Science.gov

Sample records for acuity scoring systems

  1. Variable acuity remote viewing system flight demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    The Variable Acuity Remote Viewing System (VARVS), originally developed under contract to the Navy (ONR) as a laboratory brassboard, was modified for flight demonstration. The VARVS system was originally conceived as a technique which could circumvent the acuity/field of view/bandwidth tradeoffs that exists in remote viewing to provide a nearly eye limited display in both field of view (160 deg) and resolution (2 min arc) while utilizing conventional TV sensing, transmission, and display equipment. The modifications for flight demonstration consisted of modifying the sensor so it could be installed and flow in a Piper PA20 aircraft, equipped for remote control and modifying the display equipment so it could be integrated with the NASA Research RPB (RPRV) remote control cockpit.

  2. Early Quick Acuity Score Provides More Complete Data on Emergency Department Walkouts

    PubMed Central

    Lovett, Paris B.; Kahn, J. Akiva; Greene, Stuart E.; Bloch, Matthew A.; Brandt, Daniel R.; Minckler, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Many prior studies have compared the acuity of Emergency Department (ED) patients who have Left Without Being Seen (LWBS) against non-LWBS patients. A weakness in these studies is that patients may walk out prior to the assignment of a triage score, biasing comparisons. We report an operational change whereby acuity was assessed immediately upon patient arrival. We hypothesized more patients would receive acuity scores with EQAS. We also sought to compare LWBS and non-LWBS patient characteristics with reduced bias. Methods Setting: urban, academic medical center. Retrospective cohort study, electronic chart review, collecting data on all ED patients presenting between 4/1/2010 and 10/31/2011 (“Traditional Acuity Score” period, TAS) and from 11/1/2011 to 3/31/2012 (“Early Quick Acuity Score” period, EQAS). We recorded disposition (LWBS versus non-LWBS), acuity and demographics. For each subject during the EQAS period, we calculated how many prior ED visits and how many prior walkouts the subject had had during the TAS period. Results Acuity was recorded in 92,275 of 94,526 patients (97.6%) for TAS period, and 25,577 of 25,760 patients (99.3%) for EQAS period, a difference of 1.7% (1.5%, 1.8%). LWBS patients had acuity scores recorded in 5,180 of 7,040 cases (73.6%) during TAS period, compared with 897 of 1,010 cases (88.8%) during the EQAS period, a difference of 15.2% (14.8%, 15.7%). LWBS were more likely than non-LWBS to be male, were younger and had lower acuity scores. LWBS averaged 5.3 prior ED visits compared with 2.8 by non-LWBS, a difference of 2.5 (1.5, 3.5). LWBS averaged 1.3 prior ED walkouts compared with 0.2 among non-LWBS, a difference of 1.1 (0.8, 1.3). Conclusions EQAS resulted in a higher proportion of patients receiving acuity scores, particularly among LWBS. This offers more complete data when comparing LWBS and non-LWBS patient characteristics. The comparison reinforced findings from prior studies. PMID:24465699

  3. Acuity systems dialogue and patient classification system essentials.

    PubMed

    Harper, Kelle; McCully, Crystal

    2007-01-01

    Obtaining resources for quality patient care is a major responsibility of nurse leaders and requires accurate information in the political world of budgeting. Patient classification systems (PCS) assist nurse managers in controlling cost and improving patient care while appropriately using financial resources. This paper communicates acuity systems development, background, flaws, and components while discussing a few tools currently available. It also disseminates the development of a new acuity tool, the Patient Classification System. The PCS tool, developed in a small rural hospital, uses 5 broad concepts: (1) medications, (2) complicated procedures, (3) education, (4) psychosocial issues, and (5) complicated intravenous medications. These concepts embrace a 4-tiered scale that differentiates significant patient characteristics and assists in staffing measures for equality in patient staffing and improving quality of care and performance. Data obtained through use of the PCS can be used by nurse leaders to effectively and objectively lobby for appropriate patient care resources. Two questionnaires distributed to registered nurses on a medical-surgical unit evaluated the nurses' opinion of the 5 concepts and the importance for establishing patient acuity for in-patient care. Interrater reliability among nurses was 87% with the author's acuity tool.

  4. Arithmetic Training Does Not Improve Approximate Number System Acuity

    PubMed Central

    Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Poom, Leo

    2016-01-01

    The approximate number system (ANS) is thought to support non-symbolic representations of numerical magnitudes in humans. Recently much debate has focused on the causal direction for an observed relation between ANS acuity and arithmetic fluency. Here we investigate if arithmetic training can improve ANS acuity. We show with an experimental training study consisting of six 45-min training sessions that although feedback during arithmetic training improves arithmetic performance substantially, it does not influence ANS acuity. Hence, we find no support for a causal link where symbolic arithmetic training influences ANS acuity. Further, although short-term number memory is likely involved in arithmetic tasks we did not find that short-term memory capacity for numbers, measured by a digit-span test, was effected by arithmetic training. This suggests that the improvement in arithmetic fluency may have occurred independent of short-term memory efficiency, but rather due to long-term memory processes and/or mental calculation strategy development. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27826270

  5. Assessment of Visual Acuity in Relation to Central Nervous System Activation in Children with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Karl; Grottland, Havar; Flaten, Magne Arve

    2001-01-01

    Assessment of visual acuity, using Teller Acuity Cards, was combined with observations of behavioral state to indicate central nervous system activation in 24 individuals with mental retardation. Results indicate that forced-choice preferential-looking technique can be used to test visual acuity in this population unless the participant is drowsy.…

  6. Volleyball Scoring Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, William; Dargahi-Noubary, G. R.; Shi, Yixun

    2002-01-01

    The widespread interest in sports in our culture provides an excellent opportunity to catch students' attention in mathematics and statistics classes. One mathematically interesting aspect of volleyball, which can be used to motivate students, is the scoring system. (MM)

  7. Acuity of the Approximate Number System and Preschoolers' Quantitative Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Marle, Kristy; Chu, Felicia W.; Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C.

    2014-01-01

    The study assessed the relations among acuity of the inherent approximate number system (ANS), performance on measures of symbolic quantitative knowledge, and mathematics achievement for a sample of 138 (64 boys) preschoolers. The Weber fraction (a measure of ANS acuity) and associated task accuracy were significantly correlated with mathematics…

  8. Visual acuity and test performance.

    PubMed

    Heron, E; Zytkoskee, A

    1981-02-01

    Evaluation of scholastic achievement (American College Testing Service) test scores confirms previous reports that persons with poor visual acuity perform better on these tests than individuals with normal or superior acuity.

  9. Acquisition of the Cardinal Principle Coincides with Improvement in Approximate Number System Acuity in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Shusterman, Anna; Slusser, Emily; Halberda, Justin; Odic, Darko

    2016-01-01

    Human mathematical abilities comprise both learned, symbolic representations of number and unlearned, non-symbolic evolutionarily primitive cognitive systems for representing quantities. However, the mechanisms by which our symbolic (verbal) number system becomes integrated with the non-symbolic (non-verbal) representations of approximate magnitude (supported by the Approximate Number System, or ANS) are not well understood. To explore this connection, forty-six children participated in a 6-month longitudinal study assessing verbal number knowledge and non-verbal numerical acuity. Cross-sectional analyses revealed a strong relationship between verbal number knowledge and ANS acuity. Longitudinal analyses suggested that increases in ANS acuity were most strongly related to the acquisition of the cardinal principle, but not to other milestones of verbal number acquisition. These findings suggest that experience with culture and language is intimately linked to changes in the properties of a core cognitive system. PMID:27078257

  10. Measuring the Influence of Galilean Loupe System on Near Visual Acuity of Dentists under Simulated Clinical Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Urlic, Iris; Verzak, Željko; Vranic, Dubravka Negovetic

    2016-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to compare near visual acuity of dentists without optical aids (VSC) with near visual acuity of those using the Galilean telescope system (VGA2) with magnification of x 2.5, and the distance of 350 mm in simulated clinical conditions. Methods The study included 46 dentists (visual acuity 1.0 without correction). A visual acuity testing was carried out using a miniaturized Snellen visual acuity chart which was placed in the cavity of molar teeth mounted in a phantom head in simulated clinical conditions. Near visual acuity for the vicinity was examined: 1) without correction at a distance of 300-400 mm (VSC); 2) with Galilean loupes with magnification of x2.5, focal length of 350mm. Results The distributions of near visual acuity recorded using VSC and VGA2, 5 systems were compared by the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. The results obtained by Wilcoxon Signed Rank test pointed to a statistically significant difference in the distribution of recorded visual acuity between the VSC and VGA2 optical systems (W = - 403.5; p <0.001). Conclusion If using the VGA2, 5 systems, higher values of the near visual acuity were recorded and subsequently compared to near visual acuity without magnifying aids (VSC). PMID:27847397

  11. The role of numeracy and approximate number system acuity in predicting value and probability distortion.

    PubMed

    Patalano, Andrea L; Saltiel, Jason R; Machlin, Laura; Barth, Hilary

    2015-12-01

    It is well documented that individuals distort outcome values and probabilities when making choices from descriptions, and there is evidence of systematic individual differences in distortion. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between individual differences in such distortions and two measures of numerical competence, numeracy and approximate number system (ANS) acuity. Participants indicated certainty equivalents for a series of simple monetary gambles, and data were used to estimate individual-level value and probability distortion, using a cumulative prospect theory framework. We found moderately strong negative correlations between numeracy and value and probability distortion, but only weak and non-statistically reliable correlations between ANS acuity and distortions. We conclude that low numeracy contributes to number distortion in decision making, but that approximate number system acuity might not underlie this relationship.

  12. Dot Display Affects Approximate Number System Acuity and Relationships with Mathematical Achievement and Inhibitory Control

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Jade Eloise; Castronovo, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Much research has investigated the relationship between the Approximate Number System (ANS) and mathematical achievement, with continued debate surrounding the existence of such a link. The use of different stimulus displays may account for discrepancies in the findings. Indeed, closer scrutiny of the literature suggests that studies supporting a link between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement in adults have mostly measured the ANS using spatially intermixed displays (e.g. of blue and yellow dots), whereas those failing to replicate a link have primarily used spatially separated dot displays. The current study directly compared ANS acuity when using intermixed or separate dots, investigating how such methodological variation mediated the relationship between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement. ANS acuity was poorer and less reliable when measured with intermixed displays, with performance during both conditions related to inhibitory control. Crucially, mathematical achievement was significantly related to ANS accuracy difference (accuracy on congruent trials minus accuracy on incongruent trials) when measured with intermixed displays, but not with separate displays. The findings indicate that methodological variation affects ANS acuity outcomes, as well as the apparent relationship between the ANS and mathematical achievement. Moreover, the current study highlights the problem of low reliabilities of ANS measures. Further research is required to construct ANS measures with improved reliability, and to understand which processes may be responsible for the increased likelihood of finding a correlation between the ANS and mathematical achievement when using intermixed displays. PMID:27195749

  13. Relation between Approximate Number System Acuity and Mathematical Achievement: The Influence of Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Sun, Yuhua; Zhou, Xinlin

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have observed inconsistent relations between the acuity of the Approximate Number System (ANS) and mathematical achievement. In this paper, we hypothesize that the relation between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement is influenced by fluency; that is, the mathematical achievement test covering a greater expanse of mathematical fluency may better reflect the relation between ANS acuity and mathematics skills. We explored three types of mathematical achievement tests utilized in this study: Subtraction, graded, and semester-final examination. The subtraction test was designed to measure the mathematical fluency. The graded test was more fluency-based than the semester-final examination, but both involved the same mathematical knowledge from the class curriculum. A total of 219 fifth graders from primary schools were asked to perform all three tests, then given a numerosity comparison task, a visual form perception task (figure matching), and a series of other tasks to assess general cognitive processes (mental rotation, non-verbal matrix reasoning, and choice reaction time). The findings were consistent with our expectations. The relation between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement was particularly clearly reflected in the participants’ performance on the visual form perception task, which supports the domain-general explanations for the underlying mechanisms of the relation between ANS acuity and math achievement. PMID:28066291

  14. Relation between Approximate Number System Acuity and Mathematical Achievement: The Influence of Fluency.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Sun, Yuhua; Zhou, Xinlin

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have observed inconsistent relations between the acuity of the Approximate Number System (ANS) and mathematical achievement. In this paper, we hypothesize that the relation between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement is influenced by fluency; that is, the mathematical achievement test covering a greater expanse of mathematical fluency may better reflect the relation between ANS acuity and mathematics skills. We explored three types of mathematical achievement tests utilized in this study: Subtraction, graded, and semester-final examination. The subtraction test was designed to measure the mathematical fluency. The graded test was more fluency-based than the semester-final examination, but both involved the same mathematical knowledge from the class curriculum. A total of 219 fifth graders from primary schools were asked to perform all three tests, then given a numerosity comparison task, a visual form perception task (figure matching), and a series of other tasks to assess general cognitive processes (mental rotation, non-verbal matrix reasoning, and choice reaction time). The findings were consistent with our expectations. The relation between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement was particularly clearly reflected in the participants' performance on the visual form perception task, which supports the domain-general explanations for the underlying mechanisms of the relation between ANS acuity and math achievement.

  15. Preschool acuity of the approximate number system correlates with school math ability.

    PubMed

    Libertus, Melissa E; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

    2011-11-01

    Previous research shows a correlation between individual differences in people's school math abilities and the accuracy with which they rapidly and nonverbally approximate how many items are in a scene. This finding is surprising because the Approximate Number System (ANS) underlying numerical estimation is shared with infants and with non-human animals who never acquire formal mathematics. However, it remains unclear whether the link between individual differences in math ability and the ANS depends on formal mathematics instruction. Earlier studies demonstrating this link tested participants only after they had received many years of mathematics education, or assessed participants' ANS acuity using tasks that required additional symbolic or arithmetic processing similar to that required in standardized math tests. To ask whether the ANS and math ability are linked early in life, we measured the ANS acuity of 200 3- to 5-year-old children using a task that did not also require symbol use or arithmetic calculation. We also measured children's math ability and vocabulary size prior to the onset of formal math instruction. We found that children's ANS acuity correlated with their math ability, even when age and verbal skills were controlled for. These findings provide evidence for a relationship between the primitive sense of number and math ability starting early in life.

  16. Vernier Acuity and the Magnocellular System Revisited: Response to Skottun and Skoyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keri, Szabolcs; Benedek, Gyorgy

    2010-01-01

    Skottun and Skoyles (2009) recently presented a comment on Vernier acuity and magnocellular dysfunctions in fragile X premutation carriers (Keri & Benedek, 2009). The authors concluded that our finding that the magnocellular deficit, as revealed by luminance-contrast sensitivity measurements, is associated with impaired Vernier acuity for…

  17. Impaired acuity of the approximate number system underlies mathematical learning disability (dyscalculia).

    PubMed

    Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Many children have significant mathematical learning disabilities (MLD, or dyscalculia) despite adequate schooling. The current study hypothesizes that MLD partly results from a deficiency in the Approximate Number System (ANS) that supports nonverbal numerical representations across species and throughout development. In this study of 71 ninth graders, it is shown that students with MLD have significantly poorer ANS precision than students in all other mathematics achievement groups (low, typically, and high achieving), as measured by psychophysical assessments of ANS acuity (w) and of the mappings between ANS representations and number words (cv). This relation persists even when controlling for domain-general abilities. Furthermore, this ANS precision does not differentiate low-achieving from typically achieving students, suggesting an ANS deficit that is specific to MLD.

  18. New Evidence on Causal Relationship between Approximate Number System (ANS) Acuity and Arithmetic Ability in Elementary-School Students: A Longitudinal Cross-Lagged Analysis

    PubMed Central

    He, Yunfeng; Zhou, Xinlin; Shi, Dexin; Song, Hairong; Zhang, Hui; Shi, Jiannong

    2016-01-01

    Approximate number system (ANS) acuity and mathematical ability have been found to be closely associated in recent studies. However, whether and how these two measures are causally related still remain less addressed. There are two hypotheses about the possible causal relationship: ANS acuity influences mathematical performances, or access to math education sharpens ANS acuity. Evidences in support of both hypotheses have been reported, but these two hypotheses have never been tested simultaneously. Therefore, questions still remain whether only one-direction or reciprocal causal relationships existed in the association. In this work, we provided a new evidence on the causal relationship between ANS acuity and arithmetic ability. ANS acuity and mathematical ability of elementary-school students were measured sequentially at three time points within one year, and all possible causal directions were evaluated simultaneously using cross-lagged regression analysis. The results show that ANS acuity influences later arithmetic ability while the reverse causal direction was not supported. Our finding adds a strong evidence to the causal association between ANS acuity and mathematical ability, and also has important implications for educational intervention designed to train ANS acuity and thereby promote mathematical ability. PMID:27462291

  19. A Bayesian Approach to Learning Scoring Systems.

    PubMed

    Ertekin, Şeyda; Rudin, Cynthia

    2015-12-01

    We present a Bayesian method for building scoring systems, which are linear models with coefficients that have very few significant digits. Usually the construction of scoring systems involve manual effort-humans invent the full scoring system without using data, or they choose how logistic regression coefficients should be scaled and rounded to produce a scoring system. These kinds of heuristics lead to suboptimal solutions. Our approach is different in that humans need only specify the prior over what the coefficients should look like, and the scoring system is learned from data. For this approach, we provide a Metropolis-Hastings sampler that tends to pull the coefficient values toward their "natural scale." Empirically, the proposed method achieves a high degree of interpretability of the models while maintaining competitive generalization performances.

  20. Measuring acuity of the approximate number system reliably and validly: the evaluation of an adaptive test procedure

    PubMed Central

    Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter; Poom, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Two studies investigated the reliability and predictive validity of commonly used measures and models of Approximate Number System acuity (ANS). Study 1 investigated reliability by both an empirical approach and a simulation of maximum obtainable reliability under ideal conditions. Results showed that common measures of the Weber fraction (w) are reliable only when using a substantial number of trials, even under ideal conditions. Study 2 compared different purported measures of ANS acuity as for convergent and predictive validity in a within-subjects design and evaluated an adaptive test using the ZEST algorithm. Results showed that the adaptive measure can reduce the number of trials needed to reach acceptable reliability. Only direct tests with non-symbolic numerosity discriminations of stimuli presented simultaneously were related to arithmetic fluency. This correlation remained when controlling for general cognitive ability and perceptual speed. Further, the purported indirect measure of ANS acuity in terms of the Numeric Distance Effect (NDE) was not reliable and showed no sign of predictive validity. The non-symbolic NDE for reaction time was significantly related to direct w estimates in a direction contrary to the expected. Easier stimuli were found to be more reliable, but only harder (7:8 ratio) stimuli contributed to predictive validity. PMID:23964256

  1. Nurse-patient assignment models considering patient acuity metrics and nurses' perceived workload.

    PubMed

    Sir, Mustafa Y; Dundar, Bayram; Barker Steege, Linsey M; Pasupathy, Kalyan S

    2015-06-01

    Patient classification systems (PCSs) are commonly used in nursing units to assess how many nursing care hours are needed to care for patients. These systems then provide staffing and nurse-patient assignment recommendations for a given patient census based on these acuity scores. Our hypothesis is that such systems do not accurately capture workload and we conduct an experiment to test this hypothesis. Specifically, we conducted a survey study to capture nurses' perception of workload in an inpatient unit. Forty five nurses from oncology and surgery units completed the survey and rated the impact of patient acuity indicators on their perceived workload using a six-point Likert scale. These ratings were used to calculate a workload score for an individual nurse given a set of patient acuity indicators. The approach offers optimization models (prescriptive analytics), which use patient acuity indicators from a commercial PCS as well as a survey-based nurse workload score. The models assign patients to nurses in a balanced manner by distributing acuity scores from the PCS and survey-based perceived workload. Numerical results suggest that the proposed nurse-patient assignment models achieve a balanced assignment and lower overall survey-based perceived workload compared to the assignment based solely on acuity scores from the PCS. This results in an improvement of perceived workload that is upwards of five percent.

  2. High and Low Contrast Visual Acuity Are Not Affected in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Moss, Heather E; Samelson, Monica; Mohan, Girish; Jiang, Qin Li

    2016-01-01

    The afferent visual system may be affected by neuro-degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) based on observations of visual function impairment and retinal inclusions on histopathology in ALS patients. To test the hypothesis that visual acuity is impaired in ALS, we compared three measures of visual acuity in ALS patients (n = 25) attending a multidisciplinary ALS clinic and age matched control subjects (n = 25). Bilateral monocular and binocular visual acuities were assessed using high contrast (black letters on white background) and low contrast (2.5%, 1.25% grey letters on white background) visual acuity charts under controlled lighting conditions following refraction. Binocular summation was calculated as the difference between binocular and best monocular acuity scores. There were no associations between binocular or monocular high contrast visual acuity or low contrast visual acuity and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis diagnosis (generalized estimating equation models accounting for age). Binocular summation was similar in both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and control subjects. There was a small magnitude association between increased duration of ALS symptoms and reduced 1.25% low contrast visual acuity. This study does not confirm prior observations of impaired visual acuity in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and does not support this particular measure of visual function for use in broad scale assessment of visual pathway involvement in ALS patients.

  3. High and Low Contrast Visual Acuity Are Not Affected in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Samelson, Monica; Mohan, Girish; Jiang, Qin Li

    2016-01-01

    The afferent visual system may be affected by neuro-degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) based on observations of visual function impairment and retinal inclusions on histopathology in ALS patients. To test the hypothesis that visual acuity is impaired in ALS, we compared three measures of visual acuity in ALS patients (n = 25) attending a multidisciplinary ALS clinic and age matched control subjects (n = 25). Bilateral monocular and binocular visual acuities were assessed using high contrast (black letters on white background) and low contrast (2.5%, 1.25% grey letters on white background) visual acuity charts under controlled lighting conditions following refraction. Binocular summation was calculated as the difference between binocular and best monocular acuity scores. There were no associations between binocular or monocular high contrast visual acuity or low contrast visual acuity and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis diagnosis (generalized estimating equation models accounting for age). Binocular summation was similar in both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and control subjects. There was a small magnitude association between increased duration of ALS symptoms and reduced 1.25% low contrast visual acuity. This study does not confirm prior observations of impaired visual acuity in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and does not support this particular measure of visual function for use in broad scale assessment of visual pathway involvement in ALS patients. PMID:28033389

  4. Visual acuity test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003396.htm Visual acuity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The visual acuity test is used to determine the smallest ...

  5. FEEDBACK SCORING SYSTEMS FOR REUSABLE KINDERGARTEN WORKBOOKS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GACH, PENELOPE J.; AND OTHERS

    THE DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMICAL FEEDBACK SCORING SYSTEMS FOR REUSABLE KINDERGARTEN WORKBOOKS IS DESCRIBED. THREE PROTOTYPE SYSTEMS WERE DEVELOPED--(1) A METAL FOIL ACTIVATING AN ELECTRICAL PROBE, (2) A METAL FOIL REACTING WITH A MAGNETIC PROBE, AND (3) INVISIBLE FLUORESCENT INK REVEALED BY THE APPLICATION OF LONGWAVE ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT. (MS)

  6. ATP system target for performance scoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamerler, Timothy; Dowling, James A.; Dillow, Michael A.; Sebesta, Henry R.

    1997-06-01

    The US Air Force Phillips Laboratory is developing the High Altitude Balloon Experiment (HABE) to investigate acquisition, tracking, and pointing concepts to be employed in engagements against boosting missiles in near-space environments. In its most stressing test, HABE employs the Inertial Pseudo Star Reference Unit to provide inertially stabilized line-of-sights (LOSs) for an illuminator laser, active fine track camera, and the marker scoring. The latter serves to measure and score the payload's laser pointing performance. HABE's LOS stabilization subsystem and marker laser pointing are required to demonstrate jitter and drift which is below 1 (mu) rad RMS, a requirement which stresses testing capabilities. At present, a system does not exist to characterize and score the lasers used on this and other experiments at the target plane. This paper will address a concept to provide accurate characterization of laser systems in the far-field target plane.

  7. [Proposed scoring system for biomedical scientific publications].

    PubMed

    Figueredo, E

    2007-02-01

    There are no bibliometric formulas currently available to measure the intrinsic quality of scientific publications. Nonetheless, publication assessment is an inescapable feature of academic and professional evaluation although it is not always done fairly. This paper proposes a scoring system that combines several of the variables most often used for evaluation: article length, inclusion in biomedical databases, impact factor of the journals publishing the articles, and number of citations received during the 2 years following publication. Articles can be classified in 20 categories and assigned scores depending on how the factors are combined. The scoring system's advantage is that it limits excessive weight given to extreme impact factors and corrects differences due to varying citing behaviors in different Science Citation Index categories. Finally, scores are classified by type of article, number of co-authors, and arthorship order. When applying this system, it would be sufficient to evaluate candidates' 5 best articles in order to establish quantitative differences between them, reducing administrative costs and the workloads of assessment committees.

  8. Prediction of Visual Acuity from Wavefront Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B. (Inventor); Ahumada, Albert J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for generating a visual acuity metric, based on wavefront aberrations (WFAs), associated with a test subject and representing classes of imperfections, such as defocus, astigmatism, coma and spherical aberrations, of the subject's visual system. The metric allows choices of different image template, can predict acuity for different target probabilities, can incorporate different and possibly subject-specific neural transfer functions, can predict acuity for different subject templates, and incorporates a model of the optotype identification task.

  9. Angle Closure Scoring System (ACSS)-A Scoring System for Stratification of Angle Closure Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Aparna; Padhy, Debananda; Sarangi, Sarada; Das, Gopinath

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the angle closure scoring system (ACSS) for stratifying primary angle course disease. Methods This observational cross sectional institutional study included patients with primary open angle glaucoma suspects (n = 21) and primary angle closure disease (primary angle closure, PAC, n = 63 and primary angle course glaucoma, PACG, n = 58 (defined by International society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology, ISGEO). Two independent examiners blinded to clinical details, graded good quality pre-laser goniophotographs of the patients incorporating quadrants of peripheral anterior synechieae (PAS), non-visibility of posterior trabecular meshwork (PTM) and blotchy pigments (ranging from 1–4 quadrants), iris configuration, angle recess (sum of above depicting ACSSg) and lens thickness/axial length ratio (LT/AL), cup disc ratio and baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) to give total score (ACSSt). Result There were significant differences in ACSSg scores within the same ISGEO stage of PAC and PACG between eyes that required nil or >1medicines after laser iridotomy, p<0.001. The ACSSg was associated with need for >1 medicines in both PAC and PACG eyes, p<0.001. An ACSSg score>12 and 14 in PAC (odds ratio = 2.7(95% CI-1.7–5.9) and PACG (Odds ratio = 1.6(95%CI-1.19–2.2) predicted need for single medicines while ACSSg scores >14 and 19 predicted need for ≥2 medicines in PAC and PACG eyes, respectively. The LT/Al ratio, IOP score or cup disc score did not influence the need for medical treatment independently. Conclusion The ACSS can be a useful clinical adjunct to the ISGEO system to predict need for medicines and prognosticate each stage more accurately. PMID:27788183

  10. Preschool visual acuity screening tests.

    PubMed Central

    Friendly, D S

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relative merits of two screening tests used for visual acuity assessment of preschool children. The tests that were compared were the Good-Lite Company versions of the E-Test and of the STYCAR (Screening Test for Young Children and Retardates). The former is the most popular method for evaluating central acuity in young children in this nation; the STYCAR is a relatively new letter-matching-test developed in England, where it is widely employed. The E-Test poses left-right orientation problems which are eliminated by the symmetrical letters H, T, O and V utilized in the Letter-Matching-Test. Both visual acuity tests were administered on two separate occasions by personnel from the Prevention of Blindness Society of Metropolitan Washington to 633 preschool children in Washington, D.C. By random selection, 150 of the children received the E-Test at both sessions, 162 children received the Letter-Matching-Test at both sessions, 160 chilt athe the second session, and 161 children received the Letter-Matching-Test at the first session and the E-Test at the second session. The author medically examined the eyes of 408 of the 633 children without knowledge of which test had been initially administered. Statistical analysis of the data obtained from the study indicated that the Letter-Matching-Test was significantly better in terms of testability rates, group and individual instruction time, and performance time. The E-Test was more reliable in terms of test-retest acuity scores and was also more valid in terms of agreement between pass-fail results obtained at the first screening session and two levels of pass-fail refraction criteria. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B PMID:754379

  11. Impaired Acuity of the Approximate Number System Underlies Mathematical Learning Disability (Dyscalculia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Many children have significant mathematical learning disabilities (MLD, or dyscalculia) despite adequate schooling. The current study hypothesizes that MLD partly results from a deficiency in the Approximate Number System (ANS) that supports nonverbal numerical representations across species and throughout development. In this study of 71 ninth…

  12. Acuity of a Cryptochrome and Vision-Based Magnetoreception System in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Solov'yov, Ilia A.; Mouritsen, Henrik; Schulten, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The magnetic compass of birds is embedded in the visual system and it has been hypothesized that the primary sensory mechanism is based on a radical pair reaction. Previous models of magnetoreception have assumed that the radical pair-forming molecules are rigidly fixed in space, and this assumption has been a major objection to the suggested hypothesis. In this article, we investigate theoretically how much disorder is permitted for the radical pair-forming, protein-based magnetic compass in the eye to remain functional. Our study shows that only one rotational degree of freedom of the radical pair-forming protein needs to be partially constrained, while the other two rotational degrees of freedom do not impact the magnetoreceptive properties of the protein. The result implies that any membrane-associated protein is sufficiently restricted in its motion to function as a radical pair-based magnetoreceptor. We relate our theoretical findings to the cryptochromes, currently considered the likeliest candidate to furnish radical pair-based magnetoreception. PMID:20655831

  13. Brief Report: The Relationship between Visual Acuity, the Embedded Figures Test and Systemizing in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosnan, Mark J.; Gwilliam, Lucy R.; Walker, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced performance upon the Embedded Figures Test (EFT) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has informed psychological theories of the non-social aspects that characterise ASD. The Extreme Male Brain theory of autism proposes that enhanced visual acuity underpins greater attention to detail (assessed by the EFT) which is a…

  14. Automatic Dialogue Scoring for a Second Language Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jin-Xia; Lee, Kyung-Soon; Kwon, Oh-Woog; Kim, Young-Kil

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic dialogue scoring approach for a Dialogue-Based Computer-Assisted Language Learning (DB-CALL) system, which helps users learn language via interactive conversations. The system produces overall feedback according to dialogue scoring to help the learner know which parts should be more focused on. The scoring measures…

  15. Computer order entry systems in the emergency department significantly reduce the time to medication delivery for high acuity patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) systems are designed to increase safety and improve quality of care; however, their impact on efficiency in the ED has not yet been validated. This study examined the impact of CPOE on process times for medication delivery, laboratory utilization and diagnostic imaging in the early, late and control phases of a regional ED-CPOE implementation. Methods Setting: Three tertiary care hospitals serving a population in excess of 1 million inhabitants that initiated the same CPOE system during the same 3-week time window. Patients were stratified into three groupings: Control, Early CPOE and Late CPOE (n = 200 patients per group/hospital site). Eligible patients consisted of a stratified (40% CTAS 2 and 60% CTAS 3) random sample of all patients seen 30 days preceding CPOE implementation (Control), 30 days immediately after CPOE implementation (Early CPOE) and 5–6 months after CPOE implementation (Late CPOE). Primary outcomes were time to (TT) from physician assignment (MD-sign) up to MD-order completion. An ANOVA and t-test were employed for statistical analysis. Results In comparison with control, TT 1st MD-Ordered Medication decreased in both the Early and Late CPOE groups (102.6 min control, 62.8 Early and 65.7 late, p < 0.001). TT 1st MD-ordered laboratory results increased in both the Early and Late CPOE groups compared to Control (76.4, 85.3 and 73.8 min, respectively, p < 0.001). TT 1st X-Ray also significantly increased in both the Early and Late CPOE groups (80.4, 84.8 min, respectively, compared to 68.1, p < 0.001). Given that CT and ultrasound imaging inherently takes increased time, these imaging studies were not included, and only X-ray was examined. There was no statistical difference found between TT discharge and consult request. Conclusions Regional implementation of CPOE afforded important efficiencies in time to medication delivery for high acuity ED patients. Increased times observed for laboratory

  16. [Critical examination of scoring systems in therapeutic trials].

    PubMed

    Bergmann, J F; Chassany, O; Segrestaa, J M; Caulin, C

    1994-01-01

    Scoring systems give a check-list and methodological informations which have to be found in controlled therapeutic trials reports and papers. These systems try to quantify each item to give a global score. The Chalmer's list is the most wellknown. It allows a balance in scoring taking in account the quality of the endpoints. Other lists are more simple. Many check-lists allow the scoring of the methodological design or the statistical analysis. In all systems the major methodological points are: the randomization, the description of the population, the double blind, the estimation of the sample size, the handling of withdrawal and drop out, the major endpoint, the patients follow-up, the statistical analysis and the data presentation. All these scoring systems have several limits: the quantitative evaluation of each item is subjective and the point scoring has never been validated, some scoring systems are old and don't integrate new methodological methods, the scores never included the clinical interest of the trial, some items are questionable, others are forgotten (intention to treat analysis, steering comity...). Scoring systems allow a control of the methodological quality of clinical trials but don't include the clinical or scientific interest of the study. These systems are a useful methodological tool for publication process in medical journals and for new drugs authorization. The evaluation by authors themselves of the quality of their papers using a standardized scoring system could clarify the reviewers decisions.

  17. Prognostic staging system for hepatocellular carcinoma (CLIP score): its value and limitations, and a proposal for a new staging system, the Japan Integrated Staging Score (JIS score).

    PubMed

    Kudo, Masatoshi; Chung, Hobyung; Osaki, Yukio

    2003-01-01

    A clinical staging system for cancer patients provides guidance for patient assessment and making therapeutic decisions. It is useful in deciding whether to treat a patient aggressively, and in avoiding the overtreatment of patients who would not tolerate the treatment or patients whose life expectancy rules out any chance of treatment. Clinical staging is also an essential tool for comparison between groups in therapeutic trials and for comparison between different studies. The current classifications most commonly used for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are the Okuda stages, the Child-Pugh staging system, tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging, and the Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP) score. Among these, the CLIP score is currently the most commonly used integrated staging score, including both tumor stage and liver disease stage. Although the CLIP score has been well validated by many authors in terms of its prognostic value in HCC patients, this score has some problems and limitations when applied to currently diagnosed HCC patients, who are diagnosed in the early stage of disease. First, the CLIP score can discriminate score 0- to 3-patient populations, but it is not able to discriminate score 4- to 6-patient groups. Second, the definition of tumor morphology in the best prognostic group is too advanced, i.e., uninodular and a tumor extent of less than 50% of the liver. As a result, the prognosis of the CLIP system best prognostic group is not so good. In other words, this system cannot identify the best prognostic group who would benefit from curative and aggressive treatment. Third, nearly 80% of the patient population is classified as having a CLIP score of 0-2, as confirmed by many studies, which shows poor stratification ability. In contrast, a new staging system based on the Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan (LCSGJ), the Japan Integrated Staging (JIS) score is currently proposed in Japan. This staging system combines Child-Pugh grade (grade A

  18. Scoring system for prediction of metastatic spine tumor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Tokuhashi, Yasuaki; Uei, Hiroshi; Oshima, Masashi; Ajiro, Yasumitsu

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the prognosis before treatment for metastatic spine tumor is extremely important in therapy selection. Therefore, we review some prognostic scoring systems and their outcomes. Articles with combinations of two keywords among “metastatic spine tumor” and “prognosis”, “score”, “scoring system”, “predicting”, or “life expectancy” were searched for in PubMed. As a result, 236 articles were extracted. Those referring to representative scoring systems about predicting the survival of patients with metastatic spine tumors were used. The significance and limits of these scoring systems, and the future perspectives were described. Tokuhashi score, Tomita score, Baur score, Linden score, Rades score, and Katagiri score were introduced. They are all scoring systems prepared by combining factors that affect prognosis. The primary site of cancer and visceral metastasis were common factors in all of these scoring systems. Other factors selected to influence the prognosis varied. They were useful to roughly predict the survival period, such as, “more than one year or not” or “more than six months or not”. In particular, they were utilized for decision-making about operative indications and avoidance of excessive medical treatment. Because the function depended on the survival period in the patients with metastatic spine tumor, it was also utilized in assessing functional prognosis. However, no scoring system had more than 90% consistency between the predicted and actual survival periods. Future perspectives should adopt more oncological viewpoints with adjustment of the process of treatment for metastatic spine tumor. PMID:25035829

  19. [Validation of a diagnostic scoring system (Ohmann score) in acute appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Zielke, A; Sitter, H; Rampp, T A; Schäfer, E; Hasse, C; Lorenz, W; Rothmund, M

    1999-07-01

    A diagnostic scoring system, recently published by Ohmann et al. in this journal, was validated by analyzing the clinicopathological data of a consecutive series of 2,359 patients, admitted for suspicion of acute appendicitis. The results of the scoring system were compared to the results of clinical evaluation by junior (provisional) and senior surgeons (final clinical diagnosis). To assess the diagnostic ability of the score, the accuracy and positive predictive value were defined as the major diagnostic performance parameters; the rate of theoretical negative laparotomies and that of diagnostic errors served as the major procedural performance parameters. Of 2,359 patients admitted for suspected acute appendicitis, 662 were proven to have acute appendicitis by histology, for a prevalence of 28%. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of the provisional clinical diagnosis were 0.50, 0.94, 0.77, 0.83, and 0.82; 0.93, for the score 0.63, 0.93, 0.77, 0.86 and 0.84, and for the final clinical diagnosis 0.90, 0.94, 0.85, 0.96, and 0.93, respectively. Of the main diagnostic performance parameter, the accuracy of the score was significantly better than that of provisional clinical diagnosis (P < 0.05, chi 2 test). The score yielded a rate of negative appendecomies and laparotomies of 14.3 and 12.3%. With respect to the rate of overlooked cases of acute apendicitis, the score demonstrated a superior performance, with only 6 cases missed (0.9%). However, the number of patients with acute appendicitis, including those with perforated disease, who were not identified by the score, was almost four times that of the final clinical diagnosis (245 vs 63). With regard to the main procedural performance parameter, the score resulted in a significantly smaller number of diagnostic errors than the provisional clinical investigator (P < 0.05, chi 2 test). The results of this study indicate that the diagnostic scoring

  20. The myelodysplastic syndromes flow cytometric score: a three-parameter prognostic flow cytometric scoring system.

    PubMed

    Alhan, C; Westers, T M; Cremers, E M P; Cali, C; Witte, B I; Ossenkoppele, G J; van de Loosdrecht, A A

    2016-03-01

    The prognosis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is currently estimated by using the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R). Several studies have shown that further refinement of prognostication for MDS can be achieved by adding flow cytometric parameters. However, widespread implementation of flow cytometry for the prognosis of MDS is hampered by complexity of the analysis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to construct a robust and practical flow cytometric score that could be implemented as a routine procedure. To achieve this, bone marrow aspirates of 109 MDS patients were analyzed by flow cytometry. A second cohort consisting of 103 MDS patients was used to validate the MDS flow cytometric score (MFS). The parameters forming the MFS were sideward light scatter and CD117 expression of myeloid progenitor cells and CD13 expression on monocytes. Three MFS risk categories were formed. Patients with MDS and intermediate MFS scores had significantly better overall survival (OS) compared with the patients with high MFS scores. The MFS further refined prognostication within the IPSS-R low-risk category, by identifying patients with worse OS in case of high MFS. In conclusion, a practical three parameter flow cytometric prognostic score was constructed enabling further refinement of prognostication of MDS.

  1. Accuracy of harm scores entered into an event reporting system.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Toni; Adornetto-Garcia, Debra; Johnston, Patricia A; Segovia, Julie H; Summers, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    This quality improvement project evaluated the accuracy of harm scores entered into an event reporting system by inpatient nursing staff at a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center. Nurses scored 10 safety scenarios using 2 versions of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality scale to determine interrater reliability. Results indicated inconsistency in the way nurses scored the scenarios, suggesting that the event reporting system may not accurately portray the severity of harm in patient safety events. Nurse executives can use this information to guide the development and implementation of incident reporting systems.

  2. The neurology of visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Frisén, L

    1980-09-01

    A series of patients with well defined lesions of various parts of the visual pathways was studied in an attempt to iluminate the neuropathophysiology of visual acuity. Acuity was found to remain normal in all cases with unilateral retrochiasmal lesions, including those of the optic tract. Bilateral retrochiasmal lesions involving the foveal nerve fibres on both sides impaired acuity to the same degree in both eyes. Lateral chiasmal lesions regularly produced impaired acuity in the ipsilateral eye. Midchiasmal lesions commonly led to an impairment of visual acuity in both eyes, usually asymmetrically, and roughly proportionate to the severity of the visual field defect. Compression optic neuropathy was found to reduce acuity in rough proportion to the severity of compression. It was concluded that acuity remains normal as long as either the crossing or the non-crossing neural outflow from the retinal fovea remains intact: acuity fails only when both sets of nerve fibres are compromised. A properly executed acuity test seems to be a powerful tool for detecting such conditions. The lower limit of normal acuity should never be set below 1.0 or 20/20: even this level is clearly subnormal in many subjects.

  3. Endoscopic scoring systems for inflammatory bowel disease: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Bisschops, Raf; Neumann, Helmut

    2014-07-01

    Endoscopy plays a pivotal role for diagnosis and assessment of disease activity and extent in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. International guidelines recommend the use of endoscopic scoring systems for evaluation of the prognosis and efficacy of medical treatments. Ideal scoring systems are easy to use, reproducible, reliable, responsive to changes, and validated in different clinical settings in order to guide therapeutic strategies. However, currently available endoscopic scoring systems often appear as complex for routine endoscopy and suffer from insufficient interobserver agreement and lack of formal validation which often limit their use in clinical trials. Here, we describe the role of endoscopic scoring systems in inflammatory bowel diseases focusing on pros and cons in the era of advanced endoscopic imaging and mucosal healing.

  4. Disease scoring systems for oral lichen planus; a critical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study has been to critically review 22 disease scoring systems (DSSs) on oral lichen planus (OLP) that have been reported in the literature during the past decades. Although the presently available DSSs may all have some merit, particularly for research purposes, the diversity of both the objective and subjective parameters used in these systems and the lack of acceptance of one of these systems for uniform use, there is a need for an international, authorized consensus meeting on this subject. Because of the natural course of OLP characterized by remissions and exacerbations and also due to the varying distribution pattern and the varying clinical types, e.g. reticular and erosive, the relevance of a DSS based on morphologic parameters is somewhat questionable. Instead, one may consider to only look for a quality of life scoring system adapted for use in OLP patients. Key words:Oral lichen planus, disease scoring system, classification. PMID:25681372

  5. Predicting neonatal morbidity after perinatal asphyxia: a scoring system.

    PubMed

    Portman, R J; Carter, B S; Gaylord, M S; Murphy, M G; Thieme, R E; Merenstein, G B

    1990-01-01

    Predicting immediate neonatal morbidity after perinatal asphyxia has been difficult. A review of asphyxiated neonates greater than or equal to 36 weeks' gestation admitted to The Children's Hospital Newborn Intensive Care Unit in 1983 was conducted to devise a scoring system that would rapidly predict organ dysfunction observed in the immediate neonatal period. Comparison of potential score components to morbidity by multiple regression analysis yielded significant association with abnormalities in fetal heart rate monitoring, the 5-minute Apgar score, and neonatal base deficit. A scoring system was devised whose sensitivity (93.8%) and specificity (81.3%) were more predictive than any of its individual components. Prospective analysis in a similar population in 1984 validated its ability to distinguish severe from moderate morbidity after asphyxia. Positive predictive value for the score in the combined study groups (n = 98) was 79% and the negative predictive value was 83%. The scoring system may offer a rapid and accurate prediction of organ dysfunction in the immediate neonatal period after asphyxia.

  6. 38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visual acuity. 4.76... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Organs of Special Sense § 4.76 Visual acuity. (a) Examination of visual acuity. Examination of visual acuity must include the central uncorrected and corrected visual acuity...

  7. Visual acuity, color vision, and visual search performance at sea.

    PubMed

    Donderi, D C

    1994-03-01

    Visual acuity and color vision were tested during a search and rescue exercise at sea. Fifty-seven watchkeepers searched for orange and yellow life rafts during daylight and for lighted and unlighted life rafts at night with night vision goggles. There were 588 individual watches of one hour each. Measures of wind, waves, and weather were used as covariates. Daytime percentage detection was positively correlated with low-contrast visual acuity and negatively correlated with error scores on Dvorine pseudoisochromatic plates and the Farnsworth color test. Performance was better during the first half-hour of the watch. Efficiency calculations show that color vision selective screening at one standard deviation above the mean would increase daylight search performance by 10% and that one standard deviation visual acuity selection screening would increase performance by 12%. There was no relationship between either acuity or color vision and life raft detection using night vision goggles.

  8. Placing clinical variables on a common linear scale of empirically based risk as a step towards construction of a general patient acuity score from the electronic health record: a modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Steven I; Rothman, Michael J; Solinger, Alan B

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the hypothesis that placing clinical variables of differing metrics on a common linear scale of all-cause postdischarge mortality provides risk functions that are directly correlated with in-hospital mortality risk. Design Modelling study. Setting An 805-bed community hospital in the southeastern USA. Participants 42302 inpatients admitted for any reason, excluding obstetrics, paediatric and psychiatric patients. Outcome measures All-cause in-hospital and postdischarge mortalities, and associated correlations. Results Pearson correlation coefficients comparing in-hospital risks with postdischarge risks for creatinine, heart rate and a set of 12 nursing assessments are 0.920, 0.922 and 0.892, respectively. Correlation between postdischarge risk heart rate and the Modified Early Warning System (MEWS) component for heart rate is 0.855. The minimal excess risk values for creatinine and heart rate roughly correspond to the normal reference ranges. We also provide the risks for values outside that range, independent of expert opinion or a regression model. By summing risk functions, a first-approximation patient risk score is created, which correctly ranks 6 discharge categories by average mortality with p<0.001 for differences in category means, and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference Test confirmed that the means were all different at the 95% confidence level. Conclusions Quantitative or categorical clinical variables can be transformed into risk functions that correlate well with in-hospital risk. This methodology provides an empirical way to assess inpatient risk from data available in the Electronic Health Record. With just the variables in this paper, we achieve a risk score that correlates with discharge disposition. This is the first step towards creation of a universal measure of patient condition that reflects a generally applicable set of health-related risks. More importantly, we believe that our approach opens the door to a way of

  9. Changes in the clinical measurement of visual acuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, I. L.; Jackson, A. J.

    2016-11-01

    In 1862, Hermann Snellen introduced his letter chart for the clinical measurement of visual acuity. His chart presented letters,or optotypes, arranged in a progressively diminishing size sequence, and the visual acuity was determined by the smallest letters that could read at a specified distance. Numerous modifications of the design of the optotypes, the progression of size and the chart layout were suggested, and in 1976, Bailey and Lovie published a set of design principles that made the visual task the same at all size levels, so that size become the only significant variable. This required the same number of letters at each size level, fixed spacing ratios and a logarithmic progression of size. This facilitates more precise quantification of visual acuity by giving credit for every letter read correctly, and this gives clinicians tighter confidence limits for determining changes or differences in visual acuity. However, optotype choices, and associated spacing arrangements can have significant effects on visual acuity scores as can viewing conditions and testing protocols. Computer based visual acuity tests are becoming more commonplace, there will be more variety in test charts and procedures which will create some problems for making comparisons between tests.

  10. A risk scoring system for prediction of haemorrhagic stroke.

    PubMed

    Zodpey, S P; Tiwari, R R

    2005-01-01

    The present pair-matched case control study was carried out at Government Medical College Hospital, Nagpur, India, a tertiary care hospital with the objective to devise and validate a risk scoring system for prediction of hemorrhagic stroke. The study consisted of 166 hospitalized CT scan proved cases of hemorrhagic stroke (ICD 9, 431-432), and a age and sex matched control per case. The controls were selected from patients who attended the study hospital for conditions other than stroke. On conditional multiple logistic regression five risk factors- hypertension (OR = 1.9. 95% Cl = 1.5-2.5). raised scrum total cholesterol (OR = 2.3, 95% Cl = 1.1-4.9). use of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents (OR = 3.4, 95% Cl =1.1-10.4). past history of transient ischaemic attack (OR = 8.4, 95% Cl = 2.1- 33.6) and alcohol intake (OR = 2.1, 95% Cl = 1.3-3.6) were significant. These factors were ascribed statistical weights (based on regression coefficients) of 6, 8, 12, 21 and 8 respectively. The nonsignificant factors (diabetes mellitus, physical inactivity, obesity, smoking, type A personality, history of claudication, family history of stroke, history of cardiac diseases and oral contraceptive use in females) were not included in the development of scoring system. ROC curve suggested a total score of 21 to be the best cut-off for predicting haemorrhag stroke. At this cut-off the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictivity and Cohen's kappa were 0.74, 0.74, 0.74 and 0.48 respectively. The overall predictive accuracy of this additive risk scoring system (area under ROC curve by Wilcoxon statistic) was 0.79 (95% Cl = 0.73-0.84). Thus to conclude, if substantiated by further validation, this scorincy system can be used to predict haemorrhagic stroke, thereby helping to devise effective risk factor intervention strategy.

  11. Lower limb replantations: indications and a new scoring system.

    PubMed

    Battiston, Bruno; Tos, Pierluigi; Pontini, Italo; Ferrero, Sebastiano

    2002-01-01

    The need for reconstruction of lower limb amputations is increasing, due to high-energy trauma in road accidents and work-related injuries. The indication for lower limb replantation is still controversial. Compared with upper limb replantations, indications are more select due to the frequent complications in lower limb salvage procedures, such as severe general complications or local complications such as necrosis, infections, nonunions, the need for secondary lengthening, or other reconstructive procedures. The satisfactory results given by artificial prosthesis, such as quicker recovery time and fewer secondary procedures, also contribute to the higher degree of selection for lower limb replantation candidates. Since 1993, we have replanted 14 amputations of the lower limb in 12 patients, including 2 bilateral cases. Although survival of the replanted segment was obtained in all patients, 5 cases were subsequently amputated for severe secondary complications. Of the remaining 9 cases, evaluated by means of Chen criteria, 7 had good results (3 Chen I and 4 Chen II), 1 sufficient (Chen III), and 1 poor (Chen IV). The best results were obtained in young patients. Our experience led us to examine the necessity for careful, objective patient selection. We developed a score evaluation system by modifying the international classifying method for severe limb traumas (mangled extremity severity score, or MESS system). This relatively simple system, based on the retrospective study of our cases, considers several parameters (patient's age, general conditions, level and type of lesion, time of injury, and associated lesions), giving each one a score. The total score gives the indication for replantation, predicts the functional outcome, and facilitates decision-making.

  12. Comparison of the STYCAR and lighthouse acuity tests.

    PubMed

    Kastenbaum, S M; Kepford, K L; Holmstrom, E T

    1977-07-01

    In a study comparing the Screening Test for Young Children and Retardates (STYCAR) and the New York Lighthouse Flash Card Test, 50 preschool children (median age of 4.4 yr) were evaluated twice with each instrument. Results indicate that the Lighthouse test had higher reliability, better visual acuity scores, lower untestability rates, and shorter testing times than the STYCAR.

  13. Age Differences in the Relationship between Visual Movement Imagery and Performance on Kinesthetic Acuity Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livesey, David J.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire scores and kinesthetic acuity--the sense of body position and movement--among 10- and 14-year-olds. Found that in the older group, those with high levels of visual movement imagery performed better on measures of kinesthetic acuity; no such effect was found for…

  14. Visual acuity in the short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica).

    PubMed

    Dooley, J C; Nguyen, H M; Seelke, A M H; Krubitzer, L

    2012-10-25

    Monodelphis domestica (short-tailed opossum) is an emerging animal model for studies of neural development due to the extremely immature state of the nervous system at birth and its subsequent rapid growth to adulthood. Yet little is known about its normal sensory discrimination abilities. In the present investigation, visual acuity was determined in this species using the optokinetic test (OPT), which relies on involuntary head tracking of a moving stimulus and can be easily elicited using a rotating visual stimulus of varying spatial frequencies. Using this methodology, we determined that the acuity of Monodelphis is 0.58 cycles per degree (cpd), which is similar to the acuity of rats using the same methodology, and higher than in mice. However, acuity in the short-tailed opossum is lower than in other marsupials. This is in part due to the methodology used to determine acuity, but may also be due to differences in diel patterns, lifestyle and phylogeny. We demonstrate that for the short-tailed opossum, the OPT is a rapid and reliable method of determining a baseline acuity and can be used to study enhanced acuities due to cortical plasticity.

  15. Visual acuity in the short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Dooley, James C.; Nguyen, Hoang; Seelke, Adele M. H.; Krubitzer, Leah

    2013-01-01

    Monodelphis domestica (short-tailed opossum) is an emerging animal model for studies of neural development due to the extremely immature state of the nervous system at birth and its subsequent rapid growth to adulthood. Yet little is known about its normal sensory discrimination abilities. In the present investigation, visual acuity was determined in this species using the optokinetic test (OPT), which relies on involuntary head tracking of a moving stimulus and can be easily elicited using a rotating visual stimulus of varying spatial frequencies. Using this methodology, we determined that the acuity of Monodelphis is 0.58 cycles per degree (cpd), which is similar to the acuity of rats using the same methodology, and higher than in mice. However, acuity in the short-tailed opossum is lower than in other marsupials. This is in part due to the methodology used to determine acuity, but may also be due to differences in diel patterns, lifestyle and phylogeny. We demonstrate that for the short-tailed opossum, the OPT is a rapid and reliable method of determining a baseline acuity and can be used to study enhanced acuities due to cortical plasticity. PMID:22871523

  16. Quantification of the Balance Error Scoring System with Mobile Technology

    PubMed Central

    Alberts, Jay L.; Thota, Anil; Hirsch, Joshua; Ozinga, Sarah; Dey, Tanujit; Schindler, David D.; Koop, Mandy Miller; Burke, Daniel; Linder, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this project was to develop a biomechanically based quantification of the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) using data derived from the accelerometer and gyroscope of a mobile tablet device. Methods Thirty-two healthy youth and adults completed the BESS while an iPad was positioned at the sacrum. Data from the iPad data was compared to position data gathered from a 3D motion capture system. Peak-to-peak (P2P), normalized path length (NPL), and root mean squared (RMS) were calculated for each system and compared. Additionally, a 95% ellipsoid volume, iBESS volume, was calculated using center of mass (COM) movements in the anterior-posterior (AP), mediolateral (ML), and trunk rotation planes of movement to provide a comprehensive, 3-dimensional metric of postural stability. Results Across all kinematic outcomes, data from the iPad were significantly correlated with the same outcomes derived from the motion capture system (Rho range: 0.37- 0.94, p<0.05). The iBESS volume metric was able to detect a difference in postural stability across stance and surface, showing a significant increase in volume in increasingly difficult conditions, while traditional error scoring was not as sensitive to these factors. Conclusions The kinematic data provided by the iPad is of sufficient quality relative to motion capture data to accurately quantify postural stability in healthy young adults. The iBESS volume provides a more sensitive measure of postural stability than error scoring alone, particularly in conditions 1 and 4, which often suffer from floor effects, and condition 5, which can experience ceiling effects. The iBESS metric is ideally suited for clinical and in the field applications in which characterizing postural stability is of interest. PMID:26378948

  17. Intensive care unit scoring systems outperform emergency department scoring systems for mortality prediction in critically ill patients: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Multiple scoring systems have been developed for both the intensive care unit (ICU) and the emergency department (ED) to risk stratify patients and predict mortality. However, it remains unclear whether the additional data needed to compute ICU scores improves mortality prediction for critically ill patients compared to the simpler ED scores. Methods We studied a prospective observational cohort of 227 critically ill patients admitted to the ICU directly from the ED at an academic, tertiary care medical center. We compared Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, APACHE III, Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II, Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS), Rapid Emergency Medicine Score (REMS), Prince of Wales Emergency Department Score (PEDS), and a pre-hospital critical illness prediction score developed by Seymour et al. (JAMA 2010, 304(7):747–754). The primary endpoint was 60-day mortality. We compared the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of the different scores and their calibration using the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test and visual assessment. Results The ICU scores outperformed the ED scores with higher area under the curve (AUC) values (p = 0.01). There were no differences in discrimination among the ED-based scoring systems (AUC 0.698 to 0.742; p = 0.45) or among the ICU-based scoring systems (AUC 0.779 to 0.799; p = 0.60). With the exception of the Seymour score, the ED-based scoring systems did not discriminate as well as the best-performing ICU-based scoring system, APACHE III (p = 0.005 to 0.01 for comparison of ED scores to APACHE III). The Seymour score had a superior AUC to other ED scores and, despite a lower AUC than all the ICU scores, was not significantly different than APACHE III (p = 0.09). When data from the first 24 h in the ICU was used to calculate the ED scores, the AUC for the ED scores improved numerically, but this improvement was not statistically significant

  18. S-score: a scoring system for the identification and prioritization of predicted cancer genes.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Jorge E S; Fonseca, André F; Valieris, Renan; Carraro, Dirce M; Wang, Jean Y J; Kolodner, Richard D; de Souza, Sandro J

    2014-01-01

    A new method, which allows for the identification and prioritization of predicted cancer genes for future analysis, is presented. This method generates a gene-specific score called the "S-Score" by incorporating data from different types of analysis including mutation screening, methylation status, copy-number variation and expression profiling. The method was applied to the data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and allowed the identification of known and potentially new oncogenes and tumor suppressors associated with different clinical features including shortest term of survival in ovarian cancer patients and hormonal subtypes in breast cancer patients. Furthermore, for the first time a genome-wide search for genes that behave as oncogenes and tumor suppressors in different tumor types was performed. We envisage that the S-score can be used as a standard method for the identification and prioritization of cancer genes for follow-up studies.

  19. Scoring systems for the characterization of sepsis and associated outcomes

    PubMed Central

    McLymont, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is responsible for the utilisation of a significant proportion of healthcare resources and has high mortality rates. Early diagnosis and prompt interventions are associated with better outcomes but is impeded by a lack of diagnostic tools and the heterogeneous and enigmatic nature of sepsis. The recently updated definitions of sepsis have moved away from the centrality of inflammation and the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria which have been shown to be non-specific. Sepsis is now defined as a “life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection”. The Quick (q) Sequential (Sepsis-related) Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score is proposed as a surrogate for organ dysfunction and may act as a risk predictor for patients with known or suspected infection, as well as being a prompt for clinicians to consider the diagnosis of sepsis. Early warning scores (EWS) are track and trigger physiological monitoring systems that have become integrated within many healthcare systems for the detection of acutely deteriorating patients. The recent study by Churpek and colleagues sought to compare qSOFA to more established alerting criteria in a population of patients with presumed infection, and compared the ability to predict death or unplanned intensive care unit (ICU) admission. This perspective paper discusses recent advances in the diagnostic criteria for sepsis and how qSOFA may fit into the pre-existing models of acute care and sepsis quality improvement. PMID:28149888

  20. [The NAS system: Nursing Activities Score in mobile technology].

    PubMed

    Catalan, Vanessa Menezes; Silveira, Denise Tolfo; Neutzling, Agnes Ludwig; Martinato, Luísa Helena Machado; Borges, Gilberto Cabral de Mello

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to present the computerized structure that enables the use of the Nursing Activities Score (NAS) in mobile technology. It is a project for the development of technology production based on software engineering, founded on the theory of systems development life cycle. The NAS system was built in two modules: the search module, which is accessed using a personal computer (PC), and Data Collection module, which is accessed through a mobile device (Smartphone). The NAS system was constructed to allow other forms, in addition to the NAS tool, to be included in the future. Thus, it is understood that the development of the NAS will bring nurses closer to mobile technology and facilitate their accessibility to the data of the instrument relating to patients, thus assisting in decision-making and in staffing to provide nursing care.

  1. Visual Acuity and the Eye.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beynon, J.

    1985-01-01

    Shows that visual acuity is a function of the structure of the eye and that its limit is set by the structure of the retina, emphasizing the role of lens aberrations and difraction on image quality. Also compares human vision with that of other vertebrates and insects. (JN)

  2. Distance stereo acuity improvement in intermittent exotropic patients following strabismus surgery.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, T D; Rosenbaum, A L; Stathacopoulos, R A

    1995-01-01

    To determine whether distance stereo acuity improved following strabismus surgery in patients with intermittent exotropia, we tested 20 patients (5 to 87 years old) preoperatively and postoperatively using the Mentor BVAT II Video acuity tester (Santa Barbara, Calif) and binocular visual system. Acuity improved in 75% as assessed by contour circles and in 45% as assessed by random dot E tests at distance. Our results suggest that surgical realignment of intermittent exotropia restores distance stereo acuity. We conclude that measuring distance stereo acuity offers valuable information in the evaluation of the intermittent exotropic patient.

  3. Assessing the repeatability and reproducibility of the Leg Score: a Dutch Claw Health Scoring System for dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Holzhauer, M; Middelesch, H; Bartels, C J M; Frankena, K; Verhoeff, J; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E N; Noordhuizen, J P T M

    The optimal moment for trimming the claws of all dairy cows in a herd was investigated by assessing the external rotation of the hind claws of individual cows relative to the spinal column. This leg score consisted of three independent descriptors: 1 (good/normal), 2 (moderately deviant), and 3 (severely deviant). This study assessed the repeatability and the reproducibility of the leg score system, and the consistency of the advice given subsequently about trimming of the hind claws of all cows in the herd. Repeatability was assessed for 52 cows that were scored twice on the same day by 11 observers; the kappa value ranged from 0.17 to 0.66 (mean: 0.36). The probability of the same result for both assessments ranged from 0.49 to 0.80 (mean: 0.61). Claw trimming was advised if at least 20% of the cows had a leg score of 3. On the basis of the scores, 3 observers consistently advised trimming of the hind claws of all the cows in the herd, and 6 observers consistently advised against the need for trimming in the short term; 2 observers had an inconsistent advice. The reproducibility of the scoring system was assessed in two dairy herds (62 and 50 cows). Eight observers evaluated the leg score of the cows of both herds on the same day. The mean kappa value of the leg score for all pairs of different observers (A-B, A-C etcetera) was 0.24 [-0.08-0.49]. In conclusion, the leg score is not a reliable method for determining the optimal moment for claw trimming in dairy cattle. The reasons for the inconsistent observations require further investigation.

  4. The development of an obstetric triage acuity tool.

    PubMed

    Paisley, Kathleen S; Wallace, Ruth; DuRant, Patricia G

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the journey a multicampus hospital system took to improve the obstetric triage process. A review of literature revealed no current comprehensive obstetric acuity tool, and thus our team developed a tool with a patient flow process, revised and updated triage nurse competencies, and then educated the nurses about the new tool and process. Data were collected to assess the functionality of the new process in assigning acuity upon patient arrival, conveying appropriate acuities based on patient complaints, and initiating the medical screening examination, all within prescribed time intervals. Initially data indicated that processes were still not optimal, and re-education was provided for all triage nurses. This improved all data points. The result of this QI project is that our patients are now seen based on their acuity within designated time frames.

  5. Dynamic visual acuity using "far" and "near" targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Brian T.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2005-01-01

    CONCLUSIONS: DVA may be useful for assessing the functional consequences of an impaired gaze stabilization mechanism or for testing the effectiveness of a rehabilitation paradigm. Because target distance influences the relative contributions of canal and otolith inputs, the ability to measure DVA at near and far viewing distances may also lead to tests that will independently assess canal and otolith function. OBJECTIVE: To present and test a methodology that uses dynamic visual acuity (DVA) to assess the efficacy of compensatory gaze mechanisms during a functionally relevant activity that differentially measures canal and otolith function. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The effect of treadmill walking at a velocity of 1.79 m/s on subjects' visual acuity was assessed at each of two viewing distances. A custom-written threshold determination program was used to display Landolt C optotypes on a laptop computer screen during a "far" (4 m) target condition and on a micro-display for a "near" (50 cm) target condition. The walking acuity scores for each target distance were normalized by subtracting a corresponding acuity measure obtained while standing still on the treadmill belt. RESULTS: As predicted by subjective reports of relative target motion, the decrease in visual acuity was significantly greater (p < 0.00001) for the near compared to the far condition.

  6. Scoring systems in the intensive care unit: A compendium

    PubMed Central

    Rapsang, Amy Grace; Shyam, Devajit C.

    2014-01-01

    Severity scales are important adjuncts of treatment in the intensive care unit (ICU) in order to predict patient outcome, comparing quality-of-care and stratification for clinical trials. Even though disease severity scores are not the key elements of treatment, they are however, an essential part of improvement in clinical decisions and in identifying patients with unexpected outcomes. Prediction models do face many challenges, but, proper application of these models helps in decision making at the right time and in decreasing hospital cost. In fact, they have become a necessary tool to describe ICU populations and to explain differences in mortality. However, it is also important to note that the choice of the severity score scale, index, or model should accurately match the event, setting or application; as mis-application, of such systems can lead to wastage of time, increased cost, unwarranted extrapolations and poor science. This article provides a brief overview of ICU severity scales (along with their predicted death/survival rate calculations) developed over the last 3 decades including several of them which has been revised accordingly. PMID:24872651

  7. [Scoring systems in intensive care medicine : principles, models, application and limits].

    PubMed

    Fleig, V; Brenck, F; Wolff, M; Weigand, M A

    2011-10-01

    Scoring systems are used in all diagnostic areas of medicine. Several parameters are evaluated and rated with points according to their value in order to simplify a complex clinical situation with a score. The application ranges from the classification of disease severity through determining the number of staff for the intensive care unit (ICU) to the evaluation of new therapies under study conditions. Since the introduction of scoring systems in the 1980's a variety of different score models has been developed. The scoring systems that are employed in intensive care and are discussed in this article can be categorized into prognostic scores, expenses scores and disease-specific scores. Since the introduction of compulsory recording of two scoring systems for accounting in the German diagnosis-related groups (DRG) system, these tools have gained more importance for all intensive care physicians. Problems remain in the valid calculation of scores and interpretation of the results.

  8. Phenomenological model of visual acuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Pedrero, José A.; Alonso, José

    2016-12-01

    We propose in this work a model for describing visual acuity (V) as a function of defocus and pupil diameter. Although the model is mainly based on geometrical optics, it also incorporates nongeometrical effects phenomenologically. Compared to similar visual acuity models, the proposed one considers the effect of astigmatism and the variability of best corrected V among individuals; it also takes into account the accommodation and the "tolerance to defocus," the latter through a phenomenological parameter. We have fitted the model to the V data provided in the works of Holladay et al. and Peters, showing the ability of this model to accurately describe the variation of V against blur and pupil diameter. We have also performed a comparison between the proposed model and others previously published in the literature. The model is mainly intended for use in the design of ophthalmic compensations, but it can also be useful in other fields such as visual ergonomics, design of visual tests, and optical instrumentation.

