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Sample records for actuated hydraulic pumps

  1. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research

  2. 12. VIEW OF HYDRAULIC PUMP INSIDE SILO. ACTUATING ARMS FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF HYDRAULIC PUMP INSIDE SILO. ACTUATING ARMS FOR DOORS EXPOSED Everett Weinreb, photographer, April 1988 - Los Pinetos Nike Missile Site, Santa Clara Road, Los Angeles National Forest, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. Piezoelectric-hydraulic pump based band brake actuation system for automotive transmission control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gi-Woo; Wang, K. W.

    2007-04-01

    The actuation system of friction elements (such as band brakes) is essential for high quality operations in modern automotive automatic transmissions (in short, ATs). The current band brake actuation system consists of several hydraulic components, including the oil pump, the regulating valve and the control valves. In general, it has been recognized that the current AT band brake actuation system has many limitations. For example, the oil pump and valve body are relatively heavy and complex. Also, the oil pumps induce inherently large drag torque, which affects fuel economy. This research is to overcome these problems of the current system by exploring the utilization of a hybrid type piezo-hydraulic pump device for AT band brake control. This new actuating system integrates a piezo-hydraulic pump to the input of the band brake. Compared with the current systems, this new actuator features much simpler structure, smaller size, and lower weight. This paper describes the development, design and fabrication of the new stand-alone prototype actuator for AT band brake control. An analytical model is developed and validated using experimental data. Performance tests on the hardware and system simulations utilizing the validated model are performed to characterize the new prototype actuator. It is predicted that with increasing of accumulator pressure and driving frequency, the proposed prototype actuating system will satisfy the band brake requirement for AT shift control.

  4. Variable stiffness actuator based on fluidic flexible matrix composites and piezoelectric-hydraulic pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gi-Woo; Li, Suyi; Wang, K. W.

    2010-04-01

    Recently, a new biological-inspired fluidic flexible matrix composite (in short, F2MC) concept has been developed for linear/torsional actuation and structural stiffness tailoring. Although the actuation and the variable stiffness features of the F2MC have been successfully demonstrated individually, their combined functions and full potentials were not yet manifested. In addition, the current hydraulic pressurization systems are bulky and heavy, limiting the potential of the F2MC actuator. To address these issues, we synthesize a new variable stiffness actuator concept that can provide both effective actuation and tunable stiffness (dual-mode), incorporating the F2MC with a compact piezoelectric-hydraulic pump (in short, PHP). This dual-mode mechanism will significantly enhance the potential of the F2MC adaptive structures.

  5. Helmholtz resonance in a piezoelectric-hydraulic pump-based hybrid actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gi-Woo; Wang, K. W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that a hydraulically acting Helmholtz resonator can exist in a piezoelectric-hydraulic pump (PHP) based hybrid actuator, which in turn affects the volumetric efficiency of the PHP. The simulation and experimental results illustrate the effect of Helmholtz resonance on the flow rate performance of the PHP. The study also shows how to shift the Helmholtz resonant frequency to a higher value through changing parameters such as the cylinder diameter and the effective bulk modulus of the working fluid, which will improve the volumetric efficiency and broaden the operating frequency range of the PHP actuator.

  6. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  7. Pneumatic actuator with hydraulic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Hobart R., Jr.

    1992-11-01

    The present invention provides a pneumatically powered actuator having hydraulic control for both locking and controlling the velocity of an output rod without any sponginess. The invention includes a double-acting pneumatic actuator having a bore, a piston slidably engaged within the bore, and a control rod connected to the piston. The double-acting pneumatic actuator is mounted to a frame. A first double-acting hydraulic actuator having a bore, a piston slidably engaged within the bore, and a follower rod mounted to the piston is mounted to the frame such that the follower rod is fixedly connected to the control rod. The maximum translation of the piston within the bore of the first double-acting hydraulic actuator provides a volumetric displacement V1. The present invention also includes a second double-acting hydraulic actuator having a bore, a piston slidably engaged within the bore, and an output rod mounted to the piston. The maximum translation of the piston within the bore of the second double-acting hydraulic actuator provides a volumetric displacement V2, where V2=V1. A pair of fluid ports in each of the first and second double-acting hydraulic cylinders are operably connected by fluid conduits, one of which includes a valve circuit which may be used to control the velocity of the output rod or to lock the output rod in a static position by regulating the flow of hydraulic fluid between the double-acting cylinders.

  8. Hydraulically actuated well shifting tool

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, B.A.

    1992-10-20

    This patent describes a hydraulically actuated shifting tool for actuating a sliding member in a well tool. It comprises: a housing having a hydraulic fluid bore therein; shifting dog means positioned on the housing for movement away and toward the housing; locking dog means positioned on the housing for movement away and toward the body; shifting dog hydraulic actuating means in fluid communication with the bore for causing engagement of the shifting dogs with the sliding member; locking dog hydraulic actuating means in communication with the bore for causing engagement of the locking dogs with the locking means; and hydraulic shifting means in communication with the bore for causing relative movement between the shifting dog means and the locking dog means for shifting the sliding sleeve.

  9. Subminiature hydraulic actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sevart, F. D.

    1978-01-01

    Subminiature, single-vane rotary actuator for wind-tunnel test-model control-surface actuation systems presents severe torque and system band-pass requirements with stringent space and weight limitations. Actuator has very low leakage of fluid from one side to other, permitting use in precision position servo-systems.

  10. Hydraulic involute cam actuator

    DOEpatents

    Love, Lonnie J.; Lind, Randall F.

    2011-11-01

    Mechanical joints are provided in which the angle between a first coupled member and a second coupled member may be varied by mechanical actuators. In some embodiments the angle may be varied around a pivot axis in one plane and in some embodiments the angle may be varied around two pivot axes in two orthogonal planes. The joints typically utilize a cam assembly having two lobes with an involute surface. Actuators are configured to push against the lobes to vary the rotation angle between the first and second coupled member.

  11. Tribology of hydraulic pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, A.

    1997-12-31

    To obtain much higher performance than that of alternative power transmission systems, hydraulic systems have been continuously evolving to use high-pressure. Adoption of positive displacement pumps and motors is based on this reason. Therefore, tribology is a key terminology for hydraulic pumps and motors to obtain excellent performance and durability. In this paper the following topics are investigated: (1) the special feature of tribology of hydraulic pumps and motors; (2) indication of the important bearing/sealing parts in piston pumps and effects of the frictional force and leakage flow to performance; (3) the methods to break through the tribological limitation of hydraulic equipment; and (4) optimum design of the bearing/sealing parts used in the fluid to mixed lubrication regions.

  12. Hydraulically amplified PZT mems actuator

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Robin R.

    2004-11-02

    A hydraulically amplified microelectromechanical systems actuator. A piece of piezoelectric material or stacked piezo bimorph is bonded or deposited as a thin film. The piece is operatively connected to a primary membrane. A reservoir is operatively connected to the primary membrane. The reservoir contains a fluid. A membrane is operatively connected to the reservoir. In operation, energizing the piezoelectric material causing the piezoelectric material to bow. Bowing of the piezoelectric material causes movement of the primary membrane. Movement of the primary membrane results in a force in being transmitted to the liquid in the reservoir. The force in the liquid causes movement of the membrane. Movement of the membrane results in an operating actuator.

  13. Electrokinetic pumps and actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Phillip M. Paul

    2000-03-01

    Flow and ionic transport in porous media are central to electrokinetic pumping as well as to a host of other microfluidic devices. Electrokinetic pumping provides the ability to create high pressures (to over 10,000 psi) and high flow rates (over 1 mL/min) with a device having no moving parts and all liquid seals. The electrokinetic pump (EKP) is ideally suited for applications ranging from a high pressure integrated pump for chip-scale HPLC to a high flow rate integrated pump for forced liquid convection cooling of high-power electronics. Relations for flow rate and current fluxes in porous media are derived that provide a basis for analysis of complex microfluidic systems as well as for optimization of electrokinetic pumps.

  14. Applying Switched Reluctance Motor to Oil Hydraulic Pump Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamai, Hiroyuki; Sawada, Yuzo; Ohyama, Kazunobu

    Hydraulic pump units are widely used to operate hydraulic actuators. In a typical machine shop, conventional constant speed hydraulic pump units consume more than 20% of the total electric power necessary to operate CNC machine tools. Most of that energy are wasted to run the axial piston pump at idle. This paper describes a variable speed hydraulic pump unit using a switched reluctance motor (SRM), which saves energy drastically. SRM was selected as the most suitable motor for this application. Design and control strategy of this motor are described. Application examples to machine tools shows the effectiveness of the new hybrid pump system in saving energy and in reducing acoustic noise.

  15. Hydraulic actuator motion limiter ensures operator safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinmetz, C. P.

    1971-01-01

    Device regulates action of hydraulic linkage to control column to minimize hazard to operator. Primary components of device are flow rate control valve, limiter accumulator, and shutoff valve. Limiter may be incorporated into other hydraulic systems to prevent undue wear on hydraulic actuators and associated components.

  16. Engine with hydraulic fuel injection and ABS circuit using a single high pressure pump

    DOEpatents

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-01-01

    An engine system comprises a hydraulically actuated fuel injection system and an ABS circuit connected via a fluid flow passage that provides hydraulic fluid to both the fuel injection system and to the ABS circuit. The hydraulically actuated system includes a high pressure pump. The fluid control passage is in fluid communication with an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  17. Design, test and model of a hybrid magnetostrictive hydraulic actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Anirban; Yoo, Jin-Hyeong; Wereley, Norman M.

    2009-08-01

    The basic operation of hybrid hydraulic actuators involves high frequency bi-directional operation of an active material that is converted to uni-directional motion of hydraulic fluid using valves. A hybrid actuator was developed using magnetostrictive material Terfenol-D as the driving element and hydraulic oil as the working fluid. Two different lengths of Terfenol-D rod, 51 and 102 mm, with the same diameter, 12.7 mm, were used. Tests with no load and with load were carried out to measure the performance for uni-directional motion of the output piston at different pumping frequencies. The maximum no-load flow rates were 24.8 cm3 s-1 and 22.7 cm3 s-1 with the 51 mm and 102 mm long rods respectively, and the peaks were noted around 325 Hz pumping frequency. The blocked force of the actuator was close to 89 N in both cases. A key observation was that, at these high pumping frequencies, the inertial effects of the fluid mass dominate over the viscous effects and the problem becomes unsteady in nature. In this study, we also develop a mathematical model of the hydraulic hybrid actuator in the time domain to show the basic operational principle under varying conditions and to capture phenomena affecting system performance. Governing equations for the pumping piston and output shaft were obtained from force equilibrium considerations, while compressibility of the working fluid was taken into account by incorporating the bulk modulus. Fluid inertia was represented by a lumped parameter approach to the transmission line model, giving rise to strongly coupled ordinary differential equations. The model was then used to calculate the no-load velocities of the actuator at different pumping frequencies and simulation results were compared with experimental data for model validation.

  18. Design of a hydraulic actuator for active control of rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashidi, Majid; Dirusso, Eliseo

    1991-01-01

    A hydraulic actuator is described which consists of a pump, a hydraulic servo-valve, and a thin elastic plate which transduces the generated pressure variations into forces acting on a mass which simulates the bearing of a rotor system. An actuator characteristic number is defined to provide a base for an optimum design of force actuators with combined weight, frequency, and force considerations. This characteristic number may also be used to compare hydraulic and electromagnetic force actuators. In tests, this actuator generated 182.3 Newton force at a frequency of 100 Hz and a displacement amplitude of 5.8 x 10 exp -5 meter.

  19. Hydraulic Actuator System for Rotor Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, Heinz; Althaus, Josef

    1991-01-01

    In the last ten years, several different types of actuators were developed and fabricated for active control of rotors. A special hydraulic actuator system capable of generating high forces to rotating shafts via conventional bearings is addressed. The actively controlled hydraulic force actuator features an electrohydraulic servo valve which can produce amplitudes and forces at high frequencies necessary for influencing rotor vibrations. The mathematical description will be given in detail. The experimental results verify the theoretical model. Simulations already indicate the usefulness of this compact device for application to a real rotor system.

  20. 14 CFR 33.72 - Hydraulic actuating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic actuating systems. 33.72 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.72 Hydraulic actuating systems. Each hydraulic actuating system must function properly under all conditions in which...

  1. Peristaltic pump made of dielectric elastomer actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotz, Peter; Matysek, Marc; Schlaak, Helmut F.

    2009-03-01

    The functional principle of peristaltic motion is inspired by the pattern in which hollow organs move. The technology of dielectric elastomer actuators provides the possibility to design a very compact peristaltic pump. The geometries of the whole pump and the actuator elements have been determined by numerical simulations of the mechanical behaviour and the fluid dynamics. With eight independent actuators the pumping channel is self-sealing and there is no need for any valves. The first generation of this pump is able to generate flow rates up to 0.36 μl/min.

  2. Simulated dynamic response of a servovalve controlled hydraulic actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babcock, Dale A.

    1990-01-01

    A general purpose math model of a servovalve controlled hydraulic actuator system is derived. The system consists of a linear actuator with unequal piston areas, a single stage servovalve, a gas charged hydraulic accumulator, and the interconnecting piping. The state equations are integrated using the Advanced Continuous Simulation Language (ACSL) for determining the system's dynamic response characteristics. Using this generalized hydraulic actuator system model, response characteristics were determined for various servovalve commands.

  3. Pneumatically Actuated Miniature Peristaltic Vacuum Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Sabrina; Feldman, Jason; Svehla, Danielle

    2003-01-01

    Pneumatically actuated miniature peristaltic vacuum pumps have been proposed for incorporation into advanced miniature versions of scientific instruments that depend on vacuum for proper operation. These pumps are expected to be capable of reaching vacuum-side pressures in the torr to millitorr range (from .133 down to .0.13 Pa). Vacuum pumps that operate in this range are often denoted roughing pumps. In comparison with previously available roughing pumps, these pumps are expected to be an order of magnitude less massive and less power-hungry. In addition, they would be extremely robust, and would operate with little or no maintenance and without need for oil or other lubricants. Portable mass spectrometers are typical examples of instruments that could incorporate the proposed pumps. In addition, the proposed pumps could be used as roughing pumps in general laboratory applications in which low pumping rates could be tolerated. The proposed pumps could be designed and fabricated in conventionally machined and micromachined versions. A typical micromachined version (see figure) would include a rigid glass, metal, or plastic substrate and two layers of silicone rubber. The bottom silicone layer would contain shallow pump channels covered by silicone arches that could be pushed down pneumatically to block the channels. The bottom silicone layer would be covered with a thin layer of material with very low gas permeability, and would be bonded to the substrate everywhere except in the channel areas. The top silicone layer would be attached to the bottom silicone layer and would contain pneumatic- actuation channels that would lie crosswise to the pump channels. This version is said to be micromachined because the two silicone layers containing the channels would be fabricated by casting silicone rubber on micromachined silicon molds. The pneumatic-actuation channels would be alternately connected to a compressed gas and (depending on pump design) either to atmospheric

  4. A miniature bimorph piezoelectrically actuated flow pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, Rogério F.; Nakasone, Paulo H.; de Lima, Cícero R.; Silva, Emílio C. N.

    2006-03-01

    Precision flow pumps have been widely studied over the last three decades. They have been applied as essential components in thermal management solutions for cooling electronic devices offering better performance with low noise and low power consumption. In this work, a novel configuration of a miniature piezoelectrically actuated flow pump with the purpose of cooling a LED set inside a head light system for medical applications has been studied and it will be presented. The complete cycle of pump development was conducted. In the design step, the ANSYS finite element analysis software has been applied to simulate and study the fluid-structure interaction inside the pump, as well as the bimorph piezoelectric actuator behavior. In addition, an optimization process was carried out through Altair Hyperstudy software to find a set of parameter values that maximizes the pump performance measured in terms of flow rate. The prototype manufacturing was guided based on computational simulations. Flow characterization experimental tests were conducted, generating data that allows us to analyze the influence of frequency and amplitude parameters in the pump performance. Comparisons between numerical and experimental results were also made.

  5. Nonlinear dynamic modeling for smart material electro-hydraulic actuator development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, John P.; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2013-03-01

    Smart material electro-hydraulic actuators use hydraulic rectification by one-way check valves to amplify the motion of smart materials, such as magnetostrictives and piezoelectrics, in order to create compact, lightweight actuators. A piston pump driven by a smart material is combined with a hydraulic cylinder to form a self-contained, power-by-wire actuator that can be used in place of a conventional hydraulic system without the need for hydraulic lines and a centralized pump. The performance of an experimental actuator driven by a 12.7 mm diameter, 114 mm length Terfenol-D rod is evaluated over a range of applied input frequencies, loads, and currents. The peak performance achieved is 37 W, moving a 220 N load at a rate of 17 cm/s and producing a blocked pressure of 12.5 MPa. Additional tests are conducted to quantify the dynamic behavior of the one-way reed valves using a scanning laser vibrometer to identify the frequency response of the reeds and the effect of the valve seat and fluid mass loading. A lumped-parameter model is developed for the system that includes valve inertia and fluid response nonlinearities, and the model results are compared with the experimental data.

  6. 39. THREECYLINDER HYDRAULIC OIL PUMP (MANUFACTURED BY WORTHINGTON: PUMP AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. THREE-CYLINDER HYDRAULIC OIL PUMP (MANUFACTURED BY WORTHINGTON: PUMP AND MACHINERY COMPANY, HOLYOKE MASSACHUSETTS) IN MACHINERY CHAMBER FOR SLUICE GATE WORKS ON GALLERY 1. NOTE OIL TANK ABOVE PUMP MOTOR. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  7. Position and torque tracking: series elastic actuation versus model-based-controlled hydraulic actuation.

    PubMed

    Otten, Alexander; van Vuuren, Wieke; Stienen, Arno; van Asseldonk, Edwin; Schouten, Alfred; van der Kooij, Herman

    2011-01-01

    Robotics used for diagnostic measurements on, e.g. stroke survivors, require actuators that are both stiff and compliant. Stiffness is required for identification purposes, and compliance to compensate for the robots dynamics, so that the subject can move freely while using the robot. A hydraulic actuator can act as a position (stiff) or a torque (compliant) actuator. The drawback of a hydraulic actuator is that it behaves nonlinear. This article examines two methods for controlling a nonlinear hydraulic actuator. The first method that is often applied uses an elastic element (i.e. spring) connected in series with the hydraulic actuator so that the torque can be measured as the deflection of the spring. This torque measurement is used for proportional integral control. The second method of control uses the inverse of the model of the actuator as a linearizing controller. Both methods are compared using simulation results. The controller designed for the series elastic hydraulic actuator is faster to implement, but only shows good performance for the working range for which the controller is designed due to the systems nonlinear behavior. The elastic element is a limiting factor when designing a position controller due to its low torsional stiffness. The model-based controller linearizes the nonlinear system and shows good performance when used for torque and position control. Implementing the model-based controller does require building and validating of the detailed model. PMID:22275654

  8. Climbing robot actuated by meso-hydraulic artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Matthew; Fitzgerald, Jason; Miller, Samuel; Saltzman, Jonah; Kim, Sangkyu; Lin, Yong; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents the design, construction, experimental characterization, and system testing of a legged, wall-climbing robot actuated by meso-scale hydraulic artificial muscles. While small wall-climbing robots have seen increased research attention in recent years, most authors have primarily focused on designs for the gripping and adhesion of the robot to the wall, while using only standard DC servo-motors for actuation. This project seeks to explore and demonstrate a different actuation mechanism that utilizes hydraulic artificial muscles. A four-limb climbing robot platform that includes a full closed-loop hydraulic power and control system, custom hydraulic artificial muscles for actuation, an on-board microcontroller and RF receiver for control, and compliant claws with integrated sensing for gripping a variety of wall surfaces has been constructed and is currently being tested to investigate this actuation method. On-board power consumption data-logging during climbing operation, analysis of the robot kinematics and climbing behavior, and artificial muscle force-displacement characterization are presented to investigate and this actuation method.

  9. The hydraulic ram (or impulse) pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Allan

    2014-03-01

    The hydraulic impulse pump utilizes a fraction of the momentum of a flowing stream to lift a small portion of that water to a higher level. There it may be accumulated in an elevated cistern to provide sufficient water for several families, for the pump works 24 h a day with no additional source of energy. The operation of the pump is described, along with a working demonstration model constructed from plastic waste pipe and fittings.

  10. The Hydraulic Ram (Or Impulse) Pump

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    The hydraulic impulse pump utilizes a fraction of the momentum of a flowing stream to lift a small portion of that water to a higher level. There it may be accumulated in an elevated cistern to provide sufficient water for several families, for the pump works 24 h a day with no additional source of energy. The operation of the pump is described,…

  11. Active catheter driven by a thermo-hydraulic actuation.

    PubMed

    Horovitz, Yonatan; Kosa, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    Catheters and flexible endoscopes are usually steered by mechanical wires that are driven from their base. Due to friction and buckling there is a need to place the driving actuator of the catheter at the catheter's tip. Such active catheter's manoeuvrability is much higher than wire-driven ones. A problem with active catheters is the difficulty to create high enough bending using micro-actuators placed at the catheter's tip. Our actuation method is an attempt to overcome this difficulty by using a novel thermo-hydraulic actuation method. The magnitude of the bending torque of our actuator is created by internal hydraulic pressure in the tube and the steering direction is controlled by the thermal micro-actuator embedded in the wall of the tube. In this paper we present the modelling, optimization, design and testing of an initial prototype of such an actuator. We found that a 4 mm OD actuator made of TPU can bend to ±12°. PMID:26738094

  12. Hydraulically-actuated operating system for an electric circuit breaker

    DOEpatents

    Barkan, Philip; Imam, Imdad

    1978-01-01

    This hydraulically-actuated operating system comprises a cylinder, a piston movable therein in an opening direction to open a circuit breaker, and an accumulator for supplying pressurized liquid to a piston-actuating space within the cylinder. A normally-closed valve between the accumulator and the actuating space is openable to allow pressurized liquid from the accumulator to flow through the valve into the actuating space to drive the piston in an opening direction. A vent is located hydraulically between the actuating space and the valve for affording communication between said actuating space and a low pressure region. Flow control means is provided for restricting leakage through said vent to a rate that prevents said leakage from substantially detracting from the development of pressure within said actuatng space during the period from initial opening of the valve to the time when said piston has moved through most of its opening stroke. Following such period and while the valve is still open, said flow control means allows effective leakage through said vent. The accumulator has a limited capacity that results in the pressure within said actuating space decaying promptly to a low value as a result of effective leakage through said vent after the piston has moved through a circuit-breaker opening stroke and while the valve is in its open state. Means is provided for resetting the valve to its closed state in response to said pressure decay in the actuating space.

  13. Redundancy of hydraulic flight control actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chenoweth, C. C.; Ryder, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    The constraint of requiring airplanes to have inherent aerodynamic stability can be removed by using active control systems. The resulting airplane requires control system reliability approaching that of the basic airframe. Redundant control actuators can be used to achieve the required reliability, but create mechanization and operational problems. Of numerous candidate systems, two different approaches to solving the problems associated with redundant actuators which appear the most likely to be used in advanced airplane control systems are described.

  14. Note: Development of a compact electromagnetic hydraulic pump for a microrobot joint driving system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Naijian; Wang, Sun'an; Zhang, Jinhua

    2010-04-01

    This note describes a compact electromagnetic hydraulic pump (EMHP) designed primarily to build a microdriving system for a robot joint actuator. A characteristic mathematical model integrating electricity, magnetism, and hydraulics is constructed to represent the working process of the EMHP. Tests show that a volumetric flow rate of up to 430 cm(3)/min and load pressure of up to 2.5 MPa can be achieved. The prototype pump can supply stable pressure of 0-2.4 MPa and acceleration of 1.2 MPa/s for the robot joint actuator. PMID:20441378

  15. Self-contained hybrid electro-hydraulic actuators using magnetostrictive and electrostrictive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Anirban

    Hybrid electro-hydraulic actuators using smart materials along with flow rectification have been widely reported in recent years. The basic operation of these actuators involves high frequency bidirectional operation of an active material that is converted into unidirectional fluid motion by a set of valves. While theoretically attractive, practical constraints limit the efficacy of the solid-fluid hybrid actuation approach. In particular, inertial loads, fluid viscosity and compressibility combine with loss mechanisms inherent in the active material to limit the effective bandwidth of the driving actuator and the total output power. A hybrid actuator was developed by using magnetostrictive TerFeNOL-D as the active driving element and hydraulic oil as the working fluid. Tests, both with and without an external load, were carried out to measure the unidirectional performance of the actuator at different pumping frequencies and operating conditions. The maximum no-load output velocity was 84 mm/s with a 51 mm long rod and 88 mm/s with a 102 mm long rod, both noted around 325 Hz pumping frequency, while the blocked force was close to 89 N. Dynamic tests were performed to analyze the axial vibration characteristics of the Terfenol-D rods and frequency responses of the magnetic circuits. A second prototype actuator employing the same actuation principle was then designed by using the electrostrictive material PMN-32%PT as the driving element. Tests were conducted to measure the actuator performance for varying electrical input conditions and fluid bias pressures. The peak output velocity obtained was 330 mm/s while the blocked force was 63 N. The maximum volume flow rate obtained with the PMN-based actuator was more than double that obtained from the Terfenol-D--based actuator. Theoretical modeling of the dynamics of the coupled structural-hydraulic system is extremely complex and several models have been proposed earlier. At high pumping frequencies, the fluid inertia

  16. 14 CFR 33.72 - Hydraulic actuating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hydraulic actuating systems. 33.72 Section 33.72 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.72...

  17. 14 CFR 33.72 - Hydraulic actuating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hydraulic actuating systems. 33.72 Section 33.72 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.72...

  18. 14 CFR 33.72 - Hydraulic actuating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hydraulic actuating systems. 33.72 Section 33.72 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.72...

  19. 14 CFR 33.72 - Hydraulic actuating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hydraulic actuating systems. 33.72 Section 33.72 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.72...

  20. The hydraulic design of pump turbine for Xianyou pumped storage power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, J. S.; Liu, W. C.; Fu, Z. Y.; Shi, Q. H.

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents the hydraulic design of pump turbines for Xianyou pumped storage power station. The method of improving the hydraulic performance of pump turbine with CFD analysis is given. The results of model test indicate that the final hydraulic design of pump turbine for Xianyou pumped storage power station is of high efficiencies, good

  1. Low-power microfluidic electro-hydraulic pump (EHP).

    PubMed

    Lui, Clarissa; Stelick, Scott; Cady, Nathaniel; Batt, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Low-power electrolysis-based microfluidic pumps utilizing the principle of hydraulics, integrated with microfluidic channels in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates, are presented. The electro-hydraulic pumps (EHPs), consisting of electrolytic, hydraulic and fluidic chambers, were investigated using two types of electrodes: stainless steel for larger volumes and annealed gold electrodes for smaller-scale devices. Using a hydraulic fluid chamber and a thin flexible PDMS membrane, this novel prototype successfully separates the reagent fluid from the electrolytic fluid, which is particularly important for biological and chemical applications. The hydraulic advantage of the EHP device arises from the precise control of flow rate by changing the electrolytic pressure generated, independent of the volume of the reagent chamber, mimicking the function of a hydraulic press. Since the reservoirs are pre-filled with reagents and sealed prior to testing, external fluid coupling is minimized. The stainless steel electrode EHPs were manufactured with varying chamber volume ratios (1 : 1 to 1 : 3) as a proof-of-concept, and exhibited flow rates of 1.25 to 30 microl/min with electrolysis-based actuation at 2.5 to 10 V(DC). The miniaturized gold electrode EHPs were manufactured with 3 mm diameters and 1 : 1 chamber volume ratios, and produced flow rates of 1.24 to 7.00 microl/min at 2.5 to 10 V(AC), with a higher maximum sustained pressure of 343 KPa, suggesting greater device robustness using methods compatible with microfabrication. The proposed technology is low-cost, low-power and disposable, with a high level of reproducibility, allowing for ease of fabrication and integration into existing microfluidic lab-on-a-chip and analysis systems. PMID:20024053

  2. Nanostructured carbon materials based electrothermal air pump actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qing; Liu, Luqi; Kuang, Jun; Dai, Zhaohe; Han, Jinhua; Zhang, Zhong

    2014-05-01

    Actuator materials can directly convert different types of energy into mechanical energy. In this work, we designed and fabricated electrothermal air pump-type actuators by utilization of various nanostructured carbon materials, including single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), reduced graphene oxide (r-GO), and graphene oxide (GO)/SWCNT hybrid films as heating elements to transfer electrical stimulus into thermal energy, and finally convert it into mechanical energy. Both the actuation displacement and working temperature of the actuator films show the monotonically increasing trend with increasing driving voltage within the actuation process. Compared with common polymer nanocomposites based electrothermal actuators, our actuators exhibited better actuation performances with a low driving voltage (<10 V), large generated stress (tens of MPa), high gravimetric density (tens of J kg-1), and short response time (few hundreds of milliseconds). Besides that, the pump actuators exhibited excellent stability under cyclic actuation tests. Among these actuators, a relatively larger actuation strain was obtained for the r-GO film actuator due to the intrinsic gas-impermeability nature of graphene platelets. In addition, the high modulus of the r-GO and GO/SWCNT films also guaranteed the large generated stress and high work density. Specifically, the generated stress and gravimetric work density of the GO/SWCNT hybrid film actuator could reach up to more than 50 MPa and 30 J kg-1, respectively, under a driving voltage of 10 V. The resulting stress value is at least two orders of magnitude higher than that of natural muscles (~0.4 MPa).Actuator materials can directly convert different types of energy into mechanical energy. In this work, we designed and fabricated electrothermal air pump-type actuators by utilization of various nanostructured carbon materials, including single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), reduced graphene oxide (r-GO), and graphene oxide (GO)/SWCNT hybrid

  3. Simulation and control of an electro-hydraulic actuated clutch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balau, Andreea-Elena; Caruntu, Constantin-Florin; Lazar, Corneliu

    2011-08-01

    The basic function of any type of automotive transmission is to transfer the engine torque to the vehicle with the desired ratio smoothly and efficiently and the most common control devices inside the transmission are clutches and hydraulic pistons. The automatic control of the clutch engagement plays a crucial role in Automatic Manual Transmission (AMT) vehicles, being seen as an increasingly important enabling technology for the automotive industry. It has a major role in automatic gear shifting and traction control for improved safety, drivability and comfort and, at the same time, for fuel economy. In this paper, a model for a wet clutch actuated by an electro-hydraulic valve used by Volkswagen for automatic transmissions is presented. Starting from the developed model, a simulator was implemented in Matlab/Simulink and the model was validated against data obtained from a test-bench provided by Continental Automotive Romania, which includes the Volkswagen wet clutch actuated by the electro-hydraulic valve. Then, a predictive control strategy is applied to the model of the electro-hydraulic actuated clutch with the aims of controlling the clutch piston displacement and decreasing the influence of the network-induced delays on the control performances. The simulation results obtained with the proposed method are compared with the ones obtained with different networked controllers and it is shown that the strategy proposed in this paper can indeed improve the performances of the control system.

  4. Hydraulically actuated fuel injector including a pilot operated spool valve assembly and hydraulic system using same

    DOEpatents

    Shafer, Scott F.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to hydraulic systems including hydraulically actuated fuel injectors that have a pilot operated spool valve assembly. One class of hydraulically actuated fuel injectors includes a solenoid driven pilot valve that controls the initiation of the injection event. However, during cold start conditions, hydraulic fluid, typically engine lubricating oil, is particularly viscous and is often difficult to displace through the relatively small drain path that is defined past the pilot valve member. Because the spool valve typically responds slower than expected during cold start due to the difficulty in displacing the relatively viscous oil, accurate start of injection timing can be difficult to achieve. There also exists a greater difficulty in reaching the higher end of the cold operating speed range. Therefore, the present invention utilizes a fluid evacuation valve to aid in displacement of the relatively viscous oil during cold start conditions.

  5. Hydraulic actuator for an electric circuit breaker

    DOEpatents

    Imam, Imdad [Colonie, NY

    1983-01-01

    This actuator comprises a fluid motor having a piston, a breaker-opening space at one side of the piston, and a breaker-closing space at its opposite side. An accumulator freely communicates with the breaker-opening space for supplying pressurized fluid thereto during a circuit breaker opening operation. The breaker-opening space and the breaker-closing space are connected by an impeded flow passage. A pilot valve opens to allow the pressurized liquid in the breaker-closing space to flow to a back chamber of a normally closed main valve to cause the main valve to be opened during a circuit breaker opening operation to release the pressurized liquid from the breaker-closing space. An impeded passage affords communication between the back chamber and a sump located on the opposite side of the main valve from the back chamber. The pilot valve and impeded passage allow rapid opening of the main valve with pressurized liquid from the breaker closing side of the piston.

  6. Hydraulic actuator for an electric circuit breaker

    DOEpatents

    Imam, I.

    1983-05-17

    This actuator comprises a fluid motor having a piston, a breaker-opening space at one side of the piston, and a breaker-closing space at its opposite side. An accumulator freely communicates with the breaker-opening space for supplying pressurized fluid thereto during a circuit breaker opening operation. The breaker-opening space and the breaker-closing space are connected by an impeded flow passage. A pilot valve opens to allow the pressurized liquid in the breaker-closing space to flow to a back chamber of a normally closed main valve to cause the main valve to be opened during a circuit breaker opening operation to release the pressurized liquid from the breaker-closing space. An impeded passage affords communication between the back chamber and a sump located on the opposite side of the main valve from the back chamber. The pilot valve and impeded passage allow rapid opening of the main valve with pressurized liquid from the breaker closing side of the piston. 3 figs.

  7. Vehicle having hydraulic and power steering systems using a single high pressure pump

    DOEpatents

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-06-22

    A vehicle comprises a plurality of wheels attached to a vehicle housing. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a power steering system, including a fluid flow circuit, which is operably coupled to a number of the wheels. An internal combustion engine attached to the vehicle housing is connected to a hydraulically actuated system that includes a high pressure pump. An outlet of the high pressure pump is in fluid communication with the fluid flow circuit.

  8. Simulation of a Hydraulic Pump Control Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molen, G. Vander; Akers, A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the mode of operation of a control valve assembly that is used with a hydraulic pump. The operating system of the valve is modelled in a simplified form, and an analogy for hydraulic resonance of the pressure sensing system is presented. For the control valve investigated, air entrainment, length and diameter of the resonator neck, and valve mass produced the greatest shift in resonant frequency. Experimental work was conducted on the hydraulic system so that the resonance levels and frequencies could be measured and the accuracy of the theory verified. The results obtained make it possible to evaluate what changes to any of the variables considered would be most effective in driving the second harmonic frequency above the operating range.

  9. Hydraulic gas pump: A discussion of its power usage

    SciTech Connect

    Amani, M.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the results of a study that compares the theoretically calculated power consumption of a Hydraulic Gas Pump, rod pumps, and electric submersible pumps. The results indicate that, depending on the flowing bottomhole pressure of a well, a Hydraulic Gas Pump can have lower power costs than a rod pump or a submersible pump. The author presents a method for calculating the power cost of a Hydraulic Gas Pump and discusses the relationship of the power cost of this pump to the flowing bottomhole pressure. Several graphs compare the calculated power consumption of a rod pump, submersible pump, and Hydraulic Gas Pump for well depths ranging between 6,000 and 10,000 feet; flowing bottomhole pressure ranging between 500 and 2,000 psi; and production rates of 300 and 500 BLPD.

  10. Hydraulic stud tensioning aids pump performance

    SciTech Connect

    Marchand, G.J.

    1986-03-31

    This article considers the use of hydraulic stud tensioners on mud pump fluid ends. It contains tensioner testing and application. A typical problem involving a fluid end stud is presented to illustrate the use of hydraulic tensioning. Hydraulic stud tensioners give optimum preload reliability over traditional torque tensioning methods. Accurately controlling preload increases stud fatigue life and minimizes maintenance. At one time it was acceptable just to get fluid end connections tight by means of slogging wrenches, impact wrenches, or two of your biggest men on a 10-ft cheater pipe. If the connection did not leak during hydrotest, it was accepted and put into operation. Users of mud pumps are faced with fluid ends that may ''breathe'' excessively due to improper stud preload. Today's equipment is smaller in size and larger in horsepower than ever before, using large retaining studs requiring torques of 3,000 ft-lb and up. In present compact designs, many bolted connections have become virtually inaccessible using traditional tightening procedures. No longer will large wrenches, cheater pipes, and sledge hammers clear surrounding equipment.

  11. 93. STARBOARD CATAPULT HYDRAULIC PUMP PORT LOOKING TO STARBOARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    93. STARBOARD CATAPULT HYDRAULIC PUMP - PORT LOOKING TO STARBOARD SHOWING ONE OF THE SEVEN (7) HYDRAULIC USED TO OPERATE THE CATAPULT. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  12. Hydraulic engine valve actuation system including independent feedback control

    DOEpatents

    Marriott, Craig D

    2013-06-04

    A hydraulic valve actuation assembly may include a housing, a piston, a supply control valve, a closing control valve, and an opening control valve. The housing may define a first fluid chamber, a second fluid chamber, and a third fluid chamber. The piston may be axially secured to an engine valve and located within the first, second and third fluid chambers. The supply control valve may control a hydraulic fluid supply to the piston. The closing control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the second fluid chamber to the supply control valve. The opening control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the supply control valve to the second fluid chamber.

  13. Electrochemically actuated mercury pump for fluid flow and delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, J.; Zhong, C. J.; Coldiron, S. J.; Porter, M. D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a prototype pumping system with the potential for incorporation into miniaturized, fluid-based analytical instruments. The approach exploits the well-established electrocapillarity phenomena at a mercury/electrolyte interface as the mechanism for pump actuation. That is, electrochemically induced changes in the surface tension of mercury result in the pistonlike movement of a mercury column confined within a capillary. We present herein theoretical and experimental assessments of pump performance. The design and construction of the pump are detailed, and the potential attributes of this design, including the generated pumping pressure, flow rate, and power consumption, are discussed. The possible miniaturization of the pump for use as a field-deployable, fluid-delivery device is also briefly examined.

  14. High speed hydraulically-actuated operating system for an electric circuit breaker

    DOEpatents

    Iman, I.

    1983-06-07

    This hydraulically-actuated operating system comprises a cylinder, a piston movable therein in an opening direction to open a circuit breaker, and an accumulator for supplying pressurized liquid to a breaker-opening piston-actuating space within the cylinder. A normally-closed valve between the accumulator and the actuating space is openable to allow pressurized liquid from the accumulator to flow through the valve into the actuating space to drive the piston in an opening direction. A dashpotting mechanism operating separately from the hydraulic actuating system is provided, thereby reducing flow restriction interference with breaker opening. 3 figs.

  15. A comparison of hydraulic, pneumatic, and electro-mechanical actuators for general aviation flight controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.; Rice, M.; Eysink, H.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical models for electromechanical (EM), pneumatic and hydraulic actuations are discussed. It is shown that EM and hydraulic actuators provide better and faster time responses than pneumatic actuators but EM actuators utilizing the recently developed samarium-cobalt technology have significant advantages in terms of size, weight and power requirements. In terms of ease and flexibility of installation EM actuators apparently have several advantages over hydraulic actuators, and cost is a primary reason for the popularity of EM actuation for secondary control function since no additional systems need to be added to the aircraft. While new rare earth magnets are currently in developmental stage, costs are relatively high; but continued research should bring prices down.

  16. Modeling liquid crystal elastomers: actuators, pumps, and robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selinger, Robin L. B.; Mbanga, Badel L.; Selinger, Jonathan V.

    2008-02-01

    We model the dynamics of shape evolution of liquid crystal elastomers (LCE) in three dimensions using finite element elastodynamics. The model predicts the macroscopic mechanical response induced by changes in nematic order, e.g. by heating or cooling through the isotropic/nematic transition or, in azo-doped materials, by exposure to light. We model the performance of LCE actuator devices including multicomponent actuators, peristaltic pumps and self-propelled robots. The goal of this work is to build a bridge between basic soft matter theory and practical materials engineering/device design. Supported by NSF-DMR-0605889.

  17. The design and evaluation of a hydraulic actuation system for a legged rough-terrain vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, K.; Waldron, K. J.; Dworak, J. A.

    One of the causes of low efficiency of legged vehicles is the type of actuation system used. This paper describes the overall design and the evaluation of some aspects of a proposed hydraulic actuation system for a six-legged vehicle intended for use in rough terrain. Features of the hydraulic actuation system designed to improve mechanical efficiency are described. A combination of linearized dynamic system analysis and computer simulation of the nonlinear dynamic system equations is used to evaluate some aspects of the proposed design. The tradeoff between energy efficient operation and the dynamic performance of the actuation system is investigated. Some criteria for controller design are enumerated.

  18. 50. VIEW OF HYDRAULIC PUMP INSIDE 'CATFISH' SILO Everett Weinreb, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. VIEW OF HYDRAULIC PUMP INSIDE 'CATFISH' SILO Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Parametric identification of a servo-hydraulic actuator for real-time hybrid simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yili; Ou, Ge; Maghareh, Amin; Dyke, Shirley J.

    2014-10-01

    In a typical Real-time Hybrid Simulation (RTHS) setup, servo-hydraulic actuators serve as interfaces between the computational and physical substructures. Time delay introduced by actuator dynamics and complex interaction between the actuators and the specimen has detrimental effects on the stability and accuracy of RTHS. Therefore, a good understanding of servo-hydraulic actuator dynamics is a prerequisite for controller design and computational simulation of RTHS. This paper presents an easy-to-use parametric identification procedure for RTHS users to obtain re-useable actuator parameters for a range of payloads. The critical parameters in a linearized servo-hydraulic actuator model are optimally obtained from genetic algorithms (GA) based on experimental data collected from various specimen mass/stiffness combinations loaded to the target actuator. The actuator parameters demonstrate convincing convergence trend in GA. A key feature of this parametric modeling procedure is its re-usability under different testing scenarios, including different specimen mechanical properties and actuator inner-loop control gains. The models match well with experimental results. The benefit of the proposed parametric identification procedure has been demonstrated by (1) designing an H∞ controller with the identified system parameters that significantly improves RTHS performance; and (2) establishing an analysis and computational simulation of a servo-hydraulic system that help researchers interpret system instability and improve design of experiments.

  20. The numerical simulation based on CFD of hydraulic turbine pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, X. H.; Kong, F. Y.; Liu, Y. Y.; Zhao, R. J.; Hu, Q. L.

    2016-05-01

    As the functions of hydraulic turbine pump including self-adjusting and compensation with each other, it is far-reaching to analyze its internal flow by the numerical simulation based on CFD, mainly including the pressure field and the velocity field in hydraulic turbine and pump.The three-dimensional models of hydraulic turbine pump are made by Pro/Engineer software;the internal flow fields in hydraulic turbine and pump are simulated numerically by CFX ANSYS software. According to the results of the numerical simulation in design condition, the pressure field and the velocity field in hydraulic turbine and pump are analyzed respectively .The findings show that the static pressure decreases systematically and the pressure gradient is obvious in flow area of hydraulic turbine; the static pressure increases gradually in pump. The flow trace is regular in suction chamber and flume without spiral trace. However, there are irregular traces in the turbine runner channels which contrary to that in flow area of impeller. Most of traces in the flow area of draft tube are spiral.

  1. Engine including hydraulically actuated valvetrain and method of valve overlap control

    DOEpatents

    Cowgill, Joel

    2012-05-08

    An exhaust valve control method may include displacing an exhaust valve in communication with the combustion chamber of an engine to an open position using a hydraulic exhaust valve actuation system and returning the exhaust valve to a closed position using the hydraulic exhaust valve actuation assembly. During closing, the exhaust valve may be displaced for a first duration from the open position to an intermediate closing position at a first velocity by operating the hydraulic exhaust valve actuation assembly in a first mode. The exhaust valve may be displaced for a second duration greater than the first duration from the intermediate closing position to a fully closed position at a second velocity at least eighty percent less than the first velocity by operating the hydraulic exhaust valve actuation assembly in a second mode.

  2. Hydraulic optimization of "S" characteristics of the pump-turbine for Xianju pumped storage plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. C.; Zheng, J. S.; Cheng, J.; Shi, Q. H.

    2012-11-01

    The pump-turbine with a rated power capacity of 375MW each at Xianju pumped storage plant is the most powerful one under construction in China. In order to avoid the instability near no-load conditions, the hydraulic design of the pump-turbine has been optimized to improving the "S" characteristic in the development of the model pump-turbine. This paper presents the cause of "S" characteristic of a pump-turbine by CFD simulation of the internal flow. Based on the CFD analysis, the hydraulic design optimization of the pump-turbine was carried out to eliminate the "S" characteristics of the machine at Xianju pumped storage plant and a big step for removing the "S" characteristic of a pump-turbine has been obtained. The model test results demonstrate that the pump-turbine designed for Xianju pumped storage plant can smoothly operate near no-load conditions without an addition of misaligned guide vanes.

  3. Understanding the Space Shuttle Main Engine Hydraulic Actuation System and Reviewing Its Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McWade, Robert J.; Minor, Robert B.; McNutt, Leslie M.

    2010-01-01

    The complex engine start and thrust control requirements of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) require unique valve, actuator and control system hardware. The Hydraulic Actuation System (HAS) was designed, developed, and now operates to meet tight engine control requirement limits to assure safe, reliable and correct engine thrust at all times. The actuator is designed to be fail safe and fail operate in the areas where redundancy is important. The HAS has an additional pneumatic operating capability that insures a safe sequential closure of all actuators and propellant valves in the event of the loss of hydraulic system pressure or loss of electrical closed loop control of the actuator. The objective of this paper is to provide a complete description of the actuator s internal operating system, along with its interaction with all SSME system interfaces. Additionally the paper addresses the challenges, problems identified, and corrected, and lessons learned, during the course of the almost 35 years of engine operation.

  4. Pulsatile blood pump with a linear drive actuator.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Kazuyoshi; Homma, Akihiko; Funakubo, Akio; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki; Kitamura, Soichiro; Fukui, Yasuhiro

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop an implantable direct-electromagnetic left ventricular assist system driven by a linear actuator (linear LVAS). The linear LVAS is a pulsatile pump with a pusher plate that is driven directly by a linear oscillatory actuator (LOA) without any movement converters. This prototype pump unit with a LOA was 100 mm in diameter, 50 mm in thickness, and weighed 740 g. The full-fill/full-eject driving method was applied to the control algorithm. In addition, a mechanism to detect and release sucking was realized to overcome this problem that accompanies the active-filling type of VAS. The performance of the linear LVAS was evaluated in a long-term animal experiment using a goat (56 kg). The goat survived for 42 days. The reason why we terminated this experiment was that thrombus was found in the pump. There was no frictional debris found around the LOA. The linear LVAS did not exhibit electrical or mechanical problems during the first animal experiment. PMID:17574509

  5. Switched capacitor charge pump reduces hysteresis of piezoelectric actuators over a large frequency range.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liang; Ma, Yu Ting; Feng, Zhi Hua; Kong, Fan Rang

    2010-09-01

    Piezoelectric actuators exhibit large hysteresis between the applied voltage and their displacement. A switched capacitor charge pump is proposed to reduce hysteresis and linearize the movement of piezoelectric actuators. By pumping the same amount of charges into the piezoelectric actuator quantitatively, the actuator will be forced to change its length with constant step. Compared with traditional voltage and charge driving, experimental results demonstrated that the piezoelectric stack driven by the charge pump had less hysteresis over a large frequency range, especially at ultralow frequencies. A hysteresis of less than 2.01% was achieved over a frequency range of 0.01-20 Hz using the charge pump driver. PMID:20886997

  6. Modeling and control of a hydraulically actuated flexible-prismatic link robot

    SciTech Connect

    Love, L.; Kress, R.; Jansen, J.

    1996-12-01

    Most of the research related to flexible link manipulators to date has focused on single link, fixed length, single plane of vibration test beds. In addition, actuation has been predominantly based upon electromagnetic motors. Ironically, these elements are rarely found in the existing industrial long reach systems. This manuscript describes a new hydraulically actuated, long reach manipulator with a flexible prismatic link at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Focus is directed towards both modeling and control of hydraulic actuators as well as flexible links that have variable natural frequencies.

  7. Design of a Magnetostrictive-Hydraulic Actuator Considering Nonlinear System Dynamics and Fluid-Structure Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, John Philip

    Smart material electro-hydraulic actuators (EHAs) utilize fluid rectification via one-way check valves to amplify the small, high-frequency vibrations of certain smart materials into large motions of a hydraulic cylinder. Although the concept has been demonstrated in previously, the operating frequency of smart material EHA systems has been limited to a small fraction of the available bandwidth of the driver materials. The focus of this work is to characterize and model the mechanical performance of a magnetostrictive EHA considering key system components: rectification valves, smart material driver, and fluid-system components, leading to an improved actuator design relative to prior work. The one-way valves were modeled using 3-D finite element analysis, and their behavior was characterized experimentally by static and dynamic experimental measurement. Taking into account the effect of the fluid and mechanical conditions applied to the valves within the pump, the dynamic response of the valve was quantified and applied to determine rectification bandwidth of different valve configurations. A novel miniature reed valve, designed for a frequency response above 10~kHz, was fabricated and tested within a magnetostrictive EHA. The nonlinear response of the magnetostrictive driver, including saturation and hysteresis effects, was modeled using the Jiles-Atherton approach to calculate the magnetization and the resulting magnetostriction based on the applied field calculated within the rod from Maxwell's equations. The dynamic pressure response of the fluid system components (pumping chamber, hydraulic cylinder, and connecting passages) was measured over a range of input frequencies. For the magnetostrictive EHA tested, the peak performance frequency was found to be limited by the fluid resonances within the system. A lumped-parameter modeling approach was applied to model the overall behavior of a magnetostrictive EHA, incorporating models for the reed valve response

  8. A MEMS-based valveless impedance pump utilizing electromagnetic actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chia-Yen; Chang, Hsien-Tsung; Wen, Chih-Yung

    2008-03-01

    This study presents a planar valveless impedance-based micro pump for biomedical applications. The micro pump comprises four major components, namely a lower glass substrate containing a copper micro coil, a microchannel, an upper glass cover plate and a PDMS diaphragm with a magnet mounted on its upper surface. When a current is passed through the micro coil, an electromagnetic force is established between the coil and the magnet. The resulting deflection of the PDMS diaphragm creates an acoustic impedance mismatch within the microchannel, which results in a net flow. The performance of the micro pump is characterized both experimentally and numerically using Ansoft/Maxwell3D FEA software. The results show that the mechanical integrity of the micro pump is assured provided that the diaphragm deflection does not exceed 110 µm. This deflection is obtained by supplying the micro coil with an input current of 0.6 A, and results in a flow rate of 7.2 ml min-1 when the PDMS membrane is driven by an actuating frequency of 200 Hz.

  9. Dewatering of coalbed methane wells with hydraulic gas pump

    SciTech Connect

    Amani, M.; Juvkam-Wold, H.C.

