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Sample records for acupoints zusanli st36

  1. Effect of the acupoints ST-36 (Zusanli) and SP-6 (Sanyinjiao) on intestinal myoelectric activity of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tabosa, A; Yamamura, Y; Forno, E R; Mello, L E A M

    2002-06-01

    Despite its ancient use as a therapeutic tool to treat several ailments, acupuncture still faces the challenge of scrutiny by Western science both in terms of its efficacy and in terms of the characterization of its effects and mechanisms of actions underlying these effects. We investigated under well-controlled and carefully characterized conditions the influence of electrical stimulation of acupuncture points ST-36 (Zusanli) and SP-6 (Sanyinjiao) on the myoelectric activity of the small intestine of 38 adult male Wistar rats. Electrical recordings obtained by means of four electrodes chronically implanted in the small intestine were used to assess the effects of acupuncture (electroacupuncture stimulation set at 2 Hz, intermittent stimulation, 1 V, for 30 min). Immobilization of the animals was associated with a consistent decrease (-8 +/- 7%) in the myoelectric activity of the small intestine as measured by means of the root mean square. Conversely, acupuncture was able to significantly increase (overshoot) this activity compared to baseline (+44 +/- 7%). In contrast, immobilized animals subjected to sham acupuncture had only modest (nonsignificant) increases in myoelectric activity (+9 +/- 6%). Using carefully controlled conditions we confirmed previous noncontrolled studies on the ability of acupuncture to alter intestinal motility. The characterization of the topographic and temporal profiles of the effects observed here represents a basis for future dissection of the physiological and pharmacological systems underlying these effects.

  2. Hypothesis on the Treatment of Gliomas with Acupuncture at the Primo Node Corresponding to Zusanli (ST 36)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The primo vascular system (PVS) is an anatomical structure that is a network of ducts with fluid flowing in them, which are called primo vessels and correspond to acupuncture meridians, and primo nodes that correspond to acupoints. The PVS' main function is considered to be the maintenance of regenerative homeostasis in human and animal bodies. This system is distributed throughout the bodies of normal animals and develops around and in cancer tissues. This cancer-associated PVS may be a critical metastatic path besides the blood and the lymph vessels. The author of this article proposes a hypothesis on cancer treatment: Injecting anticancer drugs into acupoints according to the pharmacopuncture method can be effective as a result of the flow channels of the PVS. The author considers the acupoint Zusanli (ST 36) and the route of the primo vessels starting from it. This specific PVS route runs along the perineurium of the sciatic nerve, the pia mater, and the arachnoid mater of the spinal cord to the brain. Thus, by injecting a suitable anticancer drug into ST 36, one can deliver the drug into the brain to treat gliomas and other brain tumors. This new drug-delivery method is just one of the new clinical applications that are possible by combining acupuncture and using the PVS. Conclusions: Anticancer drugs for glioma can be injected into the primo node at the acupoint ST 36 to reach the cancer tissue through the PVS in the sciatic nerve, spine, and brain that can avoid the blood–brain barrier. PMID:26155319

  3. Hypothesis on the Treatment of Gliomas with Acupuncture at the Primo Node Corresponding to Zusanli (ST 36).

    PubMed

    Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2015-06-01

    Background: The primo vascular system (PVS) is an anatomical structure that is a network of ducts with fluid flowing in them, which are called primo vessels and correspond to acupuncture meridians, and primo nodes that correspond to acupoints. The PVS' main function is considered to be the maintenance of regenerative homeostasis in human and animal bodies. This system is distributed throughout the bodies of normal animals and develops around and in cancer tissues. This cancer-associated PVS may be a critical metastatic path besides the blood and the lymph vessels. The author of this article proposes a hypothesis on cancer treatment: Injecting anticancer drugs into acupoints according to the pharmacopuncture method can be effective as a result of the flow channels of the PVS. The author considers the acupoint Zusanli (ST 36) and the route of the primo vessels starting from it. This specific PVS route runs along the perineurium of the sciatic nerve, the pia mater, and the arachnoid mater of the spinal cord to the brain. Thus, by injecting a suitable anticancer drug into ST 36, one can deliver the drug into the brain to treat gliomas and other brain tumors. This new drug-delivery method is just one of the new clinical applications that are possible by combining acupuncture and using the PVS. Conclusions: Anticancer drugs for glioma can be injected into the primo node at the acupoint ST 36 to reach the cancer tissue through the PVS in the sciatic nerve, spine, and brain that can avoid the blood-brain barrier.

  4. Are Primo Vessels (PVs) on the Surface of Gastrointestine Involved in Regulation of Gastric Motility Induced by Stimulating Acupoints ST36 or CV12?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Shi, Hong; Shang, Hongyan; Su, Yangshuai; Xin, Juanjuan; He, Wei; Jing, Xianghong; Zhu, Bing

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies showed primo vessels (PVs), which were referred to as Bonhan ducts (BHDs) and a part of circulatory system by Kim, located in different places of the body. The BHDs system was once considered as the anatomical basis of classical acupuncture meridian but not clearly identified by other investigators. In the present study, we tried to address the relationship between PVs and meridians through detecting the modulation of gastric motility by stimulating the PVs on the surface of stomach or intestine, as well as acupoints Zusanli (ST36) and Zhongwan (CV12). The results showed electric stimulation of the PVs had no effect on the gastric motility. While stimulating CV12 inhibited gastric motility significantly in PVs-intact and PVs-cut rats, there is no significant difference between the inhibition rate of the PVS-intact and the PVS-cut rats. Stimulating at ST36 increased gastric motility significantly in both the PVs-intact and the PVs-cut rats, yet there was no significant difference between the facilitation rate of the both groups. Taken together, the PVs on the surface of stomach or intestine did not mediate the regulation of gastric motility induced by stimulating at the acupoints ST36 or CV12. PMID:23091558

  5. Electro-acupuncture at Acupoint ST36 Ameliorates Inflammation and Regulates Th1/Th2 Balance in Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhigang; Chen, Tao; Long, Man; Chen, Longyun; Wang, Lei; Yin, Nina; Chen, Zebin

    2017-04-01

    Increasing evidence indicates anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of electro-acupuncture (EA) therapy. However, its underlying mechanism on delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), a classic allergic inflammatory disease, still remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the immunomodulatory mechanism of EA intervention in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced DTH. Mice were randomly divided into four groups: Control, OVA-DTH, DTH + EA, DTH + Sham. "Zusanli" acupoint (ST36) was used for DTH + EA, whereas a non-acupoint (localized 5 mm below the "Zusanli" acupoint) was selected for DTH + Sham. Footpad thickness was checked, and the infiltration of inflammatory cells was estimated by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Levels of IgG and IgE in serum of different groups and inflammatory cytokines in the supernatants from homogenized footpads, including IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-5, were determined by ELISA. Cell proliferation of spleen lymphocytes was assayed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT). The frequency of CD4(+)IFN-γ(+) and CD4(+)IL-4(+) T cells was analyzed with flow cytometry. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression of T-bet and GATA-3 were evaluated by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Our data showed EA treatment at acupoint ST36 relieved the pathological progression of DTH responses via reduction in footpad swelling, infiltration of inflammatory cells, levels of IgG and IgE as well as decreased production of IFN-γ and TNF-α in homogenized footpad tissue. Moreover, detailed studies were performed revealing that EA attenuated the percentage of CD4(+)IFN-γ(+) T cells and prevented Th cells differentiation into Th1 cells, and this results from inhibiting secretion of IFN-γ and suppressing expression of T-bet, an IFN-γ transcription factor. The results indicated that EA treatment improved Th1-mediated allergic skin inflammation via restoring Th1/Th2 balance by curbing Th1

  6. Changes in the Interstitial Cells of Cajal and Immunity in Chronic Psychological Stress Rats and Therapeutic Effects of Acupuncture at the Zusanli Point (ST36)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mucang; Zhang, Shenglin; Gai, Yue; Xie, Mingzheng; Qi, Qinghui

    2016-01-01

    Now, chronic psychological stress (CPS) related diseases are increasing. Many CPS patients have gastrointestinal complaints, immune suppression, and immune imbalance. Increasing evidence is indicating that acupuncture (AP) at the Zusanli point (ST36) can alleviate functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), immune suppression, and immune imbalance. However, few studies have investigated the potential mechanisms. In this study, CPS rat models were established, and electroacupuncture (EA) at ST36 was done for CPS rats. Daily food intake, weight, intestinal sensitivity, the morphology of interstitial cell of Cajal (ICC) in the small intestine, and serum indexes were measured. The study found that, in CPS rats, EA at ST36 could improve food intake, weight, visceral hypersensitivity, and immunity; in CPS rats, in small intestine, the morphology of ICCs was abnormal and the number was decreased, which may be part causes of gastrointestinal motility dysfunction. EA at ST36 showed useful therapeutic effects. The mechanisms may be partially related to its repairing effects on ICCs damages; in CPS rats, there were immune suppression and immune imbalance, which may be part causes of visceral hypersensitivity. EA at ST36 showed useful therapeutic effects. The mechanisms may be partially related to its regulation on immunity. PMID:27594888

  7. Electroacupuncture at the Zusanli and Baihui acupoints ameliorates type-2 diabetes-induced reductions in proliferating cells and differentiated neuroblasts in the hippocampal dentate gyrus with increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels

    PubMed Central

    CHUNG, Jin Young; YOO, Dae Young; IM, Wooseok; CHOI, Jung Hoon; YI, Sun Shin; YOUN, Hwa Young; HWANG, In Koo; SEONG, Je Kyung; YOON, Yeo Sung

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated whether electroacupuncture (EA) can inhibit pathological reductions in neurogenesis. Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats at 7 weeks of age were anesthetized with zoletil, and sham-acupuncture or EA at the Zusanli (ST36) and Baihui (GV20) acupoints was administered once a day for 5 weeks. In the ZDF group that received sham-EA (ZDF-Sham group), the blood glucose level was significantly increased together with age as compared to the control littermates [Zucker lean control (ZLC) rat]. In contrast, proliferating cells and differentiated neuroblasts were significantly decreased in the ZDF-Sham group compared to the ZLC group. Although EA treatment decreased blood glucose levels, this was not statistically significant when compared to blood glucose levels changes in the ZDF-Sham group. However, proliferating cells and differentiated neuroblasts were significantly increased with EA in ZDF rats as compared to those in the ZDF-Sham group. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were significantly decreased in hippocampal homogenates of ZDF-Sham group compared to those in the ZLC group. The EA treatment significantly increased the BDNF levels compared to those in the ZDF-Sham group, and BDNF levels in this group were similar to those in the ZLC group. These results suggest that EA at ST36 and GV20 can ameliorate the reductions in proliferating cells and differentiated neuroblasts in the dentate gyrus induced by type-2 diabetes without significantly reducing blood glucose levels with increasing BDNF levels. PMID:25342636

  8. Effects of Zusanli and Ashi Acupoint Electroacupuncture on Repair of Skeletal Muscle and Neuromuscular Junction in a Rabbit Gastrocnemius Contusion Model

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhan-ge; Wang, Rong-guo; Xiao, Cheng; Zhao, Jun-yun; Shen, Qian; Liu, Shou-yao; Xu, Qian-wei; Zhang, Qing-xi; Wang, Yun-ting

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To explore the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at ST36 (EA-ST36) and at Ashi acupoints (EA-Ashi) on skeletal muscle repair. Methods. Seventy-five rabbits were randomly divided into five groups: normal, contusion, EA-Ashi, EA-ST36, and EA at Ashi acupoints and ST36 (EA-AS). EA (0.4 mA, 2 Hz, 15 min) was applied after an acute gastrocnemius contusion. The morphology of myofibers and neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and expressions of growth differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Neuregulin 1 (NGR1), and muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) were assessed 7, 14, and 28 days after contusion. Results. Compared with that in contusion group, there was an increase in the following respective parameters in treatment groups: the number and diameter of myofibers, the mean staining area, and continuities of NMJs. A comparison of EA-Ashi and EA-ST36 groups indicated that average myofiber diameter, mean staining area of NMJs, and expressions of AChE and NRG1 were higher in EA-Ashi group, whereas expression of GDF-8 decreased on day 7. However, increases in myofiber numbers, expressions of MuSK and AChE, as well as decreases in GDF-8 expression, and the discontinuities were observed in EA-ST36 group on the 28th day. Conclusion. Both EA-ST36 and EA-Ashi promoted myofiber regeneration and restoration of NMJs. EA-Ashi was more effective at earlier stages, whereas EA-ST36 played a more important role at later stages. PMID:27190536

  9. Effects of Zusanli and Ashi Acupoint Electroacupuncture on Repair of Skeletal Muscle and Neuromuscular Junction in a Rabbit Gastrocnemius Contusion Model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhan-Ge; Wang, Rong-Guo; Xiao, Cheng; Zhao, Jun-Yun; Shen, Qian; Liu, Shou-Yao; Xu, Qian-Wei; Zhang, Qing-Xi; Wang, Yun-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To explore the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at ST36 (EA-ST36) and at Ashi acupoints (EA-Ashi) on skeletal muscle repair. Methods. Seventy-five rabbits were randomly divided into five groups: normal, contusion, EA-Ashi, EA-ST36, and EA at Ashi acupoints and ST36 (EA-AS). EA (0.4 mA, 2 Hz, 15 min) was applied after an acute gastrocnemius contusion. The morphology of myofibers and neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and expressions of growth differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Neuregulin 1 (NGR1), and muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) were assessed 7, 14, and 28 days after contusion. Results. Compared with that in contusion group, there was an increase in the following respective parameters in treatment groups: the number and diameter of myofibers, the mean staining area, and continuities of NMJs. A comparison of EA-Ashi and EA-ST36 groups indicated that average myofiber diameter, mean staining area of NMJs, and expressions of AChE and NRG1 were higher in EA-Ashi group, whereas expression of GDF-8 decreased on day 7. However, increases in myofiber numbers, expressions of MuSK and AChE, as well as decreases in GDF-8 expression, and the discontinuities were observed in EA-ST36 group on the 28th day. Conclusion. Both EA-ST36 and EA-Ashi promoted myofiber regeneration and restoration of NMJs. EA-Ashi was more effective at earlier stages, whereas EA-ST36 played a more important role at later stages.

  10. [Acupoint Selection Laws for Massage Therapy of Infantile Anorexia: an Analysis Based on Data Mining].

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Wang Jie; Wang, Yan-guo

    2016-06-01

    Massage prescriptions for treating infantile anorexia in Chinese Academic Journal Full-Text Database (CNKI, 1979-2012), Chinese Scientific and Technological Journal Full-Text Database (VIP, 1989-2012) and Wanfang Database (1990-2012) were collected. By using Chinese Medicine Inheritance Auxiliary Platform (Version 2.0) Software, 286 massage prescriptions for treatment of infantile anorexia were screened involved 76 acupoints, 20 commonly used acupoints, and 57 core acupoint combinations. Infantile Tuina specific points were used as main acupoints in massage therapy for infantile anorexia, and core acupoints covered Jizhu, Pi meridian, abdomen, Nei-Bagua, Zusanli (ST36), and Ban-men.

  11. Effect of moxibustion at acupoints Ren-12 (Zhongwan), St-25 (Tianshu), and St-36 (Zuzanli) in the prevention of gastric lesions induced by indomethacin in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Freire, Anaflávia O; Sugai, Gisele C M; Blanco, Miriam M; Tabosa, Angela; Yamamura, Ysao; Mello, Luiz Eugênio A M

    2005-02-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the physical characteristics underlying the action of moxibustion at acupoints Ren-12 (Zhongwan), St-25 (Tianshu), and St-36 (Zuzanli) in preventing acute injuries of the gastric mucous membrane induced by indomethacin in Wistar rats. Induction of gastric lesions, by means of intragastric administration of indomethacin (100 mg/kg), in adult male Wistar rats was followed by treatment with moxibustion using Artemisia vulgaris dried leaves at 60 or 45 degrees C, heating with Artemisia vulgaris charcoal at 50 degrees C, heating with a regular tobacco cigar at 50 degrees C, and heating with a regular water pad at 50 degrees C, The effects of the different heating protocols over the gastric lesions were then compared. In addition, another group of animals was pretreated with capsaicin (100 mg/kg, s.c.), in order to lesion C fibers and, 15 days later, subjected to indomethacin administration and moxibustion treatment. Moxibustion was significantly more efficient at 60 degrees C than at 45 degrees C in preventing gastric lesions triggered by indomethacin. Moxibustion applied in acupoints provided a significant reduction of the lesion area, which was two times less than that of animals stimulated in a nonacupoint (sham group). Comparing the therapeutic effects provided by different forms of heating over the gastric lesions, the burning of dry leaves of Artemisia vulgaris was significantly more efficient in preventing gastric lesions than moxibustion made with Artemisia charcoal or tobacco (cigar) or by heating the animal with a water pad. Desensitization of the afferent sensory C fibers by capsaicin significantly diminished the ability of moxibustion to block the lesions in the gastric mucous membrane. Moxibustion can efficiently prevent indomethacin-induced gastric lesions in rats and this effect is dependent on the temperature, the material used for moxibustion, the use of acupuncture points, and the integrity of C fibers.

  12. Electrical Stimulation at the ST36 Acupoint Protects against Sepsis Lethality and Reduces Serum TNF Levels through Vagus Nerve- and Catecholamine-Dependent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Villegas-Bastida, Albino; Torres-Rosas, Rafael; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes Andrea; Flores-Estrada, Javier; Gustavo-Acosta, Altamirano; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adan

    2014-01-01

    Electrical vagus nerve (VN) stimulation during sepsis attenuates tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production through the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, which depends on the integrity of the VN and catecholamine production. To characterize the effect of electroacupuncture at ST36 (EA-ST36) on serum TNF, IL-6, nitrite, and HMGB1 levels and survival rates, based on VN integrity and catecholamine production, a sepsis model was induced in rats using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The septic rats were subsequently treated with EA-ST36 (CLP+ST36), and serum samples were collected and analyzed for cytokines levels. The serum TNF, IL-6, nitrite, and HMGB1 levels in the CLP+ST36 group were significantly lower compared with the group without treatment, the survival rates were significantly higher (P < 0.05), and the acute organ injury induced by CLP was mitigated by EA-ST36; however, when subdiaphragmatic vagotomy was performed, the serum levels of TNF in the CLP+ST36 group did not show a significant difference compared with the group without electrostimulation, and, similarly, no significant difference in serum TNF levels was found under the pharmacological blockade of catecholamines. These results suggest that in rats with CLP sepsis models EA-ST36 reduces serum TNF levels through VN- and atecholamine-dependent mechanisms. PMID:25057275

  13. Effects of Electroacupuncture with Dominant Frequency at SP 6 and ST 36 Based on Meridian Theory on Pain-Depression Dyad in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuan-yuan; He, Xiao-fen; Zhao, Xiao-yun; Shao, Xiao-mei; Du, Jun-ying; Fang, Jian-qiao

    2015-01-01

    Epidemic investigations reveal an intimate interrelationship between pain and depression. The effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on pain or depression has been demonstrated individually, but its effect on pain-depression dyad is unknown. Our study aimed to screen a dominant EA frequency on pain-depression dyad and determine the validity of acupoint selection based on meridian theory. The pain-depression dyad rat model was induced by reserpine and treated using EA with different frequencies at identical acupoints to extract a dominant frequency and then administrated dominant-frequency EA at different acupoints in the above models. Paw withdrawal latency (PWL), emotional behavior of elevated zero maze (EZM) test, and open field (OF) test were conducted. We found that 100 Hz EA at Zusanli (ST 36) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6) (classical acupoints for spleen-deficiency syndrome) were the most effective in improving PWL, travelling distance in the EZM, and maximum velocity in OF compared to EA with other frequencies; ST 36 and SP 6 were proved more effective than other acupoints beyond the meridian theory and nonacupoints under the same administration of EA. Therefore, we concluded that 100 Hz is the dominant frequency for treating the pain-depression dyad with EA, and acupoints on spleen and stomach meridians are preferable choices. PMID:25821498

  14. Probing the Effects and Mechanisms of Electroacupuncture at Ipsilateral or Contralateral ST36–ST37 Acupoints on CFA-induced Inflammatory Pain

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kung-Wen; Hsu, Chao-Kuei; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Yang, Jun; Lin, Yi-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and associated signaling pathways have been reported to be increased in inflammatory pain signaling. There are accumulating evidences surrounding the therapeutic effect of electroacupuncture (EA). EA can reliably attenuate the increase of TRPV1 in mouse inflammatory pain models with unclear signaling mechanisms. Moreover, the difference in the clinical therapeutic effects between using the contralateral and ipsilateral acupoints has been rarely studied. We found that inflammatory pain, which was induced by injecting the complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA), (2.14 ± 0.1, p < 0.05, n = 8) can be alleviated after EA treatment at either ipsilateral (3.91 ± 0.21, p < 0.05, n = 8) or contralateral acupoints (3.79 ± 0.25, p < 0.05, n = 8). EA may also reduce nociceptive Nav sodium currents in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. The expression of TRPV1 and associated signaling pathways notably increased after the CFA injection; this expression can be further attenuated significantly in EA treatment. TRPV1 and associated signaling pathways can be prevented in TRPV1 knockout mice, suggesting that TRPV1 knockout mice are resistant to inflammatory pain. Through this study, we have increased the understanding of the mechanism that both ipsilateral and contralateral EA might alter TRPV1 and associated signaling pathways to reduce inflammatory pain. PMID:26906464

  15. [Rules analysis of acupoint selection on perimenopausal syndrome treated with acupuncture and moxibustion].

    PubMed

    Ma, Mengmeng; Wang, Jian; Wang, Rui

    2015-04-01

    With the keywords of "acupuncture" "acupuncture and moxibustion" "perimenopausal syndrome" "rules of acupoint selection", the clinical literature in recent 10 years regarding perimenopausal syndrome treated with acupuncture and moxibustion was searched from China National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI). One hundred and ninety-seven relevant articles were acquired,and after excluding, total 67 articles were in accord with research criterion. With method of artificial count, acupoints selected in the inclusive articles were counted. Frequencies of main acupoints, matching acupoints,meridial distributions and locations of the acupoints selected were calculated,and then rules on main acupoints, matching acupoints, meridial distributions and acupoints locations were analyzed. The result indicates that the acupoints with higher selection frequency on perimenopausal syndrome treated with acupuncture and moxibustion are Sanyinjiao(SP 6), Baihui(GV 20),Taichong(LR 3) Shenshu(BL 23), Guanyuan(CV 4), Shenmen(HT 7),Taixi(KI 3), Zusanli(ST 36), Pishu(BL 20) and Ganshu(BL 18), and the meridians are mainly concentrated on governor vessel, bladder meridian, kidney meridian,stomach meridian, conception vessel and spleen meridian,and the distribution of acupoints are mostly concentrated on the 4 limbs and the back and waist.

  16. The antinociceptive effect of electroacupuncture at different depths of acupoints and under the needling surface

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The stimulation of acupoints along the meridians, but not the non-acupoints outside of the meridians, produces analgesia. Although the acupoint is defined at the body surface, the exact location of the acupoints is not known. This study aims to examine whether the intensity and duration of the analgesic effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at the Zusanli (ST36) and Sanynjiao acupoints (SP6) change according to the depth of the stimulation. Methods Ninety-six male Wistar rats classified as responders were arbitrarily allocated into 16 groups of six rats each. Six groups received EA with uninsulated acupuncture needles (type I) or needles that were immersed in varnish and had the varnish circularly peeled 0.2 mm from the tip (type II), 0.2 mm at 3 mm (type III) or 5 mm (type IV) from the tip, or 0.2 mm at 5 and 1 mm from the tip (type V), or EA sham for 20 min. Five groups received injection of formalin into the acupoint bilaterally at 5 mm or 1 mm deep into ST36, 5 mm below ST36 but inserting the needle at 45° to the skin surface, or 5 mm deep into non-acupoints. The remaining groups received intraplantar injection of saline, 1% or 2.5% formalin. The analgesic effects were measured by the rat tail-flick test. Results The bilateral stimulation of ST36 and SP6 by uninsulated or insulated needles produced analgesia in the rat tail-flick test. The stronger and longer lasting effects occurred after EA with the types I and V needles, or injection of formalin 5 mm deep into ST36. The remaining needles produced weaker and shorter lasting effects. Slow analgesic effect also occurred after formalin injection at 1 mm or 5 mm below ST36 by inserting the needle at 45° to the skin surface. Conclusion The experimental results suggest that the efficacy of the EA stimulation depends on the spatial distribution of the current density under the needling surface rather than only the acupoint or the depth of needling. PMID:22369266

  17. Long-term electrical stimulation at ear and electro-acupuncture at ST36-ST37 attenuated COX-2 in the CA1 of hippocampus in kainic acid-induced epileptic seizure rats.

    PubMed

    Liao, En-Tzu; Tang, Nou-Ying; Lin, Yi-Wen; Liang Hsieh, Ching

    2017-03-28

    Seizures produce brain inflammation, which in turn enhances neuronal excitability. Therefore, anti-inflammation has become a therapeutic strategy for antiepileptic treatment. Cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays a critical role in postseizure brain inflammation and neuronal hyperexcitability. Our previous studies have shown that both electrical stimulation (ES) at the ear and electro-acupuncture (EA) at the Zusanli and Shangjuxu acupoints (ST36-ST37) for 6 weeks can reduce mossy fiber sprouting, spike population, and high-frequency hippocampal oscillations in kainic acid (KA)-induced epileptic seizure rats. This study further investigated the effect of long-term ear ES and EA at ST36-ST37 on the inflammatory response in KA-induced epileptic seizure rats. Both the COX-2 levels in the hippocampus and the number of COX-2 immunoreactive cells in the hippocampal CA1 region were increased after KA-induced epileptic seizures, and these were reduced through the 6-week application of ear ES or EA at ST36-ST37. Thus, long-term ear ES or long-term EA at ST36-ST37 have an anti-inflammatory effect, suggesting that they are beneficial for the treatment of epileptic seizures.

  18. Short time effect of Delta oscillation under microcurrent transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation at ST36.

    PubMed

    Li, Shunan; Li, Donghui; Li, Huiyan; Wang, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    This paper was to study the short time effect of Delta brain oscillation under microcurrent transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (MTENS) at ST36 (Zusanli). The 64-channal electroencephalograph (EEG) signals from 12 healthy volunteers were recorded including baseline stage, during stimulation and after stimulation. Autoregressive (AR) Burg method was used to estimate the power spectrum. Then power variation rate (PVR) was calculated to quantify the effects compared with the baseline in Delta band. The results showed that MTENS at ST36 on right side led to increased Delta band power in left frontal.

  19. Adult neurogenesis and acupuncture stimulation at ST36.

    PubMed

    Nam, Min-Ho; Yin, Chang Shik; Soh, Kwang-Sup; Choi, Seung-hoon

    2011-09-01

    Although it was believed that the brain was incapable of regeneration after embryonic development, neurogenesis is now known to occur into adulthood. Adult neurogenesis has been demonstrated in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Acupuncture has long been used to treat neurologic conditions, and recent reports suggest that neurogenesis may account for its beneficial effects. ST36 was the most often used acupoint in previous reports and was shown to enhance cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. This acupoint may be linked to the brain through the primo vascular system, an anatomic structure thought to correspond to acupuncture meridians. This primitive vascular-like system appears to be involved in physiologic and pathologic processes by circulating substances throughout the body. The role of the primo vascular system as the link between the skin and brain underlying the beneficial effects of acupuncture requires further investigation.

  20. [Characteristics of acupoint application for the sub-healthy condition treated with ancient and modern acupuncture based on data mining exploration].

    PubMed

    Cai, Liyan; Wu, Jie; Ma, Tingting; Yang, Lijie

    2015-10-01

    The acupoint selection was retrieved from the ancient and modern literature on the treatment of sub-healthy condition with acupuncture. The law of acupoint application was analyzed so as to provide a certain reference to the determination of acupoint prescription in clinical acupuncture. The ancient literature was retrieved from Chinese basic ancient literature database. The modern literature was retrieved from Cochrane Library, Medline, PubMed, Ovid evidence-based medicine database, Chinese biomedical literature database, China journal full-text database, VIP journal full-text database and Wanfang database. The database mining software was adopted to explore the law of acupoint application in treatment of sub-healthy conditions with ancient and modern acupuncture. The acupoint use frequency, compatibility association rule, law for meridian use and the use regularity of specific points were analyzed. In the ancient treatment for sub-healthy condition, the top five commonly used acupoints are Shenmen (HT 7), Zhaohai (KI 6), Taibai (SP 3), Daling (PC 7) and Taixi (KI 3). The most commonly combined points are Zhangmen (LR 13), Taibai (SP 3) and Zhaohai (KI 6). The most commonly used meridians are the bladder meridian of foot-taiyang, kidney meridian of foot-shaoyin and liver meridian of foot-jueyin. The most commonly used specific points are the five-shu points. The most commonly used acupoints are located in the lower limbs. In the modern treatment, the top five commonly used acupoints are Zusanli (ST 36), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Baihui (GV 20), Shenshu (BL 23) and Guanyuan (CV 4). The most commonly supplemented points are Hegu (LI 4) and Taichong (LR 3). The most commonly used meridians are the bladder meridian of foot-taiyang, the conception vessel and the governor vessel. The most commonly used specific points are the back-shu points. The most commonly used acupoints are located in the lower limbs. After the systematic comprehension of the relevant ancient and modern

  1. Effectiveness of Omura's ST.36 point (True ST.36) needling on the Wingate anaerobic test results of young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Ozerkan, Kemal Nuri; Bayraktar, Bulent; Yucesir, Ilker; Cakir, Baris; Yilddiz, Fatih

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the "Omura's ST.36 point" (True ST.36) needling of young soccer players with the Wingate test. The Wingate test is a widely used and very well known ergometric bicycle test to measure anaerobic power. The Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (B.D.O.R.T.) of Yoshiaki Omura, M.D., Sc.D. was used to determine the "Omura's ST.36 point" (True ST.36). Young soccer players (N = 20) between 15-16 years of age (Mean = 15.25 +/- 0.44) were involved in the study. Subjects were divided into two groups (ST.36 and Omura's ST.36) randomly. The groups were statistically similar in respect to their number, age, height and weight respectively, N = 10; 15.40 +/- 0.52, 15.10 +/- 0.32; 171.50 +/- 3.57, 171.00 +/- 4.81; 65.60 +/- 4.01, 61.50 +/- 4.77. The anaerobic power of the subjects were measured using Monark 894E ergometric bicycle. The breaking resistance was 75 g per kg of body weight of the subjects. The peak power, average power, minimum power and power drop were measured as absolute values and per kg of body weight. Subjects were tested twice, with and without acupuncture application. In one group needling was on ST.36, and in the other group it was on "Omura's ST.36 point." Before each test, subjects warmed up for 5 minutes by cycling on the same ergometer at 60 rotations per minute (RPM), without load. Statistically significant increases were measured with the needling of Omura's ST 36 point in peak power (p < 0.01), and relative peak power (p < 0.01) in comparison to Wingate test results without needling. ST.36 needling showed statistically insignificant increases of the same measurements and comparison. We conclude that needling of both points, but especially Omura's ST.36, seem to be effective for increasing the anaerobic power of young soccer players measured with Wingate anaerobic power test. More research is needed to support these findings in all aspects.

