Science.gov

Sample records for actuator disk model

  1. LES of wind farm response to transient scenarios using a high fidelity actuator disk model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moens, M.; Duponcheel, M.; Winckelmans, G.; Chatelain, P.

    2016-09-01

    Large eddy simulations coupled to Actuator Disks are used to investigate wake effects in wind farms. An effort is made on the wind turbine model: it uses the prevailing velocities at each point of the disk to estimate the aerodynamic loads and is improved using a tip-loss correction and realistic control schemes. This accurate and efficient tool is used to study the wind farm response in terms of flow and power production during an unsteady scenario: this work focuses on an emergency shutdown of one rotor inside a wind farm.

  2. Studying Wake Deflection of Wind Turbines in Yaw using Drag Disk Experiments and Actuator Disk Modeling in LES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howland, Michael; Bossuyt, Juliaan; Meyers, Johan; Meneveau, Charles

    2015-11-01

    Recently, there has been a push towards the optimization in the power output of entire large wind farms through the control of individual turbines, as opposed to operating each turbine in a maximum power point tracking manner. In this vane, the wake deflection by wind turbines in yawed conditions has generated considerable interest in recent years. In order to effectively study the wake deflection according to classical actuator disk momentum theory, a 3D printed drag disk model with a coefficient of thrust of approximately 0.75 - 0.85 and a diameter of 3 cm is used, studied under uniform inflow in a wind tunnel with test section of 1 m by 1.3 m, operating with a negligible inlet turbulence level at an inflow velocity of 10 m/s. Mean velocity profile measurements are performed using Pitot probes. Different yaw angles are considered, including 10, 20, and 30 degrees. We confirm earlier results that (e.g.) a 30 degree yaw angle deflects the center of the wake around 1/2 of a rotor diameter when it impinges on a downstream turbine. Detailed comparisons between the experiments and Large Eddy Simulations using actuator disk model for the wind turbines are carried out in order to help validate the CFD model. Work supported by NSF (grants CBET-113380 and IIA-1243482, the WINDINSPIRE project) and by ERC (ActiveWindFarms, grant no. 306471).

  3. Large eddy simulation of unsteady wind farm behavior using advanced actuator disk models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moens, Maud; Duponcheel, Matthieu; Winckelmans, Gregoire; Chatelain, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    The present project aims at improving the level of fidelity of unsteady wind farm scale simulations through an effort on the representation and the modeling of the rotors. The chosen tool for the simulations is a Fourth Order Finite Difference code, developed at Universite catholique de Louvain; this solver implements Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approaches. The wind turbines are modeled as advanced actuator disks: these disks are coupled with the Blade Element Momentum method (BEM method) and also take into account the turbine dynamics and controller. A special effort is made here to reproduce the specific wake behaviors. Wake decay and expansion are indeed initially governed by vortex instabilities. This is an information that cannot be obtained from the BEM calculations. We thus aim at achieving this by matching the large scales of the actuator disk flow to high fidelity wake simulations produced using a Vortex Particle-Mesh method. It is obtained by adding a controlled excitation at the disk. We apply this tool to the investigation of atmospheric turbulence effects on the power production and on the wake behavior at a wind farm level. A turbulent velocity field is then used as inflow boundary condition for the simulations. We gratefully acknowledge the support of GDF Suez for the fellowship of Mrs Maud Moens.

  4. Development of an advanced actuator disk model for Large-Eddy Simulation of wind farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moens, Maud; Duponcheel, Matthieu; Winckelmans, Gregoire; Chatelain, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    This work aims at improving the fidelity of the wind turbine modelling for Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of wind farms, in order to accurately predict the loads, the production, and the wake dynamics. In those simulations, the wind turbines are accounted for through actuator disks. i.e. a body-force term acting over the regularised disk swept by the rotor. These forces are computed using the Blade Element theory to estimate the normal and tangential components (based on the local simulated flow and the blade characteristics). The local velocities are modified using the Glauert tip-loss factor in order to account for the finite number of blades; the computation of this correction is here improved thanks to a local estimation of the effective upstream velocity at every point of the disk. These advanced actuator disks are implemented in a 4th order finite difference LES solver and are compared to a classical Blade Element Momentum method and to high fidelity wake simulations performed using a Vortex Particle-Mesh method in uniform and turbulent flows.

  5. Optimization of a magnetic disk drive actuator with small skew actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhimin; Ong, Eng Hong; Guo, Guoxiao

    2002-05-01

    Currently the utilization of the voice-coil motor for actuating read/write head elements in magnetic hard disk drives results in a skewed actuation, which necessitates an involved microjogging process and thus a complicated servo system. Furthermore, in perpendicular recording systems, a small skew actuation will relax the requirement on pole trimming. This article presents a magnetic hard disk drive actuator and suspension assembly with small skew actuation. In the present study, the distance from the actuator pivot to the read/write head is chosen so that the skew angle variation is minimized. After that, the suspension head is assembled to the actuator arm at a slant angle with respect to the actuator longitudinal direction to achieve an absolute small skew actuation. Finite element modeling and experimental measurements reveal that there are no significant changes of the actuator assembly dynamic performance with and without the slant angle.

  6. Wind turbine rotor simulation using the actuator disk and actuator line methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzimas, M.; Prospathopoulos, J.

    2016-09-01

    The present paper focuses on wind turbine rotor modeling for loads and wake flow prediction. Two steady-state models based on the actuator disk approach are considered, using either a uniform thrust or a blade element momentum calculation of the wind turbine loads. A third model is based on the unsteady-state actuator line approach. Predictions are compared with measurements in wind tunnel experiments and in atmospheric environment and the capabilities and weaknesses of the different models are addressed.

  7. Wind tunnel measurements of wake structure and wind farm power for actuator disk model wind turbines in yaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howland, Michael; Bossuyt, Juliaan; Kang, Justin; Meyers, Johan; Meneveau, Charles

    2016-11-01

    Reducing wake losses in wind farms by deflecting the wakes through turbine yawing has been shown to be a feasible wind farm control approach. In this work, the deflection and morphology of wakes behind a wind turbine operating in yawed conditions are studied using wind tunnel experiments of a wind turbine modeled as a porous disk in a uniform inflow. First, by measuring velocity distributions at various downstream positions and comparing with prior studies, we confirm that the nonrotating wind turbine model in yaw generates realistic wake deflections. Second, we characterize the wake shape and make observations of what is termed a "curled wake," displaying significant spanwise asymmetry. Through the use of a 100 porous disk micro-wind farm, total wind farm power output is studied for a variety of yaw configurations. Strain gages on the tower of the porous disk models are used to measure the thrust force as a substitute for turbine power. The frequency response of these measurements goes up to the natural frequency of the model and allows studying the spatiotemporal characteristics of the power output under the effects of yawing. This work has been funded by the National Science Foundation (Grants CBET-113380 and IIA-1243482, the WINDINSPIRE project). JB and JM are supported by ERC (ActiveWindFarms, Grant No. 306471).

  8. Implementation of a generalized actuator disk wind turbine model into the weather research and forecasting model for large-eddy simulation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mirocha, J. D.; Kosovic, B.; Aitken, M. L.; Lundquist, J. K.

    2014-01-10

    A generalized actuator disk (GAD) wind turbine parameterization designed for large-eddy simulation (LES) applications was implemented into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. WRF-LES with the GAD model enables numerical investigation of the effects of an operating wind turbine on and interactions with a broad range of atmospheric boundary layer phenomena. Numerical simulations using WRF-LES with the GAD model were compared with measurements obtained from the Turbine Wake and Inflow Characterization Study (TWICS-2011), the goal of which was to measure both the inflow to and wake from a 2.3-MW wind turbine. Data from a meteorological tower and two light-detection and ranging (lidar) systems, one vertically profiling and another operated over a variety of scanning modes, were utilized to obtain forcing for the simulations, and to evaluate characteristics of the simulated wakes. Simulations produced wakes with physically consistent rotation and velocity deficits. Two surface heat flux values of 20 W m–2 and 100 W m–2 were used to examine the sensitivity of the simulated wakes to convective instability. Simulations using the smaller heat flux values showed good agreement with wake deficits observed during TWICS-2011, whereas those using the larger value showed enhanced spreading and more-rapid attenuation. This study demonstrates the utility of actuator models implemented within atmospheric LES to address a range of atmospheric science and engineering applications. In conclusion, validated implementation of the GAD in a numerical weather prediction code such as WRF will enable a wide range of studies related to the interaction of wind turbines with the atmosphere and surface.

  9. Coupling the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and Large Eddy Simulations with Actuator Disk Model: predictions of wind farm power production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Cartagena, Edgardo Javier; Santoni, Christian; Ciri, Umberto; Iungo, Giacomo Valerio; Leonardi, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    A large-scale wind farm operating under realistic atmospheric conditions is studied by coupling a meso-scale and micro-scale models. For this purpose, the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) is coupled with an in-house LES solver for wind farms. The code is based on a finite difference scheme, with a Runge-Kutta, fractional step and the Actuator Disk Model. The WRF model has been configured using seven one-way nested domains where the child domain has a mesh size one third of its parent domain. A horizontal resolution of 70 m is used in the innermost domain. A section from the smallest and finest nested domain, 7.5 diameters upwind of the wind farm is used as inlet boundary condition for the LES code. The wind farm consists in six-turbines aligned with the mean wind direction and streamwise spacing of 10 rotor diameters, (D), and 2.75D in the spanwise direction. Three simulations were performed by varying the velocity fluctuations at the inlet: random perturbations, precursor simulation, and recycling perturbation method. Results are compared with a simulation on the same wind farm with an ideal uniform wind speed to assess the importance of the time varying incoming wind velocity. Numerical simulations were performed at TACC (Grant CTS070066). This work was supported by NSF, (Grant IIA-1243482 WINDINSPIRE).

  10. Investigating wind turbine impacts on near-wake flow using profiling Lidar data and large-eddy simulations with an actuator disk model

    SciTech Connect

    Mirocha, Jeffrey D.; Rajewski, Daniel A.; Marjanovic, Nikola; Lundquist, Julie K.; Kosovic, Branko; Draxl, Caroline; Churchfield, Matthew J.

    2015-08-27

    In this study, wind turbine impacts on the atmospheric flow are investigated using data from the Crop Wind Energy Experiment (CWEX-11) and large-eddy simulations (LESs) utilizing a generalized actuator disk (GAD) wind turbine model. CWEX-11 employed velocity-azimuth display (VAD) data from two Doppler lidar systems to sample vertical profiles of flow parameters across the rotor depth both upstream and in the wake of an operating 1.5 MW wind turbine. Lidar and surface observations obtained during four days of July 2011 are analyzed to characterize the turbine impacts on wind speed and flow variability, and to examine the sensitivity of these changes to atmospheric stability. Significant velocity deficits (VD) are observed at the downstream location during both convective and stable portions of four diurnal cycles, with large, sustained deficits occurring during stable conditions. Variances of the streamwise velocity component, σu, likewise show large increases downstream during both stable and unstable conditions, with stable conditions supporting sustained small increases of σu , while convective conditions featured both larger magnitudes and increased variability, due to the large coherent structures in the background flow. Two representative case studies, one stable and one convective, are simulated using LES with a GAD model at 6 m resolution to evaluate the compatibility of the simulation framework with validation using vertically profiling lidar data in the near wake region. Virtual lidars were employed to sample the simulated flow field in a manner consistent with the VAD technique. Simulations reasonably reproduced aggregated wake VD characteristics, albeit with smaller magnitudes than observed, while σu values in the wake are more significantly underestimated. The results illuminate the limitations of using a GAD in combination with coarse model resolution in the simulation of near wake physics, and validation thereof using VAD data.

  11. Investigating wind turbine impacts on near-wake flow using profiling Lidar data and large-eddy simulations with an actuator disk model

    DOE PAGES

    Mirocha, Jeffrey D.; Rajewski, Daniel A.; Marjanovic, Nikola; ...

    2015-08-27

    In this study, wind turbine impacts on the atmospheric flow are investigated using data from the Crop Wind Energy Experiment (CWEX-11) and large-eddy simulations (LESs) utilizing a generalized actuator disk (GAD) wind turbine model. CWEX-11 employed velocity-azimuth display (VAD) data from two Doppler lidar systems to sample vertical profiles of flow parameters across the rotor depth both upstream and in the wake of an operating 1.5 MW wind turbine. Lidar and surface observations obtained during four days of July 2011 are analyzed to characterize the turbine impacts on wind speed and flow variability, and to examine the sensitivity of thesemore » changes to atmospheric stability. Significant velocity deficits (VD) are observed at the downstream location during both convective and stable portions of four diurnal cycles, with large, sustained deficits occurring during stable conditions. Variances of the streamwise velocity component, σu, likewise show large increases downstream during both stable and unstable conditions, with stable conditions supporting sustained small increases of σu , while convective conditions featured both larger magnitudes and increased variability, due to the large coherent structures in the background flow. Two representative case studies, one stable and one convective, are simulated using LES with a GAD model at 6 m resolution to evaluate the compatibility of the simulation framework with validation using vertically profiling lidar data in the near wake region. Virtual lidars were employed to sample the simulated flow field in a manner consistent with the VAD technique. Simulations reasonably reproduced aggregated wake VD characteristics, albeit with smaller magnitudes than observed, while σu values in the wake are more significantly underestimated. The results illuminate the limitations of using a GAD in combination with coarse model resolution in the simulation of near wake physics, and validation thereof using VAD data.« less

  12. Simple spark erosion device based on optical disk or hard disk drive actuators.

    PubMed

    Kamer, O

    2011-12-01

    We present the design of a compact electric discharge device incorporating hard disk or optical disk drive actuators. It is simple enough to be assembled in the absence of a mechanical workshop. The electronic circuit allows the adjustment of current, voltage, and discharge power. The system has been tested with organic dielectric liquids and deionized water and spark conditions; dynamic properties and machining characteristics were investigated. This device can be used to shape materials or to produce powdered samples with low material loss and minimal liquid consumption.

  13. Robust H∞ stabilization of a hard disk drive system with a single-stage actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harno, Hendra G.; Kiin Woon, Raymond Song

    2015-04-01

    This paper considers a robust H∞ control problem for a hard disk drive system with a single stage actuator. The hard disk drive system is modeled as a linear time-invariant uncertain system where its uncertain parameters and high-order dynamics are considered as uncertainties satisfying integral quadratic constraints. The robust H∞ control problem is transformed into a nonlinear optimization problem with a pair of parameterized algebraic Riccati equations as nonconvex constraints. The nonlinear optimization problem is then solved using a differential evolution algorithm to find stabilizing solutions to the Riccati equations. These solutions are used for synthesizing an output feedback robust H∞ controller to stabilize the hard disk drive system with a specified disturbance attenuation level.

  14. Evaluation of actuator disk theory for predicting indirect combustion noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Ashish; Bodony, Daniel J.

    2013-02-01

    Indirect combustion noise is believed to be a key component of turbofan engine core noise, but existing experimental data have not been able to definitively determine its importance. Instead, actuator disk theory (ADT) as developed by Cumpsty and Marble [The interaction of entropy fluctuations with turbine blade rows; a mechanism of turbojet noise, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A 357 (1977) 323-344] is commonly used to estimate its contribution based on combustor exit conditions and changes in the mean flow across blade rows. The theory, which assumes planar propagation of acoustic, entropic, and vortical waves in the long wavelength limit, is assessed by comparing its predictions to those from two-dimensional compressible Euler calculations of idealized entropy disturbances interacting with a 1980s era NASA turbine stator. Both low-frequency planar waves of constant frequency and higher-frequency, localized entropy disturbances are considered, with the former being within ADT's range of applicability and the latter outside of it. It is found that ADT performs well for the cut-on acoustic modes generated by the entropy-blade interaction but its accuracy suffers for the cut-off acoustic modes, which could impact indirect combustion noise predictions for turbines with closely spaced blade rows.

  15. Semi-actuator disk theory for compressor choke flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micklow, J.; Jeffers, J.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical anaysis predict the unsteady aerodynamic utilizing semi actuator theory environment for a cascade of airfoils harmonically oscillating in choked flow was developed. A normal shock is located in the blade passage, its position depending on the time dependent geometry, and pressure perturbations of the system. In addition to shock dynamics, the model includes the effect of compressibility, interblade phase lag, and an unsteady flow field upstream and downstream of the cascade. Calculated unsteady aerodynamics were compared with isolated airfoil wind tunnel data, and choke flutter onset boundaries were compared with data from testing of an F100 high pressure compressor stage.

  16. Feasibility of using PZT actuators to study the dynamic behavior of a rotating disk due to rotor-stator interaction.

    PubMed

    Presas, Alexandre; Egusquiza, Eduard; Valero, Carme; Valentin, David; Seidel, Ulrich

    2014-07-07

    In this paper, PZT actuators are used to study the dynamic behavior of a rotating disk structure due to rotor-stator interaction excitation. The disk is studied with two different surrounding fluids-air and water. The study has been performed analytically and validated experimentally. For the theoretical analysis, the natural frequencies and the associated mode shapes of the rotating disk in air and water are obtained with the Kirchhoff-Love thin plate theory coupled with the interaction with the surrounding fluid. A model for the Rotor Stator Interaction that occurs in many rotating disk-like parts of turbomachinery such as compressors, hydraulic runners or alternators is presented. The dynamic behavior of the rotating disk due to this excitation is deduced. For the experimental analysis a test rig has been developed. It consists of a stainless steel disk (r = 198 mm and h = 8 mm) connected to a variable speed motor. Excitation and response are measured from the rotating system. For the rotating excitation four piezoelectric patches have been used. Calibrating the piezoelectric patches in amplitude and phase, different rotating excitation patterns are applied on the rotating disk in air and in water. Results show the feasibility of using PZT to control the response of the disk due to a rotor-stator interaction.

  17. Feasibility of Using PZT Actuators to Study the Dynamic Behavior of a Rotating Disk due to Rotor-Stator Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Presas, Alexandre; Egusquiza, Eduard; Valero, Carme; Valentin, David; Seidel, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, PZT actuators are used to study the dynamic behavior of a rotating disk structure due to rotor-stator interaction excitation. The disk is studied with two different surrounding fluids—air and water. The study has been performed analytically and validated experimentally. For the theoretical analysis, the natural frequencies and the associated mode shapes of the rotating disk in air and water are obtained with the Kirchhoff-Love thin plate theory coupled with the interaction with the surrounding fluid. A model for the Rotor Stator Interaction that occurs in many rotating disk-like parts of turbomachinery such as compressors, hydraulic runners or alternators is presented. The dynamic behavior of the rotating disk due to this excitation is deduced. For the experimental analysis a test rig has been developed. It consists of a stainless steel disk (r = 198 mm and h = 8 mm) connected to a variable speed motor. Excitation and response are measured from the rotating system. For the rotating excitation four piezoelectric patches have been used. Calibrating the piezoelectric patches in amplitude and phase, different rotating excitation patterns are applied on the rotating disk in air and in water. Results show the feasibility of using PZT to control the response of the disk due to a rotor-stator interaction. PMID:25004151

  18. Active-passive hybrid piezoelectric actuators for high-precision hard disk drive servo systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Kwong Wah; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2006-03-01

    Positioning precision is crucial to today's increasingly high-speed, high-capacity, high data density, and miniaturized hard disk drives (HDDs). The demand for higher bandwidth servo systems that can quickly and precisely position the read/write head on a high track density becomes more pressing. Recently, the idea of applying dual-stage actuators to track servo systems has been studied. The push-pull piezoelectric actuated devices have been developed as micro actuators for fine and fast positioning, while the voice coil motor functions as a large but coarse seeking. However, the current dual-stage actuator design uses piezoelectric patches only without passive damping. In this paper, we propose a dual-stage servo system using enhanced active-passive hybrid piezoelectric actuators. The proposed actuators will improve the existing dual-stage actuators for higher precision and shock resistance, due to the incorporation of passive damping in the design. We aim to develop this hybrid servo system not only to increase speed of track seeking but also to improve precision of track following servos in HDDs. New piezoelectrically actuated suspensions with passive damping have been designed and fabricated. In order to evaluate positioning and track following performances for the dual-stage track servo systems, experimental efforts are carried out to implement the synthesized active-passive suspension structure with enhanced piezoelectric actuators using a composite nonlinear feedback controller.

  19. Characterization and modeling of CNT based actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riemenschneider, Johannes

    2009-10-01

    In order to get an understanding of the general characteristics of carbon nanotube (CNT) based actuators, the system response of the actuator was analyzed. Special techniques were developed in order to generate a reproducible characteristic measure for the material: the R-curve. In addition, the dynamic response of the system was evaluated in different states of the actuator. A model was generated to capture the general behavior of the system. Finally an actuator incorporating a solid electrolyte was built and tested, showing similar characteristics to an actuator with an aqueous electrolyte.

  20. Fabrication of Beam-rotating Actuator for Multiple-beam Disk Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Boung Jun; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kwak, Yoon Keun

    2002-05-01

    Current trends in computer and communication industries are towards increasingly higher resolution images and video processing techniques. However, such sophisticated processing tasks require massive storage systems such as a compact disk read only memory (CD-ROM) and digital versatile disc (DVD). Current demands in the development of such systems are higher data density storage media and an improved data transfer rate. The latter is discussed in this paper. A multiple-beam optical disk drive is presented as a method for improving the effective data transfer rate by increasing the beam spot number formed on an optical disk. The beam-rotating actuator is necessary for positioning the multiple-beam onto more than one track. Ray tracing was also employed for the real system setup. The beam-rotating actuator is made up of piezoelectric material, a high-stiffness wire hinge and a dove prism. The actuator has an approximately 1 kHz resonance frequency and a suitable operational range. The dynamic equation for the actuator is derived for the control of the real system.

  1. Actuator disk theory for incompressible highly rotating flows.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oates, G. C.

    1971-01-01

    A solution has been obtained for a stator-rotor pair operating in an annulus with constant hub and tip radii. The stator and rotor are represented as actuator discs, and perfect fluid flow is assumed. The solutions are exact within these limitations, no linearization being required. The forms of blade loadings considered allow the introduction of large vorticity by either the rotor or stator. As a result, the rotor may be a ?nonconstant-work' row. The solutions obtained are of summational form, but many of the summations are obtained in closed form, the resultant formulas allowing rapid calculation of desired examples. An example numerical result is included.

  2. Fabrication of piezoelectric ceramic micro-actuator and its reliability for hard disk drives.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yang; Luo, Jianbin; Yang, Wenyan; Ju, Guoxian

    2004-11-01

    A new U-type micro-actuator for precisely positioning a magnetic head in high-density hard disk drives was proposed and developed. The micro-actuator is composed of a U-type stainless steel substrate and two piezoelectric ceramic elements. Using a high-d31 piezoelectric coefficient PMN-PZT ceramic plate and adopting reactive ion etching process fabricate the piezoelectric elements. Reliability against temperature was investigated to ensure the practical application to the drive products. The U-type substrate attached to each side via piezoelectric elements also was simulated by the finite-element method and practically measured by a laser Doppler vibrometer in order to testify the driving mechanics of it. The micro-actuator coupled with two piezoelectric elements featured large displacement of 0.875 microm and high-resonance frequency over 22 kHz. The novel piezoelectric micro-actuators then possess a useful compromise performance to displacement, resonance frequency, and generative force. The results reveal that the new design concept provides a valuable alternative for multilayer piezoelectric micro-actuators.

  3. Optimization of sensing and feedback control for vibration/flutter of rotating disk by PZT actuators via air coupled pressure.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tianhong; Xu, Xinsheng; Han, Jianqiang; Lin, Rongming; Ju, Bingfeng; Li, Qing

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a feedback control mechanism and its optimization for rotating disk vibration/flutter via changes of air-coupled pressure generated using piezoelectric patch actuators are studied. A thin disk rotates in an enclosure, which is equipped with a feedback control loop consisting of a micro-sensor, a signal processor, a power amplifier, and several piezoelectric (PZT) actuator patches distributed on the cover of the enclosure. The actuator patches are mounted on the inner or the outer surfaces of the enclosure to produce necessary control force required through the airflow around the disk. The control mechanism for rotating disk flutter using enclosure surfaces bonded with sensors and piezoelectric actuators is thoroughly studied through analytical simulations. The sensor output is used to determine the amount of input to the actuator for controlling the response of the disk in a closed loop configuration. The dynamic stability of the disk-enclosure system, together with the feedback control loop, is analyzed as a complex eigenvalue problem, which is solved using Galerkin's discretization procedure. The results show that the disk flutter can be reduced effectively with proper configurations of the control gain and the phase shift through the actuations of PZT patches. The effectiveness of different feedback control methods in altering system characteristics and system response has been investigated. The control capability, in terms of control gain, phase shift, and especially the physical configuration of actuator patches, are also evaluated by calculating the complex eigenvalues and the maximum displacement produced by the actuators. To achieve a optimal control performance, sizes, positions and shapes of PZT patches used need to be optimized and such optimization has been achieved through numerical simulations.

  4. A Model of the THUNDER Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Alan R. D.

    1997-01-01

    A THUNDER actuator is a composite of three thin layers, a metal base, a piezoelectric wafer and a metal top cover, bonded together under pressure and at high temperature with the LaRC SI polyimid adhesive. When a voltage is applied between the metal layers across the PZT the actuator will bend and can generate a force. This document develops and describes an analytical model the transduction properties of THUNDER actuators. The model development is divided into three sections. First, a static model is described that relates internal stresses and strains and external displacements to the thermal pre-stress and applied voltage. Second, a dynamic energy based model is described that allows calculation of the resonance frequencies, developed force and electrical input impedance. Finally, a fully coupled electro-mechanical transducer model is described. The model development proceeds by assuming that both the thermal pre-stress and the piezoelectric actuation cause the actuator to deform in a pure bend in a single plane. It is useful to think of this as a two step process, the actuator is held flat, differential stresses induce a bending moment, the actuator is released and it bends. The thermal pre-stress is caused by the different amounts that the constituent layers shrink due to their different coefficients of thermal expansion. The adhesive between layers sets at a high temperature and as the actuator cools, the metal layers shrink more than the PZT. The PZT layer is put into compression while the metal layers are in tension. The piezoelectric actuation has a similar effect. An applied voltage causes the PZT layer to strain, which in turn strains the two metal layers. If the PZT layer expands it will put the metal layers into tension and PZT layer into compression. In both cases, if shear force effects are neglected, the actuator assembly will experience a uniform in-plane strain. As the materials each have a different elastic modulus, different stresses will

  5. Rate dependent direct inverse hysteresis compensation of piezoelectric micro-actuator used in dual-stage hard disk drive head positioning system.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Arifur; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Yao, Kui

    2015-08-01

    The head positioning servo system in hard disk drive is implemented nowadays using a dual-stage actuator—the primary stage consisting of a voice coil motor actuator providing long range motion and the secondary stage controlling the position of the read/write head with fine resolution. Piezoelectric micro-actuator made of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has been a popular choice for the secondary stage. However, PZT micro-actuator exhibits hysteresis—an inherent nonlinear characteristic of piezoelectric material. The advantage expected from using the secondary micro-actuator is somewhat lost by the hysteresis of the micro-actuator that contributes to tracking error. Hysteresis nonlinearity adversely affects the performance and, if not compensated, may cause inaccuracy and oscillation in the response. Compensation of hysteresis is therefore an important aspect for designing head-positioning servo system. This paper presents a new rate dependent model of hysteresis along with rigorous analysis and identification of the model. Parameters of the model are found using particle swarm optimization. Direct inverse of the proposed rate-dependent generalized Prandtl-Ishlinskii model is used as the hysteresis compensator. Effectiveness of the overall solution is underscored through experimental results.

  6. Rate dependent direct inverse hysteresis compensation of piezoelectric micro-actuator used in dual-stage hard disk drive head positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md. Arifur; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Yao, Kui

    2015-08-01

    The head positioning servo system in hard disk drive is implemented nowadays using a dual-stage actuator—the primary stage consisting of a voice coil motor actuator providing long range motion and the secondary stage controlling the position of the read/write head with fine resolution. Piezoelectric micro-actuator made of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has been a popular choice for the secondary stage. However, PZT micro-actuator exhibits hysteresis—an inherent nonlinear characteristic of piezoelectric material. The advantage expected from using the secondary micro-actuator is somewhat lost by the hysteresis of the micro-actuator that contributes to tracking error. Hysteresis nonlinearity adversely affects the performance and, if not compensated, may cause inaccuracy and oscillation in the response. Compensation of hysteresis is therefore an important aspect for designing head-positioning servo system. This paper presents a new rate dependent model of hysteresis along with rigorous analysis and identification of the model. Parameters of the model are found using particle swarm optimization. Direct inverse of the proposed rate-dependent generalized Prandtl-Ishlinskii model is used as the hysteresis compensator. Effectiveness of the overall solution is underscored through experimental results.

  7. DiskJockey: Protoplanetary disk modeling for dynamical mass derivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czekala, Ian

    2016-03-01

    DiskJockey derives dynamical masses for T Tauri stars using the Keplerian motion of their circumstellar disks, applied to radio interferometric data from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) and the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The package relies on RADMC-3D (ascl:1202.015) to perform the radiative transfer of the disk model. DiskJockey is designed to work in a parallel environment where the calculations for each frequency channel can be distributed to independent processors. Due to the computationally expensive nature of the radiative synthesis, fitting sizable datasets (e.g., SMA and ALMA) will require a substantial amount of CPU cores to explore a posterior distribution in a reasonable timeframe.

  8. Enhanced laser shutter using a hard disk drive rotary voice-coil actuator.

    PubMed

    Scholten, R E

    2007-02-01

    Rotary voice-coil motors from computer hard disk drives make excellent mechanical shutters for light beams. However, the complexity of the necessary electronic driving circuit can hinder their application. A new design is presented here, using a single integrated circuit originally intended for controlling dc motors. A digital input signal switches a unipolar power supply bidirectionally through the voice coil. Short high-current pulses are generated on the transitions to ensure rapid shutter action, while a low holding current reduces the power requirement and heating of the actuator. The circuit can reverse the current to brake the shutter and reduce the impact at the end of its travel. With a focused laser beam, the shutter achieves rise times below 500 ns. A method for producing variable length pulses is also described, demonstrating durations as short as 700 ns.

  9. A Simple Sensor Model for THUNDER Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Bryant, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    A quasi-static (low frequency) model is developed for THUNDER actuators configured as displacement sensors based on a simple Raleigh-Ritz technique. This model is used to calculate charge as a function of displacement. Using this and the calculated capacitance, voltage vs. displacement and voltage vs. electrical load curves are generated and compared with measurements. It is shown this model gives acceptable results and is useful for determining rough estimates of sensor output for various loads, laminate configurations and thicknesses.

  10. Bucky gel actuator displacement: experiment and model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghamsari, A. K.; Jin, Y.; Zegeye, E.; Woldesenbet, E.

    2013-02-01

    Bucky gel actuator (BGA) is a dry electroactive nanocomposite which is driven with a few volts. BGA’s remarkable features make this tri-layered actuator a potential candidate for morphing applications. However, most of these applications would require a better understanding of the effective parameters that influence the BGA displacement. In this study, various sets of experiments were designed to investigate the effect of several parameters on the maximum lateral displacement of BGA. Two input parameters, voltage and frequency, and three material/design parameters, carbon nanotube type, thickness, and weight fraction of constituents were selected. A new thickness ratio term was also introduced to study the role of individual layers on BGA displacement. A model was established to predict BGA maximum displacement based on the effect of these parameters. This model showed good agreement with reported results from the literature. In addition, an important factor in the design of BGA-based devices, lifetime, was investigated.

  11. Modeling and Adaptive Control of Magnetostrictive Actuators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    in using these and other smart actuators is at a high frequency – for producing large displacements with mechanical rectification, producing sonar...effects; and mechanical damping. We show rigorously that the system with the intial state at the origin has a periodic orbit as its Ω limit set. For the...Root locus of example system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 5.18 Mechanical system model at high frequencies. . . . . . . . . . . . 195 F.1

  12. How does the presence of a body affect the performance of an actuator disk ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, G.; Pereira, R. B.; Ragni, D.; Avallone, F.; van Bussel, G.

    2016-09-01

    The article seeks to unify the treatment of conservative force interactions between axi-symmetric bodies and actuators in inviscid flow. Applications include the study of hub interference, diffuser augmented wind turbines and boundary layer ingestion propeller configurations. The conservation equations are integrated over infinitesimal streamtubes to obtain an exact momentum model contemplating the interaction between an actuator and a nearby body. No assumptions on the shape or topology of the body are made besides (axi)symmetry. Laws are derived for the thrust coefficient, power coefficient and propulsive efficiency. The proposed methodology is articulated with previous efforts and validated against the numerical predictions of a planar vorticity equation solver. Very good agreement is obtained between the analytical and numerical methods.

  13. Modeling sgB[e] Circumstellar Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurfürst, P.; Feldmeier, A.; Krtička, J.

    2017-02-01

    During their evolution, massive stars are characterized by a significant loss of mass either via spherically symmetric stellar winds or by aspherical mass-loss mechanisms, namely outflowing equatorial disks. However, the scenario that leads to the formation of a disk or rings of gas and dust around these objects is still under debate. Is it a viscous disk or an ouftlowing disk-forming wind or some other mechanism? It is also unclear how various physical mechanisms that act on the circumstellar environment of the stars affect its shape, density, kinematic, and thermal structure. We assume that the disk-forming mechanism is a viscous transport within an equatorial outflowing disk of a rapidly or even critically rotating star. We study the hydrodynamic and thermal structure of optically thick dense parts of outflowing circumstellar disks that may form around, e.g., Be stars, sgB[e] stars, or Pop III stars. We calculate self-consistent time-dependent models of the inner dense region of the disk that is strongly affected either by irradiation from the central star and by contributions of viscous heating effects. We also simulate the dynamic effects of collision between expanding ejecta of supernovae and circumstellar disks that may be form in sgB[e] stars and, e.g., LBVs or Pop III stars.

  14. Pneumatic Artificial Muscle Actuation and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leephakpreeda, Thananchai; Wickramatunge, Kanchana C.

    2009-10-01

    A Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PAM) yields a natural muscle-like actuator with a high force to weight ratio, a soft and flexible structure, and adaptable compliance for a humanoid robot, rehabilitation and prosthetic appliances to the disabled, etc. To obtain optimum design and usage, the mechanical behavior of the PAM need to be understood. In this study, observations of experimental results reveal an empirical model for relations of physical variables, contraction and air pressure within the PAM, as compared to mechanical characteristics, such as stiffness or/and pulling forces of the PAM available now in market.

  15. Modeling Gas Distribution in Protoplanetary Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronberg, Martin; Lewis, Josiah; Brittain, Sean

    2010-07-01

    Protoplanetary accretion disks are disks of dust and gas which surround and feed material onto a forming star in the earliest stages of its evolution. One of the most useful methods for studying these disks is near infrared spectroscopy of rovibrational CO emission. This paper presents the methods in which synthetically generated spectra are modeled and fit to spectral data gathered from protoplanetary disks. This paper also discussed the methods in which this code can be improved by modifying the code to run a Monte Carlo analysis of best fit across the CONDOR cluster at Clemson University, thereby allowing for the creation of a catalog of protoplanetary disks with detailed information about them as gathered from the model.

  16. Modeling and control of a dielectric elastomer actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Ujjaval; Gu, Guo-Ying; Zhu, Jian

    2016-04-01

    The emerging field of soft robotics offers the prospect of applying soft actuators as artificial muscles in the robots, replacing traditional actuators based on hard materials, such as electric motors, piezoceramic actuators, etc. Dielectric elastomers are one class of soft actuators, which can deform in response to voltage and can resemble biological muscles in the aspects of large deformation, high energy density and fast response. Recent research into dielectric elastomers has mainly focused on issues regarding mechanics, physics, material designs and mechanical designs, whereas less importance is given to the control of these soft actuators. Strong nonlinearities due to large deformation and electromechanical coupling make control of the dielectric elastomer actuators challenging. This paper investigates feed-forward control of a dielectric elastomer actuator by using a nonlinear dynamic model. The material and physical parameters in the model are identified by quasi-static and dynamic experiments. A feed-forward controller is developed based on this nonlinear dynamic model. Experimental evidence shows that this controller can control the soft actuator to track the desired trajectories effectively. The present study confirms that dielectric elastomer actuators are capable of being precisely controlled with the nonlinear dynamic model despite the presence of material nonlinearity and electromechanical coupling. It is expected that the reported results can promote the applications of dielectric elastomer actuators to soft robots or biomimetic robots.

  17. Modeling of two-hot-arm horizontal thermal actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Dong; Khajepour, Amir; Mansour, Raafat

    2003-03-01

    Electrothermal actuators have a very promising future in MEMS applications since they can generate large deflection and force with low actuating voltages and small device areas. In this study, a lumped model of a two-hot-arm horizontal thermal actuator is presented. In order to prove the accuracy of the lumped model, finite element analysis (FEA) and experimental results are provided. The two-hot-arm thermal actuator has been fabricated using the MUMPs process. Both the experimental and FEA results are in good agreement with the results of lumped modeling.

  18. Analytic models of relativistic accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, V. V.

    2015-06-01

    We present not a literature review but a description, as detailed and consistent as possible, of two analytic models of disk accretion onto a rotating black hole: a standard relativistic disk and a twisted relativistic disk. Although one of these models is older than the other, both are of topical interest for black hole studies. The treatment is such that the reader with only a limited knowledge of general relativity and relativistic hydrodynamics, with little or no use of additional sources, can gain insight into many technical details lacking in the original papers.

  19. Modeling collisions in circumstellar debris disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesvold, Erika

    2015-10-01

    Observations of resolved debris disks show a spectacular variety of features and asymmetries, including inner cavities and gaps, inclined secondary disks or warps, and eccentric, sharp-edged rings. Embedded exoplanets could create many of these features via gravitational perturbations, which sculpt the disk directly and by generating planetesimal collisions. In this thesis, I present the Superparticle Model/Algorithm for Collisions in Kuiper belts and debris disks (SMACK), a new method for simultaneously modeling, in 3-D, the collisional and dynamical evolution of planetesimals in a debris disk with planets. SMACK can simulate azimuthal asymmetries and how these asymmetries evolve over time. I show that SMACK is stable to numerical viscosity and numerical heating over 107 yr, and that it can reproduce analytic models of disk evolution. As an example of the algorithm's capabilities, I use SMACK to model the evolution of a debris ring containing a planet on an eccentric orbit and demonstrate that differential precession creates a spiral structure as the ring evolves, but collisions subsequently break up the spiral, leaving a narrower eccentric ring. To demonstrate SMACK's utility in studying debris disk physics, I apply SMACK to simulate a planet on a circular orbit near a ring of planetesimals that are experiencing destructive collisions. Previous simulations of a planet opening a gap in a collisionless debris disk have found that the width of the gap scales as the planet mass to the 2/7th power (alpha = 2/7). I find that gap sizes in a collisional disk still obey a power law scaling with planet mass, but that the index alpha of the power law depends on the age of the system t relative to the collisional timescale t coll of the disk by alpha = 0.32(t/ tcoll)-0.04, with inferred planet masses up to five times smaller than those predicted by the classical gap law. The increased gap sizes likely stem from the interaction between collisions and the mean motion

  20. An MCMC Circumstellar Disks Modeling Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Schuyler; Perrin, Marshall D.; Mazoyer, Johan; Choquet, Elodie; Soummer, Remi; Ren, Bin; Pueyo, Laurent; Debes, John H.; Duchene, Gaspard; Pinte, Christophe; Menard, Francois

    2016-01-01

    We present an enhanced software framework for the Monte Carlo Markov Chain modeling of circumstellar disk observations, including spectral energy distributions and multi wavelength images from a variety of instruments (e.g. GPI, NICI, HST, WFIRST). The goal is to self-consistently and simultaneously fit a wide variety of observables in order to place constraints on the physical properties of a given disk, while also rigorously assessing the uncertainties in the derived properties. This modular code is designed to work with a collection of existing modeling tools, ranging from simple scripts to define the geometry for optically thin debris disks, to full radiative transfer modeling of complex grain structures in protoplanetary disks (using the MCFOST radiative transfer modeling code). The MCMC chain relies on direct chi squared comparison of model images/spectra to observations. We will include a discussion of how best to weight different observations in the modeling of a single disk and how to incorporate forward modeling from PCA PSF subtraction techniques. The code is open source, python, and available from github. Results for several disks at various evolutionary stages will be discussed.

  1. Modeling actuation forces and strains in nastic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Luke A.; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2006-03-01

    Nastic structures are capable of three dimensional shape change using biological principles borrowed from plant motion. The plant motor cells increase or decrease in size through a change in osmotic pressure. When nonuniform cell swelling occurs, it causes the plant tissue to warp and change shape, resulting it net movement, known as nastic motion, which is the same phenomena that causes plants to angle their broad leaf and flower surfaces to face light sources. The nastic structures considered in this paper are composed of a bilayer of microactuator arrays with a fluid reservoir in between the two layers. The actuators are housed in a thin plate and expand when water from the fluid reservoir is pumped into the actuation chamber through a phospholipid bilayer with embedded active transport proteins, which move the water from the low pressure fluid reservoir into a high pressure actuation chamber. Increasing water pressure inside the actuator causes lateral expansion and axial bulging, and the non-uniform net volume change of actuators throughout the nastic structure results in twisting or bending shape change. Modifying the actuation displacement allows controlled volume change. This paper presents an analytical model of the driving and blocking forces involved in actuation, as well as stress and strain that occurs due to the pressure changes. Actuation is driven by increasing osmotic pressure, and blocking forces are taken into consideration to plan actuator response so that outside forces do not counteract the displacement of actuation. Nastic structures are designed with use in unmanned aerial vehicles in mind, so blocking forces are modeled to be similar to in-flight conditions. Stress in the system is modeled so that any residual strain or lasting deformation can be determined, as well as a lifespan before failure from repeated actuation. The long-term aim of our work is to determine the power and energy efficiency of nastic structures actuation mechanism.

  2. Piezoelectric Actuator Modeling Using MSC/NASTRAN and MATLAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reaves, Mercedes C.; Horta, Lucas G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure for modeling structures containing piezoelectric actuators using MSCMASTRAN and MATLAB. The paper describes the utility and functionality of one set of validated modeling tools. The tools described herein use MSCMASTRAN to model the structure with piezoelectric actuators and a thermally induced strain to model straining of the actuators due to an applied voltage field. MATLAB scripts are used to assemble the dynamic equations and to generate frequency response functions. The application of these tools is discussed using a cantilever aluminum beam with a surface mounted piezoelectric actuator as a sample problem. Software in the form of MSCINASTRAN DMAP input commands, MATLAB scripts, and a step-by-step procedure to solve the example problem are provided. Analysis results are generated in terms of frequency response functions from deflection and strain data as a function of input voltage to the actuator.

  3. Modeling Piezoelectric Stack Actuators for Control of Micromanipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldfarb, Michael; Celanovic, Nikola

    1997-01-01

    A nonlinear lumped-parameter model of a piezoelectric stack actuator has been developed to describe actuator behavior for purposes of control system analysis and design, and, in particular, for microrobotic applications requiring accurate position and/or force control. In formulating this model, the authors propose a generalized Maxwell resistive capacitor as a lumped-parameter causal representation of rate-independent hysteresis. Model formulation is validated by comparing results of numerical simulations to experimental data. Validation is followed by a discussion of model implications for purposes of actuator control.

  4. An Anisotropic Multiphysics Model for Intervertebral Disk

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xin; Zhu, Qiaoqiao; Gu, Weiyong

    2016-01-01

    Intervertebral disk (IVD) is the largest avascular structure in human body, consisting of three types of charged hydrated soft tissues. Its mechanical behavior is nonlinear and anisotropic, due mainly to nonlinear interactions among different constituents within tissues. In this study, a more realistic anisotropic multiphysics model was developed based on the continuum mixture theory and employed to characterize the couplings of multiple physical fields in the IVD. Numerical simulations demonstrate that this model is capable of systematically predicting the mechanical and electrochemical signals within the disk under various loading conditions, which is essential in understanding the mechanobiology of IVD. PMID:27099402

  5. Modeling and design of a high-performance hybrid actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloufi, Badr; Behdinan, Kamran; Zu, Jean

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents the model and design of a novel hybrid piezoelectric actuator which provides high active and passive performances for smart structural systems. The actuator is composed of a pair of curved pre-stressed piezoelectric actuators, so-called commercially THUNDER actuators, installed opposite each other using two clamping mechanisms constructed of in-plane fixable hinges, grippers and solid links. A fully mathematical model is developed to describe the active and passive dynamics of the actuator and investigate the effects of its geometrical parameters on the dynamic stiffness, free displacement and blocked force properties. Among the literature that deals with piezoelectric actuators in which THUNDER elements are used as a source of electromechanical power, the proposed study is unique in that it presents a mathematical model that has the ability to predict the actuator characteristics and achieve other phenomena, such as resonances, mode shapes, phase shifts, dips, etc. For model validation, the measurements of the free dynamic response per unit voltage and passive acceleration transmissibility of a particular actuator design are used to check the accuracy of the results predicted by the model. The results reveal that there is a good agreement between the model and experiment. Another experiment is performed to teste the linearity of the actuator system by examining the variation of the output dynamic responses with varying forces and voltages at different frequencies. From the results, it can be concluded that the actuator acts approximately as a linear system at frequencies up to 1000 Hz. A parametric study is achieved here by applying the developed model to analyze the influence of the geometrical parameters of the fixable hinges on the active and passive actuator properties. The model predictions in the frequency range of 0-1000 Hz show that the hinge thickness, radius, and opening angle parameters have great effects on the frequency dynamic

  6. A disk-pivot structure micro piezoelectric actuator using vibration mode B11.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xiangcheng; Ma, Long; Li, Longtu

    2006-12-22

    Micro piezoelectric actuator using vibration mode B(11) (B(mn), where m is the number of nodal circles, n is the nodal diameters) is designed. Different from conventional wobble-type ultrasonic motor using piezoelectric rod or cylinder, piezoelectric disc is used to excite wobble modes and metal cylinder stator is used to amplify the transverse displacement, metal rod rotor is actuated to rotate. The outer diameter of the actuator is 14mm. There are features such as low drive voltage, micromation, and convenient control of wobble state by modifying the structure of stator, etc. Finite element analysis (FEA) of the stator has been made. It is found that the resonant frequency of vibration mode B(11) is 49.03kHz, which is measured at 45.7kHz by the laser vibrometer and impedance analyzer. The rotation speed has been measured, which could be as high as 10,071rpm under an alternating current 100V. Such piezoelectric actuator can be optimized and adjusted to fit practical conditions. It can be applied in the fields of precise instrument, bioengineering and other micro actuator system.

  7. Thrust Production and Wake Structure of an Actuated Lamprey Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, James; Smits, Alexander

    2004-11-01

    Thrust generation is studied for a flexible lamprey model which is actuated periodically to produce a streamwise traveling wave. Shape memory alloy actuators are used to achieve this deformation. The flow field is investigated using DPIV and flow visualization for a range of Strouhal numbers based on peak-to-peak amplitude of the trailing edge. The vortex kinematics in the spanwise and streamwise planes are examined, and a three-dimensional unsteady vortex model of the wake will be discussed.

  8. ON THE TRANSITIONAL DISK CLASS: LINKING OBSERVATIONS OF T TAURI STARS AND PHYSICAL DISK MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Espaillat, C.; Andrews, S.; Qi, C.; Wilner, D.; Ingleby, L.; Calvet, N.; Hernandez, J.; Furlan, E.; D'Alessio, P.; Muzerolle, J. E-mail: sandrews@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: dwilner@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: ncalvet@umich.edu E-mail: Elise.Furlan@jpl.nasa.gov E-mail: muzerol@stsci.edu

    2012-03-10

    Two decades ago 'transitional disks' (TDs) described spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of T Tauri stars with small near-IR excesses, but significant mid- and far-IR excesses. Many inferred this indicated dust-free holes in disks possibly cleared by planets. Recently, this term has been applied disparately to objects whose Spitzer SEDs diverge from the expectations for a typical full disk (FD). Here, we use irradiated accretion disk models to fit the SEDs of 15 such disks in NGC 2068 and IC 348. One group has a 'dip' in infrared emission while the others' continuum emission decreases steadily at all wavelengths. We find that the former have an inner disk hole or gap at intermediate radii in the disk and we call these objects 'transitional disks' and 'pre-transitional disks' (PTDs), respectively. For the latter group, we can fit these SEDs with FD models and find that millimeter data are necessary to break the degeneracy between dust settling and disk mass. We suggest that the term 'transitional' only be applied to objects that display evidence for a radical change in the disk's radial structure. Using this definition, we find that TDs and PTDs tend to have lower mass accretion rates than FDs and that TDs have lower accretion rates than PTDs. These reduced accretion rates onto the star could be linked to forming planets. Future observations of TDs and PTDs will allow us to better quantify the signatures of planet formation in young disks.

  9. Modeling of Radiative Transfer in Protostellar Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VonAllmen, Paul; Turner, Neal

    2007-01-01

    This program implements a spectral line, radiative transfer tool for interpreting Spitzer Space Telescope observations by matching them with models of protostellar disks for improved understanding of planet and star formation. The Spitzer Space Telescope detects gas phase molecules in the infrared spectra of protostellar disks, with spectral lines carrying information on the chemical composition of the material from which planets form. Input to the software includes chemical models developed at JPL. The products are synthetic images and spectra for comparison with Spitzer measurements. Radiative transfer in a protostellar disk is primarily affected by absorption and emission processes in the dust and in molecular gases such as H2, CO, and HCO. The magnitude of the optical absorption and emission is determined by the population of the electronic, vibrational, and rotational energy levels. The population of the molecular level is in turn determined by the intensity of the radiation field. Therefore, the intensity of the radiation field and the population of the molecular levels are inter-dependent quantities. To meet the computational challenges of solving for the coupled radiation field and electronic level populations in disks having wide ranges of optical depths and spatial scales, the tool runs in parallel on the JPL Dell Cluster supercomputer with C++ and Fortran compiler with a Message Passing Interface. Because this software has been developed on a distributed computing platform, the modeling of systems previously beyond the reach of available computational resources is possible.

  10. Effective Motion Tracking Using Known and Learned Actuation Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-06

    Tactic-Based Motion Model (TBMM), Play-Based Motion Model (PBMM) and Communication-Based Motion Model ( CBMM ). TBMM is the basic object motion model when...plays. CBMM is an extension of PBMM when robots communicate their actions on the object. • We incorporate a single robot and a team actuation models

  11. An Actuator Curve Embedding Method to Model Wind Turbine Wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Pankaj; Schmitz, Sven

    2013-11-01

    The Actuator Line Method (ALM) is widely used in the wind energy community to model the complex interactions within large wind farms in large-eddy simulation (LES) of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) at various stability states. The state-of-the-art in ALM modeling is rooted in the work of Sorensen and Shen (2002). The major weakness of the ALM still remains in having the actuator line discretized as a superposition of individual spherically-spread body forces. The associated overlap of adjacent spherical force fields leads to a large sensitivity of computed blade loads to the way in which the spherical spreading radius is altered along the actuator line (Jha et al. 2013). An Actuator Curve Embedding (ACE) method is developed that considers a general actuator line in 3-D space where the force distribution along the actuator curve is embedded continuously onto the background mesh and without overlap. The ACE method thus is expected to show improved body-force discretization for wind turbine blades, in particular those subject to aeroelastic deformations. Some preliminary results contrasting the ALM and ACE methods are discussed. Support: DOE. Graduate Research Assistant, Aerospace Engineering.

  12. Dynamic modeling of brushless dc motors for aerospace actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demerdash, N. A.; Nehl, T. W.

    1980-11-01

    A discrete time model for simulation of the dynamics of samarium cobalt-type permanent magnet brushless dc machines is presented. The simulation model includes modeling of the interaction between these machines and their attached power conditioners. These are transistorized conditioner units. This model is part of an overall discrete-time analysis of the dynamic performance of electromechanical actuators, which was conducted as part of prototype development of such actuators studied and built for NASA-Johnson Space Center as a prospective alternative to hydraulic actuators presently used in shuttle orbiter applications. The resulting numerical simulations of the various machine and power conditioner current and voltage waveforms gave excellent correlation to the actual waveforms collected from actual hardware experimental testing. These results, numerical and experimental, are presented here for machine motoring, regeneration and dynamic braking modes. Application of the resulting model to the determination of machine current and torque profiles during closed-loop actuator operation were also analyzed and the results are given here. These results are given in light of an overall view of the actuator system components. The applicability of this method of analysis to design optimization and trouble-shooting in such prototype development is also discussed in light of the results at hand.

  13. Dynamic modeling of brushless dc motors for aerospace actuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demerdash, N. A.; Nehl, T. W.

    1980-01-01

    A discrete time model for simulation of the dynamics of samarium cobalt-type permanent magnet brushless dc machines is presented. The simulation model includes modeling of the interaction between these machines and their attached power conditioners. These are transistorized conditioner units. This model is part of an overall discrete-time analysis of the dynamic performance of electromechanical actuators, which was conducted as part of prototype development of such actuators studied and built for NASA-Johnson Space Center as a prospective alternative to hydraulic actuators presently used in shuttle orbiter applications. The resulting numerical simulations of the various machine and power conditioner current and voltage waveforms gave excellent correlation to the actual waveforms collected from actual hardware experimental testing. These results, numerical and experimental, are presented here for machine motoring, regeneration and dynamic braking modes. Application of the resulting model to the determination of machine current and torque profiles during closed-loop actuator operation were also analyzed and the results are given here. These results are given in light of an overall view of the actuator system components. The applicability of this method of analysis to design optimization and trouble-shooting in such prototype development is also discussed in light of the results at hand.

  14. Computational Modeling of Magnetically Actuated Propellant Orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, John I.

    1996-01-01

    sufficient performance to support cryogenic propellant management tasks. In late 1992, NASA MSFC began a new investigation in this technology commencing with the design of the Magnetically-Actuated Propellant Orientation (MAPO) experiment. A mixture of ferrofluid and water is used to simulate the paramagnetic properties of LOX and the experiment is being flown on the KC-135 aircraft to provide a reduced gravity environment. The influence of a 0.4 Tesla ring magnet on flow into and out of a subscale Plexiglas tank is being recorded on video tape. The most efficient approach to evaluating the feasibility of MAPO is to compliment the experimental program with development of a computational tool to model the process of interest. The goal of the present research is to develop such a tool. Once confidence in its fidelity is established by comparison to data from the MAPO experiment, it can be used to assist in the design of future experiments and to study the parameter space of the process. Ultimately, it is hoped that the computational model can serve as a design tool for full-scale spacecraft applications.

  15. Non-Linear Finite Element Modeling of THUNDER Piezoelectric Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taleghani, Barmac K.; Campbell, Joel F.

    1999-01-01

    A NASTRAN non-linear finite element model has been developed for predicting the dome heights of THUNDER (THin Layer UNimorph Ferroelectric DrivER) piezoelectric actuators. To analytically validate the finite element model, a comparison was made with a non-linear plate solution using Von Karmen's approximation. A 500 volt input was used to examine the actuator deformation. The NASTRAN finite element model was also compared with experimental results. Four groups of specimens were fabricated and tested. Four different input voltages, which included 120, 160, 200, and 240 Vp-p with a 0 volts offset, were used for this comparison.

  16. Validation of the Actuator Line Model with coarse resolution in atmospheric sheared and turbulent inflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, M.; Guggeri, A.; Usera, G.

    2016-09-01

    Wind energy has become cost competitive in recent years for several reasons. Among them, wind turbines have become more efficient, increasing its size, both rotor diameter and tower height. This growth in size makes the prediction of the wind flow through wind turbines more challenging. To avoid the computational cost related to resolve the blade boundary layer as well as the atmospheric boundary layer, actuator models have been proposed in the past few years. Among them, the Actuator Line Model (ALM) has shown to reproduce with reasonable accuracy the wind flow in the wake of a wind turbine with moderately computational cost. However, its use to simulate the flow through wind farms requires a spatial resolution and a time step that makes it unaffordable in some cases. The present paper aims to assess the ALM with coarser resolution and larger time step than what is generally recommended, taking into account an atmospheric sheared and turbulent inflow condition and comparing the results with the Actuator Disk Model with Rotation (ADM-R) and experimental data. To accomplish this, a well known wind tunnel campaign is considered as validation case.

  17. Modeling gas-dust interactions in debris disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richert, Alex J. W.; Kuchner, Marc J.; Lyra, Wladimir

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of gas in debris disks has raised the question of whether gas-dust interactions can observably affect global disk structure. This has important implications for identifying planets in debris disks, as well as probing dust grain composition, which is key to understanding the habitability of planetary systems. In this dissertation talk, I present two-dimensional global hydrodynamical models of debris disks with gas and discuss the effects of the gas on the global distribution of the dust.

  18. Hydrodynamical Modeling of Large Circumstellar Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurfürst, P.; Krtǐcka, J.

    2016-11-01

    Direct centrifugal ejection from a critically or near-critically rotating surface forms a gaseous equatorial decretion disk. Anomalous viscosity provides the efficient mechanism for transporting the angular momentum outwards. The outer part of the disk can extend up to a very large distance from the parent star. We study the evolution of density, radial and azimuthal velocity, and angular momentum loss rate of equatorial decretion disks out to very distant regions. We investigate how the physical characteristics of the disk depend on the distribution of temperature and viscosity. We also study the magnetorotational instability, which is considered to be the origin of anomalous viscosity in outflowing disks. We use analytical calculations to study the stability of outflowing disks submerged to the magnetic field. At large radii the instability disappears in the region where the disk orbital velocity is roughly equal to the sound speed. Therefore, the disk sonic radius can be roughly considered as an outer disk radius.

  19. Nonthermal accretion disk models around neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavani, M.; Liang, Edison P.

    1994-01-01

    We consider the structure and emission spectra of nonthermal accretion disks around both strongly and weakly magnetized neutron stars. Such disks may be dissipating their gravitational binding energy and transferring their angular momentum via semicontinuous magnetic reconnections. We consider specifically the structure of the disk-stellar magnetospheric boundary where magnetic pressure balances the disk pressure. We consider energy dissipation via reconnection of the stellar field and small-scale disk turbulent fields of opposite polarity. Constraints on the disk emission spectrum are discussed.

  20. TOWARD A GLOBAL EVOLUTIONARY MODEL OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Xue-Ning

    2016-04-20

    A global picture of the evolution  of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) is key to understanding almost every aspect of planet formation, where standard α-disk models have been continually employed for their simplicity. In the meantime, disk mass loss has been conventionally attributed to photoevaporation, which controls disk dispersal. However, a paradigm shift toward accretion driven by magnetized disk winds has taken place in recent years, thanks to studies of non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic effects in PPDs. I present a framework of global PPD evolution aiming to incorporate these advances, highlighting the role of wind-driven accretion and wind mass loss. Disk evolution is found to be largely dominated by wind-driven processes, and viscous spreading is suppressed. The timescale of disk evolution is controlled primarily by the amount of external magnetic flux threading the disks, and how rapidly the disk loses the flux. Rapid disk dispersal can be achieved if the disk is able to hold most of its magnetic flux during the evolution. In addition, because wind launching requires a sufficient level of ionization at the disk surface (mainly via external far-UV (FUV) radiation), wind kinematics is also affected by the FUV penetration depth and disk geometry. For a typical disk lifetime of a few million years, the disk loses approximately the same amount of mass through the wind as through accretion onto the protostar, and most of the wind mass loss proceeds from the outer disk via a slow wind. Fractional wind mass loss increases with increasing disk lifetime. Significant wind mass loss likely substantially enhances the dust-to-gas mass ratio and promotes planet formation.

  1. Modeling and Synthesis Methods for Retrofit Design of Submarine Actuation Systems. Energy Storage for Electric Actuators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-15

    for Retrofit Design of Submarine Actuation Systems 5b. GRANT NUMBER Energy Storage for Electric Actuators NOOO 14-08-1-0424 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...are used to derive power and energy storage requirements for control surface actuation during extreme submarine maneuvers, such as emergency...and for initially sizing system components. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Submarines, electromagnetic actuators, energy storage , simulation-based design

  2. Vibro-Acoustic Model of a Disk Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ming-Ran; Singh, Rajendra

    A new mathematical model of the vibro-acoustic characteristics of a computer hard-disk drive is presented in this paper. In particular, a mobility transfer function is defined that links sound radiated by a stationary or rotating disk to electromagnetic torque pulsations and structural dynamics. A simplified disk-drive system consisting of a brushless d.c. motor driving a single disk-spindle assembly, which is mounted on a flexible casing, is considered as the example case. Parametric studies illustrate the roles of bearing stiffness and disk geometry on the vibration and radiated sound.

  3. Modelling and control of double-cone dielectric elastomer actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branz, F.; Francesconi, A.

    2016-09-01

    Among various dielectric elastomer devices, cone actuators are of large interest for their multi-degree-of-freedom design. These objects combine the common advantages of dielectric elastomers (i.e. solid-state actuation, self-sensing capability, high conversion efficiency, light weight and low cost) with the possibility to actuate more than one degree of freedom in a single device. The potential applications of this feature in robotics are huge, making cone actuators very attractive. This work focuses on rotational degrees of freedom to complete existing literature and improve the understanding of such aspect. Simple tools are presented for the performance prediction of the device: finite element method simulations and interpolating relations have been used to assess the actuator steady-state behaviour in terms of torque and rotation as a function of geometric parameters. Results are interpolated by fit relations accounting for all the relevant parameters. The obtained data are validated through comparison with experimental results: steady-state torque and rotation are determined at a given high voltage actuation. In addition, the transient response to step input has been measured and, as a result, the voltage-to-torque and the voltage-to-rotation transfer functions are obtained. Experimental data are collected and used to validate the prediction capability of the transfer function in terms of time response to step input and frequency response. The developed static and dynamic models have been employed to implement a feedback compensator that controls the device motion; the simulated behaviour is compared to experimental data, resulting in a maximum prediction error of 7.5%.

  4. Models of unsaturated Compton disks around supermassive black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, E. P. T.; Thompson, K. A.

    1979-01-01

    Two inverse-Compton disk models for the hard X-ray spectra of quasi-stellar objects and active galactic nuclei are studied and compared. One is a slightly generalized version of the Shapiro, Lightman and Eardley optically thin disk model, and the other is a conduction-stabilized Corona model. Observational distinctions between the two models are discussed.

  5. Design, test and model of a hybrid magnetostrictive hydraulic actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Anirban; Yoo, Jin-Hyeong; Wereley, Norman M.

    2009-08-01

    The basic operation of hybrid hydraulic actuators involves high frequency bi-directional operation of an active material that is converted to uni-directional motion of hydraulic fluid using valves. A hybrid actuator was developed using magnetostrictive material Terfenol-D as the driving element and hydraulic oil as the working fluid. Two different lengths of Terfenol-D rod, 51 and 102 mm, with the same diameter, 12.7 mm, were used. Tests with no load and with load were carried out to measure the performance for uni-directional motion of the output piston at different pumping frequencies. The maximum no-load flow rates were 24.8 cm3 s-1 and 22.7 cm3 s-1 with the 51 mm and 102 mm long rods respectively, and the peaks were noted around 325 Hz pumping frequency. The blocked force of the actuator was close to 89 N in both cases. A key observation was that, at these high pumping frequencies, the inertial effects of the fluid mass dominate over the viscous effects and the problem becomes unsteady in nature. In this study, we also develop a mathematical model of the hydraulic hybrid actuator in the time domain to show the basic operational principle under varying conditions and to capture phenomena affecting system performance. Governing equations for the pumping piston and output shaft were obtained from force equilibrium considerations, while compressibility of the working fluid was taken into account by incorporating the bulk modulus. Fluid inertia was represented by a lumped parameter approach to the transmission line model, giving rise to strongly coupled ordinary differential equations. The model was then used to calculate the no-load velocities of the actuator at different pumping frequencies and simulation results were compared with experimental data for model validation.

  6. Model For Bending Actuators That Use Electrostrictive Graft Elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costen, Robert C.; Su, Ji; Harrison, Joycelyn S.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, it was reported that an electrostrictive graft elastomer exhibits large electric field-induced strain (4%). Combined with its high mechanical modulus, the elastomer can offer very promising electromechanical properties, in terms of output mechanical energy density, for an electroactive polymeric material. Therefore, it has been considered as one of the candidates that can be used in high performance, low mass actuation devices in many aerospace applications. Various bilayer- based bending actuators have been designed and fabricated. An analytic model based on beam theory in the strength of materials has been derived for the transverse deflection, or curvature, and the longitudinal strain of the bi-layer beam. The curvature and strain are functions of the applied voltage and the thickness, width, and Young s modulus of the active and passive layers. The model can be used to optimize the performance of electrostrictive graft elastomer-based actuators to meet the requirements of various applications. In this presentation, optimization and sensitivity studies are applied to the bending performance of such actuators.