    1995-12-31

    The coalbed methane industry has become an important source of natural gas production. Proper dewatering of coalbed methane (CBM) wells is the key to efficient gas production from these reservoirs. This paper presents the Hydraulic Gas Pump as a new alternative dewatering system for CBM wells. The Hydraulic Gas Pump (HGP) concept offers several operational advantages for CBM wells. Gas interference does not affect its operation. It resists solids damage by eliminating the lift mechanism and reducing the number of moving parts. The HGP has a flexible production rate and is suitable for all production phases of CBM wells. It can also be designed as a wireline retrievable system. We conclude that the Hydraulic Gas Pump is a suitable dewatering system for coalbed methane wells.

  10. Actuation fluid adapter for hydraulically-actuated electronically-controlled fuel injector and engine using same

    DOEpatents

    Keyster, Eric S.; Merchant, Jack A.

    2002-01-01

    A fuel injector adapter consists of a block defining a pressure communication passage therethrough and an actuation fluid passage. The actuation fluid passage includes three separate branches that open through an outer surface of the block at three separate locations.

  11. Effects of driving mode on the performance of multiple-chamber piezoelectric pumps with multiple actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhonghua; Kan, Junwu; Wang, Shuyun; Wang, Hongyun; Ma, Jijie; Jiang, Yonghua

    2015-09-01

    Due to the limited output capability of piezoelectric diaphragm pumps, the driving voltage is frequently increased to obtain the desired output. However, the excessive voltage application may lead to a large deformation in the piezoelectric ceramics, which could cause it to breakdown or become damaged. Therefore, increasing the number of chambers to obtain the desired output is proposed. Using a check-valve quintuple-chamber pump with quintuple piezoelectric actuators, the characteristics of the pump under different driving modes are investigated through experiments. By changing the number and connection mode of working actuators, pump performances in terms of flow rate and backpressure are tested at a voltage of 150 V with a frequency range of 60 Hz -400 Hz. Experiment results indicate that the properties of the multiple-chamber pump change significantly with distinct working chambers even though the number of pumping chambers is the same. Pump performance declines as the distance between the working actuators increases. Moreover, pump performance declines dramatically when the working piezoelectric actuator closest to the outlet is involved. The maximum backpressures of the pump with triple, quadruple, and quintuple actuators are increased by 39%, 83%, and 128%, respectively, compared with the pump with double working actuators; the corresponding maximum flow rates of the pumps are simply increased by 25.9%, 49.2%, and 67.8%, respectively. The proposed research offers practical guidance for the effective utilization of the multiple-chamber pumps under different driving modes.

  12. Servo Controlled Variable Pressure Modification to Space Shuttle Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.

    1983-01-01

    Engineering drawings show modifications made to the constant pressure control of the model AP27V-7 hydraulic pump to an electrically controlled variable pressure setting compensator. A hanger position indicator was included for continuously monitoring hanger angle. A simplex servo driver was furnished for controlling the pressure setting servovalve. Calibration of the rotary variable displacement transducer is described as well as pump performance and response characteristics.

  13. Hydraulic pump with in-ground filtration and monitoring capability

    DOEpatents

    Hopkins, C.D.; Livingston, R.R.; Toole, W.R. Jr.

    1996-10-29

    A hydraulically operated pump is described for in-ground filtering and monitoring of waters or other fluid sources, includes a hollow cylindrical pump housing with an inlet and an outlet, filtering devices positioned in the inlet and the outlet, a piston that fits slidably within the pump housing, and an optical cell in fluid communication with the pump housing. A conduit within the piston allows fluid communication between the exterior and one end of the piston. A pair of o-rings form a seal between the inside of the pump housing and the exterior of the piston. A flow valve positioned within the piston inside the conduit allows fluid to flow in a single direction. In operation, fluid enters the pump housing through the inlet, flows through the conduit and towards an end of the pump housing. The piston then makes a downward stroke closing the valve, thus forcing the fluid out from the pump housing into the optical cell, which then takes spectrophotometric measurements of the fluid. A spring helps return the piston back to its starting position, so that a new supply of fluid may enter the pump housing and the downward stroke can begin again. The pump may be used independently of the optical cell, as a sample pump to transport a sample fluid from a source to a container for later analysis. 5 figs.

  14. Hydraulic pump with in-ground filtration and monitoring capability

    DOEpatents

    Hopkins, Charles D.; Livingston, Ronald R.; Toole, Jr., William R.

    1996-01-01

    A hydraulically operated pump for in-ground filtering and monitoring of ws or other fluid sources, including a hollow cylindrical pump housing with an inlet and an outlet, filtering devices positioned in the inlet and the outlet, a piston that fits slidably within the pump housing, and an optical cell in fluid communication with the pump housing. A conduit within the piston allows fluid communication between the exterior and one end of the piston. A pair of o-rings form a seal between the inside of the pump housing and the exterior of the piston. A flow valve positioned within the piston inside the conduit allows fluid to flow in a single direction. In operation, fluid enters the pump housing through the inlet, flows through the conduit and towards an end of the pump housing. The piston then makes a downward stroke closing the valve, thus forcing the fluid out from the pump housing into the optical cell, which then takes spectrophotometric measurements of the fluid. A spring helps return the piston back to its starting position, so that a new supply of fluid may enter the pump housing and the downward stroke can begin again. The pump may be used independently of the optical cell, as a sample pump to transport a sample fluid from a source to a container for later analysis.

  15. Hydraulic pump with in-ground filtration and monitoring capability

    DOEpatents

    Hopkins, C.D.; Livingston, R.R.; Toole, W.R. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    A hydraulically operated pump is described for in-ground filtering and monitoring of wells or other fluid sources, including a hollow cylindrical pump housing with an inlet and an outlet, filtering devices positioned in the inlet and the outlet, a piston that fits slidably within the pump housing, and an optical cell in fluid communication with the pump housing. A conduit within the piston allows fluid communication between the exterior and one end of the piston. A pair of O-rings form a seal between the inside of the pump housing and the exterior of the piston. A flow valve positioned within the piston inside the conduit allows fluid to flow in a single direction. In operation, fluid enters the pump housing through the inlet, flows through the conduit and towards an end of the pump housing. The piston then makes a downward stroke closing the valve, thus forcing the fluid out from the pump housing into the optical cell, which then takes spectrophotometric measurements of the fluid. A spring helps return the piston back to its starting position, so that a new supply of fluid may enter the pump housing and the downward stroke can begin again. The pump may be used independently of the optical cell, as a sample pump to transport a sample fluid from a source to a container for later analysis.

  16. 52. Interior of launch support building, hydraulic pumping unit at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Interior of launch support building, hydraulic pumping unit at lower center, service disconnect at right, view towards south - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  17. 24. VIEW OF BOXES CONTAINING SOLENOIDS AND HYDRAULIC PUMP CONTRACTORS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW OF BOXES CONTAINING SOLENOIDS AND HYDRAULIC PUMP CONTRACTORS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS AND BREAKERS FOR RECEPTACLES ON SEVERAL STATIONS. BOXES LOCATED IN THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF SLC-3W MST STATION 63. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. Silicon micromachined pumps employing piezoelectric membrane actuation for microfluidic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Michael

    Microsystems technology is a rapidly expanding area that comprises electronics, mechanics and optics. In this field, physical/chemical sensing, fluid handling and optical communication are emerging as potential markets. Microfluidic systems like an implantable insulin pump, a drug delivery system and a total chemical analysis system are currently being developed by academia and industry around the world. This project contributes to the area of microfluidics in that a novel thick-film-on-silicon membrane actuator has been developed to allow inexpensive mass production of micropumps. To date piezoelectric plates have been surface mounted onto a silicon membrane. This single chip fabrication method can now be replaced by screen printing thick piezoelectric layers onto 4 inch silicon substrates. Two different pump types have been developed. These are membrane pumps with either cantilever valves or diffuser/nozzle valves. Pump rates between 100 and 200 μl min-1 and backpressures up to 4 kPa have been achieved with these pumps. Along with the technology of micropumps, simulators have been developed. A novel coupled FEM-CFD solver was realised by a computer controlled coupling of two commercially available packages (ANSYS and CFX-Flow3D). The results of this simulator were in good agreement with measurements on micromachined cantilever valves. CFX- Flow3D was also used to successfully model the behaviour of the diffuser/nozzle valve. Finally, the pump has been simulated using a continuity equation. A behavioural dynamic extension of the cantilever valve was necessary to achieve better prediction of the pump rates for higher frequencies. As well, a common process has been developed for microfluidic devices like micromixers, particle counters and sorters as well as flow sensors. The micromixer has been tested already and achieves mixing for input pressures between 2 and 7 kPa. This agrees with simulations of the diffusive mixing with CFX-Flow3D. Together with the micropump

  19. Hydraulically actuated gas exchange valve assembly and engine using same

    DOEpatents

    Carroll, Thomas S.; Taylor, Gregory O.

    2002-09-03

    An engine comprises a housing that defines a hollow piston cavity that is separated from a gas passage by a valve seat. The housing further defines a biasing hydraulic cavity and a control hydraulic cavity. A gas valve member is also included in the engine and is movable relative to the valve seat between an open position at which the hollow piston cavity is open to the gas passage and a closed position in which the hollow piston cavity is blocked from the gas passage. The gas valve member includes a ring mounted on a valve piece and a retainer positioned between the ring and the valve piece. A closing hydraulic surface is included on the gas valve member and is exposed to liquid pressure in the biasing hydraulic cavity.

  20. Position Sensorless Drive o SRM Mounted on Hydraulic Pump Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosaka, Takashi; Nabeya, Yoshinari; Ohyama, Kazunobu; Matsui, Nobuyuki

    Recently, Switched Reluctance Motors (SRM)have been applied to several industrial products such as fans, blowers, pumps and so forth because of their simple construction and relatively high e ciency.As one of the examples, Daikin Industries Ltd.has been successful in manufacturing hydraulic pump unit using 2.2kW three-phase SRM with shaft mounted position sensor for its control. This paper presents the position sensorless drive o the SRM for the purposes of reducing cost and down sizing of the hydraulic pump unit system.The controller, intentionally designed for this special application, realizes the following characteristics;the maximum and minimum speeds are 5000 and 300rpm, the speed response between the maximum and minimum speeds is within 100msec and the starting torque is less than 20% of the rated torque.The experimental studies using the hydraulic pump unit show that the proposed sensorless control scheme satis es the requirements for this application.

  1. Hydraulically-operated pump jack with chain drive

    SciTech Connect

    Ratell Jr., R. E.

    1985-02-05

    My invention relates to pumping apparatus, particularly to a hydraulically-operated pump jack for oil, brine water and the like. The apparatus is fabricated from steel plate to make a strong, but light-weight tower which may be easily transported from one site to another by a small boom truck or gin pole truck. In contrast to pump jacks of the walking beam type which are massive in size, my improved pump jack is compact and is seated on and secured directly to the head of an oil well casing. A vertically-arranged hydraulic cylinder has its piston rod connected to a cross head on which a pair of sprockets are journalled. Chains pass around respective sprockets, one reach of each chain extending upwardly and is anchored to a stationary part of the tower. The other reach of each chain extends upwardly and over and around an upper sprocket journalled on a shaft carried by the upper end of the tower, each chain then extending downwardly to a yoke to which the polish rod is connected. This arrangement will result in a 2 to 1 ratio between the movement of the polish rod and the stroke of the hydraulic cylinder.

  2. Parametric performance evaluation of a hydraulic centrifugal pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, M. W.; Y Kim, K.; Ma, S. B.; Yoo, I. S.; Choi, W. C.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, Y. S.

    2014-03-01

    Parametric study of a hydraulic centrifugal pump with backward curved blades has been performed numerically using three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The shear stress transport turbulence model was used for analysis of turbulence. The finite volume method and an unstructured grid system were used for the numerical solution. The optimal grid system in the computational domain was selected through a grid dependency test. Tested parameters were related to the geometry of the impeller and volute: seven variables defining the hub and shroud contours and the blades angle of impeller, and two variables defining the inlet width and expansion angle of volute. The effects of these parameters on the hydrodynamic performance of the centrifugal pump have been investigated. It was found that the centrifugal water pump with the twisted blades has the enhancing efficiency compared to the straight blades pump.

  3. 46 CFR 58.25-60 - Non-duplicated hydraulic rudder actuators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 58.03-1) and be acceptable to the Commanding Officer, Marine Safety Center. Also, the piping for the main gear must comply with 46 CFR 58.25-10(e)(3). ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-duplicated hydraulic rudder actuators....

  4. 46 CFR 58.25-60 - Non-duplicated hydraulic rudder actuators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 58.03-1) and be acceptable to the Commanding Officer, Marine Safety Center. Also, the piping for the main gear must comply with 46 CFR 58.25-10(e)(3). ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Non-duplicated hydraulic rudder actuators....

  5. 46 CFR 58.25-60 - Non-duplicated hydraulic rudder actuators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 58.03-1) and be acceptable to the Commanding Officer, Marine Safety Center. Also, the piping for the main gear must comply with 46 CFR 58.25-10(e)(3). ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-duplicated hydraulic rudder actuators....

  6. 46 CFR 58.25-60 - Non-duplicated hydraulic rudder actuators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 58.03-1) and be acceptable to the Commanding Officer, Marine Safety Center. Also, the piping for the main gear must comply with 46 CFR 58.25-10(e)(3). ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Non-duplicated hydraulic rudder actuators....

  7. High-temperature, long-life polyimide seals for hydraulic actuator rods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. L.; Lee, J.; Loomis, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Two types of polyimide seals are developed for hydraulic actuator rod in low pressure second stage of two-stage configuration. Each seal melts test objectives of twenty million cycles of operation at 534 K. Analytical and experimental study results are discussed. Potential applications are given.

  8. Hydraulic actuation technology for full- and semi-active railway suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodall, Roger; Freudenthaler, Gerhard; Dixon, Roger

    2014-12-01

    The paper describes a simulation study that provides a comprehensive comparison between full-active and semi-active suspensions for improving the vertical ride quality of railway vehicles. It includes an assessment of the ride quality benefits that can theoretically be achieved with idealised devices, and also examines the impact of real devices based upon hydraulic actuation technology.

  9. 46 CFR 58.25-60 - Non-duplicated hydraulic rudder actuators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 58.03-1) and be acceptable to the Commanding Officer, Marine Safety Center. Also, the piping for the main gear must comply with 46 CFR 58.25-10(e)(3). ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-duplicated hydraulic rudder actuators....

  10. Active control of static pressure drop caused by hydraulic servo-actuator engage

    SciTech Connect

    Janlovic, J.

    1994-12-31

    Pressure drop caused by propagation of expansion waves in the source pipeline of fast high cyclic hydraulic actuator produces possible anomalies in its function. To prevent pressure drop it is possible to minimize wave effects by active control of actuator servo-valve throttle leakage. In the paper is presented synthesis of possible discrete active control of hydraulic actuator and its servo-valve for prevention expansion wave pressure drop. Control synthesis is based on static pressure increasing with decreasing of fluid flow velocity, which can be realized by lower throttle leakage. Some of the effects of assumed control are shown on corresponding diagrams of control valve throttle motion, piston displacement and its corresponding linear velocity.

  11. A teaspoon pump for pumping blood with high hydraulic efficiency and low hemolysis potential.

    PubMed

    Dame, D

    1996-06-01

    Virtually all blood pumps contain some kind of rubbing, sliding, closely moving machinery surfaces that are exposed to the blood being pumped. These valves, internal bearings, magnetic bearing position sensors, and shaft seals cause most of the problems with blood pumps. The original teaspoon pump design prevented the rubbing, sliding machinery surfaces from contacting the blood. However, the hydraulic efficiency was low because the blood was able to "slip around" the rotating impeller so that the blood itself never rotated fast enough to develop adequate pressure. An improved teaspoon blood pump has been designed and tested and has shown acceptable hydraulic performance and low hemolysis potential. The new pump uses a nonrotating "swinging" hose as the pump impeller. The fluid enters the pump through the center of the swinging hose; therefore, there can be no fluid slip between the revolving blood and the revolving impeller. The new pump uses an impeller that is comparable to a flexible garden hose. If the free end of the hose were swung around in a circle like half of a jump rope, the fluid inside the hose would rotate and develop pressure even though the hose impeller itself did not "rotate"; therefore, no rotating shaft seal or internal bearings are required. PMID:8817965

  12. The self-generated peristaltic motion of cascaded pneumatic actuators for micro pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Ok Chan; Konishi, Satoshi

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents a new actuation mechanism for the self-generated peristaltic motion of cascaded actuators and its application to micro pumps. The operational method is based on the fluidic circuit of an elastic tube. The elastic tube is modeled as a ladder network consisting of fluidic resistances in series and fluidic capacitances in parallel like multi-stage low-pass filters in an electrical circuit. All segments of the lumped model of the elastic tube have different dynamic characteristics because their time constants are different. In other words, all segments should be deformed sequentially like peristaltic motion. This phenomenon has good potential to cause peristaltic motion of the cascaded actuators in response to the application of single-phase pneumatic signals. Analogues between the electrical and fluidic circuits were applied to a pneumatic micro pump with a micro fluidic channel and three pneumatic actuators connecting a unique micro channel for supplying the compressed air. The polymeric micro pumps were fabricated with soft lithography using only polyimethylsiloxsane. The proposed working principle was verified through simulation of the static deformation of the cascaded actuator diaphragms and the actuator, as well as tested experimentally. The dual operational modes of the proposed device (i.e., rubber-seal valve and peristaltic pumping mode) were also verified and successfully demonstrated in a liquid pumping test of the single and double pumps.

  13. Solid Rocket Booster Hydraulic Pump Port Cap Joint Load Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamwell, W. R.; Murphy, N. C.

    2004-01-01

    The solid rocket booster uses hydraulic pumps fabricated from cast C355 aluminum alloy, with 17-4 PH stainless steel pump port caps. Corrosion-resistant steel, MS51830 CA204L self-locking screw thread inserts are installed into C355 pump housings, with A286 stainless steel fasteners installed into the insert to secure the pump port cap to the housing. In the past, pump port cap fasteners were installed to a torque of 33 Nm (300 in-lb). However, the structural analyses used a significantly higher nut factor than indicated during tests conducted by Boeing Space Systems. When the torque values were reassessed using Boeing's nut factor, the fastener preload had a factor of safety of less than 1, with potential for overloading the joint. This paper describes how behavior was determined for a preloaded joint with a steel bolt threaded into steel inserts in aluminum parts. Finite element models were compared with test results. For all initial bolt preloads, bolt loads increased as external applied loads increased. For higher initial bolt preloads, less load was transferred into the bolt, due to external applied loading. Lower torque limits were established for pump port cap fasteners and additional limits were placed on insert axial deformation under operating conditions after seating the insert with an initial preload.

  14. Method and apparatus for stimulating hydraulically pumped wells

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, B.K.; Morris, D.R.

    1989-09-12

    This patent describes a method of stimulating a well having a production tubing extending in a well casing with a production packer therebetween in which the production tubing includes an internal shoulder and a fluid port above the shoulder communicating between the inside of the tubing and the casing, with a hydraulic pump seated on the shoulder for pumping fluid from the well. The method comprises removing the hydraulic pump from the production tubing while leaving the production tubing in place, lowering a coil tubing having a fluid injector at its lower end into the production tubing, sealingly seating the injector onto the shoulder, pressuring fluid against the top of the seated injector and against the top of the production packer for maintaining the injector on the seat and maintaining the packer in place and stimulating the well through the coil tubing through the injector. This patent describes an apparatus for stimulating wells in which a production tubing extends in a well casing with a production packer therebetween in which the production tubing includes an internal shoulder and a fluid port above the shoulder communicating between the inside of the tubing and the casing. The apparatus comprising, coil tubing with a fluid injector at its lower end, the injector including means for seating on the internal shoulder and means for sealingly engaging the internal shoulder, and a fluid inflatable packer connected to the coil tubing at a position above the injector for positioning above the fluid port when the injector is seated on the shoulder.

  15. Accurate state estimation for a hydraulic actuator via a SDRE nonlinear filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strano, Salvatore; Terzo, Mario

    2016-06-01

    The state estimation in hydraulic actuators is a fundamental tool for the detection of faults or a valid alternative to the installation of sensors. Due to the hard nonlinearities that characterize the hydraulic actuators, the performances of the linear/linearization based techniques for the state estimation are strongly limited. In order to overcome these limits, this paper focuses on an alternative nonlinear estimation method based on the State-Dependent-Riccati-Equation (SDRE). The technique is able to fully take into account the system nonlinearities and the measurement noise. A fifth order nonlinear model is derived and employed for the synthesis of the estimator. Simulations and experimental tests have been conducted and comparisons with the largely used Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) are illustrated. The results show the effectiveness of the SDRE based technique for applications characterized by not negligible nonlinearities such as dead zone and frictions.

  16. Evaluation of force generation mechanisms in natural, passive hydraulic actuators

    PubMed Central

    Le Duigou, A.; Castro, M.

    2016-01-01

    Pine cones are well known natural actuators that can move their scales upon humidity gradient. The mechanism manifests itself through a displacement easily observable by the naked eye, but coupled with stress generation. In ancient Egypt, wooden wedges were used to break soft blocks of stone by the generated swelling stress. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the ability of pine cone scales to generate forces while being wetted. In our experiments, a blocking force of around 3N is measured depending on the position on the pine cone where the scales are extracted. A fairly good agreement is obtained when theoretical results based on bimetallic strip systems are compared with experimental data, even if overestimation is observed arising from the input data considered for dry tissues. Inspired by a simplified pine cone microstructure, a biocomposite analogue is manufactured and tested. Although an adequate blocking force can be generated, it has a lower value compared to natural pine cones which benefit from optimized swelling tissue content and interfacial bond strength between them. This study provides new insights to understand the generation of force by pine cones as well as to develop novel biocomposite functionalities. PMID:26726792

  17. Evaluation of force generation mechanisms in natural, passive hydraulic actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Duigou, A.; Castro, M.

    2016-01-01

    Pine cones are well known natural actuators that can move their scales upon humidity gradient. The mechanism manifests itself through a displacement easily observable by the naked eye, but coupled with stress generation. In ancient Egypt, wooden wedges were used to break soft blocks of stone by the generated swelling stress. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the ability of pine cone scales to generate forces while being wetted. In our experiments, a blocking force of around 3N is measured depending on the position on the pine cone where the scales are extracted. A fairly good agreement is obtained when theoretical results based on bimetallic strip systems are compared with experimental data, even if overestimation is observed arising from the input data considered for dry tissues. Inspired by a simplified pine cone microstructure, a biocomposite analogue is manufactured and tested. Although an adequate blocking force can be generated, it has a lower value compared to natural pine cones which benefit from optimized swelling tissue content and interfacial bond strength between them. This study provides new insights to understand the generation of force by pine cones as well as to develop novel biocomposite functionalities.

  18. Evaluation of force generation mechanisms in natural, passive hydraulic actuators.

    PubMed

    Le Duigou, A; Castro, M

    2016-01-01

    Pine cones are well known natural actuators that can move their scales upon humidity gradient. The mechanism manifests itself through a displacement easily observable by the naked eye, but coupled with stress generation. In ancient Egypt, wooden wedges were used to break soft blocks of stone by the generated swelling stress. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the ability of pine cone scales to generate forces while being wetted. In our experiments, a blocking force of around 3N is measured depending on the position on the pine cone where the scales are extracted. A fairly good agreement is obtained when theoretical results based on bimetallic strip systems are compared with experimental data, even if overestimation is observed arising from the input data considered for dry tissues. Inspired by a simplified pine cone microstructure, a biocomposite analogue is manufactured and tested. Although an adequate blocking force can be generated, it has a lower value compared to natural pine cones which benefit from optimized swelling tissue content and interfacial bond strength between them. This study provides new insights to understand the generation of force by pine cones as well as to develop novel biocomposite functionalities. PMID:26726792

  19. System and method for controlling engine knock using electro-hydraulic valve actuation

    DOEpatents

    Brennan, Daniel G

    2013-12-10

    A control system for an engine includes a knock control module and a valve control module. The knock control module adjusts a period that one or more of an intake valve and an exhaust valve of a cylinder are open based on engine knock corresponding to the cylinder. The valve control module, based on the adjusted period, controls the one or more of the intake valve and the exhaust valve using one or more hydraulic actuators.

  20. An evaluation of a hubless inducer and a full flow hydraulic turbine driven inducer boost pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindley, B. K.; Martinson, A. R.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the performance of several configurations of hubless inducers with a hydrodynamically similar conventional inducer and to demonstrate the performance of a full flow hydraulic turbine driven inducer boost pump using these inducers. A boost pump of this type consists of an inducer connected to a hydraulic turbine with a high speed rotor located in between. All the flow passes through the inducer, rotor, and hydraulic turbine, then into the main pump. The rotor, which is attached to the main pump shaft, provides the input power to drive the hydraulic turbine which, in turn, drives the inducer. The inducer, rotating at a lower speed, develops the necessary head to prevent rotor cavitation. The rotor speed is consistent with present main engine liquid hydrogen pump designs and the overall boost pump head rise is sufficient to provide adequate main pump suction head. This system would have the potential for operating at lower liquid hydrogen tank pressures.

  1. Use a Log Splitter to Demonstrate Two-Stage Hydraulic Pump

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell, Timothy W.

    2012-01-01

    The two-stage hydraulic pump is commonly used in many high school and college courses to demonstrate hydraulic systems. Unfortunately, many textbooks do not provide a good explanation of how the technology works. Another challenge that instructors run into with teaching hydraulic systems is the cost of procuring an expensive real-world machine…

  2. Thermo-hydraulic actuator as a new way for conversion of solar energy in space

    SciTech Connect

    Sukhodolsky, A.T.

    1998-07-01

    A thermo-hydraulic actuator (THA) to directly convert the energy of continuous radiation into mechanical energy of vibration for use in power or propulsive systems in space is described. A THA consists of a chamber with an active liquid and optical fibers to deliver light energy inside. Power input comes from either argon laser or a solar concentrator 300 mm. in diameter. The principle of THA function is self-organization of a heat cycle that takes place by using a state of liquid (inversion) powered by light up to a temperature much higher than the temperature of boiling. As a result, an excited state of liquid is able to form a single cavity to absorb thermal energy that is available to be converted by the non-equilibrium phase transition of first order into mechanical energy. This work stroke of a THA to form a hydraulic shock has been stimulated by non-linear mechanical motion of a single cavity and non-equilibrium phase transition of first order. The main feature of THA to accumulate energy of light in form of heat between sequential mechanical impulses gives the unique possibility to reach the motive forces induced by solar light by many order of the magnitude greater than the forces available by equilibrium radiation pressure. The first free-piston actuator (FPA) powered by solar light is also described. The construction consists of parabolic collector of diameter of 300mm and a transparent window with mounted actuator that has of a hollow piston with active liquid. Direct generation of hydraulic shocks by THA and preliminary experiments on generation of vibrations within a construction (FPA) has been proposed to be a new subject of interdisciplinary research to go from physical phenomenon observed in laser experiments to engineering development of new vibration machines powered by solar light. To conclude, a project to apply THA in new solar cosmic propulsive systems is discussed.

  3. Dynamics and design of a power unit with a hydraulic piston actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misyurin, S. Yu.; Kreinin, G. V.

    2016-07-01

    The problem of the preselection of parameters of a power unit of a mechatronic complex on the basis of the condition for providing a required control energy has been discussed. The design of the unit is based on analysis of its dynamics under the effect of a special-type test conditional control signal. The specific features of the approach used are a reasonably simplified normalized dynamic model of the unit and the formation of basic similarity criteria. Methods of designing a power unit with a hydraulic piston actuator that operates in point-to-point and oscillatory modes have been considered.

  4. Passive characterization of hydrofracture properties using signals from hydraulic pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Rector III, J.W.; Dong, Q.; Patzek, T.W.

    1999-01-02

    Massive hydraulic fracturing is used to enhance production from the low-permeability diatomite fields of Kern County, CA. Although critical for designing injection and recovery well patterns, the in-situ hydraulic fracture geometry is poorly understood. In 1990, Shell conducted an extensive seismic monitoring experiment on several hydrofractures prior to a steam drive pilot to characterize hydrofracture geometry. The seismic data were recorded by cemented downhole geophone arrays in three observation holes (MO-1, MO-2, and MO-3) located near the hydraulic fracture treatment wells. Using lowpass filtering and moveout analysis, events in the geophone recordings are identified as conical shear waves radiating from tube waves traveling down the treatment well. These events appear to be created by the hydraulic pumps, since their amplitudes are correlated with the injection rate and the wellhead pressure. Conical wave amplitudes are related to the tube wave attenuation in the treatment well and to wave-propagation characteristics of the shear component traveling in the earth. During the main fracturing stage, geophones above the fracture zone for wells MO-1 and MO-2 (both roughly along the inferred vertical fracture plane) exhibited conical-wave amplitude increases that are caused by shear wave reflection/scattering off the top of a fracture zone. From changes in the reflection amplitude as a function of depth, we interpret that the fracture zone initially extends along a confined vertical plane at a depth that correlates with many of the microseismic events. Toward the end of the main fracturing stage, the fracture zone extends upward and also extends in width, although we cannot determine the dimensions of the fracture from the reflection amplitudes alone. For all wells, we observe that the reflection (and what we infer to be the initial fracture) begins during a time period where no marked change in fracture pressure or injection rate or slurry concentration is

  5. Engine having hydraulic and fan drive systems using a single high pressure pump

    DOEpatents

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2000-01-01

    An engine comprises a hydraulic system attached to an engine housing that includes a high pressure pump and a hydraulic fluid flowing through at least one passageway. A fan drive system is also attached to the engine housing and includes a hydraulic motor and a fan which can move air over the engine. The hydraulic motor includes an inlet fluidly connected to the at least one passageway.

  6. Intermittent chaos and sliding window symbol sequence statistics-based early fault diagnosis for hydraulic pump on hydraulic tube tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhen; Jia, Mingxing; Wang, Fuli; Wang, Shu

    2009-07-01

    To ensure the safety, continuity of production, make a reasonable maintenance plan, save the cost of maintenance for hydraulic tube tester, it is needed to quickly identify an assignable cause of a fault. This paper is concerned with early fault diagnosis of hydraulic pump which are the heart of hydraulic tube tester. Considering that the signal of the hydraulic pump early fault is a periodic weak signal, an intermittent chaos, sliding window symbol sequence statistics-based method is proposed to detect the early fault of one single piston loose shoes of hydraulic pump on a hydraulic tube tester. The approach presented is based on the insight that the phase transition of chaos oscillator, for example, the Duffing oscillator, is very sensitive to a periodic weak signal having little angular frequency difference with the referential signal of the oscillator. While observing the intermittent chaos phenomenon through figure is not easy for computer, a sliding window symbol sequence statistics is developed to realize real-time computer observation of this phenomenon. Rather more, this paper takes a trick to decreasing the computational complexity of the sliding window symbol sequence statistics method, also analyzes the influences of different window size, depths of the symbol tree on the information entropy. At last, a control limit is introduced to realize automatic early fault alarm. The resultant approach is experimented with data simulated from an AMESim model of hydraulic tube tester. The results indicate that the proposed approach is capable of detecting the signal of hydraulic pump early fault on hydraulic tube tester.

  7. Microfluidic pumping optimization in microgrooved channels with ac electrothermal actuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, E.; Manoochehri, Souran

    2010-01-01

    An optimization methodology is developed and applied to an ac electrothermal pump design with patterned microgrooved features. The microgrooved configuration can overcome the restrictions of the conventional planar configuration on pumping performance by diminishing fast backward flows and suppressing prolonged streamlines. At all frequency excitations (0.2-1000 MHz) and ion concentration conditions (5×10-3-0.1 M), the optimum microgrooved configuration generates much faster flow rate than planar configuration. This happens without additional increases in the maximum temperature values. The effects of elevated temperature on ac ET flow behavior is investigated and analyzed.

  8. Design, analysis and optimization of an electromagnetic actuator for a micro impedance pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hsien-Tsung; Wen, Chih-Yung; Lee, Chia-Yen

    2009-08-01

    This study designs and optimizes an electromagnetic actuator for use in a valveless micro impedance pump. The actuator is modeled to have an electroplated permanent magnet mounted on a flexible PDMS diaphragm and a planar copper micro-coil patterned on a bottom glass substrate. The constituent parts of the actuator, namely the diaphragm, the micro-coil and the magnet, are modeled, analyzed and optimized in such a way as to maximize the actuating force while simultaneously ensuring the mechanical integrity of the device. In performing the analyses, theoretical and mathematical models of the stroke volume and diaphragm deflection are developed based on thin plate theory. The design models are verified theoretically and numerically, and the relationships between the electromagnetic force, the diaphragm displacement and the diaphragm strength are systematically explored. Overall, the results reveal that in the optimized device, the target diaphragm deflection of 20 µm can be obtained using a compression force of 12 µN developed by a micro-coil input current of 0.8 A. The electromagnetic actuator proposed in this study provides an ideal solution for the pumping requirements of a variety of biomedical chips and microfluidic applications and therefore represents a valuable contribution to the ongoing development of lab-on-a-chip systems.

  9. Parameter-dependent vibration-attenuation controller design for electro-hydraulic actuated linear structural systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Falu; Mao, Weijie

    2012-03-01

    The problem of robust active vibration control for a class of electro-hydraulic actuated structural systems with time-delay in the control input channel and parameter uncertainties appearing in all the mass, damping and stiffness matrices is investigated in this paper. First, by introducing a linear varying parameter, the nonlinear system is described as a linear parameter varying (LPV) model. Second, based on this LPV model, an LMI-based condition for the system to be asymptotically stabilized is deduced. By solving these LMIs, a parameter-dependent controller is established for the closedloop system to be stable with a prescribed level of disturbance attenuation. The condition is also extended to the uncertain case. Finally, some numerical simulations demonstrate the satisfying performance of the proposed controller.

  10. Flow rate self-sensing of a pump with double piezoelectric actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhonghua; Kan, Junwu; Wang, Shuyun; Wang, Hongyun; Wen, Jianming; Ma, Zehui

    2013-12-01

    According to the method of segmenting electrode, the flow rate self-sensing of a conventional piezoelectric pump with the actuators of double diaphragms is presented in this paper. The novel pump is characterized by the simultaneous function of fluid transportation and the flow rate self-testing through only one piezoelectric element. The analysis indicates that direct and converse piezoelectric effect can be concurrently applied to obtain the simultaneous function through dividing the electrode of the piezoelectric element into driving unit and sensing unit. With two commercialized segmented-electrode piezoelectric diaphragms, a prototype pump is fabricated with the size of 65 mm×40 mm×12 mm and tested according to the frequency characteristics at a fixed driving voltage and the driving voltage characteristics at a fixed frequency. The results show that sensing voltages of diaphragms are increased or decreased with the change of the flow rate as a function of frequency. When the flow rate reaches the maximum value of 45.98 ml/min at 15 Hz, outlet/inlet sensing voltages also reach maximum values of 6.80 Vpp and 19.4 Vpp, respectively. It demonstrates that the pump itself could accurately reflect the optimal frequency through monitoring outlet/inlet sensing voltages. The testing results indicate the good linear relationship between outlet/inlet sensing voltages and the flow rate as a function of driving voltage. Therefore, both theoretical analysis and experiments have proved that flow rate self-sensing can be realized for the piezoelectric pumps with double actuators through segmenting their electrode. Moreover, if any electrode of double piezoelectric actuators is segmented, the pump can obtain the complete self-sensing function.

  11. Note: creep character of piezoelectric actuator under switched capacitor charge pump control.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yu Ting; Huang, Liang; Liu, Yong Bin; Feng, Zhi Hua

    2011-04-01

    A major deficiency in piezoelectric actuator performance is caused by hysteresis and creep effects. Switched capacitor charge pump control was previously proved to be an effective way to reduce hysteresis. In this work, creep character of a piezoelectric stack under charge pump control is investigated and modeled. Experiments show that the creep can be reduced by about 77% compared with the one under voltage control. The creep factor denoting the degree of creep shows hysteresis loops similar to displacement outputs under voltage control. PMID:21529050

  12. Hierarchical design of an electro-hydraulic actuator based on robust LPV methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Németh, Balázs; Varga, Balázs; Gáspár, Péter

    2015-08-01

    The paper proposes a hierarchical control design of an electro-hydraulic actuator, which is used to improve the roll stability of vehicles. The purpose of the control system is to generate a reference torque, which is required by the vehicle dynamic control. The control-oriented model of the actuator is formulated in two subsystems. The high-level hydromotor is described in a linear form, while the low-level spool valve is a polynomial system. These subsystems require different control strategies. At the high level, a linear parameter-varying control is used to guarantee performance specifications. At the low level, a control Lyapunov-function-based algorithm, which creates discrete control input values of the valve, is proposed. The interaction between the two subsystems is guaranteed by the spool displacement, which is control input at the high level and must be tracked at the low-level control. The spool displacement has physical constraints, which must also be incorporated into the control design. The robust design of the high-level control incorporates the imprecision of the low-level control as an uncertainty of the system.

  13. A review of contamination related hydraulic pump problems in Japanese injection molding, extrusion and rubber molding industries

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Akira

    1997-12-31

    It is known that contamination of hydraulic oil is one of the major factors causing hydraulic pump problems. Many test reports on contaminant sensibility of hydraulic pumps have been published with new oil and standard dusts but the results of these tests could not guarantee to predict in-service performance. This report describes three cases investigated. The first investigation was done on hydraulic pumps used for injection molding machines application. The causes of pump problems were examined by analysis of maintenance records. The second investigation was performed to determine overhaul frequency of hydraulic pumps used for aluminum extruders. By introducing a new method of hydraulic oil management which reduces oil oxidation products, pump life was extended from 3,000 to 15,000 hours. The third investigation was done to determine the relationship between pump problems and contamination levels of hydraulic oils of 411 rubber molding machines for 20 months. The results showed that pump problems appeared at half the recommended oil lifetimes for these fluids. These studies showed that the cause of pump problems was clogging of suction strainers leading to pump cavitation. The clogged strainers were washed with several different solvents to identify the causes of suction strainer clogging. Clogging of suction strainers was attributable to sticky oxidation products of hydraulic oils. Electrostatic oil cleaners removed not only micron range solid particles bu also submicron size particles. Hydraulic pump problems have been substantially reduced by introducing this new method of contamination control.

  14. Micro pumping methods based on AC electrokinetics and Electrorheologically actuated PDMS valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, Gaurav; Squires, Todd; Meinhart, Carl

    2006-11-01

    We have developed 2 different micropumping methods for transporting ionic fluids through microchannels. The first method is based on Induced Charge Electroosmosis (ICEO) and AC flow field-effect. We used an AC electric field to produce a symmetric ICEO flow on a planar electrode, called `gate'. In order to break the symmetry of ICEO, we applied an additional AC voltage to the gate electrode. Such modulation of the gate potential is called field effect and produces a unidirectional pumping over the gate surface. We used micro PIV to measure pumping velocities for a range of ionic concentration, AC frequency and gate voltage. We have also conducted numerical simulations to understand the deteriorating effect of lateral conduction of surface charge on the pumping velocities. The second method is based on vibration of a flexible PDMS diaphragm actuated by an electrorheological (ER) fluid. ER fluid is a colloidal suspension exhibiting a reversible liquid-to-solid transition under an electric field. This liquid-to-solid transition can yield very high shear stress and can be used to open and close a PDMS valve. Three such valves were fabricated and actuated in a peristaltic fashion in order to achieve positive displacement pumping of fluids.

  15. Slip flow coefficient analysis in water hydraulics gear pump for environmental friendly application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, A. A.; Wasbari, F.; Zakaria, M. S.; Ibrahim, M. Q.

    2013-12-01

    Water hydraulics is the sustainable option in developing fluid power systems with environmental friendly approach. Therefore, an investigation on water-based external gear pump application is being conducted, as a low cost solution in the shifting effort of using water, instead of traditional oil hydraulics in fluid power application. As the gear pump is affected by fluid viscosity, an evaluation has been conducted on the slip flow coefficient, in order to understand to what extent the spur gear pump can be used with water-based hydraulic fluid. In this paper, the results of a simulated study of variable-speed fixed displacement gear pump are presented. The slip flow coefficient varies from rotational speed of 250 RPM to 3500 RPM, and provides volumetric efficiency ranges from 9 % to 97% accordingly.

  16. Electro-magnetically Actuated Minute Polymer Pump Fabricated using Packaging Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, G.; Singh, A.; Ananthasuresh, G. K.

    2006-04-01

    Design, fabrication and preliminary testing of a flat pump with millimetre thickness are described in this paper. The pump is entirely made of polymer materials barring the magnet and copper coils used for electromagnetic actuation. The fabrication is carried out using widely available microelectronic packaging machinery and techniques. Therefore, the fabrication of the pump is straightforward and inexpensive. Two types of prototypes are designed and built. One consists of copper coils that are etched on an epoxy plate and the other has wound insulated wire of 90 µm diameter to serve as a coil. The overall size of the first pump is 25 mm × 25 mm × 3.6 mm including the 3.1 mm-thick NdFeB magnet of diameter 12 mm. It consists of a pump chamber of 20 mm × 20 mm × 0.8 mm with copper coils etched from a copper-clad epoxy plate using dry-film lithography and milled using a CNC milling machine, two passive valves and the pump-diaphragm made of Kapton film of 0.089 mm thickness. The second pump has an overall size of 35 mm × 35 mm × 4.4 mm including the magnet and the windings. A breadboard circuit and DC power supply are used to test the pump by applying an alternating square-wave voltage pulse. A water slug in a tube attached to the inlet is used to observe and measure the air-flow induced by the pump against atmospheric pressure. The maximum flow rate was found to be 15 ml/min for a voltage of 2.5 V and a current of 19 mA at 68 Hz.

  17. Raising the resistance of mainline pump parts to hydraulic abrasion

    SciTech Connect

    Belousov, V.Ya.; Borisenko, V.V.; Zhuravlev, Yu.V.

    1988-01-01

    The authors investigate the diffusion coating of mainline petroleum pump surfaces with boron carbides and the subsequent hardness and abrasion resistance of the working surfaces based on the temperature of the treatment and the depth and concentration of the coating. Industrial testing on an NM 2500 x 230 centrifugal pump demonstrated an increase in service life by a factor of 2 to 2.5. The process has been put into production at an annual savings per pump of 4000 rubles.

  18. Effect of temperature on leg kinematics in sprinting tarantulas (Aphonopelma hentzi): high speed may limit hydraulic joint actuation.

    PubMed

    Booster, N A; Su, F Y; Adolph, S C; Ahn, A N

    2015-04-01

    Tarantulas extend the femur-patella (proximal) and tibia-metatarsal (distal) joints of their legs hydraulically. Because these two hydraulically actuated joints are positioned in series, hemolymph flow within each leg is expected to mechanically couple the movement of the joints. In the current study, we tested two hypotheses: (1) at lower temperatures, movement of the two in-series hydraulic joints within a leg will be less coupled because of increased hemolymph viscosity slowing hemolymph flow; and (2) at higher temperatures, movement of the two in-series hydraulic joints will be less coupled because the higher stride frequencies limit the time available for hemolymph flow. We elicited maximal running speeds at four ecologically relevant temperatures (15, 24, 31 and 40°C) in Texas Brown tarantulas (Aphonopelma hentzi). The spiders increased sprint speed 2.5-fold over the temperature range by changing their stride frequency but not stride length. The coefficient of determination for linear regression (R(2)) of the proximal and distal joint angles was used as the measure of the degree of coupling between the two joints. This coupling coefficient between the proximal and distal joint angles, for both forelegs and hind-legs, was significantly lowest at the highest temperature at which the animals ran the fastest with the highest stride frequencies. The coordination of multiple, in-series hydraulically actuated joints may be limited by operating speed. PMID:25833132

  19. Effect of temperature on leg kinematics in sprinting tarantulas (Aphonopelma hentzi): high speed may limit hydraulic joint actuation

    PubMed Central

    Booster, N. A.; Su, F. Y.; Adolph, S. C.; Ahn, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tarantulas extend the femur–patella (proximal) and tibia–metatarsal (distal) joints of their legs hydraulically. Because these two hydraulically actuated joints are positioned in series, hemolymph flow within each leg is expected to mechanically couple the movement of the joints. In the current study, we tested two hypotheses: (1) at lower temperatures, movement of the two in-series hydraulic joints within a leg will be less coupled because of increased hemolymph viscosity slowing hemolymph flow; and (2) at higher temperatures, movement of the two in-series hydraulic joints will be less coupled because the higher stride frequencies limit the time available for hemolymph flow. We elicited maximal running speeds at four ecologically relevant temperatures (15, 24, 31 and 40°C) in Texas Brown tarantulas (Aphonopelma hentzi). The spiders increased sprint speed 2.5-fold over the temperature range by changing their stride frequency but not stride length. The coefficient of determination for linear regression (R2) of the proximal and distal joint angles was used as the measure of the degree of coupling between the two joints. This coupling coefficient between the proximal and distal joint angles, for both forelegs and hind­legs, was significantly lowest at the highest temperature at which the animals ran the fastest with the highest stride frequencies. The coordination of multiple, in-series hydraulically actuated joints may be limited by operating speed. PMID:25833132

  20. Electromagnetically-Actuated Reciprocating Pump for High-Flow-Rate Microfluidic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Ming-Tsun; Zhong, Jian-Hao; Lee, Chia-Yen

    2012-01-01

    This study presents an electromagnetically-actuated reciprocating pump for high-flow-rate microfluidic applications. The pump comprises four major components, namely a lower glass plate containing a copper microcoil, a middle PMMA plate incorporating a PDMS diaphragm with a surface-mounted magnet, upper PMMA channel plates, and a ball-type check valve located at the channel inlet. When an AC current is passed through the microcoil, an alternating electromagnetic force is established between the coil and the magnet. The resulting bi-directional deflection of the PDMS diaphragm causes the check-valve to open and close; thereby creating a pumping effect. The experimental results show that a coil input current of 0.4 A generates an electromagnetic force of 47 mN and a diaphragm deflection of 108 μm. Given an actuating voltage of 3 V and a driving frequency of 15 Hz, the flow rate is found to be 13.2 mL/min under zero head pressure conditions. PMID:23201986

  1. Non-linear modelling and optimal control of a hydraulically actuated seismic isolator test rig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, Stefano; Russo, Riccardo; Strano, Salvatore; Terzo, Mario

    2013-02-01

    This paper investigates the modelling, parameter identification and control of an unidirectional hydraulically actuated seismic isolator test rig. The plant is characterized by non-linearities such as the valve dead zone and frictions. A non-linear model is derived and then employed for parameter identification. The results concerning the model validation are illustrated and they fully confirm the effectiveness of the proposed model. The testing procedure of the isolation systems is based on the definition of a target displacement time history of the sliding table and, consequently, the precision of the table positioning is of primary importance. In order to minimize the test rig tracking error, a suitable control system has to be adopted. The system non-linearities highly limit the performances of the classical linear control and a non-linear one is therefore adopted. The test rig mathematical model is employed for a non-linear control design that minimizes the error between the target table position and the current one. The controller synthesis is made by taking no specimen into account. The proposed approach consists of a non-linear optimal control based on the state-dependent Riccati equation (SDRE). Numerical simulations have been performed in order to evaluate the soundness of the designed control with and without the specimen under test. The results confirm that the performances of the proposed non-linear controller are not invalidated because of the presence of the specimen.

  2. Patterned magnetic traps for magnetophoretic assembly and actuation of microrotor pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henighan, T.; Giglio, D.; Chen, A.; Vieira, G.; Sooryakumar, R.

    2011-03-01

    We demonstrate a microscopic magnetic rotor pump for fluidic channels whose components are assembled in situ and powered by weak external magnetic fields (<150 Oe). A platform of patterned Permalloy microdisks and microcavities provided for the transport, trapping, and rotation of the superparamagnetic spherical microrotors. Parallel actuation of several rotors without direct physical link to external energy sources, tunable rotation speeds, and reversible drive torques offers significant advantages over macroscopic techniques to control flow within microfluidic devices. The effectiveness of trapping and transporting magnetic nanoparticles by the disks illustrate scalability to smaller, submicrometer sized devices.

  3. On-chip actuation transmitter for enhancing the dynamic response of cell manipulation using a macro-scale pump

    PubMed Central

    Monzawa, Takumi; Kaneko, Makoto; Tsai, Chia-Hung Dylan; Sakuma, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    An on-chip actuation transmitter for achieving fast and accurate cell manipulation is proposed. Instead of manipulating cell position by a directly connected macro-scale pump, polydimethylsiloxane deformation is used as a medium to transmit the actuation generated from the pump to control the cell position. This actuation transmitter has three main advantages. First, the dynamic response of cell manipulation is faster than the conventional method with direct flow control based on both the theoretical modeling and experimental results. The cell can be manipulated in a simple harmonic motion up to 130 Hz by the proposed actuation transmitter as opposed to 90 Hz by direct flow control. Second, there is no need to fill the syringe pump with the sample solution because the actuation transmitter physically separates the fluids between the pump and the cell flow, and consequently, only a very small quantity of the sample is required (<1 μl). In addition, such fluid separation makes it easy to keep the experiment platform sterilized because there is no direct fluid exchange between the sample and fluid inside the pump. Third, the fabrication process is simple because of the single-layer design, making it convenient to implement the actuation transmitter in different microfluidic applications. The proposed actuation transmitter is implemented in a lab-on-a-chip system for red blood cell (RBC) evaluation, where the extensibility of red blood cells is evaluated by manipulating the cells through a constriction channel at a constant velocity. The application shows a successful example of implementing the proposed transmitter. PMID:25713696

  4. Apu/hydraulic/actuator Subsystem Computer Simulation. Space Shuttle Engineering and Operation Support, Engineering Systems Analysis. [for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Major developments are examined which have taken place to date in the analysis of the power and energy demands on the APU/Hydraulic/Actuator Subsystem for space shuttle during the entry-to-touchdown (not including rollout) flight regime. These developments are given in the form of two subroutines which were written for use with the Space Shuttle Functional Simulator. The first subroutine calculates the power and energy demand on each of the three hydraulic systems due to control surface (inboard/outboard elevons, rudder, speedbrake, and body flap) activity. The second subroutine incorporates the R. I. priority rate limiting logic which limits control surface deflection rates as a function of the number of failed hydraulic. Typical results of this analysis are included, and listings of the subroutines are presented in appendicies.

  5. Hydraulic forces caused by annular pressure seals in centrifugal pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iino, T.; Kaneko, H.

    1980-01-01

    The hydraulic forces caused by annular pressure seals were investigated. The measured inlet and exit loss coefficients of the flow through the seals were much smaller than the conventional values. The results indicate that the damping coefficient and the inertia coefficient of the fluid film in the seal are not affected much by the rotational speed or the eccentricity of the rotor, though the stiffness coefficient seemed to be influenced by the eccentricity.

  6. Hydraulic design, numerical simulation and BVF diagnosis of high efficiency centrifugal pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. X.; Chen, L.; Zhou, X.; Jiangand, C. W.; Su, M.