  9. Scoring Systems for Outcome Prediction of Patients with Perforation Peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Litake, Manjusha Madhusudhan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Peritonitis continues to be one of the major infectious problems confronting a surgeon. Mannheim Peritonitis Index (MPI), Physiological and Operative Severity Score for en Umeration of Mortality (POSSUM) and Morbidity and sepsis score of Stoner and Elebute have been devised for risk assessment and for prediction of postoperative outcome. Aim The aim of this study was to find the accuracy of these scores in predicting outcome in terms of mortality in patients undergoing exploratory laprotomy for perforation peritonitis. Materials and Methods The prospective study was carried out in 100 diagnosed cases of perforation at our centre in a single unit over a period of 21 months from December 2012 to August 2014. Study was conducted on all cases of peritonitis albeit primary, tertiary, iatrogenic and those with age less than 12 years were excluded from the study. All the relevant data were collected and three scores were computed from one set of data from the patient. The main outcome measure was survival of the patient. The Receiver Operator Characteristics (ROC) curves were obtained for the three scores. Area Under the Curves (AUC) was calculated. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated at a cut off point obtained from the ROC curves. Results POSSUM had an AUC of 0.99, sepsis score had an AUC of 0.98 and MPI had an AUC of 0.95. The cut off point score of 51 for POSSUM had an accuracy of 93.8 and positive predictive value of 70.5, the score of 29 for MPI had an accuracy of 82.8 and positive predictive value of 46 and the score of 22 for sepsis score had an accuracy of 95.9 and positive predictive value of 86.67. Conclusion POSSUM score was found to be superior in prediction of mortality as compared to sepsis score of Stoner and Elebute and MPI. POSSUM and MPI over predicted mortality in some cases. None of these scores are strictly preoperative. PMID:27134924

  10. Dynamic Visual Acuity and Landing Sickness in Crewmembers Returning from Long-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, M.J.F; Peters, B.T.; Reschke, M. F.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term exposure to microgravity causes sensorimotor adaptations that result in functional deficits upon returning to a gravitational environment. At landing the vestibular system and the central nervous system, responsible for coordinating head and eye movements, are adapted to microgravity and must re-adapt to the gravitational environment. This re-adaptation causes decrements in gaze control and dynamic visual acuity, with astronauts reporting oscillopsia and blurred vision. Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is assessed using an oscillating chair developed in the Neuroscience Laboratory at JSC. This chair is lightweight and easily portable for quick deployment in the field. The base of the chair is spring-loaded and allows for manual oscillation of the subject. Using a metronome, the chair is vertically oscillated plus or minus 2 cm at 2 Hz by an operator, to simulate walking. While the subject is being oscillated, they are asked to discern the direction of Landolt-C optotypes of varying sizes and record their direction using a gamepad. The visual acuity thresholds are determined using an algorithm that alters the size of the optotype based on the previous response of the subject using a forced-choice best parameter estimation that is able to rapidly converge on the threshold value. Visual acuity thresholds were determined both for static (seated) and dynamic (oscillating) conditions. Dynamic visual acuity is defined as the difference between the dynamic and static conditions. Dynamic visual acuity measures will be taken prior to flight (typically L-180, L-90, and L-60) and up to eight times after landing, including up to 3 times on R plus 0. Follow up measurements will be taken at R plus 1 (approximately 36 hours after landing). Long-duration International Space Station crewmembers will be tested once at the refueling stop in Europe and once again upon return to Johnson Space Center. In addition to DVA, subjective ratings of motion sickness will be recorded

  11. Modified Balance Error Scoring System (M-BESS) test scores in athletes wearing protective equipment and cleats

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Aftab Mohammad; Al Juma, Saad; Bhatti, Junaid Ahmad; Delaney, J Scott

    2016-01-01

    Background Balance testing is an important part of the initial concussion assessment. There is no research on the differences in Modified Balance Error Scoring System (M-BESS) scores when tested in real world as compared to control conditions. Objective To assess the difference in M-BESS scores in athletes wearing their protective equipment and cleats on different surfaces as compared to control conditions. Methods This cross-sectional study examined university North American football and soccer athletes. Three observers independently rated athletes performing the M-BESS test in three different conditions: (1) wearing shorts and T-shirt in bare feet on firm surface (control); (2) wearing athletic equipment with cleats on FieldTurf; and (3) wearing athletic equipment with cleats on firm surface. Mean M-BESS scores were compared between conditions. Results 60 participants were recruited: 39 from football (all males) and 21 from soccer (11 males and 10 females). Average age was 21.1 years (SD=1.8). Mean M-BESS scores were significantly lower (p<0.001) for cleats on FieldTurf (mean=26.3; SD=2.0) and for cleats on firm surface (mean=26.6; SD=2.1) as compared to the control condition (mean=28.4; SD=1.5). Females had lower scores than males for cleats on FieldTurf condition (24.9 (SD=1.9) vs 27.3 (SD=1.6), p=0.005). Players who had taping or bracing on their ankles/feet had lower scores when tested with cleats on firm surface condition (24.6 (SD=1.7) vs 26.9 (SD=2.0), p=0.002). Conclusions Total M-BESS scores for athletes wearing protective equipment and cleats standing on FieldTurf or a firm surface are around two points lower than M-BESS scores performed on the same athletes under control conditions. PMID:27900181

  12. Comparison of three night vision intensification tube technologies on resolution acuity: results from grating and Hoffman ANV-126 tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macuda, Todd; Allison, Robert S.; Thomas, Paul; Truong, Long; Tang, Denis; Craig, Greg; Jennings, Sion

    2005-05-01

    Several methodologies have been used to determine resolution acuity through Night Vision Goggles. The present study compared NVG acuity estimates derived from the Hoffman ANV-126 and a standard psychophysical grating acuity task. For the grating acuity task, observers were required to discriminate between horizontal and vertical gratings according to a method of constant stimuli. Psychometric functions were generated from the performance data, and acuity thresholds were interpolated at a performance level of 70% correct. Acuity estimates were established at three different illumination levels (0.06-5X10-4 lux) for both procedures. These estimates were then converted to an equivalent Snellen value. The data indicate that grating acuity estimates were consistently better (i.e. lower scores) than acuity measures obtained from the Hoffman ANV-126. Furthermore significant differences in estimated acuity were observed using different tube technologies. In keeping with previous acuity investigations, although the Hoffman ANV-126 provides a rapid operational assessment of tube acuity, it is suggested that more rigorous psychophysical procedures such as the grating task described here be used to assess the real behavioural resolution of tube technologies.

  13. 76 FR 20366 - Changes to the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Management Operations Scoring Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Changes to the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Management Operations Scoring... request for public comments on the Management Operations interim scoring notice. The document....hud.gov/offices/reac/ . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The proposed management...

  14. Visual acuity estimation from simulated images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, William J.

    Simulated images can provide insight into the performance of optical systems, especially those with complicated features. Many modern solutions for presbyopia and cataracts feature sophisticated power geometries or diffractive elements. Some intraocular lenses (IOLs) arrive at multifocality through the use of a diffractive surface and multifocal contact lenses have a radially varying power profile. These type of elements induce simultaneous vision as well as affecting vision much differently than a monofocal ophthalmic appliance. With myriad multifocal ophthalmics available on the market it is difficult to compare or assess performance in ways that effect wearers of such appliances. Here we present software and algorithmic metrics that can be used to qualitatively and quantitatively compare ophthalmic element performance, with specific examples of bifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) and multifocal contact lenses. We anticipate this study, methods, and results to serve as a starting point for more complex models of vision and visual acuity in a setting where modeling is advantageous. Generating simulated images of real- scene scenarios is useful for patients in assessing vision quality with a certain appliance. Visual acuity estimation can serve as an important tool for manufacturing and design of ophthalmic appliances.

  15. Reliability, validity and responsiveness of a revised scoring system for the Liverpool Seizure Severity Scale.

    PubMed

    Scott-Lennox, J; Bryant-Comstock, L; Lennox, R; Baker, G A

    2001-04-01

    This report examines the reliability, validity and responsiveness of a revised scoring system for the Liverpool Seizure Severity Scale (LSSS). The revised scoring system was validated using archival data from an observational study and a randomized controlled study. Factor analyses confirmed that a single dimension captured how patients evaluate the severity of their most severe seizures occurring during a recall period. The revised scoring system repositions the severity score to range from 0 (no seizures) to 100 (most severe possible). Scores based on the new system were reliable, had construct validity (known-groups validity), and were responsive to changes in the patients' epilepsy as noted by their physicians. Results suggest that future epilepsy studies assessing seizure severity should incorporate the revised LSSS scoring system and a modified version of the questionnaire that simplifies self-assessment and analyses. The modified version of the LSSS and its scoring system are appended to this report.

  16. Vernier acuity through night vision goggles.

    PubMed

    Rabin, J

    1993-08-01

    Night vision goggles (NVG's) are being used increasingly in military and civilian environments. Despite the use of these devices, relatively few tests exist to assess visual performance through NVG's. Hyperacuity tasks may provide a sensitive index of performance through night vision devices. In this study, grating vernier acuity was measured through NVG's. As reported previously, a power law relation was observed between vernier acuity and stimulus contrast. Comparison of vernier acuity with and without NVG's indicated that performance is limited by the contrast transfer of the device. Vernier acuity measurements can be used to assess the quality of vision and quantity of contrast transferred through night vision devices.

  17. Multiparametric and semiquantitative scoring systems for the evaluation of mouse model histopathology - a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Histopathology has initially been and is still used to diagnose infectious, degenerative or neoplastic diseases in humans or animals. In addition to qualitative diagnoses semiquantitative scoring of a lesion`s magnitude on an ordinal scale is a commonly demanded task for histopathologists. Multiparametric, semiquantitative scoring systems for mouse models histopathology are a common approach to handle these questions and to include histopathologic information in biomedical research. Results Inclusion criteria for scoring systems were a first description of a multiparametric, semiquantiative scoring systems which comprehensibly describe an approach to evaluate morphologic lesion. A comprehensive literature search using these criteria identified 153 originally designed semiquantitative scoring systems for the analysis of morphologic changes in mouse models covering almost all organs systems and a wide variety of disease models. Of these, colitis, experimental autoimmune encephalitis, lupus nephritis and collagen induced osteoarthritis colitis were the disease models with the largest number of different scoring systems. Closer analysis of the identified scoring systems revealed a lack of a rationale for the selection of the scoring parameters or a correlation between scoring parameter value and the magnitude of the clinical symptoms in most studies. Conclusion Although a decision for a particular scoring system is clearly dependent on the respective scientific question this review gives an overview on currently available systems and may therefore allow for a better choice for the respective project. PMID:23800279

  18. The Validity of Gains in Scores on the Kentucky Instructional Results Information System (KIRIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koretz, Daniel M.; Barron, Sheila I.

    Large gains in scores have been observed over the first years of the Kentucky Instructional Results Information System (KIRIS) program. The extent to which these gains in scores indicate that student learning improved was evaluated. Previous studies have suggested that KIRIS score gains might be appreciably inflated, something that might result…

  19. The rat whole embryo culture assay using the Dysmorphology Score system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cindy; Panzica-Kelly, Julie; Augustine-Rauch, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The rat whole embryo culture (WEC) system has been used extensively for characterizing teratogenic properties of test chemicals. In this chapter, we describe the methodology for culturing rat embryos as well as a new morphological score system, the Dysmorphology Score (DMS) system for assessing morphology of mid gestation (gestational day 11) rat embryos. In contrast to the developmental stage focused scoring associated with the Brown and Fabro score system, this new score system assesses the respective degree of severity of dysmorphology, which delineates normal from abnormal morphology of specific embryonic structures and organ systems. This score system generates an approach that allows rapid identification and quantification of adverse developmental findings, making it conducive for characterization of compounds for teratogenic properties and screening activities.

  20. 21 CFR 866.6050 - Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system... immunological Test Systems § 866.6050 Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system. (a) Identification. An ovarian/adnexal mass assessment test system is a device that measures one or more proteins in serum...

  1. 21 CFR 866.6050 - Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system... immunological Test Systems § 866.6050 Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system. (a) Identification. An ovarian/adnexal mass assessment test system is a device that measures one or more proteins in serum...

  2. 21 CFR 866.6050 - Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system... immunological Test Systems § 866.6050 Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system. (a) Identification. An ovarian/adnexal mass assessment test system is a device that measures one or more proteins in serum...

  3. Clicker Score Trajectories and Concept Inventory Scores as Predictors for Early Warning Systems for Large STEM Classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Un Jung; Sbeglia, Gena C.; Ha, Minsu; Finch, Stephen J.; Nehm, Ross H.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing the retention of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors has recently emerged as a national priority in undergraduate education. Since poor performance in large introductory science and math courses is one significant factor in STEM dropout, early detection of struggling students is needed. Technology-supported "early warning systems" (EWSs) are being developed to meet these needs. Our study explores the utility of two commonly collected data sources—pre-course concept inventory scores and longitudinal clicker scores—for use in EWS, specifically, in determining the time points at which robust predictions of student success can first be established. The pre-course diagnostic assessments, administered to 287 students, included two concept inventories and one attitude assessment. Clicker question scores were also obtained for each of the 37 class sessions. Additionally, student characteristics (sex, ethnicity, and English facility) were gathered in a survey. Our analyses revealed that all variables were predictive of final grades. The correlation of the first 3 weeks of clicker scores with final grades was 0.53, suggesting that this set of variables could be used in an EWS starting at the third week. We also used group-based trajectory models to assess whether trajectory patterns were homogeneous in the class. The trajectory analysis identified three distinct clicker performance patterns that were also significant predictors of final grade. Trajectory analyses of clicker scores, student characteristics, and pre-course diagnostic assessment appear to be valuable data sources for EWS, although further studies in a diversity of instructional contexts are warranted.

  4. 38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... distance and near vision using Snellen's test type or its equivalent. (b) Evaluation of visual acuity. (1) Evaluate central visual acuity on the basis of corrected distance vision with central fixation, even if a central scotoma is present. However, when the lens required to correct distance vision in the poorer...

  5. 38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... distance and near vision using Snellen's test type or its equivalent. (b) Evaluation of visual acuity. (1) Evaluate central visual acuity on the basis of corrected distance vision with central fixation, even if a central scotoma is present. However, when the lens required to correct distance vision in the poorer...

  6. 38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... distance and near vision using Snellen's test type or its equivalent. (b) Evaluation of visual acuity. (1) Evaluate central visual acuity on the basis of corrected distance vision with central fixation, even if a central scotoma is present. However, when the lens required to correct distance vision in the poorer...

  7. 38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... distance and near vision using Snellen's test type or its equivalent. (b) Evaluation of visual acuity. (1) Evaluate central visual acuity on the basis of corrected distance vision with central fixation, even if a central scotoma is present. However, when the lens required to correct distance vision in the poorer...

  8. Further Validation of the Qualitative Scoring System for the Modified Bender-Gestalt Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannigan, Gary G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Compares the Qualitative Scoring System and the Developmental Scoring Systems, both Bender-Gestalt tests, in predicting achievement on the Metropolitan Achievement Test (MAT). In this study, first through fourth graders (n=409) from regular elementary schools were subjected to both tests; both systems correlated significantly with school…

  9. Agreement between bovine respiratory disease scoring systems for pre-weaned dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Aly, Sharif S; Love, William J; Williams, Deniece R; Lehenbauer, Terry W; Van Eenennaam, Alison; Drake, Christiana; Kass, Philip H; Farver, Thomas B

    2014-12-01

    Clinical scoring systems have been proposed for respiratory disease diagnosis in calves, including the Wisconsin (WI) system (McGuirk in 2008) which uses five clinical signs, each partitioned into four levels of severity. Recently, we developed the California (CA) bovine respiratory disease (BRD) scoring system requiring less calf handling and consisting of six clinical signs, each classified as normal or abnormal. The objective of this study was to estimate the on-farm agreement between the WI and the CA scoring systems. A total of 100 calves were enrolled on a CA dairy and assessed for BRD case status using the two scoring systems simultaneously. The Kappa coefficient of agreement between these two systems was estimated to be 0.85, which indicated excellent agreement beyond chance. The simpler design and reduced calf handling required by the CA BRD scoring system may make it advantageous for on-farm use.

  10. The relationship between visual acuity and functioning and well-being among diabetics.

    PubMed

    Lee, P P; Whitcup, S M; Hays, R D; Spritzer, K; Javitt, J

    1995-08-01

    Given the enormous recent interest in functional capabilities related to vision, the goal of this study was to examine the relationship of standard clinical measures of vision (e.g. Snellen acuity) to functioning and well-being. The association between Snellen visual acuity, Amsler grid distortion and presence of diabetic retinopathy with self-reported functioning and well-being (SF-36) were examined in a sample of 327 diabetics from the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS). There was little or no correlation between Snellen visual acuity, Amsler grid distortion or diabetic retinopathy and functioning and well-being (i.e. SF-36 scales). Maximum product-moment correlation was 0.15 with worst eye visual acuity, 0.13 with best eye visual acuity, 0.08 with presence of retinopathy, and 0.10 with Amsler grid distortion. Analysis of variance revealed that visual acuity (both best and worst eye) was statistically related only to the physical function scale; no other exam measure was related to any other SF-36 scale score. Snellen visual acuity, Amsler distortion and diabetic retinopathy correlate weakly with patient self-reported functioning and well-being. Thus, the information provided by functioning and well-being measures is complementary to that of standard clinical measures of visual ability.

  11. Application of a computed tomography based cystic fibrosis scoring system to chest tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderman, Christina; Johnsson, Åse; Vikgren, Jenny; Rystedt, Hans; Ivarsson, Jonas; Rossi Norrlund, Rauni; Nyberg Andersson, Lena; Bâth, Magnus

    2013-03-01

    In the monitoring of progression of lung disease in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), recurrent computed tomography (CT) examinations are often used. The relatively new imaging technique chest tomosynthesis (CTS) may be an interesting alternative in the follow-up of these patients due to its visualization of the chest in slices at radiation doses and costs significantly lower than is the case with CT. A first step towards introducing CTS imaging in the diagnostics of CF patients is to establish a scoring system appropriate for evaluating the severity of CF pulmonary disease based on findings in CTS images. Previously, several such CF scoring systems based on CT imaging have been published. The purpose of the present study was to develop a CF scoring system for CTS, by starting from an existing scoring system dedicated for CT images and making modifications regarded necessary to make it appropriate for use with CTS images. In order to determine any necessary changes, three thoracic radiologists independently used a scoring system dedicated for CT on both CT and CTS images from CF patients. The results of the scoring were jointly evaluated by all the observers, which lead to suggestions for changes to the scoring system. Suggested modifications include excluding the scoring of air trapping and doing the scoring of the findings in quadrants of the image instead of in each lung lobe.

  12. An Evaluation of the IntelliMetric[SM] Essay Scoring System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.; Garcia, Veronica; Welch, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This report provides a two-part evaluation of the IntelliMetric[SM] automated essay scoring system based on its performance scoring essays from the Analytic Writing Assessment of the Graduate Management Admission Test[TM] (GMAT[TM]). The IntelliMetric system performance is first compared to that of individual human raters, a Bayesian system…

  13. Comparison of Two Scoring Systems for the Modified Version of the Bender-Gestalt Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Steven; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined relative utility of two scoring systems for Modified Version of Bender-Gestalt Test in predicting performance on Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration. Findings from 53 kindergarten and 47 first grade students indicated that Qualitative Scoring System was significantly better predictor of visual-motor integration skills than…

  14. Comparison of the Koppitz and Watkins Scoring Systems for the Bender Gestalt Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Cris W.; Lanak, Brenda

    1985-01-01

    The Bender Gestalt Test was administered to 25 children (7-10 years old) referred for neuropsychological assessment and scored using the Koppitz system and the Watkins system. Although the scores obtained using the two different sets of criteria were highly correlated, the Watkins rules produced generally better performance. (Author/CL)

  15. Factors Affecting Crowded Acuity: Eccentricity and Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Coates, Daniel R.; Chin, Jeremy M.; Chung, Susana T. L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Acuity measurement is a fundamental method to assess visual performance in the clinic. Little is known about how acuity measured in the presence of neighboring letters, as in the case of letter charts, changes with contrast and with non-foveal viewing. This information is crucial for acuity measurement using low-contrast charts and when patients cannot use their fovea. In this study, we evaluated how optotype acuity, with and without flankers, is affected by contrast and eccentricity. Methods Five young adults with normal vision identified the orientation of a Tumbling-E alone or in the presence of four flanking Tumbling-Es. Edge-to-edge letter spacing ranged from 1 to 20 bar widths. Stimuli were presented on a white background for 150 ms with Weber contrast ranging from −2.5% to −99%. Flankers had the same size and contrast as the target. Testings were performed at the fovea, 3, 5 and 10 degrees in the inferior visual field. Results When plotted as a function of letter spacing, acuity remains unaffected by the presence of flankers until the flankers are within the critical spacing, which averages an edge-to-edge spacing of 4.4 bar widths at the fovea, and approximately 16 bar widths at all three eccentricities. Critical spacing decreases with a reduction in contrast. When plotted as a function of contrast, acuity only worsens when the contrast falls below approximately 24% at the fovea and 17% in the periphery, for flanked and unflanked conditions alike. Conclusions The letter spacing on conventional letter charts exceeds the critical spacing for acuity measurement at the fovea, at all contrast levels. Thus these charts are appropriate for assessing foveal acuity. In the periphery, the critical spacing is larger than the letter spacing on conventional charts. Consequently, these charts may underestimate the acuity measured in the periphery due to the effects of crowding. PMID:23770657

  16. Comparison of risk scoring systems for patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding: international multicentre prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Laine, Loren; Dalton, Harry R; Ngu, Jing H; Schultz, Michael; Abazi, Roseta; Zakko, Liam; Thornton, Susan; Wilkinson, Kelly; Khor, Cristopher J L; Murray, Iain A; Laursen, Stig B

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare the predictive accuracy and clinical utility of five risk scoring systems in the assessment of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Design International multicentre prospective study. Setting Six large hospitals in Europe, North America, Asia, and Oceania. Participants 3012 consecutive patients presenting over 12 months with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Main outcome measures Comparison of pre-endoscopy scores (admission Rockall, AIMS65, and Glasgow Blatchford) and post-endoscopy scores (full Rockall and PNED) for their ability to predict predefined clinical endpoints: a composite endpoint (transfusion, endoscopic treatment, interventional radiology, surgery, or 30 day mortality), endoscopic treatment, 30 day mortality, rebleeding, and length of hospital stay. Optimum score thresholds to identify low risk and high risk patients were determined. Results The Glasgow Blatchford score was best (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) 0.86) at predicting intervention or death compared with the full Rockall score (0.70), PNED score (0.69), admission Rockall score (0.66, and AIMS65 score (0.68) (all P<0.001). A Glasgow Blatchford score of ≤1 was the optimum threshold to predict survival without intervention (sensitivity 98.6%, specificity 34.6%). The Glasgow Blatchford score was better at predicting endoscopic treatment (AUROC 0.75) than the AIMS65 (0.62) and admission Rockall scores (0.61) (both P<0.001). A Glasgow Blatchford score of ≥7 was the optimum threshold to predict endoscopic treatment (sensitivity 80%, specificity 57%). The PNED (AUROC 0.77) and AIMS65 scores (0.77) were best at predicting mortality, with both superior to admission Rockall score (0.72) and Glasgow Blatchford score (0.64; P<0.001). Score thresholds of ≥4 for PNED, ≥2 for AIMS65, ≥4 for admission Rockall, and ≥5 for full Rockall were optimal at predicting death, with sensitivities of 65.8-78.6% and specificities of 65

  17. Interobserver Reliability of the Total Body Score System for Quantifying Human Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Dabbs, Gretchen R; Connor, Melissa; Bytheway, Joan A

    2016-03-01

    Several authors have tested the accuracy of the Total Body Score (TBS) method for quantifying decomposition, but none have examined the reliability of the method as a scoring system by testing interobserver error rates. Sixteen participants used the TBS system to score 59 observation packets including photographs and written descriptions of 13 human cadavers in different stages of decomposition (postmortem interval: 2-186 days). Data analysis used a two-way random model intraclass correlation in SPSS (v. 17.0). The TBS method showed "almost perfect" agreement between observers, with average absolute correlation coefficients of 0.990 and average consistency correlation coefficients of 0.991. While the TBS method may have sources of error, scoring reliability is not one of them. Individual component scores were examined, and the influences of education and experience levels were investigated. Overall, the trunk component scores were the least concordant. Suggestions are made to improve the reliability of the TBS method.

  18. Degraded Time-Frequency Acuity to Time-Reversed Notes

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheim, Jacob N.; Isakov, Pavel; Magnasco, Marcelo O.

    2013-01-01

    Time-reversal symmetry breaking is a key feature of many classes of natural sounds, originating in the physics of sound production. While attention has been paid to the response of the auditory system to “natural stimuli,” very few psychophysical tests have been performed. We conduct psychophysical measurements of time-frequency acuity for stylized representations of “natural”-like notes (sharp attack, long decay) and the time-reversed versions of these notes (long attack, sharp decay). Our results demonstrate significantly greater precision, arising from enhanced temporal acuity, for such sounds over their time-reversed versions, without a corresponding decrease in frequency acuity. These data inveigh against models of auditory processing that include tradeoffs between temporal and frequency acuity, at least in the range of notes tested and suggest the existence of statistical priors for notes with a sharp-attack and a long-decay. We are additionally able to calculate a minimal theoretical bound on the sophistication of the nonlinearities in auditory processing. We find that among the best studied classes of nonlinear time-frequency representations, only matching pursuit, spectral derivatives, and reassigned spectrograms are able to satisfy this criterion. PMID:23799012

  19. Dynamic Visual Acuity: a Functionally Relevant Research Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Brian T.; Brady, Rachel A.; Miller, Chris A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Wood, Scott J.; Cohen, Helen S.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    Coordinated movements between the eyes and head are required to maintain a stable retinal image during head and body motion. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) plays a significant role in this gaze control system that functions well for most daily activities. However, certain environmental conditions or interruptions in normal VOR function can lead to inadequate ocular compensation, resulting in oscillopsia, or blurred vision. It is therefore possible to use acuity to determine when the environmental conditions, VOR function, or the combination of the two is not conductive for maintaining clear vision. Over several years we have designed and tested several tests of dynamic visual acuity (DVA). Early tests used the difference between standing and walking acuity to assess decrements in the gaze stabilization system after spaceflight. Supporting ground-based studies measured the responses from patients with bilateral vestibular dysfunction and explored the effects of visual target viewing distance and gait cycle events on walking acuity. Results from these studies show that DVA is affected by spaceflight, is degraded in patients with vestibular dysfunction, changes with target distance, and is not consistent across the gait cycle. We have recently expanded our research to include studies in which seated subjects are translated or rotated passively. Preliminary results from this work indicate that gaze stabilization ability may differ between similar active and passive conditions, may change with age, and can be affected by the location of the visual target with respect to the axis of motion. Use of DVA as a diagnostic tool is becoming more popular but the functional nature of the acuity outcome measure also makes it ideal for identifying conditions that could lead to degraded vision. By doing so, steps can be taken to alter the problematic environments to improve the man-machine interface and optimize performance.

  20. Night vision in barn owls: visual acuity and contrast sensitivity under dark adaptation.

    PubMed

    Orlowski, Julius; Harmening, Wolf; Wagner, Hermann

    2012-12-06

    Barn owls are effective nocturnal predators. We tested their visual performance at low light levels and determined visual acuity and contrast sensitivity of three barn owls by their behavior at stimulus luminances ranging from photopic to fully scotopic levels (23.5 to 1.5 × 10⁻⁶). Contrast sensitivity and visual acuity decreased only slightly from photopic to scotopic conditions. Peak grating acuity was at mesopic (4 × 10⁻² cd/m²) conditions. Barn owls retained a quarter of their maximal acuity when luminance decreased by 5.5 log units. We argue that the visual system of barn owls is designed to yield as much visual acuity under low light conditions as possible, thereby sacrificing resolution at photopic conditions.

  1. Validation of the Total Visual Acuity Extraction Algorithm (TOVA) for Automated Extraction of Visual Acuity Data From Free Text, Unstructured Clinical Records

    PubMed Central

    Baughman, Douglas M.; Su, Grace L.; Tsui, Irena; Lee, Cecilia S.; Lee, Aaron Y.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose With increasing volumes of electronic health record data, algorithm-driven extraction may aid manual extraction. Visual acuity often is extracted manually in vision research. The total visual acuity extraction algorithm (TOVA) is presented and validated for automated extraction of visual acuity from free text, unstructured clinical notes. Methods Consecutive inpatient ophthalmology notes over an 8-year period from the University of Washington healthcare system in Seattle, WA were used for validation of TOVA. The total visual acuity extraction algorithm applied natural language processing to recognize Snellen visual acuity in free text notes and assign laterality. The best corrected measurement was determined for each eye and converted to logMAR. The algorithm was validated against manual extraction of a subset of notes. Results A total of 6266 clinical records were obtained giving 12,452 data points. In a subset of 644 validated notes, comparison of manually extracted data versus TOVA output showed 95% concordance. Interrater reliability testing gave κ statistics of 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89–0.99), 0.96 (95% CI, 0.94–0.98), 0.95 (95% CI, 0.92–0.98), and 0.94 (95% CI, 0.90–0.98) for acuity numerators, denominators, adjustments, and signs, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.983. Linear regression showed an R2 of 0.966 (P < 0.0001). Conclusions The total visual acuity extraction algorithm is a novel tool for extraction of visual acuity from free text, unstructured clinical notes and provides an open source method of data extraction. Translational Relevance Automated visual acuity extraction through natural language processing can be a valuable tool for data extraction from free text ophthalmology notes. PMID:28299240

  2. Stereopsis and positional acuity under dark adaptation.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, M S; Hubel, D H

    1994-03-01

    Though experience tells us we can perceive depth in dim light, it is not so obvious that one of the chief mechanisms for depth perception, stereopsis, is possible under scotopic conditions. The only studies on human stereopsis in the dark adapted state seem to be those of Nagel [(1902) Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 27, 264-266] and Mueller and Lloyd [(1948) Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, U.S.A., 34, 223-227], both of which used real objects or line stereograms. We tested stereopsis using both random-dot and line stereograms and, in agreement with these studies, found that stereopsis is indeed possible in dark adaptation. We also measured stereo acuity and positional acuity (both of which are examples of hyperacuity) and compared these with grating acuity at several levels of light and dark adaptation. At all illumination levels tested, acuities for stereopsis and relative line position were both higher than for grating acuity. As light levels decreased, positional and grating acuity declined in parallel fashion, whereas stereoacuity declined more steeply.

  3. The Koppitz Developmental Scoring System for the Bender-Gestalt: Is It Developmental?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the developmental aspects of the Koppitz scoring system with 652 children who took the Bender Motor Gestalt Test. Scores were fitted to various developmental curves by computer. Results indicated only 35 percent of the Bender test performance variance was accounted for by age. (JAC)

  4. The Validity of Preservice Teacher Use of Kohlberg's Issue Stage Scoring System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, John D.

    1978-01-01

    Social studies preservice teachers received background information on Kohlberg's theory of moral development and were trained to use one of the rater guides in his new "issue stage scoring system." They were directed to score sample moral thought statements, some on an intuitive basis and some with the rater guides. No overall differences between…

  5. 76 FR 10050 - Changes to the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Management Operations Scoring Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Changes to the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Management Operations Scoring... of the public about HUD's process for issuing scores under the management operations indicator of the... process for the PHAS management operations indicator. The purpose of the management operations...

  6. The Weighted Airman Promotion System: Standardizing Test Scores

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    RAND Project AIR FORCE (PAF), is a follow-on to Air Force Enlisted Force Management: System Interactions and Synchronization Strategies (Schiefer et...conducted in four programs: Aerospace Force Develop- ment; Manpower, Personnel, and Training; Resource Management; and Strategy and Doctrine...74 Standardization Strategies

  7. Reliability of the Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation (API) scoring system for the Bender Gestalt.

    PubMed

    Aucone, E J; Raphael, A J; Golden, C J; Espe-Pfeifer, P; Seldon, J; Pospisil, T; Dornheim, L; Proctor-Weber, Z; Calabria, M

    1999-09-01

    This study assesses the interrater reliability of the revised Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation (API) scoring system for the Bender Gestalt Test (BGT). The API scoring system identifies 207 possible distortions in a BGT protocol. Agreement across nine raters exceeded 90% for each of three clinical protocols. Kappa statistics indicated that the API system exhibited good interrater reliability. Further research is necessary in such areas as test-retest reliability and validity to further demonstrate the effectiveness of the procedure.

  8. Interobserver variability in Pirani clubfoot severity scoring system between the orthopedic surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Saurabh; Ajmera, Anand; Solanki, Mahendra; Verma, Alok

    2017-01-01

    Background: Congenital talipes equinovarus (clubfoot) is one of the most common congenital pediatric orthopedic foot deformity, which varies in severity and clinical course. Assessment of severity of the club foot deformity is essential to assess the initial severity of deformity, to monitor the progress of treatment, to prognosticate, and to identify early relapse. Pirani's scoring system is most acceptable and popular for club foot deformity assessment because it is simple, quick, cost effective, and easy. Since the scoring system is subjective in nature it has inter- and intra-observer variability, it is widely used. Hence, the interobserver variability between orthopedic surgeons in assessing the club foot severity by Pirani scoring system. Materials and Methods: We assessed the interobserver variability between five orthopedic surgeons of comparable skills, in assessing the club foot severity by Pirani scoring system in 80 feet of 60 children (20 bilateral and 40 unilateral) with club foot deformity. All the five different orthopedic surgeons were familiar with Pirani clubfoot severity scoring and Ponseti cast manipulation, as they had already worked in CTEV clinics for at least 2 months. Each of them independently scored, each foot as per the Pirani clubfoot scoring system and recorded total score (TS), Midfoot score (MFS), Hind foot score (HFS), posterior crease (PC), emptiness of heel (EH), rigidity of equnius (RE), medial crease (MC), curvature of lateral border (CLB), and lateral head of talus (LHT). Interobserver variability was calculated using kappa statistic for each of these signs and was judged as poor (0.00–0.20), fair (0.21–0.40), moderate (0.41–0.60), substantial (0.61–0.80), or almost perfect (0.81–1.00). Results: The mean age was 137 days (range 21-335) days. The mean Pirani score was 3.86. We found the overall consistency to be substantial for overall score (total score kappa - 0.71) and also for midfoot (0.68) and hindfoot (0

  9. Evaluation of visual acuity with Gen 3 night vision goggles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Arthur; Kaiser, Mary K.

    1994-01-01

    Using laboratory simulations, visual performance was measured at luminance and night vision imaging system (NVIS) radiance levels typically encountered in the natural nocturnal environment. Comparisons were made between visual performance with unaided vision and that observed with subjects using image intensification. An Amplified Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS6) binocular image intensifier was used. Light levels available in the experiments (using video display technology and filters) were matched to those of reflecting objects illuminated by representative night-sky conditions (e.g., full moon, starlight). Results show that as expected, the precipitous decline in foveal acuity experienced with decreasing mesopic luminance levels is effectively shifted to much lower light levels by use of an image intensification system. The benefits of intensification are most pronounced foveally, but still observable at 20 deg eccentricity. Binocularity provides a small improvement in visual acuity under both intensified and unintensified conditions.

  10. Commercial Building Energy Asset Score System: Program Overview and Technical Protocol (Version 1.0)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Na; Gorrissen, Willy J.

    2013-01-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a national voluntary energy asset score system that includes an energy asset score tool to help building owners evaluate their buildings with respect to the score system. The goal of the energy asset score system is to facilitate cost-effective investment in energy efficiency improvements of commercial buildings. The system will allow building owners and managers to compare their building infrastructure against peers and track building upgrade progress over time. The system can also help other building stakeholders (e.g., building operators, tenants, financiers, and appraisers) understand the relative efficiency of different buildings in a way that is independent from their operations and occupancy. This report outlines the technical protocol used to generate the energy asset score, explains the scoring methodology, and provides additional details regarding the energy asset score tool. This report also describes alternative methods that were considered prior to developing the current approach. Finally, this report describes a few features of the program where alternative approaches are still under evaluation.

  11. Visual Acuity Assessment in Persons with Dementia. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Alan R.; Teresi, Jeanne; Rosenthal, Bruce; Holmes, Douglas; Yatzkan, Elaine S.

    2004-01-01

    Most studies of vision in persons with Alzheimer's disease either exclude those with advanced dementia or are unable to assess their vision adequately, and therefore, improperly report these persons' visual acuity status. In this study, visual acuity was assessed using the ETDRS Snellen-type acuity chart and Teller Acuity Cards. The Teller Acuity…

  12. Evaluation of prognostic scoring systems for bone metastases using single-center data.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hirofumi; Setoguchi, Takao; Nakamura, Shunsuke; Yokouchi, Masahiro; Ishidou, Yasuhiro; Tominaga, Hiroyuki; Kawamura, Ichiro; Nagano, Satoshi; Komiya, Setsuro

    2015-11-01

    Recent progress in cancer treatment has improved patient survival, but has increased the number of patients with metastatic bone tumors. Data were collected from all bone metastasis patients at Kagoshima University, where almost all patients with metastatic bone tumors who reside in Kagoshima province are treated surgically. The scoring systems used in bone metastasis patients were then evaluated to identify those most suitable for our patients. Clinical data were collected from 145 patients with bone metastases. The patients were assigned prognostic scores based on four scoring systems, namely those described by the Ratasvuori, Mizumoto, Tokuhashi and Katagiri groups. Statistical examinations were performed to assess patient distribution regarding prognostic factors and the four data sets reported in the literature. The patient distributions for all prognostic factors were significantly different between the Scandinavian Sarcoma Group (SSG) and Kagoshima data. The distributions of patients for 3 of 5 and for 5 of 7 prognostic factors were statistically different between the Kagoshima data and the Katagiri and Tokuhashi data, respectively. Additionally, the distribution of patients in each scoring group was statistically different between the Kagoshima data and the Katagiri, Tokuhashi and Mizumoto data. The predictions of prognosis were significantly different between the results of each group and ours. The Tokuhashi scoring system detected the highest survival at 6 months (88.8%) in the Kagoshima data. Patients with a life expectancy of >6 months benefited from tumor excision and reconstruction. These findings suggest that the Tokuhashi scoring system is the most suitable for identifying patients who should be assessed for curative surgical intervention. SSG scoring, however, was suitable for identifying patients expected to survive for <6 months (91.3%). Prior to selecting a scoring system to predict prognosis, it is important to determine which scoring system is

  13. Evaluation of prognostic scoring systems for bone metastases using single-center data

    PubMed Central

    SHIMADA, HIROFUMI; SETOGUCHI, TAKAO; NAKAMURA, SHUNSUKE; YOKOUCHI, MASAHIRO; ISHIDOU, YASUHIRO; TOMINAGA, HIROYUKI; KAWAMURA, ICHIRO; NAGANO, SATOSHI; KOMIYA, SETSURO

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress in cancer treatment has improved patient survival, but has increased the number of patients with metastatic bone tumors. Data were collected from all bone metastasis patients at Kagoshima University, where almost all patients with metastatic bone tumors who reside in Kagoshima province are treated surgically. The scoring systems used in bone metastasis patients were then evaluated to identify those most suitable for our patients. Clinical data were collected from 145 patients with bone metastases. The patients were assigned prognostic scores based on four scoring systems, namely those described by the Ratasvuori, Mizumoto, Tokuhashi and Katagiri groups. Statistical examinations were performed to assess patient distribution regarding prognostic factors and the four data sets reported in the literature. The patient distributions for all prognostic factors were significantly different between the Scandinavian Sarcoma Group (SSG) and Kagoshima data. The distributions of patients for 3 of 5 and for 5 of 7 prognostic factors were statistically different between the Kagoshima data and the Katagiri and Tokuhashi data, respectively. Additionally, the distribution of patients in each scoring group was statistically different between the Kagoshima data and the Katagiri, Tokuhashi and Mizumoto data. The predictions of prognosis were significantly different between the results of each group and ours. The Tokuhashi scoring system detected the highest survival at 6 months (88.8%) in the Kagoshima data. Patients with a life expectancy of >6 months benefited from tumor excision and reconstruction. These findings suggest that the Tokuhashi scoring system is the most suitable for identifying patients who should be assessed for curative surgical intervention. SSG scoring, however, was suitable for identifying patients expected to survive for <6 months (91.3%). Prior to selecting a scoring system to predict prognosis, it is important to determine which scoring system is

  14. Reliability of the Koppitz scoring system for the Bender Gestalt Test.

    PubMed

    Hustak, T L; Dinning, W D; Andert, J N

    1976-04-01

    This study investigated the test-retest reliability of the Koppitz scoring system with Bender Gestalt protocols of adult retardates. Results of a sample of 74 adult retardates yielded a correlation of .80 over an interval of 8 to 146 months. A directional measure of change between error scores on the first and second administrations was not significant, which suggests that the test-retest reliability coefficient is an accurate estimate of the Koppitz scoring system for adult retardates. Scorer reliability for three independent scorers ranged from .92 to .95, which suggests comparability to other investigations with different populations.

  15. Assessment of an implant-skin interface scoring system for external skeletal fixation of dogs.

    PubMed

    McDonald-Lynch, Mischa B; Marcellin-Little, Denis J; Roe, Simon C; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Trumpatori, Brian J; Griffith, Emily H

    2015-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess intraobserver repeatability and interobserver and in vivo versus photographic agreement of a scoring system for the implant-skin interface (ISI) of external skeletal fixation (ESF). SAMPLE 42 photographs of ISIs from 18 dogs for interobserver agreement and intraobserver repeatability and 27 photographs of ISIs from 6 dogs for in vivo versus photograph agreement. PROCEDURES An ISI inflammation scoring system was developed. It included scales for 6 metrics (erythema, drainage amount, drainage type, swelling, hair loss or lack of hair regrowth, and granulation tissue). Photographs of the ISI of ESF were obtained by use of a standard protocol and evaluated to determine intraobserver repeatability and interobserver agreement (Cronbach α; 4 raters) of the ISI score. Agreement between in vivo and photographic ISI scores (2 raters) and correlation between median scores across metrics were evaluated. RESULTS 42 photographs met the inclusion criteria. Overall intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.922 to 0.975. Interobserver overall Cronbach α ranged from 0.835 to 0.943. For in vivo versus photographic assessment, 27 ISIs in 6 dogs and their photographs were evaluated. The Cronbach α for both raters ranged from 0.614 to 0.938. Overall, the Cronbach α ranged from 0.725 to 0.932. Mean photographic scores were greater than mean in vivo scores for each metric. Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0.221 to 0.923. Erythema, swelling, and granulation were correlated with all other metrics. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, an ISI scoring system used in this study had high repeatability and agreement and may therefore be considered for use in clinical situations. Photographic scores were not equivalent to in vivo scores and should not be used interchangeably.

  16. An audit of the current U.S. Department of Agriculture frame size scoring system.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, C D; Busby, W D

    2014-06-01

    Feedlot and carcass data from steers (n = 16,700) and heifers (n = 6,357) originating from 16 different states and fed in 17 feedlots located in southwest Iowa were used to evaluate the accuracy of the USDA frame score for predicting final BW of fed cattle. Frame score was recorded by USDA or state personnel for cattle either before leaving the state of origin or on arrival at the terminal feedlot. Mixed model procedures were used to investigate relationships between USDA frame score and measures of live performance and carcass traits. Other fixed effects included in the model included USDA muscle score, sex, age classification on feedlot entry (calf: ≤270 d of age, yearling: 271-365 d of age, and long yearling: >365 d of age), BCS on feedlot arrival, number of treatments for respiratory disease, hide color, and site of frame or muscle scoring; the interactions of sex × frame score and hide color × frame score were also included; fat thickness was included as a fixed effect (covariate) in the analysis of ADG, final BW, days on feed, LM area, marbling score, and quality grade. Random effects included in the model were year of feedlot arrival and feedlot in which cattle were fed. The system accurately projects the minimum target final BW for large frame steers and heifers; however, the final BW of the smallest medium frame steers and heifers exceeds the target minimum final BW by 35 and 40 kg, respectively. When frame score was assigned post facto based on actual final BW (adjusted to 1.27 cm fat thickness), it was determined that large frame was over-assigned by graders (62 vs. 35% for steers and 54 vs. 32% for heifers, actual score vs. postharvest score, respectively), medium frame was underassigned (37 vs. 51% and 46 vs. 58% for steers and heifers), and small frame was underassigned (0.7 vs. 15% and 0.6 vs. 10% for steers and heifers; K = 0.01, P < 0.01). Across sexes, of the cattle assigned to small, medium, or large frame score, 40, 59, and 43% actually had

  17. Lameness scoring system for dairy cows using force plates and artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Ghotoorlar, S Mokaram; Ghamsari, S Mehdi; Nowrouzian, I; Ghotoorlar, S Mokaram; Ghidary, S Shiry

    2012-02-04

    Lameness scoring is a routine procedure in dairy industry to screen the herds for new cases of lameness. Subjective lameness scoring, which is the most popular lameness detection and screening method in dairy herds, has several limitations. They include low intra-observer and inter-observer agreement and the discrete nature of the scores which limits its usage in monitoring the lameness. The aim of this study is to develop an automated lameness scoring system comparable with conventional subjective lameness scoring by means of artificial neural networks. The system is composed of four balanced force plates installed in a hoof-trimming box. A group of 105 dairy cows was used for the study. Twenty-three features extracted from ground reaction force (GRF) data were used in a computer training process which was performed on 60 per cent of the data. The remaining 40 per cent of the data were used to test the trained system. Repeatability of the lameness scoring system was determined by GRF samples from 25 cows, captured at two different times from the same animals. The mean sd was 0.31 and the mean coefficient of variation was 14.55 per cent, which represents a high repeatability in comparison with subjective vision-based scoring methods. Although the highest sensitivity and specificity values were seen in locomotion score groups 1 and 4, the automatic lameness system was both sensitive and specific in all groups. The sensitivity and specificity were higher than 72 per cent in locomotion score groups 1 to 4, and it was 100 per cent specific and 50 per cent sensitive for group 5.

  18. Visual acuity and quality of life in dry eye disease: Proceedings of the OCEAN group meeting.

    PubMed

    Benítez-Del-Castillo, José; Labetoulle, Marc; Baudouin, Christophe; Rolando, Maurizio; Akova, Yonca A; Aragona, Pasquale; Geerling, Gerd; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Messmer, Elisabeth M; Boboridis, Kostas

    2017-04-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) results in tear film instability and hyperosmolarity, inflammation of the ocular surface and, ultimately, visual disturbance that can significantly impact a patient's quality of life. The effects on visual acuity result in difficulties with driving, reading and computer use and negatively impact psychological health. These effects also extend to the workplace, with a loss of productivity and quality of work causing substantial economic losses. The effects of DED and the impact on vision experienced by patients may not be given sufficient importance by ophthalmologists. Functional visual acuity (FVA) is a measure of visual acuity after sustained eye opening without blinking for at least 10 s and mimics the sustained visual acuity of daily life. Measuring dynamic FVA allows the detection of impaired visual function in patients with DED who may display normal conventional visual acuity. There are currently several tests and methods that can be used to measure dynamic visual function: the SSC-350 FVA measurement system, assessment of best-corrected visual acuity decay using the interblink visual acuity decay test, serial measurements of ocular and corneal higher order aberrations, and measurement of dynamic vision quality using the Optical Quality Analysis System. Although the equipment for these methods may be too large or unaffordable for use in clinical practice, FVA testing is an important assessment for DED.

  19. Determining utility values in patients with anterior cruciate ligament tears using clinical scoring systems

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several instruments and clinical scoring systems have been established to evaluate patients with ligamentous knee injuries. A comparison of individual articles in the literature is challenging, not only because of heterogeneity in methodology, but also due to the variety of the scoring systems used to document clinical outcomes. There is limited information about the correlation between used scores and quality of life with no information being available on the impact of each score on the utility values. The aim of this study was to compare the most commonly used scores for evaluating patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, and to establish corresponding utility values. These values will be used for the interpretation and comparison of outcome results in the currently available literature for different treatment options. Methods Four hypothetical vignettes were defined, based on different levels of activities after rupture of the ACL to simulate typical situations seen in daily practice. A questionnaire, including the Health Utility Index (HUI) for utility values, the IKDC subjective score, the Lysholm and the Tegner score, was created and 25 orthopedic surgeons were asked to fill the questionnaire for each hypothetical patient as proxies for all patients they had treated and who would fit in that hypothetical vignette. Results The utility value as an indicator for quality of life increased with the level of activity. Having discomforts already during normal activities of daily living was rated with a mean utility value of 0.37 ± 0.19, half of that of a situation where mild sport activity was possible without discomfort (0.78 ± 0.11). All investigated scores were able to distinguish clearly (p < 0.05) between the hypothetical vignettes. However, the utility values correlated best with the IKDC subjective score (r = 0.86, p < 0.001) followed by the Lysholm score (r = 0.77, p < 0.001) and the Tegner score (r = 0.77, p < 0

  20. Nonamblyopic eye visual acuity through Bangerter filters

    PubMed Central

    Rutstein, Robert P.; Foster, Nicole C.; Cotter, Susan A.; Kraker, Raymond T.; Lee, Dave H.; Melia, Michele; Quinn, Graham E.; Tamkins, Susanna M.; Wallace, David K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To describe the amount of visual acuity degradation induced by Bangerter filters in the better-seeing eye and to evaluate its stability over time in children with moderate amblyopia. Methods Visual acuity with and without a Bangerter filter was measured in the nonamblyopic eye of 186 children with moderate amblyopia who were then treated with either patching or with the Bangerter filters. A 0.2 filter was used for amblyopia of 20/80 and a 0.3 filter for amblyopia from 20/40 to 20/63. For the 89 children randomized to Bangerter filters, visual acuity was also measured in the nonamblyopic eye with and without the filters at both 6 weeks and 12 weeks after initiating treatment. Results Mean degradation in visual acuity of the nonamblyopic eye at baseline was 5.1 logMAR lines with the 0.2 filter and 4.8 logMAR lines with the 0.3 filter. The degradation with each filter did not always agree with the manufacturer’s specifications. Over time, the amount of degradation with the filters decreased. Conclusions The 0.2 and 0.3 Bangerter filters degrade nonamblyopic eye visual acuity sufficiently in amblyopic children. Because the amount of degradation decreases over time, it is recommended to periodically apply a new filter when using this type of amblyopia treatment. PMID:21419678

  1. A sonographic scoring system to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy.

    PubMed

    Pathirana, A A; Bandara, K G M W; Faleel, M A; Kuruppumullage, S D; Solangarachchi, N; Rupasinghe, R D; Karunaratne, N P N; Ranasinghe, D D; Epa, W A; Thusyanthan, V

    2016-03-01

    Prediction of thyroid malignancy with fine needle aspiration cytology or individual ultrasound characteristics has several limitations. This study evaluates the usefulness of a combination of ultrasound characteristics in predicting malignancy in patients with thyroid nodules. We assessed 189 thyroid nodules using ultrasonography and histology. Each nodule was assigned a score based on ultrasonographic characteristics. This score was compared with histology to identify ability to predict malignancy. There were 28 malignant nodules. The scoring system was appropriate for clinical use, obtaining an area under ROC curve of 0.822 [p< 0.0001] 95% confidence. FNAC of nodules with a score of more than 4 can be recommended (100% sensitivity). Nodules with a score less than 8 can be offered total thyroidectomy when FNAC is inconclusive (97.5% sensitivity). A combination of ultrasonographic criteria increase the accuracy of predicting malignancy in thyroid nodules.

  2. Potential acuity meter for predicting visual acuity after Nd:YAG posterior capsulotomy

    SciTech Connect

    Smiddy, W.E.; Radulovic, D.; Yeo, J.H.; Stark, W.J.; Maumenee, A.E.

    1986-03-01

    We studied 30 patients with opacifications of the posterior capsule to determine if the potential acuity meter (PAM) could accurately predict final visual outcome after Nd:YAG discussion. The final visual acuity was within one line of the PAM prediction in 22 of 30 patients (73%), better by two or more lines in seven patients (23%), and worse in one patient (4%) by two lines. Although in thicker capsules the final acuity was occasionally better than the PAM prediction, the rates of false negative and false positive predictions were very low. Mild cystoid macular edema (3 patients), age-related macular degeneration (3 patients), intraocular lens status, and level of initial acuity did not diminish PAM accuracy. The PAM effectively predicts final visual acuity after YAG posterior capsulotomy, when used in a patient, unhurried manner.

  3. The Bender-Gestalt with adolescents: comparison of two scoring systems.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, J A; Belter, R W; Saylor, C F; Finch, A J; Edwards, G L

    1988-03-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the relative efficacy of two different scoring systems (Koppitz, 1975; Lacks, 1984) for use in evaluating Bender-Gestalt performance by adolescents. Normative data are presented for the two scoring systems with a sample of "normal" controls (N = 150), emotionally disturbed (N = 140), and mentally retarded/neurologically impaired adolescents (N = 47), aged 12-17. Results suggested that age and psychopathology were not related to the quality of the Bender-Gestalt reproductions of these subjects. An inverse relationship was found between cognitive ability and visual motor skills. Data obtained from these samples of adolescents showed a high degree of consistency between the scoring systems, which suggests that either scoring procedure is suitable for evaluating the Bender-Gestalt performance of adolescents.

  4. Evaluation of modified Kumar and Kalra myelopathy scoring system in sub-axial spinal pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Mehrotra, Anant; Srivastava, Arun; Sahu, Rabi N.; Kumar, Raj

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various pathologies affect the spine, but these lesions present with more or less similar clinical profile. The present functional scoring systems are inadequate and insensitive to changes in neurological status of the patient. Objective: Our study aims to assess the modified Kumar and Kalra (K and K) scoring system in patients with pathologies in the sub-axial spine. Materials and Methods: A total of 78 consecutive patients from the period of January 2009 to June 2010 were prospectively included in the study. These patients were operated by the senior author at our institute. The mean Modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (MJOA) score and the mean modified K and K score were calculated in the preoperative, at the time of discharge (post-surgery), and at 3 months and 6 months follow-up. Results: There were 57 male (73.01%) patients and 21 female patients (26.92%), with the mean age of presentation of 39.20 years (±14.12 years) and a range of 9-75 years. Out of the total 78 patients, 60 patients had pathology in the cervical spine (sub-axial spine) and 18 patients had pathology in the dorsal spine. Majority of the patients had motor and sensory symptoms. The mean preoperative modified K and K score was 17.38 (±3.18) and the mean preoperative MJOA score was 11.21 (±2.12). The K and K score was able to predict the correct outcome in 70 patients (89.74%), whereas the MJOA score was able to predict correctly in 62 patients (79.49%). Conclusion: The modified K and K score has a better predictive value than the MJOA score. PMID:27695541

  5. The Effect of Movement-Based Training upon the Aural Acuity of Conductors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayslett, Dennis

    1996-01-01

    Examines the effect of physical movement on the aural acuity of conducting subjects using the the Seashore Measures of Musical Talents. Reveals that subjects who received movement training showed significantly higher gain scores than those who had not. Proposes the integration of movement-based training into the conducting curriculum. (DSK)

  6. ANS acuity and mathematics ability in preschoolers from low-income homes: contributions of inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    Fuhs, Mary Wagner; McNeil, Nicole M

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings by Libertus, Feigenson, and Halberda (2011) suggest that there is an association between the acuity of young children's approximate number system (ANS) and their mathematics ability before exposure to instruction in formal schooling. The present study examined the generalizability and validity of these findings in a sample of preschoolers from low-income homes. Children attending Head Start (N = 103) completed measures to assess ANS acuity, mathematics ability, receptive vocabulary, and inhibitory control. Results showed only a weak association between ANS acuity and mathematics ability that was reduced to non-significance when controlling for a direct measure of receptive vocabulary. Results also revealed that inhibitory control plays an important role in the relation between ANS acuity and mathematics ability. Specifically, ANS acuity accounted for significant variance in mathematics ability over and above receptive vocabulary, but only for ANS acuity trials in which surface area conflicted with numerosity. Moreover, this association became non-significant when controlling for inhibitory control. These results suggest that early mathematical experiences prior to formal schooling may influence the strength of the association between ANS acuity and mathematics ability and that inhibitory control may drive that association in young children.

  7. A peptide-spectrum scoring system based on ion alignment, intensity, and pair probabilities.

    PubMed

    Risk, Brian A; Edwards, Nathan J; Giddings, Morgan C

    2013-09-06

    Peppy, the proteogenomic/proteomic search software, employs a novel method for assessing the match quality between an MS/MS spectrum and a theorized peptide sequence. The scoring system uses three score factors calculated with binomial probabilities: the probability that a fragment ion will randomly align with a peptide ion, the probability that the aligning ions will be selected from subsets of the most intense peaks, and the probability that the intensities of fragment ions identified as y-ions are greater than those of their counterpart b-ions. The scores produced by the method act as global confidence scores, which facilitate the accurate comparison of results and the estimation of false discovery rates. Peppy has been integrated into the meta-search engine PepArML to produce meaningful comparisons with Mascot, MSGF+, OMSSA, X!Tandem, k-Score and s-Score. For two of the four data sets examined with the PepArML analysis, Peppy exceeded the accuracy performance of the other scoring systems. Peppy is available for download at http://geneffects.com/peppy .

  8. Scoring Package

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Scoring Package (PC database for purchase)   The NIST Scoring Package (Special Database 1) is a reference implementation of the draft Standard Method for Evaluating the Performance of Systems Intended to Recognize Hand-printed Characters from Image Data Scanned from Forms.

  9. Development of an echocardiographic scoring system to predict biventricular repair in neonatal hypoplastic left heart complex.

    PubMed

    Mart, Christopher Robin; Eckhauser, Aaron Wesley

    2014-12-01

    Neonates born with borderline left heart hypoplasia, or hypoplastic left heart complex, can undergo biventricular repair while those with severe left heart hypoplasia require single ventricle palliation. Deciding which patients are candidates for biventricular repair may be very difficult since there are no scoring systems to predict biventricular repair in these patients. The purpose of this study is to develop an echocardiographic scoring system capable of predicting successful biventricular repair in neonatal hypoplastic left heart complex. The study cohort consisted of twenty consecutive neonates with hypoplastic left heart complex presenting between 9/2008 and 5/2013. Multiple retrospective echocardiographic measurements of the right and left heart were performed. Six patients with significant LH hypoplasia (patent mitral and aortic valves, small left ventricle) who had undergone single ventricle repair were used to validate the scoring system. Seventeen patients underwent biventricular repair and three underwent single ventricle repair. A scoring system (2V-Score) was developed using the equation {[(MV4C/AVPSLA) ÷ (LV4C/RV4C)] + MPA}/BSA. Using a cutoff value of ≤ 16.2, a biventricular repair would have been predicted with a sensitivity of 1.0, specificity 1.0, positive predictive value 1.0, negative predictive value 1.0, area under the ROC curve 1.0, and the p value was 0.0004. The 2V-Score was more accurate than the Rhodes, CHSS, or Discriminant scores in retrospectively predicting biventricular repair in this cohort. The 2V-Score shows promise in being able to predict a successful biventricular repair in patients with hypoplastic left heart complex but requires prospective validation prior to widespread clinical application.

  10. Prospective evaluation of clinical scoring systems in infants with bronchiolitis admitted to the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Rödl, S; Resch, B; Hofer, N; Marschitz, I; Madler, G; Eber, E; Zobel, G

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this investigation was to compare different scoring systems to assess the severity of illness in infants with bronchiolitis admitted to a tertiary paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Over an 18-year period (1990-2007), infants with bronchiolitis aged up to 12 months and admitted to the PICU were prospectively scored using the Pediatric Risk of Mortality III (PRISM III) score, the Organ System Failure (OSF) score and the Acute Physiologic Score for Children (APSC) within 24 h. Infants were compared as to whether or not bronchiolitis was associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). There was no difference between 113 RSV-positive and 80 RSV-negative infants regarding gestational age, birth weight, rate of premature delivery or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). The PRISM III score differed significantly between RSV-positive and RSV-negative cases (3.27 ± 0.39 vs. 1.96 ± 0.44, p = 0.006), as did the OSF score (0.56 ± 0.05 vs. 0.35 ± 0.06, p = 0.049) and the APSC (5.16 ± 0.46 vs. 4.1 ± 0.53, p = 0.048). All scores were significantly higher in the subgroup with mechanical ventilation (p < 0.0001). The mean time of ventilation was significantly higher in the RSV-positive group compared to the RSV-negative group (6.39 ± 1.74 days vs. 2.4 ± 0.47 days, p < 0.001). Infants suffering from RSV-positive bronchiolitis had higher clinical scores corresponding with the severity of bronchiolitis.

  11. An automated dental caries detection and scoring system for optical images of tooth occlusal surface.

    PubMed

    Ghaedi, Leila; Gottlieb, Riki; Sarrett, David C; Ismail, Amid; Belle, Ashwin; Najarian, Kayvan; Hargraves, Rosalyn Hobson

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries are one of the most prevalent chronic diseases. The management of dental caries demands detection of carious lesions at early stages. This study aims to design an automated system to detect and score caries lesions based on optical images of the occlusal tooth surface according to the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) guidelines. The system detects the tooth boundaries and irregular regions, and extracts 77 features from each image. These features include statistical measures of color space, grayscale image, as well as Wavelet Transform and Fourier Transform based features. Used in this study were 88 occlusal surface photographs of extracted teeth examined and scored by ICDAS experts. Seven ICDAS codes which show the different stages in caries development were collapsed into three classes: score 0, scores 1 and 2, and scores 3 to 6. The system shows accuracy of 86.3%, specificity of 91.7%, and sensitivity of 83.0% in ten-fold cross validation in classification of the tooth images. While the system needs further improvement and validation using larger datasets, it presents promising potential for clinical diagnostics with high accuracy and minimal cost. This is a notable advantage over existing systems requiring expensive imaging and external hardware.

  12. The Use of an Enhanced Polygraph Scoring Technique in Homeland Security: The Empirical Scoring System-Making a Difference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    confidence rating (p value) (Macmillan, & Creelman , 1996). More specifically, as response bias relates to polygraph scoring, the development of the...Macmillan, N., & Creelman , C. (1996). Triangles in ROC space: History and theory of “nonparametric” measures of sensitivity and response bias

  13. Effects of Horizontal Acceleration on Human Visual Acuity and Stereopsis

    PubMed Central

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Tsai, Ming-Ling; Chang, Wei-Kang; Yang, Tzu-Hung; Yauan, Chien-Han; Wang, Chih-Hung; Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Wu, Yi-Chang

    2015-01-01

    The effect of horizontal acceleration on human visual acuity and stereopsis is demonstrated in this study. Twenty participants (mean age 22.6 years) were enrolled in the experiment. Acceleration from two different directions was performed at the Taiwan High-Speed Rail Laboratory. Gx and Gy (< and >0.1 g) were produced on an accelerating platform where the subjects stood. The visual acuity and stereopsis of the right eye were measured before and during the acceleration. Acceleration <0.1 g in the X- or Y-axis did not affect dynamic vision and stereopsis. Vision decreased (mean from 0.02 logMAR to 0.25 logMAR) and stereopsis declined significantly (mean from 40 s to 60.2 s of arc) when Gx > 0.1 g. Visual acuity worsened (mean from 0.02 logMAR to 0.19 logMAR) and poor stereopsis was noted (mean from 40 s to 50.2 s of arc) when Gy > 0.1 g. The effect of acceleration from the X-axis on the visual system was higher than that from the Y-axis. During acceleration, most subjects complained of ocular strain when reading. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report the exact levels of visual function loss during Gx and Gy. PMID:25607601

  14. Effects of horizontal acceleration on human visual acuity and stereopsis.

    PubMed

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Tsai, Ming-Ling; Chang, Wei-Kang; Yang, Tzu-Hung; Yauan, Chien-Han; Wang, Chih-Hung; Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Wu, Yi-Chang

    2015-01-19

    The effect of horizontal acceleration on human visual acuity and stereopsis is demonstrated in this study. Twenty participants (mean age 22.6 years) were enrolled in the experiment. Acceleration from two different directions was performed at the Taiwan High-Speed Rail Laboratory. Gx and Gy (< and >0.1 g) were produced on an accelerating platform where the subjects stood. The visual acuity and stereopsis of the right eye were measured before and during the acceleration. Acceleration <0.1 g in the X- or Y-axis did not affect dynamic vision and stereopsis. Vision decreased (mean from 0.02 logMAR to 0.25 logMAR) and stereopsis declined significantly (mean from 40 s to 60.2 s of arc) when Gx > 0.1 g. Visual acuity worsened (mean from 0.02 logMAR to 0.19 logMAR) and poor stereopsis was noted (mean from 40 s to 50.2 s of arc) when Gy > 0.1 g. The effect of acceleration from the X-axis on the visual system was higher than that from the Y-axis. During acceleration, most subjects complained of ocular strain when reading. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report the exact levels of visual function loss during Gx and Gy.

  15. Visual Acuity of Children: United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    National estimates based on the findings from the Health Examination Survey in 1963 to 1965 of uncorrected monocular and binocular visual-acuity levels of children were studied. A nationwide sample of 7,417 children was selected to represent the approximately 24 million noninstitutionalized American children between ages 6 and 11 years. Testing…

  16. Development and initial validation of the Bedside Paediatric Early Warning System score

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Adverse outcomes following clinical deterioration in children admitted to hospital wards is frequently preventable. Identification of children for referral to critical care experts remains problematic. Our objective was to develop and validate a simple bedside score to quantify severity of illness in hospitalized children. Methods A case-control design was used to evaluate 11 candidate items and identify a pragmatic score for routine bedside use. Case-patients were urgently admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Control-patients had no 'code blue', ICU admission or care restrictions. Validation was performed using two prospectively collected datasets. Results Data from 60 case and 120 control-patients was obtained. Four out of eleven candidate-items were removed. The seven-item Bedside Paediatric Early Warning System (PEWS) score ranges from 0–26. The mean maximum scores were 10.1 in case-patients and 3.4 in control-patients. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.91, compared with 0.84 for the retrospective nurse-rating of patient risk for near or actual cardiopulmonary arrest. At a score of 8 the sensitivity and specificity were 82% and 93%, respectively. The score increased over 24 hours preceding urgent paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission (P < 0.0001). In 436 urgent consultations, the Bedside PEWS score was higher in patients admitted to the ICU than patients who were not admitted (P < 0.0001). Conclusions We developed and performed the initial validation of the Bedside PEWS score. This 7-item score can quantify severity of illness in hospitalized children and identify critically ill children with at least one hours notice. Prospective validation in other populations is required before clinical application. PMID:19678924

  17. Evaluating the USDA-NRCS pasture condition score system with weighted indicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pasture Condition Score (PCS) system is a monitoring and assessment tool for pastureland in the USA. The original system has been modified to address specific variations in vegetation and soils by assigning weights to the individual indicators to emphasize or de-emphasize particular attributes. ...

