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Sample records for actual-ideal weight discrepancy

  1. Examining the influence of actual-ideal self-discrepancies, depression, and escapism, on pathological gaming among massively multiplayer online adolescent gamers.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongdong; Liau, Albert; Khoo, Angeline

    2011-09-01

    This study examined whether actual-ideal self-discrepancy (AISD) is related to pathological gaming through escapism as a means of reducing depression for adolescent massively multiplayer online gamers. A Discrepancy-reduction Motivation model of pathological video gaming was tested. A survey was conducted on 161 adolescent gamers from secondary schools. Two mediation effects were tested using path analysis: (a) depression would mediate the relationship between AISDs and escapism, and (b) escapism would mediate the relationship between depression and pathological gaming. Results support the hypotheses stated above. The indirect effects of both AISD and depression were significant on pathological gaming. AISD and escapism also had direct effects on pathological gaming. The present study suggests that pathological behaviors may be over-regulated coping strategies of approaching the ideal self and avoiding the actual self. PMID:21332374

  2. Weight discrepancy and body appreciation of Zimbabwean women in Zimbabwe and Britain.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Mada, Rujeko; Tovée, Martin J

    2012-09-01

    Few studies have investigated a cultural group's corporeal experiences in both its country of origin and a host, Western country using the same methodology. To overcome this dearth in the literature, the present study examined body image among 140 women in Harare, Zimbabwe, and an age-matched sample of 138 Zimbabwean migrants in Britain. Participants completed measures of actual-ideal weight discrepancy, body appreciation, and lifetime exposure to Western and Zimbabwean media. Preliminary analyses showed that there were no significant differences in body mass index between the two groups. Further analyses showed that Zimbabwean women in Britain had significantly greater weight discrepancy and lower body appreciation than their counterparts in Zimbabwe. In addition, weight discrepancy and body appreciation among both samples were significantly associated with exposure to Western media, but not Zimbabwean media. These findings support the contention that transcultural migration may place individuals at risk for symptoms of negative body image. PMID:22717762

  3. Weight discrepancy and body appreciation among women in Poland and Britain.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Donna; Szpakowska, Ilona; Swami, Viren

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the process of transmigration has detrimental effects on the body image of migrants relative to women in the country of origin. In the present work, we examined the body image of Polish migrants in Britain (n=153), Polish women in Poland (n=153), and a comparison group of British White women (n=110). Participants completed a measure of actual-ideal weight discrepancy and the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS). Contrary to hypotheses, our results showed that Polish women in Poland had significantly higher weight discrepancy than their counterparts in Britain. Further analyses showed that the BAS reduced to two dimensions among Polish participants, with Polish participants in Poland having significantly lower body appreciation than Polish migrants. We suggest that the sociocultural changes that have taken place in Eastern Europe may place women in that region at relatively high risk for developing negative body image. PMID:23972729

  4. Misleading University Rankings: Cause and Cure for Discrepancies between Nominal and Attained Weights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soh, Kaycheng

    2013-01-01

    Recent research into university ranking methodologies uncovered several methodological problems among the systems currently in vogue. One of these is the discrepancy between the nominal and attained weights. The problem is the summation of unstandardized indicators for the total scores used in ranking. It is demonstrated that weight discrepancy…

  5. Predictors of women's concern with body weight: the roles of perceived self-media ideal discrepancies and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Posavac, Steven S; Posavac, Heidi D

    2002-01-01

    Researchers have expended significant effort trying to delineate determinants of body image disturbance in young women, in part because of the potential of body image disturbance to precipitate eating disordered behavior. In this research we demonstrate that the extent of the discrepancy women perceive between their own attractiveness and body shape and images representative of ideal feminine attractiveness presented in advertising and the broader media (i.e., self-media ideal discrepancy) predicts how concerned they are with their weight (a measure of body image disturbance). Perhaps more importantly, we also show that perceived self-media ideal discrepancy is a construct independent of global self-esteem. Specifically, our results demonstrate that perceived self-media ideal discrepancy is related to women's weight concern even when self-esteem is statistically controlled. Implications for theory and clinical intervention are discussed. PMID:16864255

  6. Rectifying an Honest Error in World University Rankings: A Solution to the Problem of Indicator Weight Discrepancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soh, Kaycheng

    2013-01-01

    Discrepancies between the nominal and attained indicator weights misinform rank consumers as to the relative importance of the indicators. This may lead to unwarranted institutional judgements and misdirected actions, causing resources being wasted unnecessarily. As a follow-up to two earlier studies, data from the Academic Ranking of World…

  7. Connecting theory to fat talk: body dissatisfaction mediates the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance, and fat talk.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Analisa

    2014-06-01

    The fat talk literature is meager in terms of offering theoretical explanations for women's self-disparaging communication. The research presented here sought to establish a relationship between three prominent body image theories - self-discrepancy theory, social comparison theory, and objectification theory - and fat talk by proposing body dissatisfaction as a potential mediating mechanism. Young adult women (N=201) completed an online questionnaire. As predicted, results revealed that body dissatisfaction significantly mediated the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance and fat talk. Effect size estimates indicated that the size of each indirect effect was medium in magnitude. PMID:24958666

  8. Childhood obesity among Puerto Rican children: discrepancies between child's and parent's perception of weight status.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Soto, Winna T; Rodríguez-Figueroa, Linnette

    2012-04-01

    Public concern about childhood obesity and associated health problems calls for the identification of modifiable factors that could halt this epidemic. Parental perceptions of their children's weight status could be associated to how parents influence children's eating patterns. We aimed to identify the perceptions Puerto Rican parents have of their children's weight and children's own perceptions of weight status as compared to real weight. A cross sectional survey was performed in a representative sample of 1st-6th grade students. Only half of the children correctly identified their weight, and only 62.4% of the parents correctly classified their children's weight. Most obese/overweight children did not perceive themselves as such. Almost half of obese/overweight children were identified by the parents as normal weight while over half of the underweight children were perceived by their parents at normal weight. More girls than boys perceived themselves as obese/overweight and more parents of girls than of boys perceived them as such. Higher-educated parents were better at recognizing overweight/obesity among their children compared to less-educated parents. This study suggests an influence of parents' SES characteristics on their perceptions of children's weight status as well as on children's own perceptions of their weight status. PMID:22690203

  9. Childhood Obesity, Gender, Actual-Ideal Body Image Discrepancies, and Physical Self-Concept in Hong Kong Children: Cultural Differences in the Value of Moderation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Hau, K. T.; Sung, R. Y. T.; Yu, C. W.

    2007-01-01

    Childhood obesity is increasingly prevalent in Western and non-Western societies. The authors related multiple dimensions of physical self-concept to body composition for 763 Chinese children aged 8 to 15 and compared the results with Western research. Compared with Western research, gender differences favoring boys were generally much smaller for…

  10. Adolescent Psychological and Academic Adjustment as a Function of Discrepancies between Actual and Ideal Self-Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gail M.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Laursen, Brett

    2010-01-01

    Actual-ideal discrepancies are associated with adolescent emotional distress and there is evidence that the size of discrepancies matters. However, the direction of discrepancies has not been examined, perhaps due to limitations of widely used self-discrepancy measures. Two hundred and twelve 7th, 9th and 11th grade students (59% female) in a…

  11. Mental Health and Sexual Self-Concept Discrepancies in a Sample of Young Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Marcelle Christian

    2002-01-01

    Addressed the mental health consequences of sexual self-concept discrepancies among young black women. Participant surveys examined differences between their actual, ideal, and "ought" sexual selves. Overall, sexual self-concept discrepancies did not predict mental health outcomes. Women who were bothered by the differences between whom they…

  12. Eighty-five per cent of what? Discrepancies in the weight cut-off for anorexia nervosa substantially affect the prevalence of underweight

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, J. J.; Roberto, C. A.; Brownell, K. D.

    2010-01-01

    Background DSM-IV cites <85% of expected body weight (EBW) as a guideline for the diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (AN) but does not require a specific method for calculating EBW. The purpose of the present study was to determine the degree to which weight cut-off calculations vary across studies, and to evaluate whether differential cut-offs lead to discrepancies in the prevalence of individuals who are eligible for the AN diagnosis. Method Two coders independently recorded the EBW calculation methods from 99 studies that either (a) compared individuals with AN to those with subclinical eating disorders or (b) conducted AN treatment trials. Each weight cut-off was applied to a nationally representative (n = 12001) and treatment-seeking (n = 189) sample to determine the impact of EBW calculation on the proportion who met the AN weight criterion. Results Coders identified 10 different EBW methods, each of which produced different weight cut-offs for the diagnosis of AN. Although only 0.23% of the national sample met the lowest cut-off, this number increased 43-fold to 10.10% under the highest cut-off. Similarly, only 48.1% of treatment seekers met the lowest cut-off, whereas 89.4 % met the highest. Conclusions There is considerable variance across studies in the determination of the AN weight cut-off. Discrepancies substantially affect the proportion of individuals who are eligible for diagnosis, treatment and insurance reimbursement. However, differences may not be fully appreciated because the ubiquitous citation of the 85% criterion creates a sense of false consensus. PMID:18775087

  13. Adolescent psychological and academic adjustment as a function of discrepancies between actual and ideal self-perceptions.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Gail M; Hafen, Christopher A; Laursen, Brett

    2010-12-01

    Actual-ideal discrepancies are associated with adolescent emotional distress and there is evidence that the size of discrepancies matters. However, the direction of discrepancies has not been examined, perhaps due to limitations of widely used self-discrepancy measures. Two hundred and twelve 7th, 9th and 11th grade students (59% female) in a public school in Jamaica described their actual and ideal selves in several different domains--friendship, dating, schoolwork, family, sports, and religion/spirituality--using a Pie measure. Students also completed measures of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and academic achievement. Discrepancies favoring the ideal self and those favoring the actual self were linked to depressive symptoms, low self-esteem, and poor school grades in the domains of friendship, dating, and schoolwork. Effects were stronger among older adolescents than among younger adolescents. Theories of actual/ideal self-discrepancies have focused on problems arising when the ideal self overshadows the actual self; however, the present study finds that self-discrepancies, regardless of their direction, are a liability. Implications for self-discrepancy measurement, adolescent development, and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:19830533

  14. Improved limited discrepancy search

    SciTech Connect

    Korf, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    We present an improvement to Harvey and Ginsberg`s limited discrepancy search algorithm, which eliminates much of the redundancy in the original, by generating each path from the root to the maximum search depth only once. For a complete binary tree of depth d this reduces the asymptotic complexity from O(d+2/2 2{sup d}) to O(2{sup d}). The savings is much less in a partial tree search, or in a heavily pruned tree. The overhead of the improved algorithm on a complete binary tree is only a factor of b/(b - 1) compared to depth-first search. While this constant factor is greater on a heavily pruned tree, this improvement makes limited discrepancy search a viable alternative to depth-first search, whenever the entire tree may not be searched. Finally, we present both positive and negative empirical results on the utility of limited discrepancy search, for the problem of number partitioning.

  15. Discrepancy Reporting Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Tonja M.; Lin, James C.; Chatillon, Mark L.

    2004-01-01

    Discrepancy Reporting Management System (DRMS) is a computer program designed for use in the stations of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) to help establish the operational history of equipment items; acquire data on the quality of service provided to DSN customers; enable measurement of service performance; provide early insight into the need to improve processes, procedures, and interfaces; and enable the tracing of a data outage to a change in software or hardware. DRMS is a Web-based software system designed to include a distributed database and replication feature to achieve location-specific autonomy while maintaining a consistent high quality of data. DRMS incorporates commercial Web and database software. DRMS collects, processes, replicates, communicates, and manages information on spacecraft data discrepancies, equipment resets, and physical equipment status, and maintains an internal station log. All discrepancy reports (DRs), Master discrepancy reports (MDRs), and Reset data are replicated to a master server at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory; Master DR data are replicated to all the DSN sites; and Station Logs are internal to each of the DSN sites and are not replicated. Data are validated according to several logical mathematical criteria. Queries can be performed on any combination of data.

  16. Discrepancies in Goldmann tonometer readings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui, Marie; Tahi, Hassan; Nose, Izuru; Fantes, Francisco; Parel, Jean-Marie A.

    1999-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate discrepancies in Goldmann tonometer readings in eyes with varying degrees of corneal hydration and stromal amount. Methods. 6 Eye Bank eyes, donated by Florida Lion's Eye Bank, were evaluated. Each eye was affixed to a customized artificial orbit system with intraocular pressure (IOP) measured directly by a pressure transducer inserted into the vitreous and with a Goldmann tonometric readings. The eyes were dehydrated for 5-minute intervals in a 30% Dextran-BSS solution, with readings taken between each submersion. Once corneal thickness stabilized, a corneal trephination of 6mm was made. The corneal buttons were frozen and dehydrated by lyophilization and weighed. Results. Preliminary results show a possible overestimation in thicker corneas and an underestimation in thinner corneas, as previously published. Corresponding data on the weight of corneal material is provided. Further studies need to be conducted to determine statistical significance of the data. Conclusion. This study uses Eye Bank eyes with a protocol that produces results similar to previously published results. Further studies in correlating the amount of corneal stroma and discrepancies in Goldmann tonometer readings of intraocular pressure are important especially with the increasing acceptance of corneal refractive surgeries.

  17. Motherhood: a discrepancy theory.

    PubMed

    Adams, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Motherhood is a highly anticipated and positive event for most women. Society has constructed many ideal images of motherhood, giving women standards to live up to, and many times setting them up for disappointment. When this disappointment occurs, an emotional reaction follows, which may be fear, guilt, or shame. However, some women are able to experience this mismatch between an ideal and actual self and adapt with minimal emotional reaction. There was not a nursing theory that described this phenomenon. "Self-Discrepancy: A Theory Relating Self and Affect" (Higgins, 1987), from the psychology discipline provided concepts and definitions that could be used to derive a nursing theory. The derivation resulted in a testable mid-range theory that could have a significant impact on nursing interventions for postpartum mood disorders. PMID:26062291

  18. Dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in male university students.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Ligia; Grunert, Klaus G; Sepúlveda, José; Lobos, Germán; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Mora, Marcos; Etchebarne, Soledad; Salinas-Oñate, Natalia; Schnettler, Berta

    2016-04-01

    Self-discrepancy describes the distance between an ideal and the actual self. Research suggests that self-discrepancy and dietary restraint are related, causing a significant impact on the person's well-being. However, this relationship has been mostly reported in female and mixed populations. In order to further explore dietary behaviors and their relations to self-discrepancy and well-being-related variables in men, a survey was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 119 male students from five Chilean state universities (mean age=21.8, SD=2.75). The questionnaire included the Revised Restraint Scale (RRS) with the subscales weight fluctuations (WF) and diet concern (DC), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Satisfaction with Food-Related Life Scale (SWFL), the Nutrition Interest Scale (NIS), and the Self-discrepancy Index (SDI). Questions were asked about socio-demographic characteristics, eating and drinking habits, and approximate weight and height. A cluster analysis applied to the Z-scores of the RRS classified the following typologies: Group 1 (22.7%), men concerned about weight fluctuations; Group 2 (37.0%), men concerned about diet and weight fluctuations; Group 3 (40.3%), unconcerned about diet and weight fluctuations. The typologies differed in their SDI score, restriction on pastry consumption and reported body mass index (BMI). Students with higher DC and WF scores had a higher BMI, and tended to report high self-discrepancy not only on a physical level, but also on social, emotional, economic and personal levels. This study contributes to the literature on subjective well-being, dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in men from non-clinical samples. PMID:26835591

  19. Discrepancy in ABO blood grouping.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Noman; Khan, Taseer Ahmed; Ahmed, Zulfiqar

    2013-08-01

    Discrepancies in blood typing is one of the major reasons in eliciting a transfusion reaction. These discrepancies can be avoided through detailed analysis for the blood typing. Here, we report a subgroup of blood group type-B in the ABO system. Donor's blood was analyzed by employing commercial antisera for blood grouping. The results of forward (known antisera) and reverse (known antigen) reaction were not complimentary. A detailed analysis using the standard protocols by American Association of Blood Banking revealed the blood type as a variant of blood group-B instead of blood group-O. This is suggestive of the fact that blood group typing should be performed with extreme care and any divergence, if identified, should be properly resolved to avoid transfusion reactions. Moreover, a major study to determine the blood group variants in Pakistani population is needed. PMID:23930880

  20. High Discrepancy in Abdominal Obesity Prevalence According to Different Waist Circumference Cut-Offs and Measurement Methods in Children: Need for Age-Risk-Weighted Standardized Cut-Offs?

    PubMed Central

    Prodam, Flavia; Fuiano, Nicola; Diddi, Giuliana; Petri, Antonella; Bellone, Simonetta; Bona, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    Background Waist circumference (WC) is a good proxy measure of central adiposity. Due to the multiplicity of existing WC cut-offs and different measurement methods, the decision to use one rather than another WC chart may lead to different prevalence estimates of abdominal obesity in the same population. Aim of our study was to assess how much the prevalence of abdominal obesity varies in Italian schoolchildren using the different available WC cut-offs. Methods We measured WC at just above the uppermost lateral border of the right ilium in 1062 Italian schoolchildren aged 7–14 years, 499 living in Northern Italy and 563 in Southern Italy. Abdominal obesity was defined as WC ≥90th percentile for gender and age according to nine WC charts. Results We found an extremely high variability in the prevalence of abdominal obesity detected in our study-populations according to the different WC charts, ranging in the overall group from 9.1% to 61.4%. In Northern Italy children it varied from 2.4% to 35.7%, and in Southern ones from 15.1% to 84.2%. Conclusions On the basis of the chosen WC cut-offs the prevalence of abdominal obesity varies widely, because percentile-charts are strongly influenced by the population status in a particular moment. A further rate of variability may lay on the site of WC measurement and on the statistical method used to calculate WC cut-offs. Risk-weighted WC cut-offs measured in a standardized anatomic site and calculated by the appropriate method are needed to simply identify by WC measurement those children at high risk of cardio-metabolic complications to whom specific and prompt health interventions should be addressed. PMID:26745148

  1. Effective discrepancy and numerical experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varet, Suzanne; Lefebvre, Sidonie; Durand, Gérard; Roblin, Antoine; Cohen, Serge

    2012-12-01

    Many problems require the computation of a high dimensional integral, typically with a few tens of input factors, with a low number of integrand evaluations. To avoid the curse of dimensionality, we reduce the dimension before applying the Quasi-Monte Carlo method. We will show how to reduce the dimension by computing approximate Sobol indices of the variables with a two-levels fractional factorial design. Then, we will use the Sobol indices to define the effective discrepancy, which turns out to be correlated with the QMC error and thus enables one to choose a good sequence for the integral estimation.

  2. Monsoon definition discrepancies in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeve, M. A.; Chu, P.-S.

    2012-04-01

    This study applies different definitions of what previous authors have called the monsoon over Bangladesh. The aim is to identify the definitions that most resemble the perceptions of the local rural communities and how they define the monsoon. Considering how the local communities define the monsoon is extremely important since these populations are most vulnerable to future changes in climate and more specifically monsoon rainfall. It has been pointed out previously that the monsoon research community had not reached a consensus on a unified definition of the monsoon rainy season. This problem seems to be profound in Bangladesh where results from the application of different definitions show very large discrepancies. Since these discrepancies exist, confusing terms such as monsoon, summer rainy season, and monsoon rainy season can have large implications for impact studies and interpretations of future climate projections. The results in this paper show that these terms need to be explicitly and carefully defined with regards to Bangladesh. Wind-, rain- and OLR-based definitions are applied to several different datasets to show how large these discrepancies can be over Bangladesh. Differences in onset dates are found to be around 8-9 pentads (40-45 days) in some regions of the country. The largest differences are seen in the north-east region, where rain-based definitions give much earlier onsets than wind- or OLR-based definitions. The results show that mesoscale phenomena could be influencing the climate in the north-east part of Bangladesh and causing much earlier summer rainfall. According to the results from a previous social study, the local communities in fact consider this early rainfall as the monsoon onset. By identifying the definition that best resembles the local community perceptions through out Bangladesh, then future information can be constructed, so that it is more easily understood by and applicable to the millions of people climate change will

  3. 40 CFR 761.210 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.210 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest discrepancies are differences between the quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or shipping paper and the quantity or type of PCB waste actually delivered to and received by a designated...

  4. 40 CFR 761.210 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.210 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest discrepancies are differences between the quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or shipping paper and the quantity or type of PCB waste actually delivered to and received by a designated...

  5. 40 CFR 761.210 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.210 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest discrepancies are differences between the quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or shipping paper and the quantity or type of PCB waste actually delivered to and received by a designated...

  6. Discrepant LSAT Subscores. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stricker, Lawrence J.

    This study investigated the overall prevalence of discrepant Law School Admission Test (LSAT) subscores, their differential incidence for subgroups of examinees, and the psychometric properties of alternative measures of discrepant performance. The sample consisted of 39,350 examinees who took the LSAT in December 1991. Subscore differences, often…

  7. Discrepant Events: A Challenge to Students' Intuition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-spada, Wilson J.; Birriel, Jennifer; Birriel, Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    Studies on cognitive aspects of science education, especially how students achieve conceptual change, have been a focus of interest for many years. Researchers of student learning and conceptual change have developed several easily applicable teaching strategies. One of these strategies is known as "discrepant events". Discrepant events are very…

  8. Attraction, Discrepancy and Responses to Psychological Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Michael J.

    The responses of a laboratory subject (S) to a counselor-accomplice and to the psychological treatment situation are examined by manipulating experimentally interpersonal attraction and communication discrepancy. Four treatment conditions were set up: (1) topic similarity and positive attraction for counselor, (2) topic discrepancy and positive…

  9. Functional scoliosis caused by leg length discrepancy

    PubMed Central

    Daniszewska, Barbara; Zolynski, Krystian

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Leg length discrepancy (LLD) causes pelvic obliquity in the frontal plane and lumbar scoliosis with convexity towards the shorter extremity. Leg length discrepancy is observed in 3-15% of the population. Unequalized lower limb length discrepancy leads to posture deformation, gait asymmetry, low back pain and discopathy. Material and methods In the years 1998-2006, 369 children, aged 5 to 17 years (209 girls, 160 boys) with LLD-related functional scoliosis were treated. An external or internal shoe lift was applied. Results Among 369 children the discrepancy of 0.5 cm was observed in 27, 1 cm in 329, 1.5 cm in 9 and 2 cm in 4 children. During the first follow-up examination, within 2 weeks, the adjustment of the spine to new static conditions was noted and correction of the curve in 316 examined children (83.7%). In 53 children (14.7%) the correction was observed later and was accompanied by slight low back pain. The time needed for real equalization of limbs was 3 to 24 months. The time needed for real equalization of the discrepancy was 11.3 months. Conclusions Leg length discrepancy equalization results in elimination of scoliosis. Leg length discrepancy < 2 cm is a static disorder; that is why measurements should be performed in a standing position using blocks of adequate thickness and the position of the posterior superior iliac spine should be estimated. PMID:22371777

  10. A generalized discrepancy and quadrature error bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickernell, F. J.

    1998-01-01

    An error bound for multidimensional quadrature is derived that includes the Koksma-Hlawka inequality as a special case. This error bound takes the form of a product of two terms. One term, which depends only on the integrand, is defined as a generalized variation. The other term, which depends only on the quadrature rule, is defined as a generalized discrepancy. The generalized discrepancy is a figure of merit for quadrature rules and includes as special cases the L-p-star discrepancy and P-alpha that arises in the study of lattice rules.

  11. Discrepancies in ultrasonography of the infant hip.

    PubMed

    Joseph, K N; Meyer, S

    1996-01-01

    A total of 4,984 ultrasonographic (US) examinations of infant hips were done for the diagnosis or management of congenital/developmental dislocation/ dysplasia of the hip; 48 instances of lack of correlation (0.96%) between the US and radiographic images were noted. Analysis of these cases permitted classification into two groups: (a) apparent discrepancy (44 cases, 0.88%) for which faulty technique or interpretation of the sonogram/radiograph, hyperlaxity, inadvertent stress views, and lateral ossification defects led to disparity in the imaging modalities; and (b) true discrepancy (4 cases, 0.08%) where no explanation was possible for the dissimilarity. The relevance of this study is that the majority of discrepancies can be eliminated by (a) avoiding the common causes of apparent discrepancies mentioned in this article and by (b) the use of the Graf and Harcke techniques as complementary methods of US examination. PMID:8897261

  12. Discrepant Events: A Challenge to Students' Intuition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Espada, Wilson J.; Birriel, Jennifer; Birriel, Ignacio

    2010-11-01

    Studies on cognitive aspects of science education, especially how students achieve conceptual change, have been a focus of interest for many years. Researchers of student learning and conceptual change have developed several easily applicable teaching strategies. One of these strategies is known as discrepant events. Discrepant events are very powerful ways to stimulate interest, motivate students to challenge their covert science misconceptions, and promote higher-order thinking skills. The key point is that directly challenging students' naive ideas will lead to more quality science learning going on in the classroom. In this paper, we summarize the research-based role of discrepant events in conceptual change and we share several highly successful discrepant events we use in our own classes.

  13. Parent-Child Discrepancies in Educational Expectations: Differential Effects of Actual versus Perceived Discrepancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yijie; Benner, Aprile D.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored how discrepancies between parents' and adolescents' educational expectations influenced adolescents' achievement using a nationally representative, longitudinal sample of 14,041 students (14 years old at baseline). "Actual" discrepancies (i.e., those between parents' and adolescents' actual…

  14. 40 CFR 761.215 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.215 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest... quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or shipping paper, and the quantity and type of PCB waste a facility actually receives; or (2) Rejected wastes, which may be a full or...

  15. 40 CFR 761.215 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.215 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest... quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or shipping paper, and the quantity and type of PCB waste a facility actually receives; or (2) Rejected wastes, which may be a full or...

  16. Discrepancies between Parental and Adolescent Developmental Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekovic, Maja

    Guided by a conceptual model linking discrepancies between parent and adolescent developmental expectations and adolescent adjustment and the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship, this study examined adolescent and parent beliefs about the age at which specific competencies should appear. Developmental timetables were grouped into…

  17. Real vs. Ideal Self Discrepancy in Bulimics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosak, Karen

    Bulimia is an eating disorder prevalent among young women, characterized by binge eating episodes followed by purging with subsequent depressive moods and self-deprecating thoughts. To determine whether bulimic women exhibit a greater discrepancy between their perceived and ideal selves than do nonbulimics, three samples of women were assessed.…

  18. Television and Its News: A Discrepancy Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Gary Warren

    This exploratory endeavor utilized a functional discrepancy model of mass communication research to examine the audience experience with television generally and its news in particular. Specifically, gratifications sought from television in general and gratifications perceived as being obtained from television news are analyzed for a random sample…

  19. Discrepancy between Snack Choice Intentions and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weijzen, Pascalle L. G.; de Graaf, Cees; Dijksterhuis, Garmt B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate dietary constructs that affect the discrepancy between intentioned and actual snack choice. Design: Participants indicated their intentioned snack choice from a set of 4 snacks (2 healthful, 2 unhealthful). One week later, they actually chose a snack from the same set. Within 1 week after the actual choice, they completed…

  20. 40 CFR 267.72 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 267.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... differences between the quantity or type of hazardous waste designated on the manifest or shipping paper, and the quantity or type of hazardous waste a facility actually receives. Significant discrepancies...

  1. Association between Bolton discrepancy and Angle malocclusions.

    PubMed

    Cançado, Rodrigo Hermont; Gonçalves Júnior, Waldir; Valarelli, Fabrício Pinelli; Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore de; Crêspo, Janaina Aparecida Lima

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess and compare the overall and anterior ratios of tooth size discrepancies in all Angle malocclusion groups. The following null hypothesis (H0) was tested: no difference between tooth size discrepancies (overall and anterior) would be observed among Angle malocclusion groups. The sample comprised of 711 pre-orthodontic treatment study casts of Brazilian patients with a mean age of 17.42 years selected from private practices in Brazil. The casts were divided into 3 groups according to the type of malocclusion: Class I (n = 321), Class II (n = 324), and Class III patients (n = 66). The measurement of the greatest mesiodistal width of the teeth was performed using a centesimal precision digital caliper directly on the study casts, from the distal surface of the left first molar to the distal surface of the right first molar. The overall and anterior ratios between the maxillary and mandibular teeth were evaluated using Bolton's method. The following statistical tests were applied: chi-square, independent t-test, and one-way ANOVA. Results showed that all Angle malocclusions groups exhibited a ratio compatible with those recommended by Bolton. With respect to the overall and anterior ratios among the malocclusion groups, no statistically significant differences were found. The null hypothesis was accepted because the results showed no differences in the overall and anterior ratios of tooth size discrepancies among different Angle malocclusion groups. PMID:26486769

  2. Relationship Between Body Image Discrepancy and Intuitive Eating.

    PubMed

    Spoor, Kesha Dorsey; Madanat, Hala

    2016-04-01

    Dieting is widespread among college women despite being ineffective and harmful long term. Intuitive eating is a dieting alternative that teaches eating in response to hunger and satiety cues. It has been associated with improved physical and psychological health and studied in association with various body image dimensions. A sample of college first years completed baseline measurements during an intuitive eating intervention to test the association between intuitive eating and body image discrepancy (BID). BID represents whether a respondent believes her current body is larger or smaller than ideal. Greater BID was negatively associated with intuitive eating (p ≤ .05); participants who believed that their current bodies were larger than ideal were less likely to attend to hunger and satiety cues than participants who expressed little or no BID. These women should be targeted in future weight management interventions in order to avoid negative health outcomes of dieting. PMID:27052661

  3. Parental and Peer Factors Associated with Body Image Discrepancy among Fifth-Grade Boys and Girls

    PubMed Central

    Wentzel, Kathryn; Elliott, Marc N.; Dittus, Patricia J.; Kanouse, David E.; Wallander, Jan L.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Franzini, Luisa; Taylor, Wendell C.; Qureshi, Tariq; Franklin, Frank A.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Many young adolescents are dissatisfied with their body due to a discrepancy between their ideal and actual body size, which can lead to weight cycling, eating disorders, depression, and obesity. The current study examined the associations of parental and peer factors with fifth-graders’ body image discrepancy, physical self-worth as a mediator between parental and peer factors and body image discrepancy, and how these associations vary by child’s sex. Body image discrepancy was defined as the difference between young adolescents’ self-perceived body size and the size they believe a person their age should be. Data for this study came from Healthy Passages, which surveyed 5,147 fifth graders (51 % females; 34 % African American, 35 % Latino, 24 % White, and 6 % other) and their primary caregivers from the United States. Path analyses were conducted separately for boys and girls. The findings for boys suggest father nurturance and getting along with peers are related negatively to body image discrepancy; however, for girls, fear of negative evaluation by peers is related positively to body image discrepancy. For both boys and girls, getting along with peers and fear of negative evaluation by peers are related directly to physical self-worth. In addition, mother nurturance is related positively to physical self-worth for girls, and father nurturance is related positively to physical self-worth for boys. In turn, physical self-worth, for both boys and girls, is related negatively to body image discrepancy. The findings highlight the potential of parental and peer factors to reduce fifth graders’ body image discrepancy. PMID:23334988

  4. Parental and peer factors associated with body image discrepancy among fifth-grade boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Michael, Shannon L; Wentzel, Kathryn; Elliott, Marc N; Dittus, Patricia J; Kanouse, David E; Wallander, Jan L; Pasch, Keryn E; Franzini, Luisa; Taylor, Wendell C; Qureshi, Tariq; Franklin, Frank A; Schuster, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Many young adolescents are dissatisfied with their body due to a discrepancy between their ideal and actual body size, which can lead to weight cycling, eating disorders, depression, and obesity. The current study examined the associations of parental and peer factors with fifth-graders' body image discrepancy, physical self-worth as a mediator between parental and peer factors and body image discrepancy, and how these associations vary by child's sex. Body image discrepancy was defined as the difference between young adolescents' self-perceived body size and the size they believe a person their age should be. Data for this study came from Healthy Passages, which surveyed 5,147 fifth graders (51 % females; 34 % African American, 35 % Latino, 24 % White, and 6 % other) and their primary caregivers from the United States. Path analyses were conducted separately for boys and girls. The findings for boys suggest father nurturance and getting along with peers are related negatively to body image discrepancy; however, for girls, fear of negative evaluation by peers is related positively to body image discrepancy. For both boys and girls, getting along with peers and fear of negative evaluation by peers are related directly to physical self-worth. In addition, mother nurturance is related positively to physical self-worth for girls, and father nurturance is related positively to physical self-worth for boys. In turn, physical self-worth, for both boys and girls, is related negatively to body image discrepancy. The findings highlight the potential of parental and peer factors to reduce fifth graders' body image discrepancy. PMID:23334988

  5. Orthognathic correction of dento-facial discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, S J; Johal, A

    2015-02-16

    Orthognathic treatment is a process which involves orthodontics and maxillofacial surgery and is used to treat those dento-facial discrepancies which are outside the scope of conventional orthodontic treatment, for example severe Class II or Class III problems, anterior open bites and facial asymmetries. Patients who present with these severe problems may encounter a wide range of different problems ranging from functional problems (for example, difficulties biting and chewing) to self-consciousness in a wide range of work and social situations. This paper discusses the possible indications for orthognathic treatment and looks at the risks and benefits of treatment. The treatment pathway is also described. PMID:25686434

  6. 31 CFR 306.44 - Discrepancies in names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrepancies in names. 306.44 Section.... SECURITIES Assignments of Registered Securities-General § 306.44 Discrepancies in names. The Department will ordinarily require an explanation of discrepancies in the names which appear in inscriptions,...

  7. 31 CFR 306.44 - Discrepancies in names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrepancies in names. 306.44.... SECURITIES Assignments of Registered Securities-General § 306.44 Discrepancies in names. The Department will ordinarily require an explanation of discrepancies in the names which appear in inscriptions,...

  8. 31 CFR 306.44 - Discrepancies in names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrepancies in names. 306.44.... SECURITIES Assignments of Registered Securities-General § 306.44 Discrepancies in names. The Department will ordinarily require an explanation of discrepancies in the names which appear in inscriptions,...

  9. 31 CFR 306.44 - Discrepancies in names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrepancies in names. 306.44 Section.... SECURITIES Assignments of Registered Securities-General § 306.44 Discrepancies in names. The Department will ordinarily require an explanation of discrepancies in the names which appear in inscriptions,...

  10. 31 CFR 306.44 - Discrepancies in names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrepancies in names. 306.44 Section.... SECURITIES Assignments of Registered Securities-General § 306.44 Discrepancies in names. The Department will ordinarily require an explanation of discrepancies in the names which appear in inscriptions,...

  11. Discrepancy Models in the Identification of Learning Disability. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavale, Kenneth A.

    This paper reviews issues surrounding the use of discrepancy in identifying learning disabilities. Since 1976, it argues, discrepancy has been the primary criterion for defining learning disabilities in practice. In a psychometric and statistical sense, however, issues about the best means for calculating a discrepancy remain problematic. Another…

  12. Further Investigations of NIST Water Sphere Discrepancies

    SciTech Connect

    Broadhead, B.L.

    2001-01-11

    Measurements have been performed on a family of water spheres at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) facilities. These measurements are important for criticality safety studies in that, frequently, difficulties have arisen in predicting the reactivity of individually subcritical components assembled in a critical array. It has been postulated that errors in the neutron leakage from individual elements in the array could be responsible for these problems. In these NIST measurements, an accurate determination of the leakage from a fission spectrum, modified by water scattering, is available. Previously, results for 3-, 4-, and 5-in. diam. water-filled spheres, both with and without cadmium covers over the fission chambers, were presented for four fissionable materials: {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, and {sup 239}Pu. Results were also given for ''dry'' systems, in which the water spheres were drained of water, with the results corresponding to essentially measurements of unmoderated {sup 252}Cf spontaneous-fission neutrons. The calculated-to-experimental (C/E) values ranged from 0.94 to 1.01 for the dry systems and 0.93 to 1.05 for the wet systems, with experimental uncertainties ranging from 1.5 to 1.9%. These results indicated discrepancies that were clearly outside of the experimental uncertainties, and further investigation was suggested. This work updates the previous calculations with a comparison of the predicted C/E values with ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI transport cross sections. Variations in the predicted C/E values that arise from the use of ENDF/B-V, ENDF/B-VI, ENDL92, and LLLDOS for the response fission cross sections are also tabulated. The use of both a 45-group NIST fission spectrum and a continuous-energy fission spectrum for {sup 252}Cf are evaluated. The use of the generalized-linear-least-squares (GLLSM) procedures to investigate the reported discrepancies in the water sphere results for {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu

  13. Discrepancies in Data Reporting for Rabies, Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Human rabies is an ancient disease but in modern times has primarily been associated with dog rabies–endemic countries of Asia and Africa. From an African perspective, the inevitable and tragic consequences of rabies require serious reflection of the factors that continue to drive its neglect. Established as a major disease only after multiple introductions during the colonial era, rabies continues to spread into new reservoirs and territories in Africa. However, analysis of reported data identified major discrepancies that are indicators of poor surveillance, reporting, and cooperation among national, international, and global authorities. Ultimately, the absence of reliable and sustained data compromises the priority given to the control of rabies. Appropriate actions and changes, in accordance to the One Health philosophy and including aspects such as synchronized, shared, and unified global rabies data reporting, will not only be necessary, but also should be feasible. PMID:23628197

  14. Discrepancy principle for the dynamical systems method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramm, A. G.

    2005-02-01

    Assume that Au=fis a solvable linear equation in a Hilbert space, ∥ A∥<∞, and R( A) is not closed, so this problem is ill-posed. Here R( A) is the range of the linear operator A. A dynamical systems method for solving this problem, consists of solving the following Cauchy problem: u˙=-u+(B+ɛ(t)) -1A ∗f, u(0)=u 0, where B:=A ∗A , u˙:= du/ dt , u0 is arbitrary, and ɛ( t)>0 is a continuously differentiable function, monotonically decaying to zero as t→∞. Ramm has proved [Commun Nonlin Sci Numer Simul 9(4) (2004) 383] that, for any u0, the Cauchy problem has a unique solution for all t>0, there exists y:= w(∞):=lim t→∞ u( t), Ay= f, and y is the unique minimal-norm solution to Au= f. If fδ is given, such that ∥ f- fδ∥⩽ δ, then uδ( t) is defined as the solution to the Cauchy problem with f replaced by fδ. The stopping time is defined as a number tδ such that lim δ→0 ∥ uδ( tδ)- y∥=0 and lim δ→0 tδ=∞. A discrepancy principle is proposed and proved in this paper. This principle yields tδ as the unique solution to the equation: ∥A(B+ɛ(t)) -1A ∗f δ-f δ∥=δ, where it is assumed that ∥ fδ∥> δ and f δ⊥N(A ∗) . The last assumption is removed, and if it does not hold, then the right-hand side of the above equation is replaced by Cδ, where C=const>1, and one assumes that ∥ fδ∥> Cδ. For nonlinear monotone A a discrepancy principle is formulated and justified.

  15. Cultural estrangement: the role of personal and societal value discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Mark M; Gebauer, Jochen E; Maio, Gregory R

    2006-01-01

    Study 1 examined whether cultural estrangement arises from discrepancies between personal and societal values (e.g., freedom) rather than from discrepancies in attitudes toward political (e.g., censorship) or mundane (e.g., pizza) objects. The relations between different types of value discrepancies, estrangement, subjective well-being, and need for uniqueness also were examined. Results indicated that personal-societal discrepancies in values and political attitudes predicted estrangement, whereas mundane attitude discrepancies were not related to estrangement. As expected, value discrepancies were the most powerful predictor of estrangement. Value discrepancies were not related to subjective well-being but fulfilled a need for uniqueness. Study 2 replicated the relations between value discrepancies, subjective well-being, and need for uniqueness while showing that a self-report measure of participants' values and a peer-report measure of the participants' values yielded the same pattern of value discrepancies. Together, the studies reveal theoretical and empirical benefits of conceptualizing cultural estrangement in terms of value discrepancies. PMID:16317190

  16. Temporary epiphyseodesis for limb-length discrepancy

    PubMed Central

    Siedhoff, Markus; Ridderbusch, Karsten; Breyer, Sandra; Stücker, Ralf; Rupprecht, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose — For the treatment of leg-length discrepancies (LLDs) of between 2 and 5 cm in adolescent patients, several epiphyseodesis options exist and various complications have been reported. We reviewed the 8- to 15-year outcome after temporary epiphyseodesis in patients with LLD. Patients and methods — 34 children with LLD of up to 5 cm were included in the study. Mean age at epiphyseodesis was 12.8 (10–16) years. Temporary epiphyseodesis was performed with Blount staples or 8-plates. The LLD was reviewed preoperatively, at the time of implant removal, and at follow-up. Every child had reached skeletal maturity at follow-up. Long-standing anteroposterior radiographs were analyzed with respect to the mechanical axis and remaining LLD at the time of follow-up. Possible complications were noted. Results — The mean LLD changed from 2.3 (0.9–4.5) cm to 0.8 (–1.0 to 2.6) cm at follow-up (p < 0.001). 21 patients had a final LLD of < 1 cm, and 10 had LLD of < 0.5 cm. At the time of follow-up, in 32 patients the mechanical axis crossed within Steven’s zone 1. No deep infections or neurovascular lesions were seen. 4 implant failures occurred, which were managed by revision. Interpretation — Temporary epiphyseodesis is an effective and safe option for the treatment of LLD. The timing of the procedure has to be chosen according to the remaining growth, facilitating a full correction of the LLD. If inaccurate placement of staples is avoided, substantial differences between the mechanical axes of both legs at skeletal maturity are rare. PMID:25191935

  17. Toward Reconciling Magnitude Discrepancies Estimated from Paleoearthquake Data

    SciTech Connect

    N. Seth Carpenter; Suzette J. Payne; Annette L. Schafer

    2012-06-01

    We recognize a discrepancy in magnitudes estimated for several Basin and Range, U.S.A. faults. For example, magnitudes predicted for the Wasatch (Utah), Lost River (Idaho), and Lemhi (Idaho) faults from fault segment lengths (L{sub seg}) where lengths are defined between geometrical, structural, and/or behavioral discontinuities assumed to persistently arrest rupture, are consistently less than magnitudes calculated from displacements (D) along these same segments. For self-similarity, empirical relationships (e.g. Wells and Coppersmith, 1994) should predict consistent magnitudes (M) using diverse fault dimension values for a given fault (i.e. M {approx} L{sub seg}, should equal M {approx} D). Typically, the empirical relationships are derived from historical earthquake data and parameter values used as input into these relationships are determined from field investigations of paleoearthquakes. A commonly used assumption - grounded in the characteristic-earthquake model of Schwartz and Coppersmith (1984) - is equating L{sub seg} with surface rupture length (SRL). Many large historical events yielded secondary and/or sympathetic faulting (e.g. 1983 Borah Peak, Idaho earthquake) which are included in the measurement of SRL and used to derive empirical relationships. Therefore, calculating magnitude from the M {approx} SRL relationship using L{sub seg} as SRL leads to an underestimation of magnitude and the M {approx} L{sub seg} and M {approx} D discrepancy. Here, we propose an alternative approach to earthquake magnitude estimation involving a relationship between moment magnitude (Mw) and length, where length is L{sub seg} instead of SRL. We analyze seven historical, surface-rupturing, strike-slip and normal faulting earthquakes for which segmentation of the causative fault and displacement data are available and whose rupture included at least one entire fault segment, but not two or more. The preliminary Mw {approx} L{sub seg} results are strikingly consistent

  18. 19 CFR 4.12 - Explanation of manifest discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Explanation of manifest discrepancy. 4.12 Section 4.12 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.12 Explanation of manifest discrepancy. (a)(1) Vessel...

  19. 48 CFR 47.207-10 - Discrepancies incident to shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... discrepancies in Government shipments are in 41 CFR parts 102-117 and 118. (For the Department of Defense (DoD..., shortage, loss, damage, and other discrepancies between the quantity and/or condition of supplies received from commercial carrier and the quantity and/or condition of these supplies as shown on the...

  20. 48 CFR 47.207-10 - Discrepancies incident to shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... discrepancies in Government shipments are in 41 CFR parts 102-117 and 118. (For the Department of Defense (DoD..., shortage, loss, damage, and other discrepancies between the quantity and/or condition of supplies received from commercial carrier and the quantity and/or condition of these supplies as shown on the...

  1. 48 CFR 47.207-10 - Discrepancies incident to shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... discrepancies in Government shipments are in 41 CFR parts 102-117 and 118. (For the Department of Defense (DoD..., shortage, loss, damage, and other discrepancies between the quantity and/or condition of supplies received from commercial carrier and the quantity and/or condition of these supplies as shown on the...

  2. Role of Discrepant Questioning Leading to Model Element Modification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rea-Ramirez, Mary Anne; Nunez-Oviedo, Maria Cecilia; Clement, John

    2009-01-01

    Discrepant questioning is a teaching technique that can help students "unlearn" misconceptions and process science ideas for deep understanding. Discrepant questioning is a technique in which teachers question students in a way that requires them to examine their ideas or models, without giving information prematurely to the student or passing…

  3. Discrepancies in Parents' and Children's Reports of Child Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hourigan, Shannon E.; Goodman, Kimberly L.; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to regulate one's emotions effectively has been linked with many aspects of well-being. The current study examined discrepancies between mothers' and children's reports of child emotion regulation. This investigation examined patterns of discrepancies for key aspects of emotion regulation (i.e., inhibition and dysregulated expression)…

  4. Examination of the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory Discrepancy Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Ashley M.; Brestan, Elizabeth V.; Eyberg, Sheila M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) "discrepancy hypothesis", which asserts that a discrepancy in score elevations on the ECBI Intensity and Problem Scales is related to problematic parenting styles. The Intensity Scale measures the frequency of child disruptive behavior, and the Problem Scale measures parent perception…

  5. 48 CFR 47.207-10 - Discrepancies incident to shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... discrepancies in Government shipments are in 41 CFR parts 102-117 and 118. (For the Department of Defense (DoD... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrepancies incident to... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Contracts for Transportation or for Transportation-Related Services...

  6. 48 CFR 47.207-10 - Discrepancies incident to shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrepancies incident to shipments. 47.207-10 Section 47.207-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Contracts for Transportation or for Transportation-Related Services 47.207-10 Discrepancies incident...

  7. Self-Discrepancies, Negative Mood States, and Compliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thein, Roman D.

    This study examined effects of accessible self-discrepancies on subjects' mood states and the effects of these mood states on compliance. Two affective states, agitation and dejection, were induced in 115 college students by priming their available self-discrepancies. After the subjects had received specific primes and their mood states had been…

  8. A Discrepancy-Based Methodology for Nuclear Training Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Jeffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    A three-phase comprehensive process for commercial nuclear power training program evaluation is presented. The discrepancy-based methodology was developed after the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor accident. It facilitates analysis of program components to identify discrepancies among program specifications, actual outcomes, and industry…

  9. 41 CFR 101-26.803-1 - Reporting discrepancies or deficiencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Billings § 101-26.803-1 Reporting discrepancies or deficiencies. Discrepancies or deficiencies in shipments..., transportation discrepancies, and billing discrepancies. When discrepancies or deficiencies occur, activities... publication, Discrepancies or Deficiencies in GSA or DOD Shipments, Material, or Billings, issued by...

  10. Sleep Discrepancy, Sleep Complaint, and Poor Sleep Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Discrepancy between self-report- and actigraphy-measured sleep, often considered an artifact of measurement error, has been well documented among insomnia patients. Sleep problems are common among older adults, and this discrepancy may represent meaningful sleep-related phenomenon, which could have clinical and research significance. Method. Sleep discrepancy was examined in 4 groups of older adults (N = 152, mean age = 71.93 years) based on sleep complaint versus no complaint and presence versus absence of insomnia symptoms. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory-second edition (BDI-II) and 14 nights of sleep diaries and actigraphy. Results. Controlling for covariates, group differences were found in the duration and frequency of discrepancy in sleep onset latency (SOLd) and wake after sleep onset (WASOd). Those with insomnia symptoms and complaints reported greater duration and frequency of WASOd than the other 3 groups. Quantities of SOLd and WASOd were related to BDI-II score and group status, indicating that sleep discrepancy has meaningful clinical correlates. Discussion. Discrepancy occurred across all groups but was pronounced among the group with both insomnia symptoms and complaints. This discrepancy may provide a means of quantifying and conceptualizing the transition from wake to sleep among older adults, particularly those with sleeping problems. PMID:23804432

  11. The Seesaw Technique for Correction of Vertical Alar Discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Sang Min; Medikeri, Gaurav Shankar; Jung, Dong-Hak

    2015-09-01

    Alar vertical discrepancy including alar base has been viewed as one of the most challenging reconstructive problems in rhinoplasty. The authors have created a simple technique that consistently gives aesthetically acceptable results. The authors have designed the seesaw technique to correct alar discrepancy (type 1 to 3). Type 1 has been used in 14 patients, type 2 has been used in three patients, and type 3 has been used in seven patients. Alar discrepancy was corrected satisfactorily in all cases, with good cosmetic outcome. One case required scar revision and another case required revision for overcorrection; satisfactory results were ultimately achieved in both cases. This new technique is quite easy to design and is effective in the correction of alar discrepancy. It yields good postoperative results along with satisfactory aesthetic outcomes. PMID:26313821

  12. Occupational Aspiration-Expectation Discrepancies Among High School Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogie, Donald W.