  2. Efficacy and Safety of Transcutaneous Electrical Acupoint Stimulation to Treat Muscle Spasticity following Brain Injury: A Double-Blinded, Multicenter, Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wenli; Wang, Chao; Li, Zhongzheng; Chen, Lei; Li, Jianbo; Cui, Weidong; Ding, Shasha; Xi, Qiang; Wang, Fan; Jia, Fei; Xiao, Shuhua; Guo, Yi; Zhao, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study was aimed at evaluating the clinical efficacy and safety of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) to treat muscle spasticity after brain injury (Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-11001310). Methods A total of 60 patients with muscle spasticity after brain injury were randomized to the following 3 groups: 100, 2, and 0 Hz (sham) TEAS. The acupoints Hegu (LI4)—Yuji (LU10) and Zusanli (ST36)—Chengshan (BL57) on the injured side were stimulated at 0, 2, or 100 Hz, 5 times per week for 4 weeks. The patients were followed up for 1 and 2 months after the treatments. The effects of the treatments on muscle spasticity at the wrist, thumb, the other 4 fingers, elbow, shoulder, knee, and ankle were evaluated by the Modified Ashworth Scale, and the effects on disability were assessed by the Disability Assessment Scale. The walking capability was evaluated by the Holden functional ambulation classification score. The overall performance was assessed by the Global Assessment Scale score and the improved Barthel Index. The safety of the treatments administered was also monitored. Results The wrist spasticity was significantly reduced from baseline at weeks 2, 3, and 4 of treatment and at the 1- and 2-month follow-up visits in the 100 Hz group (P < 0.01). Compared with 2 Hz or sham TEAS, 100 Hz TEAS decreased wrist spasticity at weeks 2, 3, and 4 of treatment and 1 month after treatment (P < 0.001). The other endpoints were not affected by the treatments. No treatment-emergent adverse events were reported during treatments and follow-up visits. Conclusions TEAS appears to be a safe and effective therapy to relieve muscle spasticity after brain injury, although large-scale studies are required to further verify the findings. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-11001310 http://www.chictr.org PMID:25643051

  3. Visceral Nociceptive Afferent Facilitates Reaction of Subnucleus Reticularis Dorsalis to Acupoint Stimulation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liang; Yu, Lingling; Rong, Peijing; Ben, Hui; Li, Xia; Zhu, Bing; Chen, Rixin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore the area and sensitization variance of acupoint when internal organs are under pathological condition. To observe quantity-effect variance of subnucleus reticularis dorsalis (SRD) to electroacupuncture under both physiological and pathological conditions. To explain medulla oblongata mechanism of acupoint sensitization. Method. Mustard oil was imported into colon and rectum of 20 male SD rats in order to observe its influence on acupoint sensitization. SRD neuron activity was recorded. Visceral nociceptive stimulus was generated by colorectal distension (CRD). Quantity-effect variance of neuron activity to electroacupuncture to “Zusanli-Shangjuxu” area both before and after CRD was observed. Paired t-test is used for cross-group comparison; P < 0.05 is deemed as of statistical differences. Result. Visceral inflammation could facilitate SRD neuron activity to acupoint stimulation. Visceral nociceptive afference could enhance neuron activity to acupoint acupuncture. Wide dynamic range (WDR) neuron activity caused by electroacupuncture increased when visceral nociception increased. Conclusion. The size and function of the acupoints comply with the functionality of the internal organs. The sensitive degree of acupoints changed according to malfunction of internal organs. PMID:23762171

  4. Acupuncture at “Zusanli” (St.36) and “Sanyinjiao” (SP.6) Points on the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Study of the Bioavailability of 99mTc-Sodium Pertechnetate in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Senna-Fernandes, Vasco; França, Daisy L. M.; de Souza, Deise; Santos, Kelly C. M.; Sousa, Rafael S.; Manoel, Cristiano V.; Santos-Filho, Sebastião D.; Cortez, Célia M.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Guimarães, Marco Antonio M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the differences of acupuncture effect between the Zusanli (St.36) and Sanyinjiao (SP.6) points on the gastrointestinal-tract (GIT) segment performed by the bioavailability of 99mTc-sodium-pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 21) were allocated into three groups of seven each. Group 1 was treated by acupuncture bilaterally at St.36; Group 2 at SP.6; and Group 3 was untreated (control). After 10 min of needle insertion in anesthetized rats, 0.3 mL of Na99mTcO4 (7.4 MBq) was injected via ocular-plexus. After 20 min, the exitus of animals was induced by cervical-dislocation and GIT organs isolated. However, immediately before the exitus procedure, blood was collected by cardiac-puncture for blood radio-labeling (BRL). The radioactivity uptake of the blood constituents was calculated together with the GIT organs by a well gamma counter. The percentage of injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g) of Na99mTcO4 was calculated for each GIT organs, while BRL was calculated in %ID. According to the one-way ANOVA, the stomach, jejunum, ileum from the treated groups (Group 1 and Group 2) had significant differences compared to the controls (Group 3). However, between the treated groups (Group 1 and Group 2), there were significant differences (P < .05) in the stomach, jejunum, ileum, cecum, transverse and rectum. In BRL analysis, Group 2 showed significant increase and decrease of the insoluble and soluble fractions of the blood cells, respectively (P < .0001). The authors suggest that St.36 may have a tendency of up-regulation effect on GIT, whereas SP.6, down-regulation effect. However, further rigorous experimental studies to examine the effectiveness of acupuncture in either acupuncture points need to be carried out. PMID:19213853

  5. Electroacupuncture at ST36 Protects ICC Networks via mSCF/Kit-ETV1 Signaling in the Stomach of Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lugao; Zhu, Beibei

    2017-01-01

    Background. Electroacupuncture (EA) at ST36 has been used to regulate gastric motility and effectively improve gastric emptying in diabetic patients. Nevertheless, the specific mechanisms underlying the efficacy of this treatment remain unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the variations of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and explore the changes in mSCF/KIT-ETV1 signaling in the antrum and corpus of diabetic mice after treatment with EA. Methods. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomized into five groups: control group, diabetic group (DM), diabetic-plus-sham EA group (SEA), diabetic-plus-low-frequency EA group (LEA), and diabetic-plus-high-frequency EA group (HEA). The expression levels of Ano1, c-Kit, and ETV1 were assessed by immunofluorescence in the antrum and corpus. Western blotting and PCR methods were further used to evaluate c-Kit, mSCF, and ETV1 expression. Results. (1) c-Kit and Ano1 were obviously decreased in the DM group, but c-Kit reduced much more than Ano1. (2) The mSCF, c-Kit, and ETV1 mRNA and protein levels were obviously decreased in the DM group in both the antrum and the corpus (P < 0.01), but they were significantly elevated in the LEA and HEA groups (P < 0.01). Conclusions. Ano1 is a reliable marker to detect ICC changes in diabetes; low- and high-frequency EA at acupoint ST36 can protect the networks of ICC possibly via normal activation of mSCF/KIT-ETV1 signaling. PMID:28203258

  6. Effects of laser acupoint irradiation on blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui-Hui, Liu; Guo-Xin, Xiong; Li-Ping, Zhang

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of semiconductor laser acupoint irradiation on blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and physical fitness in type 2 diabetes mellitus, 44 cases of type 2 diabetic patients were randomly divided into a control group and a treatment group. All patients in both groups were given a drug treatment. The Hegu, Quchi and Zusanli acupoints of patients in the treatment group were then irradiated daily for 15 d with a 10 MW semiconductor laser. Before and after treatment, patients in both groups underwent a variety of tests and measurements: a two-hour postprandial blood glucose test; a glycosylated hemoglobin test and body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body fat percentage (BFP) measurements. The data detected after treatment greatly decreased in the treatment group and was significantly different from that in the control group. It is shown that the acupoint irradiation with a semiconductor laser can improve two-hour postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and some physical fitness measurements in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

  7. Study on the Dynamic Compound Structure Composed of Mast Cells, Blood Vessels, and Nerves in Rat Acupoint

    PubMed Central

    Mingfu, Luo; Xiaotong, Dong; Xiaojing, Song; Jin, Jiang; Jinling, Zhann; Ying, Han

    2013-01-01

    Background. Circulation system, immunity system, and nervous system have a close relationship with meridian phenomen. However, there is still lack of the results of dynamic changes of these structures in acupoint. The aim of this study is to explore the interrelationship by composite staining techniques. Methodology/Principal Findings. Twenty rats were separated into electroacupuncture group (EA) and control group (Con) randomly. In EA group, the Zusanli and Weishu were stimulated with the 0.1 mA for 25 min. The tissue of these acupoints was double-stained with acetylcholinesterase and Toluidine blue. The compound structure of mast cells, nervous fibers, and mast cells in the acupoint was observed. Conclusions/Significance. The blood vessels, mast cells and acetylcholinesterase responded nerves were clearly observed in acupoint tissues. EA can result in the mast cell recruitment and migration along the blood vessels and nervous bundle, which conformed the dynamic compound structure and played important roles in acupuncture. PMID:23878591

  8. Anatomical relationship between traditional acupuncture point ST 36 and Omura's ST 36 (True ST 36) with their therapeutic effects: 1) inhibition of cancer cell division by markedly lowering cancer cell telomere while increasing normal cell telomere, 2) improving circulatory disturbances, with reduction of abnormal increase in high triglyceride, L-homocystein, CRP, or cardiac troponin I & T in blood by the stimulation of Omura's ST 36--Part 1.

    PubMed

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Chen, Yemeng; Lu, Dominic P; Shimotsura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu; Duvvi, Harsha

    2007-01-01

    Using Bi-Digital O-Ring Test Resonance Phenomena between 2 identical substances, Omura, Y. succeeded in making the image of the outline of internal organs without use of standard imaging devices since 1982. When he imaged the outline of the stomach on the abdominal wall, a number of the lines came out from upper and lower parts of stomach wall. When the lines were followed, they were very close to the well-known stomach meridians. Subsequently, he found a method of localizing meridians and their corresponding acupuncture points as well as shapes and diameters accurately. At the anatomical location of ST 36 described in traditional textbooks, Omura, Y. found there is no acupuncture point. However, in the close vicinity, there is an acupuncture point which he named as true ST 36 in the mid 1980s, but it is generally known as Omura's ST 36. When the effects of the acupuncture on these 2 locations were compared, Omura's ST 36 (true ST 36) produced very significant well-known acupuncture beneficial effects including improved circulation and blood chemistry, while in the traditional ST 36, the effects were small. In this article, the anatomical relationship between these two acupuncture points, with a short distance of 0.6 approximately 1.5 cm between the centers of these locations, was described. In early 2000, Omura, Y. found Press Needle Stimulation of Omura's ST 36, using "Press-Release" procedure repeated 200 times, 4 times a day to cancer patients reduced high cancer cell telomere of 600-1500ng and high Oncogen C-fos Ab2 and Integrin alpha5beta1 of 100-700ng BDORT units to close to lyg (= 10(-24) g) BDORT units. In addition there was a significant reduction of Asbestos and Hg from cancer cells, while markedly reduced normal cell telomere of lyg was increased to optimally high amounts of 500-530ng BDORTunits. Thus, cancer cells can no longer divide and cancer activity is inhibited. The authors have successfully applied this method for a variety of cancers as well as

  9. [The mathematical theory of acupoints].

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Lian-Shi

    2013-12-01

    The ancient medical classics were retrieved to explore narrative on acupoints. And the relevant content of legal calendar in Shiji (Historical Records) and Hanshu (History of the Former Han Dynasty) were taken as a reference. The result showed that the total number of acu-points were based on the number of 365 days of a year. And the corrupts can be restored with the theory of numerology. The 59 heat point originated from the phase of moon, while the 57 water points originated from the number or year related with diasters. Although acupoints are considered to be related with numerology, the recognition of hot points and water points are held to be associated with experiential points in clinic.

  10. ST36 laser acupuncture reduces pain-related behavior in rats: involvement of the opioidergic and serotonergic systems.

    PubMed

    Erthal, Vanessa; da Silva, Morgana Duarte; Cidral-Filho, Francisco J; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares; Nohama, Percy

    2013-09-01

    Laser acupuncture is a modality of low-level light therapy used as an alternative to needling for the past three decades. Although it has proved effective for the treatment of various conditions, the mechanisms underlying its effects are not fully understood. To contribute to this understanding, this study was designed to (1) evaluate the antinociceptive effect of ST36 laser acupuncture (830 nm, 3 J/cm(2)) in rat models of acute nociception and (2) to investigate the opioidergic and serotonergic systems involvement in this effect. Our results demonstrate that ST36 laser acupuncture inhibited (36 ± 2 %) acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions and both neurogenic (48 ± 7 %) and inflammatory (phase IIA 42 ± 8 % and phase IIB 83 ± 6 %) phases of formalin-induced nociceptive behavior. Moreover, the antinociceptive activity of laser irradiation in the acetic acid test was significantly reversed by preadministration of naloxone (1 mg/kg, nonselective opioid receptor antagonist), pindolol (1 mg/kg, subcutaneous; nonselective 5-HT 1A/B receptor antagonist), and ketanserin (1 mg/kg; selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist) but not by ondansetron (1 mg/kg, selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist). Taken together, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that (1) ST36 laser acupuncture elicited significant antinociceptive effect against acetic acid- and formalin-induced behavior in rats and that (2) this effect is mediated by activation of the opioidergic and serotonergic (5-HT1 and 5-HT2A receptors) systems.

  11. Effects of Acupuncture at GV20 and ST36 on the Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase 2, Aquaporin 4, and Aquaporin 9 in Rats Subjected to Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hua; Chen, Suhui; Wang, Fuming

    2014-01-01

    Background/Purpose Ischemic stroke is characterized by high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), aquaporin (AQP) 4, and AQP9 are linked to permeabilization of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CIRI). BBB disruption, tissue inflammation, and MMP/AQP upregulation jointly provoke brain edema/swelling after CIRI, while acupuncture and electroacupuncture can alleviate CIRI symptoms. This study evaluated the hypothesis that acupuncture and electroacupuncture can similarly exert neuroprotective actions in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) by modulating MMP2/AQP4/APQ9 expression and inflammatory cell infiltration. Methods Eighty 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham group S, MCAO model group M, acupuncture group A, electroacupuncture group EA, and edaravone group ED. The MCAO model was established by placement of a suture to block the middle carotid artery, and reperfusion was triggered by suture removal in all groups except group S. Acupuncture and electroacupuncture were administered at acupoints GV20 (governing vessel-20) and ST36 (stomach-36). Rats in groups A, EA, and ED received acupuncture, electroacupuncture, or edaravone, respectively, immediately after MCAO. Neurological function (assessed using the Modified Neurological Severity Score), infarct volume, MMP2/AQP4/AQP9 mRNA and protein expression, and inflammatory cell infiltration were all evaluated at 24 h post-reperfusion. Results Acupuncture and electroacupuncture significantly decreased infarct size and improved neurological function. Furthermore, target mRNA and protein levels and inflammatory cell infiltration were significantly reduced in groups A, EA, and ED vs. group M. However, MMP2/AQP levels and inflammatory cell infiltration were generally higher in groups A and EA than in group ED except MMP2 mRNA levels. Conclusions Acupuncture and electroacupuncture at GV20 and ST36 both exercised

  12. Effect of acupuncture on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced nigrostratal dopaminergic neuronal cell death in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeung-Kee; Lim, Hyung-Ho; Song, Yun-Kyung; Lee, Hee-Hyuk; Lim, Sabina; Han, Seung-Moo; Kim, Chang-Ju

    In this study, we investigated the effect of acupuncture at the Zusanli acupoint (ST36) on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal cell death in the rats with Parkinson's disease. Two weeks after unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the striatum, an apomorphine-induced rotational behavior test showed significant rotational asymmetry in the rats with Parkinson's disease. Immunostaining for tyrosine hydroxylase demonstrated a dopaminergic neuronal loss in the substantia nigra and dopaminergic fiber loss in the striatum. Acupuncture at the ST36 for 14 days significantly inhibited rotational asymmetry in the rats with Parkinson's disease, and also protected against 6-OHDA-induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal loss. These effects of acupuncture were not observed for the non-acupoint (hip) acupuncture. The present study shows that acupuncture at the ST36 acupoint can be used as a useful strategy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  13. Effect of ST36 Acupuncture on Hyperventilation-Induced CO2 Reactivity of the Basilar and Middle Cerebral Arteries and Heart Rate Variability in Normal Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Woo-Sang; Cho, Ki-Ho; Kim, Young-Suk; Ko, Chang-Nam; Park, Jung-Mi; Moon, Sang-Kwan

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to verify the effect of acupuncture on cerebral haemodynamics to provide evidence for the use of acupuncture treatment as a complementary therapy for the high-risk stroke population. The effect of ST36 acupuncture treatment on the hyperventilation-induced CO2 reactivity of the basilar and middle cerebral arteries was studied in 10 healthy male volunteers (mean age, 25.2 ± 1.5 years) using a transcranial Doppler sonography with an interval of 1 week between measurements, and a portable ECG monitoring system was used to obtain ECG data simultaneously. The CO2 reactivity of the basilar and middle cerebral arteries increased significantly after ST36 acupuncture treatment, whereas the mean arterial blood pressure and pulse rate did not change significantly. The high-frequency power significantly increased after ST36 acupuncture treatment, and the percentage increase of high-frequency power correlated significantly with the percentage increase in the CO2 reactivity of the contralateral middle cerebral artery. These data suggest that ST36 acupuncture treatment increases CO2 reactivity, indicating improvement of vasodilatory potential of the cerebral vasculature to compensate for fluctuations caused by changes in external conditions. The increase in parasympathetic tone by ST36 acupuncture treatment is responsible for this therapeutic effect. PMID:25132861

  14. [Application of acupoint anatomy localization method with colorful tube in education of acupoint anatomy].

    PubMed

    Song, Shi-Lin

    2013-04-01

    To seek a precise and simple method for localization of acupoint in anatomical experiment teaching. Medical bone needles were inserted into acupoints. Then, self-mode copper probe needles were thrust along the center of the bone needles to open the inner structures of acuppoints. And probe needles were replaced by colored plastic tubes. Finally, bone needles were withdrawn so as to fix the plastic tubes into the acupoints to facilitate the later cutting. This method for acupoint anatomic positioning is of low cost with accurate positioning and simple manipulation, which has advantages in strong experimental and innovative values.

  15. Genomic Analysis Reveals Novel Diversity among the 1976 Philadelphia Legionnaires’ Disease Outbreak Isolates and Additional ST36 Strains

    PubMed Central

    Mercante, Jeffrey W.; Morrison, Shatavia S.; Desai, Heta P.; Raphael, Brian H.; Winchell, Jonas M.

    2016-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila was first recognized as a cause of severe and potentially fatal pneumonia during a large-scale outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease (LD) at a Pennsylvania veterans’ convention in Philadelphia, 1976. The ensuing investigation and recovery of four clinical isolates launched the fields of Legionella epidemiology and scientific research. Only one of the original isolates, “Philadelphia-1”, has been widely distributed or extensively studied. Here we describe the whole-genome sequencing (WGS), complete assembly, and comparative analysis of all Philadelphia LD strains recovered from that investigation, along with L. pneumophila isolates sharing the Philadelphia sequence type (ST36). Analyses revealed that the 1976 outbreak was due to multiple serogroup 1 strains within the same genetic lineage, differentiated by an actively mobilized, self-replicating episome that is shared with L. pneumophila str. Paris, and two large, horizontally-transferred genomic loci, among other polymorphisms. We also found a completely unassociated ST36 strain that displayed remarkable genetic similarity to the historical Philadelphia isolates. This similar strain implies the presence of a potential clonal population, and suggests important implications may exist for considering epidemiological context when interpreting phylogenetic relationships among outbreak-associated isolates. Additional extensive archival research identified the Philadelphia isolate associated with a non-Legionnaire case of “Broad Street pneumonia”, and provided new historical and genetic insights into the 1976 epidemic. This retrospective analysis has underscored the utility of fully-assembled WGS data for Legionella outbreak investigations, highlighting the increased resolution that comes from long-read sequencing and a sequence type-matched genomic data set. PMID:27684472

  16. Different effects of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation and electroacupuncture at ST36–ST37 on the cerebral cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yu-Tien; Liao, Yi-Sheng; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background The effects of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) and electroacupuncture (EA) on the cerebral cortex are largely unclear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of TENS and EA on the cerebral cortex by examining their effect on the median nerve-somatosensory evoked potentials (MN-SEPs). Methods Twenty volunteers were studied. The cortical and cervical spinal potentials were recorded by median nerve stimulation at the left wrist. Sham TENS, 2 Hz TENS and 2 Hz EA were applied to both ST36 and ST37. MN-SEPs were recorded during sham TENS, 2 Hz TENS and 2 Hz EA, with at least 1 week interval for each subject. One-way analysis of variance was used to determine the differences in latency and amplitude of the MN-SEPs observed in the stimulation and post-stimulation periods compared with baseline. Scheffe's post hoc correction was employed to identify pairwise differences. Results No differences in mean latency were found between the stimulation procedures during the stimulation and post-stimulation periods. 2 Hz EA but not sham TENS or 2 Hz TENS caused higher mean amplitudes in N20 and N30 during the stimulation and post-stimulation periods. Conclusions EA, but not TENS, induces changes in certain components of the signal. PMID:25432425

  17. [Acupoints selecting and medication rules analysis based on data mining technique for bronchial asthma treated with acupoint application].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaohui; Han, Dongyue; Qie, Lili; Liu, Chang; Wang, Fuchun

    2015-06-01

    Clinical literature of bronchial asthma treated with acupoints application from January 2000 to March 2014 in modern periodicals databases was retrieved through computer. With cluster analysis and frequency analysis methods of data mining, acupoints selecting and medication rules of bronchial asthma treated with acupoints application were analyzed. Total 38 articles were included eventually, including 25 acupoints and 42 medicines. The results indicate that on acupoints selecting, Feishu (BL 13) is used as the main acupoint and 3 groups of bladder meridian and conception vessel acupoints are applied alternately and on medicines, Baijiezi (Brassica alba Boiss), Xixin (Radix et Rhizoma Asari), Gansui (Radix Kansui), Yanhusuo (Corydalis) and Mahuang (Radix et Rhizonma Ephedrae) are primarily adopted, epispastic medicines being the main medicines; medicines mostly belong to lung meridian, main medicines being unchanged mostly with Shengjiang as guiding drug.

  18. fMRI Evidence of Acupoints Specificity in Two Adjacent Acupoints

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian-Yang; Li, Lin; Shan, Bao-Ci; Nie, Bin-Bin; Xue, Jing-quan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Acupoint specificity is the foundation of acupuncture treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the acupoint specificity exists in two adjacent acupoints. Design and Setting. Two adjacent real acupoints, LR3 (Taichong) and ST44 (Neiting), and a nearby nonacupoint were selected. Thirty-three health volunteers were divided into three groups in random order, and each group only received acupuncture at one of the three points. While they received acupuncture, fMRI scan was performed. Results. The common cerebral activated areas responding to LR3 and ST44 included the contralateral primary somatosensory area (SI) and ipsilateral cerebellum. Acupuncture at LR3 specifically activated contralateral middle occipital gyrus, ipsilateral medial frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobe, middle temporal gyrus, rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), lentiform nucleus, insula, and contralateral thalamus. Stimulation at ST44 selectively activated ipsilateral secondary somatosensory area (SII), contralateral middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, lingual gyrus, lentiform nucleus, and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Conclusions. Acupuncture at adjacent acupoints elicits distinct cerebral activation patterns, and those specific patterns might be involved in the mechanism of the specific therapeutic effects of different acupoints. PMID:23762172

  19. Acupoint injection of onabotulinumtoxin A for migraines.

    PubMed

    Hou, Min; Xie, Jun-Fan; Kong, Xiang-Pan; Zhang, Yi; Shao, Yu-Feng; Wang, Can; Ren, Wen-Ting; Cui, Guang-Fu; Xin, Le; Hou, Yi-Ping

    2015-10-30

    Onabotulinumtoxin A (BoNTA) has been reported to be effective in the therapy for migraines. Acupuncture has been used worldwide for the treatment of migraine attacks. Injection of a small amount of drug at acupuncture points is an innovation as compared to traditional acupuncture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of fixed (muscle)-site and acupoint-site injections of BoNTA for migraine therapy in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial extending over four months. Subjects with both episodic and chronic migraines respectively received a placebo (n = 19) or BoNTA (2.5 U each site, 25 U per subject) injection at fixed-sites (n = 41) including occipitofrontalis, corrugator supercilii, temporalis and trapeziue, or at acupoint-sites (n = 42) including Yintang (EX-HN3), Taiyang (EX-HN5), Baihui (GV20), Shuaigu (GB8), Fengchi (GB20) and Tianzhu (BL10). The variations between baseline and BoNTA post-injection for four months were calculated monthly as outcome measures. BoNTA injections at fixed-sites and acupoint-sites significantly reduced the migraine attack frequency, intensity, duration and associated symptoms for four months compared with placebo (p < 0.01). The efficacy of BoNTA for migraines in the acupoint-site group (93% improvement) was more significant than that in the fixed-site group (85% improvement) (p < 0.01). BoNTA administration for migraines is effective, and at acupoint-sites shows more efficacy than at fixed-sites. Further blinded studies are necessary to establish the efficacy of a low dose toxin (25 U) introduced with this methodology in chronic and episodic migraines.

  20. [Comparative study of time-correlated temperature and back-scattered light intensity for human Hegu acupoint and non-acupoint tissue irradiated by near-infrared laser].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fang; Wei, Hua-Jiang; Guo, Zhou-Yi; Li, Ang; Yang, Ning-Ning; Yang, Hong-Qin; Xie, Shu-Sen

    2012-09-01

    Characteristics and differences of temperature and back-scattered light intensity in different depths of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1 mm for both human Hegu acupoint and non-acupoint tissue irradiated by 808 nm diode laser at the different power of 15, 25 and 35 mW were studied. The temperature and the back-scattered light intensity in different depths of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1 mm for human Hegu acupoint and non-acupoint tissue were measured by using the infrared thermography and optical coherence tomography. The result shows few differences in the temperature and the back-scattered light intensity of human Hegu acupoint and non-acupoint tissue before irradiation. The temperature and back-scattered light intensity of Hegu acupoint and the non-acupoint after irradiation were significantly higher, and the temperature and back-scattered light intensity of Hegu acupoint significantly were higher than the non-acupoint areas. At 0-40 min after the irradiation, the temperature and back-scattered light intensity of Hegu acupoint and the non-acupoint area will fluctuate and gradually decrease with the passage of time. From the results above, it is clearly seen that Hegu acupoint is different from non-acupoint both in the back-scattered light intensity and temperature after irradiation, and Hegu acupoint is more sensitive to laser irradiation than non-acupoint tissue.

  1. [Analysis on the factors that cause the difference of acupoints synergy effect].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiatai; Chen, Bo; Guo, Yongming; Guo, Yi

    2015-07-01

    Based on traditional acupuncture theory and modern researches, the factors that cause the difference of acupoints synergy effect are summarized and analyzed. It is found that the factors include the specificity of acupoint, the interaction of acupoints, the pathway of acupuncture signal, the body condition level, acupuncture manipulation, etc. It is believed that the specificity of acupoint is the key factor to determine the difference of acupoints synergy effect. Interaction of acupoints may be related to the pathway of selected acupuncture signal, which is an important factor in difference of acupoints synergy effect. The body condition level and acupuncture manipulation are internal and external factor to influence acupoints synergy effect, respectively.

  2. Electroacupuncture at ST36 ameliorates gastric emptying and rescues networks of interstitial cells of Cajal in the stomach of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Xu, Juan Juan; Liu, Shi; Hou, Xiao Hua

    2013-01-01

    Depletion of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) is certified in the stomach of diabetic patients. Though electroacupuncture (EA) at ST36 is an effective therapy to regulate gastric motility, the mechanisms of EA at ST36 on gastric emptying and networks of ICC remain to be elucidated. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of EA on gastric emptying and on the alterations of ICC networks. Rats were randomized into the control, diabetic rats (DM), diabetic rats with sham EA (DM+SEA), diabetic rats with low frequency EA (DM+LEA) and diabetic rats with high frequency EA groups (DM+HEA). The expression of c-kit in each layer of gastric wall was assessed by western blotting. The proliferation of ICC was identified by immunolabeling of c-kit and Ki67 as the apoptosis of ICC was examined by TUNEL staining. The results were as follows: (1) Gastric emptying was severely delayed in the DM group, but accelerated in the LEA and HEA group, especially in the LEA group. (2) The expression of c-kit in each layer was reduced apparently in the DM group, but also up-regulated in the LEA and HEA group. (3) Plentiful proliferated ICC (c-kit+/Ki67+) forming bushy networks with c-kit+ cells were observed in the LEA and HEA group, while the apoptotic cells (c-kit+/TUNEL+) were hardly captured in the LEA and HEA group. Collectively, low and high frequency EA at ST36 rescue the damaged networks of ICC by inhibiting the apoptosis and enhancing the proliferation in the stomach of diabetic rats, resulting in an improved gastric emptying.

  3. [Acupoint selection and medication rules analysis for allergic rhinitis treated with acupoint application-based on data mining technology].

    PubMed

    Han, Dongyue; Liu, Chang; Qie, Lili; Wang, Fuchun; Wang Zhaohui

    2015-11-01

    To make a systematic study on acupoints selection and medication rules for allergic rhinitis treated with acupoint application, literature regarding clinical researches on acupoint application for allergic rhinitis since 2000 has been retrieved; medication and acupoints involved were preprocessed and cluster analysis technique was applied to classify the data. As a result, a total of 37 pieces of literature were included, involving 27 types of herbs and 33 acupoints. The results showed Baijiezi (Brassica alba Boiss), Xixin (Radix et Rhizoma Asari), Gansui (Radix Kansui), Yanhusuo (Corydalis), Jiangzhi (Ginger juice) and Baizhi (Radix angelicae) constituted the main herb prescription, and the layer was increased along with frequency of use. Feishu (BL 13), Dazhui (GV 14), Shenshu (BL 23), Pishu (BL 20), Gaohuang (BL 43), Fengmen (BL 12) constituted the main acupoint prescription, which were clustered into 4 classes; Feishu (BL 13) and Dazhui (GV 14) constituted the first class; Pishu (BL 20) and Shenshu (BL 23) constituted the second class; the first and second class merged into the third class, Including Feishu (BL 13), Dazhui (GV 14), Shenshu (BL 23) and Pishu (BL 20); Gaohuang (BL 43) and Fengmen (BL 12) constituted the fourth class; the fourth class and the third class constituted the whole acupoint prescription. It was showed that for the allergic rhinitis treated with acupoint application, the medication was mainly epispastic herbs with pungent nature that belonged to the lung, spleen and kidney meridian, which presented the principle of simultaneous treatment of principal and subordinate symptoms; also the medication can be selected from core layer to supporting layer based on clinical needs; for the selection of acupoints, acupoints in lung and bladder meridian were mainly selected to assist exterior and resist the pathogenic qi, which could treat allergic rhinitis fundamentally by joint use with acupoints in soleen and kidney meridian.

  4. [Characteristics of infrared radiation of meridians and acupoints].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Juan-Juan; Shen, Xue-Yong; Zhao, Yi

    2010-10-01

    Infrared radiation temperature and characteristics of infrared spectrum of meridians and acupoints are summarized in this article. The infrared radiant track along the running course of meridians might be a ubiquitous phenomenon of the vital activity. The high temperature bands below the meridian lines at the cuticular layer are often taken as the manifestation of the tract. It could be induced by various stimulations on acupoints with warm-needling as the best causative method. High temperature and low resistance are considered as 2 features of the acupoint zone. The adenosine-triphosphate energy metabolism of the acupoint zone is higher than the non-point zone, which indicates that essential physiological and pathological information are carried by infrared radiation temperature of acupoint and infrared spectrum of acupoint. However, it is realized that study on characteristics of infrared radiation only is far from enough to reveal the essence of meridians and acupoints. And much still remains to be done in strengthening basic studies of characteristics of infrared radiation, structure pattern of meridians and acupoints as well as volt-ampere characteristics.

  5. [Investigation of acupoints on Du (governor) channel].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-bin; Wang, Ling-ling

    2006-07-01

    The origin and variation of acupoints on the Du channel are investigated by analyzing and studying the number and distribution of points recorded in the ancient medical works. It is found that the amount and distribution of the points were different in different ages. The distributions of the points were not only located on the midline of the face, head, nape and posterior midline but also on both sides of the spine from the period of Neijing (Inner Canon) to that of Zhenjiu Jiayi Jing (A-B Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion). Since the period of Tongren Shuxue Zhenjiu Tujing (Illustration Classic of Acupoints on Bronze Statue) in the Song dynasty, only those points of the midline from the face, nape to the spine are remained there until now. Meanwhile, the amount of points were also varied because of the cognition to the points on the spine. Huangdi Neijing Taisu (Grand Simplicity of Inner Canon of Huangdi) compiled in the Tang Dynasty first mentioned the arguments about the varied points on the channel. The records by Yang Shangshan and Wang Bing indicate that the main differences on the cognition of the channel andits points appeared during the period of the Tang Dynasty to the Song Dynasty.

  6. [Specificity of acupoint effects and its fundamental laws].

    PubMed

    Liang, Fan-rong; Fang, Zeng; Zhao, Ling; Tang, Yong

    2009-02-01

    The specificity of acupoint effects is the core of acupuncture theories and clinical practices. Based on summarization and analysis of ancient literature and contemporary research achievements by using data mining techniques, it is preliminarily held that the specificity of acupoint effects has its relativity and a certain law, which can be summarized as "course of meridian is the basis and confluence of meridian qi is the key", that is, the specificity of acupoint effects is closely correlated with the course of meridian and the confluence of meridian qi.

  7. System identification algorithm analysis of acupuncture effect on mean blood flux of contralateral hegu acupoint.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangjun; Han, Jianguo; Litscher, Gerhard; Zhang, Weibo

    2012-01-01

    Background. Acupoints (belonging to 12 meridians) which have the same names are symmetrically distributed on the body. It has been proved that acupoints have certain biological specificities different from the normal parts of the body. However, there is little evidence that acupoints which have the same name and are located bilaterally and symmetrically have lateralized specificity. Thus, researching the lateralized specificity and the relationship between left-side and right-side acupuncture is of special importance. Methodology and Principal Findings. The mean blood flux (MBF) in both Hegu acupoints was measured by Moor full-field laser perfusion imager. With the method of system identification algorithm, the output distribution in different groups was acquired, based on different acupoint stimulation and standard signal input. It is demonstrated that after stimulation of the right Hegu acupoint by needle, the output value of MBF in contralateral Hegu acupoint was strongly amplified, while after acupuncturing the left Hegu acupoint, the output value of MBF in either side Hegu acupoint was amplified moderately. Conclusions and Significance. This paper indicates that the Hegu acupoint has lateralized specificity. After stimulating the ipsilateral Hegu acupoint, symmetry breaking will be produced in contrast to contralateral Hegu acupoint stimulation.

  8. [My humble opinion on teaching of acupoints: discussion on The Channels, Collaterals and Acupoints Science, a national plan teaching material of "the tenth five-year plan"].

    PubMed

    Hou, Shu-Wei

    2008-10-01

    Analyze and probe a part of contents in The Channels, Collaterals and Acupoints Science, a national plan teaching material of "the tenth five-year plan", and put forward own opinion on compilation of the teaching materials. Various concepts of acupoints should strive to be strict and terse; location of acupoints should be accurate and conform to clinical practice and reduce errors; the new edition The Channels, Collaterals and Acupoints Science should reasonably select and supplement for extra-ordinary points; increase explanation of the point name, function of acupoints, and association of acupoints; enrich the contents of acupuncture manipulation; reasonably increase and reduce extracts of ancient and modern reports to conform to development of the new age.

