remain unnoticed in the Floquet theory so far. The study reveals that reducible Floquet factorisations may bring in harmonic waves variance into the Fourier analysis of FDLCP systems that in turn may alter our interpretation of controllability when the Floquet factors are used separately during controllability testing; namely, controllability interpretation discrepancy (or simply, controllability discrepancy) may occur and must be examined whenever reducible Floquet factorisations are involved. On the contrary, when irreducible Floquet factorisations are employed, controllability interpretation discrepancy can be avoided. Examples are included to illustrate such observations.

  7. Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem: implications for narcissism and self-esteem instability.

    PubMed

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil

    2006-02-01

    There appear to be two forms of high self-esteem: secure high self-esteem (which is often linked with psychological health) and fragile high self-esteem (which is generally associated with poor psychological adjustment and impaired interpersonal relationships). Discrepant high self-esteem is a form of fragile self-esteem characterized by high explicit self-esteem and low implicit self-esteem. The present study examined whether discrepant high self-esteem was associated with narcissism and self-esteem instability in an undergraduate sample. Using multiple measures of implicit self-esteem, two basic findings emerged from the present study. First, participants with discrepant high self-esteem possessed the highest levels of narcissism. Second, participants with high explicit self-esteem and high implicit self-esteem displayed the most stable self-esteem. Findings are discussed in terms of secure and fragile high self-esteem.

  8. Discrepancy between subjective autobiographical reliving and objective recall: The past as seen by Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    El Haj, Mohamad; Antoine, Pascal

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigated whether Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients may demonstrate a discrepancy between subjective autobiographical reliving and objective recall. To this end, 31 AD patients and 35 controls were asked to retrieve three autobiographical memories. For each memory, participants were asked to rate its subjective characteristics (e.g., reliving, travel in time, visual imagery…). Besides this subjective assessment, we analyzed recall objectively with regard to specificity. Results showed poorer subjective autobiographical reliving and objective recall in AD patients than in controls. A discrepancy (i.e., higher level of subjective reliving than of objective recall) was observed in AD but not in control participants. Despite a compromise in their objective recall, AD patients seemed to attribute a high value to their subjective autobiographical experience. This discrepancy can be attributed to a potential genuine consciousness experience in which mild AD patients can, to some extent, experience some subjective features of the past.

  9. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Weight Loss Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Weight Loss Surgery A A ... Risks and Side Effects? What Is Weight Loss Surgery? For some people, being overweight is about more ...

  10. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious medical problems. Weight loss surgery (also called bariatric surgery) can help very obese people lose weight. But ... Gastric banding is the simplest of the three weight loss surgeries. People who get it might not lose as ...

  11. Bolton tooth size discrepancies in skeletal Class I individuals presenting with different dental angle classifications.

    PubMed

    Akyalçin, Sercan; Doğan, Servet; Dinçer, Banu; Erdinc, Aslihan Mediha Ertan; Oncağ, Gökhan

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency and association of Bolton tooth size discrepancies with dental discrepancies. Forty-eight skeletal Class I, 60 Class II, and 44 Class III subjects with similar skeletal characteristics were included in this study. Analysis of variance was performed to compare the mean ratios of Bolton analysis as a function of the Angle classification and sex. To determine the prevalence of tooth size imbalances among the three groups of occlusions and the two sexes, chi-square tests were performed. To determine the correlation of tooth size imbalances with certain dental characteristics, Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated. No statistically significant differences were determined for the prevalence of tooth size discrepancies and the mean values of Bolton's anterior and overall ratios among the occlusal groups and sexes. Bolton's anterior ratio discrepancies had significant correlations with midline shifts (P < .05) in Angle Class I cases, with U1-SN angle (P < .01) in Angle Class II cases, and with L1-APog distance (P < .05) in Angle Class III cases. Bolton discrepancies related to overall ratio had significant correlations with overjet (P < .05) in Class I cases, with overbite (P < .05) and U1-SN angle (P < .01) in Class II cases, and with IMPA (P < .01) in Class III cases. A high prevalence of tooth size discrepancies in an orthodontic patient population and the statistically significant correlation of some of these with some dental characteristics suggest that the measurement of interarch tooth size ratios might be clinically beneficial for treatment outcomes.

  12. Clinical impact of diagnostic imaging discrepancy by radiology trainees in an urban teaching hospital emergency department

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To characterize clinically significant diagnostic imaging (DI) discrepancies by radiology trainees and the impact on emergency department (ED) patients. Methods Consecutive case series methodology over a 6-month period in an urban, tertiary care teaching hospital. Emergency physicians (EPs) were recruited to flag discrepant DI interpretations by radiology trainees that the EP deemed clinically significant. Cases were characterized using chart review and EP interview. Results Twenty-eight discrepant reports were identified (representing 0.1% of 18,185 images interpreted). The mean time between provisional discrepant diagnosis (PDDx) and revised diagnosis (RDx) by attending radiology staff was 8.6 h (median 4.8 h, range 1.1-48.4), and 67.9% (n = 19) of the patients had left the ED by time of notification. The most frequently reported PDDx was CT abd/pelvis (32.1%, n = 9) and CT head (28.6%, n = 8). The impact of RDx was deemed major in 57.1% (n = 16) for reasons including altered admitting status (32.1%, n = 9), immediate subspecialty referral (n = 16, 57.1%), impact on management (25%, n = 7), and surgical management (21.4%, n = 6). EPs reported likely perceived impact of PDDx as resulting in increased pain (17. 9%, n = 5), morbidity (10.7%, n = 3), and prolonged hospitalization (25%, n = 7), but not altered long-term outcome or mortality. Conclusions Relatively few clinically important discrepant reads were reported. Revised diagnosis (RDx) was associated with major clinical impact in 57.1% of reports, but few patients experienced increased morbidity, and none increased mortality. The importance of expedient communication of discrepant reports by staff radiologists is stressed, as is EP verification of patient contact information prior to discharge. PMID:23866048

  13. Discrepancies between registered and published primary outcome specifications in analgesic trials: ACTTION systematic review and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shannon M; Wang, Anthony T; Pereira, Anthony; Chang, R Daniel; McKeown, Andrew; Greene, Kaitlin; Rowbotham, Michael C; Burke, Laurie B; Coplan, Paul; Gilron, Ian; Hertz, Sharon H; Katz, Nathaniel P; Lin, Allison H; McDermott, Michael P; Papadopoulos, Elektra J; Rappaport, Bob A; Sweeney, Michael; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H

    2013-12-01

    The National Institutes of Health released the trial registry ClinicalTrials.gov in 2000 to increase public reporting and clinical trial transparency. This systematic review examined whether registered primary outcome specifications (POS; ie, definitions, timing, and analytic plans) in analgesic treatment trials correspond with published POS. Trials with accompanying publications (n = 87) were selected from the Repository of Registered Analgesic Clinical Trials (RReACT) database of all postherpetic neuralgia, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, and fibromyalgia clinical trials registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as of December 1, 2011. POS never matched precisely; discrepancies occurred in 79% of the registry-publication pairs (21% failed to register or publish primary outcomes [PO]). These percentages did not differ significantly between industry and non-industry-sponsored trials. Thirty percent of the trials contained unambiguous POS discrepancies (eg, omitting a registered PO from the publication, "demoting" a registered PO to a published secondary outcome), with a statistically significantly higher percentage of non-industry-sponsored than industry-sponsored trials containing unambiguous POS discrepancies. POS discrepancies due to ambiguous reporting included vaguely worded PO registration; or failing to report the timing of PO assessment, statistical analysis used for the PO, or method to address missing PO data. At best, POS discrepancies may be attributable to insufficient registry requirements, carelessness (eg, failing to report PO assessment timing), or difficulty uploading registry information. At worst, discrepancies could indicate investigator impropriety (eg, registering imprecise PO ["pain"], then publishing whichever pain assessment produced statistically significant results). Improvements in PO registration, as well as journal policies requiring consistency between registered and published PO descriptions, are needed.

  14. A STUDY OF THE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN FEDERAL AND STATE MEASUREMENTS OF ON-HIGHWAY FUEL CONSUMPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, HL

    2003-08-11

    Annual highway fuel taxes are collected by the Treasury Department and placed in the Highway Trust Fund (HTF). There is, however, no direct connection between the taxes collected by the Treasury Department and the gallons of on-highway fuel use, which can lead to a discrepancy between these totals. This study was conducted to determine how much of a discrepancy exists between the total fuel usages estimated based on highway revenue funds as reported by the Treasury Department and the total fuel usages used in the apportionment of the HTF to the States. The analysis was conducted using data from Highway Statistics Tables MF-27 and FE-9 for the years 1991-2001. It was found that the overall discrepancy is relatively small, mostly within 5% difference. The amount of the discrepancy varies from year to year and varies among the three fuel types (gasoline, gasohol, special fuels). Several potential explanations for these discrepancies were identified, including issues on data, tax measurement, gallon measurement, HTF receipts, and timing. Data anomalies caused by outside forces, such as deferment of tax payments from one fiscal year to the next, can skew fuel tax data. Fuel tax evasion can lead to differences between actual fuel use and fuel taxes collected. Furthermore, differences in data collection and reporting among States can impact fuel use data. Refunds, credits, and transfers from the HTF can impact the total fuel tax receipt data. Timing issues, such as calendar year vs. fiscal year, can also cause some discrepancy between the two data sources.

  15. An assessment of the cause of the "Extension Discrepancy" with reference to the west Galicia margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reston, Timothy; McDermott, Ken

    2013-04-01

    A common observation at rifted margins is that the amount of extension measurable from faulting is too little to explain the observed crustal thinning and subsidence. This is the "extension discrepancy". Several causes have been proposed, including depth-dependent stretching or thinning, sequential faulting, subseismic faulting and polyphase faulting. In this contribution we explore the different possibilities, with specific reference to the West Galicia margin. If we take the observations at face value, then it seems unavoidable that the upper crust must be stretched and thinned less than the middle and lower crust, however is it unclear where the displaced lower crust has gone as there is no inverse discrepancy. Furthermore, there is independent evidence against large-scale DDS from seismic velocities and from the occurrence of upper crustal, lower crustal and mantle rocks in close proximity at the deep margin. We thus reject DDS as a sole cause of the extension discrepancy, although recognise that small-scale local DDS associated with asymmetric faulting is expected. Such small-scale DDS is an inherent part of models of sequential faulting, but these do not predict an overall extension discrepancy, so cannot alone explain one. Subseismic faulting also alone seems inadequate as it cannot explain the extreme thinning observed at the deep margin. However, as subseismic faulting is a requirement of the fractal distribution of fault sizes and the limited resolution of the seismic method, it most certainly does contribute to the extension discrepancy. Polyphase faulting, in which the thinnest crust has been affected by more than one phase of faulting, resulting in complex and poorly imaged structural architecture, is both predicted at deep margins, and in combination with subseismic faulting, capable of explaining the extension discrepancy. We demonstrate that the west Galicia margin has undergone more than one phase of faults, that these faults cross-cut each other

  16. Prostitution and the sex discrepancy in reported number of sexual partners.

    PubMed

    Brewer, D D; Potterat, J J; Garrett, S B; Muth, S Q; Roberts, J M; Kasprzyk, D; Montano, D E; Darrow, W W

    2000-10-24

    One of the most reliable and perplexing findings from surveys of sexual behavior is that men report substantially more sexual partners than women do. We use data from national sex surveys and studies of prostitutes and their clients in the United States to examine sampling bias as an explanation for this disparity. We find that prostitute women are underrepresented in the national surveys. Once their undersampling and very high numbers of sexual partners are factored in, the discrepancy disappears. Prostitution's role in the discrepancy is not readily apparent because men are reluctant to acknowledge that their reported partners include prostitutes.

  17. [ABO/D discrepancies in the era of automation and molecular immunohematology].

    PubMed

    Hamouche, Elias; Bouix, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    ABO/D grouping errors are still causing fatalities despite the substantial decrease observed over the past thirty years. This risk reduction is due, in part, to the increased automation of immunohematology techniques, a better control of clerical errors and a better knowledge of group discrepancies. The first part of the text will summarize the etiologies of group discrepancies while the second part will expose briefly the historical and technical evolution in immunohematology. Finally in the third part, the role of molecular techniques in immunohematology will be discussed.

  18. Body weight relationships in early marriage. Weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk.

    PubMed

    Bove, Caron F; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-12-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants' body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood.

  19. Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

  20. Analyzing Discrepancies in a Software Development Project Change Request (CR) Assessment Process and Recommendations for Process Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Kenneth James

    2003-01-01

    The Change Request (CR) assessment process is essential in the display development cycle. The assessment process is performed to ensure that the changes stated in the description of the CR match the changes in the actual display requirements. If a discrepancy is found between the CR and the requirements, the CR must be returned to the originator for corrections. Data was gathered from each of the developers to determine the type of discrepancies and the amount of time spent assessing each CR. This study sought to determine the most common types of discrepancies, and the amount of time required to assessing those issues. The study found that even though removing discrepancy before an assessment would save half the time needed to assess an CR with a discrepancy, the number of CR's found to have a discrepancy was very small compared to the total number of CR's assessed during the data gathering period.

  1. Knowledge of partner's ability as a moderator of group motivation gains: an exploration of the Köhler discrepancy effect.

    PubMed

    Messé, Lawrence A; Hertel, Guido; Kerr, Norbert L; Lount, Robert B; Park, Ernest S

    2002-06-01

    O. Köhler (1926, 1927) found that less able performers tried harder as team members under conjunctive task demands (Kohler motivation gain effect) and that the greatest gain occurred with moderately discrepant coworker abilities (Köhler discrepancy effect). Recent investigations have reproduced Köhler's overall motivation gain but not the discrepancy effect. The present research examined whether workers' foreknowledge of task abilities--present in Kohler's research, absent in contemporary studies--moderates the discrepancy effect. Participants worked alone or in 2-person teams under conjunctive task demands. Experiment 1 manipulated foreknowledge of ability. Experiment 2 manipulated discrepancy: a (confederate) teammate performed slightly, moderately, or substantially better. Both experiments found (a) overall motivation gains and (b) discrepancy moderation under foreknowledge conditions. Implications for understanding group motivation gains are discussed.

  2. Women Arrested for Partner Violence and Substance Use: An Exploration of Discrepancies in the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Catherine A.; Lehmann, Peter; Cobb, Norman

    2008-01-01

    Discrepancies exist in research examining substance problems within groups of women arrested for intimate partner violence (IPV). In some studies women IPV arrestees have been found to be at high risk for substance-related problems, whereas in others they are found to be at low risk for substance-related problems. The current study explores these…

  3. WISC-R Verbal Performance IQ Discrepancies among Quay-Classified Adolescent Male Delinquents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubble, L.M.; Groff, M. G.

    1982-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that the Wechsler Verbal/Performance Intelligence quotient discrepancy would be larger or more frequent for persons classified as exhibiting a psychopathic delinquent adjustment than for persons classified as either neurotic or subculturally delinquent. (Author/PN)

  4. Magnitude and Direction of WISC-R Verbal-Performance IQ Discrepancies among Adjudicated Male Delinquents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubble, L. M.; Groff, M.

    1981-01-01

    A field study is reported in which the discrepancy between verbal and nonverbal skills among 150 adjudicated male delinquents was assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, and evaluated with regard to three interpretations of the observed differences. (Author/GK)

  5. Consonant Differentiation Mediates the Discrepancy between Non-verbal and Verbal Abilities in Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, A. P.; Yoder, P. J.; Stone, W. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate verbal communication disorders reflected in lower verbal than non-verbal abilities. The present study examined the extent to which this discrepancy is associated with atypical speech sound differentiation. Methods: Differences in the amplitude of auditory event-related…

  6. The Midpoint as an Anchor: Another Look at Discrepancy of Position and Attitude Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemeth, Charlan; Endicott, Jeffrey

    1976-01-01

    The results show that subjects show more attitude change towards, and acceptance of, the positions on the same side of the issue than on the opposite side of the issue but that their preference is most marked where a high discrepancy exists between communicator and recipient of the opinion. (Author/DEP)

  7. College Students' Adjustment: The Role of Parent-College Student Expectation Discrepancies and Communication Reciprocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agliata, Allison Kanter; Renk, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    Parents' influence on college students' adjustment is underestimated frequently. As college students often set goals based on their perceptions of their parents' expectations, discrepancies between college students' and their parents' expectations may be related to their adjustment. The purpose of this study was to examine parent-college student…

  8. Understanding Discrepancy in Perceptions of Values: Individuals with Mild to Moderate Dementia and Their Family Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reamy, Allison M.; Kim, Kyungmin; Zarit, Steven H.; Whitlatch, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: We explore discrepancies in perceptions of values and care preferences between individuals with dementia (IWDs) and their family caregivers. Design and Methods: We interviewed 266 dyads consisting of an individual with mild to moderate dementia and his or her family caregiver to determine IWDs' beliefs for 5 values related to…

  9. Analysis of Reading Discrepancies for 1986-1987: Cleveland City School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zafirau, S. James

    Fifth in a series of studies examining reading discrepancies in Cleveland, Ohio public schools, this report analyzed the spring 1986-1987 reading data so that accurate and usable information and recommendations would be available to decision-makers for related planning, curriculum design, and implementation functions of the district. Students in…

  10. Whose Story Is This? Discrepancy Triggers Readers' Attention to Source Information in Short Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouet, Jean-François; Le Bigot, Ludovic; de Pereyra, Guillaume; Britt, M. Anne

    2016-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the role of source information (i.e., who said what) in readers' comprehension of short informational texts. Based on the Discrepancy-Induced Source Comprehension assumption (Braasch, Rouet, Vibert, & Britt, 2012), we hypothesized that readers would be more likely to make use of source information when…

  11. Explaining Discrepancies in Arrest Rates between Black and White Male Juveniles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fite, Paula J.; Wynn, Porche'; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated discrepancies in arrest rates between Black and White male juveniles by examining the role of early risk factors for arrest. Two hypotheses were evaluated: (a) Disproportionate minority arrest is due to increased exposure to early risk factors, and (b) a differential sensitivity to early risk factors contributes to…

  12. Quantifying the Discrepancy in RANS Modeling of Reynolds Stress Eigenvectors System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jinlong; Thompson, Roney; Wang, Jianxun; Sampaio, Luiz; Xiao, Heng

    2016-11-01

    Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are the dominant tool for engineering design and analysis applications involving wall bounded turbulent flows. However, the modeled Reynolds stress tensor is known to be a main source of uncertainty, comparing to other sources like geometry, boundary conditions, etc. Recently, several works have been conducted with the aim to quantify the uncertainty of RANS simulation by studying the discrepancy of anisotropy and turbulence kinetic energy of the Reynolds stress tensor with respect to a reference database obtained from DNS. On the other hand, the eigenvectors system of Reynolds stress tensor is less investigated. In this work, a general metric is proposed to visualize the discrepancy between two eigenvectors systems. More detailed metrics based on the Euler angle and the direction cosine are also proposed to quantify the discrepancy of eigenvectors systems. The results show that even a small discrepancy of the eigenvectors of the Reynolds stress can lead to a drastically different mean velocity field, demonstrating the importance of quantifying this kind of uncertainty/error. Furthermore, the Euler angle and the direction cosine are compared for the purpose of uncertainty quantification and machine learning, respectively.

  13. Discrepancy in mobility extracted from transfer and output characteristics of organic thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yow-Jon; Tsai, Chia-Lung; Huang, Bo-Chieh

    2010-11-01

    The discrepancy in mobility extracted from transfer and output characteristics of organic thin film transistors was studied. The extraction from transfer characteristics demonstrates higher mobility, compared to the extraction from output characteristics. It is shown that the contribution of capacitance variation may lead to an increased drain current, thus overestimating mobility.

  14. Longitudinal and Cross-Cultural Validation of the Belief-Discrepancy Reasoning Construct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enright, Robert D.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Tests the construct of belief-discrepancy reasoning (i.e., judgments people make about others who disagree with them). First, fourth, seventh, and tenth graders were assessed and retested one year later. Longitudinal trends supported a four-stage development toward open-mindedness which was confirmed by another study of fourth and seventh graders…

  15. Probing the Depths of Informant Discrepancies: Contextual Influences on Divergence and Convergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Anselma G.; Zakriski, Audrey L.; Wright, Jack C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how a contextual approach to child assessment can clarify the meaning of informant discrepancies by focusing on children's social experiences and their "if...then" reactions to them. In a sample of 123 children (M[subscript age] = 13.30) referred to a summer program for children with behavior problems, parent-teacher…

  16. Linking Informant Discrepancies to Observed Variations in Young Children's Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2009-01-01

    Prior work has not tested the basic theoretical notion that informant discrepancies in reports of children's behavior exist, in part, because different informants observe children's behavior in different settings. We examined patterns of observed preschool disruptive behavior across varying social contexts in the laboratory and whether they…

  17. Discourse Analysis of Interpersonal Meaning to Understand the Discrepancy between Teacher Knowing and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilhan, Emine Gül Çelebi; Erbas, Ayhan Kürsat

    2016-01-01

    As is well known, bridging teacher knowledge or learning with practice is not a straightforward task. This paper aims to explore this discrepancy between a mathematics teacher's knowing and practices and to offer ways of alignment between the two based on the social/interpersonal meanings and their realization through teacher's discourse. In this…

  18. Official Policies and Teachers' Tendency to Act: Exploring the Discrepancies in Teachers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Gilat, Israel Z.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate whether there are discrepancies between teachers' perceptions of the "official policies" and their "tendency to act," based on their ethical decision-making. A qualitative analysis of 60 Israeli teachers' questionnaires consisting of critical ethical incidents revealed multifaceted ethical…

  19. Total Limb Rotation after Unilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty: Side-to-Side Discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kwang-Jun; Yoon, Seok-Tae; Ko, Young-Bong

    2016-08-01

    Total limb rotation, an important anatomical feature of the lower limb, is defined as any rotation of the lower limb on its longitudinal axis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the discrepancies of rotational profiles of total limb between nonoperated and operated limb following unilateral total knee arthroplasty. We conducted an analysis of the computed tomography (CT) data from 32 patients undergoing primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty. Using these CT scan, rotational profiles of total limb, such as femoral neck anteversion angle expressed as femoral torsion angle (FTA), tibial torsion angle (TTA), knee joint rotation angle (KJRA), and total limb rotation (TLR) were measured. There were significant discrepancies of FTA and KJRA between operated and nonoperated limb following unilateral total knee arthroplasty. The mean difference of operated and nonoperated side for FTA and KJRA were -6.51 ± 11.88 degrees (p = 0.0041) and -6.83 ± 5.04 degrees (p < 0.001), respectively. However, there were no significant discrepancies of TLR, TTA. These results are due to the compensation effect of KJRA. However, excessive external rotation of the femoral component beyond the compensation effect of prosthetic knee joint can lead to a total limb rotational discrepancy in patient undergoing unilateral total knee arthroplasty.

  20. A newly identified calculation discrepancy of the Sunset semi-continuous carbon analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, G. J.; Cheng, Y.; He, K. B.; Duan, F. K.; Ma, Y. L.

    2014-07-01

    The Sunset semi-continuous carbon analyzer (SCCA) is an instrument widely used for carbonaceous aerosol measurement. Despite previous validation work, in this study we identified a new type of SCCA calculation discrepancy caused by the default multipoint baseline correction method. When exceeding a certain threshold carbon load, multipoint correction could cause significant total carbon (TC) underestimation. This calculation discrepancy was characterized for both sucrose and ambient samples, with two protocols based on IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments) (i.e., IMPshort and IMPlong) and one NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)-like protocol (rtNIOSH). For ambient samples, the IMPshort, IMPlong and rtNIOSH protocol underestimated 22, 36 and 12% of TC, respectively, with the corresponding threshold being ~ 0, 20 and 25 μgC. For sucrose, however, such discrepancy was observed only with the IMPshort protocol, indicating the need of more refractory SCCA calibration substance. Although the calculation discrepancy could be largely reduced by the single-point baseline correction method, the instrumental blanks of single-point method were higher. The correction method proposed was to use multipoint-corrected data when below the determined threshold, and use single-point results when beyond that threshold. The effectiveness of this correction method was supported by correlation with optical data.

  1. Response to Intervention vs. Severe Discrepancy Model: Identification of Students with Specific Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armendariz, Gina; Jung, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of educators on the acceptance of either the Response to Intervention (RTI) model or the Severe Discrepancy (SD) model in the identification of students with a SLD. The study consisted of 160 general education (GE) teachers and 119 special education (SPED) teachers. The study used a…

  2. Differential Dishabituation as a Function of Magnitude of Stimulus Discrepancy and Sex of the Newborn Infant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Steven; And Others

    This study uses a habituation paradigm to systematically investigate the discrepancy hypothesis with male and female new borns. In addition, multiple visual response measures are used in monitoring the habituation process and the infant's response to various degrees of novelty. Ss were 36 apparently normal newborns (half of each sex) ranging in…

  3. When Discrepant Events Change the Plans: An Unexpected Investigation of Physical Properties and Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Lauren; Seifried, Joyce; Farnum, Kerry; D'Armiento, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Discrepant events are often used by science educators to incite interest and excitement in learners, yet sometimes their results are farther-reaching. The following article describes how one such event--dissolving packing peanuts in acetone--led to a change in the course of a college-level elementary science teaching methods class and to the…

  4. Correlation of Reading and Listening Comprehension Discrepancy with Teacher Perceptions of Reading Disability in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The catalyst for this study emerged from the unprecedented number of Ghanaian students with reading difficulties, in an environment where school counselors are generally unavailable, funding is limited, and most educators do not recognize learning disabilities as true disabilities. Based on the limitations of the IQ-achievement discrepancy model…

  5. Impact of IQ Discrepancy on Executive Function in High-Functioning Autism: Insight into Twice Exceptionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalbfleisch, M. Layne; Loughan, Ashlee R.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the impact of IQ discrepancy (IQD) within (1) and above (1+) one standard deviation on executive function in HFA using the BRIEF. We hypothesized that IQD would benefit executive function. IQD 1 is hallmarked by deficits in BRIEF indices and subscales inhibit, shift, initiate, working memory, planning and organization, and monitor…

  6. Discrepancy between Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes and NS4-Based Serotypes: Association with Their Subgenomic Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Win, Nan Nwe; Nakamoto, Shingo; Kanda, Tatsuo; Takahashi, Hiroki; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Yasui, Shin; Nakamura, Masato; Wu, Shuang; Imazeki, Fumio; Mikami, Shigeru; Yokosuka, Osamu; Gonoi, Tohru; Shirasawa, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Determination of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes plays an important role in the direct-acting agent era. Discrepancies between HCV genotyping and serotyping assays are occasionally observed. Eighteen samples with discrepant results between genotyping and serotyping methods were analyzed. HCV serotyping and genotyping were based on the HCV nonstructural 4 (NS4) region and 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR), respectively. HCV core and NS4 regions were chosen to be sequenced and were compared with the genotyping and serotyping results. Deep sequencing was also performed for the corresponding HCV NS4 regions. Seventeen out of 18 discrepant samples could be sequenced by the Sanger method. Both HCV core and NS4 sequences were concordant with that of genotyping in the 5′-UTR in all 17 samples. In cloning analysis of the HCV NS4 region, there were several amino acid variations, but each sequence was much closer to the peptide with the same genotype. Deep sequencing revealed that minor clones with different subgenotypes existed in two of the 17 samples. Genotyping by genome amplification showed high consistency, while several false reactions were detected by serotyping. The deep sequencing method also provides accurate genotyping results and may be useful for analyzing discrepant cases. HCV genotyping should be correctly determined before antiviral treatment. PMID:28106726

  7. 78 FR 48418 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Nautical Discrepancy Reporting System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Economic Zone and the Great Lakes. Coast Survey also writes and publishes the United States Coast Pilot , a... United States Coast Pilot. II. Method of Collection Respondents can submit discrepancy reports..., Room 6616, 14th and Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20230 (or via the Internet at...

  8. The Importance of Breaking Set: Socialized Cognitive Strategies and the Gender Discrepancy in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villalobos, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Theories that explain the gender discrepancy in mathematics almost universally explain why boys are "better at math" than girls while failing to adequately account for girls' higher grades in math classes or better performances on tests of computational ability. This article develops a new, more comprehensive theoretical model that explains girls'…

  9. Power and Violence: The Relation between Communication Patterns, Power Discrepancies, and Domestic Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, Julia C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined discrepancies in economic status, decision-making power, communication patterns, and communication skill in three groups of spouses (n=95): domestically violent, maritally distressed/nonviolent, and maritally happy/nonviolent. Domestically violent couples were more likely than nonviolent groups to engage in husband-demand/wife-withdraw…

  10. 19 CFR 123.9 - Explanation of a discrepancy in a manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Explanation of a discrepancy in a manifest. 123.9 Section 123.9 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO General Provisions § 123.9 Explanation...

  11. Media Representations of Bullying toward Queer Youth: Gender, Race, and Age Discrepancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paceley, Megan S.; Flynn, Karen

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, media coverage on the bullying of queer youth increased dramatically. This study examined online news media's portrayal of the gender, race, and age of bullying victims. Content analyses of ten sources were compared to research on the dynamics of sexuality-based bullying. Discrepancies were found for gender and race (with White males…

  12. What Is Asthma Control? Discrepancies between Parents' Perceptions and Official Definitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dozier, Ann; Aligne, C. Andrew; Schlabach, Mary Beth

    2006-01-01

    National guidelines define asthma control as the prevention of asthma symptoms rather than the treatment of asthma exacerbations. We hypothesized that we would find a discrepancy between what parents consider adequate control compared to what health care professionals mean by "control." Data from a telephone survey conducted for the…

  13. Discrepant Story Task (DST): An Instrument Used to Explore Narrative Strategies in Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smorti, Andrea.; Ortega-Rivera, J.; Ortega, R.

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this contribution is to describe an instrument devised to study some of the cognitive processes that occur when people interpret social events (Discrepant Story Task-DST; Smorti, 2004). In particular, this instrument analyses the narrative processes of interpretation used by an observer when witnessing progressive and…

  14. 77 FR 72712 - Identity Theft Red Flags and Address Discrepancies Under the Fair and Accurate Credit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... CFR Part 681 RIN 3084-AA94 Identity Theft Red Flags and Address Discrepancies Under the Fair and... ``financial institutions'' and ``creditors'' to develop and implement a written identity theft program to identify, detect, and respond to possible risks of identity theft relevant to them. \\1\\ 72 FR 63718 (Nov....

  15. Response to Intervention versus Severe Discrepancy: Identification of Students with a Specific Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armendariz, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study assessed the perceptions of general education teachers, special education teachers, and school psychologists in the acceptability of the either the Response to Intervention model (RTI) or the Severe Discrepancy model in the identification of a student with a Specific Learning Disability (SLD). The study consisted of 363…

  16. Interdisciplinary management of a patient with skeletal anteroposterior discrepancy, impacted canine, and missing teeth.

    PubMed

    Nalbantgil, Didem; Sayinsu, Korkmaz; Capa, Nuray; Basal, Noyan

    2008-01-01

    For patients with complex dentofacial problems, orthodontic treatment is often not enough to obtain optimal esthetic and functional results. This case report demonstrates the treatment of a patient with skeletal anteroposterior discrepancy through an interdisciplinary approach and emphasizes the importance of collaboration with other dental disciplines to achieve the desired esthetic results.

  17. 33 CFR 62.65 - Procedure for reporting defects and discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM Public Participation in the Aids to Navigation System § 62.65 Procedure for reporting defects and discrepancies. (a) Mariners should notify the nearest Coast Guard facility immediately of any observed aids to navigation defects...

  18. 33 CFR 62.65 - Procedure for reporting defects and discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM Public Participation in the Aids to Navigation System § 62.65 Procedure for reporting defects and discrepancies. (a) Mariners should notify the nearest Coast Guard facility immediately of any observed aids to navigation defects...

  19. 33 CFR 62.65 - Procedure for reporting defects and discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM Public Participation in the Aids to Navigation System § 62.65 Procedure for reporting defects and discrepancies. (a) Mariners should notify the nearest Coast Guard facility immediately of any observed aids to navigation defects...

  20. 33 CFR 62.65 - Procedure for reporting defects and discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM Public Participation in the Aids to Navigation System § 62.65 Procedure for reporting defects and discrepancies. (a) Mariners should notify the nearest Coast Guard facility immediately of any observed aids to navigation defects...

  1. 33 CFR 62.65 - Procedure for reporting defects and discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM Public Participation in the Aids to Navigation System § 62.65 Procedure for reporting defects and discrepancies. (a) Mariners should notify the nearest Coast Guard facility immediately of any observed aids to navigation defects...

  2. Comment on 'Discrepancies in the resonance-fluorescence spectrum calculated with two methods'

    SciTech Connect

    Ficek, Zbigniew

    2009-05-15

    There are two alternative methods used in the literature to calculate the incoherent part of the spectrum of light scattered by an atomic system. In the first, one calculates the spectrum of the total light scattered by the system and obtains the incoherent part by subtracting the coherent part. In the second method, one introduces the fluctuation operators and obtains the incoherent part of the spectrum by taking the Fourier transform of the two-time correlation function of the fluctuation operators. These two methods have been recognized for years as completely equivalent for evaluating the incoherent part of the spectrum. In a recent paper, Xu et al. [Phys. Rev. A 78, 013407 (2008)] showed that there are discrepancies between the incoherent parts of the stationary spectrum of a three-level {lambda}-type system calculated with these two methods. The predicted discrepancies can be severe that over a wide range of the Rabi frequencies and atomic decay rates, the spectrum calculated with the variance method can have negative values. In this Comment, we show that there are no discrepancies between these two methods. We show the equivalence of these two methods that leads to the same incoherent spectra which are positive for all frequencies independent of values of the parameters involved. We also identify the source of the discrepancy, that is, in an incorrect treatment of the incoherent part of the spectrum calculated with the two-time correlation function of the fluctuation operators.