    1976-01-01

    High School seniors reporting discrepancies between occupational "aspirations" and "expectations" are analyzed in relation to family socioeconomic status, intelligence test scores, scholastic performance, and socioeconomic area of residence. (Author)

  13. Isospin Breaking in the Goldberger-Treiman Discrepancies

    SciTech Connect

    Jose Goity; Jordi Saez

    2002-09-01

    Effects of isospin breaking at the level of the Goldberger-Treiman discrepancies involving the neutral isotriplet axial and pion-nucleon couplings are analyzed to leading non-trivial order in chiral perturbation theory.

  14. Anxiety, self-discrepancy, and regulatory focus theory: acculturation matters.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Cheri A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L

    2013-03-01

    Previous research has found that Asians (vs. Caucasians) exhibit higher levels of ought and undesired self-discrepancies and prevention focus, all of which have been linked with anxiety. We examined these ethnic differences in the context of acculturation. Participants (N=155) completed two sessions scheduled a week apart. In Session 1, participants completed a computer task to measure self-discrepancy and prevention focus. In Session 2, participants' ought self-discrepancies and closeness to an undesired self were primed. Moderation analyses indicated that Asian participants who were highly assimilated to an Asian culture exhibited higher levels of a prevention focus. Acculturation also had significant moderation effects for affect when self-discrepancies were primed. Our results suggest that interventions based on these systems (i.e., self-system therapy) should consider acculturation when treating diverse individuals. PMID:22339540

  15. SES discrepancies and Delaware cancer death rates.

    PubMed

    Frelick, Robert W

    2004-03-01

    Cancer can be monitored fairly effectively by using cancer registry data for site, stage, age, sex, and race. Adding to this the patient's years of education, now only found on death certificates, should not be difficult since it is an easily measured major SES factor. Most comorbidities should also be easy to obtain since hospitals usually code them. Capturing all treatment and response data remains a challenge as more and more cancer diagnosis and management is done in outpatient settings. Current efforts to establish electronic medical records in compliance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) may be a blessing if adequate software can be standardized and used similar to that already present in the VA hospital in Delaware. Such information would aid efforts to reduce Delaware's high cancer incidence and mortality rates. A proposed state cancer plan should stimulate improved integration of the state's health resources to focus on the quality of individual health care and to use cost-effective measures to improve the public's health. A plan should (1) stimulate a public awareness to reduce risk factors for all major chronic diseases with a special focus on cancer deaths; (2) use medical office settings to provide simple screens to improve the early detection of a number of chronic diseases depending on such risks as age and sex (such studies might include weight, height, blood pressure, sugar, cholesterol, PSAs, exams of skin, oral cavities, breasts, abdomen, rectum, and vagina with pap smears, all of which can be accomplished in a cost-effective fashion); and (3) offer equitable access to a state's health care system for information, screening, and treatment. Current evidence shows that it is less expensive to manage patients with early cancers than those with advanced cases, which often occur because of ignorance and lack of access to health services, and by socioeconomic, educational, and cultural barriers. Implementing the

  16. Computational investigations of low-discrepancy point sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warnock, T. T.

    1971-01-01

    The quasi-Monte Carlo method of integration offers an attractive solution to the problem of evaluating integrals in a large number of dimensions; however, the associated error bounds are difficult to obtain theoretically. Since these bounds are associated with the L2 discrepancy of the set of points used in the integration. Numerical calculations of the L2 discrepancy for several types of quasi-Monte Carlo formulae are presented.

  17. Discrepancies between Radar Data and the Lunar Ephemeris.

    PubMed

    Smith, C R; Pettengill, G H; Shapiro, I I; Weinstein, F S

    1968-05-24

    Precise measurements of the Doppler shift of radar waves reflected from Moon disclose unexpectedly large discrepancies-averaging about 0.6 centimeter per second-between the radial velocities and the predictions based on the Eckert-Brown lunar ephemeris. These residuals have a rapidly changing component corresponding to a relatively large, variable, and unexplained discrepancy in radial acceleration of about 10(-4) centimeter per second, per second, in magnitude and about 1 day in period. PMID:17774403

  18. Catheterization-Doppler discrepancies in nonsimultaneous evaluations of aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Aghassi, Payam; Aurigemma, Gerard P; Folland, Edward D; Tighe, Dennis A

    2005-05-01

    Prior validation studies have established that simultaneously measured catheter (cath) and Doppler mean pressure gradients (MPG) correlate closely in evaluation of aortic stenosis (AS). In clinical practice, however, cath and Doppler are rarely performed simultaneously; which may lead to discrepant results. Accordingly, our aim was to ascertain agreement between these methods and investigate factors associated with discrepant results. We reviewed findings in 100 consecutive evaluations for AS performed in 97 patients (mean age 72 +/- 10 yr) in which cath and Doppler were performed within 6 weeks. We recorded MPG, aortic valve area (AVA), cardiac output, and ejection fraction (EF) by both methods. Aortic root diameter, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVIDd) and posterior wall thickness (PWT) were measured by echocardiography and gender, heart rate, and heart rhythm were also recorded. An MPG discrepancy was defined as an intrapatient difference > 10 mmHg. Mean pressure gradients by cath and Doppler were 36 +/- 22 mmHg and 37 +/- 20 mmHg, respectively (P = 0.73). Linear regression showed good correlation (r = 0.82) between the techniques. An MPG discrepancy was found in 36 (36%) of 100 evaluations; in 19 (53%) of 36 evaluations MPG by Doppler was higher than cath, and in 17 (47%) of 36, it was lower. In 33 evaluations, EF differed by >10% between techniques. Linear regression analyses revealed that EF difference between studies was a significant predictor of MPG discrepancy (P = 0.004). Women had significantly higher MPG than men by both cath and Doppler (43 +/- 25 mmHg versus 29 +/- 15 mmHg [P = 0.001]; 42 +/- 23 mmHg versus 32 +/- 15 mmHg [P = 0.014], respectively). Women exhibited discrepant results in 23 (47%) of 49 evaluations versus 13 (25%) of 51 evaluations in men (P = 0.037). After adjustment for women's higher MPG, there was no statistically significant difference in MPG discrepancy between genders (P = 0.22). No significant interactions between

  19. Procedure for statistical analysis of one-parameter discrepant experimental data.

    PubMed

    Badikov, Sergey A; Chechev, Valery P

    2012-09-01

    A new, Mandel-Paule-type procedure for statistical processing of one-parameter discrepant experimental data is described. The procedure enables one to estimate a contribution of unrecognized experimental errors into the total experimental uncertainty as well as to include it in analysis. A definition of discrepant experimental data for an arbitrary number of measurements is introduced as an accompanying result. In the case of negligible unrecognized experimental errors, the procedure simply reduces to the calculation of the weighted average and its internal uncertainty. The procedure was applied to the statistical analysis of half-life experimental data; Mean half-lives for 20 actinides were calculated and results were compared to the ENSDF and DDEP evaluations. On the whole, the calculated half-lives are consistent with the ENSDF and DDEP evaluations. However, the uncertainties calculated in this work essentially exceed the ENSDF and DDEP evaluations for discrepant experimental data. This effect can be explained by adequately taking into account unrecognized experimental errors. PMID:22459280

  20. Body mass index distribution affects discrepancies in weight classifications in children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of body mass index (BMI) distribution, ethnicity, and age at menarche on the consistency in the prevalence of underweight and overweight as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the International Obesity Task Fo...

  1. Exploring the effects of sexual desire discrepancy among married couples.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Brian J; Farero, Adam M; Busby, Dean M

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have found associations between the individual discrepancy of desired sexual frequency and actual sexual frequency and relational outcomes among premarital couples. The present study extended this research by using a sample of 1,054 married couples to explore how actor and partner individual sexual desire discrepancy (SDD) scores were associated with relationship satisfaction, stability, communication, and conflict during marriage. All participants took an online survey which assessed both couple sexual dynamics and relationship outcomes. Findings suggested that higher actor individual SDD was generally associated with negative relational outcomes, including lower reported relationship satisfaction, stability, and more reported couple conflict. These effects were found after controlling for background factors, baseline sexual frequency and desire, and couple desire discrepancies. Some partner effects were also found and were generally in the same direction. Marital length did not moderate the effects found although gender moderated associations between individual SDD and reported couple communication. Negative associations between individual SDD and communication were particularly strong when the husband reported high discrepancies between desired and actual sexual frequency. Results suggested that higher individual sexual desire discrepancies among married individuals may undermine relationship well-being. Applications of these findings to a clinical setting are also discussed. PMID:24045904

  2. Weighted aggregation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The use of a weighted aggregation technique to improve the precision of the overall LACIE estimate is considered. The manner in which a weighted aggregation technique is implemented given a set of weights is described. The problem of variance estimation is discussed and the question of how to obtain the weights in an operational environment is addressed.

  3. The muon g-2 discrepancy: errors or new physics?

    SciTech Connect

    Passera, M.; Martiano, W. J.; Sirlin, A.

    2008-11-23

    After a brief review of the muon g-2 status, we discuss hypothetical errors in the Standard Model prediction that could explain the present discrepancy with the experimental value. None of them looks likely. In particular, an hypothetical increase of the hadroproduction cross section in low-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions could bridge the muon g-2 discrepancy, but is shown to be unlikely in view of current experimental error estimates. If, nonetheless, this turns out to be the explanation of the discrepancy, then the 95% CL upper bound on the Higgs boson mass is reduced to about 130 GeV which, in conjunction with the experimental 114.4 GeV 95% CL lower bound, leaves a narrow window for the mass of this fundamental particle.

  4. Role of Discrepant Questioning Leading to Model Element Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea-Ramirez, Mary Anne; Nunez-Oviedo, Maria Cecilia; Clement, John

    2009-04-01

    Discrepant questioning is a teaching technique that can help students “unlearn” misconceptions and process science ideas for deep understanding. Discrepant questioning is a technique in which teachers question students in a way that requires them to examine their ideas or models, without giving information prematurely to the student or passing judgment on the student’s model. This strategy prompts students to see the contradictions in their own model. This study focused on the analysis of small group tutoring sessions on human respiration. Individual and small group construction of mental models was analyzed after instructed with a standardized teaching sequence based on model construction and criticism theory (Rea-Ramirez in Model of conceptual understanding in human respiration and strategies for instruction, Dissertation Abstracts International, 59 (10), 5196B, 1998). Analysis provided deeper understanding of the role discrepant questioning played in this construction of understanding and suggested new models of learning.

  5. Discrepancies between implicit and explicit motivation and unhealthy eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Job, Veronika; Oertig, Daniela; Brandstätter, Veronika; Allemand, Mathias

    2010-08-01

    Many people change their eating behavior as a consequence of stress. One source of stress is intrapersonal psychological conflict as caused by discrepancies between implicit and explicit motives. In the present research, we examined whether eating behavior is related to this form of stress. Study 1 (N=53), a quasi-experimental study in the lab, showed that the interaction between the implicit achievement motive disposition and explicit commitment toward an achievement task significantly predicts the number of snacks consumed in a consecutive taste test. In cross-sectional Study 2 (N=100), with a sample of middle-aged women, overall motive discrepancy was significantly related to diverse indices of unsettled eating. Regression analyses revealed interaction effects specifically for power and achievement motivation and not for affiliation. Emotional distress further partially mediated the relationship between the overall motive discrepancy and eating behavior. PMID:20545817

  6. The influence of intersensory discrepancy on visuo-haptic integration is similar in 6-year-old children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Jovanovic, Bianca; Drewing, Knut

    2014-01-01

    When participants are given the opportunity to simultaneously feel an object and see it through a magnifying or reducing lens, adults estimate object size to be in-between visual and haptic size. Studies with young children, however, seem to demonstrate that their estimates are dominated by a single sense. In the present study, we examined whether this age difference observed in previous studies, can be accounted for by the large discrepancy between felt and seen size in the stimuli used in those studies. In addition, we studied the processes involved in combining the visual and haptic inputs. Adults and 6-year-old children judged objects that were presented to vision, haptics or simultaneously to both senses. The seen object length was reduced or magnified by different lenses. In the condition inducing large intersensory discrepancies, children's judgments in visuo-haptic conditions were almost dominated by vision, whereas adults weighted vision just by ~40%. Neither the adults' nor the children's discrimination thresholds were predicted by models of visuo-haptic integration. With smaller discrepancies, the children's visual weight approximated that of the adults and both the children's and adults' discrimination thresholds were well predicted by an integration model, which assumes that both visual and haptic inputs contribute to each single judgment. We conclude that children integrate seemingly corresponding multisensory information in similar ways as adults do, but focus on a single sense, when information from different senses is strongly discrepant. PMID:24523712

  7. Are In-Bed Electronic Weights Recorded in the Medical Record Accurate?

    PubMed

    Gerl, Heather; Miko, Alexandra; Nelson, Mandy; Godaire, Lori

    2016-01-01

    This study found large discrepancies between in-bed weights recorded in the medical record and carefully obtained standing weights with a calibrated, electronic bedside scale. This discrepancy appears to be related to inadequate bed calibration before patient admission and having excessive linen, clothing, and/or equipment on the bed during weighing by caregivers. PMID:27522846

  8. Body Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart failure, and kidney disease. Good nutrition and exercise can help in losing weight. Eating extra calories within a well-balanced diet and treating any underlying medical problems can help to add weight.

  9. Weight Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... obese. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar. It ... use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie ...

  10. Body Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... to medicines, thyroid problems, heart failure, and kidney disease. Good nutrition and exercise can help in losing weight. Eating extra calories within a well-balanced diet and treating any underlying medical problems can help to add weight.

  11. Gender-Related Self-Discrepancies and Bulimic Eating Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingenspor, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Explored the link between development of bulimic eating behavior and suppression of masculine traits in adolescence. German high school students completed a sex role inventory. Among girls, higher risk of developing bulimia appeared to be caused by increasing discrepancies between actual and ideal self-concept on masculine-typed personality…

  12. Cerebral Laterality and Verbal-Performance Discrepancies in Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Raymond S.

    1979-01-01

    The cerebral laterality of children with various configurations of verbal-performance discrepancies was inferred with an objective measure of lateral preference using Verbal and Performance IQ scores of the WISC-R. Results were interpreted as lending support to the notion of competition antagonism between cortical hemispheres and a possible…

  13. Sex Differences in Children's Discrepant Perceptions of Peer Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Stephanie D.; Van Gessel, Christine A.; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Kistner, Janet A.

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in children's play patterns during middle childhood are thought to promote greater awareness of social acceptance among girls compared with boys. The present study posited that girls are more discerning of peer acceptance than are boys; however, these sex differences were predicted to vary depending on how discrepant perceptions…

  14. Discrepancy Dinosaurs and the Evolution of Specific Learning Disability Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moores-Abdool, Whitney; Unzueta, Caridad H.; Vazquez Donet, Dolores; Bijlsma, Eduard

    2008-01-01

    Identifying Specific Learning Disability (SLD) has been an arduous task. Until IDEA 2004, diagnosing SLD was limited to IQ discrepancy models lacking in both empirical evidence and contributing to minority over-representation. This paper examines the history of SLD assessment, the phenomena of minority over-representation, and the implementation…

  15. The Discrepancy Evaluation Model. I. Basic Tenets of the Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinmetz, Andres

    1976-01-01

    The basic principles of the discrepancy evaluation model (DEM), developed by Malcolm Provus, are presented. The three concepts which are essential to DEM are defined: (1) the standard is a description of how something should be; (2) performance measures are used to find out the actual characteristics of the object being evaluated; and (3) the…

  16. Questioning Research with Children: Discrepancy between Theory and Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uprichard, Emma

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that current child and childhood research is problematical in as much as there is a discrepancy between theory and research practice. Although in theory, children are conceptualised as active agents in the social world, the type of research that children are typically involved in implies that children are competent, knowledgeable…

  17. Revisiting "Discrepancy Analysis in Continuing Medical Education: A Conceptual Model"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Based upon a review and analysis of selected literature, the author presents a conceptual model of discrepancy analysis evaluation for planning, implementing, and assessing the impact of continuing medical education (CME). The model is described in terms of its value as a means of diagnosing errors in the development and implementation of CME. The…

  18. Discrepancies between Parents' and Children's Attitudes toward TV Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baiocco, Roberto; D'Alessio, Maria; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2009-01-01

    The authors conducted a study with 500 parent-child dyads. The sample comprised 254 boys and 246 girls. The children were grouped into 5 age groups (1 group for each age from 7 to 11 years), with each group comprising 100 children. The survey regards discrepancies between children and their parents on attitudes toward TV advertising to determine…

  19. Comparing Multiple Discrepancies Theory to Affective Models of Subjective Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blore, Jed D.; Stokes, Mark A.; Mellor, David; Firth, Lucy; Cummins, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The Subjective Wellbeing (SWB) literature is replete with competing theories detailing the mechanisms underlying the construction and maintenance of SWB. The current study aimed to compare and contrast two of these approaches: multiple discrepancies theory (MDT) and an affective-cognitive theory of SWB. MDT posits SWB to be the result of perceived…

  20. 14 CFR 60.20 - Logging FSTD discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Logging FSTD discrepancies. 60.20 Section 60.20 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.20...

  1. 14 CFR 60.20 - Logging FSTD discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Logging FSTD discrepancies. 60.20 Section 60.20 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.20...

  2. 14 CFR 60.20 - Logging FSTD discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Logging FSTD discrepancies. 60.20 Section 60.20 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.20...

  3. 14 CFR 60.20 - Logging FSTD discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Logging FSTD discrepancies. 60.20 Section 60.20 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.20...

  4. 14 CFR 60.20 - Logging FSTD discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Logging FSTD discrepancies. 60.20 Section 60.20 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.20...

  5. 41 CFR 128-50.103 - Investigation of any discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... any discrepancy between the inventory records and the bureau's actual amount of seized personal property, a board of survey shall conduct an investigation in accordance with 41 CFR 128-51.1. (b) If the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Investigation of...

  6. 41 CFR 128-50.103 - Investigation of any discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... any discrepancy between the inventory records and the bureau's actual amount of seized personal property, a board of survey shall conduct an investigation in accordance with 41 CFR 128-51.1. (b) If the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investigation of...

  7. 41 CFR 128-50.103 - Investigation of any discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... any discrepancy between the inventory records and the bureau's actual amount of seized personal property, a board of survey shall conduct an investigation in accordance with 41 CFR 128-51.1. (b) If the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Investigation of...

  8. Octagonal symmetry in low-discrepancy β-manganese.

    PubMed

    Hornfeck, Wolfgang; Kuhn, Philipp

    2014-09-01

    A low-discrepancy cubic variant of β-Mn is presented exhibiting local octagonal symmetry upon projection along any of the three mutually perpendicular 〈100〉 axes. Ideal structural parameters are derived to be x(8c) = (2-\\sqrt{2})\\big/16 and y(12d) = 1\\big/(4 \\sqrt{2}) for the P4132 enantiomorph. A comparison of the actual and ideal structure models of β-Mn is made in terms of the newly devised concept of geometrical discrepancy maps. Two-dimensional maps of both the geometrical star discrepancy D(*) and the minimal interatomic distance dmin are calculated over the combined structural parameter range 0 \\leq x(8c) \\,\\lt\\, 1/8 and 1/8 \\leq y(12d)\\, \\lt\\, 1/4 of generalized β-Mn type structures, showing that the `octagonal' variant of β-Mn is almost optimal in terms of globally minimizing D(*) while at the same time globally maximizing dmin. Geometrical discrepancy maps combine predictive and discriminatory powers to appear useful within a wide range of structural chemistry studies. PMID:25176992

  9. Information Discrepancy as a Predictor of Organizational Satisfaction. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alesse, Bruce G.; And Others

    A secondary analysis of data gathered by the International Communication Association (ICA) Communication Audit was used to test the hypothesis that the smaller the discrepancy between attitudes about current levels of information and the perceived ideal level of that information, the greater the organizational satisfaction. From 991 respondents…

  10. Whose Depression Relates to Discrepancies? Testing Relations between Informant Characteristics and Informant Discrepancies from Both Informants' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Goodman, Kimberly L.; Kliewer, Wendy; Reid-Quinones, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether mothers' and children's depressive symptoms were each uniquely related to mother-child rating discrepancies on a multidimensional dyadic construct: domains associated with parental monitoring (i.e., Child Disclosure, Parental Knowledge, and Parental Solicitation). Participants included a community sample of 335…

  11. Self-Discrepancy in Adolescence: Own and Parental Standpoints on the Self.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moretti, Marlene M.; Wiebe, Vaneesa J.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the relationship between adolescents' detection of self-discrepancies and internalizing and externalizing problems. Found that self-discrepancy, independent of actual-self positivity, predicted internalizing and externalizing problems. For girls, discrepancy with parental standards predicted functioning, and discrepancy with independent…

  12. Discrepancy and Disliking Do Not Induce Negative Opinion Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Flache, Andreas; Mäs, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both classical social psychological theories and recent formal models of opinion differentiation and bi-polarization assign a prominent role to negative social influence. Negative influence is defined as shifts away from the opinion of others and hypothesized to be induced by discrepancy with or disliking of the source of influence. There is strong empirical support for the presence of positive social influence (a shift towards the opinion of others), but evidence that large opinion differences or disliking could trigger negative shifts is mixed. We examine positive and negative influence with controlled exposure to opinions of other individuals in one experiment and with opinion exchange in another study. Results confirm that similarities induce attraction, but results do not support that discrepancy or disliking entails negative influence. Instead, our findings suggest a robust positive linear relationship between opinion distance and opinion shifts. PMID:27333160

  13. DISCREPANCIES BETWEEN COMMUNITY VIOLENCE EXPOSURE AND PERCEIVED NEIGHBORHOOD VIOLENCE

    PubMed Central

    Cammack, Nicole L.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Community violence exposure (CVE) has been identified as a significant public health concern given its association with numerous mental health problems. Perceptions of neighborhood violence (PNV) also may adversely affect youth adjustment. In recognition that PNV may differ from individuals own experience of CVE, the current study utilized latent class analysis to examine the degree and consequences of consistency and discrepancy in adolescents community violence exposure and PNV. Participants included an epidemiologically-defined community sample of 456 African American adolescents (52% male; mean age=11.77). Results revealed three groups of youth: high CVE/high PNV, low CVE/low PNV, and low CVE/high PNV. Longitudinal analyses suggest that a discrepancy between CVE and PNV is important for understanding depressive and anxious symptoms among urban African American youth. Implications for intervention are discussed. PMID:23555155

  14. Overnight shift work: factors contributing to diagnostic discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Tarek N; Loehfelm, Thomas; Khosa, Faisal; Rohatgi, Saurabh; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the study are to identify factors contributing to preliminary interpretive discrepancies on overnight radiology resident shifts and apply this data in the context of known literature to draw parallels to attending overnight shift work schedules. Residents in one university-based training program provided preliminary interpretations of 18,488 overnight (11 pm–8 am) studies at a level 1 trauma center between July 1, 2013 and December 31, 2014. As part of their normal workflow and feedback, attendings scored the reports as major discrepancy, minor discrepancy, agree, and agree--good job. We retrospectively obtained the preliminary interpretation scores for each study. Total relative value units (RVUs) per shift were calculated as an indicator of overnight workload. The dataset was supplemented with information on trainee level, number of consecutive nights on night float, hour, modality, and per-shift RVU. The data were analyzed with proportional logistic regression and Fisher's exact test. There were 233 major discrepancies (1.26 %). Trainee level (senior vs. junior residents; 1.08 vs. 1.38 %; p < 0.05) and modality were significantly associated with performance. Increased workload affected more junior residents' performance, with R3 residents performing significantly worse on busier nights. Hour of the night was not significantly associated with performance, but there was a trend toward best performance at 2 am, with subsequent decreased accuracy throughout the remaining shift hours. Improved performance occurred after the first six night float shifts, presumably as residents acclimated to a night schedule. As overnight shift work schedules increase in popularity for residents and attendings, focused attention to factors impacting interpretative accuracy is warranted. PMID:26475281

  15. Discrepancies in reporting the CAG repeat lengths for Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Quarrell, Oliver W; Handley, Olivia; O'Donovan, Kirsty; Dumoulin, Christine; Ramos-Arroyo, Maria; Biunno, Ida; Bauer, Peter; Kline, Margaret; Landwehrmeyer, G Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Huntington's disease results from a CAG repeat expansion within the Huntingtin gene; this is measured routinely in diagnostic laboratories. The European Huntington's Disease Network REGISTRY project centrally measures CAG repeat lengths on fresh samples; these were compared with the original results from 121 laboratories across 15 countries. We report on 1326 duplicate results; a discrepancy in reporting the upper allele occurred in 51% of cases, this reduced to 13.3% and 9.7% when we applied acceptable measurement errors proposed by the American College of Medical Genetics and the Draft European Best Practice Guidelines, respectively. Duplicate results were available for 1250 lower alleles; discrepancies occurred in 40% of cases. Clinically significant discrepancies occurred in 4.0% of cases with a potential unexplained misdiagnosis rate of 0.3%. There was considerable variation in the discrepancy rate among 10 of the countries participating in this study. Out of 1326 samples, 348 were re-analysed by an accredited diagnostic laboratory, based in Germany, with concordance rates of 93% and 94% for the upper and lower alleles, respectively. This became 100% if the acceptable measurement errors were applied. The central laboratory correctly reported allele sizes for six standard reference samples, blind to the known result. Our study differs from external quality assessment (EQA) schemes in that these are duplicate results obtained from a large sample of patients across the whole diagnostic range. We strongly recommend that laboratories state an error rate for their measurement on the report, participate in EQA schemes and use reference materials regularly to adjust their own internal standards. PMID:21811303

  16. Discrepancies in reporting the CAG repeat lengths for Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Quarrell, Oliver W; Handley, Olivia; O'Donovan, Kirsty; Dumoulin, Christine; Ramos-Arroyo, Maria; Biunno, Ida; Bauer, Peter; Kline, Margaret; Landwehrmeyer, G Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Huntington's disease results from a CAG repeat expansion within the Huntingtin gene; this is measured routinely in diagnostic laboratories. The European Huntington's Disease Network REGISTRY project centrally measures CAG repeat lengths on fresh samples; these were compared with the original results from 121 laboratories across 15 countries. We report on 1326 duplicate results; a discrepancy in reporting the upper allele occurred in 51% of cases, this reduced to 13.3% and 9.7% when we applied acceptable measurement errors proposed by the American College of Medical Genetics and the Draft European Best Practice Guidelines, respectively. Duplicate results were available for 1250 lower alleles; discrepancies occurred in 40% of cases. Clinically significant discrepancies occurred in 4.0% of cases with a potential unexplained misdiagnosis rate of 0.3%. There was considerable variation in the discrepancy rate among 10 of the countries participating in this study. Out of 1326 samples, 348 were re-analysed by an accredited diagnostic laboratory, based in Germany, with concordance rates of 93% and 94% for the upper and lower alleles, respectively. This became 100% if the acceptable measurement errors were applied. The central laboratory correctly reported allele sizes for six standard reference samples, blind to the known result. Our study differs from external quality assessment (EQA) schemes in that these are duplicate results obtained from a large sample of patients across the whole diagnostic range. We strongly recommend that laboratories state an error rate for their measurement on the report, participate in EQA schemes and use reference materials regularly to adjust their own internal standards. PMID:21811303

  17. Reducing discrepancies in ground and satellite-observed eruption heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tupper, Andrew; Wunderman, Rick

    2009-09-01

    The plume height represents a crucial piece of evidence about an eruption, feeding later assessment of its size, character, and potential impact, and feeding real-time warnings for aviation and ground-based populations. There have been many observed discrepancies between different observations of maximum plume height for the same eruption. A comparison of maximum daily height estimates of volcanic clouds over Indonesia and Papua New Guinea during 1982-2005 shows marked differences between ground and satellite estimates, and a general tendency towards lower height estimates from the ground. Without improvements in the quality of these estimates, reconciled among all available methods, warning systems will be less effective than they should be and the world's record of global volcanism will remain hard to quantify. Examination of particular cases suggests many possible reasons for the discrepancies. Consideration of the satellite and radar cloud observations for the 1991 Pinatubo eruptions shows that marked differences can exist even with apparently good observations. The problem can be understood largely as a sampling issue, as the most widely reported parameter, the maximum cloud height, is highly sensitive to the frequency of observation. Satellite and radar cloud heights also show a pronounced clumping near the height of the tropopause and relative lack of eruptions reaching only the mid-troposphere, reinforcing the importance of the tropopause in determining the eruption height in convectively unstable environments. To reduce the discrepancies between ground and satellite estimates, a number of formal collaboration measures between vulcanological, meteorological and aviation agencies are suggested.

  18. Estimation of Tooth Size Discrepancies among Different Malocclusion Groups

    PubMed Central

    Bala, Madhu; Goyal, Virender

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Regards and Tribute: Late Dr Narender Hasija was a mentor and visionary in the light of knowledge and experience. We pay our regards with deepest gratitude to the departed soul to rest in peace. Bolton’s ratios help in estimating overbite, overjet relationships, the effects of contemplated extractions on posterior occlusion, incisor relationships and identification of occlusal misfit produced by tooth size discrepancies. Aim: To determine any difference in tooth size discrepancy in anterior as well as overall ratio in different malocclusions and comparison with Bolton’s study. Materials and methods: After measuring the teeth on all 100 patients, Bolton’s analysis was performed. Results were compared with Bolton’s means and standard deviations. The results were also subjected to statistical analysis. Results show that the mean and standard deviations of ideal occlusion cases are comparable with those Bolton but, when the mean and standard deviation of malocclusion groups are compared with those of Bolton, the values of standard deviation are higher, though the mean is comparable. How to cite this article: Hasija N, Bala M, Goyal V. Estimation of Tooth Size Discrepancies among Different Malocclusion Groups. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):82-85. PMID:25356005

  19. Weight Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quit Smoking Benefits of Quitting Health Effects of Smoking Secondhand Smoke Withdrawal Ways to Quit QuitGuide Pregnancy & Motherhood Pregnancy & Motherhood Before Your Baby is Born From Birth to 2 Years Quitting for Two SmokefreeMom Healthy Kids Parenting & ... Weight Management Weight Management ...

  20. The discrepancy between risky and riskless utilities: a matter of framing?

    PubMed

    Stalmeier, P F; Bezembinder, T G

    1999-01-01

    Utilities differ according to whether they are derived from risky (gamble) and riskless (visual analog scale, time-tradeoff) assessment methods. The discrepancies are usually explained by assuming that the utilities elicited by risky methods incorporate attitudes towards risk, whereas riskless utilities do not. In (cumulative) prospect theory, risk attitude is conceived as consisting of two components: a decision-weight function (attentiveness to changes in, or sensitivity towards, chance) and a utility function (sensitivity towards outcomes). The authors' data suggest that a framing effect is a hitherto unrecognized and important factor in causing discrepancies between risky and riskless utilities. They collected risky evaluations with the gamble method, and riskless evaluations with difference measurement. Risky utilities were derived using expected-utility theory and prospect theory. With the latter approach, sensitivity towards outcomes and sensitivity towards chance are modeled separately. When the hypothesis that risky utilities from prospect theory coincide with riskless utilities was tested, it was rejected (n = 8, F(1,7) = 132, p = 0.000), suggesting that a correction for sensitivity towards chance is not sufficient to resolve the difference between risky and riskless utilities. Next, it was assumed that different gain/loss frames are induced by risky and riskless elicitation methods. Indeed, identical utility functions were obtained when the gain/loss frames were made identical across methods (n = 7), suggesting that framing was operative. The results suggest that risky and riskless utilities are identical after corrections for sensitivity towards chance and framing. PMID:10520682

  1. A reflection on radiographic cephalometry: the evaluation of sagittal discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Duterloo, Herman S

    2014-09-01

    A critical review is presented of the basic properties and applications of cephalometry as a clinical tool with a focus on the evaluation of sagittal discrepancy. Diagnostic cephalometric assessments are subjective and not based on evidence. To assess individual skeletal and/or facial soft tissue form subjectively, selected norms are used. Norms have been developed for various ethnical groups to improve clinical applicability, but subjectivity remains. That subjectivity precludes application of a modern review system, making the present review a personal account. The cephalometric evaluation of sagittal discrepancy finds its historic origin in the Angle classification. Recent publications try to improve accuracy in classifying sagittal discrepancy. It remains unclear in what sense such efforts influence treatment decisions and/or treatment effect. Almost all selected landmarks are located on or dependent upon periosteal/endosteal bone image contours. Their homology is based on circumstantial reasoning and stability over time, which is implicitly assumed. However, implant growth studies and histological investigations show most landmarks to be unstable, as they are involved in displacement and bone remodelling. These landmarks are therefore heterologous when used for individual evaluation of change over time. Notwithstanding the above-indicated limitations, diagnostic cephalometric assessments are clinically useful and help to develop perceptions of balance and harmony and communication between colleagues and patients. There is no evidence-based method to prefer one particular diagnostic method. Landmark location accuracy and geometric issues do not play a decisive role. The subjective characteristic of diagnostic evaluations limits their power to size/shape comparisons. Structural superimposition is the valid biologically evidence-based method to provide advanced insight in individual growth and/or treatment changes and their variations. PMID:24521748

  2. The Attitude-Behavior Discrepancy in Medical Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    He, Fei; Li, Dongdong; Cao, Rong; Zeng, Juli; Guan, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Background: In medical practice, the dissatisfaction of patients about medical decisions made by doctors is often regarded as the fuse of doctor-patient conflict. However, a few studies have looked at why there are such dissatisfactions. Objectives: This experimental study aimed to explore the discrepancy between attitude and behavior within medical situations and its interaction with framing description. Patients and Methods: A total of 450 clinical undergraduates were randomly assigned to six groups and investigated using the classic medical decision making problem, which was described either in a positive or a negative frame (2) × decision making behavior\\attitude to risky plan\\attitude to conservative plan (3). Results: A discrepancy between attitude and behavior did exist in medical situations. Regarding medical dilemmas, if the mortality rate was described, subjects had a significant tendency to choose a conservative plan (t = 3.55, P < 0.01) yet if the survival rate was described, there was no such preference (t = -1.48, P > 0.05). However, regardless of the plan chosen by the doctor, the subjects had a significant opposing attitude (P < .05). Framing description had a significant impact on both decision making behavior and attitude (t behavior = -3.24, P < 0.01;t attitude to surgery = 4.08,P < 0.01;t attitude to radiation = -2.15,P < 0.05). Conclusions: A discrepancy of attitude-behavior does exist in medical situations. The framing of a description has an impact on medical decision-making. PMID:25763230

  3. Weight simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    Device applies compressive force to bone to minimize loss of bone calcium during weightlessness or bedrest. Force is applied through weights, or hydraulic, pneumatic or electrically actuated devices. Device is lightweight and easy to maintain and operate.

  4. A probable stellar solution to the cosmological lithium discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Korn, A J; Grundahl, F; Richard, O; Barklem, P S; Mashonkina, L; Collet, R; Piskunov, N; Gustafsson, B

    2006-08-10

    The measurement of the cosmic microwave background has strongly constrained the cosmological parameters of the Universe. When the measured density of baryons (ordinary matter) is combined with standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis calculations, the amounts of hydrogen, helium and lithium produced shortly after the Big Bang can be predicted with unprecedented precision. The predicted primordial lithium abundance is a factor of two to three higher than the value measured in the atmospheres of old stars. With estimated errors of 10 to 25%, this cosmological lithium discrepancy seriously challenges our understanding of stellar physics, Big Bang nucleosynthesis or both. Certain modifications to nucleosynthesis have been proposed, but found experimentally not to be viable. Diffusion theory, however, predicts atmospheric abundances of stars to vary with time, which offers a possible explanation of the discrepancy. Here we report spectroscopic observations of stars in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC 6397 that reveal trends of atmospheric abundance with evolutionary stage for various elements. These element-specific trends are reproduced by stellar-evolution models with diffusion and turbulent mixing. We thus conclude that diffusion is predominantly responsible for the low apparent stellar lithium abundance in the atmospheres of old stars by transporting the lithium deep into the star. PMID:16900193

  5. F -Discrepancy for Efficient Sampling in Approximate Dynamic Programming.

    PubMed

    Cervellera, Cristiano; Maccio, Danilo

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of generating efficient state sample points for the solution of continuous-state finite-horizon Markovian decision problems through approximate dynamic programming. It is known that the selection of sampling points at which the value function is observed is a key factor when such function is approximated by a model based on a finite number of evaluations. A standard approach consists in generating these points through a random or deterministic procedure, aiming at a balanced covering of the state space. Yet, this solution may not be efficient if the state trajectories are not uniformly distributed. Here, we propose to exploit F -discrepancy, a quantity that measures how closely a set of random points represents a probability distribution, and introduce an example of an algorithm based on such concept to automatically select point sets that are efficient with respect to the underlying Markovian process. An error analysis of the approximate solution is provided, showing how the proposed algorithm enables convergence under suitable regularity hypotheses. Then, simulation results are provided concerning an inventory forecasting test problem. The tests confirm in general the important role of F -discrepancy, and show how the proposed algorithm is able to yield better results than uniform sampling, using sets even 50 times smaller. PMID:26241987

  6. Resolving the Discrepancy of Low-Mass Stars with IGRINS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddle, Andrew; Kraus, Adam L.

    2015-01-01

    Observed properties of low-mass stars (M < 0.8 solar msses) have been found to be in disagreement with stellar models, the observed radii being inflated and the observed temperatures being too low. To study this discrepancy, we are observing a sample of low-mass eclipsing binaries using the 2.7-m Harlan J. Smith telescope at McDonald Observatory as well as the LCOGT network to increase the number of well-characterized systems. We are also using IGRINS, a new high resolution (R=40,000) IR (H+K) spectrograph on the 2.7-m HJST, to measure the fundamental stellar parameters (Teff, R, M, abundances, activity) of a sample of eclipsing binaries consisting of two low-mass components. Finally, to calibrate these eclipsing binaries, we are observing a temperature calibration sample of single M dwarfs with precise temperature measurements from interferometry and a metallicity calibration sample of M dwarfs in wide binaries with solar-type stars. Relationships between these parameters will help us better understand the discrepancy between models and observed properties of low-mass stars.

  7. Neuropsychological and Academic Achievement Correlates of Abnormal WISC-R Verbal-Performance Discrepancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lueger, Robert J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined neuropsychological and academic achievement correlates of statistically abnormal verbal-performance discrepancies on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised). Results indicated that abnormal discrepancies reflect specific aphasia deficits rather than generalized neuropsychological dysfunction and that academic achievement…

  8. Difficulty in detecting discrepancies in a clinical trial report: 260-reader evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Graham D; Shun-Shin, Matthew J; Nowbar, Alexandra N; Buell, Kevin G; Al-Mayahi, Faisal; Zargaran, David; Mahmood, Saliha; Singh, Bharpoor; Mielewczik, Michael; Francis, Darrel P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Scientific literature can contain errors. Discrepancies, defined as two or more statements or results that cannot both be true, may be a signal of problems with a trial report. In this study, we report how many discrepancies are detected by a large panel of readers examining a trial report containing a large number of discrepancies. Methods: We approached a convenience sample of 343 journal readers in seven countries, and invited them in person to participate in a study. They were asked to examine the tables and figures of one published article for discrepancies. 260 participants agreed, ranging from medical students to professors. The discrepancies they identified were tabulated and counted. There were 39 different discrepancies identified. We evaluated the probability of discrepancy identification, and whether more time spent or greater participant experience as academic authors improved the ability to detect discrepancies. Results: Overall, 95.3% of discrepancies were missed. Most participants (62%) were unable to find any discrepancies. Only 11.5% noticed more than 10% of the discrepancies. More discrepancies were noted by participants who spent more time on the task (Spearman’s ρ = 0.22, P < 0.01), and those with more experience of publishing papers (Spearman’s ρ = 0.13 with number of publications, P = 0.04). Conclusions: Noticing discrepancies is difficult. Most readers miss most discrepancies even when asked specifically to look for them. The probability of a discrepancy evading an individual sensitized reader is 95%, making it important that, when problems are identified after publication, readers are able to communicate with each other. When made aware of discrepancies, the majority of readers support editorial action to correct the scientific record. PMID:26174517

  9. 41 CFR 101-26.803-3 - Reporting of discrepancies in transportation, shipments, material, or billings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... discrepancies in transportation, shipments, material, or billings. 101-26.803-3 Section 101-26.803-3 Public... GSA or DOD Shipments, Material, or Billings § 101-26.803-3 Reporting of discrepancies in transportation, shipments, material, or billings. (a) Transportation-type discrepancies shall be processed...

  10. Reporter Discrepancies among Parents, Adolescents, and Peers: Adolescent Attachment and Informant Depressive Symptoms as Explanatory Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Cassidy, Jude; Dykas, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The issue of informant discrepancies about child and adolescent functioning is an important concern for clinicians, developmental psychologists, and others who must consider ways of handling discrepant reports of information, but reasons for discrepancies in reports have been poorly understood. Adolescent attachment and informant depressive…

  11. The Discrepancy Evaluation Model. II. The Application of the DEM to an Educational Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinmetz, Andres

    1976-01-01

    The discrepancy evaluation model (DEM) specifies that evaluation consists of comparing performance with a standard, yielding discrepancy information. DEM is applied to programs in order to improve the program by making standards-performance-discrepancy cycles explicit and public. Action-oriented planning is involved in creating standards; a useful…

  12. The Counterintuitive Psychological Benefits of Intergenerational Discrepancies in Family Prioritization for Jamaican Adolescent-Parent Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gail M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study tests a prediction of Relational Discrepancy Theory (RDT; i.e., emotional distress will not accompany discrepancies in hierarchical relationships) for family obligations discrepancies among adolescent-parent dyads in Jamaica, a moderately collectivistic and hierarchical society. Ninety-five dyads reported psychological adjustment…

  13. The Regression-Based Discrepancy Definition of Learning Disability: A Critical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel; Fono, Dafna; Nirel, Ronit

    2012-01-01

    The regression-based discrepancy definition of learning disabilities has been suggested by Rutter and Yule as an improvement of the well-known and much criticized achievement-intelligence discrepancy definition, whereby the examinee's predicted reading attainment is substituted for the intelligence score in the discrepancy expression. Even though…

  14. Discrepancies in Reporting of Physical and Sexual Abuse among Homeless Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated risk factors for discrepant reporting of physical and sexual abuse among 172 homeless young adults. Discrepant reporting includes situations in which a respondent denies experiencing abuse in general but reports being a victim of specific forms of maltreatment. The results revealed that discrepant reporting rates tended to…

  15. Social Judgement Theory Versus Perspective Theory: The Effects of Message Discrepancy on Attitude Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Richard; And Others

    The leading frame-of-reference theories make opposing predictions about the effects of message discrepancy on attitude change. Assimilation-contrast theory predicts that messages that are highly discrepant with initial attitudes are likely to produce less attitude change than messages that are mildly discrepant. In contrast, perspective theory…

  16. An Alternative Presentation of Incremental Validity: Discrepant SAT and HSGPA Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Kobrin, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined discrepant high school grade point average (HSGPA) and SAT performance as measured by the difference between a student's standardized SAT composite score and standardized HSGPA. The SAT-HSGPA discrepancy measure was used to examine whether certain students are more likely to exhibit discrepant performance and in what direction.…

  17. Children's Recall and Recognition of Sex Role Stereotyped and Discrepant Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trepanier-Street, Mary L.; Kropp, Jerri Jaudon

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the influence of differing levels of sex role stereotyped and discrepant information on the immediate and delayed memory of young children. Specifically, kindergarten and 2nd-grade children's recall and recognition of stereotyped, moderately discrepant, and highly discrepant pictures were compared. In…

  18. Motivational Congruency and Discrepancy of Hawaiian Athletic Trainers

    PubMed Central

    Buxton, Barton P.; Lankford, Samuel V.; Gieck, Joe H.

    1992-01-01

    Motivation is an integral part of an effective organizational management scheme. In March 1992, we sent a survey designed to assess motivational preference to all certified athletic trainers in the State of Hawaii. The population included: 6 high school athletic trainers, 10 university athletic trainers, and 9 clinic athletic trainers. The surveys were completed and returned by 80% of the population. With the exception of being an integral part of a work team (p<.05), athletic trainers in the State of Hawaii showed little discrepancy in terms of motivation. Further, there are differences among the three groups of athletic trainers in rating the importance of motivators concerning being appreciated, receiving raises, and being an integral part of a team (p< .05) Differences in motivational factors among these three groups could be influenced by the organizational structure in which the athletic trainers operate. Further investigation should include a mainland population that includes athletic trainers in professional sports and the industrial setting. PMID:16558188

  19. Discrepancies in the Estimation of Gene Flow in Partula

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, M. S.; Clarke, B.; Murray, J.

    1988-01-01

    Methods for estimating gene flow (Nm) from genetic data should provide important insights into the dynamics of natural populations. If they are to be used with confidence, however, the methods must be shown to produce valid results. Estimates of Nm have been obtained for the snails Partula taeniata and Partula suturalis, based on F(ST) and on the frequencies of private alleles, p(1). Jackknifing was used to reduce the bias of estimates and to obtain confidence limits. The estimates derived from F(ST) are consistent with the low vagility of snails, and with direct field studies of gene flow in P. taeniata. In contrast, the estimates derived from p(1) were up to seven times as large, less precise and less consistent. Although the underlying causes of these discrepancies are not clear, the results suggest that F(ST) is the more reliable indirect estimator of gene flow, at least for Partula. PMID:17246477

  20. Telephone interpreter discrepancies: videotapes of Hmong medication consultations

    PubMed Central

    Lor, Maichou; Chewning, Betty

    2016-01-01

    Background Over 25 million people in the USA have limited English proficiency (LEP). Interpreters are often used to facilitate communication with health care providers. Little is currently known about interpreter quality. Objective To explore the quality of telephone interpretation during medication consultations between Hmong clients and their pharmacists. Methods This descriptive study analyzed transcripts from videos of consultations between six triads of Hmong patients, pharmacy students and interpreters. Analysis was divided into two segments: (1) pharmacy: communication from student pharmacist the interpreter to patient and (2) patient: communication from patient to interpreter to student pharmacist. Researchers coded transcripts separately then compared codes. Key findings The six encounters yielded 496 communications with 275 discrepancies including omissions, additions, and word substitutions. Pharmacy to patient communications included, 45% (118/262) of omissions, 27.5% (72/262) of substitutions, and 15.6% (41/262) of additions. The patient to provider communications included, 8.1% (19/234) of omissions, 6.0% (14/234) of substitutions, and 4.2% (10/ 234) of word additions. Some omissions, additions, and substitutions in the pharmacy to patient communications were classified as potentially clinically relevant. Significantly, substantial discrepancies between the student pharmacists’ comments and the interpretation to patients had potential for hindering relationship building between patients and their providers. Conclusions Pharmacists may assume that the presence of an interpreter ensures accurate communication from pharmacist to patient and from patient to pharmacist. This study confirms that those assumptions may not be valid. These findings highlight the need to improve pharmacy education and interventions to improve pharmacist communication with LEP patients. PMID:26311231

  1. Discrepancies in expert decision-making in forensic fingerprint examination.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Virpi; Hakkarainen, Kai; Tuunainen, Juha; Pohjola, Pasi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyse professional fingerprint examiners' investigative practices in the context of discrepancy decisions concerning challenging latents during fingerprint analysis and identification. The participants were fingerprint experts from the Forensic Laboratory of the Finnish National Bureau of Investigation. The data were from five audio-recorded "discrepancy meetings" where two examiners were discussing the rationale and justification for their differing interpretations of challenging and distorted fingerprint evidence. The meetings were chaired by the quality manager of the fingerprint group, who also in the first author of this article. The research questions addressed were as follows: What does the examiner see in the latent fingerprints? What does the examiner actively do with the latents? How were decisions made during the investigative process? In accordance with Goodwin's professional vision framework, the results revealed how the participants used partial and limited information in making judgments about the difficult and distorted latents. The examiners appeared to be involved in active, constructive efforts, mentally, to repair poor latents by supplementing with missing information. They also highlighted various aspects of latents by colour coding as well as manipulated fingerprint images in several ways so as to make the significant patterns easier to recognize. Because the methods and practices of characterizing latents were only vaguely specified, the examiners used locally developed ad hoc practices to facilitate their investigations, ending up with different interpretations. It is concluded in the article that the fingerprint community in Finland should make strong efforts to develop the methods of fingerprint investigation and determine clearer criteria for decision making and documentation practices. Furthermore, the interpretations made by fingerprint experts should be made more transparent to the customers

  2. Sources of bias in the perception of heading in the presence of moving objects: Object-based and border-based discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Layton, Oliver W; Fajen, Brett R

    2016-01-01

    The focus of expansion (FoE) specifies the heading direction of an observer during self-motion, and experiments show that humans can accurately perceive their heading from optic flow. However, when the environment contains an independently moving object, heading judgments may be biased. When objects approach the observer in depth, the heading bias may be due to discrepant optic flow within the contours of the object that radiates from a secondary FoE (object-based discrepancy) or by motion contrast at the borders of the object (border-based discrepancy). In Experiments 1 and 2, we manipulated the object's path angle and distance from the observer to test whether the heading bias induced by moving objects is entirely due to object-based discrepancies. The results showed consistent bias even at large path angles and when the object moved far in depth, which is difficult to reconcile with the influence of discrepant optic flow within the object. In Experiment 3, we found strong evidence that the misperception of heading can also result from a specific border-based discrepancy ("pseudo FoE") that emerges from the relative motion between the object and background at the trailing edge of the object. Taken together, the results from the present study support the idea that when moving objects are present, heading perception is biased in some conditions by discrepant optic flow within the contours of the object and in other conditions by motion contrast at the border (the pseudo FoE). Center-weighted spatial pooling mechanisms in MSTd may account for both effects. PMID:26762278

  3. Discrepancy of whiteness and UV protection in wet state.

    PubMed

    Tarbuk, Anita; Grancarić, Ana Marija; Situm, Mirna

    2014-12-01

    The incidence of skin cancer is increasing by epidemic proportions. Basal cell cancer remains the most common skin neoplasm, and simple excision is generally curative. On the other hand, aggressive local growth and metastasis are common features of malignant melanoma, which accounts for 75 percent of all deaths associated with skin cancer. In Croatia only, more than 20,000 new cases of skin cancer has been diagnosed in 2008 of which melanoma 286 new cases and 118 yearly deaths in men, and 275 new cases and 79 deaths in women population. The back sides in men and women, as well as the lower limbs in women, are the most common site for melanomas. The primary cause of skin cancer is believed to be a long exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation crossed with the amount of skin pigmentation in the population. There are indications that other parts of solar spectrum (e.g., blue light) might also have effects on skin and eyes. Most people think all clothing will protect them, but that's not the case. UV clothing can show UVprotection, but in the most cases it does not provide full sun screening properties. UV protection ability highly depends on large number of factors such are type of fiber, fabric surface and construction, type and concentration of dyestuff, fluorescent whitening agent (FWA), UV-B protective agents, as well as nanoparticles, if applied. For that reason, jeans and tightly woven fabrics offer a very good level of protection. However, on a hot summer day, those aren't the kinds of clothing people usually reach for. More often, when they are on the beach, they wear T-shirt, as well during the swimming in the sea, thinking that it will protect them. Therefore, in this paper the discrepancy of UVprotection in wet state was researched. For the purpose, FWA and UVabsorber were applied in wide concentration range to white cotton knit fabrics commonly used for T-shirts. Afterwards, the discrepancy in whiteness and UVprotection was research in distilled water

  4. Scuba Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Attitude Adjuster is a system for weight repositioning corresponding to a SCUBA diver's changing positions. Compact tubes on the diver's air tank permit controlled movement of lead balls within the Adjuster, automatically repositioning when the diver changes position. Manufactured by Think Tank Technologies, the system is light and small, reducing drag and energy requirements and contributing to lower air consumption. The Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center helped the company with both technical and business information and arranged for the testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's Weightlessness Environmental Training Facility for astronauts.