  9. Acupuncture points for treating Parkinson's disease based on animal studies.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sunoh; Seo, Byung-Kwan; Kim, Seungtae

    2016-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a well-known neurodegenerative disease caused by dopaminergic cell death in the nigrostriatal pathway. Recent studies have shown that acupuncture can be a potential therapy for the treatment of PD, but it is not clear which acupuncture points (acupoints) play major roles in reliving symptoms of PD. Yanglingquan (GB 34), Zusanli (ST 36), Fengfu (GV 16), Taichong (LR 3), Baihui (GV 20) and Dazhui (GV 14) acupoints have frequently been to investigate the effectiveness and action mechanism of acupuncture for treating PD, but it is not clear why they were selected. This review summarizes the current understanding of the acupoints for PD treatment based on Oriental medicine theories and on the accumulated findings from previous animal studies. The results of this study will be useful to development of a strategy for future research in this field.

  10. [Li Wen-Rong's experience on acupuncture at painful locality taken as acupoint].

    PubMed

    Wei, Qing-Lin; Li, Jun

    2010-04-01

    Doctor Li Wen-Rong, who has been practicing acupuncture for five decades by combination of the meridian theory of TCM and related modern medical science, has still been active in acupuncture clinic, especially in acupuncture manipulation based on the method of acupuncture at painful locality taken as acupoint, Jiaji (EX-B 2) being selected as the main acupoints and Back-shu acupoints of the Bladder Meridian as adjuvant acupoints, except the acupoints on the limbs, and the selected acupoints being relatively concentrated and the needles being inserted in tender points for treatment of relevant nervous system diseases and complicated chronic cases, which has formed her own academic style. In this article, the authors introduce some of her medical records by using acupuncture manipulation based on the method of acupuncture at painful locality taken as acupoint for treatment of facial paralysis, renal colic and rheumatoid arthritis, and the main idea of this article is to summarize and analyze her academic thoughts.

  11. [Brief analysis of professor YAN Jie's academic thought on functional dyspepsia treated with acupuncture and moxibustion].

    PubMed

    Tan, Tao; Yan, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The brief discussion is introduced in the paper on the academic thought of professor YAN Jie, the contemporary famous TCM doctor, on functional dyspepsia treated with acupuncture and moxibustion. Treatment based on "the three-regional acupoint selection" is applied to professor YAN's treatment for functional dyspepsia, in which, acupuncture is on Sibai (ST 2), Liangmen (ST 21) and Zusanli (ST 36), and the supplementary points are added accordingly. The academic thought is described as the combination of acupuncture and moxibustion based on strengthening healthy qi, supplemented by soothing the liver and psychological counseling. Also, an example is provided.

  12. [Characteristics of acupoint selection of acupuncture-moxibustion for vertigo in history: a data mining research].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Shou, Yi-Xia; Ren, Yu-Lan; Liang, Fan-Rong

    2014-05-01

    The data mining technique is adopted to analyze characteristics and rules of acupoint and meridian selection of acupuncture-moxibustion for treatment of vertigo at different time periods in the ancient. The data is collected from literature regarding acupuncture-moxibustion from the pre-Qin period to the end of Qing Dynasty, so as to establish a clinical literature database of ancient acupuncture-moxibustion for treatment of vertigo. Data mining method is applied to analyze the commonly used meridians, acupoints and special acupoints in different dynasties, also possible rules are explored. Totally 82 pieces of prescription of acupuncture-moxibustion for treatment of vertigo are included. In the history the leading selection of acupoitns are Fengchi (GB 20), Hegu (LI 4), Shangxing (GV 23) and Jiexi (ST 41) while that of meridians are mainly three yang meridians of foot and the Governor Vessel, especially the acupoints on the Bladder Meridian of foot yangming had the highest utilization rate, accounting for 23.04%. The acupoint selection is characterized by special acupoint, accounting for 80.6%, among which the crossing points are the most common choice. Distal-proximal acupoints combination is the most frequent method. The results indicate that the ancient acupuncture-moxibustion for treatment of vertigo focused on acupoints in the yang meridians, and the specific acupoints play an essential role in prescription; also the principle of syndrome differentiation and selecting acupoints along the meridians could be seen.

  13. Evidence of a Synergistic Effect of Acupoint Combination: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiping; Zheng, Yu; Wang, Yanjie; Qu, Shanshan; Zhang, Shaoqun; Wu, Chunxiao; Chen, Junqi; Ouyang, Huailiang; Tang, Chunzhi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study aimed to find evidence of a synergistic effect of acupoint combinations by analyzing different brain regions activated after acupuncture at different acupoint combinations. Methods: A total of 57 healthy subjects were randomly distributed into three groups: LR3 plus KI3 acupoints, LR3 plus sham acupoint, or LR3 alone. They underwent a magnetic resonance imaging scan before and after acupuncture. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) values of different brain regions were analyzed to observe changes in brain function. Results: ALFF and ReHo produced an activated area in the cerebellum posterior lobe after acupuncture at LR3 plus KI3 acupoints versus LR3 alone. ALFF and ReHo revealed altered activity in Brodmann area 10 (BA10), BA18, and brainstem pons after acupuncture at LR3 plus sham acupoint compared with at LR3 alone. A comparison of acupuncture at LR3 plus KI3 acupoints with LR3 plus sham acupoint demonstrated an increase in BA6 of ALFF and a downregulation of ReHo. Conclusions: The increased number of brain regions with altered brain activity after acupuncture at acupoint combinations versus a single acupoint are evidence of the synergistic effect of acupoint combinations. BA6 was significantly activated after acupuncture at LR3 plus KI3 acupoints compared with at LR3 plus sham acupoint, suggesting that BA6 is the specific region of synergistic effect of acupoint combinations of LR3 plus KI3 acupoints. Affected brain regions were different between acupuncture at LR3 plus sham acupoint and LR3 alone, which indicates that the sham acupoint may have some psychological effect. However, the specific mechanism of acupoint combinations requires further research. PMID:27548054

  14. A Review of Acupoint Specificity Research in China: Status Quo and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ling; Chen, Ji; Liu, Cun-Zhi; Li, Ying; Cai, Ding-Jun; Tang, Yong; Yang, Jie; Liang, Fan-Rong

    2012-01-01

    The theory of acupoint specificity is the basis for elucidating the actions of acupoints as employed in clinical practice. Acupoint specificity has become a focus of attention in international research efforts by scholars in the areas of acupuncture and moxibustion. In 2006, the Chinese Ministry of Science approved and initiated the National Basic Research Program (973 Program), one area of which was entitled Basic Research on Acupoint Specificity Based on Clinical Efficacy. Using such approaches as data mining, evidence-based medicine, clinical epidemiology, neuroimaging, molecular biology, neurophysiology, and metabolomics, fruitful research has been conducted in the form of literature research, clinical assessments, and biological studies. Acupoint specificity has been proved to exist, and it features meridian-propagated, relative, persistent, and conditional effects. Preliminarily investigations have been made into the biological basis for acupoint specificity. PMID:23243454

  15. Fluorescent nanoparticles for observing primo vascular system along sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhao-Feng; Lee, Byung-Cheon; Eom, Ki-Hoon; Cha, Jin-Myung; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Su, Zhen-Dong; Yu, Wen-Hui; Ryu, Pan Dong; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2010-09-01

    The primo vascular system was found in the epineurium along the rat sciatic nerve following subcutaneous injection of fluorescent nanoparticles at the Zusanli acupoint (ST-36). Nanoparticles were injected into the primo-vessel near ST-36 and flowed along the sciatic nerve. Fluorescence revealed a structure in the epineurium that was hardly detectable. Images of the isolated sample stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole were captured using confocal microscopy. These images showed the distinctive nuclei distribution and multi-lumen structure of primo-vessels that differentiate them from lymphatic vessels, blood capillaries and nerves. This study demonstrates a new use for nanoparticles in fluorescence reflectance imaging techniques during in vivo imaging of primo-vessels.

  16. [A glance at the property of acupoints--analysis on functions of acupoints in view of actions of Chinese materia medica].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Zhao, Ji-ping

    2008-08-01

    The acupoint is one of the basic elements of the acupuncture prescription. Just as thinking over different properties of every Chinese materia medica in a prescription, we should also sufficiently consider the characteristics of each acupoint in a prescription of acupuncture or moxibustion. Chinese materia medica have their own action-tendencies of lifting, lowering, floating and sinking, properties of cold, hot, warm and cool, five flavors of sour, bitter, sweet, acrid and salty, target-meridian distribution, different toxicity and actions, etc. What are the properties of acupoints? The authors of the present paper summarize them by simulating the characters of Chinese materia medica. It is found that acupoints also have functions in regulating lifting, lowering, floating and sinking of Qi, inducing cold and heat effects, producing different needling sensations; and pertain to different meridians (meridian distribution). And acupoint stimulation may produce adverse effects under certain specific conditions, etc. Full understanding of the properties of acupoints is definitely helpful in improving clinical therapeutic effects and shortening therapeutic courses by reasonably selecting and combining related acupoints.

  17. Electroacupuncture Reduces Carrageenan- and CFA-Induced Inflammatory Pain Accompanied by Changing the Expression of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8, rather than Nav1.9, in Mice Dorsal Root Ganglia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Ping; Chen, Hsiang-Ni; Su, Hong-Lin; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Chen, Wei-Hsin; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Lin, Yi-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Several voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) from nociceptive nerve fibers have been identified as important effectors in pain signaling. The objective of this study is to investigate the electroacupuncture (EA) analgesia mechanism by changing the expression of Navs in mice dorsal root ganglia (DRG). We injected carrageenan and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the mice plantar surface of the hind paw to induce inflammation and examined the antinociception effect of EA at the Zusanli (ST36) acupoint at 2 Hz low frequency. Mechanical hyperalgesia was evaluated by using electronic von Frey filaments, and thermal hyperalgesia was assessed using Hargreaves' test. Furthermore, we observed the expression and quality of Navs in DRG neurons. Our results showed that EA reduced mechanical and thermal pain in inflammatory animal model. The expression of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 was increased after 4 days of carrageenan- and CFA-elicited inflammatory pain and further attenuated by 2 Hz EA stimulation. The attenuation cannot be observed in Nav1.9 sodium channels. We demonstrated that EA at Zusanli (ST36) acupoint at 2 Hz low-frequency stimulation attenuated inflammatory pain accompanied by decreasing the expression of Nav1.7 and 1.8, rather than Nav1.9, sodium channels in peripheral DRG neurons.

  18. [Original relations of acupoints with channels-collaterals and acupuncture therapy].

    PubMed

    Bai, Xing-hua

    2008-03-01

    With analysis and systematization of ancient medical books being unearthed Mazoangdui tomb and other literatures, it is found that ancient names and meanings of moxibustion and acupuncture parts passed the courses from Mai to Maikou, the place and region above Mai, then to acupoints on the body surface showing channels, gi and blood. This change trace reveals original relationship acupoints with channels-collaterals, and acupuncture therapy. The acupoint is a point and channels-collaterals are lines, except a less acupoints which located by obvious anatomic markers, most of are special parts on the channels and collaterals, are not a isolated point. The acupoint is the gate of needle inserting the human body, proposal of this concept and increase of the number of acopoints are closely related with invention, popularity and spreading of acupuncture therapy.

  19. A method of selecting acupoints for acupuncture treatment of peripheral facial paralysis by thermography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to select acupoints for acupuncture treatment of peripheral facial paralysis according to the temperature on the face of the patient detected by thermogram, to determine an objective acupoint selection method for acupuncture treatment. In the test group of 60 cases of facial paralysis, the infrared thermogram on the face was detected at the first visit, and then acupuncture was given at the acupoints on the affected side with a temperature difference of over 0.5 degrees C from the healthy side for one therapeutic course, and in each successive course the acupoints were re-determined according to the results of thermogram examination and were administrated till the end of the total therapeutic course, and 120 cases of the control group were treated with acupuncture at conventionally selected acupoints. The results showed that the cured and basically cured rate was 90.0% (54 cases) in the test group and 77.5% (93 cases) in the control group with a significant difference between the two groups (p < 0.05); and the total sessions of acupuncture were less and the course of treatment was shorter in the test group than those in the control group (both p < 0.001). The utilization rate of the acupoints selected by facial thermogram in the test group was in order of Dicang (ST 4, 92.3%), Yingxiang (LI 20, 90.6%), Taiyang (EX-HN 5, 85.5%), Yangbai (GB 14, 76.6%), Quanliao (SI 18, 72.3%), and so on. In conclusion, acupuncture at the acupoints selected by thermogram for treatment of facial paralysis in the cured rate, the therapeutic course and sessions of acupuncture is significantly superior to acupuncture at the conventionally selected acupoints, and the thermogram-aided acupoint selection method is beneficial to objectivity and modernization of acupoint selection for acupuncture and moxibustion treatments.

  20. [Acupoints selection rules analysis of ancient acupuncture for urinary incontinence based on data mining technology].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Tan, Zhigao; Cao, Juanshu; Gong, Houwu; Qin, Zuoai; Zhong, Feng; Cao, Yue; Wei, Yanrong

    2015-12-01

    Based on ancient literature of acupuncture in Canon of Chinese Medicine (4th edition), the articles regarding acupuncture for urinary incontinence were retrieved and collected to establish a database. By Weka data mining software, the multi-level association rules analysis method was applied to analyze the acupoints selection characteristics and rules of ancient acupuncture for treatment of urinary incontinence. Totally 356 articles of acupuncture for urinary incontinence were collected, involving 41 acupoints with a total frequency of 364. As a result, (1) the acupoints in the yin-meridian of hand and foot were highly valued, as the frequency of acupoints in yin-meridians was 2.6 times than that in yang-meridians, and the frequency of acupoints selected was the most in the liver meridian of foot-jueyin; (2) the acupoints in bladder meridian of foot-taiyang were also highly valued, and among three yang-meridians of foot, the frequency of acupoints in the bladder meridian of foot-taiyang was 54, accounting for 65.85% (54/82); (3) more acupoints selected were located in the lower limbs and abdomen; (4) specific acupoints in above meridians were mostly selected, presenting 73.2% (30/41) to the ratio of number and 79.4% (289/364) to the frequency, respectively; (5) Zhongji (CV 3), the front-mu point of bladder meridian, was seldom selected in the ancient acupuncture literature, which was different from modern literature reports. The results show that urinary incontinence belongs to external genitalia diseases, which should be treated from yin, indicating more yin-meridians be used and special acupoints be focused on. It is essential to focus inheritance and innovation in TCM clinical treatment, and applying data mining technology to ancient literature of acupuncture could provide classic theory basis for TCM clinical treatment.

  1. Application of acupoints and meridians for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea: a data mining-based literature study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Siyi; Yang, Jie; Yang, Mingxiao; Gao, Yan; Chen, Jiao; Ren, Yulan; Zhang, Leixiao; Chen, Liang; Liang, Fanrong; Hu, Youping

    2015-01-01

    Background. Dysmenorrhea is a common problem for which acupuncture provides effective analgesia. Although acupoint selection affects the effectiveness of acupuncture, the basic rules of acupoint selection are little understood. This study aims to investigate the principles of acupoint selection and characteristics of acupoints used for primary dysmenorrhea. Methods. PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Chinese Biomedical Database were searched for clinical trials published in English or Chinese from January 1978 to April 2014 evaluating the effect of acupuncture on primary dysmenorrhea, with or without methods of randomization and/or control. Three authors extracted information and two reviewers inputted information on titles, journals, interventions, main acupoints, and outcomes using the self-established Data Excavation Platform of Acupoint Specificity for data mining. Results. Sanyinjiao (SP06), Guanyuan (CV04), and Qihai (CV06) were used most frequently. The most frequently used meridians were Conception Vessel, Spleen Meridian of Foot Taiyin, and Bladder Meridian of Foot Taiyang. 67.24% of acupoints used were specific acupoints. Acupoints on lower limbs were most frequently used. Conclusion. Data mining is a feasible approach to identify the characteristics of acupoint selection. Our study indicated that modern acupuncture treatment for primary dysmenorrhea is based on selection of specific acupoints according to traditional acupuncture theory.

  2. Improvement in acupoint selection for acupuncture of nerves surrounding the injury site: electro-acupuncture with Governor vessel with local meridian acupoints

    PubMed Central

    He, Guan-heng; Ruan, Jing-wen; Zeng, Yuan-shan; Zhou, Xin; Ding, Ying; Zhou, Guang-hui

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury not only affects the site of the injury, but can also induce neuronal apoptosis at the spinal cord. However, many acupuncture clinicians still focus only on the injury site, selecting acupoints entirely along the injured nerve trunk and neglecting other regions; this may delay onset of treatment efficacy and rehabilitation. Therefore, in the present study, we compared the clinical efficacy of acupuncture at Governor vessel and local meridian acupoints combined (GV/LM group) with acupuncture at local meridian acupoints alone (LM group) in the treatment of patients with peripheral nerve injury. In the GV/LM group (n = 15), in addition to meridian acupoints at the injury site, the following acupoints on the Governor vessel were stimulated: Baihui (GV20), Fengfu (GV16), Dazhui (GV14), and Shenzhu (GV12), selected to treat nerve injury of the upper limb, and Jizhong (GV6), Mingmen (GV4), Yaoyangguan (GV3), and Yaoshu (GV2) to treat nerve injury of the lower limb. In the LM group (n = 15), only meridian acupoints along the injured nerve were selected. Both groups had electroacupuncture treatment for 30 minutes, once a day, 5 times per week, for 6 weeks. Two cases dropped out of the LM group. A good or excellent clinical response was obtained in 80% of the patients in the GV/LM group and 38.5% of the LM group. In a second study, an additional 20 patients underwent acupuncture with the same prescription as the GV/LM group. Electomyographic nerve conduction tests were performed before and after acupuncture to explore the mechanism of action of the treatment. An effective response was observed in 80.0% of the patients, with greater motor nerve conduction velocity and amplitude after treatment, indicating that electroacupuncture on specific Governor vessel acupoints promotes functional motor nerve repair after peripheral nerve injury. In addition, electromyography was performed before, during and after electroacupuncture in one patient with radial

  3. Improvement in acupoint selection for acupuncture of nerves surrounding the injury site: electro-acupuncture with Governor vessel with local meridian acupoints.

    PubMed

    He, Guan-Heng; Ruan, Jing-Wen; Zeng, Yuan-Shan; Zhou, Xin; Ding, Ying; Zhou, Guang-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury not only affects the site of the injury, but can also induce neuronal apoptosis at the spinal cord. However, many acupuncture clinicians still focus only on the injury site, selecting acupoints entirely along the injured nerve trunk and neglecting other regions; this may delay onset of treatment efficacy and rehabilitation. Therefore, in the present study, we compared the clinical efficacy of acupuncture at Governor vessel and local meridian acupoints combined (GV/LM group) with acupuncture at local meridian acupoints alone (LM group) in the treatment of patients with peripheral nerve injury. In the GV/LM group (n = 15), in addition to meridian acupoints at the injury site, the following acupoints on the Governor vessel were stimulated: Baihui (GV20), Fengfu (GV16), Dazhui (GV14), and Shenzhu (GV12), selected to treat nerve injury of the upper limb, and Jizhong (GV6), Mingmen (GV4), Yaoyangguan (GV3), and Yaoshu (GV2) to treat nerve injury of the lower limb. In the LM group (n = 15), only meridian acupoints along the injured nerve were selected. Both groups had electroacupuncture treatment for 30 minutes, once a day, 5 times per week, for 6 weeks. Two cases dropped out of the LM group. A good or excellent clinical response was obtained in 80% of the patients in the GV/LM group and 38.5% of the LM group. In a second study, an additional 20 patients underwent acupuncture with the same prescription as the GV/LM group. Electomyographic nerve conduction tests were performed before and after acupuncture to explore the mechanism of action of the treatment. An effective response was observed in 80.0% of the patients, with greater motor nerve conduction velocity and amplitude after treatment, indicating that electroacupuncture on specific Governor vessel acupoints promotes functional motor nerve repair after peripheral nerve injury. In addition, electromyography was performed before, during and after electroacupuncture in one patient with radial

  4. Acupoints Stimulation for Anxiety and Depression in Cancer Patients: A Quantitative Synthesis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Deng, Renli; Tan, Jing-Yu; Guan, Feng-Guang

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at concluding the current evidence on the therapeutic effects of acupoints stimulation for cancer patients with anxiety and depression. Randomized controlled trials using acupoints stimulation for relieving anxiety and/or depression in cancer patients were searched, and 11 studies were finally included, of which eight trials compared acupoints stimulation with standard methods of treatment/care, and acupoints stimulation showed significantly better effects in improving depression than using standard methods of treatment/care. Four studies compared true acupoints stimulation with sham methods, and no significant differences can be found between groups for either depression or anxiety, although the pooled effects still favored true intervention. For the five studies that evaluated sleep quality, the results were conflicting, with three supporting the superiority of acupoints stimulation in improving sleep quality and two demonstrating no differences across groups. Acupoints stimulation seems to be an effective approach in relieving depression and anxiety in cancer patients, and placebo effects may partially contribute to the benefits. However, the evidence is not conclusive due to the limited number of included studies and the clinical heterogeneity identified among trials. More rigorous designed randomized, sham-controlled studies are necessary in future research. PMID:27118981

  5. Analgesic Neural Circuits Are Activated by Electroacupuncture at Two Sets of Acupoints

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Man-Li; Qiu, Zheng-Ying

    2016-01-01

    To investigate analgesic neural circuits activated by electroacupuncture (EA) at different sets of acupoints in the brain, goats were stimulated by EA at set of Baihui-Santai acupoints or set of Housanli acupoints for 30 min. The pain threshold was measured using the potassium iontophoresis method. The levels of c-Fos were determined with Streptavidin-Biotin Complex immunohistochemistry. The results showed pain threshold induced by EA at set of Baihui-Santai acupoints was 44.74% ± 4.56% higher than that by EA at set of Housanli acupoints (32.64% ± 5.04%). Compared with blank control, EA at two sets of acupoints increased c-Fos expression in the medial septal nucleus (MSN), the arcuate nucleus (ARC), the nucleus amygdala basalis (AB), the lateral habenula nucleus (HL), the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey (vlPAG), the locus coeruleus (LC), the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), the pituitary gland, and spinal cord dorsal horn (SDH). Compared with EA at set of Housanli points, EA at set of Baihui-Santai points induced increased c-Fos expression in AB but decrease in MSN, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, HL, and SDH. It suggests that ARC-PAG-NRM/LC-SDH and the hypothalamus-pituitary may be the common activated neural pathways taking part in EA-induced analgesia at the two sets of acupoints. PMID:27429635

  6. Systems Biology of Meridians, Acupoints, and Chinese Herbs in Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Li-Ling; Wang, Ya-Hui; Lai, Chi-Yu; Chau, Chan-Lao; Su, Guan-Chin; Yang, Chun-Yi; Lou, Shu-Ying; Chen, Szu-Kai; Hsu, Kuan-Hao; Lai, Yen-Ling; Wu, Wei-Ming; Huang, Jian-Long; Liao, Chih-Hsin; Juan, Hsueh-Fen

    2012-01-01

    Meridians, acupoints, and Chinese herbs are important components of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). They have been used for disease treatment and prevention and as alternative and complementary therapies. Systems biology integrates omics data, such as transcriptional, proteomic, and metabolomics data, in order to obtain a more global and complete picture of biological activity. To further understand the existence and functions of the three components above, we reviewed relevant research in the systems biology literature and found many recent studies that indicate the value of acupuncture and Chinese herbs. Acupuncture is useful in pain moderation and relieves various symptoms arising from acute spinal cord injury and acute ischemic stroke. Moreover, Chinese herbal extracts have been linked to wound repair, the alleviation of postmenopausal osteoporosis severity, and anti-tumor effects, among others. Different acupoints, variations in treatment duration, and herbal extracts can be used to alleviate various symptoms and conditions and to regulate biological pathways by altering gene and protein expression. Our paper demonstrates how systems biology has helped to establish a platform for investigating the efficacy of TCM in treating different diseases and improving treatment strategies. PMID:23118787

  7. System for simultaneous measurements of bilaterally symmetrical acupoints multifrequency impedances.

    PubMed

    Su, Mi-Yong; Tan, Yong-Hong; Wang, Zi-Min; Gan, Cai-Jun; Chen, Shou-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Devices which can obtain comparable bilaterally symmetrical acupoints (BSA) multifrequency impedances (MFI) are often needed in the detection of the energy balance states of acupoints in traditional Chinese medicine. To satisfy these needs, a two-channel impedance measurement system has been introduced which is capable of accurately and simultaneously measuring BSA MFI. The system includes a set of five electrodes, two of which are injected with exciting current signal to synchronously and equally excite BSA; the other three electrodes are used as sensors to simultaneously sense the response signal from both sides. The system also includes a PC-based time-domain signal testing platform with arbitrary current waveform generation and three channels (one exciting current and two response voltages) simultaneously sampling, and a set of MFI simultaneously unbiased computing algorithms based on special odd multisine current signal input. Preliminary validating experiments suggest that the system allows accurate and synchronous measurement of BSA MFI at least in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 60 kHz, and the obtained BSA MFI are well comparable.

  8. [Analysis on characteristics of meridians and acupoints of acupuncture and moxibustion for diarrhea in ancient based on data mining].

    PubMed

    Su, Zhi-Wei; Ren, Yu-Lan; Zhou, Si-Yuan; Qin, Hai-Zhi; Chen, Da-Shuai; Liu, Ting; Li, Ying

    2013-10-01

    The data in literature of acupuncture and moxibustion on treatment of diarrhea from pre-Qin period to Qing dynasty was collected to establish prescription database and characteristics and rules of ancient acupuncture and moxibustion for diarrhea were analyzed with data mining technology. Totally 235 papers were collected and 76 acupoints were involved with 439 times of selection. The number and times of special acupoints were 72.37% (55/76) and 76.99% (338/439), respectively, which was more seen in front-mu acupoint and back-shu acupoint. The acupoints were distributed among 11 meridians. Moxibustion was applied in 53 papers while combination of acupuncture and moxibustion was used in 1 literature. As a result, acupuncture and moxibustion for diarrhea in ancient pay much attention on acupoint in back and abdomen, in which Tianshu (ST 25), Shen-que (CV 8), Guanyuan (CV 4) and Dachangshu (BL 25) were the most frequently used. The compatibility of front-mu acupoint and back-shu acupoint was very common. Selection of special acupoint was dominant. Besides crossing points that has the most intersection of meridian qi in the back and abdomen, acupoints below the elbow and knee joints, such as five-shu points, source point, luo-connecting point, eight confluence point and lower he-sea point were also taken into account. As for compatibility of special acupoints, the supportive degree between back-shu acupoint and confluence points or front-mu acupoint was the highest; the selections of meridians mainly were Bladder Meridian, Conception Vessel and Spleen Meridian; and application of moxibustion was highly valued. In conclusion, it is feasible to apply data mining technology to the clinical literature research of ancient acupuncture and moxibustion, which can provide evidence for summary of the traditional classical theory.

  9. [Practice on the case-based teaching innovation of Science of Meridians, Collaterals and Acupoints].

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhen-Jin; Zhang, Shu-Feng; Yan, Yuan-Jie; Bao, Hong-Ling; Wang, Bei-Bei

    2012-12-01

    The case-based teaching method which is applied to the teaching of Science of Meridians, Collaterals and Acupoints is discussed in this paper, in which the typical cases such as the growth of the acupuncture-moxibustion eminent physicians, the application of acupoints by the eminent physicians and the experiences in the acupoint combination are integrated. The students are instructed to launch the clinical practical activity through establishing the clinical base of Science of Meridians, Collaterals and Acupoints, in association with the true cases. It is proved that the case-based teaching method can promote the training of the manipulation techniques of the students and the inheritance of the experiences of eminent physicians in higher education.

  10. [Acupuncture therapy for regaining consciousness in terms of acupoint location, needle insertion and needle manipulation].

    PubMed

    Meng, Xianggang; Gu, Wenlong; Ma, Fen; Du, Yuzheng; Zhao, Qi

    2015-03-01

    Acupuncture therapy for regaining consciousness activates soreness, numbness, distention, heaviness, radiating and moving, electric shock and ant climbing sensations at the specific acupoints in the stroke patients. Radiating and moving sensations are the summary of needling sensations such as soreness, numbness and twitching presenting during lifting and thrusting manipulation. These sensations are the essential factors of the therapeutic effect of regaining consciousness. Radiating sensation refers to the conduction along meridians and radiation of soreness and numbness. Moving sensation refers to the local muscular twitching at acupoints and the involuntary movement of limbs, joints and the distal. Acupuncture at the specific acupoints achieves radiating and moving sensations for promoting the circulation in meridians, regulating qi and mind and balancing yin and yang in stroke patients. This therapy was introduced in the paper in view of acupoint location, needle insertion and manipulation.

  11. Experimental study on rat NK cell activity improvement by laser acupoint irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dongxiao; Chen, Xiufeng; Ruan, Buqing; Yang, Feng

    1998-08-01

    To study the improvement of the natural killer (NK) cell activity by semiconductor laser acupoint irradiation, rats were used in this experiment and were injected immunosuppressant in their abdomen. The immunoassay was made after the surface irradiation and inner irradiation at Baihui point by semiconductor laser. The NK cell activity is an important index of immunologic function. The results showed that the NK cell activity after laser acupoint irradiation was enhanced. This enhancement is relatively important in the clinical therapy of tumor.

  12. [Research and thinking on needling sensation of acupoint Huantiao (GB 30)].

    PubMed

    Bai, Jiejing; Han, Junying; Zhu, Dan; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Xu, Xiuzhu; Wu, Jiulong; Zhang, Jian-bin

    2015-03-01

    Taken Huantiao (GB 30) as breakthrough point, acupuncture manipulations of generating various needling sensations by different physicians are sorted. Types of acupoint needling sensations and conducting directions after acupuncture and all kinds of factors that affect needling sensations are analyzed from new perspectives. It is considered that attention should be paid to acupoint location, postures of patients, manipulation methods, types of needling sensations, transmission lines and duration time of needling sensations, etc.

  13. Electro-acupuncture at different acupoints modulating the relative specific brain functional network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jiliang; Wang, Xiaoling; Wang, Yin; Liu, Hesheng; Hong, Yang; Liu, Jun; Zhou, Kehua; Wang, Lei; Xue, Chao; Song, Ming; Liu, Baoyan; Zhu, Bing

    2010-11-01

    Objective: The specific brain effects of acupoint are important scientific concern in acupuncture. However, previous acupuncture fMRI studies focused on acupoints in muscle layer on the limb. Therefore, researches on acupoints within connective tissue at trunk are warranted. Material and Methods: Brain effects of acupuncture on abdomen at acupoints Guanyuan (CV4) and Zhongwan (CV12) were tested using fMRI on 21 healthy volunteers. The data acquisition was performed at resting state, during needle retention, electroacupuncture (EA) and post-EA resting state. Needling sensations were rated after every electroacupuncture (EA) procedure. The needling sensations and the brain functional activity and connectivity were compared between CV4 and CV12 using SPSS, SPM2 and the local and remote connectivity maps. Results and conclusion: EA at CV4 and CV12 induced apparent deactivation effects in the limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network. The default mode of the brain was modified by needle retention and EA, respectively. The functional brain network was significantly changed post EA. However, the minor differences existed between these two acupoints. The results demonstrated similarity between functional brain network mode of acupuncture modulation and functional circuits of emotional and cognitive regulation. Acupuncture may produce analgesia, anti-anxiety and anti-depression via the limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network (LPNN).

  14. [Study on the indications of acupoints presented in verses of acupuncture and moxibustion].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-dong; Huang, Long-xiang

    2006-05-01

    This paper focuses on the indications of acupoints presented in the verses of acupuncture and moxibustion. In order to redress the distorts and misunderstanding occurred during the process of the recording, impartment and re-creation of these verses, this paper proposes several ways for systematizing and studying the indications of acupoints presented in the verses of acupuncture and moxibustion, including: (1) the use of annotation of the verses; (2) comparison between literatures of same origin; (3) tracing the original literature; (4) comparison with acupoint literature; (5) application of digital literature system. This paper illustrates that multi-methods should be adopted in this research, and only by these, it is possible to better understand and inherit the legacy in verses on acupuncture and moxibustion.

  15. [Sheng's acupuncture manipulation at bone-nearby acupoints and the academic thoughts].

    PubMed

    Sheng, Ji-li; Jin, Xiao-qing

    2014-11-01

    Sheng's acupuncture manipulation at bone-nearby acupoints is a set of needling manipulation of the chief physician of TCM, SHENG Xie-sun, summarized through his over 50 years clinical experiences and on the basis of Internal Classic. Regarding this manipulation, on the premise of acupoint selection based on syndrome differentiation, the acupoints close to bone are possibly selected and punctured, with the needle tip toward bone edge, and followed by the technique to achieve reducing purpose. Clinically, the significant immediate analgesia can be achieved in pain disorders such as headache and toothache. Professor Sheng thought, corresponding to the location of needle insertion and needling depth, the tissue layers of needle tip passing through should be considered specially. The site of needle insertion should be changeable so as to ensure the needle tip reaching the bone. This manipulation for analgesia provides a certain guide for acupuncture study, especially for the mechanism study on acupuncture analgesia.

  16. [Formation, development and changes of the eye acupunture region-dividing acupoint location program].