  3. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  4. Effect of Resin Bonded Luting Agents Influencing Marginal Discrepancy in All Ceramic Complete Veneer Crowns

    PubMed Central

    Sathyamoorthy, Anusha; Ranganathan, Hemalatha; Murthykumar, Karthikeyan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Marginal discrepancy severely affects the long term success of All ceramic complete veneer crowns. The precise role of resin luting agents influencing this phenomenon needs to be explored further. Aim To estimate and compare the marginal discrepancy in CAD/CAM processed All ceramic complete veneer crowns prior and following luting with resin bonded luting agents. Materials and Methods Extracted human maxillary first premolars were randomly allocated into four groups of 27 samples each Viz., Group I-Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) (RelyX), Group II-Bis-GMA based dual cure resin cement (Variolink II), Group III-PMMA based resin cement (Superbond), Group IV- Urethane Dimethacrylate resin cement (Calibra). Following tooth preparation, CAD/CAM All ceramic complete veneer crowns were fabricated and sectioned and marginal discrepancy was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (TESCAN, Magnification power-1,00,000x) prior and after luting with the experimental resin cements. Results The vertical and horizontal discrepancy before and after cementation with Group I [270.08±103.10μm, 165.3±53.00μm and 270.86±102.70μm, 166.62±54.96μm respectively]; Group II [254.21±79.20μm, 117.75±24.29μm and 234.81±79μm, 116.89±18.22μm respectively]; Group III [272.47±86.25μm, 142.08±50.83μm and 251.82±62.69μm, 136.07±44.95μm respectively]; Group IV were [260.28±64.81μm, 116.98±17.71μm and 233.08±69.44μm, 116.58±21.13μm respectively]. ANOVA inferred a statistically significant difference between the four test specimen with regards to vertical and horizontal marginal discrepancy after cementation (F=9.092, p<0.001), (F=10.97, p<0.001). Tukey HSD Post-hoc test observed significant differences in vertical and horizontal marginal discrepancies between the resin modified glass ionomer and resin cements (p<0.05). Conclusion Resin cements exhibited a greater reduction in the marginal discrepancy than the resin modified glass ionomer

  5. Intelligence quotient discrepancy indicates levels of motor competence in preschool children at risk for developmental delays

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tzu-Ying; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Chou, Willy; Yang, Shu-Han; Kung, Sheng-Chun; Lee, Ya-Chen; Tung, Li-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to establish 1) whether a group difference exists in the motor competence of preschool children at risk for developmental delays with intelligence quotient discrepancy (IQD; refers to difference between verbal intelligence quotient [VIQ] and performance intelligence quotient [PIQ]) and 2) whether an association exists between IQD and motor competence. Methods Children’s motor competence and IQD were determined with the motor subtests of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence™ – Fourth Edition. A total of 291 children were included in three groups: NON-IQD (n=213; IQD within 1 standard deviation [SD]), VIQ>PIQ (n=39; VIQ>PIQ greater than 1 SD), and PIQ>VIQ (n=39; PIQ>VIQ greater than 1 SD). Results The results of one-way analysis of variance indicated significant differences among the subgroups for the “Gross and fine motor” subdomains of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers, especially on the subtests of “body-movement coordination” (F=3.87, P<0.05) and “visual-motor coordination” (F=6.90, P<0.05). Motor competence was significantly worse in the VIQ>PIQ group than in the NON and PIQ>VIQ groups. Significant negative correlations between IQD and most of the motor subtests (r=0.31–0.46, P<0.01) were found only in the VIQ>PIQ group. Conclusion This study demonstrates that 1) IQD indicates the level of motor competence in preschoolers at risk for developmental delays and 2) IQD is negatively associated with motor competence in preschoolers with significant VIQ>PIQ discrepancy. The first finding was that preschoolers with VIQ>PIQ discrepancy greater than 1 SD performed significantly worse on motor competence than did preschoolers without significant IQD and preschoolers with PIQ>VIQ discrepancy greater than 1 SD. However, preschoolers with significant PIQ>VIQ discrepancy performed better on motor competence than

  6. Gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicts girls' and boys' trait-state discrepancy in math anxiety.

    PubMed

    Bieg, Madeleine; Goetz, Thomas; Wolter, Ilka; Hall, Nathan C

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary) math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait vs. state anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain) was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-state discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to state measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2-3 weeks (N within = 6207). As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for state math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and state anxiety to be negatively related to students' self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts). Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicted the trait-state discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their state anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.

  7. Investigating the discrepancy between the predicted and actual energy performance of buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demanuele, Christine

    The threat of climate change has increased the demand for energy efficiency in buildings, with various stakeholders requesting more accurate predictions of energy consumption, and energy consultants coming under increased pressure to guarantee the energy performance of buildings. This study aims to investigate the factors causing the discrepancy which currently exists between the predicted and actual energy performance of buildings, which will lead to a deeper understanding of this discrepancy and, ultimately, more accurate energy predictions. As part of this study, a non-domestic building in London was modelled and monitored, so as to identify the main contributors to the discrepancy between the predicted and actual energy consumption. In addition, sensitivity analysis was carried out on a number of input variables to establish the set of influential parameters, and to determine whether using such techniques would successfully predict the range in which building energy consumption is likely to fall. The results show that the uncertainty calculated from differential sensitivity analysis encompasses the actual energy performance of the building. The most variable and influential parameters are those which are controlled by occupants, therefore it is paramount that management and occupants are well-informed about the building operation for energy targets to be achieved. Although the sensitivity analysis methods employed are impractical for commercial use, it is possible to develop simpler methods, encompassing all stages of building design and operation, which would decrease the discrepancy between the actual and predicted energy performance of buildings. Such techniques would be invaluable to energy consultants, for whom the cost resting on uncertainties in predictions is substantial due to more demanding clients and fines liable to be paid if energy predictions go wrong. A better understanding of the discrepancy, together with more accurate predictions, would

  8. Gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicts girls' and boys' trait-state discrepancy in math anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Bieg, Madeleine; Goetz, Thomas; Wolter, Ilka; Hall, Nathan C.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary) math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait vs. state anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain) was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-state discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to state measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2–3 weeks (Nwithin = 6207). As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for state math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and state anxiety to be negatively related to students' self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts). Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicted the trait-state discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their state anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed. PMID:26441778

  9. Self-discrepancies in work-related upper extremity pain: relation to emotions and flexible-goal adjustment.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Mariëlle E; Kindermans, Hanne P; Morley, Stephen J; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Verbunt, Jeanine; Vlaeyen, Johan W

    2010-08-01

    Recurrent pain not only has an impact on disability, but on the long term it may become a threat to one's sense of self. This paper presents a cross-sectional study of patients with work-related upper extremity pain and focuses on: (1) the role of self-discrepancies in this group, (2) the associations between self-discrepancies, pain, emotions and (3) the interaction between self-discrepancies and flexible-goal adjustment. Eighty-nine participants completed standardized self-report measures of pain intensity, pain duration, anxiety, depression and flexible-goal adjustment. A Selves Questionnaire was used to generate self-discrepancies. A series of hierarchical regression analyses showed relationships between actual-ought other, actual-ought self, actual-feared self-discrepancies and depression as well as a significant association between actual-ought other self-discrepancy and anxiety. Furthermore, significant interactions were found between actual-ought other self-discrepancies and flexibility, indicating that less flexible participants with large self-discrepancies score higher on depression. This study showed that self-discrepancies are related to negative emotions and that flexible-goal adjustment served as a moderator in this relationship. The view of self in pain and flexible-goal adjustment should be considered as important variables in the process of chronic pain.

  10. A study of preservice elementary teachers enrolled in a discrepant-event-based physical science class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilly, James Edward

    This research evaluated the POWERFUL IDEAS IN PHYSICAL SCIENCE (PIiPS) curriculum model used to develop a physical science course taken by preservice elementary teachers. The focus was on the evaluation of discrepant events used to induce conceptual change in relation to students' ideas concerning heat, temperature, and specific heat. Both quantitative and qualitative methodologies were used for the analysis. Data was collected during the 1998 Fall semester using two classes of physical science for elementary school teachers. The traditionally taught class served as the control group and the class using the PIiPS curriculum model was the experimental group. The PIiPS curriculum model was evaluated quantitatively for its influence on students' attitude toward science, anxiety towards teaching science, self efficacy toward teaching science, and content knowledge. An analysis of covariance was performed on the quantitative data to test for significant differences between the means of the posttests for the control and experimental groups while controlling for pretest. It was found that there were no significant differences between the means of the control and experimental groups with respect to changes in their attitude toward science, anxiety toward teaching science and self efficacy toward teaching science. A significant difference between the means of the content examination was found (F(1,28) = 14.202 and p = 0.001), however, the result is questionable. The heat and energy module was the target for qualitative scrutiny. Coding for discrepant events was adapted from Appleton's 1996 work on student's responses to discrepant event science lessons. The following qualitative questions were posed for the investigation: (1) what were the ideas of the preservice elementary students prior to entering the classroom regarding heat and energy, (2) how effective were the discrepant events as presented in the PIiPS heat and energy module, and (3) how much does the "risk taking

  11. The Relations among Measurements of Informant Discrepancies within a Multisite Trial of Treatments for Childhood Social Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Alfano, Candice A.; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2010-01-01

    Discrepancies between informants' reports of children's behavior are robustly observed in clinical child research and have important implications for interpreting the outcomes of controlled treatment trials. However, little is known about the basic psychometric properties of these discrepancies. This study examined the relation between…

  12. Medication discrepancies despite pharmacist led medication reconciliation: the challenges of maintaining an accurate medication list in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Autumn L.; Lynch, Kevin J.

    Objective Describe the types of medication discrepancies that persist despite pharmacist-led medication reconciliation using the primary care electronic medical record (EMR). Methods Observational case series study of established patients from an urban, indigent care clinic. Medication reconciliation was conducted immediately prior to the physician visit at baseline and return visit. Main outcome measures included: frequency, types, and reasons for discrepancies, patient knowledge, and adherence. Results There was a 14.5% reduction in the number of patients with a discrepancy and the frequency of discrepancies was reduced by 7.3%. The rate of medication discrepancies in the chart was reduced by 31.3%. The most common type of discrepancy that persisted at follow up were medications listed on the chart that the patient stopped taking. Discrepancies were more likely to persist in Caucasian subjects when compared to African Americans. Conclusions While pharmacist led medication reconciliation appears effective at reducing the likelihood of a medication discrepancy in the EMR, challenges persist in maintaining this accuracy specifically as it relates to patient driven changes to the medication regimen. PMID:24644518

  13. Informant Discrepancies in Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms and Adaptive Skills of High-Functioning Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Christin A.; Lopata, Christopher; Donnelly, James P.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Jordan, Allyson K.

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of clinical symptoms requires information from multiple informants. Discrepancies between informants' ratings can have significant implications in school settings (e.g., access to services, treatment planning, progress monitoring). This study examined parent-teacher discrepancies for ratings of internalizing and externalizing symptoms,…

  14. Losing weight after pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... below the minimum number of calories you need. Breastfeeding If you are breastfeeding, you will want to lose weight slowly. Weight ... not affect your milk supply or your health. Breastfeeding makes your body burn calories. It helps you ...

  15. Antidepressants and Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Depression (major depressive disorder) Can antidepressants cause weight gain? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. Weight gain is a possible side effect of nearly all antidepressants. ...

  16. Discrepancies between ages determined from scales and otoliths for alewives from the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Gorman, Robert; Barwick, D. Hugh; Bowen, Charles A.; Summerfelt, R.D.; Hall, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Discrepancies between ages determined from otoliths and those determined from scales were common and, sometimes, quite large in alewives Alosa pseudoharengus collected in fall 1983 from Lakes Ontario, Huron, and Michigan. Among fish with 'otolith ages' of 4 or more, the percentages having identical 'scale ages' were 1% in Lake Ontario, 35% in Lake Huron, and 56% in Lake Michigan. Among alewives with different otolith and scale ages, the percentages with discrepancies of 3 years or more were 51% in Lake Ontario, 23% in Lake Huron, and 6% in Lake Michigan. Among the three populations, variation in the magnitude of age disagreements were perhaps due to the different mortality rates in each lake, whereas variation in the frequency of disagreements appeared to be due to different ratios of food to fish in each lake. Previously reported age compositions and rates of mortality and production for Great Lakes alewives derived from scales have probably been inaccurate to various degrees.

  17. Adaptive elements of aging: Self-image discrepancy, perfectionism, and eating problems.

    PubMed

    Landa, Carrie E; Bybee, Jane A

    2007-01-01

    Age-related changes in personality variables that may contribute to the reduction of symptoms of eating disorders with adult development were examined. Undergraduate sorority women (n = 52; mean age = 19.85 years) were compared with alumnae of the same sorority (n = 34; mean age = 33.74 years). Eating pathology was correlated with greater discrepancy between the real (current) and the ideal (desired) self-image and with perfectionism. Both self-image discrepancy and perfectionism were markedly lower among the alumnae. Variance in these variables together accounted for the lowered level of eating pathology among the older participants. Specific content domains of the real and ideal self-image and different facets of perfectionism showed distinctive age-related changes and differential relationships with eating pathology.

  18. WAIS-IV GAI and CPI discrepancies in multiple sclerosis and traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    J Ryan, Joseph; Kreiner, David S; Glass Umfleet, Laura; Gontkovsky, Samuel T; Myers-Fabian, Allison

    2016-10-25

    We examined relationships between the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) General Ability Index (GAI) and Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) in two clinical samples. The mean pattern produced by 42 individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 47 with traumatic brain injury (TBI) was the same, GAI > CPI. This pattern occurred in 61.9% and 78.7% of the protocols of patients with MS or TBI, respectively. The MS sample earned a significantly larger CPI mean than did patients with TBI. The group means did not differ on the GAI. Patients with TBI had significantly larger GAI-CPI discrepancy score means than those with MS. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis assessed the ability of GAI-CPI discrepancies to differentiate the samples. The area under curve (AUC) was 0.67, 95% [0.55, 0.78], which indicated low accuracy in terms of group classification.

  19. Radiative Heating in MSL Entry: Comparison of Flight Heating Discrepancy to Ground Test and Predictive Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruden, Brett A.; Brandis, Aaron M.; White, Todd R.; Mahzari, Milad; Bose, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    During the recent entry of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), the heat shield was equipped with thermocouple stacks to measure in-depth heating of the thermal protection system (TPS). When only convective heating was considered, the derived heat flux from gauges in the stagnation region was found to be underpredicted by as much as 17 W/sq cm, which is significant compared to the peak heating of 32 W/sq cm. In order to quantify the contribution of radiative heating phenomena to the discrepancy, ground tests and predictive simulations that replicated the MSL entry trajectory were performed. An analysis is carried through to assess the quality of the radiation model and the impact to stagnation line heating. The impact is shown to be significant, but does not fully explain the heating discrepancy.

  20. A novel JK null allele associated with typing discrepancies among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Billingsley, Katrina L; Posadas, Jeff B; Moulds, Joann M; Gaur, Lakshmi K

    2013-01-01

    The Jknun (Jk-3) phenotype, attributable to null or silenced alleles, has predominantly been found in persons of Polynesian descent. With the increased use of molecular genotyping, many new silencing mutations have been identified in persons of other ethnic backgrounds. To date, only two JK null alleles have been reported in African Americans, JK*01N.04 and JK*OlN.OS.A comparative study was undertaken to determine whether JK mutations were present in the regional African American population. Results of donor genotyping were compared with previously recorded results of serologic tests, and discrepant results were investigated. Although the two previously identified polymorphisms were not detected in the discrepant samples, a novel allele (191G>A) was identified and was assigned the ISBT number JK*02N.09. This study illustrates a limitation of using single-nucleotide polymorphisms for prediction of blood group antigens.

  1. Power and violence: the relation between communication patterns, power discrepancies, and domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Babcock, J C; Waltz, J; Jacobson, N S; Gottman, J M

    1993-02-01

    This study hypothesized that power discrepancies in the marital relationship, where the husband is subordinate, serve as risk factors for husband-to-wife violence. The construct of marital power was assessed from 3 power domains operationalized by discrepancies in economic status, decision-making power, communication patterns, and communication skill. Three groups of married couples (N = 95) were compared: domestically violent (DV), maritally distressed/nonviolent (DNV), and maritally happy/nonviolent (HNV). DV couples were more likely than the 2 nonviolent groups to engage in husband demand/wife withdraw interactions. Within the DV group, husbands who had less power were more physically abusive toward their wives. Thus, violence may be compensatory behavior to make up for husbands' lack of power in other arenas of marriage. Difficulties in assessing marital power and future direction for the study of power and violence are discussed.

  2. Development of computer-based OSCE re-examination system for minimizing inter-examiner discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Abe, Shinichi; Kawada, Eiji

    2008-02-01

    The validity of objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in evaluating clinical skills has been confirmed in a number of studies. However, inter-examiner reliability has been noted as a concern by many educators. To minimize discrepancy between examiners, in application of the OSCE, we have developed an OSCE attitude and skill test re-examination system. Student performance was digitally, filmed and stored as electronic files. When results showed inter-examiner discrepancy, those items were automatically extracted in the form of a re-examination sheet to allow student re-evaluation by a third examiner in reference to the relevant film files. This system facilitates feedback to each examiner and examinee, offering a potentially useful tool for attitude and skill education.

  3. Assessment of crown angulations, crown inclinations, and tooth size discrepancies in a South Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Doodamani, Geeta Maruti; Khala, Anmol S; Manohar, Mala; Umashankar

    2011-01-01

    Aims and Objective: The aim of this study was to assess crown angulations, crown inclinations, and tooth size discrepancy in a sample population from Davangere, South India. Materials and Methods: One hundred adults (50 male and 50 female) of age 18–30 years, with Angle's class I ideal occlusion and balanced profiles, were selected for the study. Study models were prepared and crown angulations and crown inclinations were measured using a customized protractor device. Bolton's analysis was used to measure the tooth size discrepancies. Results: Maxillary and mandibular teeth had less crown angulations. Maxillary and mandibular incisors and maxillary molars showed increased crown inclinations, whereas mandibular molars and premolars had less crown inclinations than the original Andrews sample. The mean maxillary and mandibular tooth size ratios, overall and anterior, were similar to Bolton's ratios. Conclusions: The finding of this study indicates that there are possible racial and ethnic factors contributing to variations in crown angulations and crown inclinations. PMID:22090760

  4. Affective Evaluations of Exercising: The Role of Automatic-Reflective Evaluation Discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Brand, Ralf; Antoniewicz, Branziska

    2016-12-29

    Sometimes our automatic evaluations do not correspond well with those we can reflect on and articulate. We present a novel approach to the assessment of automatic and reflective affective evaluations of exercising. Based on the assumptions of the APE model, we measured participants' automatic evaluations of exercise, then shared this information with them, asked them to reflect on it and rate eventual discrepancy between their reflective evaluation and the assessment of their automatic evaluation. We found that mismatch between self-reported ideal exercise frequency and actual exercise frequency over the previous three months could be regressed on the discrepancy between a relatively negative automatic and a more positive reflective evaluation. This study illustrates the potential of a dual-process approach to the measurement of evaluative responses and suggests that mistrusting one's negative spontaneous reaction to exercise and asserting a very positive reflective evaluation instead leads to the adoption of inflated exercise goals.

  5. The apsidal motion of the eccentric eclipsing binary DI Herculis - An apparent discrepancy with general relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinan, E. F.; Maloney, F. P.

    1985-01-01

    The apsidal motion of the eccentric eclipsing binary DI Herculis (HD 175227) is determined from an analysis of the available observations and eclipse timings from 1959 to 1984. Least squares solutions to the primary and secondary minima extending over an 84-yr interval yielded a small advance of periastron omega dot of 0.65 deg/100 yr + or - 0.18/100 yr. The observed advance of the periastron is about one seventh of the theoretical value of 4.27 deg/100 yr that is expected from the combined relativistic and classical effects. The discrepancy is about -3.62 deg/100 yr, or a magnitude of about 20 sigma. Classical mechanisms which explain the discrepancy are discussed, together with the possibility that there may be problems with general relativity itself.

  6. Enhancing DSN Operations Efficiency with the Discrepancy Reporting Management System (DRMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatillon, Mark; Lin, James; Cooper, Tonja M.

    2003-01-01

    The DRMS is the Discrepancy Reporting Management System used by the Deep Space Network (DSN). It uses a web interface and is a management tool designed to track and manage: data outage incidents during spacecraft tracks against equipment and software known as DRs (discrepancy Reports), to record "out of pass" incident logs against equipment and software in a Station Log, to record instances where equipment has be restarted or reset as Reset records, and to electronically record equipment readiness status across the DSN. Tracking and managing these items increases DSN operational efficiency by providing: the ability to establish the operational history of equipment items, data on the quality of service provided to the DSN customers, the ability to measure service performance, early insight into processes, procedures and interfaces that may need updating or changing, and the capability to trace a data outage to a software or hardware change. The items listed above help the DSN to focus resources on areas of most need.

  7. Assessment of discrepancies between bottom-up and regional emission inventories in Norwegian urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Aparicio, Susana; Guevara, Marc; Thunis, Philippe; Cuvelier, Kees; Tarrasón, Leonor

    2017-04-01

    This study shows the capabilities of a benchmarking system to identify inconsistencies in emission inventories, and to evaluate the reason behind discrepancies as a mean to improve both bottom-up and downscaled emission inventories. Fine scale bottom-up emission inventories for seven urban areas in Norway are compared with three regional emission inventories, EC4MACS, TNO_MACC-II and TNO_MACC-III, downscaled to the same areas. The comparison shows discrepancies in nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) when evaluating both total and sectorial emissions. The three regional emission inventories underestimate NOx and PM10 traffic emissions by approximately 20-80% and 50-90%, respectively. The main reasons for the underestimation of PM10 emissions from traffic in the regional inventories are related to non-exhaust emissions due to resuspension, which are included in the bottom-up emission inventories but are missing in the official national emissions, and therefore in the downscaled regional inventories. The benchmarking indicates that the most probable reason behind the underestimation of NOx traffic emissions by the regional inventories is the activity data. The fine scale NOx traffic emissions from bottom-up inventories are based on the actual traffic volume at the road link and are much higher than the NOx emissions downscaled from national estimates based on fuel sales and based on population for the urban areas. We have identified important discrepancies in PM2.5 emissions from wood burning for residential heating among all the inventories. These discrepancies are associated with the assumptions made for the allocation of emissions. In the EC4MACs inventory, such assumptions imply high underestimation of PM2.5 emissions from the residential combustion sector in urban areas, which ranges from 40 to 90% compared with the bottom-up inventories. The study shows that in three of the seven Norwegian cities there is need for further improvement of

  8. Discrepancy between mRNA and protein abundance: insight from information retrieval process in computers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Degeng

    2008-12-01

    Discrepancy between the abundance of cognate protein and RNA molecules is frequently observed. A theoretical understanding of this discrepancy remains elusive, and it is frequently described as surprises and/or technical difficulties in the literature. Protein and RNA represent different steps of the multi-stepped cellular genetic information flow process, in which they are dynamically produced and degraded. This paper explores a comparison with a similar process in computers-multi-step information flow from storage level to the execution level. Functional similarities can be found in almost every facet of the retrieval process. Firstly, common architecture is shared, as the ribonome (RNA space) and the proteome (protein space) are functionally similar to the computer primary memory and the computer cache memory, respectively. Secondly, the retrieval process functions, in both systems, to support the operation of dynamic networks-biochemical regulatory networks in cells and, in computers, the virtual networks (of CPU instructions) that the CPU travels through while executing computer programs. Moreover, many regulatory techniques are implemented in computers at each step of the information retrieval process, with a goal of optimizing system performance. Cellular counterparts can be easily identified for these regulatory techniques. In other words, this comparative study attempted to utilize theoretical insight from computer system design principles as catalysis to sketch an integrative view of the gene expression process, that is, how it functions to ensure efficient operation of the overall cellular regulatory network. In context of this bird's-eye view, discrepancy between protein and RNA abundance became a logical observation one would expect. It was suggested that this discrepancy, when interpreted in the context of system operation, serves as a potential source of information to decipher regulatory logics underneath biochemical network operation.

  9. Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem Discrepancies, Victimization and the Development of Late Childhood Internalizing Problems.

    PubMed

    Leeuwis, Franca H; Koot, Hans M; Creemers, Daan H M; van Lier, Pol A C

    2015-07-01

    Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem have been linked with internalizing problems among mainly adolescents and adults. Longitudinal research on this association in children is lacking. This study examined the longitudinal link between self-esteem discrepancies and the development of internalizing problems in children. It furthermore examined the possible mediating role of self-esteem discrepancies in the longitudinal link between experiences of peer victimization and internalizing problems development. Children (N = 330, M(age) = 11.2 year; 52.5 % female) were followed over grades five (age 11 years) and six (age 12 years). Self-report measures were used annually to test for victimization and internalizing problems. Implicit self-esteem was assessed using an implicit association test, while explicit self-esteem was assessed via self-reports. Self-esteem discrepancies represented the difference between implicit and explicit self-esteem. Results showed that victimization was associated with increases in damaged self-esteem (higher levels of implicit than explicit self-esteem. Additionally, damaged self-esteem at age 11 years predicted an increase in internalizing problems in children over ages 11 to 12 years. Furthermore, damaged self-esteem mediated the relationship between age 11 years victimization and the development of internalizing problems. No impact of fragile self-esteem (lower levels of implicit than explicit self-esteem) on internalizing problems was found. The results thus underscore that, as found in adolescent and adult samples, damaged self-esteem is a predictor of increases in childhood internalizing problems. Moreover, damaged self-esteem might explain why children who are victimized develop internalizing problems. Implications are discussed.

  10. Assay discrepancy in mild haemophilia A: entire population study in a National Haemophilia Centre.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, A L; Pedersen, L H; Hvas, A-M; Poulsen, L H; Thykjaer, H; Ingerslev, J

    2009-01-01

    Assay discrepancy in mild haemophilia, here defined by a significantly higher factor VIII (FVIII):C response by the one-stage procoagulant assay as compared with a two-stage enzymatic method, has repeatedly been reported in literature. The purpose of this study was to determine the overall prevalence of this phenomenon amongst mild haemophilia families from a population of 2.95 million inhabitants in the Western Danish region. Information was collected retrospectively through a thorough search of archives of the National Haemophilia Centre in Aarhus. We identified 109 patients with mild haemophilia A amongst whom 92 were eligible to enter the study. These represent a total of 53 unrelated families. Our data illustrate that this assay discrepancy pattern is found quite frequently amongst our mild haemophilia A families. While the ratio of FVIII:C chromogenic/FVIII:C clot values was quite consistent amongst patients belonging to same family pattern, ratios in the entire cohort of families ranged from 0.18 to 1.00. Selecting a cut-off level for the FVIII:C chromogenic/FVIII:C clot ratios at 0.7, 0.6 and 0.5, respectively, we found that 38 (72%), 27 (51%) and 19 (36%) of families, respectively, displayed this assay discrepancy. In 10 patients, the FVIII:C chromogenic level was inside the category of moderate haemophilia at >0.01-<0.05 IU mL(-1), pointing to a class-shift in the biochemical phenotype. In conclusion, our data illustrate a substantial prevalence of the assay discrepancy phenomenon amongst mild haemophilia A patients in our geographical area.

  11. Cephalometric and in vivo measurements of maxillomandibular anteroposterior discrepancies: a preliminary regression study.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Virgilio Ferruccio; Serrao, Graziano; Ciusa, Veronica; Morini, Maria; Sforza, Chiarella

    2002-12-01

    One of the aims of the present investigation was to assess three-dimensionally the anteroposterior discrepancy of dental bases using a noninvasive direct procedure. A second aim was to verify the relationship of three-dimensional soft-tissue measurement to the well-established two-dimensional cephalometric assessments of anteroposterior discrepancy. Dental and facial landmarks were directly digitized on 20 orthodontic and maxillofacial surgery patients aged 8 to 26 years using an electromagnetic three-dimensional computerized digitizer. The anteroposterior maxillomandibular discrepancy was measured by calculating the linear distances between the projections of subnasal and sublabial landmarks on the occlusal plane, subnasal and sublabial landmarks on Camper's plane, and insertion of maxillary and mandibular median labial frenula on the occlusal plane. From lateral cephalograms of the same patients, the following measurements were obtained: subspinale point-nasion-supramentale point (ANB) angle; corrected ANB angle that compensates for the position of the maxilla and rotation of the mandible relative to the cranial base; Wits appraisal; MM-Wits, linear distance between the projections of points A and B on the bisector of the palatal plane to mandibular plane angle; and soft-tissue Wits, linear distance between the projections of soft-tissue points A and B on the bisecting occlusal plane. The best two-dimensional vs three-dimensional linear regression (r = 0.91) was found between Wits appraisal and the linear distances between the projections of maxillary and mandibular median labial frenula on the occlusal plane (Wits = -1.05 x 3D measurement - 3.75). The three-dimensional evaluation of the sagittal discrepancy of the jaws directly performed in vivo may allow a more complete analysis of a patient's soft-tissue drape together with the underlying hard-tissue structure.

  12. Discrepancy between estimated and actual time elapsed after death of a severed head.

    PubMed

    Kojima, T; Miyazaki, T; Yashiki, M; Sakai, K; Yamasaki, Y

    1992-09-01

    A severed head which had been wrapped in seven plastic bags and set in concrete in an airtight insulated plastic box was found approximately 22 months after the occurrence of death. Ammonium magnesium phosphate had formed and on the basis of this and other observed postmortem changes, time elapsed after death was estimated to be from 2 weeks to 6 months. The absence of oxygen is thought to have contributed significantly to the great discrepancy between estimated and actual time elapsed after death.

  13. Smile design for the adolescent patient--interdisciplinary management of anterior tooth size discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Alexander B

    2008-05-01

    Adolescent patients often seek orthodontic treatment to correct spacing of the maxillary anterior teeth. If the spacing is caused by a tooth size discrepancy that affects one or more anterior teeth, an interdisciplinary treatment plan involving orthodontic, restorative, and periodontal treatment is recommended to achieve a harmonious esthetic result. This article describes a clinical approach for treatment of these complex cases, focusing on the importance of tooth form, gingival esthetics, and treatment sequencing.

  14. Discrepancies between Multi-Electrode LFP and CSD Phase-Patterns: A Forward Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Hindriks, Rikkert; Arsiwalla, Xerxes D.; Panagiotaropoulos, Theofanis; Besserve, Michel; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.; Logothetis, Nikos K.; Deco, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Multi-electrode recordings of local field potentials (LFPs) provide the opportunity to investigate the spatiotemporal organization of neural activity on the scale of several millimeters. In particular, the phases of oscillatory LFPs allow studying the coordination of neural oscillations in time and space and to tie it to cognitive processing. Given the computational roles of LFP phases, it is important to know how they relate to the phases of the underlying current source densities (CSDs) that generate them. Although CSDs and LFPs are distinct physical quantities, they are often (implicitly) identified when interpreting experimental observations. That this identification is problematic is clear from the fact that LFP phases change when switching to different electrode montages, while the underlying CSD phases remain unchanged. In this study we use a volume-conductor model to characterize discrepancies between LFP and CSD phase-patterns, to identify the contributing factors, and to assess the effect of different electrode montages. Although we focus on cortical LFPs recorded with two-dimensional (Utah) arrays, our findings are also relevant for other electrode configurations. We found that the main factors that determine the discrepancy between CSD and LFP phase-patterns are the frequency of the neural oscillations and the extent to which the laminar CSD profile is balanced. Furthermore, the presence of laminar phase-differences in cortical oscillations, as commonly observed in experiments, precludes identifying LFP phases with those of the CSD oscillations at a given cortical depth. This observation potentially complicates the interpretation of spike-LFP coherence and spike-triggered LFP averages. With respect to reference strategies, we found that the average-reference montage leads to larger discrepancies between LFP and CSD phases as compared with the referential montage, while the Laplacian montage reduces these discrepancies. We therefore advice to conduct

  15. Toward resolving model-measurement discrepancies of radon entry into houses

    SciTech Connect

    Garbesi, Karina

    1993-06-01

    Analysis of the literature indicated that radon transport models significantly and consistently underpredict the advective entry into houses of soil-gas borne radon. Advective entry is the dominant mechanism resulting in high concentrations of radon indoors. My dissertation research investigated the source of the model-measurement discrepancy via carefully controlled field experiments conducted at an experimental basement located in natural soil in Ben Lomond, California. Early experiments at the structure confirmed the existence and magnitude of the model-measurement discrepancy, ensuring that it was not merely an artifact of inherently complex and poorly understood field sites. The measured soil-gas entry rate during structure depressurization was found to be an order of magnitude larger than predicted by a current three-dimensional numerical model of radon transport. The exact magnitude of the discrepancy depends on whether the arithmetic or geometric mean of the small-scale measurements of permeability is used to estimate the effective permeability of the soil. This factor is a critical empirical input to the model and was determined for the Ben Lomond site in the typical fashion using single-probe static depressorization measurements at multiple locations. The remainder of the dissertation research tests a hypothesis to explain the observed discrepancy: That soil permeability assessed using relatively small-scale probe measurements (0.1--0.5 m) does not reflect bulk soil permeability for flows that is likely to occur at larger scales of several meters or more in real houses and in the test structure. The idea is that soil heterogeneity is of a nature that, as flows occur over larger scales, larger scales of heterogeneity are encountered that facilitate larger flux rates, resulting in a scale dependence of effective soil permeability.

  16. Toward resolving model-measurement discrepancies of radon entry into houses

    SciTech Connect

    Garbesi, Karina

    1994-10-01

    Analysis of the literature indicated that radon transport models significantly and consistently underpredict the advective entry into houses of soil-gas borne radon. Advective entry is the dominant mechanism resulting in high concentrations of radon indoors. The author investigated the source of the model-measurement discrepancy via carefully controlled field experiments conducted at an experimental basement located in natural soil in Ben Lomond, California. Early experiments at the structure confirmed the existence and magnitude of the model-measurement discrepancy, ensuring that it was not merely an artifact of inherently complex and poorly understood field sites. The measured soil-gas entry rate during structure depressurization was found to be an order of magnitude larger than predicted by a current three-dimensional numerical model of radon transport. The exact magnitude of the discrepancy depends on whether the arithmetic or geometric mean of the small-scale measurements of permeability is used to estimate the effective permeability of the soil. This factor is a critical empirical input to the model and was determined for the Ben Lomond site in the typical fashion using single-probe static depressurization measurements at multiple locations. The remainder of the dissertation research tests a hypothesis to explain the observed discrepancy: that soil permeability assessed using relatively small-scale probe measurements does not reflect bulk soil permeability for flows that is likely to occur at larger scales of several meters or more in real houses and in the test structure. The idea is that soil heterogeneity is of a nature that, as flows occur over larger scales, larger scales of heterogeneity are encountered that facilitate larger flux rates, resulting in a scale dependence of effective soil permeability.

  17. In vitro evaluation of the marginal and internal discrepancies of different esthetic restorations

    PubMed Central

    SAKRANA, Amal Abdelsamad

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined the fit of two types of all-ceramic single crowns and indirect composite resin full coverage crowns. Material and Methods Thirty intact human mandibular first premolars were selected for this study and prepared using a machine to standardize the dimensions and randomly divided into 3 groups. Slip cast (IC) (In-Ceram Zirconia, Vita Zahnfabrik), copy-milled zirconia (CM) (ICE, Zirkonzahn) and indirect composite resin crowns (NECO, HeraeusKulzer, Hanau, Germany), (N=30, 10 per group) were fabricated according to each manufacturer's recommendations. Before cementation, discrepancies were measured at the marginal zone in each crown. Crowns were then cemented with G-Cem capsule self-adhesive luting cement (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). Four positions were marked for each zone (mid-facial, mid-mesial, mid-distal, and mid-lingual) and three measurements were made at each of the four positions yielding to a total of 12 measurements per crown before and after cementation. The measurements were performed at a different magnification using a stereo microscope (SZ11, Olympus, Japan). Marginal, axial and occlusal zone discrepancies (µm) were evaluated after cementation. The data were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results Before cementation, significantly less marginal discrepancies were noted compared with after cementation in all groups (p<0.05). No significant differences were found within each zone (Marginal= IC: 84.2, NECO: 95.22, CM: 84.22; Axial= IC: 54.22, NECO: 64.2, CM: 55.22; Occlusal= IC: 119.97, NECO: 129.18, CM: 121.15) in the three crown systems (p>0.05). Occlusal zone discrepancies were significantly higher than those of the marginal and axial zones in all groups (p<0.05). Conclusions Slip cast and copy-milled zirconia crowns showed comparable fit to composite resin crowns in all marginal, axial and occlusal areas. PMID:24473725

  18. Comments on the New Tesla Electromagnetics. Part I. Discrepancies in Present EM Theory,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    new "superrelativity" to describe the expanded electromagnetic reality uncovered by Nikola Tesla . (14) "Charge" is assumed to be quantized, in addition...California, 94030, 1980. The present electromagnetics is just a special case of a much more fundamental electromagnetics discovered by Nikola Tesla , just...AD-RI27 574 COMMENTS ON THE NEW TESLA ELECTROMAGNET ICS PART I L/i DISCREPANCIES IN PRESENT EM THEORY(U) BEARDEN (THOMAS E) HUNTSVILLE AL T E BEARDEN

  19. The discrepancies in the results of bioinformatics tools for genomic structural annotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawełkowicz, Magdalena; Nowak, Robert; Osipowski, Paweł; Rymuszka, Jacek; Świerkula, Katarzyna; Wojcieszek, Michał; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2014-11-01

    A major focus of sequencing project is to identify genes in genomes. However it is necessary to define the variety of genes and the criteria for identifying them. In this work we present discrepancies and dependencies from the application of different bioinformatic programs for structural annotation performed on the cucumber data set from Polish Consortium of Cucumber Genome Sequencing. We use Fgenesh, GenScan and GeneMark to automated structural annotation, the results have been compared to reference annotation.