    2012-11-01

    Under the Two-dimensional Flow Theory and the Velocity Coefficient Theory, a centrifugal-pump impeller has been designed, based on the parameters of IS150-125-250 centrifugal pump. And self-compiled programs have been used to complete the hydraulic design of the whole flow passage of centrifugal pump. The space bending and twisting characteristics of the design blade are more obvious. Then, numerical simulation is applied to the inner flow field of the two pumps using RANS (Reynolds Averaged N-S) Equation with a standard k-ε two-equation turbulence model. The compare of the numerical simulation data of two centrifugal pumps, getting from 13 working points including design condition, shows that, the design pump has higher head and efficiency in the range of lower flow rate. Based on the numerical results of the inner flow of the design pump and model pump, the boundary vorticity flux (BVF) diagnostics has been used to analyze the BVF distribution of suction surface and pressure surface of two pumps. The result shows that, the BVF distribution of the design pump is more uniform and smooth, with smaller peak value.

  7. Induced hydraulic pumping via integrated submicrometer cylindrical glass capillaries.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhen; Yobas, Levent

    2014-08-01

    Here, we report on a micropump that generates hydraulic pressure owing to a mismatch in EOF rates of microchannels and submicrometer cylindrical glass capillaries integrated on silicon. The electrical conductance of such capillaries in the dilute limit departs from bulk linear behavior as well as from the surface-charge-governed saturation in nanoslits that is well described by the assumption of a constant surface charge density. The capillaries show rather a gradual decrease in conduction at low salt concentrations, which can be explained more aptly by a variable surface charge density that accounts for chemical equilibrium of the surface. The micropump uses a traditional cross-junction structure with ten identical capillaries integrated in parallel on a side arm and each with a 750 nm diameter and 3 mm length. For an applied voltage of 700 V, a hydraulic pressure up to 5 kPa is generated with a corresponding flow velocity nearly 3 mm/s in a straight field-free branch 20 μm wide, 10 μm deep, and 10 mm long. The micropump utility has been demonstrated in an open tubular LC of three fluorescently labeled amino acids in just less than 20 s with minimal plate height values between 3 and 7 μm. The submicrometer capillaries are self-enclosed and produced through a unique process that does not require high-resolution advanced lithography or wafer-bonding techniques to define their highly controlled precise structures. PMID:24917552

  8. Determining optimum pumping rates for creation of hydraulic barriers to ground-water pollutant migration

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, J.M.

    1984-04-01

    In certain ground-water flow regimes control of the migration of pollutants can be achieved by hydraulic barriers created by ground-water withdrawal and/or injection. However, for complicated flow domains and situations where multiple wells may be installed, the determination of pumping rates to achieve a pollution control objective can be difficult. A nonlinear programming (NLP) algorithm is coupled to a two-dimensional, steady-state, ground-water flow model and an advective transport model for determination of optimum pumping rates for creation of hydraulic barriers. This technique is a screening tool for the selection of pumping rates to be subsequently confirmed with more detailed simulation. Two example applications of this technique are presented. The first example shows how NLP can be used to determine pumping rates required to develop a stagnation point. Optimum pumping rates for eight wells arranged in a circular configuration are determined so as to reduce the ground-water velocity to near zero over a precise region within a nonhomogeneous aquifer. The second example involves the determination of optimum steady-state pumping rates for six wells in a nonhomogeneous flow domain where the objective is the control (i.e., steering) of the trajectory of a contaminant plume. 17 references, 10 figures, 5 tables.

  9. Load Expansion of Stoichiometric HCCI Using Spark Assist and Hydraulic Valve Actuation

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P; Nafziger, Eric J

    2010-01-01

    A spark-assist homogeneous charge compression ignition (SA-HCCI) operating strategy is presented here that allows for stoichiometric combustion from 1000-3000 rpm, and at loads as high as 750 kPa net IMEP. A single cylinder gasoline engine equipped with direct fuel injection and fully variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) is used for this experimental study. The HVA system enables negative valve overlap (NVO) valve timing for hot internal EGR. Spark-assist stabilizes combustion over a wide range of engine speeds and loads, and allows for stoichiometric operation at all conditions. Characteristics of both spark-ignited combustion and HCCI are present, with combustion analysis showing a distinctive spark ignited phase of combustion, followed by a much more rapid HCCI combustion phase. At high load, the maximum pressure rise rate is controlled by a combination of spark timing and retarding the intake valve closing angle. The latter reduces the effective compression ratio, and therefore the compressive temperatures, allowing the high load limit of the operating range to be expanded. The SA-HCCI operating strategy exhibits improved thermal efficiency at most operating conditions, with fuel consumption improvements up to 9% realized at light engine loads. The SA-HCCI operating strategy presented here does not provide an efficiency advantage at all operating points compared to SI combustion; a decrease was observed at the highest speed and at loads above 500 kPa net IMEP. At light engine loads the majority of the heat release takes place during the HCCI phase of the heat release, and as such the NOx emissions are very low and are similar to levels observed in pure HCCI. At higher loads, a larger portion of the heat release takes place during the spark ignited phase of combustion, which produces NOx emissions that are much higher than is typically associated with HCCI, but still represent a decrease from conventional SI combustion. By limiting the fuel/air mixture to

  10. Hydraulic performance numerical simulation of high specific speed mixed-flow pump based on quasi three-dimensional hydraulic design method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. X.; Su, M.; Hou, H. C.; Song, P. F.

    2013-12-01

    This research adopts the quasi three-dimensional hydraulic design method for the impeller of high specific speed mixed-flow pump to achieve the purpose of verifying the hydraulic design method and improving hydraulic performance. Based on the two families of stream surface theory, the direct problem is completed when the meridional flow field of impeller is obtained by employing iterative calculation to settle the continuity and momentum equation of fluid. The inverse problem is completed by using the meridional flow field calculated in the direct problem. After several iterations of the direct and inverse problem, the shape of impeller and flow field information can be obtained finally when the result of iteration satisfies the convergent criteria. Subsequently the internal flow field of the designed pump are simulated by using RANS equations with RNG k-ε two-equation turbulence model. The static pressure and streamline distributions at the symmetrical cross-section, the vector velocity distribution around blades and the reflux phenomenon are analyzed. The numerical results show that the quasi three-dimensional hydraulic design method for high specific speed mixed-flow pump improves the hydraulic performance and reveal main characteristics of the internal flow of mixed-flow pump as well as provide basis for judging the rationality of the hydraulic design, improvement and optimization of hydraulic model.

  11. Effects of radial diffuser hydraulic design on a double-suction centrifugal pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, H. C.; Zhang, Y. X.; Xu, C.; Zhang, J. Y.; Li, Z. L.

    2016-05-01

    In order to study effects of radial diffuser on hydraulic performance of crude oil pump, the steady CFD numerical method is applied and one large double-suction oil pump running in long-distance pipeline is considered. The research focuses on analysing the influence of its diffuser vane profile on hydraulic performance of oil pump. The four different types of cylindrical vane have been designed by in-house codes mainly including double arcs (DA), triple arcs (TA), equiangular spiral line (ES) and linear variable angle spiral line (LVS). During design process diffuser vane angles at inlet and outlet are tentatively given within a certain range and then the wrapping angle of the four types of diffuser vanes can be calculated automatically. Under the given inlet and outlet angles, the linear variable angle spiral line profile has the biggest wrapping angle and profile length which is good to delay channel diffusion but bring more friction hydraulic loss. Finally the vane camber line is thickened at the certain uniform thickness distribution and the 3D diffuser models are generated. The whole flow passage of oil pump with different types of diffusers under various flow rate conditions are numerically simulated based on RNG k-ɛ turbulent model and SIMPLEC algorithm. The numerical results show that different types of diffusers can bring about great difference on the hydraulic performance of oil pump, of which the ES profile diffuser with its proper setting angle shows the best hydraulic performance and its inner flow field is improved obviously. Compared with the head data from model sample, all designed diffusers can make a certain improvement on head characteristic. At the large flow rate conditions the hydraulic efficiency increases obviously and the best efficiency point shift to the large flow rate range. The ES profile diffuser embodies the better advantages on pump performance which can be explained theoretically that the diffuser actually acts as a diffusion

  12. Hydraulic performance of a low specific speed centrifugal pump with Spanwise-Slotted Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, D. X.; Li, H.; Wang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The hydraulic efficiency of a low specific speed centrifugal pump is low because of the long and narrow meridian flow passage, and the severe disk friction. Spanwise slotted blade flow control technology has been applied to the low specific speed centrifugal pump. This paper concluded that spanwise slotted blades can improve the pump performance in both experiments and simulations. In order to study the influence to the impeller and volute by spanwise slotted blade, impeller efficiency and volute efficiency were defined. The minimum volute efficiency and the maximum pump efficiency appear at the same time in the design flow condition in the unsteady simulation. The mechanism of spanwise slotted blade flow control technology should be researched furthermore.

  13. Hydraulic losses in the spiral case of low specific speed pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klas, Roman; Pochylý, František; Rudolf, Pavel

    2014-03-01

    This contribution is focused on analysis of pressure losses in spiral case of centrifugal pump with thick trailing edges and with recirculation channels. Recirculation channels have different geometrical configuration and influence the size of available specific energy as well as hydraulic efficiency. Subsequently, the contribution analyses the flow in spiral case itself with respect to its function and its filling with liquid. Studied phenomena affect the research of pumps with low specific speed, the stability of specific energy characteristic curves and also the configuration of recirculation channels.

  14. Prognostic for hydraulic pump based upon DCT-composite spectrum and the modified echo state network.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian; Li, Hongru; Xu, Baohua

    2016-01-01

    Prognostic is a key step of the condition-based maintenance (CBM). In order to improve the predicting performance, a novel method for prognostic for the hydraulic pump is proposed in this paper. Based on the improvement of the traditional composite spectrum, the DCT-composite spectrum (DCS) fusion algorithm is initially presented to make fusion of multi-channel vibration signals. The DCS composite spectrum entropy is extracted as the feature. Furthermore, the modified echo state networks (ESN) model is established for prognostic using the extracted feature. The reservoir is updated and the elements of the neighboring matrix are redefined for improving predicting accuracy. Analysis of the application in the hydraulic pump degradation experiment demonstrates that the proposed algorithm is feasible and is meaningful for CBM. PMID:27547667

  15. Simultaneous transient operation of a high head hydro power plant and a storage pumping station in the same hydraulic scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucur, D. M.; Dunca, G.; Cervantes, M. J.; Cǎlinoiu, C.; Isbǎşoiu, E. C.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents an on-site experimental analysis of a high head hydro power plant and a storage pumping station, in an interconnected complex hydraulic scheme during simultaneous transient operation. The investigated hydropower site has a unique structure as the pumping station discharges the water into the hydropower plant penstock. The operation regimes were chosen for critical scenarios such as sudden load rejections of the turbines as well as start-ups and stops with different combinations of the hydraulic turbines and pumps operation. Several parameters were simultaneously measured such as the pumped water discharge, the pressure at the inlet pump section, at the outlet of the pumps and at the vane house of the hydraulic power plant surge tank. The results showed the dependence of the turbines and the pumps operation. Simultaneous operation of the turbines and the pumps is possible in safe conditions, without endangering the machines or the structures. Furthermore, simultaneous operation of the pumping station together with the hydropower plant increases the overall hydraulic efficiency of the site since shortening the discharge circuit of the pumps.

  16. Joint Estimation of Hydraulic and Poroelastic Parameters from a Pumping Test.

    PubMed

    Berg, Steven J; Illman, Walter A; Mok, Chin Man W

    2015-01-01

    The coupling of hydraulic and poroelastic processes is critical in predicting processes involving the deformation of the geologic medium in response to fluid extraction or injection. Numerical models that consider the coupling of hydraulic and poroelastic processes require the knowledge of relevant parameters for both aquifer and aquitard units. In this study, we jointly estimated hydraulic and poroelastic parameters from pumping test data exhibiting "reverse water level fluctuations," known as the Noordbergum effect, in aquitards adjacent to a pumped aquifer. The joint estimation was performed by coupling BIOT2, a finite element, two-dimensional, axisymmetric, groundwater model that considers poroelastic effects with the parameter estimation code PEST. We first tested our approach using a synthetic data set with known parameters. Results of the synthetic case showed that for a simple layered system, it was possible to reproduce accurately both the hydraulic and poroelastic properties for each layer. We next applied the approach to pumping test data collected at the North Campus Research Site (NCRS) on the University of Waterloo (UW) campus. Based on the detailed knowledge of stratigraphy, a five-layer system was modeled. Parameter estimation was performed by: (1) matching drawdown data individually from each observation port and (2) matching drawdown data from all ports at a single well simultaneously. The estimated hydraulic parameters were compared to those obtained by other means at the site yielding good agreement. However, the estimated shear modulus was higher than the static shear modulus, but was within the range of dynamic shear modulus reported in the literature, potentially suggesting a loading rate effect. PMID:25243589

  17. Internal hydraulic analysis of impeller rounding in centrifugal pumps as turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Punit; Nestmann, Franz

    2011-01-15

    The use of pumps as turbines in different applications has been gaining importance in the recent years, but the subject of hydraulic optimization still remains an open research problem. One of these optimization techniques that include rounding of the sharp edges at the impeller periphery (or turbine inlet) has shown tendencies of performance enhancement. In order to understand the effect of this hydraulic optimization, the paper introduces an analytical model in the pump as turbine control volume and brings out the functionalities of the internal variables classified under control variables consisting of the system loss coefficient and exit relative flow direction and under dependent variables consisting of net tangential flow velocity, net head and efficiency. The paper studies the effects of impeller rounding on a combination of radial flow and mixed flow pumps as turbines using experimental data. The impeller rounding is seen to have positive impact on the overall efficiency in different operating regions with an improvement in the range of 1-3%. The behaviour of the two control variables have been elaborately studied in which it is found that the system loss coefficient has reduced drastically due to rounding effects, while the extent of changes to the exit relative flow direction seems to be limited in comparison. The reasons for changes to these control variables have been physically interpreted and attributed to the behaviour of the wake zone at the turbine inlet and circulation within the impeller control volume. The larger picture of impeller rounding has been discussed in comparison with performance prediction models in pumps as turbines. The possible limitations of the analytical model as well as the test setup are also presented. The paper concludes that the impeller rounding technique is very important for performance optimization and recommends its application on all pump as turbine projects. It also recommends the standardization of the rounding

  18. Engine having a high pressure hydraulic system and low pressure lubricating system

    DOEpatents

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2000-01-01

    An engine includes a high pressure hydraulic system having a high pressure pump and at least one hydraulically-actuated device attached to an engine housing. A low pressure engine lubricating system is attached to the engine housing and includes a circulation conduit fluidly connected to an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  19. Centrifugal slurry pump wear and hydraulic studies. Phase II report. Experimental studies

    SciTech Connect

    Mistry, D.; Cooper, P.; Biswas, C.; Sloteman, D.; Onuschak, A.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes the work performed by Ingersoll-Rand Research, Inc., under Phase II, Experimental Studies for the contract entitled, Centrifugal Slurry Pump Wear and Hydraulic Studies. This work was carried out for the US Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC-82PC50035. The basic development approach pursued this phase is presented, followed by a discussion on wear relationships. The analysis, which resulted in the development of a mathematical wear model relating pump life to some of the key design and operating parameters, is presented. The results, observations, and conclusions of the experimental investigation on small scale pumps that led to the selected design features for the prototype pump are discussed. The material investigation was performed at IRRI, ORNL and Battelle. The rationale for selecting the materials for testing, the test methods and apparatus used, and the results obtained are presented followed by a discussion on materials for a prototype pump. In addition, the prototype pump test facility description, as well as the related design and equipment details, are presented. 20 references, 53 figures, 13 tables.

  20. Study of hydraulic actuation system for Space Shuttle main engine propellant valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewel, Bob (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Recent performance concerns involving the Space Shuttle Main Engine Propellant Valve Actuator assemblies prompted the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to request an independent design assessment. Moog Inc. responded to this request and received a study contract with objectives of increasing valve reliability, decreasing maintenance costs while preserving the existing design interfaces. The results of the Propellant Valve Actuation System review focus on contamination control and the bypass valve design. Three proof of concept bypass valves employing design changes were built and successfully tested. Test results are presented.

  1. Investigation and Parameter Optimization of a Hydraulic Ram Pump Using Taguchi Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Dhrupad; Das, Monotosh; Brahma, Bipul; Pandwar, Deepak; Rongphar, Sermirlong; Rahman, Mafidur

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of this research work is to investigate the effect of Waste Valve height and Pressure Chamber height on the output flow rate of a Hydraulic ram pump. Also the second objective of this work is to optimize them for a hydraulic ram pump delivering water up to a height of 3.81 m (12.5 feet ) from the ground with a drive head (inlet head) of 1.86 m (6.11 feet). Two one-factor-at-a-time experiments have been conducted to decide the levels of the selected input parameters. After deciding the input parameters, an experiment has been designed using Taguchi's L9 Orthogonal Array with three repetitions. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is carried out to verify the significance of effect of the factors on the output flow rate of the pump. Results show that the height of the Waste Valve and height of the Pressure Chamber have significant effect on the outlet flow of the pump. For a pump of drive pipe diameter (inlet pipe) 31.75 mm (1.25 in.) and delivery pipe diameter of 12.7 mm (0.5 in.) the optimum setting was found out to be at a height of 114.3 mm (4.5 in.) of the Waste Valve and 406.4 mm (16 in.) of the Pressure vessel providing a delivery flow rate of 93.14 l per hour. For the same pump estimated range of output flow rate is, 90.65-94.97 l/h.

  2. Analyzing pumped-well impeller logs to ascertain vertical hydraulic conductivity variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, A. H.; West, J.; Odling, N. E.; Bottrell, S. H.

    2007-12-01

    Horizontal variations in the hydraulic conductivity of aquifers are generally well characterized through simple pump test analyses. However, vertical variations are often poorly understood and misrepresented in the regional models used by regulatory bodies and water companies. Understanding these is key for predicting flow paths and hence the behavior of contaminants in the aquifer that might present a risk to public drinking water supplies. Traditionally, packer tests were used to characterize these variations, but they can be time consuming and costly to perform. However, other techniques have been developed which can quantify these variations, including impeller logging. This study aims to present new, more rigorous methods of analyzing impeller flow log data. Impeller logs were taken under pumped conditions in open wells in a chalk aquifer located in N. England. Theoretically, hydraulic conductivity can be obtained from the gradient in flow rate with depth. However, data are typically noisy due to turbulent flow and hole diameter variations with depth; so directly converting the flow rate gradient to hydraulic conductivity leads to rapid non-physical variation and negative hydraulic conductivity values. Correcting for hole diameter variations using caliper logs proved difficult due to phenomena such as jetting, whereby when the water enters a widening, it does not instantly slow down. In order to obtain more realistic hydraulic conductivity profiles, we firstly tried a data smoothing algorithm, but this approach distorted the data and still gave an unacceptable noise level. Instead, a layered modeling approach has been developed. A hydraulic conductivity profile consisting of a discrete number of uniform layers is constructed, and layer thicknesses and hydraulic conductivities are varied until a satisfactory fit to the observed flow log is achieved. Results from field sites on the confined Chalk aquifer of East Yorkshire in the United Kingdom showed good

  3. Optimal design of an electro-hydraulic valve for heavy-duty vehicle clutch actuator with certain constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fei; Shi, Peng; Karimi, Hamid Reza; Zhang, Hui

    2016-02-01

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the sensitivity analysis and optimal design of a proportional solenoid valve (PSV) operated pressure reducing valve (PRV) for heavy-duty automatic transmission clutch actuators. The nonlinear electro-hydraulic valve model is developed based on fluid dynamics. In order to implement the sensitivity analysis and optimization for the PRV, the PSV model is validated by comparing the results with data obtained from a real test-bench. The sensitivity of the PSV pressure response with regard to the structural parameters is investigated by using Sobol's method. Finally, simulations and experimental investigations are performed on the optimized prototype and the results reveal that the dynamical characteristics of the valve have been improved in comparison with the original valve.

  4. Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Robert L.; Kirby, Klane

    This curriculum guide contains a course in hydraulics to train entry-level workers for automotive mechanics and other fields that utilize hydraulics. The module contains 14 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to hydraulics; (2) fundamentals of hydraulics; (3) reservoirs; (4) lines, fittings, and couplers; (5)…

  5. Quasi-three dimensional hydraulic design and performance calculation of high specific speed mixed-flow pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, M.; Zhang, Y. X.; Zhang, J. Y.; Hou, H. C.

    2016-05-01

    According to the basic parameters of 211-80 high specific speed mixed-flow pump, based on the quasi-three dimensional flow theory, the hydraulic design of impeller and its matching spaced guide vanes for high specific speed mixed flow pump was completed, in which the iterative calculation of S 1, S 2 stream surfaces was employed to obtain meridional flow fields and the point-by-point integration method was employed to draw blade camber lines. Blades are thickened as well as blade leading edges are smoothed in the conformal mapping surface. Subsequently the internal fields of the whole flow passage of the designed pump were simulated by using RANS equations with RNG k-ε two-equation turbulent model. The results show that, compared with the 211-80 model, the hydraulic efficiency of the designed pump at the optimal flow rate increases 9.1%. The hydraulic efficiency of designed pump in low flow rate condition (78% designed flow rate) increases 6.46%. The hydraulic efficiency in high flow rate areas increases obviously and there is no bad phenomenon of suddenly decrease of hydraulic efficiency in model pump. From the distributions of velocity and pressure fields, it can be seen that the flow in impeller is uniform and the increase of pressure is gentle. There are no obvious impact phenomenon on impeller inlet and obvious wake shedding vortex phenomenon from impeller outlet to guide vanes inlet.

  6. Parametric adaptive estimation and backstepping control of electro-hydraulic actuator with decayed memory filter.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qing; Sun, Ping; Yin, Jing-Min; Yu, Tian; Jiang, Dan

    2016-05-01

    Some unknown parameter estimation of electro-hydraulic system (EHS) should be considered in hydraulic controller design due to many parameter uncertainties in practice. In this study, a parametric adaptive backstepping control method is proposed to improve the dynamic behavior of EHS under parametric uncertainties and unknown disturbance (i.e., hydraulic parameters and external load). The unknown parameters of EHS model are estimated by the parametric adaptive estimation law. Then the recursive backstepping controller is designed by Lyapunov technique to realize the displacement control of EHS. To avoid explosion of virtual control in traditional backstepping, a decayed memory filter is presented to re-estimate the virtual control and the dynamic external load. The effectiveness of the proposed controller has been demonstrated by comparison with the controller without adaptive and filter estimation. The comparative experimental results in critical working conditions indicate the proposed approach can achieve better dynamic performance on the motion control of Two-DOF robotic arm. PMID:26920086

  7. 23. STATION 85.5 OF MST, WEST SIDE. ACTUATOR FOR MIDDLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. STATION 85.5 OF MST, WEST SIDE. ACTUATOR FOR MIDDLE NORTH DOORS AT TOP; WEST DOOR MOTOR DISCONNECT ABOVE ACTUATOR; WINCH AND PULLEY SYSTEM AT BOTTOM; HYDRAULIC PUMPING UNIT ABOVE WINCHES; MOTOR COMPRESSOR FOR DOORS ON RIGHT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  8. Downhole hydraulic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Gregory, Danny L.; Hardee, Harry C.; Smallwood, David O.

    1992-01-01

    A downhole hydraulic seismic generator system for transmitting energy wave vibrations into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system contains an elongated, unitary housing operably connected to a well head aboveground by support and electrical cabling, and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a hydraulic oscillator containing a double-actuating piston whose movement is controlled by an electro-servovalve regulating a high pressure hydraulic fluid flow into and out of upper and lower chambers surrounding the piston. The spent hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic oscillator is stored and pumped back into the system to provide high pressure fluid for conducting another run at the same, or a different location within the borehole.

  9. Absolute hydraulic conductivity estimates from aquifer pumping and tracer tests in a stratified aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Thorbjarnarson, K.W.; Huntley, D.; McCarty, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Independent estimates of absolute hydraulic conductivity were obtained by a standard aquifer pumping test and a forced-gradient tracer test in a highly heterogeneous aquifer. An aquifer hydraulic test was conducted to evaluate the average hydraulic conductivity (K), and to establish steady-state flow for the tracer test. An average K of 48 m/day was interpreted from the draw-down data in a fully screened well. Type-curve matching and simulation with MODFLOW of the hydraulic response in partially screened wells indicates K of 10 to 15 m/day for the upper section and 71 to 73 m/day for the deeper section. Iodide and fluorescent dye tracers were injected at low rates in wells located approximately 8 m upgradient of the production well. Tracer breakthrough was monitored in the production well and at ten depth intervals within the fully screened monitoring well. Interpretation of tracer response in the production well reveals tracer transport is limited to a 3.9 m thick section of the 20 m thick aquifer, with a hydraulic conductivity of 248 m/day. However, the depth distribution of these permeable strata cannot be determined from the production well tracer response. When sampled at 1.5 m depth intervals in the monitoring well, breakthrough was observed in only three intervals along the entire 18.2 m screened well. K estimates from tracer travel time within discrete high-permeability strata range from 31 to 317 m/day. Inclusion of permeameter K estimates for the lower permeability aquifer sands result in a range in relative K of 0.01 to 1.0. This field site has the highest absolute K estimate for a discrete stratum and the widest range in relative hydraulic conductivity among research field sites with K estimates for discrete strata. Within such a highly stratified aquifer, the use of an average K from an aquifer pumping test to predict solute transport results in great underestimation of transport distances for a given time period.

  10. Estimation of changes in dynamic hydraulic force in a magnetically suspended centrifugal blood pump with transient computational fluid dynamics analysis.

    PubMed

    Masuzawa, Toru; Ohta, Akiko; Tanaka, Nobuatu; Qian, Yi; Tsukiya, Tomonori

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the hydraulic force on magnetically levitated (maglev) pumps should be studied carefully to improve the suspension performance and the reliability of the pumps. A maglev centrifugal pump, developed at Ibaraki University, was modeled with 926 376 hexahedral elements for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. The pump has a fully open six-vane impeller with a diameter of 72.5 mm. A self-bearing motor suspends the impeller in the radial direction. The maximum pressure head and flow rate were 250 mmHg and 14 l/min, respectively. First, a steady-state analysis was performed using commercial code STAR-CD to confirm the model's suitability by comparing the results with the real pump performance. Second, transient analysis was performed to estimate the hydraulic force on the levitated impeller. The impeller was rotated in steps of 1 degrees using a sliding mesh. The force around the impeller was integrated at every step. The transient analysis revealed that the direction of the radial force changed dynamically as the vane's position changed relative to the outlet port during one circulation, and the magnitude of this force was about 1 N. The current maglev pump has sufficient performance to counteract this hydraulic force. Transient CFD analysis is not only useful for observing dynamic flow conditions in a centrifugal pump but is also effective for obtaining information about the levitation dynamics of a maglev pump. PMID:19894088

  11. Feed-pump hydraulic performance and design improvement, Phase I: research program design. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.H.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Fehlau, R.; Thompson, W.E.; Wilson, D.G.

    1982-03-01

    As a result of prior EPRI-sponsored studies, it was concluded that a research program should be designed and implemented to provide an improved basis for the design, procurement, testing, and operation of large feed pumps with increased reliability and stability over the full range of operating conditions. This two-volume report contains a research plan which is based on a review of the present state of the art and which defines the necessary R and D program and estimates the benefits and costs of the program. The recommended research program consists of 30 interrelated tasks. It is designed to perform the needed research; to verify the results; to develop improved components; and to publish computer-aided design methods, pump specification guidelines, and a troubleshooting manual. Most of the technology proposed in the research plan is applicable to nuclear power plants as well as to fossil-fired plants. This volume contains appendixes on pump design, cavitation damage, performance testing, hydraulics, two-phase flow in pumps, flow stability, and rotor dynamics.

  12. Numerical analysis on the cavitation and unsteady flow in a scroll hydraulic pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, S. H.; Guo, P. C.; Huang, Y.; Zuo, J. L.; Luo, X. Q.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents numerical analysis of unsteady flow in a scroll hydraulic pump to discover its flow mechanism. The dynamic mesh model has to be used to simulate the flow field unsteadily. The unsteady flow patterns and pressure distributions in the suction, squeezing and discharge chamber are analysed. The suction process continues until the crank angle reaches the 320 degree. Then the pressure in the chamber rises instantaneously, and the fluid begins to flow out from the chamber. Because of the high pressure difference at the clearance, the jet flow and the vortex appear, and the large flow losses generates with them. In addition, the velocity and static pressure distribution in the two symmetry crescent suction chamber is different remarkably. One reason is that the location of suction port cannot be set symmetrically for the simplification of the pump structure. Another reason for that is the fluid is impelled by different part of the orbiting scroll. The asymmetric pressure distribution will result in the extra force on the scroll. The cavitation generates at the negative pressure region. Therefore, the unsteady simulation shows some important phenomena. The structure of the scroll pump need to be optimized to reduce the maximum pressure, weaken the jet flow, vortex and the uneven pressure distribution to ensure the pump working safely and efficiently.

  13. Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Nancy; And Others

    These instructional materials provide an orientation to hydraulics for use at the postsecondary level. The first of 12 sections presents an introduction to hydraulics, including discussion of principles of liquids, definitions, liquid flow, the two types of hydraulic fluids, pressure gauges, and strainers and filters. The second section identifies…

  14. Passive characterization of hydrofracture properties using signals from the hydraulic pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, J.W. III; Dong, Qichen

    1995-12-31

    In this study we utilize conical shear wave arrivals recorded in geophone observation wells to characterize a hydrofracture performed in the South Belridge Diatomite oil field. The conical wave arrivals are initially created by the hydraulic pumps on the surface, which send tube waves down the treatment borehole. Since the tube wave velocity in the Diatomite is greater than the shear formation velocity (the shear velocity in the diatomite is about 2,200 ft/s) cortical shear waves are radiated into the formation by the tube waves traveling down the treatment borehole. We use the decrease in amplitude of the tube wave as it passes through the fracture zone to image changes in hydraulic conductivity of the fracture. By combining this information with estimates of the fracture height we obtain estimates of fracture width changes over time using the model of Tang and Cheng (1993). We find an excellent qualitative agreement between tube wave attenuation and pump pressure over time. Fracture widths estimated from the Tang and Cheng model appear to be consistent with the volume of injected fluid and the known length of the hydrofracture. Provided a monitor well can be instrumented, this technique holds potential for obtaining a relatively inexpensive real-time characterization of hydrofracs.

  15. Hydraulic conductivity of sandstones in the Baltic Basin - a comparative study of pumping tests and grain size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkone, E.; Bikše, J.; Jātnieks, J.; Klints, I.; Delina, A.; Saks, T.; Raga, B.; Retike, I.

    2012-04-01

    Aquifer fluid conductivity properties describe ability of sediments to transmit groundwater, and consequently govern the groundwater flow. Studies and knowledge of hydraulic conductivity (K), transmissivity and storativity for the particular aquifer is of great importance for hydrogeological problem solving process. This study presents the results of the comparative study between hydraulic conductivity, grain size distribution, sediments lithology of the lower Devonian Emsian stage, middle Devonian Eifelian and Givetian stage, upper Devonian Frasnian stage, and Cambrian clastic sediments in the central part of the Baltic Basin. The aim of this study was to find characteristic hydraulic conductivity values for each aquifer based on aquifer grain size distribution and lithology on the one hand and pumping test results one the other. For the calculation of the hydraulic conductivity one has to take into account not only grain size distribution but effective porosity, temperature and kinematic viscosity of the fluid as well, which are lacking in this study. Pumping test results provide a range of at least two orders of hydraulic conductivity values for each aquifer. To characterize the typical values for each aquifer and further subdivide each aquifer into regions of different hydraulic conductivities, pumping test results were correlated with grain size distribution. As a limiting factor for the hydraulic conductivity in the sandstones the fraction of the fine particles with the size less than 0.05 mm were chosen. The correlation of hydraulic conductivity and grain size distribution was carried out by comparing the <0.05 mm fraction and respective hydraulic conductivity values in the wells. The results suggest that grain size distribution in general does not correlate with conductivity obtained from the pumping tests. In general comparing hydraulic conductivity values obtained from pumping tests with calculated values from grain size distribution, calculated values in

  16. Numerical comparisons of the performance of a hydraulic coupling with different pump rotational speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y.; Feng, L. H.; Liu, S. H.; Chen, T. J.; Fan, H. G.

    2013-12-01

    A hydraulic coupling is a hydrodynamic device for transmitting rotating mechanical power. It is widely used in the machinery industry because of its advantages of high energy transmission efficiency, shock absorption and good adaptability, etc. In this paper, SIMPLEC algorithm and SST k-ω turbulence model were employed to simulate the steady state flows at operating conditions of two different rotational speeds (3000r/min and 7500 r/min) of the pump of a specified hydraulic coupling model. The results indicate the existence of similarity in the distributions of the flow fields between the two speeds, but the efficiency at the optimum condition is larger with higher rotational speed. It is concluded that the similarity principle of the efficiency of the hydraulic couplings does not apply in this case due to the relatively high rotating speed and small geometric specifications. It is also shown that the radially stratified pressure distribution on the torus section becomes more obvious with larger speed ratios, since the centrifugal movement plays more dominant roles over the circulating movement in these situations. When the speed ratio is small, with the completion of the circulating flow, the pressure distribution presents in a more circular pattern around the neutral zone of the torus section.

  17. Hydraulic characterisation of carbonate aquifers with pumping tests - comparison of analytical and numerical data evaluation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baierl, M.; Kordilla, J.; Reimann, T.; Dörfliger, N.; Sauter, M.; Geyer, T.

    2012-04-01

    This work deals with the analysis of pumping tests in strongly heterogeneous media. Pumping tests were performed in the catchment area of the Lez spring (South of France), which is composed of carbonate rocks. Pumping rates for the different tests varied between 0.04 l/s - 0.7 l/s, i.e. the radius of influence of the cone of depression is small. The investigated boreholes are characterised by tight rocks, moderate fractures and karstified zones. The observed drawdown curves are clearly influenced by the rock characteristics. Single drawdown curves show S-shape character. Data evaluation was performed with the solution approaches of Theis (1935) and Gringarten-Ramey (1974), which are implemented in the employed software AQTESOLV (Pro 4.0). Parameters were varied in reliable data ranges with consideration of reported values in the literature. The Theis method analyses unsteady flow in homogeneous confined aquifers. The Gringarten-Ramey solution describes the drawdown in a well connected to a single horizontal fracture. The Theis curve fails to represent the characteristics for nearly all of the measured drawdown curves, while the Gringarten-Ramey method shows moderate graphical fits with a small residual sum of squares between fitted and observed drawdown curves. This highlights the importance of heterogeneities in the hydraulic parameter field at local scale. The determined hydraulic conductivities of the rock are in reasonable ranges varying between 1E-04 m/s and 1E-08 m/s. Wellbore skin effects need to be discussed further in detail. While the analytical solutions are only valid for specific geometrical and hydraulic configurations, numerical models can be applied to simulate pumping tests in complex heterogeneous media with different boundary conditions. For that reason, a two dimensional, axisymmetric numerical model, using COMSOL (Multiphysics 4.1), is set up. In a first step, the model is validated with the simulated curves from the analytical solutions under

  18. Hydromechanical Pumping Test for the Joint Estimation of Hydraulic and Poroelastic Parameters in a Strongly Heterogeneous Glaciofluvial Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illman, W. A.; Berg, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    The coupling of hydraulic and geomechanical processes is critical in predicting the magnitude of earthquakes, understanding the effect of hydrofracturing on groundwater resources, designing nuclear waste repositories, predicting land subsidence due to pumping and its reversal through water injection. Therefore, the knowledge of hydraulic and geomechanical properties of soil and rock (collectively known as hydromechanical properties) are crucial for understanding and predicting the behavior of complex geological systems. In this study, we jointly estimated hydraulic and poroelastic parameters (i.e., shear modulus) from pumping test data that exhibited “reverse water level fluctuations” known as the Noordbergum effect observed in aquitards adjacent to pumped aquifers. This was performed by coupling BIOT2, a finite element two-dimensional axisymmetric groundwater model that considers the poroelastic effect with the parameter estimation code PEST. We first tested our inverse approach using a synthetic data set with known parameters. Results of the synthetic case showed that for simple layered systems, it was possible to accurately reproduce both the hydraulic properties and the shear modulus. We then applied the inverse approach to a set of pumping test data collected at the North Campus Research Site (NCRS) located at the University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada. Based on the knowledge of stratigraphy determined from cores, the field site was simplified for modeling purposes as a 5-layer system. Parameter estimation was performed using two different approaches: 1) matching data individually from each observation port, and 2) matching data simultaneously from all observation ports. The estimated hydraulic parameters and shear modulus were compared to those obtained from other means at the site and to those from the literature. This comparison yielded good agreement. The results collectively suggest that the joint estimation of hydraulic and poroelastic parameters

  19. Powerful Electromechanical Linear Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, John R.; Myers, William N.

    1994-01-01

    Powerful electromechanical linear actuator designed to replace hydraulic actuator that provides incremental linear movements to large object and holds its position against heavy loads. Electromechanical actuator cleaner and simpler, and needs less maintenance. Two principal innovative features that distinguish new actuator are use of shaft-angle resolver as source of position feedback to electronic control subsystem and antibacklash gearing arrangement.

  20. Investigation on micro-patterned gold-plated polymer substrate for a micro hydraulic actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaresan, Vishnu Baba; Akle, Barbar; Leo, Donald J.

    2006-03-01

    Plants have the ability to develop large mechanical force from chemical energy available with bio-fuels. The energy released by the cleavage of a terminal phosphate ion during the hydrolysis of a bio-fuel assists the transport of ions and fluids in cellular homeostasis. Materials that develop pressure and hence strain similar to the response of plants to an external stimuli are classified as nastic materials. This new class of actuators use protein transporters as functional units to move species and result in deformation [Leo et al 2005 (Proceedings of IMECE - 06)]. The ion transporters are hydrocarbons which are formed across the cellular membranes. The membranes that house the ion transporters are aggregates of phospholipids rigidized by cytoskeleton. Reconstituting these nano-machines on a harder matrix is quintessential to build a functional device. Artificial phospholipid membranes or Biliayer lipid membranes (BLM) have poor structural integrity and do not adhere to most surfaces. Patterned arrays of pores made on Poly-propylene glycol-diacrylate (PPG-DA) substrate, a photo curable polymer was made available to us for initial design iterations for an actuator. Hydrophobicity of PPG-DA posed initial problems to support a BLM. We modified the surface of micropatterned PPG-DA membrane by gold plating it. The surface of the porous PPG-DA membranes was plated with gold (Au). A 10nm seeding layer of Au was sputtered on the surface of the membrane. Further gold was reduced onto the sputtered gold surface [Supriya et al(Langmuir 2004, 20, 8870-8876)] by suspending the samples in a solution of hydroxylamine and Hydrogen tetrachloroaurate(III) trihydrate [HAuCl4.3H2O]. This reduction process increased the thickness of the gold, enhanced its adhesion to the PPG-DA substrate and improved the shapes of the pores. This surface modification of PPG-DA helped us form stable BLM with 1-Palmitoyl-2-Oleoyl-sn-Glycero-3- [Phospho-L-Serine] (Sodium Salt) (POPS), 1-Palmitoyl-2

  1. Effect of joystick stiffness, movement speed and movement direction on joystick and upper limb kinematics when using hydraulic-actuation joystick controls in heavy vehicles.

    PubMed

    Oliver, M; Tingley, M; Rogers, R; Rickards, J; Biden, E

    2007-06-01

    Despite the widespread use of hydraulic-actuation joysticks in mobile North American construction, mining and forestry vehicles, the biomechanical effects that joysticks have on their human operators has not been studied extensively. Using nine unskilled joystick operators and a laboratory mock-up with a commonly used North American heavy off-road equipment hydraulic-actuation joystick and operator seat, the purpose of this work was to quantify and compare the effects of three hydraulic-actuation joystick stiffnesses and two movement speeds on upper limb and joystick kinematics as one of the initial steps towards the development of a hydraulic-actuation joystick design protocol. In addition to providing a detailed description of the kinematics of a constrained occupational task, coupled with the corresponding effects of the task on operator upper limb kinematics, results from principal component analysis and ANOVA procedures revealed a number of differences in joystick and upper limb angle ranges and movement curve shapes resulting from the various joystick stiffness-speed combinations tested. For the most part, these joystick motion alterations were caused by small, insignificant changes in one or more upper limb joint angles. The two exceptions occurred for forward movements of the joystick; the fast speed - light stiffness condition movement pattern shape change was caused primarily by an alteration of the elbow flexion-extension movement pattern. Similarly, the fast speed - normal stiffness condition movement curve shape perturbation - was caused principally by a combination of significant movement curve shape alterations to elbow flexion-extension, external-internal shoulder rotation and flexion-extension of the shoulder. The finding that joystick stiffness and speed alterations affect joystick and upper limb kinematics minimally indicates that the joystick design approach of modelling the joystick and operator upper limb as a closed linkage system should be

  2. Effects of volute geometry and impeller orbit on the hydraulic performance of a centrifugal pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flack, R. D.; Lanes, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Overall performance data was taken for a Plexiglas water pump with a logarithmic spiral volute and rectangular cross sectioned flow channels. Parametric studies were made in which the center of the impeller was offset from the design center of the volute. The rig was also designed such that the impeller was allowed to synchronously orbit by a fixed amount about any center. The studies indicate that decreasing the tongue clearance decreases the head at low flowrates and increases the head at high flowrates. Also, decreasing the volute area in the first half of the volute and holding the tongue clearance the same, resulted in a decreased head for low flowrates but performance at high flowrates was not affected. Finally, the overall hydraulic performance was not affected by the impeller orbitting about the volute center.

  3. Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Robert L.

    Designed for use in courses where students are expected to become proficient in the area of hydraulics, including diesel engine mechanic programs, this curriculum guide is comprised of fourteen units of instruction. Unit titles include (1) Introduction, (2) Fundamentals of Hydraulics, (3) Reservoirs, (4) Lines, Fittings, and Couplers, (5) Seals,…

  4. Hydraulic efficiency of a hydrostatic transmission with a variable displacement pump and motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coombs, Daniel

    Pumps and motors are commonly connected hydraulically to create hydrostatic drives, also known as hydrostatic transmissions. A typical hydrostatic transmission consists of a variable displacement pump and a fixed displacement motor. Maximum efficiency is typically created for the system when the motor operates at maximum volumetric displacement. The objective of this research is to determine if a hydrostatic transmission with a variable displacement motor can be more efficient than one with a fixed displacement motor. A work cycle for a Caterpillar 320D excavator was created and the efficiency of the hydrostatic drive system, controlling the swing circuit, with a fixed displacement motor was compared to the efficiency with a variable displacement motor. Both multiplicative and additive uncertainty analysis were performed to determine uncertainty models that could be used to analyze the robustness of the system with feedback control applied. A PID and an H∞ controller were designed for a position control model, as well as velocity control. It was found that while it may seem obvious to achieve maximum efficiency at maximum displacement, there are some cases where maximum efficiency is achieved at a lower displacement. It was also found that for the given work cycle, a hydrostatic transmission with a variable displacement motor can be more efficient.

  5. Improvements to the measurement of electrically controlled hydraulic pumps' flow/pressure characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Jian-Feng; Liu, Cheng-Liang; Gu, Jian-Jiang; Shen, Liang-Chong

    2011-12-01

    To increase the measurement accuracy, and also to automate the measurement operation, we modify the electrically controlled hydraulic pumps' (ECHPs') flow/pressure performance characteristic description and improve the test method in existent standards. According to ECHPs' working principle, we divide ECHPs' operation into two models: constant flow operating mode (CFOM) and constant pressure operating mode (CPOM). A direct drive servo-proportional control valve (DDV) is used to load the test pump. In the CFOM, we change the pressure load at a constant rate by driving the DDV's displacement with nonlinear feedback and a proportional-integral (PI) controller. In the CPOM, we take advantage of the DDV's inherent linearity between its input signal and output flow, and change the flow load at a constant rate by using open-loop spool displacement control. A mathematic model is built for the derivation of a stable condition and the analysis of steady-state pressure tracking error. The theoretical analysis shows that the feedback linearization and PI controller with negative proportional and integral gains are able to track a slope pressure load command with a desired rate. The test results also show that the mathematical model is valid and the proposed method can improve the measurement accuracy remarkably.

  6. Hydraulic Inflation and Buoyancy Pumping: A Model for Large, Fracture-Mediated Felsic Intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, J. D.; Ablay, G. J.; Grocott, J.; Petford, N.

    2005-05-01

    increases σH to σH1, then dykes re-orientate to sills, terminating ascent and initiating emplacement. Once stagnated, static ΔPB is typically sufficient to force sill injection at depths less than a critical value D, where ΔPB = σV. Sills growth is dominated by floor depression. Underburden subsidence suppresses roof uplift, influences the sill's plan geometry, expels source magma, processes crust through the melting zone, decreases σH in down-warped crust to favour conduit widening and magma ascent, and drains the source. Hydraulic inflation may end by melting cessation or exhaustion of excess magma volume EMV. Inelastic source swelling (φ) or crack growth (η) relax EMV. Exhaustion of non-relaxed EMV (EMV*) divides intrusion into two regimes; hydraulic inflation and buoyancy pumping. Loss of hydraulic drive (EMV* = 0) occurs either during dyke or sill growth, depending on the initial EMV (source volume and melting dilativity). Once rupture occurs, disequilibrium cracking initiates, and η increases abruptly as stored EMV* converts to crack volume. Equilibrium cracking begins once reduced EMV* balances new crack growth. If a sill is available to decouple shallow and deep crust, buoyancy pumping initiates, where underburden subsidence empties the magma source.

  7. Free-piston Stirling engine diaphragm-coupled Heat-Actuated Heat Pump component technology program. Volume 1: Technical discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the results of an effort to develop and demonstrate the technical feasibility of a residential size Stirling-engine-driven diaphragm-coupled compressor for a heat pump application. The heat pump module consists of a 3-kW free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE), an efficient hydraulic transmission, and a nominal 3-ton capacity refrigerant (R-22) reciprocating compressor. During earlier Phase 1 activity, the lower end (hydraulic transmission and compressor) was designed, fabricated, mated to an existing Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) FPSE, and tested. After several years of development, this heat pump module achieved a capacity of 2.5 refrigeration tons at 95 F ambient conditions. While this was below the module's rated 3.0-ton capacity, it demonstrated the potential of the FPSE heat pump (FPSE/HP) and identified a lack of engine power as the main reason for the low capacity. During a companion engine development program sponsored by the Gas Research Institute, the engine was improved by developing a new displacer drive that increased the FPSE's power capability. During Phase 2, the new engine, the Mark I, was mated to the lower end (transmission/compressor) and tested. The testing of the Mark I FPSE/HP module was very successful, with the system achieving its 3.0-ton capacity goal and all other proof-of-concepts targets. Included herein is a discussion of the Phase 2 activity, including the results of the Mark I FPSE/HP module testing, a component design effort of several key lower end components that was performed to optimize the design, and the Lennox evaluation.

  8. The time lag and interval of discharge with a spring actuated fuel injection pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Robertson; Gardiner, A W

    1923-01-01

    Discussed here is research on a spring activated fuel pump for solid or airless injection with small, high speed internal combustion engines. The pump characteristics under investigation were the interval of fuel injection in terms of degrees of crank travel and in absolute time, the lag between the time the injection pump plunger begins its stroke and the appearance of the jet at the orifice, and the manner in which the fuel spray builds up to a maximum when the fuel valve is opened, and then diminishes.

  9. Dielectric elastomer actuators for active microfluidic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoul, David; Murray, Coleman; Di Carlo, Dino; Pei, Qibing

    2013-04-01

    Dielectric elastomers with low modulus and large actuation strain have been investigated for applications in which they serve as "active" microfluidic channel walls. Anisotropically prestrained acrylic elastomer membranes are bonded to cover open trenches formed on a silicone elastomer substrate. Actuation of the elastomer membranes increases the cross-sectional area of the resulting channels, in turn controlling hydraulic flow rate and pressure. Bias voltage increases the active area of the membranes, allowing intrachannel pressure to alter channel geometry. The channels have also demonstrated the ability to actively clear a blockage. Applications may include adaptive microfilters, micro-peristaltic pumps, and reduced-complexity lab-on-a-chip devices.

  10. Demodulation for hydraulic pump fault signals based on local mean decomposition and improved adaptive multiscale morphology analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wanlu; Zheng, Zhi; Zhu, Yong; Li, Yang

    2015-06-01

    Scales of IAMMA are adaptively determined by morphological features of signal, thus fault features of a hydraulic pump fault signal presented in multi-scales can be adaptively demodulated. In some coefficient range, IAMMA outperforms AMMA in demodulation ability based on the same SE, and it is less susceptible to noises than AMMA. The best performance of IAMMA with triangle SE is stronger than that of IAMMA with plat and semi-circle SE when they demodulate the same fault signal of hydraulic pump. Compared with traditional demodulation methods of HT and TKEO, IAMMA is adaptive and has stronger demodulation ability. An evaluation method based on kurtosis, power and standard deviation is proposed, by which some PFs which are rich in fault features can be selected as data source.

  11. Ferroelectric Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A ferroelectric pump has one or more variable volume pumping chambers internal to a housing. Each chamber has at least one wall comprising a dome shaped internally prestressed ferroelectric actuator having a curvature and a dome height that varies with an electric voltage applied between an inside and outside surface of the actuator. A pumped medium flows into and out of each pumping chamber in response to displacement of the ferroelectric actuator. The ferroelectric actuator is mounted within each wall and isolates each ferroelectric actuator from the pumped medium, supplies a path for voltage to be applied to each ferroelectric actuator, and provides for positive containment of each ferroelectric actuator while allowing displacement of the entirety of each ferroelectric actuator in response to the applied voltage.

  12. Self-actuated nuclear reactor shutdown system using induction pump to facilitate sensing of core coolant temperature

    DOEpatents

    Sievers, Robert K.; Cooper, Martin H.; Tupper, Robert B.