    PubMed

    Che, Jian; Tian, Wei-zhu

    2005-04-01

    Eye acupuncture, a micro-needling therapy, has been widely applied in clinical treatment for over 30 years. Its theoretic system, especially, the eye acupuncture region-dividing point location program has been revised for 2 times, and the third program with reasonability of acupoint distribution, strictness of angle of acupoint region is easily accepted by clinical workers. In the paper, the theoretical basis of professor Peng Jingshan's inspection of the eye for recognition of diseases, diagnosis of diseases and eye acupuncture therapy were explained, and the information, development and change of the eye acupuncture region-dividing acupoint location program were analyzed and the history of development of eye acupuncture were introduced so as to direct clinical application of eye acupuncture.

  17. Acupoint catgut embedding therapy with moxibustion reduces the risk of diabetes in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Vivas, Jessica M.; Galaviz-Hernandez, Carlos; Becerril-Chavez, Flavia; Lozano-Rodriguez, Francisco; Zamorano-Carrillo, Absalom; Lopez-Camarillo, Cesar; Marchat, Laurence A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major health problem worldwide for which conventional therapy efficacy is limited. Traditional Chinese medicine, particularly body acupoint stimulation, provides an alternative, effective, and safe therapy for this medical challenge. The present study was designed to compare the effects of distinct methods to stimulate the same set of acupoints, on anthropometric and biochemical parameters in obese women. Materials and Methods: Ninety-nine obese women were randomly assigned to six groups of treatment: Acupuncture with moxibustion, long needle acupuncture with moxibustion, electroacupuncture (EA), EA with moxibustion, embedded catgut with moxibustion (CGM) and sham acupuncture as control. Obesity-related parameters, including body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumferences, waist/hip ratio, biochemical parameters (triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, insulin) and homeostasis model of assessment - insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, were determined before and after each treatment. Results: Body weight and BMI were significantly reduced in response to all treatments. Interestingly, acupoint catgut embedding therapy combined with moxibustion was the only treatment that produced a significant reduction in body weight (3.1 ± 0.2 kg, P < 0.001), BMI (1.3 ± 0.1 kg/m2, P < 0.001), insulin (3.5 ± 0.8 mcU/ml, P < 0.1) and HOMA-IR (1.4 ± 0.2 units, P < 0.01) in comparison with sham group. Furthermore, this treatment was able to bring back obese women to a state of insulin sensitivity, indicating that acupoint catgut embedding therapy combined with moxibustion could be useful as a complementary therapy to reduce the risk of diabetes associated to obesity in women. Conclusion: Overall, our results confirmed the effectiveness of acupoints stimulation to assist in the control of body weight in women. They also highlighted the more favorable effects of embedded catgut-moxibustion combination that may be due to the extended and

  18. [Application of problem-based learning in teaching practice of Science of Meridians and Acupoints].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Tang, Jiqin; Ying, Zhenhao; Zhang, Yongchen

    2015-02-01

    Science of Meridians and Acupoints is the bridge between basic medicine and clinical medicine of acupuncture and moxibustion. This teaching practice was conducted in reference to the teaching mode of problembased learning (PBL), in association with the clinical design problems, by taking as the students as the role and guided by teachers. In order to stimulate students' active learning enthusiasm, the writers implemented the class teaching in views of the typical questions of clinical design, presentation of study group, emphasis on drawing meridian running courses and acupoint locations, summarization and analysis, as well as comprehensive evaluation so that the comprehensive innovative ability of students and the teaching quality could be improved.

  19. The Depths from Skin to the Major Organs at Chest Acupoints of Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yi-Chun; Peng, Ching-Tien; Huang, Yu-Chuen; Lin, Hung-Yi; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2015-01-01

    Background. Acupuncture is applied to treat numerous diseases in pediatric patients. Few reports have been published on the depth to which it is safe to insert needle acupoints in pediatric patients. We evaluated the depths to which acupuncture needles can be inserted safely in chest acupoints in pediatric patients and the variations in safe depth according to sex, age, body weight, and body mass index (BMI). Methods. We retrospectively studied computed tomography (CT) images of pediatric patients aged 4 to 18 years who had undergone chest CT at China Medical University Hospital from December 2004 to May 2013. The safe depth of chest acupoints was directly measured from the CT images. The relationships between the safe depth of these acupoints and sex, age, body weight, and BMI were analyzed. Results. The results demonstrated significant differences in depth among boys and girls at KI25 (kidney meridian), ST16 (stomach meridian), ST18, SP17 (spleen meridian), SP19, SP20, PC1 (pericardium meridian), LU2 (lung meridian), and GB22 (gallbladder meridian). Safe depth significantly differed among the age groups (P < 0.001), weight groups (P < 0.05), and BMI groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Physicians should focus on large variations in needle depth during acupuncture for achieving optimal therapeutic effect and preventing complications. PMID:26457105

  20. Simple Acupoints Prescription Flow Chart Based on Meridian Theory: A Retrospective Study in 102 Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Song, Joo-Young; Jo, Hyo-Gwon; Kim, Ji-Min; Yoon, Samuel-S.; Park, Chul; Kim, Seunghyun; Roh, Seong-Soo; Lee, Bong Hyo; Yang, Chae Ha; Kim, Hee Young

    2013-01-01

    To help the clinicians prescribe acupoints easily and effectively, we developed one simple flow chart to select acupoints. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of flow chart to select acupoints in dogs. Total 102 dogs showing intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) (n = 12), vomiting (n = 11), diarrhea (n = 2), abdominal pain (n = 5), cough (n = 66), or epilepsy (n = 6) received acupuncture treatment according to the chart, and its outcomes were evaluated as regards clinical symptoms, duration, treatment numbers, and recovery time. Dogs (8/8) with IVDD from grades I to III recovered over periods of 5 days to 6 weeks after 1–12 treatments, while 1/4 dogs with grade IV recovered over 7 weeks after 15 treatments. Vomiting dogs with acute/subacute (n = 8) and chronic symptoms (n = 3) required about 1 and 7 treatments to recover fully, respectively. All dogs (n = 5) with abdominal pain showed fast relief within 24 hours after acupuncture. Two diarrhea cases recovered over 2–9 days after 1-2 treatments. Fifty-four of 66 coughing dogs were recovered by 1-2 treatments. And 5 of 6 epilepsy dogs under a regular acupuncture treatment had no epileptic episode during followup of 12 months. These results suggest that this flow chart can help the clinicians prescribe acupoints effectively. PMID:23762103

  1. The antioxidative effect of electro-acupuncture in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haomin; Pan, Yanli; Xue, Bing; Wang, Xinhong; Zhao, Feng; Jia, Jun; Liang, Xibin; Wang, Xiaomin

    2011-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress plays a critical role in Parkinson's disease (PD). Our previous work has shown that 100 Hz electro-acupuncture (EA) stimulation at ZUSANLI (ST36) and SANYINJIAO (SP6) protects neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta from 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) toxicity in male C57BL/6 mice, a model of PD. In the present study we administered 100 Hz EA stimulation at the two acupoints to MPTP-lesioned mice for 12 sessions starting from the day prior to the first MPTP injection. We found that in the striatum of MPTP treated mice 100 Hz EA stimulation effectively inhibited the production of hydrogen peroxide and malonaldehyde, and increased glutathione concentration and total superoxide dismutase activity through biochemical methods. However, it decreased glutathione peroxidase activity via biochemical analysis and did not affect the level of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium in the striatum revealed by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. These data suggest that 100 Hz EA stimulation at ST36 and SP6 has antioxidative effects in the MPTP model of PD. This data, along with our previous work, indicates that 100 Hz EA stimulation at ST36 and SP6 protects the nigrostriatal system by multiple mechanisms including antioxidation and antiapoptosis, and suggests that EA stimulation is a promising therapy for treating PD.

  2. Selection of acupoints for managing upper-extremity spasticity in chronic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bi-Huei; Lin, Chien-Lin; Li, Te-Mao; Lin, Shih-Din; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chou, Li-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background This study investigated the clinical efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA) in inhibiting upper-extremity spasticity in chronic stroke patients, and also in mapping a unique preliminary acupoint-selection protocol. Methods Fifteen patients were divided into two groups: patients in the control group (n=6) received minimal acupuncture (MA), and those in the experimental group (n=9) received EA. Four acupoints, which include Neiguan (PC6), Shaohai (HT3), Zeqian (Ex-UE, A32), and Shounizhu (EX-UE), were treated near the motor points of the muscles for elbow flexion, forearm pronation, and finger flexion. Both groups were treated for twelve sessions, 20 minutes per session, for 6 weeks (two sessions per week). The outcome measures in this study included angle of muscle reaction (R1), passive range of motion (R2), and dynamic component (R2–R1). Results In the experimental group, the R2–R1 of the elbow joint was significantly decreased at 1 (P=0.0079), 3 (P=0.0013), and 6 weeks (P=0.0149) after treatment compared with pretreatment levels (P<0.05). The between-group difference in the R2–R1 of the elbow joint after the 6-week treatment was statistically significant. Conclusion Combining the 6-week EA and standard rehabilitation treatment reduced the spasticity of the elbow for chronic stroke survivors. However, no significant effect was observed in the spasticity of the wrist joints. The choice of acupoints and the frequency of EA have to be taken into account to achieve a positive treatment effect. The correlation between acupoints and motor points provides a model of acupoint selection to improve spasticity. PMID:24453485

  3. Photoacoustic microscopy of electronic acupuncture (EA) effect in small animals.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinge; Wu, Dan; Tang, Yong; Jiang, Huabei

    2017-02-01

    Acupuncture has been an effective treatment for various pain in China for several thousand years. However, the mechanisms underlying this mysterious ancient healing are still largely unknown. Here we applied photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) to investigate brain hemodynamic changes in response to electronic acupuncture (EA) at ST36 (Zusanli). Due to the high optical absorption of blood at 532 nm, PAM could sensitively probe changes in hemoglobin concentration (HbT, i.e., cerebral blood volume [CBV]) of cortical regions in high resolution. Six healthy mice were stimulated at the acupoint and three healthy mice were stimulated at sham points. Remarkable CBV changes in sensorimotor and retrosplenial agranular cortex were observed. Results showed the potential of PAM as a visualization tool to study the acupuncture effect on brain hemodynamics in animal models. (a) Schematic showing the stimulation points. (b) B-scan images overlaid with mouse atlas. (c) & (d) Statistical results of CBV changes from cortical regions.

  4. Data Mining of Acupoint Characteristics from the Classical Medical Text: DongUiBoGam of Korean Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taehyung; Jung, Won-Mo; Lee, In-Seon; Lee, Ye-Seul; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Hi-Joon; Kim, Namil; Chae, Younbyoung

    2014-01-01

    Throughout the history of East Asian medicine, different kinds of acupuncture treatment experiences have been accumulated in classical medical texts. Reexamining knowledge from classical medical texts is expected to provide meaningful information that could be utilized in current medical practices. In this study, we used data mining methods to analyze the association between acupoints and patterns of disorder with the classical medical book DongUiBoGam of Korean medicine. Using the term frequency-inverse document frequency (tf-idf) method, we quantified the significance of acupoints to its targeting patterns and, conversely, the significance of patterns to acupoints. Through these processes, we extracted characteristics of each acupoint based on its treating patterns. We also drew practical information for selecting acupoints on certain patterns according to their association. Data analysis on DongUiBoGam's acupuncture treatment gave us an insight into the main idea of DongUiBoGam. We strongly believe that our approach can provide a novel understanding of unknown characteristics of acupoint and pattern identification from the classical medical text using data mining methods. PMID:25574179

  5. A Correlation Study between Two Adjacent Same-Meridian Acupoints after Laser-Needle Acupuncture with Optical Coherence Tomography and Diffuse Reflectance Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiuli; Wei, Huajiang; Ni, Yirong; Liu, Zhiming; Yang, Hongqin; Xie, Shusen; Zhou, Lianpeng

    2016-01-01

    This study is to investigate the correlations among Sanjian (LI3), Hegu (LI4), and Yangxi (LI5) acupoints and their corresponding nonacupoints on the Yangming Large Intestine Meridian of Hand before and after laser irradiation using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and diffuse reflectance spectra. The experiment was conducted on 10 healthy people. A 658 nm laser with 50 mW output power was used for irradiating LI4, LI5 acupoints and their corresponding nonacupoints. As to LI4 acupoint with laser irradiation for duration of 15 or 45 minutes, the OCT backscattered light intensities of LI4 and LI5 acupoints increased significantly, and the reflectance intensities (RIs) of the LI3, LI4, and LI5 acupoints decreased significantly. As to LI5 acupoint with laser irradiation for duration of 15 or 45 minutes, the changes of OCT backscattered light intensities of the corresponding irradiated acupoint and LI4 acupoint increased significantly, and the RIs decreased significantly. However, the OCT backscattered light intensities and RIs for their nonacupoints were almost not changed. The results show that an association exists between two adjacent same-meridian acupoints on the same meridian after laser-needle acupuncture to some extent. PMID:27990169

  6. Spatial Patterns of the Indications of Acupoints Using Data Mining in Classic Medical Text: A Possible Visualization of the Meridian System

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Won-Mo; Lee, Taehyung; Lee, In-Seon; Kim, Sanghyun; Jang, Hyunchul; Kim, Song-Yi; Park, Hi-Joon; Chae, Younbyoung

    2015-01-01

    The indications of acupoints are thought to be highly associated with the lines of the meridian systems. The present study used data mining methods to analyze the characteristics of the indications of each acupoint and to visualize the relationships between the acupoints and disease sites in the classic Korean medical text Chimgoogyeongheombang. Using a term frequency-inverse document frequency (tf-idf) scheme, the present study extracted valuable data regarding the indications of each acupoint according to the frequency of the cooccurrences of eight Source points and eighteen disease sites. Furthermore, the spatial patterns of the indications of each acupoint on a body map were visualized according to the tf-idf values. Each acupoint along the different meridians exhibited different constellation patterns at various disease sites. Additionally, the spatial patterns of the indications of each acupoint were highly associated with the route of the corresponding meridian. The present findings demonstrate that the indications of each acupoint were primarily associated with the corresponding meridian system. Furthermore, these findings suggest that the routes of the meridians may have clinical implications in terms of identifying the constellations of the indications of acupoints. PMID:26539224

  7. Use of electroacupuncture and transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation in reproductive medicine: a group consensus*

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Fan; Li, Rong; Sun, Wei; Lin, Ge; Zhang, Rong; Yang, Jing; Tian, Li; Xing, Guo-gang; Jiang, Hui; Gong, Fei; Liang, Xiao-yan; Meng, Yan; Liu, Jia-yin; Zhou, Li-ying; Wang, Shu-yu; Wu, Yan; He, Yi-jing; Ye, Jia-yu; Han, Song-ping; Han, Ji-sheng

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of assisted reproductive technology, various reproductive disorders have been effectively addressed. Acupuncture-like therapies, including electroacupuncture (EA) and transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS), become more popular world-wide. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that EA and TEAS are effective in treating gynecological disorders, especially infertility. This present paper describes how to select acupoints for the treatment of infertility from the view of theories of traditional Chinese medicine and how to determine critical parameters of electric pulses of EA/TEAS based on results from animal and clinical studies. It summarizes the principles of clinical application of EA/TEAS in treating various kinds of reproductive disorders, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), pain induced by oocyte retrieval, diminished ovarian reserve, embryo transfer, and oligospermia/asthenospermia. The possible underlying mechanisms mediating the therapeutic effects of EA/TEAS in reproductive medicine are also examined. PMID:28271655

  8. [Rules of acupoints combination of ancient acupuncture for Xiaoke based on data mining technology].

    PubMed

    Xu, LinLing; Xu, Tianshu; Zhang, Jianbin

    2015-08-01

    The rules of acupoints combination of ancient acupuncture for Xiaoke are mainly explored. By retrieval on ancient literature, the database of acupuncture and moxibustion for Xiaoke is established; based on the database, association analysis between acupoints and symptoms is performed. According to the association analysis in 5 databases of Xiaoke database, Xiaoke database of kidney deficiency, Xiaoke-database of dry mnouth and thirst, Xiaoke database of difficult urination, Xiaoke database of drinking addiction, the results are mainly characterized with symptom differentiation combination, distal-local combination, local combination and front-back combination, which can nourish yin and clear heat. It is believed that establishment of TCM ancient literature database and exploration of data mining technology is a potential research orientation.

  9. Topical Application of TAT-Superoxide Dismutase in Acupoints LI 20 on Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Mei-Feng; Zhou, Jian-Wu; Ke, Li-Jing

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species are products of cellular metabolism and assigned important roles in biomedical science as deleterious factors in pathologies. In fact, some studies have shown that the therapeutic benefits of taking antioxidants were limited and the potential for therapeutic intervention remains unclear. New evidences showed that ROS have some ability of intercellular transportation. For treating allergic rhinitis, as a novel intracellular superoxide quencher, TAT-SOD applied to acupoints LI 20 instead of directly to nasal cavity can be used to test that. TTA group apply TAT-SOD cream prepared by adding purified TAT-SOD to the vehicle cream to acupoints LI 20, while placebo group used the vehicle cream instead. TTN group applied the same TAT-SOD cream directly to nasal cavity three times daily. Symptom scores were recorded at baseline and days 8 and 15. For the overall efficacy rate, TTA group was 81.0%, while placebo group was 5.9% and TTN was 0%. Malondialdehyde levels decreased observably in TTA group, and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase levels remained basically unaffected. Enzymatic scavenging of the intracellular superoxide at acupoints LI 20 proved to be effective in treating allergic rhinitis, while no improvement was observed with the placebo group and TTN group. PMID:28119757

  10. [Physiological Relevance and Nursing Care Applications of Moxibustion as Applied to the Sanyinjiao Acupoint on Females].

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Mei; Peng, Tai-Chu

    2015-12-01

    Moxibustion is a thermal therapy procedure that applies burning material to the surface of specific acupoints, which warms the meridians and dispels cold. This procedure is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine care and treatment. It is also an important complementary and replacement therapy in many countries. Moxibustion on the Sanyinjiao acupoint of females is one of the main methods used to treat and care for women's health problems. The physiological effects of moxibustion on the Sanyinjiao acupoint include heightening the skin surface temperature to improve circulation and adjusting the balance of the autonomic nervous system via the meridians in order to regulate the affiliated organs (liver, spleen, and kidney). Moxibustion carries health risks, including the possibility of burns. Therefore, this therapy must follow the principles of moxibustion in order to safely complete the course and achieve the intended efficacy. In nursing-care applications, we must consider the process, time, distances, and safety of moxibustion. In exploring this theme, we hope the present paper helps readers better apply moxibustion in nursing-care applications and in the nursing education curriculum.

  11. Principle Study of Head Meridian Acupoint Massage to Stress Release via Grey Data Model Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ya-Ting

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the scientific study of the effectiveness and action principle of head meridian acupoint massage by applying the grey data model analysis approach. First, the head massage procedure for massaging the important head meridian acupuncture points including Taiyang, Fengfu, Tianzhu, Fengqi, and Jianjing is formulated in a standard manner. Second, the status of the autonomic nervous system of each subject is evaluated by using the heart rate variability analyzer before and after the head massage following four weeks. Afterward, the physiological factors of autonomic nerves are quantitatively analyzed by using the grey data modeling theory. The grey data analysis can point out that the status of autonomic nervous system is greatly improved after the massage. The order change of the grey relationship weighting of physiological factors shows the action principle of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves when performing head massage. In other words, the grey data model is able to distinguish the detailed interaction of the autonomic nervous system and the head meridian acupoint massage. Thus, the stress relaxing effect of massaging head meridian acupoints is proved, which is lacked in literature. The results can be a reference principle for massage health care in practice. PMID:26904144

  12. Principle Study of Head Meridian Acupoint Massage to Stress Release via Grey Data Model Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ya-Ting

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the scientific study of the effectiveness and action principle of head meridian acupoint massage by applying the grey data model analysis approach. First, the head massage procedure for massaging the important head meridian acupuncture points including Taiyang, Fengfu, Tianzhu, Fengqi, and Jianjing is formulated in a standard manner. Second, the status of the autonomic nervous system of each subject is evaluated by using the heart rate variability analyzer before and after the head massage following four weeks. Afterward, the physiological factors of autonomic nerves are quantitatively analyzed by using the grey data modeling theory. The grey data analysis can point out that the status of autonomic nervous system is greatly improved after the massage. The order change of the grey relationship weighting of physiological factors shows the action principle of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves when performing head massage. In other words, the grey data model is able to distinguish the detailed interaction of the autonomic nervous system and the head meridian acupoint massage. Thus, the stress relaxing effect of massaging head meridian acupoints is proved, which is lacked in literature. The results can be a reference principle for massage health care in practice.

  13. The role of acupoint stimulation as an adjunct therapy for lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of death in cancer patients. Clinical studies showed that a variety of acupoint stimulations have been extensively used for lung cancer patients, including needle insertion, injection with herbal extraction, plaster application, and moxibustion. However, the role of acupoint stimulation in lung cancer treatment was not fully reviewed. Methods In the present study, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the role of acupoint stimulation in lung cancer treatment by electronic and manual searching in seven databases, including Ovid (Ovid MEDLINE, AMED, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE), EBSCOhost research databases (Academic Search premier, MEDLINE, CIHAHL Plus), PreQuest (British Nursing Index, ProQuest Medical Library, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I, PsycINFO), and ISI web of knowledge (Web of Science, BIOSIS Citation Index, Biological Abstracts, Chinese Science Citation Database), CNKI, Wanfang Data, and CQVIP. Results Our study showed that acupoint stimulation has strong immunomodulatory effect for lung cancer patients as demonstrated by the significant increase of IL-2, T cell subtypes (CD3+ and CD4+, but not CD8+ cells), and natural killer cells. Further analysis revealed that acupoint stimulation remarkably alleviates the conventional therapy-induced bone marrow suppression (hemoglobin, platelet, and WBC reduction) in lung cancer patients, as well as decreases nausea and vomiting. The pooled studies also showed that acupoint stimulation can improve Karnofsky performance status, immediate tumor response, quality of life (EORCT-QLQ-C30), and pain control of cancer patients. Conclusions Acupoint stimulation is found to be effective in lung cancer treatment, further confirmatory evaluation via large scale randomized trials is warranted. PMID:24344728

  14. Effects of low intensity laser acupoint irradiation on inhibiting islet beta-cell apoptosis in rats with type 2 diabetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Guoxin; Xiong, Leilei; Li, Xinzhong

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the effects of low intensity semiconductor laser acupoint irradiation on inhibiting islet beta-cell apoptosis in rats with type 2 diabetes, a method using a high-fat diet and low-dose intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin established a type 2 diabetes mellitus rat model. Model rats were randomly divided into a laser acupoint irradiation group, rosiglitazone control group, and placebo group; each group had 10 rats. In addition, 10 normal male rats were selected for the normal control group. The Housanli, Neiting and Yishu acupoints of the rats in the laser acupoint irradiation group were irradiated with a 10 mW semiconductor laser; each point was irradiated for 15 min, once every 2 d over 28 d, for a total of 14 episodes of irradiation. The rosiglitazone group rats were given rosiglitazone (0.2 mg kg-1) intragastrically; the placebo group rats were given 0.9% brine (0.2 mg kg-1) intragastrically, once daily, for four consecutive weeks. The change of fasting blood glucose was determined before and after each treatment. The islet beta-cell apoptosis was determined. The islet beta-cell apoptosis rates of the laser acupoint irradiation group and the rosiglitazone group were significantly lower than the rate of the placebo group. Even though the rate was lower in the laser acupoint irradiation group than in the rosiglitazone group, there was no significant difference between them. It is shown that acupoint irradiation with a semiconductor laser can effectively inhibit islet beta-cell apoptosis in rats with type 2 diabetes.

  15. Acupuncture Therapy for the Treatment of Myelosuppression after Chemotherapy: A Literature Review over the Past 10 Years.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hongwei; Chen, Bo; Hong, Shouhai; Guo, Yi

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to review current studies on the effect of acupuncture therapy on bone marrow suppression after chemotherapy. The authors of the present paper have searched related literature over the past 10 years at home and abroad, analyzing the features and the effects of acupuncture therapy (including acupuncture, moxibustion, point injection, point application, etc.) for treating myelosuppression after tumor chemotherapy. We also discuss the year of publication, document type, acupuncture therapy, acupoint selection, and adverse effects with figures. We analyzed 159 articles related to acupuncture therapy from 2004 to 2013, and the analysis revealed that point injection was the most frequently used therapy for clinical applications, and that Zusanli (ST36) was the most frequently used acupoint. The results showed that some problems regarding the design method, acupoint selection, and acupuncture intervention measure existed in those research studies. We hope to provide readers with an overall and objective understanding of acupuncture and moxibustion therapy for treating myelosuppression after tumor chemotherapy.

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance technology in acupoint catgut embedding therapy for the treatment of menopausal panic disorder: its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gui-zhen; Zhang, Sha-sha; Xu, Yun-xiang; Wang, Xiao-yun

    2012-03-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a diagnostic method which is non-invasive and non-ionizing irradiative to the human body. It not only suits structural, but also functional imaging. The NMR technique develops rapidly in its application in life science, which has become the hotspot in recent years. Menopausal panic disorder (MPD) is a typical psychosomatic disease during climacteric period, which may affect physical and mental health. Looking for a convenient, effective, and safe method, which is free of toxic-side effects to control the disease, is a modern medical issue. Based on reviewing the etiology and pathogenesis of MPD according to dual traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western medicine, further analyzed the advantages and principles for selecting acupoint prescription by tonifying kidney and benefiting marrow therapy for acupoint catgut-embedding to this disease. The application of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMRS) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technologies in mechanism research on acupoint catgut embedding for the treatment of MPD was discussed. It's pointed out that this intervention method is safe and effective to treat MPD. Breakthrough will be achieved from the research of the selection of acupoint prescription and therapeutic mechanism of acupoint catgut embedding for the treatment of menopausal panic disorder by utilizing the Functional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Metabonomics technologies.

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance technology in acupoint catgut embedding therapy for the treatment of menopausal panic disorder: its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gui-zhen; Zhang, Sha-sha; Xu, Yun-xiang; Wang, Xiao-yun

    2011-11-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a diagnostic method which is non-invasive and non-ionizing irradiative to the human body. It not only suits structural, but also functional imaging. The NMR technique develops rapidly in its application in life science, which has become the hotspot in recent years. Menopausal panic disorder (MPD) is a typical psychosomatic disease during climacteric period, which may affect physical and mental health. Looking for a convenient, effective, and safe method, which is free of toxic-side effects to control the disease, is a modern medical issue. Based on reviewing the etiology and pathogenesis of MPD according to dual traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western medicine, further analyzed the advantages and principles for selecting acupoint prescription by tonifying kidney and benefiting marrow therapy for acupoint catgut-embedding to this disease. The application of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMRS) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technologies in mechanism research on acupoint catgut embedding for the treatment of MPD was discussed. It's pointed out that this intervention method is safe and effective to treat MPD. Breakthrough will be achieved from the research of the selection of acupoint prescription and therapeutic mechanism of acupoint catgut embedding for the treatment of menopausal panic disorder by utilizing the Functional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Metabonomics technologies.

  18. Effects of Acupuncture at the Yintang and the Chengjiang Acupoints on Cardiac Arrhythmias and Neurocardiogenic Syncope in Emergency First Aid.

    PubMed

    Fabrin, Saulo; Soares, Nayara; Pezarezi Yoshimura, Daiana; Hallak Regalo, Simone Cecilio; Donizetti Verri, Edson; de Freitas Vianna, Jacqueline Rodrigues; Gatti Regueiro, Eloisa Maria; Torres da Silva, Josie Resende

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of YinTang and ChengJiang acupoints on patients with cardiac arrhythmia and neurocardiogenic syncope in emergency first aid. A 45 year old woman underwent acupuncture. She had a previous history of a valvuloplasty for rheumatic disease and two acute myocardial infarctions, followed by four catheterizations and an angioplasty. Needling of the YinTang acupoint and stimulation of the ChengJiang acupoint through acupressure were performed for 20 minutes soon after syncope and during tachycardia, hypertension, tachypnea, and precordial pain, without any effect on peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) or the glycemic index. Data were analyzed comparatively by using the following parameters at rest, during syncope, and at 1 minute and 10 minutes after an emergency acupuncture procedure: blood pressure; heart rate; SpO2; and respiratory rate. We found that acupuncture at YinTang and ChenJiang acupoints induced cardiovascular responses, increased the limits of the body's homeostasis, and normalized the patient's condition in the case of syncope. Acupuncture using a combination of ChengJiang and YinTang acupoints had an immediate effect on the autonomic nervous system and on maintaining homeostasis and energy balance in the body. Although this technique was effective, the patient was still referred to the Emergency Room.

  19. Metabonomic Analysis Reveals Efficient Ameliorating Effects of Acupoint Stimulations on the Menopause-caused Alterations in Mammalian Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Limin; Wang, Yulan; Xu, Yunxiang; Lei, Hehua; Zhao, Ying; Li, Huihui; Lin, Xiaosheng; Chen, Guizhen; Tang, Huiru

    2014-01-01

    Acupoint stimulations are effective in ameliorating symptoms of menopause which is an unavoidable ageing consequence for women. To understand the mechanistic aspects of such treatments, we systematically analyzed the effects of acupoint laser-irradiation and catgut-embedding on the ovariectomy-induced rat metabolic changes using NMR and GC-FID/MS methods. Results showed that ovariectomization (OVX) caused comprehensive metabolic changes in lipid peroxidation, glycolysis, TCA cycle, choline and amino acid metabolisms. Both acupoint laser-irradiation and catgut-embedding ameliorated the OVX-caused metabonomic changes more effectively than hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with nilestriol. Such effects of acupoint stimulations were highlighted in alleviating lipid peroxidation, restoring glucose homeostasis and partial reversion of the OVX-altered amino acid metabolism. These findings provided new insights into the menopause effects on mammalian biochemistry and beneficial effects of acupoint stimulations in comparison with HRT, demonstrating metabonomics as a powerful approach for potential applications in disease prognosis and developments of effective therapies.

  20. Metabonomic Analysis Reveals Efficient Ameliorating Effects of Acupoint Stimulations on the Menopause-caused Alterations in Mammalian Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Limin; Wang, Yulan; Xu, Yunxiang; Lei, Hehua; Zhao, Ying; Li, Huihui; Lin, Xiaosheng; Chen, Guizhen; Tang, Huiru

    2014-01-01

    Acupoint stimulations are effective in ameliorating symptoms of menopause which is an unavoidable ageing consequence for women. To understand the mechanistic aspects of such treatments, we systematically analyzed the effects of acupoint laser-irradiation and catgut-embedding on the ovariectomy-induced rat metabolic changes using NMR and GC-FID/MS methods. Results showed that ovariectomization (OVX) caused comprehensive metabolic changes in lipid peroxidation, glycolysis, TCA cycle, choline and amino acid metabolisms. Both acupoint laser-irradiation and catgut-embedding ameliorated the OVX-caused metabonomic changes more effectively than hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with nilestriol. Such effects of acupoint stimulations were highlighted in alleviating lipid peroxidation, restoring glucose homeostasis and partial reversion of the OVX-altered amino acid metabolism. These findings provided new insights into the menopause effects on mammalian biochemistry and beneficial effects of acupoint stimulations in comparison with HRT, demonstrating metabonomics as a powerful approach for potential applications in disease prognosis and developments of effective therapies. PMID:24407431

  1. Transcutaneous Electrical Acupoint Stimulation in Children with Autism and Its Impact on Plasma Levels of Arginine-Vasopressin and Oxytocin: A Prospective Single-Blinded Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Rong; Jia, Mei-Xiang; Zhang, Ji-Sui; Xu, Xin-Jie; Shou, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Xiu-Ting; Li, Li; Li, Ning; Han, Song-Ping; Han, Ji-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Acupuncture increases brain levels of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT), which are known to be involved in the modulation of mammalian social behavior. Transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) is often used clinically to produce a similar stimulation to that of acupuncture on the acupoints. In the present study, TEAS was…

  2. Effect of laser acupoint treatment on blood pressure and body weight—a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, John; Marquina, Nelson; Oxinos, George; Sau, Amy; Ng, Derek

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study reports on the effects of laser acupuncture on blood pressure, body weight, and heart rate variability by stimulating acupuncture points and meridians on college students and faculty members. Methods Forty-five students and faculty members from a chiropractic college were recruited in the study. All subjects signed a written informed consent before their participation in the study. This study was a randomized controlled pilot study with subjects divided into control and experimental groups. The control group received a sham low-level laser therapy treatment with no power output to the laser during their “treatment.” The experimental group was treated with an activated laser. The acupuncture points used in this study were LI 4 and LI 11 for body weight and blood pressure. The treatment groups received 16 J of laser energy output for a total treatment time of 8 minutes (4 minutes for each of the 2 points). Results After using the laser treatment for 90 days (at least 12 treatments per subject), both the systolic and diastolic blood pressures decreased significantly (P < .01). The mean systolic blood pressure was 129.6 ± 14.7 mm Hg before the treatment and was reduced to 122.5 ± 17.2 mm Hg (P < .001). The mean diastolic blood pressure was 85.6 ± 8.0 mm Hg before treatment and was reduced to 77.2 ± 8.7 mm Hg (P < .001). Subject's body weight was reduced in the active acupoint group, but the weight reduction did not reach a significant level. There were no significant changes in the heart rate variability. Conclusion It was concluded that low-level laser treatment of acupoint resulted in lower blood pressure by stimulating the LI 11 and LI 4. No significant difference was observed in both the body weight and heart rate variability after the laser acupoint treatment. PMID:19646375

  3. [Professor Tian Cong-huo's principles, methods, prescription, acupoints and technic for the treatment of arthralgia].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Chen; Zhao, Hong

    2012-11-01

    Professor Tian Cong-huo's clinical experience for the treatment of arthralgia is summarized on the basis of principles, methods, prescription, acupoints and technic. After 60 years of clinical practice, professor Tian is specialized in treating arthralgia with the method of "dispel stasis and promote regeneration, supplement and boost the spleen and kidney". During the treatment, acupuncture, moxibustion and herbs are given on the basis of syndrome differentiation, which showes remarkable efficacy in local symptom relieving, body function improving and life quality enhancing. Professor Tian's clinical thoughts and methods are analyzed in depth and typical cases are illustrated in the article as well.