  18. Timely diagnosis of dairy calf respiratory disease using a standardized scoring system.

    PubMed

    McGuirk, Sheila M; Peek, Simon F

    2014-12-01

    Respiratory disease of young dairy calves is a significant cause of morbidity, mortality, economic loss, and animal welfare concern but there is no gold standard diagnostic test for antemortem diagnosis. Clinical signs typically used to make a diagnosis of respiratory disease of calves are fever, cough, ocular or nasal discharge, abnormal breathing, and auscultation of abnormal lung sounds. Unfortunately, routine screening of calves for respiratory disease on the farm is rarely performed and until more comprehensive, practical and affordable respiratory disease-screening tools such as accelerometers, pedometers, appetite monitors, feed consumption detection systems, remote temperature recording devices, radiant heat detectors, electronic stethoscopes, and thoracic ultrasound are validated, timely diagnosis of respiratory disease can be facilitated using a standardized scoring system. We have developed a scoring system that attributes severity scores to each of four clinical parameters; rectal temperature, cough, nasal discharge, ocular discharge or ear position. A total respiratory score of five points or higher (provided that at least two abnormal parameters are observed) can be used to distinguish affected from unaffected calves. This can be applied as a screening tool twice-weekly to identify pre-weaned calves with respiratory disease thereby facilitating early detection. Coupled with effective treatment protocols, this scoring system will reduce post-weaning pneumonia, chronic pneumonia, and otitis media.

  19. Intra-Rater and Inter-Rater Reliability of the Balance Error Scoring System in Pre-Adolescent School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Dwayne P.; Lafave, Mark R.; Katz, Larry

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to test the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the University of North Carolina's Balance Error Scoring System in 9- and 10-year-old children. Additionally, a modified version of the Balance Error Scoring System was tested to determine if it was more sensitive in this population ("raw scores"). Forty-six…

  20. Comparison of McCarthy and Goodenough-Harris Scoring Systems for Kindergarten Children's Human Figure Drawings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piersel, Wayne C.; Santos, Lande

    1982-01-01

    Comparison of the Goodenough-Harris and McCarthy scoring procedures for 60 kindergarten children's drawings yielded substantial agreement between the two scoring systems. The streamlined McCarthy scoring system should be utilized when large numbers of children are being evaluated with short periods of time. (Author)

  1. Same Noses, Different Nasalance Scores: Data from Normal Subjects and Cleft Palate Speakers for Three Systems for Nasalance Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressmann, Tim; Klaiman, Paula; Fischbach, Simone

    2006-01-01

    Nasalance scores from the Nasometer, the NasalView and the OroNasal System were compared. The data was collected from 50 normal participants and 19 hypernasal patients with cleft palate. The Nasometer had the lowest nasalance scores for the non-nasal Zoo Passage and that the OroNasal System had the lowest nasalance scores for the Nasal Sentences.…

  2. Interrater Reliability of the Original and a Revised Scoring System for the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepkin, Sheila Ratsch; Pryzwansky, Walter B.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the interrater reliability of teachers' and school psychology externs' scoring of protocols for the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI), using a revised scoring system. Results showed high reliability coefficients for all raters, regardless of the scoring system employed. The influence of rater training is discussed.…

  3. The Apgar cycle: a new view of a familiar scoring system.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, J M B

    2009-01-01

    Apgar scores are universally recorded, but they should no longer be used to guide resuscitation; thus, some authorities have suggested that the scores should be abandoned. However, the physiological relationships underlying the elements of the Apgar scoring system can be conceptualised as a cycle, wherein the five functions are linked by cardiorespiratory reflexes and metabolically supported by the oxygen pathway. Respiratory effort represents both the main input into the system and its functional output (sustained respirations). The progressive deterioration of functions during asphyxia, and their recovery during resuscitation, are readily understood within the sequence. This depiction helps in learning concepts such as primary and secondary apnoea and bradycardia. The visual model harmonises the pedagogical and practical values of the Apgar scoring system, by placing the rapid assessment of respirations, heart rate and colour during neonatal resuscitation (as taught in the Neonatal Resuscitation Program) in its broader physiological context. The understanding imparted by the Apgar cycle may directly enhance patient care during resuscitation, apart from the attribution of numerical scores.

  4. Noninvasive scoring system for significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Mei-Zhu; Ye, Linglong; Jin, Li-Xin; Ren, Yan-Dan; Yu, Xiao-Fang; Liu, Xiao-Bin; Zhang, Ru-Mian; Fang, Kuangnan; Pan, Jin-Shui

    2017-01-01

    Although a liver stiffness measurement-based model can precisely predict significant intrahepatic inflammation, transient elastography is not commonly available in a primary care center. Additionally, high body mass index and bilirubinemia have notable effects on the accuracy of transient elastography. The present study aimed to create a noninvasive scoring system for the prediction of intrahepatic inflammatory activity related to chronic hepatitis B, without the aid of transient elastography. A total of 396 patients with chronic hepatitis B were enrolled in the present study. Liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored using the Scheuer scoring system, and serum markers and liver function were investigated. Inflammatory activity scoring models were constructed for both hepatitis B envelope antigen (+) and hepatitis B envelope antigen (−) patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under the curve were 86.00%, 84.80%, 62.32%, 95.39%, and 0.9219, respectively, in the hepatitis B envelope antigen (+) group and 91.89%, 89.86%, 70.83%, 97.64%, and 0.9691, respectively, in the hepatitis B envelope antigen (−) group. Significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B can be predicted with satisfactory accuracy by using our logistic regression-based scoring system. PMID:28281521

  5. Noninvasive scoring system for significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Mei-Zhu; Ye, Linglong; Jin, Li-Xin; Ren, Yan-Dan; Yu, Xiao-Fang; Liu, Xiao-Bin; Zhang, Ru-Mian; Fang, Kuangnan; Pan, Jin-Shui

    2017-03-01

    Although a liver stiffness measurement-based model can precisely predict significant intrahepatic inflammation, transient elastography is not commonly available in a primary care center. Additionally, high body mass index and bilirubinemia have notable effects on the accuracy of transient elastography. The present study aimed to create a noninvasive scoring system for the prediction of intrahepatic inflammatory activity related to chronic hepatitis B, without the aid of transient elastography. A total of 396 patients with chronic hepatitis B were enrolled in the present study. Liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored using the Scheuer scoring system, and serum markers and liver function were investigated. Inflammatory activity scoring models were constructed for both hepatitis B envelope antigen (+) and hepatitis B envelope antigen (‑) patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under the curve were 86.00%, 84.80%, 62.32%, 95.39%, and 0.9219, respectively, in the hepatitis B envelope antigen (+) group and 91.89%, 89.86%, 70.83%, 97.64%, and 0.9691, respectively, in the hepatitis B envelope antigen (‑) group. Significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B can be predicted with satisfactory accuracy by using our logistic regression-based scoring system.

  6. Noninvasive scoring system for significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Hong, Mei-Zhu; Ye, Linglong; Jin, Li-Xin; Ren, Yan-Dan; Yu, Xiao-Fang; Liu, Xiao-Bin; Zhang, Ru-Mian; Fang, Kuangnan; Pan, Jin-Shui

    2017-03-10

    Although a liver stiffness measurement-based model can precisely predict significant intrahepatic inflammation, transient elastography is not commonly available in a primary care center. Additionally, high body mass index and bilirubinemia have notable effects on the accuracy of transient elastography. The present study aimed to create a noninvasive scoring system for the prediction of intrahepatic inflammatory activity related to chronic hepatitis B, without the aid of transient elastography. A total of 396 patients with chronic hepatitis B were enrolled in the present study. Liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored using the Scheuer scoring system, and serum markers and liver function were investigated. Inflammatory activity scoring models were constructed for both hepatitis B envelope antigen (+) and hepatitis B envelope antigen (-) patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under the curve were 86.00%, 84.80%, 62.32%, 95.39%, and 0.9219, respectively, in the hepatitis B envelope antigen (+) group and 91.89%, 89.86%, 70.83%, 97.64%, and 0.9691, respectively, in the hepatitis B envelope antigen (-) group. Significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B can be predicted with satisfactory accuracy by using our logistic regression-based scoring system.

  7. Validation of a modified pediatric early warning system score: a retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Skaletzky, Sharon M; Raszynski, Andre; Totapally, Balagangadhar R

    2012-05-01

    The Pediatric Early Warning System (PEWS) score may be useful for detection of deterioration in clinical condition. In this retrospective study, the cases were patients transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), and controls were those not transferred to the PICU. The maximum PEWS score in both groups were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). The study population included 100 cases and 250 controls. There was no difference in the age of cases and controls (6.3 vs 6.3 years). The length of hospital stay (18.09 ± 32 vs 3.93 ± 2.9 days; P < .001) and the maximum PEWS score (2.95 ± 1.5 vs 1.4 ± 0.8) were significantly higher for the cases (P < .0001). The PEWS score area under the ROC was 0.81 (95% confidence interval = 0.75-0.86). The sensitivity and specificity for a score 2.5 were 62% and 89%, respectively. The use of the modified PEWS score can help identify patients on wards who are at risk for deterioration.

  8. New prognostic factors and scoring system for patients with skeletal metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Katagiri, Hirohisa; Okada, Rieko; Takagi, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Mitsuru; Murata, Hideki; Harada, Hideyuki; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Asakura, Hirofumi; Ogawa, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to update a previous scoring system for patients with skeletal metastases, that was proposed by Katagiri et al. in 2005, by introducing a new factor (laboratory data) and analyzing a new patient cohort. Between January 2005 and January 2008, we treated 808 patients with symptomatic skeletal metastases. They were prospectively registered regardless of their treatments, and the last follow-up evaluation was performed in 2012. There were 441 male and 367 female patients with a median age of 64 years. Of these patients, 749 were treated nonsurgically while the remaining 59 underwent surgery for skeletal metastasis. A multivariate analysis was conducted using the Cox proportional hazards model. We identified six significant prognostic factors for survival, namely, the primary lesion, visceral or cerebral metastases, abnormal laboratory data, poor performance status, previous chemotherapy, and multiple skeletal metastases. The first three factors had a larger impact than the remaining three. The prognostic score was calculated by adding together all the scores for individual factors. With a prognostic score of ≥7, the survival rate was 27% at 6 months, and only 6% at 1 year. In contrast, patients with a prognostic score of ≤3 had a survival rate of 91% at 1 year, and 78% at 2 years. Comparing the revised system with the previous one, there was a significantly lower number of wrongly predicted patients using the revised system. This revised scoring system was able to predict the survival rates of patients with skeletal metastases more accurately than the previous system and may be useful for selecting an optimal treatment. PMID:25044999

  9. New prognostic factors and scoring system for patients with skeletal metastasis.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Hirohisa; Okada, Rieko; Takagi, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Mitsuru; Murata, Hideki; Harada, Hideyuki; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Asakura, Hirofumi; Ogawa, Hirofumi

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to update a previous scoring system for patients with skeletal metastases, that was proposed by Katagiri et al. in 2005, by introducing a new factor (laboratory data) and analyzing a new patient cohort. Between January 2005 and January 2008, we treated 808 patients with symptomatic skeletal metastases. They were prospectively registered regardless of their treatments, and the last follow-up evaluation was performed in 2012. There were 441 male and 367 female patients with a median age of 64 years. Of these patients, 749 were treated nonsurgically while the remaining 59 underwent surgery for skeletal metastasis. A multivariate analysis was conducted using the Cox proportional hazards model. We identified six significant prognostic factors for survival, namely, the primary lesion, visceral or cerebral metastases, abnormal laboratory data, poor performance status, previous chemotherapy, and multiple skeletal metastases. The first three factors had a larger impact than the remaining three. The prognostic score was calculated by adding together all the scores for individual factors. With a prognostic score of ≥7, the survival rate was 27% at 6 months, and only 6% at 1 year. In contrast, patients with a prognostic score of ≤3 had a survival rate of 91% at 1 year, and 78% at 2 years. Comparing the revised system with the previous one, there was a significantly lower number of wrongly predicted patients using the revised system. This revised scoring system was able to predict the survival rates of patients with skeletal metastases more accurately than the previous system and may be useful for selecting an optimal treatment.

  10. Validation of the BARD scoring system in Polish patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abtract Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes a wide spectrum of liver diseases, ranging from pure steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and eventually to liver cirrhosis with its complications. Identifying advanced fibrosis in patients is crucial to evaluating prognosis and possible therapeutic intervention. A novel, simple, and highly accurate scoring system called BARD, which identifies patients with NAFLD and without significant fibrosis, has been recently introduced and validated in North America..The aim of this study is to validate the BARD scoring system in a Polish cohort with NAFLD. Methods A group of 104 Caucasians with biopsy-proven NAFLD were included in this study. Fibrosis in liver biopsies was evaluated according to the Histological Scoring System for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. The BARD scoring system was assessed according to Harrison et al.: BMI ≥ 28 = 1 point, AST/ALT ratio (AAR) ≥ 0.8 = 2 points, type 2 diabetes mellitus = 1point. Results Age over 50 and AAR over 0.8 showed, respectively, a moderate and strong association with advanced fibrosis. A BARD score of 2-4 points was associated with F3 or F4 stages of fibrosis with an odds ratio of 17.333 (95% Cl; 3,639 - 82.558) and negative predictive value of 97%. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that the BARD scoring system has value in the non-invasive diagnosis of advanced fibrosis in NAFLD patients. The vast majority of patients with NAFLD would avoid liver biopsy if BARD was broadly introduced into the clinic. PMID:20584330

  11. Performance evaluation of MR-proadrenomedullin and other scoring systems in severe sepsis with pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Rollas, Kazım; Alagöz, Ali; Seğmen, Fatih; Sipit, Tuğrul

    2014-01-01

    Background In sepsis, risk assessment is as crucial as early and accurate diagnosis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of mid-regional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) with other scoring systems in severe sepsis and septic shock patients due to community acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods Patients were divided into 2 groups as severe sepsis and septic shock due to CAP (group 1, n=31) and only CAP group (group 2, n=26). Serum MR-proADM, procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), and d-dimer level were analyzed. Acute Physiological and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, and Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) were performed for all patients. Results There was no difference between groups in terms of serum MR-proADM levels (P=0.780). Serum MR-proADM was not found a significant value for the prediction of death within the 4 and 8 weeks in all patients. SOFA score was the most significant to predict mortality in 4 and 8 weeks (P<0.001). The combination of SOFA score and serum MR-proADM was a strong factor to predict death in 4 weeks (specifity 86.8% and sensitivity 66.7%). The combination of MR-proADM, SOFA score, and APACHE II score was found 75.0% sensitive and 71.4% specific to predict mortality within 4 weeks in group 1. Conclusions The MR-proADM does not correlate with mortality or disease severity to predict mortality. The combination of SOFA, APACHE II scores, and MR-proADM was efficient to predict prognosis and mortality rate in severe sepsis or septic shock patients. PMID:25093088

  12. Improving prediction of outcomes in African Americans with normal stress echocardiograms using a risk scoring system.

    PubMed

    Sutter, David A; Thomaides, Athanasios; Hornsby, Kyle; Mahenthiran, Jothiharan; Feigenbaum, Harvey; Sawada, Stephen G

    2013-06-01

    Cardiovascular mortality is high in African Americans, and those with normal results on stress echocardiography remain at increased risk. The aim of this study was to develop a risk scoring system to improve the prediction of cardiovascular events in African Americans with normal results on stress echocardiography. Clinical data and rest echocardiographic measurements were obtained in 548 consecutive African Americans with normal results on rest and stress echocardiography and ejection fractions ≥50%. Patients were followed for myocardial infarction and death for 3 years. Predictors of cardiovascular events were determined with Cox regression, and hazard ratios were used to determine the number of points in the risk score attributed to each independent predictor. During follow-up of 3 years, 47 patients (8.6%) had events. Five variables-age (≥45 years in men, ≥55 years in women), history of coronary disease, history of smoking, left ventricular hypertrophy, and exercise intolerance (<7 METs in men, <5 METs in women, or need for dobutamine stress)-were independent predictors of events. A risk score was derived for each patient (ranging from 0 to 8 risk points). The area under the curve for the risk score was 0.82 with the optimum cut-off risk score of 6. Among patients with risk scores ≥6, 30% had events, compared with 3% with risk score <6 (p <0.001). In conclusion, African Americans with normal results on stress echocardiography remain at significant risk for cardiovascular events. A risk score can be derived from clinical and echocardiographic variables, which can accurately distinguish high- and low-risk patients.

  13. School Readiness and the Draw-a-Man Test: An Empiricaly Derived Alternative to Harris' Scoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simner, Marvin L.

    1985-01-01

    An abbreviated scoring system for the Goodenough-Harris Draw-A-Man Test found that three items had the same overall potential for correctly identifying at-risk kindergarteners as more time-consuming scoring methods. (CL)

  14. Out of sight, out of mind? Relations between visual acuity and cognition.

    PubMed

    La Fleur, Claire G; Salthouse, Timothy A

    2014-10-01

    Prior research has established significant relations between measures of sensory ability and cognitive function in adults of different ages, and several explanations for this relation have been proposed. One explanation is that sensory abilities restrict cognitive processing, a second is that cognitive abilities influence assessments of sensory ability, and a third is that both sensory function and cognition are affected by a common, potentially age-based, third factor. These explanations were investigated using mediation and moderation analyses, with near visual acuity as the sensory measure and scores on visual speed tests and auditory memory tests as the cognitive measures. Measures of visual acuity, speed, and memory were obtained from three moderately large samples, two cross-sectional (N = 380, N = 4,779) and one longitudinal (N = 2,258), with participants ranging from 18 to 90 years of age. The visual acuity and cognitive measures had different age trajectories, and the visual acuity-cognition relations were similar in each 5-year age band. The results suggest that the age-related differences and changes in near visual acuity are unlikely to contribute to the age-related differences and changes in speed and memory measures.

  15. Portsmouth physiological and operative severity score for the Enumeration of Mortality and morbidity scoring system in general surgical practice and identifying risk factors for poor outcome

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Ashish; Nagpal, Nitin; Sidhu, D. S.; Singh, Amandeep; Tyagi, Anjali

    2017-01-01

    Background: Estimation of the outcome is paramount in disease stratification and subsequent management in severely ill surgical patients. Risk scoring helps us quantify the prospects of adverse outcome in a patient. Portsmouth-Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the Enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity (P-POSSUM) the world over has proved itself as a worthy scoring system and the present study was done to evaluate the feasibility of P-POSSUM as a risk scoring system as a tool in efficacious prediction of mortality and morbidity in our demographic profile. Materials and Methods: Validity of P-POSSUM was assessed prospectively in fifty major general surgeries performed at our hospital from May 2011 to October 2012. Data were collected to obtain P-POSSUM score, and statistical analysis was performed. Results: Majority (72%) of patients was male and mean age was 40.24 ± 18.6 years. Seventy-eight percentage procedures were emergency laparotomies commonly performed for perforation peritonitis. Mean physiological score was 17.56 ± 7.6, and operative score was 17.76 ± 4.5 (total score = 35.3 ± 10.4). The ratio of observed to expected mortality rate was 0.86 and morbidity rate was 0.78. Discussion: P-POSSUM accurately predicted both mortality and morbidity in patients who underwent major surgical procedures in our setup. Thus, it helped us in identifying patients who required preferential attention and aggressive management. Widespread application of this tool can result in better distribution of care among high-risk surgical patients. PMID:28250670

  16. Evaluation of a novel feather scoring system for monitoring feather damaging behaviour in parrots.

    PubMed

    van Zeeland, Yvonne R A; Bergers, Madeleine J; van der Valk, Lisette; Schoemaker, Nico J; Lumeij, Johannes T

    2013-05-01

    Feather damaging behaviour is common in captive psittacine birds and there is a need for reliable methods to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic and preventive interventions. This study compared the inter- and intra-observer reliabilities of a novel feather scoring system with an existing system to assess the plumage of grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). Regions of the body were photographed separately at 1 week intervals and shown at random to 35 examiners (avian veterinarians and veterinary students), who used the two scoring systems to assess plumage. Since the quality of the photographs was insufficient to allow accurate assessment of the individual flight and tail feathers, the novel scoring system was only evaluated for its reliability regarding covert and down feathers. Inter- and intra-observer reliabilities were determined using the intra-class correlation coefficient. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to determine absolute reliabilities for both systems. Correlation coefficients were 0.90 and 0.95 for intra-observer reliability and 0.83 and 0.89 for inter-observer reliability for the existing and novel feather scoring systems, respectively. When using the novel system, a change in plumage condition of ≥10% was needed to ensure that the change reflected a real difference in 95% of cases, while a change of ≥15% was needed for the existing system. Since it may take from 4 weeks (covert or down feathers) to over 1 year (flight or tail feathers) for feathers to regrow, sufficient time should be allowed to elapse between two scoring sessions to reliably evaluate the efficacy of preventive or therapeutic interventions for feather damaging behaviour.

  17. Correlation analysis of proprioceptive acuity in ipsilateral position-matching and velocity-discrimination.

    PubMed

    Djupsjöbacka, Mats; Domkin, Dmitry

    2005-01-01

    In order to plan and control movements the central nervous system (CNS) needs to continuously keep track of the state of the musculoskeletal system. Therefore the CNS constantly uses sensory input from mechanoreceptors in muscles, joints and skin to update information about body configuration on different levels of the CNS. On the conscious level, such representations constitute proprioception. Different tests for assessment of proprioceptive acuity have been described. However, it is unclear if the proprioceptive acuity measurements in these tests correlate within subjects. By using both uni- and multivariate analysis we compared proprioceptive acuity in different variants of ipsilateral active and passive limb position-matching and ipsilateral passive limb movement velocity-discrimination in a group of healthy subjects. The analysis of the position-matching data revealed a higher acuity of matching for active movements in comparison to passive ones. The acuity of matching was negatively correlated to movement extent. There was a lack of correlation between proprioceptive acuity measurements in position-matching and velocity-discrimination.

  18. [The best corrected presenting distance visual acuity in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui-Jue

    2011-06-01

    At present the sight impairment evaluation in forensic medicine of China is based on the international classification of disease by WHO in 1973. The main measured indicator is "best corrected visual acuity". It is different from "presenting distance visual acuity" in some situations. In the new blindness and vision loss classification made by WHO in 2003, "presenting distance visual acuity" took the place of the "best corrected visual acuity". In the practice of forensic medicine, "presenting distance visual acuity" can not reflect the real visual acuity duo to the exaggeration or disguise of the wounded. We suggest to use "the best corrected presenting distance visual acuity" instead of "presenting distance visual acuity" in order to avoid the influences of the exaggeration or disguise of the wounded.

  19. Electrocardiogram-based scoring system for predicting secondary pulmonary hypertension: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Palamaner Subash Shantha, Ghanshyam; Patel, Nimesh Kirit; Boruah, Pranjal; Nanavaty, Sukrut; Chandran, Sindu; Sethi, Arjinder; Sheth, Jignesh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In this study, we have developed an electrocardiogram-based scoring system to predict secondary pulmonary hypertension. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Single tertiary-care hospital in Scranton, Pennsylvania, USA. Participants Five hundred and fifty-two consecutive patients undergoing right heart catheterization between 2006 and 2009. Main outcome measures Surface electrocardiogram was assessed for R-wave in lead V1 ≥ 6mm, R-wave in V6 ≤ 3mm, S-wave in V6 ≥ 3mm, right atrial enlargement, right axis deviation and left atrial enlargement. Pulmonary hypertension was defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25 mmHg, determined by right heart catheterization. Results A total of 297 (54%) patients in the study cohort had pulmonary hypertension. In total, 332 patients from the study cohort formed the development cohort and the remaining 220 patients formed the validation cohort. In the development cohort, based on log odds ratios of association, RAE, LAE, RAD, R-wave in V1 ≥ 6 mm were assigned scores of 5, 2, 2 and 1, respectively, to form a 10-point scoring system “Scranton PHT (SP) score”. SP scores of 5 points and 7 points in DC showed C-statistic of 0.83 and 0.89, respectively, for discriminating pulmonary hypertension. C-statistic for RAE alone was significantly lower compared to an SP score of 7 (0.83 vs. 0.89, P = 0.021). The reliability of SP score in the validation cohort was acceptable. Conclusion SP score provides a good point-of-care tool to predict pulmonary hypertension in patients with clinical suspicion of it. PMID:25396053

  20. Associations among Visual Acuity and Vision- and Health-Related Quality of Life among Patients in the Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment Trial

    PubMed Central

    Drye, Lea T.; Kempen, John H.; Dunn, James P.; Holland, Gary N.; Latkany, Paul; Rao, Narsing A.; Sen, H. Nida; Sugar, Elizabeth A.; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Wang, Robert C.; Holbrook, Janet T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the associations between visual acuity and self-reported visual function; visual acuity and health-related quality of life (QoL) metrics; a summary measure of self-reported visual function and health-related QoL; and individual domains of self-reported visual function and health-related QoL in patients with uveitis. Methods. Best-corrected visual acuity, vision-related functioning as assessed by the NEI VFQ-25, and health-related QoL as assessed by the SF-36 and EuroQoL EQ-5D questionnaires were obtained at enrollment in a clinical trial of uveitis treatments. Multivariate regression and Spearman correlations were used to evaluate associations between visual acuity, vision-related function, and health-related QoL. Results. Among the 255 patients, median visual acuity in the better-seeing eyes was 20/25, the vision-related function score indicated impairment (median, 60), and health-related QoL scores were within the normal population range. Better visual acuity was predictive of higher visual function scores (P ≤ 0.001), a higher SF-36 physical component score, and a higher EQ-5D health utility score (P < 0.001). The vision-specific function score was predictive of all general health-related QoL (P < 0.001). The correlations between visual function score and general quality of life measures were moderate (ρ = 0.29–0.52). Conclusions. The vision-related function score correlated positively with visual acuity and moderately positively with general QoL measures. Cost–utility analyses relying on changes in generic healthy utility measures will be more likely to detect changes when there are clinically meaningful changes in vision-related function, rather than when there are only changes in visual acuity. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00132691.) PMID:22247489

  1. Histologically-validated footpad dermatitis scoring system for use in chicken processing plants.

    PubMed

    Michel, V; Prampart, E; Mirabito, L; Allain, V; Arnould, C; Huonnic, D; Le Bouquin, S; Albaric, O

    2012-01-01

    1. Footpad dermatitis (FPD) is a recognised welfare problem in broiler chickens. Broiler feet (n = 54) were examined macroscopically and microscopically to determine a reliable correspondence between macroscopic and histological features, and to devise a scoring system that was relevant to bird welfare and easy to use at processing plants. 2. Three types of footpad lesion were defined based on their severity. Type I were mild lesions, visually characterised by scale enlargement and erythema, and histologically by hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis of the epidermis, superficial dermal congestion and oedema. Type II were moderate, superficial lesions, visually characterised by hypertrophic and hyperkeratotic scales covered with yellowish to brownish exudate, and histologically by a prominent pustular and crust-forming dermatitis. Type III lesions were the most pronounced, visually characterised by a thick dark adherent crust, and histologically by extensive ulceration. 3. On the basis of the severity and extent of these three types of lesions, a 5-point scale was devised, i.e. no or type I lesion (score 1), type II lesion (<50% or >50% of footpad, scores 2 and 3 respectively) and type III lesion (<50% or >50% of footpad, scores 4 and 5 respectively). 4. The scoring system has the advantage of making sense in terms of welfare compared with previous schemes. Furthermore, it is histologically validated and easy to use for the routine assessment of broiler welfare in processing plants.

  2. Modified PADSS (Post Anaesthetic Discharge Scoring System) for monitoring outpatients discharge.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Piergaspare; Tellan, Guglielmo; Perotti, Bruno; Pacilè, Maria Antonietta; Vietri, Francesco; Illuminati, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    The decision to discharge a patient undergoing day surgery is a major step in the hospitalization pathway, because it must be achieved without compromising the quality of care, thus ensuring the same assistance and wellbeing as for a long-term stay. Therefore, the use of an objective assessment for the management of a fair and safe discharge is essential. The authors propose the Post Anaesthetic Discharge Scoring System (PADSS), which considers six criteria: vital signs, ambulation, nausea/vomiting, pain, bleeding and voiding. Each criterion is given a score ranging from 0 to 2. Only patients who achieve a score of 9 or more are considered ready for discharge. Furthermore, PADSS has been modified to ensure a higher level of safety, thus the "vital signs" criteria must never score lower than 2, and none of the other five criteria must ever be equal to 0, even if the total score reaches 9. The effectiveness of PADSS was analyzed on 2432 patients, by recording the incidence of postoperative complications and the readmission to hospital. So far PADDS has proved to be an efficient system that guarantees safe discharge.

  3. An Inflammatory Polymorphisms Risk Scoring System for the Differentiation of Ischemic Stroke Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Muiño, Elena; Krupinski, Jurek; Carrera, Caty; Gallego-Fabrega, Cristina; Montaner, Joan; Fernández-Cadenas, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation has been associated with atherothrombotic stroke and recently with cardioembolic stroke. Different genetic risk factors have been specifically associated with the subtypes of ischemic stroke (cardioembolic, atherothrombotic, and lacunar). However, there are no studies that have generated genetic risk scores for the different subtypes of ischemic stroke using polymorphisms associated with inflammation. Methods. We have analyzed 68 polymorphisms of 30 inflammatory mediator genes in 2,685 subjects: 1,987 stroke cases and 698 controls. We generated a genetic scoring system with the most significant polymorphisms weighted by the odds ratio of every polymorphism and taken into consideration the stroke subtype. Results. Three polymorphisms, rs1205 (CRP gene), rs1800779, and rs2257073 (NOS3 gene), were associated with cardioembolic stroke (p value <0.05). The score generated was only associated with the cardioembolic stroke subtype (p value: 0.001) and was replicated in an independent cohort (p value: 0.017). The subjects with the highest score presented a cardioembolic stroke in 92.2% of the cases (p value: 0.002). Conclusion. The genetics of inflammatory markers is more closely associated with cardioembolic strokes than with atherothrombotic or lacunar strokes. The genetic risk scoring system could be useful in the prediction and differentiation of ischemic stroke; however, it might be specific to particular ischemic stroke subtypes. PMID:26355258

  4. Applicability of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System in Chinese Preschools Based on Psychometric Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying; Fan, Xitao; Gu, Chuanhua; Yang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the applicability of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) Pre-K (Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008) and its underpinning framework of teaching through interactions in typical Chinese kindergarten classrooms. A sample of 180 kindergarten classrooms in China was selected, and the CLASS was used to…

  5. 77 FR 34399 - Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Capital Fund Interim Scoring Notice; Request for Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Capital Fund Interim Scoring Notice; Request... PHAs for the Capital Fund Indicator under the PHAS interim rule published February 23, 2011. The award... PHAS interim rule, especially as relates to the indicator that assesses occupancy rate. The 5...

  6. Reliability of the Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation (API) Scoring System for the Bender Gestalt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aucone, Ernest J.; Raphael, Alan J.; Golden, Charles J.; Espe-Pfeifer, Patricia; Seldon, Jen; Pospisil, Tanya; Dornheim, Liane; Proctor-Weber, Zoe; Calabria, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Assessed the interrater reliability of the revised Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation (API) (A. Raphael and C. Golden, 1998) scoring system for the Bender Gestalt Test (L. Bender, 1938). Agreement across nine raters exceeded 90% for each of three clinical protocols, and kappa statistics indicated good interrater reliability. (SLD)

  7. Usefulness of staging systems and prognostic scores for hepatocellular carcinoma treatments

    PubMed Central

    Adhoute, Xavier; Penaranda, Guillaume; Raoul, Jean Luc; Le Treut, Patrice; Bollon, Emilie; Hardwigsen, Jean; Castellani, Paul; Perrier, Hervé; Bourlière, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is quite complex owing to the underlying cirrhosis and portal vein hypertension. Different scores or classification systems based on liver function and tumoral stages have been published in the recent years. If none of them is currently “universally” recognized, the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system has become the reference classification system in Western countries. Based on a robust treatment algorithm associated with stage stratification, it relies on a high level of evidence. However, BCLC stage B and C HCC include a broad spectrum of tumors but are only matched with a single therapeutic option. Some experts have thus suggested to extend the indications for surgery or for transarterial chemoembolization. In clinical practice, many patients are already treated beyond the scope of recommendations. Additional alternative prognostic scores that could be applied to any therapeutic modality have been recently proposed. They could represent complementary tools to the BCLC staging system and improve the stratification of HCC patients enrolled in clinical trials, as illustrated by the NIACE score. Prospective studies are needed to compare these scores and refine their role in the decision making process. PMID:27330679

  8. APPLYING THE NRCS PASTURE CONDITION SCORE SYSTEM AT THE WHOLE-FARM SCALE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pasture Condition Score (PCS) system was developed by the USDA-NRCS as a monitoring and management tool. Ten key indicators (percent desirable plants, plant cover, plant diversity, plant residue, plant vigor, percent legume, uniformity of use, livestock concentration areas, soil compaction, and ...

  9. Implementing an obstetric triage acuity scale: interrater reliability and patient flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Smithson, David S; Twohey, Rachel; Rice, Tim; Watts, Nancy; Fernandes, Christopher M; Gratton, Robert J

    2013-10-01

    A 5-category Obstetric Triage Acuity Scale (OTAS) was developed with a comprehensive set of obstetrical determinants. The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) to test the interrater reliability of OTAS and (2) to determine the distribution of patient acuity and flow by OTAS level. To test the interrater reliability, 110 triage charts were used to generate vignettes and the consistency of the OTAS level assigned by 8 triage nurses was measured. OTAS performed with substantial (Kappa, 0.61 - 0.77, OTAS 1-4) and near perfect correlation (0.87, OTAS 5). To assess patient flow, the times to primary and secondary health care provider assessments and lengths of stay stratified by acuity were abstracted from the patient management system. Two-thirds of triage visits were low acuity (OTAS 4, 5). There was a decrease in length of stay (median [interquartile range], minutes) as acuity decreased from OTAS 1 (120.0 [156.0] minutes) to OTAS 3 (75.0 [120.8]). The major contributor to length of stay was time to secondary health care provider assessment and this did not change with acuity. The percentage of patients admitted to the antenatal or birthing unit decreased from 80% (OTAS 1) to 12% (OTAS 5). OTAS provides a reliable assessment of acuity and its implementation has allowed for triaging of obstetric patients based on acuity, and a more in-depth assessment of the patient flow. By standardizing assessment, OTAS allows for opportunities to improve performance and make comparisons of patient care and flow across organizations.

  10. 21 CFR 886.1150 - Visual acuity chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Visual acuity chart. 886.1150 Section 886.1150...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1150 Visual acuity chart. (a) Identification. A visual acuity chart is a device that is a chart, such as a Snellen chart with block letters...

  11. Multicentre validation of the bedside paediatric early warning system score: a severity of illness score to detect evolving critical illness in hospitalised children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The timely provision of critical care to hospitalised patients at risk for cardiopulmonary arrest is contingent upon identification and referral by frontline providers. Current approaches require improvement. In a single-centre study, we developed the Bedside Paediatric Early Warning System (Bedside PEWS) score to identify patients at risk. The objective of this study was to validate the Bedside PEWS score in a large patient population at multiple hospitals. Methods We performed an international, multicentre, case-control study of children admitted to hospital inpatient units with no limitations on care. Case patients had experienced a clinical deterioration event involving either an immediate call to a resuscitation team or urgent admission to a paediatric intensive care unit. Control patients had no events. The scores ranged from 0 to 26 and were assessed in the 24 hours prior to the clinical deterioration event. Score performance was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUCROC) curve by comparison with the retrospective rating of nurses and the temporal progression of scores in case patients. Results A total of 2,074 patients were evaluated at 4 participating hospitals. The median (interquartile range) maximum Bedside PEWS scores for the 12 hours ending 1 hour before the clinical deterioration event were 8 (5 to 12) in case patients and 2 (1 to 4) in control patients (P < 0.0001). The AUCROC curve (95% confidence interval) was 0.87 (0.85 to 0.89). In case patients, mean scores were 5.3 at 20 to 24 hours and 8.4 at 0 to 4 hours before the event (P < 0.0001). The AUCROC curve (95% CI) of the retrospective nurse ratings was 0.83 (0.81 to 0.86). This was significantly lower than that of the Bedside PEWS score (P < 0.0001). Conclusions The Bedside PEWS score identified children at risk for cardiopulmonary arrest. Scores were elevated and continued to increase in the 24 hours before the clinical deterioration event

  12. The neural correlates of learned motor acuity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Juemin; Caffo, Brian; Mazzoni, Pietro; Krakauer, John W.

    2014-01-01

    We recently defined a component of motor skill learning as “motor acuity,” quantified as a shift in the speed-accuracy trade-off function for a task. These shifts are primarily driven by reductions in movement variability. To determine the neural correlates of improvement in motor acuity, we devised a motor task compatible with magnetic resonance brain imaging that required subjects to make finely controlled wrist movements under visual guidance. Subjects were imaged on day 1 and day 5 while they performed this task and were trained outside the scanner on intervening days 2, 3, and 4. The potential confound of performance changes between days 1 and 5 was avoided by constraining movement time to a fixed duration. After training, subjects showed a marked increase in success rate and a reduction in trial-by-trial variability for the trained task but not for an untrained control task, without changes in mean trajectory. The decrease in variability for the trained task was associated with increased activation in contralateral primary motor and premotor cortical areas and in ipsilateral cerebellum. A global nonlocalizing multivariate analysis confirmed that learning was associated with increased overall brain activation. We suggest that motor acuity is acquired through increases in the number of neurons recruited in contralateral motor cortical areas and in ipsilateral cerebellum, which could reflect increased signal-to-noise ratio in motor output and improved state estimation for feedback corrections, respectively. PMID:24848466

  13. Visual Vestibular Interaction in the Dynamic Visual Acuity Test during Voluntary Head Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Moo Hoon; Durnford, Simon; Crowley, John; Rupert, Angus

    1996-01-01

    Although intact vestibular function is essential in maintaining spatial orientation, no good screening tests of vestibular function are available to the aviation community. High frequency voluntary head rotation was selected as a vestibular stimulus to isolate the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) from visual influence. A dynamic visual acuity test that incorporates voluntary head rotation was evaluated as a potential vestibular function screening tool. Twenty-seven normal subjects performed voluntary sinusoidal head rotation at frequencies from 0.7-4.0 Hz under three different visual conditions: visually-enhanced VOR, normal VOR, and visually suppressed VOR. Standardized Baily-Lovie chart letters were presented on a computer monitor in front of the subject, who then was asked to read the letters while rotating his head horizontally. The electro-oculogram and dynamic visual acuity score were recorded and analyzed. There were no significant differences in gain or phase shift among three visual conditions in the frequency range of 2.8 to 4.0 Hz. The dynamic visual acuity score shifted less than 0.3 logMAR at frequencies under 2.0 Hz. The dynamic visual acuity test at frequencies a round 2.0 Hz can be recommended for evaluating vestibular function.

  14. Weighing of risk factors for penetrating keratoplasty graft failure: application of Risk Score System

    PubMed Central

    Tourkmani, Abdo Karim; Sánchez-Huerta, Valeria; De Wit, Guillermo; Martínez, Jaime D.; Mingo, David; Mahillo-Fernández, Ignacio; Jiménez-Alfaro, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    AIM To analyze the relationship between the score obtained in the Risk Score System (RSS) proposed by Hicks et al with penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) graft failure at 1y postoperatively and among each factor in the RSS with the risk of PKP graft failure using univariate and multivariate analysis. METHODS The retrospective cohort study had 152 PKPs from 152 patients. Eighteen cases were excluded from our study due to primary failure (10 cases), incomplete medical notes (5 cases) and follow-up less than 1y (3 cases). We included 134 PKPs from 134 patients stratified by preoperative risk score. Spearman coefficient was calculated for the relationship between the score obtained and risk of failure at 1y. Univariate and multivariate analysis were calculated for the impact of every single risk factor included in the RSS over graft failure at 1y. RESULTS Spearman coefficient showed statistically significant correlation between the score in the RSS and graft failure (P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed no statistically significant relationship (P>0.05) between diagnosis and lens status with graft failure. The relationship between the other risk factors studied and graft failure was significant (P<0.05), although the results for previous grafts and graft failure was unreliable. None of our patients had previous blood transfusion, thus, it had no impact. CONCLUSION After the application of multivariate analysis techniques, some risk factors do not show the expected impact over graft failure at 1y. PMID:28393027

  15. A comparison of scoring systems and level of scorer experience on the Bender-Gestalt Test.

    PubMed

    Lacks, P B; Newport, K

    1980-08-01

    Compared the usefulness of four scoring approaches to the Bender-Gestalt Test (Hain, Hutt-Briskin, Pauker, and number of rotations) on the same sample of 50 mixed, psychiatric inpatients. Also, the accuracy of scorers of varying levels of experience was compared. Twelve different scorers were used representing three levels of expertise: "expert," "typical," and "novice." For a measure of reliability and two measures of diagnostic discrimination the Hutt-Briskin and Pauker systems were more successful than the Hain system or number of rotations. For each scoring system there were no differences in diagnostic accuracy attributable to level of past experience. It was recommended that the findings on the Pauker system be cross-validated before being used in clinical settings.

  16. Performance Study of a Score-based Likelihood Ratio System for Forensic Fingermark Comparison.

    PubMed

    Leegwater, Anna Jeannette; Meuwly, Didier; Sjerps, Marjan; Vergeer, Peter; Alberink, Ivo

    2017-02-07

    In this article, the performance of a score-based likelihood ratio (LR) system for comparisons of fingerprints with fingermarks is studied. The system is based on an automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS) comparison algorithm and focuses on fingerprint comparisons where the fingermarks contain 6-11 minutiae. The hypotheses under consideration are evaluated at the level of the person, not the finger. The LRs are presented with bootstrap intervals indicating the sampling uncertainty involved. Several aspects of the performance are measured: leave-one-out cross-validation is applied, and rates of misleading evidence are studied in two ways. A simulation study is performed to study the coverage of the bootstrap intervals. The results indicate that the evidential strength for same source comparisons that do not meet the Dutch twelve-point standard may be substantial. The methods used can be generalized to measure the performance of score-based LR systems in other fields of forensic science.

  17. A novel gene expression-based prognostic scoring system to predict survival in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Bo; Zou, Xiaoping; Mao, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of gene expression patterns in gastric cancer (GC) can help to identify a comprehensive panel of gene biomarkers for predicting clinical outcomes and to discover potential new therapeutic targets. Here, a multi-step bioinformatics analytic approach was developed to establish a novel prognostic scoring system for GC. We first identified 276 genes that were robustly differentially expressed between normal and GC tissues, of which, 249 were found to be significantly associated with overall survival (OS) by univariate Cox regression analysis. The biological functions of 249 genes are related to cell cycle, RNA/ncRNA process, acetylation and extracellular matrix organization. A network was generated for view of the gene expression architecture of 249 genes in 265 GCs. Finally, we applied a canonical discriminant analysis approach to identify a 53-gene signature and a prognostic scoring system was established based on a canonical discriminant function of 53 genes. The prognostic scores strongly predicted patients with GC to have either a poor or good OS. Our study raises the prospect that the practicality of GC patient prognosis can be assessed by this prognostic scoring system. PMID:27419373

  18. A Contemporary Prostate Cancer Grading System: A Validated Alternative to the Gleason Score

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Jonathan I.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Sjoberg, Daniel D.; Nelson, Joel B.; Egevad, Lars; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Vickers, Andrew J.; Parwani, Anil V.; Reuter, Victor E.; Fine, Samson W.; Eastham, James A.; Wiklund, Peter; Han, Misop; Reddy, Chandana A.; Ciezki, Jay P.; Nyberg, Tommy; Klein, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite revisions in 2005 and 2014, the Gleason prostate cancer (PCa) grading system still has major deficiencies. Combining of Gleason scores into a three-tiered grouping (6, 7, 8–10) is used most frequently for prognostic and therapeutic purposes. The lowest score, assigned 6, may be misunderstood as a cancer in the middle of the grading scale, and 3 + 4 = 7 and 4 + 3 = 7 are often considered the same prognostic group. Objective To verify that a new grading system accurately produces a smaller number of grades with the most significant prognostic differences, using multi-institutional and multimodal therapy data. Design, setting, and participants Between 2005 and 2014, 20 845 consecutive men were treated by radical prostatectomy at five academic institutions; 5501 men were treated with radiotherapy at two academic institutions. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Outcome was based on biochemical recurrence (BCR). The log-rank test assessed univariable differences in BCR by Gleason score. Separate univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards used four possible categorizations of Gleason scores. Results and limitations In the surgery cohort, we found large differences in recurrence rates between both Gleason 3 + 4 versus 4 + 3 and Gleason 8 versus 9. The hazard ratios relative to Gleason score 6 were 1.9, 5.1, 8.0, and 11.7 for Gleason scores 3 + 4, 4 + 3, 8, and 9–10, respectively. These differences were attenuated in the radiotherapy cohort as a whole due to increased adjuvant or neoadjuvant hormones for patients with high-grade disease but were clearly seen in patients undergoing radiotherapy only. A five–grade group system had the highest prognostic discrimination for all cohorts on both univariable and multivariable analysis. The major limitation was the unavoidable use of prostate-specific antigen BCR as an end point as opposed to cancer-related death. Conclusions The new PCa grading system has these benefits: more

  19. Assessing the waddle: An evaluation of a 3-point gait score system for ducks.

    PubMed

    Makagon, Maja M; Woolley, Rebecca; Karcher, Darrin M

    2015-08-01

    Impaired walking ability is an economically important welfare problem that affects poultry raised for meat production, including Pekin ducks. To gain a better understanding of the impacts of walking impairments on duck production, and to identify contributing variables and plausible remedies, an accurate measure of walking ability must first be defined. The viability of a 3-point gait score system for characterizing the walking abilities of Pekin ducks was evaluated. Specifically, we examined whether the qualitative gait score categories corresponded to quantitative gait parameter measures, and evaluated the inter- and intra-rater reliabilities of the gait score system. Commercial Pekin ducks aged 13 to 14 d (14 d; 248 ducks), 20 to 21 d (21 d; 350 ducks), and 30 to 32 d (31 d; 368 ducks), were video recorded and gait scored using a 3-point system (GS0 = best gait; GS2 = poor gait) as they crossed a Tekscan(®) gait analysis system. Gait structure parameters were calculated based on 4 steps made by each duck. The most prominent differences were observed at 21 d and 31 d of age between the ducks with GS0 and GS2, with GS2 scoring ducks walking a shorter total distance, having greater differences in the amount of pressure applied to the right versus left leg, and the amount of time spent standing on 2 feet between steps. Gait score reliabilities were calculated separately for observers who received minimal training (M, N = 10) and those who viewed and discussed the sample cases (V, N = 13). Both groups assessed the gait of ducks from video footage. Inter-rater reliability (Fleiss kappa) was lowest for 14 d old ducks (M: k = 0.47, T: k = 0.62), and best for the 32 d old ducks (V: k = 0.75; T: k = 0.8). Overall, intra-rater reliabilities (Pearson's correlation) were high and were unaffected by the scorer's level of training (M: r = 0.87; V: r = 0.87; t21 = 0.43). The results indicate that a 3-point gait score system is a promising tool for assessing the walking ability

  20. Foveal photoreceptor explanation of short-term visual acuity recovery associated with laser-induced foveal damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langus, Amir; Zwick, Harry; Stuck, Bruce E.; Belkin, Michael

    2003-06-01

    Both human laser accident cases and non-human primate behavioral studies demonstrate the possibility of full visual acuity recovery following foveal laser injury. Current explanations of such recovery require suppositions of complex retinal reorganization dynamics or neural reorganization at higher order visual brain systems. However, recent investigation based on data of retinal photoreceptor and ganglion cell topography and connectivity, suggest that the amount of static inherent plasticity, already exists at the retinal level, may also explain visual acuity recovery in the presence of laser-induced foveal damage. Modeling the off-axis visual acuity while utilizing this data, produces a more gradual fall-off in visual acuity, and supports the notion that visual acuity recovery may reside in the topographical organization of the cones. Moreover, considering the filling-in phenomena, which can conceal the presence of retinal damage from being recognized, together with eye movements, could nullify scotoma, as long as the retinal damage is not too extensive.

  1. Bender-gradual scoring system: performance of Brazilian and Peruvian children.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Acácia Aparecida Angeli; Noronha, Ana Paula Porto; Rueda, Fabián Javier Marín; Segovia, José Livia

    2014-06-01

    This is a transcultural study of a sample of Peruvian and Brazilian children using the Bender-Gradual Scoring System (B-SPG), which considers shape distortion as the only aspect to be analyzed, assuming that perceptual-motor maturity is independent of cultural context. The study verified that the scoring system has psychometric qualities such that it may be applied in another country. The sample consisted of 231 children, ages 6 to 10 yr., 108 from different districts of the province Lima in Peru, and 123 children from three states in Brazil. During test application, the figures were projected to children in groups. Scoring the protocols for errors was conducted by psychologists experienced in interpreting and correcting the Bender-SPG, who rigorously followed instructions in Portuguese and Spanish. The results obtained with Differential Item Functioning (DIF) analysis indicated that Figures 1 and 4 presented DIF, one favoring Brazilian children and the other Peruvian children. Thus, it was concluded that the overall scores did not favor either population and the Bender-SPG could be used to evaluate perceptual-motor maturity in both countries.

  2. Prognostic scoring system for peripheral nerve repair in the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Galanakos, Spyridon P; Zoubos, Aristides B; Mourouzis, Iordanis; Ignatiadis, Ioannis; Bot, Arjan G J; Soucacos, Panayotis N

    2013-02-01

    So far, predictive models with individualized estimates of prognosis for patients with peripheral nerve injuries are lacking. Our group has previously shown the prognostic value of a standardized scoring system by examining the functional outcome after acute, sharp complete laceration and repair of median and/or ulnar nerves at various levels in the forearm. In the present study, we further explore the potential mathematical model in order to devise an effective prognostic scoring system. We retrospectively collected medical record data of 73 cases with a peripheral nerve injury in the upper extremity in order to estimate which patients would return to work, and what time was necessary to return to the pre-injury work. Postoperative assessment followed the protocol described by Rosén and Lundborg. We found that return to pre-injury work can be predicted with high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (95%) using the total numerical score of the Rosén and Lundborg protocol at the third follow-up interval (TS3) as well as the difference between the TS3 and the total score at second follow-up interval (TS2). In addition, the factors age and type of injured nerve (median, ulnar, or combined) can determine the time of return to work based on a mathematical model. This prognostic protocol can be a useful tool to provide information about the functional and social prospects of the patients with these types of injuries.

  3. Do the urolithiasis scoring systems predict the success of percutaneous nephrolithotomy in cases with anatomical abnormalities?

    PubMed

    Kocaaslan, Ramazan; Tepeler, Abdulkadir; Buldu, Ibrahim; Tosun, Muhammed; Utangac, Mehmet Mazhar; Karakan, Tolga; Ozyuvali, Ekrem; Hatipoglu, Namik Kemal; Unsal, Ali; Sarica, Kemal

    2016-07-12

    The objective of this study is to assess the utility of the Guy, S.T.O.N.E., and CROES nephrolithometry scoring systems (SS), and compare the capability of each system to predict percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) outcome in patients with anatomical abnormalities. We retrospectively collected medical records of patients with anatomical abnormalities who underwent PNL for the treatment of renal calculi by experienced surgical teams in four referral centers. All of the patients were graded by a single observer from each department based on preoperative computed tomography images using each SS. Patient demographics and outcomes were compared according to the complexity of the procedure as graded by each scoring system. A total of 137 cases with anatomical abnormalities [horseshoe kidney (n = 46), malrotation (n = 33), kypho and/or scoliosis (n = 31) and ectopic kidney (n = 27)] were assessed retrospectively. The mean stone burden, number, and density were 708.5 mm(2), 1.7, and 791.8 HU, respectively. The mean procedure, fluoroscopy, and hospitalization times were 75.2 ± 35.3 min, 133.4 ± 92.3 s, and 3.5 ± 2.1 days, respectively. Stone-free status was achieved in 106 cases (77.4 %). A total of 17 (13.6 %) complications occurred postoperatively. The mean scores were 2.7, 7.2, and 219.1, for the Guy, S.T.O.N.E., and CROES systems, respectively. CROES score was the independent predictor of PNL success in cases with anatomical abnormalities [p: 0.001, OR 1.01, (95 % CI 1005-1021)]. The CROES scoring system is well correlated with the success of PNL in cases with anatomical abnormalities; the S.T.O.N.E. and Guy scoring systems failed to predict the outcomes of PNL in this specific patient population.

  4. Analyses of Landing Mechanics in Division I Athletes Using the Landing Error Scoring System

    PubMed Central

    James, Joan; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P.; Caswell, Shane V.; Onate, James; Cortes, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Background: Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) can be detrimental to any athlete, having both short- and long-term health consequences. Examining preseason screening landing mechanics can indicate the likelihood of injury during the season. Furthermore, previous injury is also commonly referred as a predisposing factor for reinjury. Hypothesis: Players with a history of lower extremity injury would have higher Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) scores than those with no previous injury, and healthy soccer athletes who sustained an injury during the 2014 season would have higher LESS scores than those who remained uninjured. Study Design: Prospective cohort study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Thirty-four Division I male and female soccer athletes (19 men, 15 women; mean age, 19.6 ± 1.2 years; mean height, 172.4 ± 8.7 cm; mean weight, 70.8 ± 9.1 kg). An a priori sample size estimation for a power of 0.80 (80%) and an alpha error of 0.05 with an estimated effect size of 0.6 for a sample of 30 participants was attained. Participants performed a drop-landing task and were scored on their landing mechanics using the LESS. Lower extremity injuries were tracked during the season. LESS scores between those with and without a history of injury and those who were injured and uninjured during the season were compared using 2 separate 1-way analyses of variance. Results: No statistically significant differences (F1,33 = 0.47, P = 0.50) existed between LESS scores in athletes who had a previous injury history compared with those with no injury history. No statistically significant differences (F1,20 = 0.05, P = 0.83) existed between LESS scores in healthy athletes who were injured during the 2014 season compared with those healthy athletes who were uninjured. Conclusion: No differences were present between athletes with and without a history of lower extremity injury. The majority of healthy participants who were injured during the season had similar LESS

  5. Scoring systems of quantitative bone scanning in prostate cancer: historical overview, current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Zafeirakis, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    Whole-body bone scintigraphy using technetium-99m-methylene-diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP) is the most widely used radionuclide imaging modality applied in patients with prostate cancer. With this technique, the choice of methods to estimate the extend of the metastatic disease on the skeletal system includes various different approaches, classified in two main categories: First, the quantitative measurements of tracer uptake, defined either as the percentage of the injected dose of tracer, or as the more complicated plasma clearance techniques and second, the various semi-quantitative scoring systems of the bone scan images. These scoring systems can be based either on visual counting of bone lesions, or on the estimation of a numerical index that expresses the fractional involvement of each bone by tumour, called "Bone Scan Index" (BSI); the latter can be produced either visually (manually) or by the more sophisticated techniques of fully- or semi-automated (computerized) forms. In this review, a brief chronological overview of the aforementioned methods is presented, along with the main advantages, drawbacks and the prognostic implications of each method. There remains, however, the challenge of defining, developing and validating the optimal measurement methodology in order these scoring systems to obtain a wider clinical use.

  6. Photometric Compliance of Tablet Screens and Retro-Illuminated Acuity Charts As Visual Acuity Measurement Devices

    PubMed Central

    Livingstone, I. A. T.; Tarbert, C. M.; Giardini, M. E.; Bastawrous, A.; Middleton, D.; Hamilton, R.

    2016-01-01

    Mobile technology is increasingly used to measure visual acuity. Standards for chart-based acuity tests specify photometric requirements for luminance, optotype contrast and luminance uniformity. Manufacturers provide some photometric data but little is known about tablet performance for visual acuity testing. This study photometrically characterised seven tablet computers (iPad, Apple inc.) and three ETDRS (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study) visual acuity charts with room lights on and off, and compared findings with visual acuity measurement standards. Tablet screen luminance and contrast were measured using nine points across a black and white checkerboard test screen at five arbitrary brightness levels. ETDRS optotypes and adjacent white background luminance and contrast were measured. All seven tablets (room lights off) exceeded the most stringent requirement for mean luminance (≥ 120 cd/m2) providing the nominal brightness setting was above 50%. All exceeded contrast requirement (Weber ≥ 90%) regardless of brightness setting, and five were marginally below the required luminance uniformity threshold (Lmin/Lmax ≥ 80%). Re-assessing three tablets with room lights on made little difference to mean luminance or contrast, and improved luminance uniformity to exceed the threshold. The three EDTRS charts (room lights off) had adequate mean luminance (≥ 120 cd/m2) and Weber contrast (≥ 90%), but all three charts failed to meet the luminance uniformity standard (Lmin/Lmax ≥ 80%). Two charts were operating beyond manufacturer’s recommended lamp replacement schedule. With room lights on, chart mean luminance and Weber contrast increased, but two charts still had inadequate luminance uniformity. Tablet computers showed less inter-device variability, higher contrast, and better luminance uniformity than charts in both lights-on and lights-off environments, providing brightness setting was >50%. Overall, iPad tablets matched or marginally out

  7. Photometric Compliance of Tablet Screens and Retro-Illuminated Acuity Charts As Visual Acuity Measurement Devices.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, I A T; Tarbert, C M; Giardini, M E; Bastawrous, A; Middleton, D; Hamilton, R

    2016-01-01

    Mobile technology is increasingly used to measure visual acuity. Standards for chart-based acuity tests specify photometric requirements for luminance, optotype contrast and luminance uniformity. Manufacturers provide some photometric data but little is known about tablet performance for visual acuity testing. This study photometrically characterised seven tablet computers (iPad, Apple inc.) and three ETDRS (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study) visual acuity charts with room lights on and off, and compared findings with visual acuity measurement standards. Tablet screen luminance and contrast were measured using nine points across a black and white checkerboard test screen at five arbitrary brightness levels. ETDRS optotypes and adjacent white background luminance and contrast were measured. All seven tablets (room lights off) exceeded the most stringent requirement for mean luminance (≥ 120 cd/m2) providing the nominal brightness setting was above 50%. All exceeded contrast requirement (Weber ≥ 90%) regardless of brightness setting, and five were marginally below the required luminance uniformity threshold (Lmin/Lmax ≥ 80%). Re-assessing three tablets with room lights on made little difference to mean luminance or contrast, and improved luminance uniformity to exceed the threshold. The three EDTRS charts (room lights off) had adequate mean luminance (≥ 120 cd/m2) and Weber contrast (≥ 90%), but all three charts failed to meet the luminance uniformity standard (Lmin/Lmax ≥ 80%). Two charts were operating beyond manufacturer's recommended lamp replacement schedule. With room lights on, chart mean luminance and Weber contrast increased, but two charts still had inadequate luminance uniformity. Tablet computers showed less inter-device variability, higher contrast, and better luminance uniformity than charts in both lights-on and lights-off environments, providing brightness setting was >50%. Overall, iPad tablets matched or marginally out

  8. Retrospective Evaluation of New Chinese Diagnostic Scoring System for Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jun; Wang, Huafang; Guo, Tao; Mei, Heng; Hu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To retrospectively validate the new Chinese DIC scoring system (CDSS). Methods This study retrospectively collected the information of 619 patients (371 cases with non-hematologic malignancies, 248 cases with hematologic malignancies) who suspected of DIC in Wuhan Union Hospital during 2013-4 to 2014-6. We validated CDSS by comparing it with three leading scoring systems, from International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH), Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) and Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare (JMHW), and evaluated its prognostic value by 28 days mortality, APACHE II and SOFA score. Results In non-hematologic malignancies, CDSS was more specific than JAAM (72.55% vs. 50.49%, p<0.05) and more sensitive than ISTH (77.07% vs. 62.03%, p<0.05). In hematologic malignancies, the area under the ROC curve of CDSS was larger than ISTH and JMHW (0.933 vs. 0.889, p<0.01 with ISTH, 0.944 vs. 0.845, p<0.01 with JMHW). In addition, the 28-day mortality rate, SOFA scores, APACHE II scores of DIC patients diagnosed by CDSS were significantly greater than non-DIC (P <0.05). Conclusions We are the first group to propose CDSS. It emphasized the values of the clinical manifestations, the rapidly declining platelet count, APTT in the diagnosis of DIC and used D-dimer as the fibrin-related maker. DIC with hematological malignancies was treated as a special part. In this study we can see that CDSS displayed an acceptable property for the diagnosis of DIC with appropriate sensitivity and specificity, and also had a good prognostic value for DIC patients. PMID:26076032

  9. Advanced Nursing Directives: Integrating Validated Clinical Scoring Systems into Nursing Care in the Pediatric Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    deForest, Erin Kate; Thompson, Graham Cameron

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to improve the quality and flow of care provided to children presenting to the emergency department the implementation of nurse-initiated protocols is on the rise. We review the current literature on nurse-initiated protocols, validated emergency department clinical scoring systems, and the merging of the two to create Advanced Nursing Directives (ANDs). The process of developing a clinical pathway for children presenting to our pediatric emergency department (PED) with suspected appendicitis will be used to demonstrate the successful integration of validated clinical scoring systems into practice through the use of Advanced Nursing Directives. Finally, examples of 2 other Advanced Nursing Directives for common clinical PED presentations will be provided. PMID:22778944

  10. The cerebrospinal fluid HIV risk score for assessing central nervous system activity in persons with HIV.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Edward R; Crum, Rosa M; Treisman, Glenn J; Mehta, Shruti H; Marra, Christina M; Clifford, David B; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David M; Gelman, Benjamin B; Ellis, Ronald J; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott L; McArthur, Justin C

    2014-08-01

    Detectable human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is associated with central nervous system (CNS) complications. We developed the CSF HIV risk score through prediction modeling to estimate the risk of detectable CSF HIV RNA (threshold >50 copies/mL) to help identify persons who might benefit most from CSF monitoring. We used baseline data from 1,053 participants receiving combination antiretroviral therapy who were enrolled in the 6-center, US-based CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) prospective cohort in 2004-2007. Plasma HIV RNA, CNS penetration effectiveness, duration of combination antiretroviral therapy, medication adherence, race, and depression status were retained correlates of CSF HIV RNA, displaying good discrimination (C statistic = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87, 0.93) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow P = 0.85). The CSF HIV risk score ranges from 0 to 42 points, with a mean of 15.4 (standard deviation, 7.3) points. At risk scores greater than 25, the probability of detecting CSF HIV RNA was at least 42.9% (95% CI: 36.6, 49.6). For each 1-point increase, the odds of detecting CSF HIV RNA increased by 26% (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.31; P < 0.01). The risk score correlates with detection of CSF HIV RNA. It represents an advance in HIV management and monitoring of CNS effects, providing a potentially useful tool for clinicians.

  11. The Cerebrospinal Fluid HIV Risk Score for Assessing Central Nervous System Activity in Persons With HIV

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Edward R.; Crum, Rosa M.; Treisman, Glenn J.; Mehta, Shruti H.; Marra, Christina M.; Clifford, David B.; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David M.; Gelman, Benjamin B.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott L.; McArthur, Justin C.

    2014-01-01

    Detectable human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is associated with central nervous system (CNS) complications. We developed the CSF HIV risk score through prediction modeling to estimate the risk of detectable CSF HIV RNA (threshold >50 copies/mL) to help identify persons who might benefit most from CSF monitoring. We used baseline data from 1,053 participants receiving combination antiretroviral therapy who were enrolled in the 6-center, US-based CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) prospective cohort in 2004–2007. Plasma HIV RNA, CNS penetration effectiveness, duration of combination antiretroviral therapy, medication adherence, race, and depression status were retained correlates of CSF HIV RNA, displaying good discrimination (C statistic = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87, 0.93) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow P = 0.85). The CSF HIV risk score ranges from 0 to 42 points, with a mean of 15.4 (standard deviation, 7.3) points. At risk scores greater than 25, the probability of detecting CSF HIV RNA was at least 42.9% (95% CI: 36.6, 49.6). For each 1-point increase, the odds of detecting CSF HIV RNA increased by 26% (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.31; P < 0.01). The risk score correlates with detection of CSF HIV RNA. It represents an advance in HIV management and monitoring of CNS effects, providing a potentially useful tool for clinicians. PMID:24966216

  12. Evaluation of Clinical Alvarado Scoring System and CT Criteria in the Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Gunes Tatar, Idil; Yilmaz, Kerim Bora; Sahin, Alpaslan; Aydin, Hasan; Akinci, Melih; Hekimoglu, Baki

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The aim was to evaluate the clinical Alvarado scoring system and computed tomography (CT) criteria for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Material and Methods. 117 patients with acute abdominal pain who underwent abdominal CT were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patient demographics, clinical Alvarado scoring, CT images, and pathologic results of the patients were evaluated. Results. 39 of the 53 patients who were operated on had pathologically proven acute appendicitis. CT criteria of appendiceal diameter, presence of periappendiceal inflammation, fluid, appendicolith, and white blood cell (WBC) count were significantly correlated with the inflammation of the appendix. The best cut-off value for appendiceal diameter was 6.5 mm. The correlation between appendiceal diameter and WBC count was 80% (P = 0.01 < 0.05). The correlation between appendiceal diameter and Alvarado score was 78.7% (P = 0.01 < 0.05). Conclusion. Presence of CT criteria of appendiceal diameter above 6.5 mm, periappendiceal inflammation, fluid, and appendicolith should prompt the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Since patients with acute appendicitis may not always show the typical signs and symptoms, CT is a helpful imaging modality for patients with relatively low Alvarado score and leukocytosis and when physical examination is confusing.