  5. DISCREPANT HARDENING OBSERVED IN COSMIC-RAY ELEMENTAL SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, H. S.; Ganel, O.; Han, J. H.; Kim, K. C.; Lee, M. H.; Lutz, L.; Malinin, A.; Allison, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Bagliesi, M. G.; Bigongiari, G.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Childers, J. T.; DuVernois, M. A.; Conklin, N. B.; Coutu, S.; Mognet, S. I.; Jeon, J. A.; Minnick, S.

    2010-05-01

    The balloon-borne Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass experiment launched five times from Antarctica has achieved a cumulative flight duration of about 156 days above 99.5% of the atmosphere. The instrument is configured with complementary and redundant particle detectors designed to extend direct measurements of cosmic-ray composition to the highest energies practical with balloon flights. All elements from protons to iron nuclei are separated with excellent charge resolution. Here, we report results from the first two flights of {approx}70 days, which indicate hardening of the elemental spectra above {approx}200 GeV/nucleon and a spectral difference between the two most abundant species, protons and helium nuclei. These results challenge the view that cosmic-ray spectra are simple power laws below the so-called knee at {approx}10{sup 15} eV. This discrepant hardening may result from a relatively nearby source, or it could represent spectral concavity caused by interactions of cosmic rays with the accelerating shock. Other possible explanations should also be investigated.

  6. Preventing Leg Length Discrepancy and Instability After Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Sculco, Peter K; Austin, Matthew S; Lavernia, Carlos J; Rosenberg, Aaron G; Sierra, Rafael J

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of equal leg lengths and dynamic hip stability are essential elements of a successful total hip arthroplasty. A careful clinical examination, a preoperative plan, and appropriate intraoperative techniques are necessary to achieve these goals. Preoperative identification of patients at risk for residual leg length discrepancy allows surgeons to adjust the surgical approach and/or the type of implant and provide better preoperative patient education. The use of larger femoral heads, high-offset stem options, and enhanced soft-tissue repairs have improved impingement-free range of motion as well as dynamic hip stability and have contributed to an overall reduction in dislocation. Methods for accurate leg length restoration and component positioning include anatomic landmarks, intraoperative radiographs, intraoperative calipers, stability testing, and computer-assisted surgery. If recurrent instability occurs after total hip arthroplasty, the underlying cause for dislocation should be identified and treated; this may include the use of semiconstrained dual-mobility or fully constrained liners, depending on abductor function. Surgeons should be aware of the clinical and surgical techniques for achieving leg length equalization and dynamic hip stability in total hip arthroplasty. PMID:27049193

  7. Quantifying discrepancies in opinion spectra from online and offline networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Deokjae; Hahn, Kyu S; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Park, Juyong

    2015-01-01

    Online social media such as Twitter are widely used for mining public opinions and sentiments on various issues and topics. The sheer volume of the data generated and the eager adoption by the online-savvy public are helping to raise the profile of online media as a convenient source of news and public opinions on social and political issues as well. Due to the uncontrollable biases in the population who heavily use the media, however, it is often difficult to measure how accurately the online sphere reflects the offline world at large, undermining the usefulness of online media. One way of identifying and overcoming the online-offline discrepancies is to apply a common analytical and modeling framework to comparable data sets from online and offline sources and cross-analyzing the patterns found therein. In this paper we study the political spectra constructed from Twitter and from legislators' voting records as an example to demonstrate the potential limits of online media as the source for accurate public opinion mining, and how to overcome the limits by using offline data simultaneously. PMID:25915931

  8. The discovery of surgical anesthesia: discrepancies regarding its authorship.

    PubMed

    López-Valverde, A; Montero, J; Albaladejo, A; Gómez de Diego, R

    2011-01-01

    The suppression of pain during surgical interventions has been a major achievement for humankind. Chronologically, in 1842, William E. Clarke, a chemist in Rochester (NY), provided Elijah Pope with ether for the purposes of tooth extraction. In 1844, in Boston, G.Q. Colton and the dentist Horace Wells used nitrous oxide as an anesthetic for tooth extraction. On the 16th of October, 1846, the American dentist William T.G. Morton became a pioneer within the medical community with respect to anesthesia by inhalation when he used ether as an anesthetic at the Massachusetts General Hospital. In 1847, the Scot James Young Simpson began to use chloroform as an anesthetic for obstetrics in Edinburgh. These events gave rise to several disputes among their users (who are not very well-known today), who strove to claim that they had been the discoverers of surgical anesthesia, with a view to obtaining a series of patents and state sinecures. This article attempts to clarify certain discrepancies about the authorship of surgical anesthesia. The evidence suggests that surgical anesthesia first began to be applied in the field of dentistry. PMID:20940364

  9. Measuring paternal discrepancy and its public health consequences.

    PubMed

    Bellis, Mark A; Hughes, Karen; Hughes, Sara; Ashton, John R

    2005-09-01

    Paternal discrepancy (PD) occurs when a child is identified as being biologically fathered by someone other than the man who believes he is the father. This paper examines published evidence on levels of PD and its public health consequences. Rates vary between studies from 0.8% to 30% (median 3.7%, n = 17). Using information from genetic and behavioural studies, the article identifies those who conceive younger, live in deprivation, are in long term relationships (rather than marriages), or in certain cultural groups are at higher risk. Public health consequences of PD being exposed include family break up and violence. However, leaving PD undiagnosed means cases having incorrect information on their genetics and fathers continuing to suspect that children may not be theirs. Increasing paternity testing and use of DNA techniques in clinical and judicial procedures means more cases of PD will be identified. Given developing roles for individual's genetics in decisions made by health services, private services (for example, insurance), and even in personal lifestyle decisions, the dearth of intelligence on how and when PD should be exposed urgently needs addressing. PMID:16100312

  10. Measuring paternal discrepancy and its public health consequences

    PubMed Central

    Bellis, M.; Hughes, K.; Hughes, S.; Ashton, J.

    2005-01-01

    Paternal discrepancy (PD) occurs when a child is identified as being biologically fathered by someone other than the man who believes he is the father. This paper examines published evidence on levels of PD and its public health consequences. Rates vary between studies from 0.8% to 30% (median 3.7%, n = 17). Using information from genetic and behavioural studies, the article identifies those who conceive younger, live in deprivation, are in long term relationships (rather than marriages), or in certain cultural groups are at higher risk. Public health consequences of PD being exposed include family break up and violence. However, leaving PD undiagnosed means cases having incorrect information on their genetics and fathers continuing to suspect that children may not be theirs. Increasing paternity testing and use of DNA techniques in clinical and judicial procedures means more cases of PD will be identified. Given developing roles for individual's genetics in decisions made by health services, private services (for example, insurance), and even in personal lifestyle decisions, the dearth of intelligence on how and when PD should be exposed urgently needs addressing. PMID:16100312

  11. A Discrepancy between Two Criteria of Stability for Hybrid Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachdeva, Pratik; Alford, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Neutron stars, along with other compact matter, are some of the most stable structures in the universe. Their stability can be disrupted, however, by radial oscillations, which may cause them to collapse into black holes. John Bardeen, in his Catalogue of Methods, detailed two methods by which we can determine the stability of compact stars for a given equation of state: direct calculation of the oscillation frequency with Chandrasekhar's equation or a qualitative examination of a mass-radius plot. These two methods were believed to agree until Glendenning et al. proposed the existence of a white dwarf with a strange quark core. We observed that Glendenning's white dwarf showed disagreement between Bardeen's methods. With this motivation, we examined the stability of a similar family of hybrid stars which contain a quark matter core surrounded by a nuclear matter envelope. The equations of state for such stars exhibit either a kink or discontinuity. By reproducing the calculations of these methods, we observed that Bardeen's methods do not agree for these stars as well. We believe that this discrepancy stems from the fact that Chandrasekhar's equation is incompatible with discontinuous equations of state and are working to resolve this incompatibility.

  12. Report on the Radar/PIREP Cloud Top Discrepancy Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Mark M.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Applied Meteorology Unit's (AMU) investigation of inconsistencies between pilot reported cloud top heights and weather radar indicated echo top heights (assumed to be cloud tops) as identified by the 45 Weather Squadron (45WS). The objective for this study is to document and understand the differences in echo top characteristics as displayed on both the WSR-88D and WSR-74C radars and cloud top heights reported by the contract weather aircraft in support of space launch operations at Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS), Florida. These inconsistencies are of operational concern since various Launch Commit Criteria (LCC) and Flight Rules (FR) in part describe safe and unsafe conditions as a function of cloud thickness. Some background radar information was presented. Scan strategies for the WSR-74C and WSR-88D were reviewed along with a description of normal radar beam propagation influenced by the Effective Earth Radius Model. Atmospheric conditions prior to and leading up to both launch operations were detailed. Through the analysis of rawinsonde and radar data, atmospheric refraction or bending of the radar beam was identified as the cause of the discrepancies between reported cloud top heights by the contract weather aircraft and those as identified by both radars. The atmospheric refraction caused the radar beam to be further bent toward the Earth than normal. This radar beam bending causes the radar target to be displayed erroneously, with higher cloud top heights and a very blocky or skewed appearance.

  13. Randomized discrepancy bounded local search for transmission expansion planning

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Russell W; Daniel, William B

    2010-11-23

    In recent years the transmission network expansion planning problem (TNEP) has become increasingly complex. As the TNEP is a non-linear and non-convex optimization problem, researchers have traditionally focused on approximate models of power flows to solve the TNEP. Existing approaches are often tightly coupled to the approximation choice. Until recently these approximations have produced results that are straight-forward to adapt to the more complex (real) problem. However, the power grid is evolving towards a state where the adaptations are no longer easy (e.g. large amounts of limited control, renewable generation) and necessitates new approaches. Recent work on deterministic Discrepancy Bounded Local Search (DBLS) has shown it to be quite effective in addressing this question. DBLS encapsulates the complexity of power flow modeling in a black box that may be queried for information about the quality of proposed expansions. In this paper, we propose a randomization strategy that builds on DBLS and dramatically increases the computational efficiency of the algorithm.

  14. Quantifying Discrepancies in Opinion Spectra from Online and Offline Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Deokjae; Hahn, Kyu S.; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Park, Juyong

    2015-01-01

    Online social media such as Twitter are widely used for mining public opinions and sentiments on various issues and topics. The sheer volume of the data generated and the eager adoption by the online-savvy public are helping to raise the profile of online media as a convenient source of news and public opinions on social and political issues as well. Due to the uncontrollable biases in the population who heavily use the media, however, it is often difficult to measure how accurately the online sphere reflects the offline world at large, undermining the usefulness of online media. One way of identifying and overcoming the online–offline discrepancies is to apply a common analytical and modeling framework to comparable data sets from online and offline sources and cross-analyzing the patterns found therein. In this paper we study the political spectra constructed from Twitter and from legislators' voting records as an example to demonstrate the potential limits of online media as the source for accurate public opinion mining, and how to overcome the limits by using offline data simultaneously. PMID:25915931

  15. Relationship between self-discrepancy and worries about penis size in men with body dysmorphic disorder.

    PubMed

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Bramley, Sally; Troglia, Andrea; Carmona, Lina; Fiorito, Chiara; Wells, Hannah; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2016-06-01

    We explored self-discrepancy in men with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) concerned about penis size, men without BDD but anxious about penis size, and controls. Men with BDD (n=26) were compared to those with small penis anxiety (SPA; n=31) and controls (n=33), objectively (by measuring) and investigating self-discrepancy: actual size, ideal size, and size they felt they should be according to self and other. Most men under-estimated their penis size, with the BDD group showing the greatest discrepancy between perceived and ideal size. The SPA group showed a larger discrepancy than controls. This was replicated for the perceptions of others, suggesting the BDD group internalised the belief that they should have a larger penis size. There was a significant correlation between symptoms of BDD and this discrepancy. This self-actual and self-ideal/self-should discrepancy and the role of comparing could be targeted in therapy. PMID:26952016

  16. An unintended consequence of electronic prescriptions: prevalence and impact of internal discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Palchuk, Matvey B; Fang, Elizabeth A; Cygielnik, Janet M; Labreche, Matthew; Shubina, Maria; Ramelson, Harley Z; Hamann, Claus; Broverman, Carol; Einbinder, Jonathan S; Turchin, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Many e-prescribing systems allow for both structured and free-text fields in prescriptions, making possible internal discrepancies. This study reviewed 2914 electronic prescriptions that contained free-text fields. Internal discrepancies were found in 16.1% of the prescriptions. Most (83.8%) of the discrepancies could potentially lead to adverse events and many (16.8%) to severe adverse events, involving a hospital admission or death. Discrepancies in doses, routes or complex regimens were most likely to have a potential for a severe event (p=0.0001). Discrepancies between structured and free-text fields in electronic prescriptions are common and can cause patient harm. Improvements in electronic medical record design are necessary to minimize the risk of discrepancies and resulting adverse events. PMID:20595316

  17. An unintended consequence of electronic prescriptions: prevalence and impact of internal discrepancies

    PubMed Central

    Palchuk, Matvey B; Fang, Elizabeth A; Cygielnik, Janet M; Labreche, Matthew; Shubina, Maria; Ramelson, Harley Z; Hamann, Claus; Broverman, Carol; Einbinder, Jonathan S

    2010-01-01

    Many e-prescribing systems allow for both structured and free-text fields in prescriptions, making possible internal discrepancies. This study reviewed 2914 electronic prescriptions that contained free-text fields. Internal discrepancies were found in 16.1% of the prescriptions. Most (83.8%) of the discrepancies could potentially lead to adverse events and many (16.8%) to severe adverse events, involving a hospital admission or death. Discrepancies in doses, routes or complex regimens were most likely to have a potential for a severe event (p=0.0001). Discrepancies between structured and free-text fields in electronic prescriptions are common and can cause patient harm. Improvements in electronic medical record design are necessary to minimize the risk of discrepancies and resulting adverse events. PMID:20595316

  18. The stratospheric response to a discrepancy of the SSI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Anna; Rozanov, Eugene; Shapiro, Alexander; Egorova, Tatiana; Harder, Jerry; Weber, Mark; Smith, Anne; Schmutz, Werner; Peter, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The solar radiation is the main energy source in the Earth atmosphere. It is highly variable especially at the ultraviolet region of the solar spectrum. The UV radiation penetrates down to the stratosphere and its variability can lead to the substantial response of the atmosphere in this region. In particular, the Herzberg continuum (200-242 nm) and Hartley band (200-300 nm) irradiance variability strongly influences the stratospheric composition and temperature. The recent SIM and SOLSTICE measurements onboard SORCE satellite show that the variability in UV can be several times higher than all previous estimates (e.g., Lean et. al., 2005). Moreover the irradiance variability measured by SIM is different from the one measured by SOLSTICE in their common spectral part. To investigate an influence of these discrepancies to the stratospheric response we have run the 1D and 3D versions of climate-chemistry model SOCOL forced by the different SSI. The SSI input for the SOCOL model is the spectral solar irradiance from 121 to 750 nm. We used four different SSI datasets. Two of them were composites based on the SIM and SOLSTICE measurements. First composite is based on SOLSTICE measurements up to 210 nm and SIM outwards (SIM dominated dataset) and the second one is based on SOLSTICE measurements up to 290 nm and SIM outwards (SOLSTICE dominated dataset). We have simulated atmospheric evolution for the period from May 2004 to February 2009 and estimated the OH, O3 and temperature changes between 2004 and 2008. The modeled results were compared with the ERA INTERIM re-analysis and the data measured by several space instruments: SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT, SABER/TIMED, MLS/AURA and SBUV/NOAA. Overall the comparison shows that the atmospheric measurements are in better agreement with the data simulated with SIM and SOLSTICE SSI than with the data modeled with weaker UV variability.

  19. Rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss-rapid weight loss; Overweight-rapid weight loss; Obesity-rapid weight loss; Diet-rapid weight loss ... for people who have health problems because of obesity. For these people, losing a lot of weight ...

  20. Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator You are here Home / Online Tools Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Print Share Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Intro ...

  1. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment.

    PubMed

    Kay, Daniel B; Buysse, Daniel J; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H

    2015-02-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement reported by older adults with insomnia. Participants were 63 adults >60 years of age with insomnia, and 51 controls. At baseline, participants completed sleep diaries for 7 days while wearing wrist actigraphs. After receiving cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia, insomnia patients repeated this sleep assessment. Sleep discrepancy variables were calculated by subtracting actigraphic sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset from respective self-reported estimates, pre- and post-treatment. Mean level and night-to-night variability in sleep discrepancy were investigated. Baseline sleep discrepancies were compared between groups. Pre-post-treatment changes in Insomnia Severity Index score and sleep discrepancy variables were investigated within older adults with insomnia. Sleep discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable across nights in older adults with insomnia than controls, P ≤ 0.001 for all. Treatment with cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia was associated with significant reduction in the Insomnia Severity Index score that correlated with changes in mean level and night-to-night variability in wake after sleep onset discrepancy, P < 0.001 for all. Study of sleep discrepancy patterns may guide more targeted treatments for late-life insomnia. PMID:25219802

  2. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: Associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Daniel B.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement reported by older adults with insomnia. Participants were 63 adults >60 years of age with insomnia, and 51 controls. At baseline, participants completed sleep diaries for 7 days while wearing wrist actigraphs. After receiving cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, insomnia patients repeated this sleep assessment. Sleep discrepancy variables were calculated by subtracting actigraphic sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset from respective self-reported estimates, pre- and post-treatment. Mean level and night-to-night variability in sleep discrepancy were investigated. Baseline sleep discrepancies were compared between groups. Pre- to post-treatment changes in Insomnia Severity Index score and sleep discrepancy variables were investigated within older adults with insomnia. Sleep discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable across nights in older adults with insomnia than controls, p ≤.001 for all. Treatment with cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia was associated with significant reduction in Insomnia Severity Index score that correlated with changes in mean level and night-to-night variability in wake after sleep onset discrepancy, p <.001 for all. Study of sleep discrepancy patterns may guide more targeted treatments for late-life insomnia. PMID:25219802

  3. A rationale for treating leg length discrepancy using photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisland, Stuart K.; Johnson, Crystal; Diab, Mohammed; Wilson, Brian C.; Burch, Shane

    2005-09-01

    This study investigates the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in regulating bone development with a view to its potential role in treating Juvenile leg length discrepancy (LLD). Transgenic mice expressing the luciferase firefly gene upon activation of a promoter sequence specific to the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene were subject to benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid (BPD-MA)-mediated PDT in the right, tibial epiphyseal growth plate at the age of 3 weeks. BPD-MA was administered intracardially (2mg/kg) followed 10 mins later by a laser light (690 +/- 5 nm) at a range of doses (5-27J, 50 mW output) delivered either as a single or repeat regimen (x2-3). Contra-lateral legs served as no-light controls. Further controls included animals that received light treatment in the absence of photosensitizer or no treatment. Mice were imaged for VEGF related bioluminescence (photons/sec/steradian) at t= 0, 24, 48, 72 h and 1-4 weeks post PDT. FaxitronTM x-ray images provided accurate assessment of bone morphometry. Upon sacrifice, the tibia and femur of the treated and untreated limbs were harvested, imaged and measured again and prepared for histology. A number of animals were sacrificed at 24 h post PDT to allow immunohistochemical staining for CD31, VEGF and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1 alpha) within the bone. PDT-treated (10 J, x2) mice displayed enhanced bioluminescence at the treatment site (and ear nick) for up to 4 weeks post treatment while control mice were bioluminescent at the ear-nick site only. Repeat regimens provided greater shortening of the limb than the corresponding single treatment. PDT-treated limbs were shorter by 3-4 mm on average as compared to the contra lateral and light only controls (10 J, x2). Immunohistochemistry confirmed the enhanced expression VEGF and CD31 at 4 weeks post-treatment although no increase in HIF-1α was evident at either 24 h or 4 weeks post PDT treatment. Results confirm the utility of PDT to provide localized

  4. 41 CFR 101-26.803 - Discrepancies or deficiencies in shipments, material, or billings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrepancies or deficiencies in shipments, material, or billings. 101-26.803 Section 101-26.803 Public Contracts and Property..., Material, or Billings § 101-26.803 Discrepancies or deficiencies in shipments, material, or billings....

  5. Intergenerational Value Discrepancies in Immigrant and Host-National Families and Their Impact on Psychological Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, David Lackland; Virta, Erkki

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between intergenerational value discrepancies and psychological adaptation among adolescents with immigrant background in Norway and Sweden. Results indicated that immigrant adolescents on the whole neither differed from their host peers with respect to psychological adaptation nor on value discrepancies. Value…

  6. Predictive Value of Informant Discrepancies in Reports of Parenting: Relations to Early Adolescents' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guion, Kim; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Research has demonstrated a lack of agreement between parent and child reports across a range of parent and child variables. These discrepancies hinder the interpretation of research findings as well as diagnostic and treatment decisions in clinical practice. The current study examined the hypothesis that discrepancies between parent and child…

  7. Discrepancies Confer Vulnerability to Depressive Symptoms: A Three-Wave Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherry, Simon B.; Mackinnon, Sean P.; Macneil, Matthew A.; Fitzpatrick, Skye

    2013-01-01

    Discrepancies (i.e., a subjective sense of falling short of one's own standards) are a key part of the perfectionism construct. Theory suggests discrepancies confer vulnerability to depressive symptoms. Since most research in this area is cross-sectional, longitudinal research is needed to disentangle directionality of relationships and to permit…

  8. Understanding Parent-Child Social Informant Discrepancy in Youth with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Matthew D.; Calhoun, Casey D.; Mikami, Amori Yee; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2012-01-01

    We investigated discrepancies between parent- and self-reported social functioning among youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Three distinct samples showed discrepancies indicating that parents viewed their children as performing one standard deviation below a standardization mean, while youth viewed themselves as comparably-skilled…

  9. 75 FR 67453 - Identity Theft Red Flags and Address Discrepancies Under the Fair and Accurate Credit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Identity Theft Red Flags and Address Discrepancies Under the Fair and...: Identity Theft Red Flags and Address Discrepancies under the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of... issue jointly guidelines for financial institutions and creditors regarding identity theft with...

  10. Relationship of Gender Discrepancy to Psychological Correlates of Disordered Eating in Female Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Courtney E.; Petrie, Trent A.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship of gender discrepancy to a broad range of physical and psychological correlates of eating disorders in 144 female undergraduates. Findings reveal that women with no gender discrepancy were psychologically healthier in many aspects than women who wanted to be more masculine or more feminine. (RJM)

  11. Improving performance amongst nursing students through the discovery of discrepancies during simulation.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, John; Melling, Andrew; Tuffnell, Chris; Allan, Jaden

    2016-01-01

    Discrepancy creation is a form of self-regulated learning which can be used to improve individual performance. Discrepancy can be created as a result of comparison against an occupational standard or when an individual strives to achieve higher personal goals. This study explores the process of discrepancy discovery and reduction following simulation sessions. Second year under-graduate nursing students undertook three simulation sessions over a one year period. After each session the participants completed a series of visual analogue scales to rate their own performance and the perceived performance of peers, final year student and a newly registered nurse. Once discrepancy had been identified, participants were asked to produce a short written action plan on how the discrepancy could be addressed and to work on this action plan between sessions. A total of 70 students completed discrepancy scores for all three scenarios. The most common areas of discrepancy were understanding physiology, understanding medicines and pharmacology, patient assessment and handover (hand off). Wilcoxon Signed Ranks suggested a statistically significant difference between student scores in all areas with the exception of team-work. All of the participants used peers as their comparator when identifying discrepancy. There was also a statistically significant difference in the scores following each simulation session suggesting improved performance. PMID:26223405

  12. Does Hot Water Freeze Faster Than Cold? Or Why Mpemba's Ice Cream Is a Discrepant Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Bill

    1993-01-01

    A discrepant event is a happening contrary to our current beliefs. Discrepant events are said to be useful in clarifying concepts. This is one of the interesting features of current theories of constructivism. The story of Mpemba's ice cream is quite well known, but it is the educational aspects of the experiment that are of interest in this…

  13. Great Expectations: Examining the Discrepancy between Expectations and Experiences on College Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleitz, Jacob D.; MacDougall, Alexandra E.; Terry, Robert A.; Buckley, M. Ronald; Campbell, Nicole J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to build upon previous efforts evaluating the degree to which the discrepancy between student expectations and experiences can result in greater rates of attrition in education. Data were collected from 225 students at a large Midwestern public university and analyzed to assess the discrepancy between expectations…

  14. The Counselor-Client Contact Variable and Occupational Aspiration-Expectation Discrepancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogie, Donald W.; Bogie, Cheryl E.

    1976-01-01

    This research assesses the importance of counselor-client contact in occupational aspiration-expectation discrepancies. Subjects are 1835 high school seniors. The study finds the more counselor-client contact there is, the less discrepant is the client's career aspiration and expectation. This relationship remains after controlling for variables…

  15. College Students' Affective Distress: The Role of Expectation Discrepancies and Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agliata, Allison Kanter; Renk, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    The discrepancy between college students' performance and parents' expectations may be related to college students' affective distress. Further, the role that parent-college student communication reciprocity may play in the context of these discrepancies has not been examined. As a result, this study examined parent-college student expectation…

  16. 12 CFR 717.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... implementing 31 U.S.C. 5318(l) (31 CFR 103.121); (B) Maintains in its own records, such as applications, change... applies to a user of consumer reports (user) that receives a notice of address discrepancy from a consumer... purposes of this section, a notice of address discrepancy means a notice sent to a user by a...

  17. 19 CFR 125.34 - Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Countersigning of documents and notation of bad... and Receipt § 125.34 Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy. When a... and shall note thereon any bad order or discrepancy. When available, the importing carrier's...

  18. 19 CFR 125.34 - Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Countersigning of documents and notation of bad... and Receipt § 125.34 Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy. When a... and shall note thereon any bad order or discrepancy. When available, the importing carrier's...

  19. 19 CFR 125.34 - Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Countersigning of documents and notation of bad... and Receipt § 125.34 Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy. When a... and shall note thereon any bad order or discrepancy. When available, the importing carrier's...

  20. 19 CFR 125.34 - Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Countersigning of documents and notation of bad... and Receipt § 125.34 Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy. When a... and shall note thereon any bad order or discrepancy. When available, the importing carrier's...

  1. 19 CFR 125.34 - Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Countersigning of documents and notation of bad... and Receipt § 125.34 Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy. When a... and shall note thereon any bad order or discrepancy. When available, the importing carrier's...

  2. 48 CFR 242.1405 - Discrepancies incident to shipment of supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Traffic and Transportation Management 242.1405 Discrepancies incident to shipment of supplies. (a) See... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrepancies incident...

  3. 48 CFR 242.1405 - Discrepancies incident to shipment of supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Traffic and Transportation Management 242.1405 Discrepancies incident to shipment of supplies. (a) See... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrepancies incident...

  4. Can the Media Affect Us? Social Comparison, Self-Discrepancy, and the Thin Ideal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessenoff, Gayle R.

    2006-01-01

    The current study explored body image self-discrepancy as moderator and social comparison as mediator in the effects on women from thin-ideal images in the media. Female undergraduates (N = 112) with high and low body image self-discrepancy were exposed to advertisements either with thin women (thin ideal) or without thin women…

  5. Working Memory in Children with Learning Disabilities: Rethinking the Criterion of Discrepancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehler, Claudia; Schuchardt, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    The criterion of discrepancy is used to distinguish children with learning disorders from children with intellectual disabilities. The justification of the criterion of discrepancy for the diagnosis of learning disorders relies on the conviction of fundamental differences between children with learning difficulties with versus without discrepancy…

  6. Discrepancies, Responses, and Patterns: Selecting a Method of Assessment for Specific Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihori, Derek; Olvera, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act allows three methods of determining whether a student qualifies for special education as a student with a specific learning disability (SLD). The first and most controversial is the Discrepancy model, which requires a significant discrepancy between the student's intellectual ability and…

  7. The Discrepancy between Teachers' Beliefs and Practices: A Study of Kindergarten Teachers in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Wai Ling

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the discrepancy between teachers' beliefs and practices in Hong Kong kindergartens and the factors that influence this discrepancy. Three kindergartens, considered by the Hong Kong Education Bureau to be of varying quality, were chosen from different areas of Hong Kong. Questionnaires about teaching beliefs were administered to…

  8. Revisiting Discrepancy Theory in Learning Disabilities: What Went Wrong and Why We Should Go Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callinan, Sarah; Cunningham, Everarda; Theiler, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The rise in popularity of Response to Intervention (RTI) as a method of identifying Learning Disabilities (LD) is partially due to the psychometric and theoretical issues inherent to the use of IQ tests in the once popular discrepancy method of identification. However, both RTI and discrepancy theories have their shortcomings, and criticisms…

  9. Discrepant Questioning as a Tool To Build Complex Mental Models of Respiration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rea-Ramirez, Mary Anne; Nunez-Oviedo, Maria C.

    Discrepant questioning is a teaching technique that can help students "unlearn" misconceptions and process science ideas for deep understanding. Discrepant questioning is a technique in which teachers question students in a way that requires them to examine their ideas or models, without giving information prematurely to the student or passing…

  10. Understanding and Using Informants Reporting Discrepancies of Youth Victimization: A Conceptual Model and Recommendations for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Kimberly L.; De Los Reyes, Andres; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2010-01-01

    Discrepancies often occur among informants' reports of various domains of child and family functioning and are particularly common between parent and child reports of youth violence exposure. However, recent work suggests that discrepancies between parent and child reports predict subsequent poorer child outcomes. We propose a preliminary…

  11. Nonverbal and Verbal Cognitive Discrepancy Profiles in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Influence of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ankenman, Katy; Elgin, Jenna; Sullivan, Katherine; Vincent, Logan; Bernier, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that discrepant cognitive abilities are more common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and may indicate an important ASD endophenotype. The current study examined the frequency of IQ discrepancy profiles (nonverbal IQ greater than verbal IQ [NVIQ greater than VIQ], verbal IQ greater than nonverbal IQ [VIQ greater…

  12. The Effect of Behavioral Commitment and Ability Discrepancy on Attitudinal Persistence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DasGupta, Bikram; Liang, Ann

    1988-01-01

    Manipulated behavioral commitment and negative task discrepancy to observe effects on attitudinal persistence on feminist issues and perceived threat of trivia test score. Results indicated that non-active feminists (N=20) perceived greater threat from discrepant test score than did active feminists (N=20) and showed greater agreement to feminist…

  13. Measurement Error: Implications for Diagnosis and Discrepancy Models of Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotton, Sue M.; Crewther, David P.; Crewther, Sheila G.

    2005-01-01

    The diagnosis of developmental dyslexia (DD) is reliant on a discrepancy between intellectual functioning and reading achievement. Discrepancy-based formulae have frequently been employed to establish the significance of the difference between "intelligence" and "actual" reading achievement. These formulae, however, often fail to take into…

  14. Maximizing the Impact of Program Evaluation: A Discrepancy-Based Process for Educational Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Jeffrey A.

    This paper describes a formative/summative process for educational program evaluation, which is appropriate for higher education programs and is based on M. Provus' Discrepancy Evaluation Model and the principles of instructional design. The Discrepancy Based Methodology for Educational Program Evaluation facilitates systematic and detailed…

  15. Identifying and Characterizing Discrepancies Between Test and Analysis Results of Compression-Loaded Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornburgh, Robert P.; Hilburger, Mark W.

    2005-01-01

    Results from a study to identify and characterize discrepancies between validation tests and high-fidelity analyses of compression-loaded panels are presented. First, potential sources of the discrepancies in both the experimental method and corresponding high-fidelity analysis models were identified. Then, a series of laboratory tests and numerical simulations were conducted to quantify the discrepancies and develop test and analysis methods to account for the discrepancies. The results indicate that the discrepancies between the validation tests and high-fidelity analyses can be attributed to imperfections in the test fixture and specimen geometry; test-fixture-induced changes in specimen geometry; and test-fixture-induced friction on the loaded edges of the test specimen. The results also show that accurate predictions of the panel response can be obtained when these specimen imperfections and edge conditions are accounted for in the analysis. The errors in the tests and analyses, and the methods used to characterize these errors are presented.

  16. The regression-based discrepancy definition of learning disability: a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Cahan, Sorel; Fono, Dafna; Nirel, Ronit

    2012-01-01

    The regression-based discrepancy definition of learning disabilities has been suggested by Rutter and Yule as an improvement of the well-known and much criticized achievement-intelligence discrepancy definition, whereby the examinee's predicted reading attainment is substituted for the intelligence score in the discrepancy expression. Even though the regression-based discrepancy definition has been with us for more than 30 years, critical examination of this approach is scarce. This article fills this lacuna by examining the implications of two variables in the model on the diagnosis of learning disabilities: (a) the effect of predictive validity on the proportion of examinees identified as learning disabled, and (b) the effect of the predictor's identity on the identity of the examinees diagnosed with learning disabilities. Implications of these effects concerning the validity of the regression-based discrepancy model and of the results of its implementation are discussed. PMID:20375287

  17. Frequency of discrepancies in retracted clinical trial reports versus unretracted reports: blinded case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Nowbar, Alexandra N; Mielewczik, Michael; Shun-Shin, Matthew J; Francis, Darrel P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare the frequency of discrepancies in retracted reports of clinical trials with those in adjacent unretracted reports in the same journal. Design Blinded case-control study. Setting Journals in PubMed. Population 50 manuscripts, classified on PubMed as retracted clinical trials, paired with 50 adjacent unretracted manuscripts from the same journals. Reports were randomly selected from PubMed in December 2012, with no restriction on publication date. Controls were the preceding unretracted clinical trial published in the same journal. All traces of retraction were removed. Three scientists, blinded to the retraction status of individual reports, reviewed all 100 trial reports for discrepancies. Discrepancies were pooled and cross checked before being counted into prespecified categories. Only then was the retraction status unblinded for analysis. Main outcome measure Total number of discrepancies (defined as mathematically or logically contradictory statements) in each clinical trial report. Results Of 479 discrepancies found in the 100 trial reports, 348 were in the 50 retracted reports and 131 in the 50 unretracted reports. On average, individual retracted reports had a greater number of discrepancies than unretracted reports (median 4 (interquartile range 2-8.75) v 0 (0-5); P<0.001). Papers with a discrepancy were significantly more likely to be retracted than those without a discrepancy (odds ratio 5.7 (95% confidence interval 2.2 to 14.5); P<0.001). In particular, three types of discrepancy arose significantly more frequently in retracted than unretracted reports: factual discrepancies (P=0.002), arithmetical errors (P=0.01), and missed P values (P=0.02). Results from a retrospective analysis indicated that citations and journal impact factor were unlikely to affect the result. Conclusions Discrepancies in published trial reports should no longer be assumed to be unimportant. Scientists, blinded to retraction status and with no specialist

  18. Gendered perceptions of own and partner weight-level.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Vibeke Tornhøj

    2012-07-01

    This study investigates gender differences in perceptions of body weight. Previous research has found significant gender differences in perceived weight-level, but less is known about weight perceptions of the opposite gender. Based on Danish survey data (859 women and 160 men), the discrepancy between BMI weight-level and self-perceived weight-level is estimated as well as the perception of one's partner's weight-level. Two main empirical conclusions emerge. First, there are significant gender differences in weight assessment. Whereas women assess weight according to the standardized BMI weight-levels for both genders, men assess weight according to gender. The weight-level of men is often underestimated by men themselves, but both men and women tend to overestimate the weight-level of women in the lower BMI deciles compared to standardized BMI weight-levels. Second, there is greater underestimation of weight-levels for individuals in the higher BMI--especially regarding weight perceptions of the opposite gender. These findings are discussed within a framework of socio-cultural theory of body image and gendered relations. PMID:22067916

  19. En Route to Depression: Self-Esteem Discrepancies and Habitual Rumination.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Wendy J; Hine, Donald W

    2016-02-01

    Dual-process models of cognitive vulnerability to depression suggest that some individuals possess discrepant implicit and explicit self-views, such as high explicit and low implicit self-esteem (fragile self-esteem) or low explicit and high implicit self-esteem (damaged self-esteem). This study investigated whether individuals with discrepant self-esteem may employ depressive rumination in an effort to reduce discrepancy-related dissonance, and whether the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and future depressive symptoms varies as a function of rumination tendencies. Hierarchical regressions examined whether self-esteem discrepancy was associated with rumination in an Australian undergraduate sample at Time 1 (N = 306; M(age) = 29.9), and whether rumination tendencies moderated the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and depressive symptoms assessed 3 months later (n = 160). Damaged self-esteem was associated with rumination at Time 1. As hypothesized, rumination moderated the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and depressive symptoms at Time 2, where fragile self-esteem and high rumination tendencies at Time 1 predicted the highest levels of subsequent dysphoria. Results are consistent with dual-process propositions that (a) explicit self-regulation strategies may be triggered when explicit and implicit self-beliefs are incongruent, and (b) rumination may increase the likelihood of depression by expending cognitive resources and/or amplifying negative implicit biases. PMID:25308729

  20. The Prevalence and Determinants of Controlled Substance Discrepancies in a Level I Trauma Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Anyanwu, Chukwuma; Egwim, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthcare institutions are often faced with challenges and accreditation requirements for improving treatment quality, reducing waste, and avoiding diversion of drugs, particularly controlled substances. Many automated systems have replaced manual systems but may be fraught with challenges, especially when multiple users are involved. Objective To describe the characteristics of controlled substance discrepancies observed in a Level I trauma hospital for Medicare. Methods Discrepancy data were captured for each user involved in a transaction for a controlled substance at the Level I trauma hospital (in Ben Taub Hospital, Houston, TX), and the information was stored in a computerized database repository. Data for the 1-year study period (from January 1 through December 31, 2013) were collected for Medicare beneficiaries, using an Excel 2013 spreadsheet, and were analyzed according to basic discrepancy characteristics and descriptive statistics. Results During the 12-month study period, 114,000 controlled substance discrepancies were found for 100,000 Medicare patients at this Level I trauma hospital. Vending activities accounted for the majority (52.6%) of these discrepancies. Discrepancies were most likely to occur on Wednesdays, and the medications involved most frequently were combination drugs of hydrocodone and acetaminophen. Conclusion Approximately 1 (1.14) discrepancy involving a controlled substance occurred for each Medicare patient treated at the study facility. Healthcare institutions need to improve their efforts to ensure high-quality care and prevent diversion of drugs. PMID:27606038

  1. Impact of Computerized Order Entry to Pharmacy Interface on Order-Infusion Pump Discrepancies

    PubMed Central

    Triscari, David; Murkowski, Kathy; Scanlon, Matthew C.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The ability of safety technologies to decrease errors, harm, and risk to patients has yet to be demonstrated consistently. Objective. To compare discrepancies between medication and intravenous fluid (IVF) orders and bedside infusion pump settings within a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) before and after implementation of an interface between computerized physician order entry (CPOE) and pharmacy systems. Methods. Within a 72-bed PICU, medication and IVF orders in the CPOE system and bedside infusion pump settings were collected. Rates of discrepancy were calculated and categorized by type. Results were compared to a study conducted prior to interface implementation. Expansion of PICU also occurred between study periods. Results. Of 455 observations, discrepancy rate decreased for IVF (p = 0.01) compared to previous study. Overall discrepancy rate for medications was unchanged; however, medications infusing without an order decreased (p < 0.01), and orders without corresponding infusion increased (p < 0.05). Conclusions. Following implementation of an interface between CPOE and pharmacy systems, fewer discrepancies between IVF orders and infusion pump settings were observed. Discrepancies for medications did not change, and some types of discrepancies increased. In addition to interface implementation, changes in healthcare delivery and workflow related to ICU expansion contributed to observed changes. PMID:26664749

  2. Impact of Computerized Order Entry to Pharmacy Interface on Order-Infusion Pump Discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Russell, Rebecca A; Triscari, David; Murkowski, Kathy; Scanlon, Matthew C

    2015-01-01

    Background. The ability of safety technologies to decrease errors, harm, and risk to patients has yet to be demonstrated consistently. Objective. To compare discrepancies between medication and intravenous fluid (IVF) orders and bedside infusion pump settings within a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) before and after implementation of an interface between computerized physician order entry (CPOE) and pharmacy systems. Methods. Within a 72-bed PICU, medication and IVF orders in the CPOE system and bedside infusion pump settings were collected. Rates of discrepancy were calculated and categorized by type. Results were compared to a study conducted prior to interface implementation. Expansion of PICU also occurred between study periods. Results. Of 455 observations, discrepancy rate decreased for IVF (p = 0.01) compared to previous study. Overall discrepancy rate for medications was unchanged; however, medications infusing without an order decreased (p < 0.01), and orders without corresponding infusion increased (p < 0.05). Conclusions. Following implementation of an interface between CPOE and pharmacy systems, fewer discrepancies between IVF orders and infusion pump settings were observed. Discrepancies for medications did not change, and some types of discrepancies increased. In addition to interface implementation, changes in healthcare delivery and workflow related to ICU expansion contributed to observed changes. PMID:26664749

  3. Leishmania major lipophosphoglycan: discrepancy in Toll-like receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Kavoosi, Gholamreza; Ardestani, Sussan K; Kariminia, Amina; Alimohammadian, Mohammad Hossein

    2010-02-01

    Lipophosphoglycan (LPG) is structurally characterized by a series of phosphoglycan repeat units. Cellular LPG, isolated from promastigotes, has a very similar structure to culture supernatant LPG, but differs in the average number of phosphorylated oligosaccharide repeat units and in glycan composition. Comparison of these LPGs with capillary electrophoresis and immunoblotting indicate that these molecules are highly conserved structurally and composed of galactosylated Gal-Man repeats but their size and molecular weight are very different which is due to glycan portion. There are 30 and 20 repeat units in sLPG and mLPG, respectively. Both LPGs induced nitric oxide in macrophages cell line while sLPG had the higher stimulatory effect. In the presence of anti-TLR2 nitric oxide stimulated by LPG was reduced to control levels. In addition, in the presence of anti-TLR4, nitric oxide stimulated by LPGs was not affected. We propose that lipophosphoglycan induces nitric oxide production via TLR2 signaling pathway. PMID:19769970

  4. Discrepancies Between Self-Reported Usual Sleep Duration and Objective Measures of Total Sleep Time in Treatment-Seeking Overweight and Obese Individuals.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Erin; Hart, Chantelle; Wing, Rena R

    2016-01-01

    To examine the agreement between actigraphy-estimated and self-reported sleep duration in obese individuals, we had 63 treatment seeking overweight/obese participants complete the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and report sleep duration for weekends and weekdays, and compared their reports to 7 days of actigraphy. Actigraph total sleep time correlated r = .20-.31 with self-report and the absolute discrepancy averaged 51-54 minutes. Only 20 of the 32 subjects (62.5%) classified as short sleepers (<7 hours/night) by actigraphy were similarly classified by self-report. Poor sleep quality was associated with greater absolute discrepancy between actigraphy and self-report. The weak correlations between self-report and actigraph should be considered in future efforts to increase sleep duration to promote weight loss in obese individuals. PMID:26503348

  5. Avoiding Hip Instability and Limb Length Discrepancy After Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Sculco, Peter K; Cottino, Umberto; Abdel, Matthew P; Sierra, Rafael J

    2016-04-01

    Two complications after total hip arthroplasty (THA) are hip instability and limb length discrepancy; instability is a common indication for revision THA. The goal of a successful THA is to maximize impingement-free range of motion, recreate appropriate offset, and equalize limb length discrepancies to produce a pain-free and dynamically stable THA. In this article, the patient risk factors for dislocation and limb length discrepancy, key elements of the preoperative template, the anatomic landmarks for accurate component placement, the leg positions for soft tissue stability testing, and the management of postoperative instability are reviewed. PMID:26772941

  6. Pulmonary embolism in congenital bleeding disorders: intriguing discrepancies among different clotting factors deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Girolami, Antonio; Cosi, Elisabetta; Tasinato, Valentina; Peroni, Edoardo; Girolami, Bruno; Lombardi, Anna Maria

    2016-07-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a complication of deep vein thrombosis. It occurs in the population with a normal clotting mechanism, but it may also occur in patients with congenital bleeding conditions. Here, we report on all cases of pulmonary embolism in congenital hemorrhagic disorders. All reported cases of pulmonary embolism in congenital coagulation disorders have been gathered by a time-unlimited PubMed search. Cross-checking of the references listed at the end of the single papers was carried out to avoid omissions. Seventy-two patients had an objectively demonstrated pulmonary embolism. The event occurred in patients with fibrinogen, factor V, factor VIII (FVII), FVIII, FIX, and FXI deficiency, and in those with von Willebrand's disease. No embolism was reported in FII, factor X, and FXIII deficiency. Thirty were women and 28 were men, whereas in the remaining 14 cases, sex was not reported. Age varied from 6 to 81 years (mean age 34.3 years). The management varied from only supportive to the administration of unfractionated heparin, low-molecular-weight heparin, and anti-vitamin K medications, accompanied by adequate replacement therapy. Evolution was fair or good in the majority of cases, but there were 10 fatalities. Risk factors were present in 61 patients. The most frequent of these were replacement therapy (35 cases), surgery (34), and old age (13). Some patients had more than one risk factor. Eleven patients had no risk factors. There are discrepancies in the prevalence of pulmonary embolism among different clotting disorders. The conditions most frequently affected are FVII deficiency and fibrinogen defects. The significance of the findings is discussed. PMID:26829362

  7. Discrepancies in degree of conversion measurements by FTIR.

    PubMed

    Collares, Fabrício Mezzomo; Portella, Fernando Freitas; Leitune, Vicente Castelo Branco; Samuel, Susana Maria Werner

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the internal standard peak on the measured degree of conversion (DC) for methacrylate-based resins analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The influence of different baseline measurement methods was also determined. Different blends were prepared, mixing BisGMA/BisEMA and BisGMA/TEGDMA at proportions of 0% to 100%, in weight. Camphoroquinone and ethyl-4-dimethylamino-benzoate were used to permit the light activation of blends. Degree of conversion was evaluated using FTIR equipped with an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) device. Samples were dispensed onto ATR crystal and light activated for 40 s. The DC was calculated by relating the height of the peak 1637 cm-1 to the intensity of different internal standard peaks (1715, 1608, or 1582 cm-1), measured using two different baseline methods, before and after polymerization. Data were compared by ANOVA at 5% significance. The relationship between DC and monomer ratio was obtained by regression analysis. Double-bond conversion ranged from 32.75% to 78.50% for BisGMA/BisEMA blends, and from 32.75% to 76.22% for BisGMA/TEGDMA blends. For the BisGMA/BisEMA blends, the DC showed a linear association with the composition of the comonomer blends, independent of the internal standard peak and baseline method used. In contrast, the trends in DC for BisGMA/TEGDMA blends were different for each method of measurement. The internal standard peaks and measurement baseline should be taken into account when using FTIR to calculate the DC of methacrylate-based resins, especially comonomer blends containing a high degree of monomers that lack aromatic rings. PMID:24402058

  8. Tested method to minimize plutonium assay discrepancies between laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Seiler, R.J.; Goss, R.L.; Rodenburg, W.W.; Rogers, D.R.