  4. Effectiveness of Acupressure on the Taichong Acupoint in Lowering Blood Pressure in Patients with Hypertension: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Gan-Hon; Chang, Wei-Chun; Chen, Kuan-Ju; Hu, Sung-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of acupressure on the Taichong acupoint in lowering systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients. Methods. Eighty patients with hypertension attending a cardiology outpatient department in central Taiwan were included in this randomized clinical trial. Acupressure was applied to the Taichong acupoint in the experimental group (n = 40) and to the first metatarsal (sham acupoint) in the control group (n = 40). Blood pressure was measured by electronic monitoring before and immediately 15 min and 30 min after acupressure. Results. The average age of the experimental and control participants was 59.3 ± 9.2 years and 62.7 ± 8.4 years, respectively. The two groups were similar for demographics and antihypertensive drug use. Mean systolic and diastolic BP in the experimental group decreased at 0, 15, and 30 min after acupressure (165.0/96.3, 150.4/92.7, 145.7/90.8, and 142.9/88.6 mmHg); no significant changes occurred in the control group. There was a significant difference in systolic and diastolic BP between the experimental and control groups immediately and 15 and 30 min after acupressure (p < 0.05). Conclusion. Acupressure on the Taichong acupoint can lower BP in hypertensive patients and may be included in the nursing care plan for hypertension. However, additional studies are needed to determine the optimal dosage, frequency, and long-term effects of this therapy. PMID:27803727

  5. The Effects of Acupuncture at Real or Sham Acupoints on the Intrinsic Brain Activity in Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Baohui; Min, Baoquan; Wang, Zhenchang; Zhou, Aihong; Li, Yong; Jia, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating neuroimaging studies in humans have shown that acupuncture can modulate a widely distributed brain network in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Acupuncture at different acupoints could exert different modulatory effects on the brain network. However, whether acupuncture at real or sham acupoints can produce different effects on the brain network in MCI or AD patients remains unclear. Using resting-state fMRI, we reported that acupuncture at Taixi (KI3) induced amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) change of different brain regions in MCI patients from those shown in the healthy controls. In MCI patients, acupuncture at KI3 increased or decreased ALFF in the different regions from those activated by acupuncture in the healthy controls. Acupuncture at the sham acupoint in MCI patients activated the different brain regions from those in healthy controls. Therefore, we concluded that acupuncture displays more significant effect on neuronal activities of the above brain regions in MCI patients than that in healthy controls. Acupuncture at KI3 exhibits different effects on the neuronal activities of the brain regions from acupuncture at sham acupoint, although the difference is only shown at several regions due to the close distance between the above points. PMID:26064166

  6. Needleless transcutaneous electroacupuncture improves rectal distension-induced impairment in intestinal motility and slow waves via vagal mechanisms in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jun; Yin, Jieyun; Chen, Jiande

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to compare the effects and mechanisms of transcutaneous electroacupuncture (TEA) on rectal distention (RD)-induced intestinal dysmotility with EA. Methods: six female dogs chronically implanted with a duodenal fistula, a proximal colon fistula and intestinal serosal electrodes were studied. EA and TEA were performed via needles and cutaneous electrodes placed at bilateral ST-36 (Zusanli) acupoints respectively; their effects on postprandial intestinal dysmotility (slow waves, contractions and transit) induced by RD, and autonomic functions were compared. Results: RD at a volume of 140 ml suppressed intestinal contractions; the motility index was reduced with RD (P = 0.001). Both EA and TEA ameliorated the suppressed contractions (P = 0.003 and 0.001) and their effects were comparable. RD reduced the percentage of normal intestinal slow waves (P = 0.002) that was increased with both EA and TEA (P = 0.005 and 0.035). No significant difference was noted between EA and TEA. EA and TEA reduced small bowel transit time (P = 0.001 and 0.007); these prokinetic effects were blocked by atropine. Both EA and TEA increased vagal activity assessed by the spectral analysis of heart rate variability (both P = 0.03). Conclusion: RD inhibits postprandial intestinal motility. Both EA and TEA at ST-36 are able to improve the RD-induced impairment in intestinal contractions, transit and slow waves mediated via the vagal mechanism. Needleless TEA is as effective as EA in ameliorating the intestinal hypomotility. PMID:26064396

  7. [Science of Meridians, Collaterals and Acupoints--Exploration on teaching method of meridian syndromes].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinping; Zhang, Zongquan; Wang, Wenlin; Yuan, Limin

    2015-04-01

    Meridian syndromes are the required basic knowledge for mastering Science of Meridians, Collaterals and Acupoints but have not brought the adequate attention on the teaching program. The writers discovered' that the content of this section occupied a decisive role for developing the students' clinical thinking ability and, stimulating their interests to learn classical TCM theories. It's necessary to enhance the importance on meridian syndromes during teaching program. The teaching program was discussed in three aspects, named workshop pattern, competitive pattern and multimedia pattern. This teaching method may improve students' interests in the study on classical TCM theories, deepen the understanding on knowledge and motivate students' learning autonomy so that the teaching quality can be improved.

  8. [Using Guangming (GB37) acupoint to treat eye diseases: from historical suspense to modern clinical experiments].

    PubMed

    Huang, T; Wu, M Z

    2016-05-01

    Guangming (GB37) gained its name before the writing of Huang di Ming Tang Jing (The Yellow Emperor's Mingtang Classic), the earliest work of the art of acupuncture point. However, in acupuncture and moxibustion works before the Song Dynasty, this acupoint was not used to treat eye diseases. In Dou Hanqing's Zhen jiu biao you fu (Song to Elucidate Mysteries in Acupuncture Moxibustion), Guangming was used to treat oculopathy as an alias of Cuanzhu (BL2). Influenced by this, the alias "Guangming" was mistaken as Guangming (GB37) of the Gallbladder Meridian in the Bian que shen ying zhen jiu yu long jing (Bian Que Acupuncture and Moxibustion Jade Dragon Classic) of the Yuan Dynasty, and the symptom of eye itch was added to the indications of Guangming (GB37). This was wrongly informed in the later acupuncture and moxibustion works, and the modern scholars also accepted it and confirmed its effect by the clinical and experimental research.

  9. A randomized trial of transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation as adjunctive treatment for opioid detoxification

    PubMed Central

    Meade, Christina S.; Lukas, Scott E.; McDonald, Leah J.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Eldridge, Jessica A.; Merrill, Nancy; Weiss, Roger D.

    2009-01-01

    This pilot study tested the effectiveness of transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation (TEAS) as an adjunctive treatment for inpatients receiving opioid detoxification with buprenorphine-naloxone at a private psychiatric hospital. Participants (N = 48) were randomly assigned to active or sham TEAS and received three 30-minute treatments daily for 3-4 days. In active TEAS, current was set to maximal tolerable intensity (8-15 mA); in sham TEAS, it was set to 1 mA. By 2 weeks post-discharge, participants in active TEAS were less likely to have used any drugs (35% vs. 77%, p < .05). They also reported greater improvements in pain interference (F = 4.52, p < .05) and physical health (F = 4.84, p < .01) over time. TEAS is an acceptable, inexpensive adjunctive treatment that is feasible to implement on an inpatient unit and may be a beneficial adjunct to pharmacological treatments for opioid detoxification. PMID:19574017

  10. Effects of far infrared acupoint stimulation on autonomic activity and quality of life in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Su, Ling-Hwa; Wu, Kwan-Dun; Lee, Li-Shan; Wang, Harrison; Liu, Chi-Feng

    2009-01-01

    Patients receiving regular hemodialysis sessions have been known to suffer from fatigue and depression. This experiment was designed to determine the effects of far infrared ray (FIR) stimulation on acupoints of patients suffering from renal failure who are receiving regular hemodialysis. Patients receiving long-term and regular hemodialysis who volunteered for this procedure were randomly selected to undergo either FIR or heat pad (HP) therapy to determine the impact of FIR treatment on these patients. Both the activities of the autonomic nervous system and changes in quality of life were measured before and after treatment to determine the effectiveness of the FIR treatment. Results from this study show that FIR therapy decreases both stress and fatigue levels of these patients. It also stimulates autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity in patients who are diagnosed with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and are receiving regular hemodialysis (HD). Therefore, benefits of FIR stimulation on these patients are clearly demonstrated in this preliminary study.

  11. An fMRI study of neuronal specificity of an acupoint: electroacupuncture stimulation of Yanglingquan (GB34) and its sham point.

    PubMed

    Na, Byung-jo; Jahng, Geon-Ho; Park, Seong-uk; Jung, Woo-sang; Moon, Sang-kwan; Park, Jung-mi; Bae, Hyung-sup

    2009-10-16

    The neuronal specificity of acupoints has not been entirely supported by the results of fMRI studies. The objective of this study was to investigate the neuronal specificity of an acupoint with electroacupuncture stimulation (EAS) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Functional MR imaging of the entire brain was performed in 12 normal healthy subjects during EAS of GB34 (Yanglingquan) and its sham point over the left leg in counter-balanced order. Anatomically, both GB34 and its sham point belong to the L5 spinal segment. EAS at the left GB34 specifically activated the right putamen, caudate body, claustrum, thalamus, cerebellum, as well as the left caudate body, ventral lateral thalamus, and cerebellum, all related to motor function. EAS at the sham point of the left GB34 specifically activated the right BA6, BA8, BA40, BA44, thalamus, as well as the left thalamus and cerebellum. Taken together, these findings suggest that EAS at an acupoint and its sham point, in the same spinal segment, induced specific cerebral response patterns. These findings support neuronal specificity of the acupoint studied. EAS at GB34 appears to be more related to motor function than EAS at its sham point, suggesting specificity of the GB34 acupoint. The results of this study provide neurobiological evidence for the existence of acupoint specificity, although further studies are necessary to better understand this phenomenon.

  12. A Standardized Transcutaneous Electric Acupoint Stimulation for Relieving Tobacco Urges in Dependent Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Caroline; Berlin, Ivan; Lee, Tat-Leang; Hee, Siew Wan; Tan, Audrey S. L.; Picard, David; Han, Ji Sheng

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of acupuncture in smoking cessation, and its effect on the urge to smoke are unclear. We evaluated the effect of a standardized protocol of transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulations (TEAS) on alleviating the urge to smoke. Ninety-eight smokers were recruited in two double-blind studies. Participants abstained from smoking for 26 h, and were randomized to receive TEAS alternating between 2 and 100 Hz at four acupoints (LI4 and PC8, PC6 and TE5) at four different intensities (10, 5, Intermittent 5 or 0 mA). The urge to smoke was assessed by the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU-Brief). In Experiment 1, the 10 mA group (n = 20) was compared with the 5 mA group (n = 20); the increase in smoking urges did not differ significantly. Considering the possibility that 5 mA may be an active intervention, in Experiment 2, a true placebo (0 mA), and a proxy of placebo [Intermittent 5 mA (i5 mA)] were compared with 10 mA TEAS. In this experiment, 10 mA (n = 20) TEAS showed a tendency to alleviate smoking urges compared with 0 mA (n = 16), and i5 mA (n = 19) TEAS. Only when the data of smokers with Fagerstöm Test for Nicotine Dependence score ≥5 were analyzed that the difference between the 10 mA group and the control group (0 and i5 mA) became significant. Based on these preliminary findings, we conclude that TEAS applied on the skin may antagonize the increase in urge to smoke in abstinent-dependent smokers. It seems warranted to assess the efficacy of TEAS in smoking cessation clinical trials involving a larger population of dependent smokers. PMID:19073777

  13. The Effects of Transcutaneous Electrical Acupoint Stimulation (TEAS) on Fatigue in Haemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hadadian, Fatemeh; Sohrabi, Nasrollah; Farokhpayam, Mandana; Farokhpayam, Hoda; Towhidi, Farhad; Soroush, Ali; Abdi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fatigue is one of the most common symptom in End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients receiving haemodialysis treatment. In recent years, researchers investigated the role of alternative medicine methods such as acupuncture in treatment of the chronic disease; however, there is a paucity of information regarding the fatigue of haemodialysis patients. Aim To evaluate the effects of Trans Cutaneous Electrical Acupoint Stimulation (TEAS) on fatigue among ESRD patients receiving haemodialysis treatment. Materials and Methods This randomized clinical trial was conducted over a five month, in Kermanshah-Iran haemodialysis centers in 2009. Fifty six patients who had undergone haemodialysis and meeting the inclusion criteria, were divided into two groups by simple random sampling; TEAS (28 cases) and TEAS-Sham group (28 cases). The data was gathered through the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI), entered into SPSS-16 software and analysed by descriptive and inferential statistics. Results Out of 56, 38 patients (67.9%) were male and 45 (80.4%) were married. The mean and standard deviation of age were 52.29±15.26 years. The inferential tests showed no differences in the clinical and the demographic characteristics of patients among two groups (p > 0.05). The mean rank of fatigue score in TEAS and TEAS-Sham groups was 30.68 and 26.32 respectively (p=0.317) at the first of study. The results of the Mann-Whitney U-test indicated that there were significant differences between the TEAS and Sham groups after intervention (p = 0.002). Conclusion Findings of the present study revealed that application of the TEAS on these acupoints had produced a better recovery rate of fatigue in TEAS group than Sham group after a course of ten session intervention. So, it is suggested that this plan be provided to the haemodialysis patients. PMID:27790566

  14. Reliability of AcuGraph system for measuring skin conductance at acupoints

    PubMed Central

    Mist, Scott D; Aickin, Mikel; Kalnins, Paul; Cleaver, Jim; Batchelor, Roger; Thorne, Tracy; Chamberlin, Steve; Tippens, Kim; Colbert, Agatha P

    2012-01-01

    Objective There are many commercially available instruments for measuring electrical conductance, but there is little information about their reliability. The aim of this study was to quantify measurement variability and assess reliability of the AcuGraph system—a commonly used electrodermal screening device. Methods Four experiments were conducted to measure variability in electrical conductance readings obtained by the AcuGraph system. The fi rst involved measuring known resistors. The second measured non-human organic matter. The third was a test–retest assessment of the Yuan-Source and Jing-Well points in 30 healthy volunteers who were measured by a single operator. The fourth was an interoperator reliability evaluation of seven acupuncturists at the Yuan-Source and Jing-Well acupoints on four individuals at two time points. Results Against known resistors, the AcuGraph had an average coeffi cient of variability (CV) of 1.8% between operators and test–retests. On non-human organic material the AcuGraph had an average CV of 0.9% and 2.8%. When a single operator tested 30 participants, the average reliability for the Yuan-Source points was 0.86 and 0.76 for Jing-Well points with a CV of 23.2% and 25.9% respectively. The average CV for the seven acupuncturists was 24.5% on Yuan-Source points and 23.7% on Jing-Well points. Conclusions The AcuGraph measures known resistors and organic matter accurately and reliably. Skin conductance at acupoints recorded by one operator was also reliable. There was less consistency in electrodermal recordings obtained by seven different operators. Operator training and technical improvements to the AcuGraph may improve consistency among operators. PMID:21602233

  15. [Professor Li Shi-zhen's clinical experiences on compatibility application of hegu (LI 4)].

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan-qi

    2010-02-01

    The present paper introduces professor LI Shi-zhen's clinical experiences on compatibility application of Hegu (LI 4). Hegu (LI 4) is mostly used to treat acute pyreticosis, exterior syndrome of exogenous diseases, mind diseases and deficiency of vital energy. Acupuncture at this acupoint by using reducing method can dispel wind to relieve exterior syndrome, clear away heat to disperse lung. Powerful stimulation by needle can dredge stagnant meridian, open orifice to activate spirit. Acupuncture at this acupoint by using reinforcing method can invigorate qi to strengthen superficies and replenish qi to prevent collapse. Based on this method, reinforcing Zusanli (ST 36) and Baihui (GV 20) can strengthen middle energizer to nourish qi, which show the same benefits as Buzhong Yiqi Decoction; reinforcing Sanyinjiao (SP 6) can nourish both qi and blood, which show the same benefits as Decoction of Eight Ingredients; reducing Neiting (ST 44) can clear away evil heat of qifen in yangming meridians, which show the same benefits as Baihu Decoction.

  16. The flow path of alcian blue from the acupoint BL23 to the surface of abdominal organs.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyun-Jung; Sung, Baeckkyoung; Ogay, Vyacheslav; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2009-09-01

    Two hours after Alcian Blue (AB) dye was injected at the rat acupoint BL23, the abdominal cavity was examined and AB-stained threadlike structures were observed on the right abdominal cavity. Those threadlike structures were mainly distributed on the surfaces of the duodenum, colon and cecum. These threadlike structures were thin (about 50 microm) and moved freely, and were connected to corpuscles that were about 500 x 200 microm wide and also stained with AB. On analyzing the histology of the threadlike structures, rod-shaped nuclei, bundles of collagen fibers, reticulofibers, and squamous-like epithelial cells were observed. Immune cells and some sinuses were inside the threadlike structures. These characteristics describe those of Bonghan ducts. The flow paths from the acupoint to internal organs can possibly be used as paths for drug delivery.

  17. Analgesic Effect of Electroacupuncture in a Mouse Fibromyalgia Model: Roles of TRPV1, TRPV4, and pERK.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jaung-Geng; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Lin, Yi-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is among the most common chronic pain syndromes encountered in clinical practice, but there is limited understanding of FM pathogenesis. We examined the contribution of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and TRPV4 channels to chronic pain in the repeated acid injection mouse model of FM and the potential therapeutic efficacy of electroacupuncture. Electroacupuncture (EA) at the bilateral Zusanli (ST36) acupoint reduced the long-lasting mechanical hyperalgesia induced by repeated acid saline (pH 4) injection in mouse hindpaw. Isolated L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from FM model mice (FM group) were hyperexcitable, an effect reversed by EA pretreatment (FM + EA group). The increase in mechanical hyperalgesia was also accompanied by upregulation of TRPV1 expression and phosphoactivation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (pERK) in the DRG, whereas DRG expression levels of TRPV4, p-p38, and p-JNK were unaltered. Blockade of TRPV1, which was achieved using TRPV1 knockout mice or via antagonist injection, and pERK suppressed development of FM-like pain. Both TRPV1 and TRPV4 protein expression levels were increased in the spinal cord (SC) of model mice, and EA at the ST36 acupoint decreased overexpression. This study strongly suggests that DRG TRPV1 overexpression and pERK signaling, as well as SC TRPV1 and TRPV4 overexpression, mediate hyperalgesia in a mouse FM pain model. The therapeutic efficacy of EA may result from the reversal of these changes in pain transmission pathways.

  18. Study of brain functional network based on sample entropy of EEG under magnetic stimulation at PC6 acupoint.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lei; Wang, Yao; Yu, Hongli; Yin, Ning; Li, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Acupuncture is based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine. Its therapeutic effectiveness has been proved by clinical practice. However, its mechanism of action is still unclear. Magnetic stimulation at acupuncture point provides a new means for studying the theory of acupuncture. Based on the Graph Theory, the construction and analysis method of complex network can help to investigate the topology of brain functional network and understand the working mechanism of brain. In this study, magnetic stimulation was used to stimulate Neiguan (PC6) acupoint and the EEG (Electroencephalograph) signal was recorded. Using non-linear method (Sample Entropy) and complex network theory, brain functional network based on EEG signal under magnetic stimulation at PC6 acupoint was constructed and analyzed. In addition, the features of complex network were comparatively analyzed between the quiescent and stimulated states. Our experimental results show the topology of the network is changed, the connection of the network is enhanced, the efficiency of information transmission is improved and the small-world property is strengthened through stimulating the PC6 acupoint.

  19. Role of HO-1 in protective effect of electro-acupuncture against endotoxin shock-induced acute lung injury in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian-Bo; Jianbo, Yu; Dong, Shu-An; Shuan, Dong; Luo, Xiao-Qing; Xiaoqing, Luo; Gong, Li-Rong; Lirong, Gong; Zhang, Yuan; Yuan, Zhang; Wang, Man; Man, Wang; Cao, Xin-Shun; Xinshun, Cao; Liu, Da-Quan; Daquan, Liu

    2013-06-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 has been reported to play a great role in attenuating lung injury during endotoxic shock in our previous research. Although electro-acupuncture has been explored to reduce oxidative stress and decrease inflammatory reaction in animals with endotoxic shock, the mechanism of this effect is still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether HO-1 is involved in the effect of electro-acupuncture on the injured lung during endotoxic shock in rabbits. Sixty New England white rabbits were randomly divided into groups C, Z, ES, EA, AP, and EAZ. Before inducing endotoxic shock, group ES received no electro-acupuncture, while group EA received electro-acupuncture at ST36 (zusanli) and BL13 (feishu) acupoints on both sides for five days and group AP received electro-acupuncture (EA) stimulation at a non-acupoint. Groups ES, AP, EA, and EAZ received LPS to replicate the experimental model of injured lung induced by endotoxic shock, and electro-acupuncture was performed throughout the procedure with the same parameter. Groups EAZ and Z received the HO-1 inhibitor, ZnPP-IX, intraperitoneally. The animals were sacrificed by blood-letting at 6 h after LPS administration. The blood samples were collected for serum examination, and the lungs were removed for pathology examination, detection of alveolaer epithelial cell apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay (TUNEL assay), determination of wet to dry ratio, measurement of Evans blue (EB) contents, and determination of HO-1protein and mRNA expression. According to the results, EA at ST36 and BL13 could increase the expression of HO-1. At the same time, index of quantitative assessment (IQA) score and the number of TUNEL-positive cells decreased, while electro-acupuncture at the other points did not exert this effect, and pretreatment with ZnPP-IX in group EAZ suppressed the efficacy of electro-acupuncture preconditioning. In summary, electro

  20. Effect of the intensity of transcutaneous acupoint electrical stimulation on the postoperative analgesic requirement.

    PubMed

    Wang, B; Tang, J; White, P F; Naruse, R; Sloninsky, A; Kariger, R; Gold, J; Wender, R H

    1997-08-01

    Given the inherent side effects associated with both opioid and nonopioid analgesic drugs, a nonpharmacologic therapy that could decrease the need for analgesic medication would be valuable. We designed a sham-controlled study to assess the effect of the intensity of transcutaneous acupoint electrical stimulation (TAES) on postoperative patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) requirement for hydromorphone (HM), the incidence of opioid-related side effects, and the recovery profile after lower abdominal surgery. One hundred one healthy consenting women undergoing lower abdominal procedures with a standardized general anesthetic technique were randomly assigned to one of four postoperative analgesic treatment regimens: Group I (n = 26) PCA only; Group II (n = 25), PCA + sham-TAES (no electrical stimulation); Group III (n = 25), PCA + low-TAES (4-5 mA of electrical stimulation); Group IV (n = 25), PCA + high-TAES (9-12 mA of electrical stimulation). The PCA device was programmed to deliver HM, 0.2-0.4 mg intravenously boluses "on demand," with a minimum lockout interval of 10 min. The TAES skin electrodes were placed at the Hegu acupoint on the nondominant hand and on both sides of the surgical incision. The TAES frequency was set in the dense-and-disperse mode, alternating at 2 Hz and 100 Hz every 3 s, with stimulation of the hand and incision alternated every 6 s. The patients in Groups II-IV were instructed to use TAES every 2 h for 30 min while awake. After discontinuation of PCA, oral pain medications were administered on demand. The postoperative PCA-HM requirement, pain scores, opioid-related side effects, and requirements for antiemetic and antipruritic medication were recorded. High-TAES decreased the HM requirement by 65% and reduced the duration of PCA therapy, as well as the incidence of nausea, dizziness, and pruritus. Low-TAES produced a 34% decrease in the HM requirement compared with only 23% in the "sham" TAES group. We conclude that high-TAES produced a

  1. β1/2 or M2/3 Receptors Are Required for Different Gastrointestinal Motility Responses Induced by Acupuncture at Heterotopic or Homotopic Acupoints

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaochun; Cui, Changxiang; Yang, Zhaokun; Shi, Hong; Jing, Xianghong; Zhu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture at homotopic acupoints or heterotopic acupoints is known to either inhibit or facilitate gastrointestinal motility, depending on the acupoint location. However, little effort has been made to investigate the roles of specific receptors (such as adrenergic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors) in mediating the effects of acupuncture at heterotopic and homotopic acupoints. Different adrenergic receptor subtypes or cholinergic receptor subtypes are predominantly expressed in various sections of the gut, resulting in variations between the effects of acupuncture at heterotopic or homotopic acupoints on gastrointestinal motility. Here, we investigated the role of β1/β2 receptors and M2/M3 receptors in gastrointestinal motility regulated by acupuncture at ST37, a heterotopic acupoint, and ST25, a homotopic acupoint, by simultaneously recording intraluminal pressures in the distal colon and stomach or jejunum and examining fecal phenol red excretion in β1/2 receptor-knockout mice and M2/3 receptor-knockout mice. We found that knockout of the M2/3 receptor significantly inhibited ST37 acupuncture-induced enhancement of gastric motility, jejunal motility, and colonic motility. Additionally, knocking out of the β1/2 receptor significantly diminished the ST25 acupuncture-induced inhibition of gastric motility and jejunal motility without significantly altering the enhancement of colonic motility induced by acupuncture at ST25. Acupuncture at ST37 significantly accelerated gastrointestinal transition in β1/2 receptor-knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. However, this acceleration of gastrointestinal transition was markedly diminished in M2/3 receptor-knockout mice relative to their wild-type littermates. Acupuncture at ST25 significantly increased gastrointestinal transition in β1/2 receptor-knockout mice and significantly decreased gastrointestinal transition in M2/3 receptor-knockout mice without altering gastrointestinal transition in wild

  2. Transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation at Jiaji points reduce abdominal pain after colonoscopy: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanqing; Wu, Weilan; Yao, Yusheng; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Qiuyan; Qiu, Liangcheng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation (TEAS) at Jiaji acupuncture points has therapeutic potential for relieving viscera pain and opioid-related side effects. This prospective, randomized, triple-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was to investigate the efficacy of TEAS on abdominal pain after colonoscopy. Methods: Consecutive outpatients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I or II underwent selective colonoscopy were randomly assigned into two groups for either TEAS or sham pretreatment. The primary outcomes were the incidence of abdominal pain after colonoscopy. The secondary outcomes included the incidence of abdominal distension, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), duration of PACU stay, and patient’s satisfaction and acceptance. Results: Among the 229 patients analyzed, fewer occurrence of post-procedural abdominal pain (11.4% vs 25.2%, P = 0.007) and distension (1.8% vs 7.8%, P = 0.032) were observed in TEAS group, when compared with the sham group. The duration of PACU stay was significant shortened in TEAS group (P < 0.001). Meanwhile, patients’ satisfaction score to medical service was higher (P < 0.001), and their acceptance to colonoscopy was improved (P = 0.011). Conclusion: Pretreatment with TEAS can reduce post-procedural discomfort, provide more efficient medical resources utilization, and improved patient’s satisfaction and colonoscopy acceptance. PMID:26131193

  3. Effects of acupuncture at Taixi acupoint (KI3) on kidney proteome.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Ri; Cheng, Ze-Dong; Zhang, Zhi-Xing; Kim, Andre; Ha, Jong-Myung; Song, Yuan-Yuan; Zheng, Jie; Chen, Yi-Guo

    2011-01-01

    This research explored and identified the protein composition of rat kidneys after acupuncture at the Taixi acupoint (KI3). Twelve adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into a control group (n = 6) and an acupuncture group (n = 6). Rats in the acupuncture group received electroacupuncture on the bilateral KI3 for seven days. The kidneys were perfused with ice-cold saline and all kidney proteins were isolated. After protein sample preparation, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was performed. The interesting spots were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). There were nine protein spots with three-fold up-regulation in the kidney after the acupuncture. NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase and quinone reductase, the proteins involved in energy metabolism, the reduction of endogenous quinones, chemoprotection, and electrophilic stress, were identified. The data indicated that acupuncture at the KI3 of the kidney meridian of the foot shaoyin was able to increase NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase and quinone reductase expression in the kidney, and supported the relationship between the kidney and KI3.

  4. Estimation of the amount of telomere molecules in different human age groups and the telomere increasing effect of acupuncture and shiatsu on St.36, using synthesized basic units of the human telomere molecules as reference control substances for the bi-digital O-ring test resonance phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Omura, Y; Shimotsura, Y; Ooki, M; Noguchi, T

    1998-01-01

    who had exceptionally high telomere levels often had excellent physical conditions or mental acumen). The amounts of measured TTAGGG and CCCTAA molecules before and after acupuncture on St. 36 in adenocarcinomas and small cell carcinoma coexisting in the lung of a 54-yr.-old Asian male were: telomere in adenocarcinoma decreased from 950 ng to 750 ng and telomere in small cell carcinoma decreased from 770 ng to 600 ng. When the cancer treatment is effective, the amount of telomere is reduced towards the value of the normal internal organ. We found that acupuncture on St.36 on apparently normal subjects increased the telomere levels up to a maximum of more than 2 times their telomere levels prior to the treatment, depending on the method of treatment, but frequently increases were between 60% to 100%. Strong Shiatsu performed on St. 36 produced a somewhat lesser effect than acupuncture. We also determined the amounts of TTAGGG and CCCTAA molecules non-invasively in 3 mummified Egyptian sisters from the 8th Century BC on exhibit at the Museo Egizio in Turin, Italy in order to estimate their approximate ages (at the time of death). The amounts of body telomere were 500 ng, 550 ng, and 750 ng. For the prehistoric Iceman (about 3350 B.C. to 3310 B.C) discovered in 1991 in the Italian Otzal Alps at about 3,200 meters altitude, estimated body telomere was about 400 ng and telomere in brain and heart was 1600 ng, similar to that of a contemporary human being. Although these studies are preliminary, the findings may have potential applications not only in anti-aging, cancer treatments, and pathophysiology of brain and heart, but also for the estimation of the difference in the ages of cadavers studied in archeology and forensic medicine.

  5. Effects of transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation on drug use and responses to cue-induced craving: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation (TEAS) avoids the use of needles, and instead delivers a mild electric current at traditional acupoints. This technique has been used for treating heroin addiction, but has not been systematically tested for other drugs of abuse. This study aims to investigate the effects of TEAS on drug addiction. Methods Volunteers who were either cocaine-dependent (n = 9) or cannabis-dependent (n = 11) but were not seeking treatment for their dependence participated in a within-subject, single-blind study. Treatment consisted of twice daily 30-minute sessions of TEAS or sham stimulation for 3.5 days. The active TEAS levels were individually adjusted to produce a distinct twitching response in the fingers, while the sham stimulation involved 2 minutes of stimulation at threshold levels followed by 28 minutes of stimulation below the detection levels. The participants recorded their drug use and drug cravings daily. At 1 hour after the last morning session of TEAS or sham stimulation, a cue-induced craving EEG evaluation was conducted. Event-related P300 potentials (ERPs) were recorded, sorted, and analyzed for specific image types (neutral objects, non-drug-related arousing images, or drug-related images). Results TEAS treatment did not significantly reduce the drug use or drug cravings, or significantly alter the ERP peak voltage or latency to peak response. However, the TEAS treatment did significantly modulate several self-reported measures of mood and anxiety. Conclusion The results of this pilot study with a limited sample size suggest that the acupoint stimulation techniques and protocol used in this trial alone do not significantly reduce cravings for or use of cocaine or cannabis. The findings that TEAS modulates mood and anxiety suggest that TEAS could be used as an adjunct in a multimodal therapy program to treat cocaine and cannabis dependence if confirmed in a full randomized controlled clinical trial

  6. Local cutaneous nerve terminal and mast cell responses to manual acupuncture in acupoint LI4 area of the rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mei-Ling; Xu, Dong-Sheng; Bai, Wan-Zhu; Cui, Jing-Jing; Shu, Hong-Ming; He, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Shi, Hong; Su, Yang-Shuai; Hu, Ling; Zhu, Bing; Jing, Xiang-Hong

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the effects of manual acupuncture (MA) are contributed by collagen fibers and mast cells in local acupoints, at which acupuncture stimulation causes various afferent fiber groups to be excited. However what happens in local nerve fibers and mast cells after MA remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the response of cutaneous nerve fibers and mast cells to MA stimulation in acupoint Hegu (LI4). The contralateral LI4 of the same rat was used as a non-stimulated control. Immnohistochemistry analysis were carried out to observe the expression of histamine (HA), serotonin (5-HT) and nociceptive neuropeptides, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP), in the LI4 area. Mast cells were labeled with anti-mast cell tryptase antibody and simultaneously with HA or 5-HT primary antibodies to observe their co-expression. Our results showed that SP and CGRP were expressed more highly on the cutaneous nerve fibers of LI4 after MA stimulation than that of the control. Mast cells aggregated in close proximity to the blood vessels in intra-epidermis and dermis and some of them with degranulation in the lower dermis and subcutaneous tissue of LI4. Both mast cells and their granules appeared with HA (+) and 5-HT (+) expression at stimulated L14 sites, while a few intact mast cells with a little expression of 5-HT and HA were distributed in areas of non-stimulated L14. The results indicated that local cutaneous nerve terminals and mast cells responded to MA with higher expression of SP and CGRP in nerve fibers, as well as with aggregation and degranulation of mast cells with HA and 5-HT granules at acupoint LI4. These neuroactive substances may convey signals to certain pathways that contribute to the effects of acupuncture.