  13. Validity of Outcome Prediction Scoring Systems in Korean Patients with Severe Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome Receiving Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghyun; Yeo, Hye Ju; Yoon, Seong Hoon; Lee, Seung Eun; Cho, Woo Hyun; Jeon, Doo Soo; Kim, Yun Seong; Son, Bong Soo; Kim, Do Hyung

    2016-06-01

    Recently, several prognostic scoring systems for patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) have been published. The aim of this study was to validate the established scoring systems for outcome prediction in Korean patients. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 50 patients on ECMO therapy in our center from 2012 to 2014. A calculation of outcome prediction scoring tools was performed and the comparison across various models was conducted. In our study, the overall hospital survival was 46% and successful weaning rate was 58%. The Predicting Death for Severe ARDS on V-V ECMO (PRESERVE) score showed good discrimination of mortality prediction for patients on ECMO with AUC of 0.80 (95% CI 0.66-0.90). The respiratory extracorporeal membrane oxygenation survival prediction (RESP) score and simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) II score also showed fair prediction ability with AUC of 0.79 (95% CI 0.65-0.89) and AUC of 0.78 (95% CI 0.64-0.88), respectively. However, the ECMOnet score failed to predict mortality with AUC of 0.51 (95% CI 0.37-0.66). When evaluating the predictive accuracy according to optimal cut-off point of each scoring system, RESP score had a best specificity of 91.3% and 66.7% of sensitivity, respectively. This study supports the clinical usefulness of the prognostic scoring tools for severe ARDS with ECMO therapy when applying to the Korean patients receiving ECMO.

  14. Response Classification Images in Vernier Acuity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Beard, B. L.; Ellis, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Orientation selective and local sign mechanisms have been proposed as the basis for vernier acuity judgments. Linear image features contributing to discrimination can be determined for a two choice task by adding external noise to the images and then averaging the noises separately for the four types of stimulus/response trials. This method is applied to a vernier acuity task with different spatial separations to compare the predictions of the two theories. Three well-practiced observers were presented around 5000 trials of a vernier stimulus consisting of two dark horizontal lines (5 min by 0.3 min) within additive low-contrast white noise. Two spatial separations were tested, abutting and a 10 min horizontal separation. The task was to determine whether the target lines were aligned or vertically offset. The noises were averaged separately for the four stimulus/response trial types (e.g., stimulus = offset, response = aligned). The sum of the two 'not aligned' images was then subtracted from the sum of the 'aligned' images to obtain an overall image. Spatially smoothed images were quantized according to expected variability in the smoothed images to allow estimation of the statistical significance of image features. The response images from the 10 min separation condition are consistent with the local sign theory, having the appearance of two linear operators measuring vertical position with opposite sign. The images from the abutting stimulus have the same appearance with the two operators closer together. The image predicted by an oriented filter model is similar, but has its greatest weight in the abutting region, while the response images fall to nonsignificance there. The response correlation image method, previously demonstrated for letter discrimination, clarifies the features used in vernier acuity.

  15. Intelligibility in microbial complex systems: Wittgenstein and the score of life.

    PubMed

    Baquero, Fernando; Moya, Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge in microbiology is reaching an extreme level of diversification and complexity, which paradoxically results in a strong reduction in the intelligibility of microbial life. In our days, the "score of life" metaphor is more accurate to express the complexity of living systems than the classic "book of life." Music and life can be represented at lower hierarchical levels by music scores and genomic sequences, and such representations have a generational influence in the reproduction of music and life. If music can be considered as a representation of life, such representation remains as unthinkable as life itself. The analysis of scores and genomic sequences might provide mechanistic, phylogenetic, and evolutionary insights into music and life, but not about their real dynamics and nature, which is still maintained unthinkable, as was proposed by Wittgenstein. As complex systems, life or music is composed by thinkable and only showable parts, and a strategy of half-thinking, half-seeing is needed to expand knowledge. Complex models for complex systems, based on experiences on trans-hierarchical integrations, should be developed in order to provide a mixture of legibility and imageability of biological processes, which should lead to higher levels of intelligibility of microbial life.

  16. Intelligibility in microbial complex systems: Wittgenstein and the score of life

    PubMed Central

    Baquero, Fernando; Moya, Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge in microbiology is reaching an extreme level of diversification and complexity, which paradoxically results in a strong reduction in the intelligibility of microbial life. In our days, the “score of life” metaphor is more accurate to express the complexity of living systems than the classic “book of life.” Music and life can be represented at lower hierarchical levels by music scores and genomic sequences, and such representations have a generational influence in the reproduction of music and life. If music can be considered as a representation of life, such representation remains as unthinkable as life itself. The analysis of scores and genomic sequences might provide mechanistic, phylogenetic, and evolutionary insights into music and life, but not about their real dynamics and nature, which is still maintained unthinkable, as was proposed by Wittgenstein. As complex systems, life or music is composed by thinkable and only showable parts, and a strategy of half-thinking, half-seeing is needed to expand knowledge. Complex models for complex systems, based on experiences on trans-hierarchical integrations, should be developed in order to provide a mixture of legibility and imageability of biological processes, which should lead to higher levels of intelligibility of microbial life. PMID:22919679

  17. Confirmation of interrater reliability of the Marley Differential Diagnostic Scoring System for the Bender-Gestalt Test.

    PubMed

    DeCato, C M; Meldrum, D

    1989-06-01

    The Bender-Gestalt test has been one of the most popular clinical instruments for the past four decades. Much controversy has surrounded the use of this test as a screening instrument for organicity (brain dysfunction). Marley's Differential Diagnostic Scoring System was recently developed to improve the validity of the test for detecting organicity. The original standardization of the system reported very high interrater reliability. To provide an independent assessment of interscorer reliability, three raters were trained in the system and separately rated 40 protocols. Kappa coefficients for the three raters ranged from .94 to .98. Substantial interscorer reliability was obtained, Mdn = 92.5% for specific scores with three scores attaining 100% agreement, although some values were lower. These results suggest that there is a strong empirical basis for the scoring system and encourage further refinement of the scoring system to reflect central nervous system dysfunction.

  18. Auto-score system to optimize OPC recipe parameters using genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Liang; Asthana, Abhishek; Ning, Guoxiang; Feng, Jui-Hsuan; Zhang, Jie; Wilkinson, William

    2016-10-01

    The ever increasing pattern densities and design complexities make the tuning of optical proximity correction (OPC) recipes more challenging. There are various recipe tuning methods to meet the challenge, such as genetic algorithm (GA), simulated annealing, and OPC software vendor provided recipe optimizers. However, these methodologies usually only consider edge placement errors (EPEs). Therefore, these techniques may not provide adequate freedom to solve unique problems at special geometries, for example bridge, pinch, and process variation band related violations at complex 2D geometries. This paper introduces a general methodology to fix specific problems identified at the OPC verification stage and demonstrates its successful application to two test-cases. The algorithm and method of the automatic scoring system is introduced in order to identify and prioritize the problems that need to be fixed based on severity, with the POR recipe score used as the baseline reference. A GA optimizer, whose objective function is based on the scoring system, is applied to tune the OPC recipe parameters to optimum condition after generations of selections. The GA optimized recipe would be compared to existing recipe to quantify the amount of improvement. This technique was subsequently applied to eliminate certain chronic OPC verification problems which were encountered in the past. Though the benefits have been demonstrated for limited test cases, employing this technique more universally will enable users to efficiently reduce the number of OPC verification violations and provide robust OPC solutions.

  19. A Novel Scoring System to Measure Radiographic Abnormalities and Related Spirometric Values in Cured Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Báez-Saldaña, Renata; López-Arteaga, Yesenia; Bizarrón-Muro, Alma; Ferreira-Guerrero, Elizabeth; Ferreyra-Reyes, Leticia; Delgado-Sánchez, Guadalupe; Cruz-Hervert, Luis Pablo; Mongua-Rodríguez, Norma; García-García, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite chemotherapy, patients with cured pulmonary tuberculosis may result in lung functional impairment. Objective To evaluate a novel scoring system based on the degree of radiographic abnormalities and related spirometric values in patients with cured pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods One hundred and twenty seven patients with cured pulmonary tuberculosis were prospectively enrolled in a referral hospital specializing in respiratory diseases. Spirometry was performed and the extent of radiographic abnormalities was evaluated twice by each of two readers to generate a novel quantitative score. Scoring reproducibility was analyzed by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and the Bland-Altman method. Multiple linear regression models were performed to assess the association of the extent of radiographic abnormalities with spirometric values. Results The intra-observer agreement for scoring of radiographic abnormalities (SRA) showed an ICC of 0.81 (CI:95%, 0.67–0.95) and 0.78 (CI:95%, 0.65–0.92), for reader 1 and 2, respectively. Inter-observer reproducibility for the first measurement was 0.83 (CI:95%, 0.71–0.95), and for the second measurement was 0.74 (CI:95%, 0.58–0.90). The Bland-Altman analysis of the intra-observer agreement showed a mean bias of 0.87% and -0.55% and an inter-observer agreement of -0.35% and -1.78%, indicating a minor average systematic variability. After adjustment for age, gender, height, smoking status, pack-years of smoking, and degree of dyspnea, the scoring degree of radiographic abnormalities was significantly and negatively associated with absolute and percent predicted values of FVC: -0.07 (CI:95%, -0.01 to -0.04); -2.48 (CI:95%, -3.45 to -1.50); and FEV1 -0.07 (CI:95%, -0.10 to -0.05); -2.92 (CI:95%, -3.87 to -1.97) respectively, in the patients studied. Conclusion The extent of radiographic abnormalities, as evaluated through our novel scoring system, was inversely associated with spirometric values, and

  20. Psychometric properties of the Bender Gestalt Test using Lacks' version of the Hutt-Briskin scoring system.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Michael N; Perez, Jose J; Smith, Whitney E; Castillo, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    Criterion-referenced (Livingston r) and norm-referenced (Gilmer-Feldt r and Coefficient Alpha) techniques were used to calculate the internal consistency reliability of the Bender-Gestalt Test (BGT) Total Score using the 12-item Lacks system of scoring. Livingston's r was found to be .825 for the Lacks BGT cutoff score of 5. The Gilmer-Feldt and alpha coefficients for the Lacks Total Score was found to be .644 and .626, respectively. An item analysis showed that most of the BGT items (9 out of 12) were within established criteria for item difficulty, however, 7 items were found to be poor discriminators. The interscorer reliabilities based on three scorers, two scorers, and a single scorer was found to be .895, .852, and .740, respectively. Due to the low reliabilities and several inherent flaws that were identified with the Lacks scoring system, the authors recommend that users of the BGT consider alternative objective scoring systems.

  1. Stream segregation with high spatial acuity

    PubMed Central

    Middlebrooks, John C.; Onsan, Zekiye A.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial hearing is widely regarded as helpful in recognizing a sound amid other competing sounds. It is a matter of debate, however, whether spatial cues contribute to “stream segregation,” which refers to the specific task of assigning multiple interleaved sequences of sounds to their respective sources. The present study employed “rhythmic masking release” as a measure of the spatial acuity of stream segregation. Listeners discriminated between rhythms of noise-burst sequences presented from free-field targets in the presence of interleaved maskers that varied in location. For broadband sounds in the horizontal plane, target-masker separations of ≥8° permitted rhythm discrimination with d′ ≥ 1; in some cases, such thresholds approached listeners’ minimum audible angles. Thresholds were the same for low-frequency sounds but were substantially wider for high-frequency sounds, suggesting that interaural delays provided higher spatial acuity in this task than did interaural level differences. In the vertical midline, performance varied dramatically as a function of noise-burst duration with median thresholds ranging from >30° for 10-ms bursts to 7.1° for 40-ms bursts. A marked dissociation between minimum audible angles and masking release thresholds across the various pass-band and burst-duration conditions suggests that location discrimination and spatial stream segregation are mediated by distinct auditory mechanisms. PMID:23231120

  2. The Coriell personalized medicine collaborative pharmacogenomics appraisal, evidence scoring and interpretation system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of pharmacogenomics (PGx) in clinical care can lead to improved drug efficacy and reduced adverse drug reactions. However, there has been a lag in adoption of PGx tests in clinical practice. This is due in part to a paucity of rigorous systems for translating published clinical and scientific data into standardized diagnostic tests with clear therapeutic recommendations. Here we describe the Pharmacogenomics Appraisal, Evidence Scoring and Interpretation System (PhAESIS), developed as part of the Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative research study, and its application to seven commonly prescribed drugs. PMID:24134832

  3. Developmental trajectory of number acuity reveals a severe impairment in developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Manuela; Facoetti, Andrea; Trussardi, Anna Noemi; Berteletti, Ilaria; Conte, Stefano; Lucangeli, Daniela; Dehaene, Stanislas; Zorzi, Marco

    2010-07-01

    Developmental dyscalculia is a learning disability that affects the acquisition of knowledge about numbers and arithmetic. It is widely assumed that numeracy is rooted on the "number sense", a core ability to grasp numerical quantities that humans share with other animals and deploy spontaneously at birth. To probe the links between number sense and dyscalculia, we used a psychophysical test to measure the Weber fraction for the numerosity of sets of dots, hereafter called number acuity. We show that number acuity improves with age in typically developing children. In dyscalculics, numerical acuity is severely impaired, with 10-year-old dyscalculics scoring at the level of 5-year-old normally developing children. Moreover, the severity of the number acuity impairment predicts the defective performance on tasks involving the manipulation of symbolic numbers. These results establish for the first time a clear association between dyscalculia and impaired "number sense", and they may open up new horizons for the early diagnosis and rehabilitation of mathematical learning deficits.

  4. Prognostic Gleason grade grouping: data based on the modified Gleason scoring system

    PubMed Central

    Pierorazio, Phillip M.; Walsh, Patrick C.; Partin, Alan W.; Epstein, Jonathan I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective • To investigate pathological and short-term outcomes since the most recent Gleason system modifications by the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) in an attempt to divide the current Gleason grading system into prognostically accurate Gleason grade groups. Patients and Methods • We queried the Johns Hopkins Radical Prostatectomy Database (1982–2011), approved by the institutional review board, for men undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) without a tertiary pattern since 2004 and identified 7869 men. • Multivariable models were created using preoperative and postoperative variables; prognostic grade group (Gleason grade ≤6; 3 + 4; 4 + 3; 8; 9–10) was among the strongest predictors of biochemical recurrence-free (BFS) survival. Results • Significant differences were noted among the Gleason grade groups at biopsy; differences were noted in the race, PSA level, clinical stage, number of positive cores at biopsy and the maximum percentage of positive cores among the Gleason grade groups at RP. • With a median (range) follow-up of 2 (1–7) years, 5-year BFS rates for men with Gleason grade ≤6, 3 + 4, 4 + 3, 8 and 9–10 tumours at biopsy were 94.6, 82.7, 65.1, 63.1 and 34.5%, respectively (P < 0.001 for trend); and 96.6, 88.1, 69.7, 63.7 and 34.5%, respectively (P < 0.001), based on RP pathology. Conclusions • The 2005 ISUP modifications to the Gleason grading system for prostate carcinoma accurately categorize patients by pathological findings and short-term biochemical outcomes but, while retaining the essence of the Gleason system, there is a need for a change in its reporting to more closely reflect tumour behaviour. • We propose reporting Gleason grades, including prognostic grade groups which accurately reflect prognosis as follows: Gleason score ≤6 (prognostic grade group I); Gleason score 3+4=7 (prognostic grade group II); Gleason score 4+3=7 (prognostic grade group III); Gleason score 4+4=8 (prognostic grade

  5. Comparison of the Bender Gestalt Test for Both Black and White Brain-Damaged Patients Using Two Scoring Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Oliver T.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This study tested for cultural bias in the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test. Subjects were 72 black and white patients diagnosed as either brain damaged or psychiatric. Bender protocols were scored by Pascal-Suttell and Hain systems. No race effect appeared except for the Pascal-Suttell system for which blacks scored significantly better. (Author)

  6. Comparison of the Qualitative and Developmental Scoring Systems for the Modified Version of the Bender-Gestalt Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannigan, Gary G.; Brunner, Nancy A.

    1993-01-01

    Examined two scoring systems for Modified Version of the Bender-Gestalt Test. Administered Bender-Gestalt and Otis-Lennon School Ability Test to 75 first-grade and 84 second-grade students. Both systems were significantly correlated with school ability. Results of tests for differences between correlations indicated that Qualitative Scoring System…

  7. The generic impact scoring system (GISS): a standardized tool to quantify the impacts of alien species.

    PubMed

    Nentwig, Wolfgang; Bacher, Sven; Pyšek, Petr; Vilà, Montserrat; Kumschick, Sabrina

    2016-05-01

    Alien species can exert negative environmental and socio-economic impacts. Therefore, administrations from different sectors are trying to prevent further introductions, stop the spread of established species, and apply or develop programs to mitigate their impact, to contain the most harmful species, or to eradicate them if possible. Often it is not clear which of the numerous alien species are most important in terms of damage, and therefore, impact scoring systems have been developed to allow a comparison and thus prioritization of species. Here, we present the generic impact scoring system (GISS), which relies on published evidence of environmental and socio-economic impact of alien species. We developed a system of 12 impact categories, for environmental and socio-economic impact, comprising all kinds of impacts that an alien species may exert. In each category, the intensity of impact is quantified by a six-level scale ranging from 0 (no impact detectable) to 5 (the highest impact possible). Such an approach, where impacts are grouped based on mechanisms for environmental impacts and receiving sectors for socio-economy, allows for cross-taxa comparisons and prioritization of the most damaging species. The GISS is simple and transparent, can be conducted with limited funds, and can be applied to a large number of alien species across taxa and environments. Meanwhile, the system was applied to 349 alien animal and plant species. In a comparison with 22 other impact assessment methods, the combination of environmental and socio-economic impact, as well as the possibility of weighting and ranking of the scoring results make GISS the most broadly applicable system.

  8. Influence of intraocular lens subsurface nanoglistenings on functional visual acuity

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Kazunori; Hayashidera, Takeshi; Iida, Masaharu; Takada, Keita; Minami, Keiichiro; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the influence of intraocular lens subsurface nanoglistenings (SSNGs) on functional visual acuity (FVA), thirty-nine eyes of 29 patients were examined in this study. The SSNG group comprised 19 eyes of 14 patients (75.7± 5.4 years, mean ± standard deviation), and the control group comprised 20 eyes of 15 patients (73.6 ± 6.5 years). The SSNGs were diagnosed on the basis of the typical whitish IOL appearance upon slit-lamp examination and results of densitometry regarding surface light scattering using Scheimpflug images. The FVA measurement system (AS-28; Kowa, Aichi, Japan) was used to examine changes in continuous visual acuity (VA) over time, and visual function parameters such as FVA, visual maintenance ratio (VMR), maximum VA, minimum VA, standard deviation of VA, and number of blinks were assessed. The results were compared between the SSNG and control groups, and correlations of FVA parameters with the intensity of surface light scattering, time after surgery, and age were also evaluated. There were significant differences in VMR (P = 0.035) and standard deviation of VAs (P = 0.031) between the two groups, although no significant differences were found in baseline VA, FVA, maximum VA, minimum VA, and number of blinks. None of the FVA parameters showed any significant correlations with the intensity of surface light scattering, time after surgery, or age. There is a possibility that VA is unstable during a continuous gazing task in patients with SSNGs. PMID:28328997

  9. Changes in brain morphology in albinism reflect reduced visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Holly; von dem Hagen, Elisabeth A H; Davies, George; Chambers, Claire; Gouws, Andre; Hoffmann, Michael; Morland, Antony B

    2014-07-01

    Albinism, in humans and many animal species, has a major impact on the visual system, leading to reduced acuity, lack of binocular function and nystagmus. In addition to the lack of a foveal pit, there is a disruption to the routing of the nerve fibers crossing at the optic chiasm, resulting in excessive crossing of fibers to the contralateral hemisphere. However, very little is known about the effect of this misrouting on the structure of the post-chiasmatic visual pathway, and the occipital lobes in particular. Whole-brain analyses of cortical thickness in a large cohort of subjects with albinism showed an increase in cortical thickness, relative to control subjects, particularly in posterior V1, corresponding to the foveal representation. Furthermore, mean cortical thickness across entire V1 was significantly greater in these subjects compared to controls and negatively correlated with visual acuity in albinism. Additionally, the group with albinism showed decreased gyrification in the left ventral occipital lobe. While the increase in cortical thickness in V1, also found in congenitally blind subjects, has been interpreted to reflect a lack of pruning, the decreased gyrification in the ventral extrastriate cortex may reflect the reduced input to the foveal regions of the ventral visual stream.

  10. Combination of European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) and Cardiac Surgery Score (CASUS) to Improve Outcome Prediction in Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Doerr, Fabian; Heldwein, Matthias B; Bayer, Ole; Sabashnikov, Anton; Weymann, Alexander; Dohmen, Pascal M; Wahlers, Thorsten; Hekmat, Khosro

    2015-08-17

    BACKGROUND We hypothesized that the combination of a preoperative and a postoperative scoring system would improve the accuracy of mortality prediction and therefore combined the preoperative 'additive EuroSCORE' (European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation) with the postoperative 'additive CASUS' (Cardiac Surgery Score) to form the 'modified CASUS'. MATERIAL AND METHODS We included all consecutive adult patients after cardiac surgery during January 2007 and December 2010 in our prospective study. Our single-centre study was conducted in a German general referral university hospital. The original additive and the 'modified CASUS' were tested using calibration and discrimination statistics. We compared the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver characteristic curves (ROC) by DeLong's method and calculated overall correct classification (OCC) values. RESULTS The mean age among the total of 5207 patients was 67.2 ± 10.9 years. Whilst the ICU mortality was 5.9% we observed a mean length of ICU stay of 4.6 ± 7.0 days. Both models demonstrated excellent discriminatory power (mean AUC of 'modified CASUS': ≥ 0.929; 'additive CASUS': ≥ 0.920), with no significant differences according to DeLong. Neither model showed a significant p-value (<0.05) in calibration. We detected the best OCC during the 2nd day (modified: 96.5%; original: 96.6%). CONCLUSIONS Our 'additive' and 'modified' CASUS are reasonable overall predictors. We could not detect any improvement in the accuracy of mortality prediction in cardiac surgery by combining a preoperative and a postoperative scoring system. A separate calculation of the two individual elements is therefore recommended.

  11. A recently developed MRI scoring system for hand osteoarthritis: its application in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Ramonda, Roberta; Favero, Marta; Vio, Stefania; Lacognata, Carmelo; Frallonardo, Paola; Belluzzi, Elisa; Campana, Carla; Lorenzin, Mariagrazia; Ortolan, Augusta; Angelini, Federico; Piccoli, Antonio; Oliviero, Francesca; Punzi, Leonardo

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to apply the recently proposed Oslo hand osteoarthritis magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scoring system to evaluate MRI findings in a cohort of patients affected by long-standing erosive hand osteoarthritis (EHOA). Eleven female EHOA patients (median 59 [interquartile range 62-52] years, disease duration 9.5 [interquartile range 13-3.75] years) underwent MRI (1.5 T) of the dominant hand, and synovitis, bone marrow lesions (BMLs), joint space narrowing, osteophytes, cysts, malalignment, and erosions were scored using the Oslo scoring system. Intra- and inter-reader reliability were assessed. The patients also underwent X-ray examination, and bone features were evaluated using the same scoring system. Pain and tenderness were assessed during a physical examination. Spearman's non-parametric test was used to analyze the correlations between variables. MRI intra- and inter-reader reliability were found between good and moderate for many features. No statistical differences were found between the radiographs and MRI with regard to detection of JSN, malalignment, and bone erosions. Synovitis was detected in 39.8 % of the 80 joints examined (in a mild form in 80 %), erosions were found in 51.1 %, and BMLs were identified in 20.5 and 23.9 % at the distal and the proximal side, respectively. BMLs at both the proximal and distal ends were correlated with tender joints (BML distal p = 0.0013, BML proximal p = 0.012). The presence of synovitis was correlated with tenderness (p = 0.004) and erosions at both the distal and proximal joints (p = 0.004). The presence of erosions correlated with tender joints (p < 0.01) and the mean visual analog scale (VAS) score (distal p = 0.03, proximal p = 0.01). Synovitis and BMLs were correlated with clinical symptoms in our patients affected with long-standing EHOA.

  12. Development of a simplified diagnostic indicators scoring system and validation for peptic ulcer perforation in a developing country

    PubMed Central

    Suriya, Chutikarn; Kasatpibal, Nongyao; Kunaviktikul, Wipada; Kayee, Toranee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To perform and confirm a simplified diagnostic indicators scoring system for predicting peptic ulcer perforation (PUP). Methods: A case–control study was conducted including 812 consecutive patients with PUP from retrospective medical records. Each diagnostic indicator measurable at the time of admittance was analyzed by a multiple regression. Stepwise logistic regression was applied with backward elimination of statistically significant predictors from the full model, with P ≥ 0.05 for exclusion. The item scores were transformed from regression coefficients and computed to a total score. The risk of PUP was interpreted using total scores as a simple predictor. This system was internally validated in 218 consecutive patients and compared to existing systems. Results: A PUP risk score was determined from the diagnostic indicators associated with PUP: gender, age, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs used, history of peptic ulcer, intense abdominal pain, guarding, X-ray free air positive, and referral from other hospitals. Item scores ranged from 0–6.0 and the total score ranged from 0–34.0. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve shows that there was 91.73% accuracy in the total scores predicting the likelihood of PUP. The likelihood of PUP among low risk (scores <10.5), moderate risk (scores 11–21), and high risk (scores ≥ 21.5) patients was 0.13, 11.44, and 1.95, respectively. Conclusion: This scoring system is an effective diagnostic indicator for identifying the complex cases of PUP. It is a simple system and can help guide clinicians, providing them with a more efficient way to accurately subgroup patients while also reducing potential biases. PMID:23055764

  13. Visual acuity in the cathemeral strepsirrhine Eulemur macaco flavifrons.

    PubMed

    Veilleux, Carrie C; Kirk, E Christopher

    2009-04-01

    Studies of visual acuity in primates have shown that diurnal haplorhines have higher acuity (30-75 cycles per degree (c/deg)) than most other mammals. However, relatively little is known about visual acuity in non-haplorhine primates, and published estimates are only available for four strepsirrhine genera (Microcebus, Otolemur, Galago, and Lemur). We present here the first measurements of visual acuity in a cathemeral strepsirrhine species, the blue-eyed black lemur (Eulemur macaco flavifrons). Acuity in two subjects, a 3-year-old male and a 16-year-old female, was assessed behaviorally using a two-alternative forced choice discrimination task. Visual stimuli consisted of high contrast square wave gratings of seven spatial frequencies. Acuity threshold was determined using a 70% correct response criterion. Results indicate a maximum visual acuity of 5.1 c/deg for the female (1718 trials) and 3.8 c/deg for the male (846 trials). These values for E. macaco are slightly lower than those reported for diurnal Lemur catta, and are generally comparable to those reported for nocturnal Microcebus murinus and Otolemur crassicaudatus. To examine ecological sources of variation in primate visual acuity, we also calculated maximum theoretical acuity for Cheirogaleus medius (2.8 c/deg) and Tarsius syrichta (8.9 c/deg) using published data on retinal ganglion cell density and eye morphology. These data suggest that visual acuity in primates may be influenced by activity pattern, diet, and phylogenetic history. In particular, the relatively high acuity of T. syrichta and Galago senegalensis suggests that visual predation may be an important selective factor favoring high visual acuity in primates.

  14. Acute Radiation Syndrome Severity Score System in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

    PubMed

    Ossetrova, Natalia I; Ney, Patrick H; Condliffe, Donald P; Krasnopolsky, Katya; Hieber, Kevin P

    2016-08-01

    Radiation accidents or terrorist attacks can result in serious consequences for the civilian population and for military personnel responding to such emergencies. The early medical management situation requires quantitative indications for early initiation of cytokine therapy in individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and effective triage tools for first responders in mass-casualty radiological incidents. Previously established animal (Mus musculus, Macaca mulatta) total-body irradiation (γ-exposure) models have evaluated a panel of radiation-responsive proteins that, together with peripheral blood cell counts, create a multiparametic dose-predictive algorithm with a threshold for detection of ~1 Gy from 1 to 7 d after exposure as well as demonstrate the acute radiation syndrome severity score systems created similar to the Medical Treatment Protocols for Radiation Accident Victims developed by Fliedner and colleagues. The authors present a further demonstration of the acute radiation sickness severity score system in a mouse (CD2F1, males) TBI model (1-14 Gy, Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min) based on multiple biodosimetric endpoints. This includes the acute radiation sickness severity Observational Grading System, survival rate, weight changes, temperature, peripheral blood cell counts and radiation-responsive protein expression profile: Flt-3 ligand, interleukin 6, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, thrombopoietin, erythropoietin, and serum amyloid A. Results show that use of the multiple-parameter severity score system facilitates identification of animals requiring enhanced monitoring after irradiation and that proteomics are a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposure, enhancing accuracy and discrimination index for acute radiation sickness response categories and early prediction of outcome.

  15. A comparison of the effects of ageing upon vernier and bisection acuity.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Suarez, Luis; Barrett, Brendan T; Pacey, Ian

    2004-05-01

    While most positional acuity tasks exhibit an age-related decline in performance, the effect of ageing upon vernier acuity continues to be the subject of some debate. In the present study we employed a stimulus design that enabled the simultaneous determination of bisection and vernier acuities in 36 subjects, aged between 22 and 84 years. This approach provided a means for directly testing the hypothesis that ageing affects bisection acuity but not vernier acuity by ensuring that differences in stimulus configuration and in the subject's task were kept to an absolute minimum. Optimum thresholds increased as a function of age for both bisection and vernier tasks. Inter-subject threshold variability also increased with age. Issues surrounding the comparison of absolute vernier thresholds across different studies are discussed and two important methodological factors are identified: the precise statistical method used to estimate thresholds, and the magnitude, in angular terms, of the smallest spatial offset of the elements of the vernier stimulus which can be displayed. Comparison with previously published data indicates that the discrepancy between this study and most previous investigations with respect to the effect of age upon vernier performance can be at least partly accounted for by differences in the minimum displayable vernier offset. Vernier thresholds do increase with age. The increased variability of vernier thresholds in older subjects would appear to limit the diagnostic value of the test as a means of enabling normal ageing to be distinguished from visual loss due to pathology of the eye or visual system.

  16. Association of Visual Acuity and Cognitive Impairment in Older Individuals: Fujiwara-kyo Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Mine, Masashi; Miyata, Kimie; Morikawa, Masayuki; Nishi, Tomo; Okamoto, Nozomi; Kawasaki, Ryo; Yamashita, Hidetoshi; Kurumatani, Norio; Ogata, Nahoko

    2016-01-01

    Both visual impairment and cognitive impairment are essential factors that determine the quality of life in the aged population. The aim of this study was to determine if a correlation existed between visual acuity and cognitive impairment in an elderly Japanese population. The Fujiwara-kyo Eye Study was a cross-sectional study of individuals aged ≥68 years who lived in Nara Prefecture of Japan. Participants underwent ophthalmological examinations and cognitive function test. A mild visual impairment was defined as having a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) >0.2 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units in the better eye. Cognitive impairment was defined as having a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of ≤23 points. A total to 2818 individuals completed the examinations. The mean age of the participants was 76.3 ± 4.8 years (mean ± standard deviation). The mean BCVA of the better eye was -0.02 ± 0.13 logMAR units and 6.6% subjects were classified as being mildly visually impaired. The mean MMSE score was 27.3 ± 2.3 and 5.7% subjects were classified as being cognitively impaired. The proportion of subjects with cognitive or moderate visual impairment increased with age, and there was a significant correlation between the visual acuity and MMSE score (r = -0.10, p < 0.0001). Subjects with mild visual impairments had 2.4 times higher odds of having cognitive impairment than those without visual impairment (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval, 1.5-3.8, p < 0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, and length of education. We conclude that it may be important to maintain good visual acuity to reduce the risk of having cognitive impairment.

  17. Overview of different scoring systems in Fournier’s Gangrene and assessment of prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Doluoğlu, Ömer Gökhan; Karagöz, Mehmet Ali; Kılınç, Muhammet Fatih; Karakan, Tolga; Yücetürk, Cem Nedim; Sarıcı, Haşmet; Özgür, Berat Cem; Eroğlu, Muzaffer

    2016-01-01

    Objective In this study we aimed to evaluate prognostic factors for the survival of patients with Fournier’s gangrene (FG), and overview different validated scoring systems for outcome prediction. Material and methods We retrospectively analyzed the data of 39 patients treated for FG in our clinic. Data were collected on medical history, symptoms, physical examination findings, vital signs, laboratory parameters at admission and at the end of treatment, timing and extent of surgical debridement, and the antibiotic treatment used. The Fournier’s Gangrene Severity Index (FGSI) and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) were used to predict outcome. The data were analyzed in relation with the survival of the patients. Mann-Whitney U test, chi -square test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, and Cox regression analysis were used for the statistical analysis. Results Of 39 patients analyzed, 8 (20.5%) died and 31 (79.5%) survived. The median FGSI score on admission was 2 (0–9) for the survivors and 6 (2–14) for the non-survivors (p=0.004). The median CCI scores of the survivors and non-survivors were 2 (0–10) and 6.5 (5–11), respectively (p=0.001). Except for urea, albumin and hematocrit levels, no significant differences were found between survivors and non-survivors for other laboratory parameters on admission. Lower albumin levels and advanced age were found to be associated with mortality. Conclusion High blood urea, low albumin, and low hematocrit levels were associated with poor prognosis. High CCI and FGSI scores could be associated with a poor prognosis in patients with FG. PMID:27635295

  18. Severity score system for progressive myelopathy: development and validation of a new clinical scale

    PubMed Central

    Castilhos, R.M.; Blank, D.; Netto, C.B.O.; Souza, C.F.M.; Fernandes, L.N.T.; Schwartz, I.V.D.; Giugliani, R.; Jardim, L.B.

    2012-01-01

    Progressive myelopathies can be secondary to inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) such as mucopolysaccharidosis, mucolipidosis, and adrenomyeloneuropathy. The available scale, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, was validated only for degenerative vertebral diseases. Our objective is to propose and validate a new scale addressing progressive myelopathies and to present validating data for JOA in these diseases. A new scale, Severity Score System for Progressive Myelopathy (SSPROM), was constructed covering motor disability, sphincter dysfunction, spasticity, and sensory losses. Inter-and intra-rater reliabilities were measured. External validation was tested by applying JOA, the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), the Barthel index, and the Osame Motor Disability Score. Thirty-eight patients, 17 with adrenomyeloneuropathy, 3 with mucopolysaccharidosis I, 3 with mucopolysaccharidosis IV, 2 with mucopolysaccharidosis VI, 2 with mucolipidosis, and 11 with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy participated in the study. The mean ± SD SSPROM and JOA scores were 74.6 ± 11.4 and 12.4 ± 2.3, respectively. Construct validity for SSPROM (JOA: r = 0.84, P < 0.0001; EDSS: r = −0.83, P < 0.0001; Barthel: r = 0.56, P < 0.002; Osame: r = −0.94, P < 0.0001) and reliability (intra-rater: r = 0.83, P < 0.0001; inter-rater: r = 0.94, P < 0.0001) were demonstrated. The metric properties of JOA were similar to those found in SSPROM. Several clinimetric requirements were met for both SSPROM and JOA scales. Since SSPROM has a wider range, it should be useful for follow-up studies on IEM myelopathies. PMID:22570090

  19. A new scoring system for the Spraings Multiple Choice Bender Gestalt Test.

    PubMed

    Friedman, A F; Wakefield, J A; Sasek, J; Schroeder, D

    1977-01-01

    A new scoring procedure to be used with Spraings' technique for administering the Bender-Gestalt test in a multiple choice format is presented. Scoring weights are used instead of simply scoring each item right or wrong. The evidence presented suggests that this method of scoring would increase the value of Spraings' test in the diagnosis of perceptual deficits.

  20. Hospital Triage System for Adult Patients Using an Influenza-Like Illness Scoring System during the 2009 Pandemic—Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Noriega, Eduardo; Gonzalez-Diaz, Esteban; Morfin-Otero, Rayo; Gomez-Abundis, Gerardo F.; Briseño-Ramirez, Jaime; Perez-Gomez, Hector Raul; Lopez-Gatell, Hugo; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia M.; Ramírez, Ernesto; López, Irma; Iguala, Miguel; Chapela, Ietza Bojórquez; Zavala, Ethel Palacios; Hernández, Mauricio; Stuart, Tammy L.; Villarino, Margarita Elsa; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Waterman, Steve; Uyeki, Timothy; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Background Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus emerged during 2009. To help clinicians triage adults with acute respiratory illness, a scoring system for influenza-like illness (ILI) was implemented at Hospital Civil de Guadalajara, Mexico. Methods A medical history, laboratory and radiology results were collected on emergency room (ER) patients with acute respiratory illness to calculate an ILI-score. Patients were evaluated for admission by their ILI-score and clinicians' assessment of risk for developing complications. Nasal and throat swabs were collected from intermediate and high-risk patients for influenza testing by RT-PCR. The disposition and ILI-score of those oseltamivir-treated versus untreated, clinical characteristics of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) patients versus test-negative patients were compared by Pearson's Χ2, Fisher's Exact, and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Results Of 1840 ER patients, 230 were initially hospitalized (mean ILI-score = 15), and the rest were discharged, including 286 ambulatory patients given oseltamivir (median ILI-score = 11), and 1324 untreated (median ILI-score = 5). Fourteen (1%) untreated patients returned, and 3 were hospitalized on oseltamivir (median ILI-score  = 19). Of 371 patients tested by RT-PCR, 104 (28%) had pandemic influenza and 42 (11%) had seasonal influenza A detected. Twenty (91%) of 22 imaged hospitalized pandemic influenza patients had bilateral infiltrates compared to 23 (38%) of 61 imaged hospital test-negative patients (p<0.001). One patient with confirmed pandemic influenza presented 6 days after symptom onset, required mechanical ventilation, and died. Conclusions The triaging system that used an ILI-score complimented clinicians' judgment of who needed oseltamivir and inpatient care and helped hospital staff manage a surge in demand for services. PMID:20498718

  1. Outcome of revascularization in moyamoya disease: Evaluation of a new angiographic scoring system

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Siddhartha Shankar; Suri, Ashish; Bansal, Sumit; Devarajan, S. Leve Joseph; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a chronic progressive cerebrovascular occlusive disease affecting commonly the anterior circle of Willis. Matushima grade inadequately reflects the angiographic changes postrevascularization procedure. Aims: To analyze the clinical and angiographic outcome of revascularization procedures (direct [ST-middle cerebral artery (MCA) anastomosis] and indirect [encephalo-duro-arterio-myo-synangiosis (EDAMS)]) in MMD and validate a new angiographic scoring system. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study included symptomatic patients of MMD who underwent revascularization; both indirect and combined methods between January 2002 and April 2012. Follow-up angiography was done after at least 3 months. We devised a novel scoring system the “angiographic outcome score” (AOS) including reformation of distal MCA and anterior cerebral artery, regression of basal moyamoya vessels, leptomeningeal collaterals and overall perfusion. AOS was applied to the angiograms independently by a neuroradiologist and a neurosurgeon that were blinded toward its preoperative or postoperative status. Results: Totally 33 patients underwent 36 EDAMS and 4 combined procedures (EDAMS + ST-MCA bypass). The mean follow-up was 20 months. None had recurrent transient ischemic attack or fresh infarct. Postoperative AOS was significantly higher than preoperative AOS. The Spearman rho showed positive correlation between Matushima grade and postoperative AOS. Significant regression of basal moyamoya vessels and increase in number of loci of transdural collaterals was seen. Conclusions: EDAMS is a simple yet effective method of revascularization in both pediatric as well as adult age groups. AOS is a simple, precise and easily reproducible scoring system, which reflects the favorable angiographic changes after revascularization. PMID:26425151

  2. The cape triage score: a new triage system South Africa. Proposal from the cape triage group

    PubMed Central

    Gottschalk, S B; Wood, D; DeVries, S; Wallis, L A; Bruijns, S

    2006-01-01

    The Cape Triage Group (CTG) convened with the intention of producing a triage system for the Western Cape, and eventually South Africa. The group includes in-hospital and prehospital staff from varied backgrounds. The CTG triage protocol is termed the Cape Triage Score (CTG), and has been developed by a multi-disciplinary panel, through best available evidence and expert opinion. The CTS has been validated in several studies, and was launched across the Western Cape on 1 January 2006. The CTG would value feedback from readers of this journal, as part of the ongoing monitoring and evaluation process. PMID:16439753

  3. Cooperative neural processes involved in stereoscopic acuity.

    PubMed

    Westheimer, G

    1979-08-01

    Results of psychophysical experiments are reported showing that synchrony, appropriate relative placement, and absence of standing disparity are important conditions to be met by members of a target configuration if they are to participate in the cooperative neural processes leading to the best disparity discrimination. Consecutive binocular presentation of the members of a stereo target decreases stereoacuity by a factor of about 10, and a step disparity displacement of a single line target needs to be larger still to be detected as a depth stimulus. A standing disaprity of even one minute of arc at least doubles the disaprity disxrimination threshold. It is postulated that a differencing mechanism operates on the depth signal of individual features; the temporal and spatial optima of target presentation for stereoscopic acuity outline the character of the concerned operations.

  4. Bayesian model of Snellen visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Nestares, Oscar; Navarro, Rafael; Antona, Beatriz

    2003-07-01

    A Bayesian model of Snellen visual acuity (VA) has been developed that, as far as we know, is the first one that includes the three main stages of VA: (1) optical degradations, (2) neural image representation and contrast thresholding, and (3) character recognition. The retinal image of a Snellen test chart is obtained from experimental wave-aberration data. Then a subband image decomposition with a set of visual channels tuned to different spatial frequencies and orientations is applied to the retinal image, as in standard computational models of early cortical image representation. A neural threshold is applied to the contrast responses to include the effect of the neural contrast sensitivity. The resulting image representation is the base of a Bayesian pattern-recognition method robust to the presence of optical aberrations. The model is applied to images containing sets of letter optotypes at different scales, and the number of correct answers is obtained at each scale; the final output is the decimal Snellen VA. The model has no free parameters to adjust. The main input data are the eye's optical aberrations, and standard values are used for all other parameters, including the Stiles-Crawford effect, visual channels, and neural contrast threshold, when no subject specific values are available. When aberrations are large, Snellen VA involving pattern recognition differs from grating acuity, which is based on a simpler detection (or orientation-discrimination) task and hence is basically unaffected by phase distortions introduced by the optical transfer function. A preliminary test of the model in one subject produced close agreement between actual measurements and predicted VA values. Two examples are also included: (1) application of the method to the prediction of the VAin refractive-surgery patients and (2) simulation of the VA attainable by correcting ocular aberrations.

  5. Koppitz scoring system as a measure of Bender-Gestalt performance in behaviorally and emotionally disturbed adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, S K; Simpson, R G

    1995-01-01

    Data are presented to assess the use of the Koppitz scoring system for the Bender-Gestalt Test in a sample (N = 87) of behaviorally and emotionally disturbed adolescents. Results suggested that age was modestly related to Koppitz Developmental scores, an indication that visual-motor skills continue to develop beyond age 11. Scores were related to spatial perception skills as measured on the WISC-R. Gender, primary psychiatric diagnosis, educational tests, and MMPI scores were not related to Bender performance. Findings are discussed in terms of a need for additional research into the utility of the Bender as a measure of visual-motor skills in adolescents.

  6. Consistency Test between Scoring Systems for Predicting Outcomes of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in a Saudi Population Treated with Imatinib

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Inconsistency in prognostic scores occurs where two different risk categories are applied to the same chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patient. This study evaluated common scoring systems for identifying risk groups based on patients' molecular responses to select the best prognostic score when conflict prognoses are obtained from patient profiles. We analyzed 104 patients diagnosed with CML and treated at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Saudi Arabia, who were monitored for major molecular response (achieving a BCR-ABL1 transcript level equal to or less than 0.1%) by Real-Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RQ-PCR), and their risk profiles were identified using Sokal, Hasford, EUTOS, and ELTS scores based on the patients' clinical and hematological parameters at diagnosis. Our results found that the Hasford score outperformed other scores in identifying risk categories for conflict groups, with an accuracy of 63%. PMID:28286862

  7. Expanded Koppitz Scoring System of the Bender Gestalt Visual-Motor Test for Adolescents: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolen, Larry M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined use of Bender Gestalt Visual-Motor Test with school-age adolescents over age 11. Mean error scores suggest that visual-motor development is not maturationally complete by age 11 years, 11 months. Suggests additional research focusing on extending normative sample or developing new scoring system for adolescents. (Author/NB)

  8. The Consistency between Human Raters and an Automated Essay Scoring System in Grading High School Students' English Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Min-hsiu

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the consistency between human raters and an automated essay scoring system in grading high school students' English compositions. A total of 923 essays from 23 classes of 12 senior high schools in Taiwan (Republic of China) were obtained and scored manually and electronically. The results show that the consistency between…

  9. Simple Scoring System and Artificial Neural Network for Knee Osteoarthritis Risk Prediction: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Tae Keun; Kim, Deok Won; Choi, Soo Beom; Oh, Ein; Park, Jee Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease of adults worldwide. Since the treatments for advanced radiographic knee OA are limited, clinicians face a significant challenge of identifying patients who are at high risk of OA in a timely and appropriate way. Therefore, we developed a simple self-assessment scoring system and an improved artificial neural network (ANN) model for knee OA. Methods The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES V-1) data were used to develop a scoring system and ANN for radiographic knee OA. A logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of the scoring system. The ANN was constructed using 1777 participants and validated internally on 888 participants in the KNHANES V-1. The predictors of the scoring system were selected as the inputs of the ANN. External validation was performed using 4731 participants in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). Area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic was calculated to compare the prediction models. Results The scoring system and ANN were built using the independent predictors including sex, age, body mass index, educational status, hypertension, moderate physical activity, and knee pain. In the internal validation, both scoring system and ANN predicted radiographic knee OA (AUC 0.73 versus 0.81, p<0.001) and symptomatic knee OA (AUC 0.88 versus 0.94, p<0.001) with good discriminative ability. In the external validation, both scoring system and ANN showed lower discriminative ability in predicting radiographic knee OA (AUC 0.62 versus 0.67, p<0.001) and symptomatic knee OA (AUC 0.70 versus 0.76, p<0.001). Conclusions The self-assessment scoring system may be useful for identifying the adults at high risk for knee OA. The performance of the scoring system is improved significantly by the ANN. We provided an ANN calculator to simply predict the knee OA risk. PMID:26859664

  10. Combination of European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) and Cardiac Surgery Score (CASUS) to Improve Outcome Prediction in Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Doerr, Fabian; Heldwein, Matthias B.; Bayer, Ole; Sabashnikov, Anton; Weymann, Alexander; Dohmen, Pascal M.; Wahlers, Thorsten; Hekmat, Khosro

    2015-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that the combination of a preoperative and a postoperative scoring system would improve the accuracy of mortality prediction and therefore combined the preoperative ‘additive EuroSCORE‘ (European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation) with the postoperative ‘additive CASUS’ (Cardiac Surgery Score) to form the ‘modified CASUS’. Material/Methods We included all consecutive adult patients after cardiac surgery during January 2007 and December 2010 in our prospective study. Our single-centre study was conducted in a German general referral university hospital. The original additive and the ‘modified CASUS’ were tested using calibration and discrimination statistics. We compared the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver characteristic curves (ROC) by DeLong’s method and calculated overall correct classification (OCC) values. Results The mean age among the total of 5207 patients was 67.2±10.9 years. Whilst the ICU mortality was 5.9% we observed a mean length of ICU stay of 4.6±7.0 days. Both models demonstrated excellent discriminatory power (mean AUC of ‘modified CASUS’: ≥0.929; ‘additive CASUS’: ≥0.920), with no significant differences according to DeLong. Neither model showed a significant p-value (<0.05) in calibration. We detected the best OCC during the 2nd day (modified: 96.5%; original: 96.6%). Conclusions Our ‘additive’ and ‘modified’ CASUS are reasonable overall predictors. We could not detect any improvement in the accuracy of mortality prediction in cardiac surgery by combining a preoperative and a postoperative scoring system. A separate calculation of the two individual elements is therefore recommended. PMID:26279053

  11. Intelligent query by humming system based on score level fusion of multiple classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyo Nam, Gi; Thu Trang Luong, Thi; Ha Nam, Hyun; Ryoung Park, Kang; Park, Sung-Joo

    2011-12-01

    Recently, the necessity for content-based music retrieval that can return results even if a user does not know information such as the title or singer has increased. Query-by-humming (QBH) systems have been introduced to address this need, as they allow the user to simply hum snatches of the tune to find the right song. Even though there have been many studies on QBH, few have combined multiple classifiers based on various fusion methods. Here we propose a new QBH system based on the score level fusion of multiple classifiers. This research is novel in the following three respects: three local classifiers [quantized binary (QB) code-based linear scaling (LS), pitch-based dynamic time warping (DTW), and LS] are employed; local maximum and minimum point-based LS and pitch distribution feature-based LS are used as global classifiers; and the combination of local and global classifiers based on the score level fusion by the PRODUCT rule is used to achieve enhanced matching accuracy. Experimental results with the 2006 MIREX QBSH and 2009 MIR-QBSH corpus databases show that the performance of the proposed method is better than that of single classifier and other fusion methods.

  12. A wireless-sensor scoring and training system for combative sports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partridge, Kane; Hayes, Jason P.; James, Daniel A.; Hill, Craig; Gin, Gareth; Hahn, Allan

    2005-02-01

    Although historically among the most popular of sports, today, combative sports are often viewed as an expression of our savage past. Of primary concern are the long term effects of participating in these sports on the health of participants. The scoring of such sports has also been the subject of much debate, with a panel of judges making decisions about very quick events involving large sums of prize money. This paper describes an electronic system for use primarily in the sport of boxing, though it is suitable for martial arts such as karate and taekwondo. The technology is based on a previously described sensor platform and integrates a network of sensors on the athlete"s head, body and hands. Using a Bluetooth network, physical contacts are monitored in near real-time or post event on a remote computer to determine legal hits and hence derivative measures like scoring and final outcomes. It is hoped that this system can be applied to reduce the need for full contact contests as well as provide a more reliable method of determining the outcome of a bout. Other benefits presented here include the ability to analyse an athlete's performance post match or training session, such as assessing the efficacy of training drills and effects of fatigue.

  13. Selection methodology with scoring system: application to Mexican plants producing podophyllotoxin related lignans.

    PubMed

    Lautié, E; Quintero, R; Fliniaux, M-A; Villarreal, M-L

    2008-12-08

    As most anticancer drugs are derived from natural sources, the screening of local medicinal flora should be considered a primary step in the search for new sources for antineoplastic agents. In Mexico, more than 6000 medicinal plant species are used for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. A multifactorial plant selection method, employing various criteria was designed and applied in order to select alternative sources of podophyllotoxin lignan analogues. For each criterion (chemotaxonomy, traditional medical uses and published scientific data), an arbitrary score system was ascribed to the species and the sum of these enabled us to compare potential candidates. The resulting selected plants were tested for cytotoxic activity and the compounds responsible for this activity were evaluated by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS). Around 50 species from the Mexican flora were initially considered. From these, six species were selected by referring to the results from the scoring system and these were then collected. Three extracts were evaluated as being highly cytotoxic against three different cancer cell lines. Finally, podophyllotoxin-like lignans could be identified by observing the fragmentation pattern on mass spectra, obtained from the LC-MS in two species: Linum scabrellum and Hyptis suaveolens.

  14. Performance assessment of the SOFA, APACHE II scoring system, and SAPS II in intensive care unit organophosphate poisoned patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Hwan; Yeo, Jung Hoon; Kang, Mun Ju; Lee, Jun Ho; Cho, Kwang Won; Hwang, SeongYoun; Hong, Chong Kun; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Yang Weon

    2013-12-01

    This study assessed the ability of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and Acute Physiology, Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scoring systems, as well as the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II method to predict group mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients who were poisoned with organophosphate. The medical records of 149 organophosphate poisoned patients admitted to the ICU from September 2006 to December 2012 were retrospectively examined. The SOFA, APACHE II, and SAPS II were calculated based on initial laboratory data in the Emergency Department, and during the first 24 hr of ICU admission. The probability of death was calculated for each patient based on the SOFA score, APACHE II score, and SAPS II equations. The ability to predict group mortality by the SOFA score, APACHE II score, and SAPS II method was assessed using two by two decision matrices and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. A total of 131 patients (mean age, 61 yr) were enrolled. The sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies were 86.2%, 82.4%, and 83.2% for the SOFA score, respectively; 65.5%, 68.6%, and 67.9% for the APACHE II scoring system, respectively; and 86.2%, 77.5%, and 79.4% for the SAPS II, respectively. The areas under the curve in the ROC curve analysis for the SOFA score, APACHE II scoring system, and SAPS II were 0.896, 0.716, and 0.852, respectively. In conclusion, the SOFA, APACHE II, and SAPS II have different capability to discriminate and estimate early in-hospital mortality of organophosphate poisoned patients. The SOFA score is more useful in predicting mortality, and easier and simpler than the APACHE II and SAPS II.

  15. Astronaut Frank Borman performing visual acuity tests in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut Frank Borman is seen performing visual acuity tests in space. Views include Borman looking at the camera as light shines through the capsule window (63712); Borman is using the visual acuity device and a portable mouth thermometer during his experiment (63713).

  16. Brief Report: Visual Acuity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Matthew A.; Stuart, Geoffrey W.; Falkmer, Marita; Ordqvist, Anna; Leung, Denise; Foster, Jonathan K.; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been heightened interest in suggestions of enhanced visual acuity in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) which was sparked by evidence that was later accepted to be methodologically flawed. However, a recent study that claimed children with ASD have enhanced visual acuity (Brosnan et al. in "J Autism Dev Disord"…

  17. 49 CFR 242.117 - Vision and hearing acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vision and hearing acuity. 242.117 Section 242.117... Requirements § 242.117 Vision and hearing acuity. (a) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with a program which... person's vision and hearing shall meet or exceed the standards prescribed in this section and Appendix...

  18. 49 CFR 242.117 - Vision and hearing acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vision and hearing acuity. 242.117 Section 242.117... Requirements § 242.117 Vision and hearing acuity. (a) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with a program which... person's vision and hearing shall meet or exceed the standards prescribed in this section and Appendix...

  19. 49 CFR 242.117 - Vision and hearing acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vision and hearing acuity. 242.117 Section 242.117... Requirements § 242.117 Vision and hearing acuity. (a) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with a program which... person's vision and hearing shall meet or exceed the standards prescribed in this section and Appendix...

  20. To examine the relationship between the Functional Movement Screen and the Landing Error Scoring System in an active collegiate population.

    PubMed

    Everard, E; Harrison, Aj; Lyons, M

    2016-07-25

    In recent years there has been an increasing focus on movement screening as the principal aspect of pre-participation testing. Two of the most common movement screening tools are the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS). Several studies have examined the reliability and validity of these tools but so far there have been no studies comparing the results of these two screening tools against each other. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Functional Movement Screen (FMS) scores and Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) scores. Ninety-eight male college athletes actively competing in sport (Gaelic games, soccer, athletics, boxing/mixed martial arts, Olympic weight lifting) participated in the study and performed the FMS and LESS screens. Both the 21 point and 100 point scoring systems were used to score the FMS. Spearman's correlation coefficients were used to determine the relationship between the two screening scores. The results showed a significant moderate correlation between FMS and LESS scores (rho 100 and 21 point = -.528; -.487; p< .001). In addition, r values of .26 and .23 indicate a poor shared variance between the two screens. The results indicate that performing well in one of the screens does not necessarily equate to performing well in the other. This has practical implications as it highlights that both screens may assess different movement patterns and should not be used as a substitute for each other.

  1. Body condition scoring system for greater one-horned rhino (Rhinoceros unicornis): Development and application.

    PubMed

    Heidegger, Eva M; von Houwald, Friederike; Steck, Beatrice; Clauss, Marcus

    2016-09-01

    Preventing obesity in zoo animals is increasingly recognized as an important husbandry objective. To achieve this goal, body condition scoring (BCS) systems are available for an ever-increasing number of species. Here, we present a BCS for the greater one-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) based on an evaluation (on a scale from 1 to 5) of seven different body regions, and report resulting scores for 62 animals from 27 facilities, based on digital photographs. In animals above 4 years of age, this BCS correlated with the body mass:shoulder height ratio. Although differences between the sexes for individual regions were noted (with consistently higher scores in males for the neck and shoulder and in parous females for the abdomen), the average BCS of all regions did not differ significantly between males (4.3 ± 0.4) and females (4.1 ± 0.5). Linking the BCS to results of a questionnaire survey and studbook information, there were no differences in BCS between animals with and without foot problems or between parous and non-parous females. In a very limited sample of 11 females, those eight that had been diagnosed with leiomyoma in a previous study had a higher BCS (range 3.9-4.9) than the three that had been diagnosed as leiomyoma-free (range 3.5-3.7). The BCS was correlated to the amount of food offered as estimated from the questionnaire. Adjusting the amounts and the nutritional quality of the diet components is an evident measure to maintain animals at a target BCS (suggested as 3-3.5). Zoo Biol. 35:432-443, 2016. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Risk scoring system to predict contrast induced nephropathy following percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Victor, Suma M.; Gnanaraj, Anand; S., VijayaKumar; Deshmukh, Rajendra; Kandasamy, Mani; Janakiraman, Ezhilan; Pandurangi, Ulhas M.; Latchumanadhas, K.; Abraham, Georgi; Mullasari, Ajit S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The aim of this study is to evaluate the collective probability of CIN in Indian population by developing a scoring system of several identified risk factors in patients undergoing PCI. Methods This is a prospective single center study of 1200 consecutive patients who underwent PCI from 2008 to 2011. Patients were randomized in 3:1 ratio into development (n = 900) and validation (n = 300) groups. CIN was defined as an increase of ≥25% and/or ≥0.5 mg/dl in serum creatinine at 48 hours after PCI when compared to baseline value. Seven independent predictors of CIN were identified using logistic regression analysis - amount of contrast, diabetes with microangiopathy, hypotension, peripheral vascular disease, albuminuria, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and anemia. A formula was then developed to identify the probability of CIN using the logistic regression equation. Results The mean (±SD) age was 57.3 (±10.2) years. 83.6% were males. The total incidence of CIN was 9.7% in the development group. The total risk of renal replacement therapy in the study group is 1.1%. Mortality is 0.5%. The risk scoring model correlated well in the validation group (incidence of CIN was 8.7%, sensitivity 92.3%, specificity 82.1%, c statistic 0.95). Conclusion A simple risk scoring equation can be employed to predict the probability of CIN following PCI, applying it to each individual. More vigilant preventive measures can be applied to the high risk candidates. PMID:25443605

  3. Sideline Performance of the Balance Error Scoring System during a Live Sporting Event

    PubMed Central

    Rahn, Carrie; Munkasy, Barry A.; Joyner, A. Barry; Buckley, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose was to examine the influence of a live sporting sideline environment on balance error scoring system (BESS) performance. Design Prospective longitudinal cohort study. Setting The BESS was performed by all participants at three locations; 1) quiet laboratory, 2) football stadium sidelines, 3) basketball arena sidelines. Participants The experimental group had 38 participants (age: 20.1±1.1 years; height: 170.0±7.7 cm; mass: 66.7±9.5 kg) who were female intercollegiate student-athletes (SA). The control group consisted of 38 recreationally active female college students (age: 20.8±1.1 years; height: 162.6±6.0 cm; mass: 63.7±10.6 kg). Interventions The two groups performed the tests at the same locations, the SA group during live sporting events and the control group when no event was occurring. Main Outcome Measures The dependent variable was the total BESS score. Separate 2 × 3 mixed methods ANOVAs investigated the influence of the environment and practice effect. Results There was a significant interaction for group by environment (P=0.004) and the SA group committed more errors at both the football and basketball settings than the control group. The SA group also committed more errors at football (P=0.028) than baseline. The control group demonstrated a likely practice effect with fewer errors during each administration. Conclusions BESS score deteriorated when performed on the sidelines of a live sporting event potentially challenging the clinical utility of the BESS. Clinicians need to consider the role of the local environment when performing the BESS test and should perform post-injury tests in the same environment as the baseline test. Clinical Relevance When performing balance testing of patients with suspected concussions, clinicians need to consider the environment in which the test is performed and attempt to match the pre-season testing environment. PMID:25098674

  4. Development of a scoring system using a statistical model to predict cure status in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Khoshhali, Mehri; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Jaffary, Fariba; Baghbaderani, Azadeh Zolfaghari

    2017-01-01

    Background: The present study was performed to develop a scoring system for predicting cure status in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Materials and Methods: This study included 199 patients with CL from Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Center (Isfahan, Iran). Data were collected as longitudinal in each visit of patients. We applied ordinal logistic generalized estimating equation regression to predict score on this correlated data. To evaluate the fitted model, split sample validation method was applied. SPSS software was used for data analysis. Results: The regression coefficients of the fitted model were used to calculate score for cure status. Based on split-sample validation method, overall correct classification rate was 82%. Conclusion: This study suggested a scoring system predict cure status in CL patients based on clinical characteristics. Using this method, score for a CL patient is easily obtained by physicians or health workers.

  5. On using Vernier acuity to assess magnocellular sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Skottun, Bernt C; Skoyles, John R

    2010-03-01

    A recent study [Keri, S., & Benedek, G. (2009). Visual pathway deficit in female fragile x premutation carriers: A potential endophenotype. Brain and Cognition, 69, 291-295] has found Vernier acuity deficiencies together with contrast sensitivity defects consistent with a magnocellular deficit in female fragile x premutation carriers. This may appear to support the notion that Vernier acuity may serve as a test of magnocellular sensitivity. However, Vernier acuity deficiencies have been reported in other conditions (e.g., schizophrenia, amblyopia and cortical visual impairment) where there is little evidence for magnocellular deficits. The observation that Vernier acuity deficiencies can occur without magnocellular deficits indicates that Vernier acuity is not a reliable test of magnocellular sensitivity.

  6. Improvement of tactile roughness discrimination acuity correlates with perception of improved hand function in patients after hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Shuhei; Kon, Noriko

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to elucidate how well patients' perceptions related to the improvements in their hand function during hospitalization. [Subjects] Sixteen patients who were hospitalized after hand surgery. [Methods] Using the Japanese Society for Surgery of the Hand edition of the Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire; tactile roughness discrimination acuity, motor imagery, motor function, sensory function, and pain of the upper limb were assessed at admission and discharge. Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficients were calculated using the differences in all assessment items at admission and discharge. A multiple regression analysis (stepwise method) was performed to investigate factors that correlated with improvements in Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores. [Results] The improvement of tactile roughness discrimination acuity was significantly associated with patient perception of improved hand function. [Conclusion] The results suggest that an improvement in tactile roughness discrimination acuity was most strongly correlated with patient perception of improved hand function.

  7. 76 FR 63640 - Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Proposed Physical Condition Interim Scoring Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ...This notice provides additional information to public housing agencies (PHAs) and members of the public about HUD's process for issuing scores under the Physical Condition Indicator of the PHAS under the PHAS Physical Condition Scoring Process notice published on February 23, 2011. This notice provides information to the public about the implementation of a point loss cap in the scoring......

  8. Clinical scoring systems in predicting health-related quality of life of children with injuries.

    PubMed

    Mestrović, Julije; Mestrović, Marija; Polić, Branka; Markić, Josko; Kardum, Goran; Gunjaca, Grgo; Matas, Anita; Catipović, Tatjana; Radonić, Marija

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the association between Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Paediatric Index of Mortality (PIM2) and Injury Severity Score (ISS), and the long-term outcome of children with injuries. The health related quality of life (HRQL) was assessed by using the Royal Alexandra Hospital for children Measure of Function (RAHC MOF), 12 months post discharge. Out of 118 children with injuries (9% of all patients), 75 had injury of the head as the leading injury. There were no significant differences at admission in the severity of clinical condition, as expressed by PIM2 and ISS, between patients with head injuries and patients with other injured leading body regions. Children with head injuries had significantly worse HRQOL than children with other leading injured body region (p < 0.045), and children from road traffic accidents had significantly worse HRQL (p = 0.004), compared to other mechanisms of injury. HRQL correlated significantly with GCS (p = 0.027), but not with ISS and PIM2. As the conclusion, among all scoring systems applied, only GCS, which demonstrates severity of head injury, showed significant impact on long-term outcome of injured children.

  9. Critical evaluation of mangled extremity severity scoring system in Indian patients.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sansar; Devgan, Ashish; Marya, K M; Rathee, Nitesh

    2003-07-01

    Amputation of a mangled extremity is repugnant to the patient and the surgeon. However, prolonged unsuccessful attempts at salvage are costly, highly morbid and sometimes lethal. Much discussion has taken place regarding which criteria predict successful salvage, and predictive indices have been proposed in an attempt to identify limbs for which attempted salvage is unlikely to succeed. The mangled extremity severity score, or MESS system is the most thoroughly validated of the various classification systems, but at present there is no predictive scale that can be used with confidence to determine whether to amputate or attempt to salvage a mangled lower extremity. MESS system based on four significant criteria (with increasing points with worsening prognosis) i.e. skeletal injury, limb ischaemia, shock and patient age, has become a standard method to determine which one of the mangled extremities will eventually undergo amputation or salvage. Keeping in view the paucity of studies on Indian patients, a prospective trial of MESS was done in 50 patients who had 56 mangled extremities during the last 3 years. A significant difference between the MESS value of salvaged limbs (4.7) and amputated limbs (8.6) was found. MESS value of more than 7 was most specific and was found to have a positive predictive value of 100%. The results have been compared with Western literature and authors suggest that nerve injuries and irreparable soft tissue loss should be given an extra point each. In bilateral cases, the MESS value of each limb should be properly assessed (especially when patient is in shock), as the score may increase because of the other injured limb.