  20. Computerized versus motivational interviewing alcohol interventions: impact on discrepancy, motivation, and drinking.

    PubMed

    Murphy, James G; Dennhardt, Ashley A; Skidmore, Jessica R; Martens, Matthew P; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E

    2010-12-01

    The authors conducted two randomized clinical trials with ethnically diverse samples of college student drinkers in order to determine (a) the relative efficacy of two popular computerized interventions versus a more comprehensive motivational interview approach (BASICS) and (b) the mechanisms of change associated with these interventions. In Study 1, heavy drinking participants recruited from a student health center (N = 74, 59% women, 23% African American) were randomly assigned to receive BASICS or the Alcohol 101 CD-ROM program. BASICS was associated with greater post-session motivation to change and self-ideal and normative discrepancy relative to Alcohol 101, but there were no group differences in the primary drinking outcomes at 1-month follow-up. Pre to post session increases in motivation predicted lower follow-up drinking across both conditions. In Study 2, heavy drinking freshman recruited from a core university course (N = 133, 50% women, 30% African American) were randomly assigned to BASICS, a web-based feedback program (e-CHUG), or assessment-only. BASICS was associated with greater post-session self-ideal discrepancy than e-CHUG, but there were no differences in motivation or normative discrepancy. There was a significant treatment effect on typical weekly and heavy drinking, with participants in BASICS reporting significantly lower follow-up drinking relative to assessment only participants. In Study 2, change in the motivation or discrepancy did not predict drinking outcomes. Across both studies, African American students assigned to BASICS reported medium effect size reductions in drinking whereas African American students assigned to Alcohol 101, e-CHUG, or assessment did not reduce their drinking.

  1. Outcome of premolar extractions on Bolton's overall ratio and tooth size discrepancies in South India

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Shaji T.; Yerasi, Purushothama R.; Jose, Lijo K.; Mohammed Haris, T. P.; Mathew, Tom; Ealla, Kranti K. R.

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Attainment of ideal occlusion is often restricted by disproportionate sizes of individual teeth, which is otherwise termed as tooth size discrepancy (TSD). While extraction of teeth for orthodontic purposes is not uncommon, there is considerable resistance against this school of thought. The extraction of premolars, in particular, received considerable attention because of the potential TSD that could result following the extraction of premolars. The aim of the present study was to identify the consequence of premolar extractions on Bolton's overall ratios in South Indian population. Materials and Methods: One hundred participants were recruited into the study through purposive nonproportionate quota sampling. Pretreatment dental casts of the study participants were measured for mesiodistal tooth widths to determine Bolton's overall ratio before the hypothetical tooth extractions were performed. The hypothetical extractions were executed in four different combinations as follows: (a) Maxillary and mandibular first premolars, (b) maxillary first premolars and mandibular second premolars, (c) maxillary second premolars and mandibular first premolars, and (d) maxillary and mandibular second premolars. Bolton's overall ratios were calculated after the hypothetical tooth extractions were performed. Statistical analysis was done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 20 software. Results: It was observed that extractions performed in any of the combinations followed in this study resulted in a decrease of overall Bolton's ratios. However, the discrepancy in tooth size was highest with the extraction of all first premolars, whereas least discrepancy was recorded with all second premolars extraction. It was also found that, based on the combination of teeth chosen for extraction, there was significant difference in Bolton's overall ratios between males and females. Conclusion: In formulating a treatment plan involving premolar

  2. The symptoms and functioning severity scale (SFSS): psychometric evaluation and discrepancies among youth, caregiver, and clinician ratings over time.

    PubMed

    Athay, M Michele; Riemer, Manuel; Bickman, Leonard

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the development and psychometric evaluation of the symptoms and functioning severity scale (SFSS), which includes three parallel forms to systematically capture clinician, youth, and caregiver perspectives of youth symptoms on a frequent basis. While there is widespread consensus that different raters of youth psychopathology vary significantly in their assessment, this is the first paper that specifically investigated the discrepancies among clinician, youth, and caregiver ratings throughout the treatment process within a community mental health setting. Results for all three respondent versions indicated the SFSS is a psychometrically sound instrument for use in this population. Significant discrepancies in scores existed at baseline among the three respondents. Longitudinal analyses reveal the youth-clinician and caregiver-clinician score discrepancies decreased significantly over time. Differences by youth gender existed for caregiver-clinician discrepancies. The average youth-caregiver score discrepancy remained consistent throughout treatment. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.

  3. Possible causes of the discrepancy between the predicted and observed parameters of high-speed solar wind streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugay, Yu. S.; Veselovsky, I. S.; Slemzin, V. A.; Yermolaev, Yu. I.; Rodkin, D. G.

    2017-01-01

    We have considered the possible causes of discrepancies between the predicted and observed at 1 AU parameters of the recurrent solar wind (SW) streams in the maximum of the 24th solar cycle. These discrepancies have been observed in both the SW velocity profile and the SW stream arrival time, as well as in the absence of the expected high-speed SW stream. The degree of discrepancy depends on the model used for the SW prediction; however, in some cases, different prediction methods provide a similar discrepancy with the observed SW parameters at 1 AU. For several cases, we show that the probable cause of the discrepancies can be a deflection of the high-speed SW stream from the radial direction due to the interaction with the transient SW streams at certain configuration of the magnetic fields of high-speed and transient SW sources in the solar corona.

  4. Gradient Weight in Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Kevin Michael

    2011-01-01

    Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight…

  5. Assessing Your Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... to learn more? Preventing Weight Gain Choosing a lifestyle that includes good eating habits and daily physical activity can help you maintain a healthy weight and prevent weight gain. The Possible Health Effects from Having Obesity Having obesity can increase your chances of developing ...

  6. Photogrammetric determination of discrepancies between actual and planned position of dental implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forlani, G.; Rivara, F.

    2014-05-01

    The paper describes the design and testing of a photogrammetric measurement protocol set up to determine the discrepancies between the planned and actual position of computer-guided template-based dental implants. Two moulds with the implants positioned in pre- and post- intervention are produced and separately imaged with a highly redundant block of convergent images; the model with the implants is positioned on a steel frame with control points and with suitable targets attached. The theoretical accuracy of the system is better than 20 micrometers and 0.3-0.4° respectively for positions of implants and directions of implant axes. In order to compare positions and angles between the planned and actual position of an implant, coordinates and axes directions are brought to a common reference system with a Helmert transformation. A procedure for comparison of positions and directions to identify out-of-tolerance discrepancies is presented; a numerical simulation study shows the effectiveness of the procedure in identifying the implants with significant discrepancies between pre- and post- intervention.

  7. Discrepant feeling rules and unscripted emotion work: women coping with termination for fetal anomaly.

    PubMed

    McCoyd, Judith L M

    2009-10-01

    The sociology of emotion is rapidly evolving and has implications for medical settings. Advancing medical technologies create new contexts for decision-making and emotional reaction that are framed by "feeling rules." Feeling rules guide not only behavior, but also how one believes one should feel, thereby causing one to attempt to bring one's authentic feelings into line with perceived feeling rules. Using qualitative data, the theoretical existence of feeling rules in pregnancy and prenatal testing is confirmed. Further examination extends this analysis: at times of technological development feeling rules are often discrepant, leaving patients with unscripted emotion work. Data from a study of women who interrupted anomalous pregnancies indicate that feeling rules are unclear when competing feeling rules are operating during times of societal and technological change. Because much of this occurs below the level of consciousness, medical and psychological services providers need to be aware of potential discrepancies in feeling rules and assist patients in identifying the salient feeling rules. Patients' struggles ease when they can recognize the discrepancies and assess their implications for decision-making and emotional response.

  8. Beyond general behavioral theories: structural discrepancy in young motorcyclist's risky driving behavior and its policy implications.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yi-Shih; Wong, Jinn-Tsai

    2012-11-01

    While many studies examine the mean score differences of psychological determinants between heterogeneous driver groups, this study reveals a structural discrepancy in a causal behavioral framework. Using young motorcyclists (ages 18-28) as subjects, this study investigates the various roles of key influential factors in determining risky driving behavior. Multi-group analysis of structural equation modeling shows that age and gender are two factors that can effectively distinguish heterogeneous driver groups exhibiting different decision-making mechanisms in shaping their risky driving behaviors. When encountering undesirable traffic conditions, road rage can immediately increase male motorcyclists' intentions to engage in risky driving behaviors; on the other hand, young female motorcyclists further calculate their perceived risk to determine whether to engage in risky driving behaviors. This result shows that there is a significant link between risk perception and traffic condition awareness for experienced drivers (ages 25-28), but not for younger drivers (ages 18-24). This finding shows that while well-developed theories such as planned behavior and risk homeostasis provide general frameworks to explain risky driving behavior, heterogeneous driver groups may exhibit structural discrepancies that reflect their various decision-making mechanisms. This suggests that, in addition to mean differences, understanding structural discrepancies among heterogeneous groups could help researchers identify effective intervention strategies.

  9. Informative Disagreements: Associations Between Relationship Distress, Depression, and Discrepancy in Interpersonal Perception Within Couples.

    PubMed

    Knobloch-Fedders, Lynne M; Critchfield, Kenneth L; Staab, Erin M

    2015-12-24

    This study evaluated the associations between relationship distress, depression symptoms, and discrepancy in interpersonal perception within couples. After completing a series of discussion tasks, couples (N = 88) rated their behavior using the circumplex-based Structural Analysis of Social Behavior Model (SASB; Benjamin, 1979, 1987, 2000). Overall, couple members were strikingly similar in their interpersonal perceptions, and tended to see themselves as friendly, reciprocal in their focus, and balanced between connection and separateness. As hypothesized, however, perceptual discrepancy was related to relationship distress and depression. Relationship distress was associated with discrepancy regarding transitive behavior focused on the partner, while depression was associated with disagreement about intransitive, self-focused behavior. Analysis of affiliation and autonomy revealed that relationship distress was associated with seeing oneself as reacting with more hostility than the partner sees, and perceiving one's partner as more hostile, more controlling, and less submissive than he or she does. Partners of depressed individuals viewed themselves as more controlling than their mate did. Men's depression was associated with disagreement between partners regarding men's self-focused behavior. Results underscore the importance of considering interpersonal perception when conceptualizing relationship distress and depression within intimate relationships.

  10. Tooth-size discrepancy: A comparison between manual and digital methods

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Gabriele Dória Cabral; Habib, Fernando Antonio Lima; Vogel, Carlos Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Technological advances in Dentistry have emerged primarily in the area of diagnostic tools. One example is the 3D scanner, which can transform plaster models into three-dimensional digital models. Objective This study aimed to assess the reliability of tooth size-arch length discrepancy analysis measurements performed on three-dimensional digital models, and compare these measurements with those obtained from plaster models. Material and Methods To this end, plaster models of lower dental arches and their corresponding three-dimensional digital models acquired with a 3Shape R700T scanner were used. All of them had lower permanent dentition. Four different tooth size-arch length discrepancy calculations were performed on each model, two of which by manual methods using calipers and brass wire, and two by digital methods using linear measurements and parabolas. Results Data were statistically assessed using Friedman test and no statistically significant differences were found between the two methods (P > 0.05), except for values found by the linear digital method which revealed a slight, non-significant statistical difference. Conclusions Based on the results, it is reasonable to assert that any of these resources used by orthodontists to clinically assess tooth size-arch length discrepancy can be considered reliable. PMID:25279529

  11. Health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms among Hispanic adolescents: Examining acculturation discrepancies and family functioning.

    PubMed

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Unger, Jennifer B; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Romero, Andrea J; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Lizzi, Karina M; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2016-03-01

    Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning 2 models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement 6 months postbaseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms 1 year postbaseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning; (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS; (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS.

  12. Health Risk Behaviors and Depressive Symptoms among Hispanic Adolescents: Examining Acculturation Discrepancies and Family Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J.; Castillo, Linda G.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Romero, Andrea J.; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Lizzi, Karina M.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W.; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning two models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement six months post-baseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms one year post-baseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning, (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS, (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS. PMID:26301514

  13. A discrepancy measure for segmentation evaluation from the perspective of object recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian; He, Yuhong; Caspersen, John; Jones, Trevor

    2015-03-01

    Within the framework of geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA), segmentation evaluation is one of the most important components and thus plays a critical role in controlling the quality of GEOBIA workflow. Among a variety of segmentation evaluation methods and criteria, discrepancy measurement is believed to be the most useful and is therefore one of the most commonly employed techniques in many applications. Existing measures have largely ignored the importance of object recognition in segmentation evaluation. In this study, a new discrepancy measure of segmentation evaluation index (SEI) redefines the corresponding segment using a two-sided 50% overlap instead of one-sided 50% overlap that has been commonly used. The effectiveness of SEI is further investigated using the schematic segmentation cases and remote sensing images. Results demonstrate that the proposed SEI outperforms the other two existing discrepancy measures, Euclidean Distance 2 (ED2) and Euclidean Distance 3 (ED3), both in terms of object recognition accuracy and identification of detailed segmentation differences.

  14. Effects of CO-CR discrepancy in daily orthodontic treatment planning

    PubMed Central

    COSTEA, CARMEN MARIA; BADEA, MÎNDRA EUGENIA; VASILACHE, SORIN; MESAROŞ, MICHAELA

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Nowadays centric relation is defined as a musculoskeletal stable position, with the condyles forward, as far upward as possible, centered transversely and with the articular disc properly interposed. On the other hand, centric occlusion or maximum intercuspidation is a dental determined position. The purpose of this pilot study is to evaluate the direction, frequency and magnitude of the discrepancy between centric occlusion and centric relation in all three axial directions, in a muscular non-deprogrammed population, before the beginning of orthodontic treatment. Methods The study group was represented by 40 symptomatic and asymptomatic patients seeking orthodontic treatment in a private dental office in Cluj-Napoca, Romania between 2014 and 2015. All patients had full records and articulator mounted models. All measurements were analyzed three-dimensionally. Results 85% of the patients had vertical and 87.5% had horizontal CO-CR discrepancy for both condyles. 87.5% of the cases have had a significant condylar displacement in at least one of the three planes. Conclusions We should be aware of the dental occlusion determined by the dental contacts and the occlusion dictated by the musculoskeletal stable position of the condyles. The bigger the discrepancy between these two positions at the level of the condyles, the greater the chances to have either a patient who will develop a form of TMD before/during or after the orthodontic or prosthetic treatment, or a patient suffering already, but poorly diagnosed. PMID:27152081

  15. Reliability of Beta angle in assessing true anteroposterior apical base discrepancy in different growth patterns

    PubMed Central

    Sundareswaran, Shobha; Kumar, Vinay

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Beta angle as a skeletal anteroposterior dysplasia indicator is known to be useful in evaluating normodivergent growth patterns. Hence, we compared and verified the accuracy of Beta angle in predicting sagittal jaw discrepancy among subjects with hyperdivergent, hypodivergent and normodivergent growth patterns. Materials and Methods: Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 179 patients belonging to skeletal Classes I, II, and III were further divided into normodivergent, hyperdivergent, and hypodivergent groups based on their vertical growth patterns. Sagittal dysplasia indicators - angle ANB, Wits appraisal, and Beta angle values were measured and tabulated. The perpendicular point of intersection on line CB (Condylion-Point B) in Beta angle was designated as ‘X’ and linear dimension XB was evaluated. Results: Statistically significant increase was observed in the mean values of Beta angle and XB distance in the vertical growth pattern groups of both skeletal Class I and Class II patients thus pushing them toward Class III and Class I, respectively. Conclusions: Beta angle is a reliable indicator of sagittal dysplasia in normal and horizontal patterns of growth. However, vertical growth patterns significantly increased Beta angle values, thus affecting their reliability as a sagittal discrepancy assessment tool. Hence, Beta angle may not be a valid tool for assessment of sagittal jaw discrepancy in patients exhibiting vertical growth patterns with skeletal Class I and Class II malocclusions. Nevertheless, Class III malocclusions having the highest Beta angle values were unaffected. PMID:25810649

  16. Resistance to exercise-induced weight loss: compensatory behavioral adaptations.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Edward L; Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Donnelly, Joseph E; Braun, Barry; King, Neil A

    2013-08-01

    In many interventions that are based on an exercise program intended to induce weight loss, the mean weight loss observed is modest and sometimes far less than what the individual expected. The individual responses are also widely variable, with some individuals losing a substantial amount of weight, others maintaining weight, and a few actually gaining weight. The media have focused on the subpopulation that loses little weight, contributing to a public perception that exercise has limited utility to cause weight loss. The purpose of the symposium was to present recent, novel data that help explain how compensatory behaviors contribute to a wide discrepancy in exercise-induced weight loss. The presentations provide evidence that some individuals adopt compensatory behaviors, that is, increased energy intake and/or reduced activity, that offset the exercise energy expenditure and limit weight loss. The challenge for both scientists and clinicians is to develop effective tools to identify which individuals are susceptible to such behaviors and to develop strategies to minimize their effect.

  17. Discrepancies in Outcome Reporting Exist Between Protocols and Published Oral Health Cochrane Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Pandis, Nikolaos; Fleming, Padhraig S.; Worthington, Helen; Dwan, Kerry; Salanti, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess discrepancies in the analyzed outcomes between protocols and published reviews within Cochrane oral health systematic reviews (COHG) on the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR). Study Design and Setting All COHG systematic reviews on the CDSR and the corresponding protocols were retrieved in November 2014 and information on the reported outcomes was recorded. Data was collected at the systematic review level by two reviewers independently. Results One hundred and fifty two reviews were included. In relation to primary outcomes, 11.2% were downgraded to secondary outcomes, 9.9% were omitted altogether in the final publication and new primary outcomes were identified in 18.4% of publications. For secondary outcomes, 2% were upgraded to primary, 12.5% were omitted and 30.9% were newly introduced in the publication. Overall, 45.4% of reviews had at least one discrepancy when compared to the protocol; these were reported in 14.5% reviews. The number of review updates appears to be associated with discrepancies between final review and protocol (OR: 3.18, 95% CI: 1.77, 5.74, p<0.001). The risk of reporting significant results was lower for both downgraded outcomes [RR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.17, 1.58, p = 0.24] and upgraded or newly introduced outcomes [RR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.36, 1.64, p = 0.50] compared to outcomes with no discrepancies. The risk of reporting significant results was higher for upgraded or newly introduced outcomes compared to downgraded outcomes (RR = 1.19, 95% CI: 0.65, 2.16, p = 0.57). None of the comparisons reached statistical significance. Conclusion While no evidence of selective outcome reporting was found in this study, based on the present analysis of SRs published within COHG systematic reviews, discrepancies between outcomes in pre-published protocols and final reviews continue to be common. Solutions such as the use of standardized outcomes to reduce the prevalence of this issue may need to be explored. PMID:26368938

  18. Yogurt and weight management.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Paul F; Wang, Huifen

    2014-05-01

    A large body of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has examined the role of dairy products in weight loss and maintenance of healthy weight. Yogurt is a dairy product that is generally very similar to milk, but it also has some unique properties that may enhance its possible role in weight maintenance. This review summarizes the human RCT and prospective observational evidence on the relation of yogurt consumption to the management and maintenance of body weight and composition. The RCT evidence is limited to 2 small, short-term, energy-restricted trials. They both showed greater weight losses with yogurt interventions, but the difference between the yogurt intervention and the control diet was only significant in one of these trials. There are 5 prospective observational studies that have examined the association between yogurt and weight gain. The results of these studies are equivocal. Two of these studies reported that individuals with higher yogurt consumption gained less weight over time. One of these same studies also considered changes in waist circumference (WC) and showed that higher yogurt consumption was associated with smaller increases in WC. A third study was inconclusive because of low statistical power. A fourth study observed no association between changes in yogurt intake and weight gain, but the results suggested that those with the largest increases in yogurt intake during the study also had the highest increase in WC. The final study examined weight and WC change separately by sex and baseline weight status and showed benefits for both weight and WC changes for higher yogurt consumption in overweight men, but it also found that higher yogurt consumption in normal-weight women was associated with a greater increase in weight over follow-up. Potential underlying mechanisms for the action of yogurt on weight are briefly discussed.

  19. Discrepancy in reports of support exchanges between parents and adult offspring: within- and between-family differences.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungmin; Zarit, Steven H; Birditt, Kira S; Fingerman, Karen L

    2014-04-01

    Using data from 929 parent-child dyads nested in 458 three-generation families (aged 76 for the oldest generation, 50 for the middle generation, and 24 for the youngest generation), this study investigated how discrepancies in reports of support that parents and their adult offspring exchanged with one another vary both within and between families, and what factors explain variations in dyadic discrepancies. We found substantial within- and between-family differences in dyadic discrepancies in reports of support exchanges. For downward exchanges (from parents to offspring), both dyad-specific characteristics within a family (e.g., gender composition, relative levels of relationship quality, and family obligation) and shared family characteristics (e.g., average levels of relationship quality) showed significant effects on dyadic discrepancies. For upward exchanges (from offspring to parents), however, only dyad-specific characteristics (e.g., gender composition, coresidence, relative levels of positive relationship quality, and family obligation) were significantly associated with discrepancies. Discrepancies in support exchanges were mainly associated with dyad-specific characteristics, but they also appeared to be influenced by family emotional environments. The use of multiple informants revealed that families differ in discrepancies in reports of exchanges, which has implications for quality of family life as well as future exchanges.

  20. Verbal-spatial IQ discrepancies impact brain activation associated with the resolution of cognitive conflict in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Amy E; Davis, Katie S; Pao, Lisa S; Lewis, Amy; Yang, Xiao; Tau, Gregory; Zhao, Guihu; Wang, Zhishun; Marsh, Rachel

    2017-02-15

    Verbal-spatial discrepancies are common in healthy individuals and in those with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with cognitive control deficits including: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Non-Verbal Learning Disability, Fragile X, 22q11 deletion, and Turner Syndrome. Previous data from healthy individuals suggest that the magnitude of the difference between verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) scores (the VIQ>PIQ discrepancy) is associated with reduced thickness in frontal and parietal cortices (inferior frontal, anterior cingulate, inferior parietal lobule, and supramarginal gyrus) that support cognitive control. Unknown is whether the VIQ>PIQ discrepancy is associated with functional deficits in these areas in healthy or ill children and adolescents. We assessed the effects of the VIQ>PIQ discrepancy on fMRI BOLD response during the resolution of cognitive conflict in 55 healthy children and adolescents during performance of a Simon Spatial Incompatibility task. As the magnitude of the VIQ>PIQ discrepancy increased, activation of fronto-striatal, limbic, and temporal regions decreased during conflict resolution (p < .05, corrected). In exploratory analyses, the VIQ>PIQ discrepancy was associated with reduced functional connectivity from right inferior frontal gyrus to right thalamus and increased functional connectivity to right supramarginal gyrus (ps < .03, uncorrected). The VIQ>PIQ discrepancy may be an important aspect of an individual's cognitive profile and likely contributes to, or is associated with, deficient cognitive control processes characteristic of many childhood disorders.

  1. Assigning ethical weights to clinical signs observed during toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Ringblom, Joakim; Törnqvist, Elin; Hansson, Sven Ove; Rudén, Christina; Öberg, Mattias

    2017-01-01

    Reducing the number of laboratory animals used and refining experimental procedures to enhance animal welfare are fundamental questions to be considered in connection with animal experimentation. Here, we explored the use of cardinal ethical weights for clinical signs and symptoms in rodents by conducting trade-off interviews with members of Swedish Animal Ethics Committees in order to derive such weights for nine typical clinical signs of toxicity. The participants interviewed represent researchers, politically nominated political nominees and representatives of animal welfare organizations. We observed no statistically significant differences between these groups with respect to the magnitude of the ethical weights assigned, though the political nominees tended to assign lower weights. Overall, hunched posture was considered the most severe clinical sign and body weight loss the least severe. The ethical weights assigned varied considerably between individuals, from zero to infinite value, indicating discrepancies in prioritization of reduction and refinement. Cardinal ethical weights may be utilized to include both animal welfare refinement and reduction of animal use in designing as well as in retrospective assessment of animal experiments. Such weights may also be used to estimate ethical costs of animal experiments.

  2. Performance discrepancies on the California Verbal Learning Test--Second Edition (CVLT-II) in the standardization sample.

    PubMed

    Donders, Jacobus

    2006-12-01

    The standardization data for the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II; D. C. Delis, J. H. Kramer, E. Kaplan, & B. A. Ober, 2000) were used to evaluate the base rate of 6 specific discrepancies between various key variables. The results indicated that CVLT-II performance discrepancies should equal or exceed 1 or 1.5 z score points (depending on the individual comparison) in the hypothesized direction to be considered potentially unusual. However, because about 1 in 3 persons in the standardization sample displayed at least 1 such large discrepancy, it is concluded that these base rates should be viewed only as a starting point for interpretation.

  3. Establishment of norms of the beta angle to assess the sagittal discrepancy for Nellore district population

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Mandava; Reddy, Karnati Praveen Kumar; Talapaneni, Ashok Kumar; Chaitanya, Nellore; Bhaskar Reddy, Myla Vijay; Patil, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: In orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, assessment of anteroposterior discrepancy is of importance to the orthodontist. Both angular and linear measurements have been incorporated into various cephalometric analyses to help the clinician diagnose anteroposterior discrepancies and establish the most appropriate treatment plan. Hence the present study is designed to establish the norms of Beta angle to assess the sagittal discrepancy for Nellore district population. Materials and Methods: The sample was screened from the old records of the Orthodontic department of Narayana Dental College and Hospital. One hundred and fifty pretreatment cephalometric radiographs (50 each of Class I, II, and III) were subdivided based on ANB, Wits appraisal, and Beta angle into skeletal Class I, II, III. The same cephalograms were again classified into skeletal Class I, II, and III based purely on Beta angle. Each group was again divided into 2 subgroups consisting of 25 male and 25 female subjects with a mean age limit between 15 and 45 years old. Results: The Newman-keuls post hoc test and ANOVA showed that the 3 groups were significantly different (P ≤ 0.001). The Newman-keuls post hoc test also found the groups to be significantly different. Conclusions: There was statistically significant difference for, the mean values and the standard deviation for Beta angle within the three skeletal patterns (Class I, Class II and Class III skeletal patterns). There was no statistically significant difference among the mean values of beta angle between Nellore district population and Caucasian norms and between male and female sex groups. PMID:24082742

  4. Are the numbers adding up? Exploiting discrepancies among complementary population models

    PubMed Central

    Stenglein, Jennifer L; Zhu, Jun; Clayton, Murray K; Van Deelen, Timothy R

    2015-01-01

    Large carnivores are difficult to monitor because they tend to be sparsely distributed, sensitive to human activity, and associated with complex life histories. Consequently, understanding population trend and viability requires conservationists to cope with uncertainty and bias in population data. Joint analysis of combined data sets using multiple models (i.e., integrated population model) can improve inference about mechanisms (e.g., habitat heterogeneity and food distribution) affecting population dynamics. However, unobserved or unobservable processes can also introduce bias and can be difficult to quantify. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach for inference on an integrated population model that reconciles annual population counts with recruitment and survival data (i.e., demographic processes). Our modeling framework is flexible and enables a realistic form of population dynamics by fitting separate density-dependent responses for each demographic process. Discrepancies estimated from shared parameters among different model components represent unobserved additions (i.e., recruitment or immigration) or removals (i.e., death or emigration) when annual population counts are reliable. In a case study of gray wolves in Wisconsin (1980–2011), concordant with policy changes, we estimated that a discrepancy of 0% (1980–1995), −2% (1996–2002), and 4% (2003–2011) in the annual mortality rate was needed to explain annual growth rate. Additional mortality in 2003–2011 may reflect density-dependent mechanisms, changes in illegal killing with shifts in wolf management, and nonindependent censoring in survival data. Integrated population models provide insights into unobserved or unobservable processes by quantifying discrepancies among data sets. Our modeling approach is generalizable to many population analysis needs and allows for identifying dynamic differences due to external drivers, such as management or policy changes. PMID:25691964

  5. Lengthening of replanted or revascularized lower limbs: is length discrepancy a contraindication for limb salvage?

    PubMed

    Parmaksizoglu, Fatih; Beyzadeoglu, Tahsin

    2002-08-01

    Some replantation cases require substantial bone shortening for primary closure. Leg-length discrepancy can be restored by lengthening of the replanted or revascularized extremities. Between 1991 and 2000, four patients with four total and two subtotal below-knee amputations had replantation or revascularization for their severely damaged extremities. All of them had extensive debridement, vascular repair, bone shortening and nerve repair for sensibility of their soles. One of the replanted extremities failed and had to undergo below-knee amputation because of sepsis. No other infection or vascular complications were encountered following the replantations or revascularizations. After bony consolidation, four legs were lengthened; for elimination of length discrepancy in three cases, and for obtaining balanced body proportion in one case in which the other leg was also amputated. In all procedures, a unilateral dynamic axial external fixator was used. The lengthening was performed from the proximal tibial metaphysis, with a subperiosteal osteotomy. Evaluation of injury according to the Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) would encourage the surgeon to avoid salvage surgery with a shortened extremity, because of the required debridement of soft tissue and bone. These authors think the amount of limb shortening is not a major criterion in evaluating a traumatic total or subtotal below-knee amputation for salvage replantation or revascularization. A knee that has stable joint motion and the possibility of preservation of sensibility of the sole broadens the scope of indications for limb salvage, even with deliberate shortening that can be restored by lengthening; length discrepancy is not a contraindication for limb salvage.

  6. Discrepancies between registration and publication of randomised controlled trials: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Graham; Thornton, James G

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To determine the consistency between information contained in the registration and publication of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Design An observational study of RCTs published between May 2011 and May 2012 in the British Medical Journal (BMJ) and the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) comparing registry data with publication data. Participants and Settings Data extracted from published RCTs in BMJ and JAMA. Main outcome measures Timing of trial registration in relation to completion of trial data collection and publication. Registered versus published primary and secondary outcomes, sample size. Results We identified 40 RCTs in BMJ and 36 in JAMA. All 36 JAMA trials and 39 (98%) BMJ trials were registered. All registered trials were registered prior to publication. Thirty-two (82%) BMJ trials recorded the date of data completion; of these, in two trials the date of trial registration postdated the registered date of data completion. There were discrepancies between primary outcomes declared in the trial registry information and in the published paper in 18 (47%) BMJ papers and seven (19%) JAMA papers. The original sample size stated in the trial registration was achieved in 24 (60%) BMJ papers and 21 (58%) JAMA papers. Conclusions Compulsory registration of RCTs is meaningless if the content of registry information is not complete or if discrepancies between registration and publication are not reported. This study demonstrates that discrepancies in primary and secondary outcomes and sample size between trial registration and publication remain commonplace, giving further strength to the World Health Organisation’s argument for mandatory completion of a minimum number of compulsory fields. PMID:25057391

  7. Sequential faulting explains the asymmetry and extension discrepancy of conjugate margins.

    PubMed

    Ranero, César R; Pérez-Gussinyé, Marta

    2010-11-11

    During early extension, cold continental lithosphere thins and subsides, creating rift basins. If extension continues to final break-up, the split and greatly thinned plates subside deep below sea level to form a conjugate pair of rifted margins. Although basins and margins are ubiquitous structures, the deformation processes leading from moderately extended basins to highly stretched margins are unclear, as studies consistently report that crustal thinning is greater than extension caused by brittle faulting. This extension discrepancy might arise from differential stretching of brittle and ductile crustal layers, but that does not readily explain the typical asymmetric structure of conjugate margins-in cross-section, one margin displays gradual thinning accompanied by large faults, and the conjugate margin displays abrupt thinning but smaller-scale faulting. Whole-crust detachments, active from early in the rifting, could in theory create both thinning and asymmetry, but are mechanically problematical. Furthermore, the extension discrepancy occurs at both conjugate margins, leading to the apparent contradiction that both seem to be upper plates to a detachment fault. Alternative models propose that much brittle extension is undetected because of seismic imaging limitations caused either by subseismic-resolution faulting, invisible deformation along top-basement 100-km-scale detachments or the structural complexity of cross-cutting arrays of faults. Here we use depth-migrated seismic images to accurately measure fault extension and compare it with crustal thinning. The observations are used to create a balanced kinematic model of rifting that resolves the extension discrepancy by producing both fault-controlled crustal thinning which progresses from a rift basin to the asymmetric structure, and extreme thinning of conjugate rifted margins. Contrary to current wisdom, the observations support the idea that thinning is to a first degree explained by simple

  8. Discrepancies in perceptions of close relationships of young adolescents: a risk for psychopathology?

    PubMed

    Spilt, Jantine L; Van Lier, Pol A C; Branje, Susan J T; Meeus, Wim; Koot, Hans M

    2015-04-01

    Discrepancies between children and partners (e.g., parents, friends, peers) in reports of social functioning and self-other relationships are common in clinical practice and in research. However, it is not clear whether children's biased perceptions of self-other relationships, relative to the reports of partners, are predominantly a reflection of underlying psychological dysfunctions or whether these biased perceptions present a risk factor for subsequent problematic development. This longitudinal study therefore examined the effects of adolescent-mother disagreement and adolescent-best friend disagreement in perceptions of close (dyadic) relationships on the development of psychopathology in early adolescence. The sample included 497 thirteen year-old adolescents of Dutch-Caucasian backgrounds (57 % boys; 41 % at high risk for externalizing problems), their mothers, and self-nominated best friends. The participants completed reports of positive dyadic relationship quality (warmth) in Grade 7. Discrepancy scores were based on difference scores between the adolescents' versus the partners' reports. Both absolute disagreement and direction of disagreement (i.e., over- or underestimation relative to the relationship partner) were examined. Self-reported symptoms of depression and mother-reported aggression were assessed in Grade 7, 8, and 9. Absolute disagreement in perceptions of warmth between adolescents and best friends was significantly related to higher baseline levels of aggression. No significant effects of discrepancy scores on growth curves of symptoms of depression and aggression were found. The results may suggest that it is more important for adolescents to develop positive perceptions of close relationships than to agree with partners on the quality of the relationship.