    1982-01-29

    Plutonium assay differences are frequently observed between laboratories exchanging plutonium dioxide powders. These differences are commonly the result of chemical changes and/or nonhomogeneities in sampled materials. The irregularities are often caused by moisture absorption during sampling, packaging, shipment, and storage of the materials. A method is proposed which eliminates the effects of chemical change in samples, particularly moisture absorption, and minimizes sampling error. A nondestructive thermal watts/gram test on every preweighed sampled and total dissolution of these samples for chemical assay are the primary features which make this method effective. Because this method minimizes the error related to exchange material, it is possible to design an interlaboratory exchange program which demonstrates the assay capabiliies of the participants. In an experiment performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method, three PuO/sub 2/ batches of varying isotopic composition were synthesized at Mound to be used in the exchange tess. Powder sample aliquots from each batch were weighed directly into their vials under controlled atmospheric conditions. Calorimetric heat measurements were made on each vial to test homogeneity and verify sample weight. Six vials of each batch were chemically assayed at Mound and six at NBL (New Brunswick Laboratory). Both laboratories chose controlled-potential coulometry as the chemical assay technique because of its demonstrated precision and accuracy. Total dissolution of preweighed exchange samples eliminated the need for laborious and usually futile heating to return the material to its original condition. The mean chemical assay values obtained by Mound and NBL agree to within 0.01% for each of the compositions tested. Testing of both chemical assay and calorimetric data revealed no sampling error throughout the experiment.

  9. Predicting Response to Early Reading Intervention from Verbal IQ, Reading-Related Language Abilities, Attention Ratings, and Verbal IQ-Word Reading Discrepancy: Failure To Validate Discrepancy Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stage, Scott A.; Abbott, Robert D.; Jenkins, Joseph R.; Berninger, Virginia W.

    2003-01-01

    Additional analysis of a previously published study involving 128 first-graders with double or triple deficit in language skills (rapid automatized naming, phonological, and orthographic processing) responded more slowly to early intervention than students without language deficits. Verbal IQ-word reading discrepancy did not predict response to…

  10. The Use of the Discrepancy Evaluation Model in Evaluating Educational Programs for Visually Handicapped Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Everett W.; Hill, Mary-Maureen

    1983-01-01

    The need to evaluate educational programs is briefly addressed, and the application of the Discrepancy Evaluation Model (DEM) at a hypothetical residential school for the visually handicapped is described. (Author/SW)

  11. The Interactive Relationship of Dogmatism and Attitude Discrepancy-Congruency to Attitude Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Stewart J. H.; Hamilton, Marshall L.

    1978-01-01

    Hypothesized that dogmatism and attitude discrepancy-congruency would be interactively related to attitude change. Results suggest that supportive information may be more effective in polarizing opinions or attitudes of nondogmatic persons than dogmatic persons. (Author)

  12. A Case for Not Going SAT-Optional: Students with Discrepant SAT and HSGPA Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Kobrin, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Presented at the national conference for the American Educational Research Association (AERA) in 2010. This presentation describes an alternative way of presenting the unique information provided by the SAT over HSGPA, namely examining students with discrepant SAT-HSGPA performance.

  13. Patterns and Predictors of Mother-Adolescent Discrepancies across Family Constructs.

    PubMed

    Rote, Wendy M; Smetana, Judith G

    2016-10-01

    Parent-child discrepancies pervade the family literature; they appear in reports of relationship dynamics (e.g., conflict; Laursen et al. 1998), parent and child behaviors (e.g., monitoring; De Los Reyes et al. 2010), and individual family members' beliefs (e.g., parental legitimate authority; Smetana 2011). Discrepancies are developmentally normative (Steinberg 2001) but also may be indicators of relationship and adjustment problems for teens (Ohannessian 2012). Because of this variation, it is important to consider the extent to which parent-child discrepancies are a function of both the dyad and the family construct considered. The present study contributed to our understanding of informant discrepancies in family relationships by considering the patterning, consistency, and correlates of mother-adolescent discrepancies across three family constructs that vary in their objectivity. Using person-centered analyses, discrepancies in adolescents' and mothers' ratings of parents' right to know about teens' activities, mothers' knowledge of them, and positive mother-adolescents relationships were examined in 167 middle class, primarily European American mother-adolescent dyads (M teen age = 15.68 years, SD = .64, 53 % female). Each construct was best described by three profiles, one where adolescents' standardized ratings were consistently higher than mothers', one showing the reverse, and one revealing little disagreement. Adolescent-reported problem behavior (but not depression), behavioral and psychological control, and mothers' wellbeing significantly predicted profile membership. Most dyads maintained consistent membership in a discrepancy profile across at least two family constructs. Results contribute to understanding the different sources of discrepancies in views of the family. PMID:27295041

  14. Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies in Perceived Parenting Characteristics and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Poor Chinese Families.

    PubMed

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relationships between parent-adolescent discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics (indexed by parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and parental control) and adolescent developmental outcomes (indexed by achievement motivation and psychological competence) in poor families in Hong Kong. A sample of 275 intact families having at least one child aged 11-16 experiencing economic disadvantage were invited to participate in the study. Fathers and mothers completed the Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale, and adolescents completed the Social-Oriented Achievement Motivation Scale and Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale in addition to paternal and maternal Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale. Results indicated that parents and adolescents had different perceptions of parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and paternal control, with adolescents generally perceived lower levels of parenting behaviors than did their parents. While father-adolescent discrepancy in perceived paternal responsiveness and mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceived maternal control negatively predicted adolescent achievement motivation, mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceptions of maternal responsiveness negatively predicted psychological competence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present findings provided support that parent-child discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics have negative impacts on the developmental outcomes of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present study addresses parent-child discrepancies in perceived parental behaviors as "legitimate" constructs, and explores their links with adolescent psychosocial development, which sheds light for researchers and clinical practitioners in helping the Chinese families experiencing economic disadvantage. PMID:24482569

  15. Discrepant Perspectives on Conflict Situations Among Urban Parent-Adolescent Dyads.

    PubMed

    Parker, Elizabeth M; Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah R; Jones, Vanya C; Haynie, Denise L; Cheng, Tina L

    2016-03-01

    Parents influence urban youths' violence-related behaviors. To provide effective guidance, parents should understand how youth perceive conflict, yet little empirical research has been conducted regarding parent and youth perceptions of conflict. The aims of this article are to (a) report on the nature of discrepancies in attribution of fault, (b) present qualitative data about the varying rationales for fault attribution, and (c) use quantitative data to identify correlates of discrepancy including report of attitudes toward violence, parental communication, and parents' messages about retaliatory violence. Interviews were conducted with 101 parent/adolescent dyads. The study population consisted of African American female caretakers (n = 92; that is, mothers, grandmothers, aunts) and fathers (n = 9) and their early adolescents (mean age = 13.6). A total of 53 dyads were discrepant in identifying instigators in one or both videos. When discrepancy was present, the parent was more likely to identify the actor who reacted to the situation as at fault. In the logistic regression models, parental attitudes about retaliatory violence were a significant correlate of discrepancy, such that as parent attitudes supporting retaliatory violence increased, the odds of discrepancy decreased. The results suggest that parents and adolescents do not always view conflict situations similarly, which may inhibit effective parent-child communication, parental advice, and discipline. Individuals developing and implementing family-based violence prevention interventions need to be cognizant of the complexity of fault attribution and design strategies to promote conversations around attribution of fault and effective conflict management. PMID:25535252

  16. Effect of clothing weight on body weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight with weather, season, and gender. Methods: Fifty adults (35 wom...

  17. WISC-R Verbal and Performance IQ Discrepancy in an Unselected Cohort: Clinical Significance and Longitudinal Stability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; Silva, P. A.

    1987-01-01

    Examined children whose Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) verbal and performance Intelligence Quotient discrepancies placed them beyond the 90th percentile. Longitudinal study showed 23 percent of the discrepant cases to be discrepant at two or more ages. Studied frequency of perinatal difficulties, early childhood…

  18. Commentary: Definitely More than Measurement Error--But How Should We Understand and Deal with Informant Discrepancies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achenbach, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    The special section articles demonstrate the importance of informant discrepancies. They also illustrate challenges posed by discrepancies, plus opportunities for advancing research and practice. This commentary addresses these cross-cutting issues: (a) Discrepancies affect many kinds of assessment besides ratings of children's problems. (b)…

  19. Informed Test Component Weighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2001-01-01

    Identifies and evaluates alternative methods for weighting tests. Presents formulas for composite reliability and validity as a function of component weights and suggests a rational process that identifies and considers trade-offs in determining weights. Discusses drawbacks to implicit weighting and explicit weighting and the difficulty of…

  20. Assessing Your Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Measure and Interpret Weight Status Adult Body Mass Index or BMI Body Mass Index (BMI) is a person's weight in kilograms divided ... finding your height and weight in this BMI Index Chart 1 . If your BMI is less than ...

  1. Incidence and Variation of Discrepancies in Recording Chronic Conditions in Australian Hospital Administrative Data

    PubMed Central

    Assareh, Hassan; Achat, Helen M.; Stubbs, Joanne M.; Guevarra, Veth M.; Hill, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic data routinely collected for hospital admitted patients and used for case-mix adjustment in care provider comparisons and reimbursement are prone to biases. We aim to measure discrepancies, variations and associated factors in recorded chronic morbidities for hospital admitted patients in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Of all admissions between July 2010 and June 2014 in all NSW public and private acute hospitals, admissions with over 24 hours stay and one or more of the chronic conditions of diabetes, smoking, hepatitis, HIV, and hypertension were included. The incidence of a non-recorded chronic condition in an admission occurring after the first admission with a recorded chronic condition (index admission) was considered as a discrepancy. Poisson models were employed to (i) derive adjusted discrepancy incidence rates (IR) and rate ratios (IRR) accounting for patient, admission, comorbidity and hospital characteristics and (ii) quantify variation in rates among hospitals. The discrepancy incidence rate was highest for hypertension (51% of 262,664 admissions), followed by hepatitis (37% of 12,107), smoking (33% of 548,965), HIV (27% of 1500) and diabetes (19% of 228,687). Adjusted rates for all conditions declined over the four-year period; with the sharpest drop of over 80% for diabetes (47.7% in 2010 vs. 7.3% in 2014), and 20% to 55% for the other conditions. Discrepancies were more common in private hospitals and smaller public hospitals. Inter-hospital differences were responsible for 1% (HIV) to 9.4% (smoking) of variation in adjusted discrepancy incidences, with an increasing trend for diabetes and HIV. Chronic conditions are recorded inconsistently in hospital administrative datasets, and hospitals contribute to the discrepancies. Adjustment for patterns and stratification in risk adjustments; and furthermore longitudinal accumulation of clinical data at patient level, refinement of clinical coding systems and standardisation of comorbidity

  2. Incidence and Variation of Discrepancies in Recording Chronic Conditions in Australian Hospital Administrative Data.

    PubMed

    Assareh, Hassan; Achat, Helen M; Stubbs, Joanne M; Guevarra, Veth M; Hill, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic data routinely collected for hospital admitted patients and used for case-mix adjustment in care provider comparisons and reimbursement are prone to biases. We aim to measure discrepancies, variations and associated factors in recorded chronic morbidities for hospital admitted patients in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Of all admissions between July 2010 and June 2014 in all NSW public and private acute hospitals, admissions with over 24 hours stay and one or more of the chronic conditions of diabetes, smoking, hepatitis, HIV, and hypertension were included. The incidence of a non-recorded chronic condition in an admission occurring after the first admission with a recorded chronic condition (index admission) was considered as a discrepancy. Poisson models were employed to (i) derive adjusted discrepancy incidence rates (IR) and rate ratios (IRR) accounting for patient, admission, comorbidity and hospital characteristics and (ii) quantify variation in rates among hospitals. The discrepancy incidence rate was highest for hypertension (51% of 262,664 admissions), followed by hepatitis (37% of 12,107), smoking (33% of 548,965), HIV (27% of 1500) and diabetes (19% of 228,687). Adjusted rates for all conditions declined over the four-year period; with the sharpest drop of over 80% for diabetes (47.7% in 2010 vs. 7.3% in 2014), and 20% to 55% for the other conditions. Discrepancies were more common in private hospitals and smaller public hospitals. Inter-hospital differences were responsible for 1% (HIV) to 9.4% (smoking) of variation in adjusted discrepancy incidences, with an increasing trend for diabetes and HIV. Chronic conditions are recorded inconsistently in hospital administrative datasets, and hospitals contribute to the discrepancies. Adjustment for patterns and stratification in risk adjustments; and furthermore longitudinal accumulation of clinical data at patient level, refinement of clinical coding systems and standardisation of comorbidity

  3. Work-family conflict and self-discrepant time allocation at work.

    PubMed

    Dahm, Patricia C; Glomb, Theresa M; Manchester, Colleen Flaherty; Leroy, Sophie

    2015-05-01

    We examine the relationships between work-to-family conflict, time allocation across work activities, and the outcomes of work satisfaction, well-being, and salary in the context of self-regulation and self-discrepancy theories. We posit work-to-family conflict is associated with self-discrepant time allocation such that employees with higher levels of work-to-family conflict are likely to allocate less time than preferred to work activities that require greater self-regulatory resources (e.g., tasks that are complex, or those with longer term goals that delay rewards and closure) and allocate more time than preferred to activities that demand fewer self-regulatory resources or are replenishing (e.g., those that provide closure or are prosocial). We suggest this self-discrepant time allocation (actual vs. preferred time allocation) is one mechanism by which work-to-family conflict leads to negative employee consequences (Allen, Herst, Bruck, & Sutton, 2000; Mesmer-Magnus & Viswesvaran, 2005). Using polynomial regression and response surface methodology, we find that discrepancies between actual and preferred time allocations to work activities negatively relate to work satisfaction, psychological well-being, and physical well-being. Self-discrepant time allocation mediates the relationship between work-to-family conflict and work satisfaction and well-being, while actual time allocation (rather than the discrepancy) mediates the relationship between work-to-family conflict and salary. We find that women are more likely than men to report self-discrepant time allocations as work-to-family conflict increases. PMID:25664468

  4. Noise properties of CT images reconstructed by use of constrained total-variation, data-discrepancy minimization

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Sean; Andersen, Martin S.; Sidky, Emil Y.; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The authors develop and investigate iterative image reconstruction algorithms based on data-discrepancy minimization with a total-variation (TV) constraint. The various algorithms are derived with different data-discrepancy measures reflecting the maximum likelihood (ML) principle. Simulations demonstrate the iterative algorithms and the resulting image statistical properties for low-dose CT data acquired with sparse projection view angle sampling. Of particular interest is to quantify improvement of image statistical properties by use of the ML data fidelity term. Methods: An incremental algorithm framework is developed for this purpose. The instances of the incremental algorithms are derived for solving optimization problems including a data fidelity objective function combined with a constraint on the image TV. For the data fidelity term the authors, compare application of the maximum likelihood principle, in the form of weighted least-squares (WLSQ) and Poisson-likelihood (PL), with the use of unweighted least-squares (LSQ). Results: The incremental algorithms are applied to projection data generated by a simulation modeling the breast computed tomography (bCT) imaging application. The only source of data inconsistency in the bCT projections is due to noise, and a Poisson distribution is assumed for the transmitted x-ray photon intensity. In the simulations involving the incremental algorithms an ensemble of images, reconstructed from 1000 noise realizations of the x-ray transmission data, is used to estimate the image statistical properties. The WLSQ and PL incremental algorithms are seen to reduce image variance as compared to that of LSQ without sacrificing image bias. The difference is also seen at few iterations—short of numerical convergence of the corresponding optimization problems. Conclusions: The proposed incremental algorithms prove effective and efficient for iterative image reconstruction in low-dose CT applications particularly with

  5. A newly identified calculation discrepancy of the Sunset semi-continuous carbon analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, G.; Cheng, Y.; He, K.; Duan, F.; Ma, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Sunset Semi-Continuous Carbon Analyzer (SCCA) is an instrument widely used for carbonaceous aerosol measurement. Despite previous validation work, here we identified a new type of SCCA calculation discrepancy caused by the default multi-point baseline correction method. When exceeding a certain threshold carbon load, multi-point correction could cause significant Total Carbon (TC) underestimation. This calculation discrepancy was characterized for both sucrose and ambient samples with three temperature protocols. For ambient samples, 22%, 36% and 12% TC was underestimated by the three protocols, respectively, with corresponding threshold being ~0, 20 and 25 μg C. For sucrose, however, such discrepancy was observed with only one of these protocols, indicating the need of more refractory SCCA calibration substance. The discrepancy was less significant for the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)-like protocol compared with the other two protocols based on IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments). Although the calculation discrepancy could be largely reduced by the single-point baseline correction method, the instrumental blanks of single-point method were higher. Proposed correction method was to use multi-point corrected data when below the determined threshold, while use single-point results when beyond that threshold. The effectiveness of this correction method was supported by correlation with optical data.

  6. Remembering and telling self-consistent and self-discrepant memories.

    PubMed

    Mutlutürk, Aysu; Tekcan, Ali I

    2016-04-01

    It has been argued that memories that are inconsistent with one's self would differ from those that are consistent with the self. The present study addresses retrieval, phenomenology, rehearsal and narrative characteristics of autobiographical memories that are consistent versus discrepant with one's self. One hundred participants were asked to recall one self-consistent and one self-discrepant memory as well as an episode of telling these memories to others. They also filled out the Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire and the Centrality of Event Scale for each memory. Results showed no difference between self-consistent and self-discrepant memories in retrieval time, specificity or phenomenology. However, self-discrepant memory narratives contained more meaning-making statements and less autonomy than self-consistent memories. Compared to self-consistent memories, self-discrepant memories were told to fewer people, and listener responses were more negative when they were told. Results are discussed in relation to the functions these memories serve. PMID:25785773

  7. The discrepancy between implicit and explicit attitudes in predicting disinhibited eating.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Stephanie P; Forman, Evan M; Meiran, Nachshon; Herbert, James D; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Butryn, Meghan L

    2014-01-01

    Disinhibited eating (i.e., the tendency to overeat, despite intentions not to do so, in the presence of palatable foods or other cues such as emotional stress) is strongly linked with obesity and appears to be associated with both implicit (automatic) and explicit (deliberative) food attitudes. Prior research suggests that a large discrepancy between implicit and explicit food attitudes may contribute to greater levels of disinhibited eating; however this theory has not been directly tested. The current study examined whether the discrepancy between implicit and explicit attitudes towards chocolate could predict both lab-based and self-reported disinhibited eating of chocolate. Results revealed that, whereas neither implicit nor explicit attitudes alone predicted disinhibited eating, absolute attitude discrepancy positively predicted chocolate consumption. Impulsivity moderated this effect, such that discrepancy was less predictive of disinhibited eating for those who exhibited lower levels of impulsivity. The results align with the meta-cognitive model to indicate that attitude discrepancy may be involved in overeating. PMID:24411770

  8. Discrepancy Between ASTER- and MODIS- Derived Land Surface Temperatures: Terrain Effects

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuanbo; Noumi, Yousuke; Yamaguchi, Yasushi

    2009-01-01

    The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) are onboard the same satellite platform NASA TERRA. Both MODIS and ASTER offer routine retrieval of land surface temperatures (LSTs), and the ASTER- and MODIS-retrieved LST products have been used worldwide. Because a large fraction of the earth surface consists of mountainous areas, variations in elevation, terrain slope and aspect angles can cause biases in the retrieved LSTs. However, terrain-induced effects are generally neglected in most satellite retrievals, which may generate discrepancy between ASTER and MODIS LSTs. In this paper, we reported the terrain effects on the LST discrepancy with a case examination over a relief area at the Loess Plateau of China. Results showed that the terrain-induced effects were not major, but nevertheless important for the total LST discrepancy. A large local slope did not necessarily lead to a large LST discrepancy. The angle of emitted radiance was more important than the angle of local slope in generating the LST discrepancy. Specifically, the conventional terrain correction may be unsuitable for densely vegetated areas. The distribution of ASTER-to-MODIS emissivity suggested that the terrain correction was included in the generalized split window (GSW) based approach used to rectify MODIS LSTs. Further study should include the classification-induced uncertainty in emissivity for reliable use of satellite-retrieved LSTs over relief areas. PMID:22399955

  9. Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

  10. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  11. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight through diet and exercise or have serious health problems caused by obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the ...

  12. Transforming low-discrepancy sequences from a cube to a simplex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillards, Tim; Cools, Ronald

    2005-02-01

    Sequences of points with a low discrepancy are the basic building blocks for quasi-Monte Carlo methods. Traditionally these points are generated in a unit cube.To develop point sets on a simplex we will transform the low-discrepancy points from the unit cube to a simplex. An advantage of this approach is that most of the known results on low-discrepancy sequences can be re-used. After introducing several transformations, their efficiency as well as their quality will be evaluated. We present a Koksma-Hlawka inequality which says that under certain conditions the order of convergence using the new point set is the same as that of the original set.

  13. Resolution of Discrepant Results for Candida Species Identification by Using DNA Probes

    PubMed Central

    Coignard, Catherine; Hurst, Steven F.; Benjamin, Lynette E.; Brandt, Mary E.; Warnock, David W.; Morrison, Christine J.

    2004-01-01

    Candida species bloodstream isolates were collected from institutions participating in an active, population-based surveillance for candidemia. Species identifications were performed locally and then confirmed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) by phenotype-based methods. Discrepancies in species identification between the referring institution and the CDC were noted for 43 of 935 isolates (4.6%). A DNA probe-based species identification system (PCR-enzyme immunoassay [EIA]) was then used to resolve these discrepancies. The PCR-EIA result was identical to the CDC phenotypic identification method for 98% of the isolates tested. The most frequently misidentified species was Candida glabrata (37% of all discrepant identifications). Such misidentifications could lead to the administration of inappropriate therapy given the propensity of C. glabrata to develop resistance to azole antifungal drugs. PMID:14766873

  14. Controllability discrepancy and irreducibility/reducibility of Floquet factorisations in linear continuous-time periodic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jun; Lu, Xinbiao; Qian, Huimin

    2016-09-01

    The paper reports interesting but unnoticed facts about irreducibility (resp., reducibility) of Flouqet factorisations and their harmonic implication in term of controllability in finite-dimensional linear continuous-time periodic (FDLCP) systems. Reducibility and irreducibility are attributed to matrix logarithm algorithms during computing Floquet factorisations in FDLCP systems, which are a pair of essential features but remain unnoticed in the Floquet theory so far. The study reveals that reducible Floquet factorisations may bring in harmonic waves variance into the Fourier analysis of FDLCP systems that in turn may alter our interpretation of controllability when the Floquet factors are used separately during controllability testing; namely, controllability interpretation discrepancy (or simply, controllability discrepancy) may occur and must be examined whenever reducible Floquet factorisations are involved. On the contrary, when irreducible Floquet factorisations are employed, controllability interpretation discrepancy can be avoided. Examples are included to illustrate such observations.

  15. Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem: implications for narcissism and self-esteem instability.

    PubMed

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil

    2006-02-01

    There appear to be two forms of high self-esteem: secure high self-esteem (which is often linked with psychological health) and fragile high self-esteem (which is generally associated with poor psychological adjustment and impaired interpersonal relationships). Discrepant high self-esteem is a form of fragile self-esteem characterized by high explicit self-esteem and low implicit self-esteem. The present study examined whether discrepant high self-esteem was associated with narcissism and self-esteem instability in an undergraduate sample. Using multiple measures of implicit self-esteem, two basic findings emerged from the present study. First, participants with discrepant high self-esteem possessed the highest levels of narcissism. Second, participants with high explicit self-esteem and high implicit self-esteem displayed the most stable self-esteem. Findings are discussed in terms of secure and fragile high self-esteem. PMID:16451228

  16. A STUDY OF THE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN FEDERAL AND STATE MEASUREMENTS OF ON-HIGHWAY FUEL CONSUMPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, HL

    2003-08-11

    Annual highway fuel taxes are collected by the Treasury Department and placed in the Highway Trust Fund (HTF). There is, however, no direct connection between the taxes collected by the Treasury Department and the gallons of on-highway fuel use, which can lead to a discrepancy between these totals. This study was conducted to determine how much of a discrepancy exists between the total fuel usages estimated based on highway revenue funds as reported by the Treasury Department and the total fuel usages used in the apportionment of the HTF to the States. The analysis was conducted using data from Highway Statistics Tables MF-27 and FE-9 for the years 1991-2001. It was found that the overall discrepancy is relatively small, mostly within 5% difference. The amount of the discrepancy varies from year to year and varies among the three fuel types (gasoline, gasohol, special fuels). Several potential explanations for these discrepancies were identified, including issues on data, tax measurement, gallon measurement, HTF receipts, and timing. Data anomalies caused by outside forces, such as deferment of tax payments from one fiscal year to the next, can skew fuel tax data. Fuel tax evasion can lead to differences between actual fuel use and fuel taxes collected. Furthermore, differences in data collection and reporting among States can impact fuel use data. Refunds, credits, and transfers from the HTF can impact the total fuel tax receipt data. Timing issues, such as calendar year vs. fiscal year, can also cause some discrepancy between the two data sources.

  17. PREVENTING WEIGHT REGAIN AFTER WEIGHT LOSS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For most dieters, a regaining of lost weight is an all too common experience. Indeed, virtually all interventions for weight loss show limited or even poor long-term effectiveness. This sobering reality was reflected in a comprehensive review of nonsurgical treatments of obesity conducted by the Ins...

  18. The effects of discrepant events on the low-level paradigms of high school physics students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, Jerome I.

    1999-10-01

    Constructivist learning theory indicates that high school physics students do not enter their physics classrooms empty-headed. Students come with preconceptions that they constructed over time, which are based on their observations of the environment. One function of physics teachers is to facilitate students in altering their preconceptions if they are not in agreement with the currently accepted scientific view. Kuhn described a paradigm shift as a process that scientists undergo when they discard a currently accepted paradigm in favor of a more complete paradigm, because of the new paradigm's greater explanatory power. Physics students may undergo low level paradigm shifts when constructing, or reconstructing, their low level paradigms as they observe small parts of their world. This research was a multiple case study based on eight discrepant event exercises. Twenty-two self selected, untutored first year high school physics students individually performed these exercises. The students' written documents, student interviews, and the researcher's field notes were triangulated to describe the process that emerged as the students described their low level paradigms before and after performing the discrepant events exercises. The following research questions were addressed. Do students employ similar low level paradigms to explain the same physical phenomenon? Do the discrepant events observed by the students have a consequential effect upon their current low level paradigms? Are there specific discrepant events that affect students' low level paradigms to a greater degree compared to other discrepant events that are grounded in the same physical phenomenon? Do students apply scientific terminology, within its proper context, after their exposure to a discrepant event, compared to their utilization of scientific terminology prior to their exposure to the discrepant event? Can the students' low level paradigms be generalized to situations that are beyond the scope

  19. 33 CFR 62.65 - Procedure for reporting defects and discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM Public Participation in the Aids to Navigation System § 62.65 Procedure for reporting defects and discrepancies. (a) Mariners should notify the nearest Coast Guard facility immediately of any observed aids to navigation defects...

  20. 33 CFR 62.65 - Procedure for reporting defects and discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM Public Participation in the Aids to Navigation System § 62.65 Procedure for reporting defects and discrepancies. (a) Mariners should notify the nearest Coast Guard facility immediately of any observed aids to navigation defects...

  1. 33 CFR 62.65 - Procedure for reporting defects and discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM Public Participation in the Aids to Navigation System § 62.65 Procedure for reporting defects and discrepancies. (a) Mariners should notify the nearest Coast Guard facility immediately of any observed aids to navigation defects...

  2. 33 CFR 62.65 - Procedure for reporting defects and discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM Public Participation in the Aids to Navigation System § 62.65 Procedure for reporting defects and discrepancies. (a) Mariners should notify the nearest Coast Guard facility immediately of any observed aids to navigation defects...

  3. 33 CFR 62.65 - Procedure for reporting defects and discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM Public Participation in the Aids to Navigation System § 62.65 Procedure for reporting defects and discrepancies. (a) Mariners should notify the nearest Coast Guard facility immediately of any observed aids to navigation defects...

  4. A newly identified calculation discrepancy of the Sunset semi-continuous carbon analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, G. J.; Cheng, Y.; He, K. B.; Duan, F. K.; Ma, Y. L.

    2014-07-01

    The Sunset semi-continuous carbon analyzer (SCCA) is an instrument widely used for carbonaceous aerosol measurement. Despite previous validation work, in this study we identified a new type of SCCA calculation discrepancy caused by the default multipoint baseline correction method. When exceeding a certain threshold carbon load, multipoint correction could cause significant total carbon (TC) underestimation. This calculation discrepancy was characterized for both sucrose and ambient samples, with two protocols based on IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments) (i.e., IMPshort and IMPlong) and one NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)-like protocol (rtNIOSH). For ambient samples, the IMPshort, IMPlong and rtNIOSH protocol underestimated 22, 36 and 12% of TC, respectively, with the corresponding threshold being ~ 0, 20 and 25 μgC. For sucrose, however, such discrepancy was observed only with the IMPshort protocol, indicating the need of more refractory SCCA calibration substance. Although the calculation discrepancy could be largely reduced by the single-point baseline correction method, the instrumental blanks of single-point method were higher. The correction method proposed was to use multipoint-corrected data when below the determined threshold, and use single-point results when beyond that threshold. The effectiveness of this correction method was supported by correlation with optical data.

  5. The Importance of Breaking Set: Socialized Cognitive Strategies and the Gender Discrepancy in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villalobos, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Theories that explain the gender discrepancy in mathematics almost universally explain why boys are "better at math" than girls while failing to adequately account for girls' higher grades in math classes or better performances on tests of computational ability. This article develops a new, more comprehensive theoretical model that explains girls'…

  6. Evaluation of discrepancies between thermoluminescent dosimeter and direct-reading dosimeter results

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, K.R.

    1993-07-01

    Currently at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the responses of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and direct-reading dosimeters (DRDs) are not officially compared or the discrepancies investigated. However, both may soon be required due to the new US Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual. In the past, unofficial comparisons of the two dosimeters have led to discrepancies of up to 200%. This work was conducted to determine the reasons behind such discrepancies. For tests conducted with the TLDs, the reported dose was most often lower than the delivered dose, while DRDs most often responded higher than the delivered dose. Trends were identified in personnel DRD readings, and ft was concluded that more training and more control of the DRDs could improve their response. TLD responses have already begun to be improved; a new background subtraction method was implemented in April 1993, and a new dose algorithm is being considered. It was concluded that the DOE Radiological Control Manual requirements are reasonable for identifying discrepancies between dosimeter types, and more stringent administrative limits might even be considered.

  7. A Utilization-Focused Procedure for Prioritizing Evaluation Questions in the Discrepancy Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cichon, Donald J.

    Procedures for generating evaluation questions in the Discrepancy Evaluation Model (DEM) are problematic as they are described in the literature. These procedures would lead to unmanageably or ineffectively long lists of questions. Any process of narrowing down the list must be drawn from other sources. One such source, developed for a specific…

  8. The Discrepancy Evaluation Model: A Systematic Approach for the Evaluation of Career Planning and Placement Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttram, Joan L.; Covert, Robert W.

    The Discrepancy Evaluation Model (DEM), developed in 1966 by Malcolm Provus, provides information for program assessment and program improvement. Under the DEM, evaluation is defined as the comparison of an actual performance to a desired standard. The DEM embodies five stages of evaluation based upon a program's natural development: program…

  9. The Discrepancy Evaluation Model: A Strategy for Improving a Simulation and Determining Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morra, Linda G.

    This paper presents the Discrepancy Evaluation Model (DEM) as an overall strategy or framework for both the improvement and assessment of effectiveness of simulation/games. While application of the evaluation model to simulation/games rather than educational programs requires modification of the model, its critical features remain. These include:…

  10. Total Limb Rotation after Unilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty: Side-to-Side Discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kwang-Jun; Yoon, Seok-Tae; Ko, Young-Bong

    2016-08-01

    Total limb rotation, an important anatomical feature of the lower limb, is defined as any rotation of the lower limb on its longitudinal axis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the discrepancies of rotational profiles of total limb between nonoperated and operated limb following unilateral total knee arthroplasty. We conducted an analysis of the computed tomography (CT) data from 32 patients undergoing primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty. Using these CT scan, rotational profiles of total limb, such as femoral neck anteversion angle expressed as femoral torsion angle (FTA), tibial torsion angle (TTA), knee joint rotation angle (KJRA), and total limb rotation (TLR) were measured. There were significant discrepancies of FTA and KJRA between operated and nonoperated limb following unilateral total knee arthroplasty. The mean difference of operated and nonoperated side for FTA and KJRA were -6.51 ± 11.88 degrees (p = 0.0041) and -6.83 ± 5.04 degrees (p < 0.001), respectively. However, there were no significant discrepancies of TLR, TTA. These results are due to the compensation effect of KJRA. However, excessive external rotation of the femoral component beyond the compensation effect of prosthetic knee joint can lead to a total limb rotational discrepancy in patient undergoing unilateral total knee arthroplasty. PMID:26571050

  11. Impact of IQ Discrepancy on Executive Function in High-Functioning Autism: Insight into Twice Exceptionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalbfleisch, M. Layne; Loughan, Ashlee R.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the impact of IQ discrepancy (IQD) within (1) and above (1+) one standard deviation on executive function in HFA using the BRIEF. We hypothesized that IQD would benefit executive function. IQD 1 is hallmarked by deficits in BRIEF indices and subscales inhibit, shift, initiate, working memory, planning and organization, and monitor…

  12. What Is Asthma Control? Discrepancies between Parents' Perceptions and Official Definitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dozier, Ann; Aligne, C. Andrew; Schlabach, Mary Beth

    2006-01-01

    National guidelines define asthma control as the prevention of asthma symptoms rather than the treatment of asthma exacerbations. We hypothesized that we would find a discrepancy between what parents consider adequate control compared to what health care professionals mean by "control." Data from a telephone survey conducted for the local asthma…

  13. 19 CFR 123.9 - Explanation of a discrepancy in a manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Explanation of a discrepancy in a manifest. 123.9 Section 123.9 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO General Provisions § 123.9 Explanation...

  14. Analysis of Reading Discrepancies for 1986-1987: Cleveland City School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zafirau, S. James

    Fifth in a series of studies examining reading discrepancies in Cleveland, Ohio public schools, this report analyzed the spring 1986-1987 reading data so that accurate and usable information and recommendations would be available to decision-makers for related planning, curriculum design, and implementation functions of the district. Students in…

  15. Breaking the Discrepancy Code: A Meta-Analysis of the Specific Learning Disability Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachmeier, Randy J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous "selective" meta-analyses of the literature relating to the IQ-achievement discrepancy model of specific learning disability identification have concluded that "underachieving" and "low-achieving" poor readers do not differ in any educationally meaningful way. Underachievers are those poor readers who qualify as learning disabled using an…

  16. Women Arrested for Partner Violence and Substance Use: An Exploration of Discrepancies in the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Catherine A.; Lehmann, Peter; Cobb, Norman

    2008-01-01

    Discrepancies exist in research examining substance problems within groups of women arrested for intimate partner violence (IPV). In some studies women IPV arrestees have been found to be at high risk for substance-related problems, whereas in others they are found to be at low risk for substance-related problems. The current study explores these…

  17. Media Representations of Bullying toward Queer Youth: Gender, Race, and Age Discrepancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paceley, Megan S.; Flynn, Karen

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, media coverage on the bullying of queer youth increased dramatically. This study examined online news media's portrayal of the gender, race, and age of bullying victims. Content analyses of ten sources were compared to research on the dynamics of sexuality-based bullying. Discrepancies were found for gender and race (with White males…

  18. Discrepant Story Task (DST): An Instrument Used to Explore Narrative Strategies in Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smorti, Andrea.; Ortega-Rivera, J.; Ortega, R.

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this contribution is to describe an instrument devised to study some of the cognitive processes that occur when people interpret social events (Discrepant Story Task-DST; Smorti, 2004). In particular, this instrument analyses the narrative processes of interpretation used by an observer when witnessing progressive and…

  19. Nucleotide sequence discrepancies within the GA strain of Marek's disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparative genomics between 9 gallid herpesvirus type 2 strains have singled out the virulent (v) prototype strain GA as phylogenetically distant from other v pathotypes. Multiple amino acid alignments of otherwise highly conserved unique long (UL) genes have indicated sequence discrepancies within...

  20. Comment on 'Discrepancies in the resonance-fluorescence spectrum calculated with two methods'

    SciTech Connect

    Ficek, Zbigniew

    2009-05-15

    There are two alternative methods used in the literature to calculate the incoherent part of the spectrum of light scattered by an atomic system. In the first, one calculates the spectrum of the total light scattered by the system and obtains the incoherent part by subtracting the coherent part. In the second method, one introduces the fluctuation operators and obtains the incoherent part of the spectrum by taking the Fourier transform of the two-time correlation function of the fluctuation operators. These two methods have been recognized for years as completely equivalent for evaluating the incoherent part of the spectrum. In a recent paper, Xu et al. [Phys. Rev. A 78, 013407 (2008)] showed that there are discrepancies between the incoherent parts of the stationary spectrum of a three-level {lambda}-type system calculated with these two methods. The predicted discrepancies can be severe that over a wide range of the Rabi frequencies and atomic decay rates, the spectrum calculated with the variance method can have negative values. In this Comment, we show that there are no discrepancies between these two methods. We show the equivalence of these two methods that leads to the same incoherent spectra which are positive for all frequencies independent of values of the parameters involved. We also identify the source of the discrepancy, that is, in an incorrect treatment of the incoherent part of the spectrum calculated with the two-time correlation function of the fluctuation operators.

  1. Understanding Discrepancies in International News Coverage of the KAL 007 Airline Incident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Douglas M.; Craig, Bob

    A study examined the influence of nation states' self-interests on their media's coverage of a major news event, in this instance, the Soviet shooting down of a Korean airliner. It was hypothesized (1) that there would be discrepancies between different accounts of the KAL 007 incident, a complex news event with international political…

  2. Measuring discrepancies between knowledge, preoccupation and fear of aids in populations.

    PubMed

    Domenighetti, G; Paccaud, F; Villaret, M; Perucchi, M

    1992-01-01

    A simple tool to quantify discrepancies between knowledge, preoccupation and fear regarding hiv and aids is presented. This tool is based on standard questions available in health surveys. Some results using recent Swiss data are presented, and the method is discussed. PMID:1414016

  3. Discrepancies in Cancer Genomic Sequencing Highlight Opportunities for Driver Mutation Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Andrew M.; Yates, Tim; Fawdar, Shameem; Chapman, Phil; Lorigan, Paul; Biankin, Andrew; Miller, Crispin J.; Brognard, John

    2014-01-01

    Cancer genome sequencing is being employed at an increasing rate to identify actionable driver mutations that can inform therapeutic intervention strategies. A comparison of two of the most prominent cancer genome sequencing databases from different institutes (CCLE and COSMIC) revealed marked discrepancies in the detection of missense mutations in identical cell lines (57.38% conformity). The main reason for this discrepancy is inadequate sequencing of GC-rich areas of the exome. We have therefore mapped over 400 regions of consistent inadequate sequencing (cold-spots) in known cancer-causing genes and kinases, in 368 of which neither institute finds mutations. We demonstrate, using a newly identified PAK4 mutation as proof of principle, that specific targeting and sequencing of these GC-rich cold-spot regions can lead to the identification of novel driver mutations in known tumor suppressors and oncogenes. We highlight that cross-referencing between genomic databases is required to comprehensively assess genomic alterations in commonly used cell lines and that there are still significant opportunities to identify novel drivers of tumorigenesis in poorly sequenced areas of the exome. Finally we assess other reasons for the observed discrepancy, such as variations in dbSNP filtering and the acquisition/loss of mutations, to give explanations as to why there is discrepancy in pharmacogenomic studies given recent concerns with poor reproducibility of data. PMID:25256751

  4. Consonant Differentiation Mediates the Discrepancy between Non-verbal and Verbal Abilities in Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, A. P.; Yoder, P. J.; Stone, W. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate verbal communication disorders reflected in lower verbal than non-verbal abilities. The present study examined the extent to which this discrepancy is associated with atypical speech sound differentiation. Methods: Differences in the amplitude of auditory event-related…

  5. Reported and Actual Incidence of Asthma in Teenage Athletes: A Dangerous Discrepancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Ruth; Stewart, Craig

    2004-01-01

    Asthma in athletes is a serious concern for coaches, trainers and athletic directors because of its threat to general health and its apparent continued increase in individuals of all ages. Of special concern is the discrepancy between the reported incidence and the actual occurrence of asthma in athletes. The purpose of this study was to continue…

  6. College Students' Adjustment: The Role of Parent-College Student Expectation Discrepancies and Communication Reciprocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agliata, Allison Kanter; Renk, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    Parents' influence on college students' adjustment is underestimated frequently. As college students often set goals based on their perceptions of their parents' expectations, discrepancies between college students' and their parents' expectations may be related to their adjustment. The purpose of this study was to examine parent-college student…

  7. Analysis of discrepancies observed between digital and analog images during a clinical trial of IRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Morris; Coristine, Marjorie; Currie, Shawn; Belanger, Garry; Ahuja, J.; Dillon, Richard F.; Robertson, John G.

    1990-08-01

    A clinical trial of an Integrated Radiological Information System (IRIS) was conducted at the Ottawa Civic Hospital with the Department of Emergency Medicine and the Department of Radiological Sciences between April 4, and May 12, 1989. During the trial, 319 active Emergency Department cases (905 films) were processed using IRIS. Radiologists examined the digital images on the image screen to formulate a diagnosis, then before dictating a report, they examined the analog films. In 30 cases there was a discrepancy between the information obtained while viewing the digital images on IRIS and the information obtained from the analog films. These anomalous cases were used in an independent study of the discrepancies. In the study, each case was reviewed in both digital and analog form by three physicians who provided a comparative rating of diagnostic quality. Any perceived differences between the digital and analog media were noted. Particular attention was paid to rating the relevance of the IRIS enhancement capabilities. Although ratings for digital images were high, the comparative ratings for the film are in general better. An analysis of the individual cases shows that: (i) most of the discrepancies probably resulted from physician inexperience in reading radiographs in digital form, (ii) the IRIS enhancement facilities significantly increase the ratings of satisfaction or perceived quality of digital images and (iii) an appropriate choice of enhancement may make visible the required diagnostic features for cases where some reviewers did not find the image/digital discrepant.

  8. Effects of Message Discrepancy on Recall of News Information over Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicks, Robert H.

    A study investigated the impact of "thought over time" as a variable that may influence recall of discrepant information encountered in the media. Earlier studies indicated that human subjects are capable of improving their recall of "consistent" sets of news information over time without the benefit of additional exposure to media information, a…

  9. Explaining Discrepancies in Arrest Rates between Black and White Male Juveniles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fite, Paula J.; Wynn, Porche'; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated discrepancies in arrest rates between Black and White male juveniles by examining the role of early risk factors for arrest. Two hypotheses were evaluated: (a) Disproportionate minority arrest is due to increased exposure to early risk factors, and (b) a differential sensitivity to early risk factors contributes to…

  10. When Discrepant Events Change the Plans: An Unexpected Investigation of Physical Properties and Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Lauren; Seifried, Joyce; Farnum, Kerry; D'Armiento, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Discrepant events are often used by science educators to incite interest and excitement in learners, yet sometimes their results are farther-reaching. The following article describes how one such event--dissolving packing peanuts in acetone--led to a change in the course of a college-level elementary science teaching methods class and to the…

  11. Official Policies and Teachers' Tendency to Act: Exploring the Discrepancies in Teachers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Gilat, Israel Z.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate whether there are discrepancies between teachers' perceptions of the "official policies" and their "tendency to act," based on their ethical decision-making. A qualitative analysis of 60 Israeli teachers' questionnaires consisting of critical ethical incidents revealed multifaceted ethical…

  12. Magnitude and Direction of WISC-R Verbal-Performance IQ Discrepancies among Adjudicated Male Delinquents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubble, L. M.; Groff, M.

    1981-01-01

    A field study is reported in which the discrepancy between verbal and nonverbal skills among 150 adjudicated male delinquents was assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, and evaluated with regard to three interpretations of the observed differences. (Author/GK)

  13. WISC-R Verbal Performance IQ Discrepancies among Quay-Classified Adolescent Male Delinquents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubble, L.M.; Groff, M. G.

    1982-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that the Wechsler Verbal/Performance Intelligence quotient discrepancy would be larger or more frequent for persons classified as exhibiting a psychopathic delinquent adjustment than for persons classified as either neurotic or subculturally delinquent. (Author/PN)

  14. The SAT® and SAT Subject Tests™: Discrepant Scores and Incremental Validity. Research Report 2012-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Patterson, Brian F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines student performance on the SAT and SAT Subject Tests in order to identify groups of students who score differently on these two tests, and to determine whether certain demographic groups score higher on one test compared to the other. Discrepancy scores were created to capture individuals' performance differences on the…

  15. The Valued Living Questionnaire for Alcohol Use: Measuring value-behavior discrepancy in college student drinking.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mary Beth; Meier, Ellen; Lombardi, Nathaniel; Leavens, Eleanor L; Grant, DeMond M; Leffingwell, Thad R

    2016-09-01

    Developing discrepancy between one's values and behaviors is theoretically important in motivating change; however, existing studies lack a validated measure of value-behavior discrepancy for alcohol misuse. The current studies aimed to modify Wilson & DuFrene (2008) Valued Living Questionnaire (VLQ) to assess consistency of alcohol use with important values. In Study 1, the initial factor structure and test-retest reliability of the VLQ for Alcohol Use (VLQ-A) was tested in a sample of college students who regularly drink alcohol (N = 150). Results guided modifications to the measure. In Study 2, the revised measure's factor structure and predictive validity were tested with a second sample of college students who drink alcohol (N = 222). In both studies, exploratory factor analysis supported a unidimensional factor structure. Perceived discrepancy between alcohol use and important values predicted greater readiness to change, while perceived consistency between alcohol use and important values predicted more frequent heavy episodic drinking. Certain values were more useful in predicting outcomes than others. Alcohol use (heavy vs. moderate drinking) did not moderate outcomes. The VLQ-A is a brief and reliable self-report measure of perceived discrepancy between drinking behaviors and important values that may increase readiness to change. Future research examining the generalizability of findings to various samples and the efficacy of the VLQ-A as a supplement to brief interventions is warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27537000

  16. Remembering after a Perception of Discrepancy: Out with the Old, in with the Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronland, Antonia; Whittlesea, Bruce W. A.

    2006-01-01

    A surprising validation of expectation experienced during a recognition test induces the perception of discrepancy and a feeling of familiarity. The authors investigated whether that perception also affects memory performance when it is experienced in the original encounter with a stimulus. Target words were presented in a study phase, half in…

  17. 19 CFR 123.9 - Explanation of a discrepancy in a manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Explanation of a discrepancy in a manifest. 123.9 Section 123.9 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO General Provisions § 123.9 Explanation of...

  18. 12 CFR 222.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duties of users regarding address discrepancies. 222.82 Section 222.82 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Identity Theft §...

  19. 12 CFR 222.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Reports Regarding Identity Theft § 222.82 Duties of users regarding address discrepancies. (a) Scope. This... consumer's identity in accordance with the requirements of the Customer Identification Program (CIP) rules implementing 31 U.S.C. 5318(l) (31 CFR 103.121); (B) Maintains in its own records, such as applications,...

  20. 12 CFR 222.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Identity Theft § 222.82 Duties of users regarding address discrepancies. (a) Scope. This section applies to... consumer's identity in accordance with the requirements of the Customer Identification Program (CIP) rules implementing 31 U.S.C. 5318(l) (31 CFR 103.121); (B) Maintains in its own records, such as applications,...

  1. 12 CFR 222.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Identity Theft § 222.82 Duties of users regarding address discrepancies. (a) Scope. This section applies to... consumer's identity in accordance with the requirements of the Customer Identification Program (CIP) rules implementing 31 U.S.C. 5318(l) (31 CFR 103.121); (B) Maintains in its own records, such as applications,...

  2. 12 CFR 222.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Identity Theft § 222.82 Duties of users regarding address discrepancies. (a) Scope. This section applies to... consumer's identity in accordance with the requirements of the Customer Identification Program (CIP) rules implementing 31 U.S.C. 5318(l) (31 CFR 103.121); (B) Maintains in its own records, such as applications,...