  10. Species Differences in the Geometry of the Anterior Segment Differentially Affect Anterior Chamber Cell Scoring Systems in Laboratory Animals

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, J. Seth; Timberlake, Matthew J.; Miller, Paul E.; Matsumoto, Steven; Murphy, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To determine the impact of anterior segment geometry on ocular scoring systems quantifying anterior chamber (AC) cells in humans and 7 common laboratory species. Methods: Using normative anterior segment dimensions and novel geometric formulae, ocular section volumes measured by 3 scoring systems; Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature (SUN), Ocular Services On Demand (OSOD), and OSOD–modified SUN were calculated for each species, respectively. Calculated volumes were applied to each system's AC cell scoring scheme to determine comparative cell density (cells/mm3). Cell density values for all laboratory species were normalized to human values and conversion factors derived to create modified scoring schemes, facilitating interspecies comparison with each system, respectively. Results: Differences in anterior segment geometry resulted in marked differences in optical section volume measured. Volumes were smaller in rodents than dogs and cats, but represented a comparatively larger percentage of AC volume. AC cell density (cells/mm3) varied between species. Using the SUN and OSOD–modified SUN systems, values in the pig, dog, and cat underestimated human values; values in rodents overestimated human values. Modified normalized scoring systems presented here account for species-related anterior segment geometry and facilitate both intra- and interspecies analysis, as well as translational comparison. Conclusions: Employment of modified AC cell scoring systems that account for species-specific differences in anterior segment anatomy would harmonize findings across species and may be more predictive for determining ocular toxicological consequences in ocular drug and device development programs. PMID:26539819

  11. Evaluating the Pediatric Early Warning Score (PEWS) System for Admitted Patients in the Pediatric Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Delia L.; Mihalov, Leslie K.; Cohen, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The Pediatric Early Warning Score (PEWS) systems were developed to provide a reproducible assessment of a child’s clinical status while hospitalized. Most studies investigating the PEWS evaluate its usefulness in the inpatient setting. Limited studies evaluate the effectiveness and integration of PEWS in the pediatric emergency department (ED). The goal of this study was to explore the test characteristics of an ED-assigned PEWS score for intensive care unit (ICU) admission or clinical deterioration in admitted patients. Methods This was a prospective 12-month observational study of patients, aged 0 to 21 years, admitted from the ED of an urban, tertiary care children’s hospital. ED nurses were instructed in PEWS assignment and electronic medical record (EMR) documentation. Interrater reliability between nurses was evaluated. PEWS scores were measured at initial assessment (P0) and time of admission (P1). Patients were stratified into outcome groups: those admitted to the ICU either from the ED or as transfers from the floor and those admitted to the floor only. Clinical deterioration was defined as transfer to the ICU within 6 hours or within 6 to 24 hours of admission. PEWS scores and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were compared for patients admitted to the floor, ICU, and with clinical deterioration. Results The authors evaluated 12,306 consecutively admitted patients, with 99% having a PEWS documented in the EMR. Interrater reliability was excellent (intraclass coefficient 0.91). A total of 1,300 (10.6%) patients were admitted to the ICU and 11,066 (89.4%) were admitted to the floor. PEWS scores were higher for patients in the ICU group (P0 = 2.8, SD ± 2.4; P1 = 3.2, SD ± 2.4; p < 0.0001) versus floor patients (P0 = 0.7, SD ± 1.2; P1 = 0.5, SD ± 0.9; p < 0.0001). To predict the need for ICU admission, the optimal cutoff points on the ROC are P0 = 1 and P1 = 2, with areas under the ROC curve (AUCs) of 0.79 and 0

  12. Contrast-sensitivity loss in a group of former microelectronics workers with normal visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Frenette, B; Mergler, D; Bowler, R

    1991-07-01

    The measurement of contrast sensitivity at varying grating frequencies is used increasingly to study visual and neural disorders. It provides more information than conventional acuity measures. Refractive errors initially affect high spatial frequencies, whereas lower spatial frequencies are affected only when these errors are pronounced. Neurophysiological alterations are reflected by depressed sensitivity to coarse gratings. Visual dysfunction has been associated with workplace exposures to a wide range of organic solvents. In microelectronics assembly where large quantities of organic solvents are used in many aspects of the work processes, visual deficits have been observed. The objective of the present study was to compare contrast sensitivity among former microelectronics assembly workers, with normal far and near visual acuity, and a reference group from the same region, with similar acuity. No significant differences were observed between scores at the two ends of the contrast sensitivity curves; however, at the intermediate spatial frequencies, the former microelectronics workers' scores were significantly lower (Student's t-test; p less than 0.05). For the microelectronics workers, no relation was observed between age and contrast sensitivity at any spatial frequency, whereas for the reference group, contrast sensitivity scores were progressively lower with age at spatial frequencies greater than or equal to 6.0 cpd (r2 = 0.15 at 6 cpd to r2 = 0.45 at 18.0 cpd), suggesting that for the former there is some form of interference with the expected contrast sensitivity loss with age. Lower contrast sensitivity scores in intermediate spatial frequencies, observed among the former microelectronics workers, possibly reflect neural alterations, which may have resulted from exposure to neurotoxic substances. These findings suggest the need for further studies on visual functions in microelectronics workers.

  13. Establishment and Validation of GV-SAPS II Scoring System for Non-Diabetic Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen-Yue; Lin, Shi-Gang; Zhu, Gui-Qi; Poucke, Sven Van; Braddock, Martin; Zhang, Zhongheng; Mao, Zhi; Shen, Fei-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Recently, glucose variability (GV) has been reported as an independent risk factor for mortality in non-diabetic critically ill patients. However, GV is not incorporated in any severity scoring system for critically ill patients currently. The aim of this study was to establish and validate a modified Simplified Acute Physiology Score II scoring system (SAPS II), integrated with GV parameters and named GV-SAPS II, specifically for non-diabetic critically ill patients to predict short-term and long-term mortality. Methods Training and validation cohorts were exacted from the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care database III version 1.3 (MIMIC-III v1.3). The GV-SAPS II score was constructed by Cox proportional hazard regression analysis and compared with the original SAPS II, Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment Score (SOFA) and Elixhauser scoring systems using area under the curve of the receiver operator characteristic (auROC) curve. Results 4,895 and 5,048 eligible individuals were included in the training and validation cohorts, respectively. The GV-SAPS II score was established with four independent risk factors, including hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, standard deviation of blood glucose levels (GluSD), and SAPS II score. In the validation cohort, the auROC values of the new scoring system were 0.824 (95% CI: 0.813–0.834, P< 0.001) and 0.738 (95% CI: 0.725–0.750, P< 0.001), respectively for 30 days and 9 months, which were significantly higher than other models used in our study (all P < 0.001). Moreover, Kaplan-Meier plots demonstrated significantly worse outcomes in higher GV-SAPS II score groups both for 30-day and 9-month mortality endpoints (all P< 0.001). Conclusions We established and validated a modified prognostic scoring system that integrated glucose variability for non-diabetic critically ill patients, named GV-SAPS II. It demonstrated a superior prognostic capability and may be an optimal scoring system

  14. Apgar Scores

    MedlinePlus

    ... because she is blue and not pink. Most newborn infants have Apgar scores greater than 7. Because their ... between 8 and 10. A small percentage of newborns have Apgar scores of less than ... low scores than infants with normal births. These scores may reflect difficulties ...

  15. RETENTION OF HIGH TACTILE ACUITY THROUGHOUT THE LIFESPAN IN BLINDNESS

    PubMed Central

    Legge, Gordon E.; Madison, Cindee; Vaughn, Brenna N.; Cheong, Allen M.Y.; Miller, Joseph C.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies of tactile acuity on the fingertip using passive touch have demonstrated an age-related decline in spatial resolution for both sighted and blind subjects. We have re-examined this age dependence with two newly designed tactile-acuity charts requiring active exploration of the test symbols. One chart used dot patterns similar to Braille and the other used embossed Landolt rings. Groups of blind Braille readers and sighted subjects, ranging in age from 12 to 85 years, were tested in two experiments. We replicated previous findings for sighted subjects by showing an age related decrease in tactile acuity by nearly 1% per year. Surprisingly, the blind subjects retained high acuity into old age showing no age-related decline. For the blind subjects, tactile acuity did not correlate with braille reading speed, the amount of daily reading, or the age at which braille was learned. We conclude that when measured with active touch, blind subjects retain high tactile acuity into old age, unlike their aging sighted peers. We propose that blind people's use of active touch in daily activities, not specifically Braille reading, results in preservation of tactile acuity across the lifespan. PMID:19064491

  16. [Value of clinical scoring systems for evaluation of injury severity and as an instrument for quality management of severely injured patients].

    PubMed

    Bouillon, B; Neugebauer, E; Rixen, D; Lefering, R; Tiling, T

    1996-01-01

    Trauma Score Systems attempt to summarize the severity of injury in a single value. They provide a better classification of trauma patients and translate different severities of injury in a common language. They enable thereby comparisons between hospitals or trauma systems. Young doctors can control their clinical judgement with scoring systems and will gain experience. Scoring systems therefore increase safety and can help in decision making. As accuracy of scoring systems is never 100% individual decisions can never rely on scores only. Glasgow Coma Scale, Revised Trauma Score, Injury Severity Score and TRISS are the most often used international scores for severely injured patients. Their sensitivity and specificity, validity, reliability and practicability have been studied and proved in many trials. The role of these scoring systems for quality management purposes in the treatment of severe trauma is actually studied with the Trauma Registry of the German Society for Trauma Surgery.

  17. Proposing Melasma Severity Index: A New, More Practical, Office-based Scoring System for Assessing the Severity of Melasma

    PubMed Central

    Majid, Imran; Haq, Inaamul; Imran, Saher; Keen, Abid; Aziz, Khalid; Arif, Tasleem

    2016-01-01

    Background: Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI), the scoring system in melasma, needs to be refined. Aims and Objectives: To propose a more practical scoring system, named as Melasma Severity Index (MSI), for assessing the disease severity and treatment response in melasma. Materials and Methods: Four dermatologists were trained to calculate MASI and also the proposed MSI scores. For MSI, the formula used was 0.4 (a × p2) l + 0.4 (a × p2) r + 0.2 (a × p2) n where “a” stands for area, “p” for pigmentation, “l” for left face, “r” for right face, and “n” for nose. On a single day, 30 enrolled patients were randomly examined by each trained dermatologist and their MASI and MSI scores were calculated. Next, each rater re-examined every 6th patient for repeat MASI and MSI scoring to assess intra- and inter-rater reliability of MASI and MSI scores. Validity was assessed by comparing the individual scores of each rater with objective data from mexameter and ImageJ software. Results: Inter-rater reliability, as assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient, was significantly higher for MSI (0.955) as compared to MASI (0.816). Correlation of scores with objective data by Spearman's correlation revealed higher rho values for MSI than for MASI for all raters. Limitations: Sample population belonged to a single ethnic group. Conclusions: MSI is simpler and more practical scoring system for melasma. PMID:26955093

  18. APACHE II scoring system on a general intensive care unit: audit of daily APACHE II scores and 6-month survival of 691 patients admitted to a general intensive care unit between May 1990 and December 1991.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, N N; Tooley, M A; Willatts, S M

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the use of the APACHE II (acute physiological and chronic health evaluation) scoring system on all of the patients admitted to the general intensive care unit at the Bristol Royal Infirmary over a 20-month period. The 6-month survival of 691 adult medical and surgical patients following intensive care was recorded and this data was analysed with admission and daily APACHE II scores using a relational database. Our data confirms the relationship between admission APACHE II scores and outcome, with mean scores decreasing as duration of survival increases. We also demonstrate that the best day one scores are approximately 50% less than the admission score, irrespective of outcome, indicating the benefit of intensive care. By contrast, however, the scores on day one have either not improved or have worsened since admission, reflecting the importance of the pre-morbid health status of the patient in determining outcome from intensive care. PMID:8196033

  19. Stratifying patients with haematuria into high or low risk groups for bladder cancer: a novel clinical scoring system.

    PubMed

    Hee, Tan Guan; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Ann, Ho Sue; Hemdan, Siti Nurhafizah; Shen, Lim Chun; Al-Fahmi Abdul Galib, Nurudin; Singam, Praveen; Chee Kong, Christopher Ho; Hong, Goh Eng; Bahadzor, Badrulhisham; Zainuddin, Zulkifli Md

    2013-01-01

    Haematuria is a common presentation of bladder cancer and requires a full urologic evaluation. This study aimed to develop a scoring system capable of stratifying patients with haematuria into high or low risk groups for having bladder cancer to help clinicians decide which patients need more urgent assessment. This cross- sectional study included all adult patients referred for haematuria and subsequently undergoing full urological evaluation in the years 2001 to 2011. Risk factors with strong association with bladder cancer in the study population were used to design the scoring system. Accuracy was determined by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. A total of 325 patients with haematuria were included, out of which 70 (21.5%) were diagnosed to have bladder cancer. Significant risk factors associated with bladder cancer were male gender, a history of cigarette smoking and the presence of gross haematuria. A scoring system using 4 clinical parameters as variables was created. The scores ranged between 6 to 14, and a score of 10 and above indicated high risk for having bladder cancer. It was found to have good accuracy with an area under the ROC curve of 80.4%, while the sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% and 55.7%, respectively. The scoring system designed in this study has the potential to help clinicians stratify patients who present with haematuria into high or low risk for having bladder cancer. This will enable high-risk patients to undergo urologic assessment earlier.

  20. A comparison of visual acuity, predictability, and visual function outcomes after intracorneal ring segments and laser in situ keratomileusis.

    PubMed Central

    Suiter, B G; Twa, M D; Ruckhofer, J; Schanzlin, D J

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare correction of low myopia by intrastromal corneal ring segments (ICRS) and by laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with respect to early visual recovery and refractive outcomes. METHODS: Eighty-two eyes implanted with ICRS in a phase III study for US Food and Drug Administration review were matched with 133 eyes treated with LASIK by criteria of age (> 18 years, < 65 years), preoperative myopia (-1.00 to -3.50 diopters [D]), astigmatism (< or = 1.00 D), single treatment, and attempted full correction. Examinations were performed preoperatively and postoperatively at days 1 and 7 and months 1 and 3. Visual acuity and manifest refraction data were collected retrospectively. Visual function scores were assigned, and summarized results were compared. RESULTS: Uncorrected visual acuity was 20/20 or better at day 1 in 24% of eyes (20/82) after ICRS and in 55% of eyes (73/133) after LASIK, and at month 3 in 75% of eyes (58/77) after ICRS and in 67% of eyes (84/126) after LASIK. Spherical equivalent refraction at month 3 was within +/- 1.00 D of intended correction in 99% of eyes (76/77) after ICRS and in 96% of eyes (121/126) after LASIK. Excellent visual function scores were noted at month 3 in 90% of eyes (69/77) after ICRS and in 78% of eyes (98/126) after LASIK. CONCLUSION: Patients treated with LASIK showed better uncorrected visual acuity immediately following surgery; however, beyond 1 month, patients treated with ICRS achieved better uncorrected visual acuity that continued to improve with time. Visual function scores indicate that ICRS eyes see at higher levels of uncorrected visual acuity than LASIK eyes do with the same refractive error. The ICRS and LASIK were comparable in the correction of mild myopia. PMID:11190040

  1. A meta-analysis-derived proposal for a clinical, ultrasonographic, and cytological scoring system to evaluate thyroid nodules: the "CUT" score.

    PubMed

    Ianni, Francesca; Campanella, Paolo; Rota, Carlo Antonio; Prete, Alessandro; Castellino, Laura; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Corsello, Salvatore Maria

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a new cancer risk score for preoperative assessment of thyroid nodules (TN) trying to reduce unnecessary thyroidectomies. On the basis of a recent meta-analysis of published literature, we assigned a matching value to the clinical (C) and ultrasonographic (U) features of TN with increased malignancy risk (MR). The created "CUT" score derived from "C+U" score, (CU[1-10] ), along with the five-tiered "T" (T[1-5] ), represents the cytologic result of the fine-needle aspiration. The C+U score was prospectively applied to 683 consecutive patients with 705 TN and validated through a ROC curve analysis. The CUT score was correlated with the histopathological diagnoses of 110 surgically resected TN. Fifty-five histologically benign TN had a mean C+U score of 2.4 versus 5.7 of 55 malignant TN (p < 0.001). Three categories were identified: low risk for C+U score ≤2.5 (MR: 9 %), intermediate risk for C+U score ≥2.75 and ≤5 (MR: 38 %), and high risk for C+U score ≥5.25 (MR: 95 %). Sensitivity and specificity were, respectively, 95 and 60 % for a cut-off value >2.5, and 69 and 96 % for >5. The "CUT" score can be easily applied, aiding clinicians in the evaluation of TN, especially in cases with indeterminate or repeated non-diagnostic FNA.

  2. Manual aiming in healthy aging: does proprioceptive acuity make the difference?

    PubMed

    Helsen, Werner F; Van Halewyck, Florian; Levin, Oron; Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Lavrysen, Ann; Elliott, Digby

    2016-04-01

    The present study examines whether non-active older adults are more dependent on visual information when executing aiming movements and whether age-related declines in proprioception play a mediating role herein. Young (N = 40) and older adults (N = 38) were divided into physically active and non-active subgroups based on self-reported sports participation levels. In experiment 1, participants executed wrist-aiming movements with and without visual feedback. In experiment 2, passive proprioceptive acuity was assessed using wrist motion detection and position matching tests. Results showed similar aiming accuracy across age groups both with and without visual feedback, but older adults exhibited longer movement times, prolonged homing-in phase, and made more corrective submovements. Passive proprioceptive acuity was significantly affected by physical activity level and age, with participants in the active group scoring better than their non-active peers. However, these declines did not predict performance changes on the aiming task. Taken together, our observations suggest that decline in proprioceptive acuity did not predict performance changes on the aiming task and older adults were able to compensate for their decreased motion and position sense when allowed sufficient time. In line with these observations, we proposed that older adults are able to compensate for their decline in proprioception by increasing their reliance on predictive models.

  3. Development and Initial Psychometric Evaluation of the Post-Acute Acuity Rating for Children

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Jane E.; Dumas, Helene M.

    2015-01-01

    The Post-Acute Acuity Rating for Children (PAARC) is the first known acuity rating intended to reflect medical severity based on age, reason for admission, diagnoses, dependence in activities of daily living, and technology reliance for children admitted to post-acute care rehabilitation hospitals. Content validity was tested using an expert panel scoring the Content Validity Index (CVI). Concurrent validity was examined using clinician's opinion of acuity at admission, the Complexity Index, and All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Group (APR-DRG) codes. Predictive validity was examined with acute care readmission within 30 days. Interrater reliability was assessed using admission histories from closed cases. Content validity was established and concurrent validity was moderate to high with clinician opinion (rho = .76, p < .001), the Complexity Index (rho = .76, p < .001), and APR-DRGs (rho = .349, p = .001). Predictive validity was moderate (rho = .504, p = .005) and returns to acute care within 30 days. Interrater reliability was excellent (ICC = 0.97; 95% CI = 0.92–0.90, p < .001). Experts agreed that the PAARC's content is relevant, simple, and representative of the population. The PAARC measured well against indicators of medical complexity for pediatric outpatient care and medical record coding and was reliable between raters. This work supports proceeding with additional development and validity testing of the PAARC. PMID:26609433

  4. The sugar scoring system for the Bender-Gestalt test: an objective approach that reflects clinical judgment.

    PubMed

    Parsons, L; Weinberg, S L

    1993-12-01

    Although several objective scoring systems have been developed for use with the abbreviated form of the Bender-Gestalt test of visuomotor development (Figures A, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8), each has been criticized as being inadequate in some way or other. This paper reviews the inadequacies of these systems as described in the literature and presents the results of a small study designed to investigate the psychometric properties of a new objective scoring system, recently proposed by Sugar, which incorporates both quantitative and qualitative perspectives. The new system is shown to be psychometrically sound in validity and reliability. Additional advantages are described. The new system is recommended as a good, if not better, alternative to other, existing methods for scoring the Bender-Gestalt test.

  5. Development and validation of a visual body condition scoring system for dairy goats with picture-based training.

    PubMed

    Vieira, A; Brandão, S; Monteiro, A; Ajuda, I; Stilwell, G

    2015-09-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) is the most widely used method to assess changes in body fat reserves, which reflects its high potential to be included in on-farm welfare assessment protocols. Currently used scoring systems in dairy goats require animal restraint for body palpation. In this study, the Animal Welfare Indicators project (AWIN) proposes to overcome this constraint by developing a scoring system based only on visual assessment. The AWIN visual body condition scoring system highlights representative animals from 3 categories: very thin, normal, and very fat, and was built from data sets with photographs of animals scored by a commonly used 6-point scoring system that requires palpation in 2 anatomical regions. Development of the AWIN scoring system required 3 steps: (1) identification and validation of a body region of interest; (2) sketching the region from photographs; and (3) creation of training material. The scoring system's reliability was statistically confirmed. An initial study identified features in the rump region from which we could compute a set of body measurements (i.e., measures based on anatomical references of the rump region) that showed a strong correlation with the assigned BCS. To validate the result, we collected a final data set from 171 goats. To account for variability in animal size and camera position, we mapped a subset of features to a standard template and aligned all the rump images before computing the body measurements. Scientific illustrations were created from the aligned images of animals identified as representative of each category to increase clarity and reproducibility. For training material, we created sketches representing the threshold between consecutive categories. Finally, we conducted 2 field reliability studies. In the first test, no training was given to 4 observers, whereas in the second, training using the threshold images was delivered to the same observers. In the first experiment, interobserver results

  6. Monitoring of Human Uterus Transplantation With Cervical Biopsies: A Provisional Scoring System for Rejection.

    PubMed

    Mölne, J; Broecker, V; Ekberg, J; Nilsson, O; Dahm-Kähler, P; Brännström, M

    2016-11-21

    Until now, absolute uterine factor infertility has been the major untreatable form of female infertility. Uterus transplantation has recently proven to be the first successful treatment for absolute uterine factor infertility, with demonstration of live births. In this study, live donation uterus transplantation was performed in nine women. In total, 163 cervical biopsies (149 protocol, 14 follow-up) were taken to detect histopathological signs of rejection. Based on experience from animal experiments, we used a three-grade scoring system to evaluate biopsies systematically. Nine episodes of rejection were diagnosed in five patients: grade 1 in six episodes, grade 2 in two episodes, and grade 3 in one episode. Treatment decisions were based on histopathology, and all rejection episodes were reversed after treatment. The biopsies were reviewed retrospectively, and immunohistochemistry was performed to characterize the inflammatory infiltrates. A borderline category was introduced to avoid overtreatment of patients. Based on our review of all biopsies, we put forward a simple grading system for monitoring of rejection and to guide immunosuppressive treatment in uterus transplantation.

  7. Ankle proprioceptive acuity is associated with objective as well as self-report measures of balance, mobility, and physical function.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Nandini; Simonsick, Eleanor; Metter, E Jeffrey; Ko, Seunguk; Ferrucci, Luigi; Studenski, Stephanie

    2016-06-01

    Ankle proprioceptive information is integrated by the central nervous system to generate and modulate muscle contractions for maintaining standing balance. This study evaluated the association of ankle joint proprioception with objective and self-report measures of balance, mobility, and physical function across the adult life span. Seven hundred and ninety participants (age range 24-97 years, 362 women) who completed ankle proprioception assessment between 2010 and 2014 were included in the present study from the population-based cohort of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), USA. Outcome measures included ankle joint proprioception measured as threshold for perception of passive movement (TPPM); single leg stance time; perceived difficulty for standing balance; usual, fastest, and narrow-path gait speed; walking index; short physical performance battery score; and self-reported activity restriction due to fear of falling. Descriptive variables included age, sex, body mass index, education, strength, and cognition. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) in general linear model (GLM) or multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed, as appropriate, to test the hypothesis that balance, mobility, and physical function were significantly different according to TPPM quintiles even after adjusting for relevant covariates. Those with TPPM >2.2° consistently demonstrated poor balance, mobility, and physical function. However, with increase in challenge (single leg stance, fastest walking speed, and SPPB), TPPM >1.4° was associated with significantly worse performance. In conclusion, ankle proprioceptive acuity has an overall graded relationship with objective and self-report measures of balance, mobility, and physical function. However, the cutoff proprioceptive acuity associated with substantial decline or inability to perform could depend on the challenge induced.

  8. 77 FR 47707 - Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Physical Condition Scoring Notice and Revised Dictionary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ...This notice provides additional information to public housing agencies (PHAs) and members of the public about HUD's process for issuing scores under the Physical Condition Indicator of the PHAS under the PHAS Physical Condition Scoring Process notice published on February 23, 2011. In addition, this notice makes changes to the Dictionary of Deficiency Definitions (Dictionary). This notice......

  9. 76 FR 10053 - Changes to the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Capital Fund Scoring Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... public about HUD's process for issuing scores under the Capital Fund program indicator of the Public... notice is to provide information about the scoring process for PHAS indicator 4, Capital Fund program... the 1937 Act (42 U.S.C. 1437g(d)(2)) do not include HOPE VI program funds. This indicator is...

  10. 'Score to Door Time', a benchmarking tool for rapid response systems: a pilot multi-centre service evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Rapid Response Systems were created to minimise delays in recognition and treatment of deteriorating patients on general wards. Physiological 'track and trigger' systems are used to alert a team with critical care skills to stabilise patients and expedite admission to intensive care units. No benchmarking tool exists to facilitate comparison for quality assurance. This study was designed to create and test a tool to analyse the efficiency of intensive care admission processes. Methods We conducted a pilot multicentre service evaluation of patients admitted to 17 intensive care units from the United Kingdom, Ireland, Denmark, United States of America and Australia. Physiological abnormalities were recorded via a standardised track and trigger score (VitalPAC™ Early Warning Score). The period between the time of initial physiological abnormality (Score) and admission to intensive care (Door) was recorded as 'Score to Door Time'. Participants subsequently suggested causes for admission delays. Results Score to Door Time for 177 admissions was a median of 4:10 hours (interquartile range (IQR) 1:49 to 9:10). Time from physiological trigger to activation of a Rapid Response System was a median 0:47 hours (IQR 0:00 to 2:15). Time from call-out to intensive care admission was a median of 2:45 hours (IQR 1:19 to 6:32). A total of 127 (71%) admissions were deemed to have been delayed. Stepwise linear regression analysis yielded three significant predictors of longer Score to Door Time: being treated in a British centre, higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score and increasing age. Binary regression analysis demonstrated a significant association (P < 0.045) of APACHE II scores >20 with Score to Door Times greater than the median 4:10 hours. Conclusions Score to Door Time seemed to be largely independent of illness severity and, when combined with qualitative feedback from centres, suggests that admission delays could be due to

  11. Scoring system for renal pathology in Fabry disease: report of the International Study Group of Fabry Nephropathy (ISGFN)

    PubMed Central

    Fogo, Agnes B.; Bostad, Leif; Svarstad, Einar; Cook, William J.; Moll, Solange; Barbey, Federic; Geldenhuys, Laurette; West, Michael; Ferluga, Dusan; Vujkovac, Bojan; Howie, Alexander J.; Burns, Áine; Reeve, Roy; Waldek, Stephen; Noël, Laure-Hélène; Grünfeld, Jean-Pierre; Valbuena, Carmen; Oliveira, João Paulo; Müller, Justus; Breunig, Frank; Zhang, Xiao; Warnock, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Background. In Fabry nephropathy, alpha-galactosidase deficiency leads to accumulation of glycosphingolipids in all kidney cell types, proteinuria and progressive loss of kidney function. Methods. An international working group of nephrologists from 11 Fabry centres identified adult Fabry patients, and pathologists scored histologic changes on renal biopsies. A standardized scoring system was developed with a modified Delphi technique assessing 59 Fabry nephropathy cases. Each case was scored independently of clinical information by at least three pathologists with an average final score reported. Results. We assessed 35 males (mean age 36.4 years) and 24 females (43.9 years) who mostly had clinically mild Fabry nephropathy. The average serum creatinine was 1.3 mg/dl (114.9 μmol/l); estimated glomerular filtration rate was 81.7 ml/min/1.73 m2 and urine protein to creatinine ratio was 1.08 g/g (122.0 mg/mmol). Males had greater podocyte vacuolization on light microscopy (mean score) and glycosphingolipid inclusions on semi-thin sections than females. Males also had significantly more proximal tubule, peritubular capillary and vascular intimal inclusions. Arteriolar hyalinosis was similar, but females had significantly more arterial hyalinosis. Chronic kidney disease stage correlated with arterial and glomerular sclerosis scores. Significant changes, including segmental and global sclerosis, and interstitial fibrosis were seen even in patients with stage 1–2 chronic kidney disease with minimal proteinuria. Conclusions. The development of a standardized scoring system of both disease-specific lesions, i.e. lipid deposition related, and general lesions of progression, i.e. fibrosis and sclerosis, showed a spectrum of histologic appearances even in early clinical stage of Fabry nephropathy. These findings support the role of kidney biopsy in the baseline evaluation of Fabry nephropathy, even with mild clinical disease. The scoring system will be useful for

  12. Objective evaluation of the visual acuity in human eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales, M. A.; López-Olazagasti, E.; Ramírez-Zavaleta, G.; Varillas, G.; Tepichín, E.

    2009-08-01

    Traditionally, the quality of the human vision is evaluated by a subjective test in which the examiner asks the patient to read a series of characters of different sizes, located at a certain distance of the patient. Typically, we need to ensure a subtended angle of vision of 5 minutes, which implies an object of 8.8 mm high located at 6 meters (normal or 20/20 visual acuity). These characters constitute what is known as the Snellen chart, universally used to evaluate the spatial resolution of the human eyes. The mentioned process of identification of characters is carried out by means of the eye - brain system, giving an evaluation of the subjective visual performance. In this work we consider the eye as an isolated image-forming system, and show that it is possible to isolate the function of the eye from that of the brain in this process. By knowing the impulse response of the eye´s system we can obtain, in advance, the image of the Snellen chart simultaneously. From this information, we obtain the objective performance of the eye as the optical system under test. This type of results might help to detect anomalous situations of the human vision, like the so called "cerebral myopia".

  13. Apgar score

    MedlinePlus

    ... the baby's: Breathing effort Heart rate Muscle tone Reflexes Skin color Each category is scored with 0, ... scores 2 for muscle tone. Grimace response or reflex irritability is a term describing response to stimulation, ...

  14. Measuring Observers’ Visual Acuity Through Night Vision Goggles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    a two-alternative, forced-choice ( 2AFC ) method to determine visual acuity through NVGs as a function of night-time ambient illumination levels. A...computer executed the 2AFC (gap seen up or down), Step Program adapted from Simpson (1989). Based on the observerÕs last response, the program selected...threshold levels, NVG drift, good guessing in the 2AFC method, fatigue, eye strain, sinus headaches and so on. METHOD Psychometric Function of Acuity

  15. A simple prediction score system for malignant brain edema progression in large hemispheric infarction

    PubMed Central

    Jo, KwangWook; Bajgur, Suhas S.; Kim, Hoon; Choi, Huimahn A.; Huh, Pil-Woo; Lee, Kiwon

    2017-01-01

    Malignant brain edema (MBE) due to hemispheric infarction can result in brain herniation, poor outcomes, and death; outcome may be improved if certain interventions, such as decompressive craniectomy, are performed early. We sought to generate a prediction score to easily identify those patients at high risk for MBE. 121 patients with large hemispheric infarction (LHI) (2011 to 2014) were included. Patients were divided into two groups: those who developed MBE and those who did not. Independent predictors of MBE were identified by logistic regression and a score was developed. Four factors were independently associated with MBE: baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (p = 0.048), Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score (ASPECTS) (p = 0.007), collateral score (CS) (p<0.001) and revascularization failure (p = 0.013). Points were assigned for each factor as follows: NIHSS ≤ 8 (= 0), 9–17 (= 1), ≥ 18 (= 2); ASPECTS≤ 7 (= 1), >8 (= 0); CS<2 (= 1), ≥2 (= 0); revascularization failure (= 1),success (= 0). The MBE Score (MBES) represents the sum of these individual points. Of 26 patients with a MBES of 0 to 1, none developed MBE. All patients with a MBES of 6 developed MBE. Both MBE development and functional outcomes were strongly associated with the MBES (p = 0.007 and 0.002, respectively). The MBE score is a simple reliable tool for the prediction of MBE. PMID:28178299

  16. Redundancy in the Pascal-Suttell Bender-Gestalt scoring system: discriminating organicity with only one design.

    PubMed

    Wagner, E E; Marsico, D S

    1991-03-01

    The eight Bender-Gestalt (B-G) designs scored by the Pascal-Suttell (P-S) system proved to be highly intercorrelated, while the ninth component, the Configuration score, was modestly related to only design one. A factor analysis of the eight designs revealed one significant factor, which was interpreted as reflecting general reproductive accuracy rather than special gestalt properties of the drawings. While the P-S Total score could discriminate between organic (n = 52) and nonorganic (n = 52) clinical outpatient groups with a 74% hit rate, only one design (seven) yielded a 73% discrimination. It was suggested that a quick and reliable method for screening for organicity with the B-G would be to calculate the P-S score for design seven only.

  17. Visual acuity in mammals: effects of eye size and ecology.

    PubMed

    Veilleux, Carrie C; Kirk, E Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Previous comparative research has attributed interspecific variation in eye size among mammals to selection related to visual acuity. Mammalian species have also been hypothesized to differ in visual acuity partly as a result of differences in ecology. While a number of prior studies have explored ecological and phylogenetic effects on eye shape, a broad comparative analysis of the relationships between visual acuity, eye size and ecology in mammals is currently lacking. Here we use phylogenetic comparative methods to explore these relationships in a taxonomically and ecologically diverse sample of 91 mammal species. These data confirm that axial eye length and visual acuity are significantly positively correlated in mammals. This relationship conforms to expectations based on theoretical optics and prior analyses of smaller comparative samples. Our data also demonstrate that higher visual acuity in mammals is associated with: (1) diurnality and (2) predatory habits once the effects of eye size and phylogeny have been statistically controlled. These results suggest that interspecific variation in mammalian visual acuity is the result of a complex interplay between phylogenetic history, visual anatomy and ecology.

  18. A Systematic Investigation of Accuracy and Response Time Based Measures Used to Index ANS Acuity

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Julia Felicitas; Huber, Stefan; Klein, Elise; Willmes, Klaus; Pixner, Silvia; Moeller, Korbinian

    2016-01-01

    The approximate number system (ANS) was proposed to be a building block for later mathematical abilities. Several measures have been used interchangeably to assess ANS acuity. Some of these measures were based on accuracy data, whereas others relied on response time (RT) data or combined accuracy and RT data. Previous studies challenged the view that all these measures can be used interchangeably, because low correlations between some of the measures had been observed. These low correlations might be due to poor reliability of some of the measures, since the majority of these measures are mathematically related. Here we systematically investigated the relationship between common ANS measures while avoiding the potential confound of poor reliability. Our first experiment revealed high correlations between all accuracy based measures supporting the assumption that all of them can be used interchangeably. In contrast, not all RT based measures were highly correlated. Additionally, our results revealed a speed-accuracy trade-off. Thus, accuracy and RT based measures provided conflicting conclusions regarding ANS acuity. Therefore, we investigated in two further experiments which type of measure (accuracy or RT) is more informative about the underlying ANS acuity, depending on participants’ preferences for accuracy or speed. To this end, we manipulated participants’ preferences for accuracy or speed both explicitly using different task instructions and implicitly varying presentation duration. Accuracy based measures were more informative about the underlying ANS acuity than RT based measures. Moreover, the influence of the underlying representations on accuracy data was more pronounced when participants preferred accuracy over speed after the accuracy instruction as well as for long or unlimited presentation durations. Implications regarding the diffusion model as a theoretical framework of dot comparison as well as regarding the relationship between ANS acuity and

  19. Expanded CURB-65: a new score system predicts severity of community-acquired pneumonia with superior efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin-liang; Xu, Feng; Hui Zhou; Wu, Xue-jie; Shi, Ling-xian; Lu, Rui-qing; Farcomeni, Alessio; Venditti, Mario; Zhao, Ying-li; Luo, Shu-ya; Dong, Xiao-jun; Falcone, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study was to develop a new simpler and more effective severity score for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients. A total of 1640 consecutive hospitalized CAP patients in Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University were included. The effectiveness of different pneumonia severity scores to predict mortality was compared, and the performance of the new score was validated on an external cohort of 1164 patients with pneumonia admitted to a teaching hospital in Italy. Using age ≥ 65 years, LDH > 230 u/L, albumin < 3.5 g/dL, platelet count < 100 × 109/L, confusion, urea > 7 mmol/L, respiratory rate ≥ 30/min, low blood pressure, we assembled a new severity score named as expanded-CURB-65. The 30-day mortality and length of stay were increased along with increased risk score. The AUCs in the prediction of 30-day mortality in the main cohort were 0.826 (95% CI, 0.807–0.844), 0.801 (95% CI, 0.781–0.820), 0.756 (95% CI, 0.735–0.777), 0.793 (95% CI, 0.773–0.813) and 0.759 (95% CI, 0.737–0.779) for the expanded-CURB-65, PSI, CURB-65, SMART-COP and A-DROP, respectively. The performance of this bedside score was confirmed in CAP patients of the validation cohort although calibration was not successful in patients with health care-associated pneumonia (HCAP). The expanded CURB-65 is objective, simpler and more accurate scoring system for evaluation of CAP severity, and the predictive efficiency was better than other score systems. PMID:26987602

  20. Standardized database development for EEG epileptiform transient detection: EEGnet scoring system and machine learning analysis.

    PubMed

    Halford, Jonathan J; Schalkoff, Robert J; Zhou, Jing; Benbadis, Selim R; Tatum, William O; Turner, Robert P; Sinha, Saurabh R; Fountain, Nathan B; Arain, Amir; Pritchard, Paul B; Kutluay, Ekrem; Martz, Gabriel; Edwards, Jonathan C; Waters, Chad; Dean, Brian C

    2013-01-30

    The routine scalp electroencephalogram (rsEEG) is the most common clinical neurophysiology procedure. The most important role of rsEEG is to detect evidence of epilepsy, in the form of epileptiform transients (ETs), also known as spike or sharp wave discharges. Due to the wide variety of morphologies of ETs and their similarity to artifacts and waves that are part of the normal background activity, the task of ET detection is difficult and mistakes are frequently made. The development of reliable computerized detection of ETs in the EEG could assist physicians in interpreting rsEEGs. We report progress in developing a standardized database for testing and training ET detection algorithms. We describe a new version of our EEGnet software system for collecting expert opinion on EEG datasets, a completely web-browser based system. We report results of EEG scoring from a group of 11 board-certified academic clinical neurophysiologists who annotated 30-s excepts from rsEEG recordings from 100 different patients. The scorers had moderate inter-scorer reliability and low to moderate intra-scorer reliability. In order to measure the optimal size of this standardized rsEEG database, we used machine learning models to classify paroxysmal EEG activity in our database into ET and non-ET classes. Based on our results, it appears that our database will need to be larger than its current size. Also, our non-parametric classifier, an artificial neural network, performed better than our parametric Bayesian classifier. Of our feature sets, the wavelet feature set proved most useful for classification.

  1. Improving Visual Acuity of Myopes through Operant Training: The Evaluation of Psychological and Physiological Mechanisms Facilitating Acuity Enhancement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    at far distances. High degrees of myopia are often accompanied by damage to the eye’s fundus and, when extreme, cannot be fully compensated by...refractively measured myopia . He attributed the improvement to experience in correct interpretation of a blurred visual image . Gibson (1953) proposed that...acuity is an alterable process. If acuity can be enhanced, it could benefit some of the nearly one billion individuals who have myopia or

  2. Foveal visual acuity is worse and shows stronger contour interaction effects for contrast-modulated than luminance-modulated Cs.

    PubMed

    Hairol, Mohd Izzuddin; Formankiewicz, Monika A; Waugh, Sarah J

    2013-05-01

    Contrast-modulated (CM) stimuli are processed by spatial mechanisms that operate at larger spatial scales than those processing luminance-modulated (LM) stimuli and may be more prone to deficits in developing, amblyopic, and aging visual systems. Understanding neural mechanisms of contour interaction or crowding will help in detecting disorders of spatial vision. In this study, contour interaction effects on visual acuity for LM and CM C and bar stimuli are assessed in normal foveal vision. In Experiment 1, visual acuity is measured for all-LM and all-CM stimuli, at ~3.5× above their respective modulation thresholds. In Experiment 2, visual acuity is measured for Cs and bars of different type (LM C with CM bars and vice versa). Visual acuity is degraded for CM compared with LM Cs (0.46 ± 0.04 logMAR vs. 0.18 ± 0.04 logMAR). With nearby bars, CM acuity is degraded further (0.23 ± 0.01 logMAR or ~2 lines on an acuity chart), significantly more than LM acuity (0.11 ± 0.01 logMAR, ~1 line). Contour interaction for CM stimuli extends over greater distances (arcmin) than it does for LM stimuli, but extents are similar with respect to acuities (~3.5× the C gap width). Contour interaction is evident when the Cs and bars are defined differently: it is stronger when an LM C is flanked by CM bars (0.17 ± 0.03 logMAR) than when a CM C is flanked by LM bars (0.08 ± 0.02 logMAR). Our results suggest that contour interaction for foveally viewed acuity stimuli involves feature integration, such that the outputs of receptive fields representing Cs and bars are combined. Contour interaction operates at LM and CM representational stages, it can occur across stage, and it is enhanced at the CM stage. Greater contour interaction for CM Cs and bars could hold value for visual acuity testing and earlier diagnosis of conditions for which crowding is important, such as in amblyopia.

  3. A comprehensive scoring system to measure healthy community design in land use plans and regulations.

    PubMed

    Maiden, Kristin M; Kaplan, Marina; Walling, Lee Ann; Miller, Patricia P; Crist, Gina

    2017-02-01

    Comprehensive land use plans and their corresponding regulations play a role in determining the nature of the built environment and community design, which are factors that influence population health and health disparities. To determine the level in which a plan addresses healthy living and active design, there is a need for a systematic, reliable and valid method of analyzing and scoring health-related content in plans and regulations. This paper describes the development and validation of a scoring tool designed to measure the strength and comprehensiveness of health-related content found in land use plans and the corresponding regulations. The measures are scored based on the presence of a specific item and the specificity and action-orientation of language. To establish reliability and validity, 42 land use plans and regulations from across the United States were scored January-April 2016. Results of the psychometric analysis indicate the scorecard is a reliable scoring tool for land use plans and regulations related to healthy living and active design. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) scores showed strong inter-rater reliability for total strength and comprehensiveness. ICC scores for total implementation scores showed acceptable consistency among scorers. Cronbach's alpha values for all focus areas were acceptable. Strong content validity was measured through a committee vetting process. The development of this tool has far-reaching implications, bringing standardization of measurement to the field of land use plan assessment, and paving the way for systematic inclusion of health-related design principles, policies, and requirements in land use plans and their corresponding regulations.

  4. Impact of visual acuity on developing literacy at age 4–5 years: a cohort-nested cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Alison; Fairley, Lesley; Chambers, Bette; Wright, John; Sheldon, Trevor A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of poor vision in children aged 4–5 years and determine the impact of visual acuity on literacy. Design Cross-sectional study linking clinical, epidemiological and education data. Setting Schools located in the city of Bradford, UK. Participants Prevalence was determined for 11 186 children participating in the Bradford school vision screening programme. Data linkage was undertaken for 5836 Born in Bradford (BiB) birth cohort study children participating both in the Bradford vision screening programme and the BiB Starting Schools Programme. 2025 children had complete data and were included in the multivariable analyses. Main outcome measures Visual acuity was measured using a logMAR Crowded Test (higher scores=poorer visual acuity). Literacy measured by Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests-Revised (WRMT-R) subtest: letter identification (standardised). Results The mean (SD) presenting visual acuity was 0.14 (0.09) logMAR (range 0.0–1.0). 9% of children had a presenting visual acuity worse than 0.2logMAR (failed vision screening), 4% worse than 0.3logMAR (poor visual acuity) and 2% worse than 0.4logMAR (visually impaired). Unadjusted analysis showed that the literacy score was associated with presenting visual acuity, reducing by 2.4 points for every 1 line (0.10logMAR) reduction in vision (95% CI −3.0 to −1.9). The association of presenting visual acuity with the literacy score remained significant after adjustment for demographic and socioeconomic factors reducing by 1.7 points (95% CI −2.2 to −1.1) for every 1 line reduction in vision. Conclusions Prevalence of decreased visual acuity was high compared with other population-based studies. Decreased visual acuity at school entry is associated with reduced literacy. This may have important implications for the children's future educational, health and social outcomes. PMID:26883240

  5. A simple weighted scoring system to guide surgical decision-making in patients with parapneumonic pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Che-Chia; Chen, Tzu-Ping; Yeh, Chi-Hsiao; Huang, Pin-Fu; Wang, Yao-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Background The selection of ideal candidates for surgical intervention among patients with parapneumonic pleural effusion remains challenging. In this retrospective study, we sought to identify the main predictors of surgical treatment and devise a simple scoring system to guide surgical decision-making. Method Between 2005 and 2014, we identified 276 patients with parapneumonic pleural effusion. Patients in the training set (n=201) were divided into two groups according to their treatment modality (non-surgery vs. surgery). Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, we devised a scoring system to guide surgical decision-making. The score was subsequently validated in an independent set of 75 patients. Results A white blood cell count >13,500/µL, pleuritic pain, loculations, and split pleura sign were identified as independent predictors of surgical treatment. A weighted score based on these factors was devised, as follows: white blood cell count >13,500/µL (one point), pleuritic pain (one point), loculations (two points), and split pleura sign (three points). A score >4 was associated with a surgical approach with a sensitivity of 93.4%, a specificity of 82.4%, and an area under curve (AUC) of 0.879 (95% confidence interval: 0.828−0.930). In the validation set, a sensitivity of 94.3% and a specificity of 79.6% were found (AUC=0.869). Conclusions The proposed scoring system reliably identifies patients with parapneumonic pleural effusion who are candidates for surgery. Pending independent external validation, our score may inform the appropriate use of surgical interventions in this clinical setting. PMID:28066596

  6. Introducing a new histologic scoring system for iron deposition in liver of thalassemic patients, compared with atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli, Habib; Mahjoub, Fatemeh; Jahanzad, Eesa; Farahmand, Fatemeh; Izadyar, Mina; Sani, Mehri Najafi; Rashti, Mohammad Lamei; Aramli, Mohammad Sadegh

    2015-01-01

    Iron deposition in liver is a major finding in thalassemic patients and because of direct iron toxicity to liver it is associated with several consequences for example liver fibrosis. Liver biopsies from 63 patients were evaluated, 40 (63.5%) were male and 20 (36.5%) were female. The mean age of the patients was 8.01 ± 3.7 and the age range was from 1.8 to 15 years. Histologic grading and staging was performed for each case according to modified HAI (Hepatitis Activity Index) system. Iron scoring was performed according to Sindram & Marx and MTK1-3 scoring systems. The mean (SD) dry weight (dw) of liver specimens was 1.34 (0.11) mg (range 0.20 to 3.80 mg). The mean (SD) of hepatic iron concentration was 230.9 (121.2)μmol/g dry weight. The relationship between the variables HIC, HII (hepatic iron index) and all histological gradings of iron (S&M and MTK1-3) was very strong. The relationship between the HIC and staging by HAI method was good. Significant differences were identified between the mean HIC in scores 1&2 of all histological iron scorings (S&M and MTK1-3), but no significant differences identified between mean HIC in other adjacent scores in all histological iron scorings (S&M and MTK1, 2 and 3). New scoring system introduced by us in this study which considered size and density of iron granules as well as zone of iron deposition was very much the same as simple Sindram and Marx classification.

  7. Utility of Boston Qualitative Scoring System for Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure: evidence from a Parkinson's Diseases sample.

    PubMed

    Scarpina, Federica; Ambiel, Erika; Albani, Giovanni; Pradotto, Luca Guglielmo; Mauro, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the ability of the Boston Qualitative Scoring System (BQSS) in comparison to the Osterrieth scoring method to separate Parkinson's Disease patients without dementia from healthy controls at the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) copy. 30 PD participants and 30 healthy participants completed ROCF copy. The performance was scored according to both methods. The results indicated that PD patients performed significantly worse on ROCF. According to ROC analyses, BQSS Copy Total score represented the most suitable index to distinguish between the two groups: a score below or equal to 16 indicates an impaired performance. Moreover, PD participants reported lower performance in the BQSS scores of Planning and Neatness. PD patients' poor performance in ROCF copy was related to executive difficulties, specifically in terms of planning and impulsivity, instead of global visuo-constructional impairments. An extensive evaluation of copy drawings allowing to disentangle between different involved cognitive domains would be suitable, specifically in those clinical conditions like PD, in which motor impairments affect drawing performance.

  8. Comparison between two scoring systems of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure in left and right temporal lobe epileptic patients.

    PubMed

    Frank, Jean; Landeira-Fernandez, J

    2008-01-01

    The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) is probably one of the most popular measurement instruments of visuoconstructional abilities and nonverbal memory. It is frequently part of neuropsychological test protocols in epilepsy surgery centers. In this study we compared the traditional scoring system of the ROCF developed by Taylor (1998) with a qualitative system that assesses spatial-relational errors devised by Loring et al. [Loring, D. W., Lee, G. P., & Meador, K. J. (1988). Revising the Rey-Osterrieth: Rating right hemisphere recall. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 3, 239-247] in a sample of left and right temporal lobe epilepsy patients undergoing pre-surgical evaluation. We investigated whether the relational-spatial scoring system would be more sensitive to right-sided memory deficits than the traditional Taylor version. There was no difference in the copy phase of the ROCF between the clinical and control groups. There was a significant difference between the control and the clinical groups when the 30-min delayed recall drawings were scored with the Taylor system. However, this system failed to find differences between left and right temporal lobe epileptic patients. On the other hand, comparisons with the qualitative scoring criteria used by Loring et al. [Loring, D. W., Lee, G. P., & Meador, K. J. (1988). Revising the Rey-Osterrieth: Rating right hemisphere recall. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 3, 239-247] revealed that right temporal lobe patients made more spatial-relational errors than patients with left-sided foci. Frequency distribution of these scores for all the three groups and sensitivity and specificity to correctly classify right temporal lobe patients are presented. This investigation demonstrated that applying qualitative, material-specific scoring criteria improves temporal lobe epilepsy presurgical protocols.

  9. SF-36 summary and subscale scores are reliable outcomes of neuropsychiatric events in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Hanly, J. G.; Urowitz, M. B.; Jackson, D.; Bae, S.C.; Gordon, C.; Wallace, D.J.; Clarke, A.; Bernatsky, S.; Vasudevan, A.; Isenberg, D.; Rahman, A.; Sanchez-Guerrero, J.; Romero-Diaz, J.; Merrill, J. T.; Fortin, P.R.; Gladman, D.D.; Bruce, I. N.; Steinsson, K.; Khamashta, M.; Alarcón, G.S.; Fessler, B.; Petri, M.; Manzi, S.; Nived, O.; Sturfelt, G.; Ramsey-Goldman, R.; Dooley, M.A.; Aranow, C.; Van Vollenhoven, R.; Ramos-Casals, M.; Zoma, A.; Kalunian, K.; Farewell, V.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine change in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in association with clinical outcomes of neuropsychiatric (NP) events in SLE. Methods An international study evaluated newly diagnosed SLE patients for NP events attributed to SLE and non-SLE causes. Outcome of events was determined by physician-completed 7-point scale and compared to patient-completed SF-36 questionnaires. Statistical analysis used linear mixed-effects regression models with patient specific random effects. Results 274 patients (92% female; 68% Caucasian), from a cohort of 1400, had ≥ 1 NP event where the interval between assessments was 12.3 ± 2 months. The overall difference in change between visits in mental component summary (MCS) scores of the SF-36 was significant (p<0.0001) following adjustments for gender, ethnicity, center and previous score. A consistent improvement in NP status (N=295) was associated with an increase in the mean(SD) adjusted MCS score of 3.66(0.89) in SF-36 scores. Between paired visits where NP status consistently deteriorated (N=30), the adjusted MCS score decreased by 4.00(1.96). For the physical component summary (PCS) scores the corresponding changes were +1.73(0.71) and −0.62(1.58) (p<0.05) respectively. Changes in SF-36 subscales were in the same direction (p<0.05; with the exception of role physical). Sensitivity analyses confirmed these findings. Adjustment for age, education, medications, SLE disease activity, organ damage, disease duration, attribution and characteristics of NP events did not substantially alter the results. Conclusion Changes in SF-36 summary and subscale scores, in particular those related to mental health, are strongly associated with the clinical outcome of NP events in SLE patients. PMID:21342917

  10. Risk stratification in cardiovascular disease primary prevention - scoring systems, novel markers, and imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Zannad, Faiez; De Backer, Guy; Graham, Ian; Lorenz, Matthias; Mancia, Giuseppe; Morrow, David A; Reiner, Zeljko; Koenig, Wolfgang; Dallongeville, Jean; Macfadyen, Robert J; Ruilope, Luis M; Wilhelmsen, Lars

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to review and discuss current methods of risk stratification for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, emerging biomarkers, and imaging techniques, and their relative merits and limitations. This report is based on discussions that took place among experts in the area during a special CardioVascular Clinical Trialists workshop organized by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Drug Therapy in September 2009. Classical risk factors such as blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels remain the cornerstone of risk estimation in primary prevention but their use as a guide to management is limited by several factors: (i) thresholds for drug treatment vary with the available evidence for cost-effectiveness and benefit-to-risk ratios; (ii) assessment may be imprecise; (iii) residual risk may remain, even with effective control of dyslipidemia and hypertension. Novel measures include C-reactive protein, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) , genetic markers, and markers of subclinical organ damage, for which there are varying levels of evidence. High-resolution ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging to assess carotid atherosclerotic lesions have potential but require further validation, standardization, and proof of clinical usefulness in the general population. In conclusion, classical risk scoring systems are available and inexpensive but have a number of limitations. Novel risk markers and imaging techniques may have a place in drug development and clinical trial design. However, their additional value above and beyond classical risk factors has yet to be determined for risk-guided therapy in CVD prevention.

  11. An acoustic feature-based similarity scoring system for speech rehabilitation assistance.

    PubMed

    Syauqy, Dahnial; Wu, Chao-Min; Setyawati, Onny

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a tool to assist speech therapy and rehabilitation, which focused on automatic scoring based on the comparison of the patient's speech with another normal speech on several aspects including pitch, vowel, voiced-unvoiced segments, strident fricative and sound intensity. The pitch estimation employed the use of cepstrum-based algorithm for its robustness; the vowel classification used multilayer perceptron (MLP) to classify vowel from pitch and formants; and the strident fricative detection was based on the major peak spectral intensity, location and the pitch existence in the segment. In order to evaluate the performance of the system, this study analyzed eight patient's speech recordings (four males, four females; 4-58-years-old), which had been recorded in previous study in cooperation with Taipei Veterans General Hospital and Taoyuan General Hospital. The experiment result on pitch algorithm showed that the cepstrum method had 5.3% of gross pitch error from a total of 2086 frames. On the vowel classification algorithm, MLP method provided 93% accuracy (men), 87% (women) and 84% (children). In total, the overall results showed that 156 tool's grading results (81%) were consistent compared to 192 audio and visual observations done by four experienced respondents. Implication for Rehabilitation Difficulties in communication may limit the ability of a person to transfer and exchange information. The fact that speech is one of the primary means of communication has encouraged the needs of speech diagnosis and rehabilitation. The advances of technology in computer-assisted speech therapy (CAST) improve the quality, time efficiency of the diagnosis and treatment of the disorders. The present study attempted to develop tool to assist speech therapy and rehabilitation, which provided simple interface to let the assessment be done even by the patient himself without the need of particular knowledge of speech processing while at the

  12. Validation of the revised International Prognostic Scoring System in treated patients with myelodysplastic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Asmita; Corrales-Yepez, Maria; Ali, Najla Al; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed; Padron, Eric; Zhang, Ling; Epling-Burnette, Pearlie K.; Pinilla-Ibarz, Javier; Lancet, Jeffrey E.; List, Alan F.; Komrokji, Rami S.

    2015-01-01

    The International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) was recently revised (IPSS-R) under the auspices of the MDS Foundation as a collaborative international effort to refine its prognostic power. Our purpose was to externally validate this new risk model using a large single-institution cohort, determine its prognostic power in patients receiving active treatment, and explore its utility in guiding therapeutic decisions. Data were collected retrospectively from our myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) database and verified by chart review. Of the data available for 1,088 patients, 152 (14%), 353 (32%), 237 (22%), 190 (18%), and 156 (14%) patients were classified as very low, low, intermediate, high, and very high risk, respectively, with median overall survival (OS) of 90 (95%CI 71–109), 54 (95%CI 50–59), 34 (95%CI 26–43), 21 (95%CI 17–25), and 13 months (95%CI 11– 15), respectively (P < 0.005). We found that the IPSS-R further refined prognostic discrimination in all IPSS risk categories, particularly in the intermediate 1 and 2 groups. Among high and very high IPSS-R patients receiving azacitidine, OS was significantly improved versus patients not receiving azacitidine, with corresponding median OS of 25 versus 18 months (P = 0.028) and 15 versus 9 months (P = 0.005), respectively. Similarly, patients with IPSS-R high- and very high-risk disease who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation had significantly improved OS versus nontransplant approaches (P < 0.005). High and very high IPSS-R patients derived a survival advantage from disease-modifying therapies. Our data validate the prognostic value of the proposed IPSS-R and show that its refined IPSS prognostic discrimination can be applied to actively treated patients. PMID:23605934

  13. Development and validation of an unsupervised scoring system (Autonomate) for skin conductance response analysis

    PubMed Central

    Green, Steven R.; Kragel, Philip A.; Fecteau, Matthew E.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2014-01-01

    The skin conductance response (SCR) is increasingly being used as a measure of sympathetic activation concurrent with neuroscience measurements. We present a method of automated analysis of SCR data in the contexts of event-related cognitive tasks and nonspecific responding to complex stimuli. The primary goal of the method is to accurately measure the classical trough-to-peak amplitude of SCR in a fashion closely matching manual scoring. To validate the effectiveness of the method in event-related paradigms, three archived datasets were analyzed by two manual raters, the fully-automated method (Autonomate), and three alternative software packages. Further, the ability of the method to score non-specific responses to complex stimuli was validated against manual scoring. Results indicate high concordance between fully-automated and computer-assisted manual scoring methods. Given that manual scoring is error prone, subject to bias, and time consuming, the automated method may increase efficiency and accuracy of SCR data analysis. PMID:24184342

  14. Pharmacophore alignment search tool: influence of scoring systems on text-based similarity searching.

    PubMed

    Hähnke, Volker; Schneider, Gisbert

    2011-06-01

    The text-based similarity searching method Pharmacophore Alignment Search Tool is grounded on pairwise comparisons of potential pharmacophoric points between a query and screening compounds. The underlying scoring matrix is of critical importance for successful virtual screening and hit retrieval from large compound libraries. Here, we compare three conceptually different computational methods for systematic deduction of scoring matrices: assignment-based, alignment-based, and stochastic optimization. All three methods resulted in optimized pharmacophore scoring matrices with significantly superior retrospective performance in comparison with simplistic scoring schemes. Computer-generated similarity matrices of pharmacophoric features turned out to agree well with a manually constructed matrix. We introduce the concept of position-specific scoring to text-based similarity searching so that knowledge about specific ligand-receptor binding patterns can be included and demonstrate its benefit for hit retrieval. The approach was also used for automated pharmacophore elucidation in agonists of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma, successfully identifying key interactions for receptor activation.

  15. Test-retest reliability of the Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation (API) scoring system for the Bender Gestalt in chronic schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Aucone, E J; Wagner, E E; Raphael, A J; Golden, C J; Espe-Pfeifer, P; Dornheim, L; Seldon, J; Pospisil, T; Proctor-Weber, Z; Calabria, M

    2001-09-01

    This study assesses the test-retest reliability of the revised Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation (API) scoring system for the Bender Gestalt Test (BGT). The API system identifies 207 possible distortions in a BGT protocol. Test-retest reliability for 40 schizophrenic patients tested twice with a mean interval of 6.4 years (SD=3.8 years) was good, ranging from .71 to .80. Further reliability and validity studies are needed to further demonstrate the effectiveness of the system.

  16. Applicability of different scoring systems in outcome prediction of patients with mixed drug poisoning-induced coma

    PubMed Central

    Eizadi Mood, Nastaran; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Khalili-Dehkordi, Zahra

    2011-01-01

    Background: Mixed drugs poisoning (MDP) is common in the emergency departments. Because of the limited number of intensive care unit beds, recognition of risk factors to divide the patients into different survival groups is necessary. Poisoning due to ingestion of different medications may have additive or antagonistic effects on different parameters included in the scoring systems; therefore, the aim of the study was to compare applicability of the different scoring systems in outcomes prediction of patients admitted with MDP-induced coma. Methods: This prospective, observational study included 93 patients with MDP-induced coma. Clinical and laboratory data conforming to the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II), Modified APACHE II Score (MAS), Mainz Emergency Evaluation Scores (MEES) and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) were recorded for all patients on admission (time0) and 24 h later (time24). The outcome was recorded in two categories: Survived with or without complication and non-survived. Discrimination was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and area under the ROC curve (AUC). Results: The mortality rate was 9.7%. Mean of each scoring system was statistically significant between time0 and time24 in the survivors. However, it was not significant in non-survivors. Discrimination was excellent for GCS24 (0.90±0.05), APACHE II24 (0.89±0.01), MAS24 (0.86±0.10), and APACHE II0 (0.83±0.11) AUC. Conclusion: The GCS24, APACHE II24, MAS24, and APACHE II0 scoring systems seem to predict the outcome in comatose patients due to MDP more accurately. GCS and MAS may have superiority over the others in being easy to perform and not requiring laboratory data. PMID:22223905

  17. Heightened clinical utility of smartphone versus body-worn inertial system for shoulder function B-B score

    PubMed Central

    Aminian, Kamiar; Ancey, Céline; Jaccard, Hervé; Lécureux, Estelle; Duc, Cyntia; Farron, Alain; Jolles, Brigitte M.; Gleeson, Nigel

    2017-01-01

    Background The B-B Score is a straightforward kinematic shoulder function score including only two movements (hand to the Back + lift hand as to change a Bulb) that demonstrated sound measurement properties for patients for various shoulder pathologies. However, the B-B Score results using a smartphone or a reference system have not yet been compared. Provided that the measurement properties are comparable, the use of a smartphone would offer substantial practical advantages. This study investigated the concurrent validity of a smartphone and a reference inertial system for the measurement of the kinematic shoulder function B-B Score. Methods Sixty-five patients with shoulder conditions (with rotator cuff conditions, adhesive capsulitis and proximal humerus fracture) and 20 healthy participants were evaluated using a smartphone and a reference inertial system. Measurements were performed twice, alternating between two evaluators. The B-B Score differences between groups, differences between devices, relationship between devices, intra- and inter-evaluator reproducibility were analysed. Results The smartphone mean scores (SD) were 94.1 (11.1) for controls and 54.1 (18.3) for patients (P < 0.01). The difference between devices was non-significant for the control (P = 0.16) and the patient group (P = 0.81). The analysis of the relationship between devices showed 0.97 ICC, −0.6 bias and −13.2 to 12.0 limits of agreement (LOA). The smartphone intra-evaluator ICC was 0.92, the bias 1.5 and the LOA −17.4 to 20.3. The smartphone inter-evaluator ICC was 0.92, the bias 1.5 and the LOA −16.9 to 20.0. Conclusions The B-B Score results measured with a smartphone were comparable to those of an inertial system. While single measurements diverged in some cases, the intra- and inter-evaluator reproducibility was excellent and was equivalent between devices. The B-B score measured with a smartphone is straightforward and as efficient as a reference inertial system

  18. The Two Sides of Sensory–Cognitive Interactions: Effects of Age, Hearing Acuity, and Working Memory Span on Sentence Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    DeCaro, Renee; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Grossman, Murray; Wingfield, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Reduced hearing acuity is among the most prevalent of chronic medical conditions among older adults. An experiment is reported in which comprehension of spoken sentences was tested for older adults with good hearing acuity or with a mild-to-moderate hearing loss, and young adults with age-normal hearing. Comprehension was measured by participants’ ability to determine the agent of an action in sentences that expressed this relation with a syntactically less complex subject-relative construction or a syntactically more complex object-relative construction. Agency determination was further challenged by inserting a prepositional phrase into sentences between the person performing an action and the action being performed. As a control, prepositional phrases of equivalent length were also inserted into sentences in a non-disruptive position. Effects on sentence comprehension of age, hearing acuity, prepositional phrase placement and sound level of stimulus presentations appeared only for comprehension of sentences with the more syntactically complex object-relative structures. Working memory as tested by reading span scores accounted for a significant amount of the variance in comprehension accuracy. Once working memory capacity and hearing acuity were taken into account, chronological age among the older adults contributed no further variance to comprehension accuracy. Results are discussed in terms of the positive and negative effects of sensory–cognitive interactions in comprehension of spoken sentences and lend support to a framework in which domain-general executive resources, notably verbal working memory, play a role in both linguistic and perceptual processing. PMID:26973557

  19. Analyzing the Factorial Structure of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary Using a Bayesian Hierarchical Multivariate Ordinal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Kun; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Savitsky, Terrance D.

    2013-01-01

    Standardized teaching observation protocols have become increasingly popular in evaluating teaching in recent years. One of such protocols that has gained substantial interest from researchers and practitioners is the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASSS). According to the developer, CLASS-S has three domains of teacher-student…

  20. Using Student Test Scores to Measure Teacher Performance: Some Problems in the Design and Implementation of Evaluation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballou, Dale; Springer, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    Our aim in this article is to draw attention to some underappreciated problems in the design and implementation of evaluation systems that incorporate value-added measures. We focus on four: (1) taking into account measurement error in teacher assessments, (2) revising teachers' scores as more information becomes available about their students,…

  1. Same noses, different nasalance scores: data from normal subjects and cleft palate speakers for three systems for nasalance analysis.

    PubMed

    Bressmann, Tim; Klaiman, Paula; Fischbach, Simone

    2006-01-01

    Nasalance scores from the Nasometer, the NasalView and the OroNasal System were compared. The data was collected from 50 normal participants and 19 hypernasal patients with cleft palate. The Nasometer had the lowest nasalance scores for the non-nasal Zoo Passage and that the OroNasal System had the lowest nasalance scores for the Nasal Sentences. The nasalance distance was largest for the Nasometer and smallest for the OroNasal System. When the calculation was based on nasalance magnitudes, results for sensitivity ranged from 57.9% to 81.8% and results for specificity ranged from 62.0% to 76.0%. When the calculation was based on nasalance distances, results for sensitivity ranged from 84.2% to 100.0% and results for specificity ranged from 82.0% to 100.0%. Results suggest that nasalance scores from the three systems are not interchangeable. Diagnostic efficacy improved when the calculations were based on nasalance distances rather than magnitudes, but further research is warranted to corroborate these findings.

  2. Accuracy and Predictability of PANC-3 Scoring System over APACHE II in Acute Pancreatitis: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Vishnu, Vikram Hubbanageri; Muniyappa, Shridhar; Prasath, Arun

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Acute Pancreatitis (AP) is one of the common conditions encountered in the emergency room. The course of the disease ranges from mild form to severe acute form. Most of these episodes are mild and spontaneously subsiding within 3 to 5 days. In contrast, Severe Acute Pancreatitis (SAP) occurring in around 15-20% of all cases, mortality can range between 10 to 85% across various centres and countries. In such a situation we need an indicator which can predict the outcome of an attack, as severe or mild, as early as possible and such an indicator should be sensitive and specific enough to trust upon. PANC-3 scoring is such a scoring system in predicting the outcome of an attack of AP. Aim To assess the accuracy and predictability of PANC-3 scoring system over APACHE II in predicting severity in an attack of AP. Materials and Methods This prospective study was conducted on 82 patients admitted with the diagnosis of pancreatitis. Investigations to evaluate PANC-3 and APACHE II were done on all the patients and the PANC-3 and APACHE II score was calculated. Results PANC-3 score has a sensitivity of 82.6% and specificity of 77.9%, the test had a Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of 0.59 and Negative Predictive Value (NPV) of 0.92. Sensitivity of APACHE II in predicting SAP was 91.3% and specificity was 96.6% with PPV of 0.91, NPV was 0.96. Conclusion Our study shows that PANC-3 can be used to predict the severity of pancreatitis as efficiently as APACHE II. The interpretation of PANC-3 does not need expertise and can be applied at the time of admission which is an advantage when compared to classical scoring systems.