  9. Are the numbers adding up? Exploiting discrepancies among complementary population models.

    PubMed

    Stenglein, Jennifer L; Zhu, Jun; Clayton, Murray K; Van Deelen, Timothy R

    2015-01-01

    Large carnivores are difficult to monitor because they tend to be sparsely distributed, sensitive to human activity, and associated with complex life histories. Consequently, understanding population trend and viability requires conservationists to cope with uncertainty and bias in population data. Joint analysis of combined data sets using multiple models (i.e., integrated population model) can improve inference about mechanisms (e.g., habitat heterogeneity and food distribution) affecting population dynamics. However, unobserved or unobservable processes can also introduce bias and can be difficult to quantify. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach for inference on an integrated population model that reconciles annual population counts with recruitment and survival data (i.e., demographic processes). Our modeling framework is flexible and enables a realistic form of population dynamics by fitting separate density-dependent responses for each demographic process. Discrepancies estimated from shared parameters among different model components represent unobserved additions (i.e., recruitment or immigration) or removals (i.e., death or emigration) when annual population counts are reliable. In a case study of gray wolves in Wisconsin (1980-2011), concordant with policy changes, we estimated that a discrepancy of 0% (1980-1995), -2% (1996-2002), and 4% (2003-2011) in the annual mortality rate was needed to explain annual growth rate. Additional mortality in 2003-2011 may reflect density-dependent mechanisms, changes in illegal killing with shifts in wolf management, and nonindependent censoring in survival data. Integrated population models provide insights into unobserved or unobservable processes by quantifying discrepancies among data sets. Our modeling approach is generalizable to many population analysis needs and allows for identifying dynamic differences due to external drivers, such as management or policy changes.

  10. Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen-II. Analysis of the discrepancy of theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Jentschura, U.D.

    2011-02-15

    Research Highlights: > Various theoretical explanation for the recently observed experimental-theoretical discrepancy in the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift are explored. > These include a dip in the proton form factor slope, nonperturbative vacuum polarization and millicharged virtual particles, as well as process-dependent screening corrections. > Screening corrections may need to be explored further. > The need for an alternative determination of the Rydberg constant is highlighted. - Abstract: Currently, both the g factor measurement of the muon as well as the Lamb shift 2S-2P measurement in muonic hydrogen are in disagreement with theory. Here, we investigate possible theoretical explanations, including proton structure effects and small modifications of the vacuum polarization potential. In particular, we investigate a conceivable small modification of the spectral function of vacuum polarization in between the electron and muon energy scales due to a virtual millicharged particle and due to an unstable vector boson originating from a hidden sector of an extended standard model. We find that a virtual millicharged particle which could explain the muonic Lamb shift discrepancy alters theoretical predictions for the muon anomalous magnetic moment by many standard deviations and therefore is in conflict with experiment. Also, we find no parameterizations of an unstable virtual vector boson which could simultaneously explain both 'muonic' discrepancies without significantly altering theoretical predictions for electronic hydrogen, where theory and experiment currently are in excellent agreement. A process-dependent correction involving electron screening is evaluated to have the right sign and order-of-magnitude to explain the observed effect in muonic hydrogen. Additional experimental evidence from light muonic atoms and ions is needed in order to reach further clarification.

  11. On the Discrepancy in Simultaneous Observations of the Structure Parameter of Temperature Using Scintillometers and Unmanned Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braam, Miranda; Beyrich, Frank; Bange, Jens; Platis, Andreas; Martin, Sabrina; Maronga, Björn; Moene, Arnold F.

    2016-02-01

    We elaborate on the preliminary results presented in Beyrich et al. (in Boundary-Layer Meteorol 144:83-112, 2012), who compared the structure parameter of temperature ({CT^2}_{}) obtained with the unmanned meteorological mini aerial vehicle (M2 AV) versus {CT^2}_{} obtained with two large-aperture scintillometers (LASs) for a limited dataset from one single experiment (LITFASS-2009). They found that {CT^2}_{} obtained from the M2 AV data is significantly larger than that obtained from the LAS data. We investigate if similar differences can be found for the flights on the other six days during LITFASS-2009 and LITFASS-2010, and whether these differences can be reduced or explained through a more elaborate processing of both the LAS data and the M2 AV data. This processing includes different corrections and measures to reduce the differences between the spatial and temporal averaging of the datasets. We conclude that the differences reported in Beyrich et al. can be found for other days as well. For the LAS-derived values the additional processing steps that have the largest effect are the saturation correction and the humidity correction. For the M2 AV -derived values the most important step is the application of the scintillometer path-weighting function. Using the true air speed of the M2 AV to convert from a temporal to a spatial structure function rather than the ground speed (as in Beyrich et al.) does not change the mean discrepancy, but it does affect {CT^2}_{} values for individual flights. To investigate whether {CT^2}_{} derived from the M2 AV data depends on the fact that the underlying temperature dataset combines spatial and temporal sampling, we used large-eddy simulation data to analyze {CT^2}_{} from virtual flights with different mean ground speeds. This analysis shows that {CT^2}_{} does only slightly depends on the true air speed when averaged over many flights.

  12. On Utilization of NEXRAD Scan Strategy Information to Infer Discrepancies Associated With Radar and Rain Gauge Surface Volumetric Rainfall Accumulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, Biswadev; Datta, Saswati; Jones, W. Linwood; Kasparis, Takis; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) monthly Ground Validation (GV) rain map, 42 quality controlled tipping bucket rain gauge data (1 minute interpolated rain rates) were utilized. We have compared the gauge data to the surface volumetric rainfall accumulation of NEXRAD reflectivity field, (converting to rain rates using a 0.5 dB resolution smooth Z-R table). The comparison was carried out from data collected at Melbourne, Florida during the month of July 98. GV operational level 3 (L3 monthly) accumulation algorithm was used to obtain surface volumetric accumulations for the radar. The gauge records were accumulated using the 1 minute interpolated rain rates while the radar Volume Scan (VOS) intervals remain less than or equal to 75 minutes. The correlation coefficient for the radar and gauge totals for the monthly time-scale remain at 0.93, however, a large difference was noted between the gauge and radar derived rain accumulation when the radar data interval is either 9 minute, or 10 minute. This difference in radar and gauge accumulation is being explained in terms of the radar scan strategy information. The discrepancy in terms of the Volume Coverage Pattern (VCP) of the NEXRAD is being reported where VCP mode is ascertained using the radar tilt angle information. Hourly radar and gauge accumulations have been computed using the present operational L3 method supplemented with a threshold period of +/- 5 minutes (based on a sensitivity analysis). These radar and gauge accumulations are subsequently improved using a radar hourly scan weighting factor (taking ratio of the radar scan frequency within a time bin to the 7436 total radar scans for the month). This GV procedure is further being improved by introducing a spatial smoothing method to yield reasonable bulk radar to gauge ratio for the hourly and daily scales.

  13. A study in the use of the position of discrepant events in the teaching of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassinelli, John James

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether alternative placement of discrepant events would impact affective and cognitive outcomes of ninth-grade physical science students grouped into intact classes and classified as either "high" or "low" in prior academic achievement. Although researchers have found discrepant events to be effective in terms of cognition and recall, their chronological placement within science lessons had not been empirically researched. In this study, discrepant events were presented before, during, and after specific science lessons involving thermodynamics and heat. Discrepant events were withheld from the control group. To measure affective outcomes, the "enjoyment" and "motivation" scales taken from Sandman's (1973) Attitudes Towards Science Inventory (ATSI) were used to index subjects' global feelings about studying science, while a 20-item set of Semantic Differential (SD) scales was employed to determine their attitudes regarding the specific subject matter taught. To measure cognitive outcomes, a 20-item, selected response test was constructed by the researcher, with 6 items intended to assess subjects' knowledge of unit materials, and 14 items designed to query their understanding of unit concepts. Each subject (N = 131) was administered identical forms of each test in both pre-and post-test formats, both before and after the four-week study. Analyzed using a 4 x 2 mixed Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) model, data pertinent to the ATSI suggested neither between- nor within-group differences in subjects' global attitudes about studying science, although data pertinent to the SD scales indicated generally improved attitudes about studying thermodynamics and heat (F (1,122) = 2.759, p < .10). On the cognitive pretests and posttests, significant two-way interactions were observed for the overall test and experimental condition (F (3,121) = 4.068, p < .01), as well as for the overall test and higher prior achievement in physical

  14. The Discrepancy Between Measured and Modeled Downwelling Solar Irradiance at the Ground: Dependence on Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilewski, P.; Rabbette, M.; Bergstrom, R.; Marquez, J.; Schmid, B.; Russell, P. B.

    2000-01-01

    Moderate resolution spectra of the downwelling solar irradiance at the ground in north central Oklahoma were measured during the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Intensive Observation Period in the fall of 1997. Spectra obtained under-cloud-free conditions were compared with calculations using a coarse resolution radiative transfer model to examine the dependency of model-measurement bias on water vapor. It was found that the bias was highly correlated with water vapor and increased at a rate of 9 Wm per cm of water. The source of the discrepancy remains undetermined because of the complex dependencies of other variables, most notably aerosol optical depth, on water vapor.

  15. The Kardashian index: a measure of discrepant social media profile for scientists.

    PubMed

    Hall, Neil

    2014-07-30

    In the era of social media there are now many different ways that a scientist can build their public profile; the publication of high-quality scientific papers being just one. While social media is a valuable tool for outreach and the sharing of ideas, there is a danger that this form of communication is gaining too high a value and that we are losing sight of key metrics of scientific value, such as citation indices. To help quantify this, I propose the 'Kardashian Index', a measure of discrepancy between a scientist's social media profile and publication record based on the direct comparison of numbers of citations and Twitter followers.

  16. Ilizarov method to correct limb length discrepancy after limb-sparing hemipelvectomy.

    PubMed

    Catagani, Maurizio A; Ottaviani, Giulia

    2008-11-01

    Pelvic resection for a sarcoma in young patients is challenging, with significant functional, psychological, and social implications. We report the case of a 26-year-old former Ewing's sarcoma patient in whom the Ilizarov technique was applied to address 6 cm of leg length discrepancy secondary to internal hemipelvectomy with superomedial dislocation of the right femoral head. Fifteen years after the internal hemipelvectomy, the patient underwent distal femoral and bifocal tibial lengthening using circular frames. The results obtained in this patient underline the usefulness of the Ilizarov treatment to increase the quality of life in long-term survivors of pelvic bone cancer.

  17. The Morpho/Functional Discrepancy in the Cerebellar Cortex: Looks Alone are Deceptive

    PubMed Central

    Rokni, Dan; Llinas, Rodolfo; Yarom, Yosef

    2008-01-01

    In a recent report we demonstrated that stimulation of cerebellar mossy fibers synchronously activates Purkinje cells that are located directly above the site of stimulation. We found that the activated Purkinje cells are arranged in a radial patch on the cerebellar surface and that this organization is independent of the integrity of the inhibitory system. This arrangement of activity is counterintuitive. The anatomical structure with the extensive parallel fiber system implies that mossy fiber stimulation will activate Purkinje cells along a beam of parallel fibers. In this short review we highlight this discrepancy between anatomical structure and functional dynamics and suggest a plausible underlying mechanism. PMID:19225592

  18. Weight gain - unintentional

    MedlinePlus

    ... trying to do so can have many causes. Metabolism slows down as you age . This can cause weight gain if you eat too much, eat the wrong foods, or do not get enough exercise. Drugs that can cause weight gain include: Birth ...

  19. The Meaning of Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iona, Mario

    1975-01-01

    Presents a summary and comparison of various views on the concepts of mass and weight. Includes a consideration of gravitational force in an inertial system and apparent gravitational force on a rotating earth. Discusses the units and methods for measuring mass and weight. (GS)

  20. Labor Supply and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Philipson, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    We use panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate on-the-job exercise and weight. For male workers, job-related exercise has causal effects on weight, but for female workers, the effects seem primarily selective. A man who spends 18 years in the most physical fitness-demanding occupation is about 25 pounds (14…

  1. Keep Weight Off

    MedlinePlus

    ... proved to be the most useful by the end of the 2 ½-year study. Researchers say overall the effects of the counseling and support were modest, and most people in the study did regain some weight. But they note that even modest weight loss can have health ...

  2. Exercise and Weight Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Victor L.

    This paper describes a number of factors which go into determining weight. The paper describes what calories are, how caloric expenditure is measured, and why caloric expenditure is different for different people. The paper then outlines the way the body tends to adjust food intake and exercise to maintain a constant body weight. It is speculated…

  3. Pregnancy and Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Profiles Multimedia Pregnancy & Healthy Weight Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content New research shows that maintaining a healthy weight before and during pregnancy can reduce the likelihood of negative effects for mothers and babies We’ve heard the ...

  4. The Weighted Oblimin Rotation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that the weighting procedure proposed by E. Cureton and S. Mulaik (1975) can be applied to the Direct Oblimin approach of D. Clarkson and R. Jennrich (1988) to provide good results. The rotation method obtained is called Weighted Oblimin. Compared this method to other rotation methods with favorable results. (SLD)

  5. Common Weight Loss Challenges

    MedlinePlus

    ... to lose that we’ve been talking about weight-loss surgery. Is that something we should consider?” Although the ... have the operation should not be made hastily. Weight-loss surgery is only advisable for extremely overweight adolescents for ...

  6. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted.

  7. Minimizing the Discrepancy between Simulated and Historical Failures in Turbine Engines: A Simulation-Based Optimization Method (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2015-0169 MINIMIZING THE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN SIMULATED AND HISTORICAL FAILURES IN TURBINE ENGINES: A SIMULATION-BASED...To) 15 November 2011 – 30 December 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MINIMIZING THE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN SIMULATED AND HISTORICAL FAILURES IN TURBINE ...final publication is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/813565. 14. ABSTRACT The reliability modeling of a module in a turbine engine

  8. Stellar oxygen abundances. I - A resolution to the 7774 A O I abundance discrepancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Jeremy R.

    1993-09-01

    We investigate the discrepancy between O/Fe abundance ratios of metal-poor stars derived from the 7774 A O I triplet and O/Fe ratios determined from other oxygen lines. We propose a possible resolution to this discrepancy which also eliminates the correlation of O/Fe and T(eff) found in a recent 7774 A O I analysis. The equivalent widths of Abia & Rebolo (1989) are found to be systematically too high by 25 percent. Arguments are presented that current temperature estimates for halo stars are 150-200 K too low. Using the guidance of both model atmospheres and other empirical color-T(eff) relations, we construct new color temperature relations for metal-poor stars. These relations are tied to the temperature scale of Saxner & Hammarback (1985) for metal-rich stars. We use (b-y) and (V-K) indices to redetermine values of T(eff) for a handful of halo stars. (B-V)-T(eff) relations which do not take into account the effects of metallicity are found to be inadequate. Revised O/Fe ratios are determined using the new temperature scale. The mean abundance ratio of the reanalyzed halo dwarfs is about +0.52. There is no trend of O/Fe with Fe/H or T(eff).

  9. Sexual behavior and HIV risk among age-discrepant, same-sex male couples.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Chadwick K; Gomez, Anu Manchikanti; Hoff, Colleen; Grisham, Kirk K; Wilson, Patrick A; Dworkin, Shari L

    2016-06-13

    Research has suggested that men who have sex with men and who have older sexual partners are at increased risk of HIV infection. However, while several studies have explored risk among men in age-discrepant non-primary partnerships, only two have explored age discrepancy and risk in primary same-sex male relationships. We used data from semi-structured in-depth interviews to explore sexual behaviour and HIV risk among 14 Black, white and interracial (Black/white) same-sex male couples with an age difference of 10 or more years. Most couples regularly used condoms, and sexual positioning tended to lead to lower risk for younger partners. Some serodiscordant couples abstained from anal sex, while others used seropositioning to avoid transmission within the relationship. Within some couples, older partners acted as mentors on HIV prevention and broader life lessons. Future studies should further explore the potential risks and benefits of large age differences in same-sex male primary relationships.

  10. The management of leg-length discrepancy in Ollier's disease with a fully implantable lengthening nail.

    PubMed

    Baumgart, R; Bürklein, D; Hinterwimmer, S; Thaller, P; Mutschler, W

    2005-07-01

    Ollier's disease is characterised by severe deformity of the extremities and retarded growth because of multiple enchondromas. For correction of deformity, the Ilizarov method has been used although it has many complications. A 17-year-old boy with Ollier's disease had a limb-length discrepancy of 17.4 cm, with a valgus deformity of the right knee and recurvatum of the femur of 23 degrees . He had undergone three unsuccessful attempts to correct the deformities by using external fixators. We used a fully implantable, motorised, lengthening and correction nail (Fitbone) to achieve full correction of all the deformities without complications. We decided to carry out the procedure in three stages. First, we lengthened the femur by 3.6 cm and the tibia by 4 cm. We then exchanged the femoral nail for a longer implant and achieved a further 6 cm of length. This reduced the shortening to 3.8 cm. When the boy has finished secondary school we will adjust the remaining discrepancy.

  11. In vivo recovery with products of very high purity--assay discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Lusher, J M; Hillman-Wiseman, C; Hurst, D

    1998-07-01

    In view of reports of FVIII assay discrepancies in post-infusion plasma samples depending on methods used, we compared FVIII results run by each of four different methods following infusion of rFVIII (Kogenate). Nine persons with haemophilia A were infused with each of two lots of product. Plasma samples were obtained at baseline, and at 10 min, 30 min, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 14, 30 and 48 h post-infusion for measurement of FVIII. FVIII assay methods were chromogenic, and one-stage APTT using three different types of activators: micronized, silica, ellagic acid, and kaolin. The same reference plasma standard was used throughout. Results demonstrated a consistent difference in FVIII values, with chromogenic assays being considerably higher than those run by one-stage assays. The discrepancy was greatest when kaolin was the activator. These results point out the problems in attempting to determine the "correct" FVIII level in patient plasma samples following infusion of high purity FVIII preparations. Potential "pitfalls" include the standard used for defining product potency, the methods, reagents, instrumentation and standards used in assaying plasma samples and, in some instances, the characteristics of the product itself. This situation has considerable cost implications, potential impact on patient care, and makes it difficult to compare results between laboratories.

  12. RESOLVING THE ELECTRON TEMPERATURE DISCREPANCIES IN H II REGIONS AND PLANETARY NEBULAE: {kappa}-DISTRIBUTED ELECTRONS

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholls, David C.; Dopita, Michael A.; Sutherland, Ralph S.

    2012-06-20

    The measurement of electron temperatures and metallicities in H II regions and planetary nebulae (PNe) has-for several decades-presented a problem: results obtained using different techniques disagree. What is worse, they disagree consistently. There have been numerous attempts to explain these discrepancies, but none has provided a satisfactory solution to the problem. In this paper, we explore the possibility that electrons in H II regions and PNe depart from a Maxwell-Boltzmann equilibrium energy distribution. We adopt a '{kappa}-distribution' for the electron energies. Such distributions are widely found in solar system plasmas, where they can be directly measured. This simple assumption is able to explain the temperature and metallicity discrepancies in H II regions and PNe arising from the different measurement techniques. We find that the energy distribution does not need to depart dramatically from an equilibrium distribution. From an examination of data from H II regions and PNe, it appears that {kappa} {approx}> 10 is sufficient to encompass nearly all objects. We argue that the kappa-distribution offers an important new insight into the physics of gaseous nebulae, both in the Milky Way and elsewhere, and one that promises significantly more accurate estimates of temperature and metallicity in these regions.

  13. Price Discrepancy Between Sellers and Buyers When Making Decisions for the Self and Others.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ziyuan; Zhang, Baojun; Li, Zhongquan

    2016-06-01

    In daily life, people make decisions not only for themselves but also on behalf of others. There may be differences in terms of the endowment effect when making decisions in these two situations. In Study 1, this question was investigated with an existing dataset exploring the traditional endowment effect, in which 86 students (M age = 20.8 years, SD = 5.0) at Harvard University were asked to make a decision on selling or buying a coffee mug for themselves or for others as brokers. When making decisions for the self, the average price demanded by sellers was much higher than that offered by buyers; while making decisions for others, the price discrepancy disappeared. In Study 2, a similar study was conducted with a sample of 42 Chinese university students (M age = 22.3 years, SD = 2.5), and a similar pattern of results was obtained. Further analysis indicated that when making decisions for others, only buyers increased their valuations, therefore mitigating the seller-buyer price discrepancy. Finally, the findings were interpreted from the perspective of Construal Level Theory.

  14. Discrepancies in HLA typing by PCR-SSOP and SBT techniques: a case study.

    PubMed

    Spínola, Hélder; Bruges-Armas, Jácome; Brehm, António

    2007-10-01

    Six hundred twenty-one samples from Portugal, the Cabo Verde archipelago, and Guinea-Bissau were typed for HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DRB1 using the polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe (PCR-SSOP) method and the sequence-based typing (SBT) method to characterize and compare discrepancies between the two methods. Fifty-three alleles (4.27% of 1242 chromosomes typed) identified by the PCR-SSOP method were not concordant with the results obtained using the SBT method. Thirty-four (2.74% of total chromosomes typed) PCR-SSOP mistyping results were discrepancies inside the same allele group and 19 others (1.53% of total chromosomes typed) were relative to nonconcordant results between different groups. PCR-SSOP allele mistyping is the result of interpretation difficulties resulting from less intense, absent, or dubious hybridization patterns. Noncommercial PCR-SSOP procedures are highly exigent on the technicians' experience and the availability of properly calibrated high-precision equipment.

  15. Correction of Length Discrepancy of Radius and Ulna with Distraction Osteogenesis: Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Koca, Kenan; Akpancar, Serkan; Yıldız, Cemil

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the study was to investigate the results of patients with isolated length discrepancy between ulna and radius who underwent distraction osteogenesis with unilateral external fixator. Material and Methods. A patient with ulna shortening due to multiple enchondromatosis, a patient with ulna shortening due to ulnar club hand, and a patient with radial shortening due to radial club hand were included in the study. The patients underwent ulna and radial distraction osteogenesis with unilateral external fixator. Range of wrist and forearm motion, deformities, and length discrepancy of ulna and radius were compared at preoperative and postoperative. Results. Duration of external fixation and followup were 2.6 and 23.3 months, respectively. Mean distraction osteogenesis was 1.66 cm. No patient reached the length of normal side. Range of rotation of forearm was increased by 15°. Range of ulnar-radial deviation was increased by 21.6°. Deformity of 15° at patient with multiple enchondromatosis was corrected. Conclusion. Isolated ulna or radius shortening may reduce with distraction osteogenesis by unilateral external fixator to prevent serious deformity. PMID:26347840

  16. Combination of Mandibular Constriction and Intraoral Vertical Ramus Osteotomies for a Transverse Jaw Discrepancy

    PubMed Central

    Mitsugi, Masaharu; Hirose, Hisamitsu; Tatemoto, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the treatment of patients developing a transverse jaw width discrepancy who exhibited class III malocclusion and/or facial asymmetry by a combination of mandibular constriction (MC) and intraoral vertical ramus osteotomies (IVROs). Subjects and methods: In a retrospective study, functional results, postoperative complications, and skeletal stability were analyzed for all the patients who had undergone MC and IVRO, with more than 2 years of follow-up. A mandibular midline osteotomy for constriction with lag screw technique and IVROs was used for MC and setback. Results: Sixteen patients were included in the present study. The average degree of MC was 6.34 mm. Both the occlusal relationship and facial appearance in all patients were significantly improved by the surgical orthodontic treatment, with no harmful clinical symptoms. In addition, our original MC using lag screw technique provided the most reliable results in terms of skeletal stability. Conclusions: This study showed that MC using lag screw technique gives a very stable mandibular width constriction, and the combination of MC and IVROs offers a promising treatment alternative for patients with mandibular prognathism developing a transverse jaw width discrepancy. PMID:26495234

  17. The influence of discrepancies between adolescent and parent ratings of family dynamics on the well-being of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Jaimee; Jose, Paul E

    2012-12-01

    The present study examined whether discrepancies between adolescent and parent ratings of family dynamics predict adolescent well-being over time. Self-report data from 972 adolescent-parent dyads collected at two time points separated by one year were analyzed. Both adolescents and parents rated a variety of family dynamics (e.g., cohesion), and adolescents reported on their levels of well-being (confidence, purpose in life, and positive relations with others). Significant discrepancies between adolescents' and parents' perceptions of family functioning were found for all positive family dynamics, but not for family conflict. Furthermore, discrepancies increased over time and larger discrepancies were noted for older adolescents. Results from the residualized path model showed that discrepancies were bidirectionally related to adolescent well-being. In addition, age was found to moderate the predictive model. Specifically, 14-15 year olds (year 10) were found to be more stable in their well-being over time than younger adolescents. Also, results indicate that well-being is a significantly stronger negative predictor of discrepancies over time for the 14-15 year olds (year 10) than the for 10-11 year olds (year 6). The authors suggest that future research would benefit from investigations of the relationship between divergent perspectives of family members and adjustment outcomes of adolescents.

  18. Fit to WHO weight standard of European infants over time

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Daniel; Marryat, Louise; Cole, Tim J; McColl, John; Harjunmaa, Ulla; Ashorn, Per; Wright, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The 2006 WHO growth charts were created to provide an international standard for optimal growth, based on healthy, breastfed populations, but it has been suggested that Northern European children fit them poorly. This study uses infant weight data spanning 50 years to determine how well-nourished preschool children from different eras fit the WHO standard, and discuss the implications of deviations. Design Four longitudinal datasets from the UK and one from Finland were used comprising over 8000 children born between1959 and 2003. Weights from birth to 2 years were converted to age–sex-adjusted Z scores using the WHO standard and summarised using Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape. Results Weights showed a variable fit to the WHO standard. Mean weights for all cohorts were above the WHO median at birth, but dipped by up to 0.5 SD to a nadir at 8 weeks before rising again. Birth weights increased in successive cohorts and the initial dip became slightly shallower. By age 1 year, cohorts were up to 0.75 SD above the WHO median, but there was no consistent pattern by era. Conclusions The WHO standard shows an acceptable, but variable fit for Northern European infants. While birth weights increased over time, there was, unexpectedly, no consistent variation by cohort beyond this initial period. Discrepancies in weight from the standard may reflect differences in measurement protocol and trends in infant feeding practice. PMID:26883079

  19. Selecting, weeding, and weighting biased climate model ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, C. S.; Picton, J.; Huerta, G.; Nosedal Sanchez, A.

    2012-12-01

    In the Bayesian formulation, the "log-likelihood" is a test statistic for selecting, weeding, or weighting climate model ensembles with observational data. This statistic has the potential to synthesize the physical and data constraints on quantities of interest. One of the thorny issues for formulating the log-likelihood is how one should account for biases. While in the past we have included a generic discrepancy term, not all biases affect predictions of quantities of interest. We make use of a 165-member ensemble CAM3.1/slab ocean climate models with different parameter settings to think through the issues that are involved with predicting each model's sensitivity to greenhouse gas forcing given what can be observed from the base state. In particular we use multivariate empirical orthogonal functions to decompose the differences that exist among this ensemble to discover what fields and regions matter to the model's sensitivity. We find that the differences that matter are a small fraction of the total discrepancy. Moreover, weighting members of the ensemble using this knowledge does a relatively poor job of adjusting the ensemble mean toward the known answer. This points out the shortcomings of using weights to correct for biases in climate model ensembles created by a selection process that does not emphasize the priorities of your log-likelihood.

  20. Self-Discrepancies as Predictors of Self-Concept in Mathematics and Related Emotional Consequences among LD and Regular Education High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Shawn

    2011-01-01

    Guided by the Self Discrepancy Theory (Higgins, 1987), the present study examines the nature of self-discrepancies, related emotional consequences, and math self-concept among high school students with and without learning disabilities. A total of 104 students in New York area participated in the present study. Math-Self Discrepancy Measure, Math…

  1. Light-weight plastination.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Hanno; Rabi, Suganthy; Saito, Toshiyuki; Sawutti, Alimjan; Miyaki, Takayoshi; Itoh, Masahiro; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina

    2008-11-20

    Plastination is an excellent technique which helps to keep the anatomical specimens in a dry, odourless state. Since the invention of plastination technique by von Hagens, research has been done to improve the quality of plastinated specimens. In this paper, we have described a method of producing light-weight plastinated specimens using xylene along with silicone and in the final step, substitute xylene with air. The finished plastinated specimens were light-weight, dry, odourless and robust. This method requires less use of resin thus making the plastination technique more cost-effective. The light-weight specimens are easy to carry and can easily be used for teaching.

  2. Strong Discrepancies between Local Temperature Mapping and Interpolated Climatic Grids in Tropical Mountainous Agricultural Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Faye, Emile; Herrera, Mario; Bellomo, Lucio; Silvain, Jean-François; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Bridging the gap between the predictions of coarse-scale climate models and the fine-scale climatic reality of species is a key issue of climate change biology research. While it is now well known that most organisms do not experience the climatic conditions recorded at weather stations, there is little information on the discrepancies between microclimates and global interpolated temperatures used in species distribution models, and their consequences for organisms’ performance. To address this issue, we examined the fine-scale spatiotemporal heterogeneity in air, crop canopy and soil temperatures of agricultural landscapes in the Ecuadorian Andes and compared them to predictions of global interpolated climatic grids. Temperature time-series were measured in air, canopy and soil for 108 localities at three altitudes and analysed using Fourier transform. Discrepancies between local temperatures vs. global interpolated grids and their implications for pest performance were then mapped and analysed using GIS statistical toolbox. Our results showed that global interpolated predictions over-estimate by 77.5±10% and under-estimate by 82.1±12% local minimum and maximum air temperatures recorded in the studied grid. Additional modifications of local air temperatures were due to the thermal buffering of plant canopies (from −2.7°K during daytime to 1.3°K during night-time) and soils (from −4.9°K during daytime to 6.7°K during night-time) with a significant effect of crop phenology on the buffer effect. This discrepancies between interpolated and local temperatures strongly affected predictions of the performance of an ectothermic crop pest as interpolated temperatures predicted pest growth rates 2.3–4.3 times lower than those predicted by local temperatures. This study provides quantitative information on the limitation of coarse-scale climate data to capture the reality of the climatic environment experienced by living organisms. In highly heterogeneous

  3. Strong discrepancies between local temperature mapping and interpolated climatic grids in tropical mountainous agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Faye, Emile; Herrera, Mario; Bellomo, Lucio; Silvain, Jean-François; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Bridging the gap between the predictions of coarse-scale climate models and the fine-scale climatic reality of species is a key issue of climate change biology research. While it is now well known that most organisms do not experience the climatic conditions recorded at weather stations, there is little information on the discrepancies between microclimates and global interpolated temperatures used in species distribution models, and their consequences for organisms' performance. To address this issue, we examined the fine-scale spatiotemporal heterogeneity in air, crop canopy and soil temperatures of agricultural landscapes in the Ecuadorian Andes and compared them to predictions of global interpolated climatic grids. Temperature time-series were measured in air, canopy and soil for 108 localities at three altitudes and analysed using Fourier transform. Discrepancies between local temperatures vs. global interpolated grids and their implications for pest performance were then mapped and analysed using GIS statistical toolbox. Our results showed that global interpolated predictions over-estimate by 77.5 ± 10% and under-estimate by 82.1 ± 12% local minimum and maximum air temperatures recorded in the studied grid. Additional modifications of local air temperatures were due to the thermal buffering of plant canopies (from -2.7 °K during daytime to 1.3 °K during night-time) and soils (from -4.9 °K during daytime to 6.7 °K during night-time) with a significant effect of crop phenology on the buffer effect. This discrepancies between interpolated and local temperatures strongly affected predictions of the performance of an ectothermic crop pest as interpolated temperatures predicted pest growth rates 2.3-4.3 times lower than those predicted by local temperatures. This study provides quantitative information on the limitation of coarse-scale climate data to capture the reality of the climatic environment experienced by living organisms. In highly heterogeneous

  4. Weight loss goals of patients in a health maintenance organization.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Gareth R; Perri, Michael G; Dancer-Brown, Melissa; Goble, Mary; Van Vessem, Nancy

    2010-04-01

    Individuals seeking weight loss treatment endorse unrealistic expectations regarding their goals for weight loss, although these conclusions are primarily based on research conducted in obesity specialty clinics and/or controlled clinical trials. This study examined the weight loss goals and predictors of these goals among patients participating in obesity treatment in an applied, clinical setting (i.e., managed care organization). Managed care patients enrolled in a behavioral weight loss program (N=143; mean age=46.8 years; mean BMI=36.9 kg/m(2); 89.5% female; 64.5% Caucasian) completed a self-report survey during an initial weight loss session. The survey included items assessing patients' weight loss expectations, including goals for dream, happy, acceptable, and disappointed weights. Participants completed questions regarding contacts with their primary care physician and physician provision of weight loss counseling and/or referrals. They also provided values for current height and weight. BMI's and weight loss associated with dream, happy, acceptable, and disappointed weight goals were 24.8 kg/m(2) (30.9% loss), 27.1 kg/m(2) (25.2% loss), 29.3 kg/m(2) (19.7% loss), and 33.0 kg/m(2) (10.4% loss), respectively. There were significant gender differences in weight loss goals, with women endorsing more unrealistic goals than men for dream and happy weights, ps<0.001. Significant predictors of all four weight loss goals included baseline BMI, gender, ethnicity, and frequency of visits with one's primary care physician, ps<0.01. Consistent with previous research, patients participating in a weight loss program implemented in a managed care setting endorsed unrealistic expectations for weight loss. However, more frequent contact with one's primary care physician was associated with more realistic goals. Future, longitudinal research is needed to document the discrepancy between these goals and actual weight loss achieved in such settings as well as to determine

  5. Preventing Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    ... body composition gradually shifts — the proportion of muscle decreases and the proportion of fat increases. This shift slows their metabolism, making it easier to gain weight. In addition, some people become less physically ...

  6. Your Child's Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... spurts in height and weight gain in both boys and girls. Once these changes start, they continue for several ... or obese . Different BMI charts are used for boys and girls under the age of 20 because the amount ...

  7. Weight in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kenshole, Anne B.

    1972-01-01

    Diabetes is being increasingly detected among the overweight. The author discusses the links between diabetes and obesity, and outlines methods by which satisfactory weight reduction may be achieved. PMID:20468726

  8. Prizes for weight loss.

    PubMed Central

    Englberger, L.

    1999-01-01

    A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662

  9. Discrepancies between Parent and Adolescent Beliefs about Daily Life Topics and Performance on an Emotion Recognition Task

    PubMed Central

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Lerner, Matthew D.; Thomas, Sarah A.; Daruwala, Samantha; Goepel, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Parents and children and adolescents commonly disagree in their perceptions of a variety of behaviors, including the family relationship and environment, and child and adolescent psychopathology. To this end, numerous studies have examined to what extent increased discrepant perceptions—particularly with regard to perceptions of the family relationship and environment—predict increased child and adolescent psychopathology. Parents’ and children and adolescents’ abilities to decode and identify others’ emotions (i.e., emotion recognition) may play a role in the link between discrepant perceptions and child and adolescent psychopathology. We examined parents’ and adolescents’ emotion recognition abilities in relation to discrepancies between parent and adolescent perceptions of daily life topics. In a sample of 50 parents and adolescents ages 14-to-17 years (M = 15.4 years, 20 males, 54% African-American), parents and adolescents were each administered a widely used performance-based measure of emotion recognition. Parents and adolescents were also administered a structured interview designed to directly assess each of their perceptions of the extent to which discrepancies existed in their beliefs about daily life topics (e.g., whether adolescents should complete their homework and carry out household chores). Interestingly, lower parent and adolescent emotion recognition performance significantly related to greater parent and adolescent perceived discrepant beliefs about daily life topics. We observed this relation whilst accounting for adolescent age and gender and levels of parent-adolescent conflict. These findings have important implications for understanding and using informant discrepancies in both basic developmental psychopathology research and applied research in clinic settings (e.g., discrepant views on therapeutic goals). PMID:23504303

  10. Informant discrepancies in externalizing and internalizing symptoms and adaptive skills of high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Christin A; Lopata, Christopher; Donnelly, James P; Thomeer, Marcus L; Rodgers, Jonathan D; Jordan, Allyson K

    2016-12-01

    Assessment of clinical symptoms requires information from multiple informants. Discrepancies between informants' ratings can have significant implications in school settings (e.g., access to services, treatment planning, progress monitoring). This study examined parent-teacher discrepancies for ratings of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and adaptive skills of high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder. A total of 236 Behavior Assessment System for Children-2nd Edition ratings of children with high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder from 2 informant groups (parents and teachers) were analyzed. Each informant pair (n = 118 parents/caregivers and n = 118 teachers) rated the same child. Scores on the Internalizing Problems, Externalizing Problems, and Adaptive Skills Composites were examined for mean differences, level of agreement, linear relationship, and moderators of discrepancies. There were no significant mean differences between raters for the Internalizing and Externalizing Composites or their constituent scales (except Hyperactivity). Parent-teacher ratings on these composites and scales were significantly correlated (generally moderate), and the discrepancies were not moderated by the included child or parent variables. In contrast, teacher ratings were significantly higher than parents for the Adaptive Skills Composite and several of its constituent scales. Correlations between informants on the Adaptive Skills Composite were significant (low-to-moderate), with notable variability in the correlations among its constituent scales. The degree of parent-teacher discrepancy differed significantly across the Adaptive Skills Composite score range, but it was not moderated by the included child or parent variables. This study suggests a reduced likelihood of informant discrepancies for externalizing and internalizing symptoms, with larger discrepancies expected when assessing adaptive skills. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Discrepancies between parent and adolescent beliefs about daily life topics and performance on an emotion recognition task.