  3. How Effective Is the Principal? Discrepancy between New Zealand Teachers' and Principals' Perceptions of Principal Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnema, Claire E. L.; Robinson, Viviane M. J.; Ludlow, Larry; Pope, Denyse

    2015-01-01

    Multi-source evaluation of school principals is likely to become increasingly common in education contexts as the evidence accumulates about the relationship between principal effectiveness and student achievement. The purpose of this study was to examine (1) the magnitude and direction of discrepancy between how principals and their teachers…

  4. Intelligent Testing and the Discrepancy Model for Children with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jack M.; Francis, David J.; Shaywitz, Sally E.; Lyon, G. Reid; Foorman, Barbara R.; Stuebing, Karla K.; Shaywitz, Bennett A.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the historical basis and rationale for identifying children as learning disabled due to a discrepancy between scores on measures of intelligence and achievement. Discusses the validity of such classifications and the role of IQ testing in the designation of children as learning disabled for research and public policy. Alternative…

  5. Understanding Discrepancy in Perceptions of Values: Individuals with Mild to Moderate Dementia and Their Family Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reamy, Allison M.; Kim, Kyungmin; Zarit, Steven H.; Whitlatch, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: We explore discrepancies in perceptions of values and care preferences between individuals with dementia (IWDs) and their family caregivers. Design and Methods: We interviewed 266 dyads consisting of an individual with mild to moderate dementia and his or her family caregiver to determine IWDs' beliefs for 5 values related to…

  6. THE RELATIONSHIP OF CERTAIN PREDICTION AND SELF-EVALUATION DISCREPANCIES TO ART PERFORMANCE AND ART JUDGMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HARVEY, THEODORE E.

    NINTH-GRADE STUDENTS WERE SELECTED AS A SAMPLE TO STUDY THE RELATIONSHIP OF CERTAIN PREDICTION AND SELF-EVALUATION DISCREPANCIES TO ART PERFORMANCE AND ART JUDGMENT. STUDENTS WERE REQUIRED TO DEVELOP AN OIL CRAYON DRAWING, RESULTING FROM AN IMAGINARY SENTENCE SPOKEN TO AND SEEN BY ALL PARTICIPANTS. PREDICTIONS OF PERFORMANCE WERE ASKED PRIOR TO…

  7. Internal Consistency and Associated Characteristics of Informant Discrepancies in Clinic Referred Youths Age 11 to 17 Years

    PubMed Central

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Pabón, Shairy C.; Youngstrom, Jennifer K.; Feeny, Norah C.; Findling, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the internal consistency of informant discrepancies in reports of youth behavior and emotional problems and their unique relations with youth, caregiver, and family characteristics. In a heterogeneous multisite clinic sample of 420 youths (ages 11 to 17 years), high internal consistency estimates were observed across measures of informant discrepancies. Further, latent profile analyses identified systematic patterns of discrepancies, characterized by their magnitude and direction (i.e., which informant reported greater youth problems). Additionally, informant discrepancies systematically and uniquely related to informants' own perspectives of youth mood problems, and these relations remained significant after taking into account multiple informants' reports of informant characteristics widely known to relate to informant discrepancies. These findings call into the question the prevailing view of informant discrepancies as indicative of unreliability and/or bias on the part of informants' reports of youths' behavior. PMID:21229442

  8. Analyzing Discrepancies in a Software Development Project Change Request (CR) Assessment Process and Recommendations for Process Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Kenneth James

    2003-01-01

    The Change Request (CR) assessment process is essential in the display development cycle. The assessment process is performed to ensure that the changes stated in the description of the CR match the changes in the actual display requirements. If a discrepancy is found between the CR and the requirements, the CR must be returned to the originator for corrections. Data was gathered from each of the developers to determine the type of discrepancies and the amount of time spent assessing each CR. This study sought to determine the most common types of discrepancies, and the amount of time required to assessing those issues. The study found that even though removing discrepancy before an assessment would save half the time needed to assess an CR with a discrepancy, the number of CR's found to have a discrepancy was very small compared to the total number of CR's assessed during the data gathering period.

  9. Intelligence quotient discrepancy indicates levels of motor competence in preschool children at risk for developmental delays

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tzu-Ying; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Chou, Willy; Yang, Shu-Han; Kung, Sheng-Chun; Lee, Ya-Chen; Tung, Li-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to establish 1) whether a group difference exists in the motor competence of preschool children at risk for developmental delays with intelligence quotient discrepancy (IQD; refers to difference between verbal intelligence quotient [VIQ] and performance intelligence quotient [PIQ]) and 2) whether an association exists between IQD and motor competence. Methods Children’s motor competence and IQD were determined with the motor subtests of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence™ – Fourth Edition. A total of 291 children were included in three groups: NON-IQD (n=213; IQD within 1 standard deviation [SD]), VIQ>PIQ (n=39; VIQ>PIQ greater than 1 SD), and PIQ>VIQ (n=39; PIQ>VIQ greater than 1 SD). Results The results of one-way analysis of variance indicated significant differences among the subgroups for the “Gross and fine motor” subdomains of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers, especially on the subtests of “body-movement coordination” (F=3.87, P<0.05) and “visual-motor coordination” (F=6.90, P<0.05). Motor competence was significantly worse in the VIQ>PIQ group than in the NON and PIQ>VIQ groups. Significant negative correlations between IQD and most of the motor subtests (r=0.31–0.46, P<0.01) were found only in the VIQ>PIQ group. Conclusion This study demonstrates that 1) IQD indicates the level of motor competence in preschoolers at risk for developmental delays and 2) IQD is negatively associated with motor competence in preschoolers with significant VIQ>PIQ discrepancy. The first finding was that preschoolers with VIQ>PIQ discrepancy greater than 1 SD performed significantly worse on motor competence than did preschoolers without significant IQD and preschoolers with PIQ>VIQ discrepancy greater than 1 SD. However, preschoolers with significant PIQ>VIQ discrepancy performed better on motor competence than

  10. Satisfaction and attrition in paediatric weight management.

    PubMed

    Skelton, J A; Martin, S; Irby, M B

    2016-04-01

    Paediatric obesity treatment experiences unacceptably high rates of attrition. Few studies have explored parent and child perspectives on dropout. This study sought to capture child and parent experience in treatment and expressed contributors to attrition. Children and parents enrolled in a single family-based weight management programme participated in semi-structured interviews, conducted either upon completion of the first intensive phase of treatment or program dropout. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and coded using a multistage inductive approach. Interviews were obtained from 57 parents and 30 children, nearly equal between 'completers' or 'dropouts'. Five themes emerged: overall positive experience with programme; logistical challenges of participation; improved health; discrepancies between child and parent experience and perception, and importance of structure and expectations of weight loss. Primary reasons given for dropout were time commitment; distance from clinic; missed school and work; lack of dedicated adolescent programme; clinic hours; and stress. Few parents or children expressed dissatisfaction. Children reportedly enjoyed 'having someone to talk to' about weight, and spending increased time with family. Children and parents overall reported positive experiences in this weight management programme. Attrition appears more related to logistical issues than low satisfaction. Innovative approaches to help overcome logistical challenges and preserve positive aspects may help in decreasing programme attrition. PMID:27008068

  11. Gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicts girls' and boys' trait-state discrepancy in math anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Bieg, Madeleine; Goetz, Thomas; Wolter, Ilka; Hall, Nathan C.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary) math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait vs. state anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain) was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-state discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to state measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2–3 weeks (Nwithin = 6207). As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for state math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and state anxiety to be negatively related to students' self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts). Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicted the trait-state discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their state anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed. PMID:26441778

  12. Investigating the discrepancy between the predicted and actual energy performance of buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demanuele, Christine

    The threat of climate change has increased the demand for energy efficiency in buildings, with various stakeholders requesting more accurate predictions of energy consumption, and energy consultants coming under increased pressure to guarantee the energy performance of buildings. This study aims to investigate the factors causing the discrepancy which currently exists between the predicted and actual energy performance of buildings, which will lead to a deeper understanding of this discrepancy and, ultimately, more accurate energy predictions. As part of this study, a non-domestic building in London was modelled and monitored, so as to identify the main contributors to the discrepancy between the predicted and actual energy consumption. In addition, sensitivity analysis was carried out on a number of input variables to establish the set of influential parameters, and to determine whether using such techniques would successfully predict the range in which building energy consumption is likely to fall. The results show that the uncertainty calculated from differential sensitivity analysis encompasses the actual energy performance of the building. The most variable and influential parameters are those which are controlled by occupants, therefore it is paramount that management and occupants are well-informed about the building operation for energy targets to be achieved. Although the sensitivity analysis methods employed are impractical for commercial use, it is possible to develop simpler methods, encompassing all stages of building design and operation, which would decrease the discrepancy between the actual and predicted energy performance of buildings. Such techniques would be invaluable to energy consultants, for whom the cost resting on uncertainties in predictions is substantial due to more demanding clients and fines liable to be paid if energy predictions go wrong. A better understanding of the discrepancy, together with more accurate predictions, would

  13. Weight-loss medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000346.htm Weight-loss medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Several weight-loss medicines are available. Ask your health care provider ...

  14. Weight Loss & Acute Porphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sale You are here Home Diet and Nutrition Weight loss & acute Porphyria Being overweight is a particular problem ... one of these diseases before they enter a weight-loss program. Also, they should not participate in a ...

  15. Losing weight after pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... below the minimum number of calories you need. Breastfeeding If you are breastfeeding, you will want to lose weight slowly. Weight ... not affect your milk supply or your health. Breastfeeding makes your body burn calories. It helps you ...

  16. Weighted network modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, Illés; Ábel, Dániel; Palla, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamás

    2007-06-01

    The inclusion of link weights into the analysis of network properties allows a deeper insight into the (often overlapping) modular structure of real-world webs. We introduce a clustering algorithm clique percolation method with weights (CPMw) for weighted networks based on the concept of percolating k-cliques with high enough intensity. The algorithm allows overlaps between the modules. First, we give detailed analytical and numerical results about the critical point of weighted k-clique percolation on (weighted) Erdos Rényi graphs. Then, for a scientist collaboration web and a stock correlation graph we compute three-link weight correlations and with the CPMw the weighted modules. After reshuffling link weights in both networks and computing the same quantities for the randomized control graphs as well, we show that groups of three or more strong links prefer to cluster together in both original graphs.

  17. Pregnancy and Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Division (HMD) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine released updated guidelines for weight gain ... Division (HMD) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine: Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the ...

  18. Watching Your Weight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Doug

    1993-01-01

    Describes an activity shared at an inservice teacher workshop and suitable for middle school in which students predict their ideal weight in kilograms based on tables giving ideal weights for given heights. (MDH)

  19. Gradient Weight in Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Kevin Michael

    2011-01-01

    Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight…

  20. Kriging without negative weights

    SciTech Connect

    Szidarovszky, F.; Baafi, E.Y.; Kim, Y.C.

    1987-08-01

    Under a constant drift, the linear kriging estimator is considered as a weighted average of n available sample values. Kriging weights are determined such that the estimator is unbiased and optimal. To meet these requirements, negative kriging weights are sometimes found. Use of negative weights can produce negative block grades, which makes no practical sense. In some applications, all kriging weights may be required to be nonnegative. In this paper, a derivation of a set of nonlinear equations with the nonnegative constraint is presented. A numerical algorithm also is developed for the solution of the new set of kriging equations.

  1. Resistance to exercise-induced weight loss: compensatory behavioral adaptations.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Edward L; Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Donnelly, Joseph E; Braun, Barry; King, Neil A

    2013-08-01

    In many interventions that are based on an exercise program intended to induce weight loss, the mean weight loss observed is modest and sometimes far less than what the individual expected. The individual responses are also widely variable, with some individuals losing a substantial amount of weight, others maintaining weight, and a few actually gaining weight. The media have focused on the subpopulation that loses little weight, contributing to a public perception that exercise has limited utility to cause weight loss. The purpose of the symposium was to present recent, novel data that help explain how compensatory behaviors contribute to a wide discrepancy in exercise-induced weight loss. The presentations provide evidence that some individuals adopt compensatory behaviors, that is, increased energy intake and/or reduced activity, that offset the exercise energy expenditure and limit weight loss. The challenge for both scientists and clinicians is to develop effective tools to identify which individuals are susceptible to such behaviors and to develop strategies to minimize their effect. PMID:23470300

  2. Resistance to exercise-induced weight loss: compensatory behavioral adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Melanson, Edward L.; Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Braun, Barry; King, Neil A.

    2013-01-01

    In many interventions that are based on an exercise program intended to induce weight loss, the mean weight loss observed is modest and sometimes far less than the individual expected. The individual responses are also widely variable, with some individuals losing a substantial amount of weight, others maintaining weight, and a few actually gaining weight. The media have focused on the sub-population that loses little weight, contributing to a public perception that exercise has limited utility to cause weight loss. The purpose of the symposium was to present recent, novel data that help explain how compensatory behaviors contribute to a wide discrepancy in exercise-induced weight loss. The presentations provide evidence that some individuals adopt compensatory behaviors, i.e. increased energy intake and/or reduced activity, that offset the exercise energy expenditure and limit weight loss. The challenge for both scientists and clinicians is to develop effective tools to identify which individuals are susceptible to such behaviors, and to develop strategies to minimize their impact. PMID:23470300

  3. A study of preservice elementary teachers enrolled in a discrepant-event-based physical science class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilly, James Edward

    This research evaluated the POWERFUL IDEAS IN PHYSICAL SCIENCE (PIiPS) curriculum model used to develop a physical science course taken by preservice elementary teachers. The focus was on the evaluation of discrepant events used to induce conceptual change in relation to students' ideas concerning heat, temperature, and specific heat. Both quantitative and qualitative methodologies were used for the analysis. Data was collected during the 1998 Fall semester using two classes of physical science for elementary school teachers. The traditionally taught class served as the control group and the class using the PIiPS curriculum model was the experimental group. The PIiPS curriculum model was evaluated quantitatively for its influence on students' attitude toward science, anxiety towards teaching science, self efficacy toward teaching science, and content knowledge. An analysis of covariance was performed on the quantitative data to test for significant differences between the means of the posttests for the control and experimental groups while controlling for pretest. It was found that there were no significant differences between the means of the control and experimental groups with respect to changes in their attitude toward science, anxiety toward teaching science and self efficacy toward teaching science. A significant difference between the means of the content examination was found (F(1,28) = 14.202 and p = 0.001), however, the result is questionable. The heat and energy module was the target for qualitative scrutiny. Coding for discrepant events was adapted from Appleton's 1996 work on student's responses to discrepant event science lessons. The following qualitative questions were posed for the investigation: (1) what were the ideas of the preservice elementary students prior to entering the classroom regarding heat and energy, (2) how effective were the discrepant events as presented in the PIiPS heat and energy module, and (3) how much does the "risk taking

  4. An Alternating Least Squares Method for the Weighted Approximation of a Symmetric Matrix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ten Berge, Jos M. F.; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    1993-01-01

    R. A. Bailey and J. C. Gower explored approximating a symmetric matrix "B" by another, "C," in the least squares sense when the squared discrepancies for diagonal elements receive specific nonunit weights. A solution is proposed where "C" is constrained to be positive semidefinite and of a fixed rank. (SLD)

  5. Mothers' and Fathers' Perceptions of Their Adolescent Daughters' Shape, Weight, and Body Esteem: Are They Accurate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Josie; Srikameswaran, Suja; Zaitsoff, Shannon L.; Cockell, Sarah J.; Poole, Gary D.

    2003-01-01

    Examined parents' awareness of their daughters' attitudes, beliefs, and feelings about their bodies. Sixty-six adolescent daughters completed an eating disorder scale, a body figure rating scale, and made ratings of their shape and weight. Greater discrepancies between parents' estimates of daughters' body esteem and daughters' self-reported body…

  6. Toward Reconciling Magnitude Discrepancies Estimated from Paleoearthquake Data: A New Approach for Predicting Earthquake Magnitudes from Fault Segment Lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, N. S.; Payne, S. J.; Schafer, A. L.

    2011-12-01

    We recognize a discrepancy in magnitudes estimated for several Basin and Range faults in the Intermountain Seismic Belt, U.S.A. For example, magnitudes predicted for the Wasatch (Utah), Lost River (Idaho), and Lemhi (Idaho) faults from fault segment lengths, Lseg, where lengths are defined between geometrical, structural, and/or behavioral discontinuities assumed to persistently arrest rupture, are consistently less than magnitudes calculated from displacements, D, along these same segments. For self-similarity, empirical relationships (e.g. Wells and Coppersmith, 1994) should predict consistent magnitudes (M) using diverse fault dimension values for a given fault (i.e. M ~ Lseg, should equal M ~ D). Typically, the empirical relationships are derived from historical earthquake data and parameter values used as input into these relationships are determined from field investigations of paleoearthquakes. A commonly used assumption - grounded in the characteristic-earthquake model of Schwartz and Coppersmith (1984) - is equating Lseg with surface rupture length, SRL. Many large historical events yielded secondary and/or sympathetic faulting (e.g. 1983 Borah Peak, Idaho earthquake) which are included in the measurement of SRL and used to derive empirical relationships. Therefore, calculating magnitude from the M ~ SRL relationship using Lseg as SRL leads to an underestimation of magnitude and the M ~ Lseg and M ~ D discrepancy. Here, we propose an alternative approach to earthquake magnitude estimation involving a relationship between moment magnitude, Mw, and length, where length is Lseg instead of SRL. We analyze seven historical, surface-rupturing, strike-slip and normal faulting earthquakes for which segmentation of the causative fault and displacement data are available and whose rupture included at least one entire fault segment, but not two or more. The preliminary Mw ~ Lseg results are strikingly consistent with Mw ~ D calculations using paleoearthquake data for

  7. A walk through energy, discrepancy, numerical integration and group invariant measures on measurable subsets of euclidean space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damelin, S.

    2008-07-01

    (A) The celebrated Gaussian quadrature formula on finite intervals tells us that the Gauss nodes are the zeros of the unique solution of an extremal problem. We announce recent results of Damelin, Grabner, Levesley, Ragozin and Sun which derive quadrature estimates on compact, homogenous manifolds embedded in Euclidean spaces, via energy functionals associated with a class of group-invariant kernels which are generalizations of zonal kernels on the spheres or radial kernels in euclidean spaces. Our results apply, in particular, to weighted Riesz kernels defined on spheres and certain projective spaces. Our energy functionals describe both uniform and perturbed uniform distribution of quadrature point sets. (B) Given , some measurable subset of Euclidean space, one sometimes wants to construct, a design, a finite set of points, , with a small energy or discrepancy. We announce recent results of Damelin, Hickernell, Ragozin and Zeng which show that these two measures of quality are equivalent when they are defined via positive definite kernels . The error of approximating the integral by the sample average of f over has a tight upper bound in terms the energy or discrepancy of . The tightness of this error bound follows by requiring f to lie in the Hilbert space with reproducing kernel K. The theory presented here provides an interpretation of the best design for numerical integration as one with minimum energy, provided that the μ defining the integration problem is the equilibrium measure or charge distribution corresponding to the energy kernel, K. (C) Let be the orbit of a compact, possibly non Abelian group, , acting as measurable transformations of and the kernel K is invariant under the group action. We announce recent results of Damelin, Hickernell, Ragozin and Zeng which show that the equilibrium measure is the normalized measure on induced by Haar measure on . This allows us to calculate explicit representations of equilibrium measures. There is an

  8. Discrepancies between ages determined from scales and otoliths for alewives from the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Gorman, Robert; Barwick, D. Hugh; Bowen, Charles A.

    1987-01-01

    Discrepancies between ages determined from otoliths and those determined from scales were common and, sometimes, quite large in alewives Alosa pseudoharengus collected in fall 1983 from Lakes Ontario, Huron, and Michigan. Among fish with 'otolith ages' of 4 or more, the percentages having identical 'scale ages' were 1% in Lake Ontario, 35% in Lake Huron, and 56% in Lake Michigan. Among alewives with different otolith and scale ages, the percentages with discrepancies of 3 years or more were 51% in Lake Ontario, 23% in Lake Huron, and 6% in Lake Michigan. Among the three populations, variation in the magnitude of age disagreements were perhaps due to the different mortality rates in each lake, whereas variation in the frequency of disagreements appeared to be due to different ratios of food to fish in each lake. Previously reported age compositions and rates of mortality and production for Great Lakes alewives derived from scales have probably been inaccurate to various degrees.

  9. The apsidal motion of the eccentric eclipsing binary DI Herculis - An apparent discrepancy with general relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinan, E. F.; Maloney, F. P.

    1985-01-01

    The apsidal motion of the eccentric eclipsing binary DI Herculis (HD 175227) is determined from an analysis of the available observations and eclipse timings from 1959 to 1984. Least squares solutions to the primary and secondary minima extending over an 84-yr interval yielded a small advance of periastron omega dot of 0.65 deg/100 yr + or - 0.18/100 yr. The observed advance of the periastron is about one seventh of the theoretical value of 4.27 deg/100 yr that is expected from the combined relativistic and classical effects. The discrepancy is about -3.62 deg/100 yr, or a magnitude of about 20 sigma. Classical mechanisms which explain the discrepancy are discussed, together with the possibility that there may be problems with general relativity itself.

  10. Enhancing DSN Operations Efficiency with the Discrepancy Reporting Management System (DRMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatillon, Mark; Lin, James; Cooper, Tonja M.

    2003-01-01

    The DRMS is the Discrepancy Reporting Management System used by the Deep Space Network (DSN). It uses a web interface and is a management tool designed to track and manage: data outage incidents during spacecraft tracks against equipment and software known as DRs (discrepancy Reports), to record "out of pass" incident logs against equipment and software in a Station Log, to record instances where equipment has be restarted or reset as Reset records, and to electronically record equipment readiness status across the DSN. Tracking and managing these items increases DSN operational efficiency by providing: the ability to establish the operational history of equipment items, data on the quality of service provided to the DSN customers, the ability to measure service performance, early insight into processes, procedures and interfaces that may need updating or changing, and the capability to trace a data outage to a software or hardware change. The items listed above help the DSN to focus resources on areas of most need.

  11. Caregiver and Adolescent Discrepancies in Perceptions of Violence and Their Associations with Early Adolescent Aggression.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah; Reichenberg, Raymond; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Haynie, Denise L; Cheng, Tina L

    2016-10-01

    This article examined the role of caregiver messages about violence and exposure to neighborhood violence on adolescent aggression in light of research regarding discrepancies between parents and their children. Drawing upon data from an urban African American sample of 144 caregiver/early adolescent dyads (M = 12.99; SD = 0.93; 58.7 % female) we examined covariates of discrepancies between caregiver and adolescent reports of perceptions of violence as well as their association with adolescent aggression. Analyses suggested that concordance in perceptions of violence was associated with children's attitudes about violence and caregivers' perceptions of family communication. Structural equation modeling indicated a unique role for individual perceptions and suggested that agreement in awareness of neighborhood violence could be protective for early adolescent involvement in aggression. PMID:27230117

  12. Radiative Heating in MSL Entry: Comparison of Flight Heating Discrepancy to Ground Test and Predictive Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruden, Brett A.; Brandis, Aaron M.; White, Todd R.; Mahzari, Milad; Bose, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    During the recent entry of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), the heat shield was equipped with thermocouple stacks to measure in-depth heating of the thermal protection system (TPS). When only convective heating was considered, the derived heat flux from gauges in the stagnation region was found to be underpredicted by as much as 17 W/sq cm, which is significant compared to the peak heating of 32 W/sq cm. In order to quantify the contribution of radiative heating phenomena to the discrepancy, ground tests and predictive simulations that replicated the MSL entry trajectory were performed. An analysis is carried through to assess the quality of the radiation model and the impact to stagnation line heating. The impact is shown to be significant, but does not fully explain the heating discrepancy.

  13. Doctor's expertise and managing discrepant information from other sources in genetic counseling: a conversation analytic perspective.

    PubMed

    Lehtinen, Esa; Kääriäinen, Helena

    2005-12-01

    The study examines a recurrent interactional pattern in genetic counseling. It describes clinical geneticists' responses in situations in which clients have presented information from other sources that is potentially discrepant with information given by the doctor. The data consists of 12 video-recorded sessions of genetic counseling in Finland, and the method is conversation analysis. There are two primary ways the doctors respond: either they accept the client's information as such, but show that it is not discrepant with the doctor's information, or they reject the client's information. In the latter case they mitigate the 'wrongness' of the client's information. The clinical geneticists seem to be working with a dilemma: they need to find a balance between ensuring correct understanding of the information and showing respect for the expertise of others. A particularly complex case is also analyzed and reflected on. PMID:16388324

  14. The Relations among Measurements of Informant Discrepancies within a Multisite Trial of Treatments for Childhood Social Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Alfano, Candice A.; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2010-01-01

    Discrepancies between informants' reports of children's behavior are robustly observed in clinical child research and have important implications for interpreting the outcomes of controlled treatment trials. However, little is known about the basic psychometric properties of these discrepancies. This study examined the relation between…

  15. Optimism and Pessimism as Mediators of the Relations Between Self-Discrepancies and Distress Among Asian and European Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Erin E.; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the role of undesired self-discrepancies in predicting emotional distress among Asian and European Americans, whether undesired self-discrepancies are stronger predictors of distress for Asian than for European Americans, and whether optimism and pessimism mediate the relations between ideal, ought, and undesired…

  16. Parent-Child Acculturation Discrepancy, Perceived Parental Knowledge, Peer Deviance, and Adolescent Delinquency in Chinese Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yijie; Kim, Su Yeong; Anderson, Edward R.; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Yan, Ni

    2012-01-01

    Parent-child acculturation discrepancy has been considered a risk factor for child maladjustment. The current study examined parent-child acculturation discrepancy as an ongoing risk factor for delinquency, through the mediating pathway of parental knowledge of the child's daily experiences relating to contact with deviant peers. Participants were…

  17. Intergenerational Discrepancies of Parental Control among Chinese American Families: Links to Family Conflict and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juang, Linda P.; Syed, Moin; Takagi, Miyuki

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated how discrepancies between adolescents' and parents' endorsement of parental control contribute to adolescent depressive symptoms. Family conflict was hypothesized to mediate the link between parent-adolescent discrepancies and depressive symptoms. The sample consisted of 166 pairs of Chinese American adolescents and their…

  18. Performance Discrepancies on the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II) in the Standardization Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donders, Jacobus

    2006-01-01

    The standardization data for the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II; D. C. Delis, J. H. Kramer, E. Kaplan, & B. A. Ober, 2000) were used to evaluate the base rate of 6 specific discrepancies between various key variables. The results indicated that CVLT-II performance discrepancies should equal or exceed 1 or 1.5 z score…

  19. School Psychology Crossroads in America: Discrepancies between Actual and Preferred Discrete Practices and Barriers to Preferred Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filter, Kevin J.; Ebsen, Sara; Dibos, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    A nationally representative sample of American school psychology practitioners were surveyed to analyze discrepancies that they experience between their actual discrete practices and their preferred discrete practices relative to several domains of practice including assessment, intervention, meetings, and continuing education. Discrepancies were…

  20. Simple table for estimating confidence interval of discrepancy frequencies in microbiological safety evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Brigitte; Delignette-Muller, Marie Laure; Baty, Florent; Carret, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    We provide a simple tool to determine discrepancies confidence interval (CI) in microbiology validation studies such as technical accuracy of a qualitative test result. This tool enables to determine exact confidence interval (binomial CI) from an observed frequency when normal approximation is inadequate, that is, in case of rare events. This tool has daily applications in microbiology and we are presenting an example of its application to antimicrobial susceptibility systems evaluation. PMID:14706759

  1. Toward resolving model-measurement discrepancies of radon entry into houses

    SciTech Connect

    Garbesi, K

    1994-10-01

    Analysis of the literature indicated that radon transport models significantly and consistently underpredict the advective entry into houses of soil-gas borne radon. Advective entry is the dominant mechanism resulting in high concentrations of radon indoors. The author investigated the source of the model-measurement discrepancy via carefully controlled field experiments conducted at an experimental basement located in natural soil in Ben Lomond, California. Early experiments at the structure confirmed the existence and magnitude of the model-measurement discrepancy, ensuring that it was not merely an artifact of inherently complex and poorly understood field sites. The measured soil-gas entry rate during structure depressurization was found to be an order of magnitude larger than predicted by a current three-dimensional numerical model of radon transport. The exact magnitude of the discrepancy depends on whether the arithmetic or geometric mean of the small-scale measurements of permeability is used to estimate the effective permeability of the soil. This factor is a critical empirical input to the model and was determined for the Ben Lomond site in the typical fashion using single-probe static depressurization measurements at multiple locations. The remainder of the dissertation research tests a hypothesis to explain the observed discrepancy: that soil permeability assessed using relatively small-scale probe measurements does not reflect bulk soil permeability for flows that is likely to occur at larger scales of several meters or more in real houses and in the test structure. The idea is that soil heterogeneity is of a nature that, as flows occur over larger scales, larger scales of heterogeneity are encountered that facilitate larger flux rates, resulting in a scale dependence of effective soil permeability.

  2. Toward resolving model-measurement discrepancies of radon entry into houses

    SciTech Connect

    Garbesi, K.

    1993-06-01

    Analysis of the literature indicated that radon transport models significantly and consistently underpredict the advective entry into houses of soil-gas borne radon. Advective entry is the dominant mechanism resulting in high concentrations of radon indoors. My dissertation research investigated the source of the model-measurement discrepancy via carefully controlled field experiments conducted at an experimental basement located in natural soil in Ben Lomond, California. Early experiments at the structure confirmed the existence and magnitude of the model-measurement discrepancy, ensuring that it was not merely an artifact of inherently complex and poorly understood field sites. The measured soil-gas entry rate during structure depressurization was found to be an order of magnitude larger than predicted by a current three-dimensional numerical model of radon transport. The exact magnitude of the discrepancy depends on whether the arithmetic or geometric mean of the small-scale measurements of permeability is used to estimate the effective permeability of the soil. This factor is a critical empirical input to the model and was determined for the Ben Lomond site in the typical fashion using single-probe static depressorization measurements at multiple locations. The remainder of the dissertation research tests a hypothesis to explain the observed discrepancy: That soil permeability assessed using relatively small-scale probe measurements (0.1--0.5 m) does not reflect bulk soil permeability for flows that is likely to occur at larger scales of several meters or more in real houses and in the test structure. The idea is that soil heterogeneity is of a nature that, as flows occur over larger scales, larger scales of heterogeneity are encountered that facilitate larger flux rates, resulting in a scale dependence of effective soil permeability.

  3. Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem Discrepancies, Victimization and the Development of Late Childhood Internalizing Problems.

    PubMed

    Leeuwis, Franca H; Koot, Hans M; Creemers, Daan H M; van Lier, Pol A C

    2015-07-01

    Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem have been linked with internalizing problems among mainly adolescents and adults. Longitudinal research on this association in children is lacking. This study examined the longitudinal link between self-esteem discrepancies and the development of internalizing problems in children. It furthermore examined the possible mediating role of self-esteem discrepancies in the longitudinal link between experiences of peer victimization and internalizing problems development. Children (N = 330, M(age) = 11.2 year; 52.5 % female) were followed over grades five (age 11 years) and six (age 12 years). Self-report measures were used annually to test for victimization and internalizing problems. Implicit self-esteem was assessed using an implicit association test, while explicit self-esteem was assessed via self-reports. Self-esteem discrepancies represented the difference between implicit and explicit self-esteem. Results showed that victimization was associated with increases in damaged self-esteem (higher levels of implicit than explicit self-esteem. Additionally, damaged self-esteem at age 11 years predicted an increase in internalizing problems in children over ages 11 to 12 years. Furthermore, damaged self-esteem mediated the relationship between age 11 years victimization and the development of internalizing problems. No impact of fragile self-esteem (lower levels of implicit than explicit self-esteem) on internalizing problems was found. The results thus underscore that, as found in adolescent and adult samples, damaged self-esteem is a predictor of increases in childhood internalizing problems. Moreover, damaged self-esteem might explain why children who are victimized develop internalizing problems. Implications are discussed. PMID:25403344

  4. In vitro evaluation of the marginal and internal discrepancies of different esthetic restorations

    PubMed Central

    SAKRANA, Amal Abdelsamad

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined the fit of two types of all-ceramic single crowns and indirect composite resin full coverage crowns. Material and Methods Thirty intact human mandibular first premolars were selected for this study and prepared using a machine to standardize the dimensions and randomly divided into 3 groups. Slip cast (IC) (In-Ceram Zirconia, Vita Zahnfabrik), copy-milled zirconia (CM) (ICE, Zirkonzahn) and indirect composite resin crowns (NECO, HeraeusKulzer, Hanau, Germany), (N=30, 10 per group) were fabricated according to each manufacturer's recommendations. Before cementation, discrepancies were measured at the marginal zone in each crown. Crowns were then cemented with G-Cem capsule self-adhesive luting cement (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). Four positions were marked for each zone (mid-facial, mid-mesial, mid-distal, and mid-lingual) and three measurements were made at each of the four positions yielding to a total of 12 measurements per crown before and after cementation. The measurements were performed at a different magnification using a stereo microscope (SZ11, Olympus, Japan). Marginal, axial and occlusal zone discrepancies (µm) were evaluated after cementation. The data were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results Before cementation, significantly less marginal discrepancies were noted compared with after cementation in all groups (p<0.05). No significant differences were found within each zone (Marginal= IC: 84.2, NECO: 95.22, CM: 84.22; Axial= IC: 54.22, NECO: 64.2, CM: 55.22; Occlusal= IC: 119.97, NECO: 129.18, CM: 121.15) in the three crown systems (p>0.05). Occlusal zone discrepancies were significantly higher than those of the marginal and axial zones in all groups (p<0.05). Conclusions Slip cast and copy-milled zirconia crowns showed comparable fit to composite resin crowns in all marginal, axial and occlusal areas. PMID:24473725

  5. Atomic bomb induced 152Eu: reconciliation of discrepancy between measurements and calculation.

    PubMed

    Komura, K; Hoshi, M; Endo, S; Imanaka, T; Egbert, S D; Rühm, W; Fukushima, H; Fujita, S

    2007-04-01

    In order to resolve the discrepancy between the measured and calculated 152Eu activity induced by the atomic bomb at Hiroshima, extremely low background gamma-ray spectrometry was performed for 17 granite samples collected from 134 m to more than 3 km from the hypocenter. Measurements agreed well with theoretical calculations based on DS02 up to 1.4 km from hypocenter. PMID:17351501

  6. Toward resolving model-measurement discrepancies of radon entry into houses

    SciTech Connect

    Garbesi, K.

    1993-12-31

    My dissertation research investigated the source of the model-measurement discrepancy via carefully controlled field experiments conducted at an experimental basement located in natural soil in Ben Lomond, California. Early experiments at the structure (Chapter II) confirmed the existence and magnitude of the model-measurement discrepancy, ensuring that it was not merely an artifact of inherently complex and poorly understood field sites. The measured soil-gas entry rate during structure depressurization was found to be an order of magnitude larger than predicted by a current three-dimensional numerical model of radon transport. The exact magnitude of the discrepancy depends on whether the arithmetic or geometric mean of the small-scale measurements of permeability is used to estimate the effective permeability of the soil. This factor is a critical empirical input to the model and was determined for the Ben Lomond site in the typical fashion using single-probe static depressurization measurement at multiple locations. The remainder of the dissertation research tests a hypothesis to explain the observed discrepancy: that soil permeability assessed using relatively small-scale probe measurements (0.1-0.5 m) does not reflect bulk soil permeability for flows that is likely to occur at larger scales of several meters or more in real houses and in the test structure. The idea is that soil heterogeneity is of a nature that, as flows occur over larger scales, larger scales of heterogeneity are encountered that facilitate larger flux rates, resulting in a scale dependence of effective soil permeability. In Chapter III, I describe the development of a dual-probe dynamic pressure technique to measure soil permeability to air (and anisotropy of permeability) at various length scales. Preliminary field tests of the apparatus indicated that soil permeability was indeed scale dependent.

  7. Computerized versus motivational interviewing alcohol interventions: impact on discrepancy, motivation, and drinking.

    PubMed

    Murphy, James G; Dennhardt, Ashley A; Skidmore, Jessica R; Martens, Matthew P; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E

    2010-12-01

    The authors conducted two randomized clinical trials with ethnically diverse samples of college student drinkers in order to determine (a) the relative efficacy of two popular computerized interventions versus a more comprehensive motivational interview approach (BASICS) and (b) the mechanisms of change associated with these interventions. In Study 1, heavy drinking participants recruited from a student health center (N = 74, 59% women, 23% African American) were randomly assigned to receive BASICS or the Alcohol 101 CD-ROM program. BASICS was associated with greater post-session motivation to change and self-ideal and normative discrepancy relative to Alcohol 101, but there were no group differences in the primary drinking outcomes at 1-month follow-up. Pre to post session increases in motivation predicted lower follow-up drinking across both conditions. In Study 2, heavy drinking freshman recruited from a core university course (N = 133, 50% women, 30% African American) were randomly assigned to BASICS, a web-based feedback program (e-CHUG), or assessment-only. BASICS was associated with greater post-session self-ideal discrepancy than e-CHUG, but there were no differences in motivation or normative discrepancy. There was a significant treatment effect on typical weekly and heavy drinking, with participants in BASICS reporting significantly lower follow-up drinking relative to assessment only participants. In Study 2, change in the motivation or discrepancy did not predict drinking outcomes. Across both studies, African American students assigned to BASICS reported medium effect size reductions in drinking whereas African American students assigned to Alcohol 101, e-CHUG, or assessment did not reduce their drinking. PMID:21198224

  8. Discrepancies between Multi-Electrode LFP and CSD Phase-Patterns: A Forward Modeling Study.

    PubMed

    Hindriks, Rikkert; Arsiwalla, Xerxes D; Panagiotaropoulos, Theofanis; Besserve, Michel; Verschure, Paul F M J; Logothetis, Nikos K; Deco, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Multi-electrode recordings of local field potentials (LFPs) provide the opportunity to investigate the spatiotemporal organization of neural activity on the scale of several millimeters. In particular, the phases of oscillatory LFPs allow studying the coordination of neural oscillations in time and space and to tie it to cognitive processing. Given the computational roles of LFP phases, it is important to know how they relate to the phases of the underlying current source densities (CSDs) that generate them. Although CSDs and LFPs are distinct physical quantities, they are often (implicitly) identified when interpreting experimental observations. That this identification is problematic is clear from the fact that LFP phases change when switching to different electrode montages, while the underlying CSD phases remain unchanged. In this study we use a volume-conductor model to characterize discrepancies between LFP and CSD phase-patterns, to identify the contributing factors, and to assess the effect of different electrode montages. Although we focus on cortical LFPs recorded with two-dimensional (Utah) arrays, our findings are also relevant for other electrode configurations. We found that the main factors that determine the discrepancy between CSD and LFP phase-patterns are the frequency of the neural oscillations and the extent to which the laminar CSD profile is balanced. Furthermore, the presence of laminar phase-differences in cortical oscillations, as commonly observed in experiments, precludes identifying LFP phases with those of the CSD oscillations at a given cortical depth. This observation potentially complicates the interpretation of spike-LFP coherence and spike-triggered LFP averages. With respect to reference strategies, we found that the average-reference montage leads to larger discrepancies between LFP and CSD phases as compared with the referential montage, while the Laplacian montage reduces these discrepancies. We therefore advice to conduct

  9. Outcome of premolar extractions on Bolton's overall ratio and tooth size discrepancies in South India

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Shaji T.; Yerasi, Purushothama R.; Jose, Lijo K.; Mohammed Haris, T. P.; Mathew, Tom; Ealla, Kranti K. R.

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Attainment of ideal occlusion is often restricted by disproportionate sizes of individual teeth, which is otherwise termed as tooth size discrepancy (TSD). While extraction of teeth for orthodontic purposes is not uncommon, there is considerable resistance against this school of thought. The extraction of premolars, in particular, received considerable attention because of the potential TSD that could result following the extraction of premolars. The aim of the present study was to identify the consequence of premolar extractions on Bolton's overall ratios in South Indian population. Materials and Methods: One hundred participants were recruited into the study through purposive nonproportionate quota sampling. Pretreatment dental casts of the study participants were measured for mesiodistal tooth widths to determine Bolton's overall ratio before the hypothetical tooth extractions were performed. The hypothetical extractions were executed in four different combinations as follows: (a) Maxillary and mandibular first premolars, (b) maxillary first premolars and mandibular second premolars, (c) maxillary second premolars and mandibular first premolars, and (d) maxillary and mandibular second premolars. Bolton's overall ratios were calculated after the hypothetical tooth extractions were performed. Statistical analysis was done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 20 software. Results: It was observed that extractions performed in any of the combinations followed in this study resulted in a decrease of overall Bolton's ratios. However, the discrepancy in tooth size was highest with the extraction of all first premolars, whereas least discrepancy was recorded with all second premolars extraction. It was also found that, based on the combination of teeth chosen for extraction, there was significant difference in Bolton's overall ratios between males and females. Conclusion: In formulating a treatment plan involving premolar

  10. Using IQ discrepancy scores to examine the neural correlates of specific cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Amy; Bansal, Ravi; Hao, Xuejun; Algermissen, Molly; Erickson, Cole; Klahr, Kristin W; Naglieri, Jack A; Peterson, Bradley S

    2013-08-28

    The underlying neural determinants of general intelligence have been studied intensively, and seem to derive from the anatomical and functional characteristics of a frontoparietal network. Little is known, however, about the underlying neural correlates of domain-specific cognitive abilities, the other factors hypothesized to explain individual performance on intelligence tests. Previous preliminary studies have suggested that spatially distinct neural structures do not support domain-specific cognitive abilities. To test whether differences between abilities that affect performance on verbal and performance tasks derive instead from the morphological features of a single anatomical network, we assessed in two independent samples of healthy human participants (N=83 and N=58; age range, 5-57 years) the correlation of cortical thickness with the magnitude of the verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ)-performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) discrepancy. We operationalized the VIQ-PIQ discrepancy by regressing VIQ onto PIQ (VIQ-regressed-on-PIQ score), and by regressing PIQ onto VIQ (PIQ-regressed-on-VIQ score). In both samples, a progressively thinner cortical mantle in anterior and posterior regions bilaterally was associated with progressively greater (more positive) VIQ-regressed-on-PIQ scores. A progressively thicker cortical mantle in anterior and posterior regions bilaterally was associated with progressively greater (more positive) PIQ-regressed-on-VIQ scores. Variation in cortical thickness in these regions accounted for a large portion of the overall variance in magnitude of the VIQ-PIQ discrepancy. The degree of hemispheric asymmetry in cortical thickness accounted for a much smaller but statistically significant portion of variance in VIQ-PIQ discrepancy. PMID:23986248

  11. Discrepancies between Multi-Electrode LFP and CSD Phase-Patterns: A Forward Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Hindriks, Rikkert; Arsiwalla, Xerxes D.; Panagiotaropoulos, Theofanis; Besserve, Michel; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.; Logothetis, Nikos K.; Deco, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Multi-electrode recordings of local field potentials (LFPs) provide the opportunity to investigate the spatiotemporal organization of neural activity on the scale of several millimeters. In particular, the phases of oscillatory LFPs allow studying the coordination of neural oscillations in time and space and to tie it to cognitive processing. Given the computational roles of LFP phases, it is important to know how they relate to the phases of the underlying current source densities (CSDs) that generate them. Although CSDs and LFPs are distinct physical quantities, they are often (implicitly) identified when interpreting experimental observations. That this identification is problematic is clear from the fact that LFP phases change when switching to different electrode montages, while the underlying CSD phases remain unchanged. In this study we use a volume-conductor model to characterize discrepancies between LFP and CSD phase-patterns, to identify the contributing factors, and to assess the effect of different electrode montages. Although we focus on cortical LFPs recorded with two-dimensional (Utah) arrays, our findings are also relevant for other electrode configurations. We found that the main factors that determine the discrepancy between CSD and LFP phase-patterns are the frequency of the neural oscillations and the extent to which the laminar CSD profile is balanced. Furthermore, the presence of laminar phase-differences in cortical oscillations, as commonly observed in experiments, precludes identifying LFP phases with those of the CSD oscillations at a given cortical depth. This observation potentially complicates the interpretation of spike-LFP coherence and spike-triggered LFP averages. With respect to reference strategies, we found that the average-reference montage leads to larger discrepancies between LFP and CSD phases as compared with the referential montage, while the Laplacian montage reduces these discrepancies. We therefore advice to conduct

  12. 16 CFR 641.1 - Duties of users of consumer reports regarding address discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... 5318(l) (31 CFR 103.121); (B) Maintains in its own records, such as applications, change of address..., a notice of address discrepancy means a notice sent to a user by a consumer reporting agency described in 15 U.S.C. 1681a(p) pursuant to 15 U.S.C. 1681c(h)(1), that informs the user of a...

  13. THE RADIUS DISCREPANCY IN LOW-MASS STARS: SINGLE VERSUS BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Spada, F.; Demarque, P.; Kim, Y.-C.; Sills, A.

    2013-10-20

    A long-standing issue in the theory of low-mass stars is the discrepancy between predicted and observed radii and effective temperatures. In spite of the increasing availability of very precise radius determinations from eclipsing binaries and interferometric measurements of radii of single stars, there is no unanimous consensus on the extent (or even the existence) of the discrepancy and on its connection with other stellar properties (e.g., metallicity, magnetic activity). We investigate the radius discrepancy phenomenon using the best data currently available (accuracy ∼< 5%). We have constructed a grid of stellar models covering the entire range of low-mass stars (0.1-1.25 M{sub ☉}) and various choices of the metallicity and mixing length parameter, α. We used an improved version of the Yale Rotational stellar Evolution Code, implementing surface boundary conditions based on the most up-to-date PHOENIX atmosphere models. Our models are in good agreement with others in the literature and improve and extend the low mass end of the Yale-Yonsei isochrones. Our calculations include rotation-related quantities, such as moments of inertia and convective turnover timescales, useful in studies of magnetic activity and rotational evolution of solar-like stars. Consistent with previous works, we find that both binaries and single stars have radii inflated by about 3% with respect to the theoretical models; among binaries, the components of short orbital period systems are found to be the most deviant. We conclude that both binaries and single stars are comparably affected by the radius discrepancy phenomenon.

  14. Discrepancy between ambient annealing and H+ implantation in optical absorption of ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Jinpeng; Li, Chundong

    2016-05-01

    The discrepancy between sub-bandgap absorption in ZnO induced by thermal annealing and H+ implantation is investigated in this study for the first time. Results indicate that nonreductive annealing-induced optical absorption is independent of annealing ambient, and can be assigned to VO, whereas the absorption centers caused by H+ implantation and H2 annealing are primarily associated with VO and ionized Zni.

  15. On a possible cause of discrepancy between Yohkoh and SMM calcium abundance determinations in flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylwester, J.; Kepa, A.; Bentley, R. D.

    2002-07-01

    We have investigated problems concerning the discrepancy between estimates of absolute calcium abundances (A Ca) in solar flares as derived from soft X-ray high resolution spectra as obtained from Yohkoh and Solar Maximum Mission ( SMM) Bragg spectrometers. The analysis of these spectra allows for determination of absolute calcium abundance since both Ca XIX resonance line and neighbouring continuum are reliably measured in these experiments. The abundance determinations are possible by means of fitting the synthetic spectra to the observed ones. In previous work, we attributed part (around 50%) of the observed disagreement to a possible instrumental problem in Yohkoh. In the present research, we consider in more details possible causes of the other part of the discrepancy. We first investigate whether the estimates of (A Ca) depend substantially on the extension of the observed short wavelength wing of the Ca XIX resonance line. This problem is important in the case of the analysis of Yohkoh spectra, since the extension of the spectrum towards the short wavelengths depends on the position of the flare along North—South direction on the Sun. After verifying the robustness of results of the spectral fitting technique, we have considered possible physical scenario which may cause the observed discrepancy. The hypothesis tested was that the Ca abundance in flares is correlated with brightness in the source — namely that it is a few times higher in the centre of the source (flaring kernel) than outside. We have found that postulated model may account for a part of the noted discrepancy as the SMM spectrometer has been equipped with the 6 × 6 arcmin collimator and no collimator has been used on Yohkoh.

  16. Using IQ Discrepancy Scores To Examine the Neural Correlates of Specific Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Amy; Bansal, Ravi; Hao, Xuejun; Algermissen, Molly; Erickson, Cole; Klahr, Kristin W.; Naglieri, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    The underlying neural determinants of general intelligence have been studied intensively, and seem to derive from the anatomical and functional characteristics of a frontoparietal network. Little is known, however, about the underlying neural correlates of domain-specific cognitive abilities, the other factors hypothesized to explain individual performance on intelligence tests. Previous preliminary studies have suggested that spatially distinct neural structures do not support domain-specific cognitive abilities. To test whether differences between abilities that affect performance on verbal and performance tasks derive instead from the morphological features of a single anatomical network, we assessed in two independent samples of healthy human participants (N = 83 and N = 58; age range, 5–57 years) the correlation of cortical thickness with the magnitude of the verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ)-performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) discrepancy. We operationalized the VIQ-PIQ discrepancy by regressing VIQ onto PIQ (VIQ-regressed-on-PIQ score), and by regressing PIQ onto VIQ (PIQ-regressed-on-VIQ score). In both samples, a progressively thinner cortical mantle in anterior and posterior regions bilaterally was associated with progressively greater (more positive) VIQ-regressed-on-PIQ scores. A progressively thicker cortical mantle in anterior and posterior regions bilaterally was associated with progressively greater (more positive) PIQ-regressed-on-VIQ scores. Variation in cortical thickness in these regions accounted for a large portion of the overall variance in magnitude of the VIQ-PIQ discrepancy. The degree of hemispheric asymmetry in cortical thickness accounted for a much smaller but statistically significant portion of variance in VIQ-PIQ discrepancy. PMID:23986248

  17. The discrepancies in the results of bioinformatics tools for genomic structural annotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawełkowicz, Magdalena; Nowak, Robert; Osipowski, Paweł; Rymuszka, Jacek; Świerkula, Katarzyna; Wojcieszek, Michał; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2014-11-01

    A major focus of sequencing project is to identify genes in genomes. However it is necessary to define the variety of genes and the criteria for identifying them. In this work we present discrepancies and dependencies from the application of different bioinformatic programs for structural annotation performed on the cucumber data set from Polish Consortium of Cucumber Genome Sequencing. We use Fgenesh, GenScan and GeneMark to automated structural annotation, the results have been compared to reference annotation.