    1987-01-01

    A self-actuated shutdown system incorporated into a reactivity control assembly in a nuclear reactor includes pumping means for creating an auxiliary downward flow of a portion of the heated coolant exiting from the fuel assemblies disposed adjacent to the control assembly. The shutdown system includes a hollow tubular member which extends through the outlet of the control assembly top nozzle so as to define an outer annular flow channel through the top nozzle outlet separate from an inner flow channel for primary coolant flow through the control assembly. Also, a latching mechanism is disposed in an inner duct of the control assembly and is operable for holding absorber bundles in a raised position in the control assembly and for releasing them to drop them into the core of the reactor for shutdown purposes. The latching mechanism has an inner flow passage extending between and in flow communication with the absorber bundles and the inner flow channel of the top nozzle for accommodating primary coolant flow upwardly through the control assembly. Also, an outer flow passage separate from the inner flow passage extends through the latching mechanism between and in flow communication with the inner duct and the outer flow channel of the top nozzle for accommodating inflow of a portion of the heated coolant from the adjacent fuel assemblies. The latching mechanism contains a magnetic material sensitive to temperature and operable to cause mating or latching together of the components of the latching mechanism when the temperature sensed is below a known temperature and unmating or unlatching thereof when the temperature sensed is above a given temperature. The temperature sensitive magnetic material is positioned in communication with the heated coolant flow through the outer flow passage for directly sensing the temperature thereof. Finally, the pumping means includes a jet induction pump nozzle and diffuser disposed adjacent the bottom nozzle of the control assembly

  13. Computational fluid dynamics-based hydraulic and hemolytic analyses of a novel left ventricular assist blood pump.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Chen; Zhang, Yan; Gui, Xing-Min; Hu, Sheng-Shou

    2011-10-01

    The advent of various technologies has allowed mechanical blood pumps to become more reliable and versatile in recent decades. In our study group, a novel structure of axial flow blood pump was developed for assisting the left ventricle. The design point of the left ventricular assist blood pump 25 (LAP-25) was chosen at 4 Lpm with 100 mm Hg according to our clinical practice. Computational fluid dynamics was used to design and analyze the performance of the LAP-25. In order to obtain a required hydraulic performance and a satisfactory hemolytic property in the LAP-25 of a smaller size, a novel structure was developed including an integrated shroud impeller, a streamlined impeller hub, and main impeller blades with splitter blades; furthermore, tandem cascades were introduced in designing the diffuser. The results of numerical simulation show the LAP-25 can generate flow rates of 3-5 Lpm at rotational speeds of 8500-10,500 rpm, producing pressure rises of 27.5-148.3 mm Hg with hydraulic efficiency points ranging from 13.4 to 27.5%. Moreover, the fluid field and the hemolytic property of the LAP-25 were estimated, and the mean hemolysis index of the pump was 0.0895% with Heuser's estimated model. In conclusion, the design of the LAP-25 shows an acceptable result. PMID:21517911

  14. Water cooling system using a piezoelectrically actuated flow pump for a medical headlight system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, Rogério F.; Vatanabe, Sandro L.; de Oliveira, Amaury R.; Nakasone, Paulo H.; Silva, Emílio C.

    2007-04-01

    The microchips inside modern electronic equipment generate heat and demand, each day, the use of more advanced cooling techniques as water cooling systems, for instance. These systems combined with piezoelectric flow pumps present some advantages such as higher thermal capacity, lower noise generation and miniaturization potential. The present work aims at the development of a water cooling system based on a piezoelectric flow pump for a head light system based on LEDs. The cooling system development consists in design, manufacturing and experimental characterization steps. In the design step, computational models of the pump, as well as the heat exchanger were built to perform sensitivity studies using ANSYS finite element software. This allowed us to achieve desired flow and heat exchange rates by varying the frequency and amplitude of the applied voltage. Other activities included the design of the heat exchanger and the dissipation module. The experimental tests of the cooling system consisted in measuring the temperature difference between the heat exchanger inlet and outlet to evaluate its thermal cooling capacity for different values of the flow rate. Comparisons between numerical and experimental results were also made.

  15. Superconducting linear actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Bruce; Hockney, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Special actuators are needed to control the orientation of large structures in space-based precision pointing systems. Electromagnetic actuators that presently exist are too large in size and their bandwidth is too low. Hydraulic fluid actuation also presents problems for many space-based applications. Hydraulic oil can escape in space and contaminate the environment around the spacecraft. A research study was performed that selected an electrically-powered linear actuator that can be used to control the orientation of a large pointed structure. This research surveyed available products, analyzed the capabilities of conventional linear actuators, and designed a first-cut candidate superconducting linear actuator. The study first examined theoretical capabilities of electrical actuators and determined their problems with respect to the application and then determined if any presently available actuators or any modifications to available actuator designs would meet the required performance. The best actuator was then selected based on available design, modified design, or new design for this application. The last task was to proceed with a conceptual design. No commercially-available linear actuator or modification capable of meeting the specifications was found. A conventional moving-coil dc linear actuator would meet the specification, but the back-iron for this actuator would weigh approximately 12,000 lbs. A superconducting field coil, however, eliminates the need for back iron, resulting in an actuator weight of approximately 1000 lbs.

  16. Performance of an Electro-Hydrostatic Actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    1997-01-01

    An electro-hydrostatic actuator was evaluated at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The primary goal of testing this actuator system was the flight demonstration of power-by-wire technology on a primary flight control surface. The electro-hydrostatic actuator uses an electric motor to drive a hydraulic pump and relies on local hydraulics for force transmission. This actuator replaced the F-18 standard left aileron actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft and was evaluated throughout the Systems Research Aircraft flight envelope. As of July 24, 1997 the electro-hydrostatic actuator had accumulated 23.5 hours of flight time. This paper presents the electro-hydrostatic actuator system configuration and component description, ground and flight test plans, ground and flight test results, and lessons learned. This actuator performs as well as the standard actuator and has more load capability than required by aileron actuator specifications of McDonnell- Douglas Aircraft, St. Louis, Missouri. The electro-hydrostatic actuator system passed all of its ground tests with the exception of one power-off test during unloaded dynamic cycling.

  17. Conceptual hermetically sealed elbow actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wuenscher, H. F.

    1968-01-01

    Electrically or hydraulically powered, hermetically sealed angular or rotary actuator deflects mechanical members over a range of plus or minus 180 degrees. The actuator design provides incremental flexures which keep the local deflection rate within elastic limits.

  18. Hydraulic development of high specific-speed pump-turbines by means of an inverse design method, numerical flow-simulation (CFD) and model testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerschberger, P.; Gehrer, A.

    2010-08-01

    In recent years an increased interest in pump-turbines has been recognized in the market. The rapid availability of pumped storage schemes and the benefits to the power system by peak lopping, providing reserve and rapid response for frequency control are becoming of growing advantage. In that context it is requested to develop pump-turbines that reliably stand dynamic operation modes, fast changes of the discharge rate by adjusting the variable diffuser vanes as well as fast changes from pump to turbine operation. Within the present study various flow patterns linked to the operation of a pump-turbine system are discussed. In that context pump and turbine mode are presented separately and different load cases at both operation modes are shown. In order to achieve modern, competitive pump-turbine designs it is further explained which design challenges should be considered during the geometry definition of a pump-turbine impeller. Within the present study a runner-blade profile for a low head pump-turbine has been developed. For the initial hydraulic runner-blade design, an inverse design method has been applied. Within this design procedure, a first blade geometry is generated by imposing the pressure loading-distribution and by means of an inverse 3D potential-flow-solution. The hydraulic behavior of both, pump-mode and turbine-mode is then evaluated by solving the full 3D Navier-Stokes equations in combination with a robust turbulence model. Based on this initial design the blade profile has been further optimized and redesigned considering various hydraulic pump-turbine requirements. Finally, the progress in hydraulic design is demonstrated by model test results which show a significant improvement in hydraulic performance compared to an existing reference design.

  19. Composite hydraulic system

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, W.A.

    1987-03-17

    A composite hydraulic system is described for a work vehicle having an implement hydraulic circuit and a steering hydraulic circuit comprising a first pump which supplies the implement hydraulic circuit primarily, a second pump which supplies the steering hydraulic circuit primarily, a third pump which is operable also as a motor and which transfers hydraulic fluid between the implement and the steering hydraulic circuits, an engine which operates the three pumps simultaneously, and servo system means whereby the third pump under at least one condition of operation operates as a motor to provide regeneration.

  20. Tubular dielectric elastomer actuator for active fluidic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoul, David; Pei, Qibing

    2015-10-01

    We report a novel low-profile, biomimetic dielectric elastomer tubular actuator capable of actively controlling hydraulic flow. The tubular actuator has been established as a reliable tunable valve, pinching a secondary silicone tube completely shut in the absence of a fluidic pressure bias or voltage, offering a high degree of resistance against fluidic flow, and able to open and completely remove this resistance to flow with an applied low power actuation voltage. The system demonstrates a rise in pressure of ∼3.0 kPa when the dielectric elastomer valve is in the passive, unactuated state, and there is a quadratic fall in this pressure with increasing actuation voltage, until ∼0 kPa is reached at 2.4 kV. The device is reliable for at least 2000 actuation cycles for voltages at or below 2.2 kV. Furthermore, modeling of the actuator and fluidic system yields results consistent with the observed experimental dependence of intrasystem pressure on input flow rate, actuator prestretch, and actuation voltage. To our knowledge, this is the first actuator of its type that can control fluid flow by directly actuating the walls of a tube. Potential applications may include an implantable artificial sphincter, part of a peristaltic pump, or a computerized valve for fluidic or pneumatic control.

  1. Electric versus hydraulics versus pneumatics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book presents a collection of papers from a conference which considered the advantages and disadvantages of electric, hydraulic and pneumatic drives and actuators. The volume follows on the success of the 1983 conference on electric and hydraulic drives. Topics considered include fork lift trucks - an ideal application for regenerative transmissions; a hybrid-electric power system with hydrostatic transmission; electrics and hydraulics on roadheader machinery; hydraulic, electrical, pneumatic control - which way to go. an electrically-powered servo to drive the two axes of a missile launching platform - pros and cons when compared with the traditional hydraulic solution; the encapsulation of a novel intrinsically safe displacement transducer; mobile cryogenic pumping systems; automation of a wood-turning machine, hydraulic or electric. The choice of a servo motor for a specific application; developments in the design and control of pneumatic linear actuators; compressed air purification for instrumentation in the high technology industries; trends in prime mover choice for powered hand tools; and choosing the drive system for the right application.

  2. An Unconventional Inchworm Actuator Based on PZT/ERFs Control Technology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guojun; Zhang, Yanyan; Liu, Jianfang; Li, Jianqiao; Tang, Chunxiu; Wang, Tengfei; Yang, Xuhao

    2016-01-01

    An unconventional inchworm actuator for precision positioning based on piezoelectric (PZT) actuation and electrorheological fluids (ERFs) control technology is presented. The actuator consists of actuation unit (PZT stack pump), fluid control unit (ERFs valve), and execution unit (hydraulic actuator). In view of smaller deformation of PZT stack, a new structure is designed for actuation unit, which integrates the advantages of two modes (namely, diaphragm type and piston type) of the volume changing of pump chamber. In order to improve the static shear yield strength of ERFs, a composite ERFs valve is designed, which adopts the series-parallel plate compound structure. The prototype of the inchworm actuator has been designed and manufactured in the lab. Systematic test results indicate that the displacement resolution of the unconventional inchworm actuator reaches 0.038 μm, and the maximum driving force and velocity are 42 N, 14.8 mm/s, respectively. The optimal working frequency for the maximum driving velocity is 120 Hz. The complete research and development processes further confirm the feasibility of developing a new type of inchworm actuator with high performance based on PZT actuation and ERFs control technology, which provides a reference for the future development of a new type of actuator. PMID:27022234

  3. An Unconventional Inchworm Actuator Based on PZT/ERFs Control Technology

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guojun; Zhang, Yanyan; Liu, Jianfang; Li, Jianqiao; Tang, Chunxiu; Wang, Tengfei; Yang, Xuhao

    2016-01-01

    An unconventional inchworm actuator for precision positioning based on piezoelectric (PZT) actuation and electrorheological fluids (ERFs) control technology is presented. The actuator consists of actuation unit (PZT stack pump), fluid control unit (ERFs valve), and execution unit (hydraulic actuator). In view of smaller deformation of PZT stack, a new structure is designed for actuation unit, which integrates the advantages of two modes (namely, diaphragm type and piston type) of the volume changing of pump chamber. In order to improve the static shear yield strength of ERFs, a composite ERFs valve is designed, which adopts the series-parallel plate compound structure. The prototype of the inchworm actuator has been designed and manufactured in the lab. Systematic test results indicate that the displacement resolution of the unconventional inchworm actuator reaches 0.038 μm, and the maximum driving force and velocity are 42 N, 14.8 mm/s, respectively. The optimal working frequency for the maximum driving velocity is 120 Hz. The complete research and development processes further confirm the feasibility of developing a new type of inchworm actuator with high performance based on PZT actuation and ERFs control technology, which provides a reference for the future development of a new type of actuator. PMID:27022234

  4. Comparison of hydraulic and hemolytic properties of different impeller designs of an implantable rotary blood pump by computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Arvand, Arash; Hahn, Nicole; Hormes, Marcus; Akdis, Mustafa; Martin, Michael; Reul, Helmut

    2004-10-01

    A mixed-flow blood pump for long-term applications has been developed at the Helmholtz-Institute in Aachen, Germany. Central features of this implantable pump are a centrally integrated motor, a blood-immersed mechanical bearing, magnetic coupling of the impeller, and a shrouded impeller, which allows a relatively wide clearance. The aim of the study was a numerical analysis of hydraulic and hemolytic properties of different impeller design configurations. In vitro testing and numerical simulation techniques (computational fluid dynamics [CFD]) were applied to achieve a comprehensive overview. Pressure-flow charts were experimentally measured in a mock loop in order to validate the CFD data. In vitro hemolysis tests were performed at the main operating point of each impeller design. General flow patterns, pressure-flow charts, secondary flow rates, torque, and axial forces on the impeller were calculated by means of CFD. Furthermore, based on streak line techniques, shear stress (stress loading), exposure times, and volume percentage with critical stress loading have been determined. Comparison of CFD data with pressure head measurements showed excel-lent agreement. Also, impressive trend conformity was observed between in-vitro hemolysis results and numerical data. Comparison of design variations yielded clear trends and results. Design C revealed the best hydraulic and hemolytic properties and was chosen as the final design for the mixed-flow rotary blood pump. PMID:15384994

  5. Dual reservoir tank for propellant hydraulic fluid for internal combustion engine hydraulically driven cooling fan and for power steering actuating fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Fukami, K.; Inagaki, M.; Oomura, S.; Hamamoto, T.

    1989-01-03

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine reservoir tank comprising a dividing wall between: (a) a first reservoir tank portion for storing a reserve of the first propellant hydraulic fluid, the first flow being taken from the first reservoir tank portion and being returned to the first reservoir tank portion; and (b) a second reservoir tank portion directly adjacent the first reservoir tank portion for storing a reserve of the second propellant hydraulic fluid, the second flow being taken from the second reservoir tank portion and being returned to the second reservoir tank portion.

  6. HEP (hydraulic, electronic, pneumatic) pumping unit: performance characteristics, potential applications, and field trial results

    SciTech Connect

    Jesperson, P.J.; Laidlaw, R.N.; Scott, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    THe HEP pumping unit constitutes an alternative to the familiar beam pumping unit as a means of transferring energy from the prime mover to the sucker rod string of a pumping well. This paper addresses some basic concepts which are part of the HEP system design and describes some of the resultant unit performance characteristics. The potential for enhancement of pumping well operations utilizing the high degree of control over rod string motion attainable with the HEP system, is discussed together with the results of a number of field trials and some plans for further unit evaluation and development. A lift capacity comparison with conventional beam pumping units is also included. 8 refs.

  7. Electro-Mechanical Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The electro-mechanical actuator, a new electronics technology, is an electronic system that provides the force needed to move valves that control the flow of propellant to the engine. It is proving to be advantageous for the main propulsion system plarned for a second generation reusable launch vehicle. Hydraulic actuators have been used successfully in rocket propulsion systems. However, they can leak when high pressure is exerted on such a fluid-filled hydraulic system. Also, hydraulic systems require significant maintenance and support equipment. The electro-mechanical actuator is proving to be low maintenance and the system weighs less than a hydraulic system. The electronic controller is a separate unit powering the actuator. Each actuator has its own control box. If a problem is detected, it can be replaced by simply removing one defective unit. The hydraulic systems must sustain significant hydraulic pressures in a rocket engine regardless of demand. The electro-mechanical actuator utilizes power only when needed. A goal of the Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Program is to substantially improve safety and reliability while reducing the high cost of space travel. The electro-mechanical actuator was developed by the Propulsion Projects Office of the Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Program at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  8. A magnetorheological actuation system: test and model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Shaju; Chaudhuri, Anirban; Wereley, Norman M.

    2008-04-01

    Self-contained actuation systems, based on frequency rectification of the high frequency motion of an active material, can produce high force and stroke output. Magnetorheological (MR) fluids are active fluids whose rheological properties can be altered by the application of a magnetic field. By using MR fluids as the energy transmission medium in such hybrid devices, a valving system with no moving parts can be implemented and used to control the motion of an output cylinder shaft. The MR fluid based valves are configured in the form of an H-bridge to produce bi-directional motion in an output cylinder by alternately applying magnetic fields in the two opposite arms of the bridge. The rheological properties of the MR fluid are modeled using both Bingham plastic and bi-viscous models. In this study, the primary actuation is performed using a compact terfenol-D rod driven pump and frequency rectification of the rod motion is done using passive reed valves. The pump and reed valve configuration along with MR fluidic valves form a compact hydraulic actuation system. Actuator design, analysis and experimental results are presented in this paper. A time domain model of the actuator is developed and validated using experimental data.

  9. Hydraulic torque on the guide vane within the slight opening of pump turbine in turbine operating mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, H. G.; Yang, H. X.; Li, F. C.; Chen, N. X.

    2014-03-01

    In a pumped storage power station, the units produce vibration and noise at times when the guide vanes rotate into the slight opening region during the turbine operating mode. According to this phenomenon, the simulation of transient flow in the units during the motion of the guide vane is carried out to investigate the variation of flow state in the process of startup and shutdown in turbine mode. The changing rate of hydraulic torque on a single guide vane is introduced to quantitatively represent the varying acuteness of the flow in the guide vanes and the possibility of the noise induced by the instable flow. The correlation between the frequency of noise and water head is summarized. The research indicates that the repeating reversal of fluid after load rejection is the hydraulic phenomenon which is the cause of the distributor vibration and noises within the slight opening, which is in accordance with the data recorded during the operation of the station. The effect of guide vanes closing law on the flow state in guide vanes and hydraulic torque on a single guide vane is analyzed.

  10. Stable electroosmotically driven actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sritharan, Deepa; Motsebo, Mylene; Tumbic, Julia; Smela, Elisabeth

    2013-04-01

    We have previously presented "nastic" actuators based on electroosmotic (EO) pumping of fluid in microchannels using high electric fields for potential application in soft robotics. In this work we address two challenges facing this technology: applying EO to meso-scale devices and the stability of the pumping fluid. The hydraulic pressure achieved by EO increases with as 1/d2, where d is the depth of the microchannel, but the flow rate (which determines the stroke and the speed) is proportional to nd, where n is the number of channels. Therefore to get high force and high stroke the device requires a large number of narrow channels, which is not readily achievable using standard microfabrication techniques. Furthermore, for soft robotics the structure must be soft. In this work we present a method of fabricating a three-dimensional porous elastomer to serve as the array of channels based on a sacrificial sugar scaffold. We demonstrate the concept by fabricating small pumps. The flexible devices were made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and comprise the 3D porous elastomer flanked on either side by reservoirs containing electrodes. The second issue addressed here involves the pumping fluid. Typically, water is used for EO, but water undergoes electrolysis even at low voltages. Since EO takes place at kV, these systems must be open to release the gases. We have recently reported that propylene carbonate (PC) is pumped at a comparable rate as water and is also stable for over 30 min at 8 kV. Here we show that PC is, however, degraded by moisture, so future EO systems must prevent water from reaching the PC.

  11. Hydraulics of Fuel-Injection Pumps for Compression-ignition Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M

    1932-01-01

    Formulas are derived for computing the instantaneous pressures delivered by a fuel pump. The first derivation considers the compressibility of the fuel and the second, the compressibility, elasticity, and inertia of the fuel. The second derivation follows that given by Sass; it is shown to be the more accurate of the two. Additional formulas are given for determining the resistance losses in the injection tube. Experimental data are presented in support of the analyses. The report is concluded with an application of the theory to the design of fuel pump injection systems for which sample calculations are included.

  12. Feed-pump hydraulic performance and design improvement, Phase I: research program design. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.H.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Fehlau, R.; Thompson, W.E.; Wilson, D.G.

    1982-03-01

    As a result of prior EPRI-sponsored studies, it was concluded that a research program should be designed and implemented to provide an improved basis for the design, procurement, testing, and operation of large feed pumps with increased reliability and stability over the full range of operating conditions. This two-volume report contains a research plan which is based on a review of the present state of the art and which defines the necessary R and D program and estimates the benefits and costs of the program. The recommended research program consists of 30 interrelated tasks. It is designed to perform the needed research; to verify the results; to develop improved components; and to publish computer-aided design methods, pump specification guidelines, and a troubleshooting manual. Most of the technology proposed in the research plan is applicable to nuclear power plants as well as to fossil-fired plants. This volume discusses the design, performance and failures of feed pumps, and recommendations for research on pump dynamics, design, and specifications.

  13. HYDRAULIC SERVO

    DOEpatents

    Wiegand, D.E.

    1962-05-01

    A hydraulic servo is designed in which a small pressure difference produced at two orifices by an electrically operated flapper arm in a constantly flowing hydraulic loop is hydraulically amplified by two constant flow pumps, two additional orifices, and three unconnected ball pistons. Two of the pistons are of one size and operate against the additional orifices, and the third piston is of a different size and operates between and against the first two pistons. (AEC)

  14. Influence of bearing support structures on shaft vibration of large hydraulic pump/turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Pistner, C.A.; Greenplate, B.S.; Waddell, A.M.

    1995-12-31

    Start-up transient loads from pump/turbine impellers can cause excessive vibration problems in the shaft system. If the radial guide bearing supports are structurally soft or loose, or if the bearings are worn, the resulting radial shaft movement causes abnormal wear. The wear normally occurs at the impeller sealing surfaces, main shaft seals, motor/generator components, piping, brackets, foundation connections, etc. This paper explores the critical factors causing shaft system vibration problems at the Tennessee Valley Authority`s Raccoon Mountain Pumped Storage Plant, as well as the unique modifications which were implemented to strengthen and improve the units. The solution involved extensive three-dimensional finite element structural and thermal transient analyses of the original and re-designed turbine shoe bearing, bearing housings, and support structures. The conclusion compares the calculated and measured shaft system response to transient loads of the original and modified system.

  15. Frequency dependent hydraulic properties estimated from oscillatory pumping tests in an unconfined aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, Avinoam; Barrash, Warren; Cardiff, Michael; Hochstetler, David L.; Bakhos, Tania; Dagan, Gedeon; Kitanidis, Peter K.

    2015-12-01

    Oscillatory pumping tests were conducted at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site. A periodic pressure signal is generated by pumping and injecting water into the aquifer consecutively and the pressure response is recorded at many points around the source. We present and analyze the data from the field test after applying Fourier analysis. We then match the data with a recently derived analytical solution for homogeneous formations to estimate the equivalent aquifer properties: conductivity K, specific storage Ss and specific yield Sy . The estimated values are shown to be in agreement with previous estimates conducted at this site. We observe variations in the estimated parameters with different oscillation periods of pumping. The trend of the parameters with changing period is discussed and compared to predictions by existing theory and laboratory experiments dealing with dynamic effective properties. It is shown that the results are qualitatively consistent with recent works on effective properties of formations of spatially variable properties in oscillatory flow. To grasp the impact of heterogeneity, a simple configuration is proposed, helping explain the observed increase in effective conductivity with decreasing period.

  16. Improved Electrohydraulic Linear Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamtil, James

    2004-01-01

    A product line of improved electrohydraulic linear actuators has been developed. These actuators are designed especially for use in actuating valves in rocket-engine test facilities. They are also adaptable to many industrial uses, such as steam turbines, process control valves, dampers, motion control, etc. The advantageous features of the improved electrohydraulic linear actuators are best described with respect to shortcomings of prior electrohydraulic linear actuators that the improved ones are intended to supplant. The flow of hydraulic fluid to the two ports of the actuator cylinder is controlled by a servo valve that is controlled by a signal from a servo amplifier that, in turn, receives an analog position-command signal (a current having a value between 4 and 20 mA) from a supervisory control system of the facility. As the position command changes, the servo valve shifts, causing a greater flow of hydraulic fluid to one side of the cylinder and thereby causing the actuator piston to move to extend or retract a piston rod from the actuator body. A linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) directly linked to the piston provides a position-feedback signal, which is compared with the position-command signal in the servo amplifier. When the position-feedback and position-command signals match, the servo valve moves to its null position, in which it holds the actuator piston at a steady position.

  17. Dynamically balanced, hydraulically driven compressor/pump apparatus for resonant free piston Stirling engines

    DOEpatents

    Corey, John A.

    1984-05-29

    A compressor, pump, or alternator apparatus is designed for use with a resonant free piston Stirling engine so as to isolate apparatus fluid from the periodically pressurized working fluid of the Stirling engine. The apparatus housing has a first side closed by a power coupling flexible diaphragm (the engine working member) and a second side closed by a flexible diaphragm gas spring. A reciprocally movable piston is disposed in a transverse cylinder in the housing and moves substantially at right angles relative to the flexible diaphragms. An incompressible fluid fills the housing which is divided into two separate chambers by suitable ports. One chamber provides fluid coupling between the power diaphragm of the RFPSE and the piston and the second chamber provides fluid coupling between the gas spring diaphragm and the opposite side of the piston. The working members of a gas compressor, pump, or alternator are driven by the piston. Sealing and wearing parts of the apparatus are mounted at the external ends of the transverse cylinder in a double acting arrangement for accessibility. An annular counterweight is mounted externally of the reciprocally movable piston and is driven by incompressible fluid coupling in a direction opposite to the piston so as to damp out transverse vibrations.

  18. Hydraulic performance improvement of the bidirectional pit pump installation based on CFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. X.; Zhou, D. Q.

    2013-12-01

    At present, the efficiency of bidirectional pit pump installation with lift under 2m is still low because of lack of research on it in the past. In the paper, the CFD numerical method and experimental test were applied to study flow characteristic of bidirectional pit pump installation under positive and reverse condition. Through changing airfoil type and position of blade and stay vane, the comprehensive performance of improved model were obtained by calculating many different models. The results showed that when improved model is obtained with type A runner with 4 blades that is 0.7D away from pit exit and unsymmetrical guide vane 0.25dh which away from the impeller outlet, and the flow pattern of the improved solution is steady with high efficiency. Compared with the original scheme, the efficiency of positive and reverse design condition reach to 67.23% and 58.32% respectively, which is increased 6% more than original model on the design condition and 5% on the optimum operating condition, and it achieved the purpose of improvement. According to the runner blade angle of the optimization solution, model synthetic characteristic curve was drawn and internal flow field characteristics was analyzed under optimal positive and reverse conditions. The numerical calculation shows that owing to the lack of stay vane to recycle the energy in outlet runner chamber, the water flow regime is not steady enough in the outlet passage, and that is the main reason for lower efficiency at reverse condition than that at positive condition.

  19. Electric versus hydraulic drives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This volume records the proceedings of a conference organised by the Engineering Manufacturing Industries Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Topics considered include high performance position control - a review of the current state of developments; hydrostatic drives - present and future; electric drives - present and future trends; electrical and hydraulic drives for heavy industrial robots; the development of an electro-mechanical tilt system for the advanced passenger train; industrial hydraulic ring mains - effective or efficient. the comparison of performance of servo feed-drive systems; overhead crane drives; the future of d.c. servodrives; the choice of actuator for military systems; linear electro-hydraulic actuators; and actuation for industrial robots.

  20. Electropneumatic actuator, phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, D. P.

    1989-10-01

    The program demonstrated the feasibility of an electropneumatic actuator which can be used in manufacturing applications. The electropneumatic actuator, an alternative to the electric, hydraulic, and pneumatic actuators used in industry, consists of an electrochemical compressor, a power supply, and an actuator. The electrochemical compressor working fluid is hydrogen and a solvent such as water or ammonia. The compressor has no moving parts and runs on low voltage DC. The actuator is a conventional, commercially available unit. Researchers designed, constructed, and tested the electrochemical compressor in conjunction with the actuator, power supply, and computerized control. The one inch actuator can lift a fifty pound weight a distance of ten inches in about 1.5 minutes. The electrochemically powered system is capable of driving its loaded actuator to a prescribed location at a controlled rate. A defined set of design changes will combine the compressor and actuator in the same housing, and will develop two orders of magnitude increased actuator speed at the same or higher force levels.

  1. Theoretical Analysis and Bench Tests of a Control-Surface Booster Employing a Variable Displacement Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathews, Charles W.; Kleckner, Harold F.

    1947-01-01

    The NACA is conducting a general investigation of servo-mechanisms for use in powering aircraft control surfaces. This paper presents a theoretical analysis and the results of bench tests of a control-booster system which employs a variable displacement hydraulic pump. The booster is intended for use in a flight investigation to determine the effects of various booster parameters on the handling qualities of airplanes. Such a flight investigation would aid in formulating specific requirements concerning the design of control boosters in general. Results of the theoretical analysis and the bench tests indicate that the subject booster is representative of types which show promise of satisfactory performance. The bench tests showed that the following desirable features were inherent in this booster system: (1) No lost motion or play in any part of the system; (2) no detectable lag between motion of the contra1 stick and control surface; and (3) Good agreement between control displacements and stick-force variations with no hysteresis in the stick-force characteristics. The final design configuration of this booster system showed no tendency to oscillate, overshoot, or have other undesirable transient characteristics common to boosters.

  2. Method and apparatus for actuating vehicle transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, H.; Ishihara, M.; Uriuhara, M.

    1988-11-15

    This patent describes a method of actuating a vehicle parallel-gear transmission having gears and an internal lever for moving shift blocks connected with shift rods and shift forks for changing gear ratios of the transmission, a hydraulically controlled select actuator operatively connected to the internal lever for moving the internal lever in a select direction, a hydraulically controlled shift actuator operatively connected to the internal lever for moving the internal lever in a shift direction substantially normal to the select direction, a hydraulically controlled clutch actuator for connecting and disconnecting a clutch of the transmission, and a common fluid discharge passage connected to fluid discharge ports of the select and shift actuators and a fluid discharge port of the clutch actuator, the select and shift actuators being alternately actuatable to effect a gear changing operation.

  3. Space Shuttle Upgrades Advanced Hydraulic Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Three Auxiliary Power Units (APU) on the Space Shuttle Orbiter each provide 145 hp shaft power to a hydraulic pump which outputs 3000 psi hydraulic fluid to 41 hydraulic actuators. A hydrazine fuel powered APU utilized throughout the Shuttle program has undergone many improvements, but concerns remain with flight safety, operational cost, critical failure modes, and hydrazine related hazards. The advanced hydraulic power system (AHPS), also known as the electric APU, is being evaluated as an upgrade to replace the hydrazine APU. The AHPS replaces the high-speed turbine and hydrazine fuel supply system with a battery power supply and electric motor/pump that converts 300 volt electrical power to 3000 psi hydraulic power. AHPS upgrade benefits include elimination of toxic hydrazine propellant to improve flight safety, reduction in hazardous ground processing operations, and improved reliability. Development of this upgrade provides many interesting challenges and includes development of four hardware elements that comprise the AHPS system: Battery - The battery provides a high voltage supply of power using lithium ion cells. This is a large battery that must provide 28 kilowatt hours of energy over 99 minutes of operation at 300 volts with a peak power of 130 kilowatts for three seconds. High Voltage Power Distribution and Control (PD&C) - The PD&C distributes electric power from the battery to the EHDU. This 300 volt system includes wiring and components necessary to distribute power and provide fault current protection. Electro-Hydraulic Drive Unit (EHDU) - The EHDU converts electric input power to hydraulic output power. The EHDU must provide over 90 kilowatts of stable, output hydraulic power at 3000 psi with high efficiency and rapid response time. Cooling System - The cooling system provides thermal control of the Orbiter hydraulic fluid and EHDU electronic components. Symposium presentation will provide an overview of the AHPS upgrade, descriptions of the four

  4. Characterization of spatial variability of hydraulic parameters in fractured rocks: Interpretation of pumping tests at the Altona Flat Rock Experimental Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castagna, M.; Becker, M. W.; Bellin, A.

    2007-12-01

    We present the results of the interpretation of multiple hydraulic tests conducted at the Altona Flat Rock experimental site, located near Plattsburgh (NY). The purpose of these tests was to establish the nature of flow connectivity in a single sub-horizontal bedrock fracture. The geology of the area is dominated by the Potsdam sandstone which is characterized by sub-horizontal bedding-plane fractures that extend over the scale of kilometres. Seven open boreholes with a diameter of 15 cm have been drilled to a depth of 12.2 m in the formation at reciprocal distances ranging from 7 to 15.8 m. Packer injection tests show the presence of a saturated horizontal fracture at 7.3 meters of depth, which intersects all the wells. The single fracture is characterized by a highly variable aperture which leads to a wide range of hydraulic transmissivity (T) and storativity (S) estimated from slug tests. In order to characterize the hydraulic properties of the fractured rock, a series of pumping tests were performed. The pumping tests were executed at constant rate of 7;e-5; m3/s for about 30 minutes in each well while the drawdown curves were collected in the remaining wells. Cooper-Jacob analyses of the pump tests indicate a large and variable apparent storativity. In highly heterogeneous media, variability in apparent storativity is often interpreted as a test artifact caused by anisotropic and heterogeneous transmissivity. Our objectives in the inversion of the hydraulic data were to (1) attempt to separate true and apparent storativity in the bedrock fracture and (2) investigate improved methods of pump test design that can decouple the influence of storativity and transmissivity on drawdown. The former was investigated primarily using the field data and the later using hypothetical simulations based upon the field data. The inversion was performed within a Bayesian framework by using the pilot point concept and by assuming unknown the stochastic parameters of the spatial

  5. PUMPS

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, J.D.

    1959-03-24

    A pump is described for conveving liquids, particure it is not advisable he apparatus. The to be submerged in the liquid to be pumped, a conduit extending from the high-velocity nozzle of the injector,and means for applying a pulsating prcesure to the surface of the liquid in the conduit, whereby the surface oscillates between positions in the conduit. During the positive half- cycle of an applied pulse liquid is forced through the high velocity nozzle or jet of the injector and operates in the manner of the well known water injector and pumps liquid from the main intake to the outlet of the injector. During the negative half-cycle of the pulse liquid flows in reverse through the jet but no reverse pumping action takes place.

  6. Applications of dielectric elastomer actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelrine, Ron; Sommer-Larsen, Peter; Kornbluh, Roy D.; Heydt, Richard; Kofod, Guggi; Pei, Qibing; Gravesen, Peter

    2001-07-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuators, based on the field-induced deformation of elastomeric polymers with compliant electrodes, can produce a large strain response, combined with a fast response time and high electromechanical efficiency. This unique performance, combined with other factors such as low cost, suggests many potential applications, a wide range of which are under investigation. Applications that effectively exploit the properties of dielectric elastomers include artificial muscle actuators for robots; low-cost, lightweight linear actuators; solid- state optical devices; diaphragm actuators for pumps and smart skins; acoustic actuators; and rotary motors. Issues that may ultimately determine the success or failure of the actuation technology for specific applications include the durability of the actuator, the performance of the actuator under load, operating voltage and power requirements, and electronic driving circuitry, to name a few.

  7. The Estimation of Hydraulic Conductivity Using Pumping Test Data and Vertical Electrical Sounding Measurements - A Case Study of Taiwan's Choshuihsi Alluvial Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, J.; Chang, P.; Chen, Y.; Chang, L.; Chiang, C.; Wang, Y.; Huang, C. C.; Chen, J.; Lin, H.

    2013-12-01

    Hydraulic conductivity (K) is an important aquifer parameter and is usually obtained using conventional pumping test. However, only a limited amount of data can be collected, because pumping tests are time consuming and expensive. In recent years, some studies estimated K by using pumping test data and surface electrical resistivity surveys. These studies cost less because less pumping tests are required. Linear regression is then applied to model the relationship between K and the formation factors. The problem is that most of these studies do not consider the effects caused by layers of clay. In fact, clay layers are commonly distributed in middle and distal fan. Therefore, this study divides the Zhuoshui River Alluvial Fan into several zones based on the sediment distribution. A linear regression equation is derived from the pumping test data and formation factors for each zone. This study applies these equations to develop the distribution of K in the shallow aquifer of the major fan. The result shows that the shallow aquifer of Zhuoshui River's major fan can be divided into two zones: top and non-top fan. The regression results show a good correlation between K and the formation factors in each zone. These regression equations are then used to estimate K in the study area. The estimation error is between 11m/day and 58m/day, which is in an acceptable range. The results of this study can be further applied to other analyses such as groundwater modeling or fluctuation methods.

  8. Assessment of hydraulic performance and biocompatibility of a MagLev centrifugal pump system designed for pediatric cardiac or cardiopulmonary support.

    PubMed

    Dasse, Kurt A; Gellman, Barry; Kameneva, Marina V; Woolley, Joshua R; Johnson, Carl A; Gempp, Thomas; Marks, John D; Kent, Stella; Koert, Andrew; Richardson, J Scott; Franklin, Steve; Snyder, Trevor A; Wearden, Peter; Wagner, William R; Gilbert, Richard J; Borovetz, Harvey S

    2007-01-01

    The treatment of children with life-threatening cardiac and cardiopulmonary failure is a large and underappreciated public health concern. We have previously shown that the CentriMag is a magnetically levitated centrifugal pump system, having the utility for treating adults and large children (1,500 utilized worldwide). We present here the PediVAS, a pump system whose design was modified from the CentriMag to meet the physiological requirements of young pediatric and neonatal patients. The PediVAS is comprised of a single-use centrifugal blood pump, reusable motor, and console, and is suitable for right ventricular assist device (RVAD), left ventricular assist device (LVAD), biventricular assist device (BVAD), or extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO) applications. It is designed to operate without bearings, seals and valves, and without regions of blood stasis, friction, or wear. The PediVAS pump is compatible with the CentriMag hardware, although the priming volume was reduced from 31 to 14 ml, and the port size reduced from 3/8 to (1/4) in. For the expected range of pediatric flow (0.3-3.0 L/min), the PediVAS exhibited superior hydraulic efficiency compared with the CentriMag. The PediVAS was evaluated in 14 pediatric animals for up to 30 days, demonstrating acceptable hydraulic function and hemocompatibility. The current results substantiate the performance and biocompatibility of the PediVAS cardiac assist system and are likely to support initiation of a US clinical trial in the future. PMID:18043164

  9. Assessment of Hydraulic Performance and Biocompatibility of a MagLev Centrifugal Pump System Designed for Pediatric Cardiac or Cardiopulmonary Support

    PubMed Central

    Dasse, Kurt A.; Gellman, Barry; Kameneva, Marina V.; Woolley, Joshua R.; Johnson, Carl A.; Gempp, Thomas; Marks, John D.; Kent, Stella; Koert, Andrew; Richardson, J. Scott; Franklin, Steve; Snyder, Trevor A.; Wearden, Peter; Wagner, William R.; Gilbert, Richard J.; Borovetz, Harvey S.

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of children with life-threatening cardiac and cardiopulmonary failure is a large and underappreciated public health concern. We have previously shown that the CentriMag is a magnetically levitated centrifugal pump system, having the utility for treating adults and large children (1,500 utilized worldwide). We present here the Pedi-VAS, a pump system whose design was modified from the CentriMag to meet the physiological requirements of young pediatric and neonatal patients. The PediVAS is comprised of a single-use centrifugal blood pump, reusable motor, and console, and is suitable for right ventricular assist device (RVAD), left ventricular assist device (LVAD), biventricular assist device (BVAD), or extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO) applications. It is designed to operate without bearings, seals and valves, and without regions of blood stasis, friction, or wear. The PediVAS pump is compatible with the CentriMag hardware, although the priming volume was reduced from 31 to 14 ml, and the port size reduced from 3/8 to ¼ in. For the expected range of pediatric flow (0.3–3.0 L/min), the PediVAS exhibited superior hydraulic efficiency compared with the CentriMag. The PediVAS was evaluated in 14 pediatric animals for up to 30 days, demonstrating acceptable hydraulic function and hemocompatibility. The current results substantiate the performance and biocompatibility of the PediVAS cardiac assist system and are likely to support initiation of a US clinical trial in the future. PMID:18043164

  10. High-pressure microhydraulic actuator

    DOEpatents

    Mosier, Bruce P [San Francisco, CA; Crocker, Robert W [Fremont, CA; Patel, Kamlesh D [Dublin, CA

    2008-06-10

    Electrokinetic ("EK") pumps convert electric to mechanical work when an electric field exerts a body force on ions in the Debye layer of a fluid in a packed bed, which then viscously drags the fluid. Porous silica and polymer monoliths (2.5-mm O.D., and 6-mm to 10-mm length) having a narrow pore size distribution have been developed that are capable of large pressure gradients (250-500 psi/mm) when large electric fields (1000-1500 V/cm) are applied. Flowrates up to 200 .mu.L/min and delivery pressures up to 1200 psi have been demonstrated. Forces up to 5 lb-force at 0.5 mm/s (12 mW) have been demonstrated with a battery-powered DC-DC converter. Hydraulic power of 17 mW (900 psi@ 180 uL/min) has been demonstrated with wall-powered high voltage supplies. The force and stroke delivered by an actuator utilizing an EK pump are shown to exceed the output of solenoids, stepper motors, and DC motors of similar size, despite the low thermodynamic efficiency.

  11. Inflated Soft Actuators with Reversible Stable Deformations.

    PubMed

    Hines, Lindsey; Petersen, Kirstin; Sitti, Metin

    2016-05-01

    Most soft robotic systems are currently dependent on bulky compressors or pumps. A soft actuation method is presented combining hyperelastic membranes and dielectric elastomer actuators to switch between stable deformations of sealed chambers. This method is capable of large repeatable deformations, and has a number of stable states proportional to the number of actuatable membranes in the chamber. PMID:27008455

  12. Hydraulic control unit for automotive transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, Y.; Ishida, H.

    1986-12-02

    This patent describes a hydraulic control unit for use in an automotive transmission having a speed change gear and a clutch, the hydraulic control unit including a housing, a change gear operating mechanism means for hydraulically operating the speed change gear, and a clutch operating mechanism means for hydraulically operating the clutch. The change gear operating mechanism means and the clutch operating mechanism means are both incorporated in the housing. The improvement described here is wherein the change gear operating mechanism means comprises a first hydraulic actuator means for effecting gear shifting of the speed change gear and gear selection thereof, first solenoid valve means for controlling the first hydraulic actuator means, first and second position sensor means for sensing positions of the first hydraulic actuator means indicative of a selected gear position thereof, respectively. The clutch operating mechanism means comprises a second hydraulic actuator means for effecting engagement and disengagement of the clutch, second solenoid valve means for controlling the second hydraulic actuator means, and a third position sensor means for sensing a position of the second hydraulic actuator means indicative of engagement and disengagement of the clutch. The first and second hydraulic actuator means, the first and second solenoid valve means, and the first, second and third position sensor means are all incorporated in one body in the housing.

  13. Dynamic characteristics of a pump-turbine during hydraulic transients of a model pumped-storage system: 3D CFD simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. X.; Cheng, Y. G.; Xia, L. S.; Yang, J. D.

    2014-03-01

    The runaway process in a model pumped-storage system was simulated for analyzing the dynamic characteristics of a pump-turbine. The simulation was adopted by coupling 1D (One Dimensional) pipeline MOC (Method of Characteristics) equations with a 3D (Three Dimensional) pump-turbine CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model, in which the water hammer wave in the 3D zone was defined by giving a pressure dependent density. We found from the results that the dynamic performances of the pump-turbine do not coincide with the static operating points, especially in the S-shaped characteristics region, where the dynamic trajectories follow ring-shaped curves. Specifically, the transient operating points with the same Q11 and M11 in different moving directions of the dynamic trajectories give different n11. The main reason of this phenomenon is that the transient flow patterns inside the pump-turbine are influenced by the ones in the previous time step, which leads to different flow patterns between the points with the same Q11 and M11 in different moving directions of the dynamic trajectories.

  14. Development of a magneto-rheological fluid based hybrid actuation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Shaju

    A hybrid hydraulic actuation system is proposed as an active pitch link for rotorcraft applications. Such an active pitch link can be used to implement Individual Blade Control (IBC) techniques for vibration and noise reduction, in addition to providing primary control for the helicopter. Conventional technologies like electric motors and hydraulic actuators have major disadvantages when it come to applications on a rotating environment. Centralized hydraulic system require the use of mechanically complex hydraulic slip rings and electric motors have high precision mechanical moving parts that make them unattractive in application with high centrifugal load. The high energy density of smart materials can be used to design hydraulic actuators in a compact package. MagnetoRheological (MR) fluids can be used as the working fluid in such a hybrid hydraulic actuation system to implement a valving system with no moving parts. Thus, such an actuation system can be theoretically well-suited for application in a rotating environment. To develop an actuation system based on an active material stack and MR fluidic valves, a fundamental understanding of the hydraulic circuit is essential. In order to address this issue, a theoretical model was developed to understand the effect of pumping chamber geometry on the pressure losses in the pumping chamber. Three dimensional analytical models were developed for steady and unsteady flow and the results were correlated to results obtained from Computation Fluid Dynamic simulation of fluid flow inside the pumping chamber. Fundamental understanding regarding the pressure losses in a pumping chamber are obtained from the modeling process. Vortices that form in the pumping chamber (during intake) and the discharge tube (during discharge) are identified as a major cause of pressure loss in the chamber. The role of vortices during dynamic operation is also captured through a frequency domain model. Extensive experimental studies were

  15. Electric-hydraulic car

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.W.; Greene, H.

    1993-07-27

    A propulsion system is described for a vehicle having a chassis and at least one drive wheel, the propulsion system including in combination: a constant speed power source comprising an alternating current electric motor operated at a constant speed corresponding to its optimum performance; a source of energy comprising a storage battery and an inverter connected to the electric motor for operating the electric motor of the constant speed power source; a hydraulic fluid system including a main hydraulic pump coupled with the electric motor of the constant speed power source and driven thereby; at least one hydraulic drive motor coupled with the hydraulic pump for receiving fluid flow therefrom; and means for varying the fluid flow through the main hydraulic pump to vary the speed of operation of the hydraulic drive motor.

  16. A dynamic model of mobile concrete pump boom based on discrete time transfer matrix method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Wu; Wu, Yunxin; Zhang, Zhaowei

    2013-12-01

    Mobile concrete pump boom is typical multibody large-scale motion manipulator. Due to posture constantly change in working process, kinematic rule and dynamic characteristic are difficult to solve. A dynamics model of a mobile concrete pump boom is established based on discrete time transfer matrix method (DTTMM). The boom system is divided into sub-structure A and substructure B. Sub-structure A is composed by the 1st boom and hydraulic actuator as well as the support. And substructure B is consists of the other three booms and corresponding hydraulic actuators. In the model, the booms and links are regarded as rigid elements and the hydraulic cylinders are equivalent to spring-damper. The booms are driven by the controllable hydraulic actuators. The overall dynamic equation and transfer matrix of the model can be assembled by sub-structures A and B. To get a precise result, step size and integration parameters are studied then. Next the tip displacement is calculated and compared with the result of ADAMS software. The displacement and rotation angle curves of the proposed method fit well with the ADAMS model. Besides it is convenient in modeling and saves time. So it is suitable for mobile concrete pump boom real-time monitoring and dynamic analysis. All of these provide reference to boom optimize and engineering application of such mechanisms.

  17. A Parylene Bellows Electrochemical Actuator

    PubMed Central

    Li, Po-Ying; Sheybani, Roya; Gutierrez, Christian A.; Kuo, Jonathan T. W.; Meng, Ellis

    2011-01-01

    We present the first electrochemical actuator with Parylene bellows for large-deflection operation. The bellows diaphragm was fabricated using a polyethylene-glycol-based sacrificial molding technique followed by coating in Parylene C. Bellows were mechanically characterized and integrated with a pair of interdigitated electrodes to form an electrochemical actuator that is suitable for low-power pumping of fluids. Pump performance (gas generation rate and pump efficiency) was optimized through a careful examination of geometrical factors. Overall, a maximum pump efficiency of 90% was achieved in the case of electroplated electrodes, and a deflection of over 1.5 mm was demonstrated. Real-time wireless operation was achieved. The complete fabrication process and the materials used in this actuator are bio-compatible, which makes it suitable for biological and medical applications. PMID:21318081

  18. Design and construction of pre-stressed piezoelectric unimorph for trailing edge flap actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Lae-Hyong; Lee, Jong-Won; Han, Jae-Hung

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a trailing edge flap actuation mechanism using a novel pre-stressed piezoelectric unimorph, PUMPS (Piezoelectric Unimorph with Mechanically Pre-stressed Substrate). Experimental evaluation of actuation performance such as force-displacement characteristics of PUMPS actuators showed that the performance of PUMPS satisfied the requirements for trailing edge flap actuation. Subsequently, flap actuation mechanisms were designed and constructed with several slot types in the flaps, and stacked PUMPS actuators were applied to the flap actuation mechanisms. Experimental study of the test wing models with four flaps was accomplished, and the flap angle was achieved up to +/-5.5° within 15Hz under maximum applicable voltage.

  19. A Portable Analyzer for Pouch-Actuated, Immunoassay Cassettes

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xianbo; Liu, Changchun; Mauk, Michael G.; Hart, Robert W.; Chen, Dafeng; Qiu, Jing; Kientz, Terry; Fiene, Jonathan; Bau, Haim H.

    2011-01-01

    A portable, small footprint, light, general purpose analyzer (processor) to control the flow in immunoassay cassettes and to facilitate the detection of test results is described. The durable analyzer accepts disposable cassettes that contain pouches and reaction chambers for various unit operations such as hydration of dry reagents, stirring, and incubation. The analyzer includes individually controlled, linear actuators to compress the pouches in the cassette, which facilitates the pumping and mixing of sample and reagents, and to close diaphragm-based valves for flow control. The same types of actuators are used to compress pouches and actuate valves. The analyzer also houses a compact OEM scanner/reader to excite fluorescence and detect emission from labels. The analyzer is hydraulically isolated from the cassette, reducing the possibility of cross-contamination. The analyzer facilitates programmable, automated execution of a sequence of operations such as pumping and valving in a timely fashion, reducing the level of expertise required from the operator and the possibility for errors. The analyzer’s design is modular and expandable to accommodate cassettes of various complexities and additional functionalities. In this paper, the utility of the analyzer has been demonstrated with the execution of a simple, consecutive, lateral flow assay of a model biological system and the test results were detected with up converting phosphor labels that are excited at infrared frequencies and emit in the visible spectrum. PMID:22125359

  20. Miniature linear-to-rotary motion actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorokach, Michael R., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A miniature hydraulic actuation system capable of converting linear actuator motion to control surface rotary motion has been designed for application to active controls on dynamic wind tunnel models. Due to space constraints and the torque requirements of an oscillating control surface at frequencies up to 50 Hertz, a new actuation system was developed to meet research objectives. This new actuation system was designed and developed to overcome the output torque limitations and fluid loss/sealing difficulties associated with an existing vane type actuator. Static control surface deflections and dynamic control surface oscillations through a given angle are provided by the actuation system. The actuator design has been incorporated into a transonic flutter model with an active trailing edge flap and two active spoilers. The model is scheduled for testing in the LaRC 16 Foot Transonic Dynamics Tunnel during Summer 1993. This paper will discuss the actuation system, its design, development difficulties, test results, and application to aerospace vehicles.