  7. Who are the users of a traditional Chinese sanfu acupoint herbal patching therapy in China?

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fen; Wu, Hong-jun; Zhai, Jun-ping; Zhang, Gui-yan; Shao, Yan; Tian, Xia; Xia, Ru-yu; Jia, Li-yan; Li, Wen-yuan; Liang, Ning; Yan, Xiao-yi; Wu, Ruo-han; Zhang, Kang; Li, Xin-lin; Wang, Cong-cong; Liu, Jian-ping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sanfu acupoint herbal patching (SAHP) is a unique traditional Chinese medicine therapy, which has become popular for preventing acute attack of respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, in many regions of mainland China. However, the knowledge about its users is lacking, especially the characteristics of the users and their experience and perspectives. To investigate the demographics of users, conditions for its use and the previous experience of SAHP, as well as users’ perspectives to provide baseline information for its practice. A cross-sectional consecutive-sample survey was conducted at outpatient departments from 3 traditional Chinese medicine hospitals in northern China. Each participant completed a questionnaire, after informed consent. Data description and analyses were done using SPSS 20.0. Among 949 SAHP users from 3 hospitals, female was predominant (n = 592; 62.4%), aged from 2 to 96 years (median = 52 years). 64.7% (380/587) of regular users have applied consecutively for 3 years or over, and the self-perceived satisfaction rates of respiratory diseases were from 45.9% to 77.7%. Positive attitude toward traditional Chinese medicine was the top reason for choosing SAHP. 42.4% of users held a motivation of being cured by SAHP and with great outcome expectancy on SAHP (70.8%). SAHP users were mainly female adults or elderly population; more than half were regular users, who predominantly used SAHP for various chronic respiratory diseases during their stable stage. The majority of users expressed satisfaction to previous SAHP for their respiratory diseases. 42.4% of users held a motivation of being cured by SAHP and with great outcome expectancy on SAHP (70.8%). The findings from this survey deserve further clinical trials for their clinical effectiveness. PMID:27930519

  8. Microcurrent Stimulation at Shenmen Acupoint Facilitates EEG Associated with Sleepiness and Positive Mood: A Randomized Controlled Electrophysiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Agnes S.; Yip, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    To examine the electrophysiological effects of microcurrent stimulation at the Shenmen acupoint, 40 healthy normal subjects were randomly assigned to a placebo group (sham stimulation) and an experimental group (bilateral electrocutaneous stimulation at the Shenmen). The following two electroencephalographic indicators were used to measure brain activity. (1) Arousal level was measured with reference to log-transformed absolute alpha power and power source and analyzed using low-resolution electromagnetic tomography and (2) frontal alpha asymmetry was used as an indicator of mood. After real stimulation for 10 minutes, absolute alpha power was globally reduced in the experimental group, particularly in the anterior and centrotemporal regions of the brain. This indicates a decline in the brain activity associated with arousal. Moreover, the reduction was more prominent in the left frontal region, as compared to the right frontal region, resulting in significant increase from negative to positive frontal alpha asymmetry scores and reflecting an increase in the brain activity associated with enhanced mood. However, the placebo group exhibited no significant changes in two indicators after sham stimulation. This study provides initial electrophysiological evidence of changes in brain activity associated with reduced arousal (and thus greater sleepiness) and enhanced mood after microcurrent stimulation at the Shenmen acupoint. PMID:25767551

  9. Microcurrent stimulation at shenmen acupoint facilitates EEG associated with sleepiness and positive mood: a randomized controlled electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Mei-Chun; Chan, Agnes S; Yip, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    To examine the electrophysiological effects of microcurrent stimulation at the Shenmen acupoint, 40 healthy normal subjects were randomly assigned to a placebo group (sham stimulation) and an experimental group (bilateral electrocutaneous stimulation at the Shenmen). The following two electroencephalographic indicators were used to measure brain activity. (1) Arousal level was measured with reference to log-transformed absolute alpha power and power source and analyzed using low-resolution electromagnetic tomography and (2) frontal alpha asymmetry was used as an indicator of mood. After real stimulation for 10 minutes, absolute alpha power was globally reduced in the experimental group, particularly in the anterior and centrotemporal regions of the brain. This indicates a decline in the brain activity associated with arousal. Moreover, the reduction was more prominent in the left frontal region, as compared to the right frontal region, resulting in significant increase from negative to positive frontal alpha asymmetry scores and reflecting an increase in the brain activity associated with enhanced mood. However, the placebo group exhibited no significant changes in two indicators after sham stimulation. This study provides initial electrophysiological evidence of changes in brain activity associated with reduced arousal (and thus greater sleepiness) and enhanced mood after microcurrent stimulation at the Shenmen acupoint.

  10. Cerebral Targeting of Acupuncture at Combined Acupoints in Treating Essential Hypertension: An Rs-fMRI Study and Curative Effect Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanjie; Zheng, Yu; Qu, Shanshan; Zhang, Jiping; Zhong, Zheng; Huang, Huanlin; Li, Miaokeng; Xu, Yiwen; Chen, Junqi; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The study attempted to explore that the synergistic effect of acupoints combination is not a simple superposition of single acupoint's effect by comparing and analyzing the changes of blood pressure (BP), SF-36, and brain regions after acupuncture treatment. 47 patients were randomly divided into LR3+KI3 group, LR3 group, and KI3 group. Subjects received Rs-fMRI scan, BP measurement, and SF-36 questionnaires before and after treatment and short-term acupuncture treatment. After treatment, there were no significant differences in BP and SF-36 among 3 groups, compared to the case before treatment, SBP of 3 groups decreased, and DBP significantly decreased while vitality and mental health significantly increased in LR3+KI3 group. Both number and scopes of changes of brain regions in LR3+KI3 group were the largest, which mainly included BAs 3, 4, 8, 19, 21, 24, 32, 44, and 45. In conclusion, acupuncture at LR3+KI3 may auxiliarily reduce BP and improve the vitality and mental health of patients, and the changes of brain regions were related to somatesthesia, movement, vision, audition, emotion and mood, language, memory, etc. BAs 4, 9, 10, 24, 31, 32, and 46 may be the targeting brain areas of acupuncture in assisting hypotension. It is suggested that acupoints combination of LR3+KI3 maybe generates a synergistic effect, and it is not simple sum of single acupoint effect. PMID:28003850

  11. Temporary anti-cancer & anti-pain effects of mechanical stimulation of any one of 3 front teeth (1st incisor, 2nd incisor, & canine) of right & left side of upper & lower jaws and their possible mechanism, & relatively long term disappearance of pain & cancer parameters by one optimal dose of DHEA, Astragalus, Boswellia Serrata, often with press needle stimulation of True ST. 36.

    PubMed

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Horiuchi, Nobuko; Jones, Marilyn K; Lu, Dominic P; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Duvvi, Harsha; Pallos, Andrew; Ohki, Motomu; Suetsugu, Akihiro

    2009-01-01

    One minute downward pressure on the tip of any one of the front 3 teeth (1st incisor, 2nd incisor, and canine) at the right and left sides of the upper and lower jaw by a wooden toothpick induced temporary disappearance (20 min approximately 4 hours) of abnormally increased pain parameters (pain grading, Substance P, & TXB2), and cancer parameters (Telomere, Integrin alpha5beta1, Oncogene C-fos Ab2, etc. of Astrocytoma, Glioblastoma, squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus, adenocarcinoma of lung, breast cancer, adenocarcinoma of colon, prostate cancer). The effect included temporary disappearance of headache, toothache, chest and abdominal pain, and backache, often with improved memory & concentration. Since these beneficial changes resembled the effects of giving one optimal dose of DHEA, increase of DHEA was measured. Above mechanical stimulation of one of these front teeth increased abnormally reduced DHEA levels of less than 10 ng to norm1 100 approximately 130 ng BDORT units and normal cell (NC) telomeres from markedly reduced values to near normal values, and improved acetylcholine in the Hippocampus. Large organ representation areas for the Adrenal gland & Hippocampus may exist at these front teeth. This method can be used for emergency pain control and can explain the beneficial effect of bruxism and tooth brushing, through the increase of DHEA levels and activities of the Hippocampus by increasing Acetylcholine. Increasing NC telomere to optimally high level resulted in disappearance of pain and improvement or significant reduction of malignant tumor. Repeated daily press needle stimulation of True ST. 36 increased NC telomere 450-700 ng BDORT units. One optimal dose of DHEA increased NC telomere 525 ng DBORT units and eliminated the pain and abnormally increased cancer parameters; effect of one optimal dose lasted 0.5-11 months. One optimal dose of Boswellia Serrata or Astragalus not only increased NC telomere 650 ng BDORT units, eliminating pain and cancer

  12. Excessive use of Steroid Hormone & beneficial effects of True St. 36 acupuncture on malignant brain tumors--part I; how to estimate non-invasively presence of excess dose of Steroid Hormone in patients, baseball players & other professional athletes from its toxic effects on heart & pancreas, as well as persistent or recurrent infection--part II.

    PubMed

    Omura, Yoshiaki

    2005-01-01

    Using accurate organ representation areas map of the face, originally mapped by the author using Bi-Digital O-Ring Test Resonance Phenomena between two identical substances, one can make quick non-invasive screening of diseases by visual inspection, particularly if it is chronic degenerative disease, as they often develop deep crease or creases or discoloration on the pathological organ representation area. However, even if there are no visible abnormalities in the organ representation areas, the author found that when the individual is using excessive Steroid Hormones for malignant brain tumors, other medical purposes, and competitive sports, not only did the left ventricle and pancreas become very abnormal when examined by the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test, and Steroid Hormone accumulate in these organs with abnormally increased 8-OH-dG & TXB2, and Folic Acid & Telomere markedly reduce, but also the organ representation areas of the pancreas and left ventricle on the face showed similar abnormalities. Thus, using the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test, one can quickly and non-invasively screen the Steroid Hormone induced abnormalities of the heart and pancreas, and their organ representation areas of various parts of the body, including the face, tongue, ears, hands and feet. For malignant tumors including brain tumors, acupuncture on True ST. 36 or ST. 37 was found to be highly beneficial by reducing cancer cell telomere to practically 0, while increasing normal cell telomere moderately. The author's study over the past 15 years indicates that photographs of the human body, including pictures that appear in newspapers and magazines, have almost identical information as the information taken directly from the body surfaces of patients or individual athletes. Some examples of the application of this principle for the noninvasive estimation of the presence of Steroid Hormones using a photograph of the individual receiving the Steroid Hormone for medical reasons, or for the purpose of

  13. The Effect of Acupressure at GB-21 and SP-6 Acupoints on Anxiety Level and Maternal-Fetal Attachment in Primiparous Women: a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Zahra; Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Moradi, Parvin; Toosi, Monieh; Hadianfard, Mohammad Javad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Delivery is one of the most stressful events in women’s life. Excessive anxiety, in turn, increases delivery and pregnancy complications. Mother’s positive experience of delivery leads to more effective maternal-fetal attachment in the first few hours of birth. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare the effects of acupressure at two different acupoints on anxiety level and maternal-fetal attachment in primiparous women. Materials and Methods: In this study, 150 primiparous women were allocated to acupressure at GB-21 acupoint, acupressure at SP-6 acupoint, and control group. The women in their active phase of delivery were enrolled in the study and pressure was applied to the acupoints for 20 minutes. Mother’s anxiety level was assessed using Spielberger’s questionnaire before and one hour after the intervention. In addition, maternal-fetal attachment behaviors were evaluated using Avant’s questionnaire during the first breastfeeding. Then the data were introduced to the SPSS (v. 13) and were analyzed using t test and one way ANOVA. Results: The results revealed no significant difference among the three groups regarding the anxiety level before the intervention (P > 0.05). One hour after the intervention, this measure was significantly lower in the intervention groups in comparison to the control group (P < 0.001). However, no significant difference was found between the two intervention groups in this regard (P > 0.05). Moreover, maternal-fetal attachment was higher in the intervention groups in comparison with the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Acupressure at both acupoints reduced anxiety level and increased maternal-fetal attachment. This method can be easily used in the delivery room. PMID:25699279

  14. Acupressure and Transcutaneous Electrical Acupoint Stimulation for Improving Uremic Pruritus: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Kılıç Akça, Nazan; Taşcı, Sultan

    2016-03-01

    Context • Uremic pruritus, a frequent and compromising symptom for patients with advanced or end-stage renal disease (ESRD), strongly reduces the patient's quality of life. Pruritus may be extremely difficult to control because therapeutic options are limited. Topical products are frequently used for easing pruritus, but their effects are generally temporary and marginal. Although acupressure and electrical-stimulation methods for the application of acupressure have been evaluated separately in terms of pruritus efficiency in different studies, the existence of any difference between the efficacies of the 2 methods has not been assessed yet. Objective • The study intended to test the effectiveness of acupressure and transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) on uremic pruritus in patients who were receiving the routine hemodialysis treatment. Design • The study was a randomized, controlled trial. Setting • The study took place in hemodialysis units located in hemodialysis centers in Turkey. Participants • Participants were patients in the hemodialysis units who were under hemodialysis treatment and had experienced uremic pruritus. Intervention • Participants were randomly assigned to the acupressure group (intervention group), the TEAS group (intervention group), or the control group. For the 2 intervention groups, the treatment was applied 3 ×/wk during the 4 wk of the study on the large intestine (LI-11) acupuncture points in the arm, for a total of 12 sessions. Outcome Measures • The study measured the severity of participants' pruritus using a patient information form and a visual analogue scale (VAS). The data were collected at baseline and posttreatment. Results • A total of 75 patients participated in the study. The results indicated that patients in the acupressure and TEAS groups had significant reductions from baseline to posttreatment in their levels of discomfort from uremic pruritus compared with patients in the control

  15. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of K1 acupoint acustimulation to prevent cisplatin- or oxaliplatin-induced nausea

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yehua; Liu, Luming; Chiang, Joseph S.; Meng, Zhiqiang; Garcia, M. Kay; Chen, Zhen; Peng, Huiting; Bei, Wenying; Zhao, Qi; Spelman, Amy R.; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Background More than 70% of cancer patients experience chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). We examined the effects of electrostimulation of the K1 acupoint located on the sole of the foot, as it is thought to have potential to control CINV. Methods In this trial, 103 patients diagnosed with primary or metastatic liver cancer were recruited before trans-catheter arterial infusion (TAI) of cisplatin (CDDP) or oxaliplatin (OXA) and randomized to group A (N=51; treated with the antiemetic tropisetron and acustimulation at the K1 acupoint for 20 minutes, 1-2 hours before TAI on the first day and then daily for the subsequent 5 days) or group B (N=53; treated with tropisetron and electrostimulation at a placebo point on the heel). The rate, intensity, and duration of nausea and vomiting were collected at baseline and then daily for 5 days after TAI. Quality of life was assessed daily using the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI) and the EuroQoL scale. Results No differences were found between groups A and B in the incidence and degree of nausea or vomiting on day 1 or the consecutive 5 days. Patients in group A had better EuroQoL scores than did patients in group B (A: 72.83 versus B: 65.94, P = 0.04) on day 4 but not on the other days. No group differences were noted at any time point for MDASI scores. Conclusions Electrostimulation of K1 combined with antiemetics did not result in initial prevention of CDDP- or OXA-induced nausea or vomiting. PMID:25204437

  16. Investigation of electroacupuncture and manual acupuncture on carnitine and glutathione in muscle.

    PubMed

    Toda, Shizuo

    2011-01-01

    Electroacupuncture (EA) and manual acupuncture (MA) have therapeutic effects on muscle fatigue in muscle disease. The deficiencies of carnitine and glutathione induce muscle fatigue. This report investigated the effects of EA and MA on carnitine and glutathione in muscle. After the mice of EA group were fixed in the animal cage, right Zusanli (ST36) and Jiexi (ST41) were acupunctured and stimulated with uniform reinforcing and reducing method by twirling the acupuncture needle for 15 min. And then, the needle handles were connected to an electric stimulator for stimulating the acupoint with dense-sparse waves. After the mice of MA group were fixed in an animal cage, right ST36 and ST41 were acupunctured and allowed for 15 min. The mice of normal control group were not acupunctured and stimulated for 15 min. The mice of all groups were killed for collecting muscle tissue 1 h after the final treatment. Carnitine and glutathione in homogenate of muscle tissue were determined with carnitine (Kainos Laboratories Co., Tokyo, Japan) and glutathione assay kit (Dojin Chemicals Co., Kumamoto, Japan). Carnitine level in muscle tissue of MA group was significantly higher than those of EA group and normal control group. Carnitine level in muscle tissue of EA group was not significantly different from that of normal control group. Glutathione levels in muscle tissue of EA group and MA group were significantly higher than that of normal control group. This report presented that carnitine in muscle is increased by MA, and not increased by EA, and that glutathione in muscle is increased by EA and MA.

  17. Low frequency electroacupuncture selectively decreases voluntarily ethanol intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zou, Yihuai; Ye, Jiang-Hong

    2011-11-25

    Although there is increasing clinical acceptance of acupuncture and electroacupuncture (EA) as a treatment of substance abuse-related disorders, our understanding of this treatment remains incomplete. Previous clinical and pre-clinical studies have shown that acupuncture and EA are effective in reducing ethanol consumption. Recent studies have shown that Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats under an intermittent-access two-bottle choice drinking procedure (IE procedure) voluntarily drank high amounts of ethanol. However, an effect of EA on ethanol consumption of the SD rats under this drinking procedure has not been demonstrated. In the present study, we demonstrated that SD rats escalated their ethanol intake and subsequently developed ethanol dependence under the IE procedure. A single low (2 Hz), but not high frequency (100 Hz) EA treatment applied at the bilateral acupoint Zusanli (ST36), but not at the tail reduced voluntary intake of, and preference for ethanol, but not sucrose. Furthermore, repeated EA treatments decreased the intake of and preference for ethanol, without resulting in a rebound increase in ethanol intake when the EA treatments were terminated. These observations indicate that EA may be a useful treatment for alcohol abuse.

  18. Electroacupuncture Inhibition of Hyperalgesia in Rats with Adjuvant Arthritis: Involvement of Cannabinoid Receptor 1 and Dopamine Receptor Subtypes in Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Shou, Yin; Yang, Yang; Xu, Ming-Shu; Zhao, Ying-Qian; Ge, Lin-Bao; Zhang, Bi-Meng

    2013-01-01

    Electroacupuncture (EA) has been regarded as an alternative treatment for inflammatory pain for several decades. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the antinociceptive effect of EA have not been thoroughly clarified. Previous studies have shown that cannabinoid CB1 receptors are related to pain relief. Accumulating evidence has shown that the CB1 and dopamine systems sometimes interact and may operate synergistically in rat striatum. To our knowledge, dopamine D1/D2 receptors are involved in EA analgesia. In this study, we found that repeated EA at Zusanli (ST36) and Kunlun (BL60) acupoints resulted in marked improvements in thermal hyperalgesia. Both western blot assays and FQ-PCR analysis results showed that the levels of CB1 expression in the repeated-EA group were much higher than those in any other group (P = 0.001). The CB1-selective antagonist AM251 inhibited the effects of repeated EA by attenuating the increases in CB1 expression. The two kinds of dopamine receptors imparted different actions on the EA-induced CB1 upregulation in AA rat model. These results suggested that the strong activation of the CB1 receptor after repeated EA resulted in the concomitant phenomenon of the upregulation of D1 and D2 levels of gene expression. PMID:23762129

  19. NMR-based metabolomics Reveals Alterations of Electro-acupuncture Stimulations on Chronic Atrophic Gastritis Rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingjing; Zheng, Xujuan; Cheng, Kian-Kai; Chang, Xiaorong; Shen, Guiping; Liu, Mi; Wang, Yadong; Shen, Jiacheng; Zhang, Yuan; He, Qida; Dong, Jiyang; Yang, Zongbao

    2017-03-30

    Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is a common gastrointestinal disease which has been considered as precancerous lesions of gastric carcinoma. Previously, electro-acupuncture stimulation has been shown to be effective in ameliorating symptoms of CAG. However the underlying mechanism of this beneficial treatment is yet to be established. In the present study, an integrated histopathological examination along with molecular biological assay, as well as (1)H NMR analysis of multiple biological samples (urine, serum, stomach, cortex and medulla) were employed to systematically assess the pathology of CAG and therapeutic effect of electro-acupuncture stimulation at Sibai (ST 2), Liangmen (ST 21), and Zusanli (ST 36) acupoints located in the stomach meridian using a rat model of CAG. The current results showed that CAG caused comprehensive metabolic alterations including the TCA cycle, glycolysis, membrane metabolism and catabolism, gut microbiota-related metabolism. On the other hand, electro-acupuncture treatment was found able to normalize a number of CAG-induced metabolomics changes by alleviating membrane catabolism, restoring function of neurotransmitter in brain and partially reverse the CAG-induced perturbation in gut microbiota metabolism. These findings provided new insights into the biochemistry of CAG and mechanism of the therapeutic effect of electro-acupuncture stimulations.

  20. Safety of different acupuncture manipulations for posterior circulation ischemia with vertigo

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yan; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Xiao-feng; Deng, Shi-zhe; He, Si; Huang, Ling-hui; Tian, Guang; Meng, Zhi-hong

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture at Fengchi (GB20) in the posterior neck improves vertigo. However, subarachnoid hemorrhage and spinal epidural hematoma have been reported to occur after acupuncture in the posterior neck. Therefore, in the present study, we assessed the safety of acupuncture at Fengchi. Laboratory tests and adverse event reports were used to evaluate the safety of different acupuncture manipulations for the treatment of posterior circulation ischemia with vertigo. A total of 136 patients were randomly assigned to four groups. Verum acupuncture was conducted with different needle insertion directions (contralateral paropia or prominentia laryngea) and different needle twisting frequencies (60 or 120 times/minute) at Fengchi and matching acupoints (for example, Zhongwan [CV12], Qihai [CV6], Zusanli [ST36], and Fenglong [ST40]). The patients received 14 treatments over 3–4 weeks. Routine blood analysis, hepatic and renal function tests, urine and feces tests and electrocardiography were performed before the first treatment session and after the final session. Adverse events were recorded after every session. Of the 136 patients, 120 completed the study. There were no significant differences between pretreatment and posttreatment test results in any of the groups. Only five patients suffered from minor adverse events (needling pain, slight hematoma and transient chest tightness). No serious adverse events were found. Our results indicate that a 14-session course of needling at Fengchi is relatively safe for treating posterior circulation ischemia with vertigo. PMID:27651774

  1. Electroacupuncture at 2/100 Hz Activates Antinociceptive Spinal Mechanisms Different from Those Activated by Electroacupuncture at 2 and 100 Hz in Responder Rats

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Josie Resende Torres; da Silva, Marcelo Lourenço; Prado, Wiliam Alves

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of intrathecal injection of desipramine and fluoxetine (selective inhibitors of norepinephrine and 5-HT uptake, resp.), thiorphan and neostigmine (inhibitors of enkephalinase and acetylcholinesterase, resp.), gabapentin (a GABA releaser), and vigabatrin (an inhibitor of GABA-transaminase) on the antinociception induced by 2 Hz, 100 Hz, or 2/100 Hz electroacupuncture (EA) applied bilaterally to the Zusanli (ST36) and Sanyinjiao (SP6) acupoints using the rat tail-flick test. We show that 2 Hz EA antinociception lasts longer after the administration of drugs that increase the spinal availability of norepinephrine, acetylcholine, or GABA; 100 Hz EA antinociception lasts longer after drug that increases the spinal availability of norepinephrine; 2/100 Hz EA antinociception lasts longer after drugs that increase the spinal availability of endogenous opioids or GABA. We conclude that the antinociceptive effect of 2/100 Hz EA is different from the synergistic effect of alternate stimulation at 2 and 100 Hz because the effect of the former is not changed by increasing the spinal availability of serotonin and lasts longer after the administration of vigabatrin. The combination of EA with drugs that increase the availability of spinal neurotransmitters involved in the modulation of nociceptive inputs may result in a synergistic antinociceptive effect in the rat tail-flick test. PMID:24159340

  2. The Time Course Effects of Electroacupuncture on Promoting Skeletal Muscle Regeneration and Inhibiting Excessive Fibrosis after Contusion in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rongguo; Luo, Dan; Xiao, Cheng; Lin, Peng; Liu, Shouyao; Xu, Qianwei; Wang, Yunting

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on Zusanli (ST36) and Ashi acupoints in promoting skeletal muscle regeneration and inhibiting excessive fibrosis after contusion in rabbits. Sixty rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal, contusion, EA, and recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I (rhIGF-I). An acute skeletal muscle contusion was produced on the right gastrocnemius (GM) by an instrument-based drop-mass technique. EA was performed for 15 minutes every two days with 0.4 mA (2 Hz), and GM injections were executed with rhIGF-I (0.25 mL once a week). Rabbits treated with EA had a higher T-SOD and T-AOC serum activities and lower MDA serum level, the blood perfusion of which was also significantly higher. In the EA group, the diameter of the myofibril was uniform and the arrangement was regular, contrary to the contusion group. The number and diameter of regenerative myofibers and MHC expression were increased in the EA group. EA treatment significantly decreased fibrosis formation and reduced both GDF-8 and p-Smad2/3 expressions in injured muscle. Our data indicate that EA may promote myofiber regeneration and reduce excessive fibrosis by improving blood flow and antioxidant capacities. Additionally, EA may regulate signaling factor expression after contusion. PMID:23990848

  3. Moxibustion activates host defense against herpes simplex virus type I through augmentation of cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Yuko; Itoi, Manami; Hamahashi, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Noriyuki; Mori, Kazuya; Morishita, Daisuke; Wada, Kumiko; Amagai, Takashi

    2010-09-01

    Moxibustion is a technique used in traditional oriental medicine, the aim of which is to cure and/or prevent illness by activating a person's ability for self-healing. In this study, we assessed how moxibustion would affect the immune system and whether it would augment protective immunity. Mice were treated with moxibustion at Zusanli (ST36) acupoints; we analyzed mortality and cytokine activity in sera after infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), and cytokine gene expression in the skin and the spleen without a virus challenge. Our study demonstrates that pretreatment of BALB/c mice with moxibustion resulted in a marked increase in the survival rate after infection with lethal doses of HSV-1, and elevated serum levels of IL-1β and IFN-γ on days 1 and 6 post-infection with HSV-1. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR assay showed that moxibustion treatment augmented the expression of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, universal-IFN-α, MIP-1α, and TNF-α mRNA in the skin, and IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-12p40, IL-15, u-IFN-α, MIP-1α, and TNF-α mRNA in the spleen. Moreover, moxibustion induces augmentation of natural killer cell activity. Collectively, our study demonstrates that moxibustion activates protective responses against HSV-1 infection through the activation of cytokine production including IFN, and of NK cells.

  4. NMR-based metabolomics Reveals Alterations of Electro-acupuncture Stimulations on Chronic Atrophic Gastritis Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jingjing; Zheng, Xujuan; Cheng, Kian-Kai; Chang, Xiaorong; Shen, Guiping; Liu, Mi; Wang, Yadong; Shen, Jiacheng; Zhang, Yuan; He, Qida; Dong, Jiyang; Yang, Zongbao

    2017-01-01

    Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is a common gastrointestinal disease which has been considered as precancerous lesions of gastric carcinoma. Previously, electro-acupuncture stimulation has been shown to be effective in ameliorating symptoms of CAG. However the underlying mechanism of this beneficial treatment is yet to be established. In the present study, an integrated histopathological examination along with molecular biological assay, as well as 1H NMR analysis of multiple biological samples (urine, serum, stomach, cortex and medulla) were employed to systematically assess the pathology of CAG and therapeutic effect of electro-acupuncture stimulation at Sibai (ST 2), Liangmen (ST 21), and Zusanli (ST 36) acupoints located in the stomach meridian using a rat model of CAG. The current results showed that CAG caused comprehensive metabolic alterations including the TCA cycle, glycolysis, membrane metabolism and catabolism, gut microbiota-related metabolism. On the other hand, electro-acupuncture treatment was found able to normalize a number of CAG-induced metabolomics changes by alleviating membrane catabolism, restoring function of neurotransmitter in brain and partially reverse the CAG-induced perturbation in gut microbiota metabolism. These findings provided new insights into the biochemistry of CAG and mechanism of the therapeutic effect of electro-acupuncture stimulations. PMID:28358020

  5. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Acupuncture Stimulation via the Vagus Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hee-Don; Kim, Min-Hee; Lee, Chan-Yong; Namgung, Uk

    2016-01-01

    Although acupuncture therapy is widely used in traditional Asian medicine for the treatment of diverse internal organ disorders, its underlying biological mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the functional involvement of acupuncture stimulation (AS) in the regulation of inflammatory responses. TNF-α production in mouse serum, which was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration, was decreased by manual acupuncture (MAC) at the zusanli acupoint (stomach36, ST36). In the spleen, TNF-α mRNA and protein levels were also downregulated by MAC and were recovered by using a splenic neurectomy and a vagotomy. c-Fos, which was induced in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMV) by LPS and electroacupuncture (EAC), was further increased by focal administration of the AMPA receptor blocker CNQX and the purinergic receptor antagonist PPADS. TNF-α levels in the spleen were decreased by CNQX and PPADS treatments, implying the involvement of inhibitory neuronal activity in the DVC. In unanesthetized animals, both MAC and EAC generated c-Fos induction in the DVC neurons. However, MAC, but not EAC, was effective in decreasing splenic TNF-α production. These results suggest that the therapeutic effects of acupuncture may be mediated through vagal modulation of inflammatory responses in internal organs. PMID:26991319

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Acupuncture Stimulation via the Vagus Nerve.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hee-Don; Kim, Min-Hee; Lee, Chan-Yong; Namgung, Uk

    2016-01-01

    Although acupuncture therapy is widely used in traditional Asian medicine for the treatment of diverse internal organ disorders, its underlying biological mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the functional involvement of acupuncture stimulation (AS) in the regulation of inflammatory responses. TNF-α production in mouse serum, which was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration, was decreased by manual acupuncture (MAC) at the zusanli acupoint (stomach36, ST36). In the spleen, TNF-α mRNA and protein levels were also downregulated by MAC and were recovered by using a splenic neurectomy and a vagotomy. c-Fos, which was induced in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMV) by LPS and electroacupuncture (EAC), was further increased by focal administration of the AMPA receptor blocker CNQX and the purinergic receptor antagonist PPADS. TNF-α levels in the spleen were decreased by CNQX and PPADS treatments, implying the involvement of inhibitory neuronal activity in the DVC. In unanesthetized animals, both MAC and EAC generated c-Fos induction in the DVC neurons. However, MAC, but not EAC, was effective in decreasing splenic TNF-α production. These results suggest that the therapeutic effects of acupuncture may be mediated through vagal modulation of inflammatory responses in internal organs.

  7. Safety of different acupuncture manipulations for posterior circulation ischemia with vertigo.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yan; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Xiao-Feng; Deng, Shi-Zhe; He, Si; Huang, Ling-Hui; Tian, Guang; Meng, Zhi-Hong

    2016-08-01

    Acupuncture at Fengchi (GB20) in the posterior neck improves vertigo. However, subarachnoid hemorrhage and spinal epidural hematoma have been reported to occur after acupuncture in the posterior neck. Therefore, in the present study, we assessed the safety of acupuncture at Fengchi. Laboratory tests and adverse event reports were used to evaluate the safety of different acupuncture manipulations for the treatment of posterior circulation ischemia with vertigo. A total of 136 patients were randomly assigned to four groups. Verum acupuncture was conducted with different needle insertion directions (contralateral paropia or prominentia laryngea) and different needle twisting frequencies (60 or 120 times/minute) at Fengchi and matching acupoints (for example, Zhongwan [CV12], Qihai [CV6], Zusanli [ST36], and Fenglong [ST40]). The patients received 14 treatments over 3-4 weeks. Routine blood analysis, hepatic and renal function tests, urine and feces tests and electrocardiography were performed before the first treatment session and after the final session. Adverse events were recorded after every session. Of the 136 patients, 120 completed the study. There were no significant differences between pretreatment and posttreatment test results in any of the groups. Only five patients suffered from minor adverse events (needling pain, slight hematoma and transient chest tightness). No serious adverse events were found. Our results indicate that a 14-session course of needling at Fengchi is relatively safe for treating posterior circulation ischemia with vertigo.

  8. Effects of combining electroacupuncture with general anesthesia induced by sevoflurane in patients undergoing supratentorial craniotomy and improvements in their clinical recovery profile & blood enkephalin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Caixia; An, Lixin; Han, Ruquan; Kang, Xixiong; Wang, Baoguo

    2012-01-01

    Drug-induced anesthesia combined with electroacupuncture (EA) in patients has been put into practice in recent years in China. In this study, we showed the effectiveness of EA on the speed of post-operative recovery of patients undergoing supratentorial craniotomy and the potential clinical mechanism of EA. Dual channel electrical stimulator made by HANS Beijing connected the following acupoints respectively: LI4 (Hegu), SJ5 (Waiguan), ST36 (Zusanli), BL63 (Jinmen), LR3 (Taichong), and GB40 (Qiuxu). Disperse-dense and symmetric biphasic pulse waves were selected, frequency of waves (pulse rates) were 2Hz/100Hz, altered/3sec; pulse duration was 0.6ms/0.2ms, 2Hz: 0.6ms, 100Hz: 0.2ms; symmetric biphasic pulse wave. We found that the EA-group required 9.62% less sevoflurane than the sham EA-group (P<0.05). During recovery from anesthesia, the autonomous respiration recovery time, tracheo-tube removal time, eye-opening time, voluntary motor recovery time, orientation force recovery time, and the operating-room departure time of the EA-group were all significantly shortened 35.86%, 27.07%, 38.38%, 30.11%, 34.95%, 28.80% than the corresponding sham EA-group, respectively (P<0.05). The serum enkephalin values were elevated in the EA group versus the sham EA-group.