  7. Modelling of a microfluidic device with piezoelectric actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, Hermann; Heinzl, Joachim

    2004-08-01

    This paper presents the modelling of a given microfluidic device, that is applied as a drop-on-demand printhead for different printing tasks. Piezoelectric bend mode actuators are used to eject a droplet from the respective nozzle on demand. The device is considered as a coupled system consisting of an electric, a mechanical and a fluidic part. The electric and mechanical parts of the piezoelectric actuator are described by conventional lumped elements, while the complex three-dimensional fluid analysis is performed by a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) free-surface modelling package. The model helps one to understand the fluid dynamics and thus to study different design and operating parameter aspects. The general approach to the problem of modelling a microfluidic device as presented here can also be applied in various other modelling tasks.

  8. Three Dimensional Modeling of an MRI Actuated Steerable Catheter System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Taoming; Cavuşoğlu, M Cenk

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the three dimensional kinematic modeling of a novel steerable robotic ablation catheter system. The catheter, embedded with a set of current-carrying micro-coils, is actuated by the magnetic forces generated by the magnetic field of the MRI scanner. This paper develops a 3D model of the MRI actuated steerable catheter system by using finite differences approach. For each finite segment, a quasi-static torque-deflection equilibrium equation is calculated using beam theory. By using the deflection displacements and torsion angles, the kinematic modeling of the catheter system is derived. The proposed models are evaluated by comparing the simulation results of the proposed model with the experimental results of a proof-of-concept prototype.

  9. Three Dimensional Modeling of an MRI Actuated Steerable Catheter System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Taoming; Çavuşoğlu, M. Cenk

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the three dimensional kinematic modeling of a novel steerable robotic ablation catheter system. The catheter, embedded with a set of current-carrying micro-coils, is actuated by the magnetic forces generated by the magnetic field of the MRI scanner. This paper develops a 3D model of the MRI actuated steerable catheter system by using finite differences approach. For each finite segment, a quasi-static torque-deflection equilibrium equation is calculated using beam theory. By using the deflection displacements and torsion angles, the kinematic modeling of the catheter system is derived. The proposed models are evaluated by comparing the simulation results of the proposed model with the experimental results of a proof-of-concept prototype. PMID:25328804

  10. Analytical model of an Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD) laboratory test model magnetic bearing actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, N. J.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical model of an Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD) laboratory test model magnetic bearing actuator with permanent magnet fluxbiasing is presented. An AMCD consists of a spinning annular rim which is suspended by a noncontacting linear electromagnetic spin motor. The actuator is treated as a lumped-parameter electromechanical system in the development of the model.

  11. Zipping dielectric elastomer actuators: characterization, design and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffli, L.; Rosset, S.; Shea, H. R.

    2013-10-01

    We report on miniature dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) operating in zipping mode with an analytical model that predicts their behavior. Electrostatic zipping is a well-known mechanism in silicon MEMS to obtain large deformations and forces at lower voltages than for parallel plate electrostatic actuation. We extend this concept to DEAs, which allows us to obtain much larger out-of-plane displacements compared to silicon thanks to the softness of the elastomer membrane. We study experimentally the effect of sidewall angles and elastomer prestretch on 2.3 mm diameter actuators with PDMS membranes. With 15° and 22.5° sidewall angles, the devices zip in a bistable manner down 300 μm to the bottom of the chambers. The highly tunable bistable behavior is controllable by both chamber geometry and membrane parameters. Other specific characteristics of zipping DEAs include well-controlled deflected shape, tunable displacement versus voltage characteristics to virtually any shape, including multi-stable modes, sealing of embedded holes or channels for valving action and the reduction of the operating voltage. These properties make zipping DEAs an excellent candidate for applications such as integrated microfluidics actuators or Braille displays.

  12. TVC actuator model. [for the space shuttle main engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baslock, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    A prototype Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Thrust Vector Control (TVC) Actuator analog model was successfully completed. The prototype, mounted on five printed circuit (PC) boards, was delivered to NASA, checked out and tested using a modular replacement technique on an analog computer. In all cases, the prototype model performed within the recording techniques of the analog computer which is well within the tolerances of the specifications.

  13. Analytical design model for a piezo-composite unimorph actuator and its verification using lightweight piezo-composite curved actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, K. J.; Park, K. H.; Lee, S. K.; Goo, N. S.; Park, H. C.

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes an analytical design model for a layered piezo-composite unimorph actuator and its numerical and experimental verification using a LIPCA (lightweight piezo-composite curved actuator) that is lighter than other conventional piezo-composite type actuators. The LIPCA is composed of top fiber composite layers with high modulus and low CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion), a middle PZT ceramic wafer, and base layers with low modulus and high CTE. The advantages of the LIPCA design are to replace the heavy metal layer of THUNDER by lightweight fiber-reinforced plastic layers without compromising the generation of high force and large displacement and to have design flexibility by selecting the fiber direction and the number of prepreg layers. In addition to the lightweight advantage and design flexibility, the proposed device can be manufactured without adhesive layers when we use a resin prepreg system. A piezo-actuation model for a laminate with piezo-electric material layers and fiber composite layers is proposed to predict the curvature and residual stress of the LIPCA. To predict the actuation displacement of the LIPCA with curvature, a finite element analysis method using the proposed piezo-actuation model is introduced. The predicted deformations are in good agreement with the experimental ones.

  14. Characterization and modeling of electrostatically actuated polysilicon micromechanical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Edward Keat Leem

    Sensors, actuators, transducers, microsystems and MEMS (MicroElertroMechanical Systems) are some of the terms describing technologies that interface information processing systems with the physical world. Electrostatically actuated micromechanical devices are important building blocks in many of these technologies. Arrays of these devices are used in video projection displays, fluid pumping systems, optical communications systems, tunable lasers and microwave circuits. Well-calibrated simulation tools are essential for propelling ideas from the drawing board into production. This work characterizes a fabrication process---the widely-used polysilicon MUMPs process---to facilitate the design of electrostatically actuated micromechanical devices. The operating principles of a representative device---a capacitive microwave switch---are characterized using a wide range of electrical and optical measurements of test structures along with detailed electromechanical simulations. Consistency in the extraction of material properties from measurements of both pull-in voltage and buckling amplitude is demonstrated. Gold is identified as an area-dependent source of nonuniformity in polysilicon thicknesses and stress. Effects of stress gradients, substrate curvature, and film coverage are examined quantitatively. Using well-characterized beams as in-situ surface probes, capacitance-voltage and surface profile measurements reveal that compressible surface residue modifies the effective electrical gap when the movable electrode contacts an underlying silicon nitride layer. A compressible contact surface model used in simulations improves the fit to measurements. In addition, the electric field across the nitride causes charge to build up in the nitride, increasing the measured capacitance over time. The rate of charging corresponds to charge injection through direct tunneling. A novel actuator that can travel stably beyond one-third of the initial gap (a trademark limitation of

  15. Modeling integrated sensor/actuator functions in realistic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Wan; Varadan, Vasundara V.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    1993-07-01

    Smart materials are expected to adapt to their environment and provide a useful response to changes in the environment. Both the sensor and actuator functions with the appropriate feedback mechanism must be integrated and comprise the `brains' of the material. Piezoelectric ceramics have proved to be effective as both sensors and actuators for a wide variety of applications. Thus, realistic simulation models are needed that can predict the performance of smart materials that incorporate piezoceramics. The environment may include the structure on which the transducers are mounted, fluid medium and material damping. In all cases, the smart material should sense the change and make a useful response. A hybrid numerical method involving finite element modeling in the plate structure and transducer region and a plane wave representation in the fluid region is used. The simulation of the performance of smart materials are performed.

  16. Modeling Dust Emission of HL Tau Disk Based on Planet-Disk Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Sheng; Li, Shengtai; Isella, Andrea; Li, Hui; Ji, Jianghui

    2016-02-09

    In this paper, we use extensive global two-dimensional hydrodynamic disk gas+dust simulations with embedded planets, coupled with three-dimensional radiative transfer calculations, to model the dust ring and gap structures in the HL Tau protoplanetary disk observed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). We include the self-gravity of disk gas and dust components and make reasonable choices of disk parameters, assuming an already settled dust distribution and no planet migration. We can obtain quite adequate fits to the observed dust emission using three planets with masses of 0.35, 0.17, and 0.26 MJup at 13.1, 33.0, and 68.6 AU, respectively. Finally, implications for the planet formation as well as the limitations of this scenario are discussed.

  17. Modeling Dust Emission of HL Tau Disk Based on Planet-Disk Interactions

    DOE PAGES

    Jin, Sheng; Li, Shengtai; Isella, Andrea; ...

    2016-02-09

    In this paper, we use extensive global two-dimensional hydrodynamic disk gas+dust simulations with embedded planets, coupled with three-dimensional radiative transfer calculations, to model the dust ring and gap structures in the HL Tau protoplanetary disk observed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). We include the self-gravity of disk gas and dust components and make reasonable choices of disk parameters, assuming an already settled dust distribution and no planet migration. We can obtain quite adequate fits to the observed dust emission using three planets with masses of 0.35, 0.17, and 0.26 MJup at 13.1, 33.0, and 68.6 AU, respectively. Finally,more » implications for the planet formation as well as the limitations of this scenario are discussed.« less

  18. MODELING DUST EMISSION OF HL TAU DISK BASED ON PLANET–DISK INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Sheng; Ji, Jianghui; Li, Shengtai; Li, Hui; Isella, Andrea

    2016-02-10

    We use extensive global two-dimensional hydrodynamic disk gas+dust simulations with embedded planets, coupled with three-dimensional radiative transfer calculations, to model the dust ring and gap structures in the HL Tau protoplanetary disk observed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). We include the self-gravity of disk gas and dust components and make reasonable choices of disk parameters, assuming an already settled dust distribution and no planet migration. We can obtain quite adequate fits to the observed dust emission using three planets with masses of 0.35, 0.17, and 0.26 M{sub Jup} at 13.1, 33.0, and 68.6 AU, respectively. Implications for the planet formation as well as the limitations of this scenario are discussed.

  19. Consistent dust and gas models for protoplanetary disks. I. Disk shape, dust settling, opacities, and PAHs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woitke, P.; Min, M.; Pinte, C.; Thi, W.-F.; Kamp, I.; Rab, C.; Anthonioz, F.; Antonellini, S.; Baldovin-Saavedra, C.; Carmona, A.; Dominik, C.; Dionatos, O.; Greaves, J.; Güdel, M.; Ilee, J. D.; Liebhart, A.; Ménard, F.; Rigon, L.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Aresu, G.; Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M.

    2016-02-01

    We propose a set of standard assumptions for the modelling of Class II and III protoplanetary disks, which includes detailed continuum radiative transfer, thermo-chemical modelling of gas and ice, and line radiative transfer from optical to cm wavelengths. The first paper of this series focuses on the assumptions about the shape of the disk, the dust opacities, dust settling, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In particular, we propose new standard dust opacities for disk models, we present a simplified treatment of PAHs in radiative equilibrium which is sufficient to reproduce the PAH emission features, and we suggest using a simple yet physically justified treatment of dust settling. We roughly adjust parameters to obtain a model that predicts continuum and line observations that resemble typical multi-wavelength continuum and line observations of Class II T Tauri stars. We systematically study the impact of each model parameter (disk mass, disk extension and shape, dust settling, dust size and opacity, gas/dust ratio, etc.) on all mainstream continuum and line observables, in particular on the SED, mm-slope, continuum visibilities, and emission lines including [OI] 63 μm, high-J CO lines, (sub-)mm CO isotopologue lines, and CO fundamental ro-vibrational lines. We find that evolved dust properties, i.e. large grains, often needed to fit the SED, have important consequences for disk chemistry and heating/cooling balance, leading to stronger near- to far-IR emission lines in general. Strong dust settling and missing disk flaring have similar effects on continuum observations, but opposite effects on far-IR gas emission lines. PAH molecules can efficiently shield the gas from stellar UV radiation because of their strong absorption and negligible scattering opacities in comparison to evolved dust. The observable millimetre-slope of the SED can become significantly more gentle in the case of cold disk midplanes, which we find regularly in our T Tauri models

  20. Active Flow Control Using Sweeping Jet Actuators on a Semi-Span Wing Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, LaTunia Pack; Koklu, Mehti

    2016-01-01

    Wind tunnel experiments were performed using active flow control on an unswept semispan wing model with a 30% chord trailing edge flap to aid in the selection of actuators for a planned high Reynolds number experiment. Two sweeping jet actuator sizes were investigated to determine the influence of actuator size on the active flow control system efficiency. Sweeping jet actuators with orifice sizes of 1 mm x 2 mm and 2 mm x 4 mm were selected because of the differences in actuator jet sweep angle. The parameters that were varied include actuator momentum, freestream velocity, and trailing edge flap deflection angle. Steady and unsteady pressure data, Particle Image Velocimetry data, and force and moment data were acquired to assess the performance of the two actuators. In addition to the wind tunnel experiments, benchtop studies of the actuators were performed to characterize the jets produced by each actuator. Benchtop investigations of the smaller actuator reveal that the jet exiting the actuator has a reduced sweep angle compared to published data for larger versions of this type of actuator. The larger actuator produces an oscillating jet that attaches to the external di?user walls at low supply pressures and produces the expected sweep angles. The AFC results using the smaller actuators show that while the actuators can control flow separation, the selected spacing of 3.3 cm may be too large due to the reduced sweep angle. In comparison, the spacing for the larger actuators, 6.6 cm, appears to be optimal for the Mach numbers investigated. Particle Image Velocimetry results are presented and show how the wall jets produced by the actuators cause the flow to attach to the flap surface.

  1. Modeling Protostar Envelopes and Disks Seen With ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terebey, Susan; Flores-Rivera, Lizxandra; Willacy, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Thermal continuum emission from protostars comes from both the envelope and circumstellar disk. The dust emits on a variety of spatial scales, ranging from sub-arcseconds for disks to roughly 10 arcseconds for envelopes for nearby protostars. We present models of what ALMA should detect that incorporate a self-consistent collapse solution, radiative transfer, and realistic dust properties.

  2. Investigating FP Tau’s protoplanetary disk structure through modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinjikji, Marah; Espaillat, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    This project presents a study aiming to understand the structure of the protoplanetary disk around FP Tau, a very young, very low mass star in the Taurus star-forming region. We have gathered existing optical, Spitzer, Herschel and submillimeter observations to construct the spectral energy distribution (SED) of FP Tau. We have used the D’Alessio et al (2006) physically self-consistent irradiated accretion disk model including dust settling to model the disk of FP Tau. Using this method, the best fit for the SED of FP Tau is a model that includes a gap located 10-20 AU away from the star. This gap is filled with optically thin dust that separates the optically thick dust in the outer disk from the optically thick dust in the inner disk. These characteristics indicate that FP Tau’s protostellar system is best classified as a pre-transitional disk. Near-infrared interferometry in the K-Band from Willson et al 2016 indicates that FP Tau has a small gap located 10-20 AU from the star, which is consistent with the model we produced, lending further support to the pre-transitional disk interpretation. The most likely explanation for the existence of a gap in the disk is a forming planet.

  3. Test Cases for Modeling and Validation of Structures with Piezoelectric Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reaves, Mercedes C.; Horta, Lucas G.

    2001-01-01

    A set of benchmark test articles were developed to validate techniques for modeling structures containing piezoelectric actuators using commercially available finite element analysis packages. The paper presents the development, modeling, and testing of two structures: an aluminum plate with surface mounted patch actuators and a composite box beam with surface mounted actuators. Three approaches for modeling structures containing piezoelectric actuators using the commercially available packages: MSC/NASTRAN and ANSYS are presented. The approaches, applications, and limitations are discussed. Data for both test articles are compared in terms of frequency response functions from deflection and strain data to input voltage to the actuator. Frequency response function results using the three different analysis approaches provided comparable test/analysis results. It is shown that global versus local behavior of the analytical model and test article must be considered when comparing different approaches. Also, improper bonding of actuators greatly reduces the electrical to mechanical effectiveness of the actuators producing anti-resonance errors.

  4. An analytic performance model of disk arrays and its application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Edward K.; Katz, Randy H.

    1991-01-01

    As disk arrays become widely used, tools for understanding and analyzing their performance become increasingly important. In particular, performance models can be invaluable in both configuring and designing disk arrays. Accurate analytic performance models are desirable over other types of models because they can be quickly evaluated, are applicable under a wide range of system and workload parameters, and can be manipulated by a range of mathematical techniques. Unfortunately, analytical performance models of disk arrays are difficult to formulate due to the presence of queuing and fork-join synchronization; a disk array request is broken up into independent disk requests which must all complete to satisfy the original request. We develop, validate, and apply an analytic performance model for disk arrays. We derive simple equations for approximating their utilization, response time, and throughput. We then validate the analytic model via simulation and investigate the accuracy of each approximation used in deriving the analytical model. Finally, we apply the analytical model to derive an equation for the optimal unit of data striping in disk arrays.

  5. Sharp Eccentric Rings in Planetless Hydrodynamical Models of Debris Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyra, W.; Kuchner, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Exoplanets are often associated with disks of dust and debris, analogs of the Kuiper Belt in our solar system. These "debris disks" show a variety of non-trivial structures attributed to planetary perturbations and utilized to constrain the properties of the planets. However, analyses of these systems have largely ignored the fact that, increasingly, debris disks are found to contain small quantities of gas, a component all debris disks should contain at some level. Several debris disks have been measured with a dust-to-gas ratio around unity where the effect of hydrodynamics on the structure of the disk cannot be ignored. Here we report that dust-gas interactions can produce some of the key patterns seen in debris disks that were previously attributed to planets. Through linear and nonlinear modeling of the hydrodynamical problem, we find that a robust clumping instability exists in this configuration, organizing the dust into narrow, eccentric rings, similar to the Fomalhaut debris disk. The hypothesis that these disks might contain planets, though thrilling, is not necessarily required to explain these systems.

  6. Analytic solution for N-electrode actuated piezoelectric disk with application to piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducers.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Katherine; Bathurst, Stephen; Sammoura, Firas; Kim, Sang-Gook

    2013-08-01

    In this work, the deflection equation of a piezoelectrically-driven micromachined ultrasonic transducer (PMUT) is analytically determined using a Green's function approach. With the Green's function solution technique, the deflection of a circular plate with an arbitrary circular/ring electrode geometry is explicitly solved for axisymmetric vibration modes. For a PMUT with one center electrode covering ≈60% of the plate radius, the Green's function solution compares well with existing piece-wise and energy-based solutions with errors of less than 1%. The Green's function solution is also simpler than them requiring no numerical integration, and applies to any number of axisymmetric electrode geometries. Experimentally measured static deflection data collected from a fabricated piezoelectric micro ultrasonic transducer (PMUT) is further used to validate the Green's function model analysis. The center deflection and deflection profile data agree well with the Green's function solution over a range of applied bias voltages (5 to 21 V) with the average error between the experimental and Green's function data less than 9%.

  7. Experimental modeling of jet-ring turbine disk cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, D. E.; Kim, Y. W.

    1991-01-01

    The experimental facility and some early results are described from a current research program modeling turbine disk cooling with multiple impinging jets, such as employed on the Space Shuttle Main Engine oxygen turbopump. The study is designed to obtain detailed local convection heat transfer rates on specially constructed turbine disk models that employ either multiple cooling jet impingement near the disk outer radius from a jet ring, or alternatively, single entrance coolant supply into the center of the disk cavity. Jet impingement is an effective scheme for cooling of turbine disks at or near the blade attachment region, but the heat transfer mechanisms and merits relative to other schemes are not well understood. The present study employs two specially constructed full scale plastic model disks, contoured and plane, together with the corresponding stators. Local heat transfer rates are determined by a computer vision system from the response of thin liquid crystal coatings applied to the disk test faces. The present results indicate that multiple jet impingement directed at the blade attachment region results in higher cooling rates in that region than does the same flow supplied to the disk center, but this conclusion must be regarded as tentative.

  8. Experimental dynamic characterizations and modelling of disk vibrations for HDDs.

    PubMed

    Pang, Chee Khiang; Ong, Eng Hong; Guo, Guoxiao; Qian, Hua

    2008-01-01

    Currently, the rotational speed of spindle motors in HDDs (Hard-Disk Drives) are increasing to improve high data throughput and decrease rotational latency for ultra-high data transfer rates. However, the disk platters are excited to vibrate at their natural frequencies due to higher air-flow excitation as well as eccentricities and imbalances in the disk-spindle assembly. These factors contribute directly to TMR (Track Mis-Registration) which limits achievable high recording density essential for future mobile HDDs. In this paper, the natural mode shapes of an annular disk mounted on a spindle motor used in current HDDs are characterized using FEM (Finite Element Methods) analysis and verified with SLDV (Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer) measurements. The identified vibration frequencies and amplitudes of the disk ODS (Operating Deflection Shapes) at corresponding disk mode shapes are modelled as repeatable disturbance components for servo compensation in HDDs. Our experimental results show that the SLDV measurements are accurate in capturing static disk mode shapes without the need for intricate air-flow aero-elastic models, and the proposed disk ODS vibration model correlates well with experimental measurements from a LDV.

  9. A Model of Molecular Emission from Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrold, Samuel Thomas; Lacy, J.; Salyk, C.; Doty, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present results from a new model describing the mid-infrared emission of simple organic molecules from the protoplanetary disks of low-mass stars. We will test whether indicators of disk evolution, such as grain growth, dust settling, and dust crystallinity, enhance the emission of simple organic molecules in the mid-infrared, in particular that of HCN and C2H2, from the inner few AU of the disk. The Q branches of HCN at 13.9 um and of C2H2 at 13.7 um have been detected in the spectra of disks around T-Tauri stars using Spitzer's IRS (Carr & Najita, 2008). Our new model, pisco, calculates the steady-state disk structure and molecular level populations via non-LTE, 3D radiative transfer. The chemical abundances are determined through a chemical evolutionary code. This work is supported by the NSF GRFP.

  10. PROTOPLANETARY DISK STRUCTURE WITH GRAIN EVOLUTION: THE ANDES MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Akimkin, V.; Wiebe, D.; Pavlyuchenkov, Ya.; Zhukovska, S.; Semenov, D.; Henning, Th.; Vasyunin, A.; Birnstiel, T. E-mail: dwiebe@inasan.ru E-mail: zhukovska@mpia.de E-mail: henning@mpia.de E-mail: tbirnstiel@cfa.harvard.edu

    2013-03-20

    We present a self-consistent model of a protoplanetary disk: 'ANDES' ('AccretioN disk with Dust Evolution and Sedimentation'). ANDES is based on a flexible and extendable modular structure that includes (1) a 1+1D frequency-dependent continuum radiative transfer module, (2) a module to calculate the chemical evolution using an extended gas-grain network with UV/X-ray-driven processes and surface reactions, (3) a module to calculate the gas thermal energy balance, and (4) a 1+1D module that simulates dust grain evolution. For the first time, grain evolution and time-dependent molecular chemistry are included in a protoplanetary disk model. We find that grain growth and sedimentation of large grains onto the disk midplane lead to a dust-depleted atmosphere. Consequently, dust and gas temperatures become higher in the inner disk (R {approx}< 50 AU) and lower in the outer disk (R {approx}> 50 AU), in comparison with the disk model with pristine dust. The response of disk chemical structure to the dust growth and sedimentation is twofold. First, due to higher transparency a partly UV-shielded molecular layer is shifted closer to the dense midplane. Second, the presence of big grains in the disk midplane delays the freeze-out of volatile gas-phase species such as CO there, while in adjacent upper layers the depletion is still effective. Molecular concentrations and thus column densities of many species are enhanced in the disk model with dust evolution, e.g., CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 2}CN, HNO, H{sub 2}O, HCOOH, HCN, and CO. We also show that time-dependent chemistry is important for a proper description of gas thermal balance.

  11. Hysteresis modeling of magnetic shape memory alloy actuator based on Krasnosel'skii-Pokrovskii model.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Miaolei; Wang, Shoubin; Gao, Wei

    2013-01-01

    As a new type of intelligent material, magnetically shape memory alloy (MSMA) has a good performance in its applications in the actuator manufacturing. Compared with traditional actuators, MSMA actuator has the advantages as fast response and large deformation; however, the hysteresis nonlinearity of the MSMA actuator restricts its further improving of control precision. In this paper, an improved Krasnosel'skii-Pokrovskii (KP) model is used to establish the hysteresis model of MSMA actuator. To identify the weighting parameters of the KP operators, an improved gradient correction algorithm and a variable step-size recursive least square estimation algorithm are proposed in this paper. In order to demonstrate the validity of the proposed modeling approach, simulation experiments are performed, simulations with improved gradient correction algorithm and variable step-size recursive least square estimation algorithm are studied, respectively. Simulation results of both identification algorithms demonstrate that the proposed modeling approach in this paper can establish an effective and accurate hysteresis model for MSMA actuator, and it provides a foundation for improving the control precision of MSMA actuator.

  12. Modeling of debris disks in Single and Binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, L.; Gómez, M.

    2016-10-01

    Infrared space observatories such as Spitzer and Herschel have allowed the detection of likely analogs to the Kuiper Belt in single as well as binary systems. The aim of this work is to characterize debris disks in single and binary stars and to identify features shared by the disks in both types of systems, as well as possible differences. We compiled a sample of 25 single and 14 binary stars (ages > 100 Myr) with flux measurements at λ >100 μm and evidence of infrared excesses attributed to the presence of debris disks. Then, we constructed and modeled the observed spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and compared the parameters of the disks of both samples. Both types of disks are relatively free of dust in the inner region (< 3-5 AU) and extend beyond 100 AU. No significant differences in the mass and dust size distributions of both samples are found.

  13. Analytic model and frequency characteristics of plasma synthetic jet actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Hao-hua; Wu, Yun; Li, Ying-hong; Song, Hui-min; Zhang, Zhi-bo; Jia, Min

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports a novel analytic model of a plasma synthetic jet actuator (PSJA), considering both the heat transfer effect and the inertia of the throat gas. Both the whole cycle characteristics and the repetitive working process of PSJA can be predicted with this model. The frequency characteristics of a PSJA with 87 mm3 volume and different orifice diameters are investigated based on the analytic model combined with experiments. In the repetitive working mode, the actuator works initially in the transitional stage with 20 cycles and then in the dynamic balanced stage. During the transitional stage, major performance parameters of PSJA experience stepped growth, while during the dynamic balanced stage, these parameters are characterized by periodic variation. With a constant discharge energy of 6.9 mJ, there exists a saturated frequency of 4 kHz/6 kHz for an orifice diameter of 1 mm/1.5 mm, at which the time-averaged total pressure of the pulsed jet reaches a maximum. Between 0.5 mm and 1.5 mm, a larger orifice diameter leads to a higher saturated frequency due to the reduced jet duration time. As the actuation frequency increases, both the time-averaged cavity temperature and the peak jet velocity initially increase and then remain almost unchanged at 1600 K and 280 m/s, respectively. Besides, with increasing frequency, the mechanical energy incorporated in single pulsed jet, the expelled mass per pulse, and the time-averaged density in the cavity, decline in a stair stepping way, which is caused by the intermittent decrease of refresh stage duration in one period.

  14. Modeling transiting circumstellar disks: characterizing the newly discovered eclipsing disk system OGLE LMC-ECL-11893

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Erin L.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Pecaut, Mark J.; Quillen, Alice C.; Moolekamp, Fred; Bell, Cameron P. M.

    2014-12-10

    We investigate the nature of the unusual eclipsing star OGLE LMC-ECL-11893 (OGLE J05172127-6900558) in the Large Magellanic Cloud recently reported by Dong et al. The eclipse period for this star is 468 days, and the eclipses exhibit a minimum of ∼1.4 mag, preceded by a plateau of ∼0.8 mag. Spectra and optical/IR photometry are consistent with the eclipsed star being a lightly reddened B9III star of inferred age ∼150 Myr and mass ∼4 M {sub ☉}. The disk appears to have an outer radius of ∼0.2 AU with predicted temperatures of ∼1100-1400 K. We model the eclipses as being due to either a transiting geometrically thin dust disk or gaseous accretion disk around a secondary object; the debris disk produces a better fit. We speculate on the origin of such a dense circumstellar dust disk structure orbiting a relatively old low-mass companion, and on the similarities of this system to the previously discovered EE Cep.

  15. Freddi: Fast Rise Exponential Decay accretion Disk model Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malanchev, K. L.; Lipunova, G. V.

    2016-10-01

    Freddi (Fast Rise Exponential Decay: accretion Disk model Implementation) solves 1-D evolution equations of the Shakura-Sunyaev accretion disk. It simulates fast rise exponential decay (FRED) light curves of low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). The basic equation of the viscous evolution relates the surface density and viscous stresses and is of diffusion type; evolution of the accretion rate can be found on solving the equation. The distribution of viscous stresses defines the emission from the source. The standard model for the accretion disk is implied; the inner boundary of the disk is at the ISCO or can be explicitely set. The boundary conditions in the disk are the zero stress at the inner boundary and the zero accretion rate at the outer boundary. The conditions are suitable during the outbursts in X-ray binary transients with black holes. In a binary system, the accretion disk is radially confined. In Freddi, the outer radius of the disk can be set explicitely or calculated as the position of the tidal truncation radius.

  16. Validation of high displacement piezoelectric actuator finite element models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taleghani, Barmac K.

    2000-08-01

    The paper presents the results obtained by using NASTRAN and ANSYS finite element codes to predict doming of the THUNDER piezoelectric actuators during the manufacturing process and subsequent straining due to an applied input voltage. To effectively use such devices in engineering applications, modeling and characterization are essential. Length, width, dome height, and thickness and important parameters for users of such devices. Therefore, finite element models were used to assess the effects of these parameters. NASTRAN and ANSYS used different methods for modeling piezoelectric effects. In NASTRAN, a thermal analogy was used to represent voltage at nodes as equivalent temperatures, while ANSYS processed the voltage directly using piezoelectric finite elements. The results of finite element models were validated by using the experimental results.

  17. Validation of High Displacement Piezoelectric Actuator Finite Element Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taleghani, B. K.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the results obtained by using NASTRAN(Registered Trademark) and ANSYS(Regitered Trademark) finite element codes to predict doming of the THUNDER piezoelectric actuators during the manufacturing process and subsequent straining due to an applied input voltage. To effectively use such devices in engineering applications, modeling and characterization are essential. Length, width, dome height, and thickness are important parameters for users of such devices. Therefore, finite element models were used to assess the effects of these parameters. NASTRAN(Registered Trademark) and ANSYS(Registered Trademark) used different methods for modeling piezoelectric effects. In NASTRAN(Registered Trademark), a thermal analogy was used to represent voltage at nodes as equivalent temperatures, while ANSYS(Registered Trademark) processed the voltage directly using piezoelectric finite elements. The results of finite element models were validated by using the experimental results.

  18. Reachability and Real-Time Actuation Strategies for the Active SLIP Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    reachability space of the actuated SLIP model by acti- vating the series elastic actuator at any possible time during the stance phase. Starting from the...University of California Santa Barbara Reachability and Real- Time Actuation Strategies for the Active SLIP Model A dissertation submitted in partial...Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions

  19. Validation of thermal models for a prototypical MEMS thermal actuator.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Gorby, Allen D.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2008-09-01

    This report documents technical work performed to complete the ASC Level 2 Milestone 2841: validation of thermal models for a prototypical MEMS thermal actuator. This effort requires completion of the following task: the comparison between calculated and measured temperature profiles of a heated stationary microbeam in air. Such heated microbeams are prototypical structures in virtually all electrically driven microscale thermal actuators. This task is divided into four major subtasks. (1) Perform validation experiments on prototypical heated stationary microbeams in which material properties such as thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity are measured if not known and temperature profiles along the beams are measured as a function of electrical power and gas pressure. (2) Develop a noncontinuum gas-phase heat-transfer model for typical MEMS situations including effects such as temperature discontinuities at gas-solid interfaces across which heat is flowing, and incorporate this model into the ASC FEM heat-conduction code Calore to enable it to simulate these effects with good accuracy. (3) Develop a noncontinuum solid-phase heat transfer model for typical MEMS situations including an effective thermal conductivity that depends on device geometry and grain size, and incorporate this model into the FEM heat-conduction code Calore to enable it to simulate these effects with good accuracy. (4) Perform combined gas-solid heat-transfer simulations using Calore with these models for the experimentally investigated devices, and compare simulation and experimental temperature profiles to assess model accuracy. These subtasks have been completed successfully, thereby completing the milestone task. Model and experimental temperature profiles are found to be in reasonable agreement for all cases examined. Modest systematic differences appear to be related to uncertainties in the geometric dimensions of the test structures and in the thermal conductivity of the

  20. Bio-syncretic tweezers actuated by microorganisms: modeling and analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Xie, S X; Wang, W X; Xi, N; Wang, Y C; Liu, L Q

    2016-09-28

    Advancements in micro-/nano-technology have led to the development of micro-manipulators. However, some challenges remain; for instance, the efficiency, precision and flexibility of micro-manipulators restrain their applications. This paper proposes a bio-tweezer system to flexibly manipulate micro-objects with bio-actuation via local light-induced high-concentration microorganisms in two different manipulation modes: light-spot induced mode and geometric shape-induced mode. Depending on the shape of micro-objects, either 2-dimensional translation or 1-dimensional rotation can be achieved. Based on the Langevin equation, a mathematical model considering both hydrodynamics and mimicked Brownian motion is proposed to analyze the bio-manipulation performance of the microorganisms; the model was validated by experiments to translate micro-particles in a two-dimensional plane and to rotate a micro-gear structure around its axis. This paper will aid in the development of micro-manipulators and the quantitative understanding of micro-/nano-manipulation actuated by microorganisms.

  1. ON VERTICALLY GLOBAL, HORIZONTALLY LOCAL MODELS FOR ASTROPHYSICAL DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    McNally, Colin P.; Pessah, Martin E. E-mail: mpessah@nbi.dk

    2015-10-01

    Disks with a barotropic equilibrium structure, for which the pressure is only a function of the density, rotate on cylinders in the presence of a gravitational potential, so that the angular frequency of such a disk is independent of height. Such disks with barotropic equilibria can be approximately modeled using the shearing box framework, representing a small disk volume with height-independent angular frequency. If the disk is in baroclinic equilibrium, the angular frequency does generally depend on height, and it is thus necessary to go beyond the standard shearing box approach. In this paper, we show that given a global disk model, it is possible to develop approximate models that are local in horizontal planes without an expansion in height with shearing-periodic boundary conditions. We refer to the resulting framework as the vertically global shearing box (VGSB). These models can be non-axisymmetric for globally barotropic equilibria but should be axisymmetric for globally baroclinic equilibria. We provide explicit equations for this VGSB which can be implemented in standard magnetohydrodynamic codes by generalizing the shearing-periodic boundary conditions to allow for a height-dependent angular frequency and shear rate. We also discuss the limitations that result from the radial approximations that are needed in order to impose height-dependent shearing periodic boundary conditions. We illustrate the potential of this framework by studying a vertical shear instability and examining the modes associated with the magnetorotational instability.

  2. A guide to the use of the pressure disk rotor model as implemented in INS3D-UP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaffin, Mark S.

    1995-01-01

    This is a guide for the use of the pressure disk rotor model that has been placed in the incompressible Navier-Stokes code INS3D-UP. The pressure disk rotor model approximates a helicopter rotor or propeller in a time averaged manner and is intended to simulate the effect of a rotor in forward flight on the fuselage or the effect of a propeller on other aerodynamic components. The model uses a modified actuator disk that allows the pressure jump across the disk to vary with radius and azimuth. The cyclic and collective blade pitch angles needed to achieve a specified thrust coefficient and zero moment about the hub are predicted. The method has been validated with experimentally measured mean induced inflow velocities as well as surface pressures on a generic fuselage. Overset grids, sometimes referred to as Chimera grids, are used to simplify the grid generation process. The pressure disk model is applied to a cylindrical grid which is embedded in the grid or grids used for the rest of the configuration. This document will outline the development of the method, and present input and results for a sample case.

  3. Modeling Mid-Infrared Polarization from Protoplanetary Disks and YSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Han; Pantin, Eric; Li, Dan; Telesco, Charles M.

    2017-01-01

    Imaging polarimetry has demonstrated its potential to map magnetic fields in star formation regions. To interpret high-resolution, mid-infrared (mid-IR) observations obtained with present or forthcoming instruments, such as GTC/CanariCam and SOFIA/HAWC+, we have developed a new package of codes to model mid-IR polarization from protoplanetary disks and YSOs. Based on RADMC-3D and DDSCAT, our package is the first of its kind that takes into account all polarization mechanisms known to be present in the mid-IR, including dichroic absorption, dichroic emission, and scattering. Mid-IR polarization arising from a disk or YSO depends on dust properties (e.g., the size distribution, shape, and composition), magnetic field configurations, and the geometry of the disk and/or envelope, all of which can be customized in our model. We have created synthetic maps of mid-IR linear polarization for a series of fiducial disk and YSO models to compare with observations. In general, we find 1) that emissive polarization arising from aligned dust grains in disk magnetic fields is at the level of a few percent and lower than previous expectations, and 2) that micron-sized dust particles are required to reproduce the observed level of polarization from dust scattering in the mid-IR for a typical Herbig Ae/Be disk. The research was support in part by NSF awards AST -0903672, AST-0908624, and AST-1515331 to CMT.

  4. Model-Based Angular Scan Error Correction of an Electrothermally-Actuated MEMS Mirror.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Xu, Dacheng; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Chen, Qiao; Xie, Huikai; Li, Suiqiong

    2015-12-10

    In this paper, the actuation behavior of a two-axis electrothermal MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) mirror typically used in miniature optical scanning probes and optical switches is investigated. The MEMS mirror consists of four thermal bimorph actuators symmetrically located at the four sides of a central mirror plate. Experiments show that an actuation characteristics difference of as much as 4.0% exists among the four actuators due to process variations, which leads to an average angular scan error of 0.03°. A mathematical model between the actuator input voltage and the mirror-plate position has been developed to predict the actuation behavior of the mirror. It is a four-input, four-output model that takes into account the thermal-mechanical coupling and the differences among the four actuators; the vertical positions of the ends of the four actuators are also monitored. Based on this model, an open-loop control method is established to achieve accurate angular scanning. This model-based open loop control has been experimentally verified and is useful for the accurate control of the mirror. With this control method, the precise actuation of the mirror solely depends on the model prediction and does not need the real-time mirror position monitoring and feedback, greatly simplifying the MEMS control system.

  5. Model-Based Angular Scan Error Correction of an Electrothermally-Actuated MEMS Mirror

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao; Xu, Dacheng; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Chen, Qiao; Xie, Huikai; Li, Suiqiong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the actuation behavior of a two-axis electrothermal MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) mirror typically used in miniature optical scanning probes and optical switches is investigated. The MEMS mirror consists of four thermal bimorph actuators symmetrically located at the four sides of a central mirror plate. Experiments show that an actuation characteristics difference of as much as 4.0% exists among the four actuators due to process variations, which leads to an average angular scan error of 0.03°. A mathematical model between the actuator input voltage and the mirror-plate position has been developed to predict the actuation behavior of the mirror. It is a four-input, four-output model that takes into account the thermal-mechanical coupling and the differences among the four actuators; the vertical positions of the ends of the four actuators are also monitored. Based on this model, an open-loop control method is established to achieve accurate angular scanning. This model-based open loop control has been experimentally verified and is useful for the accurate control of the mirror. With this control method, the precise actuation of the mirror solely depends on the model prediction and does not need the real-time mirror position monitoring and feedback, greatly simplifying the MEMS control system. PMID:26690432

  6. A reduced order model for dielectric elastomer actuators over a range of frequencies and prestrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiser, Jillian; Manning, Michael; Adler, David; Breuer, Kenneth

    2016-09-01

    The actuation strain of an equibiaxially prestrained dielectric elastomer membrane is studied as a function of driving frequency and prestrain. Experimental data are gathered on the membrane's creep and recovery following DC actuation, as well as the steady state amplitude and phase for AC driving voltages ranging from 2 to 40 Hz. The effect of prestretch on steady state actuation was also investigated, using membranes of both 250% and 300% prestretch. A three-element generalized Kelvin-Voigt model is developed to capture the transient and steady-state actuation responses as a function of frequency and prestrain. We show that, despite its relative simplicity, this model captures the relevant timescales for the membrane behavior with good fidelity and can be used to accurately predict the actuation magnitude and phase as a function of time over a range of actuation configurations and driving conditions.

  7. Mathematical model and characteristic analysis of hybrid photovoltaic/piezoelectric actuation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jing; Li, Xiaonan; Ding, Jincheng; Yue, Honghao; Deng, Zongquan

    2016-12-01

    Photovoltaic materials can turn light energy into electric energy directly, and thus have the advantages of high electrical output voltages and the ability to realize remote or non-contact control. When high-energy ultraviolet light illuminates polarized PbLaZrTi (PLZT) materials, high photovoltages will be generated along the spontaneous polarization direction due to the photovoltaic effect. In this paper, a novel hybrid photovoltaic/piezoelectric actuation mechanism is proposed. PLZT ceramics are used as a photovoltaic generator to drive a piezoelectric actuator. A mathematical model is established to define the time history of the actuation voltage between two electrodes of the piezoelectric actuator, which is experimentally validated by the test results of a piezoelectric actuator with different geometrical parameters under irradiation at different light intensities. Some important characteristics of this novel actuation mechanism are analyzed and it can be concluded that (1) it is experimentally validated that there is no hysteresis between voltage and deformation which exists in a PLZT actuator; (2) the saturated voltage and response speed can be improved by using a multi-patch PLZT generator to drive the piezoelectric actuator; and (3) the initial voltage of the piezoelectric actuator can be acquired by controlling the logical switch between the PLZT and the piezoelectric actuator while the initial voltages increase with the rise of light intensity.

  8. Simulations of Accretion Disk Wind Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Craig L.; Yong, Suk Yee; O'Dowd, Matthew; Webster, Rachel L.; Bate, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The kinematics of the broad emission line region (BELR) in quasars is largely unknown, however there is strong evidence that outflows may be a key component. For example, in approximately 15% of quasars we observe broad, blue-shifted absorption features which may be ubiquitous based on line-of-sight arguments. We use a new mathematical description of an outflowing disk-wind with an initial rotational component to predict surface brightness distributions of this wind at different orientations. These surface brightness distributions will allow us to simulate gravitational microlensing of BELR light, with a view to mapping the structure and better understanding the kinematics of these flows.

  9. Mass Distribution and Bar Formation in Growing Disk Galaxy Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrier, Joel C.; Sellwood, J. A.

    2016-11-01

    We report idealized simulations that mimic the growth of galaxy disks embedded in responsive halos and bulges. The disks manifested an almost overwhelming tendency to form strong bars that we found very difficult to prevent. We found that fresh bars formed in growing disks after we had destroyed the original, indicating that bar formation also afflicts continued galaxy evolution, and not just the early stages of disk formation. This behavior raises still more insistently the previously unsolved question of how some galaxies avoid bars. Since our simulations included only collisionless star and halo particles, our findings may apply to gas-poor galaxies only; however, the conundrum persists for the substantial unbarred fraction of those galaxies. Our original objective was to study how internal dynamics rearranged the distribution of mass in the disk as a generalization of our earlier study with rigid spherical components. With difficulty, we were able to construct some models that were not strongly influenced by bars, and found that halo compression and angular momentum exchange with the disk did not alter our earlier conclusion that spiral activity is largely responsible for creating smooth density profiles and rotation curves.

  10. MHD Modelling of Protostellar Disk Winds and Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Christopher; Sutherland, Ralph; Salmeron, Raquel; Bicknell, Geoff

    2013-07-01

    One of the outstanding challenges in star formation is the angular momentum problem. Angular momentum transport is required to allow a cloud core to collapse to form a star. Angular momentum in the initial collapsing cloud prevents the majority of material falling directly onto the protostar, instead settling into a circumstellar disk around it. It is from this point that the angular momentum must be redistributed to allow material to accrete. Radial transport of angular momentum is accomplished via the magnetorotational instability (MRI). Vertical angular momentum transport has generally been attributed to centrifugally driven winds (CDWs) from the disk surface. Both modes of transport depend on the strength of the local magnetic field, parametrised by the ratio of the vertical Alfven speed to the isothermal sound speed, a0. MRI is expected to dominate in the presence of weak fields (a0 ≪ 1), whereas CDWs require a strong field (a0 ≲ 1). Here we present calculations of the structure of minimum-mass solar nebula protostellar disks in strong fields (a0 = 1) around a solar mass star, focusing on the regions of these disks that may launch a CDW from their surface. These results have implications for disk-driven models of protostellar jet launching including the connection between disk properties and large scale features of jets.

  11. Modeling of thermo-mechanical fatigue and damage in shape memory alloy axial actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Robert W.; Hartl, Darren J.; Chemisky, Yves; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.

    2015-04-01

    The aerospace, automotive, and energy industries have seen the potential benefits of using shape memory alloys (SMAs) as solid state actuators. Thus far, however, these actuators are generally limited to non-critical components or over-designed due to a lack of understanding regarding how SMAs undergo thermomechanical or actuation fatigue and the inability to accurately predict failure in an actuator during use. The purpose of this study was to characterize the actuation fatigue response of Nickel-Titanium-Hafnium (NiTiHf) axial actuators and, in turn, use this characterization to predict failure and monitor damage in dogbone actuators undergoing various thermomechanical loading paths. Calibration data was collected from constant load, full cycle tests ranging from 200-600MPa. Subsequently, actuator lifetimes were predicted for four additional loading paths. These loading paths consisted of linearly varying load with full transformation (300-500MPa) and step loads which transition from zero stress to 300-400MPa at various martensitic volume fractions. Thermal cycling was achieved via resistive heating and convective cooling and was controlled via a state machine developed in LabVIEW. A previously developed fatigue damage model, which is formulated such that the damage accumulation rate is general in terms of its dependence on current and local stress and actuation strain states, was utilized. This form allows the model to be utilized for specimens undergoing complex loading paths. Agreement between experiments and simulations is discussed.

  12. Hysteresis modelling and experimental verification of a Fe–Ga alloy magnetostrictive actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhu; Lei Xiang, Bian; Gangli, Chen; Shuxin, Liu; Qinbo, Zhou; Xiaoting, Rui

    2017-03-01

    In order to accurately describe the asymmetric rate-bias-dependent hysteresis of a Fe–Ga alloy magnetostrictive actuator, a comprehensive model, which is composed of a phenomenon model, describing hysteresis by the modified Bouc–Wen hysteresis operator, and a theoretical model, representing the dynamics characteristics, is put forward. The experimental system is setup to verify the performance of the comprehensive model. Results show that the modified Bouc–Wen model can effectively describe the dynamics and hysteresis characteristics of the Fe–Ga alloy magnetostrictive actuator. The results highlight significantly improved accuracy in the modelling of the magnetostrictive actuator.

  13. A Reduced-Order Model For Zero-Mass Synthetic Jet Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaleev, Nail K.; Carpenter, Mark H.; Vatsa, Veer S.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate details of the general performance of fluid actuators is desirable over a range of flow conditions, within some predetermined error tolerance. Designers typically model actuators with different levels of fidelity depending on the acceptable level of error in each circumstance. Crude properties of the actuator (e.g., peak mass rate and frequency) may be sufficient for some designs, while detailed information is needed for other applications (e.g., multiple actuator interactions). This work attempts to address two primary objectives. The first objective is to develop a systematic methodology for approximating realistic 3-D fluid actuators, using quasi-1-D reduced-order models. Near full fidelity can be achieved with this approach at a fraction of the cost of full simulation and only a modest increase in cost relative to most actuator models used today. The second objective, which is a direct consequence of the first, is to determine the approximate magnitude of errors committed by actuator model approximations of various fidelities. This objective attempts to identify which model (ranging from simple orifice exit boundary conditions to full numerical simulations of the actuator) is appropriate for a given error tolerance.

  14. Actuator and aerodynamic modeling for high-angle-of-attack aeroservoelasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Martin J.

    1993-01-01

    Accurate prediction of airframe/actuation coupling is required by the imposing demands of modern flight control systems. In particular, for agility enhancement at high angle of attack and low dynamic pressure, structural integration characteristics such as hinge moments, effective actuator stiffness, and airframe/control surface damping can have a significant effect on stability predictions. Actuator responses are customarily represented with low-order transfer functions matched to actuator test data, and control surface stiffness is often modeled as a linear spring. The inclusion of the physical properties of actuation and its installation on the airframe is therefore addressed using detailed actuator models which consider the physical, electrical, and mechanical elements of actuation. The aeroservoelastic analysis procedure is described in which the actuators are modeled as detailed high-order transfer functions and as approximate low-order transfer functions. The impacts of unsteady aerodynamic modeling on aeroservoelastic stability are also investigated by varying the order of approximation, or number of aerodynamic lag states, in the analysis. Test data from a thrust-vectoring configuration of an F/A-l8 aircraft are compared to predictions to determine the effects on accuracy as a function of modeling complexity.

  15. Controller modeling and evaluation for PCV electro-mechanical actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Joey K.

    1993-01-01

    Hydraulic actuators are currently used to operate the propellant control valves (PCV) for the space shuttle main engine (SSME) and other rocket engines. These actuators are characterized by large power to weight ratios, large force capabilities, and rapid accelerations, which favor their use in control valve applications. However, hydraulic systems are also characterized by susceptibility to contamination, which leads to frequent maintenance requirements. The Control Mechanisms Branch (EP34) of the Component Development Division of the Propulsion Laboratory at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been investigating the application of electromechanical actuators as replacements for the hydraulic units in PCV's over the last few years. This report deals with some testing and analysis of a PCV electromechanical actuator (EMA) designed and fabricated by HR Textron, Inc. This prototype actuator has undergone extensive testing by EP34 personnel since early 1993. At this time, the performance of the HR Textron PCV EMA does not meet requirements for position tracking.

  16. Modeling of a three degrees of freedom piezo-actuated mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Rui, Xiao Ting

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and experimentation of a three degrees of freedom (3-DOF) piezo-actuated mechanism. The displacements of the piezoelectric stack actuators are amplified with lever mechanisms to achieve large displacement output. In order to accurately model the mechanism, a comprehensive model, which uses the transfer matrix method to describe the dynamics characteristics and the modified Bouc-Wen hysteresis operator to represent the hysteresis, is presented. Ultimately, the proposed comprehensive model of the mechanism is experimentally investigated for its performance. Experimental results show that the proposed comprehensive model can accurately portray the hysteresis and dynamics characteristics of the 3-DOF piezo-actuated mechanism.

  17. Percolation of binary disk systems: Modeling and theory

    DOE PAGES

    Meeks, Kelsey; Tencer, John; Pantoya, Michelle L.

    2017-01-12

    The dispersion and connectivity of particles with a high degree of polydispersity is relevant to problems involving composite material properties and reaction decomposition prediction and has been the subject of much study in the literature. This paper utilizes Monte Carlo models to predict percolation thresholds for a two-dimensional systems containing disks of two different radii. Monte Carlo simulations and spanning probability are used to extend prior models into regions of higher polydispersity than those previously considered. A correlation to predict the percolation threshold for binary disk systems is proposed based on the extended dataset presented in this work and comparedmore » to previously published correlations. Finally, a set of boundary conditions necessary for a good fit is presented, and a condition for maximizing percolation threshold for binary disk systems is suggested.« less

  18. Percolation of binary disk systems: Modeling and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeks, Kelsey; Tencer, John; Pantoya, Michelle L.

    2017-01-01

    The dispersion and connectivity of particles with a high degree of polydispersity is relevant to problems involving composite material properties and reaction decomposition prediction and has been the subject of much study in the literature. This work utilizes Monte Carlo models to predict percolation thresholds for a two-dimensional systems containing disks of two different radii. Monte Carlo simulations and spanning probability are used to extend prior models into regions of higher polydispersity than those previously considered. A correlation to predict the percolation threshold for binary disk systems is proposed based on the extended dataset presented in this work and compared to previously published correlations. A set of boundary conditions necessary for a good fit is presented, and a condition for maximizing percolation threshold for binary disk systems is suggested.

  19. Crystalline structure of accretion disks: Features of a global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montani, Giovanni; Benini, Riccardo

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we develop the analysis of a two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical configuration for an axially symmetric and rotating plasma (embedded in a dipolelike magnetic field), modeling the structure of a thin accretion disk around a compact astrophysical object. Our study investigates the global profile of the disk plasma, in order to fix the conditions for the existence of a crystalline morphology and ring sequence, as outlined by the local analysis pursued in Coppi [Phys. PlasmasPHPAEN1070-664X10.1063/1.1883667 12, 7302 (2005)] and Coppi and Rousseau [Astrophys. J.AJLEEY0004-637X10.1086/500315 641, 458 (2006)]. In the linear regime, when the electromagnetic back-reaction of the plasma is small enough, we show the existence of an oscillating radial behavior for the flux surface function, which very closely resembles the one outlined in the local model, apart from a radial modulation of the amplitude. In the opposite limit, corresponding to a dominant back-reaction in the magnetic structure over the field of central object, we can recognize the existence of a ringlike decomposition of the disk, according to the same modulation of the magnetic flux surface, and a smoother radial decay of the disk density, with respect to the linear case. In this extreme nonlinear regime, the global model seems to predict a configuration very close to that of the local analysis, but here the thermostatic pressure, crucial for the equilibrium setting, is also radially modulated. Among the conditions requested for the validity of such a global model, the confinement of the radial coordinate within a given value sensitive to the disk temperature and to the mass of the central objet, stands; however, this condition corresponds to dealing with a thin disk configuration.

  20. Crystalline structure of accretion disks: features of a global model.

    PubMed

    Montani, Giovanni; Benini, Riccardo

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we develop the analysis of a two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical configuration for an axially symmetric and rotating plasma (embedded in a dipolelike magnetic field), modeling the structure of a thin accretion disk around a compact astrophysical object. Our study investigates the global profile of the disk plasma, in order to fix the conditions for the existence of a crystalline morphology and ring sequence, as outlined by the local analysis pursued in Coppi [Phys. Plasmas 12, 7302 (2005)] and Coppi and Rousseau [Astrophys. J. 641, 458 (2006)]. In the linear regime, when the electromagnetic back-reaction of the plasma is small enough, we show the existence of an oscillating radial behavior for the flux surface function, which very closely resembles the one outlined in the local model, apart from a radial modulation of the amplitude. In the opposite limit, corresponding to a dominant back-reaction in the magnetic structure over the field of central object, we can recognize the existence of a ringlike decomposition of the disk, according to the same modulation of the magnetic flux surface, and a smoother radial decay of the disk density, with respect to the linear case. In this extreme nonlinear regime, the global model seems to predict a configuration very close to that of the local analysis, but here the thermostatic pressure, crucial for the equilibrium setting, is also radially modulated. Among the conditions requested for the validity of such a global model, the confinement of the radial coordinate within a given value sensitive to the disk temperature and to the mass of the central objet, stands; however, this condition corresponds to dealing with a thin disk configuration.

  1. A simple model for clock-actuated legged locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seipel, J.; Holmes, P.

    2007-10-01

    The spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP) model describes well the steady-state center-of-mass motions of a diverse range of walking and running animals and robots. Here we ask whether the SLIP model can also explain the dynamic stability of these gaits, and we find that it cannot do so in many physically-relevant parameter ranges. We develop an actuated, lossy, clock-torqued SLIP, or CT-SLIP, with more realistic hip-motor torque inputs, that can capture the robust stability properties observed in most animals and some legged robots. Variations of CT-SLIP at a similar level of detail and complexity may also be appropriate for capturing the whole-system center-of-mass dynamics of locomotion of legged animals and robots varying widely in size and morphology. This paper contributes to a broader program to develop mathematical models, at varied levels of detail, that capture the dynamics of integrated organismal systems exhibiting integrated whole-body motion.

  2. Hydrogel core flexible matrix composite (H-FMC) actuators: theory and preliminary modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicker, M. P. M.; Weaver, P. M.; Rossiter, J. M.; Bond, I. P.

    2014-09-01

    The underlying theory of a new actuator concept based on hydrogel core flexible matrix composites (H-FMC) is presented. The key principle that underlines the H-FMC actuator operation is that the three-dimensional swelling of a hydrogel is partially constrained in order to improve the amount of useful work done. The partial constraint is applied to the hydrogel by a flexible matrix composite (FMC) that minimizes the hydrogel's volume expansion while swelling. This constraint serves to maximize the fixed charge density and resulting osmotic pressure, the driving force behind actuation. In addition, for certain FMC fibre orientations the Poisson's ratio of the anisotropic FMC laminate converts previously unused hydrogel swelling in the radial and circumferential directions into useful axial strains. The potential benefit of the H-FMC concept to hydrogel actuator performance is shown through comparison of force-stroke curves and evaluation of improvements in useful actuation work. The model used to achieve this couples chemical and electrical components, represented with the Nernst-Plank and Poisson equations, as well as a linear elastic mechanical material model, encompassing limited geometric nonlinearities. It is found that improvements in useful actuation work in the order of 1500% over bare hydrogel performance are achieved by the H-FMC concept. A parametric study is also undertaken to determine the effect of various FMC design parameters on actuator free strain and blocking stress. A comparison to other actuator concepts is also included.

  3. APPLICATION OF THE DISK EVAPORATION MODEL TO ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, B. F.

    2009-12-10

    The disk corona evaporation model extensively developed for the interpretation of observational features of black hole X-ray binaries (BHXRBs) is applied to active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Since the evaporation of gas in the disk can lead to its truncation for accretion rates less than a maximal evaporation rate, the model can naturally account for the soft spectrum in high-luminosity AGNs and the hard spectrum in low-luminosity AGNs. The existence of two different luminosity levels describing transitions from the soft to hard state and from the hard to soft state in BHXRBs, when applied to AGNs, suggests that AGNs can be in either spectral state within a range of luminosities. For example, at a viscosity parameter, alpha, equal to 0.3, the Eddington ratio from the hard-to-soft transition and from the soft-to-hard transition occurs at 0.027 and 0.005, respectively. The differing Eddington ratios result from the importance of Compton cooling in the latter transition, in which the cooling associated with soft photons emitted by the optically thick inner disk in the soft spectral state inhibits evaporation. When the Eddington ratio of the AGN lies below the critical value corresponding to its evolutionary state, the disk is truncated. With decreasing Eddington ratios, the inner edge of the disk increases to greater distances from the black hole with a concomitant increase in the inner radius of the broad-line region, R {sub BLR}. The absence of an optically thick inner disk at low luminosities (L) gives rise to region in the R {sub BLR}-L plane for which the relation R {sub BLR} propor to L {sup 1/2} inferred at high luminosities is excluded. As a result, a lower limit to the accretion rate is predicted for the observability of broad emission lines, if the broad-line region is associated with an optically thick accretion disk. Thus, true Seyfert 2 galaxies may exist at very low accretion rates/luminosities. The differences between BHXRBs and AGNs in the framework of

  4. Modeling of a corrugated dielectric elastomer actuator for artificial muscle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadooka, Kevin; Taya, Minoru; Naito, Keishi; Saito, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuators have many advantages, including light weight, simplicity, high energy density, and silent operation. These features make them suitable to replace conventional actuators and transducers, especially in artificial muscle applications where large contractile strains are necessary for lifelike motions. This paper will introduce the concept of a corrugated dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA), which consists of dielectric elastomer (DE) laminated to a thin elastic layer to induce bending motion at each of the corrugations, resulting in large axial deformation. The location of the DE and elastic layers can be configured to provide tensile or compressive axial strain. Such corrugated DE actuators are also highly scalable: linking multiple actuators in series results in greater deformation, whereas multiple actuators in parallel results in larger force output. Analytical closed-form solutions based on linear elasticity were derived for the displacement and force output of curved unimorph and corrugated DEA, both consisting of an arbitrary number of lamina. A total strain energy analysis and Castigiliano's theorem were used to predict the nonlinear force-displacement behavior of the corrugated actuator. Curved unimorph and corrugated DEA were fabricated using VHB F9469PC as the DE material. Displacement of the actuators observed during testing agreed well with the modeling results. Large contractile strain (25.5%) was achieved by the corrugated DEA. Future work includes investigating higher performance DE materials such as plasticized PVDF terpolymers, processed by thin film deposition methods.

  5. Displacement Models for THUNDER Actuators having General Loads and Boundary Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieman, Robert; Smith, Ralph C.; Kackley, Tyson; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Bernd, Jeff; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes techniques for quantifying the displacements generated in THUNDER actuators in response to applied voltages for a variety of boundary conditions and exogenous loads. The PDE (partial differential equations) models for the actuators are constructed in two steps. In the first, previously developed theory quantifying thermal and electrostatic strains is employed to model the actuator shapes which result from the manufacturing process and subsequent repoling. Newtonian principles are then employed to develop PDE models which quantify displacements in the actuator due to voltage inputs to the piezoceramic patch. For this analysis, drive levels are assumed to be moderate so that linear piezoelectric relations can be employed. Finite element methods for discretizing the models are developed and the performance of the discretized models are illustrated through comparison with experimental data.

  6. Evaluation of the Actuator Line Model with coarse resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, M.; Usera, G.

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the Actuator Line Model (ALM) in spatial resolutions coarser than what is generally recommended, also using larger time steps. To accomplish this, the ALM has been implemented in the open source code caffa3d.MBRi and validated against experimental measurements of two wind tunnel campaigns (stand alone wind turbine and two wind turbines in line, case A and B respectively), taking into account two spatial resolutions: R/8 and R/15 (R is the rotor radius). A sensitivity analysis in case A was performed in order to get some insight into the influence of the smearing factor (3D Gaussian distribution) and time step size in power and thrust, as well as in the wake, without applying a tip loss correction factor (TLCF), for one tip speed ratio (TSR). It is concluded that as the smearing factor is larger or time step size is smaller the power is increased, but the velocity deficit is not as much affected. From this analysis, a smearing factor was obtained in order to calculate precisely the power coefficient for that TSR without applying TLCF. Results with this approach were compared with another simulation choosing a larger smearing factor and applying Prandtl's TLCF, for three values of TSR. It is found that applying the TLCF improves the power estimation and weakens the influence of the smearing factor. Finally, these 2 alternatives were tested in case B, confirming that conclusion.

  7. Hip actuations can be used to control bifurcations and chaos in a passive dynamic walking model.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Max J; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2007-04-01

    We explored how hip joint actuation can be used to control locomotive bifurcations and chaos in a passive dynamic walking model that negotiated a slightly sloped surface (gamma<0.019 rad). With no hip actuation, our passive dynamic walking model was capable of producing a chaotic locomotive pattern when the ramp angle was 0.01839 radactuation resulted in rapid transition to any locomotive pattern available in the chaotic attractor and induced stability at ramp angles that were previously considered unstable. Our results detail how chaos can be used as a control scheme for locomotion.

  8. Planet formation in transition disks: Modeling, spectroscopy, and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liskowsky, Joseph Paul

    due to either a massive planet accreting the material onto it or via a photoevaporation process whereby the central star's radiation field ejects material from the inner disk out of the bound system in the the interstellar medium. It is presumed that this phase is the last gasp of the planetary disk's evolution before the debris disk stage and before a fully formed solar system evolves. Our work specifically focuses on one object of this transition disk class: HD100546. We add to the understanding of transition disks by showing that a model where ro-vibrational OH emission in the NIR is preferentially emitted along the 'wall' of the disk is consistent with observations, and furthermore that adding an eccentricity to this `wall' component is required to generate the necessary observed line shape. In conjunction with this observation we present supporting material which motivates the usage of such an eccentric wall component in light of predictions of the influence of giant planet formation occurring within the disk.

  9. An analytic model for buoyancy resonances in protoplanetary disks

    SciTech Connect

    Lubow, Stephen H.; Zhu, Zhaohuan E-mail: zhzhu@astro.princeton.edu

    2014-04-10

    Zhu et al. found in three-dimensional shearing box simulations a new form of planet-disk interaction that they attributed to a vertical buoyancy resonance in the disk. We describe an analytic linear model for this interaction. We adopt a simplified model involving azimuthal forcing that produces the resonance and permits an analytic description of its structure. We derive an analytic expression for the buoyancy torque and show that the vertical torque distribution agrees well with the results of the Athena simulations and a Fourier method for linear numerical calculations carried out with the same forcing. The buoyancy resonance differs from the classic Lindblad and corotation resonances in that the resonance lies along tilted planes. Its width depends on damping effects and is independent of the gas sound speed. The resonance does not excite propagating waves. At a given large azimuthal wavenumber k{sub y} > h {sup –1} (for disk thickness h), the buoyancy resonance exerts a torque over a region that lies radially closer to the corotation radius than the Lindblad resonance. Because the torque is localized to the region of excitation, it is potentially subject to the effects of nonlinear saturation. In addition, the torque can be reduced by the effects of radiative heat transfer between the resonant region and its surroundings. For each azimuthal wavenumber, the resonance establishes a large scale density wave pattern in a plane within the disk.