  3. Higher Cognitive Function in Elderly Individuals with Previous Cataract Surgery: Cross-Sectional Association Independent of Visual Acuity in the HEIJO-KYO Cohort.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Kimie; Obayashi, Kenji; Saeki, Keigo; Tone, Nobuhiro; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Nishi, Tomo; Morikawa, Masayuki; Kurumatani, Norio; Ogata, Nahoko

    2016-06-01

    Cataract surgery improves visual acuity and drastically increases the capacity for light reception to the retina. Although previous studies suggested that both light exposure and visual acuity were associated with cognitive function, the relationships between cataract surgery, visual acuity, and cognitive function have not been evaluated in large populations. In this cross-sectional study, we measured cognitive function using the Mini-Mental State Examination and best-corrected visual acuity in pseudophakic (previous cataract surgery) and phakic (no previous cataract surgery) elderly individuals. Of 945 participants (mean age 71.7 years), 166 (17.6%) had pseudophakia and 317 (33.5%) had impaired cognitive function (score ≤26). The pseudophakic group showed significantly better visual acuity than the phakic group (p = 0.003) and lower age-adjusted odds ratio (ORs) for cognitive impairment (OR 0.66; p = 0.038). Consistently, in multivariate logistic regression models, after adjusting for confounding factors, including visual acuity and socioeconomic status, ORs for cognitive impairment were significantly lower in the pseudophakic group than in the phakic group (OR 0.64; 95% confidence interval 0.43-0.96; p = 0.031). This association remained significant in sensitivity analysis, excluding participants with low cognitive score ≤23 (n = 36). In conclusion, in a general elderly population, prevalence of cognitive impairment was significantly lower in pseudophakic individuals independently of visual acuity. The association was also independent of several major causes of cognitive impairment such as aging, gender, obesity, socioeconomic status, hypertension, diabetes, sleep disturbances, depressive symptoms, and physical inactivity.

  4. Propensity Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luellen, Jason K.; Shadish, William R.; Clark, M. H.

    2005-01-01

    Propensity score analysis is a relatively recent statistical innovation that is useful in the analysis of data from quasi-experiments. The goal of propensity score analysis is to balance two non-equivalent groups on observed covariates to get more accurate estimates of the effects of a treatment on which the two groups differ. This article…

  5. Volatility in School Test Scores: Implications for Test-Based Accountability Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Thomas J.; Staiger, Douglas O.

    2002-01-01

    By the spring of 2000, forty states had begun using student test scores to rate school performance. Twenty states have gone a step further and are attaching explicit monetary rewards or sanctions to a school's test performance. In this paper, the authors focus on accountability programs in which states measure the effectiveness of individual…

  6. Managing What We Can Measure: Quantifying the Susceptibility of Automated Scoring Systems to Gaming Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Derrick; Heilman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    As methods for automated scoring of constructed-response items become more widely adopted in state assessments, and are used in more consequential operational configurations, it is critical that their susceptibility to gaming behavior be investigated and managed. This article provides a review of research relevant to how construct-irrelevant…

  7. 76 FR 10055 - Changes to the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Physical Condition Scoring Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... criticality value, points are deducted from the project score. For example, a clogged drain in the kitchen is... inspectable items, such as a hole in a wall or a damaged refrigerator in the kitchen. Inspectable area means... areas, and dwelling units. Inspectable items refer to walls, kitchens, bathrooms, and other...

  8. An Inmate Classification System Based on PCL: SV Factor Scores in a Sample of Prison Inmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wogan, Michael; Mackenzie, Marci

    2007-01-01

    Psychopaths represent a significant management challenge in a prison population. A sample of ninety-five male inmates from three medium security prisons was tested using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV). Using traditional criteria, 22% of the inmates were classified as psychopaths. Scores on the two factor dimensions of…

  9. Assessing the Potential Value for an Automated Body Condition Scoring System through Stochastic Simulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Automated body condition scoring (BCS) through extraction of information from digital images has been demonstrated to be feasible; and commercial technologies are being developed. The primary objective of this research was to identify the factors that influence the potential profitability of investi...

  10. Early Prediction of Ongoing Hemorrhage in Severe Trauma: Presentation of the Existing Scoring Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tonglet, Martin L

    2016-01-01

    Early prediction of ongoing hemorrhage may reduce mortality via the earlier delivery of blood products, adequate orientation of the patient in a dedicated highly specialized and trained infrastructure, and by earlier correction of acute traumatic coagulopathy. We identified 14 scores or algorithms developed for the prediction of ongoing hemorrhage and the need for massive transfusion in severe trauma patients. PMID:28144603

  11. Pragmatism or Gaming the System? One School District's Solution to Low Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Kathryn Bell

    2009-01-01

    In this era of accountability and high stakes testing, district and school administrators are vigilant in their attention to student test scores and the ramifications these have for district and school performance labels. In other words, no school or district wants to be labeled "low performing." This case, based on a real situation, demonstrates…

  12. Comparison of four lung scoring systems for the assessment of the pathological outcomes derived from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae experimental infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In this study, four lung lesion scoring methods (Slaughterhouse Pleurisy Evaluation System [SPES], Consolidation Lung Lesion Score [LLS], Image analyses [IA] and Ratio of lung weight/body weight [LW/BW]) were compared for the assessment of the different pathological outcomes derived from an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) experimental infection model. Moreover, pathological data was coupled with clinical (fever, inappetence and clinical score), production (average daily weigh gain [ADWG]) and diagnostic (PCR, ELISA and bacterial isolation) parameters within the four infection outcomes (peracute, acute, subclinically infected and non-infected). Results From the 61 inoculated animals, 9 were classified as peracute (presence of severe App-like clinical signs and lesions and sudden death or euthanasia shortly after inoculation), 31 as acutely affected (presence of App-like clinical signs and lesions and survival until the end of the experiment), 12 as subclinically infected (very mild or no clinical signs but App infection confirmed) and 9 as non-infected animals (lack of App-like clinical signs and lack of evidence of App infection). A significant correlation between all lung lesion scoring systems was found with the exception of SPES score versus LW/BW. SPES showed a statistically significant association with all clinical, production and diagnostic (with the exception of PCR detection of App in the tonsil) variables assessed. LLS and IA showed similar statistically significant associations as SPES, with the exception of seroconversion against App at necropsy. In contrast, LW/BW was statistically associated only with App isolation in lungs, presence of App-like lesions and ELISA OD values at necropsy. Conclusions In conclusion, SPES, LLS and IA are economic, fast and easy-to-perform lung scoring methods that, in combination with different clinical and diagnostic parameters, allow the characterization of different outcomes after App infection. PMID

  13. A prospective study validating a clinical scoring system and demonstrating phenotypical-genotypical correlations in Silver-Russell syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Azzi, Salah; Salem, Jennifer; Thibaud, Nathalie; Chantot-Bastaraud, Sandra; Lieber, Eli; Netchine, Irène; Harbison, Madeleine D

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple clinical scoring systems have been proposed for Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS). Here we aimed to test a clinical scoring system for SRS and to analyse the correlation between (epi)genotype and phenotype. Subjects and methods Sixty-nine patients were examined by two physicians. Clinical scores were generated for all patients, with a new, six-item scoring system: (1) small for gestational age, birth length and/or weight ≤−2SDS, (2) postnatal growth retardation (height ≤−2SDS), (3) relative macrocephaly at birth, (4) body asymmetry, (5) feeding difficulties and/or body mass index (BMI) ≤−2SDS in toddlers; (6) protruding forehead at the age of 1–3 years. Subjects were considered to have likely SRS if they met at least four of these six criteria. Molecular investigations were performed blind to the clinical data. Results The 69 patients were classified into two groups (Likely-SRS (n=60), Unlikely-SRS (n=9)). Forty-six Likely-SRS patients (76.7%) displayed either 11p15 ICR1 hypomethylation (n=35; 58.3%) or maternal UPD of chromosome 7 (mUPD7) (n=11; 18.3%). Eight Unlikely-SRS patients had neither ICR1 hypomethylation nor mUPD7, whereas one patient had mUPD7. The clinical score and molecular results yielded four groups that differed significantly overall and for individual scoring system factors. Further molecular screening led identifying chromosomal abnormalities in Likely-SRS-double-negative and Unlikely-SRS groups. Four Likely-SRS-double negative patients carried a DLK1/GTL2 IG-DMR hypomethylation, a mUPD16; a mUPD20 and a de novo 1q21 microdeletion. Conclusions This new scoring system is very sensitive (98%) for the detection of patients with SRS with demonstrated molecular abnormalities. Given its clinical and molecular heterogeneity, SRS could be considered as a spectrum. PMID:25951829

  14. Reduced sampling efficiency causes degraded Vernier hyperacuity with normal aging: Vernier acuity in position noise.

    PubMed

    Li, Roger W; Brown, Brian; Edwards, Marion H; Ngo, Charlie V; Chat, Sandy W; Levi, Dennis M

    2012-01-01

    Vernier acuity, a form of visual hyperacuity, is amongst the most precise forms of spatial vision. Under optimal conditions Vernier thresholds are much finer than the inter-photoreceptor distance. Achievement of such high precision is based substantially on cortical computations, most likely in the primary visual cortex. Using stimuli with added positional noise, we show that Vernier processing is reduced with advancing age across a wide range of noise levels. Using an ideal observer model, we are able to characterize the mechanisms underlying age-related loss, and show that the reduction in Vernier acuity can be mainly attributed to the reduction in efficiency of sampling, with no significant change in the level of internal position noise, or spatial distortion, in the visual system.

  15. Theoretical and applied aspects of night vision goggle resolution and visual acuity assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Task, H. Lee; Pinkus, Alan R.

    2007-04-01

    The image quality of night vision goggles is often expressed in terms of visual acuity, resolution or modulation transfer function. The primary reason for providing a measure of image quality is the underlying assumption that the image quality metric correlates with the level of visual performance that one could expect when using the device, for example, target detection or target recognition performance. This paper provides a theoretical analysis of the relationships between these three image quality metrics: visual acuity, resolution and modulation transfer function. Results from laboratory and field studies were used to relate these metrics to visual performance. These results can also be applied to non-image intensifier based imaging systems such as a helmet-mounted display coupled to an imaging sensor.

  16. The Effect of Zeaxanthin on the Visual Acuity of Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Saidi, Eric A; Davey, Pinakin Gunvant; Cameron, D Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Oral supplementation of carotenoids such as zeaxanthin or lutein which naturally occur in human retina have been shown to improve vision and prevent progression of damage to advanced AMD in some studies. The zebrafish eye shares many physiological similarities with the human eye and is increasingly being used as model for vision research. We hypothesized that injection of zeaxanthin into the zebrafish eye would improve the visual acuity of the zebrafish over time. Visual acuity, calculated in cycles per degree, was measured in adult zebrafish to establish a consistent baseline using the optokinetic response. Zeaxanthin dissolved into phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or PBS only was injected into the anterior chamber of the right and left eyes of the Zebrafish. Visual acuities were measured at 1 week and 3, 8 and 12 weeks post-injection to compare to baseline values. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare visual acuities between fish injected with PBS and zeaxanthin. A significant improvement in visual acuity, 14% better than before the injection (baseline levels), was observed one week after injection with zeaxanthin (p = 0.04). This improvement peaked at more than 30% for some fish a few weeks after the injection and improvement in vision persisted at 3 weeks after injection (p = 0.006). The enhanced visual function was not significantly better than baseline at 8 weeks (p = 0.19) and returned to baseline levels 12 weeks after the initial injection (p = 0.50). Zeaxanthin can improve visual acuity in zebrafish eyes. Further studies are required to develop a better understanding of the role zeaxanthin and other carotenoids play during normal visual function.

  17. Fresnel prisms and their effects on visual acuity and binocularity.

    PubMed Central

    Véronneau-Troutman, S

    1978-01-01

    1. The visual acuity with the Fresnel membrane prism is significantly less than that with the conventional prism of the same power for all prism powers from 12 delta through 30 delata at distance and from 15 delta through 30 delta at near. 2. The difference in the visual acuity between base up and base down, and between base in and base out, is not significantly different for either the Fresnel membrane prism or for the conventional prism. 3. For both Fresnel membrane prism and the conventional prism, the visual acuity when looking straight ahead. 4. Using Fresnel membrane prisms of the same power from different lots, the visual acuity varied significantly. The 30 delta prism caused the widest range in visual acuity. 5. When normal subjects are fitted with the higher powers of the Fresnel membrane prism, fusion and stereopsis are disrupted to such an extent that the use of this device to restore or to improve binocular vision in cases with large-angle deviations is seriously questioned. 6. Moreover, the disruption of fusion and stereopsis is abrupt and severe and does not parallel the decrease in visual acuity. The severely reduced ability to maintain fusion may be related to the optical aberrations, which, in turn, may be due to the molding process and the polyvinyl chloride molding material. 7. Through the flexibility of the membrane prism is a definite advantage, because of its proclivity to reduce visual acuity and increase aberrations its prescription for adults often must be limited to only one eye. 8. For the same reasons in the young child with binocular vision problems, the membrane prism presently available should be prescribed over both eyes only in powers less than 20 delta. When the membrane prism is to be used as a partial occluder (over one eye only), any power can be used. 9. The new Fresnel "hard" prism reduces visual acuity minimally and rarely disrupts binocularity, thus increasing the potential for prismotherapy to establish binocularity. This

  18. Human Time-Frequency Acuity Beats the Fourier Uncertainty Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheim, Jacob N.; Magnasco, Marcelo O.

    2013-01-01

    The time-frequency uncertainty principle states that the product of the temporal and frequency extents of a signal cannot be smaller than 1/(4π). We study human ability to simultaneously judge the frequency and the timing of a sound. Our subjects often exceeded the uncertainty limit, sometimes by more than tenfold, mostly through remarkable timing acuity. Our results establish a lower bound for the nonlinearity and complexity of the algorithms employed by our brains in parsing transient sounds, rule out simple “linear filter” models of early auditory processing, and highlight timing acuity as a central feature in auditory object processing.

  19. Human time-frequency acuity beats the Fourier uncertainty principle.

    PubMed

    Oppenheim, Jacob N; Magnasco, Marcelo O

    2013-01-25

    The time-frequency uncertainty principle states that the product of the temporal and frequency extents of a signal cannot be smaller than 1/(4 π). We study human ability to simultaneously judge the frequency and the timing of a sound. Our subjects often exceeded the uncertainty limit, sometimes by more than tenfold, mostly through remarkable timing acuity. Our results establish a lower bound for the nonlinearity and complexity of the algorithms employed by our brains in parsing transient sounds, rule out simple "linear filter" models of early auditory processing, and highlight timing acuity as a central feature in auditory object processing.

  20. Evaluation of the neural function of nonhuman primates with spinal cord injury using an evoked potential-based scoring system

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jichao; Ma, Mengjun; Xie, Zhongyu; Wang, Peng; Tang, Yong; Huang, Lin; Chen, Keng; Gao, Liangbin; Wu, Yanfeng; Shen, Huiyong; Zeng, Yuanshan

    2016-01-01

    Nonhuman primate models of spinal cord injury (SCI) have been widely used in evaluation of the efficacy and safety of experimental restorative interventions before clinical trials. However, no objective methods are currently available for the evaluation of neural function in nonhuman primates. In our long-term clinical practice, we have used evoked potential (EP) for neural function surveillance during operation and accumulated extensive experience. In the present study, a nonhuman primate model of SCI was established in 6 adult cynomologus monkeys through spinal cord contusion injury at T8–T9. The neural function before SCI and within 6 months after SCI was evaluated based on EP recording. A scoring system including somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) and transcranial electrical stimulation-motor evoked potentials (TES-MEPs) was established for the evaluation of neural function of nonhuman primates with SCI. We compared the motor function scores of nonhuman primates before and after SCI. Our results showed that the EP below the injury level significantly changed during the 6 months after SCI. In addition, a positive correlation was identified between the EP scores and motor function. The EP-based scoring system is a reliable approach for evaluating the motor function changes in nonhuman primates with SCI. PMID:27629352

  1. Predicting short-term survival after liver transplantation on eight score systems: a national report from China Liver Transplant Registry

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Qi; Dai, Haojiang; Zhuang, Runzhou; Shen, Tian; Wang, Weilin; Xu, Xiao; Zheng, Shusen

    2017-01-01

    To compare the performance of eight score systems (MELD, uMELD, MELD-Na. iMELD, UKELD, MELD-AS, CTP, and mCTP) in predicting the post-transplant mortality, we analyzed the data of 6,014 adult cirrhotic patients who underwent liver transplantation between January 2003 and December 2010 from the China Liver Transplant Registry database. In hepatitis B virus (HBV) group, MELD, uMELD and MELD-AS showed good predictive accuracies at 3-month mortality after liver transplantation; by comparison with other five models, MELD presented the best ability in predicting 3-month, 6-month and 1-year mortality, showing a significantly better predictive ability than UKELD and iMELD. In hepatitis C virus and Alcohol groups, the predictive ability did not differ significantly between MELD and other models. Patient survivals in different MELD categories were of statistically significant difference. Among patients with MELD score >35, a new prognostic model based on serum creatinine, need for hemodialysis and moderate ascites could identify the sickest one. In conclusion, MELD is superior to other score systems in predicting short-term post-transplant survival in patients with HBV-related liver disease. Among patients with MELD score >35, a new prognostic model can identify the sickest patients who should be excluded from waiting list to prevent wasteful transplantation. PMID:28198820

  2. A toxicity scoring system for the 10-day whole sediment test with Corophium insidiosum (Crawford).

    PubMed

    Prato, Ermelinda; Biandolino, Francesca; Libralato, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    This study developed a tool able to evaluate the potential contamination of marine sediments detecting the presence or absence of toxicity supporting environmental decision-making processes. When the sample is toxic, it is important to classify its level of toxicity to understand its subsequent effects and management practices. Corophium insidiosum is a widespread and frequently recorded species along the Mediterranean Sea, North Sea and western Baltic Sea with records also in the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean. This amphipod is found in high abundance in shallow brackish inshore areas and estuaries also with high turbidity. At Italian level, C. insidiosum is more frequently collectable than Corophium orientale, making routine toxicity tests easier to be performed. Moreover, according to the international scientific literature, C. insidiosum is more sensitive than C. orientale. Whole sediment toxicity data (10 days) with C. insidiosum were organised in a species-specific toxicity score on the basis of the minimum significance difference (MSD) approach. Thresholds to rank samples as non-toxic and toxic were based on sediment samples (n=84) from the Gulf of Taranto (Italy). A five-class toxicity score (absent, low, medium, high and very high toxicity) was developed, considering the distribution of the 90th percentile of the MSD normalised to the effects on the negative controls (samples from reference sites). This toxicity score could be useful for interpreting sediment potential impacts and providing quick responsive management information.

  3. Arterial reconstruction after mangled extremity: injury severity scoring systems are not predictive of limb salvage.

    PubMed

    Elsharawy, Mohamed Amin

    2005-01-01

    The Vascular Unit at Suez Canal University Hospital in Egypt covers a wide area with high rates of severe injuries. This is a prospective study of mangled extremities to identify risk factors associated with limb loss in these patients. Between December 2000 and August 2003, a prospective study on all patients with arterial injuries in mangled extremities was undertaken. All patients were scored using the Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) and the Mangled Extremity Severity Index (MESI). During this period, arterial reconstruction was performed in 62 patients. Primary patency, secondary patency, and limb salvage rates were 81%, 85.5%, and 93.5%, respectively. The only factor affecting limb salvage (statistical trend) was the site of trauma (upper limb 100% vs lower limb 89%; p = .08%). There was no significant effect related to the mechanism of trauma (blunt 90% vs stab 100%; p = .125), MESS (< 7, 100% vs > 7, 91%; p = .22), and MESI (< 20, 100% vs > 20, 90.5%; p = .154). Upper limb injuries were the least likely to lead to amputation. We recommend that all injuries, whatever their score, should be surgically explored before treatment decisions are made.

  4. Analysis of Surgical Site Infection after Musculoskeletal Tumor Surgery: Risk Assessment Using a New Scoring System

    PubMed Central

    Nagano, Satoshi; Yokouchi, Masahiro; Setoguchi, Takao; Sasaki, Hiromi; Shimada, Hirofumi; Kawamura, Ichiro; Ishidou, Yasuhiro; Kamizono, Junichi; Yamamoto, Takuya; Kawamura, Hideki; Komiya, Setsuro

    2014-01-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) has not been extensively studied in musculoskeletal tumors (MST) owing to the rarity of the disease. We analyzed incidence and risk factors of SSI in MST. SSI incidence was evaluated in consecutive 457 MST cases (benign, 310 cases and malignant, 147 cases) treated at our institution. A detailed analysis of the clinical background of the patients, pre- and postoperative hematological data, and other factors that might be associated with SSI incidence was performed for malignant MST cases. SSI occurred in 0.32% and 12.2% of benign and malignant MST cases, respectively. The duration of the surgery (P = 0.0002) and intraoperative blood loss (P = 0.0005) was significantly more in the SSI group than in the non-SSI group. We established the musculoskeletal oncological surgery invasiveness (MOSI) index by combining 4 risk factors (blood loss, operation duration, preoperative chemotherapy, and the use of artificial materials). The MOSI index (0–4 points) score significantly correlated with the risk of SSI, as demonstrated by an SSI incidence of 38.5% in the group with a high score (3-4 points). The MOSI index score and laboratory data at 1 week after surgery could facilitate risk evaluation and prompt diagnosis of SSI. PMID:24672281

  5. Comparison of Hay's criteria with Nugent's scoring system for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Rohit; Bhalla, Preena; Chadha, Sanjim; Grover, Sujatha; Garg, Suneela

    2013-01-01

    Although Nugent's criterion is considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV), the method requires an experienced slide reader and considerable time and skill. In this study, we compared the method of Hay and Ison with Nugent's scoring criteria. Vaginal specimens were collected from a total of 213 women, presenting with or without the symptoms of vaginitis. Diagnosis of BV was done using Nugent' and Hay's method. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for positive and negative test were calculated for Hay's method using Nugent's method as the gold standard. We diagnosed 70 cases (32.86%) of BV by Nugent's method and 87 (40.85%) cases by the Hay's method. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive value of positive result, predictive value of negative result, and Kappa value when evaluating Hay's criteria using Nugent's criteria as the gold standard were ≥97.2%, ≥88.1%, ≥80.4%, ≥97.1%, and ≥0.830, respectively, when Hay's grade II and/or Nugent's intermediate score were considered either as negative or positive or excluded. Using Nugent score for the intermediate group is the most difficult. Hay's method shows good agreement with the gold standard method of Nugent et al. and can be used as an alternative to Nugent's criteria in busy tertiary care hospitals.

  6. Checklist and Scoring System for the Assessment of Soft Tissue Preservation in CT Examinations of Human Mummies

    PubMed Central

    Panzer, Stephanie; Mc Coy, Mark R.; Hitzl, Wolfgang; Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Zink, Albert R.; Augat, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a checklist for standardized assessment of soft tissue preservation in human mummies based on whole-body computed tomography examinations, and to add a scoring system to facilitate quantitative comparison of mummies. Computed tomography examinations of 23 mummies from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily (17 adults, 6 children; 17 anthropogenically and 6 naturally mummified) and 7 mummies from the crypt of the Dominican Church of the Holy Spirit of Vilnius, Lithuania (5 adults, 2 children; all naturally mummified) were used to develop the checklist following previously published guidelines. The scoring system was developed by assigning equal scores for checkpoints with equivalent quality. The checklist was evaluated by intra- and inter-observer reliability. The finalized checklist was applied to compare the groups of anthropogenically and naturally mummified bodies. The finalized checklist contains 97 checkpoints and was divided into two main categories, “A. Soft Tissues of Head and Musculoskeletal System” and “B. Organs and Organ Systems”, each including various subcategories. The complete checklist had an intra-observer reliability of 98% and an inter-observer reliability of 93%. Statistical comparison revealed significantly higher values in anthropogenically compared to naturally mummified bodies for the total score and for three subcategories. In conclusion, the developed checklist allows for a standardized assessment and documentation of soft tissue preservation in whole-body computed tomography examinations of human mummies. The scoring system facilitates a quantitative comparison of the soft tissue preservation status between single mummies or mummy collections. PMID:26244862

  7. Development of the body condition score system in Murrah buffaloes: validation through ultrasonic assessment of body fat reserves.

    PubMed

    Alapati, Anitha; Kapa, Sarjan Rao; Jeepalyam, Suresh; Rangappa, Srinivasa Moorthy; Yemireddy, Kotilinga Reddy

    2010-03-01

    The body condition score (BCS) system is a subjective scoring method of evaluating the energy reserves of dairy animals to provide better understanding of biological relationships between body fat, milk production and reproduction. This method helps in adopting the optimum management practices to derive maximum production and maintain optimum health of the livestock. In this study, a new BCS system was developed for Murrah buffaloes. The skeletal check points were identified by studying the anatomical features and amount of fat reserves in slaughtered animals. The scores were assigned from 1 to 5 based on the amount of fat reserves in slaughtered animals. A score of 1 represents least and 5 represents most amount of fat. The skeletal check points identified were ordered based on the amount of carcass fat reserves and scores assigned to prepare a preliminary BCS chart on a 1 to 5 scale at 0.25 increments. The BCS chart was further modified by eliminating the skeletal check points at which the fat reserves were less evident on palpation in most of the buffaloes and a new BCS chart on a 1 to 5 scale at 0.5 increments examining eight skeletal check points was developed. The new BCS system developed was tested for precision in 10 buffaloes for each point of the 1-5 scale by ultrasonographic measurements of body fat reserves. Ultrasonographic measurements showed that as the BCS increased, the amount of fat reserves also increased (p < 0.01), indicating that the BCS adequately reflected the amount of actual fat reserves. BCS was significantly correlated (r = 0.860) with the carcass fat reserves as well as the ultrasonographic fat reserves (r = 0.854).

  8. An automatic machine learning system for coronary calcium scoring in clinical non-contrast enhanced, ECG-triggered cardiac CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolterink, Jelmer M.; Leiner, Tim; Takx, Richard A. P.; Viergever, Max A.; Išgum, Ivana

    2014-03-01

    Presence of coronary artery calcium (CAC) is a strong and independent predictor of cardiovascular events. We present a system using a forest of extremely randomized trees to automatically identify and quantify CAC in routinely acquired cardiac non-contrast enhanced CT. Candidate lesions the system could not label with high certainty were automatically identified and presented to an expert who could relabel them to achieve high scoring accuracy with minimal effort. The study included 200 consecutive non-contrast enhanced ECG-triggered cardiac CTs (120 kV, 55 mAs, 3 mm section thickness). Expert CAC annotations made as part of the clinical routine served as the reference standard. CAC candidates were extracted by thresholding (130 HU) and 3-D connected component analysis. They were described by shape, intensity and spatial features calculated using multi-atlas segmentation of coronary artery centerlines from ten CTA scans. CAC was identified using a randomized decision tree ensemble classifier in a ten-fold stratified cross-validation experiment and quantified in Agatston and volume scores for each patient. After classification, candidates with posterior probability indicating uncertain labeling were selected for further assessment by an expert. Images with metal implants were excluded. In the remaining 164 images, Spearman's p between automatic and reference scores was 0.94 for both Agatston and volume scores. On average 1.8 candidate lesions per scan were subsequently presented to an expert. After correction, Spearman's p was 0.98. We have described a system for automatic CAC scoring in cardiac CT images which is able to effectively select difficult examinations for further refinement by an expert.

  9. A magnetic resonance imaging-based prognostic scoring system to predict outcome in transplant-eligible patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Mai, Elias K; Hielscher, Thomas; Kloth, Jost K; Merz, Maximilian; Shah, Sofia; Raab, Marc S; Hillengass, Michaela; Wagner, Barbara; Jauch, Anna; Hose, Dirk; Weber, Marc-André; Delorme, Stefan; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Hillengass, Jens

    2015-06-01

    Diffuse and focal bone marrow infiltration patterns detected by magnetic resonance imaging have been shown to be of prognostic significance in all stages of monoclonal plasma cell disorders and have, therefore, been incorporated into the definition of the disease. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to develop a rapidly evaluable prognostic scoring system, incorporating the most significant information acquired from magnetic resonance imaging. Therefore, the impact of bone marrow infiltration patterns on progression-free and overall survival in 161 transplant-eligible myeloma patients was evaluated. Compared to salt and pepper/minimal diffuse infiltration, moderate/severe diffuse infiltration had a negative prognostic impact on both progression-free survival (P<0.001) and overall survival (P=0.003). More than 25 focal lesions on whole-body magnetic resonance imaging or more than seven on axial magnetic resonance imaging were associated with an adverse prognosis (progression-free survival: P=0.001/0.003 and overall survival: P=0.04/0.02). A magnetic resonance imaging-based prognostic scoring system, combining grouped diffuse and focal infiltration patterns, was formulated and is applicable to whole-body as well as axial magnetic resonance imaging. The score identified high-risk patients with median progression-free and overall survival of 23.4 and 55.9 months, respectively (whole-body-based). Multivariate analyses demonstrated that the magnetic resonance imaging-based prognostic score stage III (high-risk) and adverse cytogenetics are independent prognostic factors for both progression-free and overall survival (whole-body-based, progression-free survival: hazard ratio=3.65, P<0.001; overall survival: hazard ratio=5.19, P=0.005). In conclusion, we suggest a magnetic resonance imaging-based prognostic scoring system which is a robust, easy to assess and interpret parameter summarizing significant magnetic resonance imaging findings in transplant

  10. EQUIFAT: A novel scoring system for the semi-quantitative evaluation of regional adipose tissues in Equidae

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Philippa K.; Harris, Patricia A.; Maltin, Charlotte A.; Grove-White, Dai; Argo, Caroline McG.

    2017-01-01

    Anatomically distinct adipose tissues represent variable risks to metabolic health in man and some other mammals. Quantitative-imaging of internal adipose depots is problematic in large animals and associations between regional adiposity and health are poorly understood. This study aimed to develop and test a semi-quantitative system (EQUIFAT) which could be applied to regional adipose tissues. Anatomically-defined, photographic images of adipose depots (omental, mesenteric, epicardial, rump) were collected from 38 animals immediately post-mortem. Images were ranked and depot-specific descriptors were developed (1 = no fat visible; 5 = excessive fat present). Nuchal-crest and ventro-abdominal-retroperitoneal adipose depot depths (cm) were transformed to categorical 5 point scores. The repeatability and reliability of EQUIFAT was independently tested by 24 observers. When half scores were permitted, inter-observer agreement was substantial (average κw: mesenteric, 0.79; omental, 0.79; rump 0.61) or moderate (average κw; epicardial, 0.60). Intra-observer repeatability was tested by 8 observers on 2 occasions. Kappa analysis indicated perfect (omental and mesenteric) and substantial agreement (epicardial and rump) between attempts. A further 207 animals were evaluated ante-mortem (age, height, breed-type, gender, body condition score [BCS]) and again immediately post-mortem (EQUIFAT scores, carcass weight). Multivariable, random effect linear regression models were fitted (breed as random effect; BCS as outcome variable). Only height, carcass weight, omental and retroperitoneal EQUIFAT scores remained as explanatory variables in the final model. The EQUIFAT scores developed here demonstrate clear functional differences between regional adipose depots and future studies could be directed towards describing associations between adiposity and disease risk in surgical and post-mortem situations. PMID:28296956

  11. Comparison of three prognostic scoring systems in a series of 146 cases of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML): MD Anderson prognostic score (MDAPS), CMML-specific prognostic scoring system (CPSS) and Mayo prognostic model. A detailed review of prognostic factors in CMML.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Xavier; Nomdedeu, Meritxell; Santacruz, Rodrigo; Martínez, Núria; Costa, Dolors; Pereira, Arturo; Estrada, Natalia; Xicoy, Blanca; Esteve, Jordi; Nomdedeu, Benet

    2015-07-23

    Although specific prognostic models for chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) exist, few are based on large series of patients. MD Anderson prognostic score (MDAPS) has been the most useful for CMML risk assessment. Due to recent emergence of CMML-specific prognostic scoring system (CPSS) and Mayo prognostic model, we compared the three scores. One hundred forty-six CMML patients diagnosed between 1998 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Univariate analysis was performed to assess prognostic impact on overall survival (OS) and leukemia-free survival (LFS) of the variables composing the scores and all items showed prognostic value on OS with the exception of the presence of circulating immature myeloid cells. Regarding LFS, only CPSS variables, bone marrow blast ≥10% and an absolute monocyte count >10×10(9)/L had an impact. When the scores were applied, all showed an impact on OS and retained their significance in multivariate analysis. By using ROC curves and C-index, CPSS showed a slightly better predictive value for mortality and leukemia transformation. Variables composing the three indexes were compared in multivariate analysis and only CPSS parameters and platelets<100×10(9)/L retained their significance. Based on these findings, by adding platelet count to CPSS, a new score was implemented (CPSS-P) showing the best risk prediction capability in our series. This study reinforces the validity of the tested scores.

  12. Landing Error Scoring System Differences Between Single-Sport and Multi-Sport Female High School–Aged Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Beese, Mark E.; Joy, Elizabeth; Switzler, Craig L.; Hicks-Little, Charlie A.

    2015-01-01

    Context Single-sport specialization (SSS) is becoming more prevalent in youth athletes. Deficits in functional movement have been shown to predispose athletes to injury. It is unclear whether a link exists between SSS and the development of functional movement deficits that predispose SSS athletes to an increased risk of knee injury. Objective To determine whether functional movement deficits exist in SSS athletes compared with multi-sport (M-S) athletes. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Soccer practice fields. Patients or Other Participants A total of 40 (21 SSS [age = 15.05 ± 1.2 years], 19 M-S [age = 15.32 ± 1.2 years]) female high school athlete volunteers were recruited through local soccer clubs. All SSS athletes played soccer. Intervention(s) Participants were grouped into 2 categories: SSS and M-S. All participants completed 3 trials of the standard Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) jump-landing task. They performed a double-legged jump from a 30-cm platform, landing on a rubber mat at a distance of half their body height. Upon landing, participants immediately performed a maximal vertical jump. Main Outcome Measure(s) Values were assigned to each trial using the LESS scoring criteria. We averaged the 3 scored trials and then used a Mann-Whitney U test to test for differences between groups. Participant scores from the jump-landing assessment for each group were also placed into the 4 defined LESS categories for group comparison using a Pearson χ2 test. The α level was set a priori at .05. Results Mean scores were 6.84 ± 1.81 for the SSS group and 6.07 ± 1.93 for the M-S group. We observed no differences between groups (z = −1.44, P = .15). A Pearson χ2 analysis revealed that the proportions of athletes classified as having excellent, good, moderate, or poor LESS scores were not different between the SSS and M-S groups ( = 1.999, P = .57). Conclusions Participation in soccer alone compared with multiple sports did not affect LESS scores in

  13. Effects of posterior segment disorders on oscillatory displacement thresholds, and on acuities as measured using the potential acuity meter and laser interferometer.

    PubMed

    Barrett, B T; Davison, P A; Eustace, P E

    1994-04-01

    Oscillatory displacement thresholds (ODTs) were measured in 67 subjects with clear ocular media, but known posterior segment disorders. The ability of these thresholds to assess reduced visual function, as quantified by visual acuity deficits, was compared with that of the Potential Acuity Meter (PAM) and the Rodenstock Retinometer (RR). ODTs were found to be sensitive to acuity deficits which were retinal/neural in origin. Despite the fact that interferometric acuities are, unlike ODTs, a measure of resolution, the RR proved no more accurate in assessing the level of letter acuity which existed than did ODT measurement. As would be expected, the PAM provided for the most accurate means of assessing non-optical visual acuity deficits. However, the PAM proved to be less useful in eyes with: very poor levels of acuity, and certain anomalous conditions. The results have implications for the relative ability of each of the three tests to identify reduced visual function behind cataract.

  14. Vision-guided ocular growth in a mutant chicken model with diminished visual acuity

    PubMed Central

    Ritchey, Eric R.; Zelinka, Christopher; Tang, Junhua; Liu, Jun; Code, Kimberly A.; Petersen-Jones, Simon; Fischer, Andy J.

    2012-01-01

    Visual experience is known to guide ocular growth. We tested the hypothesis that vision-guided ocular growth is disrupted in a model system with diminished visual acuity. We examine whether ocular elongation is influenced by form-deprivation (FD) and lens-imposed defocus in the Retinopathy, Globe Enlarged (RGE) chicken. Young RGE chicks have poor visual acuity, without significant retinal pathology, resulting from a mutation in guanine nucleotide-binding protein β3 (GNB3), also known as transducin β3 or Gβ3. The mutation in GNB3 destabilizes the protein and causes a loss of Gβ3 from photoreceptors and ON-bipolar cells. (Ritchey et al. 2010)FD increased ocular elongation in RGE eyes in a manner similar to that seen in wild-type (WT) eyes. By comparison, the excessive ocular elongation that results from hyperopic defocus was increased, whereas myopic defocus failed to significantly decrease ocular elongation in RGE eyes. Brief daily periods of unrestricted vision interrupting FD prevented ocular elongation in RGE chicks in a manner similar to that seen in WT chicks. Glucagonergic amacrine cells differentially expressed the immediate early gene Egr1 in response to growth-guiding stimuli in RGE retinas, but the defocus-dependent up-regulation of Egr1 was lesser in RGE retinas compared to that of WT retinas. We conclude that high visual acuity, and the retinal signaling mediated by Gβ3, is not required for emmetropization and the excessive ocular elongation caused by FD and hyperopic defocus. However, the loss of acuity and Gβ3 from RGE retinas causes enhanced responses to hyperopic defocus and diminished responses to myopic defocus. PMID:22824538

  15. Vision-guided ocular growth in a mutant chicken model with diminished visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Ritchey, Eric R; Zelinka, Christopher; Tang, Junhua; Liu, Jun; Code, Kimberly A; Petersen-Jones, Simon; Fischer, Andy J

    2012-09-01

    Visual experience is known to guide ocular growth. We tested the hypothesis that vision-guided ocular growth is disrupted in a model system with diminished visual acuity. We examine whether ocular elongation is influenced by form-deprivation (FD) and lens-imposed defocus in the Retinopathy, Globe Enlarged (RGE) chicken. Young RGE chicks have poor visual acuity, without significant retinal pathology, resulting from a mutation in guanine nucleotide-binding protein β3 (GNB3), also known as transducin β3 or Gβ3. The mutation in GNB3 destabilizes the protein and causes a loss of Gβ3 from photoreceptors and ON-bipolar cells (Ritchey et al., 2010). FD increased ocular elongation in RGE eyes in a manner similar to that seen in wild-type (WT) eyes. By comparison, the excessive ocular elongation that results from hyperopic defocus was increased, whereas myopic defocus failed to significantly decrease ocular elongation in RGE eyes. Brief daily periods of unrestricted vision interrupting FD prevented ocular elongation in RGE chicks in a manner similar to that seen in WT chicks. Glucagonergic amacrine cells differentially expressed the immediate early gene Egr1 in response to growth-guiding stimuli in RGE retinas, but the defocus-dependent up-regulation of Egr1 was lesser in RGE retinas compared to that of WT retinas. We conclude that high visual acuity, and the retinal signaling mediated by Gβ3, is not required for emmetropization and the excessive ocular elongation caused by FD and hyperopic defocus. However, the loss of acuity and Gβ3 from RGE retinas causes enhanced responses to hyperopic defocus and diminished responses to myopic defocus.

  16. Implementation of the pediatric early warning scoring system on a pediatric hematology/oncology unit.

    PubMed

    Demmel, Kathleen M; Williams, Lucinda; Flesch, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Despite improved outcomes for pediatric Hematology/Oncology patients over the past 15-20 years, sepsis and other acute events continue to cause serious illness in these children. Implementing a pediatric early warning scoring tool (PEWS) with an associated multi-disciplinary action algorithm in a pediatric Hematology/Oncology unit helped to remove barriers that prevented timely referral of children who are clinically deteriorating and requiring immediate help, enhanced multi-disciplinary team communication, and has led to a more than 3-fold increase in days between codes on the Hematology/Oncology unit.

  17. Electrophysiological Correlates of Vernier Acuity in Human Visual Cortex.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-28

    Ia ) VEPs evoked bj vernier offset stimuli couldbe used to estimate 7 LL- psychophysical threshold, b VEP amplitude was affected by interference lines...absolute accuracy. Relative estimate accuracy is judged by the criteria of the estimates being much less than the resolution acuity predicted by anato - mical

  18. Spatial contrast sensitivity and grating acuity of barn owls.

    PubMed

    Harmening, Wolf M; Nikolay, Petra; Orlowski, Julius; Wagner, Hermann

    2009-07-22

    The eyes of barn owls (Tyto alba pratincola) display very little aberrations, and have thus excellent optical quality. In a series of behavioral experiments, we tested whether this presumably beneficial feature is also reflected at a perceptual level in this species. As fundamental indicators for visual performance, the spatial contrast sensitivity function (CSF) and grating acuity were measured in two barn owls with psychophysical techniques. Stimulus luminance was 2.7 cd/m(2). The CSF found here renders the typical band-limited, inverted U-shaped function, with a low maximum contrast sensitivity of 8-19 at a spatial frequency of 1 cyc/deg. Grating acuity was estimated from the CSF high frequency cut-off and yielded 3.0-3.7 cyc/deg. In a second experiment, in which contrast was held constant and spatial frequency was varied, grating acuity was measured directly (2.6-4.0 cyc/deg). These results put barn owls at the very low end of the visual acuity spectrum of birds, and demonstrate that visual resolution and sensitivity cannot be predicted by optical considerations alone.

  19. On Using Vernier Acuity to Assess Magnocellular Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skottun, Bernt C.; Skoyles, John R.

    2010-01-01

    A recent study [Keri, S., & Benedek, G. (2009). Visual pathway deficit in female fragile x premutation carriers: A potential endophenotype. "Brain and Cognition", 69, 291-295] has found Vernier acuity deficiencies together with contrast sensitivity defects consistent with a magnocellular deficit in female fragile x premutation carriers. This may…

  20. A Comparison of Patched HOTV Visual Acuity and Photoscreening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Rachel; Clausen, Michelle M.; Bates, Janice; Stark, Lee; Arnold, Koni K.; Arnold, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    Early detection of significant vision problems in children is a high priority for pediatricians and school nurses. Routine vision screening is a necessary part of that detection and has traditionally involved acuity charts. However, photoscreening in which "red eye" is elicited to show whether each eye is focusing may outperform routine acuity…

  1. Mortality scoring in ITU.

    PubMed

    Niewiński, Grzegorz; Kański, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Chronic shortage of ITU beds makes decisions on admission difficult and responsible. The use of computer-based mortality scoring should help in decision-making and for this purpose, a number of different scoring systems have been created; in principle, they should be easy to use, adaptable to all populations of patients and suitable for predicting the risk of mortality during both ITU and hospital stay. Most of existing scales and scoring systems were included in this review. They are frequently used in ITUs and become a necessary tool to describe ITU populations and to explain differences in mortality. As there are several pitfalls related to the interpretation of the numbers supplied by the systems, they should be used with the knowledge on the severity scoring science. Moreover, the cost and significant workload limit the use of scoring systems; in many cases an extra person has to be employed for collection and analysis of data only.

  2. THE RELATION BETWEEN VISUAL ACUITY AND BRIGHTNESS DISCRIMINATION

    PubMed Central

    Hendley, Charles D.

    1948-01-01

    1. Visual acuity depends on the brightness contrast between test object and background; and conversely, brightness discrimination depends on the target size. Both functions vary with the brightness of the background. Measurements with rectangular targets of length-width ratio 2 were made over a range of sizes, contrasts, and brightnesses sufficient to determine the relations among these three variables. The rectangles were from 2' to 50' wide; the contrast fraction, ΔI/I, ranged from 0.01 to 40; the background brightness varied from 0.0001 to 2500 millilamberts. 2. When ΔI/I or visual acuity is plotted as a function of brightness the data do, in general, follow Hecht's equation. The departure from a simple photochemical theory which the larger targets show is probably due to changes in the functional retinal mosaic with changing brightness. 3. In general also, the relation between visual acuity and brightness, at selected contrasts, fits Hecht's derivation. At low contrasts, as the brightness is reduced a point is reached at which the test object becomes invisible at any size. 4. No simple relation emerges from the data relating visual acuity to contrast, at set levels of illumination. Over only a very short range are visual acuity and contrast directly related. At high contrasts, visual acuity reaches a maximum, whereas at low visual acuity, ΔI/I reaches a minimum which cannot be passed regardless of size. 5. The shape of the curves relating ΔI/I to brightness is not significantly altered by changing the exposure time. There is some evidence to show that a 3 second exposure of the target is equivalent to two looks of 0.2 second each. 6. In all these studies the thresholds were determined by a frequency of seeing method, and the data have been considered in terms of a quantum theory of threshold seeing. It was found that a threshold response involves between four and eight independent critical events, which are largely independent of size, brightness, and

  3. Comparison of Existing Clinical Scoring Systems in Predicting Severity and Prognoses of Hyperlipidemic Acute Pancreatitis in Chinese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Lei; Sun, Rui Qing; Jia, Rong Rong; Ma, Xiu Ying; Cheng, Li; Tang, Mao Chun; Zhao, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract It is important to identify the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) in the early course of the disease. Clinical scoring systems may be helpful to predict the prognosis of patients with early AP; however, few analysts have forecast the accuracy of scoring systems for the prognosis in hyperlipidemic acute pancreatitis (HLAP). The purpose of this study was to summarize the clinical characteristics of HLAP and compare the accuracy of conventional scoring systems in predicting the prognosis of HLAP. This study retrospectively analyzed all consecutively diagnosed AP patients between September 2008 and March 2014. We compared the clinical characteristics between HLAP and nonhyperlipidemic acute pancreatitis. The bedside index for severity of acute pancreatitis (BISAP), Ranson, computed tomography severity index (CTSI), and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) scores were applied within 48 hours following admission. Of 909 AP patients, 129 (14.2%) had HLAP, 20 were classified as severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), 8 had pseudocysts, 9 had pancreatic necrosis, 30 had pleural effusions, 33 had SIRS, 14 had persistent organ failure, and there was 1 death. Among the HLAP patients, the area under curves for BISAP, Ranson, SIRS, and CTSI in predicting SAP were 0.905, 0.938, 0.812, and 0.834, 0.874, 0.726, 0.668, and 0.848 for local complications, and 0.904, 0.917, 0.758, and 0.849 for organ failure, respectively. HLAP patients were characterized by younger age at onset, higher recurrence rate, and being more prone to pancreatic necrosis, organ failure, and SAP. BISAP, Ranson, SIRS, and CTSI all have accuracy in predicting the prognosis of HLAP patients, but each has different strengths and weaknesses. PMID:26061329

  4. The Bender-Gestalt test in an Italian sample: an analysis of Koppitz's Developmental Bender Scoring System deviations.

    PubMed

    Mazzeschi, C; Lis, A

    2000-04-01

    This study extended the research of the psychometric characteristics of Koppitz's 1963/1975 Developmental Scoring System of the Bender-Gestalt test. Attention was paid to relations among the 7 deviations. The test was administered by licensed psychologists to 1,065 white children, aged from 3 yr., 6 mo. to 11 yr., 5 mo., enrolled in the regular education track of kindergarten and elementary school in Italy.

  5. Restoring Visual Acuity in Dynamic Conditions with a Vestibular Implant

    PubMed Central

    Guinand, Nils; Van de Berg, Raymond; Cavuscens, Samuel; Stokroos, Robert; Ranieri, Maurizio; Pelizzone, Marco; Kingma, Herman; Guyot, Jean-Philippe; Pérez Fornos, Angélica

    2016-01-01

    Vestibular implants are devices designed to rehabilitate patients with a bilateral vestibular loss (BVL). These patients lack a properly functioning vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), which impairs gaze stabilization abilities and results in an abnormal loss of visual acuity (VA) in dynamic situations (i.e., severely limiting the patient's ability to read signs or recognize faces while walking). We previously demonstrated that the VOR can be artificially restored in a group of BVL patients fitted with a prototype vestibular implant. This study was designed to investigate whether these promising results could be translated to a close-to-reality task, significantly improving VA abilities while walking. Six BVL patients previously implanted with a vestibular implant prototype participated in the experiments. VA was determined using Sloan letters displayed on a computer screen, in four conditions: (1) with the patient standing still without moving (static), (2) while the patient was walking on a treadmill at constant speed with the vestibular implant prototype turned off (systemOFF), (3) while the patient was walking on a treadmill at constant speed with the vestibular implant prototype turned on providing coherent motion information (systemONmotion), and (4) a “placebo” condition where the patient was walking on a treadmill at constant speed with the vestibular implant prototype turned on providing reversed motion information (systemONsham). The analysis (one-way repeated measures analysis of variance) revealed a statistically significant effect of the test condition [F(3, 12) = 30.5, p < 0.001]. Significant decreases in VA were observed with the systemOFF condition when compared to the static condition (Tukey post-hoc p < 0.001). When the vestibular implant was turned on, delivering pertinent motion information (systemONmotion) the VA improved to close to normal values. The improvement disappeared in the placebo condition (systemONsham) and VA-values also dropped

  6. Prognostic factors for open globe injuries and correlation of Ocular Trauma Score at a tertiary referral eye care centre in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Rupesh; Wei, Ho Sue; Teoh, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the factors influencing final vision outcome after surgical repair of open globe injuries and to correlate the Ocular trauma score. Materials and Methods: Retrospective case analysis of patients with open globe injuries at a tertiary referral eye care centre in Singapore was performed. Pre-operative factors affecting final vision outcome in patients with open globe injury and correlation of ocular trauma score in our study with international ocular trauma scoring system was performed. Results: Case records of 172 eyes with open globe injury were analyzed. Mean age was 36. 67 years. Mean follow up was 12.26 m. Males were pre-dominantly affected. Initial visual acuity was ≥20/40, 20/50 < 20/200, 20/200- CF, HM– PL and NLP in 24 (14%), 39 (22.7%), 16 (9.3%), 66 (38.4%) and 27 (15.7%) eyes respectively. Final visual acuity was ≤20/40, 20/50 < 20/200, 20/200- 1/200, HM– PL and NLP in 76 (44.2%), 28 (16.3%), 11 (6.4%), 30 (17.4%) and 27 (15.7%) eyes respectively. Ocular trauma score in our study correlates with international ocular trauma scoring system. Conclusion: The present study showed pre-operative variables such as mode of injury, pre-operative visual acuity, traumatic cataract, hyphaema, relative afferent papillary defect, vitreous lossand vitreous hemorrhage to be adversely affecting the final vision outcome. Our study showed a good synchrony with international ocular trauma score (OTS) and based on this study we were able to validate application of OTS in Singapore population. Recognizing these factors can help the surgeon in evidence based counseling. PMID:24104709

  7. A phytochemical-rich diet may explain the absence of age-related decline in visual acuity of Amazonian hunter-gatherers in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    London, Douglas S; Beezhold, Bonnie

    2015-02-01

    Myopia is absent in undisturbed hunter-gatherers but ubiquitous in modern populations. The link between dietary phytochemicals and eye health is well established, although transition away from a wild diet has reduced phytochemical variety. We hypothesized that when larger quantities and greater variety of wild, seasonal phytochemicals are consumed in a food system, there will be a reduced prevalence of degenerative-based eye disease as measured by visual acuity. We compared food systems and visual acuity across isolated Amazonian Kawymeno Waorani hunter-gatherers and neighboring Kichwa subsistence agrarians, using dietary surveys, dietary pattern observation, and Snellen Illiterate E visual acuity examinations. Hunter-gatherers consumed more food species (130 vs. 63) and more wild plants (80 vs. 4) including 76 wild fruits, thereby obtaining larger variety and quantity of phytochemicals than agrarians. Visual acuity was inversely related to age only in agrarians (r = -.846, P < .001). As hypothesized, when stratified by age (<40 and ≥ 40 years), Mann-Whitney U tests revealed that hunter-gatherers maintained high visual acuity throughout life, whereas agrarian visual acuity declined (P values < .001); visual acuity of younger participants was high across the board, however, did not differ between groups (P > .05). This unusual absence of juvenile-onset vision problems may be related to local, organic, whole food diets of subsistence food systems isolated from modern food production. Our results suggest that intake of a wider variety of plant foods supplying necessary phytochemicals for eye health may help maintain visual acuity and prevent degenerative eye conditions as humans age.

  8. Scoring Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamir, Pinchas; Doran, Rodney L.

    1992-01-01

    Scoring guidelines are given for four forms of the practical skills tests of the Second International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Improvement Science Study conducted in the following countries in the 1980s: (1) Hungary; (2) Japan; (3) Korea; (4) Singapore; (5) Israel; and (6) the United States. (SLD)

  9. A scoring system based on artificial neural network for predicting 10-year survival in stage II A colon cancer patients after radical surgery.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jian-Hong; Fang, Yu-Jing; Li, Cai-Xia; Ou, Qing-Jian; Jiang, Wu; Lu, Shi-Xun; Lu, Zhen-Hai; Li, Pei-Xing; Yun, Jing-Ping; Zhang, Rong-Xin; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Wan, De Sen

    2016-04-19

    Nearly 20% patients with stage II A colon cancer will develop recurrent disease post-operatively. The present study aims to develop a scoring system based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for predicting 10-year survival outcome. The clinical and molecular data of 117 stage II A colon cancer patients from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were used for training set and test set; poor pathological grading (score 49), reduced expression of TGFBR2 (score 33), over-expression of TGF-β (score 45), MAPK (score 32), pin1 (score 100), β-catenin in tumor tissue (score 50) and reduced expression of TGF-β in normal mucosa (score 22) were selected as the prognostic risk predictors. According to the developed scoring system, the patients were divided into 3 subgroups, which were supposed with higher, moderate and lower risk levels. As a result, for the 3 subgroups, the 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 16.7%, 62.9% and 100% (P < 0.001); and the 10-year disease free survival (DFS) rates were 16.7%, 61.8% and 98.8% (P < 0.001) respectively. It showed that this scoring system for stage II A colon cancer could help to predict long-term survival and screen out high-risk individuals for more vigorous treatment.

  10. A new high resolution computed tomography scoring system for pulmonary fibrosis, pleural disease, and emphysema in patients with asbestos related disease.

    PubMed Central

    Jarad, N A; Wilkinson, P; Pearson, M C; Rudd, R M

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a scoring system for high resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scans analogous to the International Labour Office (ILO) scoring system for plain chest radiographs in patients with asbestos related disease. Interstitial fibrosis, pleural disease, and emphysema were scored, the reproducibility and the interobserver agreement using this scoring system were examined, and the extent of the various types of disease was correlated with measurements of lung function. Sixty asbestos workers (five women and 55 men) mean age 59 (range 34-78) were studied. The lungs were divided into upper, middle, and lower thirds. An HRCT score for the extent of pleural disease and pulmonary disease in each third was recorded in a way analogous to the International Labour Office (ILO) method of scoring pleural and parenchymal disease on chest radiographs. A CT score for the extent of emphysema was also recorded. Pleural disease and interstitial fibrosis on the plain chest radiographs were assessed according to the ILO scoring system. A chest radiographic score for emphysema analogous to that used for HRCT was also recorded. Two independent readers assigned HRCT scores that differed by two categories or less in 96%, 92%, and 85% compared with 90%, 78%, and 79% of cases for chest radiographs for fibrosis, emphysema, and pleural disease respectively. There was better intraobserver repeatability for the HRCT scores than for the chest radiograph scores for all disorders. Multiple regression analysis showed that scores for interstitial fibrosis, emphysema, and pleural disease on chest radiographs and HRCT correlated to a similar degree with impairment of lung function. Images PMID:1536823

  11. THE VISUAL ACUITY AND INTENSITY DISCRIMINATION OF DROSOPHILA

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Selig; Wald, George

    1934-01-01

    Drosophila possesses an inherited reflex response to a moving visual pattern which can be used to measure its capacity for intensity discrimination and its visual acuity at different illuminations. It is found that these two properties of vision run approximately parallel courses as functions of the prevailing intensity. Visual acuity varies with the logarithm of the intensity in much the same sigmoid way as in man, the bee, and the fiddler crab. The resolving power is very poor at low illuminations and increases at high illuminations. The maximum visual acuity is 0.0018, which is 1/1000 of the maximum of the human eye and 1/10 that of the bee. The intensity discrimination of Drosophila is also extremely poor, even at its best. At low illuminations for two intensities to be recognized as different, the higher must be nearly 100 times the lower. This ratio decreases as the intensity increases, and reaches a minimum of 2.5 which is maintained at the highest intensities. The minimum value of ΔI/I for Drosophila is 1.5, which is to be compared with 0.25 for the bee and 0.006 for man. An explanation of the variation of visual acuity with illumination is given in terms of the variation in number of elements functional in the retinal mosaic at different intensities, this being dependent on the general statistical distribution of thresholds in the ommatidial population. Visual acuity is thus determined by the integral form of this distribution and corresponds to the total number of elements functional. The idea that intensity discrimination is determined by the differential form of this distribution—that is, that it depends on the rate of entrance of functional elements with intensity—is shown to be untenable in the light of the correspondence of the two visual functions. It is suggested that, like visual acuity, intensity discrimination may also have to be considered as a function of the total number of elements active at a given intensity. PMID:19872798

  12. Lumbar position sense acuity during an electrical shock stressor

    PubMed Central

    Hjortskov, Nis; Hye-Knudsen, Christian; Fallentin, Nils

    2005-01-01

    Background Optimal motor control of the spine depends on proprioceptive input as a prerequisite for co-ordination and the stability of the spine. Muscle spindles are known to play an important role in proprioception. Animal experiments suggest that an increase in sympathetic outflow can depress muscle spindle sensitivity. As the muscle spindle may be influenced by sympathetic modulation, we hypothesized that a state of high sympathetic activity as during mental stress would affect the proprioceptive output from the muscle spindles in the back muscles leading to alterations in proprioception and position sense acuity. The aim was to investigate the effect of mental stress, in this study the response to an electrical shock stressor, on position sense acuity in the rotational axis of the lumbar spine. Methods Passive and active position sense acuity in the rotational plane of the lumbar spine was investigated in the presence and absence of an electrical shock stressor in 14 healthy participants. An electrical shock-threat stressor lasting for approximately 12 minutes was used as imposed stressor to build up a strong anticipatory arousal: The participants were told that they were going to receive 8 painful electrical shocks however the participants never received the shocks. To quantify the level of physiological arousal and the level of sympathetic outflow continuous beat-to-beat changes in heart rate (beats*min-1) and systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure (mmHg) were measured. To quantify position sense acuity absolute error (AE) expressed in degrees was measured. Two-way analysis of variance with repeated measurements (subjects as random factor and treatments as fixed factors) was used to compare the different treatments. Results Significant increases were observed in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate during the stress sessions indicating elevated sympathetic activity (15, 14 and 10%, respectively). Despite pronounced

  13. A scoring system approach for the parasite predictive assessment of fish lots: a proof of concept with anisakids.

    PubMed

    Llarena-Reino, María; Abollo, Elvira; Pascual, Santiago

    2013-12-01

    A total of 982 individuals distributed in 11 lots belonging to 10 fish species from three Atlantic FAO fishing areas were sampled and examined to detect the presence of anisakid larvae in fish muscle. After hazard identification by genetic sequencing and exposure assessment by anatomic extent and demographic characterization of infection, all data were fitted for each fish species to a new proposed scoring schema of parasite prediction. In the absence of a criterion standard method for inspection and precise definition of the quantum satis for parasites in contaminated fish lots, the inspection rating scheme called SADE (Site of infection, Assurance of quality, Demography, Epidemiology) may help fish industries to precisely handle and to evaluate the likely outcome of infected fish lots after being diagnosed. For this purpose, a supporting flow diagram for decision was defined and suggested. This new performance assessment tool has the aim of staging fish lots, thus helping in planning manufacture, commercial, and research decisions during self-management programs. This novel scoring system provides an improved inspection format by implementing the occurrence stratification for parasites to guide Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) programs for the uniform exchange of information among fish industries, administration and researchers, thus facilitating standardization and communication. In the future, this scoring version could be validated (in terms of classification and wording) for similar overall predictive purposes in other muscular parasites infecting seafood products.

  14. A new Leukemia Prognostic Scoring System for refractory/relapsed adult acute myelogeneous leukaemia patients: a GOELAMS study.

    PubMed

    Chevallier, P; Labopin, M; Turlure, P; Prebet, T; Pigneux, A; Hunault, M; Filanovsky, K; Cornillet-Lefebvre, P; Luquet, I; Lode, L; Richebourg, S; Blanchet, O; Gachard, N; Vey, N; Ifrah, N; Milpied, N; Harousseau, J-L; Bene, M-C; Mohty, M; Delaunay, J

    2011-06-01

    A simplified prognostic score is presented based on the multivariate analysis of 138 refractory/relapsed acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients (median age 55 years, range: 19-70) receiving a combination of intensive chemotherapy+Gemtuzumab as salvage regimen. Overall, 2-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 29±4% and 36±4%, respectively. Disease status (relapse <12 months, including refractory patients), FLT3-ITD-positive status and high-risk cytogenetics were the three strongest independent adverse prognostic factors for OS and EFS in this series. We then defined three subgroups with striking different outcomes at 2 years: no adverse factor (favourable, N=36): OS 58%, EFS 45%; one adverse factor (intermediate, N=54): OS 37%, EFS 31%; two or three adverse factors (poor, N=43): OS 12%, EFS 12% (P<10(-4), P=0.001). This new simplified Leukemia Prognostic Scoring System was then validated on an independent cohort of 111 refractory/relapsed AML patients. This new simplified prognostic score, using three clinical and biological parameters routinely applied, allow to discriminate around two third of the patients who should benefit from a salvage intensive regimen in the setting of refractory/relapsed AML patients. The other one third of the patients should receive investigational therapy.

  15. Influence of loupes and age on the near visual acuity of practicing dentists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichenberger, Martina; Perrin, Philippe; Neuhaus, Klaus W.; Bringolf, Ueli; Lussi, Adrian

    2011-03-01

    We evaluated the near visual acuity of 40 dentists and its improvement by using different magnification devices. The acuity was tested with miniaturized E-optotype tests on a negatoscope under the following conditions: 1. natural visual acuity, 300 mm; 2. single lens loupe, 2×, 250 mm; 3. Galilean loupe, 2.5×, 380 mm; and 4. Keplerian loupe, 4.3×, 400 mm. In part 1, the influence of the magnification devices was investigated for all dentists. The Keplerian loupe obtained the highest visual acuity (4.64), followed by the Galilean loupe (2.43), the single lens loupe (1.42), and natural visual acuity (1.19). For part 2, the dentists were classified according to their age (=40 years). The younger dentists' group achieved a significantly higher visual acuity with all magnification devices (p<0.001). For part 3, the dentists were grouped according to their natural visual acuity. The group with the higher natural visual acuity achieved significantly higher visual acuity with all magnification devices than did the group of dentists with the lower natural visual acuity (p<0.01). It can be concluded that near visual acuity varies highly between individuals and decreases during the lifetime. Independent of age or natural vision, visual acuity can be significantly improved by using magnification devices.

  16. Visual acuity with reversed-contrast charts: II. Clinical investigation.

    PubMed

    Westheimer, Gerald; Chu, Patricia; Huang, Wendy; Tran, Thuy; Dister, Robert

    2003-11-01

    Snellen visual acuity was measured in 106 patients ranging in age from 20 to 88 years in routine examinations in the general refraction clinic with two kinds of charts: the standard chart using black letters on a white background and a reversed-contrast display featuring white letters on a black background. The overall ratio of the white-on-black to the black-on-white Snellen fractions was 1.043. A scattergram relating this ratio to patient age revealed that the older the patient, the more the visual acuity was improved by switching to the reversed-contrast chart, with a regression line slope of 0.5 +/- 0.10. Impairment of the eye's optics, in particular by intraocular scatter causing a widening and flattening of the eye's point-spread function, explains these findings and suggests prognostic and therapeutic value of reversing the contrast polarity of displays.

  17. Ultrafine spatial acuity of blind expert human echolocators

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Amrita; Whitney, David

    2013-01-01

    Echolocating organisms represent their external environment using reflected auditory information from emitted vocalizations. This ability, long known in various non-human species, has also been documented in some blind humans as an aid to navigation, as well as object detection and coarse localization. Surprisingly, our understanding of the basic acuity attainable by practitioners—the most fundamental underpinning of echoic spatial perception—remains crude. We found that experts were able to discriminate horizontal offsets of stimuli as small as ~1.2° auditory angle in the frontomedial plane, a resolution approaching the maximum measured precision of human spatial hearing and comparable to that found in bats performing similar tasks. Furthermore, we found a strong correlation between echolocation acuity and age of blindness onset. This first measure of functional spatial resolution in a population of expert echolocators demonstrates precision comparable to that found in the visual periphery of sighted individuals. PMID:22101568

  18. Nutrient Density Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Annette; Thompson, William T.

    1979-01-01

    Announces a nutrient density food scoring system called the Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ). It expresses the ratio between the percent RDA of a nutrient and the percent daily allowance of calories in a food. (Author/SA)

  19. State and Local Efforts to Investigate the Validity and Reliability of Scores from Teacher Evaluation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herlihy, Corinne; Karger, Ezra; Pollard, Cynthia; Hill, Heather C.; Kraft, Matthew A.; Williams, Megan; Howard, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Context: In the past two years, states have implemented sweeping reforms to their teacher evaluation systems in response to Race to the Top legislation and, more recently, NCLB waivers. With these new systems, policymakers hope to make teacher evaluation both more rigorous and more grounded in specific job performance domains such as teaching…

  20. Validation of a Statewide Teacher Evaluation System: Relationship Between Scores From Evaluation and Student Academic Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xianxuan; Grant, Leslie W.; Ward, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the validity of a statewide teacher evaluation system in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Three hundred and thirty-eight teachers from 16 at-risk schools located in eight school districts participated in an evaluation system pilot during the 2011-2012 academic year. Teachers received ratings on six teacher effectiveness process…

  1. Heterogeneity of failure of visual acuity in Graves' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Sachdev, Y.; Chatterji, J. C.; Sharma, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    The eye manifestations of Graves' disease are usually mild and self-limiting. Occasionally they follow a progressive course leading to visual loss and total blindness. The ocular manifestations bear no relationship to the metabolic state and may appear before, during or after onset of thyrotoxicosis. Characteristically they become evident at about the time of onset of hypermetabolism. Various factors responsible for the failure of visual acuity are discussed with case illustrations. PMID:314108

  2. Handedness and behavioural inhibition system/behavioural activation system (BIS/BAS) scores: A replication and extension of Wright, Hardie, and Wilson (2009).