  1. 128. TUBING FOR HYDRAULIC FLUID AT BACK OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    128. TUBING FOR HYDRAULIC FLUID AT BACK OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL IN UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (209), LSB (BLDG. 751). PUMP ON RIGHT; ACCUMULATOR FOR MAST RETRACTION ON LEFT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  2. New electrode materials for dielectric elastomer actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wei; Lam, Tuling; Biggs, James; Hu, Liangbing; Yu, Zhibin; Ha, Soonmok; Xi, Dongjuan; Senesky, Matthew K.; Grüner, George; Pei, Qibing

    2007-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuators exert strain due to an applied electric field. With advantageous properties such as high efficiency and their light weight, these actuators are attractive for a variety of applications ranging from biomimetic robots, medical prosthetics to conventional pumps and valves. The performance and reliability however, are limited by dielectric breakdown which occurs primarily from localized defects inherently present in the polymer film during actuation. These defects lead to electric arcing, causing a short circuit that shuts down the entire actuator and can lead to actuator failure at fields significantly lower than the intrinsic strength of the material. This limitation is particularly a problem in actuators using large-area films. Our recent studies have shown that the gap between the strength of the intrinsic material and the strength of large-area actuators can be reduced by electrically isolating defects in the dielectric film. As a result, the performance and reliability of dielectric elastomers actuators can be substantially improved.

  3. Electromechanical propellant control system actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, W. Neill; Weir, Rae Ann

    1990-01-01

    New control mechanism technologies are currently being sought to provide alternatives to hydraulic actuation systems. The Propulsion Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is involved in the development of electromechanical actuators (EMA's) for this purpose. Through this effort, an in-house designed electromechanical propellant valve actuator has been assembled and is presently being evaluated. This evaluation will allow performance comparisons between EMA and hydraulics systems. The in-house design consists of the following hardware: a three-phase brushless motor, a harmonic drive, and an output spline which will mate with current Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) propellant control valves. A resolver and associated electronics supply position feedback for the EMA. System control is provided by a solid-state electronic controller and power supply. Frequency response testing has been performed with further testing planned as hardware and test facilities become available.

  4. Design, Analysis, Fabrication, and Testing of a Novel Piezoelectric Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, J.F.

    2003-10-16

    While there is a wide range of actuation technologies, none currently rivals the overall performance (power density, bandwidth, stress, stroke) of conventional hydraulic actuation. It is well known in the actuation community that the power-to-weight ratios and the power-to-volume ratios of hydraulic actuators are, respectively, around 5 times and 10 to 20 times larger than comparable electric motors. Due to fundamental limitations in the magnetic flux density in the supporting structures and limitations in the heat transfer out of electric actuators, significant changes in these ratios are not likely in the near future. Thermal limitations associated with electric motors do no apply to hydraulic actuators since the hydraulic fluid cools and lubricates the system. Hydraulic actuators are capable of holding a load without any energy expenditure, resilient to high impact loads, and typically do no need a transmission system. However, with all of these virtues, hydraulic actuators have serious practical implementation problems. Typically, hydraulic actuators have moderate to poor reliability when compared to electric actuators, leaky (at least in reputation), poor energy efficiencies and poor controllability due to either overlapping or underlapping in the spool of the control valves. This work addresses a new type of electric actuator that attempts to combine the best of both the electric and hydraulic mediums. Easy controllability as with electric actuators, scalability, and high power densities associated with hydraulics were the goals of this work.

  5. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.

    2000-01-01

    A compact high pressure hydraulic pump having no moving mechanical parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force. The electrokinetic pump, which can generate hydraulic pressures greater than 2500 psi, can be employed to compress a fluid, either liquid or gas, and manipulate fluid flow. The pump is particularly useful for capillary-base systems. By combining the electrokinetic pump with a housing having chambers separated by a flexible member, fluid flow, including high pressure fluids, is controlled by the application of an electric potential, that can vary with time.

  6. Testing of improved polyimide actuator rod seals at high temperature and under vacuum conditions for use in advanced aircraft hydraulic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellereite, B. K.; Waterman, A. W.; Nelson, W. G.

    1974-01-01

    Polyimide second-stage rod seals were evaluated to determine their suitability for applications in space station environments. The 6.35-cm (2.5-in.)K-section seal was verified for thermal cycling operation between room temperature and 478 K (400 F) and for operation in a 133 micron PA(0.000001 mm Hg) vacuum environment. The test seal completed the scheduled 96 thermal cycles and 1438 hr in vacuum with external rod seal leakage well within the maximum allowable of two drops per 25 actuation cycles. At program completion, the seals showed no signs of structural degradation. Posttest inspection showed the seals retained a snug fit against the shaft and housing walls, indicating additional wear life capability. Evaluation of a molecular flow section during vacuum testing, to inhibit fluid loss through vaporization, showed it to be beneficial with MIL-H-5606, a petroleum-base fluid, in comparison with MIL-H-83282, a synthetic hydrocarbon-base fluid.

  7. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Love, L.J.

    1997-03-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.

  8. Shape-Memory-Alloy Actuator For Flight Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Report proposes use of shape-memory-alloy actuators, instead of hydraulic actuators, for aerodynamic flight-control surfaces. Actuator made of shape-memory alloy converts thermal energy into mechanical work by changing shape as it makes transitions between martensitic and austenitic crystalline phase states of alloy. Because both hot exhaust gases and cryogenic propellant liquids available aboard launch rockets, shape-memory-alloy actuators exceptionally suited for use aboard such rockets.

  9. Identification and real-time position control of a servo-hydraulic rotary actuator by means of a neurobiologically motivated algorithm.

    PubMed

    Sadeghieh, Ali; Sazgar, Hadi; Goodarzi, Kamyar; Lucas, Caro

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new intelligent approach for adaptive control of a nonlinear dynamic system. A modified version of the brain emotional learning based intelligent controller (BELBIC), a bio-inspired algorithm based upon a computational model of emotional learning which occurs in the amygdala, is utilized for position controlling a real laboratorial rotary electro-hydraulic servo (EHS) system. EHS systems are known to be nonlinear and non-smooth due to many factors such as leakage, friction, hysteresis, null shift, saturation, dead zone, and especially fluid flow expression through the servo valve. The large value of these factors can easily influence the control performance in the presence of a poor design. In this paper, a mathematical model of the EHS system is derived, and then the parameters of the model are identified using the recursive least squares method. In the next step, a BELBIC is designed based on this dynamic model and utilized to control the real laboratorial EHS system. To prove the effectiveness of the modified BELBIC's online learning ability in reducing the overall tracking error, results have been compared to those obtained from an optimal PID controller, an auto-tuned fuzzy PI controller (ATFPIC), and a neural network predictive controller (NNPC) under similar circumstances. The results demonstrate not only excellent improvement in control action, but also less energy consumption. PMID:22015061

  10. Manual or hydraulic gearshifting apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, H.; Kojima, Y.

    1986-04-08

    A vehicle transmission control apparatus is described which consists of: a plurality of shift members for operating a vehicle transmission; a lever adapted for linear movement into a plurality of positions, one each of the lever being operatively coupled to a different one of the shift members in each of the positions; the lever being further adapted for pivotal movement in response to which the one end of the lever actuates the operatively coupled shift member; a select actuator means comprising a select hydraulic cylinder and a select piston retained thereby, the select piston being coupled to the lever and hydraulically controlled to produce the linear movement thereof; a shift actuator means comprising a shift hydraulic cylinder and a shift piston retained thereby, the shift piston being coupled to the lever and hydraulically controlled to produce the pivotal movement thereof; a casing means retaining the lever, the select actuator means, and the shift actuator means; and a control member comprising a portion within the casing means and coupled to the lever and a manually accessible portion always disposed outside the casing means and having means adapted for manual actuation to produce either the linear or the pivotal movement of the lever.

  11. Importance of mechanical testing of hydraulic fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Reichel, J.

    1997-12-31

    Anti-wear properties of hydraulic fluids are important because hydraulic pump and motor wear is costly. Hydraulic fluid performance specifications represent minimum requirements. International hydraulic fluid performance standards are being developed by ISO/TC28/SC4 committee as draft (ISO DIS 11158 ``Specifications for Mineral Oil Hydraulic Fluids``). Performance specifications for non-mineral oil hydraulic fluids are also being developed. Typically, both the user and fluid manufacturer have insufficient information relating to the anti-wear properties of a new fluid to be used in hydraulic equipment, such as axial piston pumps, vane pumps or radial piston motors. Therefore, pump lubrication and operation requirements, preferably pre-existing in pump manufacturer`s specifications, must be determined. The required fluid lubrication properties may be determined by either laboratory pump tests or by a field trial, often at the expense of the customer. More preferably, the lubrication properties of the hydraulic fluid should be determined under mechanical conditions equivalent to field practice. In this paper, the use of both the vane pump test and the FZG Gear Test to predetermine the recommended hydraulic fluid lubrication performance will be discussed. In this way, fluid performance may be determined at significantly lower cost than more expensive large scale hydraulic pump and motor tests which are slower and more energy consuming.

  12. Quick-response servo amplifies small hydraulic pressure differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegard, D. E.

    1966-01-01

    Hydraulic servo, which quickly diverts fluid to either of two actuators, controls the flow rates and pressures within a hydraulic system so that the output force of the servo system is independent of the velocity of the mechanism which the system actuates. This servo is a dynamic feedback control device.

  13. Compact valve actuation mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brogdon, James William (Inventor); Gill, David Keith (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A valve actuation device. The device may include a free floating valve bridge movably supported within a cavity in the engine housing. The bridge may be provided with a cavity and an orifice arrangement for pumping gases entrained with lubricating fluid toward the piston stems as the bridge reciprocates back and forth. The device may also include a rocker arm that has a U-shaped cross-sectional shape for receiving at least a portion of the valve bridge, valve stem valve spring and spring retainer therein. The rocker arm may be provided with lubrication passages for directing lubrication to the point wherein it is pivotally affixed to the engine housing.

  14. Integrated hydraulic cooler and return rail in camless cylinder head

    DOEpatents

    Marriott, Craig D.; Neal, Timothy L.; Swain, Jeff L.; Raimao, Miguel A.

    2011-12-13

    An engine assembly may include a cylinder head defining an engine coolant reservoir, a pressurized fluid supply, a valve actuation assembly, and a hydraulic fluid reservoir. The valve actuation assembly may be in fluid communication with the pressurized fluid supply and may include a valve member displaceable by a force applied by the pressurized fluid supply. The hydraulic fluid reservoir may be in fluid communication with the valve actuation assembly and in a heat exchange relation to the engine coolant reservoir.

  15. Actuated atomizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, Charles (Inventor); Weiler, Jeff (Inventor); Palmer, Randall (Inventor); Appel, Philip (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An actuated atomizer is adapted for spray cooling or other applications wherein a well-developed, homogeneous and generally conical spray mist is required. The actuated atomizer includes an outer shell formed by an inner ring; an outer ring; an actuator insert and a cap. A nozzle framework is positioned within the actuator insert. A base of the nozzle framework defines swirl inlets, a swirl chamber and a swirl chamber. A nozzle insert defines a center inlet and feed ports. A spool is positioned within the coil housing, and carries the coil windings having a number of turns calculated to result in a magnetic field of sufficient strength to overcome the bias of the spring. A plunger moves in response to the magnetic field of the windings. A stop prevents the pintle from being withdrawn excessively. A pintle, positioned by the plunger, moves between first and second positions. In the first position, the head of the pintle blocks the discharge passage of the nozzle framework, thereby preventing the atomizer from discharging fluid. In the second position, the pintle is withdrawn from the swirl chamber, allowing the atomizer to release atomized fluid. A spring biases the pintle to block the discharge passage. The strength of the spring is overcome, however, by the magnetic field created by the windings positioned on the spool, which withdraws the plunger into the spool and further compresses the spring.

  16. Hydraulic control system for vehicular automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Lentz, C.A.

    1991-11-12

    This patent describes a hydraulic control system for the automatic transmission of a vehicle wherein the transmission includes a plurality of torque transfer devices which can be engaged and disengaged in response to fluid pressure provided by a pump, the sequence of engagement and disengagement of the torque transfer devices being determined by a pre-programmed, on-board computer so as to provide a neutral, reverse, and a plurality of forward drive ratios, the control system interconnected between the pump and the torque transfer devices. It comprises conduits; fluid operated relay valves interconnected in a cascaded arrangement by the conduits, particular relay valves having outputs connected to effect the operational status of specific torque transfer devices; solenoid valves; each solenoid valve having an electrical control input, a fluid pressure inlet and a fluid pressure outlet; a pressure regulating valve having an electrical control input; a fluid pressure inlet and a fluid pressure outlet; a pressure regulating valve having an inlet and an outlet; the pressure regulating valve receiving line pressure from the pump at the regulating valve inlet; the regulating valve outlet connected to the fluid pressure inlets of the solenoid valves; the electrical input of each solenoid valve connected to receive a control input from the computer and the outlet of each solenoid valve connected to actuate one of the relay valves; a single, pulse width, pressure modulating valve receiving line pressure from the pump and providing a modulated output pressure; and, a control valve having first and second inlets; the first inlet of the control valve receiving modulated pressure from the modulating valve; the second inlet of the control valve receiving line pressure from the pump.

  17. 111. AIR CONDENSATE PUMP. NOTE MAIN DISCHARGE HEADER ABOVE STEAMEND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. AIR CONDENSATE PUMP. NOTE MAIN DISCHARGE HEADER ABOVE STEAM-END CYLINDER. NOTE ALSO, THE 30' DISCHARGE VALVE AND ACTUATER TO THE LEFT OF THE PUMP. - Lakeview Pumping Station, Clarendon & Montrose Avenues, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  18. Controller modeling and evaluation for PCV electro-mechanical actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Joey K.

    1993-11-01

    Hydraulic actuators are currently used to operate the propellant control valves (PCV) for the space shuttle main engine (SSME) and other rocket engines. These actuators are characterized by large power to weight ratios, large force capabilities, and rapid accelerations, which favor their use in control valve applications. However, hydraulic systems are also characterized by susceptibility to contamination, which leads to frequent maintenance requirements. The Control Mechanisms Branch (EP34) of the Component Development Division of the Propulsion Laboratory at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been investigating the application of electromechanical actuators as replacements for the hydraulic units in PCV's over the last few years. This report deals with some testing and analysis of a PCV electromechanical actuator (EMA) designed and fabricated by HR Textron, Inc. This prototype actuator has undergone extensive testing by EP34 personnel since early 1993. At this time, the performance of the HR Textron PCV EMA does not meet requirements for position tracking.

  19. Controller modeling and evaluation for PCV electro-mechanical actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Joey K.

    1993-01-01

    Hydraulic actuators are currently used to operate the propellant control valves (PCV) for the space shuttle main engine (SSME) and other rocket engines. These actuators are characterized by large power to weight ratios, large force capabilities, and rapid accelerations, which favor their use in control valve applications. However, hydraulic systems are also characterized by susceptibility to contamination, which leads to frequent maintenance requirements. The Control Mechanisms Branch (EP34) of the Component Development Division of the Propulsion Laboratory at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been investigating the application of electromechanical actuators as replacements for the hydraulic units in PCV's over the last few years. This report deals with some testing and analysis of a PCV electromechanical actuator (EMA) designed and fabricated by HR Textron, Inc. This prototype actuator has undergone extensive testing by EP34 personnel since early 1993. At this time, the performance of the HR Textron PCV EMA does not meet requirements for position tracking.

  20. Dielectric elastomer peristaltic pump module with finite deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Guoyong; Huang, Xiaoqiang; Liu, Junjie; Li, Tiefeng; Qu, Shaoxing; Yang, Wei

    2015-07-01

    Inspired by various peristaltic structures existing in nature, several bionic peristaltic actuators have been developed. In this study, we propose a novel dielectric elastomer peristaltic pump consisting of short tubular modules, with the saline solution as the electrodes. We investigate the performance of this soft pump module under hydraulic pressure and voltage via experiments and an analytical model based on nonlinear field theory. It is observed that the individual pump module undergoes finite deformation and may experience electromechanical instability during operations. The driving pressure and displaced volume of the peristaltic pump module can be modulated by applied voltage. The efficiency of the pump module is enhanced by alternating current voltage, which can suppress the electromechanical pull-in instability. An analytical model is developed within the framework of the nonlinear field theory, and its predictive capacity is checked by experimental observations. The effects of the prestretch, aspect ratio, and voltage on the performance of the pump modules are characterized by the analytical model. This work can guide the designs of soft active peristaltic pumps in the field of artificial organs and industrial conveying systems.

  1. Hydraulic catworks system

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.L.

    1981-03-03

    A hydraulic catworks system is described for use on a well drilling rig for making up and breaking out a drill string which includes a hydraulic makeup piston and cylinder assembly for actuating a makeup line connected to the makeup tongs, and a breakout piston and cylinder assembly connected to a breakout line for actuating the breakout tongs. A makeup hydraulic control valve controls hydraulic fluid to first and second lines connected to the makeup assembly with the first line connected for extending the makeup line and the second line connected for retracting the makeup line. A breakout hydraulic control valve controls fluid to third and fourth lines with the third line connected for extending the breakout line and the fourth line connected for retracting the breakout line. Manual air control means are provided for selectively actuating the makeup and breakout control valves. A variable pressure control is connected to the second line for controlling the makeup torque. Preferably, the makeup and breakout assemblies are vertically connected to the legs of the drilling rig and rollers are positioned horizontally with the makeup and breakout tongs and connected to the breakout and makeup lines. Preferably, a sheave is connected to the makeup assembly and the makeup line passes over the sheave with its free end fixedly secured. A re-generative system is provided on the makeup assembly for increasing the speed of the makeup line extension. Preferably the makeup and breakout cylinders are of the same cross-sectional area with the stroke of the breakout cylinder being less than the stroke of the makeup cylinder.

  2. Systematic Method for Evaluating Extraction and Injection Flow Rates for 100-KR-4 and 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit Pump-and-Treat Interim Actions for Hydraulic Containment

    SciTech Connect

    Spiliotopoulos, Alexandros A.

    2013-03-20

    This document describes a systematic method to develop flow rate recommendations for Pump-and-Treat (P&T) extraction and injection wells in 100-KR-4 and 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Units (OU) of the Hanford Site. Flow rate recommendations are developed as part of ongoing performance monitoring and remedy optimization of the P&T interim actions to develop hydraulic contairnnent of the dissolved chromium plume in groundwater and protect the Columbia River from further discharges of groundwater from inland. This document details the methodology and data required to infer the influence of individual wells near the shoreline on hydraulic containment and river protection and develop flow rate recommendations to improve system performance and mitigate potential shortcomings of the system configuration in place.

  3. 110. TUBING FOR HYDRAULIC FLUID AT BACK OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. TUBING FOR HYDRAULIC FLUID AT BACK OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL IN UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (109), LSB (BLDG. 770) ACCUMULATOR FOR MAST RETRACTION ON LEFT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  4. Actuator Exerts Tensile Or Compressive Axial Load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nozzi, John; Richards, Cuyler H.

    1994-01-01

    Compact, manually operated mechanical actuator applies controlled, limited tensile or compressive axial force. Designed to apply loads to bearings during wear tests in clean room. Intended to replace hydraulic actuator. Actuator rests on stand and imparts axial force to part attached to clevis inside or below stand. Technician turns control screw at one end of lever. Depending on direction of rotation of control screw, its end of lever driven downward (for compression) or upward (for tension). Lever pivots about clevis pin at end opposite of control screw; motion drives downward or upward link attached via shearpin at middle of lever. Link drives coupling and, through it, clevis attached to part loaded.

  5. Piezohydraulic Pump Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, Christopher S.

    2005-01-01

    Reciprocating piston piezohydraulic pumps were developed originally under the Smart Wing Phase II program (Lynch) and later under the CHAP program (CSA, Kinetic Ceramics). These pumps focused on 10 cm scale stack actuators operating below resonance and, more recently, at resonance. A survey of commercially available linear actuators indicates that obtaining power density and specific power greater than electromagnetic linear actuators requires driving the stacks at frequencies greater than 1 KHz at high fields. In the case of 10 cm scale actuators the power supply signal conditioning becomes large and heavy and the soft PZT stack actuators generate a lot of heat due to internal losses. Reciprocation frequencies can be increased and material losses significantly decreased through use of millimeter scale single crystal stack actuators. We are presently targeting the design of pumps that utilize stacks at the 1-10 mm length scale and run at reciprocating frequencies of 20kHz or greater. This offers significant advantages over current approaches including eliminating audible noise and significantly increasing the power density and specific power of the system (including electronics). The pump currently under development will comprise an LC resonant drive of a resonant crystal and head mass operating against a resonant fluid column. Each of these resonant systems are high Q and together should produce a single high Q second order system.

  6. Vehicle hydraulic cooling fan system

    SciTech Connect

    Nilson, C.A.

    1993-06-08

    A hydraulic cooling system for vehicles having an internal combustion engine cooled by a radiator and a coolant is described, comprising, in combination, a shroud adapted to be mounted adjacent the radiator having a wall forming an air passage and defining a first port disposed adjacent the radiator and a second port spaced from the first port, a fan located within the second port, a hydraulic fan motor operatively connected to the fan, a hydraulic pump operatively connected to the engine for producing a pressurized hydraulic fluid flow, a hydraulic circuit interconnecting the pump to the fan motor, the circuit including a control valve, a hydraulic fluid reservoir and a heat exchanger, the heat exchanger being mounted within the shroud air passage.

  7. A description of model 3B of the multipurpose ventricular actuating system. [providing controlled driving pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, J. A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The multipurpose ventricular actuating system is a pneumatic signal generating device that provides controlled driving pressures for actuating pulsatile blood pumps. Overall system capabilities, the timing circuitry, and calibration instruction are included.

  8. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.; Arnold, Don W.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Neyer, David W.

    2003-06-03

    An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based system. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

  9. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.; Arnold, Don W.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Neyer, David W.

    2001-01-01

    An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based systems. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (Microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

  10. Tractor Hydraulics. A Teaching Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Vocational Instructional Materials, Athens, GA.

    The manual was developed to help provide a better understanding of how and why hydraulic principles serve the purposes of weight reduction, increase of physical effort, and more precise control to machines of all types. The four components that are necessary to have a workable hydraulic system--a reservoir, a pump, a valve, and a motor (cylinder)…

  11. Actuator-valve interface optimization. [Explosive actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Burchett, O.L.; Jones, R.L.

    1987-02-01

    The interface of explosive actuator driven valves can be optimized to maximize the velocity of the valve plunger by using the computer code Actuator-Valve Response. Details of the AVR model of the actuator driven valve plunger and the results of optimizing an actuator-valve interface with AVR are presented. 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. System for Continuous Deaeration of Hydraulic Oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Christopher W.

    2006-01-01

    A system for continuous, rapid deaeration of hydraulic oil has been built to replace a prior system that effected deaeration more slowly in a cyclic pressure/ vacuum process. Such systems are needed because (1) hydraulic oil has an affinity for air, typically containing between 10 and 15 volume percent of air and (2) in the original application for which these systems were built, there is a requirement to keep the proportion of dissolved air below 1 volume percent because a greater proportion can lead to pump cavitation and excessive softness in hydraulic-actuator force-versus-displacement characteristics. In addition to overcoming several deficiencies of the prior deaeration system, the present system removes water from the oil. The system (see figure) includes a pump that continuously circulates oil at a rate of 10 gal/min (38 L/min) between an 80-gal (303-L) airless reservoir and a tank containing a vacuum. When the circulation pump is started, oil is pumped, at a pressure of 120 psi (827 kPa), through a venturi tube below the tank with a connection to a stand-pipe in the tank. This action draws oil out of the tank via the standpipe. At the same time, oil is sprayed into the tank in a fine mist, thereby exposing a large amount of oil to the vacuum. When the oil level in the tank falls below the lower of two level switches, a vacuum pump is started, drawing a hard vacuum on the tank through a trap that collects any oil and water entrained in the airflow. When the oil level rises above higher of the two level switches or when the system is shut down, a solenoid valve between the tank and the vacuum pump is closed to prevent suction of oil into the vacuum pump. Critical requirements that the system is designed to satisfy include the following: 1) The circulation pump must have sufficient volume and pressure to operate the venturi tube and spray nozzles. 2) The venturi tube must be sized to empty the tank (except for the oil retained by the standpipe) and maintain a

  13. Rotary actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brudnicki, Myron (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Rotary actuators and other mechanical devices incorporating shape memory alloys are provided herein. Shape memory alloys are a group of metals which when deformed at temperatures below their martensite temperatures, resume the shapes which they had prior to the deformation if they are heated to temperatures above their austensite temperatures. Actuators in which shape memory alloys are employed include bias spring types, in which springs deform the shape memory alloy (SMA), and differential actuators, which use two SMA members mechanically connected in series. Another type uses concentric cylindrical members. One member is in the form of a sleeve surrounding a cylinder, both being constructed of shape memory alloys. Herein two capstans are mounted on a shaft which is supported in a framework. Each capstan is capable of rotating the shaft. Shape memory wire, as two separate lengths of wire, is wrapped around each capstan to form a winding around that capstan. The winding on one capstan is so wrapped that the wire is in a prestretched state. The winding on the other capstan is so wrapped that the wire is in a taut, but not a prestretched, state. Heating one performs work in one direction, thus deforming the other one. When the other SMA is heated the action is reversed.

  14. Small hydraulic turbine drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rostafinski, W. A.

    1970-01-01

    Turbine, driven by the fluid being pumped, requires no external controls, is completely integrated into the flow system, and has bearings which utilize the main fluid for lubrication and cooling. Torque capabilities compare favorably with those developed by positive displacement hydraulic motors.

  15. Tubing Cutter is Activated Hydraulically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsmith, D. G.; Richardson, J. I.

    1983-01-01

    Hydraulically-actuated tubing cutter severs tubing when operator squeezes handle grip. "Gooseneck" extension enables cutter to be used in areas where accessiblity is limited. Cutter has potential as flight-line tool and is useful in automobile and fire rescue work.

  16. 16. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. MECHANICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. MECHANICAL AND HYDRAULIC ENGINEERS EXAMINING MODEL PUMPS. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  17. Modular droplet actuator drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, Michael G. (Inventor); Paik, Philip (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A droplet actuator drive including a detection apparatus for sensing a property of a droplet on a droplet actuator; circuitry for controlling the detection apparatus electronically coupled to the detection apparatus; a droplet actuator cartridge connector arranged so that when a droplet actuator cartridge electronically is coupled thereto: the droplet actuator cartridge is aligned with the detection apparatus; and the detection apparatus can sense the property of the droplet on a droplet actuator; circuitry for controlling a droplet actuator coupled to the droplet actuator connector; and the droplet actuator circuitry may be coupled to a processor.

  18. Efficient Hybrid Actuation Using Solid-State Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leo, Donald J.; Cudney, Harley H.; Horner, Garnett (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Piezohydraulic actuation is the use of fluid to rectify the motion of a piezoelectric actuator for the purpose of overcoming the small stroke limitations of the material. In this work we study a closed piezohydraulic circuit that utilizes active valves to rectify the motion of a hydraulic end affector. A linear, lumped parameter model of the system is developed and correlated with experiments. Results demonstrate that the model accurately predicts the filtering of the piezoelectric motion caused by hydraulic compliance. Accurate results are also obtained for predicting the unidirectional motion of the cylinder when the active valves are phased with respect to the piezoelectric actuator. A time delay associated with the mechanical response of the valves is incorporated into the model to reflect the finite time required to open or close the valves. This time delay is found to be the primary limiting factor in achieving higher speed and greater power from the piezohydraulic unit. Experiments on the piezohydraulic unit demonstrate that blocked forces on the order of 100 N and unloaded velocities of 180 micrometers/sec are achieved.

  19. Pump it up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffli, Luc; O'Brien, Benjamin; Rosset, Samuel; Shea, Herbert

    2012-04-01

    We report on the use of zipping actuation applied to dielectric elastomer actuators to microfabricate mm-sized pumps. The zipping actuators presented here use electrostatic attraction to deform an elastomeric membrane by pulling it into contact with a rigid counter electrode. We present several actuation schemes using either conventional DEA actuation, zipping, or a combination of both in order to realize microfluidic devices. A zipping design in which the electric field is applied across the elastomer membrane was explored theoretically and experimentally. Single zipping chambers and a micropump body made of a three chambers connected by an embedded channel were wet-etched into a silicon wafer and subsequently covered by a gold-implanted silicone membrane. We measured static deflections of up to 300 μm on chambers with square openings of 1.8 and 2.6 mm side, in very good agreement with our model.

  20. Active-standby servovalue/actuator development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masm, R. K.

    1973-01-01

    A redundant, fail/operate fail/fixed servoactuator was constructed and tested along with electronic models of a servovalve. It was found that a torque motor switch is satisfactory for the space shuttle main engine hydraulic actuation system, and that this system provides an effective failure monitoring technique.

  1. Development of highly integrated magetically and electrostatically actuated micropumps : LDRD 64709 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Sosnowchik, Brian D.; Galambos, Paul C.; Hendrix, Jason R.; Zwolinski, Andrew

    2003-12-01

    The pump and actuator systems designed and built in the SUMMiT{trademark} process, Sandia's surface micromachining polysilicon MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) fabrication technology, on the previous campus executive program LDRD (SAND2002-0704P) with FSU/FAMU (Florida State University/Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University) were characterized in this LDRD. These results demonstrated that the device would pump liquid against the flow resistance of a microfabricated channel, but the devices were determined to be underpowered for reliable pumping. As a result a new set of SUMMiT{trademark} pumps with actuators that generate greater torque will be designed and submitted for fabrication. In this document we will report details of dry actuator/pump assembly testing, wet actuator/pump testing, channel resistance characterization, and new pump/actuator design recommendations.

  2. Memory metal actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, C. F. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A mechanical actuator can be constructed by employing a plurality of memory metal actuator elements in parallel to control the amount of actuating force. In order to facilitate direct control by digital control signals provided by a computer or the like, the actuating elements may vary in stiffness according to a binary relationship. The cooling or reset time of the actuator elements can be reduced by employing Peltier junction cooling assemblies in the actuator.

  3. Pump isolation valve

    DOEpatents

    Kinney, Calvin L.; Wetherill, Todd M.

    1983-08-02

    The pump isolation valve provides a means by which the pump may be selectively isolated from the remainder of the coolant system while being compatible with the internal hydraulic arrangement of the pump during normal operation of the pump. The valve comprises a valve cylinder disposed around the pump and adjacent to the last pump diffuser with a turning vane attached to the lower end of the valve cylinder in a manner so as to hydraulically match with the discharge diffuser. The valve cylinder is connected to a drive means for sliding the valve cylinder relative to the diffuser support cylinder so as to block flow in either direction through the discharge diffuser when the valve is in the closed position and to aid in the flow of the coolant from the discharge diffuser by means of the turning vane when the valve is in the open position.

  4. Microfluidic reflow pumps.

    PubMed

    Haslam, Bryan; Tsai, Long-Fang; Anderson, Ryan R; Kim, Seunghyun; Hu, Weisheng; Nordin, Gregory P

    2015-07-01

    A new microfluidic pump, termed a reflow pump, is designed to operate with a sub-μl sample volume and transport it back and forth between two pneumatically actuated reservoirs through a flow channel typically containing one or more sensor surfaces. The ultimate motivation is to efficiently use the small sample volume in conjunction with convection to maximize analyte flux to the sensor surface(s) in order to minimize sensor response time. In this paper, we focus on the operational properties of the pumps themselves (rather than the sensor surfaces), and demonstrate both two-layer and three-layer polydimethylsiloxane reflow pumps. For the three-layer pump, we examine the effects of reservoir actuation pressure and actuation period, and demonstrate average volumetric flow rates as high as 500 μl/min. We also show that the two-layer design can pump up to 93% of the sample volume during each half period and demonstrate integration of a reflow pump with a single-chip microcantilever array to measure maximum flow rate. PMID:26221199

  5. Microfluidic reflow pumps

    PubMed Central

    Haslam, Bryan; Tsai, Long-Fang; Anderson, Ryan R.; Kim, Seunghyun; Hu, Weisheng; Nordin, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    A new microfluidic pump, termed a reflow pump, is designed to operate with a sub-μl sample volume and transport it back and forth between two pneumatically actuated reservoirs through a flow channel typically containing one or more sensor surfaces. The ultimate motivation is to efficiently use the small sample volume in conjunction with convection to maximize analyte flux to the sensor surface(s) in order to minimize sensor response time. In this paper, we focus on the operational properties of the pumps themselves (rather than the sensor surfaces), and demonstrate both two-layer and three-layer polydimethylsiloxane reflow pumps. For the three-layer pump, we examine the effects of reservoir actuation pressure and actuation period, and demonstrate average volumetric flow rates as high as 500 μl/min. We also show that the two-layer design can pump up to 93% of the sample volume during each half period and demonstrate integration of a reflow pump with a single-chip microcantilever array to measure maximum flow rate. PMID:26221199

  6. Status of Electrical Actuator Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Mary Ellen; Taylor, Linda M.; Hansen, Irving G.

    1996-01-01

    An ever increasing number of actuation functions historically performed by hydraulics or pneumatics are being accomplished by electric actuation. If 'end to end' systems are considered, electric actuators (EA's) are potentially lighter and more efficient. In general, system redundancies may be more easily implemented and operationally monitored. Typically, electrical components exhibit longer mean times to failure and projected lifetime costs of EA's are potentially much lower than those of other options. EA's have certain characteristics which must be considered in their application. The actual mechanical loadings must be established, for the more easily controlled EA may be operated much closer to its full capabilities. At higher rates of motion, EA's are operating as constant power devices. Therefore, it may be possible to start a movement that can not be stopped. The incorporation of high power electronics into remote locations introduces new concerns of EMI and thermal control. It is the management of these and other characteristics that forms the engineering design challenges. Work is currently in progress on EA's for aircraft and expendable launch vehicles. These applications span from ten to 40+ horsepower. The systematics and status of these actuators will be reported along with current technical trends in this area.

  7. Indexes of pumps for oil field pumping units

    SciTech Connect

    Ibragimov, E.S.

    1995-07-01

    As reported previously, a series of oil field pumping units has been developed with power outputs of 125, 250, 500, and 1000 kW, designed for injecting working fluids in cementing operations in oil and gas wells, hydraulic fracturing of formations, washing out sand plugs, and other production operations. The units are designed for the use of three-plunger pumps with individual power outputs of 125 or 500 kW. In the 250- and 1000-kW units, two such pumps are used. The 1000-kW pumping unit serves mainly for deep-penetration hydraulic fracturing of formations, and also for fracturing deep formations. The hydraulic fracturing process does not require the use of units with two pumps; this has been demonstrated by experience, both here and in other countries. All units intended for use in hydraulic fracturing are built with a single pump, transmission, and drive. Pumping units for well cementing must have two pumps that will give a high delivery rate. At the start of the operation, a single pump can be used to feed water into the cement mixer, with the second pump used to transfer the cement slurry to the well. Then both pumps are connected to the slurry injection line. The operation of these pumps is described.

  8. Flight Test Experience with an Electromechanical Actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Stephen C.; Jenney, Gavin D.; Raymond, Bruce; Dawson, David; Flick, Brad (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Development of reliable power-by-wire actuation systems for both aeronautical and space applications has been sought recently to eliminate hydraulic systems from aircraft and spacecraft and thus improve safety, efficiency, reliability, and maintainability. The Electrically Powered Actuation Design (EPAD) program was a joint effort between the Air Force, Navy, and NASA to develop and fly a series of actuators validating power-by-wire actuation technology on a primary flight control surface of a tactical aircraft. To achieve this goal, each of the EPAD actuators was installed in place of the standard hydraulic actuator on the left aileron of the NASA F/A-18B Systems Research Aircraft (SRA) and flown throughout the SRA flight envelope. Numerous parameters were recorded, and overall actuator performance was compared with the performance of the standard hydraulic actuator on the opposite wing. This paper discusses the integration and testing of the EPAD electromechanical actuator (EMA) on the SRA. The architecture of the EMA system is discussed, as well as its integration with the F/A-18 Flight Control System. The flight test program is described, and actuator performance is shown to be very close to that of the standard hydraulic actuator it replaced. Lessons learned during this program are presented and discussed, as well as suggestions for future research.

  9. Flight Test Experience With an Electromechanical Actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Stephen C.; Jenney, Gavin D.; Raymond, Bruce; Dawson, David

    2000-01-01

    Development of reliable power-by-wire actuation systems for both aeronautical and space applications has been sought recently to eliminate hydraulic systems from aircraft and spacecraft and thus improve safety, efficiency, reliability, and maintainability. The Electrically Powered Actuation Design (EPAD) program was a joint effort between the Air Force, Navy, and NASA to develop and fly a series of actuators validating power-by-wire actuation technology on a primary flight control surface of a tactical aircraft. To achieve this goal, each of the EPAD actuators was installed in place of the standard hydraulic actuator on the left aileron of the NASA F/A-18B Systems Research Aircraft (SRA) and flown throughout the SRA flight envelope. Numerous parameters were recorded, and overall actuator performance was compared with the performance of the standard hydraulic actuator on the opposite wing. This paper discusses the integration and testing of the EPAD electromechanical actuator (EMA) on the SRA. The architecture of the EMA system is discussed, as well as its integration with the F/A-18 Flight Control System. The flight test program is described, and actuator performance is shown to be very close to that of the standard hydraulic actuator it replaced. Lessons learned during this program are presented and discussed, as well as suggestions for future research.

  10. Biomimetic actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouda, Vaclav; Boudova, Lea; Haluzikova, Denisa

    2005-05-01

    The aim of the presentation is to propose an alternative model of mammalian skeletal muscle function, which reflects the simplicity of nature and can be applied in engineering. Van der Waals attractive and repulsive electrostatic forces are assumed to control the design of internal structures and functions of contractile units of the muscles - sarcomere. The role of myosin heads is crucial for the higher order formation. The model of the myosin head lattice is the working model for the sarcomere contraction interpretation. The contraction is interpreted as a calcium induced phase transition of the lattice, which results in relative actin-myosin sliding and/or force generation. The model should provide the engineering science with a simple analogy to technical actuators of high performance.

  11. Dual independent displacement-amplified micropumps with a single actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracey, M. C.; Johnston, I. D.; Davis, J. B.; Tan, C. K. L.

    2006-08-01

    We report a dual-micropump structure operated by a single actuator element. The constituent micropumps are a form of micro throttle pump (MTP) comprising a narrow flow channel incorporating two microthrottles. We term this a 'linear MTP' (LMTP). The LMTP's narrowness, in conjunction with an elastomeric substrate, allows multiple, independent, LMTPs to be actuated by a single piezoelectric actuator thereby suiting it to parallel microfluidic architectures. Furthermore, LMTP elements can be combined into parallel or series composites yielding increased maximum pumping rates or back pressures, respectively, when compared to a single LMTP element. The LMTP's flow-channel-like, linear pump chamber minimizes the development of recirculatory flows associated with circular pump chambers which, in part, determine their frequency response and hence maximum pumping rates. We have modelled, fabricated and evaluated a dual-LMTP. We report operation in three modes: as two distinct pumps, as a series composite pump, and as a parallel composite pump. Operating at about 1.6 kHz, with both pumps under identical load conditions, each pump yielded maximum pumping rates of about 750 µl min-1 and back pressures of 18 kPa, both with close matching. Configured as a series composite, a 35 kPa back pressure was achieved, and configured as a parallel composite, a maximum pumping rate of 1.4 ml min-1 resulted. Images of 5 µm polystyrene beads flowing within an LMTP confirm minimal recirculatory behaviour consistent with the LMTP's increased operating frequencies compared to circular pump chamber MTPs.

  12. Newly developed ventricular assist device with linear oscillatory actuator.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Kazuyoshi; Funakubo, Akio; Fukui, Yasuhiro

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a new direct electromagnetic left ventricular assist device (DEM-LVAD) with a linear oscillatory actuator (LOA). The DEM-LVAD is a pulsatile pump with a pusher plate. The pusher plate is driven directly by the mover of the LOA. The LOA provides reciprocating motion without using any movement converter such as a roller screw or a hydraulic system. It consists of a stator with a single winding excitation coil and a mover with two permanent magnets. The simple structure of the LOA is based on fewer parts to bring about high reliability and smaller size. The mover moves back and forth when forward and backward electric current is supplied to the excitation coil. The pump housings have been designed using three-dimensional computer aided design software and fabricated with the aid of computer aided manufacturing technology. Monostrut valves (Bjork-Shiley #21) were used for the prototype. The DEM-LVAD dimension is 96 mm in diameter and 50 mm thick with a mass of 0.62 kg and a volume of 280 ml. An in vitro test (afterload 100 mm Hg; preload 10 mm Hg; input power 10 W) demonstrated more than 6 L/minute maximum output and 15% maximum efficiency at 130 beats per minute (bpm). Dynamic stroke volume ranged between 40 and 60 ml. The feasibility of the DEM-LVAD was confirmed. PMID:12790386

  13. Towards compliant and wearable robotic orthoses: A review of current and emerging actuator technologies.

    PubMed

    Veale, Allan Joshua; Xie, Shane Quan

    2016-04-01

    Robotic orthoses, or exoskeletons, have the potential to provide effective rehabilitation while overcoming the availability and cost constraints of therapists. However, current orthosis actuation systems use components designed for industrial applications, not specifically for interacting with humans. This can limit orthoses' capabilities and, if their users' needs are not adequately considered, contribute to their abandonment. Here, a user centered review is presented on: requirements for orthosis actuators; the electric, hydraulic, and pneumatic actuators currently used in orthoses and their advantages and limitations; the potential of new actuator technologies, including smart materials, to actuate orthoses; and the future of orthosis actuator research. PMID:26923385

  14. Survey of advanced-heat-pump developments for space conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, P.D.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of heat pump projects with special emphasis on those supported by DOE, EPRI, and the Gas Research Institute is presented. Some historical notes on heat pump development are discussed. Market and equipment trends, well water and ground-coupled heat pumps, heat-actuated heat pump development, and international interest in heat pumps are also discussed. 30 references.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The thermal, chemical, and biological quality of water in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and near coastal areas is inseparable from a consideration of hydraulic engineering principles: therefore, the term environmental hydraulics. In this chapter we discuss the basic principles of w...

  16. Flight control actuation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Gaines, Louie T. (Inventor); Evans, Paul S. (Inventor); Kern, James I. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A flight control actuation system comprises a controller, electromechanical actuator and a pneumatic actuator. During normal operation, only the electromechanical actuator is needed to operate a flight control surface. When the electromechanical actuator load level exceeds 40 amps positive, the controller activates the pneumatic actuator to offset electromechanical actuator loads to assist the manipulation of flight control surfaces. The assistance from the pneumatic load assist actuator enables the use of an electromechanical actuator that is smaller in size and mass, requires less power, needs less cooling processes, achieves high output forces and adapts to electrical current variations. The flight control actuation system is adapted for aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and other flight vehicles, especially flight vehicles that are large in size and travel at high velocities.

  17. 46 CFR 64.89 - Cargo pump unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... with the product to be pumped. (d) A diesel engine that is used to drive a cargo pump must have a spark...) The cargo pump power unit must be— (1) Diesel; (2) Hydraulic; (3) Pneumatic; or (4) Electric. (c)...

  18. 46 CFR 64.89 - Cargo pump unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... with the product to be pumped. (d) A diesel engine that is used to drive a cargo pump must have a spark...) The cargo pump power unit must be— (1) Diesel; (2) Hydraulic; (3) Pneumatic; or (4) Electric. (c)...

  19. 46 CFR 64.89 - Cargo pump unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... with the product to be pumped. (d) A diesel engine that is used to drive a cargo pump must have a spark...) The cargo pump power unit must be— (1) Diesel; (2) Hydraulic; (3) Pneumatic; or (4) Electric. (c)...

  20. 46 CFR 64.89 - Cargo pump unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... with the product to be pumped. (d) A diesel engine that is used to drive a cargo pump must have a spark...) The cargo pump power unit must be— (1) Diesel; (2) Hydraulic; (3) Pneumatic; or (4) Electric. (c)...

  1. 46 CFR 64.89 - Cargo pump unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... with the product to be pumped. (d) A diesel engine that is used to drive a cargo pump must have a spark...) The cargo pump power unit must be— (1) Diesel; (2) Hydraulic; (3) Pneumatic; or (4) Electric. (c)...

  2. 23. TEMPORARY CENTRIFUGAL PUMP. NOTE CHAPMAN HYDRAULICOPERATED VALVE FOR LATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. TEMPORARY CENTRIFUGAL PUMP. NOTE CHAPMAN HYDRAULIC-OPERATED VALVE FOR LATER CONNECTION OF ENGINE PUMP ENG TO DISCHARGE HEADER. - Lakeview Pumping Station, Clarendon & Montrose Avenues, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  3. 22. TEMPORARY CENTRIFIGAL PUMP. NOTE CHAPMAN HYDRAULICOPERATED VALVE FOR LATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. TEMPORARY CENTRIFIGAL PUMP. NOTE CHAPMAN HYDRAULIC-OPERATED VALVE FOR LATER CONNECTION OF ENGINE PUMP END TO DISCHARGE HEADER. - Lakeview Pumping Station, Clarendon & Montrose Avenues, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  4. Torque characteristics of a 122-centimeter butterfly valve with a hydro/pneumatic actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, F. N.; Moore, W. I.; Lundy, F. E.

    1981-01-01

    Actuating torque data from field testing of a 122-centimeter (48 in.) butterfly valve with a hydro/pneumatic actuator is presented. The hydraulic cylinder functions as either a forward or a reverse brake. Its resistance torque increases when the valve speeds up and decreases when the valve slows down. A reduction of flow resistance in the hydraulic flow path from one end of the hydraulic cylinder to the other will effectively reduce the hydraulic resistance torque and hence increase the actuating torque. The sum of hydrodynamic and friction torques (combined resistance torque) of a butterfly valve is a function of valve opening time. An increase in the pneumatic actuating pressure will result in a decrease in both the combined resistance torque and the actuator opening torque; however, it does shorten the valve opening time. As the pneumatic pressure increases, the valve opening time for a given configuration approaches an asymptotical value.

  5. In-line hydraulic dashpot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, Paul E.

    1992-10-01

    An in-line hydraulic dashpot is disclosed that effectively decelerates the piston of a power cylinder by controllably choking off the oil which is providing pressure to the piston. The in-line hydraulic dashpot of the invention includes a valve spool member movable between an open and closed position along a fluid flow path that supplies oil to the power cylinder. An actuator rod is cooperative with the valve spool member and the piston shaft of the power cylinder to move tile valve spool member between its open and closed positions. The in-line hydraulic dashpot eliminates the clashing of mechanical parts and therewith eliminates the noise that would otherwise be generated thereby. The in-line hydraulic dashpot of the present invention makes possible the adaptation of a fixed stroke power cylinder to applications that call for a variable stroke length.

  6. An automated, pre-programmed, multiplexed, hydraulic microvalve.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jitae; Chen, Dafeng; Bau, Haim H

    2009-12-21

    An automated, pre-programmed, multiplexed hydraulic valve actuator is described. The valve is membrane-based and normally open. In contrast to the membrane-based pneumatic valve, the hydraulic valve uses hydraulic liquid to exert the control pressure. The line pressure is controlled with a roller moving over a prefabricated topology. Multiple rollers, each traversing its own track, are assembled into a single carriage, which can be actuated either manually or with a single computer-controlled motor. A valve manifold and roller actuators are designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate three-way valve actuation in a pre-determined sequence. The performance of the valve is evaluated and the utility of the valve in the operation of a micro thermal cycler was demonstrated. Hydraulic controllers of the type described here can be operated either manually or under computer control and provide an inexpensive means of controlling flow in lab-on-a-chip devices. PMID:20024041

  7. Method for directional hydraulic fracturing

    DOEpatents

    Swanson, David E.; Daly, Daniel W.

    1994-01-01

    A method for directional hydraulic fracturing using borehole seals to confine pressurized fluid in planar permeable regions, comprising: placing a sealant in the hole of a structure selected from geologic or cemented formations to fill the space between a permeable planar component and the geologic or cemented formation in the vicinity of the permeable planar component; making a hydraulic connection between the permeable planar component and a pump; permitting the sealant to cure and thereby provide both mechanical and hydraulic confinement to the permeable planar component; and pumping a fluid from the pump into the permeable planar component to internally pressurize the permeable planar component to initiate a fracture in the formation, the fracture being disposed in the same orientation as the permeable planar component.

  8. Hydraulic induced instability on a vertical service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosmans, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    The case history contained provides insight toward the mechanical and hydraulic behavior of a vertical pump. It clearly demonstrates the need for measurements on the rotor at or near the impeller area. The results are reported of an analysis on a service water pump. This pump is typical of the water pumps used throughout the power generation industry. Although little is known of the mechanical behavior of vertical pumps because of difficulty in modeling the rotor system, recent developments in the application of submersible proximity transducers have made possible the measurement of pump dynamics under operating conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the proper selection and installation of vibration-monitoring transducers as well as to measure the effects of imbalance, misalignment, and hydraulics on the performance and reliability of vertical pumps. In addition, the cause of shaft failures on this pump was to be determined.

  9. Ground-water system, estimation of aquifer hydraulic properties, and effects of pumping on ground-water flow in Triassic sedimentary rocks in and near Lansdale, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Goode, Daniel J.

    1999-01-01

    Ground water in Triassic-age sedimentary fractured-rock aquifers in the area of Lansdale, Pa., is used as drinking water and for industrial supply. In 1979, ground water in the Lansdale area was found to be contaminated with trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and other man-made organic compounds, and in 1989, the area was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) National Priority List as the North Penn Area 6 site. To assist the USEPA in the hydrogeological assessment of the site, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study in 1995 to describe the ground-water system and to determine the effects of changes in the well pumping patterns on the direction of ground-water flow in the Lansdale area. This determination is based on hydrologic and geophysical data collected from 1995-98 and on results of the simulation of the regional ground-water-flow system by use of a numerical model.Correlation of natural-gamma logs indicate that the sedimentary rock beds strike generally northeast and dip at angles less than 30 degrees to the northwest. The ground-water system is confined or semi-confined, even at shallow depths; depth to bedrock commonly is less than 20 feet (6 meters); and depth to water commonly is about 15 to 60 feet (5 to 18 meters) below land surface. Single-well, aquifer-interval-isolation (packer) tests indicate that vertical permeability of the sedimentary rocks is low. Multiple-well aquifer tests indicate that the system is heterogeneous and that flow appears primarily in discrete zones parallel to bedding. Preferred horizontal flow along strike was not observed in the aquifer tests for wells open to the pumped interval. Water levels in wells that are open to the pumped interval, as projected along the dipping stratigraphy, are drawn down more than water levels in wells that do not intersect the pumped interval. A regional potentiometric map based on measured water levels indicates that ground water flows from Lansdale towards discharge

  10. Two-stage actuation system using DC motors and piezoelectric actuators for controllable industrial and automotive brakes and clutches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neelakantan, Vijay A.; Washington, Gregory N.; Bucknor, Norman K.

    2005-05-01

    High bandwidth actuation systems that are capable of simultaneously producing relatively large forces and displacements are required for use in automobiles and other industrial applications. Conventional hydraulic actuation mechanisms used in automotive brakes and clutches are complex, inefficient and have poor control robustness. These lead to reduced fuel economy, controllability issues and other disadvantages. This paper involves the design, development, testing and control of a two-stage hybrid actuation mechanism by combining classical actuators like DC motors and advanced smart material actuators like piezoelectric actuators. The paper also discusses the development of a robust control methodology using the Internal Model Control (IMC) principle and emphasizes the robustness property of this control methodology by comparing and studying simulation and experimental results.