    PubMed

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Lerner, Matthew D; Thomas, Sarah A; Daruwala, Samantha; Goepel, Katherine

    2013-08-01

    Parents and children and adolescents commonly disagree in their perceptions of a variety of behaviors, including the family relationship and environment, and child and adolescent psychopathology. To this end, numerous studies have examined to what extent increased discrepant perceptions-particularly with regard to perceptions of the family relationship and environment-predict increased child and adolescent psychopathology. Parents' and children and adolescents' abilities to decode and identify others' emotions (i.e., emotion recognition) may play a role in the link between discrepant perceptions and child and adolescent psychopathology. We examined parents' and adolescents' emotion recognition abilities in relation to discrepancies between parent and adolescent perceptions of daily life topics. In a sample of 50 parents and adolescents ages 14-to-17 years (M = 15.4 years, 20 males, 54 % African-American), parents and adolescents were each administered a widely used performance-based measure of emotion recognition. Parents and adolescents were also administered a structured interview designed to directly assess each of their perceptions of the extent to which discrepancies existed in their beliefs about daily life topics (e.g., whether adolescents should complete their homework and carry out household chores). Interestingly, lower parent and adolescent emotion recognition performance significantly related to greater parent and adolescent perceived discrepant beliefs about daily life topics. We observed this relation whilst accounting for adolescent age and gender and levels of parent-adolescent conflict. These findings have important implications for understanding and using informant discrepancies in both basic developmental psychopathology research and applied research in clinic settings (e.g., discrepant views on therapeutic goals).

  12. Impact of IQ discrepancy on executive function in high-functioning autism: insight into twice exceptionality.

    PubMed

    Kalbfleisch, M Layne; Loughan, Ashlee R

    2012-03-01

    We examined the impact of IQ discrepancy (IQD) within (1) and above (1+) one standard deviation on executive function in HFA using the BRIEF. We hypothesized that IQD would benefit executive function. IQD 1 is hallmarked by deficits in BRIEF indices and subscales inhibit, shift, initiate, working memory, planning and organization, and monitor (MANCOVA, p < .003, corrected). As IQD increases to 1+, deficits are fewer, corresponding to subscales inhibit, shift, and initiate. Pearson correlations (p < .004, corrected) identify significant relationships for FSIQ and BRIEF Global Composite (r = -.66, p = .002) and Metacognition subscales plan/organize (r = -.64, p = .003) and monitor (r = -.63, p = .004). Results suggest IQD 1+ favoring verbal IQ may support these aspects of executive function in HFA.

  13. WAIS-III FSIQ and GAI in ability-memory discrepancy analysis.

    PubMed

    Glass, Laura A; Bartels, Jared M; Ryan, Joseph J

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation compares WAIS-III FSIQ-WMS-III with GAI-WMS-III discrepancies in 135 male inpatients with suspected memory impairment. Full Scale IQ and GAI scores were highly correlated, r= .96, with mean values of 92.10 and 93.59, respectively. Additional analyses with the ability composites compared to each WMS-III index (IMI, GMI, and DMI), the GAI consistently produced larger difference scores than did the FSIQ; however, effect sizes were relatively small (ES= .12). Lastly, case-by-case analyses demonstrated concordance rates of 86% for the FSIQ-IMI and GAI-IMI comparisons, 85% for the FSIQ-GMI and GAI-GMI, and 82% for the FSIQ-DMI and GAI-DMI.

  14. Discrepancies between Antigen and Polymerase Chain Reaction Tests for the Detection of Rotavirus and Norovirus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Jae-Seok

    2016-05-01

    We compared the results of an antigen test (ELISA) with those of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of rotavirus and norovirus in stool specimens. Rotavirus and norovirus antigen-positive stool specimens were collected, and rotavirus and norovirus PCRs were performed on these specimens. Of the 325 rotavirus antigen-positive specimens, 200 were positive for both assays and 125 were PCR negative. Of 286 norovirus antigen-positive specimens, 51 were PCR negative. Comparison of the lower limit of detection showed that rotavirus PCR was 16 times more sensitive and norovirus PCR was over 4,000 times more sensitive than the ELISA. Discrepant results between ELISA and PCR were common, and the possibility of false-positive and false-negative results should be considered with rotavirus and norovirus assays.

  15. The discrepancies in multistep damage evolution of yttria-stabilized zirconia irradiated with different ions

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Tengfei; Taylor, Caitlin A.; Kong, Shuyan; Wang, Chenxu; Zhang, Yanwen; Huang, Xuejun; Xue, Jianming; Yan, Sha; Wang, Yugang

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a comprehensive investigation of structural damage in yttria-stabilized zirconia irradiated with different ions over a wide fluence range. A similar multistep damage accumulation exists for the irradiations of different ions, but the critical doses for occurrence of second damage step, characterized by a faster increase in damage fraction, and the maximum elastic strain at the first damage step are varied and depend on ion mass. For irradiations of heavier ions, the second damage step occurs at a higher dose with a lower critical elastic strain. Furthermore, larger extended defects were observed in the irradiations of heavy ions at the second damage step. Associated with other experiment results and multistep damage accumulation model, the distinct discrepancies in the damage buildup under irradiations of different ions were interpreted by the effects of electronic excitation, energy of primary knock-on atom and chemistry contributions of deposited ions.

  16. Explaining the discrepancy between intentions and actions: the case of hypothetical bias in contingent valuation.

    PubMed

    Ajzen, Icek; Brown, Thomas C; Carvajal, Franklin

    2004-09-01

    An experiment was designed to account for intention-behavior discrepancies by applying the theory of planned behavior to contingent valuation. College students (N = 160) voted in hypothetical and real payment referenda to contribute $8 to a scholarship fund. Overestimates of willingness to pay in the hypothetical referendum could not be attributed to moderately favorable latent dispositions. Instead, this hypothetical bias was explained by activation of more favorable beliefs and attitudes in the context of a hypothetical rather than a real referendum. A corrective entreaty was found to eliminate this bias by bringing beliefs, attitudes, and intentions in line with those in the real payment situation. As a result, the theory of planned behavior produced more accurate prediction of real payment when participants were exposed to the corrective entreaty.

  17. The Discrepancy Between Measured and Modeled Downwelling Solar Irradiance at the Ground: Dependence on Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilewskie, P.; Rabbette, M.; Bergstrom, R.; Marquez, J.; Schmid, B.; Russell, P. B.

    2000-01-01

    Moderate resolution spectra of the downwelling solar irradiance at the around in north central Oklahoma were measured during the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Intensive Observation Period in the fall of 1997. Spectra obtained under cloud-free conditions were compared with calculations using a coarse resolution radiative transfer model to examine the dependency of model-measurement bias on water vapor. It was found that the bias was highly correlated with water vapor and increased at a rate of 9 W/sq m per cm of water. The source of the discrepancy remains undetermined because of the complex dependencies of other variables, most notably aerosol optical depth, on water vapor.

  18. The Discrepancy Between Measured and Modeled Downwelling Solar Irradiance at the Ground: Dependence on Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilewskie, P.; Rabbette, M.; Bergstrom, R.; Marquez, J.; Schmid, B.; Russell, P. B.

    2000-01-01

    Moderate resolution spectra of the downwelling solar irradiance at the ground in north central Oklahoma were measured during the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Intensive Observation Period in the fall of 1997. Spectra obtained under cloud-free conditions were compared with calculations using a coarse resolution radiative transfer model to examine the dependency of model-measurement bias on water vapor. It was found that the bias was highly correlated with water vapor and increased at a rate of 9 Wm(exp -2) per cm of water. The source of the discrepancy remains undetermined because of the complex dependencies of other variables, most notably aerosol optical depth, on water vapor.

  19. Italy-Japan agreement and discrepancies in diagnosis of superficial gastric lesions.

    PubMed

    Vindigni, Carla; Marini, Mario; Cevenini, Gabriele; Raffaella Ambrosio, Maria; Onorati, Monica; Frosini, Giorgio; Gotoda, Takuji; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Tosi, Piero

    2010-01-01

    The agreement between Italian and Japanese endoscopists and pathologists on endoscopic and histopathological diagnoses of superficial gastric lesions is verified with the use of Paris and Vienna classifications. The correlations between Paris endoscopic types and Vienna histopathological categories is high in both the independent Italian and Japanese evaluations. However, the agreement between Italian and Japanese endoscopists is moderate due to the difficult evaluation of the height of the lesions, in particular when they are mixed. The agreement on the size of the lesions is fairly good. The probability of the same allocation to the Vienna categories of a single case is 87 per cent, disagreements remaining in dysplasia grading, between dysplasia, not only high-grade but also low-grade, and in situ carcinoma, and on cancer invasion of the lamina propria. The results indicate that use of the Paris and Vienna classifications has reduced the discrepancies between Western and Japanese endoscopists and pathologists in the diagnosis of these lesions.

  20. Cross reactivity of S. aureus to murine cytokine assays: A source of discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Javed, Numan; Xue, Guang; Lu, Ailing; Xing, Yue; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Xiao, Hui; Lecoeur, Hervé; Späth, Gerald F; Meng, Guangxun

    2016-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the versatile Gram positive bacteria causing a range of diseases. Upon challenge, host immune cells recognize S. aureus and mount diverse immune responses including production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and TNF-α. These cytokines are important mediators of inflammation which can be detected via various immunological methods such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting. In the current study, we found that a number of clinical isolates as well as laboratory strains of S. aureus exhibited cross reactivity with ELISA antibodies for murine IL-1β and TNF-α assays. This cross reactivity generates exaggerated false positive signals which can be a source of discrepancy for the understanding of real immune responses against S. aureus infection by host immune cells.

  1. Discrepancies in Adolescents’ and their Mothers’ Perceptions of the Family and Adolescent Anxiety Symptomatology

    PubMed Central

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2014-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective This study examines relations between adolescents’ and their mothers’ perceptions of the family and adolescent anxiety symptomatology. Design Surveys were administered to 145 15- to 18-year-old adolescents and their mothers. Results Adolescents viewed the family more negatively than did their mothers. In addition, adolescent girls’ perceptions of the family (satisfaction and communication) negatively predicted later adolescent anxiety symptomatology. Significant interactions between adolescent and mother reports of family satisfaction and communication also were found for girls, but not for boys. For girls, discrepant family perceptions with their mothers appeared to protect them from anxiety if their mothers had negative perceptions of the family. Conclusions Understanding the similarities and differences among family members’ perspectives yields useful predictive information that cannot be obtained from studying these perspectives in isolation from one another. PMID:24634608

  2. Mandibular Incisor Extraction Treatment of a Class I Malocclusion with Bolton Discrepancy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bayram, Mehmet; Özer, Mete

    2007-01-01

    Many approaches for crowded mandibular anterior teeth are currently employed: distal movement of posterior teeth, lateral movement of canines, labial movement of incisors, interproximal enamel reduction, removal of premolars, removal of one or two incisors, and various combinations of the above. Selecting the best treatment is often difficult, and all guidelines do not apply to every case. Treatment by extraction of one single mandibular incisor is not popular in the orthodontic profession despite the apparent advantages of the extraction in the region of crowding. A case report is presented one mandibular incisor extraction treatment of a 16 year-old female with a Class I malocclusion that shows a significant mandibular arch length deficiency and mandibular tooth-size excess. In this case, the degree of mandibular anterior dental crowding, existing mandibular tooth-size excess, and the dental midline discrepancy were indicated the extraction of one mandibular incisor. PMID:19212499

  3. Discrepancies between direct and indirect measures of death anxiety disappear in old age.

    PubMed

    De Raedt, Rudi; Van Der Speeten, Nele

    2008-01-01

    Mixed findings have been reported on the relationship between death anxiety and aging. However, practically all research on death anxiety is based on self-report measures, reflecting conscious consideration. The aim of this study was to investigate death anxiety in young and middle-aged versus elderly adults using a psychometrically sound questionnaire as a direct measure and an emotional variant of the Stroop task as an indirect index of death anxiety. We found no difference between the age groups based on the questionnaire, whereas the Stroop results revealed interference of death-related words only for the younger age group. The absence of a discrepancy between direct and indirect measures in old people could be indicative of genuine acceptance of the inevitability of their own death.

  4. Three-dimensional accuracy of implant and abutment level impression techniques: effect on marginal discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Alikhasi, Marzieh; Siadat, Hakimeh; Monzavi, Abbas; Momen-Heravi, Fatemeh

    2011-12-01

    Impression techniques should precisely represent the 3-dimensional status of implants to allow for the fabrication of passively fitting prostheses and subsequently the elimination of strain on supporting implant components and surrounding bone. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of an abutment level impression method with that of an implant level (direct and indirect) impression method using polyether impression material to obtain precise definitive casts and prostheses. A reference acrylic resin dentoform with 2 internal connection implants (Implantium) was made. A total of 21 medium-consistency polyether impressions of the dentoform, including 7 direct implant level, 7 indirect implant level, and 7 abutment level (after 2 straight abutments were secured), were made. Impressions were poured with American Dental Association (ADA) type IV stone, and the positional accuracy of the implant replica heads and abutment analogs in each dimension of x-, y-, and z-axes, as well as angular displacement (Δθ), was evaluated using a coordinate measuring machine. Noble alloy 3-unit castings were fabricated and seated on the abutments in 3 groups; marginal discrepancies were measured at 4 points between prostheses and abutments. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test, 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Kruskal-Wallis tests. In comparisons of different impression techniques, only significant statistical Δθ differences were noted between the abutment level method and other techniques (P < .001). Results of this study reveal that although the implant level impression method could better transfer the angular position of the implants (Δθ), the impression method could not affect Δy, Δx, and Δz coordinates of the implants or marginal discrepancy of the 3-unit fixed partial dentures (FPD).

  5. Phenotype-Genotype Discrepancy Due to a 5.5-kb Deletion in the GALT Gene.

    PubMed

    González-del Angel, Ariadna; Velázquez-Aragón, José; Alcántara-Ortigoza, Miguel A; Vela-Amieva, Marcela; Hernández-Martínez, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Classical galactosemia is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by a deficiency of the galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT). More than 200 mutations have been described in the GALT gene. A 5.5-kb GALT deletion, first described in patients of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry, may lead either to an erroneous genotype assignment of classical galactosemia or to discrepancies with parental genotypes and the expected biochemical phenotype. The presence of the 5.5-kb deletion was examined in 27 Mexican nonrelated families with at least one child with reduced GALT activity in erythrocytes and it was detected in the 5.5% (n=3) of the 54 alleles tested. The first molecular studies in three of our families showed that the genotypes of the parents were inconsistent with those of their children, which were considered initially as homozygous p.N314D-Duarte 2, but after analyzing for the presence of the 5.5-kb deletion, were reassigned as compound heterozygotes [5.5-kb deletion]+[p.N314D-Duarte 2]. Identification of the 5.5-kb deletion in Mexican patients suggests that this mutation might not be exclusive to a given ethnic group and should be tested in other populations, especially when there is a discrepancy between the genotypes of patients and parents or by incongruence between biochemical phenotype and GALT genotype. Establishing a genotype-phenotype correlation for the 5.5-kb GALT deletion and determining the appropriate management will require additional studies in patients with a G/G genotype bearing the 5.5-kb GALT deletion.

  6. Complaints handling in hospitals: an empirical study of discrepancies between patients' expectations and their experiences

    PubMed Central

    Friele, Roland D; Sluijs, Emmy M; Legemaate, Johan

    2008-01-01

    Background Many patients are dissatisfied with the way in which their complaints about health care are dealt with. This study tested the assumption that this dissatisfaction consists – in part at least – of unmet expectations. Methods Subjects were 279 patients who lodged a complaint with the complaints committees of 74 hospitals in the Netherlands. They completed two questionnaires; one on their expectations at the start of the complaints handling process, and one on their experiences after the complaints procedure (pre-post design; response 50%). Dependent variables are patients' satisfaction and their feeling that justice was done; independent variables are the association between patients' expectations and their experiences. Results Only 31% of the patients felt they had received justice from the complaints process. Two thirds of the patients were satisfied with the conduct of the complaints committee, but fewer were satisfied with the conduct of the hospital or the medical professional (29% and 18%). Large discrepancies between expectations and experiences were found in the case of doctors not admitting errors when errors had been made, and of hospital managements not providing information on corrective measures that were taken. Discrepancies collectively explained 51% of patients' dissatisfaction with the committee and one third of patients' dissatisfaction with the hospital and the professional. The feeling that justice was done was influenced by the decision on the complaint (well-founded or not), but also by the satisfaction with the conduct of the committee, the hospital management and the professional involved. Conclusion It is disappointing to observe that less than one third of the patients felt that justice had been done through the complaints handling process. This study shows that the feeling that justice had been done is not only influenced by the judgement of the complaints committee, but also by the response of the professional. Furthermore

  7. UNVEILING THE {sigma}-DISCREPANCY. II. REVISITING THE EVOLUTION OF ULIRGs AND THE ORIGIN OF QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Rothberg, Barry; Fischer, Jacqueline; Rodrigues, Myriam; Sanders, D. B. E-mail: dr.barry.rothberg@gmail.com

    2013-04-10

    We present the first central velocity dispersions ({sigma}{sub circle}) measured from the 0.85 {mu}m Calcium II Triplet (CaT) for eight advanced (i.e., single nuclei) local (z {<=} 0.15) Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs). First, these measurements are used to test the prediction that the '{sigma}-Discrepancy', in which the CaT {sigma}{sub circle} is systematically larger than the {sigma}{sub circle} obtained from the 1.6 or 2.3 {mu}m stellar CO band-heads, extends to ULIRG luminosities. Next, we combine the CaT data with rest-frame I-band photometry obtained from archival Hubble Space Telescope data and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to derive dynamical properties for the eight ULIRGs. These are then compared to the dynamical properties of 9255 elliptical galaxies from the SDSS within the same redshift volume and of a relatively nearby (z < 0.4) sample of 53 QSO host galaxies. A comparison is also made between the I-band and H-band dynamical properties of the ULIRGs. We find four key results: (1) the {sigma}-Discrepancy extends to ULIRG luminosities; (2) at I-band ULIRGs lie on the fundamental plane in a region consistent with the most massive elliptical galaxies and not low-intermediate mass ellipticals as previously reported in the near-infrared; (3) the I-band M/L of ULIRGs are consistent with an old stellar population, while at H-band ULIRGs appear significantly younger and less massive; and (4) we derive an I-band Kormendy Relation from the SDSS ellipticals and demonstrate that ULIRGs and QSO host galaxies are dynamically similar.

  8. Adolescent Loneliness and Social Skills: Agreement and Discrepancies Between Self-, Meta-, and Peer-Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Lodder, G M A; Goossens, L; Scholte, R H J; Engels, R C M E; Verhagen, M

    2016-12-01

    Lonely adolescents report that they have poor social skills, but it is unknown whether this is due to an accurate perception of a social skills deficit, or a biased negative perception. This is an important distinction, as actual social skills deficits require different treatments than biased negative perceptions. In this study, we compared self-reported social skills evaluations with peer-reported social skills and meta-evaluations of social skills (i.e., adolescents' perceptions of how they believe their classmates evaluate them). Based on the social skills view, we expected negative relations between loneliness and these three forms of social skills evaluations. Based on the bias view, we expected lonely adolescents to have more negative self- and meta-evaluations compared to peer-evaluations of social skills. Participants were 1342 adolescents (48.64 % male, M age = 13.95, SD = .54). All classmates rated each other in a round-robin design to obtain peer-evaluations. Self- and meta-evaluations were obtained using self-reports. Data were analyzed using polynomial regression analyses and response surface modeling. The results indicated that, when self-, peer- and meta-evaluations were similar, a greater sense of loneliness was related to poorer social skills. Loneliness was also related to larger discrepancies between self- and peer-evaluations of loneliness, but not related to the direction of these discrepancies. Thus, for some lonely adolescents, loneliness may be related to an actual social skills deficit, whereas for others a biased negative perception of one's own social skills or a mismatch with the environment may be related to their loneliness. This implies that different mechanisms may underlie loneliness, which has implications for interventions.

  9. Can X-rays provide a solution to the abundance discrepancy problem in photoionized nebulae?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercolano, B.

    2009-07-01

    We re-examine the well-known discrepancy between ionic abundances determined via the analysis of recombination lines (RLs) and collisionally excited lines (CELs). We show that abundance variations can be mimicked in a chemically homogeneous medium by the presence of dense (nH > rsim 104 cm-3) X-ray irradiated regions which present different ionization and temperature structures from those of the more diffuse medium they are embedded in, which is predominantly ionized by extreme-ultraviolet radiation. The presence of X-ray ionized dense clumps or filaments also naturally explains the lower temperatures often measured from OII RLs and from the Balmer jump when compared to temperatures determined by CELs. We discuss the implications for abundances determined via the analysis of CELs and RLs and provide a simple analytical procedure to obtain upward corrections for CEL-determined abundance. While we show that the abundance discrepancy factor and the Balmer Jump temperature determined from observations of the Orion Nebula can simultaneously be reproduced by this model (implying upward corrections for CELs by a factor of 1.15), we find that the required X-ray fluxes exceed the known Orion's stellar and diffuse X-ray budget, if we assume that the clumps are located at the edge of the blister. We propose, however, that spatially resolved observations may be used to empirically test the model, and outline how the framework developed in this Letter may be applied in the future to objects with better constrained geometries (e.g. planetary nebulae).

  10. Genome-scan for IQ discrepancy in autism: evidence for loci on chromosomes 10 and 16.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Nicola H; Estes, Annette; Munson, Jeff; Bernier, Raphael; Webb, Sara J; Rothstein, Joseph H; Minshew, Nancy J; Dawson, Geraldine; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Wijsman, Ellen M

    2011-01-01

    Performance IQ (PIQ) greater than verbal IQ (VIQ) is often observed in studies of the cognitive abilities of autistic individuals. This characteristic is correlated with social and communication impairments, key parts of the autism diagnosis. We present the first genetic analyses of IQ discrepancy (PIQ-VIQ) as an autism-related phenotype. We performed genome-wide joint linkage and segregation analyses on 287 multiplex families, using a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach. Genetic data included a genome-scan of 387 micro-satellite markers in 210 families augmented with additional markers added in a subset of families. Empirical P values were calculated for five interesting regions. Linkage analysis identified five chromosomal regions with substantial regional evidence of linkage; 10p12 [P = 0.001; genome-wide (gw) P = 0.05], 16q23 (P = .015; gw P = 0.53), 2p21 (P = 0.03, gw P = 0.78), 6q25 (P = 0.047, gw P = 0.91) and 15q23-25 (P = 0.053, gw P = 0.93). The location of the chromosome 10 linkage signal coincides with a region noted in a much earlier genome-scan for autism, and the chromosome 16 signal coincides exactly with a linkage signal for non-word repetition in specific language impairment. This study provides strong evidence for a QTL influencing IQ discrepancy in families with autistic individuals on chromosome 10, and suggestive evidence for a QTL on chromosome 16. The location of the chromosome 16 signal suggests a candidate gene, CDH13, a T-cadherin expressed in the brain, which has been implicated in previous SNP studies of autism and ADHD.

  11. Diagnosis and management challenges in patients with mild haemophilia A and discrepant FVIII measurements.

    PubMed

    Trossaert, M; Lienhart, A; Nougier, C; Fretigny, M; Sigaud, M; Meunier, S; Fouassier, M; Ternisien, C; Negrier, C; Dargaud, Y

    2014-07-01

    Thirty per cent of patients with mild haemophilia A (MHA) present markedly different FVIII: C level when assayed by one-stage clotting and two-stage chromogenic assays. It is, therefore, a real clinical challenge to predict the individual bleeding risk of these patients. The aim of the present work was to study the relationship between the bleeding tendency of these patients with the results of a panel of phenotypic and genotypic tools. Thirty-six patients with MHA were included in this multicentre prospective clinical study. The severity of bleeding symptoms was evaluated using the ISTH/SSC score. FVIII:C levels were measured using an activated partial thromboplastin time-based one-stage FVIII assay (FVIII: C1) and three commercial chromogenic kits (FVIII:CR). FVIII antigen levels, thrombin generation measurement and FVIII gene mutation analysis were also performed. Our results showed that a one-stage FVIII: C assay cannot rule out the diagnosis of MHA, a combined use of FVIII:C1 with a FVIII:CR is suitable for detecting MHA. We observed that FVIII:CR results better reflected the clinical bleeding tendency of patients compared to FVIII:C1. We also observed a relationship between thrombin generation (TG) capacity and FVIII:CR of these patients. FVIII gene mutation analysis showed mutations previously reported in MHA patients with discrepant FVIII:C measurements, but with no predictive value of the individual bleeding phenotype of patients. Overall, we observed a relationship between chromogenic FVIII:C results, TG assay and bleeding tendency of patients with discrepant FVIII:C measurements, while FVIII:C1 was not well correlated with clinical bleeding phenotype in this particular population.

  12. THE DISCREPANT KINEMATICS OF ORLs AND CELs IN NGC 7009 AS A FUNCTION OF IONIZATION STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Richer, Michael G.; Georgiev, Leonid; Torres-Peimbert, Silvia; Arrieta, Anabel E-mail: silvia@astroscu.unam.mx

    2013-08-20

    We present spatially and velocity-resolved echelle spectroscopy for NGC 7009 obtained with the UVES spectrograph at the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope. Our objective is to analyze the kinematics of emission lines excited by recombination and collisions with electrons to determine whether similarities or differences could be useful in elucidating the well-known abundance discrepancy derived from them. We construct position-velocity maps for recombination, fluorescence, charge transfer, and collisionally excited lines. We find a plasma component emitting in the C II, N II, O II, and Ne II recombination lines whose kinematics are discrepant: they are incompatible with the ionization structure derived from all other evidence and the kinematics derived from all of these lines are unexpectedly very similar. We find direct evidence for a recombination contribution to [N II] {lambda}5755. Once taken into account, the electron temperatures from [N II], [O III], and [Ne III] agree at a given position and velocity. The electron densities derived from [O II] and [Ar IV] are consistent with direct imaging and the distribution of hydrogen emission. The kinematics of the C II, N II, O II, and Ne II lines does not coincide with the kinematics of the [O III] and [Ne III] forbidden emission, indicating that there is an additional plasma component to the recombination emission that arises from a different volume from that giving rise to the forbidden emission from the parent ions within NGC 7009. Thus, the chemical abundances derived from either type of line are correct only for the plasma component from which they arise. Apart from [N II] {lambda}5755, we find no anomaly with the forbidden lines usually used to determine chemical abundances in ionized nebulae, so the abundances derived from them should be reliable for the medium from which they arise.

  13. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  14. Application of new WAIS-III/WMS-III discrepancy scores for evaluating memory functioning: relationship between intellectual and memory ability.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Chelune, Gordon J

    2006-05-01

    Analysis of the discrepancy between memory and intellectual ability has received some support as a means for evaluating memory impairment. Recently, comprehensive base rate tables for General Ability Index (GAI) minus memory discrepancy scores (i.e., GAI-memory) were developed using the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample (Lange, Chelune, & Tulsky, in press). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of GAI-memory discrepancy scores to identify memory impairment in 34 patients with Alzheimer's type dementia (DAT) versus a sample of 34 demographically matched healthy participants. On average, patients with DAT obtained significantly lower scores on all WAIS-III and WMS-III indexes and had larger GAI-memory discrepancy scores. Clinical outcome analyses revealed that GAI-memory scores were useful at identifying memory impairment in patients with DAT versus matched healthy participants. However, GAI-memory discrepancy scores failed to provide unique interpretive information beyond that which is gained from the memory indexes alone. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  15. Discrepancies between attainment and importance of life values and anxiety and depression in gastrointestinal cancer patients and their spouses.

    PubMed

    Nordin, K; Wasteson, E; Hoffman, K; Glimelius, B; Sjödén, P O

    2001-01-01

    Patients' satisfaction with life, viewed in terms of the discrepancy between the perceived attainment and subjective importance of various life values, is a less often studied phenomenon for understanding the psychological adaptation in cancer patients. The main aim of the present study is to investigate the relation between the degree of attainment and importance of life values on the one hand, and anxiety and depression, on the other. A consecutive series of 85 newly diagnosed patients with gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, 52 potentially cured and 33 with an advanced disease, and 26 spouses to the patients with an advanced disease participated. The patients and spouses of non-cured patients filled out questionnaires twice, close to the diagnosis and after 1 (non-cured patients) or 3 months. Overall, large discrepancies between the perceived attainment and importance of life values were associated with high anxiety and depression. For the patients (both cured and non-cured), the discrepancies decreased for several life values over time, as did anxiety and depression. For the spouses of the non-cured patients, there was no decrease either for life value discrepancies or for anxiety/depression. This suggests that patients, in contrast to their spouses, strive to achieve small discrepancies between the perceived attainment and importance of life values, as part of their adjustment to serious diseases, e.g. cancer.

  16. Popular weight reduction diets.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella Lucia

    2006-01-01

    The percentage of people who are overweight and obese has increased tremendously over the last 30 years. It has become a worldwide epidemic. This is evident by the number of children are being diagnosed with a body mass index >85th percentile, and the number of children begin diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a disease previously reserved for adults. The weight loss industry has also gained from this epidemic; it is a billion dollar industry. People pay large sums of money on diet pills, remedies, and books, with the hope of losing weight permanently. Despite these efforts, the number of individuals who are overweight or obese continues to increase. Obesity is a complex, multifactorial disorder. It would be impossible to address all aspects of diet, exercise, and weight loss in this review. Therefore, this article will review popular weight loss diets, with particular attention given to comparing low fat diets with low carbohydrate diets. In addition, the role that the environment plays on both diet and exercise and how they impact obesity will be addressed. Finally, the National Weight Control Registry will be discussed.

  17. Reciprocity of weighted networks

    PubMed Central

    Squartini, Tiziano; Picciolo, Francesco; Ruzzenenti, Franco; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2013-01-01

    In directed networks, reciprocal links have dramatic effects on dynamical processes, network growth, and higher-order structures such as motifs and communities. While the reciprocity of binary networks has been extensively studied, that of weighted networks is still poorly understood, implying an ever-increasing gap between the availability of weighted network data and our understanding of their dyadic properties. Here we introduce a general approach to the reciprocity of weighted networks, and define quantities and null models that consistently capture empirical reciprocity patterns at different structural levels. We show that, counter-intuitively, previous reciprocity measures based on the similarity of mutual weights are uninformative. By contrast, our measures allow to consistently classify different weighted networks according to their reciprocity, track the evolution of a network's reciprocity over time, identify patterns at the level of dyads and vertices, and distinguish the effects of flux (im)balances or other (a)symmetries from a true tendency towards (anti-)reciprocation. PMID:24056721

  18. Light weight phosphate cements

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Natarajan, Ramkumar,; Kahn, David

    2010-03-09

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  19. Generalized constructive tree weights

    SciTech Connect

    Rivasseau, Vincent E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org; Tanasa, Adrian E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org

    2014-04-15

    The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

  20. Weighted Uncertainty Relations

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Recently, Maccone and Pati have given two stronger uncertainty relations based on the sum of variances and one of them is nontrivial when the quantum state is not an eigenstate of the sum of the observables. We derive a family of weighted uncertainty relations to provide an optimal lower bound for all situations and remove the restriction on the quantum state. Generalization to multi-observable cases is also given and an optimal lower bound for the weighted sum of the variances is obtained in general quantum situation. PMID:26984295

  1. Predictors of Nightly Subjective-Objective Sleep Discrepancy in Poor Sleepers over a Seven-Day Period.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Vanessa; Pratt, Daniel; Emsley, Richard; Kyle, Simon D

    2017-03-09

    This study sought to examine predictors of subjective/objective sleep discrepancy in poor sleepers. Forty-two individuals with insomnia symptoms (mean age = 36.2 years, 81% female) were recruited to take part in a prospective study which combined seven days of actigraphy with daily assessment of sleep perceptions, self-reported arousal, sleep effort, and mood upon awakening. A high level of intra-individual variability in measures of sleep discrepancy was observed. Multilevel modelling revealed that higher levels of pre-sleep cognitive activity and lower mood upon awakening were significantly and independently predictive of the underestimation of total sleep time. Greater levels of sleep effort predicted overestimation of sleep onset latency. These results indicate that psychophysiological variables are related to subjective/objective sleep discrepancy and may be important therapeutic targets in the management of insomnia.

  2. Satisfaction with open sexual agreements in Australian gay men's relationships: the role of perceived discrepancies in benefit.

    PubMed

    Hosking, Warwick

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated whether satisfaction with open sexual agreements in gay men's relationships was associated with perceptions of discrepancies in the benefit experienced from those agreements. Three types of perceived discrepancy between the self and the relationship partner were examined: frequency of casual sex, attractiveness of casual partners, and "overall" benefit. Results from a survey conducted in 2010 of 685 Australian gay men in relationships with open agreements showed that men perceiving discrepancies in benefit, particularly those representing "under-benefit", were less satisfied with their agreement than were men perceiving equal benefit. These results supported hypotheses derived from equity theory and provide insight into factors associated with gay men's satisfaction with open agreements. These findings also have important practical implications. Professionals counselling gay men or couples experiencing low satisfaction with open agreements may consider raising issues of unequal benefit and work with their clients towards achieving equality.

  3. Descriptive Study Analyzing Discrepancies in a Software Development Project Change Request (CR) Assessment Process and Recommendations for Process Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Kenneth J.

    2002-01-01

    The Change Request (CR) assessment process is essential in the display development cycle. The assessment process is performed to ensure that the changes stated in the description of the CR match the changes in the actual display requirements. If a discrepancy is found between the CR and the requirements, the CR must be returned to the originator for corrections. Data will be gathered from each of the developers to determine the type of discrepancies and the amount of time spent assessing each CR. This study will determine the most common types of discrepancies and the amount of time spent assessing those issues. The results of the study will provide a foundation for future improvements as well as a baseline for future studies.