    PubMed

    Beaton, Alan A; Kaack, Imogen H; Corr, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    The Annett Hand Preference Questionnaire (AHPQ) as modified by Briggs and Nebes was administered along with Carver and White's behavioural inhibition system (BIS) and behavioural activation system (BAS) scale and a shortened form of the Big Five personality questionnaire to 92 university students. After eliminating the data from five respondents who reported having changed handedness and one outlier, there was a significant sex difference in mean BIS scores, with females (n = 43) scoring higher than males (n = 43). Replicating the results of Wright, Hardie and Wilson, non-right-handers (n = 36) had significantly higher mean BIS score than right-handers (n = 50). Controlling for sex of participant, neuroticism and BAS sub-scale scores in hierarchical regression analyses left this BIS effect substantially unaffected. There was no handedness or sex difference on any of the three BAS sub-scales. Further analyses revealed no association between strength, as distinct from direction, of handedness and BIS (or BAS) scores. The findings are discussed with reference to recent developments in reinforcement sensitivity theory on which BIS/BAS variables are based.

  3. Score-level fusion of two-dimensional and three-dimensional palmprint for personal recognition systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaa, Mourad; Boukezzoula, Naceur-Eddine; Attia, Abdelouahab

    2017-01-01

    Two types of scores extracted from two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) palmprint for personal recognition systems are merged, introducing a local image descriptor for 2-D palmprint-based recognition systems, named bank of binarized statistical image features (B-BSIF). The main idea of B-BSIF is that the extracted histograms from the binarized statistical image features (BSIF) code images (the results of applying the different BSIF descriptor size with the length 12) are concatenated into one to produce a large feature vector. 3-D palmprint contains the depth information of the palm surface. The self-quotient image (SQI) algorithm is applied for reconstructing illumination-invariant 3-D palmprint images. To extract discriminative Gabor features from SQI images, Gabor wavelets are defined and used. Indeed, the dimensionality reduction methods have shown their ability in biometrics systems. Given this, a principal component analysis (PCA)+linear discriminant analysis (LDA) technique is employed. For the matching process, the cosine Mahalanobis distance is applied. Extensive experiments were conducted on a 2-D and 3-D palmprint database with 10,400 range images from 260 individuals. Then, a comparison was made between the proposed algorithm and other existing methods in the literature. Results clearly show that the proposed framework provides a higher correct recognition rate. Furthermore, the best results were obtained by merging the score of B-BSIF descriptor with the score of the SQI+Gabor wavelets+PCA+LDA method, yielding an equal error rate of 0.00% and a recognition rate of rank-1=100.00%.

  4. Eye size and visual acuity influence vestibular anatomy in mammals.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Addison D; Christopher Kirk, E

    2014-04-01

    The semicircular canals of the inner ear detect head rotations and trigger compensatory movements that stabilize gaze and help maintain visual fixation. Mammals with large eyes and high visual acuity require precise gaze stabilization mechanisms because they experience diminished visual functionality at low thresholds of uncompensated motion. Because semicircular canal radius of curvature is a primary determinant of canal sensitivity, species with large canal radii are expected to be capable of more precise gaze stabilization than species with small canal radii. Here, we examine the relationship between mean semicircular canal radius of curvature, eye size, and visual acuity in a large sample of mammals. Our results demonstrate that eye size and visual acuity both explain a significant proportion of the variance in mean canal radius of curvature after statistically controlling for the effects of body mass and phylogeny. These findings suggest that variation in mean semicircular canal radius of curvature among mammals is partly the result of selection for improved gaze stabilization in species with large eyes and acute vision. Our results also provide a possible functional explanation for the small semicircular canal radii of fossorial mammals and plesiadapiforms.

  5. Improvement of tactile roughness discrimination acuity correlates with perception of improved hand function in patients after hand surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Shuhei; Kon, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to elucidate how well patients’ perceptions related to the improvements in their hand function during hospitalization. [Subjects] Sixteen patients who were hospitalized after hand surgery. [Methods] Using the Japanese Society for Surgery of the Hand edition of the Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire; tactile roughness discrimination acuity, motor imagery, motor function, sensory function, and pain of the upper limb were assessed at admission and discharge. Spearman’s rank-order correlation coefficients were calculated using the differences in all assessment items at admission and discharge. A multiple regression analysis (stepwise method) was performed to investigate factors that correlated with improvements in Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores. [Results] The improvement of tactile roughness discrimination acuity was significantly associated with patient perception of improved hand function. [Conclusion] The results suggest that an improvement in tactile roughness discrimination acuity was most strongly correlated with patient perception of improved hand function. PMID:27190473

  6. Analysis of confidence level scores from an ROC study: comparison of three mammographic systems for detection of simulated calcifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Chao-Jen; Shaw, Chris C.; Whitman, Gary J.; Yang, Wei T.; Dempsey, Peter J.

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the detection performance of three different mammography systems: screen/film (SF) combination, a-Si/CsI flat-panel (FP-), and charge-coupled device (CCD-) based systems. A 5-cm thick 50% adipose/50% glandular breast tissue equivalent slab phantom was used to provide an uniform background. Calcium carbonate grains of three different size groups were used to simulate microcalcifications (MCs): 112-125, 125-140, and 140-150 μm overlapping with the uniform background. Calcification images were acquired with the three mammography systems. Digital images were printed on hardcopy films. All film images were displayed on a mammographic viewer and reviewed by 5 mammographers. The visibility of the MC was rated with a 5-point confidence rating scale for each detection task, including the negative controls. Scores were averaged over all readers for various detectors and size groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed and the areas under the ROC curves (Az"s) were computed for various imaging conditions. The results shows that (1) the FP-based system performed significantly better than the SF and CCD-based systems for individual size groups using ROC analysis (2) the FP-based system also performed significantly better than the SF and CCD-based systems for individual size groups using averaged confidence scale, and (3) the results obtained from the Az"s were largely correlated with these from confidence level scores. However, the correlation varied slightly among different imaging conditions.

  7. Are Multimorbidities Underestimated in Scoring Systems of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Like in SCORTEN?

    PubMed Central

    von Wild, Tobias; Stollwerck, Peter L.; Namdar, Thomas; Stang, Felix H.; Mailänder, Peter; Siemers, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome have related high morbidity and mortality. We predict that preexisting multimorbidity is a major prognostic factor of both these diseases. Methods: A retrospective analysis in toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome patients over the past 10 years. Three severity categories (minor, moderate, and severe multimorbidity) were defined according to a point-rating system. Results: Twenty-seven inpatients, with a median age of 63 years, diagnosed with toxic epidermal necrolysis (n = 13) or Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (n = 14) were assessed in this study. Of these, 14 patients died during the course of the study. Nonsurvivors showed significantly higher multimorbidity (P = .038), with higher scoring on the points system for disease severity (P = .003), than survivors and CART (Classification and Regression Trees) cross-validation (P < .05). Limitations: Restricted number of patients due to low prevalence rate. Conclusion: The complexity of associated multimorbidity appears to have a large influence on toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome prognosis, which has not been considered in any of the established scoring systems. PMID:22912906

  8. Systems view of adipogenesis via novel omics-driven and tissue-specific activity scoring of network functional modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassiri, Isar; Lombardo, Rosario; Lauria, Mario; Morine, Melissa J.; Moyseos, Petros; Varma, Vijayalakshmi; Nolen, Greg T.; Knox, Bridgett; Sloper, Daniel; Kaput, Jim; Priami, Corrado

    2016-07-01

    The investigation of the complex processes involved in cellular differentiation must be based on unbiased, high throughput data processing methods to identify relevant biological pathways. A number of bioinformatics tools are available that can generate lists of pathways ranked by statistical significance (i.e. by p-value), while ideally it would be desirable to functionally score the pathways relative to each other or to other interacting parts of the system or process. We describe a new computational method (Network Activity Score Finder - NASFinder) to identify tissue-specific, omics-determined sub-networks and the connections with their upstream regulator receptors to obtain a systems view of the differentiation of human adipocytes. Adipogenesis of human SBGS pre-adipocyte cells in vitro was monitored with a transcriptomic data set comprising six time points (0, 6, 48, 96, 192, 384 hours). To elucidate the mechanisms of adipogenesis, NASFinder was used to perform time-point analysis by comparing each time point against the control (0 h) and time-lapse analysis by comparing each time point with the previous one. NASFinder identified the coordinated activity of seemingly unrelated processes between each comparison, providing the first systems view of adipogenesis in culture. NASFinder has been implemented into a web-based, freely available resource associated with novel, easy to read visualization of omics data sets and network modules.

  9. Systems view of adipogenesis via novel omics-driven and tissue-specific activity scoring of network functional modules

    PubMed Central

    Nassiri, Isar; Lombardo, Rosario; Lauria, Mario; Morine, Melissa J.; Moyseos, Petros; Varma, Vijayalakshmi; Nolen, Greg T.; Knox, Bridgett; Sloper, Daniel; Kaput, Jim; Priami, Corrado

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of the complex processes involved in cellular differentiation must be based on unbiased, high throughput data processing methods to identify relevant biological pathways. A number of bioinformatics tools are available that can generate lists of pathways ranked by statistical significance (i.e. by p-value), while ideally it would be desirable to functionally score the pathways relative to each other or to other interacting parts of the system or process. We describe a new computational method (Network Activity Score Finder - NASFinder) to identify tissue-specific, omics-determined sub-networks and the connections with their upstream regulator receptors to obtain a systems view of the differentiation of human adipocytes. Adipogenesis of human SBGS pre-adipocyte cells in vitro was monitored with a transcriptomic data set comprising six time points (0, 6, 48, 96, 192, 384 hours). To elucidate the mechanisms of adipogenesis, NASFinder was used to perform time-point analysis by comparing each time point against the control (0 h) and time-lapse analysis by comparing each time point with the previous one. NASFinder identified the coordinated activity of seemingly unrelated processes between each comparison, providing the first systems view of adipogenesis in culture. NASFinder has been implemented into a web-based, freely available resource associated with novel, easy to read visualization of omics data sets and network modules. PMID:27385551

  10. Systems view of adipogenesis via novel omics-driven and tissue-specific activity scoring of network functional modules.

    PubMed

    Nassiri, Isar; Lombardo, Rosario; Lauria, Mario; Morine, Melissa J; Moyseos, Petros; Varma, Vijayalakshmi; Nolen, Greg T; Knox, Bridgett; Sloper, Daniel; Kaput, Jim; Priami, Corrado

    2016-07-07

    The investigation of the complex processes involved in cellular differentiation must be based on unbiased, high throughput data processing methods to identify relevant biological pathways. A number of bioinformatics tools are available that can generate lists of pathways ranked by statistical significance (i.e. by p-value), while ideally it would be desirable to functionally score the pathways relative to each other or to other interacting parts of the system or process. We describe a new computational method (Network Activity Score Finder - NASFinder) to identify tissue-specific, omics-determined sub-networks and the connections with their upstream regulator receptors to obtain a systems view of the differentiation of human adipocytes. Adipogenesis of human SBGS pre-adipocyte cells in vitro was monitored with a transcriptomic data set comprising six time points (0, 6, 48, 96, 192, 384 hours). To elucidate the mechanisms of adipogenesis, NASFinder was used to perform time-point analysis by comparing each time point against the control (0 h) and time-lapse analysis by comparing each time point with the previous one. NASFinder identified the coordinated activity of seemingly unrelated processes between each comparison, providing the first systems view of adipogenesis in culture. NASFinder has been implemented into a web-based, freely available resource associated with novel, easy to read visualization of omics data sets and network modules.

  11. Reproducibility of the NEPTUNE descriptor-based scoring system on whole-slide images and histologic and ultrastructural digital images.

    PubMed

    Barisoni, Laura; Troost, Jonathan P; Nast, Cynthia; Bagnasco, Serena; Avila-Casado, Carmen; Hodgin, Jeffrey; Palmer, Matthew; Rosenberg, Avi; Gasim, Adil; Liensziewski, Chrysta; Merlino, Lino; Chien, Hui-Ping; Chang, Anthony; Meehan, Shane M; Gaut, Joseph; Song, Peter; Holzman, Lawrence; Gibson, Debbie; Kretzler, Matthias; Gillespie, Brenda W; Hewitt, Stephen M

    2016-07-01

    The multicenter Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network (NEPTUNE) digital pathology scoring system employs a novel and comprehensive methodology to document pathologic features from whole-slide images, immunofluorescence and ultrastructural digital images. To estimate inter- and intra-reader concordance of this descriptor-based approach, data from 12 pathologists (eight NEPTUNE and four non-NEPTUNE) with experience from training to 30 years were collected. A descriptor reference manual was generated and a webinar-based protocol for consensus/cross-training implemented. Intra-reader concordance for 51 glomerular descriptors was evaluated on jpeg images by seven NEPTUNE pathologists scoring 131 glomeruli three times (Tests I, II, and III), each test following a consensus webinar review. Inter-reader concordance of glomerular descriptors was evaluated in 315 glomeruli by all pathologists; interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (244 cases, whole-slide images) and four ultrastructural podocyte descriptors (178 cases, jpeg images) were evaluated once by six and five pathologists, respectively. Cohen's kappa for inter-reader concordance for 48/51 glomerular descriptors with sufficient observations was moderate (0.40scoring system enables novel morphologic profiling of renal structures. For all histologic and ultrastructural descriptors tested with

  12. Measurement of Vibration Detection Threshold and Tactile Spatial Acuity in Human Subjects.

    PubMed

    Moshourab, Rabih; Frenzel, Henning; Lechner, Stefan; Haseleu, Julia; Bégay, Valérie; Omerbašić, Damir; Lewin, Gary R

    2016-09-01

    Tests that allow the precise determination of psychophysical thresholds for vibration and grating orientation provide valuable information about mechanosensory function that are relevant for clinical diagnosis as well as for basic research. Here, we describe two psychophysical tests designed to determine the vibration detection threshold (automated system) and tactile spatial acuity (handheld device). Both procedures implement a two-interval forced-choice and a transformed-rule up and down experimental paradigm. These tests have been used to obtain mechanosensory profiles for individuals from distinct human cohorts such as twins or people with sensorineural deafness.

  13. Short communication: prevalence, risk factors, and a field scoring system for udder cleft dermatitis in Dutch dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Olde Riekerink, R G M; van Amersfort, K; Sampimon, O C; Hooijer, G A; Lam, T J G M

    2014-01-01

    Udder cleft dermatitis (UCD) is a well-known disorder in dairy cows. Veterinary literature about this subject, however, is scarce. The objectives of this study were to define a clinical scoring system for UCD, estimate the within-herd prevalence of UCD, and identify potential risk factors of UCD at cow and herd level. On 20 randomly selected dairy farms in the Netherlands, each lactating cow was photographed from a ventral, lateral, and caudal position. A scoring system with 6 categories of severity of UCD was proposed based on the ventral photographs. Cow measures such as udder width and depth, and front quarter attachment were determined from the lateral and caudal photographs. A questionnaire was conducted on each farm during farm visits. Udder cleft dermatitis, defined as a score 3 or higher, was detected in 5.2% of the 948 cows involved in this study. Within-herd prevalences of UCD ranged between 0 and 15% and UCD was found in 16 (80%) of the participating farms. Cows with a deep udder (relative to the hock), large front quarters, and a small angle between udder and abdominal wall were more likely to develop UCD. Production level and use of a footbath were identified as being positively associated with herd-level UCD prevalence. Herd size and average bulk milk somatic cell count did not seem to be associated with UCD prevalence. Because of the small herd sample size, no firm conclusions were drawn on herd-level risk factors. However, results from this study can be used in designing a future longitudinal UCD study. The prevalences of UCD found in the present study illustrate the current UCD situation in the Netherlands. Our results demonstrate that multiple potential risk factors of UCD could be identified at both the cow and herd level.

  14. Implementation of a triage score system in an emergency room in Timergara, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Dalwai, M K; Tayler-Smith, K; Trelles, M; Jemmy, J-P; Maikéré, J; Twomey, M; Wakeel, M; Iqbal, M; Zachariah, R

    2013-03-21

    Following implementation of the South African Triage Scale (SATS) system in the emergency department (ED) at the District Headquarter Hospital in Timergara, Pakistan, we 1) describe the implementation process, and 2) report on how accurately emergency staff used the system. Of the 370 triage forms evaluated, 320 (86%) were completed without errors, resulting in the correct triage priority being assigned. Fifty completed forms displayed errors, but only 16 (4%) resulted in an incorrect triage priority being assigned. This experience shows that the SATS can be implemented successfully and used accurately by nurses in an ED in Pakistan.

  15. Implementation of a triage score system in an emergency room in Timergara, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Dalwai, M. K.; Trelles, M.; Jemmy, J-P.; Maikéré, J.; Twomey, M.; Wakeel, M.; Iqbal, M.; Zachariah, R.

    2013-01-01

    Following implementation of the South African Triage Scale (SATS) system in the emergency department (ED) at the District Headquarter Hospital in Timergara, Pakistan, we 1) describe the implementation process, and 2) report on how accurately emergency staff used the system. Of the 370 triage forms evaluated, 320 (86%) were completed without errors, resulting in the correct triage priority being assigned. Fifty completed forms displayed errors, but only 16 (4%) resulted in an incorrect triage priority being assigned. This experience shows that the SATS can be implemented successfully and used accurately by nurses in an ED in Pakistan. PMID:26392995

  16. Applying the System Component and Operationally Relevant Evaluation (SCORE) Framework to Evaluate Advanced Military Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    In Proceedings of LREC 2008, May 28–30, Marrakech , Morocco. Paris, France: European Lan- guage Rescources Association. Schlenoff, C., M. Steves, B. A...speech translation systems. In Proceedings of the 6th edition of the Language Resources and Evaluation Conference, May 28–30, Marrakech , Morocco

  17. Using Projects Scoring Rubrics to Assess Student Learning in an Information Systems Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petkov, Doncho; Petkova, Olga; D'Onofrio, Marianne; Jarmoszko, A. T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is about using projects for assessment of student learning in different courses of an Information Systems (IS) program. An overview of the role of educational projects in student learning is presented. The various aspects of defining standardized rubrics across an IS program are discussed. A methodology for the use of such rubrics in…

  18. Performance of children with and without learning disabilities on Canter's Background Interference Procedure and Koppitz's scoring system for the Bender test.

    PubMed

    Mitchell-Burns, J A

    2000-06-01

    Performance of 66 children, 30 with and 36 without learning disabilities, in four ways using the Bender Visual-motor Gestalt Test was compared. First, the test with the standard Koppitz scoring procedure, second with the Canter Background Interference Procedure sheet using the standard Koppitz scoring procedure; third, the Bender test on a standard sheet of paper using Canter scoring procedure; and fourth, the Canter Background Interference Procedure (BIP) sheet using the Canter scoring procedure. The effectiveness of the Canter procedure was examined when scored with an age-appropriate normative scoring system. This was accomplished by combining the Canter BIP interference sheet with the Koppitz scoring system. The children ranged in age from 6 to 10 years. Using discriminant analysis, all four methods correctly categorized statistically significant percentages of both types of students but there was a significant difference on the Canter BIP sheet using the Canter scoring procedure. This procedure classified students with the least absolute number and percentage of either false negatives or false positives when compared with the other three methods, suggesting that using this scoring method with the Bender Gestalt may be better for identifying younger children with learning disabilities.

  19. Systemic Immune-Inflammation Index Predicts Prognosis of Patients with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Propensity Score-matched Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Yiting; Shao, Yingjie; Zhu, Danxia; Zheng, Xiao; Zhou, Qi; Zhou, Wenjie; Ni, Xuefeng; Wu, Changping; Jiang, Jingting

    2016-01-01

    Systemic immune-inflammation index (SII), based on peripheral lymphocyte, neutrophil, and platelet counts, was recently investigated as a prognostic marker in several tumors. However, SII has not been reported in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We evaluated the prognostic value of the SII in 916 patients with ESCC who underwent radical surgery. Univariate and multivariate analyses were calculated by the Cox proportional hazards regression model. The time-dependent receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was used to compare the discrimination ability for OS. PSM (propensity score matching) was carried out to imbalance the baseline characteristics. Our results showed that SII, PLR, NLR and MLR were all associated with OS in ESCC patients in the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. However, only SII was an independent risk factor for OS (HR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.01–1.53, P = 0.042) among these systemic inflammation scores. The AUC for SII was bigger than PLR, NLR and MLR. In the PSM analysis, SII still remained an independent predictor for OS (HR = 1.30, CI 1.05–1.60, P = 0.018). SII is a novel, simple and inexpensive prognostic predictor for patients with ESCC undergoing radical esophagectomy. The prognostic value of SII is superior to PLR, NLR and MLR. PMID:28000729

  20. Behavioural linear standardized scoring system of the Lidia cattle breed by testing in herd: estimation of genetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Pelayo, R; Solé, M; Sánchez, M J; Molina, A; Valera, M

    2016-10-01

    Docility is very important for cattle production, and many behavioural tests to measure this trait have been developed. However, very few objective behavioural tests to measure the opposite approach 'aggressive behaviour' have been described. Therefore, the aim of this work was to validate in the Lidia cattle breed a behavioural linear standardized scoring system that measure the aggressiveness and enable genetic analysis of behavioural traits expressing fearless and fighting ability. Reproducibility and repeatability measures were calculated for the 12 linear traits of this scoring system to assess its accuracy, and ranged from 85.3 and 94.2%, and from 66.7 to 97.9%, respectively. Genetic parameters were estimated using an animal model with a Bayesian approach. A total of 1202 behavioural records were used. The pedigree matrix contained 5001 individuals. Heritability values (with standard deviations) ranged between 0.13 (0.04) (Falls of the bull) and 0.41 (0.08) (Speed of approach to horse). Genetic correlations varied from 0.01 (0.07) to 0.90 (0.13). Finally, an exploratory factor analysis using the genetic correlation matrix was calculated. Three main factors were retained to describe the traditional genetic indexes aggressiveness, strength and mobility.

  1. Olympic Scoring of English Compositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follman, John; Panther, Edward

    1974-01-01

    Examines empirically the efficacy of utilizing Olympic diving and gymnastic scoring systems for grading graduate students' English compositions. Results indicated that such scoring rules do not produce ratings different in reliability or in level from conventional letter grades. (ED)

  2. A messy reality: an analysis of New Zealand's elective surgery scoring system via media sources, 200–2006

    PubMed Central

    Derrett, Sarah; Cousins, Kim; Gauld, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Waiting lists for elective procedures are a characteristic feature of tax-funded universal health systems. New Zealand has gained a reputation for its ‘booking system’ for waiting list management, introduced in the early-1990s. The New Zealand system uses criteria to ‘score’ and then ‘book’ qualifying patients for surgery. This article aims to (i) describe key issues focused on by the media, (ii) identify local strategies and (iii) present evidence of variation. Newspaper sources were searched (2000–2006). A total of 1199 booking system stories were identified. Findings demonstrate, from a national system perspective, the extraordinarily difficult nature of maintaining overall control and coordination. Equity and national consistency are affected when hospitals respond to local pressure by reducing access to elective treatment. Findings suggest that central government probably needs to be closely involved in local-level management and policy adjustments; that through the study period, the New Zealand system appears to have been largely out of the control of government; and that governments elsewhere may need to be cautious when considering developing similar systems. Developing and implementing scoring and booking systems may always be a ‘messy reality’ with unintended consequences and throwing regional differences in service management and access into stark relief. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22815091

  3. Comparison of visual motor development in Hong Kong and the USA assessed on the Qualitative Scoring System for the Modified Bender-Gestalt test.

    PubMed

    Chan, P W

    2001-02-01

    This study compared the visuomotor development of young children in Hong Kong and the USA assessed on the Qualitative Scoring System for the Modified Bender-Gestalt test. 744 children aged 4:6 to 8:5 years from 6 kindergartens and 6 primary schools in Hong Kong were administered the Modified Bender-Gestalt test. The Qualitative Scoring System was used to measure the children's visuomotor development. Their visuomotor scores were then compared with norms for children in the USA. Analysis indicated significant differences across all age groups of 4:6 to 8:5 years in 6-mo. units. Consistent with previous research, children in Hong Kong outperformed their western peers. Percentile scores and T scores for children in Hong Kong in each age group were reported.

  4. Implementation of a novel postoperative monitoring system using automated Modified Early Warning Scores (MEWS) incorporating end-tidal capnography.

    PubMed

    Blankush, Joseph M; Freeman, Robbie; McIlvaine, Joy; Tran, Trung; Nassani, Stephen; Leitman, I Michael

    2016-10-20

    Modified Early Warning Scores (MEWS) provide real-time vital sign (VS) trending and reduce ICU admissions in post-operative patients. These early warning calculations classically incorporate oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, and temperature but have not previously included end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2), more recently identified as an independent predictor of critical illness. These systems may be subject to failure when physiologic data is incorrectly measured, leading to false alarms and increased workload. This study investigates whether the implementation of automated devices that utilize ongoing vital signs monitoring and MEWS calculations, inclusive of a score for end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2), can be feasibly implemented on the general care hospital floor and effectively identify derangements in a post-operative patient's condition while limiting the amount of false alarms that would serve to increase provider workload. From July to November 2014, post-operative patients meeting the inclusion criteria (BMI > 30 kg/m(2), history of obstructive sleep apnea, or the use of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) or epidural narcotics) were monitored using automated devices that record minute-by-minute VS included in classic MEWS calculations as well as EtCO2. Automated messages via pagers were sent to providers for instances when the device measured elevated MEWS, abnormal EtCO2, and oxygen desaturations below 85 %. Data, including alarm and message details from the first 133 patients, were recorded and analyzed. Overall, 3.3 alarms and pages sounded per hour of monitoring. Device-only alarms sounded 2.7 times per hour-21 % were technical alarms. The remaining device-only alarms for concerning VS sounded 2.0/h, 70 % for falsely recorded VS. Pages for abnormal EtCO2 sounded 0.4/h (82 % false recordings) while pages for low blood oxygen saturation sounded 0.1/h (55 % false alarms). 143 times (0.1 pages/h) the devices calculated a MEWS

  5. High concordance between immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization testing for HER2 status in breast cancer requires a normalized IHC scoring system.

    PubMed

    Gown, Allen M; Goldstein, Lynn C; Barry, Todd S; Kussick, Steven J; Kandalaft, Patricia L; Kim, Patricia M; Tse, Christopher C

    2008-10-01

    The American Society of Clinical Oncologists and College of American Pathologists have recently released new guidelines for laboratory testing of HER2 status in breast cancer, which require high levels (95%) of concordance between immunohistochemistry positive (3+) and fluorescence in situ hybridization-amplified cases, and between immunohistochemistry negative (0/1+) and fluorescence in situ hybridization-nonamplified cases; these required levels of concordance are significantly higher than those found in most published studies. We tested the hypothesis that a modification of the HER2 immunohistochemistry scoring system could significantly improve immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization concordance. A total of 6604 breast cancer specimens were evaluated for HER2 status by both immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization using standard methodologies. Results were compared when the standard immunohistochemistry scoring system was replaced by a normalized scoring system in which the HER2 score was derived by subtracting the score on the non-neoplastic breast epithelium from that on the tumor cells. Among the 6604 tumors, using a non-normalized immunohistochemistry scoring system, 267/872 (30.6%) of the immunohistochemistry 3+ cases proved to be fluorescence in situ hybridization nonamplified, whereas using the normalized scoring system only 30/562 (5.3%) of immunohistochemistry 3+ cases proved to be 'false positive'. The concordance rate between immunohistochemistry 3+ and fluorescence in situ hybridization-amplified cases using the normalized scoring method was 94.7%, whereas the concordance using the non-normalized method was only 69.4%. Extremely high concordance between immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization assessment of HER2 status in breast cancer is achievable, but to attain this high level of concordance, modification of the FDA-approved immunohistochemistry scoring system is required.

  6. Evaluation of the PI-RADS Scoring System for Classifying mpMRI Findings in Men with Suspicion of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Georg; Kremser, Christian; Bektic, Jasmin; Horninger, Wolfgang; Jaschke, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the ESUR scoring system (PI-RADS) for multiparametric MRI of the prostate in clinical routine and to define a reliable way to generate an overall PI-RADS score. Methods. Retrospective analysis of all patients with a history of negative prebiopsies, who underwent 3 Tesla multiparametric MRI from October 2011 to April 2013 (n = 143): PI-RADS scores for each single modality were defined. To generate the overall PI-RADS score, an algorithm based approach summing up each single-modality score to a sum-score was compared to a more subjective approach, weighting the single modalities dependent on the radiologist's impression. Because of ongoing cancer suspicion 73 patients underwent targeted mpMRI-ultrasound image fusion rebiopsy. For this group thresholds for tumor incidences and malignancy were calculated. Results. 39 (53%) out of 73 targeted rebiopsies were cancer positive. The PI-RADS score correlated well with tumor incidence (AUC of 0.86, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.94) and malignancy (AUC 0.84, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.99). Regarding the sum-score a threshold of ≥10 turned out to be reliable for cancer detection (sensitivity 90%, specificity 62%) and for ≥13 for indicating higher malignancy (Gleason ≥4 + 3) (sensitivity 80%, specificity 86%). To generate the overall PI-RADS score, the use of an algorithm based approach was more reliable than that of the approach based on the radiologist's impression. Conclusion. The presented scoring system correlates well with tumor incidence and malignancy. To generate the overall PI-RADS score, it seems to be advisable to use an algorithm based instead of a subjective approach. PMID:24396825

  7. Tolerance values of benthic macroinvertebrates for stream biomonitoring: assessment of assumptions underlying scoring systems worldwide.

    PubMed

    Chang, Feng-Hsun; Lawrence, Justin E; Rios-Touma, Blanca; Resh, Vincent H

    2014-04-01

    Tolerance values (TVs) based on benthic macroinvertebrates are one of the most widely used tools for monitoring the biological impacts of water pollution, particularly in streams and rivers. We compiled TVs of benthic macroinvertebrates from 29 regions around the world to test 11 basic assumptions about pollution tolerance, that: (1) Arthropoda are < tolerant than non-Arthropoda; (2) Insecta < non-Insecta; (3) non-Oligochaeta < Oligochaeta; (4) other macroinvertebrates < Oligochaeta + Chironomidae; (5) other macroinvertebrate taxa < Isopoda + Gastropoda + Hirudinea; (6) Ephemeroptera + Plecoptera + Trichoptera (EPT) < Odonata + Coleoptera + Heteroptera (OCH); (7) EPT < non-EPT insects; (8) Diptera < Insecta; (9) Bivalvia < Gastropoda; (10) Baetidae < other Ephemeroptera; and (11) Hydropsychidae < other Trichoptera. We found that the first eight of these 11 assumptions were supported despite regional variability. In addition, we examined the effect of Best Professional Judgment (BPJ) and non-independence of TVs among countries by performing all analyses using subsets of the original dataset. These subsets included a group based on those systems using TVs that were derived from techniques other than BPJ, and groups based on methods used for TV assignment. The results obtained from these subsets and the entire dataset are similar. We also made seven a priori hypotheses about the regional similarity of TVs based on geography. Only one of these was supported. Development of TVs and the reporting of how they are assigned need to be more rigorous and be better described.

  8. Contour interaction for foveal acuity targets at different luminances.

    PubMed

    Bedell, Harold E; Siderov, John; Waugh, Sarah J; Zemanová, Romana; Pluháček, František; Musilová, Lenka

    2013-08-30

    Single-letter visual acuity is impaired by nearby flanking stimuli, a phenomenon known as contour interaction. We showed previously that when foveal acuity is degraded by a reduction of letter contrast, both the magnitude and angular spatial extent of foveal contour interaction remain unchanged. In this study, we asked whether contour interaction also remains unchanged when foveal visual acuity is degraded by a reduction of the target's background luminance. Percent correct letter identification was measured for isolated, near-threshold black Sloan letters and for letters surrounded by 4 flanking bars in 10 normal observers, 5 at Anglia Ruskin University, UK (ARU) and 5 at Palacky University, Czech Republic (PU). A stepwise reduction in the background luminance over 3 log units resulted in an approximately threefold increase in the near-threshold letter size. At each background luminance, black flanking bars with a width equal to 1 letter stroke were presented at separations between approximately 0.45 and 4.5 min arc (ARU) or 0.32 and 3.2 min arc (PU). The results indicate that the angular extent of contour interaction remains unchanged at approximately 4 min arc at all background luminances. On the other hand, the magnitude of contour interaction decreases systematically as luminance is reduced, from approximately a 50% reduction to a 30% reduction in percent correct. The constant angular extent and decreasing magnitude of contour interaction with a reduction of background luminance suggest foveal contour interaction is mediated by luminance-dependent lateral inhibition within a fixed angular region.

  9. A SCORING SYSTEM TO IMPROVE DECISION MAKING AND OUTCOMES IN THE ADAPTATION OF RECENTLY CAPTURED WHITE RHINOCEROSES (CERATOTHERIUM SIMUM) TO CAPTIVITY.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michele; Kruger, Milandie; Kruger, Marius; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Buss, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Ninety-four subadult and adult white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) were captured between February and October, 2009-11, in Kruger National Park and placed in holding bomas prior to translocation to other locations within South Africa. A simple three-category system was developed based on appetite, fecal consistency/volume, and behavior to assess adaptation to bomas. Individual animal and group daily median scores were used to determine trends and when rhinoceroses had successfully adapted to the boma. Seventeen rhinoceroses did not adapt to boma confinement, and 16 were released (1 mortality). No differences in boma scores were observed between rhinoceroses that adapted and those that did not, until day 8, when the first significant differences were observed (adapted score=13 versus nonadapted score=10). The time to reach a boma score determined as successful adaptation (median 19 d) matched subjective observations, which was approximately 3 wk for most rhinoceroses. Unsuccessful adaptation was indicated by an individual boma score of less than 15, typically during the first 2 wk, or a declining trend in scores within the first 7-14 d. This scoring system can be used for most locations and could also be easily adapted to other areas in which rhinoceroses are held in captivity. This tool also provides important information for assessing welfare in newly captured rhinoceroses.

  10. [Scoring--criteria for operability].

    PubMed

    Oestern, H J

    1997-01-01

    For therapeutic recommendations three different kinds of scores are essential: 1. The severity scores for trauma; 2. Severity scores for mangled extremities; 3. Intensive care scores. The severity of polytrauma patients is measurable by the AIS, ISS, RTS, PTS and TRISS which is a combination of RTS, ISS, age, and mechanism of injury. For mangled extremities there are also different scores available: MESI (Mangled Extremity Syndrome Index) and MESS (Mangled Extremity Severity Score). The aim of these scores is to assist in the indication with regard to amputate or to save the extremity. These scoring indices can be used to evaluate the severity of a systemic inflammatory reaction syndrome with respect to multiple organ failure. All scores are dynamic values which are variable with improvement of therapy.

  11. The Bender-Gestalt test: Koppitz's Developmental Scoring System administered to two samples of Italian preschool and primary school children.

    PubMed

    Mazzeschi, C; Lis, A

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to extend research on Koppitz's Developmental Scoring System to Italian samples. Specific attention has been given to the study of errors for the single designs to assess the relationship of these errors with total errors and to assess the designs' varying difficulty. A second purpose was to study possible cultural influences between different Italian regions. According to Koppitz (1975) research findings support that the rate of development in visuomotor perception differs among children of various ethnic groups. Subjects were 538 boys and 527 girls enrolled in the regular kindergarten and elementary schools in Italy. Detailed analyses were carried out on total mean errors and mean errors for each design. Mean errors decrease across age groups; that is, perceptuomotor integration is improved for older children. No significant differences were found between Northern and Southern Italy.

  12. Optimal tracers for parallel labeling experiments and (13)C metabolic flux analysis: A new precision and synergy scoring system.

    PubMed

    Crown, Scott B; Long, Christopher P; Antoniewicz, Maciek R

    2016-11-01

    (13)C-Metabolic flux analysis ((13)C-MFA) is a widely used approach in metabolic engineering for quantifying intracellular metabolic fluxes. The precision of fluxes determined by (13)C-MFA depends largely on the choice of isotopic tracers and the specific set of labeling measurements. A recent advance in the field is the use of parallel labeling experiments for improved flux precision and accuracy. However, as of today, no systemic methods exist for identifying optimal tracers for parallel labeling experiments. In this contribution, we have addressed this problem by introducing a new scoring system and evaluating thousands of different isotopic tracer schemes. Based on this extensive analysis we have identified optimal tracers for (13)C-MFA. The best single tracers were doubly (13)C-labeled glucose tracers, including [1,6-(13)C]glucose, [5,6-(13)C]glucose and [1,2-(13)C]glucose, which consistently produced the highest flux precision independent of the metabolic flux map (here, 100 random flux maps were evaluated). Moreover, we demonstrate that pure glucose tracers perform better overall than mixtures of glucose tracers. For parallel labeling experiments the optimal isotopic tracers were [1,6-(13)C]glucose and [1,2-(13)C]glucose. Combined analysis of [1,6-(13)C]glucose and [1,2-(13)C]glucose labeling data improved the flux precision score by nearly 20-fold compared to widely use tracer mixture 80% [1-(13)C]glucose +20% [U-(13)C]glucose.

  13. A Survival Scoring System for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients with De Novo Bone Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chien-Hao; Rau, Kun-Ming; Huang, Cheng-Hua; Chang, Huang-Chih; Chao, Tung-Ying; Tseng, Chia-Cheng; Fang, Wen-Feng; Wang, Chin-Chou; Chen, Yung-Che; Chung, Yu-Hsiu; Wang, Yi-Hsi; Su, Mao-Chang; Liu, Shih-Feng; Huang, Kuo-Tung; Chen, Hung-Chen; Chang, Ya-Chun; Chang, Yu-Ping; Lin, Meng-Chih

    2016-01-01

    In the pre-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) era, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with de novo bone metastases had a worse prognosis than those without. However, whether epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-TKIs affect the outcomes of EGFR mutant NSCLC patients with de novo bone metastases has not been well studied thus far. We retrospectively studied the effect of EGFR mutation status and first-line EGFR-TKIs on patient outcomes and created a survival scoring system for NSCLC patients with de novo bone metastases. This retrospective study evaluated 1510 NSCLC patients diagnosed between November 2010 and March 2014. Among these patients, 234 patients had de novo bone metastases. We found that 121 of these 234 patients (51.7%) had positive EGFR mutation tests, and a positive EGFR mutation test significantly affected overall survival (OS) (EGFR mutant: 15.2 months, EGFR wild type: 6.5 months; p < 0.001). Other prognostic factors significant in the multivariable analysis for NSCLC with de novo bone metastases included Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS) (OS; PS 0–2: 11.2 months, PS 3–4: 4.9 months; p = 0.002), presence of extraosseous metastases (OS; with extraosseous metastases: 8.8 months, without extraosseous metastases: 14.0 months; p = 0.008), blood lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) (OS; LMR > 3.1: 17.1months, LMR ≤ 3.1: 6.9months; p < 0.001). A positive EGFR mutation status reversed the poor outcomes of NSCLC patients with de novo bone metastases. A simple and useful survival scoring system including the above clinical parameters was thus created for NSCLC patients with de novo bone metastases. PMID:27930702

  14. Clinical performance of two visual scoring systems in detecting and assessing activity status of occlusal caries in primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Braga, M M; Ekstrand, K R; Martignon, S; Imparato, J C P; Ricketts, D N J; Mendes, F M

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the clinical performance of two sets of visual scoring criteria for detecting caries severity and assessing caries activity status in occlusal surfaces. Two visual scoring systems--the Nyvad criteria (NY) and the ICDAS-II including an adjunct system for lesion activity assessment (ICDAS-LAA)--were compared using 763 primary molars of 139 children aged 3-12 years. The examinations were performed by 2 calibrated examiners. A subsample (n = 50) was collected after extraction and histology with 0.1% red methyl dye was performed to validate lesion depth and activity. The reproducibility of the indices was calculated (kappa test) and ROC analysis was performed to assess their validity and related parameters were compared using McNemar's test. The association between the indices and with the histological examination was evaluated using Spearman's correlation coefficient (r(s)). Visual criteria showed excellent reproducibility both regarding severity (NY: 0.94; ICDAS-II: 0.91) and activity (NY: 0.90; LAA: 0.91). The NY and LAA showed good association in caries activity assessment (r(s) = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.86-0.89; p < 0.001). Nevertheless, considering only cavitated lesions, this association was not significant (p > 0.05). Concerning the severity, both indices presented similar validity parameters. At D2 threshold, the sensitivity was higher for NY (NY = 0.87; ICDAS = 0.61, p < 0.05). Regarding activity status, NY showed higher specificities and accuracies. In conclusion, NY and ICDAS-II criteria are comparable and present good reproducibility and validity to detect caries lesions and estimate their severities, but the LAA seems to overestimate the caries activity assessment of cavitated lesions compared to NY.

  15. Using high-dimensional propensity scores to automate confounding control in a distributed medical product safety surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Rassen, Jeremy A; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Distributed medical product safety monitoring systems such as the Sentinel System, to be developed as a part of Food and Drug Administration's Sentinel Initiative, will require automation of large parts of the safety evaluation process to achieve the necessary speed and scale at reasonable cost without sacrificing validity. Although certain functions will require investigator intervention, confounding control is one area that can largely be automated. The high-dimensional propensity score (hd-PS) algorithm is one option for automated confounding control in longitudinal healthcare databases. In this article, we discuss the use of hd-PS for automating confounding control in sequential database cohort studies, as applied to safety monitoring systems. In particular, we discuss the robustness of the covariate selection process, the potential for over- or under-selection of variables including the possibilities of M-bias and Z-bias, the computation requirements, the practical considerations in a federated database network, and the cases where automated confounding adjustment may not function optimally. We also outline recent improvements to the algorithm and show how the algorithm has performed in several published studies. We conclude that despite certain limitations, hd-PS offers substantial advantages over non-automated alternatives in active product safety monitoring systems.

  16. Association between serotonin cumulative genetic score and the Behavioral Approach System (BAS): Moderation by early life environment.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Rahel; McGeary, John E; Beevers, Christopher G

    2014-11-01

    The present study investigates if genetic variation in the serotonergic system interacts with early adversity to predict changes in the Behavioral Approach System (BAS), a system that taps into reward processing. In a sample of community adults (N= 236) the influence of single serotonergic candidate polymorphisms on BAS was analyzed, we also examined the aggregate contribution of these genetic variants by creating a Cumulative Genetic Score (CGS). A CGS quantifies an individual's cumulative risk by aggregating the number of risk alleles across the candidate polymorphisms. After individual gene analysis, three candidate genes rs7305115 (TPH2), rs6311 (HTR2A), and rs6295 (HTR1A) were combined into the CGS. There were no significant interactions between individual candidate polymorphisms and childhood adversity, but the CGS interacted with childhood adversity to explain a significant amount of variance (11.6%) in the BAS. Findings suggest that genetic variations in the serotonergic system in combination with childhood adversity contribute to individual differences in reward sensitivity.

  17. Association between serotonin cumulative genetic score and the Behavioral Approach System (BAS): Moderation by early life environment

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Rahel; McGeary, John E.; Beevers, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates if genetic variation in the serotonergic system interacts with early adversity to predict changes in the Behavioral Approach System (BAS), a system that taps into reward processing. In a sample of community adults (N= 236) the influence of single serotonergic candidate polymorphisms on BAS was analyzed, we also examined the aggregate contribution of these genetic variants by creating a Cumulative Genetic Score (CGS). A CGS quantifies an individual’s cumulative risk by aggregating the number of risk alleles across the candidate polymorphisms. After individual gene analysis, three candidate genes rs7305115 (TPH2), rs6311 (HTR2A), and rs6295 (HTR1A) were combined into the CGS. There were no significant interactions between individual candidate polymorphisms and childhood adversity, but the CGS interacted with childhood adversity to explain a significant amount of variance (11.6%) in the BAS. Findings suggest that genetic variations in the serotonergic system in combination with childhood adversity contribute to individual differences in reward sensitivity. PMID:25264393

  18. Modelling of human low frequency sound localization acuity demonstrates dominance of spatial variation of interaural time difference and suggests uniform just-noticeable differences in interaural time difference.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rosanna C G; Price, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    Sound source localization is critical to animal survival and for identification of auditory objects. We investigated the acuity with which humans localize low frequency, pure tone sounds using timing differences between the ears. These small differences in time, known as interaural time differences or ITDs, are identified in a manner that allows localization acuity of around 1° at the midline. Acuity, a relative measure of localization ability, displays a non-linear variation as sound sources are positioned more laterally. All species studied localize sounds best at the midline and progressively worse as the sound is located out towards the side. To understand why sound localization displays this variation with azimuthal angle, we took a first-principles, systemic, analytical approach to model localization acuity. We calculated how ITDs vary with sound frequency, head size and sound source location for humans. This allowed us to model ITD variation for previously published experimental acuity data and determine the distribution of just-noticeable differences in ITD. Our results suggest that the best-fit model is one whereby just-noticeable differences in ITDs are identified with uniform or close to uniform sensitivity across the physiological range. We discuss how our results have several implications for neural ITD processing in different species as well as development of the auditory system.

  19. Evaluation of vernier acuity near healed retinal laser lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeisser, Elmar T.

    1997-05-01

    Seven Cynomolgus fasciculata who had graded laser lesions placed in own eye 6 years previously were evaluated for their vernier acuity by electrophysiologic recording techniques. In these experiments, 95 percent contrast vernier acuity targets were presented at high luminance levels to anesthetized primates. Visual evoked potentials were recorded by conventional means form scalp electrodes through hospital grade amplifiers. All animal testing was performed under IACUC approved protocols. The single q-switched pulses form a neodymium-YAG laser had produced lesions of 4 types: no visible change, minimal visible lesions, 'white dot' lesions and 'red dot' lesions in the eye at the time of placement. Single exposures had been made in four locations: 5 degrees superior, inferior and temporal to the fovea, and one foveally. Vernier recording proved somewhat successful in smaller animals with less than contained retinal hemorrhage lesions in the fovea. Initial analyses demonstrated a significant decrease of the pattern response signal/noise in the experimental eye overall, and an apparent relative loss of vernier signal in some lesioned eyes. Animals with the more severe lesions have somewhat degraded small patten responses and no recordable vernier response. Apparent lesser losses produced less effect.

  20. Distinct eye movement patterns enhance dynamic visual acuity

    PubMed Central

    Palidis, Dimitrios J.; Wyder-Hodge, Pearson A.; Fooken, Jolande; Spering, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is the ability to resolve fine spatial detail in dynamic objects during head fixation, or in static objects during head or body rotation. This ability is important for many activities such as ball sports, and a close relation has been shown between DVA and sports expertise. DVA tasks involve eye movements, yet, it is unclear which aspects of eye movements contribute to successful performance. Here we examined the relation between DVA and the kinematics of smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements in a cohort of 23 varsity baseball players. In a computerized dynamic-object DVA test, observers reported the location of the gap in a small Landolt-C ring moving at various speeds while eye movements were recorded. Smooth pursuit kinematics—eye latency, acceleration, velocity gain, position error—and the direction and amplitude of saccadic eye movements were linked to perceptual performance. Results reveal that distinct eye movement patterns—minimizing eye position error, tracking smoothly, and inhibiting reverse saccades—were related to dynamic visual acuity. The close link between eye movement quality and DVA performance has important implications for the development of perceptual training programs to improve DVA. PMID:28187157

  1. Impact on stereo-acuity of two presbyopia correction approaches: monovision and small aperture inlay.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Enrique J; Schwarz, Christina; Prieto, Pedro M; Manzanera, Silvestre; Artal, Pablo

    2013-06-01

    Some of the different currently applied approaches that correct presbyopia may reduce stereovision. In this work, stereo-acuity was measured for two methods: (1) monovision and (2) small aperture inlay in one eye. When performing the experiment, a prototype of a binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer was employed. The system allowed simultaneous measurement and manipulation of the optics in both eyes of a subject. The apparatus incorporated two programmable spatial light modulators: one phase-only device using liquid crystal on silicon technology for wavefront manipulation and one intensity modulator for controlling the exit pupils. The prototype was also equipped with a stimulus generator for creating retinal disparity based on two micro-displays. The three-needle test was programmed for characterizing stereo-acuity. Subjects underwent a two-alternative forced-choice test. The following cases were tested for the stimulus placed at distance: (a) natural vision; (b) 1.5 D monovision; (c) 0.75 D monovision; (d) natural vision and small pupil; (e) 0.75 D monovision and small pupil. In all cases the standard pupil diameter was 4 mm and the small pupil diameter was 1.6 mm. The use of a small aperture significantly reduced the negative impact of monovision on stereopsis. The results of the experiment suggest that combining micro-monovision with a small aperture, which is currently being implemented as a corneal inlay, can yield values of stereoacuity close to those attained under normal binocular vision.

  2. Impact on stereo-acuity of two presbyopia correction approaches: monovision and small aperture inlay

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Enrique J.; Schwarz, Christina; Prieto, Pedro M.; Manzanera, Silvestre; Artal, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Some of the different currently applied approaches that correct presbyopia may reduce stereovision. In this work, stereo-acuity was measured for two methods: (1) monovision and (2) small aperture inlay in one eye. When performing the experiment, a prototype of a binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer was employed. The system allowed simultaneous measurement and manipulation of the optics in both eyes of a subject. The apparatus incorporated two programmable spatial light modulators: one phase-only device using liquid crystal on silicon technology for wavefront manipulation and one intensity modulator for controlling the exit pupils. The prototype was also equipped with a stimulus generator for creating retinal disparity based on two micro-displays. The three-needle test was programmed for characterizing stereo-acuity. Subjects underwent a two-alternative forced-choice test. The following cases were tested for the stimulus placed at distance: (a) natural vision; (b) 1.5 D monovision; (c) 0.75 D monovision; (d) natural vision and small pupil; (e) 0.75 D monovision and small pupil. In all cases the standard pupil diameter was 4 mm and the small pupil diameter was 1.6 mm. The use of a small aperture significantly reduced the negative impact of monovision on stereopsis. The results of the experiment suggest that combining micro-monovision with a small aperture, which is currently being implemented as a corneal inlay, can yield values of stereoacuity close to those attained under normal binocular vision. PMID:23761846

  3. Binocular depth acuity research to support the modular multi-spectral stereoscopic night vision goggle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, John O.; CuQlock-Knopp, V. Grayson; Paicopolis, Peter; Smoot, Jennifer; Kregel, Mark; Corona, Bernard

    2006-05-01

    This paper discusses the depth acuity research conducted in support of the development of a Modular Multi-Spectral Stereoscopic (M2S2) night vision goggle (NVG), a customizable goggle that lets the user select one of five goggle configurations: monocular thermal, monocular image intensifier (I2), binocular I2, binocular thermal, and binocular dual-waveband (thermal imagery to one eye and I2 imagery to the other eye). The motives for the development of this type of customizable goggle were (1) the need for an NVG that allows the simultaneous use of two wavebands, (2) the need for an alternative sensor fusion method to avoid the potential image degradation that may accompany digitally fused images, (3) a requirement to provide the observer with stereoscopic, dual spectrum views of a scene, and (4) the need to handle individual user preferences for sensor types and ocular configurations employed in various military operations. Among the increases in functionality that the user will have with this system is the ability to convert from a binocular I2 device (needed for detailed terrain analysis during off-road mobility) to a monocular thermal device (for increased situational awareness in the unaided eye during nights with full moon illumination). Results of the present research revealed potential depth acuity advantages that may apply to off-road terrain hazard detection for the binocular thermal configuration. The results also indicated that additional studies are needed to address ways to minimize binocular incompatibility for the dual waveband configuration.

  4. Development and Application of a Plant-Based Diet Scoring System for Japanese Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Mitsuro; Nakane, Kunio; Takayama, Yuko; Sugawara, Kae; Ohno, Hideo; Ishii, Hajime; Tsuda, Satoko; Tsuji, Tsuyotoshi; Komatsu, Masafumi; Sugawara, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Context Plant-based diets (PBDs) are a healthy alternative to westernized diets. A semivegetarian diet, a PBD, has been shown to prevent a relapse in Crohn disease. However, there is no way to measure adherence to PBDs. Objective To develop a simple way of evaluating adherence to a PBD for Japanese patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Design PBD scores were assigned according to the frequency of consumption provided on a food-frequency questionnaire, obtained on hospitalization for 159 patients with ulcerative colitis and 70 patients with Crohn disease. Eight items considered to be preventive factors for IBD were scored positively, and 8 items considered to be IBD risk factors were scored negatively. The PBD score was calculated from the sum of plus and minus scores. Higher PBD scores indicated greater adherence to a PBD. The PBD scores were evaluated on hospitalization and 2 years after discharge for 22 patients with Crohn disease whose dietary pattern and prognosis were established. Main Outcome Measure Plant-Based Diet score. Results The PBD scores differed significantly, in descending order, by dietary type: pro-Japanese diet, mixed type, and pro-westernized diet (Wilcoxon/Kruskal-Wallis test). The PBD scores in the ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease groups were 10.9 ± 9.5 and 8.2 ± 8.2, respectively. For patients with Crohn disease, those with long-term remission and normal C-reactive protein concentration were significantly more likely to have PBD scores of 25 or greater than below 25 (χ2). Conclusion The PBD score is a valid assessment of PBD dietary adherence. PMID:27768566

  5. Visual acuity in an opportunistic raptor, the chimango caracara (Milvago chimango).

    PubMed

    Potier, Simon; Bonadonna, Francesco; Kelber, Almut; Duriez, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Raptors are always considered to have an extraordinary resolving power of their eyes (high visual acuity). Nevertheless, raptors differ in their diet and foraging tactics, which could lead to large differences in visual acuity. The visual acuity of an opportunist bird of prey, the Chimango caracara (Mivalgo chimango) was estimated by operant conditioning. Three birds were trained to discriminate two stimuli, a positive grey uniform pattern and a negative grating pattern stimulus. The visual acuity range from 15.08 to 39.83 cycles/degrees. When compared to other birds, they have a higher visual acuity than non-raptorial birds, but they have the lowest visual acuity found in bird of prey so far. We discuss this result in the context of the ecology of the bird, with special focus on it is foraging tactic.

  6. Usefulness of the MrWALLETS Scoring System to Predict First Diagnosed Atrial Fibrillation in Patients With Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Muscari, Antonio; Bonfiglioli, Andrea; Faccioli, Luca; Ghinelli, Marco; Magalotti, Donatella; Manzetto, Francesco; Pontarin, Anna; Puddu, Giovanni M; Spinardi, Luca; Tubertini, Eleonora; Zoli, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Some cryptogenic strokes are caused by undetected paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) and could benefit from oral anticoagulation. In this study, we searched for echocardiographic parameters associated with first diagnosed AF, to form a scoring system for the identification of patients with AF. We examined 571 patients with ischemic stroke (72.7 ± 13.5 years, 50.6% women), subdivided into 4 groups: documented cause without AF, first diagnosed AF, known paroxysmal AF, and permanent AF. All patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography, brain computed tomography scan, carotid/vertebral ultrasound, and continuous electrocardiographic monitoring. Eight factors independently characterized first diagnosed AF and formed the "MrWALLETS" score: mitral regurgitation, mild-to-moderate (+1), white matter lesions (-1), age ≥75 years (+1), left atrium ≥4 cm (+1), cerebral lesion diameter ≥4 cm (+1), left ventricular end-diastolic volume <65 ml (+1), tricuspid regurgitation ≥moderate (+1), carotid stenosis ≥50% (-1). In the patients with ≥3 points, positive predictive value was 80%, specificity 97.5%, and sensitivity 57.1%. In the patients with ≥2 points sensitivity rose to 85.7%, but positive predictive value was 47.1%. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.89 (95% CI 0.83 to 0.95). There were important differences among AF groups, which therefore could not be merged. In conclusion, 4 echocardiographic parameters, 3 additional instrumental parameters, and age allow the identification of stroke patients with first diagnosed AF with high positive predictive value.

  7. Adalimumab markedly improves enthesitis in patients with psoriatic arthritis: Evaluation with a magnetic resonance imaging scoring system.

    PubMed

    Yanaba, Koichi; Sadaoka, Akari; Yonenaga, Takenori; Saeki, Hidehisa; Umezawa, Yoshinori; Tojo, Shinjiro; Ito, Toshihiro; Kikuchi, Sota; Fukuda, Kunihiko; Nakagawa, Hidemi

    2015-12-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA), a seronegative arthropathy, may often result in progressive joint damage without treatment, leading to disability and impaired quality of life. Early therapeutic intervention of PsA is therefore crucial before the development of irreversible joint damage. Because psoriatic skin lesions generally precede the onset of PsA, dermatologists occupy an important position in treating patients with early PsA. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of adalimumab in treating joint disease in patients with PsA, using the PsA magnetic resonance imaging scoring system (PsAMRIS). Five adult Japanese male patients with active PsA were treated with adalimumab. Magnetic resonance imaging was obtained at baseline and 8-32 weeks with 2-3 time points following adalimumab treatment and assessed using PsAMRIS. Adalimumab treatment markedly improved clinical symptoms and disease activities of joint disease, which was confirmed by the reduction of PsAMRIS scores in all patients. Bone marrow edema and periarticular inflammation, reflecting the presence of enthesitis, were dramatically improved at week 8, while improvement of synovitis and flexor tenosynovitis was observed later, at week 24 or 32. However, bone erosion was not improved by adalimumab treatment during the follow-up period. These results indicate that adalimumab treatment is associated with dramatic improvement of enthesitis in patients with PsA, whereas bone erosion may be resistant to such treatment. PsAMRIS appears to be useful for the evaluation of treatment efficacy in PsA.

  8. Visual acuity in ray-finned fishes correlates with eye size and habitat.

    PubMed

    Caves, Eleanor M; Sutton, Tracey T; Johnsen, Sönke

    2017-02-09

    Visual acuity (the ability to resolve spatial detail) is highly variable across fishes. However, little is known about the evolutionary pressures underlying this variation. We reviewed published literature to create an acuity database for 159 species of ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii). Within a subset of those species for which we had phylogenetic information and anatomically-measured acuity data (n=81), we examined relationships between acuity and both morphological (eye size and body size) and ecological (light level, water turbidity, habitat spatial complexity, and diet) variables. Acuity was significantly correlated with eye size (p<0.05); a weaker correlation with body size occurred via a correlation between eye and body size (p<0.001). Acuity decreased as light level decreased and turbidity increased; however, these decreases resulted from fishes in dark or murky environments having smaller eyes and bodies than those in bright or clear environments. We also found significantly lower acuity in horizon-dominated habitats than in featureless or complex habitats. Higher acuity in featureless habitats is likely due to species having absolutely larger eyes and bodies in that environment, though eye size relative to body size is not significantly different from that in complex environments. Controlling for relative eye size, we found that species in complex environments have even higher acuity than predicted. We found no relationship between visual acuity and diet. Our results show that eye size is a primary factor underlying variation in fish acuity. We additionally show that habitat type is an important ecological factor that correlates with acuity in certain species.

  9. Recovery of visual acuity following the repair of pseudophakic retinal detachment.

    PubMed Central

    Isernhagen, R D; Wilkinson, C P

    1988-01-01

    Postoperative visual acuities were evaluated in a series of 100 pseudophakic eyes in which rhegmatogenous retinal detachments involved the macula and in which reattachment surgery was successful. Preoperative visual acuity and duration of macular detachment were directly and indirectly related to visual outcome, respectively. Eyes in which extracapsular surgery had been followed by posterior chamber lens implantation had significantly better postoperative visual acuities than cases in which older iris-fixation IOLs were placed following intracapsular procedures. PMID:2979019

  10. Preliminary validation of the Knee Inflammation MRI Scoring System (KIMRISS) for grading bone marrow lesions in osteoarthritis of the knee: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, Dean; Buller, M; Wichuk, Stephanie; McDougall, Dave; Lambert, Robert GW; Maksymowych, Walter P

    2017-01-01

    Objective Bone marrow lesions (BML) are an MRI feature of osteoarthritis (OA) offering a potential target for therapy. We developed the Knee Inflammation MRI Scoring System (KIMRISS) to semiquantitatively score BML with high sensitivity to small changes, and compared feasibility, reliability and responsiveness versus the established MRI Osteoarthritis Knee Score (MOAKS). Methods KIMRISS incorporates a web-based graphic overlay to facilitate detailed regional BML scoring. Observers scored BML by MOAKS and KIMRISS on sagittal fluid-sensitive sequences. Exercise 1 focused on interobserver reliability in Osteoarthritis Initiative observational data, with 4 readers (two experienced/two new to KIMRISS) scoring BML in 80 patients (baseline/1 year). Exercise 2 focused on responsiveness in an open-label trial of adalimumab, with 2 experienced readers scoring BML in 16 patients (baseline/12 weeks). Results Scoring time was similar for KIMRISS and MOAKS. Interobserver reliability of KIMRISS was equivalent to MOAKS for BML status (ICC=0.84 vs 0.79), but consistently better than MOAKS for change in BML: Exercise 1 (ICC 0.82 vs 0.53), Exercise 2 (ICC 0.90 vs 0.32), and in new readers (0.87–0.92 vs 0.32–0.51). KIMRISS BML was more responsive than MOAKS BML: post-treatment BML improvement in Exercise 2 reached statistical significance for KIMRISS (SRM −0.69, p=0.015), but not MOAKS (SRM −0.12, p=0.625). KIMRISS BML also more strongly correlated to WOMAC scores than MOAKS BML (r=0.80 vs 0.58, p<0.05). Conclusions KIMRISS BML scoring was highly feasible, and was more reliable for assessment of change and more responsive to change than MOAKS BML for expert and new readers. PMID:28123780

  11. Floor Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drexler, Brad

    2008-01-01

    In an effort to quantify what constitutes an "environmentally correct" building, the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) created the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system. LEED has become the North American standard for what constitutes sustainable design. The LEED guidelines are the best way to differentiate genuinely…

  12. Validation of a novel prognostic scoring system using inflammatory response biomarkers in patients undergoing curative thoracoscopic esophagectomy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hirahara, Noriyuki; Fujii, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Tetsu; Hyakudomi, Ryoji; Hirayama, Takanori; Taniura, Takahito; Ishitobi, Kazunari; Tajima, Yoshitsugu

    2017-01-01

    Background Systemic inflammatory markers, including the lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio have been shown to predict postoperative recurrence and survival in various types of cancer. However, their role in esophageal cancer has yet to be determined. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of an inflammatory response biomarker (IRB) score, independent of conventional clinicopathological criteria, in patients with esophageal cancer undergoing curative resection. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed a database containing the medical records of 147 consecutive patients who underwent curative esophagectomy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The IRB score was determined as follows: a low lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (<4), a low neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (<1.6), and a high platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (>147), which were each scored as 1, with all remaining values scored as 0. The scores were added together to produce the IRB score (range: 0–3). Results An IRB score of 2–3 (hazard ratio: 6.023, 95% confidence interval: 1.675–13.078; P<0.01) was identified as an independent poor prognostic factor of cancer-specific survival (CSS) in a multivariate logic regression analysis. The 5-year CSS rates in patients with the IRB scores of 0−1, 2, and 3 were 37.8%, 67.8%, and 72.5%, respectively. As determined by Kaplan–Meier analysis and the log-rank test, these differences were significant (P<0.001). Conclusion The IRB score can predict the systemic inflammatory response as accurately as conventional tumor markers and is useful for determining CSS in patients with esophageal cancer undergoing curative thoracoscopic esophagectomy. PMID:28144151

  13. Spatial visual acuity of the eagle Aquila audax: a behavioural, optical and anatomical investigation.

    PubMed

    Reymond, L

    1985-01-01

    Behavioural acuity of the wedge-tailed eagle was determined across a range of luminance. Maximum acuity is between 132 and 143 c/deg and with decreasing luminance acuity declines sharply. The maximum anatomical resolving power of the eagle's deep fovea was calculated as 140 c/deg. This calculation was based upon ophthalmoscopic measurement of posterior nodal distance and estimates of photoreceptor spacings made from fixed foveal tissue and corrected for shrinkage. Maximum behavioural acuity and anatomical resolving power correspond closely and approach the highest frequency (157 c/deg) transmitted by the minimum pupil diameter of the eye. These findings are discussed with reference to current theories of visual functioning.

  14. The Relationship between OCT-measured Central Retinal Thickness and Visual Acuity in Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare optical coherence tomography (OCT)-measured retinal thickness and visual acuity in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME) both before and after macular laser photocoagulation. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal study. Participants 210 subjects (251 eyes) with DME enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of laser techniques. Methods Retinal thickness was measured with OCT and visual acuity was measured with the electronic-ETDRS procedure. Main Outcome Measures OCT-measured center point thickness and visual acuity Results The correlation coefficients for visual acuity versus OCT center point thickness were 0.52 at baseline and 0.49, 0.36, and 0.38 at 3.5, 8, and 12 months post-laser photocoagulation. The slope of the best fit line to the baseline data was approximately 4.4 letters (95% C.I.: 3.5, 5.3) better visual acuity for every 100 microns decrease in center point thickness at baseline with no important difference at follow-up visits. Approximately one-third of the variation in visual acuity could be predicted by a linear regression model that incorporated OCT center point thickness, age, hemoglobin A1C, and severity of fluorescein leakage in the center and inner subfields. The correlation between change in visual acuity and change in OCT center point thickening 3.5 months after laser treatment was 0.44 with no important difference at the other follow-up times. A subset of eyes showed paradoxical improvements in visual acuity with increased center point thickening (7–17% at the three time points) or paradoxical worsening of visual acuity with a decrease in center point thickening (18%–26% at the three time points). Conclusions There is modest correlation between OCT-measured center point thickness and visual acuity, and modest correlation of changes in retinal thickening and visual acuity following focal laser treatment for DME. However, a wide range of visual acuity may be observed for a given degree of retinal edema and paradoxical

  15. Challenges in Evaluating the Severity of Fibropapillomatosis: A Proposal for Objective Index and Score System for Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Silmara; Sánchez-Sarmiento, Angélica María; Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Dos Santos, Robson Guimarães; Prioste, Fabiola Eloisa Setim; Gattamorta, Marco Aurélio; Grisi-Filho, José Henrique Hildebrand; Matushima, Eliana Reiko

    2016-01-01

    Fibropapillomatosis (FP) is a neoplastic disease that affects marine turtles worldwide, especially green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas). FP tumors can develop on the body surface of marine turtles and also internally in the oral cavity and viscera. Depending on their quantity, size and anatomical distribution, these tumors can interfere with hydrodynamics and the ability to feed, hence scoring systems have been proposed in an attempt to quantify the clinical manifestation of FP. In order to establish a new scoring system adapted to geographic regions, we examined 214 juvenile green sea turtles with FP caught or rescued at Brazilian feeding areas, counted their 7466 tumors and classified them in relation to their size and anatomical distribution. The patterns in quantity, size and distribution of tumors revealed interesting aspects in the clinical manifestation of FP in specimens studied in Brazil, and that FP scoring systems developed for other areas might not perform adequately when applied to sea turtles on the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. We therefore propose a novel method to evaluate the clinical manifestation of FP: fibropapillomatosis index (FPI) that provides the Southwest Atlantic fibropapillomatosis score (FPSSWA). In combination, these indexing and scoring systems allow for a more objective, rapid and detailed evaluation of the severity of FP in green sea turtles. While primarily designed for the clinical manifestation of FP currently witnessed in our dataset, this index and the score system can be adapted for other areas and compare the characteristics of the disease across regions. In conclusion, scoring systems to classify the severity of FP can assist our understanding on the environmental factors that modulate its development and its impacts on the individual and population health of green sea turtles.