  11. Variable Valve Actuation

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Gutterman; A. J. Lasley

    2008-08-31

    Many approaches exist to enable advanced mode, low temperature combustion systems for diesel engines - such as premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI), Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) or other HCCI-like combustion modes. The fuel properties and the quantity, distribution and temperature profile of air, fuel and residual fraction in the cylinder can have a marked effect on the heat release rate and combustion phasing. Figure 1 shows that a systems approach is required for HCCI-like combustion. While the exact requirements remain unclear (and will vary depending on fuel, engine size and application), some form of substantially variable valve actuation is a likely element in such a system. Variable valve actuation, for both intake and exhaust valve events, is a potent tool for controlling the parameters that are critical to HCCI-like combustion and expanding its operational range. Additionally, VVA can be used to optimize the combustion process as well as exhaust temperatures and impact the after treatment system requirements and its associated cost. Delphi Corporation has major manufacturing and product development and applied R&D expertise in the valve train area. Historical R&D experience includes the development of fully variable electro-hydraulic valve train on research engines as well as several generations of mechanical VVA for gasoline systems. This experience has enabled us to evaluate various implementations and determine the strengths and weaknesses of each. While a fully variable electro-hydraulic valve train system might be the 'ideal' solution technically for maximum flexibility in the timing and control of the valve events, its complexity, associated costs, and high power consumption make its implementation on low cost high volume applications unlikely. Conversely, a simple mechanical system might be a low cost solution but not deliver the flexibility required for HCCI operation. After modeling more than 200 variations of the

  12. Design of hydraulic output Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toscano, W. M.; Harvey, A. C.; Lee, K.

    1983-01-01

    A hydraulic output system for the RE-1000 free piston stirling engine (FPSE) was designed. The hydraulic output system can be readily integrated with the existing hot section of RE-1000 FPSE. The system has two simply supported diaphragms which separate the engine gas from the hydraulic fluid, a dynamic balance mechanism, and a novel, null center band hydraulic pump. The diaphragms are designed to endure more than 10 billion cycles, and to withstand the differential pressure load as high as 14 MPa. The projected thermodynamic performance of the hydraulic output version of RE-1000 FPSE is 1.87 kW at 29/7 percent brake efficiency.

  13. Micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Abraham P.; Sommargren, Gary E.; McConaghy, Charles F.; Krulevitch, Peter A.

    1999-10-19

    A micromachined vertical actuator utilizing a levitational force, such as in electrostatic comb drives, provides vertical actuation that is relatively linear in actuation for control, and can be readily combined with parallel plate capacitive position sensing for position control. The micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator provides accurate movement in the sub-micron to micron ranges which is desirable in the phase modulation instrument, such as optical phase shifting. For example, compact, inexpensive, and position controllable micromirrors utilizing an electrostatic vertical actuator can replace the large, expensive, and difficult-to-maintain piezoelectric actuators. A thirty pound piezoelectric actuator with corner cube reflectors, as utilized in a phase shifting diffraction interferometer can be replaced with a micromirror and a lens. For any very precise and small amplitudes of motion` micromachined electrostatic actuation may be used because it is the most compact in size, with low power consumption and has more straightforward sensing and control options.

  14. Power-efficient hydraulic systems. Volume 2. Hardware demonstration phase. Final report, October 1985-July 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Hupp, R.V.; Haning, R.K.

    1988-07-01

    Energy-saving concepts for aircraft hydraulic systems were studied in a two-phase program. Task I was an investigation of methods and techniques to reduce overall hydraulic-system power requirements by lowering system demands and increasing component efficiencies. Task II involved hardware demonstration tests on selected concepts. Task I: Study phase. A baseline hydraulic system for an advanced aircraft design was established. Twenty energy-saving techniques were studied as candidates for application to the baseline vehicle. A global systems analysis approach was employed. The candidates were compared on the basis of total fuel consumption and six qualitative factors. Task II: Hardware demonstration phase. Two techniques demonstrated for energy savings were control valves with overlap and dual pressure-level systems. Tests were conducted on control valves, a servo actuator, dual pressure pumps, and a lightweight hydraulic system simulator. Valves with 0.002-in. overlap reduced system energy consumption 18% compared to using valves with zero lap. Operation at 4000 psi reduced system energy consumption 53% compared to operation at 8000 psi. Pressure-level switching was accomplished with excellent results.

  15. Electromagnetic rotational actuation.

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Alexander Lee

    2010-08-01

    There are many applications that need a meso-scale rotational actuator. These applications have been left by the wayside because of the lack of actuation at this scale. Sandia National Laboratories has many unique fabrication technologies that could be used to create an electromagnetic actuator at this scale. There are also many designs to be explored. In this internship exploration of the designs and fabrications technologies to find an inexpensive design that can be used for prototyping the electromagnetic rotational actuator.

  16. AMSD Cryo Actuator Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullette, Mark; Matthews, Gary; Russell, Kevin (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The actuator technology required for AMSD and subsequently NGST are critical in the successful development for future cryogenic systems. Kodak has undertaken an extensive test plan to determine the performance of the force actuators developed under the AMSD program. These actuators are currently in testing at MSFC and are expected to finish this test cycle in early June 2002.

  17. Dual drive actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, D. T.

    1982-01-01

    A new class of electromechanical actuators is described. These dual drive actuators were developed for the NASA-JPL Galileo Spacecraft. The dual drive actuators are fully redundant and therefore have high inherent reliability. They can be used for a variety of tasks, and they can be fabricated quickly and economically.

  18. Artificial heart for humanoid robot using coiled SMA actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potnuru, Akshay; Tadesse, Yonas

    2015-03-01

    Previously, we have presented the design and characterization of artificial heart using cylindrical shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators for humanoids [1]. The robotic heart was primarily designed to pump a blood-like fluid to parts of the robot such as the face to simulate blushing or anger by the use of elastomeric substrates for the transport of fluids. It can also be used for other applications. In this paper, we present an improved design by using high strain coiled SMAs and a novel pumping mechanism that uses sequential actuation to create peristalsis-like motions, and hence pump the fluid. Various placements of actuators will be investigated with respect to the silicone elastomeric body. This new approach provides a better performance in terms of the fluid volume pumped.

  19. Omnidirectional Actuator Handle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moetteli, John B.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed actuator handle comprises two normally concentric rings, cables, and pulleys arranged such that relative displacement of rings from concentricity results in pulling of cable and consequent actuation of associated mechanism. Unlike conventional actuator handles like levers on farm implements, actuated from one or two directions only, proposed handle reached from almost any direction and actuated by pulling or pushing inner ring in any direction with respect to outer ring. Flanges installed on inner ring to cover gap between inner ring and housing to prevent clothing from being caught.

  20. Bimorphic polymeric photomechanical actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkisov, Sergey S. (Inventor); Curley, Michael J. (Inventor); Adamovsky, Grigory (Inventor); Sarkisov, Jr., Sergey S. (Inventor); Fields, Aisha B. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A bimorphic polymeric photomechanical actuator, in one embodiment using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as a photosensitive body, transmitting light over fiber optic cables, and controlling the shape and pulse duration of the light pulse to control movement of the actuator. Multiple light beams are utilized to generate different ranges of motion for the actuator from a single photomechanical body and alternative designs use multiple light beams and multiple photomechanical bodies to provide controlled movement. Actuator movement using one or more ranges of motion is utilized to control motion to position an actuating element in three dimensional space.

  1. Design of hydraulic recuperation unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandourek, Pavel; Habán, Vladimír; Hudec, Martin; Dobšáková, Lenka; Štefan, David

    2016-03-01

    This article deals with design and measurement of hydraulic recuperation unit. Recuperation unit consist of radial turbine and axial pump, which are coupled on the same shaft. Speed of shaft with impellers are 6000 1/min. For economic reasons, is design of recuperation unit performed using commercially manufactured propellers.

  2. A study of low-cost reliable actuators for light aircraft. Part B: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eijsink, H.; Rice, M.

    1978-01-01

    Computer programs written in FORTRAN are given for time response calculations on pneumatic and linear hydraulic actuators. The programs are self-explanatory with comment statements. Program output is also included.

  3. Afterbay, showing four discharge channels and four hydraulic gate check ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Afterbay, showing four discharge channels and four hydraulic gate check cylinders, one for each discharge pipe opening. The fifth bay at the left without a hydraulic cylinder is the outlet for the regulatory pumps added in 1972. The still well is visible at right - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 3, South of Interstate 8, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  4. Detection of pump degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W.

    1995-08-01

    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented.

  5. 123. UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (209), LSB (BLDG. 751). PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (209), LSB (BLDG. 751). PUMP ON LEFT; HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL FOR UMBILICAL MAST AND TRENCH DOORS IN CENTER OF ROOM, FACING WEST. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. Challenges of using dielectric elastomer actuators to tune liquid lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keong, Gih-Keong; La, Thanh-Giang; Shiau, Li-Lynn; Tan, Adrian W. Y.

    2014-03-01

    Recently, dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) have been adopted to tune liquid membrane lens, just like ciliary muscles do to the lens in human eye. However, it faces some challenges, such as high stress, membrane puncture, high driving voltage requirement, and limited focus distance (not more than 707cm), that limit its practical use. The design problem gets more complex as the liquid lens shares the same elastomeric membrane as the DEA. To address these challenges, we separate DEA from the lens membrane. Instead, a liquid-immersed DEA, which is safe from terminal failure, is used as a diaphragm pump to inflate or deflate the liquid lens by hydraulic pressure. This opens up the possibility that the DEA can be thinned down and stacked up to reduce the driving voltage, independent of the lens membrane thickness. Preliminary study showed that our 8-mm-diameter tunable lens can focus objects in the range of 15cm to 50cm with a small driving voltage of 1.8kV. Further miniaturization of DEA could achieve a driving voltage less than 1kV.

  7. Gas-to-hydraulic power converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, C. W. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A gas piston driven hydraulic piston pump is described in which the gas cycle is of high efficiency by injecting the gas in slugs at the beginning of each power stroke. The hydraulic piston is disposed to operate inside the as piston, and the two pistons, both slidably but nonrotatably mounted, are coupled together with a rotating but non-sliding motion transfer ring extending into antifriction grooves in the sidewalls of the two pistons. To make the hydraulic piston move at a constant speed during constant hydraulic horsepower demand and thus exert a constant pressure on the hydraulic fluid, these grooves are machined with variable pitches and one is the opposite of the other, i.e., the gas piston groove increases in pitch during its power stroke while the hydraulic piston groove decreases. Any number of piston assembly sets may be used to obtain desired hydraulic horsepower.

  8. Pump Flow Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Ingersoll-Rand Research, Inc.'s use of COSMIC's computer program MERIDL permits designers to evaluate performance and efficiency characteristics to be expected from the pump's impeller. It also provides information that enables a trained hydraulic engineer to make design improvements. Company was able to avoid the cost of developing new software and to improve some product design features.

  9. The ABCs of pump selection for mine dewatering

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, S.E.

    2008-10-15

    Choosing the right type of pump for removing water from mine operations can provide significant benefits in overall performance and cost of operation. The article describes the types of pump most commonly used: vertical turbine pumps, electric and hydraulic submersible pumps, horizontal multistage centrifugal pumps and horizontal single-stage centrifugal pumps. It gives points to consider when selecting a suitable pump, including solids handling capacity and acid content, portability, automatic operation, easy maintenance and parts availability. 1 photo.

  10. High temperature hydraulic seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, K. R.

    1993-05-01

    This program investigated and evaluated high temperature hydraulic sealing technology, including seals, fluids, and actuator materials. Test limits for fluid pressure and temperature were 8000 psi and 700 F respectively. The original plan to investigate CTFE fluid at 350 F as well as other fluids at higher temperatures was reduced in scope to include only the higher temperature investigation. Seals were obtained from 11 manufacturers. Design requirements including materials, dimensions, clearances, and tolerances were established and test modules were constructed from the detail designs which were produced. Nine piston seals and one rod seal were tested at temperatures ranging from -65 to +600 F and pressures to 6000 psi. Fluid performance under these conditions was evaluated. Details of this activity and results of the effort are summarized in this report.

  11. Hydraulic mining method

    DOEpatents

    Huffman, Lester H.; Knoke, Gerald S.

    1985-08-20

    A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.

  12. Dielectric elastomer pump for artificial organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, Amy E.; Rossiter, Jonathan M.; Walters, Peter J.; Ieropoulos, Ioannis A.

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents a bio-inspired, dielectric elastomer (DE) based tubular pumping unit, developed for eventual use as a component of an artificial digestive tract onboard a microbial fuel cell powered robot (EcoBot). The pump effects fluid displacement by direct actuation of the tube wall as opposed to excitation by an external body. The actuator consists of a DE tube moulded from silicone, held in a negative pressure chamber, which is used for prestraining the tube. The pump is coupled with custom designed polymeric check valves in order to rectify the fluid flow and assess the performance of the unit. The valves exhibited the necessary low opening pressures required for use with the actuator. The tube's actuation characteristics were measured both with and without liquid in the system. Based on these data the optimal operating conditions for the pump are discussed. The pump and valve system has achieved flowrates in excess of 40μl/s. This radially contracting/expanding actuator element is the fundamental component of a peristaltic pump. This 'soft pump' concept is suitable for biomimetic robotic systems, or for the medical or food industries where hard contact with the delivered substrate may be undesirable. Future work will look at connecting multiple tubes in series in order to achieve peristalsis.

  13. MEMS fluidic actuator

    DOEpatents

    Kholwadwala, Deepesh K.; Johnston, Gabriel A.; Rohrer, Brandon R.; Galambos, Paul C.; Okandan, Murat

    2007-07-24

    The present invention comprises a novel, lightweight, massively parallel device comprising microelectromechanical (MEMS) fluidic actuators, to reconfigure the profile, of a surface. Each microfluidic actuator comprises an independent bladder that can act as both a sensor and an actuator. A MEMS sensor, and a MEMS valve within each microfluidic actuator, operate cooperatively to monitor the fluid within each bladder, and regulate the flow of the fluid entering and exiting each bladder. When adjacently spaced in a array, microfluidic actuators can create arbitrary surface profiles in response to a change in the operating environment of the surface. In an embodiment of the invention, the profile of an airfoil is controlled by independent extension and contraction of a plurality of actuators, that operate to displace a compliant cover.

  14. GAS METERING PUMP

    DOEpatents

    George, C.M.

    1957-12-31

    A liquid piston gas pump is described, capable of pumping minute amounts of gas in accurately measurable quantities. The pump consists of a flanged cylindrical regulating chamber and a mercury filled bellows. Sealed to the ABSTRACTS regulating chamber is a value and having a gas inlet and outlet, the inlet being connected by a helical channel to the bellows. A gravity check valve is in the gas outlet, so the gas passes through the inlet and the helical channel to the bellows where the pumping action as well as the metering is accomplished by the actuation of the mercury filled bellows. The gas then flows through the check valve and outlet to any associated apparatus.

  15. High pressure reciprocating pump

    SciTech Connect

    Besic, D.

    1990-05-01

    This patent describes an improvement in a reciprocating pump having a plunger and a pumping chamber. It comprises: the plunger having a bore communicating with an intersection opening and wherein the plunger incudes a central axis; a suction valve and a discharge valve, each having an axis of actuation parallel to a central axis of the plunger; the suction valve comprising a cylindrical core having a central passageway, and the core is slidably received by a seating member and resiliently biased to the seating member.

  16. Comprehensive piezoceramic actuator review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Chris J.; Washington, Gregory N.

    2002-07-01

    Piezoceramic actuation has become an area of increased interest in the past ten years. Having been used for many years as sensors in such applications as pressure transducers and smoke detectors, piezoceramics are now being used as prime movers in fuel injectors and valve lifters. In an effort to aid the engineering community, this paper will conduct a comprehensive review of several piezoceramic actuators. Classical design parameters will be derived for each actuator such as blocked force and free stroke. In addition, more esoteric entities such as mechanical efficiency and energy density will also be derived. The result will be design metrics of popular piezoceramic actuators containing vital design equations, validated with empirical data. Of the many different configurations of piezoceramic actuators, this paper will investigate the bimorph and unimorph bender. These actuator types are finding increased use in semi-active structural damping, energy harvesting and vibration control. The work in this paper will show experimental verification of various actuator types as well as theoretical derivations. In addition to unimorphs, bimorphs and stack actuators a novel type of unimorph bender, the THUNDER actuator (developed and licensed by NASA) will be included in the review.

  17. Control rod drive hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Ose, Richard A.

    1992-01-01

    A hydraulic system for a control rod drive (CRD) includes a variable output-pressure CR pump operable in a charging mode for providing pressurized fluid at a charging pressure, and in a normal mode for providing the pressurized fluid at a purge pressure, less than the charging pressure. Charging and purge lines are disposed in parallel flow between the CRD pump and the CRD. A hydraulic control unit is disposed in flow communication in the charging line and includes a scram accumulator. An isolation valve is provided in the charging line between the CRD pump and the scram accumulator. A controller is operatively connected to the CRD pump and the isolation valve and is effective for opening the isolation valve and operating the CRD pump in a charging mode for charging the scram accumulator, and closing the isolation valve and operating the CRD pump in a normal mode for providing to the CRD through the purge line the pressurized fluid at a purge pressure lower than the charging pressure.

  18. Modeling actuation forces and strains in nastic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Luke A.; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2006-03-01

    Nastic structures are capable of three dimensional shape change using biological principles borrowed from plant motion. The plant motor cells increase or decrease in size through a change in osmotic pressure. When nonuniform cell swelling occurs, it causes the plant tissue to warp and change shape, resulting it net movement, known as nastic motion, which is the same phenomena that causes plants to angle their broad leaf and flower surfaces to face light sources. The nastic structures considered in this paper are composed of a bilayer of microactuator arrays with a fluid reservoir in between the two layers. The actuators are housed in a thin plate and expand when water from the fluid reservoir is pumped into the actuation chamber through a phospholipid bilayer with embedded active transport proteins, which move the water from the low pressure fluid reservoir into a high pressure actuation chamber. Increasing water pressure inside the actuator causes lateral expansion and axial bulging, and the non-uniform net volume change of actuators throughout the nastic structure results in twisting or bending shape change. Modifying the actuation displacement allows controlled volume change. This paper presents an analytical model of the driving and blocking forces involved in actuation, as well as stress and strain that occurs due to the pressure changes. Actuation is driven by increasing osmotic pressure, and blocking forces are taken into consideration to plan actuator response so that outside forces do not counteract the displacement of actuation. Nastic structures are designed with use in unmanned aerial vehicles in mind, so blocking forces are modeled to be similar to in-flight conditions. Stress in the system is modeled so that any residual strain or lasting deformation can be determined, as well as a lifespan before failure from repeated actuation. The long-term aim of our work is to determine the power and energy efficiency of nastic structures actuation mechanism.

  19. An electromechanical attenuator/actuator for Space Station docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, Lebarian; Glenn, Dean; Carroll, Monty B.

    1987-01-01

    The development of a docking system for aerospace vehicles has identified the need for reusable and variably controlled attenuators/actuators for energy absorption and compliance. One approach to providing both the attenuator and the actuator functions is by way of an electromechanical attenuator/actuator (EMAA) as opposed to a hydraulic system. The use of the electromechanical devices is considered to be more suitable for a space environment because of the absence of contamination from hydraulic fluid leaks and because of the cost effectiveness of maintenance. A smart EMAA that uses range/rate/attitude sensor information to preadjust a docking interface to eliminate misalignments and to minimize contact and stroking forces is described. A prototype EMAA was fabricated and is being tested and evaluated. Results of preliminary testing and analysis already performed have established confidence that this concept is feasible and will provide the desired reliability and low maintenance for repetitive long term operation typical of Space Station requirements.

  20. 17. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. ENGINEERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. ENGINEERS EXAMINING MODEL PUMPS, VIEW FROM MODEL BED. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  1. Remote control thermal actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englund, D. R.; Harrigill, W. T.; Krsek, A.

    1969-01-01

    Thermal actuator makes precise changes in the position of one object with respect to another. Expansion of metal tubes located in the actuator changes the position of the mounting block. Capacitance probe measures the change in position of the block relative to the fixed target plate.

  2. Self-actuated device

    DOEpatents

    Hecht, Samuel L.

    1984-01-01

    A self-actuated device, of particular use as a valve or an orifice for nuclear reactor fuel and blanket assemblies, in which a gas produced by a neutron induced nuclear reaction gradually accumulates as a function of neutron fluence. The gas pressure increase occasioned by such accumulation of gas is used to actuate the device.

  3. Control surface actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, Gerhard E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A device which actuates aircraft control surfaces is disclosed. The actuator is disposed entirely within the control surface structure. This allows the gap between the wing structural box and the control surface to be reduced. Reducing the size of the gap is especially desirable for wings with high aspect ratio, wherein the volume of the structural box is at a premium.

  4. Fast electrochemical actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uvarov, I. V.; Postnikov, A. V.; Svetovoy, V. B.

    2016-03-01

    Lack of fast and strong microactuators is a well-recognized problem in MEMS community. Electrochemical actuators can develop high pressure but they are notoriously slow. Water electrolysis produced by short voltage pulses of alternating polarity can overcome the problem of slow gas termination. Here we demonstrate an actuation regime, for which the gas pressure is relaxed just for 10 μs or so. The actuator consists of a microchamber filled with the electrolyte and covered with a flexible membrane. The membrane bends outward when the pressure in the chamber increases. Fast termination of gas and high pressure developed in the chamber are related to a high density of nanobubbles in the chamber. The physical processes happening in the chamber are discussed so as problems that have to be resolved for practical applications of this actuation regime. The actuator can be used as a driving engine for microfluidics.

  5. Hydraulic Extractor For Electronic Connectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Larry D.

    1994-01-01

    Tool separates multipin electrical connectors in electronic equipment. Based on use of hydraulic pressure to apply balanced forces to connector and gently pull it free without damage. Easily assembled from readily available parts. Includes actuator syringe, two extractor syringes of disposable plastic 5-mL type, several pieces of flexible plastic tubing, and adjustable mounting components that brace tool in desired spacing configuration to suit connector extracted. Tubes and syringes filled with suitable fluid. Designed specifically for use on "D"-type connectors, also adapted for use wherever linear extraction motion used.

  6. Field emission microplasma actuation for microchannel flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sashank Tholeti, Siva; Shivkumar, Gayathri; Alexeenko, Alina A.

    2016-06-01

    Microplasmas offer attractive flow control methodology for gas transport in microsystems where large viscous losses make conventional pumping methods highly inefficient. We study microscale flow actuation by dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) with field emission (FE) of electrons, which allows lowering the operational voltage from kV to a few hundred volts and below. A feasibility study of FE-DBD for flow actuation is performed using 2D particle-in-cell method with Monte Carlo collisions (PIC/MCC) at 10 MHz in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. The free diffusion dominated, high velocity field emission electrons create a large positive space charge and a body force on the order of 106 N m‑3. The body force and Joule heat decrease with increase in dielectric thickness and electrode thickness. The body force also decreases at lower pressures. The plasma body force distribution along with the Joule heating is then used in the Navier–Stokes simulations to quantify the flow actuation in a microchannel. Theoretical analysis and simulations for plasma actuated planar Poiseuille flow show that the gain in flow rate is inversely proportional to Reynolds number. This theoretical analysis is in good agreement with the simulations for a microchannel with closely placed actuators under incompressible conditions. Flow rate of FE-DBD driven 2D microchannel is around 100 ml min‑1 mm‑1 for an input power of 64 μW mm‑1. The gas temperature rises by 1500 K due to the Joule heating, indicating FE-DBD’s potential for microcombustion, micropropulsion and chemical sensing in addition to microscale pumping and mixing applications.

  7. Human Aorta Is a Passive Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlevan, Niema; Gharib, Morteza

    2012-11-01

    Impedance pump is a simple valveless pumping mechanism that operates based on the principles of wave propagation and reflection. It has been shown in a zebrafish that a similar mechanism is responsible for the pumping action in the embryonic heart during early stages before valve formation. Recent studies suggest that the cardiovascular system is designed to take advantage of wave propagation and reflection phenomena in the arterial network. Our aim in this study was to examine if the human aorta is a passive pump working like an impedance pump. A hydraulic model with different compliant models of artificial aorta was used for series of in-vitro experiments. The hydraulic model includes a piston pump that generates the waves. Our result indicates that wave propagation and reflection can create pumping mechanism in a compliant aorta. Similar to an impedance pump, the net flow and the flow direction depends on the frequency of the waves, compliance of the aorta, and the piston stroke.

  8. Experimental Development and Physical Analysis of Jet and Vortex Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Yang, Zhi; Lachowicz, Jason T.

    2000-01-01

    The Vortex generator consists of a cavity with a lightweight actuator plate. The actuator plate acts like a piston pumping air out of the cavity on the down-stroke and sucking air into the cavity on the upstroke. The actuator is placed asymmetrically over the cavity opening, forming narrow and wide slots when viewed from the top. The actuator depending on amplitude, frequency, and slot spacing produces several flow fields (free jet, wall jet, vortex flow). Computational simulation of the actuator-generated flows have been developed and applied to several actuator flow modes. The objectives of this paper are to study the physics of the actuator-induced flow and to develop computational simulations of the actuatorgenerated flows. This work should provide an impetus for designing similar active flow control systems suitable for aircraft applications. The computational simulation uses a time-accurate full Navier-Stokes (NS) solver known as FTNS3D (a full NS version of CFL3D solver). A Multi-block moving grid has been developed and used for the computational study of the flow fields produced by the vortex generator. For three-dimensional computations, ten multi-block grids are used and for two-dimensional computations, six multiblock grids are used. The grid blocks adjacent to the actuator plate move with the plate motion, and second-order interpolation is used along the block interfaces. Periodic response of the flow has been observed to develop after three cycles of the plate sinusoidal motion.

  9. Oil well pump driving unit

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbertson, T. A.

    1984-11-06

    An oil well pumping apparatus which includes a submerged reciprocating pump mounted in a tubing arrangement communicating with the wellhead, a sucker rod string extending through the tubing arrangement and connected in driving relation with the pump, and a pumping tee and stuffing box arrangement mounted on the casing of the well at the wellhead and including a sealed drive rod arrangement in the stuffing box connected in driving relation to said sucker rod string, and a pump driving unit. The pump driving unit includes a hydraulic cylinder and support means including a gimbal arrangement for supporting the hydraulic cylinder over the stuffing box with the axis of the cylinder rod aligned with the axis of said stuffing box. A coupling means is provided for coupling the cylinder rod to the sealed drive rod arrangement. A hydraulic drive/control unit is coupled to said in/out fluid line for operating cycle consisting of a hydraulic power upstroke and a gravity power downstroke. An assist cylinder and accumulator combination are provided to counteract part of the weight of the rod string and thus reduce the workload on t

  10. Electrostatic actuators for portable microfluidic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tice, Joshua

    Both developed and developing nations have an urgent need to diagnose disease cheaply, reliably, and independently of centralized facilities. Microfulidic platforms are well-positioned to address the need for portable diagnostics, mainly due to their obvious advantage in size. However, most microfluidic methods rely on equipment outside of the chip either for driving fluid flow (e.g., syringe pumps) or for taking measurements (e.g., lasers or microscopes). The energy and space requirements of the whole system inhibit portability and contribute to costs. To capitalize on the strengths of microfluidic platforms and address the serious needs of society, system components need to be miniaturized. Also, miniaturization should be accomplished as simply as possible, considering that simplicity is usually requisite for achieving truly transformative technology. Herein, I attempt to address the issue of controlling fluid flow in portable microfluidic systems. I focus on systems that are driven by elastomer-based membrane valves, since these valves are inherently simple, yet they are capable of sophisticated fluid manipulation. Others have attempted to modify pneumatic microvalves for portable applications, e.g., by transitioning to electromagnetic, thermopneumatic, or piezoelectric actuation principles. However, none of these strategies maintain the proper balance of simplicity, functionality, and ease of integration. My research centers on electrostatic actuators, due to their conceptual simplicity and the efficacy of electrostatic forces on the microscale. To ensure easy integration with polymer-based systems, and to maintain simplicity in the fabrication procedure, the actuators were constructed solely from poly(dimethylsiloxane) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. In addition, the actuators were fabricated exclusively with soft-lithographic techniques. A mathematical model was developed to identify actuator parameters compatible with soft-lithography, and also to

  11. Development of ionic polymer actuator arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Guilly, Marie

    Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMC) are bending type actuators which are soft, and show large deformation at low voltage. This work explored the creation of IPMC actuator arrays to take advantage of the unique features of IPMCs, in applications such as pump and valve arrays for micro-fluidic devices, microwave switch arrays etc. In the design of the arrays, the concept of integration is key, to make the actuator array reliable, compact and scalable. The arrays are created as a single physical part, by electrode patterning on the ionic polymer and material engineering. Gold chemical plating was used to create the flexible electrodes with large capacitance on Flemion and Nafion. Patterning was done with masks created in various ways. Nafion, because of its high flexibility, can be made into diaphragm actuators with very good dynamic properties. Flemion in cantilever mode was found to generate large forces without relaxation, a key feature for the design of IPMC switches and valves. A new electrode fabrication technique was developed based on plasma polymerization on an amine monomer on the membrane and subsequent self assembly of Au colloids. A 14-micron thick Flemion sample with 10 layers of 13nm diameter Au colloids showed actuation at +/-1.5V. The demonstration of actuation of IPMC with self-assembled electrodes is a milestone for the future application of IPMC to MEMS. Finally the actuation mechanisms of Nafion and Flemion were modeled. Two dominant contributions in the actuation of IPMC were considered: electro-osmosis, and equilibrium volume which can change upon cation redistribution. A large volume transition upon pH change was observed for Flemion, whereas Nafion proved indifferent to pH. It is proposed that Flemion is generally weakly ionized and has many ionic groups in acid form. Upon cation redistribution, this structure is perturbed and the ionization increases at the cathode side because of the increase in sodium concentration, leading to an increase

  12. Cryogenic Piezoelectric Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Cook, William B.; Hackenberger, Wesley S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, PMN-PT single crystal piezoelectric stack actuators and flextensional actuators were designed, prototyped and characterized for space optics applications. Single crystal stack actuators with footprint of 10 mm x10 mm and the height of 50 mm were assembled using 10 mm x10mm x0.15mm PMN-PT plates. These actuators showed stroke > 65 - 85 microns at 150 V at room temperature, and > 30 microns stroke at 77 K. Flextensional actuators with dimension of 10mm x 5 mm x 7.6 mm showed stroke of >50 microns at room temperature at driving voltage of 150 V. A flextensional stack actuator with dimension of 10 mm x 5 mm x 47 mm showed stroke of approx. 285 microns at 150 V at room temperature and > 100 microns at 77K under driving of 150 V should be expected. The large cryogenic stroke and high precision of these actuators are promising for cryogenic optics applications.

  13. MEMS Actuated Deformable Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Papavasiliou, A; Olivier, S; Barbee, T; Walton, C; Cohn, M

    2005-11-10

    This ongoing work concerns the creation of a deformable mirror by the integration of MEMS actuators with Nanolaminate foils through metal compression boning. These mirrors will use the advantages of these disparate technologies to achieve dense actuation of a high-quality, continuous mirror surface. They will enable advanced adaptive optics systems in large terrestrial telescopes. While MEMS actuators provide very dense actuation with high precision they can not provide large forces typically necessary to deform conventional mirror surfaces. Nanolaminate foils can be fabricated with very high surface quality while their extraordinary mechanical properties enable very thin, flexible foils to survive the rigors of fabrication. Precise metal compression bonding allows the attachment of the fragile MEMS actuators to the thin nanolaminate foils without creating distortions at the bond sites. This paper will describe work in four major areas: (1) modeling and design, (2) bonding development, (3) nanolaminate foil development, (4) producing a prototype. A first-principles analytical model was created and used to determine the design parameters. A method of bonding was determined that is both strong, and minimizes the localized deformation or print through. Work has also been done to produce nanolaminate foils that are sufficiently thin, flexible and flat to be deformed by the MEMS actuators. Finally a prototype was produced by bonding thin, flexible nanolaminate foils to commercially available MEMS actuators.

  14. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. D.; Doherty, T. J.; Kannberg, L. D.

    1984-07-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-velocity requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more.

  15. Beating kinematics of magnetically actuated cilia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downton, M. T.; Stark, H.

    2009-02-01

    We study the beating kinematics and pumping performance of a magnetically actuated artificial cilium attached to a surface using a bead spring model. Several different beating patterns for the external field are considered along with the possiblity of defects in the filament at isolated points. Hydrodynamic interactions between the beads are included by a modified Rotne-Prage tensor such that the no-slip boundary condition at the surface is satisfied. We find that the correct positioning of defects along the filament length can lead to significant increases in the pumping performance of a planar beating pattern. Even more efficient for pumping fluid are three-dimensional beating strokes which bring the filament close to the surface during the return part of the stroke.

  16. Design and test of electromechanical actuators for thrust vector control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, J. R.; Weir, Rae Ann

    1993-01-01

    New control mechanisms technologies are currently being explored to provide alternatives to hydraulic thrust vector control (TVC) actuation systems. For many years engineers have been encouraging the investigation of electromechanical actuators (EMA) to take the place of hydraulics for spacecraft control/gimballing systems. The rationale is to deliver a lighter, cleaner, safer, more easily maintained, as well as energy efficient space vehicle. In light of this continued concern to improve the TVC system, the Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is involved in a program to develop electromechanical actuators for the purpose of testing and TVC system implementation. Through this effort, an electromechanical thrust vector control actuator has been designed and assembled. The design consists of the following major components: Two three-phase brushless dc motors, a two pass gear reduction system, and a roller screw, which converts rotational input into linear output. System control is provided by a solid-state electronic controller and power supply. A pair of resolvers and associated electronics deliver position feedback to the controller such that precise positioning is achieved. Testing and evaluation is currently in progress. Goals focus on performance comparisons between EMA's and similar hydraulic systems.

  17. Design and test of electromechanical actuators for thrust vector control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, J. R.; Weir, Rae Ann

    1993-05-01

    New control mechanisms technologies are currently being explored to provide alternatives to hydraulic thrust vector control (TVC) actuation systems. For many years engineers have been encouraging the investigation of electromechanical actuators (EMA) to take the place of hydraulics for spacecraft control/gimballing systems. The rationale is to deliver a lighter, cleaner, safer, more easily maintained, as well as energy efficient space vehicle. In light of this continued concern to improve the TVC system, the Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is involved in a program to develop electromechanical actuators for the purpose of testing and TVC system implementation. Through this effort, an electromechanical thrust vector control actuator has been designed and assembled. The design consists of the following major components: Two three-phase brushless dc motors, a two pass gear reduction system, and a roller screw, which converts rotational input into linear output. System control is provided by a solid-state electronic controller and power supply. A pair of resolvers and associated electronics deliver position feedback to the controller such that precise positioning is achieved. Testing and evaluation is currently in progress. Goals focus on performance comparisons between EMA's and similar hydraulic systems.

  18. Magnetically Actuated Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinera, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This invention is a magnetically actuated seal in which either a single electromagnet, or multiple electromagnets, are used to control the seal's position. This system can either be an open/ close type of system or an actively controlled system.

  19. Rotary Series Elastic Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H. (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A rotary actuator assembly is provided for actuation of an upper arm assembly for a dexterous humanoid robot. The upper arm assembly for the humanoid robot includes a plurality of arm support frames each defining an axis. A plurality of rotary actuator assemblies are each mounted to one of the plurality of arm support frames about the respective axes. Each rotary actuator assembly includes a motor mounted about the respective axis, a gear drive rotatably connected to the motor, and a torsion spring. The torsion spring has a spring input that is rotatably connected to an output of the gear drive and a spring output that is connected to an output for the joint.

  20. Rotary series elastic actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H. (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A rotary actuator assembly is provided for actuation of an upper arm assembly for a dexterous humanoid robot. The upper arm assembly for the humanoid robot includes a plurality of arm support frames each defining an axis. A plurality of rotary actuator assemblies are each mounted to one of the plurality of arm support frames about the respective axes. Each rotary actuator assembly includes a motor mounted about the respective axis, a gear drive rotatably connected to the motor, and a torsion spring. The torsion spring has a spring input that is rotatably connected to an output of the gear drive and a spring output that is connected to an output for the joint.

  1. Muscle Motion Solenoid Actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obata, Shuji

    It is one of our dreams to mechanically recover the lost body for damaged humans. Realistic humanoid robots composed of such machines require muscle motion actuators controlled by all pulling actions. Particularly, antagonistic pairs of bi-articular muscles are very important in animal's motions. A system of actuators is proposed using the electromagnetic force of the solenoids with the abilities of the stroke length over 10 cm and the strength about 20 N, which are needed to move the real human arm. The devised actuators are based on developments of recent modern electro-magnetic materials, where old time materials can not give such possibility. Composite actuators are controlled by a high ability computer and software making genuine motions.

  2. Linear Proof Mass Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, Sidney E., III

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the mechanical design, analysis, fabrication, testing, and lessons learned by developing a uniquely designed spaceflight-like actuator. The linear proof mass actuator (LPMA) was designed to attach to both a large space structure and a ground test model without modification. Previous designs lacked the power to perform in a terrestrial environment while other designs failed to produce the desired accelerations or frequency range for spaceflight applications. Thus, the design for a unique actuator was conceived and developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The basic design consists of four large mechanical parts (mass, upper housing, lower housing, and center support) and numerous smaller supporting components including an accelerometer, encoder, and four drive motors. Fabrication personnel were included early in the design phase of the LPMA as part of an integrated manufacturing process to alleviate potential difficulties in machining an already challenging design. Operating testing of the LPMA demonstrated that the actuator is capable of various types of load functions.

  3. Linear Proof Mass Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, S. E., III

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the mechanical design, analysis, fabrication, testing, and lessons learned by developing a uniquely designed spaceflight-like actuator. The Linear Proof Mass Actuator (LPMA) was designed to attach to both a large space structure and a ground test model without modification. Previous designs lacked the power to perform in a terrestrial environment while other designs failed to produce the desired accelerations or frequency range for spaceflight applications. Thus, the design for a unique actuator was conceived and developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The basic design consists of four large mechanical parts (Mass, Upper Housing, Lower Housing, and Center Support) and numerous smaller supporting components including an accelerometer, encoder, and four drive motors. Fabrication personnel were included early in the design phase of the LPMA as part of an integrated manufacturing process to alleviate potential difficulties in machining an already challenging design. Operational testing of the LPMA demonstrated that the actuator is capable of various types of load functions.

  4. Measuring axial pump thrust

    DOEpatents

    Suchoza, B.P.; Becse, I.

    1988-11-08

    An apparatus for measuring the hydraulic axial thrust of a pump under operation conditions is disclosed. The axial thrust is determined by forcing the rotating impeller off of an associated thrust bearing by use of an elongate rod extending coaxially with the pump shaft. The elongate rod contacts an impeller retainer bolt where a bearing is provided. Suitable measuring devices measure when the rod moves to force the impeller off of the associated thrust bearing and the axial force exerted on the rod at that time. The elongate rod is preferably provided in a housing with a heat dissipation mechanism whereby the hot fluid does not affect the measuring devices. 1 fig.

  5. Measuring axial pump thrust

    DOEpatents

    Suchoza, Bernard P.; Becse, Imre

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the hydraulic axial thrust of a pump under operation conditions is disclosed. The axial thrust is determined by forcing the rotating impeller off of an associated thrust bearing by use of an elongate rod extending coaxially with the pump shaft. The elongate rod contacts an impeller retainer bolt where a bearing is provided. Suitable measuring devices measure when the rod moves to force the impeller off of the associated thrust bearing and the axial force exerted on the rod at that time. The elongate rod is preferably provided in a housing with a heat dissipation mechanism whereby the hot fluid does not affect the measuring devices.

  6. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOEpatents

    House, P.A.

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  7. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOEpatents

    House, Palmer A.

    1984-01-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  8. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOEpatents

    House, Palmer A.

    1982-01-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  9. Laser Initiated Actuator study

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, B.

    1991-06-27

    The program task was to design and study a laser initiated actuator. The design of the actuator is described, it being comprised of the fiber and body subassemblies. The energy source for all experiments was a Spectra Diode 2200-H2 laser diode. The diode is directly coupled to a 100 micron core, 0.3 numerical aperture fiber optic terminated with an SMA connector. The successful testing results are described and recommendations are made.

  10. Inertial Linear Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, Darren

    1995-01-01

    Inertial linear actuators developed to suppress residual accelerations of nominally stationary or steadily moving platforms. Function like long-stroke version of voice coil in conventional loudspeaker, with superimposed linear variable-differential transformer. Basic concept also applicable to suppression of vibrations of terrestrial platforms. For example, laboratory table equipped with such actuators plus suitable vibration sensors and control circuits made to vibrate much less in presence of seismic, vehicular, and other environmental vibrational disturbances.

  11. Combustion powered linear actuator

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Gary J.

    2007-09-04

    The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

  12. Tendon Driven Finger Actuation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Reich, David M. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Valvo, Michael C. (Inventor); Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A humanoid robot includes a robotic hand having at least one finger. An actuation system for the robotic finger includes an actuator assembly which is supported by the robot and is spaced apart from the finger. A tendon extends from the actuator assembly to the at least one finger and ends in a tendon terminator. The actuator assembly is operable to actuate the tendon to move the tendon terminator and, thus, the finger.

  13. Hydraulic manipulator design, analysis, and control at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Love, L.J.; Basher, A.M.H.

    1996-09-01

    To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned to hydraulics as a means of actuation. Hydraulics have always been the actuator of choice when designing heavy-life construction and mining equipment such as bulldozers, backhoes, and tunneling devices. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem) sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. To support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The hydraulics laboratory at ORNL has three different manipulators. First is a 6-Degree-of-Freedom (6-DoF), multi-planer, teleoperated, flexible controls test bed used for the development of waste tank clean-up manipulator controls, thermal studies, system characterization, and manipulator tracking. Finally, is a human amplifier test bed used for the development of an entire new class of teleoperated systems. To compliment the hardware in the hydraulics laboratory, ORNL has developed a hydraulics simulation capability including a custom package to model the hydraulic systems and manipulators for performance studies and control development. This paper outlines the history of hydraulic manipulator developments at ORNL, describes the hydraulics laboratory, discusses the use of the equipment within the laboratory, and presents some of the initial results from experiments and modeling associated with these hydraulic manipulators. Included are some of the results from the development of the human amplifier/de-amplifier concepts, the characterization of the thermal sensitivity of hydraulic systems, and end-point tracking accuracy studies. Experimental and analytical

  14. Compact electrostatic comb actuator

    DOEpatents

    Rodgers, M. Steven; Burg, Michael S.; Jensen, Brian D.; Miller, Samuel L.; Barnes, Stephen M.

    2000-01-01

    A compact electrostatic comb actuator is disclosed for microelectromechanical (MEM) applications. The actuator is based upon a plurality of meshed electrostatic combs, some of which are stationary and others of which are moveable. One or more restoring springs are fabricated within an outline of the electrostatic combs (i.e. superposed with the moveable electrostatic combs) to considerably reduce the space required for the actuator. Additionally, a truss structure is provided to support the moveable electrostatic combs and prevent bending or distortion of these combs due to unbalanced electrostatic forces or external loading. The truss structure formed about the moveable electrostatic combs allows the spacing between the interdigitated fingers of the combs to be reduced to about one micron or less, thereby substantially increasing the number of active fingers which can be provided in a given area. Finally, electrostatic shields can be used in the actuator to substantially reduce unwanted electrostatic fields to further improve performance of the device. As a result, the compact electrostatic comb actuator of the present invention occupies only a fraction of the space required for conventional electrostatic comb actuators, while providing a substantial increase in the available drive force (up to one-hundred times).

  15. Hybrid electromechanical actuator and actuation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ji (Inventor); Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid electromechanical actuator has two different types of electromechanical elements, one that expands in a transverse direction when electric power is applied thereto and one that contracts in a transverse direction when electric power is applied thereto. The two electromechanical elements are (i) disposed in relation to one another such that the transverse directions thereof are parallel to one another, and (ii) mechanically coupled to one another at least at two opposing edges thereof. Electric power is applied simultaneously to the elements.

  16. Improving energy efficiency in robot limbs through hydraulic dangle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitman, Julian S.; Meller, Mike; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2015-03-01

    Animals often allow their limbs to swing passively under their own inertia. For example, about 40% of a human walking gait consists of the primarily passive swing phase. Current hydraulic robots employ traditional actuation methods in which fluid power is expended for all limb movements, even when passive dynamics could be utilized. "Dangle" is the ability to allow a hydraulic actuator to freely sway in response to external loads, in which both sides of the actuator are disconnected from pressure and connected to the tank. Dangle offers the opportunity for efficiency gains by enabling the use of momentum, gravity, and external loads to move a limb without expending fluid power. To demonstrate these efficiency gains, this paper presents an experiment that compares the fluid power consumed to actuate a two degree of freedom hydraulic leg following a human walking gait cycle trajectory in both a traditional manner and utilizing dangle. It was shown that the use of dangle can decrease fluid power consumption by 20% by utilizing pendular dynamics during the swing phase. At speeds higher than the free dangling rate, more power must be used to maintain the desired trajectory due to damping inherent in the configuration. The use of dangle as a power saving method when driving hydraulic limbs could increase operation time for untethered hydraulic walking robots.

  17. Automatic transmission having hydraulic and electronic control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, T.; Mori, M.

    1987-06-23

    A shifting apparatus is described for a motor vehicle transmission which comprises: a shift actuator including shift shafts, cylinders, springs and select levers; the shift shafts effecting engagement and disengagement of transmission gears to accomplish shift ranges; each of the cylinders comprising one piston and two chambers defined by the piston, the piston being movable to three positions corresponding to the positions of the shift shaft and being actuated to one of the first or second position by applying working pressure to the chambers corresponding to each position; each of the springs urging the pistons to locate at a neutral position defined between the first or second positions; each of the select levers operatively connecting one of the shift shafts with a respective one of the pistons; an electronic control unit for gear shift operation; a hydraulic control unit comprising first, second and third solenoid valves, only the first solenoid valve actuated at a first shift range; the first and second solenoid valves actuated at a second shift range; only the second solenoid valve is actuated at a third shift range, and second and third solenoid valves are actuated at a fourth shift range; the third solenoid valve is actuated at a fifth shift range, no solenoid valve is actuated at a neutral shift range; and a reverse shift range is accomplished by actuating all the three solenoid valves.

  18. Examples of oil cavitation erosion in positive displacement pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halat, J. A.; Ellis, G. O.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of cavitation flow on piston type, positive displacement, hydraulic pumps are discussed. The operating principles of the pump and the components which are most subject to erosion effects are described. The mechanisms of cavitation phenomena are identified from photographic records. Curves are developed to show the solubility of air in water, oil-water emulsion, and industrial hydraulic oil.

  19. Hydraulic Calibrator for Strain-Gauge Balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelly, Kenneth; Ballard, John

    1987-01-01

    Instrument for calibrating strain-gauge balances uses hydraulic actuators and load cells. Eliminates effects of nonparallelism, nonperpendicularity, and changes of cable directions upon vector sums of applied forces. Errors due to cable stretching, pulley friction, and weight inaccuracy also eliminated. New instrument rugged and transportable. Set up quickly. Developed to apply known loads to wind-tunnel models with encapsulated strain-gauge balances, also adapted for use in calibrating dynamometers, load sensors on machinery and laboratory instruments.

  20. Hydraulic control device for automatic transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaguchi, Y.; Taga, Y.; Kashihara, Y.

    1989-06-20

    This patent describes a hydraulic control device for an automatic transmission including a control unit, a shift gear mechanism, clutches and brakes for controlling the shift gear mechanism, hydraulic servos for actuating the clutches and brakes to control the shift gear mechanism and having hydraulic servo for a forward clutch, and an electronically operated regulating value for regulating pressure according to signals from the control unit. The control device consists of: a selecting value switched by signals indicating stopping and running condition of a vehicle, the selecting valve being connected to the hydraulic servo for the forward clutch for engaging and transmitting torque during the forward running conditon, the selecting valve selectively receiving a line pressure and a control pressure from the regulating valve so that hydraulic pressure just below engaging pressure regulated by the regulating valve is applied to the hydraulic servo for the forward clutch during stopping, and a line pressure is applied to the hydraulic servo for the forward clutch during running.

  1. Experiment on performance of adjustable jet pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J. M.; Long, X. P.; Zhang, S. B.; Lu, X.

    2012-11-01

    When the water level of upper or lower reaches of hydraulic power station changes, the adjustable jet pump which is different from traditional fixed jet pump can maintain stable pressure and flow rate for the system of technical water supply of hydraulic power plant. The model test indicates that the efficiency of the adjustable jet pump is slightly lower than fixed jet pump near rating operation point. With the decrease of opening degree, both efficiencies are more and more close to each other. The fundamental performance of I-type adjustable jet pump is better than II-type and the cavitation performance of I-type adjustable jet pump is worse than II-type. Test data also indicate that the performance of adjustable jet pump is very different from fixed jet pump, so the theory of fixed jet pump is not able to be copied to adjustable jet pump. It is necessary to farther study on the performance of the adjustable jet pump. This paper has reference value for analogous design of system of circulation water supply to turbine units in hydraulic power station.

  2. A novel lightweight piezo-composite actuator micropump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thanh-Tung; Goo, Nam Seo; Yoon, Young Soo; Yoon, Kwang Joon

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, we focus on improving the performance of the piezoelectric diaphragms of micropumps. A novel circular lightweight piezoelectric composite actuator (LIPCA) with a high level of displacement and output force has been developed for piezoelectrically actuated micropumps. The actuator was designed and fabricated with oxide-based piezoelectric material in combination with carbon/epoxy fabric and glass/epoxy fabric. We used numerical and experimental methods to analyze the characteristics of the actuator. In addition, we used the developed circular LIPCA in conjunction with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) material and PDMS molding techniques to design, model and fabricate a valveless micropump. We then used a circular LIPCA bonded to a thin layer of PDMS as an actuator diaphragm. The actuator diaphragm can provide a comparatively high level of displacement, about twice that of conventional piezoelectric diaphragms that are commonly used in micropumps. The displacement of the diaphragm, the flow rate and the backpressure of the micropump were evaluated and discussed. With water, the pump reaches a maximum flow rate of 1.3 ml/min and a maximum backpressure of 4.1 kPa. The test results confirm that the circular LIPCA is a promising candidate for micropump application and can be used as a substitute for a conventional piezoelectric actuator diaphragm.

  3. Tubular Heart Pumping Mechanisms in Ciona Intestinalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battista, Nicholas; Miller, Laura

    2015-11-01

    In vertebrate embryogenesis, the first organ to form is the heart, beginning as a primitive heart tube. However, many invertebrates have tubular hearts from infancy through adulthood. Heart tubes have been described as peristaltic and impedance pumps. Impedance pumping assumes a single actuation point of contraction, while traditional peristalsis assumes a traveling wave of actuation. In addition to differences in flow, this inherently implies differences in the conduction system. It is possible to transition from pumping mechanism to the other with a change in the diffusivity of the action potential. In this work we consider the coupling between the fluid dynamics and electrophysiology of both mechanisms, within a basal chordate, the tunicate. Using CFD with a neuro-mechanical model of tubular pumping, we discuss implications of the both mechanisms. Furthermore, we discuss the implications of the pumping mechanism on evolution and development.