  18. Beyond general behavioral theories: structural discrepancy in young motorcyclist's risky driving behavior and its policy implications.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yi-Shih; Wong, Jinn-Tsai

    2012-11-01

    While many studies examine the mean score differences of psychological determinants between heterogeneous driver groups, this study reveals a structural discrepancy in a causal behavioral framework. Using young motorcyclists (ages 18-28) as subjects, this study investigates the various roles of key influential factors in determining risky driving behavior. Multi-group analysis of structural equation modeling shows that age and gender are two factors that can effectively distinguish heterogeneous driver groups exhibiting different decision-making mechanisms in shaping their risky driving behaviors. When encountering undesirable traffic conditions, road rage can immediately increase male motorcyclists' intentions to engage in risky driving behaviors; on the other hand, young female motorcyclists further calculate their perceived risk to determine whether to engage in risky driving behaviors. This result shows that there is a significant link between risk perception and traffic condition awareness for experienced drivers (ages 25-28), but not for younger drivers (ages 18-24). This finding shows that while well-developed theories such as planned behavior and risk homeostasis provide general frameworks to explain risky driving behavior, heterogeneous driver groups may exhibit structural discrepancies that reflect their various decision-making mechanisms. This suggests that, in addition to mean differences, understanding structural discrepancies among heterogeneous groups could help researchers identify effective intervention strategies. PMID:23036393

  19. Tooth-size discrepancy: A comparison between manual and digital methods

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Gabriele Dória Cabral; Habib, Fernando Antonio Lima; Vogel, Carlos Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Technological advances in Dentistry have emerged primarily in the area of diagnostic tools. One example is the 3D scanner, which can transform plaster models into three-dimensional digital models. Objective This study aimed to assess the reliability of tooth size-arch length discrepancy analysis measurements performed on three-dimensional digital models, and compare these measurements with those obtained from plaster models. Material and Methods To this end, plaster models of lower dental arches and their corresponding three-dimensional digital models acquired with a 3Shape R700T scanner were used. All of them had lower permanent dentition. Four different tooth size-arch length discrepancy calculations were performed on each model, two of which by manual methods using calipers and brass wire, and two by digital methods using linear measurements and parabolas. Results Data were statistically assessed using Friedman test and no statistically significant differences were found between the two methods (P > 0.05), except for values found by the linear digital method which revealed a slight, non-significant statistical difference. Conclusions Based on the results, it is reasonable to assert that any of these resources used by orthodontists to clinically assess tooth size-arch length discrepancy can be considered reliable. PMID:25279529

  20. Health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms among Hispanic adolescents: Examining acculturation discrepancies and family functioning.

    PubMed

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Unger, Jennifer B; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Romero, Andrea J; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Lizzi, Karina M; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2016-03-01

    Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning 2 models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement 6 months postbaseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms 1 year postbaseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning; (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS; (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26301514

  1. Differential correlates of autobiographical memory specificity to affective and self-discrepant cues.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Ineke; Postma, Ineke R; Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Crane, Catherine; Smets, Jorien; Zeeman, Gerda G; Barnhofer, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    According to the CaRFAX model (Williams et al., 2007), several processes may result in overgeneral autobiographical memory. The present study examined whether the type of cue used in the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) is important for illuminating relationships between autobiographical memory specificity and variables pertinent to the Functional Avoidance (FA) and Capture and Rumination (CaR) aspects of the model. Sixty-one women varying in their experience of a potentially traumatic event and previous depression completed two versions of the AMT: one containing affective cues and the other containing cues representing idiosyncratic self-discrepancies. Consistent with the FA hypothesis, avoidance of the potentially traumatic event was associated with fewer specific memories on the affective, but not the self-discrepant AMT. Furthermore, in line with the CaR hypothesis, performance on the self-discrepant, but not the affective AMT was related to ruminative self-reflection in women reporting previous depression, even after controlling for current depression and education levels. Together the results suggest that varying cue type may increase the sensitivity of the AMT, depending on the aspect of the CaRFAX model of overgeneral memory that is to be addressed. PMID:23889508

  2. Photogrammetric determination of discrepancies between actual and planned position of dental implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forlani, G.; Rivara, F.

    2014-05-01

    The paper describes the design and testing of a photogrammetric measurement protocol set up to determine the discrepancies between the planned and actual position of computer-guided template-based dental implants. Two moulds with the implants positioned in pre- and post- intervention are produced and separately imaged with a highly redundant block of convergent images; the model with the implants is positioned on a steel frame with control points and with suitable targets attached. The theoretical accuracy of the system is better than 20 micrometers and 0.3-0.4° respectively for positions of implants and directions of implant axes. In order to compare positions and angles between the planned and actual position of an implant, coordinates and axes directions are brought to a common reference system with a Helmert transformation. A procedure for comparison of positions and directions to identify out-of-tolerance discrepancies is presented; a numerical simulation study shows the effectiveness of the procedure in identifying the implants with significant discrepancies between pre- and post- intervention.

  3. Incidence of Tooth Size Discrepancy in Different Groups of Malocclusion and its Relation to Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Gaddam, Rajkumar; Arya, Siddarth; Shetty, K Sadashiva

    2015-01-01

    Background: For proper intercuspation, the teeth must be proportional in size. If teeth are mismatched, with unusually large teeth in one arch compared to the other, then an ideal occlusion cannot be attained. This study has been done to determine the prevalence of tooth size discrepancies among orthodontic patients in general and also between different malocclusion groups, sex, and to analyze the change in the degree of severity in Bolton discrepancy before and after the hypothetical premolar extraction. Methods: The study was carried out on randomly collected 100 pre-treatment dental casts. Tooth size analyses were performed on these pre-treatment models and Mesio distal tooth size ratios were measured as described by Bolton before and after various patterns of hypothetical extraction. Result: The results were statistically evaluated using ANOVA and paired samples t-test. 5 out of 100 patients are seen with severe Bolton discrepancy with Bolton values (BV) ranging above and below 2 standard deviation. Statistically insignificant difference is seen between males and females and also between various groups of malocclusion. The difference between the pre-treatment and post extraction BV was found statistically significant for the first premolar extraction and insignificant for others. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate a new point of view to the question of which teeth to extract when evaluated for tooth size aspect only. PMID:26225105

  4. False homozygosities at various loci revealed by discrepancies between commercial kits: implications for genetic databases.

    PubMed

    Delamoye, Magali; Duverneuil, Charlotte; Riva, Katia; Leterreux, Michel; Taieb, Stéphane; De Mazancourt, Philippe

    2004-06-30

    Routine control of 2055 consecutive genotypes revealed discrepancies between the profiles established with the SGM plus and/or Profiler plus kits on one hand, and the profiles established with the Powerplex16 kit on the other hand. Furthermore, five discrepancies for vWA, three for D8S1179, two for FGA and three for D18S51 loci were found. In 10 cases (loci vWA, FGA, D18S51, D8S1179), the SGM plus and/or Profiler plus profiles showed homozygosity and the Powerplex16 genotype revealed heterozygosities which were confirmed to be true, both by typing with individual primer pairs and DNA sequencing. In four cases (two discrepancies at locus FGA, one at D18S51 and an abnormal paternity pattern for D5S818), the Powerplex16 kit showed apparent homozygosity and the SGM plus and/or Profiler plus kits showed heterozygosity. Mutation analysis could be performed for some of these individuals and evidenced variants, presumably leading to an annealing failure of one primer; the identified mutations are reported. It is suggested that databases should include information about the kits used to determine the profiles while ensuring that the primer sequences are made available. PMID:15177629

  5. A computerized photographic assessment of the relationship between skeletal discrepancy and mandibular outline asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Good, Sarah; Edler, Raymond; Wertheim, David; Greenhill, Darrel

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between mandibular outline asymmetry and skeletal discrepancy in a sample of orthodontic patients (33 females, 33 males) aged from 8 to 19 years. Skeletal discrepancy was assessed in both the anteroposterior and vertical planes, using standard cephalometric analyses. All were photographed under standardized conditions and the photographs were then digitized for analysis using a computerized system to assess differences in four variables (area, perimeter, compactness and moment-ratio) between the right and left sides of the mandibular outline. The results showed good repeatability of the photographic, cephalometric and digitization methods. A statistically significant relationship was found between mandibular outline asymmetry and both anteroposterior and vertical skeletal discrepancy in this sample, when compared with patients with an average skeletal pattern. There appeared to be a statistically significant relationship between a reduced ANB angle (< 3 degrees) and mandibular outline asymmetry (P = 0.051), as well as between an increase in lower face height and mandibular asymmetry (P = 0.023). PMID:16431897

  6. Effects of CO-CR discrepancy in daily orthodontic treatment planning

    PubMed Central

    COSTEA, CARMEN MARIA; BADEA, MÎNDRA EUGENIA; VASILACHE, SORIN; MESAROŞ, MICHAELA

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Nowadays centric relation is defined as a musculoskeletal stable position, with the condyles forward, as far upward as possible, centered transversely and with the articular disc properly interposed. On the other hand, centric occlusion or maximum intercuspidation is a dental determined position. The purpose of this pilot study is to evaluate the direction, frequency and magnitude of the discrepancy between centric occlusion and centric relation in all three axial directions, in a muscular non-deprogrammed population, before the beginning of orthodontic treatment. Methods The study group was represented by 40 symptomatic and asymptomatic patients seeking orthodontic treatment in a private dental office in Cluj-Napoca, Romania between 2014 and 2015. All patients had full records and articulator mounted models. All measurements were analyzed three-dimensionally. Results 85% of the patients had vertical and 87.5% had horizontal CO-CR discrepancy for both condyles. 87.5% of the cases have had a significant condylar displacement in at least one of the three planes. Conclusions We should be aware of the dental occlusion determined by the dental contacts and the occlusion dictated by the musculoskeletal stable position of the condyles. The bigger the discrepancy between these two positions at the level of the condyles, the greater the chances to have either a patient who will develop a form of TMD before/during or after the orthodontic or prosthetic treatment, or a patient suffering already, but poorly diagnosed. PMID:27152081

  7. Discrepancies in Outcome Reporting Exist Between Protocols and Published Oral Health Cochrane Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Pandis, Nikolaos; Fleming, Padhraig S.; Worthington, Helen; Dwan, Kerry; Salanti, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess discrepancies in the analyzed outcomes between protocols and published reviews within Cochrane oral health systematic reviews (COHG) on the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR). Study Design and Setting All COHG systematic reviews on the CDSR and the corresponding protocols were retrieved in November 2014 and information on the reported outcomes was recorded. Data was collected at the systematic review level by two reviewers independently. Results One hundred and fifty two reviews were included. In relation to primary outcomes, 11.2% were downgraded to secondary outcomes, 9.9% were omitted altogether in the final publication and new primary outcomes were identified in 18.4% of publications. For secondary outcomes, 2% were upgraded to primary, 12.5% were omitted and 30.9% were newly introduced in the publication. Overall, 45.4% of reviews had at least one discrepancy when compared to the protocol; these were reported in 14.5% reviews. The number of review updates appears to be associated with discrepancies between final review and protocol (OR: 3.18, 95% CI: 1.77, 5.74, p<0.001). The risk of reporting significant results was lower for both downgraded outcomes [RR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.17, 1.58, p = 0.24] and upgraded or newly introduced outcomes [RR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.36, 1.64, p = 0.50] compared to outcomes with no discrepancies. The risk of reporting significant results was higher for upgraded or newly introduced outcomes compared to downgraded outcomes (RR = 1.19, 95% CI: 0.65, 2.16, p = 0.57). None of the comparisons reached statistical significance. Conclusion While no evidence of selective outcome reporting was found in this study, based on the present analysis of SRs published within COHG systematic reviews, discrepancies between outcomes in pre-published protocols and final reviews continue to be common. Solutions such as the use of standardized outcomes to reduce the prevalence of this issue may need to be explored. PMID:26368938

  8. Weight gain - unintentional

    MedlinePlus

    ... trying to do so can have many causes. Metabolism slows down as you age . This can cause weight gain if you eat too much, eat the wrong foods, or do not get enough exercise. Drugs that can cause weight gain include: Birth control ...

  9. Weight loss and alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... weight gain in a couple of ways. First, alcohol is high in calories. Some mixed drinks can contain as many calories as a meal, but without the nutrients. You also may make poor food choices ... to cut out all alcohol if you are trying to lose weight, you ...

  10. Marijuana and body weight.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2014-07-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as "the munchies"). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status-i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases body weight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and body weight. PMID:25337447

  11. Exercise and Weight Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Victor L.

    This paper describes a number of factors which go into determining weight. The paper describes what calories are, how caloric expenditure is measured, and why caloric expenditure is different for different people. The paper then outlines the way the body tends to adjust food intake and exercise to maintain a constant body weight. It is speculated…

  12. Anthocyanins and weight loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review evaluated the available scientific literature relative to anthocyanins and weight loss and/or obesity with mention of other effects of anthocyanins on pathologies that are closely related to obesity. Although there is considerable popular press concerning anthocyanins and weight loss, th...

  13. Mathematics in Weighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    Presents the template method developed by Galileo for calculating areas of geometric shapes constructed of uniform density and thickness. The method compares the weight of a shape of known area to the weight of a shape of unknown area. Applies this hands-on method to problems involving calculus, Pythagorean's theorem, and cycloids. (MDH)

  14. Weight and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a person's diabetes management plan. Weight and Type 1 Diabetes If a person has type 1 diabetes but hasn't been treated yet, he or she often loses weight. In type 1 diabetes, the body can't use glucose (pronounced: GLOO- ...

  15. Labor Supply and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Philipson, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    We use panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate on-the-job exercise and weight. For male workers, job-related exercise has causal effects on weight, but for female workers, the effects seem primarily selective. A man who spends 18 years in the most physical fitness-demanding occupation is about 25 pounds (14…

  16. Rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... 22990030 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22990030 . Weight-control Information NetworkNational Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and ... www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/weight-control/very-low-calorie-diets/Pages/very-low-calorie- ...

  17. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. PMID:23731874

  18. Discrepancy in reports of support exchanges between parents and adult offspring: within- and between-family differences.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungmin; Zarit, Steven H; Birditt, Kira S; Fingerman, Karen L

    2014-04-01

    Using data from 929 parent-child dyads nested in 458 three-generation families (aged 76 for the oldest generation, 50 for the middle generation, and 24 for the youngest generation), this study investigated how discrepancies in reports of support that parents and their adult offspring exchanged with one another vary both within and between families, and what factors explain variations in dyadic discrepancies. We found substantial within- and between-family differences in dyadic discrepancies in reports of support exchanges. For downward exchanges (from parents to offspring), both dyad-specific characteristics within a family (e.g., gender composition, relative levels of relationship quality, and family obligation) and shared family characteristics (e.g., average levels of relationship quality) showed significant effects on dyadic discrepancies. For upward exchanges (from offspring to parents), however, only dyad-specific characteristics (e.g., gender composition, coresidence, relative levels of positive relationship quality, and family obligation) were significantly associated with discrepancies. Discrepancies in support exchanges were mainly associated with dyad-specific characteristics, but they also appeared to be influenced by family emotional environments. The use of multiple informants revealed that families differ in discrepancies in reports of exchanges, which has implications for quality of family life as well as future exchanges. PMID:24548009

  19. On the Discrepancy in Simultaneous Observations of the Structure Parameter of Temperature Using Scintillometers and Unmanned Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braam, Miranda; Beyrich, Frank; Bange, Jens; Platis, Andreas; Martin, Sabrina; Maronga, Björn; Moene, Arnold F.

    2016-02-01

    We elaborate on the preliminary results presented in Beyrich et al. (in Boundary-Layer Meteorol 144:83-112, 2012), who compared the structure parameter of temperature ({CT^2}_{}) obtained with the unmanned meteorological mini aerial vehicle (M2 AV) versus {CT^2}_{} obtained with two large-aperture scintillometers (LASs) for a limited dataset from one single experiment (LITFASS-2009). They found that {CT^2}_{} obtained from the M2 AV data is significantly larger than that obtained from the LAS data. We investigate if similar differences can be found for the flights on the other six days during LITFASS-2009 and LITFASS-2010, and whether these differences can be reduced or explained through a more elaborate processing of both the LAS data and the M2 AV data. This processing includes different corrections and measures to reduce the differences between the spatial and temporal averaging of the datasets. We conclude that the differences reported in Beyrich et al. can be found for other days as well. For the LAS-derived values the additional processing steps that have the largest effect are the saturation correction and the humidity correction. For the M2 AV -derived values the most important step is the application of the scintillometer path-weighting function. Using the true air speed of the M2 AV to convert from a temporal to a spatial structure function rather than the ground speed (as in Beyrich et al.) does not change the mean discrepancy, but it does affect {CT^2}_{} values for individual flights. To investigate whether {CT^2}_{} derived from the M2 AV data depends on the fact that the underlying temperature dataset combines spatial and temporal sampling, we used large-eddy simulation data to analyze {CT^2}_{} from virtual flights with different mean ground speeds. This analysis shows that {CT^2}_{} does only slightly depends on the true air speed when averaged over many flights.

  20. On Utilization of NEXRAD Scan Strategy Information to Infer Discrepancies Associated With Radar and Rain Gauge Surface Volumetric Rainfall Accumulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, Biswadev; Datta, Saswati; Jones, W. Linwood; Kasparis, Takis; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) monthly Ground Validation (GV) rain map, 42 quality controlled tipping bucket rain gauge data (1 minute interpolated rain rates) were utilized. We have compared the gauge data to the surface volumetric rainfall accumulation of NEXRAD reflectivity field, (converting to rain rates using a 0.5 dB resolution smooth Z-R table). The comparison was carried out from data collected at Melbourne, Florida during the month of July 98. GV operational level 3 (L3 monthly) accumulation algorithm was used to obtain surface volumetric accumulations for the radar. The gauge records were accumulated using the 1 minute interpolated rain rates while the radar Volume Scan (VOS) intervals remain less than or equal to 75 minutes. The correlation coefficient for the radar and gauge totals for the monthly time-scale remain at 0.93, however, a large difference was noted between the gauge and radar derived rain accumulation when the radar data interval is either 9 minute, or 10 minute. This difference in radar and gauge accumulation is being explained in terms of the radar scan strategy information. The discrepancy in terms of the Volume Coverage Pattern (VCP) of the NEXRAD is being reported where VCP mode is ascertained using the radar tilt angle information. Hourly radar and gauge accumulations have been computed using the present operational L3 method supplemented with a threshold period of +/- 5 minutes (based on a sensitivity analysis). These radar and gauge accumulations are subsequently improved using a radar hourly scan weighting factor (taking ratio of the radar scan frequency within a time bin to the 7436 total radar scans for the month). This GV procedure is further being improved by introducing a spatial smoothing method to yield reasonable bulk radar to gauge ratio for the hourly and daily scales.

  1. Discrepancies between registration and publication of randomised controlled trials: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Graham; Thornton, James G

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To determine the consistency between information contained in the registration and publication of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Design An observational study of RCTs published between May 2011 and May 2012 in the British Medical Journal (BMJ) and the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) comparing registry data with publication data. Participants and Settings Data extracted from published RCTs in BMJ and JAMA. Main outcome measures Timing of trial registration in relation to completion of trial data collection and publication. Registered versus published primary and secondary outcomes, sample size. Results We identified 40 RCTs in BMJ and 36 in JAMA. All 36 JAMA trials and 39 (98%) BMJ trials were registered. All registered trials were registered prior to publication. Thirty-two (82%) BMJ trials recorded the date of data completion; of these, in two trials the date of trial registration postdated the registered date of data completion. There were discrepancies between primary outcomes declared in the trial registry information and in the published paper in 18 (47%) BMJ papers and seven (19%) JAMA papers. The original sample size stated in the trial registration was achieved in 24 (60%) BMJ papers and 21 (58%) JAMA papers. Conclusions Compulsory registration of RCTs is meaningless if the content of registry information is not complete or if discrepancies between registration and publication are not reported. This study demonstrates that discrepancies in primary and secondary outcomes and sample size between trial registration and publication remain commonplace, giving further strength to the World Health Organisation’s argument for mandatory completion of a minimum number of compulsory fields. PMID:25057391

  2. Establishment of norms of the beta angle to assess the sagittal discrepancy for Nellore district population

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Mandava; Reddy, Karnati Praveen Kumar; Talapaneni, Ashok Kumar; Chaitanya, Nellore; Bhaskar Reddy, Myla Vijay; Patil, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: In orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, assessment of anteroposterior discrepancy is of importance to the orthodontist. Both angular and linear measurements have been incorporated into various cephalometric analyses to help the clinician diagnose anteroposterior discrepancies and establish the most appropriate treatment plan. Hence the present study is designed to establish the norms of Beta angle to assess the sagittal discrepancy for Nellore district population. Materials and Methods: The sample was screened from the old records of the Orthodontic department of Narayana Dental College and Hospital. One hundred and fifty pretreatment cephalometric radiographs (50 each of Class I, II, and III) were subdivided based on ANB, Wits appraisal, and Beta angle into skeletal Class I, II, III. The same cephalograms were again classified into skeletal Class I, II, and III based purely on Beta angle. Each group was again divided into 2 subgroups consisting of 25 male and 25 female subjects with a mean age limit between 15 and 45 years old. Results: The Newman-keuls post hoc test and ANOVA showed that the 3 groups were significantly different (P ≤ 0.001). The Newman-keuls post hoc test also found the groups to be significantly different. Conclusions: There was statistically significant difference for, the mean values and the standard deviation for Beta angle within the three skeletal patterns (Class I, Class II and Class III skeletal patterns). There was no statistically significant difference among the mean values of beta angle between Nellore district population and Caucasian norms and between male and female sex groups. PMID:24082742

  3. Biomechanical strategies implemented to compensate for mild leg length discrepancy during gait.

    PubMed

    Resende, Renan A; Kirkwood, Renata N; Deluzio, Kevin J; Cabral, Silvia; Fonseca, Sérgio T

    2016-05-01

    Although mild leg length discrepancy is related to lower limb injuries, there is no consensus regarding its effects on the biomechanics of the lower limbs during gait. Biomechanical data of 19 healthy participants were collected while they walked under different conditions as described: (1) control condition-wearing flat thick sandals; (2) short limb condition-wearing a flat thick sandal on the left and a flat thin sandal on the right foot; (3) long limb condition: wearing flat thin sandal on the left and flat thick sandal on the right foot. The thick and thin sandals had 1.45cm of mean thickness difference. The right lower limb data were analyzed for all conditions. Ankle, knee, hip and pelvis kinematics and internal moments were measured with a motion capture system and six force platforms. Principal component analysis was used to compare differences between conditions. The scores of the principal components were compared between conditions using one-way repeated measures ANOVA. Twelve gait variables were different between conditions: rearfoot dorsiflexion and inversion (p<0.001); ankle dorsiflexion and inversion moments (p<0.001); knee flexion angle and moment (p<0.001); knee adduction moment (p<0.001); hip flexion angle and moment (p<0.001); hip adduction angle (p=0.001) and moment (p=0.022); and pelvic ipsilateral drop (p<0.001). Mild leg length discrepancy caused compensatory changes during gait, apparently to equalize the functional length of the lower limbs. However, these strategies did not fully succeed, since both short and long limb conditions affected pelvic motion in the frontal plane. These results suggest that mild leg length discrepancy should not be overlooked in clinical settings. PMID:27131193

  4. Discrepancies in perceptions of close relationships of young adolescents: a risk for psychopathology?

    PubMed

    Spilt, Jantine L; Van Lier, Pol A C; Branje, Susan J T; Meeus, Wim; Koot, Hans M

    2015-04-01

    Discrepancies between children and partners (e.g., parents, friends, peers) in reports of social functioning and self-other relationships are common in clinical practice and in research. However, it is not clear whether children's biased perceptions of self-other relationships, relative to the reports of partners, are predominantly a reflection of underlying psychological dysfunctions or whether these biased perceptions present a risk factor for subsequent problematic development. This longitudinal study therefore examined the effects of adolescent-mother disagreement and adolescent-best friend disagreement in perceptions of close (dyadic) relationships on the development of psychopathology in early adolescence. The sample included 497 thirteen year-old adolescents of Dutch-Caucasian backgrounds (57 % boys; 41 % at high risk for externalizing problems), their mothers, and self-nominated best friends. The participants completed reports of positive dyadic relationship quality (warmth) in Grade 7. Discrepancy scores were based on difference scores between the adolescents' versus the partners' reports. Both absolute disagreement and direction of disagreement (i.e., over- or underestimation relative to the relationship partner) were examined. Self-reported symptoms of depression and mother-reported aggression were assessed in Grade 7, 8, and 9. Absolute disagreement in perceptions of warmth between adolescents and best friends was significantly related to higher baseline levels of aggression. No significant effects of discrepancy scores on growth curves of symptoms of depression and aggression were found. The results may suggest that it is more important for adolescents to develop positive perceptions of close relationships than to agree with partners on the quality of the relationship. PMID:25451864

  5. Are the numbers adding up? Exploiting discrepancies among complementary population models.

    PubMed

    Stenglein, Jennifer L; Zhu, Jun; Clayton, Murray K; Van Deelen, Timothy R

    2015-01-01

    Large carnivores are difficult to monitor because they tend to be sparsely distributed, sensitive to human activity, and associated with complex life histories. Consequently, understanding population trend and viability requires conservationists to cope with uncertainty and bias in population data. Joint analysis of combined data sets using multiple models (i.e., integrated population model) can improve inference about mechanisms (e.g., habitat heterogeneity and food distribution) affecting population dynamics. However, unobserved or unobservable processes can also introduce bias and can be difficult to quantify. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach for inference on an integrated population model that reconciles annual population counts with recruitment and survival data (i.e., demographic processes). Our modeling framework is flexible and enables a realistic form of population dynamics by fitting separate density-dependent responses for each demographic process. Discrepancies estimated from shared parameters among different model components represent unobserved additions (i.e., recruitment or immigration) or removals (i.e., death or emigration) when annual population counts are reliable. In a case study of gray wolves in Wisconsin (1980-2011), concordant with policy changes, we estimated that a discrepancy of 0% (1980-1995), -2% (1996-2002), and 4% (2003-2011) in the annual mortality rate was needed to explain annual growth rate. Additional mortality in 2003-2011 may reflect density-dependent mechanisms, changes in illegal killing with shifts in wolf management, and nonindependent censoring in survival data. Integrated population models provide insights into unobserved or unobservable processes by quantifying discrepancies among data sets. Our modeling approach is generalizable to many population analysis needs and allows for identifying dynamic differences due to external drivers, such as management or policy changes. PMID:25691964

  6. The Kardashian index: a measure of discrepant social media profile for scientists.

    PubMed

    Hall, Neil

    2014-01-01

    In the era of social media there are now many different ways that a scientist can build their public profile; the publication of high-quality scientific papers being just one. While social media is a valuable tool for outreach and the sharing of ideas, there is a danger that this form of communication is gaining too high a value and that we are losing sight of key metrics of scientific value, such as citation indices. To help quantify this, I propose the 'Kardashian Index', a measure of discrepancy between a scientist's social media profile and publication record based on the direct comparison of numbers of citations and Twitter followers. PMID:25315513

  7. A study in the use of the position of discrepant events in the teaching of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassinelli, John James

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether alternative placement of discrepant events would impact affective and cognitive outcomes of ninth-grade physical science students grouped into intact classes and classified as either "high" or "low" in prior academic achievement. Although researchers have found discrepant events to be effective in terms of cognition and recall, their chronological placement within science lessons had not been empirically researched. In this study, discrepant events were presented before, during, and after specific science lessons involving thermodynamics and heat. Discrepant events were withheld from the control group. To measure affective outcomes, the "enjoyment" and "motivation" scales taken from Sandman's (1973) Attitudes Towards Science Inventory (ATSI) were used to index subjects' global feelings about studying science, while a 20-item set of Semantic Differential (SD) scales was employed to determine their attitudes regarding the specific subject matter taught. To measure cognitive outcomes, a 20-item, selected response test was constructed by the researcher, with 6 items intended to assess subjects' knowledge of unit materials, and 14 items designed to query their understanding of unit concepts. Each subject (N = 131) was administered identical forms of each test in both pre-and post-test formats, both before and after the four-week study. Analyzed using a 4 x 2 mixed Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) model, data pertinent to the ATSI suggested neither between- nor within-group differences in subjects' global attitudes about studying science, although data pertinent to the SD scales indicated generally improved attitudes about studying thermodynamics and heat (F (1,122) = 2.759, p < .10). On the cognitive pretests and posttests, significant two-way interactions were observed for the overall test and experimental condition (F (3,121) = 4.068, p < .01), as well as for the overall test and higher prior achievement in physical

  8. The Morpho/Functional Discrepancy in the Cerebellar Cortex: Looks Alone are Deceptive

    PubMed Central

    Rokni, Dan; Llinas, Rodolfo; Yarom, Yosef

    2008-01-01

    In a recent report we demonstrated that stimulation of cerebellar mossy fibers synchronously activates Purkinje cells that are located directly above the site of stimulation. We found that the activated Purkinje cells are arranged in a radial patch on the cerebellar surface and that this organization is independent of the integrity of the inhibitory system. This arrangement of activity is counterintuitive. The anatomical structure with the extensive parallel fiber system implies that mossy fiber stimulation will activate Purkinje cells along a beam of parallel fibers. In this short review we highlight this discrepancy between anatomical structure and functional dynamics and suggest a plausible underlying mechanism. PMID:19225592

  9. Fit to WHO weight standard of European infants over time

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Daniel; Marryat, Louise; Cole, Tim J; McColl, John; Harjunmaa, Ulla; Ashorn, Per; Wright, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The 2006 WHO growth charts were created to provide an international standard for optimal growth, based on healthy, breastfed populations, but it has been suggested that Northern European children fit them poorly. This study uses infant weight data spanning 50 years to determine how well-nourished preschool children from different eras fit the WHO standard, and discuss the implications of deviations. Design Four longitudinal datasets from the UK and one from Finland were used comprising over 8000 children born between1959 and 2003. Weights from birth to 2 years were converted to age–sex-adjusted Z scores using the WHO standard and summarised using Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape. Results Weights showed a variable fit to the WHO standard. Mean weights for all cohorts were above the WHO median at birth, but dipped by up to 0.5 SD to a nadir at 8 weeks before rising again. Birth weights increased in successive cohorts and the initial dip became slightly shallower. By age 1 year, cohorts were up to 0.75 SD above the WHO median, but there was no consistent pattern by era. Conclusions The WHO standard shows an acceptable, but variable fit for Northern European infants. While birth weights increased over time, there was, unexpectedly, no consistent variation by cohort beyond this initial period. Discrepancies in weight from the standard may reflect differences in measurement protocol and trends in infant feeding practice. PMID:26883079

  10. Light-weight plastination.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Hanno; Rabi, Suganthy; Saito, Toshiyuki; Sawutti, Alimjan; Miyaki, Takayoshi; Itoh, Masahiro; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina

    2008-11-20

    Plastination is an excellent technique which helps to keep the anatomical specimens in a dry, odourless state. Since the invention of plastination technique by von Hagens, research has been done to improve the quality of plastinated specimens. In this paper, we have described a method of producing light-weight plastinated specimens using xylene along with silicone and in the final step, substitute xylene with air. The finished plastinated specimens were light-weight, dry, odourless and robust. This method requires less use of resin thus making the plastination technique more cost-effective. The light-weight specimens are easy to carry and can easily be used for teaching. PMID:18752934

  11. Prizes for weight loss.

    PubMed Central

    Englberger, L.

    1999-01-01

    A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662

  12. Thyroid and Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Differences in BMRs are associated with changes in energy balance. Energy balance reflects the difference between the amount of ... such as amphetamines, animals often have a negative energy balance which leads to weight loss. Based on ...

  13. Losing weight after pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... behavioral guidelines for post-partum weight control. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth . 2014;14. Accessed Nov. 24, 2014. Mottola MF. Exercise prescription for overweight and obese women: pregnancy and ...

  14. Weight loss - unintentional

    MedlinePlus

    ... of laxatives Other causes such as: Eating disorders, anorexia nervosa that have not been diagnosed yet Diabetes that ... do not know the reason. You have other symptoms along with the weight loss.

  15. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... Zika virus and pregnancy Microcephaly Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  16. Preventing Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    ... If this is the case, preventing further weight gain is a worthy goal. As people age, their body composition gradually shifts — the proportion of muscle decreases and the proportion of fat increases. This ...

  17. Your Child's Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... spurts in height and weight gain in both boys and girls. Once these changes start, they continue for several ... or obese . Different BMI charts are used for boys and girls under the age of 20 because the amount ...

  18. Cognitive discrepancies in children at the ends of the bell curve: a note of caution for clinical interpretation.

    PubMed

    McGee, Christie L; Delis, Dean C; Holdnack, James A

    2009-09-01

    Discrepancies between IQ scores on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) and scores from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) were examined at different levels of intellectual functioning in 470 normal-functioning youths (aged 8-19) from the co-standardization sample of the WASI and D-KEFS. Results demonstrated that children with lower IQ scores often had significantly higher D-KEFS scores, whereas children with higher IQ scores often had significantly lower D-KEFS scores. Similar patterns were identified for discrepancies between Verbal and Performance IQ indices. These findings are similar to those found in the adult literature. Clinicians are advised to be cautious when weighing the clinical significance of cognitive discrepancies at the ends of the bell-curve and should avoid interpreting discrepancies in isolation. PMID:19629853

  19. Coparenting in immigrant Chinese Canadian families: the role of discrepancies in acculturation and expectations for adolescent assistance.

    PubMed

    Chance, Lauren J; Costigan, Catherine L; Leadbeater, Bonnie J

    2013-12-01

    For immigrant families, differential acculturation between mothers and fathers may present challenges to parenting adolescents. The current study investigated the concurrent relations among discrepancies in parental acculturation, discrepancies in parental expectations for adolescents, and coparenting quality with a sample of 162 married immigrant Chinese Canadian couples with adolescents (mean age = 14.94 years; SD = 1.73). Acculturation was assessed as parents' behavioral involvement in both Canadian and Chinese cultures. As predicted, mother-father differences in acculturation (in relation to both cultures) were related to discrepant expectations for how much adolescents should assist the family. Further, mother-father differences in Chinese acculturation were related to fathers' perceptions of a poorer coparenting relationship. Finally, this relation was partially mediated by discrepant parental expectations for adolescent assistance. Implications for parenting roles, enculturation, family dynamics, and intervention are considered. PMID:24294932

  20. Discrepancies Between Self-Report and Objective Measures for Stimulant Drug Use in HIV: Cognitive, Medication Adherence and Psychological Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Reinhard, M. J.; Hinkin, C. H.; Barclay, T. R.; Levine, A. J.; Marion, S.; Castellon, S. A.; Longshore, D.; Newton, T.; Durvasula, R. S.; Lam, M. N.; Myers, H.

    2009-01-01

    While it has long been recognized that self-reported drug use may be at variance with objectively obtained evidence such as urine toxicology assays, few studies have explored the behavioral correlates of such discrepancies. Here we compared self-reported and objective measures of stimulant drug use for 162 HIV infected individuals and identified a sub-group with discrepancies between data obtained via the two methods. Results showed poorer neurocognitive performance (attention, learning/memory) and lower medication adherence rates for the discrepant group as compared to those who either acknowledged their drug use or accurately denied recent stimulant use. Using the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory –III, it was also found that those in the discrepant group were more hesitant to reveal psychopathology. Comparisons of self-reported and objectively measured medication adherence data are also discussed. PMID:17499443

  1. Correctly Expressing Atomic Weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolini, Moreno; Cercignani, Giovanni; Bauer, Carlo

    2000-11-01

    Very often, atomic or molecular weights are expressed as dimensionless quantities, but although the historical importance of their definition as "pure numbers" is acknowledged, it is inconsistent with experimental formulas and with the theory of measure in general. Here, we propose on the basis of clear-cut formulas that, contrary to customary statements, atomic and molecular weights should be expressed as dimensional quantities (masses) in which the Dalton (= 1.663 x 10-24 g) is taken as the unit.

  2. Vulnerability of weighted networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Asta, Luca; Barrat, Alain; Barthélemy, Marc; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2006-04-01

    In real networks complex topological features are often associated with a diversity of interactions as measured by the weights of the links. Moreover, spatial constraints may also play an important role, resulting in a complex interplay between topology, weight, and geography. In order to study the vulnerability of such networks to intentional attacks, these attributes must therefore be considered along with the topological quantities. In order to tackle this issue, we consider the case of the worldwide airport network, which is a weighted heterogeneous network whose evolution and structure are influenced by traffic and geographical constraints. We first characterize relevant topological and weighted centrality measures and then use these quantities as selection criteria for the removal of vertices. We consider different attack strategies and different measures of the damage achieved in the network. The analysis of weighted properties shows that centrality driven attacks are capable of shattering the network's communication or transport properties even at a very low level of damage in the connectivity pattern. The inclusion of weight and traffic therefore provides evidence for the extreme vulnerability of complex networks to any targeted strategy and the need for them to be considered as key features in the finding and development of defensive strategies.

  3. Sources of discrepancies between satellite-derived and land surface model estimates of latent heat fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipton, Alan E.; Liang, Pan; Jiménez, Carlos; Moncet, Jean-Luc; Aires, Filipe; Prigent, Catherine; Lynch, Richard; Galantowicz, John F.; d'Entremont, Robert P.; Uymin, Gennady

    2015-03-01

    Monthly-average estimates of latent heat flux have been derived from a combination of satellite-derived microwave emissivities, day-night differences in land surface temperature (from microwave AMSR-E), downward solar and infrared fluxes from ISCCP cloud analysis, and MODIS visible and near-infrared surface reflectances. The estimates, produced with a neural network, were compared with data from the Noah land surface model, as produced for GLDAS-2, and with two alternative estimates derived from different datasets and methods. Areas with extensive, persistent, substantial discrepancies between the satellite and land surface model fluxes have been analyzed with the aid of data from flux towers. The sources of discrepancies were found to include problems with the model surface roughness length and turbulent exchange coefficients for midlatitude cropland areas in summer, inaccuracies in the precipitation data that were used as forcing for the land surface model, and model underestimation of transpiration in some forests during dry periods. At the tower sites analyzed, agreement with tower data was generally closer for our satellite-derived fluxes than for the land surface model fluxes, in terms of monthly averages.

  4. Combination of Mandibular Constriction and Intraoral Vertical Ramus Osteotomies for a Transverse Jaw Discrepancy

    PubMed Central

    Mitsugi, Masaharu; Hirose, Hisamitsu; Tatemoto, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the treatment of patients developing a transverse jaw width discrepancy who exhibited class III malocclusion and/or facial asymmetry by a combination of mandibular constriction (MC) and intraoral vertical ramus osteotomies (IVROs). Subjects and methods: In a retrospective study, functional results, postoperative complications, and skeletal stability were analyzed for all the patients who had undergone MC and IVRO, with more than 2 years of follow-up. A mandibular midline osteotomy for constriction with lag screw technique and IVROs was used for MC and setback. Results: Sixteen patients were included in the present study. The average degree of MC was 6.34 mm. Both the occlusal relationship and facial appearance in all patients were significantly improved by the surgical orthodontic treatment, with no harmful clinical symptoms. In addition, our original MC using lag screw technique provided the most reliable results in terms of skeletal stability. Conclusions: This study showed that MC using lag screw technique gives a very stable mandibular width constriction, and the combination of MC and IVROs offers a promising treatment alternative for patients with mandibular prognathism developing a transverse jaw width discrepancy. PMID:26495234

  5. Discrepancies in HLA typing by PCR-SSOP and SBT techniques: a case study.

    PubMed

    Spínola, Hélder; Bruges-Armas, Jácome; Brehm, António

    2007-10-01

    Six hundred twenty-one samples from Portugal, the Cabo Verde archipelago, and Guinea-Bissau were typed for HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DRB1 using the polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe (PCR-SSOP) method and the sequence-based typing (SBT) method to characterize and compare discrepancies between the two methods. Fifty-three alleles (4.27% of 1242 chromosomes typed) identified by the PCR-SSOP method were not concordant with the results obtained using the SBT method. Thirty-four (2.74% of total chromosomes typed) PCR-SSOP mistyping results were discrepancies inside the same allele group and 19 others (1.53% of total chromosomes typed) were relative to nonconcordant results between different groups. PCR-SSOP allele mistyping is the result of interpretation difficulties resulting from less intense, absent, or dubious hybridization patterns. Noncommercial PCR-SSOP procedures are highly exigent on the technicians' experience and the availability of properly calibrated high-precision equipment. PMID:18478969

  6. Personality traits in women with multiple sclerosis: Discrepancy in patient/partner report and disease course

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Ralph H.B.; Wahlig, Elizabeth L.; Topciu, Raluca A.; Englert, Jessica; Schwartz, Eben; Chapman, Ben; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Duberstein, Paul R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) are believed to undergo personality changes, which could have implications for how they perceive themselves and are perceived by others. We endeavored to examine the extent to which patients' self-perceptions are congruent with how they are perceived by significant others across five trait domains as demarcated by the well known Five-Factor Model (FFM). Methods The NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEOFFI) (Costa and McCrae, 1992) was administered to women with MS (n=70) and their spouses or partners. Pearson correlations and general linear models (GLMs) were employed to test for differences between patient self-reports and partner reports of FFM traits. Results Correlation analyses revealed good correspondence between patient and partner NEOFFI data in relapsing-remitting MS patients, but not secondary progressive patients. There was no significant correlation among progressive course patients for all NEOFFI domains, except Agreeableness. GLMs revealed significant differences where patients rated themselves higher than their partners rated them in Extraversion and Openness. Conclusion These discrepancies in the way patients and partners view patient personality are probably multidimensional and may have neurological and/or psychological causes. The direction of the discrepancies are consistent with some prior research suggesting MS, which is a disease affecting both the cerebral white and gray matter, may give rise to lowering in self awareness. Conversely, patients may be finding emotional or personal benefits in their response to the disease unbeknownst to partners. PMID:19154857

  7. RESOLVING THE ELECTRON TEMPERATURE DISCREPANCIES IN H II REGIONS AND PLANETARY NEBULAE: {kappa}-DISTRIBUTED ELECTRONS

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholls, David C.; Dopita, Michael A.; Sutherland, Ralph S.

    2012-06-20

    The measurement of electron temperatures and metallicities in H II regions and planetary nebulae (PNe) has-for several decades-presented a problem: results obtained using different techniques disagree. What is worse, they disagree consistently. There have been numerous attempts to explain these discrepancies, but none has provided a satisfactory solution to the problem. In this paper, we explore the possibility that electrons in H II regions and PNe depart from a Maxwell-Boltzmann equilibrium energy distribution. We adopt a '{kappa}-distribution' for the electron energies. Such distributions are widely found in solar system plasmas, where they can be directly measured. This simple assumption is able to explain the temperature and metallicity discrepancies in H II regions and PNe arising from the different measurement techniques. We find that the energy distribution does not need to depart dramatically from an equilibrium distribution. From an examination of data from H II regions and PNe, it appears that {kappa} {approx}> 10 is sufficient to encompass nearly all objects. We argue that the kappa-distribution offers an important new insight into the physics of gaseous nebulae, both in the Milky Way and elsewhere, and one that promises significantly more accurate estimates of temperature and metallicity in these regions.

  8. Anxiety sensitivity as a mechanism for gender discrepancies in anxiety and mood symptoms.

    PubMed

    Norr, Aaron M; Albanese, Brian J; Allan, Nicholas P; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-03-01

    Despite the well-established gender differences in the prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders, there is a dearth of research looking at sex-linked, variable risk factors that could serve as appropriate intervention targets to ameliorate these discrepancies. One such potential variable risk factor is anxiety sensitivity (AS), or a fear of anxiety related sensations. Studies have established elevated AS in women compared to men, and that AS prospectively predicts the development of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Additionally, research has demonstrated some specificity with regard to the lower-order AS dimensions (physical, cognitive, and social concerns) in relation to symptoms of anxiety and depression. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether overall AS, as well as lower-order AS dimensions, statistically mediate the relations between gender and anxiety and depressive symptoms in a sample of individuals with elevated AS presenting for an AS intervention. Data for the current study were collected from participants (N = 106) at baseline prior to randomization to treatment condition. Results revealed that overall AS statistically mediated the relations between gender and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Significant statistical mediation was also found for AS physical and social concerns for anxiety symptoms, and AS cognitive concerns for depressive symptoms. These results suggest the possible importance of AS in the gender discrepancies in anxiety and depression. Future research should examine whether an AS intervention can help ameliorate this prevalence gap. PMID:25687739

  9. Explaining Discrepancies in Arrest Rates Between Black and White Male Juveniles

    PubMed Central

    Fite, Paula J.; Wynn, Porche’; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated discrepancies in arrest rates between Black and White male juveniles by examining the role of early risk factors for arrest. Two hypotheses were evaluated: (a) Disproportionate minority arrest is due to increased exposure to early risk factors, and (b) a differential sensitivity to early risk factors contributes to disproportionate minority arrest. The study included 481 Black and White boys who were followed from childhood to early adulthood. A higher incidence of early risk factors accounted for racial differences related to any juvenile arrest, as well as differences in violence- and theft-related arrests. However, increased exposure to early risk factors did not explain race differences in drug-related arrests. Minimal support was found for the hypothesis that a differential sensitivity to risk factors accounts for disproportionate rate of minority male arrests. In sum, most racial discrepancies in juvenile male arrests were accounted for by an increased exposure to childhood risk factors. Specifically, Black boys were more likely to display early conduct problems and low academic achievement and experience poor parent–child communication, peer delinquency, and neighborhood problems, which increased their risk for juvenile arrest. PMID:19803571

  10. Correlation between microsatellite discrepancy scores and transplant outcome after haemopoietic SCT for pediatric ALL.

    PubMed

    Harvey, J; Green, A; Groves, S J; Cornish, J; Moppett, J; Cummins, M; Keen, L; Culliford, S; Poles, A; Hulme, W; Li, Y; Steward, C G

    2015-03-01

    Microsatellite analyses show that self-reported ethnicity often correlates poorly with true genetic ancestry. As unknown ancestral differences could potentially have an impact on transplant outcome, we developed an average allele length discrepancy (AALD) score to assess allele length discrepancy between donor/recipient (D/R) using microsatellites analysed routinely in post-transplant chimeric assessment. This was then compared with outcome in a homogeneously treated cohort of pediatric patients undergoing high-resolution sibling or matched unrelated donor transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). AALD scores formed a numeric continuum ranging from 0 to 1.4 (median 0.76) for sibling pairs and 0.8-2.17 (median 1.6) for high-resolution matched unrelated donor (HR-MUD) pairs. There was a trend for worse OS with increasing AALD score, which reached statistical significance above a threshold of 1.7 for OS. Patients whose transplants had an AALD score of ⩾1.8 had a risk of non-relapse mortality 4.9 times greater (P=0.025) and relapse risk three times greater (P=0.058) than those scoring <1.8. This approach will now be explored in a Centre International for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Research (CIBMTR) study of 750 D/R pairs across all disease groups; if confirmed, it has the potential to improve donor selection for patients with multiple prospective donors. PMID:25581412

  11. Price Discrepancy Between Sellers and Buyers When Making Decisions for the Self and Others.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ziyuan; Zhang, Baojun; Li, Zhongquan

    2016-06-01

    In daily life, people make decisions not only for themselves but also on behalf of others. There may be differences in terms of the endowment effect when making decisions in these two situations. In Study 1, this question was investigated with an existing dataset exploring the traditional endowment effect, in which 86 students (M age = 20.8 years, SD = 5.0) at Harvard University were asked to make a decision on selling or buying a coffee mug for themselves or for others as brokers. When making decisions for the self, the average price demanded by sellers was much higher than that offered by buyers; while making decisions for others, the price discrepancy disappeared. In Study 2, a similar study was conducted with a sample of 42 Chinese university students (M age = 22.3 years, SD = 2.5), and a similar pattern of results was obtained. Further analysis indicated that when making decisions for others, only buyers increased their valuations, therefore mitigating the seller-buyer price discrepancy. Finally, the findings were interpreted from the perspective of Construal Level Theory. PMID:27184409

  12. Information theoretic discrepancy-based iterative reconstruction (IDIR) algorithm for limited angle tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Kwang Eun; Lee, Jongha; Lee, Kangui; Sung, Younghun; Lee, SeungDeok

    2012-03-01

    The X-ray tomosynthesis that measures several low dose projections over a limited angular range has been investigated as an alternative method of X-ray mammography for breast cancer screening. An extension of the scan coverage increases the vertical resolution by mitigating the interplane blurring. The implementation of a wide angle tomosynthesis equipment, however, may not be straightforward, mainly due to the image deterioration from the statistical noise in exterior projections. In this paper, we adopt the voltage modulation scheme to enlarge the coverage of the tomosynthesis scan. The higher tube voltages are used for outer angles, which offers the sufficient penetrating power for outlying frames in which the pathway of X-ray photons is elongated. To reconstruct 3D information from voltage modulated projections, we propose a novel algorithm, named information theoretic discrepancy based iterative reconstruction (IDIR) algorithm, which allows to account for the polychromatic acquisition model. The generalized information theoretic discrepancy (GID) is newly employed as the objective function. Using particular features of the GID, the cost function is derived in terms of imaginary variables with energy dependency, which leads to a tractable optimization problem without using the monochromatic approximation. In preliminary experiments using simulated and experimental equipment, the proposed imaging architecture and IDIR algorithm showed superior performances over conventional approaches.