  10. Constraining Collisional Models of Planetesimals in Debris Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, Meredith A.; Wilner, David J.; Hughes, A. Meredith; Steele, Amy; Ricci, Luca; Andrews, Sean M.; Chandler, Claire J.; Tahli Maddison, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Debris disks around main-sequence stars are produced by the ongoing collisional erosion of planetesimals, analogous to Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) or comets in our own Solar System. Observations of these dusty belts offer a window into the physical and dynamical properties of planetesimals in extrasolar systems through the size distribution of dust grains. In particular, the millimeter/radio spectral index of thermal dust emission encodes information on the grain size distribution that can be used to test proposed collisional models of planetesimals. We have made sensitive Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) observations of a sample of 7 nearby debris disks at 9 mm and combine these with archival Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) observations of 8 additional debris disks at 7 mm. Using measurements at (sub)millimeter wavelengths from the literature, we place tight constraints on the millimeter spectral indices and thus grain size distributions of this sample of debris disks. Our analysis gives a weighted mean for the slope of the power-law grain distribution that is close to the classical prediction for a steady-state collisional cascade (q=3.5), but not consistent with the steeper distributions predicted by recent models that include more complex fragmentation processes. To interpret this result, we explore the effects of material strengths, velocity distributions, and small-size cutoffs on the steady-state grain size distribution.

  11. Turbulent Transport In Global Models of Magnetized Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorathia, Kareem

    The modern theory of accretion disks is dominated by the discovery of the magnetorotational instability (MRI). While hydrodynamic disks satisfy Rayleigh's criterion and there exists no known unambiguous route to turbulence in such disks, a weakly magnetized disk of plasma is subject to the MRI and will become turbulent. This MRI-driven magnetohydrodnamic turbulence generates a strong anisotropic correlation between the radial and azimuthal magnetic fields which drives angular momentum outwards. Accretion disks perform two vital functions in various astrophysical systems: an intermediate step in the gravitational collapse of a rotating gas, where the disk transfers angular momentum outwards and allows material to fall inwards; and as a power source, where the gravitational potential energy of infalling matter can be converted to luminosity. Accretion disks are important in astrophysical processes at all scales in the universe. Studying accretion from first principles is difficult, as analytic treatments of turbulent systems have proven quite limited. As such, computer simulations are at the forefront of studying systems this far into the non-linear regime. While computational work is necessary to study accretion disks, it is no panacea. Fully three-dimensional simulations of turbulent astrophysical systems require an enormous amount of computational power that is inaccessible even to sophisticated modern supercomputers. These limitations have necessitated the use of local models, in which a small spatial region of the full disk is simulated, and constrain numerical resolution to what is feasible. These compromises, while necessary, have the potential to introduce numerical artifacts in the resulting simulations. Understanding how to disentangle these artifacts from genuine physical phenomena and to minimize their effect is vital to constructing simulations that can make reliable astrophysical predictions and is the primary concern of the work presented here. The use

  12. Modelling of plasma aerodynamic actuation driven by nanosecond SDBD discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yifei; Wu, Yun; Cui, Wei; Li, Yinghong; Jia, Min

    2013-09-01

    A two-dimensional air plasma kinetics model (16 species and 44 processes) for nanosecond discharge under atmospheric pressure was developed to reveal the spatial and temporal distribution of discharge characteristics of a surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) actuator. An energy transfer model, including two channels for energy release from external power source to gas, was developed to couple plasma with hydrodynamics directly in the same dimension. The governing equations included the Poisson equation for the electric potential, continuity equations for each species, electron energy equations for electrons taking part in reactions, and Navier-Stokes equations for non-isothermal fluid. The model was validated through current-voltage profile and electron temperature obtained from experiments. Calculations for discharge characteristics as well as the responses of fluid field from tens of nanoseconds to tens of seconds were performed. Results have shown that local air is heated to 1170 K within tens of nanoseconds and then decreases to 310 K at the end of a discharge period. 30% of the total power is transferred from electric field to electrons while only 20% of this energy is then released to gas through quenching processes. 9% of the total energy is released through ion collision. A micro-shock wave is formed and propagates at the speed of sound. High local density gradient and dynamic viscosity induces vortexes which whirl the heated air downstream. The combined effects of heating convection and vortexes in repetitive pulse discharges lead to the formation of a steady jet, in agreement with experimental results.

  13. Modelling the nonlinear response of fibre-reinforced bending fluidic actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacucciolo, Vito; Renda, Federico; Poccia, Ernesto; Laschi, Cecilia; Cianchetti, Matteo

    2016-10-01

    Soft actuators are receiving increasing attention from the engineering community, not only in research but even for industrial applications. Among soft actuators, fibre-reinforced bending fluidic actuators (BFAs) became very popular thanks to features such as robustness and easy design and fabrication. However, an accurate modelling of these smart structures, taking into account all the nonlinearities involved, is a challenging task. In this effort, we propose an analytical mechanical model to capture the quasi-static response of fibre-reinforced BFAs. The model is fully 3D and for the first time includes the effect of the pressure on the lateral surface of the chamber as well as the non-constant torque produced by the pressure at the tip. The presented model can be used for design and control, while providing information about the mechanics of these complex actuators.

  14. Modeling and test of a kinaesthetic actuator based on MR fluid for haptic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tae-Heon; Koo, Jeong-Hoi; Kim, Sang-Youn; Kwon, Dong-Soo

    2017-03-01

    Haptic display units have been widely used for conveying button sensations to users, primarily employing vibrotactile actuators. However, the human feeling for pressing buttons mainly relies on kinaesthetic sensations (rather than vibrotactile sensations), and little studies exist on small-scale kinaesthetic haptic units. Thus, the primary goals of this paper are to design a miniature kinaesthetic actuator based on Magneto-Rheological (MR) fluid that can convey various button-clicking sensations and to experimentally evaluate its haptic performance. The design focuses of the proposed actuator were to produce sufficiently large actuation forces (resistive forces) for human users in a given size constraint and to offer a wide range of actuation forces for conveying vivid haptic sensations to users. To this end, this study first performed a series of parametric studies using mathematical force models for multiple operating modes of MR fluid in conjunction with finite element electromagnetism analysis. After selecting design parameters based on parametric studies, a prototype actuator was constructed, and its performance was evaluated using a dynamic mechanical analyzer. It measured the actuator's resistive force with a varying stroke (pressed depth) up to 1 mm and a varying input current from 0 A to 200 mA. The results show that the proposed actuator creates a wide range of resistive forces from around 2 N (off-state) to over 9.5 N at 200 mA. In order to assess the prototype's performance in the terms of the haptic application prospective, a maximum force rate was calculated to determine just noticeable difference in force changes for the 1 mm stoke of the actuator. The results show that the force rate is sufficient to mimic various levels of button sensations, indicating that the proposed kinaesthetic actuator can offer a wide range of resistive force changes that can be conveyed to human operators.

  15. Testing protostellar disk formation models with ALMA observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harsono, D.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Bruderer, S.; Li, Z.-Y.; Jørgensen, J. K.

    2015-05-01

    Context. Recent simulations have explored different ways to form accretion disks around low-mass stars. However, it has been difficult to differentiate between the proposed mechanisms because of a lack of observable predictions from these numerical studies. Aims: We aim to present observables that can differentiate a rotationally supported disk from an infalling rotating envelope toward deeply embedded young stellar objects (Menv>Mdisk) and infer their masses and sizes. Methods: Two 3D magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) formation simulations are studied with a rotationally supported disk (RSD) forming in one but not the other (where a pseudo-disk is formed instead), together with the 2D semi-analytical model. We determine the dust temperature structure through continuum radiative transfer RADMC3D modeling. A simple temperature-dependent CO abundance structure is adopted and synthetic spectrally resolved submm rotational molecular lines up to Ju = 10 are compared with existing data to provide predictions for future ALMA observations. Results: The 3D MHD simulations and 2D semi-analytical model predict similar compact components in continuum if observed at the spatial resolutions of 0.5-1″ (70-140 AU) typical of the observations to date. A spatial resolution of ~14 AU and high dynamic range (>1000) are required in order to differentiate between RSD and pseudo-disk formation scenarios in the continuum. The first moment maps of the molecular lines show a blue- to red-shifted velocity gradient along the major axis of the flattened structure in the case of RSD formation, as expected, whereas it is along the minor axis in the case of a pseudo-disk. The peak position-velocity diagrams indicate that the pseudo-disk shows a flatter velocity profile with radius than does an RSD. On larger scales, the CO isotopolog line profiles within large (>9″) beams are similar and are narrower than the observed line widths of low-J (2-1 and 3-2) lines, indicating significant turbulence in the

  16. The effect of plasma actuator on the depreciation of the aerodynamic drag on box model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harinaldi, Budiarso, Julian, James; Rabbani M., N.

    2016-06-01

    Recent active control research advances have provided many benefits some of which in the field of transportation by land, sea as well as by air. Flow engineering by using active control has proven advantages in energy saving significantly. One of the active control equipment that is being developed, especially in the 21st century, is a plasma actuator, with the ability to modify the flow of fluid by the approach of ion particles makes these actuators a very powerful and promising tool. This actuator can be said to be better to the previously active control such as suction, blowing and synthetic jets because it is easier to control, more flexible because it has no moving parts, easy to be manufactured and installed, and consumes a small amount of energy with maximum capability. Plasma actuator itself is the composition of a material composed of copper and a dielectric sheet, where the copper sheets act as an electricity conductor and the dielectric sheet as electricity insulator. Products from the plasma actuators are ion wind which is the result of the suction of free air around the actuator to the plasma zone. This study investigates the ability of plasma actuators in lowering aerodynamic drag which is commonly formed in the models of vehicles by varying the shape of geometry models and the flow speed.

  17. Computed torque control of an under-actuated service robot platform modeled by natural coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelei, Ambrus; Kovács, László L.; Stépán, Gábor

    2011-05-01

    The paper investigates the motion planning of a suspended service robot platform equipped with ducted fan actuators. The platform consists of an RRT robot and a cable suspended swinging actuator that form a subsequent parallel kinematic chain and it is equipped with ducted fan actuators. In spite of the complementary ducted fan actuators, the system is under-actuated. The method of computed torques is applied to control the motion of the robot. The under-actuated systems have less control inputs than degrees of freedom. We assume that the investigated under-actuated system has desired outputs of the same number as inputs. In spite of the fact that the inverse dynamical calculation leads to the solution of a system of differential-algebraic equations (DAE), the desired control inputs can be determined uniquely by the method of computed torques. We use natural (Cartesian) coordinates to describe the configuration of the robot, while a set of algebraic equations represents the geometric constraints. In this modeling approach the mathematical model of the dynamical system itself is also a DAE. The paper discusses the inverse dynamics problem of the complex hybrid robotic system. The results include the desired actuator forces as well as the nominal coordinates corresponding to the desired motion of the carried payload. The method of computed torque control with a PD controller is applied to under-actuated systems described by natural coordinates, while the inverse dynamics is solved via the backward Euler discretization of the DAE system for which a general formalism is proposed. The results are compared with the closed form results obtained by simplified models of the system. Numerical simulation and experiments demonstrate the applicability of the presented concepts.

  18. Microstructure Modeling of Third Generation Disk Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jou, Herng-Jeng

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this program was to model, validate, and predict the precipitation microstructure evolution, using PrecipiCalc (QuesTek Innovations LLC) software, for 3rd generation Ni-based gas turbine disc superalloys during processing and service, with a set of logical and consistent experiments and characterizations. Furthermore, within this program, the originally research-oriented microstructure simulation tool was to be further improved and implemented to be a useful and user-friendly engineering tool. In this report, the key accomplishments achieved during the third year (2009) of the program are summarized. The activities of this year included: Further development of multistep precipitation simulation framework for gamma prime microstructure evolution during heat treatment; Calibration and validation of gamma prime microstructure modeling with supersolvus heat treated LSHR; Modeling of the microstructure evolution of the minor phases, particularly carbides, during isothermal aging, representing the long term microstructure stability during thermal exposure; and the implementation of software tools. During the research and development efforts to extend the precipitation microstructure modeling and prediction capability in this 3-year program, we identified a hurdle, related to slow gamma prime coarsening rate, with no satisfactory scientific explanation currently available. It is desirable to raise this issue to the Ni-based superalloys research community, with hope that in future there will be a mechanistic understanding and physics-based treatment to overcome the hurdle. In the mean time, an empirical correction factor was developed in this modeling effort to capture the experimental observations.

  19. Radiation Hydrodynamical Models of the Inner Rim in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flock, Mario

    2016-06-01

    Many stars host planets orbiting within one astronomical unit (AU). These close planets’ origins are a mystery that motivates investigating protoplanetary disks’ central regions. A key factor governing the conditions near the star is the silicate sublimation front, which largely determines where the starlight is absorbed, and which is often called the inner rim. We present the first radiation hydrodynamical modeling of the sublimation front in the disks around the young intermediate-mass stars called Herbig Ae stars. The models are axisymmetric, and include starlight heating, silicate grains sublimating and condensing to equilibrium at the local, timedependent temperature and density, and accretion stresses parametrizing the results of MHD magneto-rotational turbulence models. The results compare well with radiation hydrostatic solutions, and prove to be dynamically stable. Passing the model disks into Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations, we show that the models satisfy observational constraints on the inner rims’s location. A small optically-thin halo of hot dust naturally arises between the inner rim and the star. The inner rim has a substantial radial extent, corresponding to several disk scale heights. While the front’s overall position varies with the stellar luminosity, its radial extent depends on the mass accretion rate. A pressure maximum develops at the position of thermal ionization at temperatures about 1000 K. The pressure maximum is capable of halting solid pebbles’ radial drift and concentrating them in a zone where temperatures are su ciently high for annealing to form crystalline silicates.

  20. Implementation of a model based fault detection and diagnosis technique for actuation faults of the SSME

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duyar, A.; Guo, T.-H.; Merrill, W.; Musgrave, J.

    1991-01-01

    In a previous study, Guo, Merrill and Duyar, 1990, reported a conceptual development of a fault detection and diagnosis system for actuation faults of the Space Shuttle main engine. This study, which is a continuation of the previous work, implements the developed fault detection and diagnosis scheme for the real time actuation fault diagnosis of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The scheme will be used as an integral part of an intelligent control system demonstration experiment at NASA Lewis. The diagnosis system utilizes a model based method with real time identification and hypothesis testing for actuation, sensor, and performance degradation faults.

  1. Modeling and control of a hydraulically actuated flexible-prismatic link robot

    SciTech Connect

    Love, L.; Kress, R.; Jansen, J.

    1996-12-01

    Most of the research related to flexible link manipulators to date has focused on single link, fixed length, single plane of vibration test beds. In addition, actuation has been predominantly based upon electromagnetic motors. Ironically, these elements are rarely found in the existing industrial long reach systems. This manuscript describes a new hydraulically actuated, long reach manipulator with a flexible prismatic link at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Focus is directed towards both modeling and control of hydraulic actuators as well as flexible links that have variable natural frequencies.

  2. Modeling of a flexible beam actuated by shape memory alloy wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Steven G.; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.; Hughes, Declan; Wen, John T.

    1997-06-01

    A thermomechanical model is developed to predict the structural response of a flexible beam with shape memory alloy (SMA) wire actuators. A geometrically nonlinear static analysis is first carried out to investigate the deformed shape of a flexible cantilever beam caused by an externally-attached SMA wire actuated electrically. The actuation force applied by the SMA actuator to the beam is evaluated by solving a coupled problem that combines a thermodynamic constitutive model of SMAs with the heat conduction equation in the SMA and the structural model of the beam. To calculate the temperature history of the SMA actuator for given electrical current input, the heat transfer equation is solved with the electrical resistive heating being modeled as a distributed heat source along the SMA wire. The steps in the formulation are connected together through an iterative scheme that takes into account the static equilibrium of the beam and the constitutive relation of SMAs, thus translating an electrical current history input into beam strain output. The proposed model is used to simulate the experimental results, thus demonstrating the feasibility of using SMA actuators for shape control of active flexible structural systems.

  3. Orthotropic deflection model for corner-supported plates with segmented in-plane actuators.

    SciTech Connect

    Sumali, Hartono; Washington, Gregory N.; Massad, Jordan Elias

    2005-02-01

    The shape control of thin, flexible structures has been studied primarily for edge-supported thin plates. For applications involving reconfigurable apertures such as membrane optics and active RF surfaces, corner-supported configurations may prove more applicable. Corner-supported adaptive structures allow for parabolic geometries, greater flexibility, and larger achievable deflections when compared to edge-supported geometries under similar actuation conditions. Preliminary models have been developed for corner-supported thin plates actuated by isotropic piezoelectric actuators. However, typical piezoelectric materials are known to be orthotropic. This paper extends a previously-developed isotropic model for a corner-supported, thin, rectangular bimorph to a more general orthotropic model for a bimorph actuated by a two-dimensional array of segmented PVDF laminates. First, a model determining the deflected shape of an orthotropic laminate for a given distribution of voltages over the actuator array is derived. Second, symmetric actuation of a bimorph consisting of orthotropic material is simulated using orthogonally-oriented laminae. Finally, the results of the model are shown to agree well with layered-shell finite element simulations for simple and complex voltage distributions.

  4. Constraints on Planetesimal Collision Models in Debris Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, Meredith A.; Wilner, David J.; Chandler, Claire; Ricci, Luca; Maddison, Sarah T.; Cranmer, Steven R.; Andrews, Sean M.; Hughes, A. Meredith; Steele, Amy

    2016-06-01

    Observations of debris disks offer a window into the physical and dynamical properties of planetesimals in extrasolar systems through the size distribution of dust grains. In particular, the millimeter spectral index of thermal dust emission encodes information on the grain size distribution. We have made new VLA observations of a sample of seven nearby debris disks at 9 mm, with 3\\prime\\prime resolution and ˜5 μJy beam-1rms. We combine these with archival ATCA observations of eight additional debris disks observed at 7 mm, together with up-to-date observations of all disks at (sub)millimeter wavelengths from the literature, to place tight constraints on the millimeter spectral indices and thus grain size distributions. The analysis gives a weighted mean for the slope of the power-law grain size distribution, n(a)\\propto {a}-q, of < q> =3.36+/- 0.02, with a possible trend of decreasing q for later spectral type stars. We compare our results to a range of theoretical models of collisional cascades, from the standard self-similar, steady-state size distribution (q = 3.5) to solutions that incorporate more realistic physics such as alternative velocity distributions and material strengths, the possibility of a cutoff at small dust sizes from radiation pressure, and results from detailed dynamical calculations of specific disks. Such effects can lead to size distributions consistent with the data, and plausibly the observed scatter in spectral indices. For the AU Mic system, the VLA observations show clear evidence of a highly variable stellar emission component; this stellar activity obviates the need to invoke the presence of an asteroid belt to explain the previously reported compact millimeter source in this system.

  5. Design Optimization Tool for Synthetic Jet Actuators Using Lumped Element Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallas, Quentin; Sheplak, Mark; Cattafesta, Louis N., III; Gorton, Susan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    The performance specifications of any actuator are quantified in terms of an exhaustive list of parameters such as bandwidth, output control authority, etc. Flow-control applications benefit from a known actuator frequency response function that relates the input voltage to the output property of interest (e.g., maximum velocity, volumetric flow rate, momentum flux, etc.). Clearly, the required performance metrics are application specific, and methods are needed to achieve the optimal design of these devices. Design and optimization studies have been conducted for piezoelectric cantilever-type flow control actuators, but the modeling issues are simpler compared to synthetic jets. Here, lumped element modeling (LEM) is combined with equivalent circuit representations to estimate the nonlinear dynamic response of a synthetic jet as a function of device dimensions, material properties, and external flow conditions. These models provide reasonable agreement between predicted and measured frequency response functions and thus are suitable for use as design tools. In this work, we have developed a Matlab-based design optimization tool for piezoelectric synthetic jet actuators based on the lumped element models mentioned above. Significant improvements were achieved by optimizing the piezoceramic diaphragm dimensions. Synthetic-jet actuators were fabricated and benchtop tested to fully document their behavior and validate a companion optimization effort. It is hoped that the tool developed from this investigation will assist in the design and deployment of these actuators.

  6. Dynamical Modelling Of The Inner Galactic Barred Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portail, Matthieu

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the present state of the Milky Way disk is a necessary first step towards learning about the formation history of our Galaxy. While it is clear from infrared photometry that the inner disk hosts a 5 kpc long bar with a central Box/Peanut bulge, the interplay between the bar and the inner disk remains poorly known. To this end we build N-body dynamical models of the inner Galaxy with the Made-to-Measure method, combining deep photometry from the VVV, UKIDSS and 2MASS surveys with kinematics from the BRAVA, OGLE and ARGOS surveys. We explore their stellar to dark matter fraction together with their bar pattern speed and constrain from the modelling the effective Galactic potential (gravitational potential + bar pattern speed) inside the solar radius. Our best model is able to reproduce simultaneously (i) the Box/Peanut shape of the bulge, (ii) the transition between bulge and long bar, (iii) the bulge line-of-sight kinematics and proper motion dispersions, (iv) the ARGOS velocity field in the bar region and (v) the rotation curve of the Galaxy inside 10 kpc. Our effective potential will be an important input to more detailed chemodynamical studies of the stellar populations in the inner Galaxy, as revealed by the ARGOS or APOGEE surveys.

  7. Microstructure Modeling of 3rd Generation Disk Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jou, Herng-Jeng

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this initiative, funded by NASA's Aviation Safety Program, is to model, validate, and predict, with high fidelity, the microstructural evolution of third-generation high-refractory Ni-based disc superalloys during heat treating and service conditions. This initiative is a natural extension of the DARPA-AIM (Accelerated Insertion of Materials) initiative with GE/Pratt-Whitney and with other process simulation tools. Strong collaboration with the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is a key component of this initiative and the focus of this program is on industrially relevant disk alloys and heat treatment processes identified by GRC. Employing QuesTek s Computational Materials Dynamics technology and PrecipiCalc precipitation simulator, physics-based models are being used to achieve high predictive accuracy and precision. Combining these models with experimental data and probabilistic analysis, "virtual alloy design" can be performed. The predicted microstructures can be optimized to promote desirable features and concurrently eliminate nondesirable phases that can limit the reliability and durability of the alloys. The well-calibrated and well-integrated software tools that are being applied under the proposed program will help gas turbine disk alloy manufacturers, processing facilities, and NASA, to efficiently and effectively improve the performance of current and future disk materials.

  8. Research on Hysteresis of Piezoceramic Actuator Based on the Duhem Model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyuan

    2013-01-01

    To improve the modeling accuracy of piezoceramic actuator in the precision positioning system, the Duhem hysteretic model of the piezoceramic actuator was proposed. The paper used the polynomial function to approach the piecewise continuous function and f(v) and g(v) in the Duhem model, adopted recursive least squares algorithm and gradient correction algorithm to identify parameter α, polynomial coefficients of f and g in the Duhem model, and established the nonlinear parametric model of the piezoceramic actuator. Contrasting the simulation results of recursive least squares algorithm and gradient correction algorithm, the modeling accuracy is 0.24% when adopting the recursive least squares algorithm, and the modeling accuracy is 0.11% when adopting the gradient correction method. The result showed that the gradient correction algorithm could meet the modeling accuracy better, and the structure of the algorithm is simple, adaptable, and easy to implement. PMID:23861658

  9. Design and modeling of a self-sufficient shape-memory-actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucht, André; Junker, Tom; Pagel, Kenny; Drossel, Welf-Guntram; Neugebauer, Reimund

    2011-03-01

    In machine tools several time and position varying heat sources causes complex temperature distributions. The resulting problems are varying thermal deformations which cause a loss of accuracy as well as non optimal drive conditions. An option to deal with that issue is to use structure integrated SM-actuators which use the thermal energy accumulated by machining processes to yield an actuator displacement. That creates a structure inherent control loop. There the shape-memory- elements work as sensing element as well as actuation element. The plant is defined by the thermal and mechanical behaviour of the surrounding structure. Because of the closed loop operation mode, the mechanical design has to deal with questions of stability and parameter adjustment in a control sense. In contrast to common control arrangements this issues can only be influenced by designing the actuator and the structure. To investigate this approach a test bench has been designed. The heat is yielded by a clutch and directed through the structure to the shape memory element. The force and displacement of the actuator are therefore driven directly by process heat. This paper presents a broad mechanical design approach of the test bench as well as the design of the SM-actuator. To investigate the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the structure-integrated actuator, a model of the test bench has been developed. The model covers the thermal behaviour of the test bench as well as the thermo-mechanical couplings of the shape memory actuator. The model has been validated by comprehensive measurements.

  10. A Reduced-Order Model for Efficient Simulation of Synthetic Jet Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaleev, Nail K.; Carpenter, Mark H.

    2003-01-01

    A new reduced-order model of multidimensional synthetic jet actuators that combines the accuracy and conservation properties of full numerical simulation methods with the efficiency of simplified zero-order models is proposed. The multidimensional actuator is simulated by solving the time-dependent compressible quasi-1-D Euler equations, while the diaphragm is modeled as a moving boundary. The governing equations are approximated with a fourth-order finite difference scheme on a moving mesh such that one of the mesh boundaries coincides with the diaphragm. The reduced-order model of the actuator has several advantages. In contrast to the 3-D models, this approach provides conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. Furthermore, the new method is computationally much more efficient than the multidimensional Navier-Stokes simulation of the actuator cavity flow, while providing practically the same accuracy in the exterior flowfield. The most distinctive feature of the present model is its ability to predict the resonance characteristics of synthetic jet actuators; this is not practical when using the 3-D models because of the computational cost involved. Numerical results demonstrating the accuracy of the new reduced-order model and its limitations are presented.

  11. Drag-o-llision Models of Extrasolar Planets in Debris Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchner, Marc

    2009-01-01

    An extrasolar planet sculpts the famous debris disk around Fomalhaut; probably many other debris disks contain planets that we could locate if only we could better recognize their signatures in the dust that surrounds them. But the interaction between planets and debris disks involves both orbital resonances and collisions among grains and rocks in the disks---difficult processes to model simultaneously. The author describes new 3-D models of debris disk dynamics, Drag-o-llision models, that incorporate both collisions and resonant trapping of dust for the first time. The author also discusses the implications of these models for coronagraphic imaging with Gemini and other telescopes.

  12. One-equation modeling and validation of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator thrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jae-San; Han, Jae-Hung

    2014-10-01

    Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators with an asymmetric electrode configuration can generate a wall-bounded jet without mechanical moving parts, which require considerable modifications of existing aeronautical objects and which incur high maintenance costs. Despite this potential, one factor preventing the wider application of such actuators is the lack of a reliable actuator model. It is difficult to develop such a model because calculating the ion-electric field and fluid interaction consume a high amount calculation effort during the numerical analysis. Thus, the authors proposed a semi-empirical model which predicted the thrust of plasma actuators with a simple equation. It gave a numeric thrust value, and we implemented the value on a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver to describe the two-dimensional flow field induced by the actuator. However, the model had a narrow validation range, depending on the empirical formula, and it did not fully consider environment variables. This study presents an improved model by replacing the empirical formulae in the previous model with physical equations that take into account physical phenomena and environmental variables. During this process, additional operation parameters, such as pressure, temperature and ac waveforms, are newly taken to predict the thrust performance of the actuators with a wider range of existing parameters, the thickness of the dielectric barrier, the exposed electrode, the dielectric constant, the ac frequency and the voltage amplitude. Thrust prediction curves from the model are compared to those of earlier experimental results, showing that the average error is less than 5% for more than one hundred instances of data. As in the earlier work, the predicted thrust value is implemented on a CFD solver, and two-dimensional wall-jet velocity profiles induced by the actuator are compared to the previous experimental results.

  13. The Behavior of Accretion Disks in Low Mass X-ray Binaries: Disk Winds and Alpha Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayless, Amanda J.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation presents research on two low mass X-ray binaries. The eclipsing low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1822-371 is the prototypical accretion disk corona (ADC) system. We have obtained new time-resolved UV spectroscopy with the ACS/SBC on the Hubble Space Telescope and new V- and J-band photometry with the 1.3-m SMARTS telescope at CTIO. We show that the accretion disk in the system has a strong wind with projected velocities up to 4000 km/s as determined from the Doppler width of the C IV emission line. The broad and shallow eclipse indicates that the disk has a vertically-extended, optically-thick component at optical wavelengths. This component extends almost to the edge of the disk and has a height equal to 50% of the disk radius. As it has a low brightness temperature, we identify it as the optically-thick base of the disk wind. V1408 Aql (=4U 1957+115) is a low mass X-ray binary which continues to be a black hole candidate. We have new photometric data of this system from the Otto Struve 2.1-m telescope's high speed CCD photometer at McDonald Observatory. The light curve is largely sinusoidal which we model with two components: a constant light source from the disk and a sinusoidal modulation at the orbital period from the irradiated face of the companion star. This is a radical re-interpretation of the orbital light curve. We do not require a large or asymmetric disk rim to account for the modulation in the light curve. Thus, the orbital inclination is unconstrained in our new model, removing the foundation for any claims of the compact object being a black hole.

  14. Evaluation of implantable actuators by means of a middle ear simulation model.

    PubMed

    Bornitz, Matthias; Hardtke, Hans-Jürgen; Zahnert, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    The extension of indication of implantable hearing aids to cases of conductive hearing loss pushed the development of these devices. There is now a great variety of devices available with different actuator concepts and different attachment points to the middle ear or inner ear fluid. But there is little comparative data available about the devices to provide an insight into advantages and disadvantages of different types of actuators and attachment points at the ossicular chain. This paper investigates two principle (idealized) types of actuators in respect of attachments points at the ossicular chain and direction of excitation. Other parts of implantable hearing aids like microphone, amplifier and signal processing electronics were not incorporated into this study. Investigations were performed by means of a mathematical simulation model of the middle ear (finite element model). Actuator performance and theoretical gain were calculated by harmonic analysis in the frequency range of 100-6000 Hz and were compared for the different situations. The stapes head proofed to be an ideal attachment point for actuators of both types as this position is very insensitive to changes in the direction of excitation. The implantable actuators showed higher ratio of equivalent sound pressure to radiated sound pressure compared to an open hearing aid transducer and should therefore allow for more functional gain.

  15. Finite element modeling of electromechanical behavior of a dielectric electroactive polymer actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deodhar, Aseem; York, Alexander; Hodgins, Micah; Seelecke, Stefan

    2011-04-01

    Dielectric Electroactive Polymers (DEAP) will undergo large deformations when subject to an electric field making them an attractive material for use in novel actuator systems. There are many challenges with successful application and design of DEAP actuators resulting from their inherent electromechanical coupling and non-linear material behavior. FE modeling of the material behavior is a useful tool to better understand such systems and aid in the optimal design of prototypes. These modeling efforts must account for the electromechanical coupling in order to accurately predict their response to multiple loading conditions expected during real operating conditions. This paper presents a Finite Element model of a dielectric elastomer undergoing out-of-plane, axisymmetric deformation. The response of the elastomer was investigated while it was subjected to mechanical and electric fields and combined electro-mechanical actuation. The compliant electrodes have a large effect on the mechanical behavior of the EAP which needs to be taken into consideration while modeling the EAP as a system. The model is adapted to include the effect of electrode stiffness on the mechanical response of the actuator. The model was developed using the commercial Finite Element Modeling software, COMSOL. The results from the mechanical simulations are presented in the form of forcedisplacement curves and are validated with comparisons to experimental results. Electromechanical simulations are carried out and the stroke of the actuator for different electrode stiffness values is compared with experimental values when the EAP is biased with a constant force.

  16. Modelling one row of Horns Rev wind farm with the Actuator Line Model with coarse resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, M.; Guggeri, A.; Usera, G.

    2016-09-01

    Actuator models have been used to represent the presence of wind turbines in a simulation in the past few years. The Actuator Line Model (ALM) has shown to reproduce with reasonable accuracy the wind flow through wind turbines under different operational conditions. Nevertheless, there are not many simulations of wind farms performed with the ALM mainly because of its computational cost. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the ALM in spatial resolutions coarser than what is generally recommended, also using larger time steps, in a simulation of a real wind farm. To accomplish this, simulations of one row of Horns Rev wind farm are performed, for different wind directions. It is concluded that the ALM is able to capture the main features of the interaction between wind turbines relaxing its resolution requirements. A sensitivity analysis is performed to assess the influence of the smearing factor and the spatial resolution.

  17. Dynamic Heat Generation Modeling and Thermal Management of Electromechanical Actuators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    and current to the motor through an insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) module. Most of the power loss on EU comes from the IGBTs in the power...Field-oriented Control High Performance Electric Actuation Systems Insulated-gate Bipolar Transistor Integrated Vehicle and Energy Technology...status of a transistor , in electrical degrees. 80 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. • Transistor Drop: The voltage drop across

  18. Modeling of the hydrogen maser disk in MWC 349

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponomarev, Victor O.; Smith, Howard A.; Strelnitski, Vladimir S.

    1994-01-01

    Maser amplification in a Keplerian circumstellar disk seen edge on-the idea put forward by Gordon (1992), Martin-Pintado, & Serabyn (1992), and Thum, Martin-Pintado, & Bachiller (1992) to explain the millimeter hydrogen recombination lines in MWC 349-is further justified and developed here. The double-peaked (vs. possible triple-peaked) form of the observed spectra is explained by the reduced emission from the inner portion of the disk, the portion responsible for the central ('zero velocity') component of a triple-peaked spectrum. Radial gradient of electron density and/or free-free absorption within the disk are identified as the probable causes of this central 'hole' in the disk and of its opacity. We calculate a set of synthetic maser spectra radiated by a homogeneous Keplerian ring seen edge-on and compare them to the H30-alpha observations of Thum et al., averaged over about 1000 days. We used a simple graphical procedure to solve an inverse problem and deduced the probable values of some basic disk and maser parameters. We find that the maser is essentially unsaturated, and that the most probable values of electron temperature. Doppler width of the microturbulence, and electron density, all averaged along the amplification path are, correspondingly, T(sub e) less than or equal to 11,000 K, V(sub micro) less than or equal to 14 km/s, n(sub e) approx. = (3 +/- 2) x 10(exp 7)/cu cm. The model shows that radiation at every frequency within the spectrum arises in a monochromatic 'hot spot.' The maximum optical depth within the 'hot spot' producing radiation at the spectral peak maximum is tau(sub max) approx. = 6 +/- 1; the effective width of the masing ring is approx. = 0.4-0.7 times its outer diameter; the size of the 'hot spot' responsible for the radiation at the spectral peak frequency is approx. = 0.2-0.3 times the distance between the two 'hot spots' corresponding to two peaks. An important derivation of our model is the dynamical mass of the central star

  19. Tests and Techniques for Characterizing and Modeling X-43A Electromechanical Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Yohan; Baumann, Ethan; Bose, David M.; Beck, Roger; Jenney, Gavin

    2008-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted on the electromechanical actuators of the X-43A research vehicle in preparation for the Mach 7 and 10 hypersonic flights. The tests were required to help validate the actuator models in the simulation and acquire a better understanding of the installed system characteristics. Static and dynamic threshold, multichannel crosstalk, command-to-surface timing, free play, voltage regeneration, calibration, frequency response, compliance, hysteretic damping, and aircraft-in-the-loop tests were performed as part of this effort. This report describes the objectives, configurations, and methods for those tests, as well as the techniques used for developing second-order actuator models from the test results. When the first flight attempt failed because of actuator problems with the launch vehicle, further analysis and model enhancements were performed as part of the return-to-flight activities. High-fidelity models are described, along with the modifications that were required to match measurements taken from the research vehicle. Problems involving the implementation of these models into the X-43A simulation are also discussed. This report emphasizes lessons learned from the actuator testing, simulation modeling, and integration efforts for the X-43A hypersonic research vehicle.

  20. Radiation Hydrodynamics Models of the Inner Rim in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flock, M.; Fromang, S.; Turner, N. J.; Benisty, M.

    2016-08-01

    Many stars host planets orbiting within a few astronomical units (AU). The occurrence rate and distributions of masses and orbits vary greatly with the host star’s mass. These close planets’ origins are a mystery that motivates investigating protoplanetary disks’ central regions. A key factor governing the conditions near the star is the silicate sublimation front, which largely determines where the starlight is absorbed, and which is often called the inner rim. We present the first radiation hydrodynamical modeling of the sublimation front in the disks around the young intermediate-mass stars called Herbig Ae stars. The models are axisymmetric and include starlight heating silicate grains sublimating and condensing to equilibrium at the local, time-dependent temperature and density and accretion stresses parameterizing the results of MHD magnetorotational turbulence models. The results compare well with radiation hydrostatic solutions and prove to be dynamically stable. Passing the model disks into Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations, we show that the models satisfy observational constraints on the inner rim’s location. A small optically thin halo of hot dust naturally arises between the inner rim and the star. The inner rim has a substantial radial extent, corresponding to several disk scale heights. While the front’s overall position varies with the stellar luminosity, its radial extent depends on the mass accretion rate. A pressure maximum develops near the location of thermal ionization at temperatures of about 1000 K. The pressure maximum is capable of halting solid pebbles’ radial drift and concentrating them in a zone where temperatures are sufficiently high for annealing to form crystalline silicates.

  1. Design and modeling of new suspension system using direct drive servo-valve system actuated by piezostack actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chulhee; Kim, Wan Ho; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes a new type of a direct-drive valve (DDV) suspension system for vehicle controlled by the piezostack actuator associated with displacement amplifier. In order to achieve this goal, a new type of controllable piezostack DDV damper is designed and its performance evaluation of damping force is undertaken. Next, a full vehicle suspension system consisting of sprung mass, spring, tire and the piezostack DDV damper is constructed. After deriving the governing equations of the motion for the proposed the piezostack DDV suspension system, the skyhook controller is implemented for the realization of the full vehicle. Analytical model of the whole suspension system is then derived and performance characteristics are analyzed through numerical simulation. Finally, vibration control responses of the vehicle suspension system such as vertical acceleration are evaluated under both bump and sine road conditions.

  2. One-dimensional analytical model development of a plasma-based actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popkin, Sarah Haack

    This dissertation provides a method for modeling the complex, multi-physics, multi-dimensional processes associated with a plasma-based flow control actuator, also known as the SparkJet, by using a one-dimensional analytical model derived from the Euler and thermodynamic equations, under varying assumptions. This model is compared to CFD simulations and experimental data to verify and/or modify the model where simplifying assumptions poorly represent the real actuator. The model was exercised to explore high-frequency actuation and methods of improving actuator performance. Using peak jet momentum as a performance metric, the model shows that a typical SparkJet design (1 mm orifice diameter, 84.8 mm3 cavity volume, and 0.5 J energy input) operated over a range of frequencies from 1 Hz to 10 kHz shows a decrease in peak momentum corresponding to an actuation cutoff frequency of 800 Hz. The model results show that the cutoff frequency is primarily a function of orifice diameter and cavity volume. To further verify model accuracy, experimental testing was performed involving time-dependent, cavity pressure and arc power measurements as a function of orifice diameter, cavity volume, input energy, and electrode gap. The cavity pressure measurements showed that pressure-based efficiency ranges from 20% to 40%. The arc power measurements exposed the deficiency in assuming instantaneous energy deposition and a calorically perfect gas and also showed that arc efficiency was approximately 80%. Additional comparisons between the pressure-based modeling and experimental results show that the model captures the actuator dependence on orifice diameter, cavity volume, and input energy but over-estimates the duration of the jet flow during Stage 2. The likely cause of the disagreement is an inaccurate representation of thermal heat transfer related to convective heat transfer or heat loss to the electrodes.

  3. Modeling Planet-Building Stellar Disks with Radiative Transfer Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swearingen, Jeremy R.; Sitko, Michael L.; Whitney, Barbara; Grady, Carol A.; Wagner, Kevin Robert; Champney, Elizabeth H.; Johnson, Alexa N.; Warren, Chelsea C.; Russell, Ray W.; Hammel, Heidi B.; Lisse, Casey M.; Cure, Michel; Kraus, Stefan; Fukagawa, Misato; Calvet, Nuria; Espaillat, Catherine; Monnier, John D.; Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Wilner, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the nature of the many planetary systems found outside of our own solar system cannot be completed without knowledge of the beginnings these systems. By detecting planets in very young systems and modeling the disks of material around stars from which they form, we can gain a better understanding of planetary origin and evolution. The efforts presented here have been in modeling two pre-transitional disk systems using a radiative transfer code. With the first of these systems, V1247 Ori, a model that fits the spectral energy distribution (SED) well and whose parameters are consistent with existing interferometry data (Kraus et al 2013) has been achieved. The second of these two systems, SAO 206462, has presented a different set of challenges but encouraging SED agreement between the model and known data gives hope that the model can produce images that can be used in future interferometry work. This work was supported by NASA ADAP grant NNX09AC73G, and the IR&D program at The Aerospace Corporation.

  4. Modeling and Simulation of Control Actuation System with Fuzzy-PID Logic Controlled Brushless Motor Drives for Missiles Glider Applications.

    PubMed

    Muniraj, Murali; Arulmozhiyal, Ramaswamy

    2015-01-01

    A control actuation system has been used extensively in automotive, aerospace, and defense applications. The major challenges in modeling control actuation system are rise time, maximum peak to peak overshoot, and response to nonlinear system with percentage error. This paper addresses the challenges in modeling and real time implementation of control actuation system for missiles glider applications. As an alternative fuzzy-PID controller is proposed in BLDC motor drive followed by linkage mechanism to actuate fins in missiles and gliders. The proposed system will realize better rise time and less overshoot while operating in extreme nonlinear dynamic system conditions. A mathematical model of BLDC motor is derived in state space form. The complete control actuation system is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink environment and verified by performing simulation studies. A real time prototype of the control actuation is developed with dSPACE-1104 hardware controller and a detailed analysis is carried out to confirm the viability of the proposed system.

  5. Piezoelectric actuator models for active sound and vibration control of cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, Harold C.; Lefebvre, Sylvie

    1993-01-01

    Analytical models for piezoelectric actuators, adapted from flat plate concepts, are developed for noise and vibration control applications associated with vibrating circular cylinders. The loadings applied to the cylinder by the piezoelectric actuators for the bending and in-plane force models are approximated by line moment and line force distributions, respectively, acting on the perimeter of the actuator patch area. Coupling between the cylinder and interior acoustic cavity is examined by studying the modal spectra, particularly for the low-order cylinder modes that couple efficiently with the cavity at low frequencies. Within the scope of this study, the in-plane force model produced a more favorable distribution of low-order modes, necessary for efficient interior noise control, than did the bending model.

  6. Electromechanical model for actuating liquids in a two-plate droplet microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Debalina; Shepherd, Heather; Garrell, Robin L

    2009-05-07

    Both conducting and insulating liquids can be actuated in two-plate droplet ("digital") microfluidic devices. Droplet movement is accomplished by applying a voltage across electrodes patterned beneath the dielectric-coated top and bottom plates. This report presents a general electromechanical model for calculating the forces on insulating and conducting liquids in two-plate devices. The devices are modeled as an equivalent circuit in which the dielectric layers and ambient medium (air or oil) are described as capacitors, while the liquid being actuated is described as a resistor and capacitor in parallel. The experimental variables are the thickness and dielectric constant of each layer in the device, the gap between plates, the applied voltage and frequency, and the conductivity of the liquid. The model has been used to calculate the total force acting on droplets of liquids that have been studied experimentally, and to explain the relative ease with which liquids of different conductivities can be actuated. The contributions of the electrowetting (EW) and dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces to droplet actuation have also been calculated. While for conductive liquids the EW force dominates, for dielectric liquids, both DEP and EW contribute, and the DEP force may dominate. The general utility of the model is that it can be used to predict the operating conditions needed to actuate particular liquids in devices of known geometry, and to optimize the design and operating conditions to enable movement of virtually any liquid.

  7. Parameterized reduced order modeling of misaligned stacked disks rotor assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganine, Vladislav; Laxalde, Denis; Michalska, Hannah; Pierre, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Light and flexible rotating parts of modern turbine engines operating at supercritical speeds necessitate application of more accurate but rather computationally expensive 3D FE modeling techniques. Stacked disks misalignment due to manufacturing variability in the geometry of individual components constitutes a particularly important aspect to be included in the analysis because of its impact on system dynamics. A new parametric model order reduction algorithm is presented to achieve this goal at affordable computational costs. It is shown that the disks misalignment leads to significant changes in nominal system properties that manifest themselves as additional blocks coupling neighboring spatial harmonics in Fourier space. Consequently, the misalignment effects can no longer be accurately modeled as equivalent forces applied to a nominal unperturbed system. The fact that the mode shapes become heavily distorted by extra harmonic content renders the nominal modal projection-based methods inaccurate and thus numerically ineffective in the context of repeated analysis of multiple misalignment realizations. The significant numerical bottleneck is removed by employing an orthogonal projection onto the subspace spanned by first few Fourier harmonic basis vectors. The projected highly sparse systems are shown to accurately approximate the specific misalignment effects, to be inexpensive to solve using direct sparse methods and easy to parameterize with a small set of measurable eccentricity and tilt angle parameters. Selected numerical examples on an industrial scale model are presented to illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the algorithm implementation.

  8. Modelling Cosmic-Ray Effects in the Protosolar Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    The role that Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and solar energetic particles (SEPs) play in the dynamic evolution of protosolar disks and the origin of our Solar System is a fundamental one. The GCRs are an important component of the interstellar medium (ISM), and even play a role in correcting the age determinations of some irons versus CAIs (calcium-aluminum inclusions) in meteoroids . Because CRs also are one of the energy transport mechanisms in a planetary nebula, the question of modelling their effect upon this broad subject is a serious topic for planetary science. The problem is addressed here.

  9. Development of a dc Motor Model and an Actuator Efficiency Model

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, John Clifford; Mc Kellar, Michael George; DeWall, Kevin George

    2001-07-01

    For the past several years, researchers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have been investigating the ability of motor-operated valves (MOVs) used in Nuclear Power Plants to close or open when subjected to design basis flow and pressure loads. Part of this research addresses the response of a dcpowered motor-operated gate valve to assess whether it will achieve flow isolation and to evaluate whether it will slow down excessively under design-basis conditions and thus fail to achieve the required stroke time. As part of this research, we have developed a model of a dc motor operating under load and a model of actuator efficiency under load based on a first principle evaluation of the equipment. These models include the effect that reduced voltage at the Motor Control Center and elevated containment temperatures have on the performance of a dc powered MOV. The model also accounts for motor torque and speed changes that result from the heatup of the motor during the stroke. These models are part of the Motor- Operated Valve In Site Test Assessment (MISTA) software which is capable of independently evaluating the ability of dc-powered motoroperated gate valves to achieve flow isolation and to meet required stroke times under design-basis conditions. This paper presents an overview of the dc motor model and the actuator efficiency under load model. The paper then compares the analytical results from the models with the results of actual dc motor and actuator testing, including comparisons of the effect reduced voltage, elevated containment temperature, and motor heating during the stroke have on an MOV.

  10. Development of piezoelectric-based membranes for synthetic jet actuators: experiments and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housley, Kevin W.; Clingman, Dan J.; Amitay, Michael

    2016-04-01

    A mathematical model was developed to represent the behavior of circular piezoelectric bimorphs in a synthetic jet actuator. Synthetic jet actuators are popular active flow control devices whose application is being widely explored in aerodynamics. The material properties were matched to those of PZT-5A mounted on a substrate. The actuator's geometry consisted of a cylindrical cavity of low height to diameter aspect ratio. A bimorph formed one of the cylinder's bases. The ingestion/expulsion orifice for the synthetic jet actuator was placed in the edge of the cavity so as to allow for either the present single bimorph or future dual bimorph configurations. Simply supported and rigidly supported boundary conditions were assessed around the circumference of the bimorph. The potential of alternate mode shapes occurring in the bimorphs during operation of the synthetic jet was evaluated. A limited parametric study was conducted varying the thickness of the piezoelectric wafers used in the bimorphs and the geometry of the cavity and orifice. Results were obtained for the displacement of the center of the bimorph's surface and the peak velocity of the air being ingested and expulsed through the orifice. These results were compared to values obtained through a mathematical model. Experimental data present in literature were also compared. The mathematical model was seen to have considerable potential for predicting the performance of synthetic jet actuators and their resonant frequencies but failed to capture the effects of acoustic coupling with the cavity, which is a topic of future research.

  11. Propagation Modeling and Defending of a Mobile Sensor Worm in Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian; Wu, Qun; Wen, Sheng; Cai, Yiqiao; Tian, Hui; Chen, Yonghong; Wang, Baowei

    2017-01-13

    WSANs (Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks) are derived from traditional wireless sensor networks by introducing mobile actuator elements. Previous studies indicated that mobile actuators can improve network performance in terms of data collection, energy supplementation, etc. However, according to our experimental simulations, the actuator's mobility also causes the sensor worm to spread faster if an attacker launches worm attacks on an actuator and compromises it successfully. Traditional worm propagation models and defense strategies did not consider the diffusion with a mobile worm carrier. To address this new problem, we first propose a microscopic mathematical model to describe the propagation dynamics of the sensor worm. Then, a two-step local defending strategy (LDS) with a mobile patcher (a mobile element which can distribute patches) is designed to recover the network. In LDS, all recovering operations are only taken in a restricted region to minimize the cost. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our model estimations are rather accurate and consistent with the actual spreading scenario of the mobile sensor worm. Moreover, on average, the LDS outperforms other algorithms by approximately 50% in terms of the cost.

  12. A comprehensive physics-based model encompassing variable surface resistance and underlying physics of ionic polymer-metal composite actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Qi; Palmre, Viljar; Stalbaum, Tyler; Kim, Kwang J.

    2015-09-01

    The ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) is an emerging smart material in actuation and sensing applications, such as artificial muscles, underwater actuators, and advanced medical devices. However, the effect of the change in surface electrode properties on the actuating of IPMC has not been well studied. To address this problem, we theoretically predict and experimentally investigate the dynamic electro-mechanical response of the IPMC thin-strip actuator. A model of the IPMC actuator is proposed based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations for ion transport and charge dynamics in the polymer membrane, while a physical model for the change of surface resistance of the electrodes of the IPMC due to deformation is also incorporated. By incorporating these two models, a complete, dynamic, physics-based model for IPMC actuators is presented. To verify the model, IPMC samples were prepared and experiments were conducted. The results show that the theoretical model can accurately predict the actuating performance of IPMC actuators over a range of dynamic conditions. Additionally, the charge dynamics inside the polymer during the oscillation of the IPMC is presented. It is also shown that the charge at the boundary mainly affects the induced stress of the IPMC. The current study is beneficial for the comprehensive understanding of the surface electrode effect on the performance of IPMC actuators.

  13. Dynamical experiments on models of colliding disk galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, Richard A.; Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Lamb, Susan A.

    1990-01-01

    Collisions between galaxies can induce large morphological changes in the participants and, in the case of colliding disk galaxies, bridges and tails are often formed. Observations of such systems indicate a wide variation in color (see Larson and Tinsley, 1978) and that some of the particpants are experiencing enhanced rates of star formation, especially in their central regions (Bushouse 1986, 1987; Kennicutt et al., 1987, Bushouse, Lamb, and Werner, 1988). Here the authors describe progress made in understanding some of the dynamics of interacting galaxies using N-body stellar dynamical computer experiments, with the goal of extending these models to include a hydrodynamical treatment of the gas so that a better understanding of globally enhanced star formation will eventually be forthcoming. It was concluded that close interactions between galaxies can produce large perturbations in both density and velocity fields. The authors measured, via computational experiments that represent a galaxy's stars, average radial velocity flows as large as 100 km/sec and 400 percent density increases. These can occur in rings that move outwards through the disk of a galaxy, in roughly homologous inflows toward the nucleus, and in off center, non-axisymmetric regions. Here the authors illustrate where the gas is likely to flow during the early stages of interaction and in future work they plan to investigate the fate of the gas more realistically by using an N-body/Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code to model both the stellar and gaseous components of a disk galaxy during a collision. Specifically, they will determine the locations of enhanced gas density and the strength and location of shock fronts that form during the interaction.

  14. Optical model and optimal output coupler for a continuous wave Yb:YAG thin-disk laser with multiple-disk configuration.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guangzhi; Zhu, Xiao; Zhu, Changhong; Shang, Jianli

    2012-09-10

    This article presents the fundamental principles of operational performance of a continuous wave (cw) thin-disk laser with multiple disks in one resonator. Based on the model of an end-pumped Yb:YAG thin-disk laser with nonuniform temperature distribution, the effect of the multiple disks in one resonator is considered. The analytic expressions are derived to analyze the laser output intensity, laser intensity in the resonator, threshold intensity, and the optical efficiency of a thin-disk laser with multiple disks arranged in series. The dependence of output coupler reflectivity and the number of thin disks on various parameters are investigated, which are useful to determine the optimal output coupler reflectivity of the thin-disk lasers and control the laser intensity in the resonator.

  15. Continuum damage model for ferroelectric materials and its application to multilayer actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellmann, Roman; Ricoeur, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    In this paper a micromechanical continuum damage model for ferroelectric materials is presented. As a constitutive law it is implemented into a finite element (FE) code. The model is based on micromechanical considerations of domain switching and its interaction with microcrack growth and coalescence. A FE analysis of a multilayer actuator is performed, showing the initiation of damage zones at the electrode tips during the poling process. Further, the influence of mechanical pre-stressing on damage evolution and actuating properties is investigated. The results provided in this work give useful information on the damage of advanced piezoelectric devices and their optimization.

  16. Modeling and analysis of bio-syncretic micro-swimmers for cardiomyocyte-based actuation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuang; Wang, Jingyi; Wang, Wenxue; Xi, Ning; Wang, Yuechao; Liu, Lianqing

    2016-08-22

    Along with sensation and intelligence, actuation is one of the most important factors in the development of conventional robots. Many novel achievements have been made regarding bio-based actuators to solve the challenges of conventional actuation. However, few studies have focused on methods for controlling the movement performance of bio-syncretic robots by designing robotic structures and programming actuation bio-entities. In this paper, a theoretical model was derived considering kinematics and hydromechanics to describe the dynamics of a dolphin-shaped microstructure and to control the bio-syncretic swimmer movement by establishing the relationships between the swimming velocity of the bio-swimmer, the cell seeding concentration and the cell contractility. The proposed theoretical model was then verified with the fabricated biomimetic swimmer prototype actuated by equivalent external magnetism replacing the bio-entity force based on the study of living, beating cardiomyocyte contractility. This work can improve the development of bio-syncretic robots with an approach to preplanning the seeding concentration of cells for controlling the movement velocity of microstructures, and is also meaningful for biomimetic robots, medical treatments and interventional therapy applications.

  17. Feedforward deformation control of a dielectric elastomer actuator based on a nonlinear dynamic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Guo-Ying; Gupta, Ujjaval; Zhu, Jian; Zhu, Li-Min; Zhu, Xiang-Yang

    2015-07-01

    In the practical applications of actuators, the control of their deformation or driving force is a key issue. Most of recent studies on dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) focus on issues of mechanics, physics, and material science, whereas less importance is given to the control of these soft actuators. In this paper, we underline the importance of a nonlinear dynamic model as the basis for a feedforward deformation control approach of a rubber-based DEA. Experimental evidence shows the effectiveness of the feedforward controller. The present study confirms that a DEA's trajectory can be finely controlled with a solid nonlinear dynamic model despite the presence of material nonlinearities and electromechanical coupling. The effective control of DEAs may pave the way for extensive emerging applications to soft robots.

  18. Automated optic disk boundary detection by modified active contour model.

    PubMed

    Xu, Juan; Chutatape, Opas; Chew, Paul

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents a novel deformable-model-based algorithm for fully automated detection of optic disk boundary in fundus images. The proposed method improves and extends the original snake (deforming-only technique) in two aspects: clustering and smoothing update. The contour points are first self-separated into edge-point group or uncertain-point group by clustering after each deformation, and these contour points are then updated by different criteria based on different groups. The updating process combines both the local and global information of the contour to achieve the balance of contour stability and accuracy. The modifications make the proposed algorithm more accurate and robust to blood vessel occlusions, noises, ill-defined edges and fuzzy contour shapes. The comparative results show that the proposed method can estimate the disk boundaries of 100 test images closer to the groundtruth, as measured by mean distance to closest point (MDCP) <3 pixels, with the better success rate when compared to those obtained by gradient vector flow snake (GVF-snake) and modified active shape models (ASM).

  19. A multiscale approach for modeling actuation response of polymeric artificial muscles.

    PubMed

    Sharafi, Soodabeh; Li, Guoqiang

    2015-05-21

    Artificial muscles are emerging materials in the field of smart materials with applications in aerospace, robotic, and biomedical industries. Despite extensive experimental investigations in this field, there is a need for numerical modeling techniques that facilitate cutting edge research and development. This work aims at studying an artificial muscle made of twisted Nylon 6.6 fibers that are highly cold-drawn. A computationally efficient phenomenological thermo-mechanical constitutive model is developed in which several physical properties of the artificial muscles are incorporated to minimize the trial-and-error numerical curve fitting processes. Two types of molecular chains are considered at the micro-scale level that control training and actuation processes viz. (a) helically oriented chains which are structural switches that store a twisted shape in their low temperature phase and restore their random configuration during the thermal actuation process, and (b) entropic chains which are highly drawn chains that could actuate as soon as the muscle heats up, and saturates when coil contact temperature is reached. The thermal actuation response of the muscle over working temperatures has been elaborated in the Modeling section. The performance of the model is validated by available experiments in the literature. The model may provide a design platform for future artificial muscle developments.

  20. Eversion of bistable shells under magnetic actuation: a model of nonlinear shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seffen, Keith A.; Vidoli, Stefano

    2016-06-01

    We model in closed form a proven bistable shell made from a magnetic rubber composite material. In particular, we incorporate a non-axisymmetrical displacement field, and we capture the nonlinear coupling between the actuated shape and the magnetic flux distribution around the shell. We are able to verify the bistable nature of the shell and we explore its eversion during magnetic actuation. We show that axisymmetrical eversion is natural for a perfect shell but that non-axisymmetrical eversion rapidly emerges under very small initial imperfections, as observed in experiments and in a computational analysis. We confirm the non-uniform shapes of shell and we study the stability of eversion by considering how the landscape of total potential and magnetic energies of the system changes during actuation.

  1. Numerical modeling of the interstellar medium in galactic disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, A.; Bregman, J. N.; Norman, Michael L.

    1993-01-01

    We have been developing detailed hydrodynamic models of the global interstellar medium in the hope of understanding the mass and volume occupied by various phases, as well as their structure and kinematics. In our model, the gas is modeled by one fluid while representative Pop 1 stars are modeled by a second fluid. The two fluids are coupled in that the gas forms into stars at a rate given by a Schmidt law while stellar mass loss returns matter into the gas phase (on a time scale of 100 Myr). Also, the stars heat the gas through stellar winds and the gas cools through optically thin radiation. The time behavior of these two fluids is studied in two spatial dimensions with the Eulerian finite difference numerical hydrodynamic code Zen. The two spatial dimensions are along the plane of a disk (x, total length of 2 kpc) and perpendicular to the disk (z, total height of +/- 15 kpc) and a galactic gravitational field in the z direction, typical of that at the solar circle, is imposed upon the simulation; self-gravity and rotation are absent. For the boundary conditions, outflow is permitted at the top and bottom of the grid (z = +/- 15 kpc) while periodic boundary conditions are imposed upon left and right sides of the grid. As initial conditions, we assumed a gaseous distribution like that seen for the H1 by earlier researchers, although the results are insensitive to the initial conditions. We have run simulations in which the heating due to stars, parameterized as a stellar wind velocity, a, is varied from low (a = 150 km/s), to intermediate (a = 300 km/s), to high (a = 600 km/s). Since the intermediate case is roughly equivalent to the Galactic energy injection rate from supernovae, this summary will concentrate on results from this simulation.

  2. On Identifiability of Bias-Type Actuator-Sensor Faults in Multiple-Model-Based Fault Detection and Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Suresh M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores a class of multiple-model-based fault detection and identification (FDI) methods for bias-type faults in actuators and sensors. These methods employ banks of Kalman-Bucy filters to detect the faults, determine the fault pattern, and estimate the fault values, wherein each Kalman-Bucy filter is tuned to a different failure pattern. Necessary and sufficient conditions are presented for identifiability of actuator faults, sensor faults, and simultaneous actuator and sensor faults. It is shown that FDI of simultaneous actuator and sensor faults is not possible using these methods when all sensors have biases.

  3. A validated model for induction heating of shape memory alloy actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Robert N.; Boyd, James G.; Hartl, Darren J.; Brown, Jonathan K.; Calkins, Frederick T.; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.

    2016-04-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators deliver high forces while being compact and reliable, making them ideal for consideration in aerospace applications. One disadvantage of these thermally driven actuators is their slow cyclic time response compared to conventional actuators. Induction heating has recently been proposed to quickly heat SMA components. However efforts to date have been purely empirical. The present work approachs this problem in a computational manner by developing a finite element model of induction heating in which the time-harmonic electromagnetic equations are solved for the Joule heat power field, the energy equation is solved for the temperature field, and the linear momentum equations are solved to find the stress, displacement, and internal state variable fields. The combined model was implemented in Abaqus using a Python script approach and applied to SMA torque tube and beam actuators. The model has also been used to examine magnetic flux concentrators to improve the induction systems performance. Induction heating experiments were performed using the SMA torque tube, and the model agreed well with the experiments.

  4. Design, modelling and control of a micro-positioning actuator based on magnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minorowicz, Bartosz; Leonetti, Giuseppe; Stefanski, Frederik; Binetti, Giulio; Naso, David

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an actuator based on magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs) suitable for precise positioning in a wide range (up to 1 mm). The actuator is based on the spring returned operating mode and uses a Smalley wave spring to maintain the same operating parameters of a classical coil spring, while being characterized by a smaller dimension. The MSMA element inside the actuator provides a deformation when excited by an external magnetic field, but its behavior is characterized by an asymmetric and saturated hysteresis. Thus, two models are exploited in this work to represent such a non-linear behavior, i.e., the modified and generalized Prandtl-Ishlinskii models. These models are particularly suitable for control purposes due to the existence of their analytical inversion that can be easily exploited in real time control systems. To this aim, this paper investigates three closed-loop control strategies, namely a classical PID regulator, a PID regulator with direct hysteresis compensation, and a combined PID and feedforward compensation strategy. The effectiveness of both modelling and control strategies applied to the designed MSMA-based actuator is illustrated by means of experimental results.

  5. Propagation Modeling and Defending of a Mobile Sensor Worm in Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tian; Wu, Qun; Wen, Sheng; Cai, Yiqiao; Tian, Hui; Chen, Yonghong; Wang, Baowei

    2017-01-01

    WSANs (Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks) are derived from traditional wireless sensor networks by introducing mobile actuator elements. Previous studies indicated that mobile actuators can improve network performance in terms of data collection, energy supplementation, etc. However, according to our experimental simulations, the actuator’s mobility also causes the sensor worm to spread faster if an attacker launches worm attacks on an actuator and compromises it successfully. Traditional worm propagation models and defense strategies did not consider the diffusion with a mobile worm carrier. To address this new problem, we first propose a microscopic mathematical model to describe the propagation dynamics of the sensor worm. Then, a two-step local defending strategy (LDS) with a mobile patcher (a mobile element which can distribute patches) is designed to recover the network. In LDS, all recovering operations are only taken in a restricted region to minimize the cost. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our model estimations are rather accurate and consistent with the actual spreading scenario of the mobile sensor worm. Moreover, on average, the LDS outperforms other algorithms by approximately 50% in terms of the cost. PMID:28098748

  6. Modeling and open-loop control of IPMC actuators under changing ambient temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Roy; Tan, Xiaobo

    2012-06-01

    Because of the cost and complexity associated with sensory feedback, open-loop control of ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuators is of interest in many biomedical and robotic applications. However, the performance of an open-loop controller is sensitive to the change in IPMC dynamics, which is influenced heavily by ambient environmental conditions including the temperature. In this paper we propose a novel approach to the modeling and open-loop control of temperature-dependent IPMC actuation dynamics. An IPMC actuator is modeled empirically with a transfer function, the zeros and poles of which are functions of the temperature. With auxiliary temperature measurement, open-loop control is realized by inverting the model at the current ambient temperature. We use a stable but noncausal algorithm to deal with non-minimum-phase zeros in the system that would prevent directly inverting the dynamics. Experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach in open-loop tracking control of IPMC actuators.

  7. Modeling Collisional Cascades in Debris Disks: The Numerical Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gáspár, András; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Özel, Feryal; Rieke, George H.; Cooney, Alan

    2012-04-01

    We develop a new numerical algorithm to model collisional cascades in debris disks. Because of the large dynamical range in particle masses, we solve the integro-differential equations describing erosive and catastrophic collisions in a particle-in-a-box approach, while treating the orbital dynamics of the particles in an approximate fashion. We employ a new scheme for describing erosive (cratering) collisions that yields a continuous set of outcomes as a function of colliding masses. We demonstrate the stability and convergence characteristics of our algorithm and compare it with other treatments. We show that incorporating the effects of erosive collisions results in a decay of the particle distribution that is significantly faster than with purely catastrophic collisions.