  4. Intergenerational discrepancies of parental control among Chinese American families: Links to family conflict and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Juang, Linda P; Syed, Moin; Takagi, Miyuki

    2007-12-01

    This study investigated how discrepancies between adolescents' and parents' endorsement of parental control contribute to adolescent depressive symptoms. Family conflict was hypothesized to mediate the link between parent-adolescent discrepancies and depressive symptoms. The sample consisted of 166 pairs of Chinese American adolescents and their parents. The results indicated that, as predicted, greater discrepancies between adolescents and their parents on parental control related to greater adolescent depressive symptoms. Furthermore, adolescent's perceived degree of family conflict partially mediated this relation. Both parents and adolescents are changing and adapting to their cultural contexts; some in synchrony and some not. Identifying areas where parents and adolescents diverge concerning values, behaviors, and beliefs, is an important avenue to understanding Chinese American adolescents' mental health.

  5. Surgical reconstruction of severe forefoot derangement in a patient with traumatically acquired contralateral limb-length discrepancy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bonner, Alexander; Cranford, Carlton C; Patel, Rakesh; Chi, Andy; Bhikha, Shamir

    2012-01-01

    Limb-length discrepancy is a very common condition. A severe debilitating forefoot deformity resulting from a post-traumatic limb length discrepancy is quite rare. This case study discusses the surgical reconstruction of a forefoot deformity of a 64-year-old male following a post-traumatic limb-length discrepancy from a motor vehicle accident that caused compensatory biomechanical changes in the unaffected lower extremity. These changes resulted in a severe hallux abducto valgus deformity with subluxated metatarsophalangeal joints of the second and third digits, leaving the patient with a severe symptomatic forefoot deformity that closely mimics the radiographic appearance of a rheumatoid forefoot. The forefoot deformity was corrected using the Mckeever and Hoffman procedures with Kirschner-wire fixation. Seven months following the corrective procedures, the patient was able to obtain an asymptomatic plantigrade foot and can now wear regular footwear.

  6. Complications of Ilizarov leg lengthening: a comparative study between patients with leg length discrepancy and short stature.

    PubMed

    Vargas Barreto, B; Caton, J; Merabet, Z; Panisset, J C; Pracros, J P

    2007-10-01

    The Ilizarov technique has been used to treat severe limb length discrepancy and short stature. However, complications of this treatment are frequent. Between 1984 and 2001, 57 patients (94 tibias) had an Ilizarov procedure for limb lengthening. Twenty patients had limb discrepancy and 37 had short stature. Their mean age was 20.2 years (range 15-34). The average limb lengthening was 8.37 cm (range 3.2-14.7), which was equivalent to 26% (range 9.2-60%) average tibial lengthening. A total of 90 complications were observed. Thirty-three unplanned procedures were required during the lengthening programme. Two patients stopped the lengthening programme. There was no difference in the complications in leg lengthening using Ilizarov technique between the group of patients with leg length discrepancy and the group with short stature. A good knowledge of the Ilizarov technique is necessary to perform a lengthening programme with a low rate of complications.

  7. Predictors of Nightly Subjective-Objective Sleep Discrepancy in Poor Sleepers over a Seven-Day Period

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Vanessa; Pratt, Daniel; Emsley, Richard; Kyle, Simon D.

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to examine predictors of subjective/objective sleep discrepancy in poor sleepers. Forty-two individuals with insomnia symptoms (mean age = 36.2 years, 81% female) were recruited to take part in a prospective study which combined seven days of actigraphy with daily assessment of sleep perceptions, self-reported arousal, sleep effort, and mood upon awakening. A high level of intra-individual variability in measures of sleep discrepancy was observed. Multilevel modelling revealed that higher levels of pre-sleep cognitive activity and lower mood upon awakening were significantly and independently predictive of the underestimation of total sleep time. Greater levels of sleep effort predicted overestimation of sleep onset latency. These results indicate that psychophysiological variables are related to subjective/objective sleep discrepancy and may be important therapeutic targets in the management of insomnia. PMID:28282912

  8. Average Weighted Receiving Time of Weighted Tetrahedron Koch Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Meifeng; Zhang, Danping; Ye, Dandan; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Lei

    2015-07-01

    We introduce weighted tetrahedron Koch networks with infinite weight factors, which are generalization of finite ones. The term of weighted time is firstly defined in this literature. The mean weighted first-passing time (MWFPT) and the average weighted receiving time (AWRT) are defined by weighted time accordingly. We study the AWRT with weight-dependent walk. Results show that the AWRT for a nontrivial weight factor sequence grows sublinearly with the network order. To investigate the reason of sublinearity, the average receiving time (ART) for four cases are discussed.

  9. Information-theoretic discrepancy based iterative reconstructions (IDIR) for polychromatic x-ray tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Kwang Eun; Lee, Jongha; Sung, Younghun; Lee, SeongDeok

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: X-ray photons generated from a typical x-ray source for clinical applications exhibit a broad range of wavelengths, and the interactions between individual particles and biological substances depend on particles' energy levels. Most existing reconstruction methods for transmission tomography, however, neglect this polychromatic nature of measurements and rely on the monochromatic approximation. In this study, we developed a new family of iterative methods that incorporates the exact polychromatic model into tomographic image recovery, which improves the accuracy and quality of reconstruction.Methods: The generalized information-theoretic discrepancy (GID) was employed as a new metric for quantifying the distance between the measured and synthetic data. By using special features of the GID, the objective function for polychromatic reconstruction which contains a double integral over the wavelength and the trajectory of incident x-rays was simplified to a paraboloidal form without using the monochromatic approximation. More specifically, the original GID was replaced with a surrogate function with two auxiliary, energy-dependent variables. Subsequently, the alternating minimization technique was applied to solve the double minimization problem. Based on the optimization transfer principle, the objective function was further simplified to the paraboloidal equation, which leads to a closed-form update formula. Numerical experiments on the beam-hardening correction and material-selective reconstruction were conducted to compare and assess the performance of conventional methods and the proposed algorithms.Results: The authors found that the GID determines the distance between its two arguments in a flexible manner. In this study, three groups of GIDs with distinct data representations were considered. The authors demonstrated that one type of GIDs that comprises “raw” data can be viewed as an extension of existing statistical reconstructions; under a

  10. Diet for rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... diet; VLCD; Low-calorie diet; LCD; Very low energy diet; Weight loss - rapid weight loss; Overweight - rapid ... AM, Aveyard P. Clinical effectiveness of very-low-energy diets in the management of weight loss: a ...

  11. Weight and Diabetes (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... your child lose weight to control diabetes, a weight management plan may be created. Even if your child's ... overweight, talk to your doctor about beginning a weight management program so you can set a good example. ...

  12. Brief report: Weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study objectives were to assess the association between weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children participating in a weight management program. Participants included 265 Mexican American children recruited for a school-based weight management program. Al...

  13. Bessel Weighted Asymmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Avakian, Harut; Gamberg, Leonard; Rossi, Patrizia; Prokudin, Alexei

    2016-05-01

    We review the concept of Bessel weighted asymmetries for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and focus on the cross section in Fourier space, conjugate to the outgoing hadron’s transverse momentum, where convolutions of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions and fragmentation functions become simple products. Individual asymmetric terms in the cross section can be projected out by means of a generalized set of weights involving Bessel functions. The procedure is applied to studies of the double longitudinal spin asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a new dedicated Monte Carlo generator which includes quark intrinsic transverse momentum within the generalized parton model. We observe a few percent systematic offset of the Bessel-weighted asymmetry obtained from Monte Carlo extraction compared to input model calculations, which is due to the limitations imposed by the energy and momentum conservation at the given energy and hard scale Q2. We find that the Bessel weighting technique provides a powerful and reliable tool to study the Fourier transform of TMDs with controlled systematics due to experimental acceptances and resolutions with different TMD model inputs.

  14. Strengthening Weight Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Rachel M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines ways of giving an existing weight-training room new life without spending a lot of time and money. Tips include adding rubber floor coverings; using indirect lighting; adding windows, art work, or mirrors to open up the room; using more aesthetically pleasing ceiling tiles; upgrading ventilation; repadding or painting the equipment; and…

  15. Involuntary weight loss.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christopher J

    2014-05-01

    Involuntary weight loss remains an important and challenging clinical problem, with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Because of the frequency of finding a serious underlying diagnosis, clinicians must be thorough in assessment, keeping in mind a broad range of possible causes. Although prediction scores exist, they have not been broadly validated; therefore, clinical judgment remains ever essential.

  16. Weight Training Adds Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, June

    1995-01-01

    Secondary level physical education teachers can have their students use math concepts while working out on the weight-room equipment. The article explains how students can reinforce math skills while weightlifting by estimating their strength, estimating their power, or calculating other formulas. (SM)

  17. Weight-loss medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... term use. All other drugs are approved for short-term use of no more than a few weeks. Be sure you understand the side effects of weight-loss medicines. Side effects can include: Increase in blood pressure Problems sleeping, headache, nervousness, and palpitations Nausea, constipation, and dry ...

  18. Dynamic Weighted Data Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    van "j Beethoven, Igor Stravinsky, Glan-Carlo Menotti, and Johann Sebastian Bach . Dynamic Weighted Data Structures Samuel W. Bent This thesis discusses...and Bonnie Hampton, who taught me much more than how to play the cello. Finally, for hours of artistic satisfaction, I thank Johannes Brahms, Ludwig

  19. Weighted Multiplex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Menichetti, Giulia; Remondini, Daniel; Panzarasa, Pietro; Mondragón, Raúl J.; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important challenges in network science is to quantify the information encoded in complex network structures. Disentangling randomness from organizational principles is even more demanding when networks have a multiplex nature. Multiplex networks are multilayer systems of nodes that can be linked in multiple interacting and co-evolving layers. In these networks, relevant information might not be captured if the single layers were analyzed separately. Here we demonstrate that such partial analysis of layers fails to capture significant correlations between weights and topology of complex multiplex networks. To this end, we study two weighted multiplex co-authorship and citation networks involving the authors included in the American Physical Society. We show that in these networks weights are strongly correlated with multiplex structure, and provide empirical evidence in favor of the advantage of studying weighted measures of multiplex networks, such as multistrength and the inverse multiparticipation ratio. Finally, we introduce a theoretical framework based on the entropy of multiplex ensembles to quantify the information stored in multiplex networks that would remain undetected if the single layers were analyzed in isolation. PMID:24906003

  20. Is there a discrepancy between geological and geodetic slip rates along the San Andreas Fault System?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, X.; Smith-Konter, B. R.; Sandwell, D. T.

    2013-12-01

    NO. Several previous inversions for slip rate along the San Andreas Fault System (SAFS), based on elastic half-space models, show a significant discrepancy between the geological and geodetic slip rates along a few major fault segments. In this study we use a more realistic model representing an elastic plate (schizosphere) over a viscoelastic half-space (plastosphere) to demonstrate that there is no significant discrepancy between long-term geologic and geodetic slip rates. The model includes ~ 50 major fault segments having steady slip from the base of the locked zone to the base of the elastic plate and episodic shallow slip based on known ruptures and geologic recurrence intervals. The slip rates are constrained by 1989 present-day velocity measurements from EarthScope GPS and high-resolution interseismic velocity data from L-band InSAR onboard ALOS. Five models with different rheological properties, including an elastic half-space, are tested in a slip-rate inversion. A model with a thick elastic plate (60 km) and half-space viscosity of 1019 Pa s is preferred because it produces the smallest misfit to both the geodetic data and the geological slip rates. We find that the geodetic slip rates from the 60 km thick plate model agree to within the bounds of the geological slip rates, while the rates from the half-space model disagree on certain important fault segments such as the Mojave and the North Coast segment of the San Andreas fault. In particular, along the Mojave segment the recovered geodetic slip rate is 24.7 mm/yr for the half-space model but our result comes closer to the preferred geological rates of 34 mm/yr using a 60 km thick plate model (27.5 mm/yr) and a 30 km thin plate model (34.4 mm/yr). The plate models have generally higher slip rates than the half-space model because most of the faults along the SAFS are late in the earthquake cycle so today they are moving slower than the long-term cycle-averaged velocity as governed by the viscoelastic

  1. ON THE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN THEORETICAL AND X-RAY CONCENTRATION-MASS RELATIONS FOR GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Rasia, E.; Borgani, S.; Ettori, S.; Meneghetti, M.; Mazzotta, P.

    2013-10-10

    In the past 15 years, the concentration-mass relation has been investigated diffusely in theoretical studies. On the other hand, only recently has this relation been derived from X-ray observations. When that happened, the results caused a certain level of concern: the X-ray normalizations and slopes were found significantly dissimilar from those predicted by theory. We analyzed 52 galaxy clusters and groups, simulated with different descriptions of the physical processes that affect the baryonic component, with the purpose of determining whether these discrepancies are real or induced by biases in the computation of the concentration parameter or in the determination of the selection function of the cluster sample for which the analysis is carried out. In particular, we investigate how the simulated concentration-mass relation depends (1) on the radial range used to derive the concentration; (2) on the presence of baryons in the simulations, and on the effect of star formation and feedback from supernovae and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Finally, we evaluate (3) how the results differ when adopting an X-ray approach for the analysis and (4) how the selection function based on X-ray luminosity can impact the results. All effects studied go in the direction of alleviating the discrepancy between observations and simulations, although with different significance: while the choice of the radial range to fit the profiles and the inclusion of the baryonic component play only a minor role, the X-ray approach to reconstruct the mass profiles and the selection of the cluster sample have a strong impact on the resulting concentration-mass relation. Extending the fit to the most central regions or reducing the fitting radius from the virial boundary to the typical X-ray external radius causes an increase of the normalization in radiative simulations by 5%-10%. In the second case, we measure a slope that is up to twice steeper than that derived by using the typical

  2. Striking Discrepancy of Anomalous Body Experiences with Normal Interoceptive Accuracy in Depersonalization-Derealization Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Michal, Matthias; Reuchlein, Bettina; Adler, Julia; Reiner, Iris; Beutel, Manfred E.; Vögele, Claus; Schächinger, Hartmut; Schulz, André

    2014-01-01

    Background Disembodiment is a core feature of depersonalization disorder (DPD). Given the narratives of DPD patients about their disembodiment and emotional numbing and neurobiological findings of an inhibition of insular activity, DPD may be considered as a mental disorder with specific impairments of interoceptive awareness and body perception. Methods We investigated cardioceptive accuracy (CA) of DPD patients (n = 24) as compared to healthy controls (n = 26) with two different heartbeat detection tasks (“Schandry heartbeat counting task” and “Whitehead heartbeat discrimination task”). Self-rated clearness of body perception was measured by questionnaire. Results Contrary to our hypothesis, DPD patients performed similarly to healthy controls on the two different heartbeat detection tasks, and they had equal scores regarding their self-rated clearness of body perception. There was no correlation of the severity of “anomalous body experiences” and depersonalization with measures of interoceptive accuracy. Only among healthy controls CA in the Schandry task was positively correlated with self-rated clearness of body perception. Depersonalization was unrelated to severity of depression or anxiety, while depression and anxiety were highly correlated. Anxiety and depression did not modify the associations of depersonalization with interoceptive accuracy. Conclusions Our main findings highlight a striking discrepancy of normal interoception with overwhelming experiences of disembodiment in DPD. This may reflect difficulties of DPD patients to integrate their visceral and bodily perceptions into a sense of their selves. This problem may be considered an important target for psychotherapeutic treatment approaches. PMID:24587061

  3. Meshless Solution of the Vlasov Equation Using a Low Discrepancy Sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Warnock, R.L.; Ellison, J.A.; Heinemann, K.; Zhang, G.Q.; /New Mexico U.

    2009-01-28

    A good method for solving the nonlinear Vlasov equation is the semi-Lagrangian algorithm, in which the phase space density is represented by its values on a fixed Cartesian grid with interpolation to off-grid points. At each time step, orbits are followed backward from grid points. Since this method is expensive with phase space dimension D > 2, we seek a more efficient discretization of the density. Taking a cue from the theory of numerical quadrature in high dimensions, we explore the idea of replacing the grid by scattered data sites from a low-discrepancy (quasirandom) sequence. We hope to see a reduction in the required number of sites, especially for D > 2. In our first implementation we follow forward orbits rather than backward, and work only with D = 2. We are able to reduce the number of sites by a factor of 8, at least for a limited time of integration. A much bigger reduction is expected in higher dimensions.

  4. Effects of unreasonable pay discrepancies for under- and overpayment on double demotivation.

    PubMed

    Carr, S C; McLoughlin, D; Hodgson, M; MacLachlan, M

    1996-11-01

    The "double demotivation" hypothesis that pay discrepancies decrease work motivation among both lower and higher paid groups was tested in two experiments. In experiment 1, 70 Australian undergraduates received either $1 or $2 to work on an intrinsically rewarding puzzle, with or without knowledge of what amount other participants were receiving. A comparison of participants with a no-payment control showed that participants exhibited significantly reduced intrinsic motivation (seconds spent interacting with the puzzle during a free-choice period) when they knew that they were being under- or overpaid. In experiment 2, 126 occupationally matched Australian workers receiving wages equal to, lower than, or higher than those of counterparts reported their level of job satisfaction and whether they would stay on the job, change jobs, or retire, if given the financial opportunity. Compared with equitably paid workers, employees who felt they were being under- or overpaid reported lower job satisfaction and greater readiness to change jobs. The results provide experimental support for double demotivation, which is relevant not only to international development cooperation but also to Western enterprise bargaining, merit pay, and minority groups in the multicultural workplace.

  5. On the stability of cationic complexes of neon with helium--solving an experimental discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Bartl, Peter; Denifl, Stephan; Scheier, Paul; Echt, Olof

    2013-10-21

    Helium nanodroplets are doped with neon and ionized by electrons. The size-dependence of the ion abundance of HenNex(+), identified in high-resolution mass spectra, is deduced for complexes containing up to seven neon atoms and dozens of helium atoms. Particularly stable ions are inferred from anomalies in the abundance distributions. Two pronounced anomalies at n = 11 and 13 in the HenNe(+) series confirm drift-tube data reported by Kojima et al. [T. M. Kojima et al., Z. Phys. D, 1992, 22, 645]. The discrepancy with previously published spectra of neon-doped helium droplets, which did not reveal any abundance anomalies [T. Ruchti et al., J. Chem. Phys., 1998, 109, 10679-10687; C. A. Brindle et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2005, 123, 064312], is most likely due to limited mass resolution, which precluded unambiguous analysis of contributions from different ions with identical nominal mass. However, calculated dissociation energies of HenNe(+) reported so far do not correlate with the present data, possibly because of challenges in correctly treating the linear, asymmetric [He-Ne-He](+) ionic core in HenNe(+). Anomalies identified in the distributions of HenNex(+) for x > 1, including prominent ones at He12Ne2(+) and He14Ne2(+), may help to better understand solvation of Ne(+) and Nex(+) in helium.

  6. The effect of leg length discrepancy on pelvis and spine kinematics during gait.

    PubMed

    Needham, R; Chockalingam, N; Dunning, D; Healy, A; Ahmed, E B; Ward, A

    2012-01-01

    There are assumptions that leg length discrepancy (LLD) may cause low back pain by creating pelvis obliquity and lumbar scoliosis. Although individuals with LLD develop compensatory movements in the lower limbs and pelvis during walking, few investigations have attempted to identify kinematic variables of the upper body. This study aims to gain an understanding of how simulated LLD influences three-dimensional motion of the pelvis and spine. Seven male participants were required to walk barefoot at a preferred speed. Three LLD conditions (1, 2, and 3cm) were simulated using modified pieces of high density EVA attached to the right foot. An optoelectronic motion analysis system was used to record kinematic data of the pelvis and spine (lumbar, lower and upper thoracic segments) for each condition. Differences in range of motion and patterns of movement for the pelvis and lumbar spine were minimal between barefoot and LLD conditions. These observations could be attributed to various kinematic compensatory strategies within the lower limbs which require further in-depth investigation.

  7. Discrepancy Between Identification of Early-Term Elective Deliveries by Manual Chart Review and Data Vendor

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Pai-Jong Stacy; Bartholomew, Marguerite; Durbin, Marsha; Kimata, Chieko; Kaneshiro, Bliss

    2016-01-01

    Elective delivery from 37 to 39 weeks gestation (early-term deliveries) is a Joint Commission National Quality Measure, and hospitals report on early-term elective delivery rates through Outcome Research Yields Excellence (ORYX) vendors. The objective of this study was to compare early-term elective deliveries, identified through ORYX vendors with those identified through manual chart review, the traditional method of medical record review. We reviewed early-term labor inductions and cesarean deliveries at a single hospital from June 1, 2010 to May 31, 2012. Rates of early-term elective deliveries identified by the data vendor were compared to physician chart review. Overall, the rate of elective deliveries by ORYX was 3% compared to 2% by physician chart review (RR 1.51 [95% CI 1.12–2.03], P < .001). Of the 116 elective early-term deliveries identified by vendor and/or chart review, vendors classified significantly more inductions and cesareans as elective (P < .001) and missed nine elective deliveries. Of the 107 deliveries identified as elective by ORYX, 62 (57.9%) were verified by chart review, including 69.0% of cesareans and 36.1% of inductions. Findings from this study suggest substantial discrepancy between identification of early-term elective deliveries by data vendors and physician chart review, and indicate that vendor-derived data may overestimate the number of electively delivered patients. PMID:27980880

  8. Random coil negative control reproduces the discrepancy between scattering and FRET measurements of denatured protein dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Herschel M.; Simon, Anna J.; Sosnick, Tobin R.; Lipman, Everett A.; Hjelm, Rex P.; Plaxco, Kevin W.

    2015-01-01

    Small-angle scattering studies generally indicate that the dimensions of unfolded single-domain proteins are independent (to within experimental uncertainty of a few percent) of denaturant concentration. In contrast, single-molecule FRET (smFRET) studies invariably suggest that protein unfolded states contract significantly as the denaturant concentration falls from high (∼6 M) to low (∼1 M). Here, we explore this discrepancy by using PEG to perform a hitherto absent negative control. This uncharged, highly hydrophilic polymer has been shown by multiple independent techniques to behave as a random coil in water, suggesting that it is unlikely to expand further on the addition of denaturant. Consistent with this observation, small-angle neutron scattering indicates that the dimensions of PEG are not significantly altered by the presence of either guanidine hydrochloride or urea. smFRET measurements on a PEG construct modified with the most commonly used FRET dye pair, however, produce denaturant-dependent changes in transfer efficiency similar to those seen for a number of unfolded proteins. Given the vastly different chemistries of PEG and unfolded proteins and the significant evidence that dye-free PEG is well-described as a denaturant-independent random coil, this similarity raises questions regarding the interpretation of smFRET data in terms of the hydrogen bond- or hydrophobically driven contraction of the unfolded state at low denaturant. PMID:25964362

  9. Intermaxillary tooth size discrepancy in a Pakistani population: A stereomicroscope versus digital caliper

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Fazal; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Khamis, Mohd Fadhli

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Comprehensive diagnosis and treatment planning are essential in a successful orthodontic practice. The purpose of this study is to determine and compare intermaxillary tooth size discrepancy (IMTSD) using traditional digital caliper (DC) measurement on plaster dental models and stereomicroscopic digital dental models (SM). Materials and Methods: The samples were randomly selected from different states of Pakistan. Total 7168 variables were measured on plaster dental casts (128) and SM digital dental models (128) according to the selection criteria. For IMTSD, the 6 variable measured as for anterior tooth size (maxilla, mandibular), overall tooth size (maxilla, mandibular), Bolton's anterior ratios (BAR), and Bolton's overall ratios (BOR). The independent t-test and ANOVA were used for statistical analyses. Results: Significant sexual disparities in the sum of anterior tooth size and overall tooth size via DC and SM methods. No significant sexual disparities for BAR and BOR. No statistically significant differences were found in BAR and BOR between DC and SM. No significant differences were found on IMTSD ratio among different arch length and arch perimeters groups. Conclusions: Norms were developed based on DC and SM for IMTSD. Sexual disparities were observed in the sum of teeth size. However, no significant differences in BAR and BOR for IMTSD between the two methods. PMID:27095892

  10. Ozone: Unresolved discrepancies for dipole oscillator strength distributions, dipole sums, and van der Waals coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashok; Thakkar, Ajit J.

    2011-08-01

    Dipole oscillator strength distributions (DOSDs) for ozone are constructed from experimental photoabsorption cross-sections combined with constraints provided by the Kuhn-Reiche-Thomas sum rule, the high-energy behavior of the dipole-oscillator-strength density, and molar refractivity data. A lack of photoabsorption data in the intermediate energy region from 24 to 524 eV necessitates the use of a mixture rule in that region. For this purpose, a DOSD for O2 is constructed first. The dipole properties for O2 are essentially the same as those obtained in earlier work even though most of the input data is from more recent experiments. A discrepancy is found between the refractivity data and photoabsorption data in the 10-20.6 eV range for ozone. A reliable ozone DOSD of the sort obtained for many other species remains out of reach. However, it is suggested that the true dipole properties of ozone lie between those predicted by two distributions that we present.

  11. Implications of a light “dark Higgs” solution to the gμ-2 discrepancy

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Chien-Yi; Davoudiasl, Hooman; Marciano, William J.; ...

    2016-02-05

    A light scalar Φ with mass ≲1 GeV and muonic coupling O(10-3) would explain the 3.5σ discrepancy between the Standard Model (SM) muon g-2 prediction and experiment. Such a scalar can be associated with a light remnant of the Higgs mechanism in the “dark” sector. We suggest Φ→l+l- bump hunting in μ→eνmore » $$\\vec{v}$$Φ, μ-p→νμnΦ (muon capture), and K±→μ±νΦ decays as direct probes of this scenario. In a general setup, a potentially observable muon electric dipole moment ≲10-23 e cm and lepton-flavor-violating decays τ→μ(e)Φ or μ→eΦ can also arise. A deviation in BR(H→μ+μ-) from SM expectations, due to Higgs coupling misalignment, can result depending on certain parameters. Here, we illustrate how the requisite interactions can be mediated by weak-scale vector-like leptons that typically lie within the reach of future LHC measurements.« less

  12. Discrepancy between actual and estimated speeds of drivers in the presence of child pedestrians

    PubMed Central

    Harre, N

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: First, to measure the speeds of vehicles with and without children on the footpath, and second to compare these with drivers' estimates of how fast they would go in these conditions. Design: The speeds of vehicles in three conditions: control (no children present), children playing with a ball on the footpath, and children waiting to cross the road, were measured using speed tubes during two 55 minute sessions. Drivers' estimates of their speeds were measured with a questionnaire. Setting: Speeds were measured on a main road in Auckland, New Zealand. The questionnaire was conducted at another time with drivers stopping for petrol approximately 500 metres from the measurement site. Subjects: A total of 1446 speed measurements were taken and 93 drivers‘ questionnaire responses were analysed. Results: The mean free speed of vehicles in the control condition was 55.60 kph, with drivers‘ estimates being 56.37 kph. When children were playing with a ball the measured speed was 54.29 kph and the estimated speed 39.27 kph. When children were waiting to cross the measured speed was 52.78 kph, estimated speed 34.02 kph. Analyses indicated that there were significant differences between measured and estimated speeds. Conclusions: New Zealand drivers make inadequate speed adjustments in the presence of children, despite probably believing they do so. Establishing specific rules about appropriate speeds around children and highlighting to drivers the discrepancy between their attitudes and behaviour are two intervention strategies suggested. PMID:12642557

  13. Source entitativity and the elaboration of persuasive messages: the roles of perceived efficacy and message discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jason K; Wegener, Duane T

    2009-07-01

    Compared with nonentitative groups, entitative targets are considered to elicit more elaborative processing because of the singularity or unity they represent. However, when groups serve as sources of persuasive messages, other dynamics may operate. The current research suggests that entitativity is intrinsically linked to perceptions of a group's efficacy related to the advocacy, and this efficacy combines with the position of the appeal to determine message elaboration. When messages are counterattitudinal, entitative (efficacious) sources should elicit greater processing than nonentitative groups because of concern that the entitative sources may be more likely to bring about the negative outcomes proposed. However, when appeals are proattitudinal, sources low in entitativity (nonefficacious) should initiate more elaboration due to concern that they may be unlikely to facilitate the positive outcomes proposed. These hypotheses were supported in a series of studies. Preliminary studies established the entitativity-efficacy relation (Studies 1A and 1B). Primary persuasion studies showed that manipulations of source entitativity (Studies 2 and 3) and source efficacy (Studies 4A and 4B) have opposite effects on processing as a function of message discrepancy.

  14. The Hiroshima/Nagasaki Survivor Studies: Discrepancies Between Results and General Perception.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Bertrand R

    2016-08-01

    The explosion of atom bombs over the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 resulted in very high casualties, both immediate and delayed but also left a large number of survivors who had been exposed to radiation, at levels that could be fairly precisely ascertained. Extensive follow-up of a large cohort of survivors (120,000) and of their offspring (77,000) was initiated in 1947 and continues to this day. In essence, survivors having received 1 Gy irradiation (∼1000 mSV) have a significantly elevated rate of cancer (42% increase) but a limited decrease of longevity (∼1 year), while their offspring show no increased frequency of abnormalities and, so far, no detectable elevation of the mutation rate. Current acceptable exposure levels for the general population and for workers in the nuclear industry have largely been derived from these studies, which have been reported in more than 100 publications. Yet the general public, and indeed most scientists, are unaware of these data: it is widely believed that irradiated survivors suffered a very high cancer burden and dramatically shortened life span, and that their progeny were affected by elevated mutation rates and frequent abnormalities. In this article, I summarize the results and discuss possible reasons for this very striking discrepancy between the facts and general beliefs about this situation.

  15. [From financial to scientific fraud : methods to detect discrepancies in the medical literature].

    PubMed

    Schüpfer, G; Hein, J; Casutt, M; Steiner, L; Konrad, C

    2012-06-01

    Fraud is as old as Mankind. There are an enormous number of historical documents which show the interaction between truth and untruth; therefore it is not really surprising that the prevalence of publication discrepancies is increasing. More surprising is that new cases especially in the medical field generate such a huge astonishment. In financial mathematics a statistical tool for detection of fraud is known which uses the knowledge of Newcomb and Benford regarding the distribution of natural numbers. This distribution is not equal and lower numbers are more likely to be detected compared to higher ones. In this investigation all numbers contained in the blinded abstracts of the 2009 annual meeting of the Swiss Society of Anesthesia and Resuscitation (SGAR) were recorded and analyzed regarding the distribution. A manipulated abstract was also included in the investigation. The χ(2)-test was used to determine statistical differences between expected and observed counts of numbers. There was also a faked abstract integrated in the investigation. A p<0.05 was considered significant. The distribution of the 1,800 numbers in the 77 submitted abstracts followed Benford's law. The manipulated abstract was detected by statistical means (difference in expected versus observed p<0.05). Statistics cannot prove whether the content is true or not but can give some serious hints to look into the details in such conspicuous material. These are the first results of a test for the distribution of numbers presented in medical research.

  16. A gender discrepancy analysis of heterosexual sexual behaviors in two university samples.

    PubMed

    Jozkowski, Kristen N; Satinsky, Sonya A

    2013-12-01

    The current study aimed to (1) offer a large-scale enumeration of college students' lifetime sexual behaviors and sexual behaviors at last event, and (2) apply a gender discrepancy lens to college students' sexual behaviors in order to examine potential gender differences in heterosexual college students' experiences. Nine-hundred and seventy college students between the ages of 18 and 27 from two large universities in the United States participated in the current study. Participants filled out a paper-pencil questionnaire during the last 30 min of class. Measures of lifetime sexual behaviors and engagement in behaviors at last sexual event were replicated from the National Survey of Sexual Health Behavior. Most college students engaged in some form of sexual behavior (manual, oral, vaginal-penile, anal). Men more frequently reported engaging in receptive sexual behaviors (e.g., receiving oral sex) where as women were more likely to engage in performative sexual behaviors (e.g., performing oral sex). At most recent sexual event, men were more likely than women to report being the sexual initiator. Findings highlight gender differences in sexual behavior and provide a foundation for social norms interventions. Holistic sexual health promotion for young adults includes acknowledging and discouraging sites of disparity in equity and pleasure. Therefore, college-level sexual health educators should pay attention to the potential pleasure gap between men and women in heterosexual encounters, and to see pleasure as an important part of sexual health that should be included in social norms campaigns.

  17. Discrepancies in the primary PLATO trial publication and the FDA reviews.

    PubMed

    Serebruany, Victor L

    2014-03-01

    The results of major indication seeking Phase 3 clinical trials are reported at international meetings, and simultaneously published In top medical journals. However, the data presented during such dual release do not disclose all the trial findings, suffer from overoptimistic interpretations heavily favoring the study sponsor. Ironically, after the New Drug Application is submitted for regulatory approval, and when the FDA secondary reviews become available for public, the benefit/risk assessment of a new drug is usually considered much less impressive. However, the community may ignore pivotal unreported findings later outlined in the government documents taking for granted the facts presented in the primary publication. The discrepancies between initial publication and the FDA files are not only confusing to the readership, but hold additional risks for patients. Indeed, if physicians are impressed with the initial interpretation of the trial, and do not have broad access to the FDA verified facts, chances are new agents will be prescribed based on exaggerated benefit and less safety concerns. The current pattern also hurts the reputation of the journal publishers, editors and reviewers challenging their trust and credibility. We here outline the disparity between the primary PLATO trial publication in the New England Journal of Medicine against the FDA verified numbers, and discuss how to avoid such mismatches in the future.

  18. Discrepancy Between Identification of Early-Term Elective Deliveries by Manual Chart Review and Data Vendor.

    PubMed

    Yamasato, Kelly; Tsai, Pai-Jong Stacy; Bartholomew, Marguerite; Durbin, Marsha; Kimata, Chieko; Kaneshiro, Bliss

    2016-12-01

    Elective delivery from 37 to 39 weeks gestation (early-term deliveries) is a Joint Commission National Quality Measure, and hospitals report on early-term elective delivery rates through Outcome Research Yields Excellence (ORYX) vendors. The objective of this study was to compare early-term elective deliveries, identified through ORYX vendors with those identified through manual chart review, the traditional method of medical record review. We reviewed early-term labor inductions and cesarean deliveries at a single hospital from June 1, 2010 to May 31, 2012. Rates of early-term elective deliveries identified by the data vendor were compared to physician chart review. Overall, the rate of elective deliveries by ORYX was 3% compared to 2% by physician chart review (RR 1.51 [95% CI 1.12-2.03], P < .001). Of the 116 elective early-term deliveries identified by vendor and/or chart review, vendors classified significantly more inductions and cesareans as elective (P < .001) and missed nine elective deliveries. Of the 107 deliveries identified as elective by ORYX, 62 (57.9%) were verified by chart review, including 69.0% of cesareans and 36.1% of inductions. Findings from this study suggest substantial discrepancy between identification of early-term elective deliveries by data vendors and physician chart review, and indicate that vendor-derived data may overestimate the number of electively delivered patients.

  19. Depressive symptoms moderate the effects of a self-discrepancy induction on overgeneral autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Smets, Jorien; Griffith, James W; Wessel, Ineke; Walschaerts, Dominique; Raes, Filip

    2013-01-01

    According to the CaRFAX model, rumination is one of the key underlying mechanisms of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). The association between rumination and OGM is well established in clinical populations, but this relationship is not robust in nonclinical samples. A series of null findings is reported in the current paper. Additionally we followed up on recent findings suggesting that a state of rumination needs to be active in order to detect a relationship between trait-rumination and OGM. Secondary school students (N= 123) completed questionnaires assessing trait-rumination and depressive symptoms as well as two autobiographical memory tests (AMTs), one before and one after a self-discrepancy induction. This induction should trigger state-rumination, which would subsequently promote the retrieval of general rather than specific memories. Trait-rumination failed to predict increases in OGM. We did find, however, that higher BDI-II scores were positively related to an increase in OGM following the induction. This adds to the growing body of evidence that OGM reactivity might be more important than baseline memory specificity.