  13. Parent-youth discrepancies in ratings of youth victimization: associations with psychological adjustment.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    This study extends research examining the implications of parent-youth informant discrepancies on youth victimization. Latent class analysis (LCA) identified dyads distinguished by patterns of parent and youth report of victimization. Analyses examined how latent classes were related to adjustment (i.e., anxiety/depression, aggression, and delinquency) concurrently and at follow-up assessment (~2.5 years) in a socioeconomically and ethnically diverse sample. Participants were 485 youths (58.1% male; M age = 12.83 years, SD = 1.60) and their primary caregivers from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. This study compared three classes of youths: (a) Parent > Youth (24.0%), (b) Youth > Parent (21.5%), and (c) Relative Agreement (54.5%). Findings did not support the hypothesis that groups reflecting parental underreporting of youth victimization experiences would show poor adjustment relative to all other classes longitudinally. Surprisingly, youths who self-reported lower levels of victimization than parents reported were at risk for maladjustment over time. This type of discrepant dyad may deserve more careful attention than previously considered in the literature. PMID:23330621

  14. The relationship between tooth size discrepancy and archform classification in orthodontic patients

    PubMed Central

    O’Mahony, Gerard; Millett, Declan T.; Cronin, Michael S.; Barry, Mark K.

    2015-01-01

    Background To determine the relationship between clinically significant tooth size discrepancies (TSD) and archform classification in orthodontic patients. Material and Methods Eighty teeth with artificial white spot lesions were randomly divided into four groups: (A) distilled and deionized water, (B) Nd:YAG laser, (C) CPP-ACP crème, & (D) CPP-ACP plus laser. SMH was measured using Vickers diamond indenter in Vickers Hardness Number (VHN). Two samples of each group were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results were analyzed with the SPSS 17/win. Results Reproducibility of the classification of archform was very good (unweighted Kappa statistic of 0.83 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.73, 0.93). There was no statistically significant difference in the distribution of archform type between group 1 and group 2 for the upper (p=0.3305) or lower (p=0.6310) arches. Conclusions The presence of a clinically significant TSD and archform classification do not appear to be related. Key words:Tooth Size, Archform, Bolton discrepancy, digital models, polynomial curve, archform classification. PMID:26155344

  15. Tooth size discrepancy in a Libyan population, a cross-sectional study in schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Bugaighis, Iman; Karanth, Divakar

    2015-01-01

    Objetives: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the tooth size discrepancy (TSD) in a group of Libyan schoolchildren, and to compare TSD between sexes. Material and Methods: The sample comprised 333 Libyan schoolchildren (162 males with a mean (SD) age of 14.4 (1.1) years, and 171 females with a mean age of 14.1 (1.1) years). Anterior and overall TSD ratios were computed using descriptive statistics. Sex differences were statistically assessed using an independent t-test (P<0.05). Results: Males showed significantly wider MD tooth width compared to females (P<0.05), except for the maxillary first premolars and mandibular central incisors. There were significant differences (P<0.05) between the paired (right and left sides) tooth measurements except for the maxillary and mandibular central and lateral incisors as well as mandibular canines. The mean (SD) for overall and anterior TSD ratios were 91.3% (2.1) and 78.2% (2.6), respectively, with no significant sex differences for both variables (P> 0.05). The percentages of participants showing more than 2 SD variation for the anterior and overall ratios comprised 3% and 4.2% of the total sample, respectively. Conclusions: The anterior and overall TSD ratios for the examined subjects were established and showed no significant sexual dimorphism. Key words:Tooth size discrepancy, Libyan, schoolchildren. PMID:25810819

  16. Predictors of family satisfaction with an Australian palliative home care service: a test of discrepancy theory.

    PubMed

    Medigovich, K; Porock, D; Kristjanson, L J; Smith, M

    1999-01-01

    Five interesting findings emerged from this study: Although study results demonstrate support for Porter's Discrepancy Theory, the most compelling outcome is the finding that family care perceptions may be the best predictor of family care satisfaction. Family members' age may be a predictor of family care satisfaction. Family functioning may be a useful clinical indicator to identify families who are less satisfied with care and in greater need of support. The length of time that clients receive the care service may alter family care satisfaction. Differences in findings reported in this study compared with Canadian results point to the need for cross-cultural research in this area. This research is the first Australian study to test discrepancy theory as a framework for understanding family care satisfaction in a home hospice context. Results from this study may assist health care providers to more sensitively address the care perceptions of families in this care setting and extend theory development research that is needed to guide palliative care practice with families. PMID:10693306

  17. Clinico-Pathological Discrepancies in a General University Hospital in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Kotovicz, Fabiana; Mauad, Thais; Saldiva, Paulo H. N.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The autopsy rate has continuously diminished over the past few decades, reducing the quality of medical care and the accuracy of statistical health data. OBJECTIVE To assess the accuracy of clinical diagnoses by comparing pre- and postmortem findings, and to identify potential risk factors for misdiagnoses. METHODS Retrospective evaluations performed between June 2001 and June 2003 in a 2500-bed tertiary university hospital in São Paulo, Brazil, including 288 patients who died at that institution and had a postmortem examination. RESULTS Clinical and autopsy records were reviewed and compared for categorization using the adapted Goldman criteria. The overall major and minor discrepancy rates were 16.3% and 28.1%, respectively. The most common missed diagnoses were pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, and myocardial infarction, and the most prevalent underlying diseases were infectious diseases, cerebro-cardiovascular conditions, and malignancies. Patients age 60 or older had an increased risk of diagnostic disagreement, as did female patients. The period of hospitalization, last admission unit at the hospital and underlying disease were not significantly related to the pre-mortem diagnostic accuracy. DISCUSSION The discrepancy rate found in this study is similar to those reported globally. The factors influencing diagnostic accuracy as well as the most commonly missed diagnoses are also consistent with the literature. CONCLUSION Autopsy remains a crucial tool for improving medical care, and effort must be focused on increasing its practice worldwide. PMID:18925315

  18. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  19. Popular weight reduction diets.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella Lucia

    2006-01-01

    The percentage of people who are overweight and obese has increased tremendously over the last 30 years. It has become a worldwide epidemic. This is evident by the number of children are being diagnosed with a body mass index >85th percentile, and the number of children begin diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a disease previously reserved for adults. The weight loss industry has also gained from this epidemic; it is a billion dollar industry. People pay large sums of money on diet pills, remedies, and books, with the hope of losing weight permanently. Despite these efforts, the number of individuals who are overweight or obese continues to increase. Obesity is a complex, multifactorial disorder. It would be impossible to address all aspects of diet, exercise, and weight loss in this review. Therefore, this article will review popular weight loss diets, with particular attention given to comparing low fat diets with low carbohydrate diets. In addition, the role that the environment plays on both diet and exercise and how they impact obesity will be addressed. Finally, the National Weight Control Registry will be discussed. PMID:16407735

  20. Lorcaserin for weight management

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, James R; Dietrich, Eric; Powell, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and obesity commonly occur together. Obesity contributes to insulin resistance, a main cause of type 2 diabetes. Modest weight loss reduces glucose, lipids, blood pressure, need for medications, and cardiovascular risk. A number of approaches can be used to achieve weight loss, including lifestyle modification, surgery, and medication. Lorcaserin, a novel antiobesity agent, affects central serotonin subtype 2A receptors, resulting in decreased food intake and increased satiety. It has been studied in obese patients with type 2 diabetes and results in an approximately 5.5 kg weight loss, on average, when used for one year. Headache, back pain, nasopharyngitis, and nausea were the most common adverse effects noted with lorcaserin. Hypoglycemia was more common in the lorcaserin groups in the clinical trials, but none of the episodes were categorized as severe. Based on the results of these studies, lorcaserin was approved at a dose of 10 mg twice daily in patients with a body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 or ≥27 kg/m2 with at least one weight-related comorbidity, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemia, in addition to a reduced calorie diet and increased physical activity. Lorcaserin is effective for weight loss in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes, although its specific role in the management of obesity is unclear at this time. This paper reviews the clinical trials of lorcaserin, its use from the patient perspective, and its potential role in the treatment of obesity. PMID:23788837

  1. Strong Discrepancies between Local Temperature Mapping and Interpolated Climatic Grids in Tropical Mountainous Agricultural Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Faye, Emile; Herrera, Mario; Bellomo, Lucio; Silvain, Jean-François; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Bridging the gap between the predictions of coarse-scale climate models and the fine-scale climatic reality of species is a key issue of climate change biology research. While it is now well known that most organisms do not experience the climatic conditions recorded at weather stations, there is little information on the discrepancies between microclimates and global interpolated temperatures used in species distribution models, and their consequences for organisms’ performance. To address this issue, we examined the fine-scale spatiotemporal heterogeneity in air, crop canopy and soil temperatures of agricultural landscapes in the Ecuadorian Andes and compared them to predictions of global interpolated climatic grids. Temperature time-series were measured in air, canopy and soil for 108 localities at three altitudes and analysed using Fourier transform. Discrepancies between local temperatures vs. global interpolated grids and their implications for pest performance were then mapped and analysed using GIS statistical toolbox. Our results showed that global interpolated predictions over-estimate by 77.5±10% and under-estimate by 82.1±12% local minimum and maximum air temperatures recorded in the studied grid. Additional modifications of local air temperatures were due to the thermal buffering of plant canopies (from −2.7°K during daytime to 1.3°K during night-time) and soils (from −4.9°K during daytime to 6.7°K during night-time) with a significant effect of crop phenology on the buffer effect. This discrepancies between interpolated and local temperatures strongly affected predictions of the performance of an ectothermic crop pest as interpolated temperatures predicted pest growth rates 2.3–4.3 times lower than those predicted by local temperatures. This study provides quantitative information on the limitation of coarse-scale climate data to capture the reality of the climatic environment experienced by living organisms. In highly heterogeneous

  2. The weight of air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley-Hutchison, Doug

    2014-11-01

    Once a controversial idea, the fact that gases like air have weight can easily be demonstrated using reasonably precise scales in the modern teaching laboratory. But unlike a liquid, where a mechanical model suggests a pile of hard spheres resting on each other, gas molecules are in continual motion and can have minimal interaction. How should we think about the effect these molecules have on the scale? And more importantly, how should we explain it to students? Several models of gas behavior are employed to answer these questions and it is shown how the weight of a gas is, like electric current, an emergent phenomena in contrast to the weight of a liquid which is direct or causal.

  3. Weight management in Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Bipin Kumar; Nagesh, V Sri

    2015-05-01

    Ramadan fasting is associated with significant weight loss in both men and women. Reduction in blood pressure, lipids, blood glucose, body mass index and waist and hip circumference may also occur. However, benefits accrued during this month often reverse within a few weeks of cessation of fasting, with most people returning back to their pre-Ramadan body weights and body composition. To ensure maintenance of this fasting induced weight loss, health care professionals should encourage continuation of healthy dietary habits, moderate physical activity and behaviour modification, even after conclusion of fasting. It should be realized that Ramadan is an ideal platform to target year long lifestyle modification, to ensure that whatever health care benefits have been gained during this month, are perpetuated. PMID:26013789

  4. Generalized constructive tree weights

    SciTech Connect

    Rivasseau, Vincent E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org; Tanasa, Adrian E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org

    2014-04-15

    The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

  5. Weight for Stephen Finlay.

    PubMed

    Evers, Daan

    2013-04-01

    According to Stephen Finlay, 'A ought to X' means that X-ing is more conducive to contextually salient ends than relevant alternatives. This in turn is analysed in terms of probability. I show why this theory of 'ought' is hard to square with a theory of a reason's weight which could explain why 'A ought to X' logically entails that the balance of reasons favours that A X-es. I develop two theories of weight to illustrate my point. I first look at the prospects of a theory of weight based on expected utility theory. I then suggest a simpler theory. Although neither allows that 'A ought to X' logically entails that the balance of reasons favours that A X-es, this price may be accepted. For there remains a strong pragmatic relation between these claims. PMID:23576822

  6. Light weight phosphate cements

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Natarajan, Ramkumar,; Kahn, David

    2010-03-09

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  7. Average Weighted Receiving Time of Weighted Tetrahedron Koch Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Meifeng; Zhang, Danping; Ye, Dandan; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Lei

    2015-07-01

    We introduce weighted tetrahedron Koch networks with infinite weight factors, which are generalization of finite ones. The term of weighted time is firstly defined in this literature. The mean weighted first-passing time (MWFPT) and the average weighted receiving time (AWRT) are defined by weighted time accordingly. We study the AWRT with weight-dependent walk. Results show that the AWRT for a nontrivial weight factor sequence grows sublinearly with the network order. To investigate the reason of sublinearity, the average receiving time (ART) for four cases are discussed.

  8. Weighted Uncertainty Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Recently, Maccone and Pati have given two stronger uncertainty relations based on the sum of variances and one of them is nontrivial when the quantum state is not an eigenstate of the sum of the observables. We derive a family of weighted uncertainty relations to provide an optimal lower bound for all situations and remove the restriction on the quantum state. Generalization to multi-observable cases is also given and an optimal lower bound for the weighted sum of the variances is obtained in general quantum situation.

  9. Weighted Uncertainty Relations

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Recently, Maccone and Pati have given two stronger uncertainty relations based on the sum of variances and one of them is nontrivial when the quantum state is not an eigenstate of the sum of the observables. We derive a family of weighted uncertainty relations to provide an optimal lower bound for all situations and remove the restriction on the quantum state. Generalization to multi-observable cases is also given and an optimal lower bound for the weighted sum of the variances is obtained in general quantum situation. PMID:26984295

  10. Lyrids and Perseids Meteoroids: Reconciliation and Discrepancy between Cometary Outgassing Theory and Electrophonic Sound Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, A.; Moreno, F.

    2013-04-01

    We obtain the diameter of the most massive grains that might be ejected from the nuclear surface of the comets C/1861 G1 (Thatcher) and 109P/Swift-Tuttle using an outgassing model. The prevenient meteoroids of these two comets produce the known Lyrids and Perseids showers and it is thought that they produce electrophonic sounds. We compare our results with the minimum sized of such meteoroids capable of generating such sounds and we reconcile the discrepancy found by Beech in the case of the Lyrids. However, we conclude that the only outgassing mechanism is not compatible with the existence of electrophonic sounds due to Perseid meteoroids, and other mechanisms must be invoked to justify the presence of meter-sized boulders in the Perseid stream.

  11. Explaining the discrepancy between intentions and actions: the case of hypothetical bias in contingent valuation.

    PubMed

    Ajzen, Icek; Brown, Thomas C; Carvajal, Franklin

    2004-09-01

    An experiment was designed to account for intention-behavior discrepancies by applying the theory of planned behavior to contingent valuation. College students (N = 160) voted in hypothetical and real payment referenda to contribute $8 to a scholarship fund. Overestimates of willingness to pay in the hypothetical referendum could not be attributed to moderately favorable latent dispositions. Instead, this hypothetical bias was explained by activation of more favorable beliefs and attitudes in the context of a hypothetical rather than a real referendum. A corrective entreaty was found to eliminate this bias by bringing beliefs, attitudes, and intentions in line with those in the real payment situation. As a result, the theory of planned behavior produced more accurate prediction of real payment when participants were exposed to the corrective entreaty. PMID:15359015

  12. Muscarinic M2 receptors in bovine tracheal smooth muscle: discrepancies between binding and function.

    PubMed

    Roffel, A F; Elzinga, C R; Van Amsterdam, R G; De Zeeuw, R A; Zaagsma, J

    1988-08-01

    Previous work showing that AF-DX 116, a cardioselective muscarinic antagonist in functional experiments, does not discriminate between muscarinic receptors in bovine cardiac and tracheal membranes has been extended. In addition to AF-DX 116 we used the muscarinic antagonists, atropine, pirenzepine, 4-DAMP methobromide, gallamine, hexahydrosiladifenidol and methoctramine, in radioligand binding experiments on bovine cardiac left ventricular and tracheal smooth muscle membranes. The functional antagonism of the methacholine-induced contraction of bovine tracheal smooth muscle strips was also evaluated. An excellent correlation was found for all compounds between the binding affinities for muscarinic receptors in cardiac and tracheal smooth muscle membranes; moreover, the affinities found in cardiac membranes correspond with the pA2 values reported for atrial preparations of rat and guinea pig. However, significant and occasionally marked discrepancies were found between binding and functional affinities of these muscarinic antagonists on bovine tracheal smooth muscle. PMID:3215279

  13. Deglycosylation of Tropheryma whipplei biofilm and discrepancies between diagnostic results during Whipple’s disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Audoly, Gilles; Fenollar, Florence; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Lepidi, Hubert; Raoult, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Whipple’s disease is a systemic infectious disease associated with the bacterium Tropheryma whipplei. Numerous reports have presented puzzling discrepancies between diagnosis methods. We addressed this confusion using fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence assays to evaluate 34 duodenal biopsies and 1 lymph node biopsy from Whipple’s patients. We showed the presence of bacteria in both CK20+ epithelial cells and CD68+ macrophages. Bacteria are found embedded in a biofilm hindering the detection of T. whipplei. Only after treatment of biopsies by glycosidases, co-localization of T. whipplei RNA/DNA with bacterial proteins was restored. Moreover, using 13 bronchoalveolar lavages and 7 duodenal biopsies, we found that hydrolysis of the biofilm weakened the bacteria, facilitated bacterial DNA extraction and improved the sensitivity of qPCR detection by up to 1000x opening new perspectives for diagnostic and scientific approaches. PMID:27025850

  14. LYRIDS AND PERSEIDS METEOROIDS: RECONCILIATION AND DISCREPANCY BETWEEN COMETARY OUTGASSING THEORY AND ELECTROPHONIC SOUND DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Molina, A.

    2013-04-15

    We obtain the diameter of the most massive grains that might be ejected from the nuclear surface of the comets C/1861 G1 (Thatcher) and 109P/Swift-Tuttle using an outgassing model. The prevenient meteoroids of these two comets produce the known Lyrids and Perseids showers and it is thought that they produce electrophonic sounds. We compare our results with the minimum sized of such meteoroids capable of generating such sounds and we reconcile the discrepancy found by Beech in the case of the Lyrids. However, we conclude that the only outgassing mechanism is not compatible with the existence of electrophonic sounds due to Perseid meteoroids, and other mechanisms must be invoked to justify the presence of meter-sized boulders in the Perseid stream.

  15. The discrepancies in multistep damage evolution of yttria-stabilized zirconia irradiated with different ions

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Tengfei; Taylor, Caitlin A.; Kong, Shuyan; Wang, Chenxu; Zhang, Yanwen; Huang, Xuejun; Xue, Jianming; Yan, Sha; Wang, Yugang

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a comprehensive investigation of structural damage in yttria-stabilized zirconia irradiated with different ions over a wide fluence range. A similar multistep damage accumulation exists for the irradiations of different ions, but the critical doses for occurrence of second damage step, characterized by a faster increase in damage fraction, and the maximum elastic strain at the first damage step are varied and depend on ion mass. For irradiations of heavier ions, the second damage step occurs at a higher dose with a lower critical elastic strain. Furthermore, larger extended defects were observed in the irradiations of heavy ions at the second damage step. Associated with other experiment results and multistep damage accumulation model, the distinct discrepancies in the damage buildup under irradiations of different ions were interpreted by the effects of electronic excitation, energy of primary knock-on atom and chemistry contributions of deposited ions.

  16. A Multilevel Perspective on the Climate of Bullying: Discrepancies Among Students, School Staff, and Parents.

    PubMed

    Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Pas, Elise T; O'Brennan, Lindsey M; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2011-01-01

    Although many bullying prevention programs aim to involve multiple partners, few studies have examined perceptual differences regarding peer victimization and the broader bullying climate among students, staff, and parents. The present study utilized multilevel data from 11,674 students, 960 parents, and 1,027 staff at 44 schools to examine the association between school-level indicators of disorder, norms regarding bullying and bullies, and students, parents, and staff perceptions of safety, belonging, and witnessing bullying. Results revealed several important discrepancies between adults and youth with regard to their perceptions. Moreover, results highlight the significance of normative beliefs about bullies, retaliation, and the influence of school contextual factors on students' risk for exposure to bullying. PMID:21552337

  17. Discrepancies in Adolescents’ and their Mothers’ Perceptions of the Family and Adolescent Anxiety Symptomatology

    PubMed Central

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2014-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective This study examines relations between adolescents’ and their mothers’ perceptions of the family and adolescent anxiety symptomatology. Design Surveys were administered to 145 15- to 18-year-old adolescents and their mothers. Results Adolescents viewed the family more negatively than did their mothers. In addition, adolescent girls’ perceptions of the family (satisfaction and communication) negatively predicted later adolescent anxiety symptomatology. Significant interactions between adolescent and mother reports of family satisfaction and communication also were found for girls, but not for boys. For girls, discrepant family perceptions with their mothers appeared to protect them from anxiety if their mothers had negative perceptions of the family. Conclusions Understanding the similarities and differences among family members’ perspectives yields useful predictive information that cannot be obtained from studying these perspectives in isolation from one another. PMID:24634608

  18. Contrast venography vs radionuclide venography: a study of discrepancies and their possible significance

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, A.S.; Webber, M.M.; Buffkin, D.

    1982-03-01

    In 51 instances, patients underwent radionuclide venography with technetium 99m-labeled macroaggregated albumin followed by contrast venography. The criteria used for diagnosis of a positive radionuclide venogram (flow pattern and retention of radionuclide) were evaluated. Cases in which there were discrepancies between the two studies were analyzed. Multiple factors were found to result in a lack of correlation between the two studies. These are: failure to recognize nonfilling of the deep venous system on the radionuclide venogram, disparate distribution of the venographic imaging agents, presence of varicose veins, large venous valves, previous femoral venipuncture, postsurgical narrowing with obstruction, age of the thrombus, and other factors. These factors and their implications with respect to venographic technique are discussed.

  19. Deglycosylation of Tropheryma whipplei biofilm and discrepancies between diagnostic results during Whipple's disease progression.

    PubMed

    Audoly, Gilles; Fenollar, Florence; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Lepidi, Hubert; Raoult, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Whipple's disease is a systemic infectious disease associated with the bacterium Tropheryma whipplei. Numerous reports have presented puzzling discrepancies between diagnosis methods. We addressed this confusion using fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence assays to evaluate 34 duodenal biopsies and 1 lymph node biopsy from Whipple's patients. We showed the presence of bacteria in both CK20(+) epithelial cells and CD68(+) macrophages. Bacteria are found embedded in a biofilm hindering the detection of T. whipplei. Only after treatment of biopsies by glycosidases, co-localization of T. whipplei RNA/DNA with bacterial proteins was restored. Moreover, using 13 bronchoalveolar lavages and 7 duodenal biopsies, we found that hydrolysis of the biofilm weakened the bacteria, facilitated bacterial DNA extraction and improved the sensitivity of qPCR detection by up to 1000x opening new perspectives for diagnostic and scientific approaches. PMID:27025850

  20. Determining Availability Characteristics of DSN Data Systems Using Discrepancy Report Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruskin, A. M.; Quach, C. T.

    1985-01-01

    A reasonably economical way was developed to determine availability characteristics of Deep Space Network (DSN) data systems, subsystems, and assemblies using the DSN discrepancy report (DR) data base and DSN operating schedule and history data bases. Operating mean time between failures (OMTBF), operating mean time to restore service (OMTTRS), and operating functional availability (OFA) can be computed by year, by system, by subsystem, by assembly, and by station. The effort required to produce the desired reports is described, specific data on the telemetry, command, and tracking systems are presented, and major contributors to system outages are identified. Future improvements in preparing and analyzing DR data are also outlined to enhance their use in correcting conditions that lead to outages.

  1. [Guided growth in children and adolescents. Correction of leg length discrepancies and leg axis deformities].

    PubMed

    Vogt, B; Schiedel, F; Rödl, R

    2014-03-01

    The treatment of crooked legs and unequal leg length is one of the key tasks of orthopedic surgery. While mature patients usually require complex and invasive surgical interventions, the growth potential of the physes can be used to advantage for correction of these leg length discrepancies and axis deformities of the legs in growing children and adolescents. This guided growth is induced by temporary or permanent and partial or complete arrest of the growth plate, depending on the indications. This technique is called epiphysiodesis. Although these procedures are principally less invasive with few complications, accurate preoperative indications and planning, precise surgical techniques and careful postoperative follow-up examinations are mandatory prerequisites to achieve the desired therapeutic target. PMID:24627039

  2. Cross reactivity of S. aureus to murine cytokine assays: A source of discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Javed, Numan; Xue, Guang; Lu, Ailing; Xing, Yue; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Xiao, Hui; Lecoeur, Hervé; Späth, Gerald F; Meng, Guangxun

    2016-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the versatile Gram positive bacteria causing a range of diseases. Upon challenge, host immune cells recognize S. aureus and mount diverse immune responses including production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and TNF-α. These cytokines are important mediators of inflammation which can be detected via various immunological methods such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting. In the current study, we found that a number of clinical isolates as well as laboratory strains of S. aureus exhibited cross reactivity with ELISA antibodies for murine IL-1β and TNF-α assays. This cross reactivity generates exaggerated false positive signals which can be a source of discrepancy for the understanding of real immune responses against S. aureus infection by host immune cells. PMID:26978550

  3. A template matching approach based on the discrepancy norm for defect detection on regularly textured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchot, Jean-Luc; Stübl, Gernot; Moser, Bernhard

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we introduce a novel algorithm for automatic fault detection in textures. We study the problem of finding a defect in regularly textured images with an approach based on a template matching principle. We aim at registering patches of an input image in a defect-free reference sample according to some admissible transformations. This approach becomes feasible by introducing the so-called discrepancy norm as fitness function which shows particular behavior like a monotonicity and a Lipschitz property. The proposed approach relies only on few parameters which makes it an easily adaptable algorithm for industrial applications and, above all, it avoids complex tuning of configuration parameters. Experiments demonstrate the feasibility and the reliability of the proposed algorithms with textures from real-world applications in the context of quality inspection of woven textiles.

  4. Consistence and discrepancy of neuropathic pain screening tools DN4 and ID-Pain.

    PubMed

    Padua, L; Briani, C; Truini, A; Aprile, I; Bouhassirà, D; Cruccu, G; Jann, S; Nobile-Orazio, E; Pazzaglia, C; Morini, A; Mondelli, M; Ciaramitaro, P; Cavaletti, G; Cocito, D; Fazio, R; Santoro, L; Galeotti, F; Carpo, M; Plasmati, R; Benedetti, L; Schenone, A

    2013-03-01

    Pain is a subjective condition that cannot be objectively measured; for this reason, self patient-perspective is crucial. Recently, several screening tools to discriminate between nociceptive and neuropathic pain have been developed. We aimed at assessing the consistence and discrepancy of two widely used screening tools, The Douleur Neuropathique 4 (DN4) and the 6-item questionnaire (ID-Pain), by comparing their ability in discriminating neuropathic from nociceptive pain. DN4 and ID-Pain were administered to 392 Italian patients attending 16 outpatient services for peripheral nerve diseases. Based on medical history, clinical findings and diagnostic tools, patients were divided into two groups (neuropathic and nociceptive). Globally, ID-Pain identified neuropathic pain in 60 % of patients (38 % probable, 22 % likely). Interestingly also DN4 diagnosed neuropathic pain in 60 % of cases. A discrepancy was observed in 16 % of cases. DN4 and ID-Pain resulted to be highly interrelated in the identification of neuropathic pain. Sensitivity of DN4 was 82 % and specificity was 81 %, while ID-Pain (considering both probable and likely groups) showed sensitivity 78 % and specificity 74 %. Reliable screening tools for neuropathic pain are well related between them; hence, they are available for researchers and clinicians who may choose the most appropriate for their activity. Since the gold standard for the diagnosis and treatment of neuropathic pain cannot do without a neurological evaluation, perhaps DN4, that includes physician objective measures, may help reducing the percentage of dubious cases. Conversely, when needing a more agile tool (not needing a physician) ID-Pain may be adopted. PMID:22434411

  5. Accurate Analytical and Statistical Approaches to Reduce O-C Discrepancies in the Precessional Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, M. J.; Marco, F. J.; López, J. A.

    2009-02-01

    The Hipparcos catalog provides a reference frame at optical wavelengths for the new International Celestial Reference System (ICRS). This new reference system was adopted following the resolution agreed at the 23rd IAU General Assembly held in Kyoto in 1997. Differences in the Hipparcos system of proper motions and the previous materialization of the reference frame, the FK5, are expected to be caused only by the combined effects of the motion of the equinox of the FK5 and the precession of the equator and the ecliptic. Several authors have pointed out an inconsistency between the differences in proper motion of the Hipparcos-FK5 and the correction of the precessional values derived from VLBI and lunar laser ranging (LLR) observations. Most of them have claimed that these discrepancies are due to slightly biased proper motions in the FK5 catalog. The different mathematical models that have been employed to explain these errors have not fully accounted for the discrepancies in the correction of the precessional parameters. Our goal here is to offer an explanation for this fact. We propose the use of independent parametric and nonparametric models. The introduction of a nonparametric model, combined with the inner product in the square integrable functions over the unitary sphere, would give us values which do not depend on the possible interdependencies existing in the data set. The evidence shows that zonal studies are needed. This would lead us to introduce a local nonparametric model. All these models will provide independent corrections to the precessional values, which could then be compared in order to study the reliability in each case. Finally, we obtain values for the precession corrections that are very consistent with those that are currently adopted.

  6. The Discrepant Kinematics of ORLs and CELs in NGC 7009 as a Function of Ionization Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richer, Michael G.; Georgiev, Leonid; Arrieta, Anabel; Torres-Peimbert, Silvia

    2013-08-01

    We present spatially and velocity-resolved echelle spectroscopy for NGC 7009 obtained with the UVES spectrograph at the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope. Our objective is to analyze the kinematics of emission lines excited by recombination and collisions with electrons to determine whether similarities or differences could be useful in elucidating the well-known abundance discrepancy derived from them. We construct position-velocity maps for recombination, fluorescence, charge transfer, and collisionally excited lines. We find a plasma component emitting in the C II, N II, O II, and Ne II recombination lines whose kinematics are discrepant: they are incompatible with the ionization structure derived from all other evidence and the kinematics derived from all of these lines are unexpectedly very similar. We find direct evidence for a recombination contribution to [N II] λ5755. Once taken into account, the electron temperatures from [N II], [O III], and [Ne III] agree at a given position and velocity. The electron densities derived from [O II] and [Ar IV] are consistent with direct imaging and the distribution of hydrogen emission. The kinematics of the C II, N II, O II, and Ne II lines does not coincide with the kinematics of the [O III] and [Ne III] forbidden emission, indicating that there is an additional plasma component to the recombination emission that arises from a different volume from that giving rise to the forbidden emission from the parent ions within NGC 7009. Thus, the chemical abundances derived from either type of line are correct only for the plasma component from which they arise. Apart from [N II] λ5755, we find no anomaly with the forbidden lines usually used to determine chemical abundances in ionized nebulae, so the abundances derived from them should be reliable for the medium from which they arise. Based on observations made with the European Southern Observatory telescopes obtained from the ESO/ST-ECF Science Archive

  7. THE DISCREPANT KINEMATICS OF ORLs AND CELs IN NGC 7009 AS A FUNCTION OF IONIZATION STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Richer, Michael G.; Georgiev, Leonid; Torres-Peimbert, Silvia; Arrieta, Anabel E-mail: silvia@astroscu.unam.mx

    2013-08-20

    We present spatially and velocity-resolved echelle spectroscopy for NGC 7009 obtained with the UVES spectrograph at the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope. Our objective is to analyze the kinematics of emission lines excited by recombination and collisions with electrons to determine whether similarities or differences could be useful in elucidating the well-known abundance discrepancy derived from them. We construct position-velocity maps for recombination, fluorescence, charge transfer, and collisionally excited lines. We find a plasma component emitting in the C II, N II, O II, and Ne II recombination lines whose kinematics are discrepant: they are incompatible with the ionization structure derived from all other evidence and the kinematics derived from all of these lines are unexpectedly very similar. We find direct evidence for a recombination contribution to [N II] {lambda}5755. Once taken into account, the electron temperatures from [N II], [O III], and [Ne III] agree at a given position and velocity. The electron densities derived from [O II] and [Ar IV] are consistent with direct imaging and the distribution of hydrogen emission. The kinematics of the C II, N II, O II, and Ne II lines does not coincide with the kinematics of the [O III] and [Ne III] forbidden emission, indicating that there is an additional plasma component to the recombination emission that arises from a different volume from that giving rise to the forbidden emission from the parent ions within NGC 7009. Thus, the chemical abundances derived from either type of line are correct only for the plasma component from which they arise. Apart from [N II] {lambda}5755, we find no anomaly with the forbidden lines usually used to determine chemical abundances in ionized nebulae, so the abundances derived from them should be reliable for the medium from which they arise.

  8. Complaints handling in hospitals: an empirical study of discrepancies between patients' expectations and their experiences

    PubMed Central

    Friele, Roland D; Sluijs, Emmy M; Legemaate, Johan

    2008-01-01

    Background Many patients are dissatisfied with the way in which their complaints about health care are dealt with. This study tested the assumption that this dissatisfaction consists – in part at least – of unmet expectations. Methods Subjects were 279 patients who lodged a complaint with the complaints committees of 74 hospitals in the Netherlands. They completed two questionnaires; one on their expectations at the start of the complaints handling process, and one on their experiences after the complaints procedure (pre-post design; response 50%). Dependent variables are patients' satisfaction and their feeling that justice was done; independent variables are the association between patients' expectations and their experiences. Results Only 31% of the patients felt they had received justice from the complaints process. Two thirds of the patients were satisfied with the conduct of the complaints committee, but fewer were satisfied with the conduct of the hospital or the medical professional (29% and 18%). Large discrepancies between expectations and experiences were found in the case of doctors not admitting errors when errors had been made, and of hospital managements not providing information on corrective measures that were taken. Discrepancies collectively explained 51% of patients' dissatisfaction with the committee and one third of patients' dissatisfaction with the hospital and the professional. The feeling that justice was done was influenced by the decision on the complaint (well-founded or not), but also by the satisfaction with the conduct of the committee, the hospital management and the professional involved. Conclusion It is disappointing to observe that less than one third of the patients felt that justice had been done through the complaints handling process. This study shows that the feeling that justice had been done is not only influenced by the judgement of the complaints committee, but also by the response of the professional. Furthermore

  9. UNVEILING THE {sigma}-DISCREPANCY. II. REVISITING THE EVOLUTION OF ULIRGs AND THE ORIGIN OF QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Rothberg, Barry; Fischer, Jacqueline; Rodrigues, Myriam; Sanders, D. B. E-mail: dr.barry.rothberg@gmail.com

    2013-04-10

    We present the first central velocity dispersions ({sigma}{sub circle}) measured from the 0.85 {mu}m Calcium II Triplet (CaT) for eight advanced (i.e., single nuclei) local (z {<=} 0.15) Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs). First, these measurements are used to test the prediction that the '{sigma}-Discrepancy', in which the CaT {sigma}{sub circle} is systematically larger than the {sigma}{sub circle} obtained from the 1.6 or 2.3 {mu}m stellar CO band-heads, extends to ULIRG luminosities. Next, we combine the CaT data with rest-frame I-band photometry obtained from archival Hubble Space Telescope data and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to derive dynamical properties for the eight ULIRGs. These are then compared to the dynamical properties of 9255 elliptical galaxies from the SDSS within the same redshift volume and of a relatively nearby (z < 0.4) sample of 53 QSO host galaxies. A comparison is also made between the I-band and H-band dynamical properties of the ULIRGs. We find four key results: (1) the {sigma}-Discrepancy extends to ULIRG luminosities; (2) at I-band ULIRGs lie on the fundamental plane in a region consistent with the most massive elliptical galaxies and not low-intermediate mass ellipticals as previously reported in the near-infrared; (3) the I-band M/L of ULIRGs are consistent with an old stellar population, while at H-band ULIRGs appear significantly younger and less massive; and (4) we derive an I-band Kormendy Relation from the SDSS ellipticals and demonstrate that ULIRGs and QSO host galaxies are dynamically similar.

  10. Aim For a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... oxygen into energy), and behavior or habits. Energy Balance Energy balance is important for maintaining a healthy weight. The ... OUT over time = weight stays the same (energy balance) More energy IN than OUT over time = weight ...

  11. MedlinePlus: Weight Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Therapy and Weight Management (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish Weight Loss: Ready to Change Your Habits? (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Weight-Loss and Nutrition Myths (National ...

  12. Weight and Diabetes (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Weight and Diabetes KidsHealth > For Parents > Weight and Diabetes Print A ... or type 2 diabetes. Weight and Type 1 Diabetes Undiagnosed or untreated, type 1 diabetes can make ...

  13. Brief report: Weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study objectives were to assess the association between weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children participating in a weight management program. Participants included 265 Mexican American children recruited for a school-based weight management program. Al...

  14. Implicit Bias about Weight and Weight Loss Treatment Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Carels, Robert A; Hinman, Nova G; Hoffmann, Debra A; Burmeister, Jacob M; Borushok, Jessica E.; Marx, Jenna M; Ashrafioun, Lisham

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The goal of the current study was to examine the impact of a weight loss intervention on implicit bias toward weight, as well as the relationship among implicit bias, weight loss behaviors, and weight loss outcomes. Additionally, of interest was the relationship among these variables when implicit weight bias was measured with a novel assessment that portrays individuals who are thin and obese engaged in both stereotypical and nonstereotypical health-related behaviors. Methods Implicit weight bias (stereotype consistent and stereotype inconsistent), binge eating, self-monitoring, and body weight were assessed among weight loss participants at baseline and post-treatment (N=44) participating in two weight loss programs. Results Stereotype consistent bias significantly decreased from baseline to post-treatment. Greater baseline stereotype consistent bias was associated with lower binge eating and greater self-monitoring. Greater post-treatment stereotype consistent bias was associated with greater percent weight loss. Stereotype inconsistent bias did not change from baseline to post-treatment and was generally unrelated to outcomes. Conclusion Weight loss treatment may reduce implicit bias toward overweight individuals among weight loss participants. Higher post-treatment stereotype consistent bias was associated with a higher percent weight loss, possibly suggesting that losing weight may serve to maintain implicit weight bias. Alternatively, great implicit weight bias may identify individuals motivated to make changes necessary for weight loss. PMID:25261809

  15. Weight Training Adds Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, June

    1995-01-01

    Secondary level physical education teachers can have their students use math concepts while working out on the weight-room equipment. The article explains how students can reinforce math skills while weightlifting by estimating their strength, estimating their power, or calculating other formulas. (SM)

  16. Discrepancies between Abstracts Presented at International Association for Dental Research Annual Sessions from 2004 to 2005 and Full-Text Publication

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Soni; Lee, Damian J.; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Barao, Valentim A. R.; Shyamsunder, Nodesh; Sukotjo, Cortino

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the discrepancies between abstracts presented at the IADR meeting (2004-2005) and their full-text publication. Material and Methods. Abstracts from the Prosthodontic Section of IADR meeting were obtained. The following information was collected: abstract title, number of authors, study design, statistical analysis, outcome, and funding source. PubMed was used to identify the full-text publication of the abstracts. The discrepancies between the abstract and the full-text publication were examined, categorized as major and minor discrepancies, and quantified. The data were collected and analyzed using descriptive analysis. Frequency and percentage of major and minor discrepancies were calculated. Results. A total of 109 (95.6%) articles showed changes from their abstracts. Seventy-four (65.0%) and 105 (92.0%) publications had at least one major and one minor discrepancies, respectively. Minor discrepancies were more prevalent (92.0%) than major discrepancies (65.0%). The most common minor discrepancy was observed in the title (80.7%), and most common major discrepancies were seen in results (48.2%). Conclusion. Minor discrepancies were more prevalent than major discrepancies. The data presented in this study may be useful to establish a more comprehensive structured abstract requirement for future meetings. PMID:22505912

  17. Ideal Weight and Weight Satisfaction: Association With Health Practices

    PubMed Central

    Ardern, Chris I.; Church, Timothy S.; Hebert, James R.; Sui, Xuemei; Blair, Steven N.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence suggests that individuals have become more tolerant of higher body weights over time. To investigate this issue further, the authors examined cross-sectional associations among ideal weight, examination year, and obesity as well as the association of ideal weight and body weight satisfaction with health practices among 15,221 men and 4,126 women in the United States. Participants in 1987 reported higher ideal weights than participants in 2001, an effect particularly pronounced from 1987 to 2001 for younger and obese men (85.5 kg to 94.9 kg) and women (62.2 kg to 70.5 kg). For a given body mass index, higher ideal body weights were associated with greater weight satisfaction but lower intentions to lose weight. Body weight satisfaction was subsequently associated with greater walking/jogging, better diet, and lower lifetime weight loss but with less intention to change physical activity and diet or lose weight (P < 0.01). Conversely, body mass index was negatively associated with weight satisfaction (P < 0.01) and was associated with less walking/jogging, poorer diet, and greater lifetime weight loss but with greater intention to change physical activity and diet or lose weight. Although the health implications of these findings are somewhat unclear, increased weight satisfaction, in conjunction with increases in societal overweight/obesity, may result in decreased motivation to lose weight and/or adopt healthier lifestyle behaviors. PMID:19546153

  18. Descriptive Study Analyzing Discrepancies in a Software Development Project Change Request (CR) Assessment Process and Recommendations for Process Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Kenneth J.

    2002-01-01

    The Change Request (CR) assessment process is essential in the display development cycle. The assessment process is performed to ensure that the changes stated in the description of the CR match the changes in the actual display requirements. If a discrepancy is found between the CR and the requirements, the CR must be returned to the originator for corrections. Data will be gathered from each of the developers to determine the type of discrepancies and the amount of time spent assessing each CR. This study will determine the most common types of discrepancies and the amount of time spent assessing those issues. The results of the study will provide a foundation for future improvements as well as a baseline for future studies.

  19. Gain weighted eigenspace assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.

  20. Reducing rotor weight

    SciTech Connect

    Cheney, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  1. Information-theoretic discrepancy based iterative reconstructions (IDIR) for polychromatic x-ray tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Kwang Eun; Lee, Jongha; Sung, Younghun; Lee, SeongDeok

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: X-ray photons generated from a typical x-ray source for clinical applications exhibit a broad range of wavelengths, and the interactions between individual particles and biological substances depend on particles' energy levels. Most existing reconstruction methods for transmission tomography, however, neglect this polychromatic nature of measurements and rely on the monochromatic approximation. In this study, we developed a new family of iterative methods that incorporates the exact polychromatic model into tomographic image recovery, which improves the accuracy and quality of reconstruction.Methods: The generalized information-theoretic discrepancy (GID) was employed as a new metric for quantifying the distance between the measured and synthetic data. By using special features of the GID, the objective function for polychromatic reconstruction which contains a double integral over the wavelength and the trajectory of incident x-rays was simplified to a paraboloidal form without using the monochromatic approximation. More specifically, the original GID was replaced with a surrogate function with two auxiliary, energy-dependent variables. Subsequently, the alternating minimization technique was applied to solve the double minimization problem. Based on the optimization transfer principle, the objective function was further simplified to the paraboloidal equation, which leads to a closed-form update formula. Numerical experiments on the beam-hardening correction and material-selective reconstruction were conducted to compare and assess the performance of conventional methods and the proposed algorithms.Results: The authors found that the GID determines the distance between its two arguments in a flexible manner. In this study, three groups of GIDs with distinct data representations were considered. The authors demonstrated that one type of GIDs that comprises “raw” data can be viewed as an extension of existing statistical reconstructions; under a

  2. Weighted Configuration Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, M. Ángeles; Boguñá, Marián

    2005-06-01

    The configuration model is one of the most successful models for generating uncorrelated random networks. We analyze its behavior when the expected degree sequence follows a power law with exponent smaller than two. In this situation, the resulting network can be viewed as a weighted network with non trivial correlations between strength and degree. Our results are tested against large scale numerical simulations, finding excellent agreement.

  3. Light weight aluminum optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catura, R. C.; Vieira, J. R.

    1985-09-01

    Light weight mirror blanks were fabricated by dip-brazing a core of low mass aluminum foam material to thin face sheets of solid aluminum. The blanks weigh 40% of an equivalent size solid mirror and were diamond turned to provide reflective surfaces. Optical interferometry was used to assess their dimensional stability over 7 months. No changes in flatness are observed (to the sensitivity of the measurements of a half wavelength of red light).

  4. (Bessel-) weighted asymmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhard Musch, Alexey Prokudin

    2011-11-01

    Semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering experiments allow us to probe the motion of quarks inside the proton in terms of so-called transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMD PDFs), but the information is convoluted with fragmentation functions (TMD FFs) and soft factors. It has long been known that weighting the measured event counts with powers of the hadron momentum before forming angular asymmetries de-convolutes TMD PDFs and TMD FFs in an elegant way, but this also entails an undesirable sensitivity to high momentum contributions. Using Bessel functions as weights, we find a natural generalization of weighted asymmetries that preserves the de-convolution property and features soft-factor cancellation, yet allows us to be less sensitive to high transverse momenta. The formalism also relates to TMD quantities studied in lattice QCD. We briefly show preliminary lattice results from an exploratory calculation of the Boer-Mulders shift using lattices generated by the MILC and LHP collaborations at a pion mass of 500 MeV.

  5. ON THE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN THEORETICAL AND X-RAY CONCENTRATION-MASS RELATIONS FOR GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Rasia, E.; Borgani, S.; Ettori, S.; Meneghetti, M.; Mazzotta, P.

    2013-10-10

    In the past 15 years, the concentration-mass relation has been investigated diffusely in theoretical studies. On the other hand, only recently has this relation been derived from X-ray observations. When that happened, the results caused a certain level of concern: the X-ray normalizations and slopes were found significantly dissimilar from those predicted by theory. We analyzed 52 galaxy clusters and groups, simulated with different descriptions of the physical processes that affect the baryonic component, with the purpose of determining whether these discrepancies are real or induced by biases in the computation of the concentration parameter or in the determination of the selection function of the cluster sample for which the analysis is carried out. In particular, we investigate how the simulated concentration-mass relation depends (1) on the radial range used to derive the concentration; (2) on the presence of baryons in the simulations, and on the effect of star formation and feedback from supernovae and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Finally, we evaluate (3) how the results differ when adopting an X-ray approach for the analysis and (4) how the selection function based on X-ray luminosity can impact the results. All effects studied go in the direction of alleviating the discrepancy between observations and simulations, although with different significance: while the choice of the radial range to fit the profiles and the inclusion of the baryonic component play only a minor role, the X-ray approach to reconstruct the mass profiles and the selection of the cluster sample have a strong impact on the resulting concentration-mass relation. Extending the fit to the most central regions or reducing the fitting radius from the virial boundary to the typical X-ray external radius causes an increase of the normalization in radiative simulations by 5%-10%. In the second case, we measure a slope that is up to twice steeper than that derived by using the typical

  6. Does Terrestrial Carbon Explain Lake Superior Model-Data pCO2 Discrepancy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennington, V.; McKinley, G. A.; Atilla, N.; Kimura, N.; Urban, N.; Wu, C.; Desai, A.

    2008-12-01

    As part of the CyCLeS project, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model (MITgcm) was coupled to a medium- complexity ecosystem model and applied to Lake Superior in order to constrain the seasonal cycle of lake pCO2 and air-lake fluxes of CO2. Previous estimates of CO2 emissions from the lake, while very large, were based on field measurements of very limited spatial and temporal extent. The model allows a more realistic extrapolation from the limited data by incorporation of lake-wide circulation and food web dynamics. A large discrepancy (200 uatm) between observations and model-predicted pCO2 during spring suggests a significant input of terrestrial carbon into the lake. The physical model has 10-km horizontal resolution with 29 vertical layers, ten of which are in the top 50 m of the water column. The model is forced by interpolated meteorological data obtained from land-based weather stations, buoys, and other measurements. Modeled surface temperatures compare well to satellite- based surface water temperature images derived from NOAA AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer), though there are regional patterns of bias that suggest errors in the heat flux forcing. Growth of two classes of phytoplankton is modeled as a function of temperature, light, and nutrients. One grazer preys upon all phytoplankton. The cycles of carbon and phosphorous are explicitly modeled throughout the water column. The model is able to replicate the observed seasonal cycle of lake chlorophyll and the deep chlorophyll maximum. The model is unable to capture the magnitude of observed CO2 super-saturation during spring without considering external carbon inputs to the lake. Simple box model results suggest that the estimated pool of terrestrial carbon in the lake (17 TgC) must remineralize with a timescale of months during spring in order to account for the model/data pCO2 difference. River inputs and enhanced remineralization in spring due to photo-oxidation are other mechanisms

  7. Discrepancy between earthquake rates implied by historic earthquakes and a consensus geologic source model for California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.D.; Cramer, C.H.; Reichle, M.S.; Frankel, A.D.; Hanks, T.C.