  8. MODELING COLLISIONAL CASCADES IN DEBRIS DISKS: THE NUMERICAL METHOD

    SciTech Connect

    Gaspar, Andras; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Oezel, Feryal; Rieke, George H.; Cooney, Alan E-mail: dpsaltis@as.arizona.edu E-mail: grieke@as.arizona.edu

    2012-04-10

    We develop a new numerical algorithm to model collisional cascades in debris disks. Because of the large dynamical range in particle masses, we solve the integro-differential equations describing erosive and catastrophic collisions in a particle-in-a-box approach, while treating the orbital dynamics of the particles in an approximate fashion. We employ a new scheme for describing erosive (cratering) collisions that yields a continuous set of outcomes as a function of colliding masses. We demonstrate the stability and convergence characteristics of our algorithm and compare it with other treatments. We show that incorporating the effects of erosive collisions results in a decay of the particle distribution that is significantly faster than with purely catastrophic collisions.

  9. Tests and consequences of disk plus halo models of gamma-ray burst sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, I. A.

    1995-01-01

    The gamma-ray burst observations made by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) and by previous experiments are still consistent with a combined Galactic disk (or Galactic spiral arm) plus extended Galactic halo model. Testable predictions and consequences of the disk plus halo model are discussed here; tests performed on the expanded BATSE database in the future will constrain the allowed model parameters and may eventually rule out the disk plus halo model. Using examples, it is shown that if the halo has an appropriate edge, BATSE will never detect an anisotropic signal from the halo of the Andromeda galaxy. A prediction of the disk plus halo model is that the fraction of the bursts observed to be in the 'disk' population rises as the detector sensitivity improves. A careful reexamination of the numbers of bursts in the two populations for the pre-BATSE databases could rule out this class of models. Similarly, it is predicted that different satellites will observe different relative numbers of bursts in the two classes for any model in which there are two different spatial distribiutions of the sources, or for models in which there is one spatial distribution of the sources that is sampled to different depths for the two classes. An important consequence of the disk plus halo model is that for the birthrate of the halo sources to be small compared to the birthrate of the disk sources, it is necessary for the halo sources to release many orders of magnitude more energy over their bursting lifetime than the disk sources. The halo bursts must also be much more luminous than the disk bursts; if this disk-halo model is correct, it is necessary to explain why the disk sources do not produce halo-type bursts.

  10. The design, hysteresis modeling and control of a novel SMA-fishing-line actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Chaoqun; Yang, Hui; Sun, Zhiyong; Xue, Bangcan; Hao, Lina; Asadur Rahoman, M. D.; Davis, Steve

    2017-03-01

    Fishing line can be combined with shape memory alloy (SMA) to form novel artificial muscle actuators which have low cost, are lightweight and soft. They can be applied in bionic, wearable and rehabilitation robots, and can reduce system weight and cost, increase power-to-weight ratio and offer safer physical human-robot interaction. However, these actuators possess several disadvantages, for example fishing line based actuators possess low strength and are complex to drive, and SMA possesses a low percentage contraction and has high hysteresis. This paper presents a novel artificial actuator (known as an SMA-fishing-line) made of fishing line and SMA twisted then coiled together, which can be driven directly by an electrical voltage. Its output force can reach 2.65 N at 7.4 V drive voltage, and the percentage contraction at 4 V driven voltage with a 3 N load is 7.53%. An antagonistic bionic joint driven by the novel SMA-fishing-line actuators is presented, and based on an extended unparallel Prandtl-Ishlinskii (EUPI) model, its hysteresis behavior is established, and the error ratio of the EUPI model is determined to be 6.3%. A Joule heat model of the SMA-fishing-line is also presented, and the maximum error of the established model is 0.510 mm. Based on this accurate hysteresis model, a composite PID controller consisting of PID and an integral inverse (I-I) compensator is proposed and its performance is compared with a traditional PID controller through simulations and experimentation. These results show that the composite PID controller possesses higher control precision than basic PID, and is feasible for implementation in an SMA-fishing-line driven antagonistic bionic joint.

  11. Real-time inverse hysteresis compensation of piezoelectric actuators with a modified Prandtl-Ishlinskii model.

    PubMed

    Gu, Guo-Ying; Yang, Mei-Ju; Zhu, Li-Min

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a novel real-time inverse hysteresis compensation method for piezoelectric actuators exhibiting asymmetric hysteresis effect. The proposed method directly utilizes a modified Prandtl-Ishlinskii hysteresis model to characterize the inverse hysteresis effect of piezoelectric actuators. The hysteresis model is then cascaded in the feedforward path for hysteresis cancellation. It avoids the complex and difficult mathematical procedure for constructing an inversion of the hysteresis model. For the purpose of validation, an experimental platform is established. To identify the model parameters, an adaptive particle swarm optimization algorithm is adopted. Based on the identified model parameters, a real-time feedforward controller is implemented for fast hysteresis compensation. Finally, tests are conducted with various kinds of trajectories. The experimental results show that the tracking errors caused by the hysteresis effect are reduced by about 90%, which clearly demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed inverse compensation method with the modified Prandtl-Ishlinskii model.

  12. Tracking Control of a Magnetic Shape Memory Actuator Using an Inverse Preisach Model with Modified Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jhih-Hong; Chiang, Mao-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic shape memory (MSM) alloys are a new class of smart materials with extraordinary strains up to 12% and frequencies in the range of 1 to 2 kHz. The MSM actuator is a potential device which can achieve high performance electromagnetic actuation by using the properties of MSM alloys. However, significant non-linear hysteresis behavior is a significant barrier to control the MSM actuator. In this paper, the Preisach model was used, by capturing experiments from different input signals and output responses, to model the hysteresis of MSM actuator, and the inverse Preisach model, as a feedforward control, provided compensational signals to the MSM actuator to linearize the hysteresis non-linearity. The control strategy for path tracking combined the hysteresis compensator and the modified fuzzy sliding mode control (MFSMC) which served as a path controller. Based on the experimental results, it was verified that a tracking error in the order of micrometers was achieved. PMID:27571081

  13. Tracking Control of a Magnetic Shape Memory Actuator Using an Inverse Preisach Model with Modified Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jhih-Hong; Chiang, Mao-Hsiung

    2016-08-25

    Magnetic shape memory (MSM) alloys are a new class of smart materials with extraordinary strains up to 12% and frequencies in the range of 1 to 2 kHz. The MSM actuator is a potential device which can achieve high performance electromagnetic actuation by using the properties of MSM alloys. However, significant non-linear hysteresis behavior is a significant barrier to control the MSM actuator. In this paper, the Preisach model was used, by capturing experiments from different input signals and output responses, to model the hysteresis of MSM actuator, and the inverse Preisach model, as a feedforward control, provided compensational signals to the MSM actuator to linearize the hysteresis non-linearity. The control strategy for path tracking combined the hysteresis compensator and the modified fuzzy sliding mode control (MFSMC) which served as a path controller. Based on the experimental results, it was verified that a tracking error in the order of micrometers was achieved.

  14. A multi-physical model of actuation response in dielectric gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo; Chang, LongFei; Asaka, Kinji; Chen, Hualing; Li, Dichen

    2016-12-01

    Actuation deformation of a dielectric gel is attributed to: the solvent diffusion, the electrical polarization and material hyperelasticity. A multi-physical model, coupling electrical and mechanical quantities, is established, based on the thermodynamics. A set of constitutive relations is derived as an equation of state for characterization. The model is applied to specific cases as effective validations. Physical and chemical parameters affect the performance of the gel, showing nonlinear deformation and instability. This model offers guidance for engineering application.

  15. THE MISSING CAVITIES IN THE SEEDS POLARIZED SCATTERED LIGHT IMAGES OF TRANSITIONAL PROTOPLANETARY DISKS: A GENERIC DISK MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, R.; Rafikov, R.; Zhu, Z.; Brandt, T.; Janson, M.; Hartmann, L.; Whitney, B.; Muto, T.; Hashimoto, J.; Kuzuhara, M.; Grady, C.; Follette, K.; Tanii, R.; Itoh, Y.; Thalmann, C.; Wisniewski, J.; Mayama, S.; Abe, L.; Brandner, W.; Carson, J.; and others

    2012-05-10

    Transitional circumstellar disks around young stellar objects have a distinctive infrared deficit around 10 {mu}m in their spectral energy distributions, recently measured by the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), suggesting dust depletion in the inner regions. These disks have been confirmed to have giant central cavities by imaging of the submillimeter continuum emission using the Submillimeter Array (SMA). However, the polarized near-infrared scattered light images for most objects in a systematic IRS/SMA cross sample, obtained by HiCIAO on the Subaru telescope, show no evidence for the cavity, in clear contrast with SMA and Spitzer observations. Radiative transfer modeling indicates that many of these scattered light images are consistent with a smooth spatial distribution for {mu}m-sized grains, with little discontinuity in the surface density of the {mu}m-sized grains at the cavity edge. Here we present a generic disk model that can simultaneously account for the general features in IRS, SMA, and Subaru observations. Particularly, the scattered light images for this model are computed, which agree with the general trend seen in Subaru data. Decoupling between the spatial distributions of the {mu}m-sized dust and mm-sized dust inside the cavity is suggested by the model, which, if confirmed, necessitates a mechanism, such as dust filtration, for differentiating the small and big dust in the cavity clearing process. Our model also suggests an inwardly increasing gas-to-dust ratio in the inner disk, and different spatial distributions for the small dust inside and outside the cavity, echoing the predictions in grain coagulation and growth models.

  16. Nonlinear dynamic modeling for smart material electro-hydraulic actuator development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, John P.; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2013-03-01

    Smart material electro-hydraulic actuators use hydraulic rectification by one-way check valves to amplify the motion of smart materials, such as magnetostrictives and piezoelectrics, in order to create compact, lightweight actuators. A piston pump driven by a smart material is combined with a hydraulic cylinder to form a self-contained, power-by-wire actuator that can be used in place of a conventional hydraulic system without the need for hydraulic lines and a centralized pump. The performance of an experimental actuator driven by a 12.7 mm diameter, 114 mm length Terfenol-D rod is evaluated over a range of applied input frequencies, loads, and currents. The peak performance achieved is 37 W, moving a 220 N load at a rate of 17 cm/s and producing a blocked pressure of 12.5 MPa. Additional tests are conducted to quantify the dynamic behavior of the one-way reed valves using a scanning laser vibrometer to identify the frequency response of the reeds and the effect of the valve seat and fluid mass loading. A lumped-parameter model is developed for the system that includes valve inertia and fluid response nonlinearities, and the model results are compared with the experimental data.

  17. An integrated electroactive polymer sensor-actuator: design, model-based control, and performance characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, A.; Chen, Z.; Tan, X.; Kruusmaa, M.

    2016-03-01

    Ionic electroactive polymers (IEAPs), particularly ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) and carbon-polymer composites (CPCs), bend when a voltage is applied on their electrodes, and conversely, they generate an electrical signal when subjected to a mechanical bending. In this work we study and compare the capabilities of IPMC and CPC actuators and sensors in closed-loop control applications. We propose and realize an integrated IEAP sensor-actuator design, characterize its performance using three different materials, and compare the results. The design consists of two short IEAP actuators and one sensor mechanically coupled together in a parallel configuration, and an attached rigid extension significantly longer than the IEAPs. This allows the device to be compliant, simple to construct, lightweight, easy to miniaturize, and functionally similar to a one-degree-of-freedom rotational joint. For control design and accurate position sensing in feedback experiments, we adapt physics-based and control-oriented models of actuation and sensing dynamics, and perform experiments to identify their parameters. In performance characterization, both model-based {H}∞ control and proportional-integral control are explored. System responses to step inputs, sinusoids, and random references are measured, and long-duration sinusoidal tracking experiments are performed. The results show that, while IEAP position sensing is stable for only a limited time-span, H ∞ control significantly improves the performance of the device.

  18. The circumstellar disk of HH 30. Searching for signs of disk evolution with multi-wavelength modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madlener, D.; Wolf, S.; Dutrey, A.; Guilloteau, S.

    2012-07-01

    Context. Circumstellar disks are characteristic for star formation and vanish during the first few Myr of stellar evolution. During this time planets are believed to form in the dense midplane by growth, sedimentation and aggregation of dust. Indicators of disk evolution, such as holes and gaps, can be traced in the spectral energy distribution (SED) and spatially resolved images. Aims: We aim to construct a self-consistent model of HH 30 by fitting all available continuum observations simultaneously. New data sets not available in previous studies, such as high-resolution interferometric imaging with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) at λ = 1.3 mm and SED measured with IRS on the Spitzer Space Telescope in the mid-infrared, put strong constraints on predictions and are likely to provide new insights into the evolutionary state of this object. Methods: A parameter study based on simulated annealing was performed to find unbiased best-fit models for independent observations made in the wavelength domain λ ~ 1 μm...4 mm. The method essentially creates a Markov chain through parameter space by comparing predictions generated by our self-consistent continuum radiation transfer code MC3D with observations. Results: We present models of the edge-on circumstellar disk of HH 30 based on observations from the near-infrared to mm-wavelengths that suggest the presence of an inner depletion zone with ~45 AU radius and a steep decline of mm opacity beyond ≳ 140 AU. Our modeling indicates that several modes of dust evolution such as growth, settling, and radial migration are taking place in this object. Conclusions: High-resolution observations of HH 30 at different wavelengths with next-generation observatories such as ALMA and JWST will enable the modeling of inhomogeneous dust properties and significantly expand our understanding of circumstellar disk evolution.

  19. The Thermodynamic Model of a Moon Forming Disk Based on SPH Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, M.; Stevenson, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    According to the giant impact hypothesis, a Mars size body hits the proto-Earth in the late stage of Earth forming event (e.g. Benz et al., 1986, Thompson and Stevenson 1988). The impact generates a debris disk around the proto-Earth, from which the Moon is accreted. SPH simulations suggest that the silicate disk has high temperature (~ a few thousands K) and partially vaporized (~10-30% by mass) (Canup 2004). However, SPH does not determine the state of the resulting hydrostatic disk. To do this, we have taken the output of SPH, applied conservation of entropy, mass and angular momentum and corrected for the additional energy released upon quick relaxation to the hydrostatic Keplerian state. We find that the disk is remarkably uniform in entropy but is of lower entropy than the adjacent outer shell of Earth. Constant entropy implies a temperature variation, typically from 4500K (inner disk) to 2500K (outer disk) at the midplane. For grazing impact cases (impact angles: 40 - 60 degrees, impact velocity: escape velocity, mantle material: forsterite), 90% of the disk mass is within 10 Earth radius. The disk vapor mass fractions are about 10-20%, which are consistent with Canup (2004) results. This may be an underestimate because iron is more volatile than magnesium. Mass loss from this disk will be small. The effects of initial condition differences will be discussed in the presentation. This is the first attempt to create a bridge between SPH results and a thermodynamic disk model.

  20. Phenomenological modeling of induced transformation anisotropy in shape memory alloy actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartl, Darren J.; Solomou, Alexandros; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.; Saravanos, Dimitris

    2012-04-01

    This paper considers new extensions to a three-dimensional constitutive model originally developed by Lagoudas and co-workers. The proposed model accurately and robustly captures the highly anisotropic transformation strain generation and recovery observed in actuator components that have been subjected to common material processing and training methods. A constant back stress tensor is introduced into the model, which is implemented in an exact form for simple tension/torsion loading as well as into a commercial finite element code to perform a 3-D analysis of a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) torque tube actuator subjected to different loading schemes. Numerical correlations between predicted and available experimental results demonstrate the accuracy of the model.

  1. Flexible system model reduction and control system design based upon actuator and sensor influence functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yam, Yeung; Johnson, Timothy L.; Lang, Jeffrey H.

    1987-01-01

    A model reduction technique based on aggregation with respect to sensor and actuator influence functions rather than modes is presented for large systems of coupled second-order differential equations. Perturbation expressions which can predict the effects of spillover on both the reduced-order plant model and the neglected plant model are derived. For the special case of collocated actuators and sensors, these expressions lead to the derivation of constraints on the controller gains that are, given the validity of the perturbation technique, sufficient to guarantee the stability of the closed-loop system. A case study demonstrates the derivation of stabilizing controllers based on the present technique. The use of control and observation synthesis in modifying the dimension of the reduced-order plant model is also discussed. A numerical example is provided for illustration.

  2. SMA actuators for vibration control and experimental determination of model parameters dependent on ambient airflow velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Y.

    2016-05-01

    This article demonstrates the practical applicability of a method of modelling shape memory alloys (SMAs) as actuators. For this study, a pair of SMA wires was installed in an antagonistic manner to form an actuator, and a linear differential equation that describes the behaviour of the actuator’s generated force relative to its input voltage was derived for the limited range below the austenite onset temperature. In this range, hysteresis need not be considered, and the proposed SMA actuator can therefore be practically applied in linear control systems, which is significant because large deformations accompanied by hysteresis do not necessarily occur in most vibration control cases. When specific values of the parameters used in the differential equation were identified experimentally, it became clear that one of the parameters was dependent on ambient airflow velocity. The values of this dependent parameter were obtained using an additional SMA wire as a sensor. In these experiments, while the airflow distribution around the SMA wires was varied by changing the rotational speed of the fans in the wind tunnels, an input voltage was conveyed to the SMA actuator circuit, and the generated force was measured. In this way, the parameter dependent on airflow velocity was estimated in real time, and it was validated that the calculated force was consistent with the measured one.

  3. Flow Separation Control on A Full-Scale Vertical Tail Model Using Sweeping Jet Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andino, Marlyn Y.; Lin, John C.; Washburn, Anthony E.; Whalen, Edward A.; Graff, Emilio C.; Wygnanski, Israel J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes test results of a joint NASA/Boeing research effort to advance Active Flow Control (AFC) technology to enhance aerodynamic efficiency. A full-scale Boeing 757 vertical tail model equipped with sweeping jets AFC was tested at the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The flow separation control optimization was performed at 100 knots, a maximum rudder deflection of 30deg, and sideslip angles of 0deg and -7.5deg. Greater than 20% increments in side force were achieved at the two sideslip angles with a 31-actuator AFC configuration. Flow physics and flow separation control associated with the AFC are presented in detail. AFC caused significant increases in suction pressure on the actuator side and associated side force enhancement. The momentum coefficient (C sub mu) is shown to be a useful parameter to use for scaling-up sweeping jet AFC from sub-scale tests to full-scale applications. Reducing the number of actuators at a constant total C(sub mu) of approximately 0.5% and tripling the actuator spacing did not significantly affect the flow separation control effectiveness.

  4. Herniated disk

    MedlinePlus

    Lumbar radiculopathy; Cervical radiculopathy; Herniated intervertebral disk; Prolapsed intervertebral disk; Slipped disk; Ruptured disk; Herniated nucleus pulposus: Low back pain - herniated disk; LBP - herniated disk; Sciatica - herniated disk; Herniated disk

  5. Dynamic modeling of brushless dc motor-power conditioner unit for electromechanical actuator application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demerdash, N. A.; Nehl, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive digital model for the analysis of the dynamic-instantaneous performance of a power conditioner fed samarium-cobalt permanent magnet brushless DC motor is presented. The particular power conditioner-machine system at hand, for which this model was developed, is a component of an actual prototype electromechanical actuator built for NASA-JSC as a possible alternative to hydraulic actuators as part of feasibility studies for the shuttle orbiter applications. Excellent correlation between digital simulated and experimentally obtained performance data was achieved for this specific prototype. This is reported on in this paper. Details of one component of the model, its applications and the corresponding results are given in this paper.

  6. Action-Based Dynamical Modeling for the Milky Way Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trick, Wilma H.; Bovy, Jo; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2016-10-01

    We present RoadMapping, a full-likelihood dynamical modeling machinery that aims to recover the Milky Way’s (MW) gravitational potential from large samples of stars in the Galactic disk. RoadMapping models the observed positions and velocities of stars with a parameterized, three-integral distribution function (DF) in a parameterized axisymmetric potential. We investigate through differential test cases with idealized mock data how the breakdown of model assumptions and data properties affect constraints on the potential and DF. Our key results are: (i) If the MW’s true potential is not included in the assumed model potential family, we can—in the axisymmetric case—still find a robust estimate for the potential, with only ≲ 10 % difference in surface density within | z| ≤slant 1.1 {kpc} inside the observed volume. (ii) Modest systematic differences between the true and model DF are inconsequential. E.g., when binning stars to define sub-populations with simple DFs, binning errors do not affect the modeling as long as the DF parameters of neighboring bins differ by \\lt 20 % . In addition, RoadMapping ensures unbiased potential estimates for either (iii) small misjudgements of the spatial selection function (i.e., ≲ 15 % at the survey volume’s edge), (iv) if distances are known to within 10%, or (v) if proper motion uncertainties are known within 10% or are smaller than δ μ ≲ 1 {mas} {{yr}}-1. Challenges are the rapidly increasing computational costs for large sample sizes. Overall, RoadMapping is well suited to making precise new measurements of the MW’s potential with data from the upcoming Gaia releases.

  7. A dynamic model for generating actuator specifications for small arms barrel active stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Anupam; Brei, Diann; Luntz, Jonathan; Lavigna, Chris

    2006-03-01

    Due to stresses encountered in combat, it is known that soldier marksmanship noticeably decreases regardless of prior training. Active stabilization systems in small arms have potential to address this problem to increase soldier survivability and mission effectiveness. The key to success is proper actuator design, but this is highly dependent on proper specification which is challenging due to the human/weapon interaction. This paper presents a generic analytical dynamic model which is capable of defining the necessary actuation specifications for a wide range of small arms platforms. The model is unique because it captures the human interface--shoulder and arm--that introduces the jitter disturbance in addition to the geometry, inertial properties and active stabilization stiffness of the small arms platform. Because no data to date is available for actual shooter-induced disturbance in field conditions, a method is given using the model to back-solve from measured shooting range variability data the disturbance amplitude information relative to the input source (arm or shoulder). As examples of the applicability of the model to various small arms systems, two different weapon systems were investigated: the M24 sniper weapon and the M16 assault rifle. In both cases, model based simulations provided valuable insight into impact on the actuation specifications (force, displacement, phase, frequency) due to the interplay of the human-weapon-active stabilization interface including the effect of shooter-disturbance frequency, disturbance location (shoulder vs. arm), and system parameters (stiffness, barrel rotation).

  8. Simulating the Timescale-Dependent Color Variation in Quasars with a Revised Inhomogeneous Disk Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zhen-Yi; Wang, Jun-Xian; Gu, Wei-Min; Sun, Yu-Han; Wu, Mao-Chun; Huang, Xing-Xing; Chen, Xiao-Yang

    2016-07-01

    The UV-optical variability of active galactic nuclei and quasars is useful for understanding the physics of the accretion disk and is gradually being attributed to stochastic fluctuations over the accretion disk. Quasars generally appear bluer when they brighten in the UV-optical bands; the nature of this phenomenon remains controversial. Recently, Sun et al. discovered that the color variation of quasars is timescale-dependent, in the way that faster variations are even bluer than longer term ones. While this discovery can directly rule out models that simply attribute the color variation to contamination from the host galaxies, or to changes in the global accretion rates, it favors the stochastic disk fluctuation model as fluctuations in the inner-most hotter disk could dominate the short-term variations. In this work, we show that a revised inhomogeneous disk model, where the characteristic timescales of thermal fluctuations in the disk are radius-dependent (i.e., τ ˜ r; based on that originally proposed by Dexter & Agol), can reproduce well a timescale-dependent color variation pattern, similar to the observed one and unaffected by the uneven sampling and photometric error. This demonstrates that one may statistically use variation emission at different timescales to spatially resolve the accretion disk in quasars, thus opening a new window with which to probe and test the accretion disk physics in the era of time domain astronomy. Caveats of the current model, which ought to be addressed in future simulations, are discussed.

  9. MODELING MID-INFRARED VARIABILITY OF CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS WITH NON-AXISYMMETRIC STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Flaherty, K. M.; Muzerolle, J.

    2010-08-20

    Recent mid-infrared observations of young stellar objects have found significant variations possibly indicative of changes in the structure of the circumstellar disk. Previous models of this variability have been restricted to axisymmetric perturbations in the disk. We consider simple models of a non-axisymmetric variation in the inner disk, such as a warp or a spiral wave. We find that the precession of these non-axisymmetric structures produces negligible flux variations but a change in the height of these structures can lead to significant changes in the mid-infrared flux. Applying these models to observations of the young stellar object LRLL 31 suggests that the observed variability could be explained by a warped inner disk with variable scale height. This suggests that some of the variability observed in young stellar objects could be explained by non-axisymmetric disturbances in the inner disk and this variability would be easily observable in future studies.

  10. Computer Model Shows a Disk Galaxy's Life History

    NASA Video Gallery

    This cosmological simulation follows the development of a single disk galaxy over about 13.5 billion years, from shortly after the Big Bang to the present time. Colors indicate old stars (red), you...

  11. The rat intervertebral disk degeneration pain model: relationships between biological and structural alterations and pain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Degeneration of the interverterbral disk is as a cause of low-back pain is increasing. To gain insight into relationships between biological processes, structural alterations and behavioral pain, we created an animal model in rats. Methods Disk degeneration was induced by removal of the nucleus pulposus (NP) from the lumbar disks (L4/L5 and L5/L6) of Sprague Dawley rats using a 0.5-mm-diameter microsurgical drill. The degree of primary hyperalgesia was assessed by using an algometer to measure pain upon external pressure on injured lumbar disks. Biochemical and histological assessments and radiographs of injured disks were used for evaluation. We investigated therapeutic modulation of chronic pain by administering pharmaceutical drugs in this animal model. Results After removal of the NP, pressure hyperalgesia developed over the lower back. Nine weeks after surgery we observed damaged or degenerated disks with proteoglycan loss and narrowing of disk height. These biological and structural changes in disks were closely related to the sustained pain hyperalgesia. A high dose of morphine (6.7 mg/kg) resulted in effective pain relief. However, high doses of pregabalin (20 mg/kg), a drug that has been used for treatment of chronic neuropathic pain, as well as the anti-inflammatory drugs celecoxib (50 mg/kg; a selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2)) and ketorolac (20 mg/kg; an inhibitor of COX-1 and COX-2), did not have significant antihyperalgesic effects in our disk injury animal model. Conclusions Although similarities in gene expression profiles suggest potential overlap in chronic pain pathways linked to disk injury or neuropathy, drug-testing results suggest that pain pathways linked to these two chronic pain conditions are mechanistically distinct. Our findings provide a foundation for future research on new therapeutic interventions that can lead to improvements in the treatment of patients with back pain due to disk degeneration. PMID

  12. Modelling the Gas Dynamics of Protoplanetary Disks by the SPH Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidova, T. V.

    2016-12-01

    A modification of the GADGET-2 program package is proposed for three-dimensional modelling of gasdynamic flows in protoplanetary disks when perturbing objects (components of a binary system, brown dwarfs, protoplanets) are present. In these systems, the matter in the common disk falls onto the central star and companions to form accretion disks around them. The GADGET-2 code has been supplemented for calculating the accretion rate to each massive object and the line density of matter in the direction toward the central star as functions of the phase of the orbital period. The orbital parameters of the companion are specified as initial conditions for the problem. These orbits can be circular, eccentric, or inclined relative to the plane of the disk. With the aid of the modified code, details in the inner parts of the disk can be calculated with high accuracy: the accretion disks of the star and the companion are identified, as well as the gas bridge between them, flows of matter from the common disk which fill the accretion disks with matter, and density waves in the accretion and common disks.

  13. Debris disks as seen by Herschel: statistics and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, J.; Marshall, J. P.; Augereau, J. C.; Eiroa, C.

    2011-10-01

    As leftovers of planet formation, debris disks represent an essential component of planetary systems. We first introduce the latest statistics obtained by the DUNES consortium, who are taking a census of extrasolar analogues to the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt using the Herschel Space Observatory. Then we present a detailed study of the much younger debris disk surrounding the F5.5 star HD 181327. We derive strong constraints on the properties of its dust and we discuss its possible gaseous counterpart.

  14. Theoretical modelling and experimental results of electromechanical actuation of an elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Calleja, Ricardo; Llovera-Segovia, Pedro; Dominguez, José Jorge; Carsí Rosique, Marta; Quijano Lopez, Alfredo

    2013-06-01

    Electromechanical actuation is a growing field of research today both for applications or theoretical modelling. The interaction between electric and mechanical constraints has been used for electromechanic actuators or generators based on elastomers. From a theoretical point of view, many recent works have been focused on uniaxial or biaxial stretching of elastomer plates with compliant electrodes. Free stretching or pre-strained samples have been theoretically modelled, mainly by neo-Hookean equations. In this work, we present theoretical and experimental results of electromechanic actuation of an elastomer (the widely used 3M VHB4910, an acrylic foam) in a pre-strained case and a free case. Experimental characterization of the material shows that the Ogden model gives the best accurate fitting of mechanical properties. Thus, a theoretical development based on this model is carried out in order to obtain the curves describing the electromechanical behaviour of the material. The mechanical instability related to wrinkling of the material is theoretically calculated and experimentally verified.

  15. Numerical Modeling of Tidal Effects in Polytropic Accretion Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godon, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    A two-dimensional time-dependent hybrid Fourier-Chebyshev method of collocation is developed and used for the study of tidal effects in accretion disks, under the assumptions of a polytropic equation of state and a standard alpha viscosity prescription. Under the influence of the m = 1 azimuthal component of the tidal potential, viscous oscillations in the outer disk excite an m = 1 eccentric instability in the disk. While the m = 2 azimuthal component of the tidal potential excites a Papaloizou-Pringle instability in the inner disk (a saturated m = 2 azimuthal mode), with an elliptic pattern rotating at about a fraction (approx. = 1/3) of the local Keplerian velocity in the inner disk. The period of the elliptic mode corresponds well to the periods of the short-period oscillations observed in cataclysmic variables. In cold disks (r(Omega)/c(sub s) = M approx. = 40) we also find a critical value of the viscosity parameter (alpha approx. = 0.01), below which shock dissipation dominates and is balanced by the wave amplification due to the wave action conservation. In this case the double spiral shock propagates all the way to the inner boundary with a Mach number M(sub s) approx. = 1.3.

  16. Component based modelling of piezoelectric ultrasonic actuators for machining applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, A.; Salah, M.; Ahmed, N.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2013-07-01

    Ultrasonically Assisted Machining (UAM) is an emerging technology that has been utilized to improve the surface finishing in machining processes such as turning, milling, and drilling. In this context, piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers are being used to vibrate the cutting tip while machining at predetermined amplitude and frequency. However, modelling and simulation of these transducers is a tedious and difficult task. This is due to the inherent nonlinearities associated with smart materials. Therefore, this paper presents a component-based model of ultrasonic transducers that mimics the nonlinear behaviour of such a system. The system is decomposed into components, a mathematical model of each component is created, and the whole system model is accomplished by aggregating the basic components' model. System parameters are identified using Finite Element technique which then has been used to simulate the system in Matlab/SIMULINK. Various operation conditions are tested and performed to demonstrate the system performance.

  17. An actuator line model simulation with optimal body force projection length scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Tossas, Luis; Churchfield, Matthew J.; Meneveau, Charles

    2016-11-01

    In recent work (Martínez-Tossas et al. "Optimal smoothing length scale for actuator line models of wind turbine blades", preprint), an optimal body force projection length-scale for an actuator line model has been obtained. This optimization is based on 2-D aerodynamics and is done by comparing an analytical solution of inviscid linearized flow over a Gaussian body force to the potential flow solution of flow over a Joukowski airfoil. The optimization provides a non-dimensional optimal scale ɛ / c for different Joukowski airfoils, where ɛ is the width of the Gaussian kernel and c is the chord. A Gaussian kernel with different widths in the chord and thickness directions can further reduce the error. The 2-D theory developed is extended by simulating a full scale rotor using the optimal body force projection length scales. Using these values, the tip losses are captured by the LES and thus, no additional explicit tip-loss correction is needed for the actuator line model. The simulation with the optimal values provides excellent agreement with Blade Element Momentum Theory. This research is supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant OISE-1243482, the WINDINSPIRE project).

  18. An Analytic Model for the Success Rate of a Robotic Actuator System in Hitting Random Targets.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Stuart

    2015-11-20

    Autonomous robotic systems are increasingly being used in a wide range of applications such as precision agriculture, medicine, and the military. These systems have common features which often includes an action by an "actuator" interacting with a target. While simulations and measurements exist for the success rate of hitting targets by some systems, there is a dearth of analytic models which can give insight into, and guidance on optimization, of new robotic systems. The present paper develops a simple model for estimation of the success rate for hitting random targets from a moving platform. The model has two main dimensionless parameters: the ratio of actuator spacing to target diameter; and the ratio of platform distance moved (between actuator "firings") to the target diameter. It is found that regions of parameter space having specified high success are described by simple equations, providing guidance on design. The role of a "cost function" is introduced which, when minimized, provides optimization of design, operating, and risk mitigation costs.

  19. Action-Based Dynamical Modelling For The Milky Way Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trick, Wilma; Rix, Hans-Walter; Bovy, Jo

    2016-09-01

    We present Road Mapping, a full-likelihood dynamical modelling machinery, that aims to recover the Milky Way's (MW) gravitational potential from large samples of stars in the Galactic disk. Road Mapping models the observed positions and velocities of stars with a parameterized, action-based distribution function (DF) in a parameterized axisymmetric gravitational potential (Binney & McMillan 2011, Binney 2012, Bovy & Rix 2013).In anticipation of the Gaia data release in autumn, we have fully tested Road Mapping and demonstrated its robustness against the breakdown of its assumptions.Using large suites of mock data, we investigated in isolated test cases how the modelling would be affected if the data's true potential or DF was not included in the families of potentials and DFs assumed by Road Mapping, or if we misjudged measurement errors or the spatial selection function (SF) (Trick et al., submitted to ApJ). We found that the potential can be robustly recovered — given the limitations of the assumed potential model—, even for minor misjudgments in DF or SF, or for proper motion errors or distances known to within 10%.We were also able to demonstrate that Road Mapping is still successful if the strong assumption of axisymmetric breaks down (Trick et al., in preparation). Data drawn from a highresolution simulation (D'Onghia et al. 2013) of a MW-like galaxy with pronounced spiral arms does neither follow the assumed simple DF, nor does it come from an axisymmetric potential. We found that as long as the survey volume is large enough, Road Mapping gives good average constraints on the galaxy's potential.We are planning to apply Road Mapping to a real data set — the Tycho-2 catalogue (Hog et al. 2000) —very soon, and might be able to present some preliminary results already at the conference.

  20. Modeling self-subtraction in angular differential imaging: Application to the HD 32297 debris disk

    SciTech Connect

    Esposito, Thomas M.; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Graham, James R.; Kalas, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We present a new technique for forward-modeling self-subtraction of spatially extended emission in observations processed with angular differential imaging (ADI) algorithms. High-contrast direct imaging of circumstellar disks is limited by quasi-static speckle noise, and ADI is commonly used to suppress those speckles. However, the application of ADI can result in self-subtraction of the disk signal due to the disk's finite spatial extent. This signal attenuation varies with radial separation and biases measurements of the disk's surface brightness, thereby compromising inferences regarding the physical processes responsible for the dust distribution. To compensate for this attenuation, we forward model the disk structure and compute the form of the self-subtraction function at each separation. As a proof of concept, we apply our method to 1.6 and 2.2 μm Keck adaptive optics NIRC2 scattered-light observations of the HD 32297 debris disk reduced using a variant of the 'locally optimized combination of images' algorithm. We are able to recover disk surface brightness that was otherwise lost to self-subtraction and produce simplified models of the brightness distribution as it appears with and without self-subtraction. From the latter models, we extract radial profiles for the disk's brightness, width, midplane position, and color that are unbiased by self-subtraction. Our analysis of these measurements indicates a break in the brightness profile power law at r ≈ 110 AU and a disk width that increases with separation from the star. We also verify disk curvature that displaces the midplane by up to 30 AU toward the northwest relative to a straight fiducial midplane.

  1. An implicit method for the nonlinear modelling and simulation of piezoceramic actuators displaying hysteresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leigh, Timothy D.; Zimmerman, David C.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments have shown that piezoceramic materials display a nonlinear relationship between the applied electric field and the actuation strain. This relationship also displays a substantial hysteresis upon reversal of the applied field. In this paper, piezoceramic actuator models are incorporated into the structural equations of motion to arrive at a set of nonlinear actively controlled structural equations of motion. A new implicit algorithm for determining the time history of the actively controlled structure is presented. The algorithm employs the trapezoidal rule for stepping the equations forward in time. The algorithm is compared to an explicit algorithm and is shown to provide greater numerical accuracy. In addition, the numerical stability and convergence characteristics are presented via example. The new algorithm displays convergence and stability properties that are comparable to the standard trapezoidal rule used for dynamic systems without hysteresis.

  2. Active aeroelastic control aspects of an aircraft wing by using synthetic jet actuators: modeling, simulations, experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, K.; Schober, S.; Stolk, M.; Marzocca, P.; De Breuker, R.; Abdalla, M.; Nicolini, E.; Gürdal, Z.

    2007-04-01

    This paper discusses modeling, simulations and experimental aspects of active aeroelastic control on aircraft wings by using Synthetic Jet Actuators (SJAs). SJAs, a particular class of zero-net mass-flux actuators, have shown very promising results in numerous aeronautical applications, such as boundary layer control and delay of flow separation. A less recognized effect resulting from the SJAs is a momentum exchange that occurs with the flow, leading to a rearrangement of the streamlines around the airfoil modifying the aerodynamic loads. Discussions pertinent to the use of SJAs for flow and aeroelastic control and how these devices can be exploited for flutter suppression and for aerodynamic performances improvement are presented and conclusions are outlined.

  3. Finite element modeling and fabrication of an SMA-SMP shape memory composite actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souri, Mohammad

    Shape memory alloys and polymers have been extensively researched recently because of their unique ability to recover large deformations. Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are able to recover large deformations compared to shape memory alloys (SMAs), although SMAs have higher strength and are able to generate more stress during recovery. This project focuses on procedure for fabrication and Finite Element Modeling (FEM) of a shape memory composite actuator. First, SMP was characterized to reveal its mechanical properties. Specifically, glass transition temperature, the effects of temperature and strain rate on compressive response and recovery properties of shape memory polymer were studied. Then, shape memory properties of a NiTi wire, including transformation temperatures and stress generation, were investigated. SMC actuator was fabricated by using epoxy based SMP and NiTi SMA wire. Experimental tests confirmed the reversible behavior of fabricated shape memory composites. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  4. Hydraulic jumps in 'viscous' accretion disks. [in astronomical models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michel, F. C.

    1984-01-01

    It is proposed that the dissipative process necessary for rapid accretion disk evolution is driven by hydraulic jump waves on the surface of the disk. These waves are excited by the asymmetric nature of the central rotator (e.g., neutron star magnetosphere) and spiral out into the disk to form a pattern corotating with the central object. Disk matter in turn is slowed slightly at each encounter with the jump and spirals inward. In this process, the disk is heated by true turbulence produced in the jumps. Additional effects, such as a systematic misalignment of the magnetic moment of the neutron star until it is nearly orthogonal, and systematic distortion of the magnetosphere in such a way as to form an even more asymmetric central 'paddle wheel', may enhance the interaction with inflowing matter. The application to X-ray sources corresponds to the 'slow' solutions of Ghosh and Lamb, and therefore to rms magnetic fields of about 4 x 10 to the 10th gauss. Analogous phenomena have been proposed to act in the formation of galactic spiral structure.

  5. Application of geometry based hysteresis modelling in compensation of hysteresis of piezo bender actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milecki, Andrzej; Pelic, Marcin

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents results of studies of an application of a new method of piezo bender actuators modelling. A special hysteresis simulation model was developed and is presented. The model is based on a geometrical deformation of main hysteresis loop. The piezoelectric effect is described and the history of the hysteresis modelling is briefly reviewed. Firstly, a simple model for main loop modelling is proposed. Then, a geometrical description of the non-saturated hysteresis is presented and its modelling method is introduced. The modelling makes use of the function describing the geometrical shape of the two hysteresis main curves, which can be defined theoretically or obtained by measurement. These main curves are stored in the memory and transformed geometrically in order to obtain the minor curves. Such model was prepared in the Matlab-Simulink software, but can be easily implemented using any programming language and applied in an on-line controller. In comparison to the other known simulation methods, the one presented in the paper is easy to understand, and uses simple arithmetical equations, allowing to quickly obtain the inversed model of hysteresis. The inversed model was further used for compensation of a non-saturated hysteresis of the piezo bender actuator and results have also been presented in the paper.

  6. Implementation of a model based fault detection and diagnosis for actuation faults of the Space Shuttle main engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duyar, A.; Guo, T.-H.; Merrill, W.; Musgrave, J.

    1992-01-01

    In a previous study, Guo, Merrill and Duyar, 1990, reported a conceptual development of a fault detection and diagnosis system for actuation faults of the space shuttle main engine. This study, which is a continuation of the previous work, implements the developed fault detection and diagnosis scheme for the real time actuation fault diagnosis of the space shuttle main engine. The scheme will be used as an integral part of an intelligent control system demonstration experiment at NASA Lewis. The diagnosis system utilizes a model based method with real time identification and hypothesis testing for actuation, sensor, and performance degradation faults.

  7. Models that Teach about the Computer: AppleWorks and ProDOS, the Computer's Memory and Disk Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niess, Margaret L.

    1989-01-01

    This final article in a series on creating models for teaching about computer memory and disk storage and retrieval focuses on AppleWorks software and the Professional Disk Operating System (ProDOS). Instructions for creating a paper model of the AppleWorks menu system and the ProDOS disk file are given. (LRW)

  8. Modelling of piezoelectric actuator dynamics for active structural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagood, Nesbitt W.; Chung, Walter H.; Von Flotow, Andreas

    1990-01-01

    The paper models the effects of dynamic coupling between a structure and an electrical network through the piezoelectric effect. The coupled equations of motion of an arbitrary elastic structure with piezoelectric elements and passive electronics are derived. State space models are developed for three important cases: direct voltage driven electrodes, direct charge driven electrodes, and an indirect drive case where the piezoelectric electrodes are connected to an arbitrary electrical circuit with embedded voltage and current sources. The equations are applied to the case of a cantilevered beam with surface mounted piezoceramics and indirect voltage and current drive. The theoretical derivations are validated experimentally on an actively controlled cantilevered beam test article with indirect voltage drive.

  9. A voice-actuated wind tunnel model leak checking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, William E.

    1989-01-01

    A computer program has been developed that improves the efficiency of wind tunnel model leak checking. The program uses a voice recognition unit to relay a technician's commands to the computer. The computer, after receiving a command, can respond to the technician via a voice response unit. Information about the model pressure orifice being checked is displayed on a gas-plasma terminal. On command, the program records up to 30 seconds of pressure data. After the recording is complete, the raw data and a straight line fit of the data are plotted on the terminal. This allows the technician to make a decision on the integrity of the orifice being checked. All results of the leak check program are stored in a database file that can be listed on the line printer for record keeping purposes or displayed on the terminal to help the technician find unchecked orifices. This program allows one technician to check a model for leaks instead of the two or three previously required.

  10. Decentralized Adaptive Control of Systems with Uncertain Interconnections, Plant-Model Mismatch and Actuator Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patre, Parag; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2011-01-01

    Decentralized adaptive control is considered for systems consisting of multiple interconnected subsystems. It is assumed that each subsystem s parameters are uncertain and the interconnection parameters are not known. In addition, mismatch can exist between each subsystem and its reference model. A strictly decentralized adaptive control scheme is developed, wherein each subsystem has access only to its own state but has the knowledge of all reference model states. The mismatch is estimated online for each subsystem and the mismatch estimates are used to adaptively modify the corresponding reference models. The adaptive control scheme is extended to the case with actuator failures in addition to mismatch.

  11. Modeling and Vibration Analysis of Spinning Hard Disk and Head Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kao-An; Huang, Shyh-Chin

    A read/write head assembly attached to a spinning disk was modeled and investigated through a different approach, in which the head assembly was represented by a suspension arm with an attached mass and an air spring (film) at its free end. The receptance method was applied to connect the spinning disk and the head assembly. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of the combined spinning disk-fixed head assembly as a whole were then interpreted. Numerical results showed that the head assembly induced extra modes from a single disk. Even for just weak coupling between disk and head, the bifurcations of mode shapes were very obvious, but the changes of natural frequencies were slight. The effects on frequency changes due to head's flexibility, air spring constant, head's location, and spinning speed were examined as well. Disk's spinning speed was found to pull the disk-head frequency loci to pass through the crossings of single disk's frequency loci and induce curve veering phenomenon.

  12. PHOTOIONIZATION MODELS OF THE INNER GASEOUS DISK OF THE HERBIG BE STAR BD+65 1637

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, P.; Sigut, T. A. A.; Landstreet, J. D.

    2016-01-20

    We attempt to constrain the physical properties of the inner, gaseous disk of the Herbig Be star BD+65 1637 using non-LTE, circumstellar disk codes and observed spectra (3700–10500 Å) from the ESPaDOnS instrument on the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope. The photoionizing radiation of the central star is assumed to be the sole source of input energy for the disk. We model optical and near-infrared emission lines that are thought to form in this region using standard techniques that have been successful in modeling the spectra of classical Be stars. By comparing synthetic line profiles of hydrogen, helium, iron, and calcium with the observed line profiles, we try to constrain the geometry, density structure, and kinematics of the gaseous disk. Reasonable matches have been found for all line profiles individually; however, no disk density model based on a single power law for the equatorial density was able to simultaneously fit all of the observed emission lines. Among the emission lines, the metal lines, especially the Ca ii IR triplet, seem to require higher disk densities than the other lines. Excluding the Ca ii lines, a model in which the equatorial disk density falls as 10{sup −10} (R{sub *}/R){sup 3} g cm{sup −3} seen at an inclination of 45° for a 50 R{sub *} disk provides reasonable matches to the overall line shapes and strengths. The Ca ii lines seem to require a shallower drop-off as 10{sup −10} (R{sub *}/R){sup 2} g cm{sup −3} to match their strength. More complex disk density models are likely required to refine the match to the BD+65 1637 spectrum.

  13. Time-dependent modelling of extended thin decretion disks of critically rotating stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurfurst, Petr

    2013-06-01

    Gradually contracting massive stars may during their early evolution reach the phase of critical rotation when the further increase in rotational speed is no longer possible. The ejection of matter in the equatorial region can form the gaseous outflowing disk, which allows the star to remove the excess of its angular momentum. The outer part of the disk can extend up to very large distance from parent star, the size, structure and mass-loss rate as well as the time of the disk evolution depends on various physical parameters. We study the evolution of density, radial and azimuthal velocity and angular momentum loss rate of equatorial decretion disk even in very distant outer regions. We investigate how the physical characteristics of the disk depend on parameterized distribution of temperature and viscosity. We developed the numerical code for time-dependent hydrodynamical modelling based on explicit finite difference scheme on an Eulerian grid including viscosity and angular momentum. Advection steps are taken into account using van Leer's monotonic advection algorithm, in the source steps we apply the so-called ``operator-splitting'' method. According to parameterized disk temperature and viscosity distribution we calculate in various models the evolution of density, radial and azimuthal velocity and the angular momentum loss rate from the initial Keplerian state until the disk approaches the final stationary state. Consequently we obtain the corresponding locations of the disk outer radius and also the corresponding times of the disk evolution. From the models follows that for steeper outward decrease of temperature the sonic point radius and thus the angular momentum loss rate as well as the outer disk radius and the disk evolution time substantially increase. The similar dependence applies also in case of suggested outward decrease of viscosity. The model shows that rotational velocity of gaseous segments in the inner parts of disk remains nearly Keplerian

  14. Modeling Circumstellar Disks of B-Type Stars with Observations from the Palomar Testbed Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grzenia, B. J.; Tycner, C.; Jones, C. E.; Rinehart, S. A.; vanBelle, G. T.; Sigut, T. A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Geometrical (uniform disk) and numerical models were calculated for a set of B-emission (Be) stars observed with the Palomar Testbed Interferometer (PTI). Physical extents have been estimated for the disks of a total of15 stars via uniform disk models. Our numerical non-LTE models used parameters for the B0, B2, B5, and B8spectral classes and following the framework laid by previous studies, we have compared them to infrared K-band interferometric observations taken at PTI. This is the first time such an extensive set of Be stars observed with long-baseline interferometry has been analyzed with self-consistent non-LTE numerical disk models.

  15. MODELING CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS OF B-TYPE STARS WITH OBSERVATIONS FROM THE PALOMAR TESTBED INTERFEROMETER

    SciTech Connect

    Grzenia, B. J.; Tycner, C.; Jones, C. E.; Sigut, T. A. A.; Rinehart, S. A.; Van Belle, G. T.

    2013-05-15

    Geometrical (uniform disk) and numerical models were calculated for a set of B-emission (Be) stars observed with the Palomar Testbed Interferometer (PTI). Physical extents have been estimated for the disks of a total of 15 stars via uniform disk models. Our numerical non-LTE models used parameters for the B0, B2, B5, and B8 spectral classes and following the framework laid by previous studies, we have compared them to infrared K-band interferometric observations taken at PTI. This is the first time such an extensive set of Be stars observed with long-baseline interferometry has been analyzed with self-consistent non-LTE numerical disk models.

  16. Modeling and Characterization of Geometric Effects on the Performance of Rainbow and Thunder Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Robert W.; Ballato, J.; Northwang, W. D.; Laoratanakul, P.

    2000-01-01

    Dome formation in Rainbow and Thunder actuators occurs to relieve thermal expansion mismatch stress between the metallic and piezoelectric layers during cooling from device fabrication temperatures. Accompanying this process is the generation of an internal stress profile within the devices and the development of significant tensile stresses within the surface region of the piezoelectric. These tensile stresses affect the domain configuration (ratio of c-to-a domains), and improve the 90 deg. domain wall movement response of the device in this region of the piezoelectric. This results in improved electromechanical performance compared to standard direct extensional and flextensional devices, presumably because of the contributions of stress to the non-linearity of the piezoelectric d-coefficients. 1 Interestingly, this improvement in response seems counterintuitive; a stress perpendicular to the direction of the applied electric field should impede, not contribute to 90' domain switching. Further consideration of the lower region of the piezoelectric that is under compressive stress thus appears warranted. The specified objectives of the research were to: 1. Conduct finite element and equivalent circuit simulation-based investigations to understand the effects of actuator geometry on internal stress distribution and actuator performance (displacement and load-bearing capabilities). 2. Use the results of the modeling studies to predict the processing conditions (geometry and thickness ratio) required for the fabrication of Rainbow ceramics with optimized performance.

  17. Modeling and Simulation of Control Actuation System with Fuzzy-PID Logic Controlled Brushless Motor Drives for Missiles Glider Applications

    PubMed Central

    Muniraj, Murali; Arulmozhiyal, Ramaswamy

    2015-01-01

    A control actuation system has been used extensively in automotive, aerospace, and defense applications. The major challenges in modeling control actuation system are rise time, maximum peak to peak overshoot, and response to nonlinear system with percentage error. This paper addresses the challenges in modeling and real time implementation of control actuation system for missiles glider applications. As an alternative fuzzy-PID controller is proposed in BLDC motor drive followed by linkage mechanism to actuate fins in missiles and gliders. The proposed system will realize better rise time and less overshoot while operating in extreme nonlinear dynamic system conditions. A mathematical model of BLDC motor is derived in state space form. The complete control actuation system is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink environment and verified by performing simulation studies. A real time prototype of the control actuation is developed with dSPACE-1104 hardware controller and a detailed analysis is carried out to confirm the viability of the proposed system. PMID:26613102

  18. Application-oriented simplification of actuation mechanism and physical model for ionic polymer-metal composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zicai; Wang, Yanjie; Liu, Yanfa; Asaka, Kinji; Sun, Xiaofei; Chang, Longfei; Lu, Pin

    2016-07-01

    Water containing ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) show complex deformation properties with water content. In order to develop a simple application-oriented model for engineering application, actuation mechanisms and model equations should be simplified as necessary. Beginning from our previous comprehensive multi-physical model of IPMC actuator, numerical analysis was performed to obtain the main factors influencing the bending deformation and the corresponding simplified model. In this paper, three aspects are mainly concerned. (1) Regarding mass transport process, the diffusion caused by concentration gradient mainly influences the concentrations of cation and water at the two electrode boundaries. (2) By specifying the transport components as hydrated cation and free water in the model, at the cathode, the hydrated cation concentration profile is more flat, whereas the concentrations of both free water and the total water show drastic changes. In general, the two influence the redistribution of cation and water but have little impact on deformation prediction. Thus, they can be ignored in the simplification. (3) An extended osmotic pressure is proposed to cover all eigen stresses simply with an effective osmotic coefficient. Combining with a few other linearized methods, a simplified model has been obtained by sacrificing the prediction precision on the transport process. Furthermore, the improved model has been verified by fitting with IPMC deformation evolved with water content. It shows that the simplified model has the ability to predict the complex deformations of IPMCs.

  19. Comparison of central axis and jet ring coolant supply for turbine disk cooling on a SSME-HPOTP model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Y. W.; Metzger, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    The test facility, test methods and results are presented for an experimental study modeling the cooling of turbine disks in the blade attachment regions with multiple impinging jets, in a configuration simulating the disk cooling method employed on the Space Shuttle Main Engine oxygen turbopump. The study's objective was to provide a comparison of detailed local convection heat transfer rates obtained for a single center-supply of disk coolant with those obtained with the present flight configuration where disk coolant is supplied through an array of 19 jets located near the disk outer radius. Specially constructed disk models were used in a program designed to evaluate possible benefits and identify any possible detrimental effects involved in employing an alternate disk cooling scheme. The study involved the design, construction and testing of two full scale rotating model disks, one plane and smooth for baseline testing and the second contoured to the present flight configuration, together with the corresponding plane and contoured stator disks. Local heat transfer rates are determined from the color display of encapsulated liquid crystals coated on the disk in conjunction with use of a computer vision system. The test program was composed of a wide variety of disk speeds, flowrates, and geometrical configurations, including testing for the effects of disk boltheads and gas ingestion from the gas path region radially outboard of the disk-cavity.

  20. A two-dimensional analytical model and experimental validation of garter stitch knitted shape memory alloy actuator architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Julianna; Luntz, Jonathan; Brei, Diann

    2012-08-01

    Active knits are a unique architectural approach to meeting emerging smart structure needs for distributed high strain actuation with simultaneous force generation. This paper presents an analytical state-based model for predicting the actuation response of a shape memory alloy (SMA) garter knit textile. Garter knits generate significant contraction against moderate to large loads when heated, due to the continuous interlocked network of loops of SMA wire. For this knit architecture, the states of operation are defined on the basis of the thermal and mechanical loading of the textile, the resulting phase change of the SMA, and the load path followed to that state. Transitions between these operational states induce either stick or slip frictional forces depending upon the state and path, which affect the actuation response. A load-extension model of the textile is derived for each operational state using elastica theory and Euler-Bernoulli beam bending for the large deformations within a loop of wire based on the stress-strain behavior of the SMA material. This provides kinematic and kinetic relations which scale to form analytical transcendental expressions for the net actuation motion against an external load. This model was validated experimentally for an SMA garter knit textile over a range of applied forces with good correlation for both the load-extension behavior in each state as well as the net motion produced during the actuation cycle (250% recoverable strain and over 50% actuation). The two-dimensional analytical model of the garter stitch active knit provides the ability to predict the kinetic actuation performance, providing the basis for the design and synthesis of large stroke, large force distributed actuators that employ this novel architecture.

  1. Optimization of an electromagnetic linear actuator using a network and a finite element model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubert, Holger; Kamusella, Alfred; Lienig, Jens

    2011-03-01

    Model based design optimization leads to robust solutions only if the statistical deviations of design, load and ambient parameters from nominal values are considered. We describe an optimization methodology that involves these deviations as stochastic variables for an exemplary electromagnetic actuator used to drive a Braille printer. A combined model simulates the dynamic behavior of the actuator and its non-linear load. It consists of a dynamic network model and a stationary magnetic finite element (FE) model. The network model utilizes lookup tables of the magnetic force and the flux linkage computed by the FE model. After a sensitivity analysis using design of experiment (DoE) methods and a nominal optimization based on gradient methods, a robust design optimization is performed. Selected design variables are involved in form of their density functions. In order to reduce the computational effort we use response surfaces instead of the combined system model obtained in all stochastic analysis steps. Thus, Monte-Carlo simulations can be applied. As a result we found an optimum system design meeting our requirements with regard to function and reliability.

  2. Torsional fatigue model for limitorque type SMB/SB/SBD actuators for motor-operated valves

    SciTech Connect

    Somogyi, D.; Alvarez, P.D.; Kalsi, M.S.

    1996-12-01

    Kalsi Engineering, Inc. has recently developed a computer program to predict the torsional fatigue life of Limitorque Type SMB/SB/SBD actuators for motor-operated valves under given loading levels, including those that exceed the ratings. The development effort was an outgrowth of the {open_quote}Thrust Rating Increase{close_quote} test program. The fatigue model computes all pertinent stress components and their variations as a function of the loading ramp. The cumulative damage and fatigue life due to stress cycling is computed by use of a modification of Miner`s rule. Model predictions were validated against actual cyclic loading test results.

  3. Large space structure model reduction and control system design based upon actuator and sensor influence functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yam, Y.; Lang, J. H.; Johnson, T. L.; Shih, S.; Staelin, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    A model reduction procedure based on aggregation with respect to sensor and actuator influences rather than modes is presented for large systems of coupled second-order differential equations. Perturbation expressions which can predict the effects of spillover on both the aggregated and residual states are derived. These expressions lead to the development of control system design constraints which are sufficient to guarantee, to within the validity of the perturbations, that the residual states are not destabilized by control systems designed from the reduced model. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the application of the aggregation and control system design method.

  4. Two-Dimensional Scramjet Inlet Unstart Model: Wind-Tunnel Blockage and Actuation Systems Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Scott D.

    1994-01-01

    This supplement to NASA TM 109152 shows the Schlieren video (10 min. 52 sec., color, Beta and VHS) of the external flow field and a portion of the internal flow field of a two-dimensional scramjet inlet model in the NASA Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel. The intent of the overall test program is to study (both experimentally and computationally) the dynamics of the inlet unstart; this (phase I) effort examines potential wind-tunnel blockage issues related to model sizing and the adequacy of the actuation systems in accomplishing the start and unstart. The model is equipped with both a moveable cowl and aft plug. Windows in the inlet sidewalls allow limited optical access to the internal shock structure. In the video, flow is from right to left, and the inlet is oriented inverted with respect to flight, i.e., with the cowl on top. The plug motion is obvious because the plug is visible in the aft window. The cowl motion, however, is not as obvious because the cowl is hidden from view by the inlet sidewall. The end of the cowl actuator arm, however, becomes visible above the inlet sidewalls between the windows when the cowl is up (see figure 1b of the primary document). The model is injected into the tunnel and observed though several actuation sequences with two plug configurations over a range of unit freestream Reynolds number at a nominal freestream Mach number of 6. The framing rate and shutter speed of the camera were too slow to fully capture the dynamics of the unstart but did prove sufficient to identify inlet start and unstart. This series of tests indicated that the model was appropriately sized for this facility and identified operability limits required first to allow the inlet to start and second to force the unstart.

  5. Modeling, fabrication and testing of MEMS tunable inductors varied with piezoelectric actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedair, S. S.; Pulskamp, J. S.; Meyer, C. D.; Polcawich, R. G.; Kierzewski, I. M.

    2014-09-01

    Modeling, fabrication and measurements of tunable inductors are presented where inductance tuning is achieved through mechanical displacement, by piezoelectric actuation, of mutually-coupled coils. The modified Greenhouse method is utilized as a modeling tool to predict the inductance variations as a function of both translation and angular displacement, where coils and traces which are arbitrarily oriented with respect to one another are considered. The use of this modeling approach is verified through experimental results where electrical measurements of inductances are compared with the modeled inductances. The inductance model compares well with the measurements and within 10% of the measured inductance with a 3% mean error. In addition, the impact of the interconnect widths on tunable inductor performances is assessed for both negatively and positively coupled tunable inductor cases, where devices with interconnect widths ranging between 10 and 40 µm are considered. Tuning ratios as high as ~3.9:1 were measured for the negatively-coupled coil designs with 18 V actuation; this corresponds to minimum and maximum quality factors of 5.72 (at 4.05 GHz with a 2.80 nH inductance) and 14.91 (at 2.25 GHz with 10.86 nH inductance), respectively. For the positively coupled inductors, tuning ratios of ~1.2:1 resulted with inductance and peak quality factors of 7.70 nH and ~18 (3.69 GHz), respectively. With 18 V actuation, these values tune to 6.57 nH with a Q ~18 (4.46 GHz). Residual poling stress was found to limit the practical tuning ratio to ~1.8:1 for the negatively coupled coils.

  6. Controlling Vibration of HDD Actuator by Using Dummy Heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otake, Noritaka; Watanabe, Keiko; Shimizu, Toshihiko; Tomida, Kenji; Arisaka, Toshihiro

    Some hard disk drives (HDDs) have fewer than the maximum number of magnetic heads. Such HDDs need to be re-designed to keep their position accuracy. We focused on adding dummy heads instead of re-designing the whole actuator. A dummy head is put on the edge of an arm model, and it influences the vibration characteristics of the model. Because the vibration characteristics of the arm model are related to those of the whole actuator, we optimized the dummy head design by focusing on the vibration characteristics of a local arm model instead of focusing on the whole actuator. We created a dummy head that would enable HDDs to keep the gain of their vibration characteristics around the sampling frequency as low as those of an HDD with the maximum number of mountable magnetic heads.

  7. The Viscous Decretion Disk Model of the Classical Be Star β CMi Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klement, R.; Carciofi, A. C.; Rivinius, Th.

    2017-02-01

    We revisit the viscous decretion disk (VDD) model of the classical Be star β CMi as presented by Klemen et al. (2015) using an updated version of the radiative transfer code HDUST. A software bug was causing the mean intensities to be slightly underestimated in the equatorial region of the disk with small but detectable effects on the disk temperature and emergent spectrum. The new model fixes an unexplained feature of the original model, which was able to reproduce the observations only when considering a dual density behavior: a steep density fall-off in the very inner parts of the disk followed by a shallower density profile. The new model is able to reproduce all the observables reasonably well using a single power law for the density profile throughout the entire disk, as predicted by the VDD model. All the other original conclusions, most importantly the reported truncation of the disk at a distance of 35 stellar equatorial radii from the central star, remain unchanged.

  8. MODELING THE RESOLVED DISK AROUND THE CLASS 0 PROTOSTAR L1527

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, John J.; Hartmann, Lee; Calvet, Nuria; Chiang, Hsin-Fang; Looney, Leslie W.; Wilner, David J.; Loinard, Laurent; D'Alessio, Paola

    2013-07-01

    We present high-resolution sub/millimeter interferometric imaging of the Class 0 protostar L1527 IRS (IRAS 04368+2557) at {lambda} = 870 {mu}m and 3.4 mm from the Submillimeter Array and Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy. We detect the signature of an edge-on disk surrounding the protostar with an observed diameter of 180 AU in the sub/millimeter images. The mass of the disk is estimated to be 0.007 M{sub Sun }, assuming optically thin, isothermal dust emission. The millimeter spectral index is observed to be quite shallow at all the spatial scales probed: {alpha} {approx} 2, implying a dust opacity spectral index {beta} {approx} 0. We model the emission from the disk and surrounding envelope using Monte Carlo radiative transfer codes, simultaneously fitting the sub/millimeter visibility amplitudes, sub/millimeter images, resolved L' image, spectral energy distribution, and mid-infrared spectrum. The best-fitting model has a disk radius of R = 125 AU, is highly flared (H{proportional_to}R {sup 1.3}), has a radial density profile {rho}{proportional_to}R {sup -2.5}, and has a mass of 0.0075 M{sub Sun }. The scale height at 100 AU is 48 AU, about a factor of two greater than vertical hydrostatic equilibrium. The resolved millimeter observations indicate that disks may grow rapidly throughout the Class 0 phase. The mass and radius of the young disk around L1527 are comparable to disks around pre-main-sequence stars; however, the disk is considerably more vertically extended, possibly due to a combination of lower protostellar mass, infall onto the disk upper layers, and little settling of {approx}1 {mu}m-sized dust grains.