  16. Challenges in Evaluating the Severity of Fibropapillomatosis: A Proposal for Objective Index and Score System for Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Silmara; Sánchez-Sarmiento, Angélica María; Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; dos Santos, Robson Guimarães; Prioste, Fabiola Eloisa Setim; Gattamorta, Marco Aurélio; Grisi-Filho, José Henrique Hildebrand; Matushima, Eliana Reiko

    2016-01-01

    Fibropapillomatosis (FP) is a neoplastic disease that affects marine turtles worldwide, especially green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas). FP tumors can develop on the body surface of marine turtles and also internally in the oral cavity and viscera. Depending on their quantity, size and anatomical distribution, these tumors can interfere with hydrodynamics and the ability to feed, hence scoring systems have been proposed in an attempt to quantify the clinical manifestation of FP. In order to establish a new scoring system adapted to geographic regions, we examined 214 juvenile green sea turtles with FP caught or rescued at Brazilian feeding areas, counted their 7466 tumors and classified them in relation to their size and anatomical distribution. The patterns in quantity, size and distribution of tumors revealed interesting aspects in the clinical manifestation of FP in specimens studied in Brazil, and that FP scoring systems developed for other areas might not perform adequately when applied to sea turtles on the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. We therefore propose a novel method to evaluate the clinical manifestation of FP: fibropapillomatosis index (FPI) that provides the Southwest Atlantic fibropapillomatosis score (FPSSWA). In combination, these indexing and scoring systems allow for a more objective, rapid and detailed evaluation of the severity of FP in green sea turtles. While primarily designed for the clinical manifestation of FP currently witnessed in our dataset, this index and the score system can be adapted for other areas and compare the characteristics of the disease across regions. In conclusion, scoring systems to classify the severity of FP can assist our understanding on the environmental factors that modulate its development and its impacts on the individual and population health of green sea turtles. PMID:27936118

  17. The role of ANS acuity and numeracy for the calibration and the coherence of subjective probability judgments

    PubMed Central

    Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter; Lindskog, Marcus; Nilsson, Håkan; Kerimi, Neda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how numeracy and acuity of the approximate number system (ANS) relate to the calibration and coherence of probability judgments. Based on the literature on number cognition, a first hypothesis was that those with lower numeracy would maintain a less linear use of the probability scale, contributing to overconfidence and nonlinear calibration curves. A second hypothesis was that also poorer acuity of the ANS would be associated with overconfidence and non-linearity. A third hypothesis, in line with dual-systems theory (e.g., Kahneman and Frederick, 2002) was that people higher in numeracy should have better access to the normative probability rules, allowing them to decrease the rate of conjunction fallacies. Data from 213 participants sampled from the Swedish population showed that: (i) in line with the first hypothesis, overconfidence and the linearity of the calibration curves were related to numeracy, where people higher in numeracy were well calibrated with zero overconfidence. (ii) ANS was not associated with overconfidence and non-linearity, disconfirming the second hypothesis. (iii) The rate of conjunction fallacies was slightly, but to a statistically significant degree decreased by numeracy, but still high at all numeracy levels. An unexpected finding was that participants with better ANS acuity gave more realistic estimates of their performance relative to others. PMID:25140163

  18. Testing vision testing: quantifying the effect of movement on visual acuity measurement

    PubMed Central

    Tidbury, L P; O'Connor, A R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Assessment of visual acuity (VA) has been shown to vary between tests, which may be attributable in part to test inaccuracies, such as a change in the distance between the chart and subject. Therefore, the study aim was to quantify changes in chart/patient separation during near and distance VA testing, and to analyse the relationship between VA and movement observed. Methods Volunteer orthoptists and subjects were filmed during near and distance VA testing, with the amount of movement determined from the recording. Controlling for movement using chin rests and chart stands, VA was retested. Actual changes in VA due to a change in subject or chart movement were compared with theoretical predictions. Results Fifty-one subjects (18–73 years) were assessed. Median (interquartile) movements of 0.06 m (0.07) towards and 0.11 m (0.08) away from the chart were measured (maximum 0.17 m towards and 0.24 m away). Significant differences in VA score were measured when movement was restricted, at near and distance (P<0.05). VA score change agreed with predicted values in 67% of the cases, however, reduced test distance during near vision testing resulted in a degradation of VA, opposite to the improvement expected. Conclusion There were significant variations in subject/chart separation during testing, which could have affected VA values. While this movement is associated with a change in VA, additional factors to movement appear to influence the score achieved during near testing. Procedures to minimise variation, by eliminating movement of test chart or subject, will improve VA test accuracy. PMID:25341437

  19. Sensitivity of The Dynamic Visual Acuity Test To Sensorimotor Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Helen; Bloomberg, Jacob; Elizalde, Elizabeth; Fregia, Melody

    1999-01-01

    Post-flight astronauts, acutely post-vestibular nerve section patients, and patients with severe chronic bilateral vestibular deficits have oscillopsia caused by reduced vestibulocular reflex gains and decreased postural stability. Therefore, as previous work has shown, a test of dynamic visual acuity (DVA), in which the subject must read numbers from a computer screen while standing still or walking in place provides a composite measure of sensorimotor integration. This measure may be useful for determining the level of recovery, post-flight, post-operatively, or after vestibular rehabilitation. To determine the sensitivity of DVA to change in impaired populations we have tested patients with acoustic neuromas before and during the first post-operative week after resection of the tumors, and with bilaterally labyrinthine deficient subjects before and after six weeks of balance rehabilitation therapy.

  20. Recovery of stereo acuity in adults with amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Astle, Andrew T; McGraw, Paul V; Webb, Ben S

    2011-01-01

    Disruption of visual input to one eye during early development leads to marked functional impairments of vision, commonly referred to as amblyopia. A major consequence of amblyopia is the inability to encode binocular disparity information leading to impaired depth perception or stereo acuity. If amblyopia is treated early in life (before 4 years of age), then recovery of normal stereoscopic function is possible. Treatment is rarely undertaken later in life (adulthood) because declining levels of neural plasticity are thought to limit the effectiveness of standard treatments. Here, the authors show that a learning-based therapy, designed to exploit experience-dependent plastic mechanisms, can be used to recover stereoscopic visual function in adults with amblyopia. These cases challenge the long-held dogma that the critical period for visual development and the window for treating amblyopia are one and the same. PMID:22707543

  1. Collective enhancement of numerical acuity by meritocratic leadership in fish.

    PubMed

    Bisazza, Angelo; Butterworth, Brian; Piffer, Laura; Bahrami, Bahador; Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Agrillo, Christian

    2014-04-02

    It has been known for more than a century that interacting people can generally achieve more accurate decisions than single individuals. Here we show that interacting guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) achieve a superior level of numerosity discrimination well beyond the average ability of the isolated individual fish. This enhancement of numerical acuity was observed in dyadic interactions when (Experiment 1) the dyad chose which larger shoal of guppies to join and when (Experiment 2) the dyad chose the higher or the lower numerosity among two decision options after having learned the task individually. Dyadic accuracy and that of the more competent member of each dyad matched closely, supporting the hypothesis that meritocratic leadership arises spontaneously between dyadically interacting fish, rather than the 'many wrongs' principle that has been used to explain group superiority in many species.

  2. Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Lorach, Henri; Goetz, Georges; Smith, Richard; Lei, Xin; Mandel, Yossi; Kamins, Theodore; Mathieson, Keith; Huie, Philip; Harris, James; Sher, Alexander; Palanker, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    Patients with retinal degeneration lose sight due to the gradual demise of photoreceptors. Electrical stimulation of surviving retinal neurons provides an alternative route for the delivery of visual information. We demonstrate that subretinal implants with 70-μm-wide photovoltaic pixels provide highly localized stimulation of retinal neurons in rats. The electrical receptive fields recorded in retinal ganglion cells were similar in size to the natural visual receptive fields. Similarly to normal vision, the retinal response to prosthetic stimulation exhibited flicker fusion at high frequencies, adaptation to static images and nonlinear spatial summation. In rats with retinal degeneration, these photovoltaic arrays elicited retinal responses with a spatial resolution of 64 ± 11 μm, corresponding to half of the normal visual acuity in healthy rats. The ease of implantation of these wireless and modular arrays, combined with their high resolution, opens the door to the functional restoration of sight in patients blinded by retinal degeneration.

  3. Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity

    PubMed Central

    Lorach, Henri; Goetz, Georges; Smith, Richard; Lei, Xin; Mandel, Yossi; Kamins, Theodore; Mathieson, Keith; Huie, Philip; Harris, James; Sher, Alexander; Palanker, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Patients with retinal degeneration lose sight due to gradual demise of photoreceptors. Electrical stimulation of the surviving retinal neurons provides an alternative route for delivery of visual information. We demonstrate that subretinal arrays with 70 μm photovoltaic pixels provide highly localized stimulation, with electrical and visual receptive fields of comparable sizes in rat retinal ganglion cells. Similarly to normal vision, retinal response to prosthetic stimulation exhibits flicker fusion at high frequencies, adaptation to static images and non-linear spatial summation. In rats with retinal degeneration, these photovoltaic arrays provide spatial resolution of 64 ± 11 μm, corresponding to half of the normal visual acuity in pigmented rats. Ease of implantation of these wireless and modular arrays, combined with their high resolution opens the door to functional restoration of sight. PMID:25915832

  4. Predicting visual acuity from the structure of visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Shyam; Carlo, C. Nikoosh; Stevens, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    Three decades ago, Rockel et al. proposed that neuronal surface densities (number of neurons under a square millimeter of surface) of primary visual cortices (V1s) in primates is 2.5 times higher than the neuronal density of V1s in nonprimates or many other cortical regions in primates and nonprimates. This claim has remained controversial and much debated. We replicated the study of Rockel et al. with attention to modern stereological precepts and show that indeed primate V1 is 2.5 times denser (number of neurons per square millimeter) than many other cortical regions and nonprimate V1s; we also show that V2 is 1.7 times as dense. As primate V1s are denser, they have more neurons and thus more pinwheels than similar-sized nonprimate V1s, which explains why primates have better visual acuity. PMID:26056277

  5. A comparison of vernier acuity for narrowband and broadband stimuli.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Brendan T; Whitaker, David

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of contrast and exposure duration on vernier acuity thresholds for abutting and separated narrowband stimuli, and asks whether these data can predict broadband vernier performance. Vernier thresholds were determined for sinusoidal grating stimuli at two spatial frequencies (1 and 8 c/deg) across a range of contrasts (0.05-0.8) and exposure durations (35-2100 ms). Performance was assessed for the abutting configuration, and when a gap equivalent to 0.5 to 1.5 times the spatial period of the grating was introduced between the upper and lower halves of the grating. Vernier thresholds were also determined for a square-wave stimulus as a function of contrast (0.06 to 0.78). Exposure duration was fixed at 2100 ms. In addition, thresholds were determined at the appropriate contrast levels for the fundamental frequency (1.8 c/deg) of the square-wave, and for a number of the harmonics (3F, 5F, 7F, 9F). Our results provide support for filter models of vernier acuity by showing that vernier performance for abutting and closely-separated broadband stimuli represents the envelope of vernier sensitivity of those spatial frequency mechanisms that are activated by the broadband stimulus. In the case of high frequency grating stimuli presented for long exposure durations, vernier performance can be invariant across much of the contrast range. Despite this, however, contrast independence is not exhibited for abutting broadband stimuli because, within the broadband stimuli, the contrast of the higher harmonic components never reaches a level to reveal this plateau.

  6. Amblyopia and visual acuity in children with Down's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tsiaras, W.; Pueschel, S.; Keller, C.; Curran, R.; Giesswein, S.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Amblyopia in people with Down's syndrome has not been well investigated. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and associated conditions of amblyopia in a group of home reared children with Down's syndrome.
METHODS—All children in the study group underwent an evaluation of visual acuity. In addition, previous ophthalmological records were reviewed, and a subgroup of children was examined. For the purposes of this study, amblyopia was defined quantitatively as a difference of two Snellen acuity lines between eyes or if unilateral central steady maintained (CSM) vision and a clear fixation preference was observed. A high refractive error was defined as a spherical equivalent more than 3 dioptres and astigmatism more than 1.75 dioptres. Anisometropia was defined as a difference of at least 1.5 dioptres of sphere and/or 1.0 dioptre of cylinder between eyes. 68 children with Down's syndrome between the ages of 5 and 19 years were enrolled in the final study group.
RESULTS—Amblyopia was observed in 15 (22%) of 68 patients. An additional 16 (24%) patients had bilateral vision less than 20/50. Strabismus, high refractive errors, and anisometropia were the conditions most commonly associated with decreased vision and amblyopia
CONCLUSION—This study suggests that the prevalence of amblyopia is higher than previously reported. Fully 46% of these children with Down's syndrome had evidence of substantial visual deficits. These patients may be at higher risk for visual impairment and should be carefully examined for ophthalmological problems.

 PMID:10502568

  7. Development of a severity of illness scoring system (ITAT) for resource-constrained hospitals in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Dan; Davis, Nicole L.; Milazi, Robert; Lufesi, Norman; Miller, William C.; Preidis, Geoffrey A.; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; McCollum, Eric D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop a new pediatric illness severity score, called Inpatient Triage, Assessment, and Treatment (ITAT), for resource-limited settings to identify hospitalized patients at highest risk of death and facilitate urgent clinical re-evaluation. Methods We performed a nested case-control study at a Malawian referral hospital. The ITAT score was derived from 4 equally-weighted variables, yielding a cumulative score between 0 and 8. Variables included oxygen saturation, temperature, and age-adjusted heart and respiratory rates. We compared the ITAT score between cases (deaths) and controls (discharges) in predicting death within 2 days. Our analysis includes predictive statistics, bivariable and multivariable logistic regression, and calculation of data-driven scores. Results A total of 54 cases and 161 controls were included in the analysis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.76. At an ITAT cutoff of 4, the sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio were 0.44, 0.86, and 1.70, respectively. A cumulative ITAT score of 4 or higher was associated with increased odds of death (OR: 4.80; 95% CI: 2.39 – 9.64). A score of 2 for all individual vital signs was a statistically significant independent predictor of death. Conclusions We developed an inpatient triage tool (ITAT) appropriate for resource-constrained hospitals that identifies high-risk children after hospital admission. Further research is needed to study how best to operationalize ITAT in developing countries. PMID:23758198

  8. Stroboscopic Goggles as a Countermeasure for Dynamic Visual Acuity and Landing Sickness in Crewmembers Returning from Long-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, M. J. F.; Kreutzberg, G. A.; Peters, B. T.; Reschke, M. F.

    2017-01-01

    Long-term exposure to microgravity causes sensorimotor adaptations that result in functional deficits upon returning to a gravitational environment. At landing, the vestibular system and the central nervous system, responsible for coordinating head and eye movements via the vestibulo-occular reflex (VOR), are adapted to microgravity and must re-adapt to the Earth's gravitational environment. This re-adaptation causes decrements in gaze control and dynamic visual acuity, with astronauts reporting oscillopsia and blurred vision. These effects are caused by retinal slip, or the inability to keep an image focused on their retina, which is thought to drive motion sickness symptoms experienced upon landing. Retinal slip can be estimated by dynamic visual acuity (DVA); visual acuity while in motion. Peters et al. (2011) find that DVA is worsened in astronauts by an average of 0.75 eye-chart lines one day after landing. Previously, the use of stroboscopic goggles has shown to be effective in minimizing motion sickness symptoms due to retinal slip (Reschke et al. 2007). In this study, we simulated the decrement in DVA caused by sensorimotor re-adaptation by using minifying lenses and then testing the efficacy of stroboscopic goggles in preventing retinal slip and improving DVA. Dynamic visual acuity is assessed using an oscillating chair developed in the Neuroscience Laboratory at JSC. This chair is motor-driven and oscillates vertically at 2 Hz with a vertical displacement of +/- 2 cm to simulate the vertical translations that occur while walking. As the subject is being oscillated, they are asked to discern the direction of Landolt-C optotypes of varying sizes and record their direction using a gamepad. The visual acuity thresholds are determined using an algorithm that alters the size of the optotype based on the previous responses of the subject using a forced-choice best parameter estimation that is able to rapidly converge on the threshold value. Visual acuity

  9. Compensatory responses to age-related decline in odor quality acuity: cholinergic neuromodulation and olfactory enrichment.

    PubMed

    Mandairon, Nathalie; Peace, Shane T; Boudadi, Karim; Boxhorn, Christine E; Narla, Venkata Anupama; Suffis, Sara D; Cleland, Thomas A

    2011-12-01

    The perceptual differentiation of odors can be measured behaviorally using generalization gradients. The steepness of these gradients defines a form of olfactory acuity for odor quality that depends on neural circuitry within the olfactory bulb and is regulated by cholinergic activity therein as well as by associative learning. Using this system as a reduced model for age-related cognitive decline, we show that aged mice, while maintaining almost the same baseline behavioral performance as younger mice, are insensitive to the effects of acutely elevated acetylcholine, which sharpens generalization gradients in young adult mice. Moreover, older mice exhibit evidence of chronically elevated acetylcholine levels in the olfactory bulb, suggesting that their insensitivity to further elevated levels of acetylcholine may arise because the maximum capacity of the system to respond to acetylcholine has already been reached. We propose a model in which an underlying, age-related, progressive deficit is mitigated by a compensatory cholinergic feedback loop that acts to retard the behavioral effects of what would otherwise be a substantial age-related decline in olfactory plasticity. We also treated mice with 10-day regimens of olfactory environmental enrichment and/or repeated systemic injections of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine. Each treatment alone sharpened odor quality acuity, but administering both treatments together had no greater effect than either alone. Age was not a significant main effect in this study, suggesting that some capacity for acetylcholine-dependent plasticity is still present in aged mice despite their sharply reduced ability to respond to acute increases in acetylcholine levels. These results suggest a dynamical framework for understanding age-related decline in neural circuit processing in which the direct effects of aging can be mitigated, at least temporarily, by systemic compensatory responses. In particular, a decline in

  10. A systems biology approach to identify intelligence quotient score-related genomic regions, and pathways relevant to potential therapeutic treatments

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Min; Kong, Lei; Qu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Although the intelligence quotient (IQ) is the most popular intelligence test in the world, little is known about the underlying biological mechanisms that lead to the differences in human. To improve our understanding of cognitive processes and identify potential biomarkers, we conducted a comprehensive investigation of 158 IQ-related genes selected from the literature. A genomic distribution analysis demonstrated that IQ-related genes were enriched in seven regions of chromosome 7 and the X chromosome. In addition, these genes were enriched in target lists of seven transcription factors and sixteen microRNAs. Using a network-based approach, we further reconstructed an IQ-related pathway from known human pathway interaction data. Based on this reconstructed pathway, we incorporated enriched drugs and described the importance of dopamine and norepinephrine systems in IQ-related biological process. These findings not only reveal several testable genes and processes related to IQ scores, but also have potential therapeutic implications for IQ-related mental disorders. PMID:24566931

  11. Is there an ideal outcome scoring system for facial reanimation surgery? A review of current methods and suggestions for future publications.

    PubMed

    Niziol, Rafal; Henry, Francis P; Leckenby, Jonathan I; Grobbelaar, Adriaan O

    2015-04-01

    Facial reanimation is the surgical process of attempting to restore dynamic, spontaneous symmetry to the paralysed face. We undertook to review the most frequently used scoring systems and discuss a universal set of assessments which every facial palsy surgeon can use to standardize the outcome of surgical intervention and allow a comparison to be drawn when comparing different operative techniques. A literature review was performed using PubMed and Cochrane databases to identify scoring systems for facial palsy, facial nerve regeneration and facial reanimation. The scoring systems were broken down into the following broad categories: observational, mathematical and computer-graphical measurements. More than 20 scoring systems were identified and included in the study. The scoring systems were analysed and assessed for reproducibility and inter-observer reliability. The current trend in the literature is to use the House-Brackmann Score due to its historical longevity, brevity and ease of understanding. However, this was never designed to assess outcomes of facial reanimation and there are clear limitations. Other more appropriate methods such as 3-D facial analysis are prohibitively expensive to widely implement. The quest continues to develop an ideal system. From this review it is clear that a quick, simple to use system should be used which incorporates the patient's own views. Therefore a combination of pre- and post-operative photographs of the patient should be assessed by an independent panel as well as the patient. We propose a universal set of photographs that can be used to standardize the outcome of surgical intervention when publishing results in the literature. This will allow a comparison to be drawn when comparing different operative techniques and help surgeons work collectively towards the same goal while improving patient outcomes.

  12. The Clinical Performance of an Office-Based Risk Scoring System for Fatal Cardiovascular Diseases in North-East of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Malekzadeh, Reza; Poustchi, Hossein; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Ghodsi, Saeed; Malekzadeh, Fatemeh; Etemadi, Arash; Pourshams, Akram; Pharoah, Paul D.; Abnet, Christian C.; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Kamangar, Farin

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are becoming major causes of death in developing countries. Risk scoring systems for CVD are needed to prioritize allocation of limited resources. Most of these risk score algorithms have been based on a long array of risk factors including blood markers of lipids. However, risk scoring systems that solely use office-based data, not including laboratory markers, may be advantageous. In the current analysis, we validated the office-based Framingham risk scoring system in Iran. Methods The study used data from the Golestan Cohort in North-East of Iran. The following risk factors were used in the development of the risk scoring method: sex, age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, hypertension treatment, current smoking, and diabetes. Cardiovascular risk functions for prediction of 10-year risk of fatal CVDs were developed. Results A total of 46,674 participants free of CVD at baseline were included. Predictive value of estimated risks was examined. The resulting Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) was 0.774 (95% CI: 0.762-0.787) in all participants, 0.772 (95% CI: 0.753-0.791) in women, and 0.763 (95% CI: 0.747-0.779) in men. AUC was higher in urban areas (0.790, 95% CI: 0.766-0.815). The predicted and observed risks of fatal CVD were similar in women. However, in men, predicted probabilities were higher than observed. Conclusion The AUC in the current study is comparable to results of previous studies while lipid profile was replaced by body mass index to develop an office-based scoring system. This scoring algorithm is capable of discriminating individuals at high risk versus low risk of fatal CVD. PMID:26011607

  13. Development of a novel clinical scoring system for on-farm diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease in pre-weaned dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Love, William J; Lehenbauer, Terry W; Kass, Philip H; Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Aly, Sharif S

    2014-01-01

    Several clinical scoring systems for diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in calves have been proposed. However, such systems were based on subjective judgment, rather than statistical methods, to weight scores. Data from a pair-matched case-control study on a California calf raising facility was used to develop three novel scoring systems to diagnose BRD in preweaned dairy calves. Disease status was assigned using both clinical signs and diagnostic test results for BRD-associated pathogens. Regression coefficients were used to weight score values. The systems presented use nasal and ocular discharge, rectal temperature, ear and head carriage, coughing, and respiratory quality as predictors. The systems developed in this research utilize fewer severity categories of clinical signs, require less calf handling, and had excellent agreement (Kappa > 0.8) when compared to an earlier scoring system. The first scoring system dichotomized all clinical predictors but required inducing a cough. The second scoring system removed induced cough as a clinical abnormality but required distinguishing between three levels of nasal discharge severity. The third system removed induced cough and forced a dichotomized variable for nasal discharge. The first system presented in this study used the following predictors and assigned values: coughing (induced or spontaneous coughing, 2 points), nasal discharge (any discharge, 3 points), ocular discharge (any discharge, 2 points), ear and head carriage (ear droop or head tilt, 5 points), fever (≥39.2°C or 102.5°F, 2 points), and respiratory quality (abnormal respiration, 2 points). Calves were categorized "BRD positive" if their total score was ≥4. This system correctly classified 95.4% cases and 88.6% controls. The second presented system categorized the predictors and assigned weights as follows: coughing (spontaneous only, 2 points), mild nasal discharge (unilateral, serous, or watery discharge, 3 points), moderate to

  14. Sensitivity and specificity of on-farm scoring systems and nasal culture to detect bovine respiratory disease complex in preweaned dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Love, William J; Lehenbauer, Terry W; Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Drake, Christiana M; Kass, Philip H; Farver, Thomas B; Aly, Sharif S

    2016-03-01

    The California (CA) and Wisconsin (WI) clinical scoring systems have been proposed for bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) detection in preweaned dairy calves. The screening sensitivity (SSe), for estimating BRDC prevalence in a cohort of calves, diagnostic sensitivity (DSe), for confirming BRDC in ill calves, and specificity (Sp) were estimated for each of the scoring systems, as well as for nasal swab cultures for aerobic bacteria and mycoplasma species. Thoracic ultrasound and auscultation were used as the reference standard tests interpreted in parallel. A total of 536 calves (221 with BRDC and 315 healthy) were sampled from 5 premises in California. The SSe of 46.8%, DSe of 72.6%, and Sp of 87.4% was determined for the CA system. The SSe of 46.0%, DSe of 71.1%, and Sp of 91.2% was determined for the WI system. For aerobic culture, the SSe was 43.4%, DSe was 52.6%, and Sp was 71.3%; for Mycoplasma spp. culture, the SSe was 57.5%, DSe was 68.9%, and Sp was 59.7%. The screening and diagnostic sensitivities of the scoring systems were not significantly different but the Sp of the WI system was greater by 3.8%. Scoring systems can serve as rapid on-farm tools to determine the burden of BRDC in preweaned dairy calves. However, users may expect the SSe to be less than the DSe when confirming BRDC in an ill calf.

  15. Visual Acuity of Radiologists: The Important but Forgotten Component of the Radiological Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Barbara C.

    This paper reports on a study of visual acuity among radiologists. Twenty-eight radiologists had their visual acuity tested by an optometrist. One week later, 70 medical school faculty radiologists were asked to respond to a printed questionnaire that elicited information about: (1) the date of the respondent's immediately previous examination;…

  16. Comparison of Dynamic Visual Acuity between Water Polo Players and Sedentary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quevedo-Junyent, Lluisa; Aznar-Casanova, Jose Antonio; Merindano-Encina, Dolores; Cardona, Genis; Sole-Forto, Joan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined differences in dynamic visual acuity between elite and subelite water polo players and sedentary students. To measure dynamic visual acuity binocularly, we asked participants to indicate the orientation of a broken ring, similar to the Landolt C, which increased in size as it moved across a computer screen. Two different…

  17. Burn Patient Acuity Demographics, Scar Contractures and Rehabilitation Treatment Time Related to Patient Outcomes (ACT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    Patient Acuity Demographics, Scar Contractures and Rehabilitation Treatment Time Related to Patient Outcomes (ACT) Mr. Reginald Richard American Burn...and Rehabilitation Treatment Time Related to Patient Outcomes, conveniently referred to as the ACT representing Acuity, Contractures and Time, is...wound leading to scar contracture begins almost immediately after the burning process stops. Rehabilitation treatment delivered prior to beginning

  18. 49 CFR 240.121 - Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. 240... ENGINEERS Component Elements of the Certification Process § 240.121 Criteria for vision and hearing acuity... paragraph (e) of this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet or exceed the standards...

  19. 49 CFR 240.121 - Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. 240... ENGINEERS Component Elements of the Certification Process § 240.121 Criteria for vision and hearing acuity... paragraph (e) of this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet or exceed the standards...

  20. 49 CFR 240.121 - Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. 240... ENGINEERS Component Elements of the Certification Process § 240.121 Criteria for vision and hearing acuity... paragraph (e) of this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet or exceed the standards...

  1. 49 CFR 240.207 - Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. 240.207 Section 240.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. (a) Each railroad, prior to initially...

  2. 49 CFR 240.121 - Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. 240... ENGINEERS Component Elements of the Certification Process § 240.121 Criteria for vision and hearing acuity... paragraph (e) of this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet or exceed the standards...

  3. 49 CFR 240.207 - Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. 240.207 Section 240.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. (a) Each railroad, prior to initially...

  4. 49 CFR 240.207 - Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. 240.207 Section 240.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. (a) Each railroad, prior to initially...

  5. 49 CFR 240.121 - Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. 240... ENGINEERS Component Elements of the Certification Process § 240.121 Criteria for vision and hearing acuity... paragraph (e) of this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet or exceed the standards...

  6. 49 CFR 240.207 - Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. 240.207 Section 240.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. (a) Each railroad, prior to initially...

  7. 49 CFR 240.207 - Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. 240.207 Section 240.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. (a) Each railroad, prior to initially...

  8. Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System Score Combined with the New Italian Classification for Thyroid Cytology Improves the Clinical Management of Indeterminate Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, Daniela; Nardi, Francesco; Nesca, Angela; D'Armiento, Eleonora; Guglielmino, Valeria; De Vito, Corrado; Sorrenti, Salvatore; Pironi, Daniele; Tartaglia, Francesco; Arcieri, Stefano; Catania, Antonio; Monti, Massimo; Filippini, Angelo; Ascoli, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    The new Italian cytological classification (2014) of thyroid nodules replaced the TIR3 category of the old classification (2007) with two subclasses, TIR3A and TIR3B, with the aim of reducing the rate of surgery for benign diseases. Moreover, thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TI-RADS) score appears to ameliorate the stratification of the malignancy risk. We evaluated whether the new Italian classification has improved diagnostic accuracy and whether its association with TI-RADS score could improve malignancy prediction. We retrospectively analyzed 70 nodules from 70 patients classified as TIR3 according to the old Italian classification who underwent surgery for histological diagnosis. Of these, 51 were available for cytological revision according to the new Italian cytological classification. Risk of malignancy was determined for TIR3A and TIR3B, TI-RADS score, and their combination. A different rate of malignancy (p = 0.0286) between TIR3A (13.04%) and TIR3B (44.44%) was observed. Also TI-RADS score is significantly (p = 0.003) associated with malignancy. By combining cytology and TI-RADS score, patients could be divided into three groups with low (8.3%), intermediate (21.4%), and high (80%) risk of malignancy. In conclusion, the new Italian cytological classification has an improved diagnostic accuracy. Interestingly, the combination of cytology and TI-RADS score offers a better stratification of the malignancy risk. PMID:28348589

  9. Proprioceptive acuity assessment via joint position matching: from basic science to general practice.

    PubMed

    Goble, Daniel J

    2010-08-01

    Over the past several decades, studies of use-dependent plasticity have demonstrated a critical role for proprioceptive feedback in the reorganization, and subsequent recovery, of neuromotor systems. As such, an increasing emphasis has been placed on tests of proprioceptive acuity in both the clinic and the laboratory. One test that has garnered particular interest is joint position matching, whereby individuals must replicate a reference joint angle in the absence of vision (ie, using proprioceptive information). On the surface, this test might seem straightforward in nature. However, the present perspective article informs therapists and researchers alike of multiple insights gained from a recent series of position matching studies by the author and colleagues. In particular, 5 factors are outlined that can assist clinicians in developing well-informed opinions regarding the outcomes of tests of position matching abilities. This information should allow for enhanced diagnosis of proprioceptive deficits within clinical settings in the future.

  10. Combining the ASA Physical Classification System and Continuous Intraoperative Surgical Apgar Score Measurement in Predicting Postoperative Risk.

    PubMed

    Jering, Monika Zdenka; Marolen, Khensani N; Shotwell, Matthew S; Denton, Jason N; Sandberg, Warren S; Ehrenfeld, Jesse Menachem

    2015-11-01

    The surgical Apgar score predicts major 30-day postoperative complications using data assessed at the end of surgery. We hypothesized that evaluating the surgical Apgar score continuously during surgery may identify patients at high risk for postoperative complications. We retrospectively identified general, vascular, and general oncology patients at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Logistic regression methods were used to construct a series of predictive models in order to continuously estimate the risk of major postoperative complications, and to alert care providers during surgery should the risk exceed a given threshold. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used to evaluate the discriminative ability of a model utilizing a continuously measured surgical Apgar score relative to models that use only preoperative clinical factors or continuously monitored individual constituents of the surgical Apgar score (i.e. heart rate, blood pressure, and blood loss). AUROC estimates were validated internally using a bootstrap method. 4,728 patients were included. Combining the ASA PS classification with continuously measured surgical Apgar score demonstrated improved discriminative ability (AUROC 0.80) in the pooled cohort compared to ASA (0.73) and the surgical Apgar score alone (0.74). To optimize the tradeoff between inadequate and excessive alerting with future real-time notifications, we recommend a threshold probability of 0.24. Continuous assessment of the surgical Apgar score is predictive for major postoperative complications. In the future, real-time notifications might allow for detection and mitigation of changes in a patient's accumulating risk of complications during a surgical procedure.

  11. The Eye Phone Study: reliability and accuracy of assessing Snellen visual acuity using smartphone technology

    PubMed Central

    Perera, C; Chakrabarti, R; Islam, F M A; Crowston, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Smartphone-based Snellen visual acuity charts has become popularized; however, their accuracy has not been established. This study aimed to evaluate the equivalence of a smartphone-based visual acuity chart with a standard 6-m Snellen visual acuity (6SVA) chart. Methods First, a review of available Snellen chart applications on iPhone was performed to determine the most accurate application based on optotype size. Subsequently, a prospective comparative study was performed by measuring conventional 6SVA and then iPhone visual acuity using the ‘Snellen' application on an Apple iPhone 4. Results Eleven applications were identified, with accuracy of optotype size ranging from 4.4–39.9%. Eighty-eight patients from general medical and surgical wards in a tertiary hospital took part in the second part of the study. The mean difference in logMAR visual acuity between the two charts was 0.02 logMAR (95% limit of agreement −0.332, 0.372 logMAR). The largest mean difference in logMAR acuity was noted in the subgroup of patients with 6SVA worse than 6/18 (n=5), who had a mean difference of two Snellen visual acuity lines between the charts (0.276 logMAR). Conclusion We did not identify a Snellen visual acuity app at the time of study, which could predict a patients standard Snellen visual acuity within one line. There was considerable variability in the optotype accuracy of apps. Further validation is required for assessment of acuity in patients with severe vision impairment. PMID:25931170

  12. Influence of Motion Smear on Visual Acuity in Simulated Infantile Nystagmus

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Susana T. L.; LaFrance, Martin W.; Bedell, Harold E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose In persons with infantile nystagmus (IN), visual acuity correlates with the duration of the foveation period of the nystagmus waveform, i.e., when the retinal image is on or near the fovea and moves with low velocity. In this study, we asked how acuity is affected by the non-foveating phases of the nystagmus waveform, when the velocity of retinal image motion is substantially higher. Methods Visual acuity was measured in three normal observers for high-contrast, 4-orientation Ts, presented during image motion that simulated either the whole jerk-IN waveform (whole-waveform) or only the foveation periods of the IN waveform (foveation-only). Simulated foveation durations ranged from 20 to 120 ms. For both motion waveforms, we displayed the acuity target for different number of cycles to examine if acuity benefits from multiple presentations of the stimulus. Results As expected, visual acuity improves with longer simulated foveation durations in both the whole-waveform and foveation-only conditions. Acuity is consistently better (by approximately 0.1 logMAR) in the foveation-only than the whole-waveform condition, indicating that the high-velocity image motion during the simulated IN waveform has a detrimental effect. This difference in acuity between the two waveform conditions increases with the number of cycles, apparently because summation occurs across cycles in the foveation-only condition but not in the whole-waveform condition. Conclusions In normal observers, visual acuity in the presence of a simulated nystagmus waveform is limited not only by the duration of the foveation periods, but also by the non-foveating phases of the waveform. However, because persons with IN report little or no motion smear in association with their nystagmus, it remains unclear whether the rapid retinal image motion during the non-foveating phases of the nystagmus waveform generates a similar degradation of visual acuity in IN. PMID:21200353

  13. Relationships between a clinical-visual scoring system and two histological techniques: a laboratory study on occlusal and approximal carious lesions.

    PubMed

    Kidd, E A M; Banerjee, A; Ferrier, S; Longbottom, C; Nugent, Z

    2003-01-01

    One aim of the present laboratory study was to determine whether a visual scoring system (ERK) developed for occlusal caries could be applied to approximal lesions. A new histological technique (autofluorescence, AF) recognises dentine that is soft and would be removed with an excavator during operative treatment. A second aim was to investigate the relationship between the visual scoring system (ERK) and AF of dentine both occlusally and approximally. The sample comprised 93 extracted teeth chosen to represent the range of visual scores on approximal and occlusal surfaces. After sectioning through the investigation site, the cut faces were examined in a stereomicroscope and the depth of demineralization was scored. Autofluorescence was viewed with a confocal laser scanning microscope. Results showed reasonable correlation between the visual scores and the stereomicroscope histological evaluations for occlusal surfaces and non-cavitated approximal surfaces. However, cavitated approximal surface lesions were less advanced histologically than cavitated occlusal carious lesions. The AF technique indicated that several lesions with intact surfaces would have had soft, excavatable dentine, whereas several with microcavities would not.

  14. Test facilities for SCORE-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greuel, Dirk; Deeken, Jan; Suslov, Dmitry; Schäfer, Klaus; Schlechtriem, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    The LOX/LH2 Staged Combustion Rocket Engine Demonstrator (SCORE-D) is part of ESA's Future Launcher Preparatory Program (FLPP). SCORE-D serves as a technology demonstrator in perspective of the development of the High Thrust Engine (HTE), which is designated as a candidate for the main stage engine of the Next Generation Launcher (NGL). To develop and test the SCORE-D engine, ESA investigates configurations of the test benches P3.2 and P5 at DLR test site in Lampoldshausen. For the SCORE-D Hot Combustion Devices (HCD) development, i.e. Pre-burner (PB) and thrust chamber assembly (TCA), the P3.2 test facility has to be modified for further usage. Recently, the first steps in this endeavor have been made with the evaluation of the necessary modifications to the facility. To accommodate the SCORE-D engine, it is foreseen to modify the P5 test facility in the coming years. In the last year, DLR has started the design phase for these modifications. In preparatory test programs at the P8 test facility, Astrium has conducted sub-scale hot combustion devices tests. While Astrium designed and manufactured the sub-scale assembly of the pre-burner and the main combustion chamber (MCC) for SCORE-D, DLR operated the P8 test facility.

  15. A comparison of ventilator-associated pneumonia rates determined by different scoring systems in four intensive care units in the North West of England.

    PubMed

    Wallace, F A; Alexander, P D G; Spencer, C; Naisbitt, J; Moore, J A; McGrath, B A

    2015-11-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a common healthcare-associated infection with significant mortality, morbidity and healthcare cost, and rates have been proposed as a potential quality indicator. We examined ventilator-associated pneumonia rates as determined by different diagnostic scoring systems across four adult intensive care units in the North West of England. We also collected clinical opinions as to whether patients had ventilator-associated pneumonia, and whether patients were receiving antibiotics as treatment. Pooled ventilator-associated pneumonia rates were 36.3, 22.2, 15.2 and 1.1 per 1000 ventilator-bed days depending on the scoring system used. There was significant within-unit heterogeneity for ventilator-associated pneumonia rates calculated by the various scoring systems (all p < 0.001). Clinical opinion and antibiotic use did not correlate well with the scoring systems (k = 0.23 and k = 0.17, respectively). We therefore question whether the ventilator-associated pneumonia rate as measured by existing tools is either useful or desirable as a quality indicator.

  16. Inter-Rater Reliability and Concurrent Validity of the Goodenough-Harris and McCarthy Draw-A-Child Scoring Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naglieri, Jack A.; Maxwell, Susanna

    1981-01-01

    Inter-rater reliability of the Goodenough-Harris and McCarthy Draw-A-Child scoring systems was examined for a sample of 60 children, including 20 school-labeled learning disabled, 20 mentally retarded, and 20 normal children between the ages of six and eight-and-one-half years. (Author)

  17. Teacher Leadership and Teacher Efficacy: A Correlational Study Comparing Teacher Perceptions of Leadership and Efficacy and Teacher Evaluation Scores from the North Carolina Educator Evaluation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenzler, April M.

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to identify correlations between constructs of teacher leadership, teacher efficacy, and teacher evaluation. Teacher perceptual data of support of teacher leadership, perceptual data on personal teacher efficacy, and teacher self-reported scores from the North Carolina Educator Evaluation System were gathered. The relationships…

  18. The Performance Levels and Associated Cut Scores on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment Mathematics and Reading Tests: A Critical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwerling, Harris L.

    In the context of controversy over the use of high stakes testing, the Pennsylvania State Education Association (PSEA) asked for an evaluation of the performance levels and cut score of the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) mathematics and reading tests. While awaiting technical documentation from the Pennsylvania Department of…

  19. ADHD Subtypes and Co-Occurring Anxiety, Depression, and Oppositional-Defiant Disorder: Differences in Gordon Diagnostic System and Wechsler Working Memory and Processing Speed Index Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Chase, Gary A.; Mink, Danielle M.; Stagg, Ryan E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Freedom-from-Distractibility/Working Memory Index (FDI/WMI), Processing Speed Index (PSI), and Gordon Diagnostic System (GDS) scores in ADHD children were examined as a function of subtype and coexisting anxiety, depression, and oppositional-defiant disorder. Method: Participants were 587…

  20. Observations of Teacher-Child Interactions in Classrooms Serving Latinos and Dual Language Learners: Applicability of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System in Diverse Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downer, Jason T.; Lopez, Michael L.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Hamagami, Aki; Pianta, Robert C.; Howes, Carollee

    2012-01-01

    With the rising number of Latino and dual language learner (DLL) children attending pre-k and the importance of assessing the quality of their experiences in those settings, this study examined the extent to which a commonly used assessment of teacher-child interactions, the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS), demonstrated similar…

  1. A scoring system basing pathological parameters to predict regional lymph node metastasis after preoperative chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer: implication for local excision

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Jie; Chi, Pan; Lin, Hui-Ming; Lu, Xing-Rong; Huang, Ying; Xu, Zong-Bin; Huang, Sheng-Hui; Sun, Yan-Wu; Ye, Dao-Xiong; Yu, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Local excision is an alternative to radical surgery that is indicated in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) who have a good response to chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Regional lymph node status is a major uncertainty during local excision of LARC following CRT. We retrospectively reviewed clinicopathologic variables for 244 patients with LARC who were treated at our institute between December 2000 and December 2013 in order to identify independent predictors of regional lymph node metastasis. Multivariate analysis of the training sample demonstrated that histopathologic type, tumor size, and the presence of lymphovascular invasion were significant predictors of regional nodal metastasis. These variables were then incorporated into a scoring system in which the total scores were calculated based on the points assigned for each parameter. The area under the curve in the receiver operating characteristic analysis was 0.750, and the cutoff value for the total score to predict regional nodal metastasis was 7.5. The sensitivity of our system was 73.2% and the specificity was 69.4%. The sensitivity was 77.8% and the specificity was 51.2% when the scoring system was applied to the testing sample. Using this system, we could accurately predict regional nodal metastases in LARC patients following CRT, which may be useful for stratifying patients in clinical trials and selecting potential candidates for organ-sparing surgery following CRT for LARC PMID:27489356

  2. Malingering or simulation in ophthalmology-visual acuity

    PubMed Central

    Incesu, Ali Ihsan; Sobacı, Güngör

    2011-01-01

    Simulation can be defined as malingering, or sometimes functional visual loss (FVL). It manifests as either simulating an ophthalmic disease (positive simulation), or denial of ophthalmic disease (negative simulation). Conscious behavior and compensation or indemnity claims are prominent features of simulation. Since some authors suggest that this is a manifestation of underlying psychopathology, even conversion is included in this context. In today's world, every ophthalmologist can face with simulation of ophthalmic disease or disorder. In case of simulation suspect, the physician's responsibility is to prove the simulation considering the disease/disorder first, and simulation as an exclusion. In simulation examinations, the physician should be firm and smart to select appropriate test(s) to convince not only the subject, but also the judge in case of indemnity or compensation trials. Almost all ophthalmic sensory and motor functions including visual acuity, visual field, color vision and night vision can be the subject of simulation. Examiner must be skillful in selecting the most appropriate test. Apart from those in the literature, we included all kinds of simulation in ophthalmology. In addition, simulation examination techniques, such as, use of OCT (optical coherence tomography), frequency doubling perimetry (FDP), and modified polarization tests were also included. In this review, we made a thorough literature search, and added our experiences to give the readers up-to-date information on malingering or simulation in ophthalmology. PMID:22553721

  3. Insects groom their antennae to enhance olfactory acuity

    PubMed Central

    Böröczky, Katalin; Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Batchelor, Dale; Zhukovskaya, Marianna; Schal, Coby

    2013-01-01

    Grooming, a common behavior in animals, serves the important function of removing foreign materials from body surfaces. When antennal grooming was prevented in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, field emission gun scanning electron microscopy images revealed that an unstructured substance accumulated on nongroomed antennae, covering sensillar pores, but not on groomed antennae of the same individuals. Gas chromatography analysis of antennal extracts showed that over a 24-h period nongroomed antennae accumulated three to four times more cuticular hydrocarbons than groomed antennae. Moreover, nongroomed antennae accumulated significantly more environmental contaminants from surfaces (stearic acid) and from air (geranyl acetate) than groomed antennae. We hypothesized that the accumulation of excess native cuticular hydrocarbons on the antennae would impair olfactory reception. Electroantennogram experiments and single-sensillum recordings supported this hypothesis: antennae that were prevented from being groomed were significantly less responsive than groomed antennae to the sex pheromone component periplanone-B, as well as to the general odorants geranyl acetate and hexanol. We therefore conclude that antennal grooming removes excess native cuticular lipids and foreign chemicals that physically and/or chemically interfere with olfaction, and thus maintains the olfactory acuity of the antennae. Similar experimental manipulations of the German cockroach (Blattella germanica), carpenter ant (Camponotus pennsylvanicus), and the housefly (Musca domestica), which use different modes of antennal grooming, support the hypothesis that antennal grooming serves a similar function in a wide range of insect taxa. PMID:23382193

  4. Face context advantage explained by vernier and separation discrimination acuity.

    PubMed

    Vesker, Michael; Wilson, Hugh R

    2012-01-01

    Seeing facial features in the context of a full face is known to provide an advantage for perception. Using an interocular separation perception task we confirmed that seeing eyes within the context of a face improves discrimination in synthetic faces. We also show that this improvement of the face context can be explained using the presence of individual components of the face such as the nose mouth, or head-outline. We demonstrate that improvements due to the presence of the nose, and head-outline can be explained in terms of two-point separation measurements, obeying Weber's law as established in the literature. We also demonstrate that performance improvements due to the presence of the mouth can be explained in terms of Vernier acuity judgments between eye positions and the corners of the mouth. Overall, our study shows that the improvements in perception of facial features due to the face context effect can be traced to well understood basic visual measurements that may play a very general role in perceptual measurements of distance. Deficiencies in these measurements may also play a role in prosopagnosia. Additionally, we show interference of the eyebrows with the face-inversion effect for interocular discrimination.

  5. Believing is seeing: using mindlessness (mindfully) to improve visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Langer, Ellen; Djikic, Maja; Pirson, Michael; Madenci, Arin; Donohue, Rebecca

    2010-05-01

    These experiments show that vision can be improved by manipulating mind-sets. In Study 1, participants were primed with the mind-set that pilots have excellent vision. Vision improved for participants who experientially became pilots (by flying a realistic flight simulator) compared with control participants (who performed the same task in an ostensibly broken flight simulator). Participants in an eye-exercise condition (primed with the mind-set that improvement occurs with practice) and a motivation condition (primed with the mind-set "try and you will succeed") demonstrated visual improvement relative to the control group. In Study 2, participants were primed with the mind-set that athletes have better vision than nonathletes. Controlling for arousal, doing jumping jacks resulted in greater visual acuity than skipping (perceived to be a less athletic activity than jumping jacks). Study 3 took advantage of the mind-set primed by the traditional eye chart: Because letters get progressively smaller on successive lines, people expect that they will be able to read the first few lines only. When participants viewed a reversed chart and a shifted chart, they were able to see letters they could not see before. Thus, mind-set manipulation can counteract physiological limits imposed on vision.

  6. Cognitive aging and hearing acuity: modeling spoken language comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Wingfield, Arthur; Amichetti, Nicole M.; Lash, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The comprehension of spoken language has been characterized by a number of “local” theories that have focused on specific aspects of the task: models of word recognition, models of selective attention, accounts of thematic role assignment at the sentence level, and so forth. The ease of language understanding (ELU) model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) stands as one of the few attempts to offer a fully encompassing framework for language understanding. In this paper we discuss interactions between perceptual, linguistic, and cognitive factors in spoken language understanding. Central to our presentation is an examination of aspects of the ELU model that apply especially to spoken language comprehension in adult aging, where speed of processing, working memory capacity, and hearing acuity are often compromised. We discuss, in relation to the ELU model, conceptions of working memory and its capacity limitations, the use of linguistic context to aid in speech recognition and the importance of inhibitory control, and language comprehension at the sentence level. Throughout this paper we offer a constructive look at the ELU model; where it is strong and where there are gaps to be filled. PMID:26124724

  7. The Prognostic Scoring System Establishment and Validation for Chronic Atrial Fibrillation Patients Receiving Modified Cox-Maze IV and Concomitant Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jen-Ping; Tsai, Feng-Chang; Chu, Jaw-Ji; Lin, Pyng-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Traditional Cox maze III is the gold standard for treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). Because of its invasiveness, it has been replaced by a simplified procedure involving radiofrequency ablation of modified Cox maze IV. Although the modified Cox maze IV has the advantages of simplicity and less morbidity, a lower rate of sinus rhythm conversion has been reported. We try to establish a scoring system to predict the outcome of this procedure. Methods and Results The derivation group consisted of 287 patients with structural heart disease and chronic AF who underwent cardiac surgery and modified Cox-maze IV procedure between August 2005 and March 2013. Demographics, clinical and laboratory variables were retrospectively collected as sinus conversional predictors. Overall sinus conversion rate was 75.8%. The parameters of the Soft Markers Scoring system included AF duration, preoperative left atrial (LA) size, rheumatic pathology and postoperative LA remodeling. We compared 80 patients from another hospital between January 2004 and December 2011 as a validation group to evaluate the power of the scoring system. Soft Markers Score indicated a good discriminative power by using the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC: 0.759 ± 0.032). The score was further divided into three groups: low (0-2), intermediate (3-5), and high (6-10), with predicted sinus conversion rates of 92.4%, 74.2%, and 47.8%, respectively. Conclusions In patients with chronic AF receiving modified Cox-maze IV procedure, the Soft Markers Score demonstrated good discriminative power of predicting sinus recovery in our patients and applied well to the other validation populations. PMID:26067656

  8. Development of risk-based trading farm scoring system to assist with the control of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Adkin, A; Brouwer, A; Simons, R R L; Smith, R P; Arnold, M E; Broughan, J; Kosmider, R; Downs, S H

    2016-01-01

    Identifying and ranking cattle herds with a higher risk of being or becoming infected on known risk factors can help target farm biosecurity, surveillance schemes and reduce spread through animal trading. This paper describes a quantitative approach to develop risk scores, based on the probability of infection in a herd with bovine tuberculosis (bTB), to be used in a risk-based trading (RBT) scheme in England and Wales. To produce a practical scoring system the risk factors included need to be simple and quick to understand, sufficiently informative and derived from centralised national databases to enable verification and assess compliance. A logistic regression identified herd history of bTB, local bTB prevalence, herd size and movements of animals onto farms in batches from high risk areas as being significantly associated with the probability of bTB infection on farm. Risk factors were assigned points using the estimated odds ratios to weight them. The farm risk score was defined as the sum of these individual points yielding a range from 1 to 5 and was calculated for each cattle farm that was trading animals in England and Wales at the start of a year. Within 12 months, of those farms tested, 30.3% of score 5 farms had a breakdown (sensitivity). Of farms scoring 1-4 only 5.4% incurred a breakdown (1-specificity). The use of this risk scoring system within RBT has the potential to reduce infected cattle movements; however, there are cost implications in ensuring that the information underpinning any system is accurate and up to date.

  9. Proximal versus distal cue utilization in spatial navigation: the role of visual acuity?

    PubMed

    Carman, Heidi M; Mactutus, Charles F

    2002-09-01

    Proximal versus distal cue use in the Morris water maze is a widely accepted strategy for the dissociation of various problems affecting spatial navigation in rats such as aging, head trauma, lesions, and pharmacological or hormonal agents. Of the limited number of ontogenetic rat studies conducted, the majority have approached the problem of preweanling spatial navigation through a similar proximal-distal dissociation. An implicit assumption among all of these studies has been that the animal's visual system is sufficient to permit robust spatial navigation. We challenged this assumption and have addressed the role of visual acuity in spatial navigation in the preweanling Fischer 344-N rat by training animals to locate a visible (proximal) or hidden (distal) platform using double or null extramaze cues within the testing environment. All pups demonstrated improved performance across training, but animals presented with a visible platform, regardless of extramaze cues, simultaneously reached asymptotic performance levels; animals presented with a hidden platform, dependent upon location of extramaze cues, differentially reached asymptotic performance levels. Probe trial performance, defined by quadrant time and platform crossings, revealed that distal-double-cue pups demonstrated spatial navigational ability superior to that of the remaining groups. These results suggest that a pup's ability to spatially navigate a hidden platform is dependent on not only its response repertoire and task parameters, but also its visual acuity, as determined by the extramaze cue location within the testing environment. The standard hidden versus visible platform dissociation may not be a satisfactory strategy for the control of potential sensory deficits.

  10. Development and Use of a Traditional Mexican Diet Score in Relation to Systemic Inflammation and Insulin Resistance among Women of Mexican Descent123

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Torres, Margarita; Tinker, Lesley F; Allison, Matthew A; Breymeyer, Kara L; Garcia, Lorena; Kroenke, Candyce H; Lampe, Johanna W; Shikany, James M; Van Horn, Linda; Neuhouser, Marian L

    2015-01-01

    Background: Women of Mexican descent are disproportionally affected by obesity, systemic inflammation, and insulin resistance (IR). Available approaches used to give scores to dietary patterns relative to dietary guidelines may not effectively capture traditional diets of Mexicans, who comprise the largest immigrant group in the United States. Objectives: We characterized an a priori traditional Mexican diet (MexD) score high in corn tortillas, beans, soups, Mexican mixed dishes (e.g., tamales), fruits, vegetables, full-fat milk, and Mexican cheeses and low in refined grains and added sugars and evaluated the association of the MexD score with systemic inflammation and IR in 493 postmenopausal participants in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) who are of Mexican ethnic descent. Methods: The MexD score was developed from the baseline (1993–1998) WHI food frequency questionnaire, which included Hispanic foods and was available in Spanish. Body mass index (BMI) was computed from baseline measured weight and height, and ethnicity was self-reported. Outcome variables were high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and triglyceride concentrations measured at follow-up (2012–2013). Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to test the associations of the MexD score with systemic inflammation and IR. Results: The mean ± SD MexD score was 5.8 ± 2.1 (12 maximum points) and was positively associated with intakes of carbohydrates, vegetable protein, and dietary fiber and inversely associated with intakes of added sugars and total fat (P < 0.01). Women with high compared with low MexD scores, consistent with a more-traditional Mexican diet, had 23% and 15% lower serum hsCRP (P < 0.05) and insulin concentrations, respectively (P < 0.05). Baseline BMI modified these associations such that lower MexD scores were associated with higher insulin and HOMA-IR in overweight

  11. Perspective: NutriGrade: A Scoring System to Assess and Judge the Meta-Evidence of Randomized Controlled Trials and Cohort Studies in Nutrition Research.

    PubMed

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Knüppel, Sven; Schwedhelm, Carolina; Hoffmann, Georg; Missbach, Benjamin; Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Dietrich, Stefan; Eichelmann, Fabian; Kontopanteils, Evangelos; Iqbal, Khalid; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Lorkowski, Stefan; Leitzmann, Michael F; Kroke, Anja; Boeing, Heiner

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a scoring system (NutriGrade) to evaluate the quality of evidence of randomized controlled trial (RCT) and cohort study meta-analyses in nutrition research, building upon previous tools and expert recommendations. NutriGrade aims to assess the meta-evidence of an association or effect between different nutrition factors and outcomes, taking into account nutrition research-specific requirements not considered by other tools. In a pretest study, 6 randomly selected meta-analyses investigating diet-disease relations were evaluated with NutriGrade by 5 independent raters. After revision, NutriGrade was applied by the same raters to 30 randomly selected meta-analyses in the same thematic area. The reliability of ratings of NutriGrade items was calculated with the use of a multirater κ, and reliability of the total (summed scores) was calculated with the use of intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). The following categories for meta-evidence evaluation were established: high (8-10), moderate (6-7.99), low (4-5.99), and very low (0-3.99). The NutriGrade scoring system (maximum of 10 points) comprises the following items: 1) risk of bias, study quality, and study limitations, 2) precision, 3) heterogeneity, 4) directness, 5) publication bias, 6) funding bias, 7) study design, 8) effect size, and 9) dose-response. The NutriGrade score varied between 2.9 (very low meta-evidence) and 8.8 (high meta-evidence) for meta-analyses of RCTs, and it ranged between 3.1 and 8.8 for meta-analyses of cohort studies. The κ value of the ratings for each scoring item varied from 0.32 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.42) for risk of bias for cohort studies and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.91, 0.99) for study design, with a mean κ of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.79). The ICC of the total score was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.90). The NutriGrade scoring system showed good agreement and reliability. The initial findings regarding the performance of this newly established scoring system

  12. Measuring Life Stress: A Comparison of the Predictive Validity of Different Scoring Systems for the Social Readjustment Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Robert E. V.; Burkhart, Barry R.

    1983-01-01

    Assessed whether accounting for variables in the scoring of the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) would improve the predictive validity of the inventory. Results from 107 sets of questionnaires showed that income and level of education are significant predictors of the capacity to cope with stress. (JAC)

  13. The Use of Dynamic Visual Acuity as a Functional Test of Gaze Stabilization Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R.; Miller, C. A.; Richards, J. T.; Warren, L. E.; Cohen, H. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    After prolonged exposure to a given gravitational environment the transition to another is accompanied by adaptations in the sensorimotor subsystems, including the vestibular system. Variation in the adaptation time course of these subsystems, and the functional redundancies that exist between them make it difficult to accurately assess the functional capacity and physical limitations of astro/cosmonauts using tests on individual subsystems. While isolated tests of subsystem performance may be the only means to address where interventions are required, direct measures of performance may be more suitable for assessing the operational consequences of incomplete adaptation to changes in the gravitational environment. A test of dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is currently being used in the JSC Neurosciences Laboratory as part of a series of measures to assess the efficacy of a countermeasure to mitigate postflight locomotor dysfunction. In the current protocol, subjects visual acuity is determined using Landolt ring optotypes presented sequentially on a computer display. Visual acuity assessments are made both while standing and while walking at 1.8 m/s on a motorized treadmill. The use of a psychophysical threshold detection algorithm reduces the required number of optotype presentations and the results can be presented immediately after the test. The difference between the walking and standing acuity measures provides a metric of the change in the subject s ability to maintain gaze fixation on the visual target while walking. This functional consequence is observable regardless of the underlying subsystem most responsible for the change. Data from 15 cosmo/astronauts have been collected following long-duration (approx. 6 months) stays in space using a visual target viewing distance of 4.0 meters. An investigation of the group mean shows a change in DVA soon after the flight that asymptotes back to baseline approximately one week following their return to earth. The

  14. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  15. Incorporating Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound into the BI-RADS Scoring System Improves Accuracy in Breast Tumor Diagnosis: A Preliminary Study in China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiaoyun; Dong, Licong; Jiang, Qiongchao; Guan, Xiaofeng; Wu, Huan; Luo, Baoming

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a scoring model incorporating the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) and the contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) scoring system to differentiate between malignant and benign breast lesions. A total of 524 solid breast masses in 490 consecutive patients were evaluated with conventional US and CEUS in this prospective study. Each lesion was scored according to BI-RADS, CEUS, and CEUS-rerated BI-RADS. The diagnostic specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of BI-RADS were 77.9%, 88.9% and 84.0%, respectively, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.834. The corresponding values for rerated BI-RADS were 82.1%, 96.9%, 90.3% and 0.895. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of BI-RADS alone was significantly smaller than that of CEUS and the rerated BI-RADS (p = 0.008 compared with CEUS, p = 0.002 compared with rerated BI-RADS). This study indicates that rerating BI-RADS with the CEUS scoring system improves its diagnostic accuracy.

  16. Effects of Treatment Intensification on Acute Local Toxicity During Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer: Prospective Observational Study Validating CTCAE, Version 3.0, Scoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Palazzi, Mauro Tomatis, Stefano; Orlandi, Ester; Guzzo, Marco; Sangalli, Claudia; Potepan, Paolo; Fantini, Simona; Bergamini, Cristiana; Gavazzi, Cecilia; Licitra, Lisa; Scaramellini, Gabriele; Cantu', Giulio; Olmi, Patrizia

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To quantify the incidence and severity of acute local toxicity in head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy (RT), with or without chemotherapy (CHT), using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0 (CTCAE v3.0), scoring system. Methods and Materials: Between 2004 and 2006, 149 patients with head and neck cancer treated with RT at our center were prospectively evaluated for local toxicity during treatment. On a weekly basis, patients were monitored and eight toxicity items were recorded according to the CTCAE v3.0 scoring system. Of the 149 patients, 48 (32%) were treated with RT alone (conventional fractionation), 82 (55%) with concomitant CHT and conventional fractionation RT, and 20 (13%) with accelerated-fractionation RT and CHT. Results: Severe (Grade 3-4) adverse events were recorded in 28% (mucositis), 33% (dysphagia), 40% (pain), and 12% (skin) of patients. Multivariate analysis showed CHT to be the most relevant factor independently predicting for worse toxicity (mucositis, dysphagia, weight loss, salivary changes). In contrast, previous surgery, RT acceleration and older age, female gender, and younger age, respectively, predicted for a worse outcome of mucositis, weight loss, pain, and dermatitis. The T-score method confirmed that conventional RT alone is in the 'low-burden' class (T-score = 0.6) and suggests that concurrent CHT and conventional fractionation RT is in the 'high-burden' class (T-score = 1.15). Combined CHT and accelerated-fractionation RT had the highest T-score at 1.9. Conclusions: The CTCAE v3.0 proved to be a reliable tool to quantify acute toxicity in head and neck cancer patients treated with various treatment intensities. The effect of CHT and RT acceleration on the acute toxicity burden was clinically relevant.

  17. Neural correlate of vernier acuity tasks assessed by functional MRI (FMRI).

    PubMed

    Sheth, Kevin N; Walker, B Michael; Modestino, Edward J; Miki, Atsushi; Terhune, Kyla P; Francis, Ellie L; Haselgrove, John C; Liu, Grant T

    2007-01-01

    Vernier acuity refers to the ability to discern a small offset within a line. However, while Vernier acuity has been extensively studied psychophysically, its neural correlates are uncertain. Based upon previous psychophysical and electrophysiologic data, we hypothesized that extrastriate areas of the brain would be involved in Vernier acuity tasks, so we designed event-related functional MRI (fMRI) paradigms to identify cortical regions of the brain involved in this behavior. Normal subjects identified suprathreshold and subthreshold Vernier offsets. The results suggest a cortical network including frontal, parietal, occipital, and cerebellar regions subserves the observation, processing, interpretation, and acknowledgment of briefly presented Vernier offsets.

  18. Visual acuity loss and OCT changes as initial signs of leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Jose M; Ruiz-Moreno, Jose M; Pozo-Martos, Paola; Montero, Javier A

    2010-01-01

    AIM To report two cases where decreased visual acuity was the first symptom of leukaemia and optical coherence tomography (OCT) allowed identification and localization of the retinal lesions. METHODS Retrospective, interventional, case reports. RESULTS One case of lymphoblastic acute leukaemia and chronic lymphoid leukaemia were diagnosed following decreased visual acuity. OCT showed macular serous detachment in the first case. The second case presented hypo fluorescent retinal infiltrates which appeared as hyper reflective lesions by OCT. Retinal changes disappeared and visual acuity was recovered following complete remission of the neoplasm. CONCLUSION OCT is a valuable, non invasive diagnostic tool permitting detection, localization and follow-up of ocular dissemination of neoplasms. PMID:22553573

  19. Tactile roughness discrimination threshold is unrelated to tactile spatial acuity.

    PubMed

    Libouton, Xavier; Barbier, Olivier; Plaghki, Leon; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2010-04-02

    The present study examined the relationship between the tactile roughness discrimination threshold (TRDT) and the tactile spatial resolution threshold (TSRT) at the index fingertip in humans. A new device was built for measuring TRDT, allowing pair-wise presentations of two sets of six different sandpaper grits. The smoothest grits ranged from 18 to 40 microm and the roughest grits ranged from 50 to 195 microm particle size. The reference sandpaper had a 46 microm particle size. A two-alternative forced choice paradigm and a double interlaced adaptive staircase procedure yielding a 75% just noticeable difference (75%jnd) was used according to Zwislocki and Relkin. Contact force and scanning velocity were measured at the fingertip with a built-in sensor. The TSRT was assessed with an extended set of grating domes. Fifty-three male and female subjects, spanning a wide age range participated in this study. The JND75% or TRDT was lower for the smoothest sandpapers (15+/-8.5 microm) compared to the roughest sandpapers (44+/-32.5 microm). TRDT performance was unrelated to age or gender. Additionally, grit size had no effect on the mean forces (normal and tangential) exerted at the fingertip or the mean scan velocities. In contrast, there was a significant degradation of TSRT performance with age. Lastly, there was no significant correlation between TRDT and TRST performance. Results of this study support the theory that the neural mechanisms underlying the perception of tactile roughness discrimination for fine textures differ from those involved in spatial resolution acuity often associated with the SA1 afferents.