  20. Resolving a discrepancy between experimental and theoretical lifetimes in atomic negative ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brage, Tomas; Grumer, Jon

    2017-01-01

    A recent measurement of the lifetime of the excited 3p5 {}2{P}1/2 state in the S- negative ion, which is dominated by a forbidden magnetic dipole transition to the {}2{P}3/2 ground state, reveals a discrepancy with earlier theoretical predictions. To investigate this we have performed systematic and large-scale multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations for this system. After including a careful treatment of correlation and relativistic effects, we predict a well-converged value for this lifetime, with an uncertainty considerably less than 1%, thereby removing the apparent conflict between theory and experiment. We also show that this result corresponds to the non-relativistic limit in the LS coupling approximation for the magnetic dipole transition within this 2 P term. In addition we demonstrate the usefulness of the latter approach for 2 P transitions in O-, Se- and Te-, as well as for analogous M1 transitions within 2 D terms in Ni- and Pt- ions.

  1. Combined external fixation and intramedullary alignment in correction of limb length discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Bukva, Bojan; Brdar, Radivoj; Nikolic, Dejan; Petronic, Ivana; Ducic, Sinisa; Abramovic, Dusan

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of intramedullary (IM) alignment used in combination with external fixation on the healing index (HI) and lengthening index (LI) in the treatment of congenital and acquired leg length discrepancies (LLD). We compared duration of the external fixator application, LLD, HI and LI between two groups of children: children in Group I underwent limb lengthening by the conventional llizarov technique, and children in Group II underwent a combination of Ilizarov technique and intramedullary alignment with Kirschner wires. Two types of LLDs were treated: congenital and acquired. We found significant differences between the two groups for duration of external fixator application and HI. Significant differences were also noted in the duration of the external fixator application, HI and LI, between patients with congenital and acquired LLDs. We also noted significant differences between Group I and Group II regarding duration of external fixator application for patients with congenital LLD and also regarding HI for both congenital and acquired types of LLD.

  2. Treatment of congenital leg length discrepancies in children using an Ilizarov external fixator: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Bukva, Bojan; Vrgoc, Goran; Brdar, Radivoj; Ducić, Sinisa; Gulan, Gordan; Jurdana, Hari

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of intramedullary (IM) alignment used in combination with an Ilizarov external fixation on the healing index (HI) and lengthening index (LI) in the treatment of congenital leg length discrepancies (LLD). This study included 35patients aged from 3.5 to 19 (average age 10.73) who underwent thl egalisation procedure using an Ilizarov external fixator. We compared the duration of the external fixator application, LLD, HI and LI between two groups of children: children in Group I underwent limb lengthening by the conventional llizarov technique using an Ilizarov external fixator alone, and children in Group II underwent a combination of Ilizarov technique and intramedullary alignment with two Kirschner wires, introduced through two mini-incisions. We found significant differences between the two groups of patients for duration of external fixator application and HI. Patients with congeni- tal LLD treated with combined method of treatment had benefit from intramedullary alignment due to its better outcome.

  3. One explanatory basis for the discrepancy of reported prevalences of sleep paralysis among healthy respondents.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, K

    1993-12-01

    In a previous study, the author and coworkers found 39.8% of healthy young adults had experienced sleep paralysis. Some other studies reported prevalence as about the same or higher (i.e., 40.7% to 62.0%) than that previous estimate, while yet other studies, including Goode's work cited by ASDC and ASDA classifications, suggested much lower prevalences (i.e., 4.7% to 26.2%). The author tested the hypothesis that this discrepancy among the reported prevalences is partly due to the expression used in each questionnaire. University students who answered the questionnaire using the term 'transient paralysis' reported the lower prevalence (26.4%), while the second group of respondents who answered the questionnaire using the term kanashibari, the Japanese folklore expression for sleep paralysis, gave the higher prevalence (39.3%). The third group who answered the questionnaire with the term 'condition,' probably a rather neutral expression, marked the middle (31.0%) of these.

  4. Simulation of nucleation in almost hard-sphere colloids: the discrepancy between experiment and simulation persists.

    PubMed

    Filion, L; Ni, R; Frenkel, D; Dijkstra, M

    2011-04-07

    In this paper we examine the phase behavior of the Weeks-Chandler-Andersen (WCA) potential with βε = 40. Crystal nucleation in this model system was recently studied by Kawasaki and Tanaka [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 14036 (2010)], who argued that the computed nucleation rates agree well with experiment, a finding that contradicted earlier simulation results. Here we report an extensive numerical study of crystallization in the WCA model, using three totally different techniques (Brownian dynamics, umbrella sampling, and forward flux sampling). We find that all simulations yield essentially the same nucleation rates. However, these rates differ significantly from the values reported by Kawasaki and Tanaka and hence we argue that the huge discrepancy in nucleation rates between simulation and experiment persists. When we map the WCA model onto a hard-sphere system, we find good agreement between the present simulation results and those that had been obtained for hard spheres [L. Filion, M. Hermes, R. Ni, and M. Dijkstra, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 244115 (2010); S. Auer and D. Frenkel, Nature 409, 1020 (2001)].

  5. The discrepancy between recommendations and clinical practice for viscosupplementation in osteoarthritis: mind the gap!

    PubMed

    Migliore, A; Bizzi, E; Herrero-Beaumont, J; Petrella, R J; Raman, R; Chevalier, X

    2015-04-01

    Recently AAOS, ACR and OARSI revised their recommendations for the management of knee osteoarthritis (OA) and for hand, knee and hip joints. During ISIAT (International Symposium on Intra-Articular Treatments) 2013 round table on recommendations about the use of intra-articular Hyaluronic Acid (IAHA) in OA, several considerations were elaborated by the ISIAT Technical Expert Panel (TEP) regarding discrepancy between recommendations and clinical practice. The ISIAT TEP gathered the following eight suggestions regarding the drawing of recommendations on the use of IAHA in OA and its comparison with other treatments. It is necessary to merge data coming from both RCTs and registers. Only studies with a strong level of evidence should be taken into account. A common threshold of efficacy should be assessed for comparing treatments. Evaluation of hard outcomes is essential. The effect size of placebo as comparator should be attentively considered in RCTs. Particular attention should be given to different phenotypes of OA that may possibly respond differently to each treatment. Compliance and long-term side effects of different therapeutic approaches should be evaluated. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation should be performed on the long term.

  6. Intra- and intermodal integration of discrepant visual and proprioceptive action effects.

    PubMed

    Ladwig, Stefan; Sutter, Christine; Müsseler, Jochen

    2013-12-01

    Integration of discrepant visual and proprioceptive action effects puts high demands on the human information processing system. The present study aimed to examine the integration mechanisms for the motor (Exp. 1) and visual modality (Exp. 2). According to theories of common coding, we assumed that visual as well as proprioceptive information is represented within the same cognitive domain and is therefore likely to affect each other (multisensory cross talk). Thus, apart from the often-confirmed visual dominance in multisensory integration, we asked about intra- and intermodal recall of either proprioceptive or visual information and whether there were any differences between the motor and visual modality. In a replication paradigm, we perturbed the relation between hand movements and cursor movements. The task required the (intra- vs. intermodal) replication of an initially performed (seen) hand (cursor) movement in a subsequent motor (visual) replication phase. First, mechanisms of integration were found to be dependent on the output modality. Visual action effects interfered the motor modality, but proprioceptive action effects did not have any effects on the visual modality. Second, however, intermodal integration was more susceptible to interference, and this was found to be independent from the output modality. Third, for the motor modality, the locus of perturbation (perturbation of cursor amplitude or perturbation of hand amplitude) was irrelevant, but for the visual modality, perturbation of hand amplitudes reduced the cross talk. Tool use is one field of application of these kinds of results, since the optimized integration of conflicting action effects is a precondition for using tools successfully.

  7. Leg length discrepancy and osteoarthritis in the knee, hip and lumbar spine

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Kelvin J.; Azari, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is an extremely common condition that creates substantial personal and health care costs. An important recognised risk factor for OA is excessive or abnormal mechanical joint loading. Leg length discrepancy (LLD) is a common condition that results in uneven and excessive loading of not only knee joints but also hip joints and lumbar motion segments. Accurate imaging methods of LLD have made it possible to study the biomechanical effects of mild LLD (LLD of 20mm or less). This review examines the accuracy of these methods compared to clinical LLD measurements. It then examines the association between LLD and OA of the joints of the lower extremity. More importantly, it addresses the largely neglected association between LLD and degeneration of lumbar motion segments and the patterns of biomechanical changes that accompany LLD. We propose that mild LLD may be an important instigator or contributor to OA of the hip and lumbar spine, and that it deserves to be rigorously studied in order to decrease OA’s burden of disease. PMID:26500356

  8. Renal length discrepancy by ultrasound is a reliable predictor of an abnormal DMSA scan in children.

    PubMed

    Khazaei, Mahmood R; Mackie, Fiona; Rosenberg, Andrew R; Kainer, Gad

    2008-01-01

    A renal length discrepancy (RLD) of more than 10 mm by ultrasound (US) is accepted as a potential indicator of an underlying renal pathology; however, there are few supporting data for this in children. Our objective was to determine a cutoff at which RLD on US is a reliable predictor of dimercaptosuccinate acid (DMSA) scan abnormality. We present data from 90 patients who had both renal US and a DMSA scan, as well as DMSA scan results compared with bipolar RLD by US. Positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were calculated for renal RLD from 6 to >10 mm. The left kidney was longer in 56%, whereas the right kidney was longer in 37%; their lengths were equal in 8%. For children at all ages, a left kidney longer than the right by >or=10 mm or a right kidney longer than the left by >or=7 mm gave a PPV for DMSA abnormality of 79% and 100%, respectively. In children older than 4 years, if the right kidney was longer by >or=7 mm or if the left kidney was longer by >or=10 mm, the PPVs for DMSA abnormality were 100% and 63%, respectively. In children younger than 4 years, when the right kidney was longer by >or=6 mm or the left was kidney longer by >or=10 mm, the PPV were 86% and 100%, respectively. Thus, children with a right kidney longer than the left by even <10 mm is a reliable predictor of an abnormal DMSA scan.

  9. Radiation risk perception: a discrepancy between the experts and the general population.

    PubMed

    Perko, Tanja

    2014-07-01

    Determining the differences in the perception of risks between experts who are regularly exposed to radiation, and lay people provides important insights into how potential hazards may be effectively communicated to the public. In the present study we examined lay people's (N = 1020) and experts' (N = 332) perception of five different radiological risks: nuclear waste, medical x-rays, natural radiation, an accident at a nuclear installation in general, and the Fukushima accident in particular. In order to link risk perception with risk communication, media reporting about radiation risks is analysed using quantitative and qualitative content analyses. The results showed that experts perceive radiological risks differently from the general public. Experts' perception of medical X-rays and natural radiation is significantly higher than in general population, while for nuclear waste and an accident at a nuclear installation, experts have lower risk perception than the general population. In-depth research is conducted for a group of workers that received an effective dose higher than 0.5 mSv in the year before the study; for this group we identify predictors of risk perception. The results clearly show that mass media don't use the same language as technical experts in addressing radiological risks. The study demonstrates that the discrepancy in risk perception and the communication gap between the experts and the general population presents a big challenge in understanding each other.

  10. Effect of Parent Weight on Weight Loss in Obese Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Leonard H.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Assessed effect of parent weight and parent control versus child self-control on weight loss in obese preadolescent children over three-year period. Children of nonobese parents had significantly greater decrease in relative weight after one year than children of obese parents. At three years, there was no effect of parent weight. Locus of control…

  11. Bounds for weighted Lebesgue functions for exponential weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubayi, D. G.

    2001-08-01

    The weighted Lebesgue functions for even weights W=e-Q on the real line have been intensively studied in recent years. In this paper, we discuss the corresponding results for a class of weights that includes non-even weights.

  12. Are early first trimester weights valid proxies for preconception weight?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An accurate estimate of preconception weight is necessary for providing a gestational weight gain range based on the Institute of Medicine’s guidelines; however, an accurate and proximal preconception weight is not available for most women. We examined the validity of first trimester weights for est...

  13. Heterogeneous edge weights promote epidemic diffusion in weighted evolving networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Wei; Song, Zhichao; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2016-08-01

    The impact that the heterogeneities of links’ weights have on epidemic diffusion in weighted networks has received much attention. Investigating how heterogeneous edge weights affect epidemic spread is helpful for disease control. In this paper, we study a Reed-Frost epidemic model in weighted evolving networks. Our results indicate that a higher heterogeneity of edge weights leads to higher epidemic prevalence and epidemic incidence at earlier stage of epidemic diffusion in weighted evolving networks. In addition, weighted evolving scale-free networks come with a higher epidemic prevalence and epidemic incidence than unweighted scale-free networks.

  14. Girls' dairy intake, energy intake, and weight status.

    PubMed

    Fiorito, Laura M; Ventura, Alison K; Mitchell, Diane C; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Birch, Leann L

    2006-11-01

    We explored the relationships among girls' weight status, dairy servings, and total energy intake. The hypothesis that consuming dairy could reduce risk for overweight was evaluated by comparing energy intake and weight status of girls who met or consumed less than the recommended three servings of dairy per day. Participants included 172 11-year-old non-Hispanic white girls, assessed cross-sectionally. Intakes of dairy, calcium, and energy were measured using three 24-hour recalls. Body mass index and body fat measures from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry were obtained. Because preliminary analyses suggested systematic underreporting of energy intake, the relationships among dairy servings and measures of weight status were examined for the total sample and for subsamples of under-, plausible, and overreporters. Data for the total sample provided support for the hypothesized relationship among weight status, dairy servings, and energy intake. Thirty-nine percent of girls reported consuming the recommended >/=3 servings of dairy per day; these girls also reported higher energy intake but had lower body mass index z scores and body fat than the girls who consumed fewer than three dairy servings each day. Among plausible reporters, no relationship between dairy intake and weight status was noted. This discrepancy may be attributable to a high percentage (45%) of overweight underreporters in the total sample. Our findings reveal that reporting bias, resulting from the presence of a substantial proportion of underreporters of higher weight status, can contribute to obtaining spurious associations between dairy intake and weight status. These findings underscore the need for randomly controlled trials to assess the role of dairy in weight management.

  15. Girls’ Dairy Intake, Energy Intake, and Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    FIORITO, LAURA M.; VENTURA, ALISON K.; MITCHELL, DIANE C.; SMICIKLAS-WRIGHT, HELEN; BIRCH, LEANN L.

    2008-01-01

    We explored the relationships among girls’ weight status, dairy servings, and total energy intake. The hypothesis that consuming dairy could reduce risk for overweight was evaluated by comparing energy intake and weight status of girls who met or consumed less than the recommended three servings of dairy per day. Participants included 172 11-year-old non-Hispanic white girls, assessed cross-sectionally. Intakes of dairy, calcium, and energy were measured using three 24-hour recalls. Body mass index and body fat measures from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry were obtained. Because preliminary analyses suggested systematic underreporting of energy intake, the relationships among dairy servings and measures of weight status were examined for the total sample and for subsamples of under-, plausible, and overreporters. Data for the total sample provided support for the hypothesized relationship among weight status, dairy servings, and energy intake. Thirty-nine percent of girls reported consuming the recommended ≥3 servings of dairy per day; these girls also reported higher energy intake but had lower body mass index z scores and body fat than the girls who consumed fewer than three dairy servings each day. Among plausible reporters, no relationship between dairy intake and weight status was noted. This discrepancy may be attributable to a high percentage (45%) of overweight underreporters in the total sample. Our findings reveal that reporting bias, resulting from the presence of a substantial proportion of underreporters of higher weight status, can contribute to obtaining spurious associations between dairy intake and weight status. These findings underscore the need for randomly controlled trials to assess the role of dairy in weight management. PMID:17081836

  16. Birth weight is forever.

    PubMed

    Basso, Olga

    2008-03-01

    Birth weight is associated not just with infant morbidity and mortality, but with outcomes occurring much later in life, including adult mortality, as reported by a paper by Baker and colleagues in this issue of Epidemiology. While these associations are tantalizing per se, the truly interesting question concerns the mechanisms that underlie these links. The prevailing hypothesis suggests a "fetal origin" of diseases resulting from alterations in fetal nutrition that permanently program organ function. The most commonly proposed alternative is that factors, mainly genetic, that affect both fetal growth and disease risk are responsible for the observed associations. Although both mechanisms are intellectually attractive-and may well coexist-we should be cautious to not focus excessively on fetal growth. Doing this may lead us in the wrong direction, as has likely happened in the case of birth weight in relation to infant survival.

  17. Reducing rotor weight

    SciTech Connect

    Cheney, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  18. The Glass Half Empty: How Emotional Exhaustion Affects the State-Trait Discrepancy in Self-Reports of Teaching Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Thomas; Becker, Eva S.; Bieg, Madeleine; Keller, Melanie M.; Frenzel, Anne C.; Hall, Nathan C.

    2015-01-01

    Following from previous research on intensity bias and the accessibility model of emotional self-report, the present study examined the role of emotional exhaustion in explaining the discrepancy in teachers’ reports of their trait (habitual) versus state (momentary, “real”) emotions. Trait reports (habitual emotions, exhaustion) were assessed via trait questionnaires, and state reports (momentary emotions) were assessed in real time via the experience sampling method by using personal digital assistants (N = 69 high school teachers; 1,089 measures within teachers). In line with our assumptions, multi-level analyses showed that, as compared to the state assessment, teachers reported higher levels of habitual teaching-related emotions of anger, anxiety, shame, boredom, enjoyment, and pride. Additionally, the state-trait discrepancy in self-reports of negative emotions was accounted for by teachers’ emotional exhaustion, with high exhaustion levels corresponding with a greater state-trait discrepancy. Exhaustion levels did not moderate the state-trait discrepancy in positive emotions indicating that perceived emotional exhaustion may reflect identity-related cognitions specific to the negative belief system. Implications for research and educational practice are discussed. PMID:26368911

  19. Predicting the Grades of Low-Income--Ethnic-Minority Students from Teacher-Student Discrepancies in Reported Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Kristin Emilia; Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Jackson, Karen Moran

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of discrepancies between teachers' perceptions of students' motivation and students' reports of their motivation on math and English grades and to identify possible gender and ethnic differences. Participants included 215 low-income, ethnic-minority students and their teachers in academically…

  20. Even More Brain-Powered Science: Teaching and Learning with Discrepant Events. Brain-Powered Science Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    How can water and a penny demonstrate the power of mathematics and molecular theory? Do spelling and punctuation really matter to the human brain? The third of Thomas O'Brien's books designed for 5-12 grade science teachers, "Even More Brain-Powered Science" uses the questions above and 11 other inquiry-oriented discrepant events--experiments or…

  1. An Investigation of Discrepancy Scores between Intelligence and WRAT-R Achievement in Mentally Retarded and Learning Disabled Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walthall, Joe; Smith, Terry

    This study investigated the relationship between measured intelligence and discrepancies existing between actual achievement levels and projected achievement levels in mildly handicapped resource room students in Arkansas. Twenty-seven students had been identified as learning disabled and 19 as mildly mentally retarded. Subjects each received…

  2. Internal Consistency and Associated Characteristics of Informant Discrepancies in Clinic Referred Youths Age 11 to 17 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Pabon, Shairy C.; Youngstrom, Jennifer K.; Feeny, Norah C.; Findling, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the internal consistency of informant discrepancies in reports of youth behavior and emotional problems and their unique relations with youth, caregiver, and family characteristics. In a heterogeneous multisite clinic sample of 420 youths (ages 11-17 years), high internal consistency estimates were observed across…

  3. Resisting Peer Pressure: Characteristics Associated with Other-Self Discrepancies in College Students' Levels of Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Lizabeth A.; Novak, Katherine B.

    2007-01-01

    Since college undergraduates tend to increase their use of alcohol to match what they perceive to be normative, the assumption has been that students who believe that others on campus drink more than they do (a common misperception) are in a vulnerable position. Taking a different perspective, we consider large other-self discrepancies in levels…

  4. BMI, body discrepancy, and self-construal as predictors of eating disturbances in European and Asian American females.

    PubMed

    Chang, Edward C; Yu, Elizabeth A; Kahle, Emma R

    2014-04-01

    This study examined for ethnic variations in the predictive utility of body discrepancy and self-construal in eating disturbances between 156 European American and 129 Asian American females. We found important ethnic variations in the prediction model between these two groups, especially in the value of self-construal. Some implications of the present findings are discussed.

  5. Missing and discrepant data on the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q): Quantity, quality, and implications.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Nichole R; Cotter, Elizabeth W; Lydecker, Janet A; Mazzeo, Suzanne E

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine relations among missing and discrepant data on the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q; Fairburn & Beglin, 1994) and individual demographic factors and eating disorder symptoms. Data from 3968 men and women collected in five independent studies were examined. Descriptive statistics were used to detect the quantity of missing and discrepant data, as well as independent samples t-tests and chi-square analyses to examine group differences between participants with and without missing or discrepant data. Results indicated significant differences in data completeness by participant race/ethnicity and severity of eating disorder symptoms. White participants were most likely to provide complete survey responses, and Asian American participants were least likely to provide complete survey responses. Participants with incomplete surveys reported greater eating disorder symptoms and behaviors compared with those with complete surveys. Similarly, those with discrepant responses to behavioral items reported greater eating disorder symptoms and behaviors compared with those with congruent responses. Practical implications and recommendations for reducing and addressing incomplete data on the EDE-Q are discussed.

  6. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test Concentration Ranges, Number of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications Pollutant Concentration...

  7. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test Concentration Ranges, Number of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications Pollutant Concentration...

  8. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test Concentration Ranges, Number of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications Pollutant Concentration...

  9. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test Concentration Ranges, Number of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications Pollutant Concentration...

  10. Doc, what would you do if you were me? On self-other discrepancies in medical decision making.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Galesic, Mirta

    2012-03-01

    Doctors often make decisions for their patients and predict their patients' preferences and decisions to customize advice to their particular situation. We investigated how doctors make decisions about medical treatments for their patients and themselves and how they predict their patients' decisions. We also studied whether these decisions and predictions coincide with the decisions that the patients make for themselves. We document 3 important findings. First, doctors made more conservative decisions for their patients than for themselves (i.e., they more often selected a safer medical treatment). Second, doctors did so even if they accurately predicted that their patients would want a riskier treatment than the one they selected. Doctors, therefore, showed substantial self-other discrepancies in medical decision making and did not make decisions that accurately reflected their patients' preferences. Finally, patients were not aware of these discrepancies and thought that the decisions their doctors made for themselves would be similar to the decisions they made for their patients. We explain these results in light of 2 current theories of self-other discrepancies in judgment and decision making: the risk-as-feelings hypothesis and the cognitive hypothesis. Our results have important implications for research on expert decision making and for medical practice, and shed some light on the process underlying self-other discrepancies in decision making.

  11. Reliability and Construct Validity of a Discrepancy Approach to Measuring Student Perceptions of Teaching. Document No. 0874-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Francoys; Allaire, Denis

    The discrepancy approach, with a nonmonotonic function, was used in a questionnaire designed to measure the difference between reality as perceived and desires. Reality is described as a student's perception of teacher performance and notion of an ideal teacher performance. The questionnaire deals with both the intensity and direction of a…

  12. Students with Specific Spelling Disability: A Collective Case Study Identifying the Experiential and Behavioral Causes for the Discrepancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Michael Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine potential causes for the reading and spelling discrepancies of 26 middle school students. All were proficient in reading, but non-proficient in spelling, a pattern typical in students with Specific Spelling Disability (SSD). The focus of the study was on linguistic knowledge while encoding and decoding, plus…

  13. An Examination of Variability in Identification of Learning Disabled Students according to Selected Discrepancy Formulas over a Three Year Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Warren J.; And Others

    Cumulative files on 276 students (grades 2-12) identified as learning disabled (LD) were analyzed in the project designed to investigate effects of LD selection formulas and the influence of various LD services. Analyses revealed that few (3-5%) of the students were identified as LD by formulas demanding a substantial IQ achievement discrepancy; a…

  14. Predictors of the Discrepancy between Time Needed and Time Spent in Learning among Boys Exhibiting Behavior Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettinger, Maribeth; Lyon, Mark A.

    1983-01-01

    Based on Carroll's model of school learning, this study sought to identify factors to help explain the discrepancy between time needed for learning and time actually spent in learning. Ninety-six boys were required to read and reread a passage until 100 percent accuracy was achieved on a criterion test. (Author/PN)

  15. Analysis of the discrepancies identified during medication reconciliation on patient admission in cardiology units: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Natália Fracaro; Mendes, Antonio Eduardo Matoso; Lucchetta, Rosa Camila; Reis, Wálleri Christini Torelli; Fávero, Maria Luiza Drechsel; Correr, Cassyano Januário

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: this observational study aimed to describe the discrepancies identified during medication reconciliation on patient admission to cardiology units in a large hospital. Methods: the medication history of patients was collected within 48 hours after admission, and intentional and unintentional discrepancies were classified as omission, duplication, dose, frequency, timing, and route of drug administration. Results: most of the patients evaluated were women (58.0%) with a mean age of 59 years, and 75.5% of the patients had a Charlson comorbidity index score between 1 and 3. Of the 117 discrepancies found, 50.4% were unintentional. Of these, 61.0% involved omission, 18.6% involved dosage, 18.6% involved timing, and 1.7% involved the route of drug administration. Conclusion: this study revealed a high prevalence of discrepancies, most of which were related to omissions, and 50% were unintentional. These results reveal the number of drugs that are not reincorporated into the treatment of patients, which can have important clinical consequences. PMID:27533269

  16. Discrepancies in Military Middle-School Adolescents' and Parents' Perceptions of Family Functioning, Social Support, Anger Frequency, and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Janet R.; Seybold, Amanda K.

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature suggests that adolescents' and parents' perceptions of family functioning are typically quite disparate and that perceptual discrepancies increase when a family is under stress. During the years of deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan adolescents in military families have faced uniquely stressful circumstances which may…

  17. Are Discrepancies in Perceptions of Psychological Control Related to Maladjustment? A Study of Adolescents and Their Parents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaban, E. Helin; Sayil, Melike; Tepe, Yeliz Kindap

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether adolescent-parent discrepancies in the perception of psychological control are associated with adolescent maladjustment. The sample consisted of 552 Turkish adolescents attending high school and their parents. Half of the adolescents had similar scores to their parents, while the remaining half thought…

  18. Dyadic Taxonomy of Delinquent Youth: Exploring Risks and Outcomes Associated With Maternal-Youth Reporting Discrepancies of Delinquent Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Joan A.; Sullivan, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Using latent class analysis (LCA), this study identified a dyadic taxonomy of delinquent youth categorized by varying types of maternal-youth reporting discrepancies (i.e., youth < maternal, youth > maternal) within a sample of 764 14-year-old high-risk youth. Four distinctive subgroups of youth were identified, two of which reported more…

  19. The Glass Half Empty: How Emotional Exhaustion Affects the State-Trait Discrepancy in Self-Reports of Teaching Emotions.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Thomas; Becker, Eva S; Bieg, Madeleine; Keller, Melanie M; Frenzel, Anne C; Hall, Nathan C

    2015-01-01

    Following from previous research on intensity bias and the accessibility model of emotional self-report, the present study examined the role of emotional exhaustion in explaining the discrepancy in teachers' reports of their trait (habitual) versus state (momentary, "real") emotions. Trait reports (habitual emotions, exhaustion) were assessed via trait questionnaires, and state reports (momentary emotions) were assessed in real time via the experience sampling method by using personal digital assistants (N = 69 high school teachers; 1,089 measures within teachers). In line with our assumptions, multi-level analyses showed that, as compared to the state assessment, teachers reported higher levels of habitual teaching-related emotions of anger, anxiety, shame, boredom, enjoyment, and pride. Additionally, the state-trait discrepancy in self-reports of negative emotions was accounted for by teachers' emotional exhaustion, with high exhaustion levels corresponding with a greater state-trait discrepancy. Exhaustion levels did not moderate the state-trait discrepancy in positive emotions indicating that perceived emotional exhaustion may reflect identity-related cognitions specific to the negative belief system. Implications for research and educational practice are discussed.

  20. On the discrepancy between eddy covariance and lysimetry-based surface flux measurements under strongly advective conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Discrepancies can arise among surface flux measurements collected using disparate techniques due to differences in both the instrumentation and theoretical underpinnings of the different measurement methods. Using data collected primarily over a pair of irrigated cotton fields as a part of the Bushl...

  1. On the Discrepancy of Access to Higher Education in a Province with a Large Ethnic Minority Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Yunchuan; Zhang, Jianxin

    2007-01-01

    Based on a survey of students from different social strata, different family backgrounds and different levels of access to higher education in 10 higher education institutions (HEIs) in Yunnan, an ethnic minority (EM) province, this essay tries to find out the discrepancy in the enrollment opportunity of higher education for children from…

  2. A Discrepancy of Definitions: Binge Drinking and Female Students at an Australian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murugiah, Sera

    2012-01-01

    Women are more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol than men. They get intoxicated more quickly and have a higher blood alcohol level than men, even when body weight and alcohol consumption are the same. Despite this we are seeing a convergence of the drinking patterns of young women and young men, including binge drinking. In this research, 20…

  3. Objectification in Virtual Romantic Contexts: Perceived Discrepancies between Self and Partner Ideals Differentially affect Body Consciousness in Women and Men.

    PubMed

    Overstreet, Nicole M; Quinn, Diane M; Marsh, Kerry L

    2015-11-01

    The current study examined whether exposure to sexually objectifying images in a potential romantic partner's virtual apartment affects discrepancies between people's perception of their own appearance (i.e., self-perceptions) and their perception of the body ideal that is considered desirable to a romantic partner (i.e., partner-ideals). Participants were 114 heterosexual undergraduate students (57 women and 57 men) from a northeastern U.S. university. The study used a 2 (Participant Gender) x 2 (Virtual Environment: Sexualized vs. Non-Sexualized) between-subjects design. We predicted that women exposed to sexually objectifying images in a virtual environment would report greater discrepancies between their self-perceptions and partner-ideals than men, which in turn would contribute to women's body consciousness. Findings support this hypothesis and show that perceived discrepancies account for the relationship between exposure to sexually objectifying images and body consciousness for women but not men. We also found gender asymmetries in objectification responses when each component of perceived discrepancies, i.e., self-perceptions versus perceptions of a romantic partner's body ideal, were examined separately. For men, exposure to muscular sexualized images was significantly associated with their self-perceptions but not their perceptions of the body size that is considered desirable to a romantic partner. For women, exposure to thin sexualized images was significantly associated with their perceptions that a romantic partner preferred a woman with a smaller body size. However, exposure to these images did not affect women's self-perceptions. Implications for gender asymmetries in objectification responses and perceived discrepancies that include a romantic partner's perceptions are discussed.

  4. Objectification in Virtual Romantic Contexts: Perceived Discrepancies between Self and Partner Ideals Differentially affect Body Consciousness in Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Overstreet, Nicole M.; Quinn, Diane M.; Marsh, Kerry L.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined whether exposure to sexually objectifying images in a potential romantic partner's virtual apartment affects discrepancies between people's perception of their own appearance (i.e., self-perceptions) and their perception of the body ideal that is considered desirable to a romantic partner (i.e., partner-ideals). Participants were 114 heterosexual undergraduate students (57 women and 57 men) from a northeastern U.S. university. The study used a 2 (Participant Gender) x 2 (Virtual Environment: Sexualized vs. Non-Sexualized) between-subjects design. We predicted that women exposed to sexually objectifying images in a virtual environment would report greater discrepancies between their self-perceptions and partner-ideals than men, which in turn would contribute to women's body consciousness. Findings support this hypothesis and show that perceived discrepancies account for the relationship between exposure to sexually objectifying images and body consciousness for women but not men. We also found gender asymmetries in objectification responses when each component of perceived discrepancies, i.e., self-perceptions versus perceptions of a romantic partner's body ideal, were examined separately. For men, exposure to muscular sexualized images was significantly associated with their self-perceptions but not their perceptions of the body size that is considered desirable to a romantic partner. For women, exposure to thin sexualized images was significantly associated with their perceptions that a romantic partner preferred a woman with a smaller body size. However, exposure to these images did not affect women's self-perceptions. Implications for gender asymmetries in objectification responses and perceived discrepancies that include a romantic partner's perceptions are discussed. PMID:26594085

  5. Are quantum dots toxic? Exploring the discrepancy between cell culture and animal studies.

    PubMed

    Tsoi, Kim M; Dai, Qin; Alman, Benjamin A; Chan, Warren C W

    2013-03-19

    Despite significant interest in developing quantum dots (QDs) for biomedical applications, many researchers are convinced that QDs will never be used for treating patients because of their potential toxicity. The perception that QDs are toxic is rooted in two assumptions. Cadmium-containing QDs can kill cells in culture. Many researchers then assume that because QDs are toxic to cells, they must be toxic to humans. In addition, many researchers classify QDs as a homogeneous group of materials. Therefore, if CdSe QDs are harmful, they extrapolate this result to all QDs. Though unsubstantiated, these assumptions continue to drive QD research. When dosing is physiologically appropriate, QD toxicity has not been demonstrated in animal models. In addition, QDs are not uniform: each design is a unique combination of physicochemical properties that influence biological activity and toxicity. In this Account, we summarize key findings from in vitro and in vivo studies, explore the causes of the discrepancy in QD toxicological data, and provide our view of the future direction of the field. In vitro and in vivo QD studies have advanced our knowledge of cellular transport kinetics, mechanisms of QD toxicity, and biodistribution following animal injection. Cell culture experiments have shown that QDs undergo design-dependent intracellular localization and they can cause cytotoxicity by releasing free cadmium into solution and by generating free radical species. In animal experiments, QDs preferentially enter the liver and spleen following intravascular injection, undergo minimal excretion if larger than 6 nm, and appear to be safe to the animal. In vitro and in vivo studies show an apparent discrepancy with regard to toxicity. Dosing provides one explanation for these findings. Under culture conditions, a cell experiences a constant QD dose, but the in vivo QD concentration can vary, and the organ-specific dose may not be high enough to induce detectable toxicity. Because QDs

  6. Vehicle Maximum Weight Limitation Based on Intelligent Weight Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raihan, W.; Tessar, R. M.; Ernest, C. O. S.; Byan, W. R. E.; Winda, A.

    2017-03-01

    Vehicle weight is an important factor to be maintained for transportation safety. A weight limitation system is proposed to make sure the vehicle weight is always below its designation prior the vehicle is being used by the driver. The proposed system is divided into two systems, namely vehicle weight confirmation system and weight warning system. In vehicle weight confirmation system, the weight sensor work for the first time after the ignition switch is turned on. When the weight is under the weight limit, the starter engine can be switched on to start the engine system, otherwise it will be locked. The seconds system, will operated after checking all the door at close position, once the door of the car is closed, the weight warning system will check once again the weight during runing engine condition. The results of these two systems, vehicle weight confirmation system and weight warning system have 100 % accuracy, respectively. These show that the proposed vehicle weight limitation system operate well.