  9. High-speed tracking control of piezoelectric actuators using an ellipse-based hysteresis model.

    PubMed

    Gu, Guoying; Zhu, Limin

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, an ellipse-based mathematic model is developed to characterize the rate-dependent hysteresis in piezoelectric actuators. Based on the proposed model, an expanded input space is constructed to describe the multivalued hysteresis function H[u](t) by a multiple input single output (MISO) mapping Gamma:R(2)-->R. Subsequently, the inverse MISO mapping Gamma(-1)(H[u](t),H[u](t);u(t)) is proposed for real-time hysteresis compensation. In controller design, a hybrid control strategy combining a model-based feedforward controller and a proportional integral differential (PID) feedback loop is used for high-accuracy and high-speed tracking control of piezoelectric actuators. The real-time feedforward controller is developed to cancel the rate-dependent hysteresis based on the inverse hysteresis model, while the PID controller is used to compensate for the creep, modeling errors, and parameter uncertainties. Finally, experiments with and without hysteresis compensation are conducted and the experimental results are compared. The experimental results show that the hysteresis compensation in the feedforward path can reduce the hysteresis-caused error by up to 88% and the tracking performance of the hybrid controller is greatly improved in high-speed tracking control applications, e.g., the root-mean-square tracking error is reduced to only 0.34% of the displacement range under the input frequency of 100 Hz.

  10. Hydrodynamic Models of Line-Driven Accretion Disk Winds III: Local Ionization Equilibrium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereyra, Nicolas Antonio; Kallman, Timothy R.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present time-dependent numerical hydrodynamic models of line-driven accretion disk winds in cataclysmic variable systems and calculate wind mass-loss rates and terminal velocities. The models are 2.5-dimensional, include an energy balance condition with radiative heating and cooling processes, and includes local ionization equilibrium introducing time dependence and spatial dependence on the line radiation force parameters. The radiation field is assumed to originate in an optically thick accretion disk. Wind ion populations are calculated under the assumption that local ionization equilibrium is determined by photoionization and radiative recombination, similar to a photoionized nebula. We find a steady wind flowing from the accretion disk. Radiative heating tends to maintain the temperature in the higher density wind regions near the disk surface, rather than cooling adiabatically. For a disk luminosity L (sub disk) = solar luminosity, white dwarf mass M(sub wd) = 0.6 solar mass, and white dwarf radii R(sub wd) = 0.01 solar radius, we obtain a wind mass-loss rate of M(sub wind) = 4 x 10(exp -12) solar mass yr(exp -1) and a terminal velocity of approximately 3000 km per second. These results confirm the general velocity and density structures found in our earlier constant ionization equilibrium adiabatic CV wind models. Further we establish here 2.5D numerical models that can be extended to QSO/AGN winds where the local ionization equilibrium will play a crucial role in the overall dynamics.

  11. Design and modeling of a novel fibrous shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Wang, Guoping

    1994-05-01

    Presented is a novel design of a composite linear actuator utilizing a parallel array of contractile shape-memory alloy (SMA) wires. The fiber bundle of SMA wires is either circumscribed inside a helical compression spring with flat heads or are in parallel with a number of helical compression springs, end-capped by two parallel circular plates with embedded electrodes to which the ends of the SMA wires are secured. Thus, the wires can be electrically heated and subsequently contracted to compress the helical compression spring. Upon cooling the SMA wires expand and allow the helical compression spring to tightly stretch them to their initial length. Design details are first fully described. Steps involved in the fabrication of a number of these composite SMA actuators are then elaborated on. A number of interesting heat transfer phenomena are observed. In essence the dynamic behavior of the actuator depends on the interaction between the current supplied to the wires and the rate of heat transfer from the wires due to convection and radiation. A design model is finally presented for the dynamic response of contractile fiber bundles embedded in or around elastic springs that are either linear helical compression springs, hyperelastic springs such as rubberlike materials, or nonlinear springs such as air. The fiber bundle is assumed to consist of a parallel array of contractile fibers made from contractile shape-memory alloy (SMA) wires. The proposed model considers the temperature- induced contraction of the fibers due to resistive heating of the shape-memory wires. Results of both dynamic computer simulation and dynamics of a prototype model built in our laboratory indicate a fairly good comparison.

  12. A description of model 3B of the multipurpose ventricular actuating system. [providing controlled driving pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, J. A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The multipurpose ventricular actuating system is a pneumatic signal generating device that provides controlled driving pressures for actuating pulsatile blood pumps. Overall system capabilities, the timing circuitry, and calibration instruction are included.

  13. Stroke maximizing and high efficient hysteresis hybrid modeling for a rhombic piezoelectric actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Shubao; Xu, Minglong; Zhang, Shuwen; Xie, Shilin

    2016-06-01

    Rhombic piezoelectric actuator (RPA), which employs a rhombic mechanism to amplify the small stroke of PZT stack, has been widely used in many micro-positioning machineries due to its remarkable properties such as high displacement resolution and compact structure. In order to achieve large actuation range along with high accuracy, the stroke maximizing and compensation for the hysteresis are two concerns in the use of RPA. However, existing maximization methods based on theoretical model can hardly accurately predict the maximum stroke of RPA because of approximation errors that are caused by the simplifications that must be made in the analysis. Moreover, despite the high hysteresis modeling accuracy of Preisach model, its modeling procedure is trivial and time-consuming since a large set of experimental data is required to determine the model parameters. In our research, to improve the accuracy of theoretical model of RPA, the approximation theory is employed in which the approximation errors can be compensated by two dimensionless coefficients. To simplify the hysteresis modeling procedure, a hybrid modeling method is proposed in which the parameters of Preisach model can be identified from only a small set of experimental data by using the combination of discrete Preisach model (DPM) with particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. The proposed novel hybrid modeling method can not only model the hysteresis with considerable accuracy but also significantly simplified the modeling procedure. Finally, the inversion of hysteresis is introduced to compensate for the hysteresis non-linearity of RPA, and consequently a pseudo-linear system can be obtained.

  14. AdS black disk model for small-x DIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornalba, Lorenzo; Costa, Miguel S.; Penedones, João

    2011-05-01

    Using the approximate conformal invariance of QCD at high energies we consider a simple AdS black disk model to describe saturation in DIS. Deep inside saturation the structure functions have the same power law scaling, FT˜FL˜x-ω, where ω is related to the expansion rate of the black disk with energy. Furthermore, the ratio FL/FT is given by the universal value 1+ω/3+ω, independently of the target.

  15. Modeling of galfenol bending actuator considering nonlinear hysteresis and dynamic real-time control strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Liang; Wu, Guichu; Chen, Dingfang; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2016-03-01

    On active bending structures, the actuation direction and the excitation field direction are not the same. Simple lumped parameter models are inadequate to describe the relationship between output displacement and input field. In this paper, a dynamic distributed parameter model is presented to describe the system dynamics of a galfenol bending actuator. To consider nonlinearities and hysteresis in bending, a nonlinear magnetomechanical model is developed to characterize the hysteretic magnetostriction generated by the galfenol layer. A dynamic real-time control strategy is proposed to compensate for hysteresis. A nonlinear inverse filter is constructed to linearize the hysteresis based on the proposed distributed parameter model. In order to increase the calculation efficiency, a new iteration method is proposed to calculate the filter. The iteration stepsize of the input field can be adaptively updated according to the inverting error. Simulation results show that significant enhancement of convergence efficiency can be achieved by using the proposed method compared with the existing fixed step size method. Experiments have been conducted to verify the real-time control strategy.

  16. A fully coupled model for actuation of higher order modes of Lamb waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Baiyang; Lissenden, Cliff J.

    2017-02-01

    Lamb waves have proven to be a valuable tool for structural health monitoring (SHM) of plate-like structures susceptible to degradation and failure. It is well-known that their multi-modal propagation characteristic could be both a challenge and an opportunity. Piezoelectric transducers are widely used in SHM applications because of their low cost, small profile and high electromechanical coupling. Properly designing a piezoelectric transducer to excite a particular mode is of great importance to successful SHM practice. Mode tuning capability of piezoelectric transducers has been studied both theoretically and experimentally in the literature for exciting A0 and S0 modes. However, the higher order Lamb waves are not fully studied for their tuning capability. Also, the transducer is usually modeled separately from the waveguide and their coupling is through the in-plane surface traction. This assumption may induce inaccuracy if the dynamics of the actuator are not negligible. Additionally, the driving circuit is not usually included in the current actuator-waveguide models such that the power of excited wave could not be evaluated. In this work, a fully coupled finite element model created for general Lamb wave excitation using piezoelectric transducers is developed. The model comprises three components, electrical driving circuit, piezoelectric element and linear elastic waveguide. The preferential excitation of higher order Lamb wave modes using a single piezoelectric element has been studied and demonstrated experimentally on aluminum plates.

  17. Detailed Mid- and Far- Ultraviolet Model Spectra for Accretion Disks in Cataclysmic Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Richard A.; Hubeny, Ivan

    1998-01-01

    We present a large grid of computed far- and mid-ultraviolet spectra (850-2000 A) of the integrated light from steady-state accretion disks in luminous cataclysmic variables. The spectra are tabulated at 0.25 A intervals with an adopted FWHM resolution of 1.0 A, so they are suitable for use with observed spectra from a variety of modern space-borne observatories. Twenty-six different combinations of white dwarf mass M(sub wd) and mass accretion rate dot-m are considered, and spectra are presented for six different disk inclinations i. The disk models are computed self-consistently in the plane-parallel approximation, assuming LTE and vertical hydrostatic equilibrium, by solving simultaneously the radiative transfer, hydrostatic equilibrium, and energy balance equations. Irradiation from external sources is neglected. Local spectra of disk annuli are computed taking into account line transitions from elements 1-28 (H through Ni). Limb darkening as well as Doppler broadening and blending of lines are taken into account in computing the integrated disk spectra. The radiative properties of the models are discussed, including the dependence of ultraviolet fluxes and colors on M(sub wd), dot-m, and i. The appearance of the disk spectra is illustrated, with regard to changes in the same three parameters. Finally, possible future improvements to the present models and spectra are discussed.

  18. MODELING THE HD 32297 DEBRIS DISK WITH FAR-INFRARED HERSCHEL DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, J. K.; Lebreton, J.; Augereau, J.-C.; Krivov, A. V.

    2013-07-20

    HD 32297 is a young A-star ({approx}30 Myr) 112 pc away with a bright edge-on debris disk that has been resolved in scattered light. We observed the HD 32297 debris disk in the far-infrared and sub-millimeter with the Herschel Space Observatory PACS and SPIRE instruments, populating the spectral energy distribution (SED) from 63 to 500 {mu}m. We aimed to determine the composition of dust grains in the HD 32297 disk through SED modeling, using geometrical constraints from the resolved imaging to break the degeneracies inherent in SED modeling. We found the best fitting SED model has two components: an outer ring centered around 110 AU, seen in the scattered light images, and an inner disk near the habitable zone of the star. The outer disk appears to be composed of grains >2 {mu}m consisting of silicates, carbonaceous material, and water ice with an abundance ratio of 1:2:3 respectively and 90% porosity. These grains appear consistent with cometary grains, implying the underlying planetesimal population is dominated by comet-like bodies. We also discuss the 3.7{sigma} detection of [C II] emission at 158 {mu}m with the Herschel PACS instrument, making HD 32297 one of only a handful of debris disks with circumstellar gas detected.

  19. HERSCHEL PACS OBSERVATIONS AND MODELING OF DEBRIS DISKS IN THE TUCANA-HOROLOGIUM ASSOCIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, J. K.; Roberge, A.; Chen, C. H.; Augereau, J.-C.; Menard, F.; Eiroa, C.; Meeus, G.; Krivov, A. V.; Mathews, G. S.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Sandell, G.

    2012-07-10

    We present Herschel PACS photometry of 17 B- to M-type stars in the 30 Myr old Tucana-Horologium Association. This work is part of the Herschel Open Time Key Programme 'Gas in Protoplanetary Systems'. 6 of the 17 targets were found to have infrared excesses significantly greater than the expected stellar IR fluxes, including a previously unknown disk around HD30051. These six debris disks were fitted with single-temperature blackbody models to estimate the temperatures and abundances of the dust in the systems. For the five stars that show excess emission in the Herschel PACS photometry and also have Spitzer IRS spectra, we fit the data with models of optically thin debris disks with realistic grain properties in order to better estimate the disk parameters. The model is determined by a set of six parameters: surface density index, grain size distribution index, minimum and maximum grain sizes, and the inner and outer radii of the disk. The best-fitting parameters give us constraints on the geometry of the dust in these systems, as well as lower limits to the total dust masses. The HD105 disk was further constrained by fitting marginally resolved PACS 70 {mu}m imaging.

  20. Modeling the HD 32297 Debris Disk With Far-Infrared Herschel Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson, J.K.; Lebreton, J.; Roberge, A.; Augereau, J.-C.; Krivov, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    HD 32297 is a young A-star (approx. 30 Myr) 112 pc away with a bright edge-on debris disk that has been resolved in scattered light. We observed the HD 32297 debris disk in the far-infrared and sub-millimeter with the Herschel Space Observatory PACS and SPIRE instruments, populating the spectral energy distribution (SED) from 63 to 500 micron..We aimed to determine the composition of dust grains in the HD 32297 disk through SED modeling, using geometrical constraints from the resolved imaging to break the degeneracies inherent in SED modeling. We found the best fitting SED model has two components: an outer ring centered around 110 AU, seen in the scattered light images, and an inner disk near the habitable zone of the star. The outer disk appears to be composed of grains>2 micron consisting of silicates, carbonaceous material, and water ice with an abundance ratio of 1:2:3 respectively and 90% porosity. These grains appear consistent with cometary grains, implying the underlying planetesimal population is dominated by comet-like bodies. We also discuss the 3.7 sigma detection of [C ii] emission at 158 micron with the Herschel PACS instrument, making HD 32297 one of only a handful of debris disks with circumstellar gas detected

  1. Feedforward-feedback hybrid control for magnetic shape memory alloy actuators based on the Krasnosel'skii-Pokrovskii model.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Miaolei; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Jingyuan

    2014-01-01

    As a new type of smart material, magnetic shape memory alloy has the advantages of a fast response frequency and outstanding strain capability in the field of microdrive and microposition actuators. The hysteresis nonlinearity in magnetic shape memory alloy actuators, however, limits system performance and further application. Here we propose a feedforward-feedback hybrid control method to improve control precision and mitigate the effects of the hysteresis nonlinearity of magnetic shape memory alloy actuators. First, hysteresis nonlinearity compensation for the magnetic shape memory alloy actuator is implemented by establishing a feedforward controller which is an inverse hysteresis model based on Krasnosel'skii-Pokrovskii operator. Secondly, the paper employs the classical Proportion Integration Differentiation feedback control with feedforward control to comprise the hybrid control system, and for further enhancing the adaptive performance of the system and improving the control accuracy, the Radial Basis Function neural network self-tuning Proportion Integration Differentiation feedback control replaces the classical Proportion Integration Differentiation feedback control. Utilizing self-learning ability of the Radial Basis Function neural network obtains Jacobian information of magnetic shape memory alloy actuator for the on-line adjustment of parameters in Proportion Integration Differentiation controller. Finally, simulation results show that the hybrid control method proposed in this paper can greatly improve the control precision of magnetic shape memory alloy actuator and the maximum tracking error is reduced from 1.1% in the open-loop system to 0.43% in the hybrid control system.

  2. Rhombic micro-displacement amplifier for piezoelectric actuator and its linear and hybrid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jinglong; Zhang, Chunlin; Xu, Minglong; Zi, Yanyang; Zhang, Xinong

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes rhombic micro-displacement amplifier (RMDA) for piezoelectric actuator (PA). First, the geometric amplification relations are analyzed and linear model is built to analyze the mechanical and electrical properties of this amplifier. Next, the accurate modeling method of amplifier is studied for important application of precise servo control. The classical Preisach model (CPM) is generally implemented using a numerical technique based on the first-order reversal curves (FORCs). The accuracy of CPM mainly depends on the number of FORCs. However, it is generally difficult to achieve enough number of FORCs in practice. So, Support Vector Machine (SVM) is employed in the work to circumvent the deficiency of the CPM. Then the hybrid model, which is based on discrete CPM and SVM is developed to account for hysteresis and dynamic effects. Finally, experimental validation is carried out. The analyzed result shows that this amplifier with the hybrid model is suitable for control application.

  3. An Analytic Model for the Success Rate of a Robotic Actuator System in Hitting Random Targets

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Autonomous robotic systems are increasingly being used in a wide range of applications such as precision agriculture, medicine, and the military. These systems have common features which often includes an action by an “actuator” interacting with a target. While simulations and measurements exist for the success rate of hitting targets by some systems, there is a dearth of analytic models which can give insight into, and guidance on optimization, of new robotic systems. The present paper develops a simple model for estimation of the success rate for hitting random targets from a moving platform. The model has two main dimensionless parameters: the ratio of actuator spacing to target diameter; and the ratio of platform distance moved (between actuator “firings”) to the target diameter. It is found that regions of parameter space having specified high success are described by simple equations, providing guidance on design. The role of a “cost function” is introduced which, when minimized, provides optimization of design, operating, and risk mitigation costs. PMID:26610500

  4. A model of an X-ray-illuminated accretion disk and corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, John C.

    1993-01-01

    The X-ray-illuminated surface of the accretion disk in a low-mass X-ray Binary (LMXRB) and the X-ray-heated corona above the disk produce optical, UV, and soft X-ray emission lines. This paper presents 1D models of the emission line spectra and the vertical temperature and density structures at different radii. The models include a detailed treatment of the important atomic processes and an escape probability treatment of radiative transfer. Soker and Raymond (1993) use the density structure predicted by these models for a 2D Monte Carlo simulation of the photon scattering in the accretion disk corona (ADC) to examine the effects of the ADC on the angular distribution of X-rays and the flux of X-rays incident on the outer disk. This paper concentrates on the emission line fluxes for various elemental abundances and disk parameters. The UV lines of the classic LMXRBs are consistent with the model predictions. Some CNO processing is necessary to account for the nitrogen and helium abundances in Sco X-1 and other LMXRBs. Comparison of the models with observed spectra also points to a soft X-ray component with luminosity comparable to the hard X-rays. The models predict a substantial luminosity in the group of highly ionized iron lines near 100 A.

  5. Modeling the NIR-silhouette massive disk candidate in M 17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinacker, J.; Chini, R.; Nielbock, M.; Nürnberger, D.; Hoffmeister, V.; Huré, J.-M.; Semenov, D.

    2006-09-01

    Aims.The physical properties of the massive disk candidate in the star-forming region M 17 are analyzed. Methods: .Making use of the rare configuration in which the gas and dust structure is seen in silhouette against the background radiation at λ=2.2~μm, we determine the column density distribution from a high-resolution NAOS/CONICA image. The influence of scattered light on the mass determination is analyzed using 3D radiative transfer calculations. Further upper flux limits derived from observations with the Spitzer telescope at MIR wavelengths are used together with the NACO image to estimate the flux from the central object. For a range of stellar radii, stellar surface temperatures, and dust grain sizes, we apply three different models to account for the observed fluxes. The stability of the disk against self-gravitational forces is analyzed calculating the ratio of the gravitational acceleration by the central object and the disk, and the deviations from a Keplerian profile. Results: .We find that the column density is consistent with a central source surrounded by a rotationally symmetric distribution of gas and dust. The extent of the symmetric disk part is about 3000 AU, with a warped point-symmetrical extension beyond that radius, and therefore larger than any circumstellar disk yet detected. The modeling yields a radial density powerlaw exponent of -1.1 indicating a flat radial density distribution, and a large e-folding scale height ratio H/R of about 0.5. The mass of the entire disk estimated from the column density is discussed depending on the assumed distance and the dust model and ranges between 0.02 and 5 M⊙. We conclude that unless a star is located close to the disk in the foreground, scattered light will have little influence on the mass determination. We present a Spitzer image taken at λ=7.8~μm with the disk seen in emission and identify polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission on the disk surface excited by the nearby massive

  6. A Reduced Order Model of the Linearized Incompressible Navier-Strokes Equations for the Sensor/Actuator Placement Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, Brian G.

    2000-01-01

    A reduced order modeling approach of the Navier-Stokes equations is presented for the design of a distributed optimal feedback kernel. This approach is based oil a Krylov subspace method where significant modes of the flow are captured in the model This model is then used in all optimal feedback control design where sensing and actuation is performed oil tile entire flow field. This control design approach yields all optimal feedback kernel which provides insight into the placement of sensors and actuators in the flow field. As all evaluation of this approach, a two-dimensional shear layer and driven cavity flow are investigated.

  7. An interferometric study of the Fomalhaut inner debris disk. III. Detailed models of the exozodiacal disk and its origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, J.; van Lieshout, R.; Augereau, J.-C.; Absil, O.; Mennesson, B.; Kama, M.; Dominik, C.; Bonsor, A.; Vandeportal, J.; Beust, H.; Defrère, D.; Ertel, S.; Faramaz, V.; Hinz, P.; Kral, Q.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Liu, W.; Thébault, P.

    2013-07-01

    Context. Debris disks are thought to be extrasolar analogs to the solar system planetesimal belts. The star Fomalhaut harbors a cold debris belt at 140 AU comparable to the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt, as well as evidence of a warm dust component, unresolved by single-dish telescopes, which is suspected of being a bright analog to the solar system's zodiacal dust. Aims: Interferometric observations obtained with the VLTI/VINCI instrument and the Keck Interferometer Nuller have identified near- and mid-infrared excesses attributed respectively to hot and warm exozodiacal dust residing in the inner few AU of the Fomalhaut environment. We aim to characterize the properties of this double inner dust belt and to unveil its origin. Methods: We performed parametric modeling of the exozodiacal disk ("exozodi") using the GRaTeR radiative transfer code to reproduce the interferometric data, complemented by mid- to far-infrared photometric measurements from Spitzer and Herschel. A detailed treatment of sublimation temperatures was introduced to explore the hot population at the size-dependent sublimation rim. We then used an analytical approach to successively testing several source mechanisms for the dust and suspected parent bodies. Results: A good fit to the multiwavelength data is found by two distinct dust populations: (1) a population of very small (0.01 to 0.5 μm), hence unbound, hot dust grains confined in a narrow region (~0.1-0.3 AU) at the sublimation rim of carbonaceous material; (2) a population of bound grains at ~2 AU that is protected from sublimation and has a higher mass despite its fainter flux level. We propose that the hot dust is produced by the release of small carbon grains following the disruption of dust aggregates that originate in the warm component. A mechanism, such as gas braking, is required to further confine the small grains for a long enough time. In situ dust production could hardly be ensured for the age of the star, so we conclude that the

  8. Modeling gravitational instabilities in self-gravitating protoplanetary disks with adaptive mesh refinement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenberg, Tim; Schleicher, Dominik R. G.

    2015-07-01

    The astonishing diversity in the observed planetary population requires theoretical efforts and advances in planet formation theories. The use of numerical approaches provides a method to tackle the weaknesses of current models and is an important tool to close gaps in poorly constrained areas such as the rapid formation of giant planets in highly evolved systems. So far, most numerical approaches make use of Lagrangian-based smoothed-particle hydrodynamics techniques or grid-based 2D axisymmetric simulations. We present a new global disk setup to model the first stages of giant planet formation via gravitational instabilities (GI) in 3D with the block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) hydrodynamics code enzo. With this setup, we explore the potential impact of AMR techniques on the fragmentation and clumping due to large-scale instabilities using different AMR configurations. Additionally, we seek to derive general resolution criteria for global simulations of self-gravitating disks of variable extent. We run a grid of simulations with varying AMR settings, including runs with a static grid for comparison. Additionally, we study the effects of varying the disk radius. The physical settings involve disks with Rdisk = 10,100 and 300 AU, with a mass of Mdisk ≈ 0.05 M⊙ and a central object of subsolar mass (M⋆ = 0.646 M⊙). To validate our thermodynamical approach we include a set of simulations with a dynamically stable profile (Qinit = 3) and similar grid parameters. The development of fragmentation and the buildup of distinct clumps in the disk is strongly dependent on the chosen AMR grid settings. By combining our findings from the resolution and parameter studies we find a general lower limit criterion to be able to resolve GI induced fragmentation features and distinct clumps, which induce turbulence in the disk and seed giant planet formation. Irrespective of the physical extension of the disk, topologically disconnected clump features are only

  9. SMACK: A New Algorithm for Modeling Collisions and Dynamics of Planetesimals in Debris Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesvold, Erika Rose; Kuchner, Marc J.; Rein, Hanno; Pan, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    We present the Superparticle Model/Algorithm for Collisions in Kuiper belts and debris disks (SMACK), a new method for simultaneously modeling, in 3-D, the collisional and dynamical evolution of planetesimals in a debris disk with planets. SMACK can simulate azimuthal asymmetries and how these asymmetries evolve over time. We show that SMACK is stable to numerical viscosity and numerical heating over 10(exp 7) yr, and that it can reproduce analytic models of disk evolution. We use SMACK to model the evolution of a debris ring containing a planet on an eccentric orbit. Differential precession creates a spiral structure as the ring evolves, but collisions subsequently break up the spiral, leaving a narrower eccentric ring.

  10. Quasi-static model of collimated jets and radio lobes. I. Accretion disk and jets

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, Stirling A.; Li, Hui; Fowler, T. Kenneth; Pino, Jesse

    2014-07-10

    This is the first of a series of papers showing that when an efficient dynamo can be maintained by accretion disks around supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei, it can lead to the formation of a powerful, magnetic helix that could explain both the observed radio jet/lobe structures on very large scales and ultimately the enormous power inferred from the observed ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. In this work, we solve a set of one-dimensional equations similar to the steady-state standard accretion disk model, but now including the large-scale magnetic fields giving rises to jets. We find that the frequently made assumption that large-scale fields are frozen into the disk is fundamentally incorrect, due to the necessity for current and the accreting mass to flow perpendicular to magnetic flux surfaces. A correct treatment greatly simplifies the calculations, yielding fields that leave the disk nearly vertically with magnetic profiles uniquely determined by disk angular momentum conservation. Representative solutions of the magnetic fields in different radial regions of the disk surface are given, and they determine the overall key features in the jet structure and its dissipation, which will be the subjects of later papers.

  11. A Flight Dynamics Model for a Multi-Actuated Flexible Rocket Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Jeb S.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive set of motion equations for a multi-actuated flight vehicle is presented. The dynamics are derived from a vector approach that generalizes the classical linear perturbation equations for flexible launch vehicles into a coupled three-dimensional model. The effects of nozzle and aerosurface inertial coupling, sloshing propellant, and elasticity are incorporated without restrictions on the position, orientation, or number of model elements. The present formulation is well suited to matrix implementation for large-scale linear stability and sensitivity analysis and is also shown to be extensible to nonlinear time-domain simulation through the application of a special form of Lagrange s equations in quasi-coordinates. The model is validated through frequency-domain response comparison with a high-fidelity planar implementation.

  12. A Systematic Homogeneous Archival Ultraviolet Spectral Analysis of Cataclysmic Variables using a Modified Standard Disk Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godon, Patrick

    Many ultraviolet spectra of cataclysmic variables (CVs) with a white dwarf (WD) accreting at a high rate have been difficult, even impossible, to model with standard disk models. The standard disk models appear to be too blue in comparison to the observed spectra. We propose to carry out a systematic and consistent analysis of archival ultraviolet spectra of 90 CVs using a truncated inner disk model (based and backed by observational data and theoretical results). We use the synthetic stellar spectra codes TLUSTY and SYNSPEC to generate these synthetic spectra. Deriving mass accretion rates for CVs will advance the theories of evolution of CVs as well as shed light on the Physics of accretion disks. As a by product we will make our theoretical spectra publicly available online. This will be of invaluable importance to future NASA UV missions. The WD is the most common end-product of stellar evolution and the accretion disk is the most common universal structure resulting from mass transfer with angular momentum, and both can be observed in CVs in the UV. As a consequence, an understanding of accretion in CV systems is the first step toward a global understanding of accretion in other systems throughout the universe, ranging from Young Stellar Objects, galactic binaries to AGN. This ADP proposal address the NASA Strategic Goals and Science Outcomes 3D: Discover the origin, structure, evolution, and destiny of the universe, and search for Earth-like planets.

  13. An Electrostatic Microactuator for Positioning a Hard-Disk Drive Magnetic Head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, Tomonori; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi; Mita, Makoto; Kobayashi, Dai; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    We have newly developed a prototype model of silicon microfabricated piggyback actuator for positioning a read/write head of magnetic hard-disk drive, which is usually referred to as a dual servo system because the piggyback actuator for fine control is used in collaboration with the voice-coil motor for coarse control. The actuator is made of a 50-micron-thick SOI (silicon on insulator) wafer processed by deep RIE (reactive ion etching) of high-aspect ratio. Actuation mechanism is based upon electrostatic force generated by multiple parallel plates. Maximum displacement of 0.2μ with a dc driving voltage of 20V has been achieved with a 1mm × 0.3mm actuator of its resonance at 25kHz. An analytical model for predicting electromechanical performance has also been developed.

  14. Determining the optimal smoothing length scale for actuator line models of wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Luis; Meneveau, Charles

    2015-11-01

    The actuator line model (ALM) is a widely used tool for simulating wind turbines when performing Large-Eddy Simulations. The ALM uses a smearing kernel ηɛ = 1 /ɛ3π 3 / 2 exp (-r2 /ɛ2) , where r is the distance to an actuator point, and ɛ is the smoothing length scale which establishes the kernel width, to project the lift and drag forces onto the grid. In this work, we develop formulations to establish the optimum value of the smoothing length scale ɛ, based on physical arguments, instead of purely numerical constraints. This parameter has a very important role in the ALM, to provide a length scale, which may, for example, be related to the chord of the airfoil being studied. In the proposed approach, we compare features (such as vertical pressure gradient) of a potential flow solution for flow over a lifting surface with features of the solution of the Euler equations with a body force term. The potential flow solution over a lifting surface is used as a general representation of an airfoil. The method presented aims to minimize the difference between these features of the flow fields as a function of the smearing length scale (ɛ), in order to obtain the optimum value. This work is supported by NSF (IGERT and IIA-1243482) and computations use XSEDE resources.

  15. Improved reflection models of black hole accretion disks: Treating the angular distribution of X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    García, J.; Steiner, J. F.; McClintock, J. E.; Brenneman, L. E-mail: jsteiner@head.cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: lbrenneman@cfa.harvard.edu; and others

    2014-02-20

    X-ray reflection models are used to constrain the properties of the accretion disk, such as the degree of ionization of the gas and the elemental abundances. In combination with general relativistic ray tracing codes, additional parameters like the spin of the black hole and the inclination to the system can be determined. However, current reflection models used for such studies only provide angle-averaged solutions for the flux reflected at the surface of the disk. Moreover, the emission angle of the photons changes over the disk due to relativistic light bending. To overcome this simplification, we have constructed an angle-dependent reflection model with the XILLVER code and self-consistently connected it with the relativistic blurring code RELLINE. The new model, relxill, calculates the proper emission angle of the radiation at each point on the accretion disk and then takes the corresponding reflection spectrum into account. We show that the reflected spectra from illuminated disks follow a limb-brightening law highly dependent on the ionization of disk and yet different from the commonly assumed form I∝ln (1 + 1/μ). A detailed comparison with the angle-averaged model is carried out in order to determine the bias in the parameters obtained by fitting a typical relativistic reflection spectrum. These simulations reveal that although the spin and inclination are mildly affected, the Fe abundance can be overestimated by up to a factor of two when derived from angle-averaged models. The fit of the new model to the Suzaku observation of the Seyfert galaxy Ark 120 clearly shows a significant improvement in the constraint of the physical parameters, in particular by enhancing the accuracy in the inclination angle and the spin determinations.

  16. SMACK: A NEW ALGORITHM FOR MODELING COLLISIONS AND DYNAMICS OF PLANETESIMALS IN DEBRIS DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Nesvold, Erika R.; Kuchner, Marc J.; Pan, Margaret; Rein, Hanno E-mail: Marc.Kuchner@nasa.gov E-mail: rein@ias.edu

    2013-11-10

    We present the Superparticle-Method/Algorithm for Collisions in Kuiper belts and debris disks (SMACK), a new method for simultaneously modeling, in three dimensions, the collisional and dynamical evolution of planetesimals in a debris disk with planets. SMACK can simulate azimuthal asymmetries and how these asymmetries evolve over time. We show that SMACK is stable to numerical viscosity and numerical heating over 10{sup 7} yr and that it can reproduce analytic models of disk evolution. We use SMACK to model the evolution of a debris ring containing a planet on an eccentric orbit. Differential precession creates a spiral structure as the ring evolves, but collisions subsequently break up the spiral, leaving a narrower eccentric ring.

  17. An Efficient Monte Carlo Method for Modeling Radiative Transfer in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Stacy

    2011-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods have been shown to be effective and versatile in modeling radiative transfer processes to calculate model temperature profiles for protoplanetary disks. Temperatures profiles are important for connecting physical structure to observation and for understanding the conditions for planet formation and migration. However, certain areas of the disk such as the optically thick disk interior are under-sampled, or are of particular interest such as the snow line (where water vapor condenses into ice) and the area surrounding a protoplanet. To improve the sampling, photon packets can be preferentially scattered and reemitted toward the preferred locations at the cost of weighting packet energies to conserve the average energy flux. Here I report on the weighting schemes developed, how they can be applied to various models, and how they affect simulation mechanics and results. We find that improvements in sampling do not always imply similar improvements in temperature accuracies and calculation speeds.

  18. Detailed Modeling of β CMi: A Multi-Technique Test of the Viscous Decretion Disk Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klement, R.; Carciofi, A. C.; Štefl, S.; Faes, D. M.; Rivinius, T.

    2016-11-01

    β CMi is a well-known close and bright classical Be star. Its observable properties, especially the little variability of line emission, point at an exceptional stability of the circumstellar disk at least on a scale of decades, which makes β CMi an ideal laboratory for a detailed test of the viscous decretion disk (VDD) scenario currently assumed to explain the formation and evolution of Be disks. A large set of multi-wavelength and multi-technique observations is used to produce arguably the most constrained model to date. The SED has been, for the first time with a physical model, reasonably reproduced from ultraviolet up to radio wavelengths. In this contribution we present the general aspects of the model and look more closely on the diagnostic potential of the ultraviolet spectrum and the spectral shape of visual polarisation in constraining some of the central star parameters for the case of β CMi.

  19. Two-spring model for active compression textiles with integrated NiTi coil actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holschuh, B.; Newman, D.

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of a two-spring model to predict the performance of hybrid compression textiles combining passive elastic fabrics and integrated NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) coil actuators. An analytic model that treats passive fabric-SMA coil systems as conjoined linear springs is presented to predict garment passive and active counter-pressure as a function of 11 design variables. For a fixed SMA coil design (encompassing five design variables), the model predicts that passive fabric material modulus, initial length, width and thickness determine both passive counter-pressure magnitude and activation stroke length, and that passive and active pressures are highly dependent on the relative unstretched lengths of the conjoined SMA-fabric system compared to the total limb circumference. Several passive fabrics were tested to determine their moduli and to generally assess the fabric linearity model assumption: two fabrics (spandex and neoprene) were found to behave linearly up to 200% strain, while two other fabrics (flat polyester elastic and a tri-laminate Lycra) were found to be nonlinear in the same strain envelope. Five hypothetical compression tourniquet designs are presented using experimentally determined fabric characteristics and previously studied SMA actuators developed at MIT. The performance of each tourniquet design is discussed with a specific focus on mechanical counter-pressure (MCP) space suit design requirements, with designs presented that achieve the full MCP design specification (\\gt 29.6 kPa) while minimizing (\\lt 5 mm) garment thickness. The modeling framework developed in this effort enables compression garment designers to tailor counter-pressure and activation stroke properties of active compression garments based on a variety of design parameters to meet a wide range of performance specifications.

  20. Photoionization Models for the Inner Gaseous Disks of Herbig Be Stars: Evidence against Magnetospheric Accretion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, P.; Sigut, T. A. A.; Landstreet, J. D.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the physical properties of the inner gaseous disks of three hot Herbig B2e stars, HD 76534, HD 114981, and HD 216629, by modeling CFHT-ESPaDOns spectra using non-LTE radiative transfer codes. We assume that the emission lines are produced in a circumstellar disk heated solely by photospheric radiation from the central star in order to test whether the optical and near-infrared emission lines can be reproduced without invoking magnetospheric accretion. The inner gaseous disk density was assumed to follow a simple power-law in the equatorial plane, and we searched for models that could reproduce observed lines of H i (Hα and Hβ), He i, Ca ii, and Fe ii. For the three stars, good matches were found for all emission line profiles individually; however, no density model based on a single power-law was able to reproduce all of the observed emission lines. Among the single power-law models, the one with the gas density varying as ∼10‑10(R */R)3 g cm‑3 in the equatorial plane of a 25 R * (0.78 au) disk did the best overall job of representing the optical emission lines of the three stars. This model implies a mass for the Hα-emitting portion of the inner gaseous disk of ∼10‑9 M *. We conclude that the optical emission line spectra of these HBe stars can be qualitatively reproduced by a ≈1 au, geometrically thin, circumstellar disk of negligible mass compared to the central star in Keplerian rotation and radiative equilibrium. Based on observations obtained at the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l”Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  1. Magnetocentrifugally driven flows from young stars and disks. 1: A generalized model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, Frank; Najita, Joan; Ostriker, Eve; Wilkin, Frank; Ruden, Steven; Lizano, Susana

    1994-01-01

    We propose a generalized model for stellar spin-down, disk accretion, and truncation, and the origin of winds, jets, and bipolar outflows from young stellar objects. We consider the steady state dynamics of accretion of matter from a viscous and imperfectly conducting disk onto a young star with a strong magnetic field. For an aligned stellar magnetosphere, shielding currents in the surface layers of the disk prevent stellar field lines from penetrating the disk everywhere except for a range of radii about pi = R(sub x), where the Keplerian angular speed of rotation Omega(sub x) equals the angular speed of the star Omega(sub *). For the low disk accretion rates and high magnetic fields associated with typical T Tauri stars, R(sub x) exceeds the radius of the star R(sub *) by a factor of a few, and the inner disk is effectively truncated at a radius R(sub t) somewhat smaller than R(sub x). Where the closed field lines between R(sub t) and R(sub x) bow sufficiently inward, the accreting gas attaches itself to the field and is funneled dynamically down the effective potential (gravitational plus centrifugal) onto the star. Contrary to common belief, the accompanying magnetic torques associated with this accreting gas may transfer angular momentum mostly to the disk rather than to the star. Thus, the star can spin slowly as long as R(sub x) remains significantly greater than R(sub *). Exterior to R(sub x) field lines threading the disk bow outward, which makes the gas off the mid-plane rotate at super-Keplerian velocities. This combination drives a magnetocentrifugal wind with a mass-loss rate M(sub w) equal to a definite fraction f of the disk accretion rate M(sub D). For high disk accretion rates, R(sub x) is forced down to the stellar surface, the star is spun to breakup, and the wind is generated in a manner identical to that proposed by Shu, Lizano, Ruden, & Najita in a previous communication to this journal. In two companion papers (II and III), we develop a

  2. Active Microwave Remote Sensing of a Natural, Tallgrass Prairie and a Projected Disk Component Model to Explain the Behavior of a Modified Dielectric Disk Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Robert David, Jr.

    C-band scatterometer measurements were made of a tallgrass prairie in an attempt to determine the degree of correlation between (1) the backscattering coefficient (sigma_sp{rm tr}{ circ}) and different expressions of soil moisture and (2) the backscattering coefficient and various canopy parameters. The findings of this study support those made in previous studies in terms of the optimum polarization and view angle selection for soil moisture work (i.e., near-nadir view angles and HH and VV polarizations). In contrast to previous studies, view angles of 30 ^circ and 45^circ also produced strong correlations with soil moisture. A moderately strong correlation and partial correlation was found between sigma_sp{rm tr}{circ} and leaf water potential, indicating some capability of C-band measurements to detect extremes in the water status of prairie vegetation under shallow soil conditions. Also, site differences due to burn treatments appeared to cause significant differences in the sensitivity of sigma_sp{ rm tr}{circ} to soil moisture. In a second study, the disk model developed by Drs. Eom and Fung was tested against a set of field measurements of sigma_sp{rm tr} {circ} from a crop of sunflowers. The model overestimated sigma_sp{ rm tr}{circ} at early growth stages, but decreased the overestimate as the crop matured. The author modified the model to accommodate canopies with non-uniform, continuous leaf angle distributions. The modification altered the shape of the response curve for predicted sigma_sp{rm tr }{circ} versus view angle, but failed to reduce the overestimate in the early growth states. Additional modifications (e.g., incorporating row structure information) may be necessary. A new model, called the Projected Disk Component Model (PDCM), was developed to help explain the behavior of the modified disk model (MDM). By reducing several types of theoretical disk canopies to a simple, quantitative measure of their constituent horizontal and vertical

  3. Detailed models of a sample of debris disks: from Herschel, KIN and Spitzer to the JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, J.; Beichman, C.; Augereau, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Dusty debris disks surrounding main sequence stars are extrasolar equivalents to the Solar System populations of asteroids, icy bodies and dust grains. Many were observed in thermal emission by Herschel with unprecedented wavelength coverage and spatial resolution, complementing available scattered light images, mid-infrared spectra and interferometric measurements. We present detailed models of the HD 181327 and HD 32297 disks obtained with the GRaTer radiative transfer code and made possible thanks to Herschel. We then focus on the intriguing case of the nearby F2V star η Corvi that shows strong infrared excess despite an estimated age of 1.4 Gyr. We establish a detailed model of its disk from the sub-AU scale to its outermost regions based on observations from the Keck Interferometer Nuller, Herschel and Spitzer. These bright and extended disks will be of prime interest for future observations with the JWST. We finally discuss new debris disks science that will be addressed with the NIRCam and MIRI instruments.

  4. Wind-tunnel blockage and actuation systems test of a two-dimensional scramjet inlet unstart model at Mach 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Scott D.

    1994-01-01

    The present study examines the wind-tunnel blockage and actuation systems effectiveness in starting and forcibly unstarting a two-dimensional scramjet inlet in the NASA Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel. The intent of the overall test program is to study (both experimentally and computationally) the dynamics of the inlet unstart; however, prior to the design and fabrication of an expensive, instrumented wind-tunnel model, it was deemed necessary first to examine potential wind-tunnel blockage issues related to model sizing and to examine the adequacy of the actuation systems in accomplishing the start and unstart. The model is equipped with both a moveable cowl and aft plug. Windows in the inlet sidewalls allow limited optical access to the internal shock structure; schlieren video was used to identify inlet start and unstart. A chronology of each actuation sequence is provided in tabular form along with still frames from the schlieren video. A pitot probe monitored the freestream conditions throughout the start/unstart process to determine if there was a blockage effect due to the model start or unstart. Because the purpose of this report is to make the phase I (blockage and actuation systems) data rapidly available to the community, the data is presented largely without analysis of the internal shock interactions or the unstart process. This series of tests indicated that the model was appropriately sized for this facility and identified operability limits required first to allow the inlet to start and second to force the unstart.

  5. Modeling and design of a tendon actuated soft robotic exoskeleton for hemiparetic upper limb rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Nycz, Christopher J; Delph, Michael A; Fischer, Gregory S

    2015-01-01

    Robotic technology has recently been explored as a means to rehabilitate and assist individuals suffering from hemiparesis of their upper limbs. Robotic approaches allow for targeted rehabilitation routines which are more personalized and adaptable while providing quantitative measurements of patient outcomes. Development of these technologies into inherently safe and portable devices has the potential to extend the therapy outside of the clinical setting and into the patient's home with benefits to the cost and accessibility of care. To this end, a soft, cable actuated robotic glove and sleeve was designed, modeled, and constructed to provide assistance of finger and elbow movements in a way that mimics the biological function of the tendons. The resulting design increases safety through greater compliance as well as greater tolerance for misalignment with the user's skeletal frame over traditional rigid exoskeletons. Overall this design provides a platform to expand and study the concepts around soft robotic rehabilitation.

  6. Mathematical modeling of the head-disk interface (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crone, Robert M.; Jhon, Myung S.

    1993-05-01

    State-of-the-art theoretical and numerical techniques required to simulate the head-disk interface (HDI) of future magnetic storage devices is presented. The severity of operating conditions (i.e., attempts to achieve flying heights as low as 40 nm) pose several challenges. Large transient pressure gradients can be established within air bearing leading to numerical oscillations as well as to increased program execution times. Enhanced gaseous rarefaction effects must also be incorporated into the analysis. In the present study, accurate nonoscillatory air bearing pressure distributions were obtained using a high resolution finite element algorithm to solve the generalized Reynolds equation. Higher order gaseous rarefaction effects are incorporated into generalized Reynolds equations using the total mass flow rate coefficient predicted from the linearized Boltzmann equation. The form of the generalized Reynolds equation that is presented in this paper is an improved version of the continued fraction approximation previously proposed by Crone et al.1 A simple scaling analysis, which is based upon the results of the linearized Boltzmann equation, will also be presented to study the effect of slider miniaturization, as well as to obtain a novel interpretation of accelerated wear and accelerated flyability test results.

  7. Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project.VI. Reverberating Disk Models for NGC 5548

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkey, D.; Horne, Keith; Fausnaugh, M. M.; Peterson, B. M.; Bentz, M. C.; Kochanek, C. S.; Denney, K. D.; Edelson, R.; Goad, M. R.; De Rosa, G.; Anderson, M. D.; Arévalo, P.; Barth, A. J.; Bazhaw, C.; Borman, G. A.; Boroson, T. A.; Bottorff, M. C.; Brandt, W. N.; Breeveld, A. A.; Cackett, E. M.; Carini, M. T.; Croxall, K. V.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Dalla Bontà, E.; De Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Dietrich, M.; Efimova, N. V.; Ely, J.; Evans, P. A.; Filippenko, A. V.; Flatland, K.; Gehrels, N.; Geier, S.; Gelbord, J. M.; Gonzalez, L.; Gorjian, V.; Grier, C. J.; Grupe, D.; Hall, P. B.; Hicks, S.; Horenstein, D.; Hutchison, T.; Im, M.; Jensen, J. J.; Joner, M. D.; Jones, J.; Kaastra, J.; Kaspi, S.; Kelly, B. C.; Kennea, J. A.; Kim, S. C.; Kim, M.; Klimanov, S. A.; Korista, K. T.; Kriss, G. A.; Lee, J. C.; Leonard, D. C.; Lira, P.; MacInnis, F.; Manne-Nicholas, E. R.; Mathur, S.; McHardy, I. M.; Montouri, C.; Musso, R.; Nazarov, S. V.; Norris, R. P.; Nousek, J. A.; Okhmat, D. N.; Pancoast, A.; Parks, J. R.; Pei, L.; Pogge, R. W.; Pott, J.-U.; Rafter, S. E.; Rix, H.-W.; Saylor, D. A.; Schimoia, J. S.; Schnülle, K.; Sergeev, S. G.; Siegel, M. H.; Spencer, M.; Sung, H.-I.; Teems, K. G.; Turner, C. S.; Uttley, P.; Vestergaard, M.; Villforth, C.; Weiss, Y.; Woo, J.-H.; Yan, H.; Young, S.; Zheng, W.; Zu, Y.

    2017-01-01

    We conduct a multiwavelength continuum variability study of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 to investigate the temperature structure of its accretion disk. The 19 overlapping continuum light curves (1158 \\mathringA to 9157 \\mathringA ) combine simultaneous Hubble Space Telescope, Swift, and ground-based observations over a 180 day period from 2014 January to July. Light-curve variability is interpreted as the reverberation response of the accretion disk to irradiation by a central time-varying point source. Our model yields the disk inclination i=36^\\circ +/- 10^\\circ , temperature {T}1=(44+/- 6)× {10}3 K at 1 light day from the black hole, and a temperature–radius slope (T\\propto {r}-α ) of α =0.99+/- 0.03. We also infer the driving light curve and find that it correlates poorly with both the hard and soft X-ray light curves, suggesting that the X-rays alone may not drive the ultraviolet and optical variability over the observing period. We also decompose the light curves into bright, faint, and mean accretion-disk spectra. These spectra lie below that expected for a standard blackbody accretion disk accreting at L/{L}{Edd}=0.1.

  8. AdS Black Disk Model for Small-x Deep Inelastic Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornalba, Lorenzo; Costa, Miguel S.; Penedones, João

    2010-08-01

    Using the approximate conformal invariance of QCD at high energies we consider a simple anti-de Sitter black disk model to describe saturation in deep inelastic scattering. Deep inside saturation the structure functions have the same power law scaling, FT˜FL˜x-ω, where ω is related to the expansion rate of the black disk with energy. Furthermore, the ratio FL/FT is given by the universal value (1+ω)/(3+ω), independently of the target. For γ*-γ* scattering at high energies we obtain explicit expressions and ratios for the total cross sections of transverse and longitudinal photons in terms of the single parameter ω.

  9. Centrifugally driven winds from protostellar disks. I - Wind model and thermal structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safier, Pedro N.

    1993-01-01

    The thermal structure of a wind that is centrifugally driven from the surface of a protostellar disk is studied. A generalized version of the Blandford and Payne self-similar wind model is introduced, and the temperature and ionization distributions in the outflow are investigated. For the evolution of atomic winds, the heat equation and the rate equations that describe the ionization and excitation state of hydrogen are solved self-consistently. Ambipolar diffusion is found to be a robust mechanism for heating the gas. In the more powerful outflows, molecular hydrogen is collisionally dissociated close to the disk surface, and hydrogen is mainly atomic within a few astronomical units from the central source. It is also demonstrated that these outflows have enough momentum to lift dust grains from the disk surface.

  10. Effect of Synthetic Jet Actuator Spacing on the Performance Enhancement of a Vertical Tail Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monastero, Marianne; Rathay, Nicholas; Whalen, Edward; Amitay, Michael

    2014-11-01

    The use of synthetic-jet-based active flow control to augment the side force produced by vertical tail models through rudder separation control was experimentally investigated in the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Subsonic Wind Tunnel. Increasing the side force generated by the vertical tail may lead to a reduction in tail size and, therefore, less drag and fuel consumption. Stereo particle image velocimetry and aerodynamic load data were acquired with a focus on the effect of non-dimensional spacing between jets on the resulting flowfield and forces for a 1/19th scale model based on a Boeing 767 commercial airplane. For some rudder deflections, differing results with active flow control were found when force data for the 1/19th scale model were compared to force data obtained on a larger, 1/9th scale model. Actuator spacing was varied and individual jet momentum coefficient was held constant for these experiments. These results show the need for more fundamental testing to understand why jets are beneficial or detrimental to the augmented side force and how those effects scale-up. A new model was designed to enable a fundamental study of the effect on the flowfield of various jet and model parameters such as sweep angle, jets spacing, rudder chord extent, and rudder deflection.

  11. Finite difference time domain electroacoustic model for synthetic jet actuators including nonlinear flow resistance.

    PubMed

    Kooijman, Gerben; Ouweltjes, Okke

    2009-04-01

    A lumped element electroacoustic model for a synthetic jet actuator is presented. The model includes the nonlinear flow resistance associated with flow separation and employs a finite difference scheme in the time domain. As opposed to more common analytical frequency domain electroacoustic models, in which the nonlinear resistance can only be considered as a constant, it allows the calculation of higher harmonics, i.e., distortion components, generated as a result of this nonlinear resistance. Model calculations for the time-averaged momentum flux of the synthetic jet as well as the radiated sound power spectrum are compared to experimental results for various configurations. It is shown that a significantly improved prediction of the momentum flux-and thus flow velocity-of the jet is obtained when including the nonlinear resistance. Here, the current model performs slightly better than an analytical model. For the power spectrum of radiated sound, a reasonable agreement is obtained when assuming a plausible slight asymmetry in the nonlinear resistance. However, results suggest that loudspeaker nonlinearities play a significant role as well in the generation of the first few higher harmonics.

  12. Ceramic Inclusions In Powder Metallurgy Disk Alloys: Characterization and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonacuse, Pete; Kantzos, Pete; Telesman, Jack

    2002-01-01

    Powder metallurgy alloys are increasingly used in gas turbine engines, especially as the material chosen for turbine disks. Although powder metallurgy materials have many advantages over conventionally cast and wrought alloys (higher strength, higher temperature capability, etc.), they suffer from the rare occurrence of ceramic defects (inclusions) that arise from the powder atomization process. These inclusions can have potentially large detrimental effect on the durability of individual components. An inclusion in a high stress location can act as a site for premature crack initiation and thereby considerably reduce the fatigue life. Because these inclusions are exceedingly rare, they usually don't reveal themselves in the process of characterizing the material for a particular application (the cumulative volume of the test bars in a fatigue life characterization is typically on the order of a single actual component). Ceramic inclusions have, however, been found to be the root cause of a number of catastrophic engine failures. To investigate the effect of these inclusions in detail, we have undertaken a study where a known population of ceramic particles, whose composition and morphology are designed to mimic the 'natural' inclusions, are added to the precursor powder. Surface connected inclusions have been found to have a particularly large detrimental effect on fatigue life, therefore the volume of ceramic 'seeds' added is calculated to ensure that a minimum number will occur on the surface of the fatigue test bars. Because the ceramic inclusions are irregularly shaped and have a tendency to break up in the process of extrusion and forging, a method of calculating the probability of occurrence and expected intercepted surface and embedded cross-sectional areas were needed. We have developed a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the distributions of these parameters and have verified the simulated results with observations of ceramic inclusions found in macro

  13. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Separating disk chemical substructures with cluster models. Evidence of a separate evolution in the metal-poor thin disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Arriagada, A.; Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Schultheis, M.; Guiglion, G.; Mikolaitis, Š.; Kordopatis, G.; Hill, V.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Alfaro, E. J.; Bensby, T.; Koposov, S. E.; Costado, M. T.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; Jofré, P.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Lind, K.; Magrini, L.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.; Chiappini, C.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Recent spectroscopic surveys have begun to explore the Galactic disk system on the basis of large data samples, with spatial distributions sampling regions well outside the solar neighborhood. In this way, they provide valuable information for testing spatial and temporal variations of disk structure kinematics and chemical evolution. Aims: The main purposes of this study are to demonstrate the usefulness of a rigorous mathematical approach to separate substructures of a stellar sample in the abundance-metallicity plane, and provide new evidence with which to characterize the nature of the metal-poor end of the thin disk sequence. Methods: We used a Gaussian mixture model algorithm to separate in the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane a clean disk star subsample (essentially at RGC< 10 kpc) from the Gaia-ESO survey (GES) internal data release 2 (iDR2). We aim at decomposing it into data groups highlighting number density and/or slope variations in the abundance-metallicity plane. An independent sample of disk red clump stars from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) was used to cross-check the identified features. Results: We find that the sample is separated into five groups associated with major Galactic components; the metal-rich end of the halo, the thick disk, and three subgroups for the thin disk sequence. This is confirmed with the sample of red clump stars from APOGEE. The three thin disk groups served to explore this sequence in more detail. The two metal-intermediate and metal-rich groups of the thin disk decomposition ([Fe/H] > -0.25 dex) highlight a change in the slope at solar metallicity. This holds true at different radial regions of the Milky Way. The distribution of Galactocentric radial distances of the metal-poor part of the thin disk ([Fe/H] < -0.25 dex) is shifted to larger distances than those of the more metal-rich parts. Moreover, the metal-poor part of the thin disk presents indications of a scale height

  14. High-fidelity simulation and reduced-order modelling of integrally-actuated membrane wings with feedback control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buoso, Stefano; Palacios, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a numerical framework for the simulation and design of integrally actuated membrane wings with feedback control. The performance of the aeroelastic system are evaluated using a high-fidelity model. It consists in a fluid solver based on the direct numerical integration of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations implicitly coupled with a geometrically non-linear dynamic structural model which has been calibrated using experimental data. The rate-dependent constitutive law for the dielectric elastomer considered for the integral wing actuation is based on a non-linear formulation. The framework also includes a methodology for the model reduction of the fully-coupled system. The resulting low-order description showed to retain the main system dynamics, and can therefore be used for the design of the control scheme for the wing. Results highlights the potential to achieve on-demand aerodynamics using the actuation concept proposed. In particular, it is shown that the wing aerodynamic performance is noticeably enhanced through the actuation and the disturbances on the lift in case of gusts can be reduced up to 60%.

  15. Modeling MHD accretion-ejection: episodic ejections of jets triggered by a mean-field disk dynamo

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanovs, Deniss; Fendt, Christian; Sheikhnezami, Somayeh E-mail: fendt@mpia.de

    2014-11-20

    We present MHD simulations exploring the launching, acceleration, and collimation of jets and disk winds. The evolution of the disk structure is consistently taken into account. Extending our earlier studies, we now consider the self-generation of the magnetic field by an α{sup 2}Ω mean-field dynamo. The disk magnetization remains on a rather low level, which helps to evolve the simulations for T > 10, 000 dynamical time steps on a domain extending 1500 inner disk radii. We find the magnetic field of the inner disk to be similar to the commonly found open field structure, favoring magneto-centrifugal launching. The outer disk field is highly inclined and predominantly radial. Here, differential rotation induces a strong toroidal component, which plays a key role in outflow launching. These outflows from the outer disk are slower, denser, and less collimated. If the dynamo action is not quenched, magnetic flux is continuously generated, diffuses outward through the disk, and fills the entire disk. We have invented a toy model triggering a time-dependent mean-field dynamo. The duty cycles of this dynamo lead to episodic ejections on similar timescales. When the dynamo is suppressed as the magnetization falls below a critical value, the generation of the outflows and also accretion is inhibited. The general result is that we can steer episodic ejection and large-scale jet knots by a disk-intrinsic dynamo that is time-dependent and regenerates the jet-launching magnetic field.

  16. Non-linear modelling and optimal control of a hydraulically actuated seismic isolator test rig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, Stefano; Russo, Riccardo; Strano, Salvatore; Terzo, Mario

    2013-02-01

    This paper investigates the modelling, parameter identification and control of an unidirectional hydraulically actuated seismic isolator test rig. The plant is characterized by non-linearities such as the valve dead zone and frictions. A non-linear model is derived and then employed for parameter identification. The results concerning the model validation are illustrated and they fully confirm the effectiveness of the proposed model. The testing procedure of the isolation systems is based on the definition of a target displacement time history of the sliding table and, consequently, the precision of the table positioning is of primary importance. In order to minimize the test rig tracking error, a suitable control system has to be adopted. The system non-linearities highly limit the performances of the classical linear control and a non-linear one is therefore adopted. The test rig mathematical model is employed for a non-linear control design that minimizes the error between the target table position and the current one. The controller synthesis is made by taking no specimen into account. The proposed approach consists of a non-linear optimal control based on the state-dependent Riccati equation (SDRE). Numerical simulations have been performed in order to evaluate the soundness of the designed control with and without the specimen under test. The results confirm that the performances of the proposed non-linear controller are not invalidated because of the presence of the specimen.

  17. Accretion disk modeling of AGN continuum using non-LTE stellar atmospheres. [active galactic nuclei (AGN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Wei-Hsin; Malkan, Matthew A.

    1988-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) accretion disk spectra were calculated using non-LTE stellar atmosphere models for Kerr and Schwarzschild geometries. It is found that the Lyman limit absorption edge, probably the most conclusive observational evidence for the accretion disk, would be drastically distorted and displaced by the relativistic effects from the large gravitational field of the central black hole and strong Doppler motion of emitting material on the disk surface. These effects are especially pronounced in the Kerr geometry. The strength of the Lyman limit absorption is very sensitive to the surface gravity in the stellar atmosphere models used. For models at the same temperature but different surface gravities, the strength of the Lyman edge exhibits an almost exponential decrease as the surface gravity approach the Eddington limit, which should approximate the thin disk atmosphere. The relativistic effects as well as the vanishing of the Lyman edge at the Eddington gravity may be the reasons that not many Lyman edges in the rest frames of AGNs and quasars are found.

  18. Thermal modeling of head disk interface system in heat assisted magnetic recording

    SciTech Connect

    Vemuri, Sesha Hari; Seung Chung, Pil; Jhon, Myung S.; Min Kim, Hyung

    2014-05-07

    A thorough understanding of the temperature profiles introduced by the heat assisted magnetic recording is required to maintain the hotspot at the desired location on the disk with minimal heat damage to other components. Here, we implement a transient mesoscale modeling methodology termed lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for phonons (which are primary carriers of energy) in the thermal modeling of the head disk interface (HDI) components, namely, carbon overcoat (COC). The LBM can provide more accurate results compared to conventional Fourier methodology by capturing the nanoscale phenomena due to ballistic heat transfer. We examine the in-plane and out-of-plane heat transfer in the COC via analyzing the temperature profiles with a continuously focused and pulsed laser beam on a moving disk. Larger in-plane hotspot widening is observed in continuously focused laser beam compared to a pulsed laser. A pulsed laser surface develops steeper temperature gradients compared to continuous hotspot. Furthermore, out-of-plane heat transfer from the COC to the media is enhanced with a continuous laser beam then a pulsed laser, while the temperature takes around 140 fs to reach the bottom surface of the COC. Our study can lead to a realistic thermal model describing novel HDI material design criteria for the next generation of hard disk drives with ultra high recording densities.

  19. Multitechnique testing of the viscous decretion disk model. I. The stable and tenuous disk of the late-type Be star β CMi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klement, R.; Carciofi, A. C.; Rivinius, Th.; Panoglou, D.; Vieira, R. G.; Bjorkman, J. E.; Štefl, S.; Tycner, C.; Faes, D. M.; Korčáková, D.; Müller, A.; Zavala, R. T.; Curé, M.

    2015-12-01

    Context. The viscous decretion disk (VDD) model is able to explain most of the currently observable properties of the circumstellar disks of Be stars. However, more stringent tests, focusing on reproducing multitechnique observations of individual targets via physical modeling, are needed to study the predictions of the VDD model under specific circumstances. In the case of nearby, bright Be star β CMi, these circumstances are a very stable low-density disk and a late-type (B8Ve) central star. Aims: The aim is to test the VDD model thoroughly, exploiting the full diagnostic potential of individual types of observations, in particular, to constrain the poorly known structure of the outer disk if possible, and to test truncation effects caused by a possible binary companion using radio observations. Methods: We use the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code HDUST to produce model observables, which we compare with a very large set of multitechnique and multiwavelength observations that include ultraviolet and optical spectra, photometry covering the interval between optical and radio wavelengths, optical polarimetry, and optical and near-IR (spectro)interferometry. Results: A parametric VDD model with radial density exponent of n = 3.5, which is the canonical value for isothermal flaring disks, is found to explain observables typically formed in the inner disk, while observables originating in the more extended parts favor a shallower, n = 3.0, density falloff. Theoretical consequences of this finding are discussed and the outcomes are compared with the predictions of a fully self-consistent VDD model. Modeling of radio observations allowed for the first determination of the physical extent of a Be disk (35+10-5 stellar radii), which might be caused by a binary companion. Finally, polarization data allowed for an indirect measurement of the rotation rate of the star, which was found to be W ≳ 0.98, i.e., very close to critical. Based partly on observations from Ond

  20. Ceramic Inclusions in Powder Metallurgy Disk Alloys: Characterization and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonacuse, Peter J.

    2001-01-01

    Powder metallurgy alloys are increasingly used in gas turbine engines, especially in turbine disk applications. Although powder metallurgy materials have many advantages over conventionally cast and wrought alloys (higher strength, higher temperature capability, etc.), they suffer from the rare occurrence of ceramic defects (inclusions) that are inherent to the powder atomization process. These inclusions can have a potentially large detrimental effect on the durability of individual components. An inclusion in a high stress location can act as a site for premature crack initiation and thereby considerably reduce the fatigue life. Because these inclusions are exceedingly rare, they typically do not reveal themselves in the process of characterizing the material for a particular application (the cumulative volume of the test bars in a fatigue life characterization is typically on the order of a single actual component). Ceramic inclusions have, however, been found to be the root cause of a number of catastrophic engine failures. To investigate the effect of these inclusions in detail, we have undertaken a study where known populations of ceramic particles, whose composition and morphology are designed to mimic the "natural" inclusions, are added to the precursor powder. Surface-connected inclusions have been found to have a particularly large detrimental effect on fatigue life; therefore, the quantity of ceramic "seeds" added is calculated to ensure that a minimum number will intersect the surface of the fatigue test bars. Because the ceramic inclusions are irregularly shaped and have a tendency to break up in the process of extrusion and forging, a method of calculating the probability of occurrence and expected intercepted surface area was needed. We have developed a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the distributions of these parameters and have verified the simulated results with observations of ceramic inclusions found in macroscopic slices from extrusions

  1. Non-contact start/stop motion control of HDD suspension using shape memory alloy actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Soo-Cheol; Park, Jong-Sung; Choi, Seung-Bok; Park, Young-Pil

    2001-10-01

    In hard disk drives (HDD), an important issue related to increased storage density is the tribological problem of the head/disk interface. The conventional head gimbal assembly (HGA) of the HDD is used in a contact start/stop mode which results in wear particles and debris. This may cause a serious problem for the read/write function. In this paper, we propose a new type of suspension featuring a shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator in order to prevent friction between the head (slider) and disk. As a first step, a finite element analysis is undertaken to investigate modal characteristics of the proposed HGA. Using the principal modal parameters, such as natural frequency, a control system model is established and a sliding mode control algorithm to achieve a non-contact start/stop (non-CSS) mode is formulated. The key control principle for accomplishing the non-CSS mode is that the control input is to be employed in the SMA actuator before the disk rotates, and is disconnected when the angular velocity of the disk is fully developed to achieve a certain flying height. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control system, a conventional HGA is modified to integrate the SMA actuator. The control algorithm is experimentally realized and controlled motions for the non-CSS mode are presented in the time domain.