  9. The Study of Dynamic Characteristic of Acupoints Based on the Primary Dysmenorrhea Patients with the Tenderness Reflection on Diji (SP 8)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sheng; Miao, Yanhuan; Nan, Yinan; Wang, Yanping; Zhao, Qi; He, Enhui; Sun, Yini; Zhao, Jiping

    2015-01-01

    In TCM theory, acupoint is not a fixed point but a portal with dynamic characteristics where the channel qi enters and flows out. The dynamic characteristics have been verified primarily by detecting the tenderness reaction on Diji (SP 8) in primary dysmenorrhea patients. In this study, finger pressing and algometer were applied in Diji (SP 8) area of participants in menstrual period and nonmenstrual period, respectively, to detect the tenderness occurrence rate, the VAS score of the tenderest point, the tenderness threshold of the tenderest point, and the location of the tenderest point. The result suggests that the acupoint may not be a fixed location but a point in a dynamic state within a certain range in time and space varying with different physiological and pathological status. PMID:26161116

  10. De qi, a threshold of the stimulus intensity, elicits the specific response of acupoints and intrinsic change of human brain to acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Tian, Dai-Shi; Xiong, Jin; Pan, Qing; Liu, Fang; Wang, Lu; Xu, Sha-Bei; Huang, Guang-Ying; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Objectives.  De qi is the subjective constellation of sensations perceived by the acupuncturists and patients as described in several literatures, but the absence of quantitative evaluation methods in de qi restricts the use of acupuncture treatment widely in the world. In the present study, we tried to investigate the intrinsic property of de qi is and how evaluate it quantitatively. Methods. 30 healthy adult volunteers were determined to investigate intrinsic changes in the human body after acupuncture with de qi. Results. Acupuncture treatment with de qi apparently increased acupoint blood flow, tissue displacement, and the amplitude of myoelectricity after de qi on acupoints. Furthermore, acupuncture treatment induced fMRI signal increase/decrease in different brain regions although no significant change in electroencephalography. Interpretation. The intrinsic change of the subjects representing the specific response of acupoints and human brain to acupuncture indicated that de qi might be evaluated quantitatively by those above aspects, which facilitated the confirmation in validity and propagation of this treatment modality widely in the world.

  11. Effects of Bee Venom Injections at Acupoints on Neurologic Dysfunction Induced by Thoracolumbar Intervertebral Disc Disorders in Canines: A Randomized, Controlled Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Li-Chuan; Lin, Yi-Wen; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Intervertebral disk disease (IVDD) is a major spine disorder in canines that causes neurological dysfunction, particularly in the thoracolumbar area. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs are typically used to reduce nociceptive signals to decrease canine suffering. Bee venom (BV) has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. Injection of BV at acupoints has been widely used to treat clinical disorders including inflammation, pain, and arthritis. The current study was intended to determine whether BV injections at acupoints can enhance treatment of canine neurological dysfunction caused by IVDD. A single-blind controlled trial involving 40 adult canines with neurological dysfunction induced by IVDD subdivided into 2 groups was designed, and 36 canines finished the study. The myelopathy scoring system (MSS) grade and functional numeric scale (FNS) scores improved further after BV treatment than after control treatment. BV injection exerted a particularly strong effect on canines with moderate to severe IVDD and dramatically reduced clinical rehabilitation time. The results indicate that BV injections at acupoints are more effective at protecting canines from IVDD-induced neurological dysfunction and pain than is treatment alone. PMID:26693480

  12. Effects of Electroacupuncture at Governor Vessel Acupoints on Neurotrophin-3 in Rats with Experimental Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Wei; Song, Liang-yu; Song, Hong-tao; Yuan, Xiao-chen; Mao, Ying-qiu; Jing, Quan-kai

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to explore new, noninvasive treatment options for spinal cord injuries (SCI), this study investigated the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) for SCI rat models. SCI was induced by a modified Allen's weight-drop method. We investigated the response of EA at Dazhui (GV 14) and Mingmen (GV 4) acupoints to understand the effects and mechanisms of EA in neuroprotection and neuronal function recovery after SCI. BBB testing was used to detect motor function of rats' hind limbs among groups, and EA was shown to promote the recovery of SCI rats' motor function. Nissl staining showed a restored neural morphology and an increase in the quantity of neurons after EA. Also, the antiapoptosis role was exposed by TUNEL staining. Western blotting analysis was used to determine the protein expression of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) in spinal cord tissue. Compared to the sham group, the expression levels of NT-3 were significantly decreased and EA was shown to upregulate the expression of NT-3. The present study suggests that the role of EA in neuroprotection and dorsal neuronal function recovery after SCI in rats, especially EA stimulation at GV 14 and GV 4, can greatly promote neuronal function recovery, which may result from upregulating the expression of NT-3. PMID:27597902

  13. Does transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation improve the quality of recovery after thyroidectomy? A prospective randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanqing; Yang, Yang; Yao, Yusheng; Dai, Dongsheng; Qian, Bin; Liu, Pingping

    2015-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the effects of transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation (TEAS) on the postoperative quality of recovery after thyroidectomy with general anesthesia in this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Methods: Eight-four American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status (ASA) I or II patients undergoing thyroidectomy were randomly allocated to TEAS or control groups. The primary outcome was the quality of recovery, which was assessed on the day before surgery and 24 h after surgery using the Quality of Recovery 40 questionnaire (QoR-40). Secondary outcomes included the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), postoperative pain intensity, duration of post anesthesia care unit (PACU) stay and patient’s satisfaction. Results: Global QoR-40 score at 24 h after surgery was higher in the TEAS group (median [interquartile range], 183 [172-190]) compared with the control group (168 [154-183]) (P < 0.001). Compared with the control group, postoperative pain intensity and the cumulative number of opioids administered was lower in the TEAS group patients (P < 0.001). TEAS reduced the incidence of PONV and dizziness (P = 0.001), as well as the duration of PACU stay (P < 0.001). Simultaneously, the patient’s satisfaction scores were higher in the TEAS group (P = 0.002). Conclusion: Preoperative TEAS enhances the quality of recovery, postoperative analgesia and patient’s satisfaction, alleviates postoperative side effects and accelerates discharge after general anesthesia for thyroidectomy. PMID:26550304

  14. Acupoint Application in Patients with Chronic Stable Angina Pectoris: Study Protocol of a Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yulan; Li, Dehua; Lv, Junling; Leng, Junyan; Zhang, Linglin; Zhang, Jie; Fan, Hailong; Liang, Fanrong

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chronic stable angina pectoris (CSAP) is a major syndrome of ischemic heart disease (IHD). CSAP manifests as chest pain or discomfort and affects patients' quality of life. Acupoint application (AP) has been reported to be effective for managing the symptoms of CSAP, but the evidence is not convincing. Therefore, we designed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of AP in the treatment of CSAP. Methods and Analysis. Two hundred participants with CSAP will be randomly assigned in a 1 : 1 : 1 : 1 ratio into 4 groups. All participants will receive 12 sessions of treatment in 4 weeks and the same basic treatment procedure. The participants will be visited and assessed for 12 weeks, including a 4-week screening, a 4-week treatment phase, and a 4-week follow-up phase. The primary outcome is the change in the total frequency of self-reported angina attack at 4th week compared with the baseline. The secondary outcomes include the intensity of angina pain, consumption of nitroglycerin or Suxiao Jiuxin pills, CCS angina classification, SAQ, SAS and SDS score. Ethics. The study protocol has been reviewed and approved by the Sichuan Regional Ethics Review Committee on TCM (number 2013kl-001). This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov NCT02029118. PMID:25250055

  15. Acupoint Injection of Autologous Stromal Vascular Fraction and Allogeneic Adipose-Derived Stem Cells to Treat Hip Dysplasia in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Camila; Silveira, Maiele Dornelles; Selbach, Isabel; da Silva, Ariel Silveira; Braga, Luisa Maria Gomes de Macedo; Camassola, Melissa; Nardi, Nance Beyer

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells isolated from adipose tissue show great therapeutic potential in veterinary medicine, but some points such as the use of fresh or cultured cells and route of administration need better knowledge. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of autologous stromal vascular fraction (SVF, n = 4) or allogeneic cultured adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs, n = 5) injected into acupuncture points in dogs with hip dysplasia and weak response to drug therapy. Canine ASCs have proliferation and differentiation potential similar to ASCs from other species. After the first week of treatment, clinical evaluation showed marked improvement compared with baseline results in all patients treated with autologous SVF and three of the dogs treated with allogeneic ASCs. On days 15 and 30, all dogs showed improvement in range of motion, lameness at trot, and pain on manipulation of the joints, except for one ASC-treated patient. Positive results were more clearly seen in the SVF-treated group. These results show that autologous SVF or allogeneic ASCs can be safely used in acupoint injection for treating hip dysplasia in dogs and represent an important therapeutic alternative for this type of pathology. Further studies are necessary to assess a possible advantage of SVF cells in treating joint diseases. PMID:25180040

  16. Large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel involvement in suppression of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury after electroacupuncture at Shuigou (GV26) acupoint in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Shen, Yan; Lin, Hai-Ping; Li, Zhuo; Chen, Ying-Ying; Wang, Shu

    2016-06-01

    Excess activation and expression of large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (BKCa channels) may be an important mechanism for delayed neuronal death after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Electroacupuncture can regulate BKCa channels after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, but the precise mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we established a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Model rats received electroacupuncture of 1 mA and 2 Hz at Shuigou (GV26) for 10 minutes, once every 12 hours for a total of six times in 72 hours. We found that in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury rats, ischemic changes in the cerebral cortex were mitigated after electroacupuncture. Moreover, BKCa channel protein and mRNA expression were reduced in the cerebral cortex and neurological function noticeably improved. These changes did not occur after electroacupuncture at a non-acupoint (5 mm lateral to the left side of Shuigou). Thus, our findings indicate that electroacupuncture at Shuigou improves neurological function in rats following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, and may be associated with down-regulation of BKCa channel protein and mRNA expression. Additionally, our results suggest that the Shuigou acupoint has functional specificity.

  17. [Exploration and practice of research-based teaching in the course of theory of Meridians and Acupoints for acupuncture and tuina specialty].

    PubMed

    Liu, Mai-Lan; Yuan, Yi-Qin; Chang, Xiao-Rong; Luo, Jian; Liu, Mi

    2014-08-01

    For the purpose of exploring the teaching reform model and method, also promoting the quality of talents in acupuncture and tuina field, the research-based teaching model is applied into the course of Theory of Meridians and Acupoints. This method includes two parts of teaching and learning. For teachers, they bring modern research focus and trend into teaching through questionnaire survey among students, aiming to integrate the education inside and outside class. For students, they are guided to resolve the opening, enlightening and scalable issues through consulting abundant resources of literature and database to achieve autonomous participation in the course of learning. By this teaching method, it is expected to train the student's ability of expanding their thinking, as well as discovering, analyzing and solving the problem.

  18. Infrared thermography and meridian-effect evidence and explanation in Bell's palsy patients treated by moxibustion at the Hegu (LI4) acupoint

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Ling; Li, Gaobo; Yang, Yiling; Deng, Xiufang; Cai, Peisi

    2012-01-01

    Subjects with Bell's palsy and healthy individuals were treated with moxibustion thermal stimulation on the Hegu (LI4) acupoint; an infrared thermal imaging system was used to observe facial-temperature changes. Bell's palsy patients developed low or high temperatures at the affected side, with poor symmetry. Healthy people showed high temperatures on the forehead, medial angle of the eye, nasal ala and around the lips, but low temperatures on bilateral cheeks, thus forming a “T-type hot area” in the face, with good temperature symmetry. Moxibustion treatment for 11 minutes significantly improved high asymmetry in temperature in the faces of Bell's palsy patients. This evidence indicates that moxibustion treatment on Hegu enables increases in facial temperatures in healthy people and Bell's palsy patients, especially around the lips. Moxibustion stimulation at the Hegu not only improves the global circulation but also has specific effects on the lips in Bell's palsy patients, but the underlying mechanism needs further investigation. PMID:25745463

  19. Effect of low frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation of TE5 (waiguan) and PC6 (neiguan) acupoints on cold-induced pain

    PubMed Central

    Montenegro, Eduardo José Nepomuceno; Guimarães de Alencar, Geisa; Rocha de Siqueira, Gisela; Guerino, Marcelo Renato; Maia, Juliana Netto; Araújo de Oliveira, Daniella

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study assesse the effect of low frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) of theTE5 (waiguan) and PC6 (neiguan) acupoints on cold-induced pain. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-eight subjects were divided by convenience into three groups: TENS with electrodes of 1 cm2 area, TENS with electrodes of area 15 cm2 and a placebo group. The study consisted of three phases: cold-induced pain without electroanalgesia, cold-induced pain with electroanalgesia or placebo, and cold-induced pain post-electroanalgesia or placebo. [Results] Acupuncture like TENS increased the pain threshold latency during treatment (45.7 ± 11.7s) compared to pre-treatment (30.9 ± 8.9s) in the TENS group with 1 cm2 electrodes. In the TENS group with 15 cm2 electrodes, the pain threshold latency increased at post-treatment (36.2 ± 12.9s) compared to pre-treatment (25.5 ± 7.4s). The placebo group showed no significant changes. The group with 1 cm2 electrodes showed a significantly higher pain threshold latency (45.7 ± 11.7s) than the other two groups. At post-treatment, the pain threshold latencies of both the 1 cm2 (39.4 ± 11.5s) and 15 cm2 (36.2 ± 12.9s) TENS group were higher than that of the placebo group (22.4 ± 7.4s). [Conclusion] Acupuncture like TENS applied to PC6 and TE5 acupoints increased the pain threshold latency. The pain intensity was reduced by TENS with an electrode area of 1 cm2. PMID:26957732

  20. Transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation in children with autism and its impact on plasma levels of arginine-vasopressin and oxytocin: a prospective single-blinded controlled study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong; Jia, Mei-Xiang; Zhang, Ji-Sui; Xu, Xin-Jie; Shou, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Xiu-Ting; Li, Li; Li, Ning; Han, Song-Ping; Han, Ji-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Acupuncture increases brain levels of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT), which are known to be involved in the modulation of mammalian social behavior. Transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) is often used clinically to produce a similar stimulation to that of acupuncture on the acupoints. In the present study, TEAS was applied to children with autism to assess its therapeutic efficacy. Seventy-six autistic children receiving rehabilitation training were divided into 2 groups: a treatment group receiving TEAS 30min per day, 5 days per week for 12 weeks (n=37) and a control group without TEAS treatment (n=39). A series of rating scales was used in outcome assessment. Plasma levels of AVP and OXT were determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) before and after treatment. The TEAS group showed a significant improvement over the control in their emotional response, fear or anxiety, level/consistency of intellective relations and general impressions on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) as well as improvements in the sensory and related factors in the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC). In addition, the varieties of accepted food increased after TEAS treatment. It appears that TEAS was effective in autistic children who showed passive and aloof behavior, but not in those who were active but odd. The plasma level of AVP was significantly higher in the TEAS group than in the control group after the intervention. In addition, the change in the plasma AVP level paralleled the improvement of some of the behavior factors in CARS, including adaptation to environmental change, listening response, perceptive response and fear or anxiety. It is concluded that TEAS is effective for the treatment of autistic children with a passive and aloof social interaction style. Changes in plasma levels of AVP and possibly OXT may be involved in mediating the therapeutic effect of TEAS.

  1. Behavioral Changes and Hippocampus Glucose Metabolism in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice via Electro-acupuncture at Governor Vessel Acupoints

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jin; Tang, Yinshan; Li, Yujie; Gao, Kai; Shi, Xudong; Li, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Investigating the effects of electro-acupuncture (EA) treatment on mice with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), using Morris water maze (MWM) for spatial learning and memory behavior tests combined with micro-positron emission tomography (micro-PET) imaging for glucose metabolism in hippocampus. Methods: Thirty seven-month-old APP/PS1 mice were randomly divided into AD Model group (AD group), medicine group (M group) and EA group, C57BL/6 mice were used for Normal control group (N group), n = 10 in each group. Mice in M group received donepezil intervention by gavage with dose at 0.92 mg/kg. EA was applied at Baihui (GV20) and Yintang (GV29) acupoints for 20 min then pricked at Shuigou (GV26) acupoint, while mice in N, M and AD groups were received restriction for 20 min, with all treatment administrated once a day for 15 consecutive days. After the treatment, MWM was performed to observe behavioral changes in mice, then hippocampus glucose metabolism level was tested by micro-PET imaging. Results: Compared with that of AD group, the escape latency of M and EA groups declined significantly (P < 0.01), while the proportion of the platform quadrant swimming distance in total swimming distance showed an obvious increase (P < 0.01), and EA group occupied a higher percentage than that in M group. The micro-PET imaging showed that mice in AD group performed a lower glucose metabolic rate in hippocampus compared with N group (P < 0.01). Both M and EA groups presented a significant higher injected dose compared with AD group (P < 0.01), and the uptake rate of EA group was higher than M group. Conclusion: Both donepezil and EA have therapeutic effects on AD mice. To a certain extent, EA shows a better efficacy in treatment of AD by improving the spatial learning and memory ability, while also enhancing glucose metabolism in hippocampus. PMID:28174534

  2. Low-frequency electroacupuncture suppresses carrageenan-induced paw inflammation in mice via sympathetic post-ganglionic neurons, while high-frequency EA suppression is mediated by the sympathoadrenal medullary axis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Woo; Uh, Dong-Kyu; Yoon, Seo-Yeon; Roh, Dae-Hyun; Kwon, Young-Bae; Han, Ho-Jae; Lee, Hye-Jung; Beitz, Alvin J; Lee, Jang-Hern

    2008-03-28

    Although the frequency-dependent antinociceptive mechanisms of electroacupuncture (EA) have been well demonstrated, the anti-inflammatory mechanisms that underlie the suppressive effects induced by different frequencies of EA stimulation on peripheral inflammation are largely unknown. We have previously reported that EA stimulation can activate the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and that this activation is responsible for the EA-induced suppression of zymosan-induced leukocyte migration. The present study was designed to evaluate the differential effect of low (1Hz, LF EA) versus high (120Hz, HF EA) frequency EA stimulation on SNS activation and ultimately on carrageenan-induced inflammation. Immediately after carrageenan injection, we applied either LF EA or HF EA bilaterally to the Zusanli (ST36) acupoints. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of EA (EA-AI), paw volume and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, a marker of infiltrated leukocytes, were measured and the paw withdrawal latency to noxious heat stimulation was also assessed. Both LF EA and HF EA significantly suppressed the carrageenan-induced paw edema and MPO activity. Moreover, thermal hyperalgesia was strongly attenuated in both the LF EA and HF EA groups. Adrenalectomy significantly diminished HF EA-AI without affecting LF EA-AI. Pretreatment with the corticosterone receptor antagonist, RU-486 did not affect either LF EA- or HF EA-AI. On the other hand, administration of 6-hydroxydopamine (a neurotoxin for peripheral sympathetic nerve endings) selectively blocked LF EA-AI. Propranolol (a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist) completely abolished both LF EA- and HF EA-AI. The results of this study suggest that the suppressive effects of LF EA on carrageenan-induced paw inflammation are mediated by sympathetic post-ganglionic neurons, while the suppressive effects of HF EA are mediated by the sympatho-adrenal medullary axis.

  3. Acupuncture inhibits oxidative stress and rotational behavior in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rat.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong-Peng; Ju, Wei-Ping; Li, Zhen-Guang; Wang, Dao-Zhen; Wang, Yuan-Chen; Xie, An-Mu

    2010-06-08

    Increasing evidence suggests the beneficial effects of acupuncture on Parkinson's disease (PD). Although clinical evidence for the acupuncture anti-Parkinson's disease effect has been demonstrated, the precise mechanism still remains elusive. It has been suggested a relationship between PD and reactive oxygen species (ROS) can result in neurodegeneration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the status of oxidative stress, as well as the antioxidant enzyme response, and the role of acupuncture stimulation at GB34 (Yanglingquan), LR3 (Taichong), ST36 (Zusanli) and SP10 (Xuehai) acupoints on regulating oxidative stress in the nigrostriatal system in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned rat. Two weeks after unilateral injection of 6-OHDA into the left medial forebrain bundle (MFB), an apomorphine induced rotational behavior test was performed. The levels of enzymatic, viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and nonenzymatic, viz., reduced glutathione (GSH), and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the nigrostriatal system were measured to assess the oxidative stress status. Brain MDA levels significantly increased, while GSH levels were decreased in impaired groups with 6-OHDA injection only, accompanied by a marked reduction in the level of SOD and GSH-Px. The levels of oxidative stress related parameters except CAT, as well as the rotational asymmetry, were reversed by acupuncture stimulation. These results showed that acupuncture treatment displayed antioxidative and/or neuroprotective properties in the 6-OHDA lesioned rat and these protective properties might be mediated, at least in part, by involving regulation of the antioxidant defense system.

  4. Electroacupuncture inhibits apoptosis of splenic lymphocytes in traumatized rats through modulation of the TNF-α/NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Wu, Huaxing; Chi, Meng; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Guonian; Li, Hulun

    2015-01-01

    Surgical trauma leads to a severe deterioration of the immune system. Electroacupuncture (EA) may improve the immunodeficiency that occurs following surgery; however, the underlying signaling mechanisms require further study. In the present study, 40 rats were equally randomized into four groups: Control; Control + EA; Trauma; Trauma + EA. EA was applied at the 'Zusanli' (ST36) and 'Lanwei' (Extra37) acupoints, immediately following surgery. The splenic T cells were isolated from the rats 24 h after surgery. The apoptotic rate of the lymphocytes was measured by flow cytometric analysis, and western blotting was used to determine the protein expression levels of caspase-3, caspase-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1). The DNA binding activity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB was determined using Trans-AM® ELISA-based kits. The results of the present study showed that surgical trauma induced apoptosis of splenic lymphocytes, and significantly increased the protein expression levels of caspase-3 and caspase-8. This was accompanied by increased expression levels of TNF-α and TNFR1, and a marked reduction in the activity of NF-κB in splenic T cells. Administration of EA significantly decreased the expression levels of caspase-3, caspase-8, TNF-α and TNFR1, elevated the activity of NF-κB, and suppressed the apoptotic rate of the lymphocytes. The data suggests that EA may inhibit the apoptosis of splenic lymphocytes induced by surgical trauma, and ameliorate the postoperative immunosuppression. This may be mediated by the downregulation of TNF-α expression levels and upregulation of the activity of NF-κB.

  5. Acupuncture Decreases NF-κB p65, miR-155, and miR-21 and Increases miR-146a Expression in Chronic Atrophic Gastritis Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jialing; Huang, Kangbai; Zhong, Guoxin; Huang, Yong; Li, Suhe; Qu, Shanshan; Zhang, Jiping

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture has been used to treat chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for centuries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of acupuncture at Zusanli (ST36), Zhongwan (CV12), and Pishu (BL20) acupoints on weight changes of rats, histological changes of gastric glands, and expressions changes of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65, microRNA- (miR-) 155, miR-21, and miR-146a in CAG rats induced by N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) combined with irregular diet. Consequently, we found that acupuncture treatment elevated body weight of rats significantly when compared to the model group. By observing histological changes, we found that the acupuncture group showed better improvement of gastric mucosa injury than the model group. Our results also demonstrated upregulation of NF-κB p65, miR-155, and miR-21 in gastric tissue of CAG rats and a positive correlation between miR-155 and miR-21. Relatively, expression of miR-146a was downregulated and negative correlation relationships between miR-146a and miR-155/miR-21 in CAG rats were observed. Additionally, expressions of NF-κB p65, miR-155, and miR-21 were downregulated and miR-146a was upregulated after acupuncture treatment. Taken together, our data imply that acupuncture can downregulate NF-κB p65, miR-155, and miR-21 and upregulate miR-146a expression in CAG rats. NF-κB p65, miR-155, miR-21, and miR-146a may play important roles in therapeutic effect of acupuncture in treating CAG. PMID:27293468

  6. The Timing of Acupuncture Stimulation Does Not Influence Anesthetic Requirement

    PubMed Central

    Chernyak, Grigory; Sengupta, Papiya; Lenhardt, Rainer; Liem, Edwin; Doufas, Anthony G.; Sessler, Daniel I.; Akça, Ozan

    2005-01-01

    Studies suggest that acupuncture is more effective when induced before induction of general anesthesia than afterwards. We tested the hypothesis that electro-acupuncture initiated 30 minutes before induction reduces anesthetic requirement more than acupuncture initiated after induction. Seven volunteers were each anesthetized with desflurane on 3 study days. Needles were inserted percutaneously at 4 acupuncture points thought to produce analgesia in the upper abdominal area and provide generalized sedative and analgesic effects: Zusanli (St36), Sanyinjiao (Sp6), Liangqiu (St34), and Hegu (LI4). Needles were stimulated at 2-Hz and 10-Hz, with frequencies alternating at two-second intervals. On Preinduction day, electro-acupuncture was started 30 minutes before induction of anesthesia and maintained throughout the study. On At-induction day, needles were positioned before induction of anesthesia, but electro-acupuncture stimulation was not initiated until after induction. On Control day, electrodes were positioned near the acupoints, but needles were not inserted. Noxious electrical stimulation was administered via 25-G needles on the upper abdomen (70 mA, 100 Hz, 10 seconds). Desflurane concentration was increased 0.5% when movement occurred and decreased 0.5% when it did not. These up-and-down sequences continued until volunteers crossed from movement to no-movement 4 times. The P50 of logistic regression identified desflurane requirement. Desflurane requirement was similar on the Control (5.2±0.6%, mean±SD), Preinduction (5.0±0.8%), and At-induction (4.7±0.3%, P=0.125) days. This type of acupuncture is thus unlikely to facilitate general anesthesia or decrease the need for anesthetic drugs. PMID:15673863

  7. Repeated electroacupuncture attenuating of apelin expression and function in the rostral ventrolateral medulla in stress-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng-Rong; Xia, Chun-Mei; Jiang, Mei-Yan; Zhu, Min-Xia; Zhu, Ji-Min; Du, Dong-Shu; Liu, Min; Wang, Jin; Zhu, Da-Nian

    2013-08-01

    Studies have revealed that apelin is a novel multifunctional peptide implicated both in blood pressure (BP) regulation and cardiac function control. Evidence shows that apelin and its receptor (APJ) in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) may play an important role in central BP regulation; however, its role is controversial and very few reports have shown the relationship between acupuncture and apelin. Our study aims to both investigate the apelinergic system role in stress-induced hypertension (SIH) and determine whether acupuncture therapy effects on hypertension involve the apelinergic system in the RVLM. We established the stress-induced hypertensive rat (SIHR) model using electric foot-shock stressors with noise interventions. The expression of both apelin and the APJ receptor in the RVLM neurons was examined by immunohistochemical staining and Western blots. The results showed apelin expression increased remarkably in SIHR while APJ receptor expression showed no significant difference between control and SIHR groups. Microinjection of apelin-13 into the RVLM of control rats or SIHR produced pressor and tachycardic effects. Furthermore, effects induced by apelin-13 in SIHR were significantly greater than those of control rats. In addition, repetitive electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation at the Zusanli (ST-36) acupoint attenuated hypertension and apelin expression in the RVLM in SIHR; it also attenuated the pressor effect elicited by exogenous apelin-13 microinjection in SIHR. The results suggest that augmented apelin in the RVLM was part of the manifestations of SIH; the antihypertensive effects of EA might be associated with the attenuation of apelin expression and function in the RVLM, which might be a novel role for EA in SIH setting.

  8. Effectiveness of Stimulation of Acupoint KI 1 by Artemisia vulgaris (Moxa) for the Treatment of Essential Hypertension: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaochen; Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Guoyan; Wang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Objective. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials has been performed to assess the effectiveness of stimulation of acupoint KI 1 by Artemisia vulgaris (the Japanese name is moxa) to lower blood pressure compared to antihypertensive drugs. Methods and Findings. Articles published from 1980 to August 2013 in databases of CENTRAL, Pubmed, CBM, CNKI, VIP, and online clinical trial registry websites were searched. Studies included were randomized controlled trials (RCTs); moxibustion-type intervention on KI 1 compared with antihypertensive drugs; meta-analysis showed superior effects of moxibustion plus antihypertensive drugs on systolic blood pressure (WMD: −4.91 [−7.54, −2.28]; P = 0.0003) but no superior effects on diastolic blood pressure (WMD: −6.38 [−17.17, 4.41]; P = 0.25). Conclusions. Our systematic review of the current literature shows a beneficial effect of using moxibustion interventions on KI 1 to lower blood pressure compared to antihypertensive drugs. However, the results are influenced by the existing differences in design of the current trials. PMID:24744807

  9. Comparison of the Effects of Maternal Supportive Care and Acupressure (BL32 Acupoint) on Pregnant Women's Pain Intensity and Delivery Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Masoudi, Zahra; Hadianfard, Mohammad Javad

    2014-01-01

    Delivery is considered as one of the most painful experiences of women's life. The present study aimed to compare the effects of supportive care and acupressure on the pregnant women's pain intensity and delivery outcome. In this experimental study, 150 pregnant women were randomly divided into supportive care, acupressure, and control groups. The intensity of pain was measured using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The supportive care group received both physical and emotional cares. In the acupressure group, on the other hand, BL32 acupoint was pressed during the contractions. Then, the data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results revealed significant difference among the three groups regarding the intensity of pain after the intervention (P < 0.001). Besides, the highest rate of natural vaginal delivery was observed in the supportive care group (94%) and the acupressure group (92%), while the highest rate of cesarean delivery was related to the control group (40%) and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The results showed that maternal supportive care and acupressure during labor reduced the intensity of pain and improved the delivery outcomes. Therefore, these methods can be introduced to the medical team as effective strategies for decreasing delivery pain. This trial is registered with the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trial Code IRCT2014011011706N5. PMID:25210629

  10. Comparison of the effects of maternal supportive care and acupressure (BL32 acupoint) on pregnant women's pain intensity and delivery outcome.

    PubMed

    Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Masoudi, Zahra; Hadianfard, Mohammad Javad; Kasraeian, Maryam; Zare, Najaf

    2014-01-01

    Delivery is considered as one of the most painful experiences of women's life. The present study aimed to compare the effects of supportive care and acupressure on the pregnant women's pain intensity and delivery outcome. In this experimental study, 150 pregnant women were randomly divided into supportive care, acupressure, and control groups. The intensity of pain was measured using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The supportive care group received both physical and emotional cares. In the acupressure group, on the other hand, BL32 acupoint was pressed during the contractions. Then, the data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results revealed significant difference among the three groups regarding the intensity of pain after the intervention (P < 0.001). Besides, the highest rate of natural vaginal delivery was observed in the supportive care group (94%) and the acupressure group (92%), while the highest rate of cesarean delivery was related to the control group (40%) and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The results showed that maternal supportive care and acupressure during labor reduced the intensity of pain and improved the delivery outcomes. Therefore, these methods can be introduced to the medical team as effective strategies for decreasing delivery pain. This trial is registered with the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trial Code IRCT2014011011706N5.

  11. A physiological perspective for utility or futility of alcohol-based hand rub gel against nausea-vomiting: is it P-6 acupoint or transnasal aroma?

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepak; Mazumdar, Ashish; Stellini, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Nausea-vomiting is a common and unpleasant phenomenon with numerous underlying mechanisms and pathways that are not always well elucidated. In clinical practice, refractory nausea-vomiting is encountered in several settings. Antiemetic medications may reduce these symptoms but are not always effective in all patients. In the absence of a well-defined optimal strategy for management of nausea-vomiting, the search for better approaches to treat this distressing symptom continues. One of the alternative treatment approaches is a compounded formulation called ABHR gel that is comprised of multiple antiemetic medications and has been shown to be useful for symptomatic relief in some patients with refractory nausea-vomiting. It has been suggested that alternative mechanisms should be explored to explain the perceived efficacy of ABHR gel, because transdermal absorption leading to nil-to-minimal or subtherapeutic blood concentrations of active ingredients does not explain the role of ABHR gel in the treatment of nausea-vomiting. In the current paper, we discuss possible mechanisms that may explain ABHR transdermal gel's efficacy. Compounded ABHR transdermal gel formulation's efficacy in antagonizing nausea-vomiting that has been recently questioned may be explained by alternative mechanisms mediated through the P-6 acupoint stimulation and facial-nasal, cooling-related counterstimulation.