  4. 130. RELAY SWITCHES AT SOUTH END OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    130. RELAY SWITCHES AT SOUTH END OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL IN UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (209), LSB (BLDG. 751) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  5. 124. ACCUMULATORS AT LOWER RIGHT SIDE OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. ACCUMULATORS AT LOWER RIGHT SIDE OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL IN UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (209), LSB (BLDG. 751) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. 129. INTERIOR OF RELAY BOX FOR HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. INTERIOR OF RELAY BOX FOR HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL IN UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (209), LSB (BLDG. 751) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. 107. UMBILICAL MAST HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL IN CENTER OF ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. UMBILICAL MAST HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL IN CENTER OF ROOM UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (109), LSB (BDLG. 770), FACING WEST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  8. 108. ACCUMULATORS AT LOWER RIGHT SIDE OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. ACCUMULATORS AT LOWER RIGHT SIDE OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL IN UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (109), LSB (BLDG. 770) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  9. 111. RELAY BOX AND SWITCHES AT SOUTH END OF HYDRAULIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. RELAY BOX AND SWITCHES AT SOUTH END OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL, UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (109), LSB (BLDG. 770) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  10. Non-collinear valve actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, James A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A non-collinear valve actuator includes a primary actuating system and a return spring system with each applying forces to a linkage system in order to regulate the flow of a quarter-turn valve. The primary actuating system and return spring system are positioned non-collinearly, which simply means the primary actuating system and return spring system are not in line with each other. By positioning the primary actuating system and return spring system in this manner, the primary actuating system can undergo a larger stroke while the return spring system experiences significantly less displacement. This allows the length of the return spring to be reduced due to the minimization of displacement thereby reducing the weight of the return spring system. By allowing the primary actuating system to undergo longer strokes, the weight of the primary actuating system may also be reduced. Accordingly, the weight of the non-collinear valve actuator is reduced.

  11. Afterbay, looking west at the discharge channels and hydraulic gate ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Afterbay, looking west at the discharge channels and hydraulic gate check cylinders. The outlet at left without a hydraulic cylinder is the outlet for the ca. 1974-1975 outdoor regulatory pumps. The gate box for the spillback is visible at the far left on the west side of the canal - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  12. Digital Actuator Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Thomas; Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck; Richard Bockhorst

    2014-09-01

    There are significant developments underway in new types of actuators for power plant active components. Many of these make use of digital technology to provide a wide array of benefits in performance of the actuators and in reduced burden to maintain them. These new product offerings have gained considerable acceptance in use in process plants. In addition, they have been used in conventional power generation very successfully. This technology has been proven to deliver the benefits promised and substantiate the claims of improved performance. The nuclear industry has been reluctant to incorporate digital actuator technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns due to a number of concerns. These could be summarized as cost, regulatory uncertainty, and a certain comfort factor with legacy analog technology. The replacement opportunity for these types of components represents a decision point for whether to invest in more modern technology that would provide superior operational and maintenance benefits. Yet, the application of digital technology has been problematic for the nuclear industry, due to qualification and regulatory issues. With some notable exceptions, the result has been a continuing reluctance to undertake the risks and uncertainties of implementing digital actuator technology when replacement opportunities present themselves. Rather, utilities would typically prefer to accept the performance limitations of the legacy analog actuator technologies to avoid impacts to project costs and schedules. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate that the benefits of digital actuator technology can be significant in terms of plant performance and that it is worthwhile to address the barriers currently holding back the widespread development and use of this technology. It addresses two important objectives in pursuit of the beneficial use of digital actuator technology for nuclear power plants: 1. To demonstrate the benefits of digital actuator

  13. Thermally actuated mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sul, Onejae

    This thesis will discuss the generation of controlled sub-micron motions using novel micro actuators. Our research focuses on the development of an arm-type actuator and a free-motion locomotive walking device. Nano-science and nano-technology focuses on the creation of novel functional materials and also at the development of new fabrication techniques incorporating them. In the fields of novel fabrication techniques, manipulations of micron or sub-micron objects by micro actuators have been suggested in the science and engineering societies for mainly two reasons. From a scientific standpoint, new tools enable new prospective sciences, as is evident from the development of the atomic force microscope. From an engineering standpoint, the miniaturization of manipulation tools will require less material and less energy during a material's production. In spite of such importance, progress in the actuator miniaturization is in a primitive state, especially for the micro mobile devices. The thesis will be a key step in pursuit of this goal with an emphasis on generating motions. Our static actuator uses the excellent elastic properties of multiwall carbon nanotubes as a template for a bimorph system. Deflections in response to temperature variations are demonstrated. The mobile device itself is a bimorph system consisting of thin metal films. Control mechanisms for its velocity and steering are discussed. Finally, fundamental limits on the capabilities of the two devices in a more general sense are discussed under via laws of physics.

  14. Electromechanical actuation for thrust vector control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Mary Ellen

    1990-01-01

    At present, actuation systems for the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) for launch vehicles are hydraulic systems. The Advanced Launch System (ALS), a joint initiative between NASA and the Air Force, is a launch vehicle that is designed to be cost effective, highly reliable and operationally efficient with a goal of reducing the cost per pound to orbit. As part of this initiative, an electromechanical actuation system is being developed as an attractive alternative to the hydraulic systems used today. NASA-Lewis is developing and demonstrating an Induction Motor Controller Actuation System with a 40 hp peak rating. The controller will integrate 20 kHz resonant link Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) technology and Pulse Population Modulation (PPM) techniques to implement Field Oriented Vector Control (FOVC) of a new advanced induction motor. Through PPM, multiphase variable frequency, variable voltage waveforms can be synthesized from the 20 kHz source. FOVC shows that varying both the voltage and frequency and their ratio (V/F), permits independent control of both torque and speed while operating at maximum efficiency at any point on the torque-speed curve. The driver and the FOVC will be microprocessor controlled. For increased system reliability, a Built-in Test (BITE) capability will be included. This involves introducing testability into the design of a system such that testing is calibrated and exercised during the design, manufacturing, maintenance and prelaunch activities. An actuator will be integrated with the motor controller for performance testing of the EMA TVC system. The design and fabrication of the motor controller is being done by General Dynamics Space Systems Division. The University of Wisconsin-Madison will assist in the design of the advanced induction motor and in the implementation of the FOVC theory. A 75 hp electronically controlled dynamometer will be used to test the motor controller in all four quadrants of operation using flight type

  15. Electromechanical actuation for thrust vector control applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Mary Ellen

    At present, actuation systems for the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) for launch vehicles are hydraulic systems. The Advanced Launch System (ALS), a joint initiative between NASA and the Air Force, is a launch vehicle that is designed to be cost effective, highly reliable and operationally efficient with a goal of reducing the cost per pound to orbit. As part of this initiative, an electromechanical actuation system is being developed as an attractive alternative to the hydraulic systems used today. NASA-Lewis is developing and demonstrating an Induction Motor Controller Actuation System with a 40 hp peak rating. The controller will integrate 20 kHz resonant link Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) technology and Pulse Population Modulation (PPM) techniques to implement Field Oriented Vector Control (FOVC) of a new advanced induction motor. Through PPM, multiphase variable frequency, variable voltage waveforms can be synthesized from the 20 kHz source. FOVC shows that varying both the voltage and frequency and their ratio (V/F), permits independent control of both torque and speed while operating at maximum efficiency at any point on the torque-speed curve. The driver and the FOVC will be microprocessor controlled. For increased system reliability, a Built-in Test (BITE) capability will be included. This involves introducing testability into the design of a system such that testing is calibrated and exercised during the design, manufacturing, maintenance and prelaunch activities. An actuator will be integrated with the motor controller for performance testing of the EMA TVC system. The design and fabrication of the motor controller is being done by General Dynamics Space Systems Division. The University of Wisconsin-Madison will assist in the design of the advanced induction motor and in the implementation of the FOVC theory. A 75 hp electronically controlled dynamometer will be used to test the motor controller in all four quadrants of operation using flight type

  16. 92. STARBOARD CATAPULT HYDRAULIC MANIFOLD FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    92. STARBOARD CATAPULT HYDRAULIC MANIFOLD - FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING THE SEVEN (7) DISCHARGE LINES FROM THE SEVEN (7) HYDRAULIC PUMPS THROUGH SHUT-OFF VALVES TO ACCUMULATOR TANKS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  17. 40. HYDRAULIC OIL LINES, VALVES AND GAUGE FOR SLIDE GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. HYDRAULIC OIL LINES, VALVES AND GAUGE FOR SLIDE GATE HOISTS IN MACHINERY CHAMBER FOR SLUICE GATE WORKS ON GALLERY 1. NOTE HYDRAULIC OIL TANK AT UPPER RIGHT AND SCHEMATIC DRAWING OF PUMPING SYSTEM AT LEFT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  18. 127. HYDRAULIC CONTROLS AND GAUGES FOR THE UMBILICAL MAST ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    127. HYDRAULIC CONTROLS AND GAUGES FOR THE UMBILICAL MAST ON UPPER RIGHT SIDE OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL IN UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (209), LSB (BLDG. 751) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  19. 125. HYDRAULIC CONTROLS FOR MAST TRENCH DOORS ON LEFT SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. HYDRAULIC CONTROLS FOR MAST TRENCH DOORS ON LEFT SIDE OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL IN UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (209), LSB (BLDG. 751) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  20. 69. (Credit JTL) View beneath marble meter bench showing hydraulic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. (Credit JTL) View beneath marble meter bench showing hydraulic lines leading to water valve hydraulic control cylinders from control handles in bench; strings and pulleys activate meters. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  1. Torsional Ratcheting Actuating System

    SciTech Connect

    BARNES,STEPHEN MATTHEW; MILLER,SAMUEL L.; RODGERS,M. STEVEN; BITSIE,FERNANDO

    2000-01-24

    A new type of surface micromachined ratcheting actuation system has been developed at the Microelectronics Development Laboratory at Sandia National Laboratories. The actuator uses a torsional electrostatic comb drive that is coupled to an external ring gear through a ratcheting scheme. The actuator can be operated with a single square wave, has minimal rubbing surfaces, maximizes comb finger density, and can be used for open-loop position control. The prototypes function as intended with a minimum demonstrated operating voltage of 18V. The equations of motion are developed for the torsional electrostatic comb drive. The resonant frequency, voltage vs. displacement and force delivery characteristics are predicted and compared with the fabricated device's performance.

  2. Tetherless thermobiochemically actuated microgrippers

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Timothy G.; Randall, Christina L.; Benson, Bryan R.; Bassik, Noy; Stern, George M.; Gracias, David H.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate mass-producible, tetherless microgrippers that can be remotely triggered by temperature and chemicals under biologically relevant conditions. The microgrippers use a self-contained actuation response, obviating the need for external tethers in operation. The grippers can be actuated en masse, even while spatially separated. We used the microgrippers to perform diverse functions, such as picking up a bead on a substrate and the removal of cells from tissue embedded at the end of a capillary (an in vitro biopsy). PMID:19139411

  3. Fault tolerant linear actuator

    DOEpatents

    Tesar, Delbert

    2004-09-14

    In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

  4. Hydraulic fracturing-1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book contains papers on hydraulic fracturing. Topics covered include: An overview of recent advances in hydraulic fracturing technology; Containment of massive hydraulic fracture; and Fracturing with a high-strength proppant.

  5. Low-Shock Pyrotechnic Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucy, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    Miniature 1-ampere, 1-watt pyrotechnic actuator enclosed in flexible metal bellows. Bellows confines outgassing products, and pyrotechnic shock reduction achieved by action of bellows, gas cushion within device, and minimum use of pyrotechnic material. Actuator inexpensive, compact, and lightweight.

  6. High-precision hydraulic Stewart platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Silfhout, Roelof G.

    1999-08-01

    We present a novel design for a Stewart platform (or hexapod), an apparatus which performs positioning tasks with high accuracy. The platform, which is supported by six hydraulic telescopic struts, provides six degrees of freedom with 1 μm resolution. Rotations about user defined pivot points can be specified for any axis of rotation with microradian accuracy. Motion of the platform is performed by changing the strut lengths. Servo systems set and maintain the length of the struts to high precision using proportional hydraulic valves and incremental encoders. The combination of hydraulic actuators and a design which is optimized in terms of mechanical stiffness enables the platform to manipulate loads of up to 20 kN. Sophisticated software allows direct six-axis positioning including true path control. Our platform is an ideal support structure for a large variety of scientific instruments that require a stable alignment base with high-precision motion.

  7. Ocean thermal gradient hydraulic power plant.

    PubMed

    Beck, E J

    1975-07-25

    Solar energy stored in the oceans may be used to generate power by exploiting ploiting thermal gradients. A proposed open-cycle system uses low-pressure steam to elevate vate water, which is then run through a hydraulic turbine to generate power. The device is analogous to an air lift pump. PMID:17813707

  8. Spiral groove seal. [for hydraulic rotating shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Mating flat surfaces inhibit leakage of a fluid around a stationary shaft. A spiral groove pattern produces a pumping action toward the fluid when the shaft rotates which prevents leakage while a generated hydraulic lifting force separates the mating surfaces to minimize wear.

  9. Design optimization of flow channel and performance analysis for a new-type centrifugal blood pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, J. J.; Luo, X. W.; Y Wu, Q.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a new-type centrifugal blood pump, whose impeller is suspended inside a pump chamber with hydraulic bearings, is presented. In order to improve the hydraulic performance of the pump, an internal flow simulation is conducted to compare the effects of different geometrical parameters of pump flow passage. Based on the numerical results, the pumps can satisfy the operation parameters and be free of hemolysis. It is noted that for the pump with a column-type supporter at its inlet, the pump head and hydraulic efficiency decreases compared to the pump with a step-type support structure. The performance drop is caused by the disturbed flow upstream impeller inlet. Further, the unfavorable flow features such as reverse flow and low velocity in the pump may increases the possibility of thrombus. It is also confirmed that the casing shape can little influence pump performance. Those results are helpful for design optimization in blood pump development.

  10. Rotating-Pump Design Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James F.; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Scheer, Dean D.

    2006-01-01

    Pump Design (PUMPDES) is a computer program for designing a rotating pump for liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen, water, methane, or ethane. Using realistic properties of these fluids provided by another program called GASPAK, this code performs a station-by-station, mean-line analysis along the pump flow path, obtaining thermodynamic properties of the pumped fluid at each station and evaluating hydraulic losses along the flow path. The variables at each station are obtained under constraints that are consistent with the underlying physical principles. The code evaluates the performance of each stage and the overall pump. In addition, by judiciously choosing the givens and the unknowns, the code can perform a geometric inverse design function: that is, it can compute a pump geometry that yields a closest approximation of given design point. The code contains two major parts: one for an axial-rotor/inducer and one for a multistage centrifugal pump. The inducer and the centrifugal pump are functionally integrated. The code can be used in designing and/or evaluating the inducer/centrifugal-pump combination or the centrifugal pump alone. The code is written in standard Fortran 77.

  11. Angular-Momentum-Compensating Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiktor, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Reactionless actuator developed for instrument-pointing platforms on flexible spacecraft; by eliminating reactions, actuator changes aiming angle of platform without inducing vibrations in spacecraft, eliminateing vibrations in point angle of instrument platform. Actuator used on Earth in such systems as helicopter platforms for television cameras in law enforcement and news telecasts.

  12. Electromechanical flight control actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using an electromechanical actuator (EMA) as the primary flight control equipment in aerospace flight is examined. The EMA motor design is presented utilizing improved permanent magnet materials. The necessary equipment to complete a single channel EMA using the single channel power electronics breadboard is reported. The design and development of an improved rotor position sensor/tachometer is investigated.

  13. Bistable microelectromechanical actuator

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, J.G.

    1999-02-02

    A bistable microelectromechanical (MEM) actuator is formed on a substrate and includes a stressed membrane of generally rectangular shape that upon release assumes a curvilinear cross-sectional shape due to attachment at a midpoint to a resilient member and at opposing edges to a pair of elongate supports. The stressed membrane can be electrostatically switched between a pair of mechanical states having mirror-image symmetry, with the MEM actuator remaining in a quiescent state after a programming voltage is removed. The bistable MEM actuator according to various embodiments of the present invention can be used to form a nonvolatile memory element, an optical modulator (with a pair of mirrors supported above the membrane and moving in synchronism as the membrane is switched), a switchable mirror (with a single mirror supported above the membrane at the midpoint thereof) and a latching relay (with a pair of contacts that open and close as the membrane is switched). Arrays of bistable MEM actuators can be formed for applications including nonvolatile memories, optical displays and optical computing. 49 figs.

  14. Bistable microelectromechanical actuator

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G.

    1999-01-01

    A bistable microelectromechanical (MEM) actuator is formed on a substrate and includes a stressed membrane of generally rectangular shape that upon release assumes a curvilinear cross-sectional shape due to attachment at a midpoint to a resilient member and at opposing edges to a pair of elongate supports. The stressed membrane can be electrostatically switched between a pair of mechanical states having mirror-image symmetry, with the MEM actuator remaining in a quiescent state after a programming voltage is removed. The bistable MEM actuator according to various embodiments of the present invention can be used to form a nonvolatile memory element, an optical modulator (with a pair of mirrors supported above the membrane and moving in synchronism as the membrane is switched), a switchable mirror (with a single mirror supported above the membrane at the midpoint thereof) and a latching relay (with a pair of contacts that open and close as the membrane is switched). Arrays of bistable MEM actuators can be formed for applications including nonvolatile memories, optical displays and optical computing.

  15. Actuators Acting without Actin.

    PubMed

    Geitmann, Anja

    2016-06-30

    Plant actuators move organs, allowing the plant to respond to environmental cues or perform other mechanical tasks. In Cardamine hursuta the dispersal of seeds is accomplished by explosive opening of the fruit. The biomechanical mechanism relies on a complex interplay between turgor regulation and cell wall mechanical properties. PMID:27368097

  16. "Mighty Worm" Piezoelectric Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamford, Robert M.; Wada, Ben K.; Moore, Donald M.

    1994-01-01

    "Mighty Worm" piezoelectric actuator used as adjustable-length structural member, active vibrator or vibration suppressor, and acts as simple (fixed-length) structural member when inactive. Load force not applied to piezoelectric element in simple-structural-member mode. Piezoelectric element removed from load path when not in use.

  17. PUMP CONSTRUCTION

    DOEpatents

    Strickland, G.; Horn, F.L.; White, H.T.

    1960-09-27

    A pump which utilizes the fluid being pumped through it as its lubricating fluid is described. This is achieved by means of an improved bearing construction in a pump of the enclosed or canned rotor type. At the outlet end of the pump, adjacent to an impeller mechanism, there is a bypass which conveys some of the pumped fluid to a chamber at the inlet end of the pump. After this chamber becomes full, the pumped fluid passes through fixed orifices in the top of the chamber and exerts a thrust on the inlet end of the pump rotor. Lubrication of the rotor shaft is accomplished by passing the pumped fluid through a bypass at the outlet end of the rotor shaft. This bypass conveys Pumped fluid to a cooling means and then to grooves on the surface of the rotor shait, thus lubricating the shaft.

  18. A study of low-cost reliable actuators for light aircraft. Part A: Chapters 1-8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eijsink, H.; Rice, M.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis involving electro-mechanical, electro-pneumatic, and electro-hydraulic actuators was performed to study which are compatible for use in the primary and secondary flight controls of a single engine light aircraft. Actuator characteristics under investigation include cost, reliability, weight, force, volumetric requirements, power requirements, response characteristics and heat accumulation characteristics. The basic types of actuators were compared for performance characteristics in positioning a control surface model and then were mathematically evaluated in an aircraft to get the closed loop dynamic response characteristics. Conclusions were made as to the suitability of each actuator type for use in an aircraft.

  19. Industrial Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A flow inducer is a device that increases the pump intake capacity of a Worthington Centrifugal pump. It lifts the suction pressure sufficiently for the rotating main impeller of the centrifugal pump to operate efficiently at higher fluid intake levels. The concept derives from 1960's NASA technology which was advanced by Worthington Pump Division. The pumps are used to recirculate wood molasses, a highly viscous substance.

  20. Afterbay, looking north at hydraulic gate check cylinders and lamps. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Afterbay, looking north at hydraulic gate check cylinders and lamps. The gate lift in the foreground is an addition associated with the ca. 1974-1975 regulatory pumps - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  1. Afterbay, showing the six discharge channels and six hydraulic gate ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Afterbay, showing the six discharge channels and six hydraulic gate check cylinders, one for each of the discharge pipes. A stilling well is in the right foreground, and the Pumping Plant is visible in the background. View to the north - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  2. A latchable thermally activated phase change actuator for microfluidic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Christiane; Sachsenheimer, Kai; Rapp, Bastian E.

    2016-03-01

    Complex microfluidic systems often require a high number of individually controllable active components like valves and pumps. In this paper we present the development and optimization of a latchable thermally controlled phase change actuator which uses a solid/liquid phase transition of a phase change medium and the displacement of the liquid phase change medium to change and stabilize the two states of the actuator. Because the phase change is triggered by heat produced with ohmic resistors the used control signal is an electrical signal. In contrast to pneumatically activated membrane valves this concept allows the individual control of several dozen actuators with only two external pressure lines. Within this paper we show the general working principle of the actuator and demonstrate its general function and the scalability of the concept at an example of four actuators. Additionally we present the complete results of our studies to optimize the response behavior of the actuator - the influence of the heating power as well as the used phase change medium on melting and solidifying times.

  3. A MEMS Electrochemical Bellows Actuator for Fluid Metering Applications

    PubMed Central

    Sheybani, Roya; Gensler, Heidi; Meng, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    We present a high efficiency wireless MEMS electrochemical bellows actuator capable of rapid and repeatable delivery of boluses for fluid metering and drug delivery applications. Nafion®-coated Pt electrodes were combined with Parylene bellows filled with DI water to form the electrolysis-based actuator. The performance of actuators with several bellows configurations was compared for a range of applied currents (1-10 mA). Up to 75 boluses were delivered with an average pumping flow rate of 114.40 ± 1.63 μL/min. Recombination of gases into water, an important factor in repeatable and reliable actuation, was studied for uncoated and Nafion®-coated actuators. Real-time pressure measurements were conducted and the effects of temperature, physiological back pressure, and drug viscosity on delivery performance were investigated. Lastly, we present wireless powering of the actuator using a class D inductive powering system that allowed for repeatable delivery with less than 2% variation in flow rate values. PMID:22833156

  4. A MEMS electrochemical bellows actuator for fluid metering applications.

    PubMed

    Sheybani, Roya; Gensler, Heidi; Meng, Ellis

    2013-02-01

    We present a high efficiency wireless MEMS electrochemical bellows actuator capable of rapid and repeatable delivery of boluses for fluid metering and drug delivery applications. Nafion®-coated Pt electrodes were combined with Parylene bellows filled with DI water to form the electrolysis-based actuator. The performance of actuators with several bellows configurations was compared for a range of applied currents (1-10 mA). Up to 75 boluses were delivered with an average pumping flow rate of 114.40 ± 1.63 μL/min. Recombination of gases into water, an important factor in repeatable and reliable actuation, was studied for uncoated and Nafion®-coated actuators. Real-time pressure measurements were conducted and the effects of temperature, physiological back pressure, and drug viscosity on delivery performance were investigated. Lastly, we present wireless powering of the actuator using a class D inductive powering system that allowed for repeatable delivery with less than 2 % variation in flow rate values. PMID:22833156

  5. Pumping test evaluation of stream depletion parameters.

    PubMed

    Lough, Hilary K; Hunt, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Descriptions are given of a pumping test and a corresponding analysis that permit calculation of all five hydrogeological parameters appearing in the Hunt (2003) solution for stream depletion caused by ground water abstraction from a well beside a stream. This solution assumes that flow in the pumped aquifer is horizontal, flow in the overlying aquitard or system of aquitards is vertical, and the free surface in the top aquitard is allowed to draw down. The definition of an aquitard in this paper is any layer with a vertical hydraulic conductivity much lower than the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the pumped aquifer. These "aquitards" may be reasonably permeable layers but are distinguished from the pumped aquifer by their hydraulic conductivity contrast. The pumping test requires a complete set of drawdown measurements from at least one observation well. This well must be deep enough to penetrate the pumped aquifer, and pumping must continue for a sufficient time to ensure that depleted streamflow becomes a significant portion of the well abstraction rate. Furthermore, two of the five parameters characterize an aquitard that overlies the pumped aquifer, and values for these parameters are seen to be dependent upon the initial water table elevation in the aquitard. The field test analyzed herein used a total of eight observation wells screened in the pumped aquifer, and measurements from these wells gave eight sets of parameters that are used in a sensitivity analysis to determine the relative importance of each parameter in the stream depletion calculations. PMID:16857031

  6. Dry actuation testing of viscous drag micropumping systems for determination of optimal drive waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosnowchik, Brian D.; Galambos, Paul C.; Sharp, Kendra V.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Horn, Mark W.; Hendrix, Jason R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the dry actuation testing procedures and results for novel viscous drag micropumping systems. To overcome the limitations of previously developed mechanical pumps, we have developed pumps that are surface micromachined for efficient mass production which utilize viscous drag (dominant at low Reynolds numbers typical of microfluidics) to move fluid. The SUMMiT (www.sandia.gov/micromachine) fabricated pumps, presented first by Kilani et al., are being experimentally and computationally analyzed. In this paper we will describe the development of optimal waveforms to drive the electrostatic pumping mechanism while dry. While wet actuation will be significantly different, dry testing provides insight into how to optimally move the mechanism and differences between dry and wet actuation can be used to isolate fluid effects. Characterization began with an analysis of the driving voltage waveforms for the torsional ratcheting actuator (TRA), a micro-motor that drove the gear transmission for the pump, actuated with SAMA (Sandia"s Arbitrary waveform MEMS Actuator), a new waveform generating computer program with the ability to generate and output arbitrary voltage signals. Based upon previous research, a 50% duty cycle half-sine wave was initially selected for actuation of the TRA. However, due to the geometry of the half-sine waveform, the loaded micromotor could not transmit the motion required to pump the tested liquids. Six waveforms were then conceived, constructed, and selected for device actuation testing. Dry actuation tests included high voltage, low voltage, high frequency, and endurance/reliability testing of the TRA, gear transmission and pump assembly. In the SUMMiT process, all of the components of the system are fabricated together on one silicon chip already assembled in a monolithic microfabrication process. A 40% duty cycle quarter-sine waveform with a 20% DC at 60V has currently proved to be the most reliable, allowing for an 825Hz

  7. Dry actuation testing of viscous drag micropumping systems for determination of optimal drive waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosnowchik, Brian D.; Galambos, Paul C.; Sharp, Kendra V.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Horn, Mark W.; Hendrix, Jason R.

    2003-12-01

    This paper presents the dry actuation testing procedures and results for novel viscous drag micropumping systems. To overcome the limitations of previously developed mechanical pumps, we have developed pumps that are surface micromachined for efficient mass production which utilize viscous drag (dominant at low Reynolds numbers typical of microfluidics) to move fluid. The SUMMiT (www.sandia.gov/micromachine) fabricated pumps, presented first by Kilani et al., are being experimentally and computationally analyzed. In this paper we will describe the development of optimal waveforms to drive the electrostatic pumping mechanism while dry. While wet actuation will be significantly different, dry testing provides insight into how to optimally move the mechanism and differences between dry and wet actuation can be used to isolate fluid effects. Characterization began with an analysis of the driving voltage waveforms for the torsional ratcheting actuator (TRA), a micro-motor that drove the gear transmission for the pump, actuated with SAMA (Sandia"s Arbitrary waveform MEMS Actuator), a new waveform generating computer program with the ability to generate and output arbitrary voltage signals. Based upon previous research, a 50% duty cycle half-sine wave was initially selected for actuation of the TRA. However, due to the geometry of the half-sine waveform, the loaded micromotor could not transmit the motion required to pump the tested liquids. Six waveforms were then conceived, constructed, and selected for device actuation testing. Dry actuation tests included high voltage, low voltage, high frequency, and endurance/reliability testing of the TRA, gear transmission and pump assembly. In the SUMMiT process, all of the components of the system are fabricated together on one silicon chip already assembled in a monolithic microfabrication process. A 40% duty cycle quarter-sine waveform with a 20% DC at 60V has currently proved to be the most reliable, allowing for an 825Hz

  8. Dielectric Actuation of Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Xiaofan

    Dielectric polymers are widely used in a plurality of applications, such as electrical insulation, dielectric capacitors, and electromechanical actuators. Dielectric polymers with large strain deformations under an electric field are named dielectric elastomers (DE), because of their relative low modulus, high elongation at break, and outstanding resilience. Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) are superior to traditional transducers as a muscle-like technology: large strains, high energy densities, high coupling efficiency, quiet operation, and light weight. One focus of this dissertation is on the design of DE materials with high performance and easy processing. UV radiation curing of reactive species is studied as a generic synthesis methodology to provide a platform for material scientists to customize their own DE materials. Oligomers/monomers, crosslinkers, and other additives are mixed and cured at appropriate ratios to control the stress-strain response, suppress electromechanical instability of the resulting polymers, and provide stable actuation strains larger than 100% and energy densities higher than 1 J/g. The processing is largely simplified in the new material system by removal of the prestretching step. Multilayer stack actuators with 11% linear strain are demonstrated in a procedure fully compatible with industrial production. A multifunctional DE derivative material, bistable electroactive polymer (BSEP), is invented enabling repeatable rigid-to-rigid deformation without bulky external structures. Bistable actuation allows the polymer actuator to have two distinct states that can support external load without device failure. Plasticizers are used to lower the glass transition temperature to 45 °C. Interpenetrating polymer network structure is established inside the BSEP to suppress electromechanical instability, providing a breakdown field of 194 MV/m and a stable bistable strain as large as 228% with a 97% strain fixity. The application of BSEP

  9. Free-piston regenerative hot gas hydraulic engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beremand, D. G. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A displacer piston which is driven pneumatically by a high-pressure or low-pressure gas is included in a free-piston regenerative hydraulic engine. Actuation of the displacer piston circulates the working fluid through a heater, a regenerator and a cooler. The present invention includes an inertial mass such as a piston or a hydraulic fluid column to effectively store and supply energy during portions of the cycle. Power is transmitted from the working fluid to a hydraulic fluid across a diaphragm or lightweight piston to achieve a hydraulic power out-put. The displacer piston of the present invention may be driven pneumatically, hydraulically or electromagnetically. In addition, the displacer piston and the inertial mass of the present invention may be positioned on the same side of the diaphragm member or may be separated by the diaphragm member.

  10. Trouble-free hydraulic valve package for crane winches

    SciTech Connect

    DeLamatyr, G.

    1983-12-01

    Baker Marine Corporation has been producing hydraulically powered pedestal type cranes for the offshore industry for approximately three years. The original hydraulic system cranes was of the open loop type with multiple gear pumps driven by a single diesel engine. One pump in the stack serviced the main and auxiliary hook winches, while another worked the boom winch, and a third pump sent oil to the crane swing motor. For reasons of economy and simplicity, it was decided that this scheme would be kept as part of the new design.

  11. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Kannberg, L.D.

    1984-07-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-leveling requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more. The technical feasibility of UPHS depends upon excavation of a subterranean powerhouse cavern and reservoir caverns within a competent, impervious rock formation, and upon selection of reliable and efficient turbomachinery - pump-turbines and motor-generators - all remotely operable.

  12. Dynamic modeling of brushless dc motors for aerospace actuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demerdash, N. A.; Nehl, T. W.

    1980-01-01

    A discrete time model for simulation of the dynamics of samarium cobalt-type permanent magnet brushless dc machines is presented. The simulation model includes modeling of the interaction between these machines and their attached power conditioners. These are transistorized conditioner units. This model is part of an overall discrete-time analysis of the dynamic performance of electromechanical actuators, which was conducted as part of prototype development of such actuators studied and built for NASA-Johnson Space Center as a prospective alternative to hydraulic actuators presently used in shuttle orbiter applications. The resulting numerical simulations of the various machine and power conditioner current and voltage waveforms gave excellent correlation to the actual waveforms collected from actual hardware experimental testing. These results, numerical and experimental, are presented here for machine motoring, regeneration and dynamic braking modes. Application of the resulting model to the determination of machine current and torque profiles during closed-loop actuator operation were also analyzed and the results are given here. These results are given in light of an overall view of the actuator system components. The applicability of this method of analysis to design optimization and trouble-shooting in such prototype development is also discussed in light of the results at hand.

  13. Dynamic modeling of brushless dc motors for aerospace actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demerdash, N. A.; Nehl, T. W.

    1980-11-01

    A discrete time model for simulation of the dynamics of samarium cobalt-type permanent magnet brushless dc machines is presented. The simulation model includes modeling of the interaction between these machines and their attached power conditioners. These are transistorized conditioner units. This model is part of an overall discrete-time analysis of the dynamic performance of electromechanical actuators, which was conducted as part of prototype development of such actuators studied and built for NASA-Johnson Space Center as a prospective alternative to hydraulic actuators presently used in shuttle orbiter applications. The resulting numerical simulations of the various machine and power conditioner current and voltage waveforms gave excellent correlation to the actual waveforms collected from actual hardware experimental testing. These results, numerical and experimental, are presented here for machine motoring, regeneration and dynamic braking modes. Application of the resulting model to the determination of machine current and torque profiles during closed-loop actuator operation were also analyzed and the results are given here. These results are given in light of an overall view of the actuator system components. The applicability of this method of analysis to design optimization and trouble-shooting in such prototype development is also discussed in light of the results at hand.

  14. Thermal Hydraulic Computer Code System.

    1999-07-16

    Version 00 RELAP5 was developed to describe the behavior of a light water reactor (LWR) subjected to postulated transients such as loss of coolant from large or small pipe breaks, pump failures, etc. RELAP5 calculates fluid conditions such as velocities, pressures, densities, qualities, temperatures; thermal conditions such as surface temperatures, temperature distributions, heat fluxes; pump conditions; trip conditions; reactor power and reactivity from point reactor kinetics; and control system variables. In addition to reactor applications,more » the program can be applied to transient analysis of other thermal‑hydraulic systems with water as the fluid. This package contains RELAP5/MOD1/029 for CDC computers and RELAP5/MOD1/025 for VAX or IBM mainframe computers.« less

  15. COSTING MODELS FOR WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION: PART III- PUMPS, TANKS, AND RESERVOIRS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distribution systems are generally designed to ensure hydraulic reliability. Storage tanks, reservoirs and pumps are critical in maintaining this reliability. Although storage tanks, reservoirs and pumps are necessary for maintaining adequate pressure, they may also have a negati...

  16. Microfabricated therapeutic actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Abraham P.; Northrup, M. Allen; Ciarlo, Dino R.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Benett, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Microfabricated therapeutic actuators are fabricated using a shape memory polymer (SMP), a polyurethane-based material that undergoes a phase transformation at a specified temperature (Tg). At a temperature above temperature Tg material is soft and can be easily reshaped into another configuration. As the temperature is lowered below temperature Tg the new shape is fixed and locked in as long as the material stays below temperature Tg. Upon reheating the material to a temperature above Tg, the material will return to its original shape. By the use of such SMP material, SMP microtubing can be used as a release actuator for the delivery of embolic coils through catheters into aneurysms, for example. The microtubing can be manufactured in various sizes and the phase change temperature Tg is determinate for an intended temperature target and intended use.

  17. Microfabricated therapeutic actuators

    DOEpatents

    Lee, A.P.; Northrup, M.A.; Ciarlo, D.R.; Krulevitch, P.A.; Benett, W.J.

    1999-06-15

    Microfabricated therapeutic actuators are fabricated using a shape memory polymer (SMP), a polyurethane-based material that undergoes a phase transformation at a specified temperature (Tg). At a temperature above temperature Tg material is soft and can be easily reshaped into another configuration. As the temperature is lowered below temperature Tg the new shape is fixed and locked in as long as the material stays below temperature Tg. Upon reheating the material to a temperature above Tg, the material will return to its original shape. By the use of such SMP material, SMP microtubing can be used as a release actuator for the delivery of embolic coils through catheters into aneurysms, for example. The microtubing can be manufactured in various sizes and the phase change temperature Tg is determinate for an intended temperature target and intended use. 8 figs.

  18. Electrical Actuation Technology Bridging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Monica (Compiler); Sharkey, John (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the NASA Electrical Actuation Technology Bridging (ELA-TB) Workshop held in Huntsville, Alabama, September 29-October 1, 1992. The workshop was sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Systems Development and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The workshop addressed key technologies bridging the entire field of electrical actuation including systems methodology, control electronics, power source systems, reliability, maintainability, and vehicle health management with special emphasis on thrust vector control (TVC) applications on NASA launch vehicles. Speakers were drawn primarily from industry with participation from universities and government. In addition, prototype hardware demonstrations were held at the MSFC Propulsion Laboratory each afternoon. Splinter sessions held on the final day afforded the opportunity to discuss key issues and to provide overall recommendations. Presentations are included in this document.

  19. Microfabricated therapeutic actuator mechanisms

    DOEpatents

    Northrup, Milton A.; Ciarlo, Dino R.; Lee, Abraham P.; Krulevitch, Peter A.

    1997-01-01

    Electromechanical microstructures (microgrippers), either integrated circuit (IC) silicon-based or precision machined, to extend and improve the application of catheter-based interventional therapies for the repair of aneurysms in the brain or other interventional clinical therapies. These micromechanisms can be specifically applied to release platinum coils or other materials into bulging portions of the blood vessels also known as aneurysms. The "micro" size of the release mechanism is necessary since the brain vessels are the smallest in the body. Through a catheter more than one meter long, the micromechanism located at one end of the catheter can be manipulated from the other end thereof. The microgripper (micromechanism) of the invention will also find applications in non-medical areas where a remotely actuated microgripper or similar actuator would be useful or where micro-assembling is needed.

  20. Microfabricated therapeutic actuator mechanisms

    DOEpatents

    Northrup, M.A.; Ciarlo, D.R.; Lee, A.P.; Krulevitch, P.A.

    1997-07-08

    Electromechanical microstructures (microgrippers), either integrated circuit (IC) silicon-based or precision machined, to extend and improve the application of catheter-based interventional therapies for the repair of aneurysms in the brain or other interventional clinical therapies. These micromechanisms can be specifically applied to release platinum coils or other materials into bulging portions of the blood vessels also known as aneurysms. The ``micro`` size of the release mechanism is necessary since the brain vessels are the smallest in the body. Through a catheter more than one meter long, the micromechanism located at one end of the catheter can be manipulated from the other end thereof. The microgripper (micromechanism) of the invention will also find applications in non-medical areas where a remotely actuated microgripper or similar actuator would be useful or where micro-assembling is needed. 22 figs.

  1. Scissor thrust valve actuator

    DOEpatents

    DeWall, Kevin G.; Watkins, John C; Nitzel, Michael E.

    2006-08-29

    Apparatus for actuating a valve includes a support frame and at least one valve driving linkage arm, one end of which is rotatably connected to a valve stem of the valve and the other end of which is rotatably connected to a screw block. A motor connected to the frame is operatively connected to a motor driven shaft which is in threaded screw driving relationship with the screw block. The motor rotates the motor driven shaft which drives translational movement of the screw block which drives rotatable movement of the valve driving linkage arm which drives translational movement of the valve stem. The valve actuator may further include a sensory control element disposed in operative relationship with the valve stem, the sensory control element being adapted to provide control over the position of the valve stem by at least sensing the travel and/or position of the valve stem.

  2. Thermally actuated thermionic switch

    DOEpatents

    Barrus, D.M.; Shires, C.D.

    1982-09-30

    A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.

  3. Thermally actuated thermionic switch

    DOEpatents

    Barrus, Donald M.; Shires, Charles D.

    1988-01-01

    A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.

  4. Passively actuated valve

    SciTech Connect

    Modro, S. Michael; Ougouag, Abderrafi M.

    2005-09-20

    A passively actuated valve for isolating a high pressure zone from a low pressure zone and discontinuing the isolation when the pressure in the high pressure zone drops below a preset threshold. If the pressure in the high pressure zone drops below the preset threshold, the valve opens and allows flow from the high pressure zone to the low pressure zone. The valve remains open allowing pressure equalization and back-flow should a pressure inversion between the two pressure zone occur.

  5. Shape memory alloy actuator

    DOEpatents

    Varma, Venugopal K.

    2001-01-01

    An actuator for cycling between first and second positions includes a first shaped memory alloy (SMA) leg, a second SMA leg. At least one heating/cooling device is thermally connected to at least one of the legs, each heating/cooling device capable of simultaneously heating one leg while cooling the other leg. The heating/cooling devices can include thermoelectric and/or thermoionic elements.

  6. Dissolution actuated sample container

    DOEpatents

    Nance, Thomas A.; McCoy, Frank T.

    2013-03-26

    A sample collection vial and process of using a vial is provided. The sample collection vial has an opening secured by a dissolvable plug. When dissolved, liquids may enter into the interior of the collection vial passing along one or more edges of a dissolvable blocking member. As the blocking member is dissolved, a spring actuated closure is directed towards the opening of the vial which, when engaged, secures the vial contents against loss or contamination.

  7. Microelectromechanical (MEM) thermal actuator

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Ernest J.; Fulcher, Clay W. G.

    2012-07-31

    Microelectromechanical (MEM) buckling beam thermal actuators are disclosed wherein the buckling direction of a beam is constrained to a desired direction of actuation, which can be in-plane or out-of-plane with respect to a support substrate. The actuators comprise as-fabricated, linear beams of uniform cross section supported above the substrate by supports which rigidly attach a beam to the substrate. The beams can be heated by methods including the passage of an electrical current through them. The buckling direction of an initially straight beam upon heating and expansion is controlled by incorporating one or more directional constraints attached to the substrate and proximal to the mid-point of the beam. In the event that the beam initially buckles in an undesired direction, deformation of the beam induced by contact with a directional constraint generates an opposing force to re-direct the buckling beam into the desired direction. The displacement and force generated by the movement of the buckling beam can be harnessed to perform useful work, such as closing contacts in an electrical switch.

  8. Cylindrical Piezoelectric Fiber Composite Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Sidney G.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    The use of piezoelectric devices has become widespread since Pierre and Jacques Curie discovered the piezoelectric effect in 1880. Examples of current applications of piezoelectric devices include ultrasonic transducers, micro-positioning devices, buzzers, strain sensors, and clocks. The invention of such lightweight, relatively inexpensive piezoceramic-fiber-composite actuators as macro fiber composite (MFC) actuators has made it possible to obtain strains and displacements greater than those that could be generated by prior actuators based on monolithic piezoceramic sheet materials. MFC actuators are flat, flexible actuators designed for bonding to structures to apply or detect strains. Bonding multiple layers of MFC actuators together could increase force capability, but not strain or displacement capability. Cylindrical piezoelectric fiber composite (CPFC) actuators have been invented as alternatives to MFC actuators for applications in which greater forces and/or strains or displacements may be required. In essence, a CPFC actuator is an MFC or other piezoceramic fiber composite actuator fabricated in a cylindrical instead of its conventional flat shape. Cylindrical is used here in the general sense, encompassing shapes that can have circular, elliptical, rectangular or other cross-sectional shapes in the planes perpendicular to their longitudinal axes.

  9. Method for hydraulic fracturing cased wellbores

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.H.

    1991-12-24

    This patent describes a method of hydraulically fracturing a cased wellbore in an earth formation. It comprises determining the angle with respect to the wellbore axis and a reference point on the circumference of the wellbore which will provide for initiation of a hydraulic fracture in the formation which will turn with the largest radius of curvature into a fracture plane normal to the minimum in situ stress in the formation; perforating the wellbore casing at the angle with respect to the reference point; initiating a hydraulic fracture in the formation by pumping a liquid through the perforation and into the formation to force the initiation of a fracture in the formation at a point which develops the highest tensile stress in the formation in relation to increasing the hydraulic pressure in the wellbore; extending the fracture by pumping a relatively proppant-free quantities of proppant per unit volume of pumped fluid and in successive discrete stages of increasing proppant density to provide a propped portion of increasing proppant density to provide a propped portion of the fracture in the near wellbore region of the fracture which will prevent reclosing of the fracture in the near wellbore region.

  10. Subsurface well safety valve with hydraulic strainer

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, A.J.; Knieriemen, J.L.

    1988-12-20

    This patent describes in combination with a subsurface safety valve for controlling fluid flow through a well conduit and including a housing having a bore and a valve closure member moving between open and closed positions for controlling fluid flow through the bore, a flow tube telescopically moving in the housing for controlling the movement of the valve closure member, biasing means for moving the tubular member in a direction to close the valve and a hydraulic piston and cylinder assembly for actuating the valve closure member, of a hydraulic strainer comprising, means defining a closed chamber positioned above the hydraulic piston and cylinder assembly, means defining an inlet fluid passageway having first and second ends, the first end adapted to receive hydraulic control fluid through a control line from the well surface, the second end extending into the chamber, means defining an outlet fluid passageway having first and second ends. The first end of the outlet fluid passageway extending into the chamber, and the second end of the outlet fluid passageway connected in fluid communication to the top of the hydraulic piston and cylinder assembly, the second end of the inlet fluid passageway being positioned away from the first end of the outlet fluid passageway for allowing debris to accumulate in the chamber and protect the piston and cylinder assembly.

  11. Stirling-Cycle Refrigerator Containing Piezoelectric Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalink, Antony, Jr.; Hellbaum, R. F.

    1995-01-01

    Advanced Stirling-cycle cryogenic apparatus suitable for cooling sensitive infrared detectors to very low temperatures. Working fluid in refrigerator helium. Working fluid compressed and circulated by three piezoelectrically actuated diaphragm pumps offering advantages of greater reliability, relative simplicity, and lower cost.

  12. Oxygen pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Special considerations to be given to the design, fabrication, and use of centrifugal pumps for liquid O2 to avoid conditions that lead to system failure are given. Emphasis was placed on turbine pumps for flight applications.

  13. Casing pump

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, H.E.; Bass, R.E.

    1987-09-29

    A natural gas operated pump is described for use in the casing of an oil well, comprising: a tubular pump body having an open lower end for admitting well fluids to the interior of the pump body and an open upper end, wherein a downwardly facing seating surface is formed on the inner periphery of the pump body adjacent the upper end thereof; means for forming a seal between the pump body and the casing of the well; a rod extending longitudinally through the seating surface formed in the pump body and protruding from the upper end of the pump body; a valve member mounted on the rod below the seating surface and shaped to mate with the seating surface; and means for vertically positioning the rod in proportion to fluid pressure within the pump body.

  14. Magnetocaloric pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. V.

    1973-01-01

    Very cold liquids and gases such as helium, neon, and nitrogen can be pumped by using magnetocaloric effect. Adiabatic magnetization and demagnetization are used to alternately heat and cool slug of pumped fluid contained in closed chamber.

  15. ELECTROMAGNETIC PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Pulley, O.O.

    1954-08-17

    This patent reiates to electromagnetic pumps for electricity-conducting fluids and, in particular, describes several modifications for a linear conduction type electromagnetic interaction pump. The invention resides in passing the return conductor for the current traversing the fiuid in the duct back through the gap in the iron circuit of the pump. Both the maximum allowable pressure and the efficiency of a linear conduction electromagnetic pump are increased by incorporation of the present invention.

  16. Fabrication of micro metallic valve and pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ming; Kabasawa, Yasunari; Ito, Kuniyoshi

    2009-12-01

    Fabrication of micro devices by using micro metal forming was proposed by the authors. We developed a desktop servo-press machine with precise tooling system. Precise press forming processes including micro forging and micro joining has been carried out in a progressive die. In this study, micro metallic valve and pump were fabricated by using the precise press forming. The components are made of sheet metals, and assembled in to a unit in the progressive die. A micro check-valve with a diameter of 3mm and a length of 3.2mm was fabricated, and the property of flow resistance was evaluated. The results show that the check valve has high property of leakage proof. Since the valve is a unit parts with dimensions of several millimeters, it has advantage to be adapted to various pump design. Here, two kinds of micro pumps with the check-valves were fabricated. One is diaphragm pump actuated by vibration of the diaphragm, and another is tube-shaped pump actuated by resonation. The flow quantities of the pumps were evaluated and the results show that both of the pumps have high pumping performance.

  17. Fabrication of micro metallic valve and pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ming; Kabasawa, Yasunari; Ito, Kuniyoshi

    2010-03-01

    Fabrication of micro devices by using micro metal forming was proposed by the authors. We developed a desktop servo-press machine with precise tooling system. Precise press forming processes including micro forging and micro joining has been carried out in a progressive die. In this study, micro metallic valve and pump were fabricated by using the precise press forming. The components are made of sheet metals, and assembled in to a unit in the progressive die. A micro check-valve with a diameter of 3mm and a length of 3.2mm was fabricated, and the property of flow resistance was evaluated. The results show that the check valve has high property of leakage proof. Since the valve is a unit parts with dimensions of several millimeters, it has advantage to be adapted to various pump design. Here, two kinds of micro pumps with the check-valves were fabricated. One is diaphragm pump actuated by vibration of the diaphragm, and another is tube-shaped pump actuated by resonation. The flow quantities of the pumps were evaluated and the results show that both of the pumps have high pumping performance.

  18. Thrust vector control using electric actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtel, Robert T.; Hall, David K.

    1995-01-01

    Presently, gimbaling of launch vehicle engines for thrust vector control is generally accomplished using a hydraulic system. In the case of the space shuttle solid rocket boosters and main engines, these systems are powered by hydrazine auxiliary power units. Use of electromechanical actuators would provide significant advantages in cost and maintenance. However, present energy source technologies such as batteries are heavy to the point of causing significant weight penalties. Utilizing capacitor technology developed by the Auburn University Space Power Institute in collaboration with the Auburn CCDS, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Auburn are developing EMA system components with emphasis on high discharge rate energy sources compatible with space shuttle type thrust vector control requirements. Testing has been done at MSFC as part of EMA system tests with loads up to 66000 newtons for pulse times of several seconds. Results show such an approach to be feasible providing a potential for reduced weight and operations costs for new launch vehicles.

  19. An analytical model for hydraulic fracturing in shallow bedrock formations.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, José Sérgio; Ballestero, Thomas Paul; Pitombeira, Ernesto da Silva

    2011-01-01

    A theoretical method is proposed to estimate post-fracturing fracture size and transmissivity, and as a test of the methodology, data collected from two wells were used for verification. This method can be employed before hydrofracturing in order to obtain estimates of the potential hydraulic benefits of hydraulic fracturing. Five different pumping test analysis methods were used to evaluate the well hydraulic data. The most effective methods were the Papadopulos-Cooper model (1967), which includes wellbore storage effects, and the Gringarten-Ramey model (1974), known as the single horizontal fracture model. The hydraulic parameters resulting from fitting these models to the field data revealed that as a result of hydraulic fracturing, the transmissivity increased more than 46 times in one well and increased 285 times in the other well. The model developed by dos Santos (2008), which considers horizontal radial fracture propagation from the hydraulically fractured well, was used to estimate potential fracture geometry after hydrofracturing. For the two studied wells, their fractures could have propagated to distances of almost 175 m or more and developed maximum apertures of about 2.20 mm and hydraulic apertures close to 0.30 mm. Fracturing at this site appears to have expanded and propagated existing fractures and not created new fractures. Hydraulic apertures calculated from pumping test analyses closely matched the results obtained from the hydraulic fracturing model. As a result of this model, post-fracturing geometry and resulting post-fracturing well yield can be estimated before the actual hydrofracturing. PMID:20572875

  20. Rapid field application of hydraulic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauchler, R.; Hu, R.; Hu, L.; Parras, S. J.; Bayer, P.; Dietrich, P.; Ptak, T.