  2. General relativistic hydrodynamics with Adaptive-Mesh Refinement (AMR) and modeling of accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donmez, Orhan

    We present a general procedure to solve the General Relativistic Hydrodynamical (GRH) equations with Adaptive-Mesh Refinement (AMR) and model of an accretion disk around a black hole. To do this, the GRH equations are written in a conservative form to exploit their hyperbolic character. The numerical solutions of the general relativistic hydrodynamic equations is done by High Resolution Shock Capturing schemes (HRSC), specifically designed to solve non-linear hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. These schemes depend on the characteristic information of the system. We use Marquina fluxes with MUSCL left and right states to solve GRH equations. First, we carry out different test problems with uniform and AMR grids on the special relativistic hydrodynamics equations to verify the second order convergence of the code in 1D, 2 D and 3D. Second, we solve the GRH equations and use the general relativistic test problems to compare the numerical solutions with analytic ones. In order to this, we couple the flux part of general relativistic hydrodynamic equation with a source part using Strang splitting. The coupling of the GRH equations is carried out in a treatment which gives second order accurate solutions in space and time. The test problems examined include shock tubes, geodesic flows, and circular motion of particle around the black hole. Finally, we apply this code to the accretion disk problems around the black hole using the Schwarzschild metric at the background of the computational domain. We find spiral shocks on the accretion disk. They are observationally expected results. We also examine the star-disk interaction near a massive black hole. We find that when stars are grounded down or a hole is punched on the accretion disk, they create shock waves which destroy the accretion disk.

  3. Complete modeling of rotary ultrasonic motors actuated by traveling flexural waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2000-06-01

    Ultrasonic rotary motors have the potential to meet this NASA need and they are developed as actuators for miniature telerobotic applications. These motors are being adapted for operation at the harsh space environments that include cryogenic temperatures and vacuum and analytical tools for the design of efficient motors are being developed. A hybrid analytical model was developed to address a complete ultrasonic motor as a system. Included in this model is the influence of the rotor dynamics, which was determined experimentally to be important to the motor performance. The analysis employs a 3D finite element model to express the dynamic characteristics of the stator with piezoelectric elements and the rotor. The details of the stator including the teeth, piezoelectric ceramic, geometry, bonding layer, etc. are included to support practical USM designs. A brush model is used for the interface layer and Coulomb's law for the friction between the stator and the rotor. The theoretical predictions were corroborated experimentally for the motor. In parallel, efforts have been made to determine the thermal and vacuum performance of these motors. To explore telerobotic applications for USMs a robotic arm was constructed with such motors.

  4. IIR filtering based adaptive active vibration control methodology with online secondary path modeling using PZT actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boz, Utku; Basdogan, Ipek

    2015-12-01

    Structural vibrations is a major cause for noise problems, discomfort and mechanical failures in aerospace, automotive and marine systems, which are mainly composed of plate-like structures. In order to reduce structural vibrations on these structures, active vibration control (AVC) is an effective approach. Adaptive filtering methodologies are preferred in AVC due to their ability to adjust themselves for varying dynamics of the structure during the operation. The filtered-X LMS (FXLMS) algorithm is a simple adaptive filtering algorithm widely implemented in active control applications. Proper implementation of FXLMS requires availability of a reference signal to mimic the disturbance and model of the dynamics between the control actuator and the error sensor, namely the secondary path. However, the controller output could interfere with the reference signal and the secondary path dynamics may change during the operation. This interference problem can be resolved by using an infinite impulse response (IIR) filter which considers feedback of the one or more previous control signals to the controller output and the changing secondary path dynamics can be updated using an online modeling technique. In this paper, IIR filtering based filtered-U LMS (FULMS) controller is combined with online secondary path modeling algorithm to suppress the vibrations of a plate-like structure. The results are validated through numerical and experimental studies. The results show that the FULMS with online secondary path modeling approach has more vibration rejection capabilities with higher convergence rate than the FXLMS counterpart.

  5. Combining Model-Based and Feature-Driven Diagnosis Approaches - A Case Study on Electromechanical Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narasimhan, Sriram; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Balaban, Edward; Saxena, Abhinav

    2010-01-01

    Model-based diagnosis typically uses analytical redundancy to compare predictions from a model against observations from the system being diagnosed. However this approach does not work very well when it is not feasible to create analytic relations describing all the observed data, e.g., for vibration data which is usually sampled at very high rates and requires very detailed finite element models to describe its behavior. In such cases, features (in time and frequency domains) that contain diagnostic information are extracted from the data. Since this is a computationally intensive process, it is not efficient to extract all the features all the time. In this paper we present an approach that combines the analytic model-based and feature-driven diagnosis approaches. The analytic approach is used to reduce the set of possible faults and then features are chosen to best distinguish among the remaining faults. We describe an implementation of this approach on the Flyable Electro-mechanical Actuator (FLEA) test bed.

  6. Three-dimensional modelling of thin liquid films over spinning disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Wray, Alex; Yang, Junfeng; Matar, Omar

    2016-11-01

    In this research the dynamics of a thin film flowing over a rapidly spinning, horizontal disk is considered. A set of non-axisymmetric evolution equations for the film thickness, radial and azimuthal flow rates are derived using a boundary-layer approximation in conjunction with the Karman-Polhausen approximation for the velocity distribution in the film. These highly nonlinear partial differential equations are then solved numerically in order to reveal the formation of two and three-dimensional large-amplitude waves that travel from the disk inlet to its periphery. The spatio-temporal profile of film thickness provides us with visualization of flow structures over the entire disk and by varying system parameters(volumetric flow rate of fluid and rotational speed of disk) different wave patterns can be observed, including spiral, concentric, smooth waves and wave break-up in exceptional conditions. Similar types of waves can be found by experimentalists in literature and CFD simulation and our results show good agreement with both experimental and CFD results. Furthermore, the semi-parabolic velocity profile assumed in our model under the waves is directly compared with CFD data in various flow regimes in order to validate our model. EPSRC UK Programme Grant EP/K003976/1.

  7. Contact graphs of disk packings as a model of spatial planar networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongzhi; Guan, Jihong; Ding, Bailu; Chen, Lichao; Zhou, Shuigeng

    2009-08-01

    Spatially constrained planar networks are frequently encountered in real-life systems. In this paper, based on a space-filling disk packing we propose a minimal model for spatial maximal planar networks, which is similar to but different from the model for Apollonian networks (Andrade et al 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 018702). We present an exhaustive analysis of various properties of our model, and obtain the analytic solutions for most of the features, including degree distribution, clustering coefficient, average path length and degree correlations. The model recovers some striking generic characteristics observed in most real networks. To address the robustness of the relevant network properties, we compare the structural features between the investigated network and the Apollonian networks. We show that topological properties of the two networks are encoded in the way of disk packing. We argue that spatial constraints of nodes are relevant to the structure of the networks.

  8. Research on giant magnetostrictive actuator online nonlinear modeling based on data driven principle with grating sensing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ping

    2017-01-01

    A novel Giant Magnetostrictive Actuator (GMA) experimental system with Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensing technique and its modeling method based on data driven principle are proposed. The FBG sensors are adopted to gather the multi-physics fields' status data of GMA considering the strong nonlinearity of the Giant Magnetostrictive Material and GMA micro-actuated structure. The feedback features are obtained from the raw dynamic status data, which are preprocessed by data fill and abnormal value detection algorithms. Correspondingly the Least Squares Support Vector Machine method is utilized to realize GMA online nonlinear modeling with data driven principle. The model performance and its relative algorithms are experimentally evaluated. The model can regularly run in the frequency range from 10 to 1000 Hz and temperature range from 20 to 100 °C with the minimum prediction error stable in the range from -1.2% to 1.1%.

  9. FROM DUST TO PLANETESIMALS: AN IMPROVED MODEL FOR COLLISIONAL GROWTH IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Garaud, Pascale; Meru, Farzana; Galvagni, Marina; Olczak, Christoph

    2013-02-20

    Planet formation occurs within the gas- and dust-rich environments of protoplanetary disks. Observations of these objects show that the growth of primordial submicron-sized particles into larger aggregates occurs at the earliest evolutionary stages of the disks. However, theoretical models of particle growth that use the Smoluchowski equation to describe collisional coagulation and fragmentation have so far failed to produce large particles while maintaining a significant population of small grains. This has generally been attributed to the existence of two barriers impeding growth due to bouncing and fragmentation of colliding particles. In this paper, we demonstrate that the importance of these barriers has been artificially inflated through the use of simplified models that do not take into account the stochastic nature of the particle motions within the gas disk. We present a new approach in which the relative velocities between two particles are described by a probability distribution function that models both deterministic motion (from the vertical settling, radial drift, and azimuthal drift) and stochastic motion (from Brownian motion and turbulence). Taking both into account can give quite different results to what has been considered recently in other studies. We demonstrate the vital effect of two 'ingredients' for particle growth: the proper implementation of a velocity distribution function that overcomes the bouncing barrier and, in combination with mass transfer in high-mass-ratio collisions, boosts the growth of larger particles beyond the fragmentation barrier. A robust result of our simulations is the emergence of two particle populations (small and large), potentially explaining simultaneously a number of longstanding problems in protoplanetary disks, including planetesimal formation close to the central star, the presence of millimeter- to centimeter-sized particles far out in the disk, and the persistence of {mu}m-sized grains for millions of

  10. Piezoelectric Microactuators for Use in Magnetic Disk Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurihara, Kazuaki; Hida, Masaharu; Umemiya, Shigeyoshi; Koganezawa, Shingi

    2004-09-01

    A head-slider drive dual-stage microactuator system for use in magnetic disk drives was developed. This microactuator system has a symmetrical structure and operation, and utilizes simple rectangular multilayered piezoelectric actuator devices. A prototype model with a pico slider and head suspension was tested and demonstrated. It exhibited a 0.8 μm displacement at a dc applied voltage of 30 V and a fundamental resonant frequency of over 20 kHz.

  11. Control-focused, nonlinear and time-varying modelling of dielectric elastomer actuators with frequency response analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, William R.; Wilson, Emma D.; Assaf, Tareq; Rossiter, Jonathan; Dodd, Tony J.; Porrill, John; Anderson, Sean R.

    2015-05-01

    Current models of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are mostly constrained to first principal descriptions that are not well suited to the application of control design due to their computational complexity. In this work we describe an integrated framework for the identification of control focused, data driven and time-varying DEA models that allow advanced analysis of nonlinear system dynamics in the frequency-domain. Experimentally generated input-output data (voltage-displacement) was used to identify control-focused, nonlinear and time-varying dynamic models of a set of film-type DEAs. The model description used was the nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous input structure. Frequency response analysis of the DEA dynamics was performed using generalized frequency response functions, providing insight and a comparison into the time-varying dynamics across a set of DEA actuators. The results demonstrated that models identified within the presented framework provide a compact and accurate description of the system dynamics. The frequency response analysis revealed variation in the time-varying dynamic behaviour of DEAs fabricated to the same specifications. These results suggest that the modelling and analysis framework presented here is a potentially useful tool for future work in guiding DEA actuator design and fabrication for application domains such as soft robotics.

  12. Linear Proof Mass Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, Sidney E., III

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the mechanical design, analysis, fabrication, testing, and lessons learned by developing a uniquely designed spaceflight-like actuator. The linear proof mass actuator (LPMA) was designed to attach to both a large space structure and a ground test model without modification. Previous designs lacked the power to perform in a terrestrial environment while other designs failed to produce the desired accelerations or frequency range for spaceflight applications. Thus, the design for a unique actuator was conceived and developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The basic design consists of four large mechanical parts (mass, upper housing, lower housing, and center support) and numerous smaller supporting components including an accelerometer, encoder, and four drive motors. Fabrication personnel were included early in the design phase of the LPMA as part of an integrated manufacturing process to alleviate potential difficulties in machining an already challenging design. Operating testing of the LPMA demonstrated that the actuator is capable of various types of load functions.

  13. Linear Proof Mass Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, S. E., III

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the mechanical design, analysis, fabrication, testing, and lessons learned by developing a uniquely designed spaceflight-like actuator. The Linear Proof Mass Actuator (LPMA) was designed to attach to both a large space structure and a ground test model without modification. Previous designs lacked the power to perform in a terrestrial environment while other designs failed to produce the desired accelerations or frequency range for spaceflight applications. Thus, the design for a unique actuator was conceived and developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The basic design consists of four large mechanical parts (Mass, Upper Housing, Lower Housing, and Center Support) and numerous smaller supporting components including an accelerometer, encoder, and four drive motors. Fabrication personnel were included early in the design phase of the LPMA as part of an integrated manufacturing process to alleviate potential difficulties in machining an already challenging design. Operational testing of the LPMA demonstrated that the actuator is capable of various types of load functions.

  14. Simple wideband models for disks and wires in the eddy current approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Waymond R.; McFadden, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Wideband electromagnetic induction systems have shown improved false alarm rates when compared with traditional metal detectors. Calibration of these sensors and the development of algorithms for target discrimination could be assisted by a set of models for common targets. In this paper, simple wideband models of the eddy current response for a wire and disk are provided. These are provided in the form of a singularity expansion of the polarizability dyadic. In an effort to make this form more concrete, a major focus of the paper is on relating the terms of the expansion to graphs of the currents present on the disk. The models provided in the paper are based on limiting forms of a cylinder as computed using the body-of-revolutions finite element method. Measured polarizability dyadics are also shown to fit the forms provided reasonably well.

  15. Double Feedforward Control System Based on Precise Disturbance Modeling for Optical Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakimura, Naohide; Nakazaki, Tatsuya; Ohishi, Kiyoshi; Miyazaki, Toshimasa; Koide, Daiichi; Tokumaru, Haruki; Takano, Yoshimichi

    2013-09-01

    Optical disk drive systems must realize high-precision tracking control for their proper operation. For this purpose, we previously proposed a tracking control system that is composed of a high-gain servo controller (HGSC) and a feedforward controller with an equivalent-perfect tracking control (E-PTC) system. However, it is difficult to design the control parameter for actual multi-harmonic disturbances. In this paper, we propose a precise disturbance model of an actual optical disk using the experimental spectrum data of a feedback controller and describe the design of a fine tracking control system. In addition, we propose a double feedforward control (DFFC) system for further high-precision control. The proposed DFFC system is constructed using two zero phase error tracking (ZPET) control systems based on error prediction and trajectory command prediction. Our experimental results confirm that the proposed system effectively suppresses the tracking error at 6000 rpm, which is the disk rotation speed of Digital Versatile Disk Recordable (DVD+R).

  16. The structure and appearance of winds from supercritical accretion disks. I - Numerical models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Equations for the structure and appearance of supercritical accretion disks and the radiation-driven winds which emanate from them are derived and solved by a steady-state hydrodynamic computer code with a relaxation technique used in stellar structure problems. The present model takes into account the mass of the accreting star, the total accretion rate, a generalization of the disk alpha parameter which accounts for heating by processes in addition to viscosity, and the ratio of the total luminosity to the Eddington luminosity. Solutions indicate that for accretion onto a hard-surfaced star, steady, optically thick winds result for even slightly supercritical accretion, and the object will appear as a supergiant star with a high mass loss rate and a nonblackbody spectrum. Winds from black hole accretion disks are expected to depend on the form of the accretion interior to the critical radius, possibly consisting of no ejection at all, a wind similar to that of a hard-surfaced star, or a column of material ejected from a hole in the accretion disk.

  17. Large Eddy Simulation of wind turbines using the actuator line model and immersed boundary method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoni, Christian; Carrasquillo-Solís, Kenneth; Leonardi, Stefano

    2014-11-01

    Despite the growth of the energy extracted from wind turbines, the flow physics is still not fully understood even under ideal operational conditions. Large Eddy Simulations of the turbulent flow past a wind turbine in a channel have been performed. The numerical setup reproduces the experiment performed in a wind tunnel at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NUST). The code is based on a finite difference scheme with a fractional step and Runge-Kutta, which couples the actuator line model (ALM) and the Immersed Boundary Method (IBM). Two simulations were performed, one neglecting the tower and nacelle resulting in the rotating blades only, the other modeling both the rotating blades as well as the tower and nacelle with IBM. Results relative to the simulation with tower and nacelle have a very good agreement with experiments. Profiles of turbulent kinetic energy shows that the effect of the tower and nacelle is not confined to the hub region but extend to the entire rotor. In addition we placed the wind turbine over an undulated topography to understand how it affects the performances and wake of a wind turbine. Comparison with the results obtained for the smooth wall show an interaction between the rough wall and the wake. The numerical simulations were performed on XSEDE TACC under Grant No. CTS070066. The present work is supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF), Grant IIA-1243482 (WINDINSPIRE).

  18. Single actuator wave-like robot (SAW): design, modeling, and experiments.

    PubMed

    Zarrouk, David; Mann, Moshe; Degani, Nir; Yehuda, Tal; Jarbi, Nissan; Hess, Amotz

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present a single actuator wave-like robot, a novel bioinspired robot which can move forward or backward by producing a continuously advancing wave. The robot has a unique minimalistic mechanical design and produces an advancing sine wave, with a large amplitude, using only a single motor but with no internal straight spine. Over horizontal surfaces, the robot does not slide relative to the surface and its direction of locomotion is determined by the direction of rotation of the motor. We developed a kinematic model of the robot that accounts for the two-dimensional mechanics of motion and yields the speed of the links relative to the motor. Based on the optimization of the kinematic model, and accounting for the mechanical constraints, we have designed and built multiple versions of the robot with different sizes and experimentally tested them (see movie). The experimental results were within a few percentages of the expectations. The larger version attained a top speed of 57 cm s(-1) over a horizontal surface and is capable of climbing vertically when placed between two walls. By optimizing the parameters, we succeeded in making the robot travel by 13% faster than its own wave speed.

  19. SMA actuator material model with self-sensing and sliding-mode control; experiment and multibody dynamics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Tyler Ross; Gurley, Austin; Beale, David

    2017-03-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) can be used to create actuators that are simple, high strength, and inexpensive. These benefits come at the cost of low electrical efficiency, moderate lifetime, and complex mechanical behavior that makes them difficult to design into new applications and products. To improve the integration of SMA actuators—in particular thin SMA wires heated by passing electric current through them—into modern mechanical applications, we have created tools for modeling SMA mechanical and thermal behavior in dynamic systems and under feedback controls. Thermo-electro-mechanical constitutive models are implemented in a multibody dynamics software where they are easily applied to an actuator emplaced in a multibody dynamic system. Mechanical behavior is modeled with 1D constitutive equations. The material state determines the electrical resistivity of the material which drives ohmic heating, while thermal cooling is based on a heat transfer analysis of thin cylinders. These models contain states which are very difficult to measure experimentally (such as crystal phase fraction) and thus provide insight into the material behavior and design that experimental results cannot offer. This thermomechanical model is used in conjunction with sliding mode control—historically difficult to simulate in numerically integrated models—to develop a working ball-on-a-beam setup in which the ball position is controlled via current passed through an SMA wire and with application of an original self-sensing method. The constitutive model is developed in the multibody dynamics software MSC ADAMS and validated through the simulation of the same system.

  20. Modelling and characterization of inflated dielectric elastomer actuators with tubular configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chi; Chen, Hualing; Liu, Lei; Li, Dichen

    2015-06-01

    A dielectric elastomer undergoes large and fast deformation subject to external electric stimuli, making it a promising artificial muscle for various kinds of actuators, sensors and energy generators. This paper presents an actuator fabricated by (1) rolling a dielectric elastomer membrane, (2) pre-stretching the membrane along the radial direction and fixing the edges with rigid cylindrical plastic ends, and (3) applying a force to the end along the longitudinal direction and pumping air into the tube for inflation. Subject to a voltage, the structure works as an actuator with a large linear stroke. Governing equations of this actuator are established and simulation results are found to agree well with experimental results. We examine four modes of failure, namely loss of tension, electrical breakdown, snap-through instability and tensile rupture, with a variation in applied pressure. The actuating voltage is greatly reduced by applying pressure, providing the possibility of low-voltage driving. By regulating the applied pressure, large actuation strain and displacement are obtained simultaneously and the distributions of stretch, true stress and the true electric field become more homogeneous.

  1. Quantitative modeling of coupled piezo-elastodynamic behavior of piezoelectric actuators bonded to an elastic medium for structural health monitoring: a review.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guoliang; Song, Fei; Wang, Xiaodong

    2010-01-01

    Elastic waves, especially guided waves, generated by a piezoelectric actuator/sensor network, have shown great potential for on-line health monitoring of advanced aerospace, nuclear, and automotive structures in recent decades. Piezoelectric materials can function as both actuators and sensors in these applications due to wide bandwidth, quick response and low costs. One of the most fundamental issues surrounding the effective use of piezoelectric actuators is the quantitative evaluation of the resulting elastic wave propagation by considering the coupled piezo-elastodynamic behavior between the actuator and the host medium. Accurate characterization of the local interfacial stress distribution between the actuator and the host medium is the key issue for the problem. This paper presents a review of the development of analytical, numerical and hybrid approaches for modeling of the coupled piezo-elastodynamic behavior. The resulting elastic wave propagation for structural health monitoring is also summarized.

  2. Electromechanical actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigham, J.

    1982-01-01

    Materials illustrating a presentation on the development of electromechanical actuators (EMA) for electric flight systems are presented. Technology issues are identified, and major steps relative to EMA development, NASA's role, and a technology procurement plan are outlined.

  3. Exozodi disk models for the HOSTS survey on the LBTI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, Mark; Kennedy, G.; Skemer, A.; Bryden, G.; Danchi, W. C.; Defrere, D.; Haniff, C.; Hinz, P.; Mennesson, B.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Panic, O.; Rieke, G.; Roberge, A.; Serabyn, G.; Shannon, A. B.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Weinberger, A. J.; LBTI-HOSTS

    2014-01-01

    This poster describes a simple model for exozodiacal emission that was developed to interpret observations of the Hunt for Observable Signatures of Terrestrial planetary Systems (HOSTS) project on the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI). HOSTS is a NASA-funded key science project using mid-infrared nulling interferometry at the LBTI to seach for faint exozodiacal dust (exozodi) in the habitable zones of nearby stars. The aim was to make a model that includes the fewest possible assumptions, so that it is easy to characterize how choices of model parameters affect what can be inferred from the observations. However the model is also sufficiently complex that it can be compared in a physically meaningful way with the level of dust in the Solar System, and can also be readily used to assess the impact of a detection (or of a non-detection) on the ability of a mission to detect Earth-like planets. Here we describe the model, and apply it to the sample of stars being searched by HOSTS to determine the zodi level (i.e., the number of Solar System zodiacal clouds) that would be needed for a detection for each star in the survey. Particular emphasis is given to our definition of a zodi, and what that means for stars of different luminosity, and a comparison is given between different zodi definitions justifying our final choice. The achievable exozodi levels range from 1-20 zodi for different stars in the prime sample for a 0.01% null depth, with a median level of 2.5 zodi.

  4. Self-consistent models for triaxial galaxies with flat rotation curves - The disk case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuijken, Konrad

    1993-01-01

    We examine the possibility of constructing scale-free triaxial logarithmic potentials self-consistently, using Schwarzschild's linear programing method. In particular, we explore the limit of nonaxisymmetric disks. In this case it is possible to reduce the problem to the self-consistent reconstruction of the disk surface density on the unit circle, a considerably simpler problem than the usual 2D or 3D one. Models with surface densities of the form Sigma = (x exp n + (y/q) exp n) exp - 1/n with n = 2 or 4 are investigated. We show that the complicated shapes of the 'boxlet' orbit families (which replace the box orbit family found in potentials with smooth cores) limit the possibility of building self-consistent models, though elliptical disks of axis ratio above 0.7 and a restricted range of boxier models can be constructed. This result relies on using sufficiently fine bins, smaller than the 10 deg bins commonly used in 2D or 3D investigations. It also indicates the need for caution in interpreting N-body models of triaxial halos in which the core of the potential is numerically smoothed.

  5. A GENERAL RELATIVISTIC MODEL OF ACCRETION DISKS WITH CORONAE SURROUNDING KERR BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    You Bei; Cao Xinwu; Yuan Yefei E-mail: cxw@shao.ac.cn

    2012-12-20

    We calculate the structure of a standard accretion disk with a corona surrounding a massive Kerr black hole in the general relativistic frame, in which the corona is assumed to be heated by the reconnection of the strongly buoyant magnetic fields generated in the cold accretion disk. The emergent spectra of accretion disk-corona systems are calculated by using the relativistic ray-tracing method. We propose a new method to calculate the emergent Comptonized spectra from the coronae. The spectra of disk-corona systems with a modified {alpha}-magnetic stress show that both the hard X-ray spectral index and the hard X-ray bolometric correction factor L{sub bol}/L{sub X,2-10keV} increase with the dimensionless mass accretion rate, which is qualitatively consistent with the observations of active galactic nuclei. The fraction of the power dissipated in the corona decreases with increasing black hole spin parameter a, which leads to lower electron temperatures of the coronae for rapidly spinning black holes. The X-ray emission from the coronae surrounding rapidly spinning black holes becomes weak and soft. The ratio of the X-ray luminosity to the optical/UV luminosity increases with the viewing angle, while the spectral shape in the X-ray band is insensitive to the viewing angle. We find that the spectral index in the infrared waveband depends on the mass accretion rate and the black hole spin a, which deviates from the f{sub {nu}}{proportional_to}{nu}{sup 1/3} relation expected by the standard thin disk model.

  6. Arnold's structural theorem for the thick disk model describes the structure of planetary systems and circumstellar disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmin, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    Ideal hydrodynamics and MHD are widely used in astrophysical models due to not only low viscosity but because of large scale of the systems. These general models allow to describe not only flows of neutral gas and magnetized plasma but evolution of many-body system as well. Our basic idea is to describe cosmic structures by 3D steady Euler equation of ideal fluid flow. According to Arnold's structural theorem, 3D steady Euler equation of ideal incompressible fluid flow has solution with toroidal topology described by divergent free vector field. The minimal energy among all the fields with closed flow lines on 3D sphere has a structure called Hopf field. Stereographic projection of Hopf field into Euclidian space has image as field where flow lines are Villarceau circles lying on tori corresponding to the levels of Bernoulli function. Arnold's structural theorem is also applicable to steady ideal incompressible MHD and steady isentropic or isothermal flow of ideal compressible fluid. We tested Arnold's structural theorem in the 3D hydrodynamic model of thick disk formation. We have shown that optimal level of Bernoulli function corresponding to "optimal torus" exists, and relative surface free energy is minimal at this level. Corresponding inclination of Villarceau circles to accretion plane is ?-4. Beat of oscillations with wave numbers corresponding to structural radii of "optimal torus" lying in accretion plane leads to scaling of "optimal tori" with factor: K = 1 + sin(?-4) ≈ 1.7071.... Set of scaled optimal tori form thick disk with divergence angle to accretion plane ?-4. Considering optimal tori as precursors of planetary orbits, we found coincidence of scaling factors in Dermort's Law for semi-major axis of Solar system K = 1.7002 ± 0.018 and HR8799 system K = 1.68 ± 0.05 with the optimal one. Also, we analyzed the probability distribution of ratios of semi-major axes of neighbor planets in the known multiple-exoplanet systems. We found existence of two

  7. Dynamic modelling and active vibration controller design for a cylindrical shell equipped with piezoelectric sensors and actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Moon K.; Heo, Seok; Jeong, Moonsan

    2009-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the dynamic modelling, active vibration controller design and experiments for a cylindrical shell equipped with piezoelectric sensors and actuators. The dynamic model was derived by using Rayleigh-Ritz method based on the Donnel-Mushtari shell theory. The actuator equations which relate the applied voltages to the generalized force and sensor equations which relate the generalized displacements to the sensor output voltages for the piezoelectric wafer were derived based on the pin-force model. The equations of motion along with the piezoelectric sensor equations were then reduced to modal forms considering the modes of interest. An aluminium shell was fabricated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the modelling and control techniques. The boundary conditions at both ends of the shell were assumed to be a shear diaphragm in the numerical analysis. Theoretical natural frequencies of the aluminium shell were then calculated and compared to experimental result. They were in good agreement with experimental result for the first two free-vibration modes. The multi-input and multi-output positive position feedback controller, which can cope with the first two vibration modes, was designed based on the block-inverse theory and was implemented digitally using the DSP board. The experimental results showed that vibrations of the cylindrical shell can be successfully suppressed by the piezoelectric actuator and the proposed controller.

  8. X-ray Reflected Spectra from Accretion Disk Models. I. Constant Density Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Javier; Kallman, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    We present new models for illuminated accretion disks, their structure and reprocessed emission. We consider the effects of incident X-rays on the surface of an accretion disk by solving simultaneously the equations of radiative transfer, energy balance and ionization equilibrium over a large range of column densities. We assume plane-parallel geometry and azimuthal symmetry, such that each calculation corresponds to a ring at a given distance from the central object. Our models include recent and complete atomic data for K-shell of the iron and oxygen isonuclear sequences. We examine the effect on the spectrum of fluorescent Ka line emission and absorption in the emitted spectrum. We also explore the dependence of the spectrum on the strength of the incident X-rays and other input parameters, and discuss the importance of Comptonization on the emitted spectrum.

  9. Model identification of terfenol-D magnetostrictive actuator for precise positioning control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, Ashraf; Ghodsi, Mojtaba; Mesbah, Mostefa; Ozer, Abdullah

    2016-04-01

    Feedback control strategies are desirable for disturbance rejection of human-induced vibrations in civil engineering structures as human walking forces cannot easily be measured. In relation to human-induced vibration control studies, most past researches have focused on floors and footbridges and the widely used linear controller implemented in the trials has been the direct velocity feedback (DVF) scheme. With appropriate compensation to enhance its robustness, it has been shown to be effective at damping out the problematic modes of vibration of the structures in which the active vibration control systems have been implemented. The work presented here introduces a disturbance observer (DOB) that is used with an outer-loop DVF controller. Results of analytical studies presented in this work based on the dynamic properties of a walkway bridge structure demonstrate the potential of this approach for enhancing the vibration mitigation performance offered by a purely DVF controller. For example, estimates of controlled frequency response functions indicate improved attenuation of vibration around the dominant frequency of the walkway bridge structure as well as at higher resonant frequencies. Controlled responses from three synthesized walking excitation forces on a walkway bridge structure model show that the inclusion of the disturbance observer with an outer loop DVF has potential to improve on the vibration mitigation performance by about 3.5% at resonance and 6-10% off-resonance. These are realised with hard constraints being imposed on the low frequency actuator displacements.

  10. Lower Bound on the Mean Square Displacement of Particles in the Hard Disk Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richthammer, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    The hard disk model is a 2D Gibbsian process of particles interacting via pure hard core repulsion. At high particle density the model is believed to show orientational order, however, it is known not to exhibit positional order. Here we investigate to what extent particle positions may fluctuate. We consider a finite volume version of the model in a box of dimensions 2 n × 2 n with arbitrary boundary configuration, and we show that the mean square displacement of particles near the center of the box is bounded from below by c log n. The result generalizes to a large class of models with fairly arbitrary interaction.

  11. Microstructure Modeling of 3rd Generation Disk Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jou, Herng-Jeng

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this program is to model, validate, and predict the precipitation microstructure evolution, using PrecipiCalc (QuesTek Innovations LLC) software, for 3rd generation Ni-based gas turbine disc superalloys during processing and service, with a set of logical and consistent experiments and characterizations. Furthermore, within this program, the originally research-oriented microstructure simulation tool will be further improved and implemented to be a useful and user-friendly engineering tool. In this report, the key accomplishment achieved during the second year (2008) of the program is summarized. The activities of this year include final selection of multicomponent thermodynamics and mobility databases, precipitate surface energy determination from nucleation experiment, multiscale comparison of predicted versus measured intragrain precipitation microstructure in quench samples showing good agreement, isothermal coarsening experiment and interaction of grain boundary and intergrain precipitates, primary microstructure of subsolvus treatment, and finally the software implementation plan for the third year of the project. In the following year, the calibrated models and simulation tools will be validated against an independently developed experimental data set, with actual disc heat treatment process conditions. Furthermore, software integration and implementation will be developed to provide material engineers valuable information in order to optimize the processing of the 3rd generation gas turbine disc alloys.

  12. Accretion disk coronae of intermediate polar cataclysmic variables. 3D magnetohydrodynamic modelling and thermal X-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbera, E.; Orlando, S.; Peres, G.

    2017-04-01

    Context. Intermediate polar cataclysmic variables (IPCV) contain a magnetic, rotating white dwarf surrounded by a magnetically truncated accretion disk. To explain their strong flickering X-ray emission, accretion has been successfully taken into account. Nevertheless, observations suggest that accretion phenomena might not be the only process behind it. An intense flaring activity occurring on the surface of the disk may generate a corona, contribute to the thermal X-ray emission, and influence the system stability. Aims: Our purposes are: investigating the formation of an extended corona above the accretion disk, due to an intense flaring activity occurring on the disk surface; studying the effects of flares on the disk and stellar magnetosphere; assessing its contribution to the observed thermal X-ray flux. Methods: We have developed a 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of a IPCV system. The model takes into account gravity, disk viscosity, thermal conduction, radiative losses, and coronal flare heating through heat injection at randomly chosen locations on the disk surface. To perform a parameter space exploration, several system conditions have been considered, with different magnetic field intensity and disk density values. From the results of the evolution of the model, we have synthesized the thermal X-ray emission. Results: The simulations show the formation of an extended corona, linking disk and star. The flaring activity is capable of strongly influencing the disk configuration and possibly its stability, effectively deforming the magnetic field lines. Hot plasma evaporation phenomena occur in the layer immediately above the disk. The flaring activity gives rise to a thermal X-ray emission in both the [ 0.1-2.0 ] keV and the [ 2.0-10 ] keV X-ray bands. Conclusions: An intense coronal activity occurring on the disk surface of an IPCV can affect the structure of the disk depending noticeably on the density of the disk and the magnetic field of the central

  13. Quasi-static characterization and modeling of the bending behavior of single crystal galfenol for magnetostrictive sensors and actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Supratik

    2009-12-01

    Iron-gallium alloys (Galfenol) are structural magnetostrictive materials that exhibit high free-strain at low magnetic fields, high stress-sensitivity and useful thermo-mechanical properties. Galfenol, like smart materials in general, is attractive for use as a dynamic actuator and/or sensor material and can hence find use in active shape and vibration control, real-time structural health monitoring and energy harvesting applications. Galfenol possesses significantly higher yield strength and greater ductility than most smart materials, which are generally limited to use under compressive loads. The unique structural attributes of Galfenol introduce opportunities for use of a smart material in applications that involve tension, bending, shear or torsion. A principal motivation for the research presented in this dissertation is that bending and shear loads lead to development of non-uniform stress and magnetic fields in Galfenol which introduce significantly more complexity to the considerations to be modeled, compared to modeling of purely axial loads. This dissertation investigates the magnetostrictive response of Galfenol under different stress and magnetic field conditions which is essential for understanding and modeling Galfenol's behavior under bending, shear or torsion. Experimental data are used to calculate actuator and sensor figures of merit which can aid in design of adaptive structures. The research focuses on the bending behavior of Galfenol alloys as well as of laminated composites having Galfenol attached to other structural materials. A four-point bending test under magnetic field is designed, built and conducted on a Galfenol beam to understand its performance as a bending sensor. An extensive experimental study is conducted on Galfenol-Aluminum laminated composites to evaluate the effect of magnetic field, bending moment and Galfenol-Aluminum thickness ratio on actuation and sensing performance. A generalized recursive algorithm is presented for

  14. STELLAR-MASS BLACK HOLE SPIN CONSTRAINTS FROM DISK REFLECTION AND CONTINUUM MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J. M.; Reynolds, C. S.; Fabian, A. C.; Miniutti, G.; Gallo, L. C.

    2009-05-20

    Accretion disk reflection spectra, including broad iron emission lines, bear the imprints of the strong Doppler shifts and gravitational redshifts close to black holes. The extremity of these shifts depends on the proximity of the innermost stable circular orbit to the black hole, and that orbit is determined by the black hole spin parameter. Modeling relativistic spectral features, then, gives a means of estimating black hole spin. We report on the results of fits made to archival X-ray spectra of stellar-mass black holes and black hole candidates, selected for strong disk reflection features. Following recent work, these spectra were fit with reflection models and disk continuum emission models (where required) in which black hole spin is a free parameter. Although our results must be regarded as preliminary, we find evidence for a broad range of black hole spin parameters in our sample. The black holes with the most relativistic radio jets are found to have high spin parameters, though jets are observed in a black hole with a low spin parameter. For those sources with constrained binary system parameters, we examine the distribution of spin parameters versus black hole mass, binary mass ratio, and orbital period. We discuss the results within the context of black hole creation events, relativistic jet production, and efforts to probe the innermost relativistic regime around black holes.

  15. METALLICITY GRADIENTS THROUGH DISK INSTABILITY: A SIMPLE MODEL FOR THE MILKY WAY'S BOXY BULGE

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma; Gerhard, Ortwin E-mail: gerhard@mpe.mpg.de

    2013-03-20

    Observations show a clear vertical metallicity gradient in the Galactic bulge, which is often taken as a signature of dissipative processes in the formation of a classical bulge. Various evidence shows, however, that the Milky Way is a barred galaxy with a boxy bulge representing the inner three-dimensional part of the bar. Here we show with a secular evolution N-body model that a boxy bulge formed through bar and buckling instabilities can show vertical metallicity gradients similar to the observed gradient if the initial axisymmetric disk had a comparable radial metallicity gradient. In this framework, the range of metallicities in bulge fields constrains the chemical structure of the Galactic disk at early times before bar formation. Our secular evolution model was previously shown to reproduce inner Galaxy star counts and we show here that it also has cylindrical rotation. We use it to predict a full mean metallicity map across the Galactic bulge from a simple metallicity model for the initial disk. This map shows a general outward gradient on the sky as well as longitudinal perspective asymmetries. We also briefly comment on interpreting metallicity gradient observations in external boxy bulges.

  16. Modeling X-ray Absorbers in AGNs with MHD-Driven Accretion-Disk Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumura, Keigo; Kazanas, D.; Shrader, C. R.; Tombesi, F.; Contopoulos, J.; Behar, E.

    2013-04-01

    We have proposed a systematic view of the observed X-ray absorbers, namely warm absorbers (WAs) in soft X-ray and highly-ionized ultra-fast outflows (UFOs), in the context of magnetically-driven accretion-disk wind models. While potentially complicated by variability and thermal instability in these energetic outflows, in this simplistic model we have calculated 2D kinematic field as well as density and ionization structure of the wind with density profile of 1/r corresponding to a constant column distribution per decade of ionization parameter. In particular we show semi-analytically that the inner layer of the disk-wind manifests itself as the strongly-ionized fast outflows while the outer layer is identified as the moderately-ionized absorbers. The computed characteristics of these two apparently distinct absorbers are consistent with X-ray data (i.e. a factor of ~100 difference in column and ionization parameters as well as low wind velocity vs. near-relativistic flow). With the predicted contour curves for these wind parameters one can constrain allowed regions for the presence of WAs and UFOs.The model further implies that the UFO's gas pressure is comparable to that of the observed radio jet in 3C111 suggesting that the magnetized disk-wind with density profile of 1/r is a viable agent to help sustain such a self-collimated jet at small radii.

  17. Parameter Estimation of Actuators for Benchmark Active Control Technology (BACT) Wind Tunnel Model with Analysis of Wear and Aerodynamic Loading Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.; Fung, Jimmy

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the development of transfer function models for the trailing-edge and upper and lower spoiler actuators of the Benchmark Active Control Technology (BACT) wind tunnel model for application to control system analysis and design. A simple nonlinear least-squares parameter estimation approach is applied to determine transfer function parameters from frequency response data. Unconstrained quasi-Newton minimization of weighted frequency response error was employed to estimate the transfer function parameters. An analysis of the behavior of the actuators over time to assess the effects of wear and aerodynamic load by using the transfer function models is also presented. The frequency responses indicate consistent actuator behavior throughout the wind tunnel test and only slight degradation in effectiveness due to aerodynamic hinge loading. The resulting actuator models have been used in design, analysis, and simulation of controllers for the BACT to successfully suppress flutter over a wide range of conditions.

  18. Kinematical Modeling of WARPS in the H i Disks of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulou, Dimitris M.; Tohline, Joel E.; Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y.

    1993-10-01

    In order to gain an appreciation for the general structure of warped gas layers in galaxies, we have constructed kinematical, tilted-ring models of 21 galaxies for which detailed H I observations already exist in the literature. In this paper we present results for the 15 normal spiral galaxies of this sample that are not viewed edge-on. A comparison between our models and tilted-ring models of the same galaxies previously constructed by other authors shows that there is generally good agreement. We make an attempt to unify the notation of diff&rent authors who have published radio observations and/or kinematical models of individual galaxies in this sample. We also suggest how, in future work of this nature, model parameters should be presented and referenced in order to maintain a reasonable degree of consistency in the literature. When viewed in the perspective of dynamical models, a twisted warped gas layer can be understood as arising from orbiting gas which is in the process of settling to a preferred orientation in the nonspherical, gravitational potential well of the galaxy. Hence, detailed kinematical modeling of a specific galaxy disk can provide not only information regarding the orientation and structure of its warp but also information about the shape (whether oblate or prolate) of the dark halo in which the disk is embedded. By examining a large number of galaxies in a consistent manner, we have deduced some general characteristics of warped disks that have heretofore gone unnoticed. We have also identified uniqueness problems that can arise in this type of modeling procedure which can considerably cloud one's ability to completely decipher an individual disk's structure. For 14 out of 15 spiral galaxies modeled here, we have been able to determine the local kinematical structure of the warp. Gas layers do not appear to warp more than ˜40° out of the plane defined by the central disk of the galaxy, but they can twist through angles as large as ˜170

  19. Improving actuation efficiency through variable recruitment hydraulic McKibben muscles: modeling, orderly recruitment control, and experiments.

    PubMed

    Meller, Michael; Chipka, Jordan; Volkov, Alexander; Bryant, Matthew; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2016-11-03

    Hydraulic control systems have become increasingly popular as the means of actuation for human-scale legged robots and assistive devices. One of the biggest limitations to these systems is their run time untethered from a power source. One way to increase endurance is by improving actuation efficiency. We investigate reducing servovalve throttling losses by using a selective recruitment artificial muscle bundle comprised of three motor units. Each motor unit is made up of a pair of hydraulic McKibben muscles connected to one servovalve. The pressure and recruitment state of the artificial muscle bundle can be adjusted to match the load in an efficient manner, much like the firing rate and total number of recruited motor units is adjusted in skeletal muscle. A volume-based effective initial braid angle is used in the model of each recruitment level. This semi-empirical model is utilized to predict the efficiency gains of the proposed variable recruitment actuation scheme versus a throttling-only approach. A real-time orderly recruitment controller with pressure-based thresholds is developed. This controller is used to experimentally validate the model-predicted efficiency gains of recruitment on a robot arm. The results show that utilizing variable recruitment allows for much higher efficiencies over a broader operating envelope.

  20. Use of piezoelectric actuators in active vibration control of rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Reng Rong; Palazzolo, Alan B.; Kascak, Albert F.; Montague, Gerald

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical and test results for the development of piezoelectric-actuator-based active vibration control (AVC) are presented. The evolution of this technology starts with an ideal model of the actuator and progresses to a more sophisticated model where the pushers force the squirrel cage ball bearing supports of a rotating shaft. The piezoelectric pushers consist of a stack of piezoelectric ceramic disks that are arranged on top of one another and connected in parallel electrically. This model consists of a prescribed displacement that is proportional to the input voltage and a spring that represents the stiffness of the stack of piezoelectric disks. System tests were carried out to stabilize the AVC system, verify its effectiveness in controlling vibration, and confirm the theory presented.

  1. A generalized Prandtl-Ishlinskii model for characterizing the rate-independent and rate-dependent hysteresis of piezoelectric actuators.

    PubMed

    Gan, Jinqiang; Zhang, Xianmin; Wu, Heng

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a generalized hysteresis model is developed to describe both rate-independent and rate-dependent hysteresis in piezoelectric actuators. Based on the classical Prandtl-Ishlinskii (P-I) model, the developed model adds a quadratic polynomial and makes other small changes. When it is used to describe rate-independent hysteresis, the parameters of the model are constants, which can be identified by self-adaptive particle swarm optimization. The effectiveness of this rate-independent modified P-I model is demonstrated by comparing simulation results of the developed model and the classic Prandtl-Ishlinskii model. Simulation results suggest that the rate-independent modified P-I model can describe hysteresis more precisely. Compared with the classical P-I model, the rate-independent modified P-I model reduces modeling error by more than 50%. When it is used to describe rate-independent hysteresis, a one-side operator is adopted and the parameters are functions with input frequency. The results of the experiments and simulations have shown that the proposed models can accurately describe both rate-independent and rate-dependent hysteresis in piezoelectric actuators.

  2. Multitechnique Testing of the Viscous Decretion Disk Model. 1. The Stable and Tenuous Disk of the Late-Type Be Star Beta CMi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-05

    Astronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. aa c©ESO 2015 October 5, 2015 Multitechnique testing of the viscous decretion disk model I. The stable and...Southern Hemisphere, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19, Chile 4 Ritter Observatory, Department of Physics & Astronomy , University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606, UsA 5...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Astronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. aa,October 5, 2015 14. ABSTRACT

  3. Formation and evolution of the protoplanetary disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruzmaikina, Tamara V.; Makalkin, A. B.

    1991-01-01

    A disk formation model during collapse of the protosolar nebula, yielding a low-mass protoplanetary disk is presented. The following subject areas are covered: (1) circumstellar disks; (2) conditions for the formation of stars with disks; (3) early evolution of the protoplanetary disk; and (4) temperature conditions and the convection in the protoplanetary disk.

  4. Two-dimensional modeling of an aircraft engine structural bladed disk-casing modal interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, Mathias; Pierre, Christophe; Cartraud, Patrice; Lombard, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    In modern turbo machines such as aircraft jet engines, structural contacts between the casing and bladed disk may occur through a variety of mechanisms: coincidence of vibration modes, thermal deformation of the casing, rotor imbalance due to design uncertainties to name a few. These nonlinear interactions may result in severe damage to both structures and it is important to understand the physical circumstances under which they occur. In this study, we focus on a modal coincidence during which the vibrations of each structure take the form of a k-nodal diameter traveling wave characteristic of axi-symmetric geometries. A realistic two-dimensional model of the casing and bladed disk is introduced in order to predict the occurrence of this very specific interaction phenomenon versus the rotation speed of the engine. The equations of motion are solved using an explicit time integration scheme in conjunction with the Lagrange multiplier method where friction is accounted for. This model is validated from the comparison with an analytical solution. The numerical results show that the structures may experience different kinds of behaviors (namely damped, sustained and divergent motions) mainly depending on the rotational velocity of the bladed disk.

  5. Measurement and Modeling of the Response of the Current Profile Evolution to Feedback Control Actuators in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferron, J. R.; Gohil, P.; Greenfield, C. M.; Luce, T. C.; Petty, C. C.; Politzer, P. A.; Basiuk, V.; Imbeaux, F.; Schneider, M.; Casper, T. A.; Murakami, M.; Ou, Y.; Schuster, E.; Gao, Q.; Wang, A.

    2007-11-01

    For closed loop control of the q evolution during the plasma current ramp up, available actuators are electron heating power, Ip ramp rate, electron density and co-counter beam balance to modify the net neutral beam current drive. Measurements of the effects of these actuators on the current profile evolution are compared to transport code predictions from ONETWO, TRANSP, CRONOS, and CORSICA to test the model of the plasma response in the control process. Measurements of the dynamic response of the q evolution, particularly to electron heating, provide input to the controller development process. A proportional/integral controller with empirically determined gains and provision to avoid βN excursions has been demonstrated to regulate qmin at the start of the high-performance phase of the discharge for a variety of initial and target conditions.

  6. Mixed H2/H∞ distributed robust model predictive control for polytopic uncertain systems subject to actuator saturation and missing measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yan; Fang, Xiaosheng; Diao, Qingda

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss the mixed H2/H∞ distributed robust model predictive control problem for polytopic uncertain systems subject to randomly occurring actuator saturation and packet loss. The global system is decomposed into several subsystems, and all the subsystems are connected by a fixed topology network, which is the definition for the packet loss among the subsystems. To better use the successfully transmitted information via Internet, both the phenomena of actuator saturation and packet loss resulting from the limitation of the communication bandwidth are taken into consideration. A novel distributed controller model is established to account for the actuator saturation and packet loss in a unified representation by using two sets of Bernoulli distributed white sequences with known conditional probabilities. With the nonlinear feedback control law represented by the convex hull of a group of linear feedback laws, the distributed controllers for subsystems are obtained by solving an linear matrix inequality (LMI) optimisation problem. Finally, numerical studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques.

  7. Investigation of the initial state of the Moon-forming disk: Bridging SPH simulations and hydrostatic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Miki; Stevenson, David J.

    2014-05-01

    According to the standard giant impact hypothesis, the Moon formed from a partially vaporized disk generated by a collision between the proto-Earth and a Mars-sized impactor. The initial structure of the disk significantly affects the Moon-forming process, including the Moon’s mass, its accretion time scale, and its isotopic similarity to Earth. The dynamics of the impact event determines the initial structure of a nearly hydrostatic Moon-forming disk. However, the hydrostatic and hydrodynamic models have been studied separately and their connection has not previously been well quantified. Here, we show the extent to which the properties of the disk can be inferred from Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations. By using entropy, angular momentum and mass distributions of the SPH outputs as approximately conserved quantities, we compute the two-dimensional disk structure. We investigate four different models: (a) standard, the canonical giant impact model, (b) fast-spinning Earth, a collision between a fast-spinning Earth and a small impactor, (c) sub-Earths, a collision between two objects with half Earth’s mass, and (d) intermediate, a collision of two bodies whose mass ratio is 7:3. Our SPH calculations show that the initial disk has approximately uniform entropy. This is because the materials of different angular momenta are shocked to similar extents. The disks of the fast-spinning Earth and sub-Earths cases are hotter and more vaporized (∼80-90% vapor) than the standard case (∼20%). The intermediate case falls between these values. In the highly vaporized cases, our procedure fails to establish a unique surface density profile of the disk because the disk is unstable according to the Rayleigh criterion (the need for a monotonically increasing specific angular momentum with radius). In these cases, we estimate non-unique disk models by conserving global quantities (mass and total angular momentum). We also develop a semi-analytic model for the

  8. Modeling of an ionic polymer metal composite actuator based on an extended Kalman filter trained neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quang Truong, Dinh; Ahn, Kyoung Kwan

    2014-07-01

    An ion polymer metal composite (IPMC) is an electroactive polymer that bends in response to a small applied electric field as a result of mobility of cations in the polymer network and vice versa. This paper presents an innovative and accurate nonlinear black-box model (NBBM) for estimating the bending behavior of IPMC actuators. The model is constructed via a general multilayer perceptron neural network (GMLPNN) integrated with a smart learning mechanism (SLM) that is based on an extended Kalman filter with self-decoupling ability (SDEKF). Here the GMLPNN is built with an ability to autoadjust its structure based on its characteristic vector. Furthermore, by using the SLM based on the SDEKF, the GMLPNN parameters are optimized with small computational effort, and the modeling accuracy is improved. An apparatus employing an IPMC actuator is first set up to investigate the IPMC characteristics and to generate the data for training and validating the model. The advanced NBBM model for the IPMC system is then created with the proper inputs to estimate IPMC tip displacement. Next, the model is optimized using the SLM mechanism with the training data. Finally, the optimized NBBM model is verified with the validating data. A comparison between this model and the previously developed model is also carried out to prove the effectiveness of the proposed modeling technique.

  9. Noncontact start/stop motion control of HDD suspension using shape memory alloy actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, SooCheol; Park, Jong-Sung; Choi, Seung-Bok; Park, Young-Pil

    2001-08-01

    In hard disk drive (HDD), and important issue related to increased storage density is the tribological problem of the head/disk interface. The conventional head gimbal assembly (HGA) of the HDD is contact start/stop (CSS) mode which results in wear particles and debris. This may cause a serious problem for read/write function. In this work, we propose a new type of suspension featuring shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator in order to prevent the friction between the slider and the dksi. As a first step, a finite element analysis is undertaken to investigate modal characteristics of the proposed SMA-HGA. Using the principal modal parameters such as natural frequency, a control system model is established and sliding mode control algorithm to achieve non-contact start/stop (Non-CSS) mode is formulated. The control principle for accomplishing the Non-CSS mode is briefly discussed as follows. The control input is employed to SMA actuator before the disk rotates, and disconnected when the angular velocity of the disk is fully developed to have a certain flying height. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control system, one of conventional HGA is modified to integrate the SMA actuator. The control algorithm is experimentally realized and controlled motions for Non-CSS mode are presented in time domain.

  10. Herniated Disk

    MedlinePlus

    ... to pain if the back is stressed. A herniated disk is a disk that ruptures. This allows the ... or back pain. Your doctor will diagnose a herniated disk with a physical exam and, sometimes, imaging tests. ...

  11. Validation of an Actuator Line Model Coupled to a Dynamic Stall Model for Pitching Motions Characteristic to Vertical Axis Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Victor; Bachant, Peter; Wosnik, Martin; Goude, Anders

    2016-09-01

    Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) can be used to extract renewable energy from wind flows. A simpler design, low cost of maintenance, and the ability to accept flow from all directions perpendicular to the rotor axis are some of the most important advantages over conventional horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT). However, VAWT encounter complex and unsteady fluid dynamics, which present significant modeling challenges. One of the most relevant phenomena is dynamic stall, which is caused by the unsteady variation of angle of attack throughout the blade rotation, and is the focus of the present study. Dynamic stall is usually used as a passive control for VAWT operating conditions, hence the importance of predicting its effects. In this study, a coupled model is implemented with the open-source CFD toolbox OpenFOAM for solving the Navier-Stokes equations, where an actuator line model and dynamic stall model are used to compute the blade loading and body force. Force coefficients obtained from the model are validated with experimental data of pitching airfoil in similar operating conditions as an H-rotor type VAWT. Numerical results show reasonable agreement with experimental data for pitching motion.

  12. Miniature linear-to-rotary motion actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorokach, Michael R., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A miniature hydraulic actuation system capable of converting linear actuator motion to control surface rotary motion has been designed for application to active controls on dynamic wind tunnel models. Due to space constraints and the torque requirements of an oscillating control surface at frequencies up to 50 Hertz, a new actuation system was developed to meet research objectives. This new actuation system was designed and developed to overcome the output torque limitations and fluid loss/sealing difficulties associated with an existing vane type actuator. Static control surface deflections and dynamic control surface oscillations through a given angle are provided by the actuation system. The actuator design has been incorporated into a transonic flutter model with an active trailing edge flap and two active spoilers. The model is scheduled for testing in the LaRC 16 Foot Transonic Dynamics Tunnel during Summer 1993. This paper will discuss the actuation system, its design, development difficulties, test results, and application to aerospace vehicles.

  13. Modeling of electric resistance of shape memory alloys: self-sensing for temperature and actuation control of active hybrid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissle, Sebastian; Hübler, Moritz; Gurka, Martin

    2016-04-01

    For actuation purposes active hybrid structures made of fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) and shape memory alloys (SMA) enable substantial savings concerning weight, space and cost. Such structures allow realizing new functions which are more or less impossible with commonly used systems consisting of the structure and the actuator as separated elements, e.g. morphing winglets in aeronautics. But there are also some challenges that still need to be addressed. For the successful application of SMA FRP composites a precise control of temperature is essential, as this is the activating quantity to reach the required deformation of the structure without overloading the active material. However, a direct measurement of the temperature is difficult due to the complete integration of SMA in the hybrid structure. Also the deformation of the structure which depends on the temperature, the stiffness of the hybrid structure and external loads is hard to determine. An opportunity for controlling the activation is provided by the special behavior of the electrical resistance of SMA. During the phase transformation of the SMA - also causing the actuation travel - the resistance drops with rising temperature. This behavior can be exploited for control purposes, especially as the electrical resistance can be easily measured during the activation done by Joule heating. As shown in this contribution, theoretical modelling and experimental tests provide a load-independent self-sensing control-concept of SMA-FRP-hybrid-structures.

  14. Hydraulically actuated artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meller, M. A.; Tiwari, R.; Wajcs, K. B.; Moses, C.; Reveles, I.; Garcia, E.

    2012-04-01

    Hydraulic Artificial Muscles (HAMs) consisting of a polymer tube constrained by a nylon mesh are presented in this paper. Despite the actuation mechanism being similar to its popular counterpart, which are pneumatically actuated (PAM), HAMs have not been studied in depth. HAMs offer the advantage of compliance, large force to weight ratio, low maintenance, and low cost over traditional hydraulic cylinders. Muscle characterization for isometric and isobaric tests are discussed and compared to PAMs. A model incorporating the effect of mesh angle and friction have also been developed. In addition, differential swelling of the muscle on actuation has also been included in the model. An application of lab fabricated HAMs for a meso-scale robotic system is also presented.

  15. The atomic gas in outer disks in semi-analytic models of galaxy formation†

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jian; Luo, Yu

    2017-03-01

    We use semi-analytic models of galaxy formation L-Galaxies based on ΛCDM cosmology to study the HI gas component in galaxy outskirts. We adopt the radially-resolved version of the models by Fu et al. (2013), which includes both atomic and molecular gas component in interstellar medium. This model has been recently updated by Luo et al. (2016) to include cold gas stripping in the outer disk regions of the satellite galaxies by ram pressure. In our models, we can perfectly reproduce the HI size-mass relation, which is discovered by Broeils & Rhee (1997) and confirmed by many subsequent observations. In our model, the reason for such tight correlation between HI size and mass is atomic-molecular phase conversion in high gas surface density regions while HI ionization in low gas surface density region, which leads to very narrow distribution of HI mean surface density. The models also reproduce the universal exponential HI radial profiles in galaxy outskirts found by Bluedisk (Wang et al. 2013), which arises from cold gas accretion onto the galaxy disks in exponentially profiles.

  16. Electrohydroelastic Euler-Bernoulli-Morison model for underwater resonant actuation of macro-fiber composite piezoelectric cantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahab, S.; Erturk, A.

    2016-10-01

    Bio-inspired hydrodynamic thrust generation using smart materials has received growing attention over the past few years to enable improved maneuverability and agility, small form factor, reduced power consumption, and ease of fabrication in next-generation aquatic swimmers. In order to develop a high-fidelity model to predict the electrohydroelastic dynamics of macro-fiber composite (MFC) piezoelectric structures, in this work, mixing rules-based (i.e. rule of mixtures) electroelastic mechanics formulation is coupled with the global electroelastic dynamics based on the Euler-Bernoulli kinematics and nonlinear fluid loading based on Morison’s semi-empirical model. The focus is placed on the dynamic actuation problem for the first two bending vibration modes under geometrically and materially linear, hydrodynamically nonlinear behavior. The electroelastic and dielectric properties of a representative volume element (piezoelectric fiber and epoxy matrix) between two subsequent interdigitated electrodes are correlated to homogenized parameters of MFC bimorphs and validated for a set of MFCs that have the same overhang length but different widths. Following this process of electroelastic model development and validation, underwater actuation experiments are conducted for different length-to-width aspect ratios (L/b) in quiescent water, and the empirical drag and inertia coefficients are extracted from Morison’s equation to establish the electrohydroelastic model. The repeatability of these empirical coefficients is demonstrated for experiments conducted using aluminum cantilevers of different aspect ratios with a focus on the first two bending modes. The convergence of the nonlinear electrohydroelastic Euler-Bernoulli-Morison model to its hydrodynamically linear counterpart for increased L/b values is also reported. The proposed model, its harmonic balance analysis, and experimental results can be used not only for underwater piezoelectric actuation, but also for

  17. Modeling and optimization of a novel two-axis mirror-scanning mechanism driven by piezoelectric actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Zijian; Xu, Minglong; Feng, Bo

    2015-02-01

    Mirror-scanning mechanisms are a key component in optical systems for diverse applications. However, the applications of existing piezoelectric scanners are limited due to their small angular travels. To overcome this problem, a novel two-axis mirror-scanning mechanism, which consists of a two-axis tip-tilt flexure mechanism and a set of piezoelectric actuators, is proposed in this paper. The focus of this research is on the design, theoretical modeling, and optimization of the piezoelectric-driven mechanism, with the goal of achieving large angular travels in a compact size. The design of the two-axis tip-tilt flexure mechanism is based on two nonuniform beams, which translate the limited linear output displacements of the piezoelectric actuators into large output angles. To exactly predict the angular travels, we built a voltage-angle model that characterizes the relationship between the input voltages to the piezoelectric actuators and the output angles of the piezoelectric-driven mechanism. Using this analytical model, the optimization is performed to improve the angular travels. A prototype of the mirror-scanning mechanism is fabricated based on the optimization results, and experiments are implemented to test the two-axis output angles. The experimental result shows that the angular travels of the scanner achieve more than 50 mrad, and the error between the analytical model and the experiment is about 11%. This error is much smaller than the error for the model built using the previous method because the influence of the stiffness of the mechanical structure on the deformation of the piezoelectric stack is considered in the voltage-angle model.

  18. SPARC: Mass Models for 175 Disk Galaxies with Spitzer Photometry and Accurate Rotation Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelli, Federico; McGaugh, Stacy S.; Schombert, James M.

    2016-12-01

    We introduce SPARC (Spitzer Photometry and Accurate Rotation Curves): a sample of 175 nearby galaxies with new surface photometry at 3.6 μm and high-quality rotation curves from previous H i/Hα studies. SPARC spans a broad range of morphologies (S0 to Irr), luminosities (∼5 dex), and surface brightnesses (∼4 dex). We derive [3.6] surface photometry and study structural relations of stellar and gas disks. We find that both the stellar mass–H i mass relation and the stellar radius–H i radius relation have significant intrinsic scatter, while the H i mass–radius relation is extremely tight. We build detailed mass models and quantify the ratio of baryonic to observed velocity (V bar/V obs) for different characteristic radii and values of the stellar mass-to-light ratio (ϒ⋆) at [3.6]. Assuming ϒ⋆ ≃ 0.5 M ⊙/L ⊙ (as suggested by stellar population models), we find that (i) the gas fraction linearly correlates with total luminosity (ii) the transition from star-dominated to gas-dominated galaxies roughly corresponds to the transition from spiral galaxies to dwarf irregulars, in line with density wave theory; and (iii) V bar/V obs varies with luminosity and surface brightness: high-mass, high-surface-brightness galaxies are nearly maximal, while low-mass, low-surface-brightness galaxies are submaximal. These basic properties are lost for low values of ϒ⋆ ≃ 0.2 M ⊙/L ⊙ as suggested by the DiskMass survey. The mean maximum-disk limit in bright galaxies is ϒ⋆ ≃ 0.7 M ⊙/L ⊙ at [3.6]. The SPARC data are publicly available and represent an ideal test bed for models of galaxy formation.

  19. An X-Ray Reprocessing Model of Disk Thermal Emission in Type 1 Seyfert Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, James; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Using a geometry consisting of a hot central Comptonizing plasma surrounded by a thin accretion disk, we model the optical through hard X-ray spectral energy distributions of the type 1 Seyfert. galaxies NGC 3516 and NGC 7469. As in the model proposed by Poutanen, Krolik, and Ryde for the X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 and later applied to Seyfert galaxies by Zdziarski, Lubifiski, and Smith, feedback between the radiation reprocessed by the disk and the thermal Comptonization emission from the hot central plasma plays a pivotal role in determining the X-ray spectrum, and as we show, the optical and ultraviolet spectra as well. Seemingly uncorrelated optical/UV and X-ray light curves, similar to those which have been observed from these objects can, in principle, be explained by variations in the size, shape, and temperature of the Comptonizing plasma. Furthermore, by positing a disk mass accretion rate which satisfies a condition for global energy balance between the thermal Comptonization luminosity and the power available from accretion, one can predict the spectral properties of the heretofore poorly measured hard X-ray continuum above approximately 50 keV in type 1 Seyfert galaxies. Conversely, forthcoming measurements of the hard X-ray continuum by more sensitive hard X-ray and soft gamma-ray telescopes, such as those aboard the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) in conjunction with simultaneous optical, UV, and soft X-ray monitoring, will allow the mass accretion rates to be directly constrained for these sources in the context of this model.