  7. Lens glutathione homeostasis: Discrepancies and gaps in knowledge standing in the way of novel therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xingjun; Monnier, Vincent M; Whitson, Jeremy

    2016-06-29

    Cataract is the major cause of blindness worldwide. The WHO has estimated around 20 million people have bilateral blindness from cataract, and that number is expected to reach 50 million in 2050. The cataract surgery is currently the main treatment approach, though often associated with complications, such as Posterior Capsule Opacification (PCO)-also known as secondary cataract. The lens is an avascular ocular structure equipped with an unusually high level of glutathione (GSH), which plays a vital role in maintaining lens transparency by regulating lenticular redox state. The lens epithelium and outer cortex are thought to be responsible for providing the majority of lens GSH via GSH de novo synthesis, assisted by a continuous supply of constituent amino acids from the aqueous humor, as well as extracellular GSH recycling from the gamma-glutamyl cycle. However, when de novo synthesis is impaired, in the presence of low GSH levels, as in the aging human lens, compensatory mechanisms exist, suggesting that the lens is able to uptake GSH from the surrounding ocular tissues. However, these uptake mechanisms, and the GSH source and its origin, are largely unknown. The lens nucleus does not have the ability to synthesize its own GSH and fully relies on transport from the outer cortex by yet unknown mechanisms. Understanding how aging reduces GSH levels, particularly in the lens nucleus, how it is associated with age-related nuclear cataract (ARNC), and how the lens compensates for GSH loss via external uptake should be a major research priority. The intent of this review, which is dedicated to the memory of David C. Beebe, is to summarize our current understanding of lens GSH homeostasis and highlight discrepancies and gaps in knowledge that stand in the way of pharmacologically minimizing the impact of declining GSH content in the prevention of age-related cataract.

  8. The discrepancy in the perception of the public-political speech in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Tanta, Ivan; Lesinger, Gordana

    2014-03-01

    Key place in this paper takes the study of political speech in the Republic of Croatia and their impact on voters, or which keywords are in political speeches and public appearances of politicians in Croatia that their voting body wants to hear. Given listed below we will define the research topic in the form of a question - is there a discrepancy in the perception of the public-political speech in Croatia, and which keywords are specific to the two main regions in Croatia and that inhabitant these regions respond. Marcus Tullius Cicero, the most important Roman orator, he used a specific associative mnemonic technique that is called "technique room". He would talk expound on keywords and conceptual terms that he needed for the desired topic and join in these make them, according to the desired order, in a very creative and unique way, the premises of the house or palace, which he knew well. Then, while holding the speech intended to pass through rooms of the house or palace and then put keywords and concepts come to mind, again according to the desired order. Given that this is a specific kind of research political speech that is relatively recent in Croatia, it should be noted that there is still, this kind of political communication is not sufficiently explored. Particularly the emphasis on the impact and use of keywords specific to the Republic of Croatia, in everyday public and political communication. The paper will be analyzed the political, campaign speeches and promises several winning candidates, and now Croatian MEPs, specific keywords related to: economics, culture, science, education and health. The analysis is based on comparison of the survey results on the representation of key words in the speeches of politicians and qualitative analysis of the speeches of politicians on key words during the election campaign.

  9. Subjective - Objective Sleep Comparisons and Discrepancies Among Clinically-Anxious and Healthy Children.

    PubMed

    Alfano, Candice A; Patriquin, Michelle A; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2015-10-01

    We compared subjective and objective sleep patterns and problems, and examined cross-method correspondence across parent reports, child reports, and actigraphy-derived sleep variables in clinically-anxious children and healthy controls. In a multi-site, cross-sectional study, 75 pre-adolescent children (6 to 11 years; M = 8.7 years; SD = 1.4; n = 39/52 % female) were examined including 39 with a diagnosis of primary generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and 36 controls recruited from university-based clinics in Houston, TX and Washington, DC. Structured interviews, validated sleep questionnaires, and 1 week of actigraphy data were utilized. Despite subjective reports of significantly greater sleep problems among anxious children, actigraphy data revealed no significant differences between the groups. All parents estimated earlier bedtimes and greater total sleep duration relative to actigraphy, and all children endorsed more sleep problems than parents. With few exceptions, subjective reports exhibited low and non-significant correspondence with actigraphy-based sleep patterns and problems. Our findings suggest that high rates of sleep complaints found among children with GAD (and their parents) are not corroborated by objective sleep abnormalities, with the exception of marginally prolonged sleep onset latency compared to controls. Objective-subjective sleep discrepancies were observed in both groups but more apparent overall in the GAD group. Frequent complaints of sleep problems and daytime tiredness among anxious youth might more accurately reflect difficulties prior to the actual sleep period, cognitive-affective biases associated with sleep, and/or poor sleep quality. Findings highlight the importance of considering sleep from multiple perspectives.

  10. Discrepancies between CFHTLenS cosmic shear and Planck: new physics or systematic effects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitching, Thomas D.; Verde, Licia; Heavens, Alan F.; Jimenez, Raul

    2016-06-01

    There is currently a discrepancy in the measured value of the amplitude of matter clustering, parametrized using σ8, inferred from galaxy weak lensing, and cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, which could be an indication of new physics, such as massive neutrinos or a modification to the gravity law, or baryon feedback. In this paper we make the assumption that the cosmological parameters are well determined by Planck, and use weak lensing data to investigate the implications for baryon feedback and massive neutrinos, as well as possible contributions from intrinsic alignments and biases in photometric redshifts. We apply a non-parametric approach to model the baryonic feedback on the dark matter clustering, which is flexible enough to reproduce the OWLS (OverWhelmingly Large Simulations) and Illustris simulation results. The statistic we use, 3D cosmic shear, is a method that extracts cosmological information from weak lensing data using a spherical-Bessel function power spectrum approach. We analyse the CFHTLenS weak lensing data and, assuming best-fitting cosmological parameters from the Planck CMB experiment, find that there is no evidence for baryonic feedback on the dark matter power spectrum, but there is evidence for a bias in the photometric redshifts in the CFHTLenS data, consistent with a completely independent analysis by Choi et al., based on spectroscopic redshifts, and that these conclusions are robust to assumptions about the intrinsic alignment systematic. We also find an upper limit, of <0.28 eV (1σ), to the sum of neutrino masses conditional on other Λ-cold-dark-matter parameters being fixed.

  11. Removing Diurnal Cycle Contamination in Satellite-Derived Tropospheric Temperatures: Understanding Tropical Tropospheric Trend Discrepancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Po-Chedley, S.; Thorsen, T. J.; Fu, Q.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical mid-tropospheric temperature (TMT) time series have been constructed by several independent research teams using satellite microwave sounding unit (MSU) measurements beginning in 1978 and advanced MSU (AMSU) measurements since 1998. Despite careful efforts to homogenize the MSU/AMSU measurements, tropical TMT trends disagree by a factor of three even though each analysis uses the same basic data. Previous studies suggest that the discrepancy in tropical TMT temperature trends is largely caused by differences in both the NOAA-9 warm target factor and diurnal drift corrections used by various teams to homogenize the MSU/AMSU measurements. This work introduces a new observationally-based method for removing biases related to satellite diurnal drift. The method relies on minimizing inter-satellite and inter-node drifts by subtracting out a common diurnal cycle determined via linear regression. It is demonstrated that this method is effective at removing intersatellite biases and biases between the ascending (PM) and descending (AM) node of individual satellites in the TMT time series. After TMT bias correction, the ratio of tropical tropospheric temperature trends relative to surface temperature trends is in accord with the ratio from global climate models. It is shown that bias corrections for diurnal drift based on a climate model produce tropical trends very similar to those from the observationally-based correction, with a trend differences smaller than 0.02 K decade-1. Differences among various TMT datasets are explored further. Tropical trends from this work are comparable to those from the Remote Sensing System (RSS) and NOAA datasets despite small differences. Larger differences between this work and UAH are attributed to differences in the treatment of the NOAA-9 target factor and the UAH diurnal cycle correction.

  12. The discrepancy between stratospheric ozone profiles from balloon soundings and from other techniques: A possible explanation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuer, Dirk; Debacker, Hugo

    1994-01-01

    Regular balloon ozone soundings with electrochemical sondes have been performed at Uccle since 1969. More than 450 ozone soundings between 1985 and 1989 were used to calculate the altitudes Zs from the VIZ radiosonde data and the altitudes Zr deduced from the tracking of the balloon train with a primary wind-finding radar. The values of Zs at fixed times appeared to be systematically too low as compared to Zr. The differences Zr-Zs increase with altitude; at 30 km the annual mean values of Zr-Zs (plus or minus standard deviation) vary between 590 plus or minus 910 m and 1410 plus or minus 1160 m, according to the pressure calibration of different manufacturing series of radiosondes. From these results it is found that around the 30 km level the ozone concentrations calculated from soundings with VIZ sondes are too low by 7.5 to 14 percent, depending upon the manufacturing series of radiosondes. At least part of the discrepancy which has often been found between ozone profiles from balloon soundings and from other techniques such as rocket observations or Umkehr measurements may be explained by this effect. An altitude correction would have important consequences as to the climatology of ozone in the middle stratosphere as adopted at the moment. About half of the day-to-day variability of ozone observed from soundings with VIZ radiosondes above the 30 km level, is induced by the variability of Zr-Zs. The agreement between altitudes calculated from radar data and Vaisala radiosondes is much better; from 34 comparative soundings a mean difference (plus or minus standard deviation) of about -300 plus/minus 180 m was found at 30 km.

  13. How historic simulation-observation discrepancy affects future warming projections in a very large model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Philip

    2016-10-01

    Projections of future climate made by model-ensembles have credibility because the historic simulations by these models are consistent with, or near-consistent with, historic observations. However, it is not known how small inconsistencies between the ranges of observed and simulated historic climate change affects the future projections made by a model ensemble. Here, the impact of historical simulation-observation inconsistencies on future warming projections is quantified in a 4-million member Monte Carlo ensemble from a new efficient Earth System Model (ESM). Of the 4-million ensemble members, a subset of 182,500 are consistent with historic ranges of warming, heat uptake and carbon uptake simulated by the Climate Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) ensemble. This simulation-consistent subset projects similar future warming ranges to the CMIP5 ensemble for all four RCP scenarios, indicating the new ESM represents an efficient tool to explore parameter space for future warming projections based on historic performance. A second subset of 14,500 ensemble members are consistent with historic observations for warming, heat uptake and carbon uptake. This observation-consistent subset projects a narrower range for future warming, with the lower bounds of projected warming still similar to CMIP5, but the upper warming bounds reduced by 20-35 %. These findings suggest that part of the upper range of twenty-first century CMIP5 warming projections may reflect historical simulation-observation inconsistencies. However, the agreement of lower bounds for projected warming implies that the likelihood of warming exceeding dangerous levels over the twenty-first century is unaffected by small discrepancies between CMIP5 models and observations.

  14. Anabolic steroid boosts weight.

    PubMed

    1996-09-01

    A randomized study of nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin) showed that the anabolic steroid can increase weight in people with HIV infections. The group receiving nandrolone experienced a greater increase both in fat-free mass and body cell mass (although the latter measure did not reach statistical significance) than those on placebo. Deca-Durabolin had little to do with two occurrences of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in the study group, but until further studies are completed, caution is advised when using this steroid in patients with KS. A new study comparing nandrolone to growth hormone in patients with wasting is slated to begin in the next 3 or 4 months.

  15. Weight Overestimation as an Indicator of Disordered Eating Behaviors Among Young Women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Conley, Amanda; Boardman, Jason D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This paper examines the association between weight overestimation and symptoms of disordered eating behaviors using a nationally representative sample of young women. Method We use data from Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to compare self-reported weight (in pounds) to measure weight obtained by interviewers using a scale. Focusing on normal weight women between the ages of 18 and 24 (n = 2,805) we compare the discrepancy in self-reported and measured weight among women with and without any disordered eating behaviors. Results Women who over report their weight by at least five percent are significantly more likely than those who either under report or accurately report their weights to exhibit disordered eating behaviors. These results persist despite controlling for distorted body image. Conclusion Our findings support both motivational and perceptual bias explanations for overestimating weight among those who exhibit disordered eating behaviors. We argue that weight over-estimation, together with other important information regarding women’s nutrition, exercise, mental health, and health-related behaviors, should be treated as a potential indicator for the diagnosis of an eating disorder among young normal weight women. PMID:17497706

  16. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  17. Marital status and body weight, weight perception, and weight management among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences.

  18. Two-Player Partnered Exergame for Obesity Prevention: Using Discrepancy in Players’ Abilities as a Strategy to Motivate Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Feltz, Deborah L.; Irwin, Brandon; Kerr, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. A key obstacle to physical activity is lack of motivation. Although some interactive exercise games (i.e., exergames—video games that require physical exertion in order to play) motivate players to exercise more, few games take advantage of group dynamics to motivate players’ duration of exercise. In a test of the Köhler motivation gain effect, this study varied the ability level of a virtually presented partner in an interactive exergame that focused on abdominal strength to identify effects on a subject’s (S’) persistence with the task. Method Male (n = 63) and female (n = 72) undergraduate students were randomly assigned to one of four conditions (individual control or low-, moderate-, or high- partner discrepancy) in a conditions × gender factorial design and tested on a series of isometric abdominal exercises using PlayStation 2 EyeToy: Kinetic software. They performed the first series of five exercises alone (trial block 1), and after a rest period, those in the partner conditions performed remaining trials (trial block 2) with a same-sex virtually presented partner whom they could observe during their performance, while those in the individual control condition performed the remaining trials alone. In the partner conditions, the partner’s performance was manipulated to be always better than the S’s, the exact difference depending on the discrepancy condition. The partnered tasks were conjunctive; that is, success in the game depended on the performance of the weaker team member. Persistence, the outcome measure for this study, consisted of the total number of seconds the S held the exercise position. Results Using planned orthogonal contrasts on difference scores between blocks 1 and 2, results showed that persistence was significantly (p < .001) greater in all experimental conditions with a virtually presented partner (M = 33.59 s) than in the individual control

  19. Ionized gas diagnostics from protoplanetary discs in the Orion nebula and the abundance discrepancy problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesa-Delgado, A.; Núñez-Díaz, M.; Esteban, C.; García-Rojas, J.; Flores-Fajardo, N.; López-Martín, L.; Tsamis, Y. G.; Henney, W. J.

    2012-10-01

    We present results from integral field spectroscopy of a field located near the Trapezium Cluster using the Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrophotometer (PMAS). The observed field contains a variety of morphological structures: five externally ionized protoplanetary discs (also known as proplyds), the high-velocity jet HH 514 and a bowshock. Spatial distribution maps are obtained for different emission line fluxes, the c(Hβ) extinction coefficient, electron densities and temperatures, ionic abundances of different ions from collisionally excited lines (CELs), C2 + and O2 + abundances from recombination lines (RLs) and the abundance discrepancy factor of O2 +, ADF(O2 +). We distinguish the three most prominent proplyds (177-341, 170-337 and 170-334) and analyse their impact on the spatial distributions of the above mentioned quantities. We find that collisional de-excitation has a major influence on the line fluxes in the proplyds. If this is not properly accounted for then physical conditions deduced from commonly used line ratios will be in error, leading to unreliable chemical abundances for these objects. We obtain the intrinsic emission of the proplyds 177-341, 170-337 and 170-334 by a direct subtraction of the background emission, though the last two present some background contamination due to their small sizes. A detailed analysis of 177-341 spectra making use of suitable density diagnostics reveals the presence of high-density gas (3.8 × 105 cm-3) in contrast to the typical values observed in the background gas of the nebula (3800 cm-3). We also explore how the background subtraction could be affected by the possible opacity of the proplyd and its effect on the derivation of physical conditions and chemical abundances of the proplyd 177-341. We construct a physical model for the proplyd 177-341 finding a good agreement between the predicted and observed line ratios. Finally, we find that the use of reliable physical conditions returns an ADF(O2 +) about zero

  20. The stratospheric ozone response to a discrepancy of the SSI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozanov, E.; Shapiro, A. V.; Harder, J. W.; Egorova, T. A.; Schmutz, W. K.; Peter, T.

    2011-12-01

    The solar radiation, which is the main energy source in the Earth atmosphere, is highly variable especially at the ultraviolet region of the solar spectrum. The UV radiation penetrates down to the stratosphere and its variability can lead to the substantial response of the atmosphere. In particular, the variability of the irradiance in Herzberg continuum (200-242 nm) and Hartley band (200-300 nm) strongly influences the ozone concentration. The recent SIM and SOLSTICE measurements onboard SORCE satellite show absolutely unexpected behavior of solar irradiance variability. The 11-year activity trends of the solar irradiance have different signs in the visible and UV regions. Besides the variability in UV is several times higher than all recent estimates (e.g., Lean et. al., 2005). Moreover the irradiance variability measured by SIM is different from measured by SOLSTICE in their common spectral part. To investigate an influence of these discrepancies to the ozone response we run 3D climate-chemistry model SOCOL forced by the different SSI datasets. The SSI input for the SOCOL model is the spectral solar irradiance from 121 to 750 nm. We used three different datasets reconstructed by Lean 2005 and two composites of measurements. First one is based on SOLSTICE measurements up to 210 nm and SIM outwards (SIM dominated dataset) and the second one is based on SOLSTICE measurements up to 290 nm and SIM outwards (SOLSTICE dominated dataset). We have simulated atmospheric response for period from May 2004 to February 2009. We have analyzed the ozone response using multiple regression analysis and found that the response strongly depends on the applied SSI dataset. The data should be analyzed with a special care as both solar irradiance and chlorine family concentration have downtrend during the period of simulation. Both these factors strongly influence the ozone concentration so they have to be separated. To investigate ozone response to the chlorine changes we have made

  1. Exploring discrepancies between quantitative validation results and the geomorphic plausibility of statistical landslide susceptibility maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steger, Stefan; Brenning, Alexander; Bell, Rainer; Petschko, Helene; Glade, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Empirical models are frequently applied to produce landslide susceptibility maps for large areas. Subsequent quantitative validation results are routinely used as the primary criteria to infer the validity and applicability of the final maps or to select one of several models. This study hypothesizes that such direct deductions can be misleading. The main objective was to explore discrepancies between the predictive performance of a landslide susceptibility model and the geomorphic plausibility of subsequent landslide susceptibility maps while a particular emphasis was placed on the influence of incomplete landslide inventories on modelling and validation results. The study was conducted within the Flysch Zone of Lower Austria (1,354 km2) which is known to be highly susceptible to landslides of the slide-type movement. Sixteen susceptibility models were generated by applying two statistical classifiers (logistic regression and generalized additive model) and two machine learning techniques (random forest and support vector machine) separately for two landslide inventories of differing completeness and two predictor sets. The results were validated quantitatively by estimating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) with single holdout and spatial cross-validation technique. The heuristic evaluation of the geomorphic plausibility of the final results was supported by findings of an exploratory data analysis, an estimation of odds ratios and an evaluation of the spatial structure of the final maps. The results showed that maps generated by different inventories, classifiers and predictors appeared differently while holdout validation revealed similar high predictive performances. Spatial cross-validation proved useful to expose spatially varying inconsistencies of the modelling results while additionally providing evidence for slightly overfitted machine learning-based models. However, the highest predictive performances were obtained for

  2. Discrepancy between financial disclosures of authors of clinical practice guidelines and reports by industry

    PubMed Central

    Andreatos, Nikolaos; Zacharioudakis, Ioannis M.; Zervou, Fainareti N.; Muhammed, Maged; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2017-01-01

    and a proactive approach should be adopted in order to minimize COI reporting discrepancies. Furthermore, every effort should be undertaken to ensure the completeness and accuracy of the data recorded in the Open Payments database. PMID:28079800

  3. Discrepancies between two measurements and two model approaches for liquid water flow in snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wever, N.; Schmid, L.; Heilig, A.; Fierz, C. G.; Lehning, M.

    2014-12-01

    Liquid water flow in snowpacks is a complicated process to measure or to simulate in snowpack models, although it is important for assessing, for example, soil moisture variations, streamflow discharge or wet snow avalanche formation. The measurement site Weissfluhjoch (WFJ) is equipped with instruments recording meteorological conditions and snowpack properties, including a snow lysimeter and an upward looking ground penetrating radar (upGPR). The upGRP, among other capabilities, is able to track the progress of the melt water front through the seasonal snowpack at WFJ, whereas the snow lysimeter only records liquid water runoff from the snowpack. The 1 dimensional physics-based snowpack model SNOWPACK has recently been extended with a solver for Richards equation, which provides a demonstrable improvement in simulating snowpack runoff, especially on the hourly time scale, when compared to a simpler bucket-type approach. Here, we compare the two measurement methods and the two snowpack simulations for four snow seasons with respect to the progress of the melt water front through the snowpack and snowpack runoff. We show that in the studied period, snowpack runoff in the melt season starts before the arrival of the melt water front at the bottom of the snowpack as detected by the upGPR. This discrepancy is in the order of several days to 1-2 weeks. The agreement between measured and modeled snowpack runoff is higher, although modeled snowpack runoff is still lagging several days from observed runoff, depending on the used water transport scheme. This demonstrates that the early start of snowpack runoff is likely associated with the existence of preferential flow paths. The modeled progress of the melt water front is faster than observed in the upGPR data. This contributes to a better predicition of the onset of snowpack runoff, but may have consequences for the representation of the internal snowpack in the model. The study highlights the extreme difficulties in

  4. Discrepancy between financial disclosures of authors of clinical practice guidelines and reports by industry.

    PubMed

    Andreatos, Nikolaos; Zacharioudakis, Ioannis M; Zervou, Fainareti N; Muhammed, Maged; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2017-01-01

    should be adopted in order to minimize COI reporting discrepancies. Furthermore, every effort should be undertaken to ensure the completeness and accuracy of the data recorded in the Open Payments database.

  5. Discrepancy between femoral and capillary blood flow kinetics during knee extension exercise.

    PubMed

    Schlup, S J; Ade, C J; Broxterman, R M; Barstow, T J

    2015-12-01

    Capillary blood flow (QCAP) kinetics have previously been shown to be significantly slower than femoral artery (QFA) kinetics following the onset of dynamic knee extension exercise. If the increase in QCAP does not follow a similar time course to QFA, then a substantial proportion of the available blood flow is not distributed to the working muscle. One possible explanation for this discrepancy is that blood flow also increases to the nonworking lower leg muscles. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine if a reduction in lower limb blood flow, via arterial occlusion below the knee, alters the kinetics of QFA and QCAP during knee extension exercise, and thus provide insight into the potential mechanisms controlling the rapid increase in QFA. Subjects performed a ramp max test to determine the work rate at which gas exchange threshold (GET) occurred. At least four constant work rate trials with and without below-knee occlusion were conducted at work rates eliciting ∼ 80% GET. Pulmonary gas exchange, near-infrared spectroscopy and QFA measurements were taken continuously during each exercise bout. Muscle oxygen uptake (VO2m) and deoxy[hemoglobin+myoglobin] were used to estimate QCAP. There was no significant difference between the uncuffed and cuffed conditions in any response (P>0.05). The mean response times (MRT) of QFA were 18.7 ± 14.2s (uncuffed) and 24.6 ± 14.9s (cuffed). QCAP MRTs were 51.8 ± 23.4s (uncuffed) and 56.7 ± 23.2s (cuffed), which were not significantly different from the time constants (τ) of VO2m (39.7 ± 23.2s (uncuffed) and 46.3 ± 24.1s (cuffed). However, the MRT of QFA was significantly faster (P<0.05) than the MRT of QCAP and τVO2m. τVO2m and MRT QCAP were significantly correlated and estimated QCAP kinetics tracked VO2m following exercise onset. Cuffing below the knee did not significantly change the kinetics of QFA, QCAP or VO2m, although an effect size of 1.02 suggested that a significant effect on QFA may have been hidden

  6. Modeling operating weight and axle weight distributions for highway vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Liang, J.C.

    1988-07-01

    The estimation of highway cost responsibility requires detailed information on vehicle operating weights and axle weights by type of vehicle. Typically, 10--20 vehicle types must be cross-classified by 10--20 registered weight classes and again by 20 or more operating weight categories, resulting in 100--400 relative frequencies to be determined for each vehicle type. For each of these, gross operating weight must be distributed to each axle or axle unit. Given the rarity of many of the heaviest vehicle types, direct estimation of these frequencies and axle weights from traffic classification count statistics and truck weight data may exceed the reliability of even the largest (e.g., 250,000 record) data sources. An alternative is to estimate statistical models of operating weight distributions as functions of registered weight, and models of axle weight shares as functions of operating weight. This paper describes the estimation of such functions using the multinomial logit model (a log-linear model) and the implementation of the modeling framework as a PC-based FORTRAN program. Areas for further research include the addition of highway class and region as explanatory variables in operating weight distribution models, and the development of theory for including registration costs and costs of operating overweight in the modeling framework. 14 refs., 45 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Discrepancies between Parent-Child Reports of Internalizing Problems among Preadolescent Children: Relationships with Gender, Ethnic Background, and Future Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Looij-Jansen, Petra M.; Jansen, Wilma; de Wilde, Erik Jan; Donker, Marianne C. H.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2011-01-01

    In a multiethnic community sample of 1,170 preadolescent children, it was investigated whether discrepancies in parent-child reports of internalizing problems are related with gender, ethnic background (Dutch, Surinamese/Antillean, Moroccan, Turkish, Other) and with future internalizing problems. No significant differences in discrepancy scores…

  8. Geophysical weight loss diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatten, Kenneth

    1984-04-01

    Having for numerous reasons acquired a three digit kilogram mass, the author is experienced at the painful struggles that the gourmand must suffer to reduce weight, particularly if he/she enjoys reasonably large amounts of good food. To the avant-garde geophysicist, utilizing the following approach could be pleasurable, rewarding, and may even enable the accomplishment of what Ghengis Khan, Alexander the Great, Napolean, and Hitler could not!The basic approach is the full utilization of Newton's formula for the attraction of two massive bodies: F=GM1M2/r2, where G, is the gravitational constant; r, the distance between the two bodies; and M1 and M2, the masses of the two bodies. Although one usually chooses M1 to be the earth's mass ME and M2 to be the mass of a small object, this unnecessarily restricts the realm of phenomena. The less restrictive assumption is M1 + M2 = ME.

  9. Weight and Diabetes (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... child lose weight to control diabetes, a weight management plan may be created. Even if your child's ...

  10. Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 144 Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions (Web, free access)   The atomic weights are available for elements 1 through 111, and isotopic compositions or abundances are given when appropriate.

  11. Aim For a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... about your BMI. What Factors Contribute To a Healthy Weight? Many factors can contribute to a person’s weight. These factors include environment, family history and genetics, metabolism (the way your ...

  12. Bipolar Medications and Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    Bipolar medications and weight gain Do all bipolar medications cause weight gain? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M. ... disorder can be treated with a number of medications. Some of these medications can increase your appetite ...

  13. Discrepancies Between Perceptions of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship and Early Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: An Illustration of Polynomial Regression Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nelemans, S A; Branje, S J T; Hale, W W; Goossens, L; Koot, H M; Oldehinkel, A J; Meeus, W H J

    2016-10-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for the development of depressive symptoms. Lower quality of the parent-adolescent relationship has been consistently associated with higher adolescent depressive symptoms, but discrepancies in perceptions of parents and adolescents regarding the quality of their relationship may be particularly important to consider. In the present study, we therefore examined how discrepancies in parents' and adolescents' perceptions of the parent-adolescent relationship were associated with early adolescent depressive symptoms, both concurrently and longitudinally over a 1-year period. Our sample consisted of 497 Dutch adolescents (57 % boys, M age = 13.03 years), residing in the western and central regions of the Netherlands, and their mothers and fathers, who all completed several questionnaires on two occasions with a 1-year interval. Adolescents reported on depressive symptoms and all informants reported on levels of negative interaction in the parent-adolescent relationship. Results from polynomial regression analyses including interaction terms between informants' perceptions, which have recently been proposed as more valid tests of hypotheses involving informant discrepancies than difference scores, suggested the highest adolescent depressive symptoms when both the mother and the adolescent reported high negative interaction, and when the adolescent reported high but the father reported low negative interaction. This pattern of findings underscores the need for a more sophisticated methodology such as polynomial regression analysis including tests of moderation, rather than the use of difference scores, which can adequately address both congruence and discrepancies in perceptions of adolescents and mothers/fathers of the parent-adolescent relationship in detail. Such an analysis can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of risk factors for early adolescent depressive symptoms.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Clinical Samples Showing Weak Serum Reaction on AutoVue System Causing ABO Blood Typing Discrepancies

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Su Yeon; Lee, Ju Mi; Kim, Hye Lim; Sin, Kyeong Hwa; Lee, Hyeon Ji; Chang, Chulhun Ludgerus

    2017-01-01

    Background ABO blood typing in pre-transfusion testing is a major component of the high workload in blood banks that therefore requires automation. We often experienced discrepant results from an automated system, especially weak serum reactions. We evaluated the discrepant results by the reference manual method to confirm ABO blood typing. Methods In total, 13,113 blood samples were tested with the AutoVue system; all samples were run in parallel with the reference manual method according to the laboratory protocol. Results The AutoVue system confirmed ABO blood typing of 12,816 samples (97.7%), and these results were concordant with those of the manual method. The remaining 297 samples (2.3%) showed discrepant results in the AutoVue system and were confirmed by the manual method. The discrepant results involved weak serum reactions (<2+ reaction grade), extra serum reactions, samples from patients who had received stem cell transplants, ABO subgroups, and specific system error messages. Among the 98 samples showing ≤1+ reaction grade in the AutoVue system, 70 samples (71.4%) showed a normal serum reaction (≥2+ reaction grade) with the manual method, and 28 samples (28.6%) showed weak serum reaction in both methods. Conclusions ABO blood tying of 97.7% samples could be confirmed by the AutoVue system and a small proportion (2.3%) needed to be re-evaluated by the manual method. Samples with a 2+ reaction grade in serum typing do not need to be evaluated manually, while those with ≤1+ reaction grade do. PMID:28028997

  15. Discrepancies between dental and medical records of cardiac patients in AlHada Armed Forces Hospital, Taif, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al Hibshi, Sana M.; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa M.; Assery, Mansour K.

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: This study aims to estimate the prevalence of medical information discrepancies between dental and medical records of cardiac patients at AlHada Armed Forces Hospital in Taif and to identify the factors contributing to these information discrepancies. Materials and Methods: The study applied a descriptive retrospective medical and dental records review of a stratified proportional sample of 289 cardiac patients, which was extracted from 1154 cardiac patients who visited both the cardiology and dental clinics at the AlHada Armed Forces Hospital between 2007 and June 2012. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 19. Results: The main results of this study are the following: The mean and standard deviation of patient's age was 56 ± 16.9, female patients represented 47.8% of the study population. A total of 78.5% of dental records were documented by dental residents whereas 48.4% of the dentists had more than 6 years of experience. Two hundred and seventy-nine (96.5%) of the 289 dental records had medical information discrepancies compared to the corresponding medical records. One hundred percent of systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatic fever cases were not documented in the dental records followed by 93% of medications, 92% of stroke, and 88.5% of hyperlipidemia, whereas the least prevalent were cardiac disease (26%) and diabetes mellitus (22.2%). Conclusion: Approximately 75% of the patients who directly or indirectly accessed the dental services showed discrepancies. The researcher concludes that critical information gaps exist between dental and medical records that mostly attributed to system level problems. A well-established model for efficient communication among medical and dental care providers caring for cardiac patients does not appear to exist. The absence of such a model can threaten the overall health of patients. PMID:28032050

  16. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specification C Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration Ranges... 0.25 to 0.35 2 2 .03 Total 7 8 Effective Date Note: At 75 FR 35601, June 22, 2010, table C-1...

  17. Advanced program weight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derwa, G. T.

    1978-01-01

    The design and implementation of the Advanced Program Weight Control System (APWCS) are reported. The APWCS system allows the coordination of vehicle weight reduction programs well in advance so as to meet mandated requirements of fuel economy imposed by government and to achieve corporate targets of vehicle weights. The system is being used by multiple engineering offices to track weight reduction from inception to eventual production. The projected annualized savings due to the APWCS system is over $2.5 million.

  18. Health-Related Factors Associated with Discrepancies between Children’s Potential and Attained Secondary School Level: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    van der Heide, Iris; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Wijga, Alet H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This longitudinal study examines children’s health-related characteristics in relation to discrepancies between their educational potential assessed by a cognitive test in primary school at age 11 and their attained secondary school level at age 14. Methods Data were used from 1510 participants of the Dutch PIAMA (Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy) birth cohort. Multiple multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between indicators of physical health, psychosocial health, lifestyle, sleeping patterns and stressful life events and attending a higher or lower level of secondary education than indicated by the cognitive test. Results We found no evidence that physical health contributes to discrepancies between the potential and attained level of secondary education, but attention disorders and stressful life events (nasty experiences and parents’ divorce) were associated with educational attainment below children’s potential level. Furthermore, substance use (alcohol, drugs and smoking) were strongly associated with attending a lower level of secondary education than expected (odds ratios from 2.2 (CI: 1.5–3.3) to 5.0 (CI: 2.8–8.7)). Conclusion In this general population study, attention disorders, stressful life events and especially substance use seemed to be more important than physical health for the discrepancy between expected and attained level of secondary education. The longitudinal design of the present study and the broad range of health-related factors that were studied, adds insights to the process of health-selection. PMID:28005962

  19. Parent-child discrepancies in reports of parental monitoring and their relationship to adolescent alcohol-related behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Abar, Caitlin C.; Jackson, Kristina M.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Barnett, Nancy P.

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancies between parents and adolescents regarding parenting behaviors have been hypothesized to represent a deficit in the parent-child relationship and may represent unique risk factors for poor developmental outcomes. The current study examined the predictive utility of multiple methods for characterizing discrepancies in parents’ and adolescents’ reports of parental monitoring on youth alcohol use behaviors in order to inform future study design and predictive modeling. Data for the current study came from a prospective investigation of alcohol initiation and progression. The analyzed sample consisted of 606 adolescents (6th – 8th grade; 54% female) and their parents were surveyed at baseline, with youth followed up 12 months later. A series of hierarchical logistic regressions were performed for each monitoring-related construct examined (parental knowledge, parental control, parental solicitation, and child disclosure). The results showed that adolescents’ reports were more closely related to outcomes than parents’ reports, while greater discrepancies were frequently found to be uniquely associated with greater likelihood of alcohol use behaviors. Implications for future work incorporating parents’ and adolescents’ reports are discussed. PMID:24964878

  20. Exploration of the Raven APM-National Adult Reading Test discrepancy as a measure of intellectual decline in older persons.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Esther; Nys, Gudrun M S; Brands, Augustina M A; Ruis, Carla; van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Kessels, Roy P C

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the discrepancy between performance on "fluid" and "crystallized" intelligence measures may serve as an indicator for intellectual decline. The validity of this procedure in older persons is unknown. The present study developed a multiple regression equation, to predict the Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) score from the National Adult Reading Test (NART) score and demographic variables in a large sample of healthy older persons (n = 270). The discrepancy between the predicted and observed Raven APM scores was transformed into a percentile distribution as an indicator of intellectual decline, which can be used in clinical practice. The validity of the procedure was further examined by comparing the proportion of persons with a significant decline (at the -1 and -1.65 SD level) between two older patient samples (87 patients with cerebral stroke and 387 patients with diabetes mellitus) by means of χ(2) tests. There was a significantly higher rate of intellectual decline at the -1 SD ("below average") and -1.65 SD ("impaired") cutoff levels for patients with stroke compared with patients with diabetes (stroke, 34% and 14%; diabetes, 16% and 5%, p < .05). These findings suggest that the Raven APM-NART discrepancy may be a useful measure of intellectual decline in older persons.