    2013-12-01

    The motivation of this field study is the need for investigation methods that are both rapid and well suited for resolving the spatial distribution of hydraulic properties in aquifers. Therefore, we propose a field strategy for hydraulic tomography that can be analyzed and performed with a similar speed as direct-push profiling. The field implementation is designed in a way that a suite of tomographic measurements can be recorded in one day. We utilize direct-push technology for the well installation and limit the pumping time to 300 s, which permits us to record 30 transient pressure response curves between two wells in one working day. For the inversion, we applied a computationally efficient inversion scheme which is based on the transformation of the ground water flow equation into a form of the eikonal equation. By exploiting the early part of a transient hydraulic pressure response recorded during cross-well tests only short-term pumping tests are required. The main advantages of the inversion scheme are the low computational requirements of eikonal solvers and that no information about the hydraulic boundaries is needed. The short pumping time in combination with the straightforward inversion technique allows for the reconstruction of hydraulic conductivity and specific storage distributions already in the field, which is particularly useful for an adaptive site investigation approach. Additionally, direct-push injection logging is performed at the field site, and the obtained field data is utilized for successful validation of the hydraulic tomograms. We also compare both methods with respect to the necessary requirements, time demand in the field and complexity of interpretation.

  1. Preliminary design of a Primary Loop Pump Assembly (PLPA), using electromagnetic pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, T. A.; Matlin, G.; Donelan, L.; Johnson, J. L.; Rowe, I.

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary design study of flight-type dc conduction-permanent magnetic, ac helical induction, and ac linear induction pumps for circulating 883 K (1130 F) NaK at 9.1 kg/sec (20 lb/sec) is described. Various electromagnetic pump geometrics are evaluated against hydraulic performance, and the effects of multiple windings and numbers of pumps per assembly on overall reliability were determined. The methods used in the electrical-hydraulic, stress, and thermal analysis are discussed, and the high temperature electrical materials selected for the application are listed.

  2. Mathematic Modeling of Complex Hydraulic Machinery Systems When Evaluating Reliability Using Graph Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemenkova, M. Yu; Shipovalov, A. N.; Zemenkov, Yu D.

    2016-04-01

    The main technological equipment of pipeline transport of hydrocarbons are hydraulic machines. During transportation of oil mainly used of centrifugal pumps, designed to work in the “pumping station-pipeline” system. Composition of a standard pumping station consists of several pumps, complex hydraulic piping. The authors have developed a set of models and algorithms for calculating system reliability of pumps. It is based on the theory of reliability. As an example, considered one of the estimation methods with the application of graph theory.

  3. Telescoping cylindrical piezoelectric fiber composite actuator assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Sidney G. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox Chattin, legal representative, Melanie L. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A telescoping actuator assembly includes a plurality of cylindrical actuators in a concentric arrangement. Each cylindrical actuator is at least one piezoelectric fiber composite actuator having a plurality of piezoelectric fibers extending parallel to one another and to the concentric arrangement's longitudinal axis. Each cylindrical actuator is coupled to concentrically-adjacent ones of the cylindrical actuators such that the plurality of cylindrical actuators can experience telescopic movement. An electrical energy source coupled to the cylindrical actuators applies actuation energy thereto to generate the telescopic movement.

  4. Electroactive nanostructured polymer actuators fabricated using sulfonated styrenic pentablock copolymer/montmorillonite/ionic liquid nanocomposite membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jang-Woo; Hong, Soon Man; Koo, Chong Min

    2014-08-01

    High-bendable, air-operable ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuators composed of electroactive nanostructured middle-block sulfonated styrenic pentablock copolymer (SSPB)/sulfonated montmorillonite (s-MMT) nanocomposite electrolyte membranes with bulky imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) incorporated were fabricated and their bending actuation performances were evaluated. The SSPB-based IPMC actuators showed larger air-operable bending displacements, higher displacement rates, and higher energy efficiency of actuations without conventional IPMC bottlenecks, including back relaxation and actuation instability during actuation in air, than the Nafion counterpart. Incorporation of s-MMT into the SSPB matrix further enhanced the actuation performance of the IPMC actuators in terms of displacement, displacement rate, and energy efficiency. The remarkably high performance of the SSPB/s-MMT/IL IPMCs was considered to be due to the microphase-separated large ionic domains of the SSPB (the average diameter of the ionic domain: ca. 20 nm) and the role of s-MMT as an ionic bridge between the ionic domains, and the ion pumping effect of the bulky imidazolium cations of the ILs as well. The microphase-separated nanostructure of the composite membranes caused a high dimensional stability upon swelling in the presence of ILs, which effectively preserved the original electrode resistance against swelling, leading to a high actuation performance of IPMC.

  5. Performance prediction of circular dielectric electro-active polymers membrane actuators with various geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hau, Steffen; York, Alexander; Seelecke, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Circular dielectric electro-active polymer (DEAP) membrane actuators are easy to manufacture and therefore can be uniquely designed to perform optimally for specific applications. The performance of these actuators is naturally dependent on the materials used, and also dictated by the specific geometry of the circular design. For a given overall actuator size, changing their internal geometry will directly change the force and stroke output. In addition the DEAP technology itself is a promising technology for constructing lightweight, cost and energy efficient sensor and actuator systems. Thus, several potential applications like pressure sensors, pumps, valves, micro-positioners and loudspeakers were already proposed. The circular DEAP membrane actuators used in this study consist of a silicone based elastomer, carbon ink based electrodes, and are held together with a stiff frame. Experimentally collected force-displacement curves for these actuators can be used to determine force and stroke output of the actuators as described by Hodgins et al. in. This work presents an efficient method to predict these force-displacement plots and thus stroke and force output for different actuator geometries. These results than can be used to adapt the actuator geometry to the needs of a specific application with its particular force and stroke requirements. The prediction method is based on an average stress-stretch calculation for training samples. The calculated stress-stretch data is then geometry independent and can be used to predict desired geometry dependent force-displacement data for stroke and force output analysis.

  6. FOREWORD: 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Liu, Shuhong; Yuan, Shouqi; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun

    2012-11-01

    The 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, will be held in Beijing, China, 19-23 August 2012. It is jointly organized by Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of Hydro Science and Hydraulic Engineering, China, Jiangsu University, Xi'an University of Technology, China Agricultural University, National Engineering Research Center of Hydropower Equipment and Dongfang Electric Machinery Co., Ltd. It is the second time that China hosts such a symposium. By the end of 2011, the China electrical power system had a total of 1 050 GW installed power, out of which 220 GW was in hydropower plants. The energy produced in hydropower facilities was 662.6 TWh from a total of 4,720 TWh electrical energy production in 2011. Moreover, in 2020, new hydropower capacities are going to be developed, with a total of 180 GW installed power and an estimated 708 TWh/year energy production. And in 2011, the installed power of pumped storage stations was about 25GW. In 2020, the data will be 70GW. At the same time, the number of pumps used in China is increasing rapidly. China produces about 29,000,000 pumps with more than 220 series per year. By the end of 2011, the Chinese pumping system has a total of 950 GW installed power. The energy consumed in pumping facilities was 530 TWh in 2011. The pump energy consumption accounted for about 12% of the national electrical energy production. Therefore, there is a large market in the field of hydraulic machinery including water turbines, pump turbines and a variety of pumps in China. There are also many research projects in this field. For example, we have conducted National Key Research Projects on 1000 MW hydraulic turbine, and on the pump turbines with high head, as well as on the large capacity pumps for water supply. Tsinghua University of Beijing is proud to host the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems. Tsinghua University was established in 1911, after the founding of the People's Republic of China. It

  7. Cellular Pressure-Actuated Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, John R.

    2003-01-01

    A modification of a pressure-actuated joint has been proposed to improve its pressure actuation in such a manner as to reduce the potential for leakage of the pressurizing fluid. The specific joint for which the modification is proposed is a field joint in a reusable solid-fuel rocket motor (RSRM), in which the pressurizing fluid is a mixture of hot combustion gases. The proposed modification could also be applicable to other pressure-actuated joints of similar configuration.

  8. Direct drive field actuator motors

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, A.R.

    1998-03-10

    A positive-drive field actuator motor is described which includes a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately. 62 figs.

  9. Fault-tolerant rotary actuator

    DOEpatents

    Tesar, Delbert

    2006-10-17

    A fault-tolerant actuator module, in a single containment shell, containing two actuator subsystems that are either asymmetrically or symmetrically laid out is provided. Fault tolerance in the actuators of the present invention is achieved by the employment of dual sets of equal resources. Dual resources are integrated into single modules, with each having the external appearance and functionality of a single set of resources.

  10. Direct drive field actuator motors

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, Allen R.

    1998-01-01

    A positive-drive field actuator motor including a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately.

  11. Electromechanical actuation for thrust vector control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Mary Ellen

    1990-01-01

    The advanced launch system (ALS), is a launch vehicle that is designed to be cost-effective, highly reliable, and operationally efficient with a goal of reducing the cost per pound to orbit. An electromechanical actuation (EMA) system is being developed as an attractive alternative to the hydraulic systems. The controller will integrate 20 kHz resonant link power management and distribution (PMAD) technology and pulse population modulation (PPM) techniques to implement field-oriented vector control (FOVC) of a new advanced induction motor. The driver and the FOVC will be microprocessor controlled. For increased system reliability, a built-in test (BITE) capability will be included. This involves introducing testability into the design of a system such that testing is calibrated and exercised during the design, manufacturing, maintenance, and prelaunch activities. An actuator will be integrated with the motor controller for performance testing of the EMA thrust vector control (TVC) system. The EMA system and work proposed for the future are discussed.

  12. Application of polyimide actuator rod seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watermann, A. W.; Gay, B. F.; Robinson, E. D.; Srinath, S. K.; Nelson, W. G.

    1972-01-01

    Development of polyimide two-stage hydraulic actuator rod seals for application in high-performance aircraft was accomplished. The significant portion of the effort was concentrated on optimization of the chevron and K-section second-stage seal geometries to satisfy the requirements for operation at 450 K (350 F) with dynamic pressure loads varying between 200 psig steady-state and 1500 psig impulse cycling. Particular significance was placed on reducing seal gland dimension by efficiently utilizing the fatigue allowables of polyimide materials. Other objectives included investigation of pressure balancing techniques for first-stage polyimide rod seals for 4000 psig 450 K(350 F) environment and fabrication of a modular retainer for the two-stage combination. Seals were fabricated in 0.0254 m (1.0in.) and 0.0635 m (2.5in.) sizes and tested for structural integrity, frictional resistance, and endurance life. Test results showed that carefully designed second stages using polyimides could be made to satisfy the dynamic return pressure requirements of applications in high-performance aircraft. High wear under full system pressure indicated that further research is necessary to obtain an acceptable first-stage design. The modular retainer was successfully tested and showed potential for new actuator applications.

  13. OSCILLATORY PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, N.

    1958-09-23

    This patent relates to a pump suitable fur pumping highly corrosive gases wherein no lubricant is needed in the pumping chamber thus eliminating possible contamination sources. The chamber contains a gas inlet and outlet in each side, with a paddle like piston suspended by a sylphon seal between these pcrts. An external arrangement causes the paddle to oscillate rapidly between the ports, alternately compressing and exhausting the gas trapped on each side of the paddle. Since the paddle does nnt touch the chamber sides at any point, no lubricant is required. This pump is useful for pumping large quantities of uranium hexafluorine.

  14. Development and Optimized Design of Propeller Pump System & Structure with VFD in Low-head Pumping Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rentian, Zhang; Honggeng, Zhu; Arnold, Jaap; Linbi, Yao

    2010-06-01

    Compared with vertical-installed pumps, the propeller (bulb tubular) pump systems can achieve higher hydraulic efficiencies, which are particularly suitable for low-head pumping stations. More than four propeller pumping stations are being, or will be built in the first stage of the S-to-N Water Diversion Project in China, diverting water from Yangtze River to the northern part of China to alleviate water-shortage problems and develop the economy. New structures of propeller pump have been developed for specified pumping stations in Jiangsu and Shandong Provinces respectively and Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) are used in those pumping stations to regulate operating conditions. Based on the Navier-Stokes equations and the standard k-e turbulent model, numerical simulations of the flow field and performance prediction in the propeller pump system were conducted on the platform of commercial software CFX by using the SIMPLEC algorithm. Through optimal design of bulb dimensions and diffuser channel shape, the hydraulic system efficiency has improved evidently. Furthermore, the structures of propeller pumps have been optimized to for the introduction of conventional as well as permanent magnet motors. In order to improve the hydraulic efficiency of pumping systems, both the pump discharge and the motor diameter were optimized respectively. If a conventional motor is used, the diameter of the pump casing has to be increased to accommodate the motor installed inside. If using a permanent magnet motor, the diameter of motor casing can be decreased effectively without decreasing its output power, thus the cross-sectional area is enlarged and the velocity of flowing water decreased favorably to reduce hydraulic loss of discharge channel and thereby raising the pumping system efficiency. Witness model tests were conducted after numerical optimization on specific propeller pump systems, indicating that the model system hydraulic efficiencies can be improved by 0.5%˜3.7% in

  15. Mapping Three-Dimensional Hydraulic Heterogeneities in Fractured Granite through Transient Hydraulic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Y.; Yeh, T. C. J.; Illman, W. A.; Tanaka, T.; Bruines, P.; Onoe, H.; Saegusa, H.; Mao, D.

    2014-12-01

    Between 2005 and 2010, three independent sequential pumping tests were conducted in a fractured granite formation at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) site in central Japan. Additional pumping operations were undertaken in the course of excavation of two vertical shafts at the site. During these events, groundwater responses were monitored in multiple observation intervals in several shallow and deep boreholes. In this study, we first visually inspected these responses at all observation intervals induced by each pumping event. We found that some intervals at far-distance boreholes showed rapid, and strong responses, while intervals of boreholes near the vicinity of the pumping locations showed little responses. Moreover, the locations of the rapid and slow responses varied with pumping locations. This preliminary inspection suggested that some boreholes are likely connected via fractures and some are separated by flow barrier(s). Subsequently, these drawdown data sets were analyzed using a three-dimensional (3-D) transient hydraulic tomography (HT) code to estimate the hydraulic conductivity (K) and specific storage (Ss) distributions. Results of the analysis depicted several large-scale high K and low K zones and some small-scale features at the MIU site. The locations of these high and low K estimates explain the observed fast and slow groundwater responses, and corroborate with the locations of fractures and fault zones estimated based on geologic information. The HT analysis nevertheless provides a detailed description of the hydraulic characteristics of the fracture and fault zones.

  16. Strain actuated aeroelastic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazarus, Kenneth B.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on strain actuated aeroelastic control are presented. Topics covered include: structural and aerodynamic modeling; control law design methodology; system block diagram; adaptive wing test article; bench-top experiments; bench-top disturbance rejection: open and closed loop response; bench-top disturbance rejection: state cost versus control cost; wind tunnel experiments; wind tunnel gust alleviation: open and closed loop response at 60 mph; wind tunnel gust alleviation: state cost versus control cost at 60 mph; wind tunnel command following: open and closed loop error at 60 mph; wind tunnel flutter suppression: open loop flutter speed; and wind tunnel flutter suppression: closed loop state cost curves.

  17. Lead screw linear actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Gerald S. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A linear actuator which can apply high forces is described, which includes a reciprocating rod having a threaded portion engaged by a nut that is directly coupled to the rotor of an electric motor. The nut is connected to the rotor in a manner that minimizes loading on the rotor, by the use of a coupling that transmits torque to the nut but permits it to shift axially and radially with respect to the rotor. The nut has a threaded hydrostatic bearing for engaging the threaded rod portion, with an oilcarrying groove in the nut being interrupted.

  18. Piezoelectric actuated gimbal

    DOEpatents

    Tschaggeny, Charles W.; Jones, Warren F.; Bamberg, Eberhard

    2011-09-13

    A gimbal is described and which includes a fixed base member defining an axis of rotation; a second member concentrically oriented relative to the axis of rotation; a linear actuator oriented in immediate, adjoining force transmitting relation relative to the base member or to the second member, and which applies force along a linear axis which is tangential to the axis of rotation so as to cause the second member to rotate coaxially relative to the fixed base member; and an object of interest mounted to the second member such that the object of interest is selectively moved relative to the base member about the axis of rotation.

  19. Research on One Borehole Hydraulic Coal Mining System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    XIA, Bairu; ZENG, Xiping; MAO, Zhixin

    The Borehole Hydraulic Coal Mining System (BHCMS) causes fragmentation of coal seams and removes coal slump through a drilled hole using high-pressure water jet. Then the mixture of coal and water as slurry are driven out of the borehole by hydraulic or air-lifting method, and are separated at the surface. This paper presents a case study of hydraulic borehole coal mining. The three key techniques of the BHCMS, namely, hydraulic lift of jet pump, air lift, and water jet disintegration are discussed and analyzed in this paper based on theoretical analysis and field experiments. Some useful findings have been obtained: (1) The design of jet pump, air lift system, and water jet has to be integrated appropriately in order to improve mining efficiency and coal recovery rate, and to decrease energy consumption. The design of hydraulic lift jet pump must meet the requirement of the minimum floating speed of coal particles. The optimization of nondimensional parameters and prevention of cavitation have to be considered in the design; (2) With regard to selecting the nozzle types of jet pump, center nozzle or annular nozzle can be selected according to the size of the removed particles; (3) Through air-lift and back pressure, the water head can be decreased to improve the lift capacity of jet pump and decrease the power loss. The air lift has great limitation if it is used solely to extract coal, but if it is employed in conjunction with jet pump, the lift capacity of jet pump can be increased greatly; (4) With water jets, the air lift can improve the fragmentation radius and capacity. The main factors that affect the effect of water jet are the submergible status of jet, jet pressure, and flowrate. The ideal jet of the monitor in the borehole hydraulic coal-mining system is a nonsubmergible free jet. Through air lift, the nonsubmergible free jet can be set up in the mining hole.

  20. Hydraulic gradient control for groundwater contaminant removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Atwood D.; Gorelick, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal near Denver, Colarado, U.S.A., is used as a realistic setting for a hypothetical test of a procedure that plans the hydraulic stabilization and removal of a groundwater contaminant plume. A two-stage planning procedure successfully selects the best wells and their optimal pumping/recharge schedules to contain the plume while a well or system of wells within the plume removes the contaminated water. In stage I, a combined groundwater flow and solute transport model is used to simulate contaminant removal under an assumed velocity field. The result is the approximated plume boundary location as a function of time. In stage II, a linear program, which includes a groundwater flow model as part of the set of constraints, determines the optimal well selection and their optimal pumping/recharge schedules by minimizing total pumping and recharge. The simulation-management model eliminates wells far from the plume perimeter and activates wells near the perimeter as the plume decreases in size. This successfully stablizes the hydraulic gradient during aquifer cleanup.The Rocky Mountain Arsenal near Denver, Colorado, USA, is used as a realistic setting for a hypothetical test of a procedure that plans the hydraulic stabilization and removal of a groundwater contaminant plume. A two-stage planning procedure successfully selects the best wells and their optimal pumping/recharge schedules to contain the plume while a well or system of wells within the plume removes the contaminated water. In stage I, a combined groundwater flow and solute transport model is used to simulate contaminant removal under an assumed velocity field. The result is the approximated plume boundary location as a function of time. In stage II, a linear program, which includes a groundwater flow model as part of the set of constraints, determines the optimal well selection and their optimal pumping/recharge schedules by minimizing total pumping and recharge. Refs.

  1. Design and control of a proof-of-concept variable-area exhaust nozzle using shape memory alloy actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Gangbing; Ma, Ning; Lee, Hou-Jun; Arnold, Steven

    2004-07-01

    There is no reported research of using shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators for variable area exhaust nozzle for a jet engine in the literature, to the authors' best knowledge. SMA actuators have the advantages of high power-to-weight ratio and can result in dramatic weight reduction as compared to hydraulic systems. However, the difficulty of using SMA actuators for controlling variable area exhaust nozzle lies in the fact that the temperature near exhaust nozzle is far higher than the transformation temperature of an SMA actuator. Due to the flexibility and small volume of SMA wire actuators, they can be remotely replaced in a region where temperature is lower than that of its transformation temperature. By exploiting this fact, this paper presents a novel design of a proof-of-concept variable area exhaust nozzle using shape memory alloy wire actuators. The SMA actuators are remotely placed away from the exhaust nozzle area so that the environmental temperature is below their transformation temperature. By electrically heating the SMA actuators, the exhaust nozzle will experience an area reduction of up to 40%. Bias springs will apply forces to return the fan nozzle to the open-up configuration. A feedback controller based sliding mode method is used to regulate the SMA actuators' position. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed design meets the desired area variation specifications and show the promise of a lightweight and simple exhaust nozzle design by using shape memory alloy actuators.

  2. Robotic Arm Actuated by Electroactie Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Xue, T.; Shaninpoor, M.; Simpson, J. O.; Smith, J.

    1998-01-01

    Actuators are used for many planetary and space applications. To meet the NASA goal to reduce the actuators size, mass, cost and power consumption, electroactie polymers (EAP) are being developed to induce large bending and longitudinal actuation strains.

  3. Turbulent Motion of Liquids in Hydraulic Resistances with a Linear Cylindrical Slide-Valve

    PubMed Central

    Velescu, C.; Popa, N. C.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the motion of viscous and incompressible liquids in the annular space of controllable hydraulic resistances with a cylindrical linear slide-valve. This theoretical study focuses on the turbulent and steady-state motion regimes. The hydraulic resistances mentioned above are the most frequent type of hydraulic resistances used in hydraulic actuators and automation systems. To study the liquids' motion in the controllable hydraulic resistances with a linear cylindrical slide-valve, the report proposes an original analytic method. This study can similarly be applied to any other type of hydraulic resistance. Another purpose of this study is to determine certain mathematical relationships useful to approach the theoretical functionality of hydraulic resistances with magnetic controllable fluids as incompressible fluids in the presence of a controllable magnetic field. In this report, we established general analytic equations to calculate (i) velocity and pressure distributions, (ii) average velocity, (iii) volume flow rate of the liquid, (iv) pressures difference, and (v) radial clearance. PMID:26167532

  4. Offshore hydraulics: tough, reliable, and failsafe

    SciTech Connect

    Hoock, C.J.

    1983-08-01

    The Offshore Comet is a modern offshore drilling rig with a hydraulic-cylinder-actuated jacking (raising and lowering) system. Hydraulic-cylinder jacking provides a safe and efficient method for placing the rig at the desired height above the water and insuring that it can withstand the expected heavy loads imposed by machinery, supplies, and the ocean environment. The drilling rig consists of a steel-hulled barge that is floated to the site and then supported during drilling operations by four steel triangular-cross-section lattice legs. The legs are planted firmly on the ocean bottom by a procedure called preloading. Each leg with its integral footing weighs 657 tons. The barge with its deck load can weigh up to 9200 tons.

  5. 49 CFR 178.337-15 - Pumps and compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-off or other mechanical, electrical, or hydraulic means. Unless they are of the centrifugal type, they... suction or to the cargo tank. (b) A liquid chlorine pump may not be installed on a cargo tank intended...

  6. 15. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN (MODEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN (MODEL SCALE: 1' = 26'). - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  7. Variable speed pumping: A guide to successful applications - Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2004-05-01

    This document is the result of a collaboration between the Hydraulic Institute, Europump, and the U.S. DOE Industrial Technologies Program, and describes the cost and energy savings potential of pumping applications with variable duty requirements.

  8. 19. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. ELECTRONICS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. ELECTRONICS ENGINEER AT DATA COLLECTION COMPUTER ROOM. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  9. 18. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. CIVIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. CIVIL ENGINEERING AIDE AT CONTROL BOX. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  10. Actuator operated microvalves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okojie, Robert S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An actuator operated microvalve and the method of making same is disclosed and claimed. The microvalve comprises a SiC housing which includes a first lower portion and a second upper portion. The lower portion of the SiC housing includes a passageway therethrough, a microvalve seat, and a moveable SiC diaphragm. The SiC diaphragm includes a centrally located boss and radially extending corrugations which may be sinusoidally shaped. The boss of the SiC diaphragm moves and modulates in a range of positions between a closed position wherein the boss interengages said microvalve seat prohibiting communication of fluid through the passageway and a fully open position when the boss is spaced apart from the seat at its maximum permitting communication of fluid through said passageway. The actuator includes a SiC top plate affixed to the boss of the diaphragm and a first electrode and the second upper portion of the SiC housing further includes a second electrode.

  11. Actuated Hybrid Mirror Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Gregory; Redding, David; Lowman, Andrew; Cohen, David; Ohara, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The figure depicts the planned Actuated Hybrid Mirror Telescope (AHMT), which is intended to demonstrate a new approach to the design and construction of wide-aperture spaceborne telescopes for astronomy and Earth science. This technology is also appropriate for Earth-based telescopes. The new approach can be broadly summarized as using advanced lightweight mirrors that can be manufactured rapidly at relatively low cost. More specifically, it is planned to use precise replicated metallic nanolaminate mirrors to obtain the required high-quality optical finishes. Lightweight, dimensionally stable silicon carbide (SiC) structures will support the nanolaminate mirrors in the required surface figures. To enable diffraction- limited telescope performance, errors in surface figures will be corrected by use of mirror-shape-control actuators that will be energized, as needed, by a wave-front-sensing and control system. The concepts of nanolaminate materials and mirrors made from nanolaminate materials were discussed in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. Nanolaminates constitute a relatively new class of materials that can approach theoretical limits of stiffness and strength. Nanolaminate mirrors are synthesized by magnetron sputter deposition of metallic alloys and/or compounds on optically precise master surfaces to obtain optical-quality reflector surfaces backed by thin shell structures. As an integral part of the deposition process, a layer of gold that will constitute the reflective surface layer is deposited first, eliminating the need for a subsequent and separate reflective-coating process. The crystallographic textures of the nanolaminate will be controlled to optimize the performance of the mirror. The entire deposition process for making a nanolaminate mirror takes less than 100 hours, regardless of the mirror diameter. Each nanolaminate mirror will be bonded to its lightweight SiC supporting structure. The lightweight nanolaminate mirrors and Si

  12. The valvo-pump. An axial, nonpulsatile blood pump.

    PubMed

    Mitamura, Y; Yozu, R; Tanaka, T; Yamazaki, K

    1991-01-01

    The valvo-pump, an axial, nonpulsatile blood pump implanted at the heart valve position while preserving diseased heart muscle, has several advantages over an artificial heart replacement, including 1) a good anatomic fit to the natural heart, 2) less blood contacting surface, and 3) ease of implantation. The housing for the pump is a tube, 37 mm in diameter (maximum) and 33 mm in length. Within the housing there is an impeller with either 10 vanes (33 mm in diameter) or 5 vanes (22 mm in diameter). The impeller is connected to a samarium-cobalt-rare-earth magnet direct current (DC) brushless motor measuring 23.8 mm in diameter and 30.2 mm in length. Sealing is achieved by means of a magnetic fluid seal. A guiding wheel with 4 vanes is located behind the impeller. The pump was studied on a hydraulic mock circulatory system to evaluate its performance characteristics. A pump flow of 6.9 L/min was obtained at a pump differential pressure of 48 mmHg, and flow of 3.1 L/min was obtained at 58 mmHg. The valvo-pump can be made feasible by developing a small, high-output, power motor and an endurable seal, as well as by optimizing the impeller design. PMID:1751257

  13. Bi-stable optical actuator

    DOEpatents

    Holdener, Fred R.; Boyd, Robert D.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a bi-stable optical actuator device that is depowered in both stable positions. A bearing is used to transfer motion and smoothly transition from one state to another. The optical actuator device may be maintained in a stable position either by gravity or a restraining device.

  14. Stochastic analysis of the hydraulic conductivity estimated for a heterogeneous aquifer via numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, C.; Zhang, Y.; Shu, L.; Chen, X.; Chen, S.; Li, S.; Wang, G.; Li, J.

    2015-05-01

    The paper aims to evaluate the impacts of the average hydraulic conductivity of the heterogeneous aquifer on the estimated hydraulic conductivity using the observations from pumping tests. The results of aquifer tests conducted at a karst aquifer are first introduced. A MODFLOW groundwater flow model was developed to perform numerical pumping tests, and the heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity (K) field was generated using the Monte Carlo method. The K was estimated by the Theis solution for an unconfined aquifer. The effective hydraulic conductivity (Ke) was calculated to represent the hydraulic conductivity of a heterogeneous aquifer. The results of numerical simulations demonstrate that Ke increase with the mean of hydraulic conductivity (EK), and decrease with the coefficient of variation of the hydraulic conductivity (Cv). The impact of spatial variability of K on the estimated Ke at two observation wells with smaller EK is less significant compared to the cases with larger EK.

  15. Transient two-phase performance of LOFT reactor coolant pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.H.; Modro, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    Performance characteristics of Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor coolant pumps under transient two-phase flow conditions were obtained based on the analysis of two large and small break loss-of-coolant experiments conducted at the LOFT facility. Emphasis is placed on the evaluation of the transient two-phase flow effects on the LOFT reactor coolant pump performance during the first quadrant operation. The measured pump characteristics are presented as functions of pump void fraction which was determined based on the measured density. The calculated pump characteristics such as pump head, torque (or hydraulic torque), and efficiency are also determined as functions of pump void fractions. The importance of accurate modeling of the reactor coolant pump performance under two-phase conditions is addressed. The analytical pump model, currently used in most reactor analysis codes to predict transient two-phase pump behavior, is assessed.

  16. System and method for controlling hydraulic pressure in electro-hydraulic valve actuation systems

    DOEpatents

    Brennan, Daniel G; Marriott, Craig D; Cowgill, Joel; Wiles, Matthew A; Patton, Kenneth James

    2014-09-23

    A control system for an engine includes a first lift control module and a second lift control module. The first lift control module increases lift of M valves of the engine to a predetermined valve lift during a period before disabling or re-enabling N valves of the engine. The second lift control module decreases the lift of the M valves to a desired valve lift during a period after enabling or re-enabling the N valves of the engine, wherein N and M are integers greater than or equal to one.

  17. Actuator-valve interface optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Burchett, O.L.; Jones, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    A computer code, Actuator Valve Response (AVR), has been developed to optimize the explosive actuator-valve interface parameters so that the valve plunger velocity is at a maximum when the plunger reaches the valve tubes. The code considers three forces to act on the valve plunger before the plunger reaches the valve tubes. These are the pressure force produced by the actuator, the shear force necessary to shear the seal disks on the actuator and the valve plunger, and the friction force caused by friction between the plunger and the plunger bore. The three forces are modeled by expressions that are explicitly functions of the plunger displacement. A particular actuator-valve combination was analyzed with the computer code AVR with four different combinations of valve plunger seal disk shear strength and initial friction force. (LEW)

  18. Precision Linear Actuator for Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) Siderostat Pointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Brant; Braun, David; Hankins, Steve; Koenig, John; Moore, Don

    2008-01-01

    'SIM PlanetQuest will exploit the classical measuring tool of astrometry (interferometry) with unprecedented precision to make dramatic advances in many areas of astronomy and astrophysics'(1). In order to obtain interferometric data two large steerable mirrors, or Siderostats, are used to direct starlight into the interferometer. A gimbaled mechanism actuated by linear actuators is chosen to meet the unprecedented pointing and angle tracking requirements of SIM. A group of JPL engineers designed, built, and tested a linear ballscrew actuator capable of performing submicron incremental steps for 10 years of continuous operation. Precise, zero backlash, closed loop pointing control requirements, lead the team to implement a ballscrew actuator with a direct drive DC motor and a precision piezo brake. Motor control commutation using feedback from a precision linear encoder on the ballscrew output produced an unexpected incremental step size of 20 nm over a range of 120 mm, yielding a dynamic range of 6,000,000:1. The results prove linear nanometer positioning requires no gears, levers, or hydraulic converters. Along the way many lessons have been learned and will subsequently be shared.

  19. Hydraulic generator with free-piston engine

    SciTech Connect

    Bouthers, P.; Breting, O.

    1983-11-15

    A hydraulic generator is disclosed with a free-piston engine and hydropneumatic return cushion and with an associated hydraulic-fluid pumping piston feeding a hydraulic accumulator intended to be charged between two detected levels of pressure. The generator includes a lock device for the free piston at the power-stroke dead center with voluntary control, and servo-control means for this lock device with means for detection of the aforementioned two pressure levels, to assure locking the piston in response to detection of the aforementioned highest pressure level and to assure its unlocking in response to detection of the aforementioned lowest pressure level, and thus an automatic intermittent running of said engine.

  20. Microfluidic Pumps Containing Teflon [Trademark] AF Diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Peter; White, Victor; Grunthaner, Frank; Ikeda, Mike; Mathies, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Microfluidic pumps and valves based on pneumatically actuated diaphragms made of Teflon AF polymers are being developed for incorporation into laboratory-on-a-chip devices that must perform well over temperature ranges wider than those of prior diaphragm-based microfluidic pumps and valves. Other potential applications include implanted biomedical microfluidic devices, wherein the biocompatability of Teflon AF polymers would be highly advantageous. These pumps and valves have been demonstrated to function stably after cycling through temperatures from -125 to 120 C. These pumps and valves are intended to be successors to similar prior pumps and valves containing diaphragms made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) [commonly known as silicone rubber]. The PDMS-containing valves ae designed to function stably only within the temperature range from 5 to 80 C. Undesirably, PDMS membranes are somwehat porous and retain water. PDMS is especially unsuitable for use at temperatures below 0 C because the formation of ice crystals increases porosity and introduces microshear.

  1. Enhancement of EAP actuated facial expressions by designed chamber geometry in elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, D.; Bergs, R.; Tadesse, Y.; White, V.; Priya, S.

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, the authors explore various ways that designed chambering of elastomers can enhance electroactive polymer (EAP) actuation. Such enhancements include structuring of chambers for various mechanical functions and advantages, boosting of surface area of a polymer for enhanced ionic migration, construction of advanced electret foams for sensing and for tunable hydrophobicity for micro/pumping action, and distribution of composite EAP devices throughout the chambered elastomer to achieve discrete controllability of electroactive polymer actuators. The authors also discuss the chambering of EAP materials themselves for enhanced actuation effects. With varied design of the chambers of the elastomer, the mechanical and structural properties of the elastomer can be tuned to greatly enhance EAP actuation. The chambers can be designed in accordion-like bellows to achieve extreme elongation with low forces, in spiral geometries to effect negative or neutral poisson's ratio under actuation, and with embedded fluidic bellows for fluidic actuation or sensing. These are but a few examples of the advantages that can be achieved via designed chambering of elastomers. The authors also discuss various application uses of the described chambering technologies. Such chambered elastomers, combined with advanced muscle-like actuators, can substantially benefit facelike robots (useful for entertainment and education etc), prosthetics, and numerous modalities of bio-inspired locomotion. In the efforts of the authors to generate facial expression robots with low-power lightweight actuators is described.

  2. MAXIMIZE THE EFFICIENCY OF PUMP AND TREAT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper focuses on methodology for determing extent of hydraulic control and remediation effectiveness of site specific pump and treat systems. Maximum potential well yield is estimated on the basis of hydraulic characteristics described by the cooper and Jacob Equation. A ma...

  3. Development of the space shuttle body flap actuation subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boggs, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Development of the Body Flap Actuation Subsystem for Space Shuttles included alterations from the original design to mechanical stops, planet gears, control valves, and solenoid valves. The mechanical stops were redesigned to absorb stall load and rotating inertia of the hydraulic motors instead of only stall load. The institution of a quill shaft (torsion spring) was a successful solution. The planet gears in the geared rotary actuators developed cracks during testing. This failure was alleviated via modification to the gears. A motor pressurization - brake release timing technique was developed thru analysis and testing. This resulted in a control valve configuration which would not permit freewheeling of the body flap surface. Finally, several solenoid valve configurations were tested to obtain the desired performance. Conceptual redesigns and modifications were weighted against each other to optimize a solution. Tradeoffs were usually made between life, performance, failure tolerance, and reliability versus weight, envelope, and maintainability.

  4. T-Slide Linear Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John

    2009-01-01

    T-slide linear actuators use gear bearing differential epicyclical transmissions (GBDETs) to directly drive a linear rack, which, in turn, performs the actuation. Conventional systems use a rotary power source in conjunction with a nut and screw to provide linear motion. Non-back-drive properties of GBDETs make the new actuator more direct and simpler. Versions of this approach will serve as a long-stroke, ultra-precision, position actuator for NASA science instruments, and as a rugged, linear actuator for NASA deployment duties. The T slide can operate effectively in the presence of side forces and torques. Versions of the actuator can perform ultra-precision positioning. A basic T-slide actuator is a long-stroke, rack-and-pinion linear actuator that, typically, consists of a T-slide, several idlers, a transmission to drive the slide (powered by an electric motor) and a housing that holds the entire assembly. The actuator is driven by gear action on its top surface, and is guided and constrained by gear-bearing idlers on its other two parallel surfaces. The geometry, implemented with gear-bearing technology, is particularly effective. An electronic motor operating through a GBDET can directly drive the T slide against large loads, as a rack and pinion linear actuator, with no break and no danger of back driving. The actuator drives the slide into position and stops. The slide holes position with power off and no brake, regardless of load. With the T slide configuration, this GBDET has an entire T-gear surface on which to operate. The GB idlers coupling the other two T slide parallel surfaces to their housing counterpart surfaces provide constraints in five degrees-of-freedom and rolling friction in the direction of actuation. Multiple GB idlers provide roller bearing strength sufficient to support efficient, rolling friction movement, even in the presence of large, resisting forces. T-slide actuators can be controlled using the combination of an off

  5. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE): Hamilton Standard cam/harmonic drive variable pitch fan actuation system detail design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A variable pitch fan actuation system was designed which incorporates a remote nacelle-mounted blade angle regulator. The regulator drives a rotating fan-mounted mechanical actuator through a flexible shaft and differential gear train. The actuator incorporates a high ratio harmonic drive attached to a multitrack spherical cam which changes blade pitch through individual cam follower arms attached to each blade trunnion. Detail design parameters of the actuation system are presented. These include the following: design philosophies, operating limits, mechanical, hydraulic and thermal characteristics, mechanical efficiencies, materials, weights, lubrication, stress analyses, reliability and failure analyses.

  6. Nuclear radiation actuated valve

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Schively, Dixon P.

    1985-01-01

    A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

  7. Experimental investigation of cavitation in pump inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, Roman; Bureček, Adam; Hružík, Lumír; Vašina, Martin

    2015-05-01

    The article deals with experimental research of cavitation development in inlet tube of hydraulic pump. The pressures in inlet and outlet tube of the pump and flow rate were measured. Mineral oil was used as working fluid. The cavitation was visually evaluated in transparent inlet tube. The inlet tube underpressure was achieved by throttle valve. The relationship between the generation of bubbles and the inlet pressure is evaluated.

  8. Characteristics of electrostatic gas micro-pump with integrated polyimide passive valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jeahyeong; Yeom, Junghoon; Mensing, Glennys; Flachsbart, Bruce; Shannon, Mark A.

    2012-09-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of electrostatic gas micro-pumps integrated with polyimide check valves. Touch-mode capacitance actuation, enabled by a fixed silicon electrode and a metal/polyimide diaphragm, creates the suction and push-out of the ambient gas; the gas flow is rectified by the check valves located at the inlet and outlet of the pump. The fabricated pumps were tested with various actuation voltages at different frequencies and duty cycles; an emphasis was placed on investigating the effect of valve flow conductance on the gas pumping characteristics. The pump with higher valve conductance could increase the operating frequency of the pump and affect the pumping characteristics from a pulsating flow to a continuous flow, leading to a higher gas flow rate. This electrostatic pump has a flow control resolution of 1 µL min-1 it could generate a gas flow up to 106 µL min-1.

  9. Axial Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor); VanDamm, George Arthur (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Paul A. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A rotary blood pump includes a pump housing for receiving a flow straightener, a rotor mounted on rotor bearings and having an inducer portion and an impeller portion, and a diffuser. The entrance angle, outlet angle, axial and radial clearances of blades associated with the flow straightener, inducer portion, impeller portion and diffuser are optimized to minimize hemolysis while maintaining pump efficiency. The rotor bearing includes a bearing chamber that is filled with cross-linked blood or other bio-compatible material. A back emf integrated circuit regulates rotor operation and a microcomputer may be used to control one or more back emf integrated circuits. A plurality of magnets are disposed in each of a plurality of impeller blades with a small air gap. A stator may be axially adjusted on the pump housing to absorb bearing load and maximize pump efficiency.

  10. 85,000-GPM, single-stage, single-suction LMFBR intermediate centrifugal pump

    SciTech Connect

    Fair, C.E.; Cook, M.E. Huber, K.A.; Rohde, R.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanical and hydraulic design features of the 85,000-gpm, single-stage, single-suction pump test article, which is designed to circulate liquid-sodium coolant in the intermediate heat-transport system of a Large-Scale Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LS-LMFBR), are described. The design and analytical considerations used to satisfy the pump performance and operability requirements are presented. The validation of pump hydraulic performance using a hydraulic scale-model pump is discussed, as is the featute test for the mechanical-shaft seal system.

  11. FOREWORD: 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Liu, Shuhong; Yuan, Shouqi; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun

    2012-11-01

    The 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, will be held in Beijing, China, 19-23 August 2012. It is jointly organized by Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of Hydro Science and Hydraulic Engineering, China, Jiangsu University, Xi'an University of Technology, China Agricultural University, National Engineering Research Center of Hydropower Equipment and Dongfang Electric Machinery Co., Ltd. It is the second time that China hosts such a symposium. By the end of 2011, the China electrical power system had a total of 1 050 GW installed power, out of which 220 GW was in hydropower plants. The energy produced in hydropower facilities was 662.6 TWh from a total of 4,720 TWh electrical energy production in 2011. Moreover, in 2020, new hydropower capacities are going to be developed, with a total of 180 GW installed power and an estimated 708 TWh/year energy production. And in 2011, the installed power of pumped storage stations was about 25GW. In 2020, the data will be 70GW. At the same time, the number of pumps used in China is increasing rapidly. China produces about 29,000,000 pumps with more than 220 series per year. By the end of 2011, the Chinese pumping system has a total of 950 GW installed power. The energy consumed in pumping facilities was 530 TWh in 2011. The pump energy consumption accounted for about 12% of the national electrical energy production. Therefore, there is a large market in the field of hydraulic machinery including water turbines, pump turbines and a variety of pumps in China. There are also many research projects in this field. For example, we have conducted National Key Research Projects on 1000 MW hydraulic turbine, and on the pump turbines with high head, as well as on the large capacity pumps for water supply. Tsinghua University of Beijing is proud to host the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems. Tsinghua University was established in 1911, after the founding of the People's Republic of China. It

  12. Tree-on-a-chip: a microfluidic osmotic pump mimicking passive phloem loaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comtet, Jean; Jensen, Kaare H.; Stroock, Abraham D.; Hosoi, Anette (Peko)

    2014-11-01

    According to the Münch mechanism, vascular plants rely on osmotic pressure gradients to export sugars from regions of synthesis (mature leaves) to regions of consumption (roots, fruits). A crucial step in this process is the loading of sugars from photosynthetic cells (known as mesophylls) to the export conduit (the phloem). In some plants, known as passive loaders, sugars are thought to simply diffuse from mesophylls to the phloem. In this case, we show that a single nondimensional ``flushing number,'' characterizing the relative balance of diffusive sugar loading and convective phloem transport, accurately describes the state of the system (phloem hydrostatic pressure, sugar export rates...). We build a synthetic microfluidic osmotic pump mimicking this biological transport mechanism. In particular, our pump can work in a diffusion-limited regime, for which the flow rate scales weakly with the resistance of the hydraulic circuit. This bio-inspired device provides insight into the biophysical mechanism of passive phloem loading, and could be relevant for microfluidic or micro-robotic applications, where high actuation pressures and steady-state flow rates are necessary.

  13. Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Adolf, Douglas B.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Segalman, Daniel J.; Witkowski, Walter R.

    1993-01-01

    Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators or synthetic muscles capable of undergoing substantial expansion and contraction when subjected to changing pH environments, temperature, or solvent. The actuators employ compliant containers for the gels and their solvents. The gels employed may be cylindrical electromechanical gel fibers such as polyacrylamide fibers or a mixture of poly vinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid arranged in a parallel aggregate and contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as salt water. The invention includes smart, electrically activated devices exploiting this phenomenon. These devices are capable of being manipulated via active computer control as large displacement actuators for use in adaptive structure such as robots.

  14. Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Adolf, D.B.; Shahinpoor, M.; Segalman, D.J.; Witkowski, W.R.

    1993-10-05

    Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators or synthetic muscles are described capable of undergoing substantial expansion and contraction when subjected to changing pH environments, temperature, or solvent. The actuators employ compliant containers for the gels and their solvents. The gels employed may be cylindrical electromechanical gel fibers such as polyacrylamide fibers or a mixture of poly vinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid arranged in a parallel aggregate and contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as salt water. The invention includes smart, electrically activated devices exploiting this phenomenon. These devices are capable of being manipulated via active computer control as large displacement actuators for use in adaptive structure such as robots. 11 figures.

  15. Gear-Driven Turnbuckle Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, Ricky N.

    2010-01-01

    This actuator design allows the extension and contraction of turnbuckle assemblies. It can be operated manually or remotely, and is extremely compact. It is ideal for turnbuckles that are hard to reach by conventional tools. The tool assembly design solves the problem of making accurate adjustments to the variable geometry guide vanes without having to remove and reinstall the actuator system back on the engine. The actuator does this easily by adjusting the length of the turnbuckles while they are still attached to the engine.

  16. The application of hydraulics in the 2,000 kW wind turbine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onufreiczuk, S.

    1978-01-01

    A 2000 kW turbine generator using hydraulic power in two of its control systems is being built under the management of NASA Lewis Research Center. The hydraulic systems providing the control torques and forces for the yaw and blade pitch control systems are discussed. The yaw-drive-system hydraulic supply provides the power for positioning the nacelle so that the rotary axis is kept in line with the direction of the prevailing wind, as well as pressure to the yaw and high speed shaft brakes. The pitch-change-mechanism hydraulic system provides the actuation to the pitch change mechanism and permits feathering of the blades during an emergency situation. It operates in conjunction with the overall windmill computer system, with the feather control permitting slewing control flow to pass from the servo valve to the actuators without restriction.

  17. Control method and system for hydraulic machines employing a dynamic joint motion model

    DOEpatents

    Danko, George

    2011-11-22

    A control method and system for controlling a hydraulically actuated mechanical arm to perform a task, the mechanical arm optionally being a hydraulically actuated excavator arm. The method can include determining a dynamic model of the motion of the hydraulic arm for each hydraulic arm link by relating the input signal vector for each respective link to the output signal vector for the same link. Also the method can include determining an error signal for each link as the weighted sum of the differences between a measured position and a reference position and between the time derivatives of the measured position and the time derivatives of the reference position for each respective link. The weights used in the determination of the error signal can be determined from the constant coefficients of the dynamic model. The error signal can be applied in a closed negative feedback control loop to diminish or eliminate the error signal for each respective link.

  18. Tilt/Tip/Piston Manipulator with Base-Mounted Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tahmasebi, Farhad

    2006-01-01

    A proposed three-degree-of-freedom (tilt/tip/piston) manipulator, suitable for aligning an optical or mechanical component, would offer several advantages over prior such manipulators: Unlike in some other manipulators, no actuator would support the weight of another actuator: All of the actuators would be mounted on a base. Hence, there would be less manipulated weight. The basic geometry of the manipulator would afford mechanical advantage: that is, actuator motions would be larger than the motions they produce in the manipulated object. Mechanical advantage inherently increases the accuracy and resolution of manipulation. Unlike in some other manipulators, it would not be necessary to route power and/or data lines through manipulator joints. The proposed manipulator (see figure) would include three prismatic actuators (T1N1, T2N2, and T3N3) mounted on the base and operating in the same plane. Examples of suitable prismatic actuators include lead-screw mechanisms, linear hydraulic motors, piezoelectric linear drives, inchworm-movement linear stepping motors, and linear flexure drives. The actuators would control the lengths of links R1T1, R2T2, and R3T3. Three spherical joints (P1, P2, and P3) would be located at the corners of an equilateral triangle of side length q on the platform holding the object to be manipulated. Three inextensible limbs (R1P1, R2P2, and R3P3) having length r would connect the spherical joints on the platform to revolute joints (R1, R2, and R3) at the ends of the actuator-controlled links R1T1, R2T2, and R3T3. By varying the lengths of these links, one could control the tilt, tip, and piston coordinates of the platform. Closed-form equations for direct or forward kinematics of the manipulator (given the lengths of the variable links, find the tilt, tip, and piston coordinates) have been derived. The equations of inverse kinematics (find the variable link lengths needed to obtain the desired tilt, tip, and piston coordinates) have also

  19. Control of flexible robots with prismatic joints and hydraulic drives

    SciTech Connect

    Love, L.J.; Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.

    1997-03-01

    The design and control of long-reach, flexible manipulators has been an active research topic for over 20 years. Most of the research to date has focused on single link, fixed length, single plane of vibration test beds. In addition, actuation has been predominantly based upon electromagnetic motors. Ironically, these elements are rarely found in the existing industrial long-reach systems. One example is the Modified Light Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA) designed and built by Spar Aerospace for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This arm operates in larger, underground waste storage tanks located at ORNL. The size and nature of the tanks require that the robot have a reach of approximately 15 ft and a payload capacity of 250 lb. In order to achieve these criteria, each joint is hydraulically actuated. Furthermore, the robot has a prismatic degree-of-freedom to ease deployment. When fully extended, the robot`s first natural frequency is 1.76 Hz. Many of the projected tasks, coupled with the robot`s flexibility, present an interesting problem. How will many of the existing flexure control algorithms perform on a hydraulic, long-reach manipulator with prismatic links? To minimize cost and risk of testing these algorithms on the MLDUA, the authors have designed a new test bed that contains many of the same elements. This manuscript described a new hydraulically actuated, long-reach manipulator with a flexible prismatic link at ORNL. Focus is directed toward both modeling and control of hydraulic actuators as well as flexible links that have variable natural frequencies.

  20. Electro-Optic Techniques For The Control Of Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, Ken F.; Jones, Barry E.

    1989-03-01

    Instrumentation systems employing optical-fibre links are under intensive development as they can offer features such as intrinsic safety, electrical isolation and freedom from electromagnetic interference. There are growing interests in the potential for such systems in military applications, process industries as well as general manufacturing. There are also requirements for optically-energized pneumatic and hydraulic actuation systems whereby a complete control system can be realised by optical means. This type of system may be referred to as an all-fibre control-by-light system. Examples of such control systems will be described.