  20. The Disk Wind Model of the Broad Line Regions in Active Galactic Nuclei and Cataclysmic Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begelman, Mitchell

    2002-01-01

    This is the final progress report for our Astrophysics Theory Program (NRA 97-OSS12) grant NAG5-7723. We have made considerable progress on incorporating photoionization calculations with a 2.5D hydrodynamical code to model disk winds in AGNs. Following up on our simultaneous broad band monitoring campaign of the type I Seyfert galaxy NGC 5548, we have investigated the constraints imposed on models of accretion in Seyfert galaxies by their optical, UV, and X-ray spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Using results from thermal Comptonization models that relate the physical properties of the hot inner accretion flow to the thermal reprocessing that occurs in the surrounding colder thin disk, we find that we can constrain the central black hole mass, accretion rate and size scale of the hot central flow. We have applied our model to observations of Seyfert galaxies NGC 3516, NGC 7469 and NGC 5548. Our mass and accretion rate estimates for these objects roughly agree with those found using other methods.

  1. V3885 SAGITTARIUS: A COMPARISON WITH A RANGE OF STANDARD MODEL ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Linnell, Albert P.; Szkody, Paula; Godon, Patrick; Sion, Edward M.; Hubeny, Ivan; Barrett, Paul E. E-mail: szkody@astro.washington.ed E-mail: edward.sion@villanova.ed E-mail: barrett.paul@usno.navy.mi

    2009-10-01

    A chi-tilde{sup 2} analysis of standard model accretion disk synthetic spectrum fits to combined Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer and Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph spectra of V3885 Sagittarius, on an absolute flux basis, selects a model that accurately represents the observed spectral energy distribution. Calculation of the synthetic spectrum requires the following system parameters. The cataclysmic variable secondary star period-mass relation calibrated by Knigge in 2006 and 2007 sets the secondary component mass. A mean white dwarf (WD) mass from the same study, which is consistent with an observationally determined mass ratio, sets the adopted WD mass of 0.7 M {sub sun}, and the WD radius follows from standard theoretical models. The adopted inclination, i = 65 deg., is a literature consensus, and is subsequently supported by chi-tilde{sup 2} analysis. The mass transfer rate is the remaining parameter to set the accretion disk T {sub eff} profile, and the Hipparcos parallax constrains that parameter to M-dot=(5.0+-2.0) x 10{sup -9} M odot yr{sup -1} by a comparison with observed spectra. The fit to the observed spectra adopts the contribution of a 57, 000 +- 5000 K WD. The model thus provides realistic constraints on M-dot and T {sub eff} for a large M-dot system above the period gap.

  2. V3885 Sagittarius: A Comparison With a Range of Standard Model Accretion Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linnell, Albert P.; Godon, Patrick; Hubeny, Ivan; Sion, Edward M; Szkody, Paula; Barrett, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    A chi-squared analysis of standard model accretion disk synthetic spectrum fits to combined Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer and Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph spectra of V3885 Sagittarius, on an absolute flux basis, selects a model that accurately represents the observed spectral energy distribution. Calculation of the synthetic spectrum requires the following system parameters. The cataclysmic variable secondary star period-mass relation calibrated by Knigge in 2006 and 2007 sets the secondary component mass. A mean white dwarf (WD) mass from the same study, which is consistent with an observationally determined mass ratio, sets the adopted WD mass of 0.7M(solar mass), and the WD radius follows from standard theoretical models. The adopted inclination, i = 65 deg, is a literature consensus, and is subsequently supported by chi-squared analysis. The mass transfer rate is the remaining parameter to set the accretion disk T(sub eff) profile, and the Hipparcos parallax constrains that parameter to mas transfer = (5.0 +/- 2.0) x 10(exp -9) M(solar mass)/yr by a comparison with observed spectra. The fit to the observed spectra adopts the contribution of a 57,000 +/- 5000 K WD. The model thus provides realistic constraints on mass transfer and T(sub eff) for a large mass transfer system above the period gap.

  3. CP(N-1) model on a disk and decay of a non-Abelian string

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorsky, A.; Milekhin, A.

    2013-10-01

    We consider the role of quantum effects in the nonperturbative decay of the non-Abelian string with orientational moduli in nonsupersymmetric D=4 gauge theory. To this aim the effective action in the CP(N-1) model on a disk at large N has been calculated. It exhibits a phase transition at some radius, the “wrong sign” Luscher term, and a large boundary boojumlike negative contribution. The effect of the θ term and the possibility of the spontaneous creation of the non-Abelian string are briefly discussed.

  4. Distributed structural control using multilayered piezoelectric actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cudney, Harley H.; Inman, Daniel J.; Oshman, Yaakov

    1990-01-01

    A method of segmenting piezoelectric sensors and actuators is proposed which can preclude the currently experienced cancelation of sensor signals, or the reduction of actuator effectiveness, due to the integration of the property undergoing measurement or control. The segmentation method is demonstrated by a model developed for beam structures, to which multiple layers of piezoelectric materials are attached. A numerical study is undertaken of increasing active and passive damping of a beam using the segmented sensors and actuators over unsegmented sensors and actuators.

  5. Development of a Higher Order Laminate Theory for Modeling Composites with Induced Strain Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Seeley, Charles E.

    1996-01-01

    A refined higher order plate theory is developed to investigate the actuation mechanism of piezoelectric materials surface bonded or embedded in composite laminates. The current analysis uses a displacement field which accurately accounts for transverse shear stresses. Some higher order terms are identified by using the conditions that shear stresses vanish at all free surfaces. Therefore, all boundary conditions for displacements and stresses are satisfied in the present theory. The analysis is implemented using the finite element method which provides a convenient means to construct a numerical solution due to the discrete nature of the actuators. The higher order theory is computationally less expensive than a full three dimensional analysis. The theory is also shown to agree well with published experimental results. Numerical examples are presented for composite plates with thicknesses ranging from thin to very thick.

  6. Modeling and Implementation of Solder-activated Joints for Single Actuator, Centimeter-Scale Robotic Mechanisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    mechanisms may be built and actuated to perform a multiplicity of tasks using PCM-activated joints. The robot was developed under the Chemical Robots DARPA ...components. 4.1.1 Chemical Robots Program The Chemical Robots (ChemBots) program is funded by the DARPA Defense Sciences Office. The goal of the program...perform tasks in these hostile and hard to reach spaces safely, covertly, and efficiently [26]. To develop this new class of robots, DARPA asked for

  7. HNC IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Graninger, Dawn; Öberg, Karin I.; Qi, Chunhua; Kastner, Joel

    2015-07-01

    The distributions and abundances of small organics in protoplanetary disks are potentially powerful probes of disk physics and chemistry. HNC is a common probe of dense interstellar regions and the target of this study. We use the Submillimeter Array (SMA) to observe HNC 3–2 toward the protoplanetary disks around the T Tauri star TW Hya and the Herbig Ae star HD 163296. HNC is detected toward both disks, constituting the first spatially resolved observations of HNC in disks. We also present SMA observations of HCN 3–2 and IRAM 30 m observations of HCN and HNC 1–0 toward HD 163296. The disk-averaged HNC/HCN emission ratio is 0.1–0.2 toward both disks. Toward TW Hya, the HNC emission is confined to a ring. The varying HNC abundance in the TW Hya disk demonstrates that HNC chemistry is strongly linked to the disk physical structure. In particular, the inner rim of the HNC ring can be explained by efficient destruction of HNC at elevated temperatures, similar to what is observed in the ISM. However, to realize the full potential of HNC as a disk tracer requires a combination of high SNR spatially resolved observations of HNC and HCN and disk-specific HNC chemical modeling.

  8. Models of the η Corvi Debris Disk from the Keck Interferometer, Spitzer, and Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, J.; Beichman, C.; Bryden, G.; Defrère, D.; Mennesson, B.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Boccaletti, A.

    2016-02-01

    Debris disks are signposts of analogs to small-body populations of the solar system, often, however, with much higher masses and dust production rates. The disk associated with the nearby star η Crv is especially striking, as it shows strong mid- and far-infrared excesses despite an age of ∼1.4 Gyr. We undertake constructing a consistent model of the system that can explain a diverse collection of spatial and spectral data. We analyze Keck Interferometer Nuller measurements and revisit Spitzer and additional spectrophotometric data, as well as resolved Herschel images, to determine the dust spatial distribution in the inner exozodi and in the outer belt. We model in detail the two-component disk and the dust properties from the sub-AU scale to the outermost regions by fitting simultaneously all measurements against a large parameter space. The properties of the cold belt are consistent with a collisional cascade in a reservoir of ice-free planetesimals at 133 AU. It shows marginal evidence for asymmetries along the major axis. KIN enables us to establish that the warm dust consists of a ring that peaks between 0.2 and 0.8 AU. To reconcile this location with the ∼400 K dust temperature, very high albedo dust must be invoked, and a distribution of forsterite grains starting from micron sizes satisfies this criterion, while providing an excellent fit to the spectrum. We discuss additional constraints from the LBTI and near-infrared spectra, and we present predictions of what James Webb Space Telescope can unveil about this unusual object and whether it can detect unseen planets.

  9. MODELS OF THE η CORVI DEBRIS DISK FROM THE KECK INTERFEROMETER, SPITZER, AND HERSCHEL

    SciTech Connect

    Lebreton, J.; Beichman, C.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Bryden, G.; Mennesson, B.; Defrère, D.; Boccaletti, A.

    2016-02-01

    Debris disks are signposts of analogs to small-body populations of the solar system, often, however, with much higher masses and dust production rates. The disk associated with the nearby star η Crv is especially striking, as it shows strong mid- and far-infrared excesses despite an age of ∼1.4 Gyr. We undertake constructing a consistent model of the system that can explain a diverse collection of spatial and spectral data. We analyze Keck Interferometer Nuller measurements and revisit Spitzer and additional spectrophotometric data, as well as resolved Herschel images, to determine the dust spatial distribution in the inner exozodi and in the outer belt. We model in detail the two-component disk and the dust properties from the sub-AU scale to the outermost regions by fitting simultaneously all measurements against a large parameter space. The properties of the cold belt are consistent with a collisional cascade in a reservoir of ice-free planetesimals at 133 AU. It shows marginal evidence for asymmetries along the major axis. KIN enables us to establish that the warm dust consists of a ring that peaks between 0.2 and 0.8 AU. To reconcile this location with the ∼400 K dust temperature, very high albedo dust must be invoked, and a distribution of forsterite grains starting from micron sizes satisfies this criterion, while providing an excellent fit to the spectrum. We discuss additional constraints from the LBTI and near-infrared spectra, and we present predictions of what James Webb Space Telescope can unveil about this unusual object and whether it can detect unseen planets.

  10. Non-LTE Modeling of Infrared Molecular Line Emission From Protoplanetary Disks: Evidence for Dust Settling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacy, John H.; Watson, D. M.; Harrold, S. T.

    2010-01-01

    Spitzer IRS spectra of disks around T Tauri stars show emission in the 13.9 and 13.7 um Q branches of HCN and C2H2 (Carr & Najita, 2008). In order to explain these emission features, we made a non-LTE radiative transfer and excitation model of molecular gas and dust in disks. The model assumes the molecules are in rotational LTE, but it includes both radiative and collisional excitation of the vibrational states. We found that the strengths of the emission features are most sensitive to dust settling and/or grain growth, which moves the mid-IR dust photosphere to a larger gas density and column density, where vibrational states can be efficiently collisionally excited. Good fits were obtained by assuming that the dust scale height is 1/2 of the hydrostatic equilibrium gas scale height. To test this explanation, we compared the observed emission strengths with SED indices which are thought to be indicators of dust settling. A good correlation was found, supporting our model and the interpretation of the SEDs. This work was supported by NSF grant AST-0607312.

  11. Modelling circumbinary protoplanetary disks. I. Fluid simulations of the Kepler-16 and 34 systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lines, S.; Leinhardt, Z. M.; Baruteau, C.; Paardekooper, S.-J.; Carter, P. J.

    2015-10-01

    Context. The Kepler mission's discovery of a number of circumbinary planets orbiting close (ap< 1.1 au) to the stellar binary raises questions as to how these planets could have formed given the intense gravitational perturbations the dual stars impart on the disk. The gas component of circumbinary protoplanetary disks is perturbed in a similar manner to the solid, planetesimal dominated counterpart, although the mechanism by which disk eccentricity originates differs. Aims: This is the first work of a series that aims to investigate the conditions for planet formation in circumbinary protoplanetary disks. Methods: We present a number of hydrodynamical simulations that explore the response of gas disks around two observed binary systems: Kepler-16 and Kepler-34. We probe the importance of disk viscosity, aspect-ratio, inner boundary condition, initial surface density gradient, and self-gravity on the dynamical evolution of the disk, as well as its quasi-steady-state profile. Results: We find there is a strong influence of binary type on the mean disk eccentricity, e̅d, leading to e̅d = 0.02 - 0.08 for Kepler-16 and e̅d = 0.10 - 0.15 in Kepler-34. The value of α-viscosity has little influence on the disk, but we find a strong increase in mean disk eccentricity with increasing aspect-ratio due to wave propagation effects. The choice of inner boundary condition only has a small effect on the surface density and eccentricity of the disk. Our primary finding is that including disk self-gravity has little impact on the evolution or final state of the disk for disks with masses less than 12.5 times that of the minimum-mass solar nebula. This finding contrasts with the results of self-gravity relevance in circumprimary disks, where its inclusion is found to be an important factor in describing the disk evolution.

  12. Modeling of electro-statically actuated two-axis (tip-tilt) MEMS torsion micro-mirrors for laser beamsteering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, C. L.; Boone, B. G.; Levine, W. S.; Davis, C. C.

    2007-04-01

    The availability of recently developed MEMS micro-mirror technology provides an opportunity to replace macro-scale actuators for free-space laser beamsteering in lidar and communication systems. Such an approach is under investigation at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory for use on space-based platforms. Precision modeling of mirror pointing and its dynamics are critical to optimal design and control of MEMS beamsteerers. Beginning with Hornbeck's torque approach, this paper presents a first-principle, analytically closed-form torque model for an electro-statically actuated two-axis (tip-tilt) MEMS structure. An Euler dynamic equation formulation describes the gimbaled motion as a coupled pair of damped harmonic oscillators with a common forcing function. Static physical parameters such as MEMS mirror dimensions, facet mass, and height are inputs to the model as well as dynamic harmonic oscillator parameters such as damping and restoring constants fitted from measurements. A Taylor series expansion of the torque function provides valuable insights into basic one dimensional as well as two dimensional MEMS behavior, including operational sensitivities near "pull-in." The model also permits the natural inclusion and analysis of pointing noise sources such as electrical drive noise, platform vibration, and molecular Brownian motion. MATLAB and SIMULINK simulations illustrate performance sensitivities, controllability, and physical limitations, important considerations in the design of optimal pointing systems.

  13. NiTi Alloy Negator Springs for Long-Stroke Constant-Force Shape Memory Actuators: Modeling, Simulation and Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaggiari, Andrea; Dragoni, Eugenio; Tuissi, Ausonio

    2014-07-01

    This work aims at the experimental characterization and modeling validation of shape memory alloy (SMA) Negator springs. According to the classic engineering books on springs, a Negator spring is a spiral spring made of strip of metal wound on the flat with an inherent curvature such that, in repose, each coil wraps tightly on its inner neighbor. The main feature of a Negator springs is the nearly constant force displacement behavior in the unwinding of the strip. Moreover the stroke is very long, theoretically infinite, as it depends only on the length of the initial strip. A Negator spring made in SMA is built and experimentally tested to demonstrate the feasibility of this actuator. The shape memory Negator spring behavior can be modeled with an analytical procedure, which is in good agreement with the experimental test and can be used for design purposes. In both cases, the material is modeled as elastic in austenitic range, while an exponential continuum law is used to describe the martensitic behavior. The experimental results confirms the applicability of this kind of geometry to the shape memory alloy actuators, and the analytical model is confirmed to be a powerful design tool to dimension and predict the spring behavior both in martensitic and austenitic range.

  14. Model of rotary-actuated flexible beam with notch filter vibration suppression controller and torque feedforward load compensation controller

    SciTech Connect

    Bills, K.C.; Kress, R.L.; Kwon, D.S.; Baker, C.P.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes ORNL`s development of an environment for the simulation of robotic manipulators. Simulation includes the modeling of kinematics, dynamics, sensors, actuators, control systems, operators, and environments. Models will be used for manipulator design, proposal evaluation, control system design and analysis, graphical preview of proposed motions, safety system development, and training. Of particular interest is the development of models for robotic manipulators having at least one flexible link. As a first application, models have been developed for the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s Flexible Beam Test Bed (PNL FBTB), which is a 1-Degree-of-Freedom, flexible arm with a hydraulic base actuator. ORNL transferred control algorithms developed for the PNL FBTB to controlling IGRIP models. A robust notch filter is running in IGRIP controlling a full dynamics model of the PNL test bed. Model results provide a reasonable match to the experimental results (quantitative results are being determined) and can run on ORNL`s Onyx machine in approximately realtime. The flexible beam is modeled as six rigid sections with torsional springs between each segment. The spring constants were adjusted to match the physical response of the flexible beam model to the experimental results. The controller is able to improve performance on the model similar to the improvement seen on the experimental system. Some differences are apparent, most notably because the IGRIP model presently uses a different trajectory planner than the one used by ORNL on the PNL test bed. In the future, the trajectory planner will be modified so that the experiments and models are the same. The successful completion of this work provides the ability to link C code with IGRIP, thus allowing controllers to be developed, tested, and tuned in simulation and then ported directly to hardware systems using the C language.

  15. THE MASS-DEPENDENT STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF DISK GALAXIES: INFALL MODEL VERSUS OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, R. X.; Hou, J. L.; Shen, S. Y.; Shu, C. G.

    2010-10-10

    We introduce a simple model to explore the star formation histories of disk galaxies. We assume that the disk originate and grows by continuous gas infall. The gas infall rate is parameterized by the Gaussian formula with one free parameter: the infall-peak time t{sub p} . The Kennicutt star formation law is adopted to describe how much cold gas turns into stars. The gas outflow process is also considered in our model. We find that, at a given galactic stellar mass M{sub *}, the model adopting a late infall-peak time t{sub p} results in blue colors, low-metallicity, high specific star formation rate (SFR), and high gas fraction, while the gas outflow rate mainly influences the gas-phase metallicity and star formation efficiency mainly influences the gas fraction. Motivated by the local observed scaling relations, we 'construct' a mass-dependent model by assuming that the low-mass galaxy has a later infall-peak time t{sub p} and a larger gas outflow rate than massive systems. It is shown that this model can be in agreement with not only the local observations, but also with the observed correlations between specific SFR and galactic stellar mass SFR/M{sub *} {approx} M{sub *} at intermediate redshifts z < 1. Comparison between the Gaussian-infall model and the exponential-infall model is also presented. It shows that the exponential-infall model predicts a higher SFR at early stage and a lower SFR later than that of Gaussian infall. Our results suggest that the Gaussian infall rate may be more reasonable in describing the gas cooling process than the exponential infall rate, especially for low-mass systems.

  16. A New Raytracer for Modeling AU-Scale Imaging of Lines from Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontoppidan, Klaus M.; Meijerink, Rowin; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Blake, Geoffrey A.

    2009-10-01

    The material that formed the present-day solar system originated in feeding zones in the inner solar nebula located at distances within ~20 AU from the Sun, known as the planet-forming zone. Meteoritic and cometary material contain abundant evidence for the presence of a rich and active chemistry in the planet-forming zone during the gas-rich phase of solar system formation. It is a natural conjecture that analogs can be found among the zoo of protoplanetary disks around nearby young stars. The study of the chemistry and dynamics of planet formation requires: (1) tracers of dense gas at 100-1000 K and (2) imaging capabilities of such tracers with 5-100 mas (0.5-20 AU) resolution, corresponding to the planet-forming zone at the distance of the closest star-forming regions. Recognizing that the rich infrared (2-200 μm) molecular spectrum recently discovered to be common in protoplanetary disks represents such a tracer, we present a new general ray-tracing code, RADLite, that is optimized for producing infrared line spectra and images from axisymmetric structures. RADLite can consistently deal with a wide range of velocity gradients, such as those typical for the inner regions of protoplanetary disks. The code is intended as a back-end for chemical and excitation codes, and can rapidly produce spectra of thousands of lines for grids of models for comparison with observations. Such radiative transfer tools will be crucial for constraining both the structure and chemistry of planet-forming regions, including data from current infrared imaging spectrometers and extending to the Atacama Large Millimeter Array and the next generation of Extremely Large Telescopes, the James Webb Space Telescope and beyond.

  17. Magnetorotational dynamo chimeras. The missing link to turbulent accretion disk dynamo models?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riols, A.; Rincon, F.; Cossu, C.; Lesur, G.; Ogilvie, G. I.; Longaretti, P.-Y.

    2017-02-01

    In Keplerian accretion disks, turbulence and magnetic fields may be jointly excited through a subcritical dynamo mechanisminvolving magnetorotational instability (MRI). This dynamo may notably contribute to explaining the time-variability of various accreting systems, as high-resolution simulations of MRI dynamo turbulence exhibit statistical self-organization into large-scale cyclic dynamics. However, understanding the physics underlying these statistical states and assessing their exact astrophysical relevance is theoretically challenging. The study of simple periodic nonlinear MRI dynamo solutions has recently proven useful in this respect, and has highlighted the role of turbulent magnetic diffusion in the seeming impossibility of a dynamo at low magnetic Prandtl number (Pm), a common regime in disks. Arguably though, these simple laminar structures may not be fully representative of the complex, statistically self-organized states expected in astrophysical regimes. Here, we aim at closing this seeming discrepancy by reporting the numerical discovery of exactly periodic, yet semi-statistical "chimeral MRI dynamo states" which are the organized outcome of a succession of MRI-unstable, non-axisymmetric dynamical stages of different forms and amplitudes. Interestingly, these states, while reminiscent of the statistical complexity of turbulent simulations, involve the same physical principles as simpler laminar cycles, and their analysis further confirms the theory that subcritical turbulent magnetic diffusion impedes the sustainment of an MRI dynamo at low Pm. Overall, chimera dynamo cycles therefore offer an unprecedented dual physical and statistical perspective on dynamos in rotating shear flows, which may prove useful in devising more accurate, yet intuitive mean-field models of time-dependent turbulent disk dynamos. Movies associated to Fig. 1 are available at http://www.aanda.org

  18. Experiment and Modeling of Simultaneous Creep, Plasticity and Transformation of High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys During Cyclic Actuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Parikshith K.; Desai, Uri; Chatzigeorgiou, George; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.; Monroe, James; Karaman, Ibrahim; Noebe, Ron; Bigelow, Glen

    2010-01-01

    The present work is focused on studying the cycling actuation behavior of HTSMAs undergoing simultaneous creep and transformation. For the thermomechanical testing, a high temperature test setup was assembled on a MTS frame with the capability to test up to temperatures of 600 C. Constant stress thermal cycling tests were conducted to establish the actuation characteristics and the phase diagram for the chosen HTSMA. Additionally, creep tests were conducted at constant stress levels at different test temperatures to characterize the creep behavior of the alloy over the operational range. A thermodynamic constitutive model is developed and extended to take into account a) the effect of multiple thermal cycling on the generation of plastic strains due to transformation (TRIP strains) and b) both primary and secondary creep effects. The model calibration is based on the test results. The creep tests and the uniaxial tests are used to identify the viscoplastic behavior of the material. The parameters for the SMA properties, regarding the transformation and transformation induced plastic strain evolutions, are obtained from the material phase diagram and the thermomechanical tests. The model is validated by predicting the material behavior at different thermomechanical test conditions.

  19. Design, modeling, analysis and testing of a novel piezo-actuated XY compliant mechanism for large workspace nano-positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wu-Le; Zhu, Zhiwei; Shi, Yi; Wang, Xinwei; Guan, Kaimin; Ju, Bing-Feng

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a new piezo-actuated XY parallel compliant mechanism for large workspace nano-positioning with decoupled motions is developed by incorporating a novel Z-shaped flexure hinge (ZFH)-based mechanism into the mirror-symmetrically distributed structure. The bridge-type mechanism and two-stage leverage mechanisms serve as preliminary displacement amplifiers, while further amplification with motion transfer and decoupled output motions are achieved by means of the ZFH mechanism. Based on finite element theory, a high-precision analytical model of the XY compliant mechanism is established by considering all the connecting linkages as flexible components. Through the improved differential evolution algorithm, the optimized compliant mechanism is capable of performing millimeter-scale workspace nano-positioning with decoupled motions. In addition, the input displacement unbalance, resulting from the lateral force which has potential to damage the piezoelectric actuators, is markedly lowered to a negligible value. The performance of the fabricated compliant mechanism with optimized parameters is investigated to well agree with both the analytical model and ANSYS simulation. In addition, based on the inverse kinematics derived from the model and experimental results, different elliptical vibration trajectories are accurately acquired.

  20. A study of the influence of the rolling of moving part on the dynamic characteristics of OPU actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ru, Jigang; Pan, Longfa; Ma, Jianshe; Shi, Hongwei

    2005-09-01

    As the executive part, the actuator of optical pick-up (OPU) accomplishes the servo action actually. The dynamic characteristics of the OPU actuator determine the precision of focusing and tracking servo system, so it will influence the reading performance of optical pick-up. As the density of optical storage increases, the OPU actuator has a high servo bandwidth for its focusing and tracking control to follow dynamic disturbances by high density and high rotational speed of disk. The dynamic response curve should be as smooth as possible in its linear area. In this paper, the influence of the rolling of moving part on the actuator's dynamic characteristics is studied. Because of some design reasons, the moving part of the actuator may roll in three dimensions during the working status. It's one of the most important factors to influence the dynamic characteristics of actuator. Firstly, the reason of rolling and the influence on dynamic characteristics are studied. In the design of actuator we should pay attention to three important points, which are the gravitational point, the equivalent driving force point and the equivalent sustained point. When the three points are not accordant during the moving action, the rolling occurs. The dynamic response curve will have some unexpected resonances at certain frequency area. This phenomenon is analyzed by kinetic method. Secondly, a model of the actuator is founded referring to an actual type of actuator. By finite element analysis software (ANSYS), the mechanical and magnetic simulation is performed. The special distributing of electromagnetic field is described and the driving force is analyzed. Thirdly, the dynamic characteristics of some actuators with rolling are tested. The experimental result is consistent with the simulation result. So the validity of this study is verified. At last, the possible methods to avoid rolling of moving part are introduced.

  1. Disks in elliptical galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Rix, H.; White, S.D.M. )

    1990-10-01

    The abundance and strength of disk components in elliptical galaxies are investigated by studying the photometric properties of models containing a spheroidal r exp 1/4-law bulge and a weak exponential disk. Pointed isophotes are observed in a substantial fraction of elliptical galaxies. If these isophote distortions are interpreted in the framework of the present models, then the statistics of observed samples suggest that almost all radio-weak ellipticals could have disks containing roughly 20 percent of the light. It is shown that the E5 galaxy NGC 4660 has the photometric signatures of a disk containing a third of the light. 30 refs.

  2. Confronting Standard Models of Proto-planetary Disks with New Mid-infrared Sizes from the Keck Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Che, Xiao; Monnier, John D.; Sitko, Michael L.; Russell, Ray W.; Grady, Carol A.; Day, Amanda N.; Perry, R. B.; Harries, Tim J.; Aarnio, Alicia N.; Colavita, Mark M.; Wizinowich, Peter L.; Ragland, Sam; Woillez, Julien

    2016-08-01

    We present near- and mid-infrared (MIR) interferometric observations made with the Keck Interferometer Nuller and near-contemporaneous spectro-photometry from the infrared telescope facilities (IRTFs) of 11 well-known young stellar objects, several of which were observed for the first time in these spectral and spatial resolution regimes. With au-level spatial resolution, we first establish characteristic sizes of the infrared emission using a simple geometrical model consisting of a hot inner rim and MIR disk emission. We find a high degree of correlation between the stellar luminosity and the MIR disk sizes after using near-infrared data to remove the contribution from the inner rim. We then use a semi-analytical physical model to also find that the very widely used “star + inner dust rim + flared disk” class of models strongly fails to reproduce the spectral energy distribution (SED) and spatially resolved MIR data simultaneously; specifically a more compact source of MIR emission is required than results from the standard flared disk model. We explore the viability of a modification to the model whereby a second dust rim containing smaller dust grains is added, and find that the 2-rim model leads to significantly improved fits in most cases. This complexity is largely missed when carrying out SED modeling alone, although detailed silicate feature fitting by McClure et al. recently came to a similar conclusion. As has been suggested recently by Menu et al., the difficulty in predicting MIR sizes from the SED alone might hint at “transition disk”-like gaps in the inner au; however, the relatively high correlation found in our MIR disk size versus stellar luminosity relation favors layered disk morphologies and points to missing disk model ingredients instead.

  3. Modular droplet actuator drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, Michael G. (Inventor); Paik, Philip (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A droplet actuator drive including a detection apparatus for sensing a property of a droplet on a droplet actuator; circuitry for controlling the detection apparatus electronically coupled to the detection apparatus; a droplet actuator cartridge connector arranged so that when a droplet actuator cartridge electronically is coupled thereto: the droplet actuator cartridge is aligned with the detection apparatus; and the detection apparatus can sense the property of the droplet on a droplet actuator; circuitry for controlling a droplet actuator coupled to the droplet actuator connector; and the droplet actuator circuitry may be coupled to a processor.

  4. Electromechanical characteristic analysis of a dielectric electroactive polymer (DEAP) actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yinlong; Zhou, Hongpin; Wang, Huaming

    2015-10-01

    To assist in the design and optimization of dielectric electroactive polymer (DEAP) actuators, an analytical model for the electromechanical response of cone DEAP actuators is developed. Using the Yeoh form strain energy potential and the Maxwell stress tensor, the constitutive relationship of the DEAP that accounts for the electromechanical coupling behavior is deduced. The equilibrium equations of DEAP actuators with a cone configuration are derived and an analytical model is then proposed. With this model, the actuation characteristics of the DEAP actuator, including actuation displacement, force output and efficiency can be calculated. Additionally, the principal stresses and principal stretch ratio of the membrane under different actuation voltages can be determined, along with the wrinkling failure mode of DEAP actuators. The experimental results for the DEAP actuator matched the numerical results determined using the proposed model. As such, the proposed work is beneficial as a guide for the design optimization of DEAP actuators.

  5. Self-Consistent Thermal Accretion Disk Corona Models for Compact Objects. II; Application to Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dove, James B.; Wilms, Joern; Maisack, Michael; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1997-01-01

    We apply our self-consistent accretion disk corona (ADC) model, with two different geometries, to the broadband X-ray spectrum of the black hole candidate Cygnus X-1. As shown in a companion paper, models in which the Comptonizing medium is a slab surrounding the cold accretion disk cannot have a temperature higher than about 140 keV for optical depths greater than 0.2, resulting in spectra that are much softer than the observed 10-30 keV spectrum of Cyg X-1. In addition, the slab-geometry models predict a substantial "soft excess" at low energies, a feature not observed for Cyg X-1, and Fe K-alpha fluorescence lines that are stronger than observed. Previous Comptonization models in the literature have invoked a slab geometry with optical depth tau(sub T) approx. greater than 0.3 and coronal temperature T(sub c) approx. 150 keV, but they are not self-consistent. Therefore, ADC models with a slab geometry are not appropriate for explaining the X-ray spectrum of Cyg X-1. Models with a spherical corona and an exterior disk, however, predict much higher self-consistent coronal temperatures than the slab-geometry models. The higher coronal temperatures are due to the lower amount of reprocessing of coronal radiation in the accretion disk, giving rise to a lower Compton cooling rate. Therefore, for the sphere-plus-disk geometry, the predicted spectrum can be hard enough to describe the observed X-ray continuum of Cyg X-1 while predicting Fe fluorescence lines having an equivalent width of approx. 40 eV. Our best-fit parameter values for the sphere-plus-disk geometry are tau(sub T) approx. equal to 1.5 and T(sub c) approx. equal to 90 keV.

  6. Active vibration control of a composite wing model using PZT sensors/actuators and virtex: 4 FPGAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Shashikala; Venkatasubramanyam, D. V.; Krishnan, Bharath; Pavate, Aravind; Kabra, Hemant

    2009-07-01

    The reduction of vibration in Aircraft/Aerospace structures as well as helicopter fuselage is becoming increasingly important. A traditional approach to vibration control uses passive techniques which are relatively large, costly and ineffective at low frequencies. Active Vibration Control (AVC), apart from having benefits in size, weight, volume and cost, efficiently attenuates low frequency vibration. Hitherto this was being achieved using high speed Digital Signal Processors (DSPs). But the throughput requirements of general purpose DSPs have increased very much and the Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) have emerged as an alternative. The silicon resources of an FPGA lead to staggering performance gains i.e. they are 100 times faster than DSPs. In the present paper Active Vibration Control of a Composite Research Wing Model is investigated using Piezo electric patches as sensors and PZT bimorph actuators collocated on the bottom surface as secondary actuators. Attempt has been made to realize the State - of - the - Art Active Vibration Controller using the Xilinx System Generator on VIRTEX - 4 FPGA. The control has been achieved by implementing the Filtered-X Least Mean Square (FXLMS) based adaptive filter on the FPGA. Single channel real time control has been successfully implemented & tested on the composite research wing model.

  7. Experimental measurements and numerical modeling of a thermostress convection-based actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowee, Katherine; Ibrayeva, Aizhan; Strongrich, Andrew; Alexeenko, Alina

    2016-11-01

    The capability of gas actuation using thermal gradients in a rarefied gas flow is demonstrated for arrays of interdigitated hot and cold vanes. The force acting on the cold vane array is quantified using a microNewton torsional balance over a range of pressures between 3.8 mTorr to 900 mTorr. Simulations are carried out using the SPARTA direct simulation monte carlo software to elucidate the mechanisms governing force production. Both experimental and numerical results are non-dimensionalized and fitted using the linear least-squares method. These correlations facilitate prediction of performance for dynamically similar geometries.

  8. Model aerodynamic test results for a refined actuated inlet ejector nozzle at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    Wind tunnel model tests were conducted to demonstrate the aerodynamic performance improvements of a refined actuated inlet ejector nozzle. Models of approximately one-tenth scale were configured to simulate nozzle operation at takeoff, subsonic cruise, transonic cruise and supersonic cruise. Variations of model components provided a performance evaluation of ejector inlet and exit area, forebody boattail angle and ejector inlet operation in the open and closed mode. Approximately 700 data points were acquired at Mach numbers of 0, 0.36, 0.9, 1.2, and 2.0 for a wide range of nozzle flow conditions. Results show that relative to two ejector nozzles previously tested performance was improved significantly at takeoff and subsonic cruise performance, a C sub f of 0.982, was attained equal to the high performance of the previous tests. The established advanced supersonic transport propulsion study performance goals were met or closely approached at takeoff and supersonic cruise.

  9. Analytical model of thermal effect and optical path difference in end-pumped Yb:YAG thin disk laser.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guangzhi; Zhu, Xiao; Wang, Mu; Feng, Yufan; Zhu, Changhong

    2014-10-10

    An analytical model of the thermal effect and optical path difference (OPD) of a thin disk laser is developed with the combination of the analytical method and commercial finite element analysis software. The distributions of temperature, stress, strain, and OPD caused by temperature gradient, axial thermal strain (bulging), thermal strain-induced birefringence, and deformation are obtained. Based on the analytical model, the production mechanisms, features, and influence of OPD in an end-pumped thin disk laser are discussed, which make the causes of spherical and aspherical parts of the OPD more obvious. Furthermore, the OPD including the spherical and aspherical parts of the thin disk crystal is discussed for various pumping intensities.

  10. Chemistry in disks. IV. Benchmarking gas-grain chemical models with surface reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, D.; Hersant, F.; Wakelam, V.; Dutrey, A.; Chapillon, E.; Guilloteau, St.; Henning, Th.; Launhardt, R.; Piétu, V.; Schreyer, K.

    2010-11-01

    Context. We describe and benchmark two sophisticated chemical models developed by the Heidelberg and Bordeaux astrochemistry groups. Aims: The main goal of this study is to elaborate on a few well-described tests for state-of-the-art astrochemical codes covering a range of physical conditions and chemical processes, in particular those aimed at constraining current and future interferometric observations of protoplanetary disks. Methods: We considered three physical models: a cold molecular cloud core, a hot core, and an outer region of a T Tauri disk. Our chemical network (for both models) is based on the original gas-phase osu_03_2008 ratefile and includes gas-grain interactions and a set of surface reactions for the H-, O-, C-, S-, and N-bearing molecules. The benchmarking was performed with the increasing complexity of the considered processes: (1) the pure gas-phase chemistry, (2) the gas-phase chemistry with accretion and desorption, and (3) the full gas-grain model with surface reactions. The chemical evolution is modeled within 109 years using atomic initial abundances with heavily depleted metals and hydrogen in its molecular form. Results: The time-dependent abundances calculated with the two chemical models are essentially the same for all considered physical cases and for all species, including the most complex polyatomic ions and organic molecules. This result, however, required a lot of effort to make all necessary details consistent through the model runs, e.g., definition of the gas particle density, density of grain surface sites, or the strength and shape of the UV radiation field. Conclusions: The reference models and the benchmark setup, along with the two chemical codes and resulting time-dependent abundances are made publicly available on the internet. This will facilitate and ease the development of other astrochemical models and provide nonspecialists with a detailed description of the model ingredients and requirements to analyze the cosmic

  11. Modelling of Be Disks in Binary Systems Using the Hydrodynamic Code PLUTO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyr, I. H.; Panoglou, D.; Jones, C. E.; Carciofi, A. C.

    2016-11-01

    The study of the gas structure and dynamics of Be star disks is critical to our understanding of the Be star phenomenon. The central star is the major force driving the evolution of these disks, however other external forces may also affect the formation of the disk, for example, the gravitational torque produced in a close binary system. We are interested in understanding the gravitational effects of a low-mass binary companion on the formation and growth of a disk in a close binary system. To study these effects, we used the grid-based hydrodynamic code PLUTO. Because this code has not been used to study such systems before, we compared our simulations against codes used in previous work on binary systems. We were able to simulate the formation of a disk in both an isolated and binary system. Our current results suggest that PLUTO is in fact a well suited tool to study the dynamics of Be disks.

  12. Thermodynamic model of MHD turbulence and some of its applications to accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnichenko, A. V.; Marov, M. Ya.

    2008-06-01

    Within the framework of the main problem of cosmogony related to the reconstruction of the evolution of the protoplanetary gas-dust cloud that surrounded the proto-Sun at an early stage of its existence, we have derived a closed system of magnetohydrodynamic equations for the scale of mean motion in the approximation of single-fluid magnetohydrodynamics designed to model the shear and convective turbulent flows of electrically conducting media in the presence of a magnetic field. These equations are designed for schematized formulations and the numerical solution of special problems to interconsistently model intense turbulent flows of cosmic plasma in accretion disks and associated coronas, in which the magnetic field noticeably affects the dynamics of astrophysical processes. In developing the model of a conducting turbulized medium, apart from the conventional probability-theoretical averaging of the MHD equations, we systematically use the weighted Favre averaging. The latter allows us to considerably simplify the writing of the averaged equations of motion for a compressible fluid and the analysis of the mechanisms of macroscopic field amplification by turbulent flows. To clearly interpret the individual components of the plasma and field-energy balance, we derive various energy equations that allow us to trace the possible energy conversions from one form into another, in particular, to understand the transfer mechanisms of the gravitational and kinetic energies of the mean motion into magnetic energy. Special emphasis is placed on the method for obtaining the closure relations for the total (with allowance made for the magnetic field) kinetic turbulent stress tensor in an electrically conducting medium and the turbulent electromotive force (or the so-called magnetic Reynolds tensor). This method also makes it possible to analyze the constraints imposed on the turbulent transport coefficients by the entropy growth condition. As applied to the problem of

  13. Memory metal actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, C. F. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A mechanical actuator can be constructed by employing a plurality of memory metal actuator elements in parallel to control the amount of actuating force. In order to facilitate direct control by digital control signals provided by a computer or the like, the actuating elements may vary in stiffness according to a binary relationship. The cooling or reset time of the actuator elements can be reduced by employing Peltier junction cooling assemblies in the actuator.

  14. GLOBAL MODELING OF RADIATIVELY DRIVEN ACCRETION OF METALS FROM COMPACT DEBRIS DISKS ONTO WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Bochkarev, Konstantin V.; Rafikov, Roman R. E-mail: rrr@astro.princeton.edu

    2011-11-01

    Recent infrared observations have revealed the presence of compact (radii {approx}< R{sub sun}) debris disks around more than a dozen metal-rich white dwarfs (WDs), likely produced by a tidal disruption of asteroids. Accretion of high-Z material from these disks may account for the metal contamination of these WDs. It was previously shown using local calculations that the Poynting-Robertson (PR) drag acting on the dense, optically thick disk naturally drives metal accretion onto the WD at the typical rate M-dot{sub PR}{approx}10{sup 8} g s{sup -1}. Here we extend this local analysis by exploring the global evolution of the debris disk under the action of the PR drag for a variety of assumptions about the disk properties. We find that massive disks (mass {approx}> 10{sup 20} g), which are optically thick to incident stellar radiation, inevitably give rise to metal accretion at rates M-dot {approx}>0.2 M-dot{sub PR}. The magnitude of M-dot and its time evolution are determined predominantly by the initial pattern of the radial distribution of the debris (i.e., ring-like versus disk-like) but not by the total mass of the disk. The latter determines only the disk lifetime, which can be several Myr or longer. The evolution of an optically thick disk generically results in the development of a sharp outer edge of the disk. We also find that the low-mass ({approx}< 10{sup 20} g), optically thin disks exhibit M-dot << M-dot{sub PR} and evolve on a characteristic timescale {approx}10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} yr, independent of their total mass.

  15. Mars Science Laboratory Rover Actuator Thermal Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Keith S.; Liu, Yuanming; Lee, Chern-Jiin; Hendricks, Steven

    2010-01-01

    NASA will launch a 900 kg rover, part of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, to Mars in October of 2011. The MSL rover is scheduled to land on Mars in August of 2012. The rover employs 31, electric-motor driven actuators to perform a variety of engineering and science functions including: mobility, camera pointing, telecommunications antenna steering, soil and rock sample acquisition and sample processing. This paper describes the MSL rover actuator thermal design. The actuators have stainless steel housings and planetary gearboxes that are lubricated with a "wet" lubricant. The lubricant viscosity increases with decreasing temperature. Warm-up heaters are required to bring the actuators up to temperature (above -55 C) prior to use in the cold wintertime environment of Mars (when ambient atmosphere temperatures are as cold as -113 C). Analytical thermal models of all 31 MSL actuators have been developed. The actuators have been analyzed and warm-up heaters have been designed to improve actuator performance in cold environments. Thermal hardware for the actuators has been specified, procured and installed. This paper presents actuator thermal analysis predicts, and describes the actuator thermal hardware and its operation. In addition, warm-up heater testing and thermal model correlation efforts for the Remote Sensing Mast (RSM) elevation actuator are discussed.

  16. Models for the Spectral Energy Distibution of Disks at Long Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Michael; Ignace, R.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of axisymmetric circumstellar disks that produce infrared (IR), millimeter (mm), and radio emission excesses. In particular, we explore the effects of disk flaring on the SED shape. We find that relatively mild deviations from a power-law SED result from flaring. Key diagnostics for assessing flared disks from the SEDs are highlighted, and applications to IR and mm spectral measurements for Be star disks are noted. This research was funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation, AST-0936427.

  17. Iron K Lines from Accretion Disks: Models for Line Production and Spectroscopic Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallman, Timothy; Palmeri, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Measured profiles of the iron K lines provide important dynamical information about emitting matrial in compact objects. However, much of the modeling work which has been used to infer the location and origin of line observed from AGN and galactic black hole sources is based on highly simplified assumptions about the microphysics of K line emission. In particular, many of the intrinsic line energies, widths and emissivities are based on central-field atomic calculations. We present the results of new calculations of the quantities for the entire iron isonuclear sequence, and demonstrate that the intrinsic K line spectra contain considerably more complexity than has been previously considered. We also present calculations of iron K emission and absorption spectra which include the new data, including the local spectrum radiated from an X-ray illuminated accretion disk. The implications for the interpretation of observed iron K lines from black hole sources will be discussed.

  18. No evidence for Bardeen-Petterson alignment in GRMHD simulations and semi-analytic models of moderately thin, prograde, tilted accretion disks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuravlev, Viacheslav V.; Ivanov, Pavel B.; Teixeira, Danilo Morales

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we introduce the first results that use data extracted directly from numerical simulations as inputs to the analytic twisted disk model of Zhuravlev and Ivanov. In both numerical and analytic approaches, fully relativistic models of tilted and twisted disks having a moderate effective viscosity around a slowly rotating Kerr black hole are considered. Qualitatively, the analytic model demonstrates the same dynamics as the simulations, although with some quantitative offset. Namely, the general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations typically give smaller variations of tilt and twist across the disk. When the black hole and the disk rotate in the same direction, the simulated tilted disk and analytic model show no sign of Bardeen-Petterson alignment, even in the innermost parts of the disk where the characteristic time for relaxation to a quasi-stationary configuration is of the same order as the computation time. In the opposite case, when the direction of the disk's rotation is opposite to that of the black hole, a partial alignment is observed, in agreement with previous theoretical estimates. Thus, both fully numerical and analytic schemes demonstrate that the Bardeen-Petterson effect may not be possible for the case of prograde rotation provided that disk's effective viscosity is sufficiently small. This may have implications in modeling of different astrophysical phenomena such as disk spectra and jet orientation.

  19. HI Gas in Disk and Dwarf Galaxies in the Semi-analytic Models of Galaxy Formation†

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jian; Wang, Jing; Luo, Yu

    We construct the radially-resolved semi-analytic models of galaxy formation based on the L-Galaxies model framework, which include both atomic and molecular gas phase in ISM. The models run on the halo outputs of ΛCDM cosmology N-body simulation. Our models can reproduce varies observations of HI gas in nearby galaxies, e.g. the HI mass function, the HI-to-star ratio vs stellar mass and stellar surface density, universal HI radial surface density profile in outer disks etc. We also give the physical origin of HI size-mass relation. Based on our model results for local dwarf galaxies, we show that the ``missing satellite problem'' also exists in the HI component, i.e., the models over-predict dwarf galaxies with low HI mass around the Milky Way. That is a shortcoming of current ΛCDM cosmology framework. Future survey for HI gas in local dwarf galaxies (e.g. MeerKAT, SKA & FAST) can help to verify the nature of dark matter (cold or warm).

  20. Semi-analytic models for HI gas in disk and local dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jian

    2015-08-01

    We construct the radially-resolved semi-analytic models of galaxy formation based on the L-Galaxies model framework, which include both atomic and molecular gas phase in ISM. The models adopt the ΛCDM cosmology simulation Millennium, Millennium II and Aquarius. Our models can reproduce varies properties of HI gas in nearby galaxies, e.g. the HI mass function, the HI-to-star ratio vs stellar mass and stellar surface density, universal HI radial surface density profile in outer disks etc. We can also give some physical origins of HI size mass relation in many observations.Based on our model results for local dwarf galaxies, we show that the "missing satellite problem" also exists in the HI component, i.e., the models over predict dwarf galaxies with low HI mass. That is a shortcoming of current ΛCDM cosmology framework. Future survey for HI gas in dwarf galaxies (e.g. SKA or FAST) in local group can help to verify the correctness of cold dark matter.

  1. Modeling Earth's Disk-Integrated, Time-Dependent Spectrum: Applications to Directly Imaged Habitable Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustig-Yaeger, Jacob; Schwieterman, Edward; Meadows, Victoria; Fujii, Yuka; NAI Virtual Planetary Laboratory, ISSI 'The Exo-Cartography Inverse Problem'

    2016-10-01

    Earth is our only example of a habitable world and is a critical reference point for potentially habitable exoplanets. While disk-averaged views of Earth that mimic exoplanet data can be obtained by interplanetary spacecraft, these datasets are often restricted in wavelength range, and are limited to the Earth phases and viewing geometries that the spacecraft can feasibly access. We can overcome these observational limitations using a sophisticated UV-MIR spectral model of Earth that has been validated against spacecraft observations in wavelength-dependent brightness and phase (Robinson et al., 2011; 2014). This model can be used to understand the information content - and the optimal means for extraction of that information - for multi-wavelength, time-dependent, disk-averaged observations of the Earth. In this work, we explore key telescope parameters and observing strategies that offer the greatest insight into the wavelength-, phase-, and rotationally-dependent variability of Earth as if it were an exoplanet. Using a generalized coronagraph instrument simulator (Robinson et al., 2016), we synthesize multi-band, time-series observations of the Earth that are consistent with large space-based telescope mission concepts, such as the Large UV/Optical/IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor. We present fits to this dataset that leverage the rotationally-induced variability to infer the number of large-scale planetary surface types, as well as their respective longitudinal distributions and broadband albedo spectra. Finally, we discuss the feasibility of using such methods to identify and map terrestrial exoplanets surfaces with the next generation of space-based telescopes.

  2. Actuator design using electroactive polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Diego; Moreno, Luis; Baselga, Juan

    2005-07-01

    In order to make EAP actuators technology scalable a design methodology for polymer actuators is required. Design variables, optimization formulas and a general architecture are required as it is usual in electromagnetic or hydraulic actuators design. This will allow the development of large EAP actuators from micro-actuator units, specifically designed for a particular application. It will also help to enhance the EAP material final performance. This approach is not new, since it is found in Nature. Skeletal muscle architecture has a profound influence on muscle force-generating properties and functionality. Based on existing literature on skeletal muscle biomechanics, the Nature design philosophy is inferred. Formulas and curves employed by Nature in the design of muscles are presented. Design units such as fiber, tendon, aponeurosis, and motor units are compared with the equivalent design units to be taken into account in the design of EAP actuators. Finally a complete design methodology for the design of actuators based on multiple EAP fiber/sheets is proposed. In addition, the procedure gives an idea of the required parameters that must be clearly modeled and characterized at EAP material level prior to attempt the design of complex Electromechanical Systems based on Electroactive Polymers.

  3. Compact, planar, translational piezoelectric bimorph actuator with Archimedes’ spiral actuating tethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chenye; Liu, Sanwei; Xie, Xin; Livermore, Carol

    2016-12-01

    The design, analytical modelling, finite element analysis (FEA), and experimental characterization of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) out-of-plane (vertical) translational piezoelectric lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) bimorph actuator supported on Archimedes’ spiral tethers are presented. Three types of bimorph actuators with different electrode patterns (with spiral tethers half actuated, fully actuated with uniform polarity, or fully actuated with reversed polarity) are designed and modelled. The two actuators with the highest predicted performance (half actuated and fully actuated with uniform polarity) are implemented and characterized. Both designs are fabricated by commercial processes and are compatible with integration into more complex MEMS systems. Analytical modelling and FEA are used to analyze and predict the actuators’ displacements and blocking forces. Experimental measurements of the deflections and blocking forces of actuators with full uniform actuation and half actuation validate the design. At an applied voltage of 110 V, the out-of-plane deflections of the actuators with half actuation and full uniform actuation are measured at about 17 µm and 29 µm respectively, in good agreement with analytical predictions of 17.3 µm and 34.2 µm and FEA predictions of 17.1 µm and 25.8 µm. The blocking force for devices with half-actuated tethers is predicted to be 12 mN (analytical) and 10 mN (FEA), close to the experimental value of 9 mN. The blocking force for devices with full uniform actuation is predicted to be 23 mN (analytical) and 17 mN (FEA), as compared with 15 mN in experiments.

  4. Reprocessing in Luminous Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, K. Robbins; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    We develop and investigate a procedure that accounts for disk reprocessing of photons that originate in the disk itself. Surface temperatures and simple, black body spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of protostellar disks are calculated. In disks that flare with radius, reprocessing of stellar photons results in temperature profiles considerably shallower than r(sup -3/4). Including the disk as a radiation source (as in the case of actively secreting disks) along with the stellar source further flattens the temperature profile. Disks that flare strongly near the star and then smoothly curve over and become shadowed at some distance ("decreasing curvature" disks) exhibit nearly power-law temperature profiles which result in power-law infrared SEDs with slopes in agreement with typical observations of young stellar objects. Disk models in which the photospheric thickness is controlled by the local opacity and in which the temperature decreases with radius naturally show this shape. Uniformly flaring models do not match observations as well; progressively stronger reprocessing at larger radii leads to SEDs that flatten toward the infrared or even have a second peak at the wavelength corresponding (through the Wien law) to the temperature of the outer edge of the disk. In FU Orionis outbursting systems, the dominant source of energy is the disk itself. The details of the reprocessing depend sensitively on the assumed disk shape and emitted temperature profile. The thermal instability outburst models of Bell Lin reproduce trends in the observed SEDs of Fuors with T varies as r(sup -3/4) in the inner disk (r approx. less than 0.25au corresponding to lambda approx. less than 10 microns) and T varies as r(sup -1/2) in the outer disk. Surface irradiation during outburst and quiescence is compared in the region of planet formation (1 - 10 au). The contrast between the two phases is diminished by the importance of the reprocessing of photons from the relatively high mass

  5. Pre-actuation and post-actuation in control applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iamratanakul, Dhanakorn

    This research proposes a direct approach to solve the output-transition problem in linear systems. The objective is to find an input that changes the system output from an initial value to a final value during a specified output-transition time-interval. It is noted that the output-transition problem (i.e., changing the output of a system from one value to another) is a fundamental control problem, which appears in a wide range of flexible structure applications. When performing fast maneuvers with such flexible structures, it is critical to suppress residual vibrations (at the end of the maneuver) that cause a loss of positioning precision. For example, in disk-drive applications, read and write operations cannot be performed (before and after the output transition) if the output position is not precisely maintained at the desired track. This research studies such residual-vibration-free (rest-to-rest) output transitions, where the output is maintained at a constant value outside the output-transition time-interval. The novelty of the proposed approach is that inputs are not applied just during the output-transition time-interval; rather, inputs are also applied outside the output-transition time-interval, i.e., before the beginning of and after the end of the output-transition time-interval (these inputs are called pre-actuation and post-actuation, respectively). The advantage of using pre-actuation and post-actuation when compared to standard methods that do not use such pre- and post-actuation is studied in this research.

  6. Effect of Degeneration on Fluid–Solid Interaction within Intervertebral Disk Under Cyclic Loading – A Meta-Model Analysis of Finite Element Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Nikkhoo, Mohammad; Khalaf, Kinda; Kuo, Ya-Wen; Hsu, Yu-Chun; Haghpanahi, Mohammad; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Wang, Jaw-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The risk of low back pain resulted from cyclic loadings is greater than that resulted from prolonged static postures. Disk degeneration results in degradation of disk solid structures and decrease of water contents, which is caused by activation of matrix digestive enzymes. The mechanical responses resulted from internal solid–fluid interactions of degenerative disks to cyclic loadings are not well studied yet. The fluid–solid interactions in disks can be evaluated by mathematical models, especially the poroelastic finite element (FE) models. We developed a robust disk poroelastic FE model to analyze the effect of degeneration on solid–fluid interactions within disk subjected to cyclic loadings at different loading frequencies. A backward analysis combined with in vitro experiments was used to find the elastic modulus and hydraulic permeability of intact and enzyme-induced degenerated porcine disks. The results showed that the averaged peak-to-peak disk deformations during the in vitro cyclic tests were well fitted with limited FE simulations and a quadratic response surface regression for both disk groups. The results showed that higher loading frequency increased the intradiscal pressure, decreased the total fluid loss, and slightly increased the maximum axial stress within solid matrix. Enzyme-induced degeneration decreased the intradiscal pressure and total fluid loss, and barely changed the maximum axial stress within solid matrix. The increase of intradiscal pressure and total fluid loss with loading frequency was less sensitive after the frequency elevated to 0.1 Hz for the enzyme-induced degenerated disk. Based on this study, it is found that enzyme-induced degeneration decreases energy attenuation capability of disk, but less change the strength of disk. PMID:25674562

  7. A Comprehensive Dust Model Applied to the Resolved Beta Pictoris Debris Disk from Optical to Radio Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballering, Nicholas P.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Rieke, George H.; Gáspár, András

    2016-06-01

    We investigate whether varying the dust composition (described by the optical constants) can solve a persistent problem in debris disk modeling—the inability to fit the thermal emission without overpredicting the scattered light. We model five images of the β Pictoris disk: two in scattered light from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph at 0.58 μm and HST/Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC 3) at 1.16 μm, and three in thermal emission from Spitzer/Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) at 24 μm, Herschel/PACS at 70 μm, and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array at 870 μm. The WFC3 and MIPS data are published here for the first time. We focus our modeling on the outer part of this disk, consisting of a parent body ring and a halo of small grains. First, we confirm that a model using astronomical silicates cannot simultaneously fit the thermal and scattered light data. Next, we use a simple generic function for the optical constants to show that varying the dust composition can improve the fit substantially. Finally, we model the dust as a mixture of the most plausible debris constituents: astronomical silicates, water ice, organic refractory material, and vacuum. We achieve a good fit to all data sets with grains composed predominantly of silicates and organics, while ice and vacuum are, at most, present in small amounts. This composition is similar to one derived from previous work on the HR 4796A disk. Our model also fits the thermal spectral energy distribution, scattered light colors, and high-resolution mid-IR data from T-ReCS for this disk. Additionally, we show that sub-blowout grains are a necessary component of the halo.

  8. Analysis of the V-Band Light Curve of the Be Star ω CMa with the Viscous Decretion Disk Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoreyshi, M. R.; Carciofi, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the V-band photometry data of the Be star ω CMa, observed over the last four decades. The data is fitted by hydrodynamic models based on the viscous decretion disk (VDD) theory, in which a disk around a fast-spinning Be star is formed by material ejected by the central star and driven to progressively wider orbits by means of viscous torques. For the first time, we apply the model for both the disk build up and the dissipation phases. Our simulations offer a good description of the photometric variability in both phases, which suggests that the VDD model adequately describes the disk structural evolution. Furthermore, our analysis allowed us to determine the viscosity parameter (α) of the gas, as well as the net mass loss rate. We find that α is variable, ranging from 0.1 to 1.0, and that buildup phases have larger values of α than the dissipation phases. Additionally, we find that, contrary to what is generally assumed, even during quiescence the outward mass flux is never zero, suggesting that the star alternates between a high mass loss phase (outburst) and a low mass loss phase (quiescence).

  9. Modeling High-resolution Spectra from X-ray Illuminated Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Javier; Kallman, T.

    2010-01-01

    This work is focused on the study of X-ray illuminated accretion disks around compact objects by modeling their structure and reprocessed spectra. Use of low-accuracy and incomplete atomic data is a key limitation in models which have been calculated so far. We remedy this situation by incorporating data for line energies, transition probabilities and photoionization cross sections taken from various sources, most notably calculations using the R-matrix suite of codes. We also implement a self-consistent approach for the radiative transfer of X-rays and the heating and ionization of the gas. These promise to lead to significant improvements in the understanding of the X-ray observations of active galactic nuclei (AGN), X-ray binaries and galactic black holes. By performing detailed radiative transfer calculations we have computed the reflected spectra from constant density slabs for different input parameters (e.g., density, strength of incident X-rays, iron abundance), including the redistribution of photons due to Compton scattering. Although broad and skewed iron emission lines observed in many accreting systems are often attributed to the Doppler effect and gravitational redshift, our results show that Comptonization can be responsible for a significant fraction of the line broadening. By analyzing simulated Suzaku observations from our models, we provide equivalent and physical widths and line centroid energies for atomic lines, absorption edges and recombination continua (among other features). These are provided in tabular and graphical form that can be used directly in the interpretation of observational data.

  10. Flight control actuation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Gaines, Louie T. (Inventor); Evans, Paul S. (Inventor); Kern, James I. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A flight control actuation system comprises a controller, electromechanical actuator and a pneumatic actuator. During normal operation, only the electromechanical actuator is needed to operate a flight control surface. When the electromechanical actuator load level exceeds 40 amps positive, the controller activates the pneumatic actuator to offset electromechanical actuator loads to assist the manipulation of flight control surfaces. The assistance from the pneumatic load assist actuator enables the use of an electromechanical actuator that is smaller in size and mass, requires less power, needs less cooling processes, achieves high output forces and adapts to electrical current variations. The flight control actuation system is adapted for aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and other flight vehicles, especially flight vehicles that are large in size and travel at high velocities.

  11. Flight control actuation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Gaines, Louie T. (Inventor); Evans, Paul S. (Inventor); Kern, James I. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A flight control actuation system comprises a controller, electromechanical actuator and a pneumatic actuator. During normal operation, only the electromechanical actuator is needed to operate a flight control surface. When the electromechanical actuator load level exceeds 40 amps positive, the controller activates the pneumatic actuator to offset electromechanical actuator loads to assist the manipulation of flight control surfaces. The assistance from the pneumatic load assist actuator enables the use of an electromechanical actuator that is smaller in size and mass, requires less power, needs less cooling processes, achieves high output forces and adapts to electrical current variations. The flight control actuation system is adapted for aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and other flight vehicles, especially flight vehicles that are large in size and travel at high velocities.

  12. Dielectric barrier discharge-based plasma actuator operation in artificial atmospheres for validation of modeling and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Mangina, R. S.; Enloe, C. L.; Font, G. I.

    2015-11-15

    We present an experimental case study of time-resolved force production by an aerodynamic plasma actuator immersed in various mixtures of electropositive (N{sub 2}) and electronegative gases (O{sub 2} and SF{sub 6}) at atmospheric pressure using a fixed AC high-voltage input of 16 kV peak amplitude at 200 Hz frequency. We have observed distinct changes in the discharge structures during both negative- and positive-going voltage half-cycles, with corresponding variations in the actuator's force production: a ratio of 4:1 in the impulse produced by the negative-going half-cycle of the discharge among the various gas mixtures we explored, 2:1 in the impulse produced by the positive-going half-cycle, and cases in which the negative-going half-cycle dominates force production (by a ratio of 1.5:1), where the half-cycles produce identical force levels, and where the positive-going half cycle dominates (by a ratio of 1:5). We also present time-resolved experimental evidence for the first time that shows electrons do play a significant role in the momentum coupling to surrounding neutrals during the negative going voltage half-cycle of the N{sub 2} discharge. We show that there is sufficient macroscopic variation in the plasma that the predictions of numerical models at the microscopic level can be validated even though the plasma itself cannot be measured directly on those spatial and temporal scales.

  13. High Performance Piezoelectric Actuated Gimbal (HIERAX)

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Tschaggeny; Warren Jones; Eberhard Bamberg

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents a 3-axis gimbal whose three rotational axes are actuated by a novel drive system: linear piezoelectric motors whose linear output is converted to rotation by using drive disks. Advantages of this technology are: fast response, high accelerations, dither-free actuation and backlash-free positioning. The gimbal was developed to house a laser range finder for the purpose of tracking and guiding unmanned aerial vehicles during landing maneuvers. The tilt axis was built and the test results indicate excellent performance that meets design specifications.

  14. The Milky Way disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carraro, G.

    2015-08-01

    This review summarises the invited presentation I gave on the Milky Way disc. The idea underneath was to touch those topics that can be considered hot nowadays in the Galactic disk research: the reality of the thick disk, the spiral structure of the Milky Way, and the properties of the outer Galactic disk. A lot of work has been done in recent years on these topics, but a coherent and clear picture is still missing. Detailed studies with high quality spectroscopic data seem to support a dual Galactic disk, with a clear separation into a thin and a thick component. Much confusion and very discrepant ideas still exist concerning the spiral structure of the Milky Way. Our location in the disk makes it impossible to observe it, and we can only infer it. This process of inference is still far from being mature, and depends a lot on the selected tracers, the adopted models and their limitations, which in many cases are neither properly accounted for, nor pondered enough. Finally, there are very different opinions on the size (scale length, truncation radius) of the Galactic disk, and on the interpretation of the observed outer disk stellar populations in terms either of external entities (Monoceros, Triangulus-Andromeda, Canis Major), or as manifestations of genuine disk properties (e.g., warp and flare).

  15. Robust vibration control at critical resonant modes using indirect-driven self-sensing actuation in mechatronic systems.

    PubMed

    Hong, Fan; Pang, Chee Khiang

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents an improved indirect-driven self-sensing actuation circuit for robust vibration control of piezoelectrically-actuated flexible structures in mechatronic systems. The circuit acts as a high-pass filter and provides better self-sensing strain signals with wider sensing bandwidth and higher signal-to-noise ratio. An adaptive non-model-based control is used to compensate for the structural vibrations using the strain signals from the circuit. The proposed scheme is implemented in a PZT-actuated suspension of a commercial dual-stage hard disk drive. Experimental results show improvements of 50% and 75% in the vibration suppression at 5.4kHz and 21kHz respectively, compared to the conventional PI control.