    2000-01-01

    We examine the difference between expected earthquake rates inferred from the historical earthquake catalog and the geologic data that was used to develop the consensus seismic source characterization for the state of California [California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Petersen et al., 1996; Frankel et al., 1996]. On average the historic earthquake catalog and the seismic source model both indicate about one M 6 or greater earthquake per year in the state of California. However, the overall earthquake rates of earthquakes with magnitudes (M) between 6 and 7 in this seismic source model are higher, by at least a factor of 2, than the mean historic earthquake rates for both southern and northern California. The earthquake rate discrepancy results from a seismic source model that includes earthquakes with characteristic (maximum) magnitudes that are primarily between M 6.4 and 7.1. Many of these faults are interpreted to accommodate high strain rates from geologic and geodetic data but have not ruptured in large earthquakes during historic time. Our sensitivity study indicates that the rate differences between magnitudes 6 and 7 can be reduced by adjusting the magnitude-frequency distribution of the source model to reflect more characteristic behavior, by decreasing the moment rate available for seismogenic slip along faults, by increasing the maximum magnitude of the earthquake on a fault, or by decreasing the maximum magnitude of the background seismicity. However, no single parameter can be adjusted, consistent with scientific consensus, to eliminate the earthquake rate discrepancy. Applying a combination of these parametric adjustments yields an alternative earthquake source model that is more compatible with the historic data. The 475-year return period hazard for peak ground and 1-sec spectral acceleration resulting from this alternative source model differs from the hazard resulting from the

  8. Reducing the Discrepancy Between ASTER and MODIS Land Surface Temperature Products

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuanbo; Yamaguchi, Yasushi; Ke, Changqing

    2007-01-01

    Human-induced global warming has significantly increased the importance of satellite monitoring of land surface temperature (LST) on a global scale. The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides a 1-km resolution LST product with almost daily coverage of the Earth, invaluable to both local and global change studies. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) provides a LST product with a high spatial resolution of 90-m and a 16-day recurrent cycle, simultaneously acquired at the same height and nadir view as MODIS. ASTER and MODIS are complementary in resolution, offering a unique opportunity for scale-related studies. ASTER and MODIS LST have been widely used but the errors in LST were mostly disregarded. Correction of ASTER-to-MODIS LST discrepancies is essential for studies reliant upon the joint use of these sensors. In this study, we compared three correction approaches: the Wan et al.'s approach, the refined Wan et al.'s approach, and the generalized split window (GSW) algorithm based approach. The Wan et al.'s approach corrects the MODIS 1-km LST using MODIS 5-km LST. The refined approach modifies the Wan et al.'s approach through incorporating ASTER emissivity and MODIS 5-km data. The GSW algorithm approach does not use MODIS 5-km but only ASTER emissivity data. We examined the case over a semi-arid terrain area for the part of the Loess Plateau of China. All the approaches reduced the ASTER-to-MODIS LST discrepancy effectively. With terrain correction, the original ASTER-to-MODIS LST difference reduced from 2.7±1.28 K to -0.1±1.87 K for the Wan et al.'s approach, 0.2±1.57 K for the refined approach, and 0.1±1.33 K for the GSW algorithm based approach. Among all the approaches, the GSW algorithm based approach performed best in terms of mean, standard deviation, root mean square root, and correlation coefficient.

  9. Confirmation of the discrepancy between experiment and theory in the superconducting proximity effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Manjiang; Tateishi, Go; Bergmann, Gerd

    2006-03-01

    The transition temperature Tc of a superconducting film S is reduced when it is covered with a normal metal N. Recently we investigated the superconducting proximity effect in double layers of Pb and alkali metals and found the initial slope dTc/ddn of Tc as a function of the thickness of the normal metal dn was smaller than the theoretical value by a factor of 2 . The theory shows that the QTR normalized initial slope Ssn= (ds/Ts)|dTc/ddn| = γsn*(Nn/Ns) depends only on the density of states ratio of the two metals, Nn/Ns, but not on the mean free paths or the interface. A literature search showed that this initial slope is rarely measured. The few experiments in the literature where the initial slope can be derived yield the same disagreement with the theory. In the present work we investigated systematically the initial slope of S/N sandwiches (S for Pb and N for the normal conductor) and also extended the investigation to S1/S2 sandwiches (S1=Pb, S2= Cd, Zn, Al, In, Sn). The normalized initial slope Ssn is confirmed to be independent of the Pb thickness. Again for S/N sandwiches the value of γsn is more than a factor 2 smaller than the theoretical value. For the S1/S2 sandwiches this discrepancy decreases with increasing Tc of S2.

  10. Meshless Solution of the Vlasov Equation Using a Low Discrepancy Sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Warnock, R.L.; Ellison, J.A.; Heinemann, K.; Zhang, G.Q.; /New Mexico U.

    2009-01-28

    A good method for solving the nonlinear Vlasov equation is the semi-Lagrangian algorithm, in which the phase space density is represented by its values on a fixed Cartesian grid with interpolation to off-grid points. At each time step, orbits are followed backward from grid points. Since this method is expensive with phase space dimension D > 2, we seek a more efficient discretization of the density. Taking a cue from the theory of numerical quadrature in high dimensions, we explore the idea of replacing the grid by scattered data sites from a low-discrepancy (quasirandom) sequence. We hope to see a reduction in the required number of sites, especially for D > 2. In our first implementation we follow forward orbits rather than backward, and work only with D = 2. We are able to reduce the number of sites by a factor of 8, at least for a limited time of integration. A much bigger reduction is expected in higher dimensions.

  11. [From financial to scientific fraud : methods to detect discrepancies in the medical literature].

    PubMed

    Schüpfer, G; Hein, J; Casutt, M; Steiner, L; Konrad, C

    2012-06-01

    Fraud is as old as Mankind. There are an enormous number of historical documents which show the interaction between truth and untruth; therefore it is not really surprising that the prevalence of publication discrepancies is increasing. More surprising is that new cases especially in the medical field generate such a huge astonishment. In financial mathematics a statistical tool for detection of fraud is known which uses the knowledge of Newcomb and Benford regarding the distribution of natural numbers. This distribution is not equal and lower numbers are more likely to be detected compared to higher ones. In this investigation all numbers contained in the blinded abstracts of the 2009 annual meeting of the Swiss Society of Anesthesia and Resuscitation (SGAR) were recorded and analyzed regarding the distribution. A manipulated abstract was also included in the investigation. The χ(2)-test was used to determine statistical differences between expected and observed counts of numbers. There was also a faked abstract integrated in the investigation. A p<0.05 was considered significant. The distribution of the 1,800 numbers in the 77 submitted abstracts followed Benford's law. The manipulated abstract was detected by statistical means (difference in expected versus observed p<0.05). Statistics cannot prove whether the content is true or not but can give some serious hints to look into the details in such conspicuous material. These are the first results of a test for the distribution of numbers presented in medical research. PMID:22695775

  12. Effects of unreasonable pay discrepancies for under- and overpayment on double demotivation.

    PubMed

    Carr, S C; McLoughlin, D; Hodgson, M; MacLachlan, M

    1996-11-01

    The "double demotivation" hypothesis that pay discrepancies decrease work motivation among both lower and higher paid groups was tested in two experiments. In experiment 1, 70 Australian undergraduates received either $1 or $2 to work on an intrinsically rewarding puzzle, with or without knowledge of what amount other participants were receiving. A comparison of participants with a no-payment control showed that participants exhibited significantly reduced intrinsic motivation (seconds spent interacting with the puzzle during a free-choice period) when they knew that they were being under- or overpaid. In experiment 2, 126 occupationally matched Australian workers receiving wages equal to, lower than, or higher than those of counterparts reported their level of job satisfaction and whether they would stay on the job, change jobs, or retire, if given the financial opportunity. Compared with equitably paid workers, employees who felt they were being under- or overpaid reported lower job satisfaction and greater readiness to change jobs. The results provide experimental support for double demotivation, which is relevant not only to international development cooperation but also to Western enterprise bargaining, merit pay, and minority groups in the multicultural workplace. PMID:8976600

  13. Depressive symptoms moderate the effects of a self-discrepancy induction on overgeneral autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Smets, Jorien; Griffith, James W; Wessel, Ineke; Walschaerts, Dominique; Raes, Filip

    2013-01-01

    According to the CaRFAX model, rumination is one of the key underlying mechanisms of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). The association between rumination and OGM is well established in clinical populations, but this relationship is not robust in nonclinical samples. A series of null findings is reported in the current paper. Additionally we followed up on recent findings suggesting that a state of rumination needs to be active in order to detect a relationship between trait-rumination and OGM. Secondary school students (N= 123) completed questionnaires assessing trait-rumination and depressive symptoms as well as two autobiographical memory tests (AMTs), one before and one after a self-discrepancy induction. This induction should trigger state-rumination, which would subsequently promote the retrieval of general rather than specific memories. Trait-rumination failed to predict increases in OGM. We did find, however, that higher BDI-II scores were positively related to an increase in OGM following the induction. This adds to the growing body of evidence that OGM reactivity might be more important than baseline memory specificity. PMID:23298268

  14. On the stability of cationic complexes of neon with helium--solving an experimental discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Bartl, Peter; Denifl, Stephan; Scheier, Paul; Echt, Olof

    2013-10-21

    Helium nanodroplets are doped with neon and ionized by electrons. The size-dependence of the ion abundance of HenNex(+), identified in high-resolution mass spectra, is deduced for complexes containing up to seven neon atoms and dozens of helium atoms. Particularly stable ions are inferred from anomalies in the abundance distributions. Two pronounced anomalies at n = 11 and 13 in the HenNe(+) series confirm drift-tube data reported by Kojima et al. [T. M. Kojima et al., Z. Phys. D, 1992, 22, 645]. The discrepancy with previously published spectra of neon-doped helium droplets, which did not reveal any abundance anomalies [T. Ruchti et al., J. Chem. Phys., 1998, 109, 10679-10687; C. A. Brindle et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2005, 123, 064312], is most likely due to limited mass resolution, which precluded unambiguous analysis of contributions from different ions with identical nominal mass. However, calculated dissociation energies of HenNe(+) reported so far do not correlate with the present data, possibly because of challenges in correctly treating the linear, asymmetric [He-Ne-He](+) ionic core in HenNe(+). Anomalies identified in the distributions of HenNex(+) for x > 1, including prominent ones at He12Ne2(+) and He14Ne2(+), may help to better understand solvation of Ne(+) and Nex(+) in helium. PMID:23958826

  15. Structure-Function Discrepancy: Inhomogeneity and Delays in Synchronized Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ton, Robert; Deco, Gustavo; Daffertshofer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The discrepancy between structural and functional connectivity in neural systems forms the challenge in understanding general brain functioning. To pinpoint a mapping between structure and function, we investigated the effects of (in)homogeneity in coupling structure and delays on synchronization behavior in networks of oscillatory neural masses by deriving the phase dynamics of these generic networks. For homogeneous delays, the structural coupling matrix is largely preserved in the coupling between phases, resulting in clustered stationary phase distributions. Accordingly, we found only a small number of synchronized groups in the network. Distributed delays, by contrast, introduce inhomogeneity in the phase coupling so that clustered stationary phase distributions no longer exist. The effect of distributed delays mimicked that of structural inhomogeneity. Hence, we argue that phase (de-)synchronization patterns caused by inhomogeneous coupling cannot be distinguished from those caused by distributed delays, at least not by the naked eye. The here-derived analytical expression for the effective coupling between phases as a function of structural coupling constitutes a direct relationship between structural and functional connectivity. Structural connectivity constrains synchronizability that may be modified by the delay distribution. This explains why structural and functional connectivity bear much resemblance albeit not a one-to-one correspondence. We illustrate this in the context of resting-state activity, using the anatomical connectivity structure reported by Hagmann and others. PMID:25078715

  16. Shedding light on the mercury mass discrepancy by weighing Hg 52+ ions in a Penning trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritioff, T.; Bluhme, H.; Schuch, R.; Bergström, I.; Björkhage, M.

    2003-07-01

    In their nuclear tables Audi and Wapstra have pointed out a serious mass discrepancy between their extrapolated values for the mercury isotopes and those from a direct measurement by the Manitoba group. The values deviate by as much as 85 ppb from each other with claimed uncertainties of about 16 and 7 ppb, respectively. In order to decide which values are correct the masses of the 198Hg and 204Hg isotopes have been measured in the Stockholm Penning trap mass spectrometer SMILETRAP using 52+ ions. This charge state corresponds to a filled Ni electron configuration for which the electron binding energy can be accurately calculated. The mass values obtained are 197.966 768 44(43) u for 198Hg and 203.973 494 10(39) u for 204Hg. These values agree with those measured by the Manitoba group, with a 3 times lower uncertainty. This measurement was made possible through the implementation of a cooling technique of the highly charged mercury ions during charge breeding in the electron beam ion source used for producing the Hg 52+ ions.

  17. Short-Term Memory Stages in Sign vs. Speech: The Source of the Serial Span Discrepancy

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew L.

    2011-01-01

    Speakers generally outperform signers when asked to recall a list of unrelated verbal items. This phenomenon is well established, but its source has remained unclear. In this study, we evaluate the relative contribution of the three main processing stages of short-term memory – perception, encoding, and recall – in this effect. The present study factorially manipulates whether American Sign Language (ASL) or English was used for perception, memory encoding, and recall in hearing ASL-English bilinguals. Results indicate that using ASL during both perception and encoding contributes to the serial span discrepancy. Interestingly, performing recall in ASL slightly increased span, ruling out the view that signing is in general a poor choice for short-term memory. These results suggest that despite the general equivalence of sign and speech in other memory domains, speech-based representations are better suited for the specific task of perception and memory encoding of a series of unrelated verbal items in serial order through the phonological loop. This work suggests that interpretation of performance on serial recall tasks in English may not translate straightforwardly to serial tasks in sign language. PMID:21450284

  18. Implications of a light “dark Higgs” solution to the gμ-2 discrepancy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chen, Chien-Yi; Davoudiasl, Hooman; Marciano, William J.; Zhang, Cen

    2016-02-05

    A light scalar Φ with mass ≲1 GeV and muonic coupling O(10-3) would explain the 3.5σ discrepancy between the Standard Model (SM) muon g-2 prediction and experiment. Such a scalar can be associated with a light remnant of the Higgs mechanism in the “dark” sector. We suggest Φ→l+l- bump hunting in μ→eνmore » $$\\vec{v}$$Φ, μ-p→νμnΦ (muon capture), and K±→μ±νΦ decays as direct probes of this scenario. In a general setup, a potentially observable muon electric dipole moment ≲10-23 e cm and lepton-flavor-violating decays τ→μ(e)Φ or μ→eΦ can also arise. A deviation in BR(H→μ+μ-) from SM expectations, due to Higgs coupling misalignment, can result depending on certain parameters. Here, we illustrate how the requisite interactions can be mediated by weak-scale vector-like leptons that typically lie within the reach of future LHC measurements.« less

  19. A gender discrepancy analysis of heterosexual sexual behaviors in two university samples.

    PubMed

    Jozkowski, Kristen N; Satinsky, Sonya A

    2013-12-01

    The current study aimed to (1) offer a large-scale enumeration of college students' lifetime sexual behaviors and sexual behaviors at last event, and (2) apply a gender discrepancy lens to college students' sexual behaviors in order to examine potential gender differences in heterosexual college students' experiences. Nine-hundred and seventy college students between the ages of 18 and 27 from two large universities in the United States participated in the current study. Participants filled out a paper-pencil questionnaire during the last 30 min of class. Measures of lifetime sexual behaviors and engagement in behaviors at last sexual event were replicated from the National Survey of Sexual Health Behavior. Most college students engaged in some form of sexual behavior (manual, oral, vaginal-penile, anal). Men more frequently reported engaging in receptive sexual behaviors (e.g., receiving oral sex) where as women were more likely to engage in performative sexual behaviors (e.g., performing oral sex). At most recent sexual event, men were more likely than women to report being the sexual initiator. Findings highlight gender differences in sexual behavior and provide a foundation for social norms interventions. Holistic sexual health promotion for young adults includes acknowledging and discouraging sites of disparity in equity and pleasure. Therefore, college-level sexual health educators should pay attention to the potential pleasure gap between men and women in heterosexual encounters, and to see pleasure as an important part of sexual health that should be included in social norms campaigns. PMID:23873260

  20. Resolving discrepancies among studies: the influence of dose on effect size.

    PubMed

    Hertz-Picciotto, I; Neutra, R R

    1994-03-01

    In conducting reviews or meta-analyses, epidemiologists frequently must reconcile conflicting results. This paper addresses heterogeneity in nonexperimental studies. The emphasis is on simple exploratory methods rather than formal approaches. Five examples illustrate how quantitative concordance among studies is possible, even when measured effects appear discrepant. The examples concern ethylene oxide and leukemias, methylene chloride and liver cancer, saccharin and bladder cancer, prenatal lead exposure and birthweight, and aspirin and bleeding tendencies in labor and delivery. Data examined here indicate that differences in dose levels frequently explain heterogeneous effect measures, often outweighing other sources of variability among studies. We present simple methods for combining dose information from the study of interest with dose-response data from other epidemiologic studies or animal studies to derive plausible hypothesized effect levels. These plausible effect sizes are the measures of association that would be predicted, for the actual exposures, by extrapolating from other studies with possibly differing exposure levels. Post hoc power calculations and comparisons of confidence intervals for overlap to reconcile "positive" and "null" studies may be misleading, since these approaches assume a uniform true association obscured by random fluctuations only. Whenever it can be estimated, a plausible effect size should be the starting point to assess findings of either positive or null studies. Without such calculations, comparisons among conflicting studies may not be meaningful. PMID:8172990

  1. V4046 Sgr: Touchstone to Investigate Spectral Type Discrepancies for Pre-main Sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastner, Joel H.; Rapson, Valerie; Sargent, Benjamin; Smith, C. T.; Rayner, John

    2015-01-01

    Determinations of the fundamental properties (e.g., masses and ages) of late-type, pre-main sequence (pre-MS) stars are complicated by the potential for significant discrepancies between the spectral types of such stars as ascertained via optical vs. near-infrared observations. To address this problem, we have obtained near-IR spectroscopy of the nearby, close binary T Tauri system V4046 Sgr AB with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) SPEX spectrometer. The V4046 Sgr close binary (and circumbinary disk) system provides an important test case for spectral type determination thanks to the stringent observational constraints on its component stellar masses (i.e., ˜0.9 M_⊙ each) as well as on its age (12--21 Myr) and distance (73 pc). Analysis of the IRTF data indicates that the composite near-IR spectral type for V4046 Sgr AB lies in the range M0--M1, i.e., significantly later than the K5+K7 composite type previously determined from optical spectroscopy. However, the K5+K7 composite type is in better agreement with theoretical pre-MS evolutionary tracks, given the well-determined properties of V4046 Sgr AB. These results serve as a cautionary tale for studies that rely on near-infrared spectroscopy as a primary means to infer the ages and masses of pre-MS stars.

  2. Leg length discrepancy and osteoarthritis in the knee, hip and lumbar spine

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Kelvin J.; Azari, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is an extremely common condition that creates substantial personal and health care costs. An important recognised risk factor for OA is excessive or abnormal mechanical joint loading. Leg length discrepancy (LLD) is a common condition that results in uneven and excessive loading of not only knee joints but also hip joints and lumbar motion segments. Accurate imaging methods of LLD have made it possible to study the biomechanical effects of mild LLD (LLD of 20mm or less). This review examines the accuracy of these methods compared to clinical LLD measurements. It then examines the association between LLD and OA of the joints of the lower extremity. More importantly, it addresses the largely neglected association between LLD and degeneration of lumbar motion segments and the patterns of biomechanical changes that accompany LLD. We propose that mild LLD may be an important instigator or contributor to OA of the hip and lumbar spine, and that it deserves to be rigorously studied in order to decrease OA’s burden of disease. PMID:26500356

  3. Striking Discrepancy of Anomalous Body Experiences with Normal Interoceptive Accuracy in Depersonalization-Derealization Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Michal, Matthias; Reuchlein, Bettina; Adler, Julia; Reiner, Iris; Beutel, Manfred E.; Vögele, Claus; Schächinger, Hartmut; Schulz, André

    2014-01-01

    Background Disembodiment is a core feature of depersonalization disorder (DPD). Given the narratives of DPD patients about their disembodiment and emotional numbing and neurobiological findings of an inhibition of insular activity, DPD may be considered as a mental disorder with specific impairments of interoceptive awareness and body perception. Methods We investigated cardioceptive accuracy (CA) of DPD patients (n = 24) as compared to healthy controls (n = 26) with two different heartbeat detection tasks (“Schandry heartbeat counting task” and “Whitehead heartbeat discrimination task”). Self-rated clearness of body perception was measured by questionnaire. Results Contrary to our hypothesis, DPD patients performed similarly to healthy controls on the two different heartbeat detection tasks, and they had equal scores regarding their self-rated clearness of body perception. There was no correlation of the severity of “anomalous body experiences” and depersonalization with measures of interoceptive accuracy. Only among healthy controls CA in the Schandry task was positively correlated with self-rated clearness of body perception. Depersonalization was unrelated to severity of depression or anxiety, while depression and anxiety were highly correlated. Anxiety and depression did not modify the associations of depersonalization with interoceptive accuracy. Conclusions Our main findings highlight a striking discrepancy of normal interoception with overwhelming experiences of disembodiment in DPD. This may reflect difficulties of DPD patients to integrate their visceral and bodily perceptions into a sense of their selves. This problem may be considered an important target for psychotherapeutic treatment approaches. PMID:24587061

  4. Discrepancies in tropical upper tropospheric warming between atmospheric circulation models and satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Po-Chedley, S.; Fu, Q.

    2012-12-01

    Recent research has compared CMIP3 coupled atmosphere-ocean global circulation model (GCM) simulations with satellite observations of warming in the tropical upper troposphere relative to the lower-middle troposphere (Fu et al 2011). This research showed that models tended to overestimate increases in static stability in the tropical upper troposphere. This discrepancy between satellite-borne microwave sounding unit (MSU) measurements and GCM simulations is important because it has implications for the strength of the lapse rate and water vapor feedbacks. We revisit this issue using atmospheric GCMs with prescribed historical SSTs and historical coupled GCMs that participated in CMIP5. It is demonstrated that even with historical SSTs as a boundary condition, most atmospheric models exhibit excessive tropical upper tropospheric warming relative to the lower-middle troposphere as compared with MSU measurements. It is also shown that the results from CMIP5 coupled atmosphere-ocean GCMs are similar to findings from CMIP3 coupled GCMs. The apparent model-observational difference for changes in static stability in the tropical upper troposphere represents an important problem, but it is not clear whether the difference is a result of common biases in GCMs, biases in observational datasets, or both. In this work, we will use a GCM to examine the role of SST spatial patterns as well as convection in determining the lapse rate changes in the tropical upper troposphere.

  5. Solution to the discrepancy between the seismic and photospheric solar radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberreiter, M.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Schmutz, W.

    2009-04-01

    Two methods are usually used to observationally determine the solar radius: One is the observation of the intensity profile at the limb, the other one uses f-mode frequencies to derive a 'seismic' solar radius which is then corrected to optical depth unity. The two methods are inconsistent and lead to a difference in the solar radius of approx. 0.3 Mm. Based on radiative transfer calculations we show that this discrepancy can be explained by the difference between the height at disk center where tau500=1 and the inflection point of the intensity profile on the limb. We calculate the intensity profile of the limb for the MDI continuum and the continuum at 5000 A for two atmosphere structures and compare the position of the inflection points with the radius at optical depth unity. The calculated difference between the 'seismic' radius and the inflection point is 0.347 Mm with respect to optical depth unity and 0.333 Mm with respect to the Rossland mean opacity. We conclude that the standard solar radius in evolutionary models has to be lowered by 0.333 Mm and is 695.66 Mm. This correction reconciles inflection point measurements and the seismic radius within the uncertainty. This finding is very important for the analysis of the solar diameter measurements with the SODISM instrument on PICARD.

  6. The Hiroshima/Nagasaki Survivor Studies: Discrepancies Between Results and General Perception.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Bertrand R

    2016-08-01

    The explosion of atom bombs over the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 resulted in very high casualties, both immediate and delayed but also left a large number of survivors who had been exposed to radiation, at levels that could be fairly precisely ascertained. Extensive follow-up of a large cohort of survivors (120,000) and of their offspring (77,000) was initiated in 1947 and continues to this day. In essence, survivors having received 1 Gy irradiation (∼1000 mSV) have a significantly elevated rate of cancer (42% increase) but a limited decrease of longevity (∼1 year), while their offspring show no increased frequency of abnormalities and, so far, no detectable elevation of the mutation rate. Current acceptable exposure levels for the general population and for workers in the nuclear industry have largely been derived from these studies, which have been reported in more than 100 publications. Yet the general public, and indeed most scientists, are unaware of these data: it is widely believed that irradiated survivors suffered a very high cancer burden and dramatically shortened life span, and that their progeny were affected by elevated mutation rates and frequent abnormalities. In this article, I summarize the results and discuss possible reasons for this very striking discrepancy between the facts and general beliefs about this situation. PMID:27516613

  7. Intermaxillary tooth size discrepancy in a Pakistani population: A stereomicroscope versus digital caliper

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Fazal; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Khamis, Mohd Fadhli

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Comprehensive diagnosis and treatment planning are essential in a successful orthodontic practice. The purpose of this study is to determine and compare intermaxillary tooth size discrepancy (IMTSD) using traditional digital caliper (DC) measurement on plaster dental models and stereomicroscopic digital dental models (SM). Materials and Methods: The samples were randomly selected from different states of Pakistan. Total 7168 variables were measured on plaster dental casts (128) and SM digital dental models (128) according to the selection criteria. For IMTSD, the 6 variable measured as for anterior tooth size (maxilla, mandibular), overall tooth size (maxilla, mandibular), Bolton's anterior ratios (BAR), and Bolton's overall ratios (BOR). The independent t-test and ANOVA were used for statistical analyses. Results: Significant sexual disparities in the sum of anterior tooth size and overall tooth size via DC and SM methods. No significant sexual disparities for BAR and BOR. No statistically significant differences were found in BAR and BOR between DC and SM. No significant differences were found on IMTSD ratio among different arch length and arch perimeters groups. Conclusions: Norms were developed based on DC and SM for IMTSD. Sexual disparities were observed in the sum of teeth size. However, no significant differences in BAR and BOR for IMTSD between the two methods. PMID:27095892

  8. Simulation of nucleation in almost hard-sphere colloids: The discrepancy between experiment and simulation persists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filion, L.; Ni, R.; Frenkel, D.; Dijkstra, M.

    2011-04-01

    In this paper we examine the phase behavior of the Weeks-Chandler-Andersen (WCA) potential with βɛ = 40. Crystal nucleation in this model system was recently studied by Kawasaki and Tanaka [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 14036 (2010)], 10.1021/pr100656u, who argued that the computed nucleation rates agree well with experiment, a finding that contradicted earlier simulation results. Here we report an extensive numerical study of crystallization in the WCA model, using three totally different techniques (Brownian dynamics, umbrella sampling, and forward flux sampling). We find that all simulations yield essentially the same nucleation rates. However, these rates differ significantly from the values reported by Kawasaki and Tanaka and hence we argue that the huge discrepancy in nucleation rates between simulation and experiment persists. When we map the WCA model onto a hard-sphere system, we find good agreement between the present simulation results and those that had been obtained for hard spheres [L. Filion, M. Hermes, R. Ni, and M. Dijkstra, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 244115 (2010), 10.1063/1.3506838; S. Auer and D. Frenkel, Nature 409, 1020 (2001), 10.1038/35059035].

  9. Random coil negative control reproduces the discrepancy between scattering and FRET measurements of denatured protein dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Herschel M.; Simon, Anna J.; Sosnick, Tobin R.; Lipman, Everett A.; Hjelm, Rex P.; Plaxco, Kevin W.

    2015-01-01

    Small-angle scattering studies generally indicate that the dimensions of unfolded single-domain proteins are independent (to within experimental uncertainty of a few percent) of denaturant concentration. In contrast, single-molecule FRET (smFRET) studies invariably suggest that protein unfolded states contract significantly as the denaturant concentration falls from high (∼6 M) to low (∼1 M). Here, we explore this discrepancy by using PEG to perform a hitherto absent negative control. This uncharged, highly hydrophilic polymer has been shown by multiple independent techniques to behave as a random coil in water, suggesting that it is unlikely to expand further on the addition of denaturant. Consistent with this observation, small-angle neutron scattering indicates that the dimensions of PEG are not significantly altered by the presence of either guanidine hydrochloride or urea. smFRET measurements on a PEG construct modified with the most commonly used FRET dye pair, however, produce denaturant-dependent changes in transfer efficiency similar to those seen for a number of unfolded proteins. Given the vastly different chemistries of PEG and unfolded proteins and the significant evidence that dye-free PEG is well-described as a denaturant-independent random coil, this similarity raises questions regarding the interpretation of smFRET data in terms of the hydrogen bond- or hydrophobically driven contraction of the unfolded state at low denaturant. PMID:25964362

  10. RECONCILING THE GALACTIC BULGE TURNOFF AGE DISCREPANCY WITH ENHANCED HELIUM ENRICHMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Nataf, David M.; Gould, Andrew P.

    2012-06-01

    We show that the factor {approx}2 discrepancy between spectroscopic and photometric age determinations of the Galactic bulge main-sequence turnoff can be naturally explained by positing an elevated helium enrichment for the bulge relative to that assumed by standard isochrones. Helium enhancement relative to standard isochrones is confirmed at the 2.3{sigma} level. We obtain an upper bound on the helium enrichment for the metal-rich ([Fe/H] Almost-Equal-To +0.30) stars of {Delta}Y Almost-Equal-To +0.11 relative to canonical expectations, given the requirement that the spectroscopic and photometric ages be consistent and the limiting condition of instantaneous star formation. We discuss phenomenological evidence that the bulge may have had a chemical evolution that is distinct from the solar neighborhood in this manner, and we make several testable predictions. Should this emerging picture of the bulge as helium-enhanced hold, it will require the development of new isochrones, new model atmospheres, and modified analysis and cosmological interpretation of the integrated light of other bulges and elliptical galaxies.

  11. Processing of data discrepancies for U.S. dairy cattle and effect on genetic evaluations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic evaluations depend on accurate data in three ways: 1) the accuracy of the recorded trait (e.g. milk weight), 2) information on how much influence it should receive and how it should be adjusted (e.g. milking frequency, number of milkings weighed) and 3) which other animals it should influen...

  12. A Discrepancy of Definitions: Binge Drinking and Female Students at an Australian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murugiah, Sera

    2012-01-01

    Women are more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol than men. They get intoxicated more quickly and have a higher blood alcohol level than men, even when body weight and alcohol consumption are the same. Despite this we are seeing a convergence of the drinking patterns of young women and young men, including binge drinking. In this research, 20…

  13. Anabolic steroid boosts weight.

    PubMed

    1996-09-01

    A randomized study of nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin) showed that the anabolic steroid can increase weight in people with HIV infections. The group receiving nandrolone experienced a greater increase both in fat-free mass and body cell mass (although the latter measure did not reach statistical significance) than those on placebo. Deca-Durabolin had little to do with two occurrences of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in the study group, but until further studies are completed, caution is advised when using this steroid in patients with KS. A new study comparing nandrolone to growth hormone in patients with wasting is slated to begin in the next 3 or 4 months. PMID:11363845

  14. BMI, body discrepancy, and self-construal as predictors of eating disturbances in European and Asian American females.

    PubMed

    Chang, Edward C; Yu, Elizabeth A; Kahle, Emma R

    2014-04-01

    This study examined for ethnic variations in the predictive utility of body discrepancy and self-construal in eating disturbances between 156 European American and 129 Asian American females. We found important ethnic variations in the prediction model between these two groups, especially in the value of self-construal. Some implications of the present findings are discussed. PMID:24854828

  15. Discrepancies in Military Middle-School Adolescents' and Parents' Perceptions of Family Functioning, Social Support, Anger Frequency, and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Janet R.; Seybold, Amanda K.

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature suggests that adolescents' and parents' perceptions of family functioning are typically quite disparate and that perceptual discrepancies increase when a family is under stress. During the years of deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan adolescents in military families have faced uniquely stressful circumstances which may…

  16. Dyadic Taxonomy of Delinquent Youth: Exploring Risks and Outcomes Associated With Maternal-Youth Reporting Discrepancies of Delinquent Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Joan A.; Sullivan, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Using latent class analysis (LCA), this study identified a dyadic taxonomy of delinquent youth categorized by varying types of maternal-youth reporting discrepancies (i.e., youth < maternal, youth > maternal) within a sample of 764 14-year-old high-risk youth. Four distinctive subgroups of youth were identified, two of which reported more…

  17. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test Concentration Ranges, Number of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications Pollutant Concentration...

  18. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test Concentration Ranges, Number of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications Pollutant Concentration...

  19. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test Concentration Ranges, Number of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications Pollutant Concentration...

  20. Individuation of Female Adolescents: Relations with Adolescents' Perceptions of Maternal Behavior and with Adolescent-Mother Discrepancies in Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher-Censor, Efrat; Oppenheim, David; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    The study examined how individuality and connectedness of female adolescents relate to their perceptions of maternal behavior and to adolescent-mother discrepancies in perceptions of maternal behavior. Seventy 16.5-year-old daughters and their mothers participated in the study. Individuality and connectedness of the daughters were assessed from…

  1. Reading disability defined as a discrepancy between listening and reading comprehension: a longitudinal study of stability, gender differences, and prevalence.

    PubMed

    Badian, N A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether defining reading disability by a discrepancy between group-administered tests of listening and reading comprehension would produce result similar in terms of stability, gender ratio, and prevalence to IQ-achievement test discrepancy definitions. The total population of a small school district (N = 1,008) was followed from prekindergarten through Grade 7-8 for 13 years. As is often seen in epidemiological studies using IQ and individually administered reading tests to define reading disability, stability in the classification of reading disability was low. Among the participants with a consistent reading disability, the male-to-female ratio was 3.2:1, compared with 1.3:1 for the 5.1% of the sample who were nondiscrepant poor readers in both lower and upper grades. A mean 2.7% of the population was classified as reading disabled over the eight-grade span, and only 1.7% demonstrated a consistent reading disability in both the lower and the upper grades. An increase in the ratio of nondiscrepant to discrepant poor readers after Grade 5 was due mainly to late-emerging poor readers. It was concluded that defining reading comprehension disability in terms of a discrepancy between listening and reading comprehension provides a fairly accurate estimate of the stability, gender ratio, and prevalence of the disorder. PMID:15499714

  2. On the discrepancy between eddy covariance and lysimetry-based surface flux measurements under strongly advective conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Discrepancies can arise among surface flux measurements collected using disparate techniques due to differences in both the instrumentation and theoretical underpinnings of the different measurement methods. Using data collected primarily over a pair of irrigated cotton fields as a part of the Bushl...

  3. Role conception and role discrepancy: a comparison between hospital-based and degree nursing students in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yung, H H

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports on a cross-sectional survey that aimed to compare the role conception types and role discrepancy between 140 certificate and 81 degree nursing students in Hong Kong. Non-probability convenience sampling was used and the participants selected from the hospital-based training were first, third and fourth study block students. Second-, third- and fourth-year students from the degree programme were selected for comparison. The role conception scale developed by Pieta was modified and adopted to measure the role conception and discrepancy. ANOVA test was performed to examine differences across and within the two groups. The results showed that the degree students had a significantly higher ideal but lower actual professional role conception than the certificate students. An interaction effect between the groups (certificate--degree) and grades (stages of education) was detected in the ideal professional role, indicating a marked drop of the score for the fourth-year degree students. For the discrepancy role conception score, the degree students had a significantly higher discrepancy score in all the three role conception types compared with their certificate counterparts. In summary, the impact of the educational process on the development of role conception was demonstrated. Compared to the certificate students, the ward practice seemed to exert a far greater impact on degree students' role conception. PMID:8708216

  4. Students with Specific Spelling Disability: A Collective Case Study Identifying the Experiential and Behavioral Causes for the Discrepancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Michael Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine potential causes for the reading and spelling discrepancies of 26 middle school students. All were proficient in reading, but non-proficient in spelling, a pattern typical in students with Specific Spelling Disability (SSD). The focus of the study was on linguistic knowledge while encoding and decoding, plus…

  5. Resisting Peer Pressure: Characteristics Associated with Other-Self Discrepancies in College Students' Levels of Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Lizabeth A.; Novak, Katherine B.

    2007-01-01

    Since college undergraduates tend to increase their use of alcohol to match what they perceive to be normative, the assumption has been that students who believe that others on campus drink more than they do (a common misperception) are in a vulnerable position. Taking a different perspective, we consider large other-self discrepancies in levels…

  6. Are Discrepancies in Perceptions of Psychological Control Related to Maladjustment? A Study of Adolescents and Their Parents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaban, E. Helin; Sayil, Melike; Tepe, Yeliz Kindap

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether adolescent-parent discrepancies in the perception of psychological control are associated with adolescent maladjustment. The sample consisted of 552 Turkish adolescents attending high school and their parents. Half of the adolescents had similar scores to their parents, while the remaining half thought…

  7. A Standardized Generalized Dimensionality Discrepancy Measure and a Standardized Model-Based Covariance for Dimensionality Assessment for Multidimensional Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Roy; Xu, Yuning; Yel, Nedim; Svetina, Dubravka

    2015-01-01

    The standardized generalized dimensionality discrepancy measure and the standardized model-based covariance are introduced as tools to critique dimensionality assumptions in multidimensional item response models. These tools are grounded in a covariance theory perspective and associated connections between dimensionality and local independence.…

  8. Analysis of the discrepancies identified during medication reconciliation on patient admission in cardiology units: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Natália Fracaro; Mendes, Antonio Eduardo Matoso; Lucchetta, Rosa Camila; Reis, Wálleri Christini Torelli; Fávero, Maria Luiza Drechsel; Correr, Cassyano Januário

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: this observational study aimed to describe the discrepancies identified during medication reconciliation on patient admission to cardiology units in a large hospital. Methods: the medication history of patients was collected within 48 hours after admission, and intentional and unintentional discrepancies were classified as omission, duplication, dose, frequency, timing, and route of drug administration. Results: most of the patients evaluated were women (58.0%) with a mean age of 59 years, and 75.5% of the patients had a Charlson comorbidity index score between 1 and 3. Of the 117 discrepancies found, 50.4% were unintentional. Of these, 61.0% involved omission, 18.6% involved dosage, 18.6% involved timing, and 1.7% involved the route of drug administration. Conclusion: this study revealed a high prevalence of discrepancies, most of which were related to omissions, and 50% were unintentional. These results reveal the number of drugs that are not reincorporated into the treatment of patients, which can have important clinical consequences. PMID:27533269

  9. A possible explanation for the population size discrepancy in tuna (genus Thunnus) estimated from mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite data.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Fan; Kitchen, Andrew; Beerli, Peter; Miyamoto, Michael M

    2013-02-01

    A recent study using both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite data reported on a population size discrepancy in the eastern tiger salamander where the effective population size (N(e)) estimate of the former exceeded that of the latter. That study suggested, among other hypotheses, that homoplasy of microsatellite alleles is responsible for the discrepancy. In this investigation, we report 10 new cases of a similar discrepancy in five species of tuna. These cases derive from our Bayesian inferences using data from Pacific Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus orientalis) and Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus albacares), as well as from published estimates of genetic diversity for additional populations of Yellowfin Tuna and three other tuna species. Phylogenetic character analyses of inferred genealogies of Pacific Bluefin and Yellowfin Tuna reveal similar reduced levels of mtDNA and microsatellite homoplasy. Thus, the discrepancy between inferred population sizes from mtDNA and microsatellite data in tuna is most likely not an artifact of the chosen mutation models used in the microsatellite analyses, but may reflect behavioral differences between the sexes such as female-biased philopatry and male-biased dispersal. This explanation now warrants critical testing with more local populations of tuna and with other animal and plant groups that have different life histories. PMID:22579759

  10. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications C Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration...

  11. Predicting the Grades of Low-Income--Ethnic-Minority Students from Teacher-Student Discrepancies in Reported Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Kristin Emilia; Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Jackson, Karen Moran

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of discrepancies between teachers' perceptions of students' motivation and students' reports of their motivation on math and English grades and to identify possible gender and ethnic differences. Participants included 215 low-income, ethnic-minority students and their teachers in academically…

  12. Even More Brain-Powered Science: Teaching and Learning with Discrepant Events. Brain-Powered Science Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    How can water and a penny demonstrate the power of mathematics and molecular theory? Do spelling and punctuation really matter to the human brain? The third of Thomas O'Brien's books designed for 5-12 grade science teachers, "Even More Brain-Powered Science" uses the questions above and 11 other inquiry-oriented discrepant events--experiments or…

  13. The Glass Half Empty: How Emotional Exhaustion Affects the State-Trait Discrepancy in Self-Reports of Teaching Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Thomas; Becker, Eva S.; Bieg, Madeleine; Keller, Melanie M.; Frenzel, Anne C.; Hall, Nathan C.

    2015-01-01

    Following from previous research on intensity bias and the accessibility model of emotional self-report, the present study examined the role of emotional exhaustion in explaining the discrepancy in teachers’ reports of their trait (habitual) versus state (momentary, “real”) emotions. Trait reports (habitual emotions, exhaustion) were assessed via trait questionnaires, and state reports (momentary emotions) were assessed in real time via the experience sampling method by using personal digital assistants (N = 69 high school teachers; 1,089 measures within teachers). In line with our assumptions, multi-level analyses showed that, as compared to the state assessment, teachers reported higher levels of habitual teaching-related emotions of anger, anxiety, shame, boredom, enjoyment, and pride. Additionally, the state-trait discrepancy in self-reports of negative emotions was accounted for by teachers’ emotional exhaustion, with high exhaustion levels corresponding with a greater state-trait discrepancy. Exhaustion levels did not moderate the state-trait discrepancy in positive emotions indicating that perceived emotional exhaustion may reflect identity-related cognitions specific to the negative belief system. Implications for research and educational practice are discussed. PMID:26368911

  14. Issues in the Application of Aptitude-Achievement Discrepency as a Criteria for Classifying Students Learning Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinelli, Cathleen G.

    This study examined whether discrepancy between aptitude and achievement is used to determine eligibility in the classification of learning disabilities. Test scores of 50 middle and high school students from eight school districts were used to determine whether Federal Code eligibility criteria were used to determine initial eligibility for…

  15. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  16. Who Is at Risk for Diagnostic Discrepancies? Comparison of Pre- and Postmortal Diagnoses in 1800 Patients of 3 Medical Decades in East and West Berlin

    PubMed Central

    Wittschieber, Daniel; Klauschen, Frederick; Kimmritz, Anna-Christin; von Winterfeld, Moritz; Kamphues, Carsten; Scholman, Hans-Joachim; Erbersdobler, Andreas; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Denkert, Carsten; Dietel, Manfred; Weichert, Wilko

    2012-01-01

    Background Autopsy rates in Western countries consistently decline to an average of <5%, although clinical autopsies represent a reasonable tool for quality control in hospitals, medically and economically. Comparing pre- and postmortal diagnoses, diagnostic discrepancies as uncovered by clinical autopsies supply crucial information on how to improve clinical treatment. The study aimed at analyzing current diagnostic discrepancy rates, investigating their influencing factors and identifying risk profiles of patients that could be affected by a diagnostic discrepancy. Methods and Findings Of all adult autopsy cases of the Charité Institute of Pathology from the years 1988, 1993, 1998, 2003 and 2008, the pre- and postmortal diagnoses and all demographic data were analyzed retrospectively. Based on power analysis, 1,800 cases were randomly selected to perform discrepancy classification (class I-VI) according to modified Goldman criteria. The rate of discrepancies in major diagnoses (class I) was 10.7% (95% CI: 7.7%–14.7%) in 2008 representing a reduction by 15.1%. Subgroup analysis revealed several influencing factors to significantly correlate with the discrepancy rate. Cardiovascular diseases had the highest frequency among class-I-discrepancies. Comparing the 1988-data of East- and West-Berlin, no significant differences were found in diagnostic discrepancies despite an autopsy rate differing by nearly 50%. A risk profile analysis visualized by intuitive heatmaps revealed a significantly high discrepancy rate in patients treated in low or intermediate care units at community hospitals. In this collective, patients with genitourinary/renal or infectious diseases were at particularly high risk. Conclusions This is the current largest and most comprehensive study on diagnostic discrepancies worldwide. Our well-powered analysis revealed a significant rate of class-I-discrepancies indicating that autopsies are still of value. The identified risk profiles may aid both

  17. Grappling with Weight Cutting. The Wisconsin Wrestling Minimum Weight Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppliger, Robert A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    In response to a new state rule, the Wisconsin Minimum Weight Project curtails weight cutting among high school wrestlers. The project uses skinfold testing to determine a minimum competitive weight and nutrition education to help the wrestler diet safety. It serves as a model for other states and other sports. (Author/SM)

  18. Modeling operating weight and axle weight distributions for highway vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Liang, J.C.

    1988-07-01

    The estimation of highway cost responsibility requires detailed information on vehicle operating weights and axle weights by type of vehicle. Typically, 10--20 vehicle types must be cross-classified by 10--20 registered weight classes and again by 20 or more operating weight categories, resulting in 100--400 relative frequencies to be determined for each vehicle type. For each of these, gross operating weight must be distributed to each axle or axle unit. Given the rarity of many of the heaviest vehicle types, direct estimation of these frequencies and axle weights from traffic classification count statistics and truck weight data may exceed the reliability of even the largest (e.g., 250,000 record) data sources. An alternative is to estimate statistical models of operating weight distributions as functions of registered weight, and models of axle weight shares as functions of operating weight. This paper describes the estimation of such functions using the multinomial logit model (a log-linear model) and the implementation of the modeling framework as a PC-based FORTRAN program. Areas for further research include the addition of highway class and region as explanatory variables in operating weight distribution models, and the development of theory for including registration costs and costs of operating overweight in the modeling framework. 14 refs., 45 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Dose discrepancies in the buildup region and their impact on dose calculations for IMRT fields

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Shu-Hui; Moran, Jean M.; Chen Yu; Kulasekere, Ravi; Roberson, Peter L.

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: Dose accuracy in the buildup region for radiotherapy treatment planning suffers from challenges in both measurement and calculation. This study investigates the dosimetry in the buildup region at normal and oblique incidences for open and IMRT fields and assesses the quality of the treatment planning calculations. Methods: This study was divided into three parts. First, percent depth doses and profiles (for 5x5, 10x10, 20x20, and 30x30 cm{sup 2} field sizes at 0 deg., 45 deg., and 70 deg. incidences) were measured in the buildup region in Solid Water using an Attix parallel plate chamber and Kodak XV film, respectively. Second, the parameters in the empirical contamination (EC) term of the convolution/superposition (CVSP) calculation algorithm were fitted based on open field measurements. Finally, seven segmental head-and-neck IMRT fields were measured on a flat phantom geometry and compared to calculations using {gamma} and dose-gradient compensation (C) indices to evaluate the impact of residual discrepancies and to assess the adequacy of the contamination term for IMRT fields. Results: Local deviations between measurements and calculations for open fields were within 1% and 4% in the buildup region for normal and oblique incidences, respectively. The C index with 5%/1 mm criteria for IMRT fields ranged from 89% to 99% and from 96% to 98% at 2 mm and 10 cm depths, respectively. The quality of agreement in the buildup region for open and IMRT fields is comparable to that in nonbuildup regions. Conclusions: The added EC term in CVSP was determined to be adequate for both open and IMRT fields. Due to the dependence of calculation accuracy on (1) EC modeling, (2) internal convolution and density grid sizes, (3) implementation details in the algorithm, and (4) the accuracy of measurements used for treatment planning system commissioning, the authors recommend an evaluation of the accuracy of near-surface dose calculations as a part of treatment planning

  20. Cospatial [O III] emission with Herschel and Hubble to address the nebular abundance discrepancy problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Robert

    2012-10-01

    There exist planetary nebulae {PNe} whose heavy element C, N, O, and Ne abundances as derived from optical recombination lines {ORLs} are a factor more than 5 higher than those derived from the traditional method based on collisionally excited lines {CELs}. This ratio is called the abundance discrepancy factor {adf}. A promising proposition to explain this long-standing nebular abundance problem posits that these nebulae contain {at least} two distinct regions - one of "normal" electron temperature, Te { 10000 K} and chemical composition { solar} and another of very low Te {< 1000} that is H-deficient, thus having high metal abundances relative to H. The latter component emits strong heavy element ORLs and IR fine-structure {FS} CELs, but essentially no optical/UV CELs. Efforts to directly detect these inclusions in PNe have been unsuccessful to date. However, there is mounting circumstantial evidence for their existence, such as presented in our recent paper that modeled the high-adf PN NGC 6153 using a 3-D photoionization code. The models that included the low Te, H-deficient knots fit most observations far better than did those models without the clumps. It has been shown that the adf varies with position in a PN and is highest close to the central star. The very low Te inclusions must be cooled predominantly by FS mid-IR lines. We propose to use HST archival images to derive [O III] 5007 A flux maps to compare with the [O III] 88 micron fluxes from our Herschel observations of four PNe - NGC 2392, NGC 2440, NGC 6720 and NGC 7009 - all on the largest adf list, to find if the IR line flux relative to the cospatial optical forbidden line flux peaks where the adf peaks.