  16. On the Relative Relevance of Subject-Specific Geometries and Degeneration-Specific Mechanical Properties for the Study of Cell Death in Human Intervertebral Disk Models

    PubMed Central

    Malandrino, Andrea; Pozo, José M.; Castro-Mateos, Isaac; Frangi, Alejandro F.; van Rijsbergen, Marc M.; Ito, Keita; Wilke, Hans-Joachim; Dao, Tien Tuan; Ho Ba Tho, Marie-Christine; Noailly, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Capturing patient- or condition-specific intervertebral disk (IVD) properties in finite element models is outmost important in order to explore how biomechanical and biophysical processes may interact in spine diseases. However, disk degenerative changes are often modeled through equations similar to those employed for healthy organs, which might not be valid. As for the simulated effects of degenerative changes, they likely depend on specific disk geometries. Accordingly, we explored the ability of continuum tissue models to simulate disk degenerative changes. We further used the results in order to assess the interplay between these simulated changes and particular IVD morphologies, in relation to disk cell nutrition, a potentially important factor in disk tissue regulation. A protocol to derive patient-specific computational models from clinical images was applied to different spine specimens. In vitro, IVD creep tests were used to optimize poro-hyperelastic input material parameters in these models, in function of the IVD degeneration grade. The use of condition-specific tissue model parameters in the specimen-specific geometrical models was validated against independent kinematic measurements in vitro. Then, models were coupled to a transport-cell viability model in order to assess the respective effects of tissue degeneration and disk geometry on cell viability. While classic disk poro-mechanical models failed in representing known degenerative changes, additional simulation of tissue damage allowed model validation and gave degeneration-dependent material properties related to osmotic pressure and water loss, and to increased fibrosis. Surprisingly, nutrition-induced cell death was independent of the grade-dependent material properties, but was favored by increased diffusion distances in large IVDs. Our results suggest that in situ geometrical screening of IVD morphology might help to anticipate particular mechanisms of disk degeneration. PMID:25717471

  17. Magnetic bearings for a spaceflight optical disk recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hockney, Richard; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hawkey, Timothy

    1991-01-01

    The development and testing of a magnetic bearing system for the translator of the read/write head in a magneto-optic disk drive are discussed. The asymmetrical three-pole actuators with permanent magnet bias support the optical head, and its tracking and focusing servos, through their radial excursion above the disk. The specifications for the magnetic bearing are presented, along with the configuration of the magnetic hardware. Development of a five degree of freedom collision model is examined which allowed assessment of the system response during large scale transients. Experimental findings and the results of performance testing are presented, including the roll-off of current-to-force due to eddy current loss in the magnetic materials.

  18. Towards Bayesian Machine Learning for Estimating Parameters of Accretion Disk Models for SPH Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Amit; Montgomery, Michele; Wiegand, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Accretion disks are ubiquitous in Active Galactic Nuclei, in protostellar systems forming protoplanets, and in close binary star systems such as X-ray binaries, Cataclysmic Variables, and Algols, for example. Observations such as disk tilt are found in all of these different accreting system types, suggesting a common physics must be present. To understand the common connections between these different system types, which can help us understand their unique evolutions, we need to better understand the physics of accretion. For example, viscosity is typically a constant value in the disk of a system that is in a specific state such as a quiescent state. However, viscosity can't be constant throughout the disk, especially at the boundaries. To learn more about viscosity and other common parameters in these disk, we use Bayesian Inference and Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques to make predictions of events to come in the numerical simulations of these accreting disks. In this work, we present our techniques and initial findings.

  19. Design, testing and two-dimensional flow modeling of a multiple-disk fan

    SciTech Connect

    Engin, Tahsin; Oezdemir, Mustafa; Cesmeci, Sevki

    2009-11-15

    A multiple-disk Tesla type fan has been designed, tested and analyzed two-dimensionally using the conservation of angular momentum principle. Experimental results showed that such multiple-disk fans exhibited exceptionally low performance characteristics, which could be attributed to the low viscosity, tangential nature of the flow, and large mechanical energy losses at both suction and discharge sections that are comparable to the total input power. By means of theoretical analysis, local and overall shearing stresses on the disk surfaces have been determined based on tangential and radial velocity distributions of the air flow of different volume flow rates at prescribed disk spaces and rotational speeds. Then the total power transmitted by rotating disks to air flow, and the power acquired by the air flow in the gap due to transfer of angular momentum have been obtained by numerically integrating shearing stresses over the disk surfaces. Using the measured shaft and hydraulic powers, these quantities were utilized to evaluate mechanical energy losses associated with the suction and discharge sections of the fan. (author)

  20. Building a reduced model for nonlinear dynamics in Rayleigh-Bénard convection with counter-rotating disks.

    PubMed

    Navarro, M C; Witkowski, L Martin; Tuckerman, L S; Le Quéré, P

    2010-03-01

    A reduced model to decrease the number of degrees of freedom of the discretized Navier-Stokes equations to a small set that nevertheless captures the essential dynamics of the flow is proposed. The Rayleigh-Bénard convection problem in a cylinder of aspect ratio one where the lower and upper disks, maintained at hot and cold temperatures, respectively, rotate at equal and opposite angular velocities has been chosen to test the technique. The nonlinear dynamics is rich and complex when the temperature difference between disks and their angular velocity is varied. Representatives states--stationary, periodic near sinusoidal, and near heteroclinic--are presented. In each case, the reduced model is compared with temporal integration, and we show that 41 degrees of freedom are sufficient to reproduce the signal. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the algorithm by which we build our reduced model.

  1. Towards a comprehensive model of Earth's disk-integrated Stokes vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Muñoz, A.

    2015-07-01

    at three wavelengths (0.48, 0.56 and 0.63 μm) during a flyby in 2005. The light curves show distinct structure associated with the varying aspect of the Earth's visible disk (phases of 98-107°) as the planet undergoes a full 24 h rotation; the structure is reasonably well reproduced with model simulations.

  2. Superconducting linear actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Bruce; Hockney, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Special actuators are needed to control the orientation of large structures in space-based precision pointing systems. Electromagnetic actuators that presently exist are too large in size and their bandwidth is too low. Hydraulic fluid actuation also presents problems for many space-based applications. Hydraulic oil can escape in space and contaminate the environment around the spacecraft. A research study was performed that selected an electrically-powered linear actuator that can be used to control the orientation of a large pointed structure. This research surveyed available products, analyzed the capabilities of conventional linear actuators, and designed a first-cut candidate superconducting linear actuator. The study first examined theoretical capabilities of electrical actuators and determined their problems with respect to the application and then determined if any presently available actuators or any modifications to available actuator designs would meet the required performance. The best actuator was then selected based on available design, modified design, or new design for this application. The last task was to proceed with a conceptual design. No commercially-available linear actuator or modification capable of meeting the specifications was found. A conventional moving-coil dc linear actuator would meet the specification, but the back-iron for this actuator would weigh approximately 12,000 lbs. A superconducting field coil, however, eliminates the need for back iron, resulting in an actuator weight of approximately 1000 lbs.

  3. Constraining the Physics of AM Canum Venaticorum Systems with the Accretion Disk Instability Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannizzo, John K.; Nelemans, Gijs

    2015-01-01

    Recent work by Levitan et al. has expanded the long-term photometric database for AM CVn stars. In particular, their outburst properties are well correlated with orbital period and allow constraints to be placed on the secular mass transfer rate between secondary and primary if one adopts the disk instability model for the outbursts. We use the observed range of outbursting behavior for AM CVn systems as a function of orbital period to place a constraint on mass transfer rate versus orbital period. We infer a rate approximately 5 x 10(exp -9) solar mass yr(exp -1) ((P(sub orb)/1000 s)(exp -5.2)). We show that the functional form so obtained is consistent with the recurrence time-orbital period relation found by Levitan et al. using a simple theory for the recurrence time. Also, we predict that their steep dependence of outburst duration on orbital period will flatten considerably once the longer orbital period systems have more complete observations.

  4. Modeling, construction and experimental validation of actuated rolling dynamics of the cylindrical Transforming Roving-Rolling Explorer (TRREx)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwin, L.; Mazzoleni, A.; Gemmer, T.; Ferguson, S.

    2017-03-01

    Planetary surface exploration technology over the past few years has seen significant advancements on multiple fronts. Robotic exploration platforms are becoming more sophisticated and capable of embarking on more challenging missions. More unconventional designs, particularly transforming architectures that have multiple modes of locomotion, are being studied. This work explores the capabilities of one such novel transforming rover called the Transforming Roving-Rolling Explorer (TRREx). Biologically inspired by the armadillo and the golden-wheel spider, the TRREx has two modes of locomotion: it can traverse on six wheels like a conventional rover on benign terrain, but can transform into a sphere when necessary to negotiate steep rugged slopes. The ability to self-propel in the spherical configuration, even in the absence of a negative gradient, increases the TRREx's versatility and its concept value. This paper describes construction and testing of a prototype cylindrical TRREx that demonstrates that "actuated rolling" can be achieved, and also presents a dynamic model of this prototype version of the TRREx that can be used to investigate the feasibility and value of such self-propelled locomotion. Finally, we present results that validate our dynamic model by comparing results from computer simulations made using the dynamic model to experimental results acquired from test runs using the prototype.

  5. On the dynamic model and motion planning for a spherical rolling robot actuated by orthogonal internal rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svinin, Mikhail; Morinaga, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Motoji

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the dynamics of a spherical rolling robot actuated by internal rotors that are placed on orthogonal axes. The driving principle for such a robot exploits nonholonomic constraints to propel the rolling carrier. A full mathematical model as well as its reduced version are derived, and the inverse dynamics are addressed. It is shown that if the rotors are mounted on three orthogonal axes, any feasible kinematic trajectory of the rolling robot is dynamically realizable. For the case of only two rotors the conditions of controllability and dynamic realizability are established. It is shown that in moving the robot by tracing straight lines and circles in the contact plane the dynamically realizable trajectories are not represented by the circles on the sphere, which is a feature of the kinematic model of pure rolling. The implication of this fact to motion planning is explored under a case study. It is shown there that in maneuvering the robot by tracing circles on the sphere the dynamically realizable trajectories are essentially different from those resulted from kinematic models. The dynamic motion planning problem is then formulated in the optimal control settings, and properties of the optimal trajectories are illustrated under simulation.

  6. Chemical Signposts in Transition Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleeves, I.; Bergin, E. A.; Fogel, J.

    2011-05-01

    In the era of the Kepler Mission, the detection of numerous multi-planet systems has demonstrated that planet-formation appears to be a rather ubiquitous phenomenon. Such systems are believed to form from nascent protoplanetary disks, whose environment sets the stage for initial planetary chemical composition and evolution. However, disk systems typically vary by orders of magnitude in radiation field, densities and temperatures, and thus complex disk models are necessary to fully understand this unique chemical environment. Further evidence for disks as progenitors to planetary systems comes from Spitzer surveys of young disk systems, which have revealed a class of objects known as ``transition disks''. These systems appear to have inner voids and gaps in the dust opacity, possibly indicative of planet evolution and disk clearing. This physical evolution in the dust disk will significantly impact its chemical nature, and therefore these potentially planet-forming systems in ``transition'' should have unique chemical signatures. We predict one such signature to be an active chemistry at the wall interface where the conditions are such that the disk is both heated and optically thick to the photo-dissociating UV. The net result is a wide variety of gas-phase molecules, appearing in line emission as bright molecular rings far from the central star. This behavior should also reveal a wealth of information about the physical conditions in this actively evolving zone between the inner ``cleared'' disk and the massive outer disk. For this presentation I will discuss the features of our disk chemical model pipeline and select model results of transition disk systems. I will also highlight the exciting future of protoplanetary disk chemistry in the era of ALMA, which will truly revolutionize our understanding of the chemical nature of disks.

  7. Stellar models simulating the disk-locking mechanism and the evolutionary history of the Orion Nebula cluster and NGC 2264

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landin, N. R.; Mendes, L. T. S.; Vaz, L. P. R.; Alencar, S. H. P.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Rotational evolution in young stars is described by pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks including non-gray boundary conditions, rotation, conservation of angular momentum, and simulations of disk-locking. Aims: By assuming that disk-locking is the regulation mechanism for the stellar angular velocity during the early stages of pre-main sequence evolution, we use our rotating models and observational data to constrain disk lifetimes (Tdisk) of a representative sample of low-mass stars in two young clusters, the Orion Nebula cluster (ONC) and NGC 2264, and to better understand their rotational evolution. Methods: The period distributions of the ONC and NGC 2264 are known to be bimodal and to depend on the stellar mass. To follow the rotational evolution of these two clusters' stars, we generated sets of evolutionary tracks from a fully convective configuration with low central temperatures (before D- and Li-burning). We assumed that the evolution of fast rotators can be represented by models considering conservation of angular momentum during all stages and of moderate rotators by models considering conservation of angular velocity during the first stages of evolution. With these models we estimate a mass and an age for all stars. Results: The resulting mass distribution for the bulk of the cluster population is in the ranges of 0.2-0.4 M⊙ and 0.1-0.6 M⊙ for the ONC and NGC 2264, respectively. For the ONC, we assume that the secondary peak in the period distribution is due to high-mass objects still locked in their disks, with a locking period (Plock) of ~8 days. For NGC 2264 we make two hypotheses: (1) the stars in the secondary peak are still locked with Plock = 5 days, and (2) NGC 2264 is in a later stage in the rotational evolution. Hypothesis 2 implies in a disk-locking scenario with Plock = 8 days, a disk lifetime of 1 Myr and, after that, constant angular momentum evolution. We then simulated the period distribution of NGC 2264 when the mean age

  8. Modelling circumbinary protoplanetary disks. II. Gas disk feedback on planetesimal dynamical and collisional evolution in the circumbinary systems Kepler-16 and 34

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lines, S.; Leinhardt, Z. M.; Baruteau, C.; Paardekooper, S.-J.; Carter, P. J.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: We investigate the feasibility of planetesimal growth in circumbinary protoplanetary disks around the observed systems Kepler-16 and Kepler-34 under the gravitational influence of a precessing eccentric gas disk. Methods: We embed the results of our previous hydrodynamical simulations of protoplanetary disks around binaries into an N-body code to perform 3D, high-resolution, inter-particle gravity-enabled simulations of planetesimal growth and dynamics that include the gravitational force imparted by the gas. Results: Including the full, precessing asymmetric gas disk generates high eccentricity orbits for planetesimals orbiting at the edge of the circumbinary cavity, where the gas surface density and eccentricity have their largest values. The gas disk is able to efficiently align planetesimal pericenters in some regions leading to phased, non-interacting orbits. Outside of these areas eccentric planetesimal orbits become misaligned and overlap leading to crossing orbits and high relative velocities during planetesimal collisions. This can lead to an increase in the number of erosive collisions that far outweighs the number of collisions that result in growth. Gravitational focusing from the static axisymmetric gas disk is weak and does not significantly alter collision outcomes from the gas free case. Conclusions: Due to asymmetries in the gas disk, planetesimals are strongly perturbed onto highly eccentric orbits. Where planetesimals orbits are not well aligned, orbit crossings lead to an increase in the number of erosive collisions. This makes it difficult for sustained planetesimal accretion to occur at the location of Kepler-16b and Kepler-34b and we therefore rule out in situ growth. This adds further support to our initial suggestions that most circumbinary planets should form further out in the disk and migrate inwards.

  9. Model-based and adaptive laminar-flow control via dielectric-barrier-discharge plasma actuators: an experimental comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbiane, Nicolò; Simon, Bernhard; Grundmann, Sven; Bagheri, Shervin; Henningson, Dan S.

    2014-11-01

    This work compares two of the mostly investigated reactive-control techniques in delaying the laminar-to-turbulence transition in boundary-layer (BL) flows: a Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) regulator and a Filtered-X Least Mean Squares (FXLMS) algorithm. The two compensators are compared on damping 2D TS-waves excited via both single-frequency and white-noise disturbances in a zero-pressure-gradient BL flow. Surface hot-wire sensors are used to detect the incoming waves and measure the effectiveness of the control action that is provided by a dielectric-barrier-discharge plasma actuator positioned between the two sensors. Based on DNS of the experimental set-up a linear reduced order model is built using the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm and used for the LQG design. The two control techniques show comparable performances when tested at their design condition. However, when tested off-design the LQG compensator shows a stronger sensitivity to model variations. If the free-stream velocity is changed, the LQG regulator estimates a wrong phase information of the incoming disturbance resulting in a less effective control action. The FXLMS compensator, instead, is capable to adapt to the new condition and prescribe the correct phase information with no significant performance loss.

  10. Adaptive fuzzy neural network control design via a T-S fuzzy model for a robot manipulator including actuator dynamics.

    PubMed

    Wai, Rong-Jong; Yang, Zhi-Wei

    2008-10-01

    This paper focuses on the development of adaptive fuzzy neural network control (AFNNC), including indirect and direct frameworks for an n-link robot manipulator, to achieve high-precision position tracking. In general, it is difficult to adopt a model-based design to achieve this control objective due to the uncertainties in practical applications, such as friction forces, external disturbances, and parameter variations. In order to cope with this problem, an indirect AFNNC (IAFNNC) scheme and a direct AFNNC (DAFNNC) strategy are investigated without the requirement of prior system information. In these model-free control topologies, a continuous-time Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) dynamic fuzzy model with online learning ability is constructed to represent the system dynamics of an n-link robot manipulator. In the IAFNNC, an FNN estimator is designed to tune the nonlinear dynamic function vector in fuzzy local models, and then, the estimative vector is used to indirectly develop a stable IAFNNC law. In the DAFNNC, an FNN controller is directly designed to imitate a predetermined model-based stabilizing control law, and then, the stable control performance can be achieved by only using joint position information. All the IAFNNC and DAFNNC laws and the corresponding adaptive tuning algorithms for FNN weights are established in the sense of Lyapunov stability analyses to ensure the stable control performance. Numerical simulations and experimental results of a two-link robot manipulator actuated by dc servomotors are given to verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed methodologies. In addition, the superiority of the proposed control schemes is indicated in comparison with proportional-differential control, fuzzy-model-based control, T-S-type FNN control, and robust neural fuzzy network control systems.

  11. History of Thermally Processed Solids in the Protoplanetary Disk: Reconciling Theoretical Models and Meteoritical Evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Petaev, M.; Scott, E. R. D.; Weidenschilling, S.; Ciesla, F. J.

    2004-01-01

    In this talk we assess theoretical models of the radial, temporal, and thermal evolution of nebula solids, and their ultimate accretion into planetesimals such as we see today, using meteorite evidence as a guide. Each class of chondrites contains a characteristic suite of chondrules and CAIs that may have formed over a period of several Myr during which planetesimals were accreting in the disk. Details of the various models for transient melting of chondrules and igneous CAIs will be left to others. However, high-temperature processes of different kinds evaporation, alteration, etc did affect these constituents and their environment over this time span. Here we describe evolutionary scenarios consistent with a large time gap between CAI and chondrule formation and the presence of distinctive suites of chondrules and CAIs in each chondrite class. Particle-gas dynamical processes transport particles of all relevant sizes (microns to many meters) within the nebula and affect their evolution in a variety of important ways. Turbulent radial diffusion spreads particles radially down their concentration gradients - as one example, it can prevent CAIs from being lost into the sun on several Myr timescales [1]. Vertical diffusion spreads the dense midplane particle layer, determining its volume density, which in turn affects the particle growth rate and even the dominant growth process [2-4]. Turbulent concentration selects aerodynamically sorted particles for orders-of-magnitude density enhancement, and is applicable to porous, fluffy particles of appropriate size as well as to solid chondrules [5]. Inward radial drift under gas drag brings a surprisingly large amount of material to regions where it evaporates; these evaporation fronts cause significant chemical modification of the nebula gas over a wide range of radii [6]. Radial transport by stellar winds can be important for small particles [7].

  12. ROSSBY WAVE INSTABILITY AT DEAD ZONE BOUNDARIES IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL RESISTIVE MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICAL GLOBAL MODELS OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Lyra, Wladimir; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark E-mail: mordecai@amnh.org

    2012-09-01

    It has been suggested that the transition between magnetorotationally active and dead zones in protoplanetary disks should be prone to the excitation of vortices via Rossby wave instability (RWI). However, the only numerical evidence for this has come from alpha disk models, where the magnetic field evolution is not followed, and the effect of turbulence is parameterized by Laplacian viscosity. We aim to establish the phenomenology of the flow in the transition in three-dimensional resistive-magnetohydrodynamical models. We model the transition by a sharp jump in resistivity, as expected in the inner dead zone boundary, using the PENCIL CODE to simulate the flow. We find that vortices are readily excited in the dead side of the transition. We measure the mass accretion rate finding similar levels of Reynolds stress at the dead and active zones, at the {alpha} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -2} level. The vortex sits in a pressure maximum and does not migrate, surviving until the end of the simulation. A pressure maximum in the active zone also triggers the RWI. The magnetized vortex that results should be disrupted by parasitical magneto-elliptic instabilities, yet it subsists in high resolution. This suggests that either the parasitic modes are still numerically damped or that the RWI supplies vorticity faster than they can destroy it. We conclude that the resistive transition between the active and dead zones in the inner regions of protoplanetary disks, if sharp enough, can indeed excite vortices via RWI. Our results lend credence to previous works that relied on the alpha-disk approximation, and caution against the use of overly reduced azimuthal coverage on modeling this transition.

  13. SPIN (Version 3. 83): A Fortran program for modeling one-dimensional rotating-disk/stagnation-flow chemical vapor deposition reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Coltrin, M.E. ); Kee, R.J.; Evans, G.H.; Meeks, E.; Rupley, F.M.; Grcar, J.F. )

    1991-08-01

    In rotating-disk reactor a heated substrate spins (at typical speeds of 1000 rpm or more) in an enclosure through which the reactants flow. The rotating disk geometry has the important property that in certain operating regimes{sup 1} the species and temperature gradients normal to the disk are equal everywhere on the disk. Thus, such a configuration has great potential for highly uniform chemical vapor deposition (CVD),{sup 2--5} and indeed commercial rotating-disk CVD reactors are now available. In certain operating regimes, the equations describing the complex three-dimensional spiral fluid motion can be solved by a separation-of-variables transformation{sup 5,6} that reduces the equations to a system of ordinary differential equations. Strictly speaking, the transformation is only valid for an unconfined infinite-radius disk and buoyancy-free flow. Furthermore, only some boundary conditions are consistent with the transformation (e.g., temperature, gas-phase composition, and approach velocity all specified to be independent of radius at some distances above the disk). Fortunately, however, the transformed equations will provide a very good practical approximation to the flow in a finite-radius reactor over a large fraction of the disk (up to {approximately}90% of the disk radius) when the reactor operating parameters are properly chosen, i.e, high rotation rates. In the limit of zero rotation rate, the rotating disk flow reduces to a stagnation-point flow, for which a similar separation-of-variables transformation is also available. Such flow configurations ( pedestal reactors'') also find use in CVD reactors. In this report we describe a model formulation and mathematical analysis of rotating-disk and stagnation-point CVD reactors. Then we apply the analysis to a compute code called SPIN and describe its implementation and use. 31 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Overall life cycle comprehensive assessment of pneumatic and electric actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yeming; Cai, Maolin

    2014-05-01

    Pneumatic actuators and electric actuators have almost been applied to all manufacturing industries. The two kinds of actuators can replace each other in most fields, such as the point to point transmission occasion and some rotating occasions. However, there are very few research results about the advantages and disadvantages of two kinds of actuators under the same working conditions so far. In this paper, a novel comprehensive assessment method, named as overall life cycle comprehensive assessment (OLCCA), is proposed for comparison and assessment of pneumatic and electric actuators. OLCCA contains mechanical properties evaluation (MPE), life cycle cost analysis based on users (LCCABOU) and life cycle environmental impact analysis (LCEIA) algorithm in order to solve three difficult problems: mechanical properties assessment, cost analysis and environmental impact assessment about actuators. The mechanical properties evaluation of actuators is a multi-objective optimization problem. The fuzzy data quantification and information entropy methods are combined to establish MPE algorithm of actuators. Two kinds of pneumatic actuators and electric actuators with similar bearing capacity and similar work stroke were taken for example to verify the correctness of MPE algorithm. The case study of MPE algorithm for actuators verified its correctness. LCCABOU for actuators is also set up. Considering cost complex structure of pneumatic actuators, public device cost even method (PDCEM) is firstly presented to solve cost division of public devices such as compressors, aftercooler, receivers, etc. LCCABOU method is also effective and verified by the three groups of pneumatic actuators and electric actuators. Finally, LCEIA model of actuators is established for the environmental impact assessment of actuators. LCEIA data collection method and model establishment procedure for actuators are also put forward. With Simapro 7, LCEIA comparison results of six actuators can be

  15. Modelling resonances and orbital chaos in disk galaxies. Application to a Milky Way spiral model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michtchenko, T. A.; Vieira, R. S. S.; Barros, D. A.; Lépine, J. R. D.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Resonances in the stellar orbital motion under perturbations from the spiral arm structure can play an important role in the evolution of the disks of spiral galaxies. The epicyclic approximation allows the determination of the corresponding resonant radii on the equatorial plane (in the context of nearly circular orbits), but is not suitable in general. Aims: We expand the study of resonant orbits by analysing stellar motions perturbed by spiral arms with Gaussian-shaped groove profiles without any restriction on the stellar orbital configurations, and we expand the concept of Lindblad (epicyclic) resonances for orbits with large radial excursions. Methods: We define a representative plane of initial conditions, which covers the whole phase space of the system. Dynamical maps on representative planes of initial conditions are constructed numerically in order to characterize the phase-space structure and identify the precise location of the co-rotation and Lindblad resonances. The study is complemented by the construction of dynamical power spectra, which provide the identification of fundamental oscillatory patterns in the stellar motion. Results: Our approach allows a precise description of the resonance chains in the whole phase space, giving a broader view of the dynamics of the system when compared to the classical epicyclic approach. We generalize the concept of Lindblad resonances and extend it to cases of resonant orbits with large radial excursions, even for objects in retrograde motion. The analysis of the solar neighbourhood shows that, depending on the current azimuthal phase of the Sun with respect to the spiral arms, a star with solar kinematic parameters (SSP) may evolve in dynamically distinct regions, either inside the stable co-rotation resonance or in a chaotic zone. Conclusions: Our approach contributes to quantifying the domains of resonant orbits and the degree of chaos in the whole Galactic phase-space structure. It may serve as a

  16. Final report : compliant thermo-mechanical MEMS actuators, LDRD #52553.

    SciTech Connect

    Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Baker, Michael Sean; Headley, Thomas Jeffrey; Plass, Richard Anton

    2004-12-01

    Thermal actuators have proven to be a robust actuation method in surface-micromachined MEMS processes. Their higher output force and lower input voltage make them an attractive alternative to more traditional electrostatic actuation methods. A predictive model of thermal actuator behavior has been developed and validated that can be used as a design tool to customize the performance of an actuator to a specific application. This tool has also been used to better understand thermal actuator reliability by comparing the maximum actuator temperature to the measured lifetime. Modeling thermal actuator behavior requires the use of two sequentially coupled models, the first to predict the temperature increase of the actuator due to the applied current and the second to model the mechanical response of the structure due to the increase in temperature. These two models have been developed using Matlab for the thermal response and ANSYS for the structural response. Both models have been shown to agree well with experimental data. In a parallel effort, the reliability and failure mechanisms of thermal actuators have been studied. Their response to electrical overstress and electrostatic discharge has been measured and a study has been performed to determine actuator lifetime at various temperatures and operating conditions. The results from this study have been used to determine a maximum reliable operating temperature that, when used in conjunction with the predictive model, enables us to design in reliability and customize the performance of an actuator at the design stage.

  17. THE GAS/DUST RATIO OF CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS: TESTING MODELS OF PLANETESIMAL FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, David; Gibb, Erika; Rettig, Terrence W.; Tilley, David; Balsara, Dinshaw; Brittain, Sean

    2012-07-20

    We present high-resolution, near-infrared NIRSPEC observations of CO absorption toward six class II T Tauri stars: AA Tau, DG Tau, IQ Tau, RY Tau, CW Tau, and Haro 6-5b. {sup 12}CO overtone absorption lines originating from the circumstellar disk of each object were used to calculate line-of-sight gas column densities toward each source. We measured the gas/dust ratio as a function of disk inclination, utilizing measured visual extinctions and inclinations for each star. The majority of our sources show further evidence for a correlation between the gas/dust column density ratio and disk inclination similar to that found by Rettig et al.

  18. The Gas/Dust Ratio of Circumstellar Disks: Testing Models of Planetesimal Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, David; Gibb, Erika; Rettig, Terrence W.; Brittain, Sean; Tilley, David; Balsara, Dinshaw

    2012-07-01

    We present high-resolution, near-infrared NIRSPEC observations of CO absorption toward six class II T Tauri stars: AA Tau, DG Tau, IQ Tau, RY Tau, CW Tau, and Haro 6-5b. 12CO overtone absorption lines originating from the circumstellar disk of each object were used to calculate line-of-sight gas column densities toward each source. We measured the gas/dust ratio as a function of disk inclination, utilizing measured visual extinctions and inclinations for each star. The majority of our sources show further evidence for a correlation between the gas/dust column density ratio and disk inclination similar to that found by Rettig et al.

  19. Micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Abraham P.; Sommargren, Gary E.; McConaghy, Charles F.; Krulevitch, Peter A.

    1999-10-19

    A micromachined vertical actuator utilizing a levitational force, such as in electrostatic comb drives, provides vertical actuation that is relatively linear in actuation for control, and can be readily combined with parallel plate capacitive position sensing for position control. The micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator provides accurate movement in the sub-micron to micron ranges which is desirable in the phase modulation instrument, such as optical phase shifting. For example, compact, inexpensive, and position controllable micromirrors utilizing an electrostatic vertical actuator can replace the large, expensive, and difficult-to-maintain piezoelectric actuators. A thirty pound piezoelectric actuator with corner cube reflectors, as utilized in a phase shifting diffraction interferometer can be replaced with a micromirror and a lens. For any very precise and small amplitudes of motion` micromachined electrostatic actuation may be used because it is the most compact in size, with low power consumption and has more straightforward sensing and control options.

  20. Three-dimensional deformation response of a NiTi shape memory helical-coil actuator during thermomechanical cycling: experimentally validated numerical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, B.; Nicholson, D. E.; Saleeb, A. F.; Padula, S. A., II; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2016-09-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators often operate under a complex state of stress for an extended number of thermomechanical cycles in many aerospace and engineering applications. Hence, it becomes important to account for multi-axial stress states and deformation characteristics (which evolve with thermomechanical cycling) when calibrating any SMA model for implementation in large-scale simulation of actuators. To this end, the present work is focused on the experimental validation of an SMA model calibrated for the transient and cyclic evolutionary behavior of shape memory Ni49.9Ti50.1, for the actuation of axially loaded helical-coil springs. The approach requires both experimental and computational aspects to appropriately assess the thermomechanical response of these multi-dimensional structures. As such, an instrumented and controlled experimental setup was assembled to obtain temperature, torque, degree of twist and extension, while controlling end constraints during heating and cooling of an SMA spring under a constant externally applied axial load. The computational component assesses the capabilities of a general, multi-axial, SMA material-modeling framework, calibrated for Ni49.9Ti50.1 with regard to its usefulness in the simulation of SMA helical-coil spring actuators. Axial extension, being the primary response, was examined on an axially-loaded spring with multiple active coils. Two different conditions of end boundary constraint were investigated in both the numerical simulations as well as the validation experiments: Case (1) where the loading end is restrained against twist (and the resulting torque measured as the secondary response) and Case (2) where the loading end is free to twist (and the degree of twist measured as the secondary response). The present study focuses on the transient and evolutionary response associated with the initial isothermal loading and the subsequent thermal cycles under applied constant axial load. The experimental

  1. Mechanics of Actuated Disc Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehkhoda, Sevda; Detournay, Emmanuel

    2017-02-01

    This paper investigates the mechanics of an actuated disc cutter with the objective of determining the average forces acting on the disc as a function of the parameters characterizing its motion. The specific problem considered is that of a disc cutter revolving off-centrically at constant angular velocity around a secondary axis rigidly attached to a cartridge, which is moving at constant velocity and undercutting rock at a constant depth. This model represents an idealization of a technology that has been implemented in a number of hard rock mechanical excavators with the goal of reducing the average thrust force to be provided by the excavation equipment. By assuming perfect conformance of the rock with the actuated disc as well as a prescribed motion of the disc (perfectly rigid machine), the evolution of the contact surface between the disc and the rock during one actuation of the disc can be computed. Coupled with simple cutter/rock interaction models that embody either a ductile or a brittle mode of fragmentation, these kinematical considerations lead to an estimate of the average force on the cartridge and of the partitioning of the energy imparted by the disc to the rock between the actuation mechanism of the disc and the translation of the cartridge on which the actuated disc is attached.

  2. DIAGNOSING CIRCUMSTELLAR DEBRIS DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Joseph M.

    2010-08-20

    A numerical model of a circumstellar debris disk is developed and applied to observations of the circumstellar dust orbiting {beta} Pictoris. The model accounts for the rates at which dust is produced by collisions among unseen planetesimals, and the rate at which dust grains are destroyed due to collisions. The model also accounts for the effects of radiation pressure, which is the dominant perturbation on the disk's smaller but abundant dust grains. Solving the resulting system of rate equations then provides the dust abundances versus grain size and dust abundances over time. Those solutions also provide the dust grains' collisional lifetime versus grain size, and the debris disk's optical depth and surface brightness versus distance from the star. Comparison to observations then yields estimates of the unseen planetesimal disk's radius, and the rate at which the disk sheds mass due to planetesimal grinding. The model can also be used to measure or else constrain the dust grain's physical and optical properties, such as the dust grains' strength, their light-scattering asymmetry parameter, and the grains' efficiency of light scattering Q{sub s}. The model is then applied to optical observations of the edge-on dust disk orbiting {beta} Pictoris, and good agreement is achieved when the unseen planetesimal disk is broad, with 75 {approx}< r {approx}< 150 AU. If it is assumed that the dust grains are bright like Saturn's icy rings (Q{sub s} = 0.7), then the cross section of dust in the disk is A{sub d} {approx_equal} 2 x 10{sup 20} km{sup 2} and its mass is M{sub d} {approx_equal} 11 lunar masses. In this case, the planetesimal disk's dust-production rate is quite heavy, M-dot {sub d{approx}}9 M {sub +} Myr{sup -1}, implying that there is or was a substantial amount of planetesimal mass there, at least 110 Earth masses. If the dust grains are darker than assumed, then the planetesimal disk's mass-loss rate and its total mass are heavier. In fact, the apparent dearth

  3. Nebra Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pásztor, Emília

    An important archaeological find from the Bronze Age has come to light in Germany. It is a round bronze disk adorned with gold figures that might be interpreted as symbols for stars, the sun, and the moon, making the disk the oldest known surviving depiction of celestial objects in Europe. By comparing the iconography and ideography of the disk with archaeological finds, ethnographic material, and historical notes of different cultures and periods, the conclusion has been reached that the compositional elements might be understood as the depiction of a traditional folk worldview.

  4. Magnetic disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallinson, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic disk recording was invented in 1953 and has undergone intensive development ever since. As a result of this 38 years of development, the cost per byte and the areal density have halved and doubled respectively every 2-2 1/2 years. Today, the cost per byte is lower than 10(exp -6) dollars per byte and area densities exceed 100 10(exp 6) bits per square inch. In this talk, the recent achievements in magnetic disk recording are first surveyed briefly. Then, the principal areas of current technical development are outlined. Finally, some comments are made about the future of magnetic disk recording.

  5. Disk Drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A new material known as AlBeMet, developed by Brush Wellman for research applications in the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program, is now used for high performance disk drives. AlBeMet is a compression of aluminum, beryllium metal matrix composite. It reduces system weight and its high thermal conductivity can effectively remove heat and increase an electrical system's lifetime. The lighter, stiffer AlBeMet (AlBeMet 160) used in the disk drive means heads can be moved faster, improving disk performance.

  6. Flow between two stretchable rotating disks with Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Qayyum, Sumaira; Imtiaz, Maria; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    An analysis is performed to investigate flow between two stretchable rotating disks. Thermal equation is constructed by Cattaneo-Christov heat flux theory. Porous medium is also taken into account. The nonlinear partial differential equations are first converted to ordinary differential equations and then computed for the convergent series solutions. Discussion about impact of dimensionless parameters on velocities, temperature and skin friction coefficient is given. It is observed that the radial velocity at upper disk enhances for larger values of ratio of corresponding stretching rate to angular velocity. Velocity in y-direction decays with an increase in rotational parameter. Magnitude of temperature profile decays for larger Prandtl number and thermal relaxation parameter.

  7. Electromagnetic rotational actuation.

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Alexander Lee

    2010-08-01

    There are many applications that need a meso-scale rotational actuator. These applications have been left by the wayside because of the lack of actuation at this scale. Sandia National Laboratories has many unique fabrication technologies that could be used to create an electromagnetic actuator at this scale. There are also many designs to be explored. In this internship exploration of the designs and fabrications technologies to find an inexpensive design that can be used for prototyping the electromagnetic rotational actuator.

  8. OUTWARD MIGRATION OF JUPITER AND SATURN IN 3:2 OR 2:1 RESONANCE IN RADIATIVE DISKS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE GRAND TACK AND NICE MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Pierens, Arnaud; Raymond, Sean N.; Nesvorny, David; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2014-11-01

    Embedded in the gaseous protoplanetary disk, Jupiter and Saturn naturally become trapped in 3:2 resonance and migrate outward. This serves as the basis of the Grand Tack model. However, previous hydrodynamical simulations were restricted to isothermal disks, with moderate aspect ratio and viscosity. Here we simulate the orbital evolution of the gas giants in disks with viscous heating and radiative cooling. We find that Jupiter and Saturn migrate outward in 3:2 resonance in modest-mass (M {sub disk} ≈ M {sub MMSN}, where MMSN is the {sup m}inimum-mass solar nebula{sup )} disks with viscous stress parameter α between 10{sup –3} and 10{sup –2}. In disks with relatively low-mass (M {sub disk} ≲ M {sub MMSN}), Jupiter and Saturn get captured in 2:1 resonance and can even migrate outward in low-viscosity disks (α ≤ 10{sup –4}). Such disks have a very small aspect ratio (h ∼ 0.02-0.03) that favors outward migration after capture in 2:1 resonance, as confirmed by isothermal runs which resulted in a similar outcome for h ∼ 0.02 and α ≤ 10{sup –4}. We also performed N-body runs of the outer solar system starting from the results of our hydrodynamical simulations and including 2-3 ice giants. After dispersal of the gaseous disk, a Nice model instability starting with Jupiter and Saturn in 2:1 resonance results in good solar systems analogs. We conclude that in a cold solar nebula, the 2:1 resonance between Jupiter and Saturn can lead to outward migration of the system, and this may represent an alternative scenario for the evolution of the solar system.

  9. Outward Migration of Jupiter and Saturn in 3:2 or 2:1 Resonance in Radiative Disks: Implications for the Grand Tack and Nice models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierens, Arnaud; Raymond, Sean N.; Nesvorny, David; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2014-11-01

    Embedded in the gaseous protoplanetary disk, Jupiter and Saturn naturally become trapped in 3:2 resonance and migrate outward. This serves as the basis of the Grand Tack model. However, previous hydrodynamical simulations were restricted to isothermal disks, with moderate aspect ratio and viscosity. Here we simulate the orbital evolution of the gas giants in disks with viscous heating and radiative cooling. We find that Jupiter and Saturn migrate outward in 3:2 resonance in modest-mass (M disk ≈ M MMSN, where MMSN is the "minimum-mass solar nebula") disks with viscous stress parameter α between 10-3 and 10-2. In disks with relatively low-mass (M disk <~ M MMSN), Jupiter and Saturn get captured in 2:1 resonance and can even migrate outward in low-viscosity disks (α <= 10-4). Such disks have a very small aspect ratio (h ~ 0.02-0.03) that favors outward migration after capture in 2:1 resonance, as confirmed by isothermal runs which resulted in a similar outcome for h ~ 0.02 and α <= 10-4. We also performed N-body runs of the outer solar system starting from the results of our hydrodynamical simulations and including 2-3 ice giants. After dispersal of the gaseous disk, a Nice model instability starting with Jupiter and Saturn in 2:1 resonance results in good solar systems analogs. We conclude that in a cold solar nebula, the 2:1 resonance between Jupiter and Saturn can lead to outward migration of the system, and this may represent an alternative scenario for the evolution of the solar system.

  10. Energy-based quasi-static modeling of the actuation and sensing behavior of single-crystal iron-gallium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atulasima, Jayasimha; Flatau, Alison B.; Cullen, James R.

    2008-01-01

    An energy based model [W. D. Armstrong, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2321 (1997); J. Atulasimha, Ph.D. thesis, Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2006] is employed to predict the actuation (λ -H and B -H at various compressive stresses) and sensing behavior (B -σ and ɛ -σ at various bias fields) of single-crystal FeGa alloys. The significant feature of this formulation is that, in addition to modeling actuation behavior, the sensing behavior can be predicted based on parameters estimated from the actuator characteristics. These predictions are then validated against experimental data for furnace cooled 19 at. % [100] oriented single-crystal FeGa alloys. Furthermore, an attempt is made to couple the energy-based sensing model with a lumped-parameter model that simulates the magnetic interaction between the magnetostrictive specimen and the magnetic circuit comprising the transducer. This enables a prediction of the variation in field through the sample due to changes in reluctance of the magnetostrictive sample with stress, as well as the impact of this variation in field on the B -σ and ɛ -σ curves. These predictions are benchmarked against experimental data, wherein the bias field varies due to change in sample reluctance with application of compressive stress while the drive current to the transducer is maintained constant.

  11. An experimental and modeling investigation of the external strain, internal stress and fiber phase transformation behavior of a NiTi actuated aluminum metal matrix composite

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, W.D.; Lorentzen, T.; Broendsted, P.; Larsen, P.H.

    1998-06-12

    The present work reports macroscopic thermal mechanical and in-situ neutron diffraction measurements from 22.9 vol. %, 50.7 at. % Ni-Ti fiber actuated 6082-T6 aluminum matrix composite and 6082-T6 homogeneous aluminum control materials subjected to a room temperature 4% tensile elongation, a subsequent room temperature to 120 C unconstrained heating process, and a final 120 C tensile process. During the unconstrained room temperature to 120 C heating process, the composite exhibited a pronounced, non linear thermal contraction, while the homogeneous control exhibited the expected linear thermal expansion. The composite thermal contraction was clearly the result of a powerful shape memory response in the actuating NiTi fibers. The paper further presents a one-dimensional thermal strain, internal stress and fiber phase transformation composite model. Model parameters were identified from tests on extracted single fibers, calculations using these parameters quantitatively agree with experimental thermal mechanical and neutron diffraction measurements.

  12. Dynamics simulation of MEMS device embedded-hard-disk-drive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiaping; Chai, Jie; Lim, Boon Baun; Chen, Shixin

    2002-04-01

    Currently, hard disk drives (HHD) use rotating disks to store digital data and magnetic recording heads are flying on the disk to read/write data. The recording heads are mounted on a slider- suspension assembly, which makes heads move from one track to another on the disk. The heads movement is controlled by close-loop feedback servo system. It is well known that dynamic behaviors of head-slider-suspension-assembly (HSA) system are of great influence on the track per inch capacity of HDD1,2. As the problem is structurally complex, it is usually investigated using experimental methods or finite element simulation models 3. Furthermore, the dual-stage servo system, that is, a conventional VCM as the primary stage and a MEMS actuator as the secondary stage for MEMS device embedded HAS, has resulted in more difficulties in predicting HDD dynamic performance. This paper presents studies of the problem using macromodeling simulation approach. It applies efficient FEM based sub-structuring synthesis (SSS)4 and fast boundary element method (BEM) approaches incorporated with system dynamics technology to investigate dynamic characteristics of MEMS actuator embedded HAS system for HDD.

  13. GROWTH OF GRAINS IN BROWN DWARF DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Meru, Farzana; Galvagni, Marina; Olczak, Christoph

    2013-09-01

    We perform coagulation and fragmentation simulations using the new physically motivated model by Garaud et al. to determine growth locally in brown dwarf disks. We show that large grains can grow and that if brown dwarf disks are scaled-down versions of T Tauri disks (in terms of stellar mass, disk mass, and disk radius) growth at an equivalent location with respect to the disk truncation radius can occur to the same size in both disks. We show that similar growth occurs because the collisional timescales in the two disks are comparable. Our model may therefore potentially explain the recent observations of grain growth to millimeter sizes in brown dwarf disks, as seen in T Tauri disks.

  14. Brown dwarf disks with ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Ricci, L.; Isella, A.; Testi, L.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Natta, A.; Scholz, A.

    2014-08-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array continuum and spectral line data at 0.89 mm and 3.2 mm for three disks surrounding young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars in the Taurus star forming region. Dust thermal emission is detected and spatially resolved for all the three disks, while CO(J = 3-2) emission is seen in two disks. We analyze the continuum visibilities and constrain the disks' physical structure in dust. The results of our analysis show that the disks are relatively large; the smallest one has an outer radius of about 70 AU. The inferred disk radii, radial profiles of the dust surface density, and disk to central object mass ratios lie within the ranges found for disks around more massive young stars. We derive from our observations the wavelength dependence of the millimeter dust opacity. In all the three disks, data are consistent with the presence of grains with at least millimeter sizes, as also found for disks around young stars, and confirm that the early stages of the solid growth toward planetesimals occur also around very low-mass objects. We discuss the implications of our findings on models of solids evolution in protoplanetary disks, the main mechanisms proposed for the formation of brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars, as well as the potential of finding rocky and giant planets around very low-mass objects.

  15. X-ray Reflected Spectra from Accretion Disk Models. III. A Complete Grid of Ionized Reflection Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, J.; Dauser, T.; Reynolds, C. S.; Kallman, T. R.; McClintock, J. E.; Wilms, J.; Ekmann, W.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new and complete library of synthetic spectra for modeling the component of emission that is reflected from an illuminated accretion disk. The spectra were computed using an updated version of our code xillver that incorporates new routines and a richer atomic data base. We offer in the form of a table model an extensive grid of reflection models that cover a wide range of parameters. Each individual model is characterized by the photon index Gamma of the illuminating radiation, the ionization parameter zeta at the surface of the disk (i.e., the ratio of the X-ray flux to the gas density), and the iron abundance A(sub Fe) relative to the solar value. The ranges of the parameters covered are: 1.2 <= Gamma <= 3.4, 1 <= zeta <= 104, and 0.5 <= A(sub Fe) <= 10. These ranges capture the physical conditions typically inferred from observations of active galactic nuclei, and also stellar-mass black holes in the hard state. This library is intended for use when the thermal disk flux is faint compared to the incident power-law flux. The models are expected to provide an accurate description of the Fe K emission line, which is the crucial spectral feature used to measure black hole spin. A total of 720 reflection spectra are provided in a single FITS file suitable for the analysis of X-ray observations via the atable model in xspec. Detailed comparisons with previous reflection models illustrate the improvements incorporated in this version of xillver.

  16. X-RAY REFLECTED SPECTRA FROM ACCRETION DISK MODELS. III. A COMPLETE GRID OF IONIZED REFLECTION CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, J.; McClintock, J. E.; Dauser, T.; Wilms, J.; Eikmann, W.; Reynolds, C. S.; Kallman, T. R. E-mail: jem@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: thomas.dauser@sternwarte.uni-erlangen.de E-mail: wiebke.eikmann@sternwarte.uni-erlangen.de

    2013-05-10

    We present a new and complete library of synthetic spectra for modeling the component of emission that is reflected from an illuminated accretion disk. The spectra were computed using an updated version of our code XILLVER that incorporates new routines and a richer atomic database. We offer in the form of a table model an extensive grid of reflection models that cover a wide range of parameters. Each individual model is characterized by the photon index {Gamma} of the illuminating radiation, the ionization parameter {xi} at the surface of the disk (i.e., the ratio of the X-ray flux to the gas density), and the iron abundance A{sub Fe} relative to the solar value. The ranges of the parameters covered are 1.2 {<=} {Gamma} {<=} 3.4, 1 {<=} {xi} {<=} 10{sup 4}, and 0.5 {<=} A{sub Fe} {<=} 10. These ranges capture the physical conditions typically inferred from observations of active galactic nuclei, and also stellar-mass black holes in the hard state. This library is intended for use when the thermal disk flux is faint compared to the incident power-law flux. The models are expected to provide an accurate description of the Fe K emission line, which is the crucial spectral feature used to measure black hole spin. A total of 720 reflection spectra are provided in a single FITS file (http://hea-www.cfa.harvard.edu/{approx}javier/xillver/) suitable for the analysis of X-ray observations via the atable model in XSPEC. Detailed comparisons with previous reflection models illustrate the improvements incorporated in this version of XILLVER.

  17. ACCRETION OUTBURSTS IN CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Lubow, S. H.; Martin, R. G.

    2012-04-20

    We describe a model for the long-term evolution of a circumplanetary disk that is fed mass from a circumstellar disk and contains regions of low turbulence (dead zones). We show that such disks can be subject to accretion-driven outbursts, analogous to outbursts previously modeled in the context of circumstellar disks to explain FU Ori phenomena. Circumplanetary disks around a proto-Jupiter can undergo outbursts for infall accretion rates onto the disks in the range M-dot{sub infall} approx. 10{sup -9} to 10{sup -7} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, typical of accretion rates in the T Tauri phase. During outbursts, the accretion rate and disk luminosity increases by several orders of magnitude. Most of the planet mass growth during planetary gas accretion may occur via disk outbursts involving gas that is considerably hotter than predicted by steady state models. For low infall accretion rates M-dot{sub infall} {approx}< 10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} that occur in late stages of disk accretion, disk outbursts are unlikely to occur, even if dead zones are present. Such conditions are favorable for the formation of icy satellites.

  18. Active vibration control using DEAP actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarban, Rahimullah; Jones, Richard W.

    2010-04-01

    Dielectric electro-active polymer (DEAP) is a new type of smart material, which has the potential to be used to provide effective actuation for a wide range of applications. The properties of DEAP material place it somewhere between those of piezoceramics and shape memory alloys. Of the range of DEAP-based actuators that have been developed those having a cylindrical configuration are among the most promising. This contribution introduces the use of a tubular type DEAP actuator for active vibration control purposes. Initially the DEAP-based tubular actuator to be used in this study, produced by Danfoss PolyPower A/S, is introduced along with the static and dynamic characteristics. Secondly an electromechanical model of the tubular actuator is briefly reviewed and its ability to model the actuator's hysteresis characteristics for a range of periodic input signals at different frequencies demonstrated. The model will be used to provide hysteresis compensation in future vibration isolation studies. Experimental active vibration control using the actuator is then examined, specifically active vibration isolation of a 250 g mass subject to shaker generated 'ground vibration'. An adaptive feedforward control strategy is used to achieve this. The ability of the tubular actuator to reject both tonal and broadband random vibratory disturbances is then demonstrated.

  19. Pneumatic Variable Series Elastic Actuator.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hao; Wu, Molei; Shen, Xiangrong

    2016-08-01

    Inspired by human motor control theory, stiffness control is highly effective in manipulation and human-interactive tasks. The implementation of stiffness control in robotic systems, however, has largely been limited to closed-loop control, and suffers from multiple issues such as limited frequency range, potential instability, and lack of contribution to energy efficiency. Variable-stiffness actuator represents a better solution, but the current designs are complex, heavy, and bulky. The approach in this paper seeks to address these issues by using pneumatic actuator as a variable series elastic actuator (VSEA), leveraging the compressibility of the working fluid. In this work, a pneumatic actuator is modeled as an elastic element with controllable stiffness and equilibrium point, both of which are functions of air masses in the two chambers. As such, for the implementation of stiffness control in a robotic system, the desired stiffness/equilibrium point can be converted to the desired chamber air masses, and a predictive pressure control approach is developed to control the timing of valve switching to obtain the desired air mass while minimizing control action. Experimental results showed that the new approach in this paper requires less expensive hardware (on-off valve instead of proportional valve), causes less control action in implementation, and provides good control performance by leveraging the inherent dynamics of the actuator.

  20. A novel, compact disk-like centrifugal microfluidics system for cell lysis and sample homogenization.

    PubMed

    Kido, Horacio; Micic, Miodrag; Smith, David; Zoval, Jim; Norton, Jim; Madou, Marc

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, we present the design and characterization of a novel platform for mechanical cell lysis of even the most difficult to lyse cell types on a micro or nanoscale (maximum 70 microL total volume). The system incorporates a machined plastic circular disk assembly, magnetic field actuated microfluidics, centrifugal cells and tissue homogenizer and centrifugation system. The mechanism of tissue disruption of this novel cell homogenization apparatus derives from the relative motion of ferromagnetic metal disks and grinding matrices in a liquid medium within individual chambers of the disk in the presence of an oscillating magnetic field. The oscillation of the ferromagnetic disks or blades produces mechanical impaction and shear forces capable of disrupting cells within the chamber both by direct action of the blade and by the motion of the surrounding lysis matrix, and by motion induced vortexing of buffer fluid. Glass beads or other grinding media are integrated into each lysis chamber within the disk to enhance the transfer of energy from the oscillating metal blade to the cells. The system also achieves the centrifugal elimination of solids from each liquid sample and allows the elution of clarified supernatants via siphoning into a collection chamber fabricated into the plastic disk assembly. This article describes system design, implementation and validation of proof of concept on two samples--Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae representing model systems for cells that are easy and difficult to lyse, respectively.

  1. 35 Hz shape memory alloy actuator with bending-twisting mode

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sung-Hyuk; Lee, Jang-Yeob; Rodrigue, Hugo; Choi, Ik-Seong; Kang, Yeon June; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) materials are widely used as an actuating source for bending actuators due to their high power density. However, due to the slow actuation speed of SMAs, there are limitations in their range of possible applications. This paper proposes a smart soft composite (SSC) actuator capable of fast bending actuation with large deformations. To increase the actuation speed of SMA actuator, multiple thin SMA wires are used to increase the heat dissipation for faster cooling. The actuation characteristics of the actuator at different frequencies are measured with different actuator lengths and results show that resonance can be used to realize large deformations up to 35 Hz. The actuation characteristics of the actuator can be modified by changing the design of the layered reinforcement structure embedded in the actuator, thus the natural frequency and length of an actuator can be optimized for a specific actuation speed. A model is used to compare with the experimental results of actuators with different layered reinforcement structure designs. Also, a bend-twist coupled motion using an anisotropic layered reinforcement structure at a speed of 10 Hz is also realized. By increasing their range of actuation characteristics, the proposed actuator extends the range of application of SMA bending actuators. PMID:26892438

  2. 35 Hz shape memory alloy actuator with bending-twisting mode.

    PubMed

    Song, Sung-Hyuk; Lee, Jang-Yeob; Rodrigue, Hugo; Choi, Ik-Seong; Kang, Yeon June; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-02-19

    Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) materials are widely used as an actuating source for bending actuators due to their high power density. However, due to the slow actuation speed of SMAs, there are limitations in their range of possible applications. This paper proposes a smart soft composite (SSC) actuator capable of fast bending actuation with large deformations. To increase the actuation speed of SMA actuator, multiple thin SMA wires are used to increase the heat dissipation for faster cooling. The actuation characteristics of the actuator at different frequencies are measured with different actuator lengths and results show that resonance can be used to realize large deformations up to 35 Hz. The actuation characteristics of the actuator can be modified by changing the design of the layered reinforcement structure embedded in the actuator, thus the natural frequency and length of an actuator can be optimized for a specific actuation speed. A model is used to compare with the experimental results of actuators with different layered reinforcement structure designs. Also, a bend-twist coupled motion using an anisotropic layered reinforcement structure at a speed of 10 Hz is also realized. By increasing their range of actuation characteristics, the proposed actuator extends the range of application of SMA bending actuators.

  3. IMPROVED MODELING OF THE MASS DISTRIBUTION OF DISK GALAXIES BY THE EINASTO HALO MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Chemin, Laurent; De Blok, W. J. G.; Mamon, Gary A. E-mail: edeblok@ast.uct.ac.za

    2011-10-15

    Analysis of the rotation curves (RCs) of spiral galaxies provides an efficient diagnostic for studying the properties of dark matter halos and their relations with baryonic material. Since the cored pseudo-isothermal (Iso) model usually provides a better description of observed RCs than does the cuspy Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) model, there have been concerns that the {Lambda}CDM primordial density fluctuation spectrum may not be the correct one. We have modeled the RCs of galaxies from The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS) with the Einasto halo model, which has emerged as the best-fitting model of the halos arising in dissipationless cosmological N-body simulations. We find that the RCs are significantly better fit with the Einasto halo than with either Iso or NFW halo models. In our best-fit Einasto models, the radius of density slope -2 and the density at this radius are highly correlated. The Einasto index, which controls the overall shape of the density profile, is near unity on average for intermediate and low mass halos. This is not in agreement with the predictions from {Lambda}CDM simulations. The indices of the most massive halos are in rough agreement with those cosmological simulations and appear correlated with the halo virial mass. We find that a typical Einasto density profile declines more strongly in its outermost parts than any of the Iso or NFW models whereas it is relatively shallow in its innermost regions. The core nature of those regions of halos thus extends the cusp-core controversy found for the NFW model with low surface density galaxies to the Einasto halo with more massive galaxies like those of THINGS. The Einasto concentrations decrease as a function of halo mass, in agreement with trends seen in numerical simulations. However, they are generally smaller than values expected for simulated Einasto halos. We thus find that, so far, the Einasto halo model provides the best match to the observed RCs and can therefore be considered as a new

  4. Bimorphic polymeric photomechanical actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkisov, Sergey S. (Inventor); Curley, Michael J. (Inventor); Adamovsky, Grigory (Inventor); Sarkisov, Jr., Sergey S. (Inventor); Fields, Aisha B. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A bimorphic polymeric photomechanical actuator, in one embodiment using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as a photosensitive body, transmitting light over fiber optic cables, and controlling the shape and pulse duration of the light pulse to control movement of the actuator. Multiple light beams are utilized to generate different ranges of motion for the actuator from a single photomechanical body and alternative designs use multiple light beams and multiple photomechanical bodies to provide controlled movement. Actuator movement using one or more ranges of motion is utilized to control motion to position an actuating element in three dimensional space.

  5. SMA actuators for morphing wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brailovski, V.; Terriault, P.; Georges, T.; Coutu, D.

    An experimental morphing laminar wing was developed to prove the feasibility of aircraft fuel consumption reduction through enhancement of the laminar flow regime over the wing extrados. The morphing wing prototype designed for subsonic cruise flight conditions (Mach 0.2 … 0.3; angle of attack - 1 … +2∘), combines three principal subsystems: (1) flexible extrados, (2) rigid intrados and (3) an actuator group located inside the wing box. The morphing capability of the wing relies on controlled deformation of the wing extrados under the action of shape memory alloys (SMA) actuators. A coupled fluid-structure model of the morphing wing was used to evaluate its mechanical and aerodynamic performances in different flight conditions. A 0.5 m chord and 1 m span prototype of the morphing wing was tested in a subsonic wind tunnel. In this work, SMA actuators for morphing wings were modeled using a coupled thermo-mechanical finite element model and they were windtunnel validated. If the thermo-mechanical model of SMA actuators presented in this work is coupled with the previously developed structureaerodynamic model of the morphing wing, it could serve for the optimization of the entire morphing wing system.

  6. Kinetic energy entrainment in wind turbine and actuator disc wakes: an experimental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lignarolo, L. E. M.; Ragni, D.; Simão Ferreira, C. J.; van Bussel, G. J. W.

    2014-06-01

    The present experimental study focuses on the comparison between the wake of a two-bladed wind turbine and the one of an actuator disk. The flow field at the middle plane of the wake is measured with a stereoscopic particle image velocimetry setup, in the low-speed Open Jet Facility wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology. The wind turbine wake is characterized by the complex dynamics of the tip vortex development and breakdown. Analysis of the flow statistics show anisotropic turbulent fluctuations in the turbine wake, with stronger components in the radial direction. The wake of the actuator disc is instead characterized by isotropic random fluctuations. The mixing process in the shear layer is further analysed in terms of flux of mean flow kinetic energy, to show the main differences between the kinetic energy entrainment in the actuator and the turbine wake. This project is intended to provide the basis for understanding the origin of the limitations of the current wake models based on the actuator disc assumption.

  7. Modeling the effect of head drag reduction for a cylinder with a protruding disk at high mach numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, S. A.; Baranov, P. A.; Mikhalev, A. N.; Sudakov, A. G.

    2014-11-01

    Various approaches to modeling super- and hypersonic turbulent airflow past cylindrical bodies with a nontraditional nose in the form of a protruding rod-supported disk have been compared. Aeroballistic experiments on a light-gas propulsion setup were combined with wind tunnel tests and numerical simulations using VP2/3 program package based on multiblock computational techniques and a model of shear stress transport with flow-line curvature corrections. The phenomenon of the head and wave drag reduction for the stepped body is analyzed at high Mach numbers (up to 10) and variation of the supporting rod length under conditions of existence of the frontal flow separation zone.

  8. Development of Design Tools for Flow-Control Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathew, Jose; Gallas, Quentin; Cattafesta, Louis N., III

    2003-01-01

    This report discusses the: 1. Development coupled electro/fluid/structural lumped-element model (LEM) of a prototypical flow-control actuator. 2. Validation the coupled electro/fluid/structural dynamics lumped-element models. 3. Development simple, yet effective, design tools for actuators. 4. Development structural dynamic models that accurately characterize the dynamic response of piezoelectric flap actuators using the Finite Element Method (FEW as well as analytical methods. 5. Perform a parametric study of a piezo-composite flap actuator. 6.Develop an optimization scheme for maximizing the actuator performance.

  9. Modeling of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators driven by repetitive nanosecond pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Likhanskii, Alexandre V.; Shneider, Mikhail N.; Macheret, Sergey O.; Miles, Richard B.

    2007-07-15

    A detailed physical model for an asymmetric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in air driven by repetitive nanosecond voltage pulses is developed. In particular, modeling of DBD with high voltage repetitive negative and positive nanosecond pulses combined with positive dc bias is carried out. Operation at high voltage is compared with operation at low voltage, highlighting the advantage of high voltages, however the effect of backward-directed breakdown in the case of negative pulses results in a decrease of the integral momentum transferred to the gas. The use of positive repetitive pulses with dc bias is demonstrated to be promising for DBD performance improvement. The effects of the voltage waveform not only on force magnitude, but also on the spatial profile of the force, are shown. The crucial role of background photoionization in numerical modeling of ionization waves (streamers) in DBD plasmas is demonstrated.

  10. HERschel Observations of Edge-on Spirals (HEROES). II. Tilted-ring modelling of the atomic gas disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaert, F.; Gentile, G.; Baes, M.; De Geyter, G.; Hughes, T. M.; Lewis, F.; Bianchi, S.; De Looze, I.; Fritz, J.; Holwerda, B. W.; Verstappen, J.; Viaene, S.

    2015-10-01

    Context. Edge-on galaxies can offer important insight into galaxy evolution because they are the only systems where the distribution of the different components can be studied both radially and vertically. The HEROES project was designed to investigate the interplay between the gas, dust, stars, and dark matter (DM) in a sample of 7 massive edge-on spiral galaxies. Aims: In this second HEROES paper, we present an analysis of the atomic gas content of 6 out of 7 galaxies in our sample. The remaining galaxy was recently analysed according to the same strategy. The primary aim of this work is to constrain the surface density distribution, the rotation curve, and the geometry of the gas disks in a homogeneous way. In addition we identify peculiar features and signs of recent interactions. Methods: We have constructed detailed tilted-ring models of the atomic gas disks based on new GMRT 21-cm observations of NGC 973 and UGC 4277 and re-reduced archival H i data of NGC 5907, NGC 5529, IC 2531, and NGC 4217. Potential degeneracies between different models were resolved by requiring good agreement with the data in various representations of the data cubes. Results: From our modelling we find that all but one galaxy are warped along the major axis. In addition, we identify warps along the line of sight in three galaxies. A flaring gas layer is required to reproduce the data for only one galaxy, but (moderate) flares cannot be ruled out for the other galaxies either. A coplanar ring-like structure is detected outside the main disk of NGC 4217, which we suggest could be the remnant of a recent minor merger event. We also find evidence of a radial inflow of 15 ± 5 km s-1 in the disk of NGC 5529, which might be related to the ongoing interaction with two nearby companions. For NGC 5907, the extended, asymmetric, and strongly warped outer regions of the H i disk also suggest a recent interaction. In contrast, the inner