  12. The evaluation of clinical therapy effects of oral western medicine combined with magnetic pulse acupoint stimulation in treating elderly patients with coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xin; Guo, Li; Jiang, Zheng-Ming; Xu, Ai-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Treat the patients suffered from coronary heart disease with oral western medicine, combining with magnetic pulse acupoint stimulation, and observe the therapeutic effects of such combination therapy method. Methods: 56 old people with coronary heart disease are randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group. Both groups of patients are treated by the routine drugs, in addition, the patients of the treatment group are treated by magnetic pulse therapy additionally. Compare clinical symptoms, blood lipid and blood rheological indexes of the patients in the two groups when they are selected and after 30 days’ treatment. Results: after 30 days’ treatment, it is found that clinical symptoms, blood lipid and blood rheological indexes of the patients in the treatment group are significantly improved compared with those when they are selected and those of the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: patients with coronary heart disease, treated by pulsed magnetic therapy and the conventional drug intervention, had relieved synptom, improve blood lipid and heart blood supply function. PMID:26309664

  13. Downregulation of the spinal NMDA receptor NR2B subunit during electro-acupuncture relief of chronic visceral hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongping; Zhang, Yuhua; Qi, Debo; Li, Weimin

    2017-01-01

    The involvement of spinal NR2B, a N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit, in the therapeutic effect of electro-acupuncture (EA) on chronic visceral hyperalgesia was investigated. Chronic visceral hyperalgesia was induced using an irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) model in rats. Graded colorectal distention (CRD) stimuli at strengths of 20, 40, 60 and 80 mmHg were applied, and behavioral tests were performed to measure the abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) in response to the CRD stimuli and assess the severity of the visceral hyperalgesia. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal intact (control) group, IBS model (model) group, EA-treated IBS rats (EA) group and sham EA-treated IBS rats (sham EA) group. For the EA treatment, electric stimuli were applied through needles inserted into two acupoints [Zu-san-li (ST-36) and Shang-ju-xu (ST-37)] in both hind limbs, while the sham EA treatment consisted of only the insertion of needles into these same acupoints without an application of electric stimuli. Our results showed that AWR scores of the model group responding to CRD stimuli of 20, 40, 60 and 80 mmHg were significantly increased. These increased scores subsequently decreased following EA treatment (P < 0.05) compared with those for the other groups. The expression of NR2B in the superficial laminae (SDH, laminae I and II), nucleus proprius (NP, laminae III and IV), neck of the dorsal horn (NECK, laminae V and VI) and central canal region (lamina X) at thoracolumbar (T13-L2) and lumbosacral (L6-S2) segmental level significantly increased in the model group versus the control group (P < 0.05) and significantly decreased after EA treatment (P < 0.05). There were no significant changes in neither AWR scores nor expression of the NR2B subunit in these spinal regions after the sham EA treatment. These results confirm that EA can relieve chronic visceral hyperalgesia in IBS model rats and suggest that such an effect is possibly mediated through the

  14. [Using Acupressure to Improve Abdominal Bloating in a Hemicolectomy Patient: A Nursing Experience].

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yi-Ling; Hsu, Chun-Hung; Tseng, Hui-Chen

    2015-10-01

    This article describes a nursing experience applying the protocol of bilateral Zusanli (ST-36) acupressure to reduce abdominal bloating in a colon cancer patient who had undergone a right hemicolectomy. The period of care was between November 13 and November 23, 2014. Data were collected through direct care, interviews, observation, and physical assessment. The main health problems of the patient included anxiety, surgical wound pain, and abdominal bloating. We provided pre- and postoperative routine nursing care, wound pain management, and the protocol of Zusanli (ST-36) acupressure for reducing abdominal bloating. Results of care recorded the first passage of flatus and intestinal motility during the second postoperative day, with no complaints of bloating from the fourth postoperative day. The subject exhibited a relaxed mood and slept soundly following each acupressure session. Furthermore, the subject reported experiencing no abdominal bloating during the week following discharge, during which he continued to follow the acupressure protocol. This article provides support via an instance of nursing care for the effectiveness of the Zusanli (ST-36) acupressure in improving abdominal bloating and thus reducing the complications of hemicolectomy surgery.

  15. Transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation alleviates the hyperandrogenism of polycystic ovarian syndrome rats by regulating the expression of P450arom and CTGF in the ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Fan; Liang, Yi; Zhou, Jue; Ma, Rui-Jie; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Fang-Fang; Wu, Yan; Fang, Jian-Qiao

    2015-01-01

    The present study was to investigate the effects of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) in alleviating the hyperandrogenism of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) model rats induced by testosterone propionate and the possible underlying mechanism. Thirty-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal control, PCOS model and TEAS groups with twelve rats in each group. The PCOS model rats were established by single injection of testosterone propionate at 9th day after birth, and the status of estrous cyclicity for each rat was observed. When the 8-week TEAS treatment completed, the weight of body, uterus and ovaries of the rats were respectively measured. The serum levels of total testosterone (TT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), androstenedione, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol (E2) were detected. The mRNA and protein expression levels of aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in the ovaries of the rats were respectively measured with real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. The TEAS treatment significantly improved the estrous cycles of the PCOS rats and the TEAS group displayed significantly lower average body and ovaries weights than the PCOS model group (P < 0.05). TEAS significantly decreased the serum TT, free androgen index (FAI), androstenedione and LH/FSH levels, and increased the serum FSH levels of the PCOS rats (P < 0.05). The TEAS treatment significantly increased the P450arom mRNA as well as protein expression levels and significantly decreased the CTGF mRNA as well as protein expression levels in the ovaries of the PCOS rats (P < 0.05). We concluded that it is through regulating the P450arom and CTGF expression levels in the ovaries that TEAS significantly alleviates the hyperandrogenism of PCOS rats induced by testosterone propionate. PMID:26221326

  16. Modulation of the Default Mode Network in First-Episode, Drug-Naïve Major Depressive Disorder via Acupuncture at Baihui (GV20) Acupoint

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Demao; Liao, Hai; Duan, Gaoxiong; Liu, Yanfei; He, Qianchao; Liu, Huimei; Tang, Lijun; Pang, Yong; Tao, Jien

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed that acupuncture modulates the default mode network (DMN) in healthy subjects and patients with certain disorder. However, few studies have been performed to investigate whether or not acupuncture might modulate the DMN in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Thereby, the aim of the present study was to assess alterations of the DMN induced by acupuncture stimulation in patients with first-episode, drug-naïve MDD. Materials and Methods: Twenty nine patients with first-episode, drug-naïve MDD and 29 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. All the healthy subjects underwent 6-min resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) scan. While patients underwent acupuncture stimulation for 20-min electro-acupuncture stimulation (EAS) at Baihui acupoint (GV20) and two 6-min R-fMRI scans before and after EAS. Based on the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PC/PCC) as the seed region, functional connectivity (FC) method was adopted to examine abnormal DMN in patients by comparing with healthy subjects and to evaluate the influence of EAS on intrinsic connectivity within the DMN in patients with MDD. Results: Compared to healthy subjects, MDD patients had abnormal DMN. Moreover, results showed that EAS at GV20 induced increased FC between the PC/PCC and bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and decreased FC between the PC/PCC and left middle prefrontal cortex, left angualr gyrus and bilateral hippocampus/parahippocampus (HIPP/paraHIPP) in patients with MDD, which were the main brain regions showing significant differences between the patients and healthy subjects. Conclusion: Our findings provide imaging evidence to support that GV20-related acupuncture stimulation may modulate the DMN in patients with first-episode, drug-naïve MDD. This study may partly interpret the neural mechanisms of acupuncture at GV20 which is used to treat patients with MDD in clinical. PMID:27242492

  17. Acupuncture at Houxi (SI 3) acupoint for acute neck pain caused by stiff neck: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhong-ren; Yue, Jin-huan; Tian, Hong-zhao; Zhang, Qin-hong

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The use of acupuncture has been suggested for the treatment of acute neck pain caused by stiff neck in China. However, current evidence is insufficient to draw any conclusions about its efficacy. Therefore this pilot study was designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of acupuncture at the Houxi (SI3) acupoint for treatment of acute neck pain. Methods/analysis This pilot study will be a two-parallel-group, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial. Thirty-six stiff neck participants with acute neck pain will be recruited and randomly divided into two groups in a 1:1 ratio. Participants in the control group will receive massage on the local neck region (5 min each session, three times a day for 3 days). In addition to massage, patients in the treatment group will receive acupuncture (one session a day for 3 days). Measures will be taken at 0, 3 and 15 days. The primary outcome is the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ). The secondary outcome is the Short Form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ). Ethics/dissemination The protocol for this pilot randomised clinical trial has undergone ethics scrutiny and been approved by the ethics review boards of the First Affiliated Hospital of Heilongjiang University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Permission number: HZYLL201303502). The findings of this study will provide important clinical evidence on the feasibility and efficacy of acupuncture treatment for stiff neck patients with acute neck pain. In addition, it will explore the feasibility of further acupuncture research. Trial registration number ChiCTR-TRC-13003911. PMID:25537784

  18. Transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation alleviates the hyperandrogenism of polycystic ovarian syndrome rats by regulating the expression of P450arom and CTGF in the ovaries.

    PubMed

    Qu, Fan; Liang, Yi; Zhou, Jue; Ma, Rui-Jie; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Fang-Fang; Wu, Yan; Fang, Jian-Qiao

    2015-01-01

    The present study was to investigate the effects of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) in alleviating the hyperandrogenism of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) model rats induced by testosterone propionate and the possible underlying mechanism. Thirty-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal control, PCOS model and TEAS groups with twelve rats in each group. The PCOS model rats were established by single injection of testosterone propionate at 9th day after birth, and the status of estrous cyclicity for each rat was observed. When the 8-week TEAS treatment completed, the weight of body, uterus and ovaries of the rats were respectively measured. The serum levels of total testosterone (TT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), androstenedione, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol (E2) were detected. The mRNA and protein expression levels of aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in the ovaries of the rats were respectively measured with real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. The TEAS treatment significantly improved the estrous cycles of the PCOS rats and the TEAS group displayed significantly lower average body and ovaries weights than the PCOS model group (P < 0.05). TEAS significantly decreased the serum TT, free androgen index (FAI), androstenedione and LH/FSH levels, and increased the serum FSH levels of the PCOS rats (P < 0.05). The TEAS treatment significantly increased the P450arom mRNA as well as protein expression levels and significantly decreased the CTGF mRNA as well as protein expression levels in the ovaries of the PCOS rats (P < 0.05). We concluded that it is through regulating the P450arom and CTGF expression levels in the ovaries that TEAS significantly alleviates the hyperandrogenism of PCOS rats induced by testosterone propionate.

  19. The immediate effects of local and adjacent acupuncture on the tibialis anterior muscle: a human study

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Larissa Araujo; de Araujo, João Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Background This study compares the immediate effects of local and adjacent acupuncture on the tibialis anterior muscle and the amount of force generated or strength in Kilogram Force (KGF) evaluated by a surface electromyography. Methods The study consisted of a single blinded trial of 30 subjects assigned to two groups: local acupoint (ST36) and adjacent acupoint (SP9). Bipolar surface electrodes were placed on the tibialis anterior muscle, while a force transducer was attached to the foot of the subject and to the floor. An electromyograph (EMG) connected to a computer registered the KGF and root mean square (RMS) before and after acupuncture at maximum isometric contraction. The RMS values and surface electrodes were analyzed with Student's t-test. Results Thirty subjects were selected from a total of 56 volunteers according to specific inclusion and exclusion criteria and were assigned to one of the two groups for acupuncture. A significant decrease in the RMS values was observed in both ST36 (t = -3.80, P = 0,001) and SP9 (t = 6.24, P = 0.001) groups after acupuncture. There was a decrease in force in the ST36 group after acupuncture (t = -2.98, P = 0.006). The RMS values did not have a significant difference (t = 0.36, P = 0.71); however, there was a significant decrease in strength after acupuncture in the ST36 group compared to the SP9 group (t = 2.51, P = 0.01). No adverse events were found. Conclusion Acupuncture at the local acupoint ST36 or adjacent acupoints SP9 reduced the tibialis anterior electromyography muscle activity. However, acupuncture at SP9 did not decrease muscle strength while acupuncture at ST36 did. PMID:19094211

  20. Electroacupuncture at Baihui (DU20) acupoint up-regulates mRNA expression of NeuroD molecules in the brains of newborn rats suffering in utero fetal distress

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu; Liu, Yan; Lin, Qiao-mei; Xue, Lan; Wang, Wei; Xu, Jian-wen

    2016-01-01

    NeuroD plays a key regulatory effect on differentiation of neural stem cells into mature neurons in the brain. Thus, we assumed that electroacupuncture at Baihui (DU20) acupoint in newborn rats exposed to in utero fetal distress would influence expression of NeuroD. Electroacupuncture at Baihui was performed for 20 minutes on 3-day-old (Day 3) newborn Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to in utero fetal distress; electroacupuncture parameters consisted of sparse and dense waves at a frequency of 2–10 Hz. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR results demonstrated that mRNA expression of NeuroD, a molecule that indicates NeuroD, increased with prolonged time in brains of newborn rats, and peaked on Day 22. The level of mRNA expression was similar between Day 16 and Day 35. These findings suggest that electro acupuncture at Baihui acupoint could effectively increase mRNA expression of molecules involved in NeuroD in the brains of newborn rats exposed to in utero fetal distress. PMID:27212921

  1. Effect of acupoint catgut embedding therapy combined with Chinese medicine for nourishing the kidneys and promoting blood circulation and improving blood glucose and lipid levels as well as the pregnancy rate in obese PCOS patients with infertility

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Wenmin; Zhao, Kai; Yang, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we explored the effect of acupoint catgut embedding combined with Chinese medicine for nourishing kidney and promoting blood circulation as well as improving the glucose and lipid levels and pregnancy rate in obese polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients with infertility. A total of 62 obese patients with PCOS were randomly divided into three groups, 21 of whom were treated with acupoint catgut embedding combined with Chinese medicine, another 21 with catgut embedding therapy, and 20 only with Chinese medicine. We compared the improvement of clinical symptoms and the glucose and lipid levels in the three groups three months after surgery. We found that the effective rate of obesity treatment, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio of acupuncture-drug group and catgut embedding group were significantly lower than those of the Chinese medicine group (P<0.05). A comparison between the acupuncture-drug group and catgut embedding group was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) levels of the three groups were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, following treatment, with the total cholesterol (TC) level being decreased significantly only in the acupuncture-drug group (P<0.05), and the LDL level showing no significant difference (P>0.05). The fast insulins, HOMA-IR, TG, TC levels and periodic cancellation rate of the acupuncture-drug group was significantly reduced compared to those of the catgut embedding group and Chinese medicine group after treatment, whereas the HDL levels, periodic ovulation rate and clinical pregnancy rate were higher (P<0.05). However, a comparison between Chinese medicine group and catgut embedding group was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The incidence rate of luteinized unruptured follicle and ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome of the three groups showed no statistical difference (P>0.05). In conclusion, the study has shown that

  2. Development of acupoints discrimination system using electric properties of acupoints and non-acupoints.

    PubMed

    Myoung, Hyoun-Seok; Choi, Hyun-Seok; Lee, Kyoung-Joung; Lee, Yong-Heum

    2008-01-01

    The conventional acupuncture-point stimulus pattern uses direct current (DC) to discriminate acupuncture point and meridian lines, which are fundamental to diagnosis and treatment in Oriental medicine. However, DC is insufficiently reliable in discriminating these acupuncture points and lines. To overcome these problems, the authors extracted optimal parameters (e.g., square-like waveform with a frequency of 3 to approximately 5 kHz) with a single power alternating current (SPAC) stimulus pattern of 1.28V. The SPAC stimulus pattern has little or no effect on cells and the body's physiological state and minimizes polarization and ionization of cells because it uses low voltage and alternating current. The authors developed a new meridian discrimination system that can be used with the SPAC.

  3. High frequency electro-acupuncture enhances striatum DAT and D1 receptor expression, but decreases D2 receptor level in 6-OHDA lesioned rats.

    PubMed

    Rui, Gao; Guangjian, Zhang; Yong, Wang; Jie, Feng; Yanchao, Cui; Xi, Jia; Fen, Li

    2013-01-15

    The direct effects of electro-acupuncture (EA) on the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients remain elusive. In the present study, 0, 2 or 100Hz EA was applied to acupoints Sanyinjiao (SP6), Yanglingquan (GB34) and Zusanli (ST36) in a rat model unilaterally lesioned by 6-hydroxydopamine. Rotational behavior tests were performed and the animals were then decapitated. Levels of striatal dopamine (DA), dopamine transporter, and D1- and D2-like DA receptors were subsequently evaluated. EA at 100 Hz was shown to significantly enhance survival of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (52.10 ± 11.41% of the level on the non-lesioned rats vs. 21.22 ± 5.52% in the non-EA group, P<0.05) and reduce motor deficits (207.80 ± 31.14 vs. 476.11 ± 68.80 turns/30 min, P<0.05), whereas it only slightly restored the 6-hydroxydopamine-induced loss of striatal DA (P>0.05 vs. the non-EA group). There was a 253.78% increase in dopamine transporter protein expression in the striatum in the 100 Hz EA group (P<0.05 vs. the non-EA group). Moreover, high frequency EA induced increases in striatal D1-like receptor mRNA and protein levels of 81.88% and 62.62%, respectively (P<0.001 and P<0.05 vs. the non-EA group). However, the D2-like DA receptor up-regulation observed in the non-EA group was suppressed in high frequency group (P>0.05 vs. the sham operation group). These findings suggest that high-frequency EA might work by acting on presynaptic dopamine transporter and postsynaptic dopamine receptors simultaneously to achieve a therapeutic effect in PD patients and models. This might shed some light on the mechanism by which EA affects the DA neurotransmitter system.

  4. Isolation of genes involved in the preventive effect of electroacupuncture at Fenglong acupoint (ST40) on hypercholesterolemia mice by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) combined with negative subtraction chain (NSC) technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingjie; Zhang, Yizheng; Yan, Wenqi; Kang, Jinmei; Kang, Yaoxia; Lie, Min

    2006-01-01

    We have shown that electroacupuncture (EA) at Fenglong acupoint (ST40) has the cholesterol-lowering effect in hypercholesterolemia mice. The present study was designed to study preventive effect of EA at ST40 on hypercholesterolemia. C57BL/6j mice were randomly divided into normal group (NG), hypercholesterolemia group (HG) and EA prevention group (EPG). NG were fed chow, HG a hypercholesterolemic diet (HD), and EPG the same HD and received EA treatment simultaneously. Lipid profile of both the plasma and liver indicated that EA at ST40 had preventive effect on hypercholesterolemia. Compared with corresponding values in the HG mice, the levels of the hepatic total cholesterol and total triglyceride in the EPG mice lowered 45% and 23% respectively, and the levels of plasma total-, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol in the EPG mice lowered 39%, 37% and 39% respectively. Eleven genes whose expressions were up-regulated in EPG mice compared with HG were isolated using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) combined with negative subtraction chain (NSC) technology, and then confirmed by dot-blot assay. Except two genes whose functions were still unknown, the others were mainly involved in cholesterol metabolism, lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism and immune response. The potential molecular mechanism of preventive effect was discussed.

  5. Spinal GABA receptors mediate the suppressive effect of electroacupuncture on cold allodynia in rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Hyun; Han, Jae-Bok; Kim, Sun-Kwang; Park, Jung-Hyuk; Go, Dong-Hyun; Sun, Boram; Min, Byung-Il

    2010-03-31

    This study was performed to determine whether spinal GABAergic systems mediate the relieving effects of low frequency electroacupuncture (EA) on cold allodynia in a rat tail model of neuropathic pain. For neuropathic surgery, the right superior caudal trunk was resected at the level between the S1 and S2 spinal nerves innervating the tail. Two weeks after the nerve injury, the intrathecal catheter was implanted. Five days after the catheterization, rats were intrathecally injected with gabazine (GABA(A) receptor antagonist, 0.0003, 0.001 or 0.003mug), or saclofen (GABA(B) receptor antagonist, 3, 10 or 30mug). Ten minutes after the injection, EA (2Hz) was applied to the ST36 acupoint for 30min. The cold allodynia was assessed by the tail immersion test (i.e. immersing the tail in cold (4 degrees C) water and measuring the latency of an abrupt tail movement) before and after the EA treatment. EA stimulation at ST36 significantly inhibited the cold allodynia sign, whereas EA at non-acupoint and plain acupuncture at ST36 (without electrical stimulation) did not show antiallodynic effects. Intrathecal administration of gabazine or saclofen blocked the relieving effects of ST36 EA stimulation on cold allodynia. These results suggest that spinal GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors mediate the suppressive effect of low frequency EA on cold allodynia in the tail neuropathic rats.

  6. Acupuncture Alters Expression of Insulin Signaling Related Molecules and Improves Insulin Resistance in OLETF Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jian

    2016-01-01

    To determine effect of acupuncture on insulin resistance in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats and to evaluate expression of insulin signaling components. Rats were divided into three groups: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, OLETF rats, and acupuncture+OLETF rats. Acupuncture was subcutaneously applied to Neiguan (PC6), Zusanli (ST36), and Sanyinjiao (SP6); in contrast, acupuncture to Shenshu (BL23) was administered perpendicularly. For Neiguan (PC6) and Zusanli (ST36), needles were connected to an electroacupuncture (EA) apparatus. Fasting blood glucose (FPG) was measured by glucose oxidase method. Plasma fasting insulin (FINS) and serum C peptide (C-P) were determined by ELISA. Protein and mRNA expressions of insulin signaling molecules were determined by Western blot and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. OLETF rats exhibit increased levels of FPG, FINS, C-P, and homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), which were effectively decreased by acupuncture treatment. mRNA expressions of several insulin signaling related molecules IRS1, IRS2, Akt2, aPKCζ, and GLUT4 were decreased in OLETF rats compared to SD controls. Expression of these molecules was restored back to normal levels upon acupuncture administration. PI3K-p85α was increased in OLETF rats; this increase was also reversed by acupuncture treatment. Acupuncture improves insulin resistance in OLETF rats, possibly via regulating expression of key insulin signaling related molecules. PMID:27738449

  7. Differential spectral power alteration following acupuncture at different designated places revealed by magnetoencephalography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Youbo; Bai, Lijun; Dai, Ruwei; Xue, Ting; Zhong, Chongguang; Liu, Zhenyu; Wang, Hu; Feng, Yuanyuan; Wei, Wenjuan; Tian, Jie

    2012-03-01

    As an ancient therapeutic technique in Traditional Chinese Medicine, acupuncture has been used increasingly in modern society to treat a range of clinical conditions as an alternative and complementary therapy. However, acupoint specificity, lying at the core of acupuncture, still faces many controversies. Considering previous neuroimaging studies on acupuncture have mainly employed functional magnetic resonance imaging, which only measures the secondary effect of neural activity on cerebral metabolism and hemodynamics, in the current study, we adopted an electrophysiological measurement technique named magnetoencephalography (MEG) to measure the direct neural activity. 28 healthy college students were recruited in this study. We filtered MEG data into 5 consecutive frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma band) and grouped 140 sensors into 10 main brain regions (left/right frontal, central, temporal, parietal and occipital regions). Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) based spectral analysis approach was further performed to explore the differential band-limited power change patterns of acupuncture at Stomach Meridian 36 (ST36) using a nearby nonacupoint (NAP) as control condition. Significantly increased delta power and decreased alpha as well as beta power in bilateral frontal ROIs were observed following stimulation at ST36. Compared with ST36, decreased alpha power in left and right central, right parietal as well as right temporal ROIs were detected in NAP group. Our research results may provide additional evidence for acupoint specificity.

  8. Differential neural responses to acupuncture revealed by MEG using wavelet-based time-frequency analysis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    You, Youbo; Bai, Lijun; Dai, Ruwei; Xue, Ting; Zhong, Chongguang; Feng, Yuanyuan; Wang, Hu; Liu, Zhenyu; Tian, Jie

    2011-01-01

    Acupoint specificity, lying at the core of the Traditional Chinese Medicine, still faces many controversies. As previous neuroimaging studies on acupuncture mainly adopted relatively low time-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology and inappropriate block-designed experimental paradigm due to sustained effect, in the current study, we employed a single block-designed paradigm together with high temporal-resolution magnetoencephalography (MEG) technology. We applied time-frequency analysis based upon Morlet wavelet transforming approach to detect differential oscillatory brain dynamics induced by acupuncture at Stomach Meridian 36 (ST36) using a nearby nonacupoint (NAP) as control condition. We observed that frequency power changes were mainly restricted to delta band for both ST36 group and NAP group. Consistently increased delta band power in contralateral temporal regions and decreased power in the counterparts of ipsilateral hemisphere were detected following stimulation at ST36 on the right leg. Compared with ST36, no significant delta ranges were found in temporal regions in NAP group, illustrating different oscillatory brain patterns. Our results may provide additional evidence to support the specificity of acupuncture modulation effects.

  9. Altered hub configurations within default mode network following acupuncture at ST36: a multimodal investigation combining fMRI and MEG.

    PubMed

    You, Youbo; Bai, Lijun; Dai, Ruwei; Cheng, Hao; Liu, Zhenyu; Wei, Wenjuan; Tian, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture, an externally somatosensory stimulation in the Traditional Chinese Medicine, has been proposed about its modulations on the brain's default mode network (DMN). However, it is still unknown on how the internal brain resting networks are modulated and what inferences can be made about the physiological processes underlying these changes. Combining high spatial resolution of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with high temporal resolution of magnetoencephalography (MEG), in the current multimodal study, we sought to explore spatiotemporally whether or not band-specific DMN hub configurations would be induced by verum acupuncture, compared with sham control. Spatial independent component analysis was applied to fMRI data, followed by the discrete regional sources seeded into MEG data. Partial correlation analysis was further adopted to estimate the intrinsic functional connectivity and network hub configurations. One of the most striking findings is that the posterior cingulate cortex is not only validated as a robust DMN hub, but served as a hub only within the delta and gamma bands following the verum acupuncture, compared with its consistently being a DMN hub in sham control group. Our preliminary results may provide a new perspective to lend support for the specificity of neural mechanism underlying acupuncture.

  10. Acupuncture Induces Divergent Alterations of Functional Connectivity within Conventional Frequency Bands: Evidence from MEG Recordings

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Ruwei; Zhong, Chongguang; Xue, Ting; Wang, Hu; Liu, Zhenyu; Wei, Wenjuan; Tian, Jie

    2012-01-01

    As an ancient Chinese healing modality which has gained increasing popularity in modern society, acupuncture involves stimulation with fine needles inserted into acupoints. Both traditional literature and clinical data indicated that modulation effects largely depend on specific designated acupoints. However, scientific representations of acupoint specificity remain controversial. In the present study, considering the new findings on the sustained effects of acupuncture and its time-varied temporal characteristics, we employed an electrophysiological imaging modality namely magnetoencephalography with a temporal resolution on the order of milliseconds. Taken into account the differential band-limited signal modulations induced by acupuncture, we sought to explore whether or not stimulation at Stomach Meridian 36 (ST36) and a nearby non-meridian point (NAP) would evoke divergent functional connectivity alterations within delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands. Whole-head scanning was performed on 28 healthy participants during an eyes-closed no-task condition both preceding and following acupuncture. Data analysis involved calculation of band-limited power (BLP) followed by pair-wise BLP correlations. Further averaging was conducted to obtain local and remote connectivity. Statistical analyses revealed the increased connection degree of the left temporal cortex within delta (0.5–4 Hz), beta (13–30 Hz) and gamma (30–48 Hz) bands following verum acupuncture. Moreover, we not only validated the closer linkage of the left temporal cortex with the prefrontal and frontal cortices, but further pinpointed that such patterns were more extensively distributed in the ST36 group in the delta and beta bands compared to the restriction only to the delta band for NAP. Psychophysical results for significant pain threshold elevation further confirmed the analgesic effect of acupuncture at ST36. In conclusion, our findings may provide a new perspective to lend support for

  11. The successful treatment of pain associated with scar tissue using acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Fang, Sheng

    2014-10-01

    In this case report, a 48-year-old female who had suffered severe scar pain for 3 months was treated with acupuncture using the Wei Ci technique (surrounding the dragon). Scar tissue usually forms after deep trauma, such as piercings, burns, and surgery, to the dermis. In Chinese Medicine, scar tissue causes local Qi and blood stagnation which lead to pain. The Wei Ci technique (surrounding the dragon) and distal points Hegu-LI-4, Taichong-LIV-3, Zusanli-ST-36 were used. The patient received a total of eight treatments in 5 weeks. The scar pain decreased from 7 to 1 or 2 on a Likert scale of 0-10, with 0 being no pain and 10 being the worst pain. Acupuncture may have a good short-term pain-relieving effect on scar pain but its long-term scar-pain-relieving effects are still unclear.

  12. Hippocampal cAMP/PKA/CREB is required for neuroprotective effect of acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian-Qian; Shi, Guang-Xia; Yang, Jing-Wen; Li, Zhao-Xin; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; He, Tian; Wang, Jing; Liu, Li-Ying; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2015-02-01

    Acupuncture has beneficial effects in vascular dementia (VaD) patients. The underlying mechanism, however, remains unknown. The present study was designed to investigate whether the cAMP/PKA/CREB cascade is involved in the mechanism of acupuncture in cerebral multi-infarction rats. In this study, cerebral multi-infarction was modeled in adult Wistar rats by homologous blood clot emboli. After a two-week acupuncture treatment at Zusanli (ST36), hippocampal-dependent memory was tested by employing a radial arm maze test. The hippocampus was isolated for analyses of cAMP concentration, phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity and CREB/pCREB and ERK/pERK expressions. The Morris water maze (MWM) task and CREB phosphorylation were evaluated in the presence of PKA-selective peptide inhibitor (H89). The radial arm maze test results demonstrated that acupuncture treatment at ST36 reversed hippocampal-dependent memory in impaired animals. Compared to those of the impaired group, cAMP concentration, PKA activity and pCREB and pERK expressions were increased following acupuncture therapy. Finally, the blockade of PKA reversed the increase in CREB phosphorylation and the improvement in recognitive function induced by acupuncture treatment. These results suggest that acupuncture could improve hippocampus function by modulating the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway, which represents a molecular mechanism of acupuncture for recognitive function in cerebral multi-infarction rats.

  13. Anti-arthritic effects of Ephedra sinica STAPF herb-acupuncture: inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and adjuvant-induced polyarthritis.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Mi-Jung; Lee, Han-Chang; Kim, Gun-Ho; Lee, Hye-Jung; Shim, Insop; Oh, Seung-Kyu; Kang, Sung-Keel; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2006-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of water distillates of Ephedra sinica STAPF (ES), in herb-acupuncture, on the inflammatory responses of arthritis was investigated using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced human macrophage and adjuvant-induced arthritic rat. The luciferase reporter vectors driven by the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and cyclooxygenase-2 promoters were transiently transfected into U937 cells, which were then differentiated and stimulated by PMA and LPS, respectively, to develop an in vitro anti-inflammation assay system. The luciferase activities, observed in the activated U937 cells, were significantly inhibited by ES herb-acupuncture, compared to those of PD98509 and berberine. To evaluate ES herb-acupuncture as a novel anti-arthritic therapy, a polyarthritic rat model was developed using heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and 50 mul of ES distillate was subcutaneously injected into the ST36 acupoint on each knee joint. While the articular indexes of arthritic rats were evidently decreased by ES herb-acupuncture, their body weights did not regain their initial levels. This may be due to the accelerating effects of ES on weight-loss and fat consumption. The mRNA expressions of TNF-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 genes, which were closely stimulated in the arthritic rat joints, were found to be restored to the normal levels through the ES treatment. In the case of IL-1beta, the recovery was not significant but substantial. The anti-arthritic effect of ES herb-acupuncture was not found in the ES-treated/non-acupoint group. In conclusion, the ES herb-acupuncture into the ST36 acupoint was found to be effective in alleviating the inflammatory response and thus arthritic symptoms in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats.

  14. Study of Driving Fatigue Alleviation by Transcutaneous Acupoints Electrical Stimulations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fuwang; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Driving fatigue is more likely to bring serious safety trouble to traffic. Therefore, accurately and rapidly detecting driving fatigue state and alleviating fatigue are particularly important. In the present work, the electrical stimulation method stimulating the Láogóng point (劳宫PC8) of human body is proposed, which is used to alleviate the mental fatigue of drivers. The wavelet packet decomposition (WPD) is used to extract θ, α, and β subbands of drivers' electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. Performances of the two algorithms (θ + α)/(α + β) and θ/β are also assessed as possible indicators for fatigue detection. Finally, the differences between the drivers with electrical stimulation and normal driving are discussed. It is shown that stimulating the Láogóng point (劳宫PC8) using electrical stimulation method can alleviate driver fatigue effectively during longtime driving. PMID:25254242

  15. Acupuncture stimulation induces neurogenesis in adult brain.

    PubMed

    Nam, Min-Ho; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Choi, Seung-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of adult neurogenesis was a turning point in the field of neuroscience. Adult neurogenesis offers an enormous possibility to open a new therapeutic paradigm of neurodegenerative diseases and stroke. Recently, several studies suggested that acupuncture may enhance adult neurogenesis. Acupuncture has long been an important treatment for brain diseases in the East Asia. The scientific mechanisms of acupuncture treatment for the diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and stroke, have not been clarified yet; however, the neurogenic effect of acupuncture can be a possible reason. Here, we have reviewed the studies on the effect of stimulation at various acupoints for neurogenesis, such as ST36 and GV20. The suggested mechanisms are also discussed including upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, basic fibroblast growth factor and neuropeptide Y, and activation of the function of primo vascular system.

  16. Modulation of electroencephalograph activity by manual acupuncture stimulation in healthy subjects: An autoregressive spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xi-Le; Han, Chun-Xiao

    2013-02-01

    To investigate whether and how manual acupuncture (MA) modulates brain activities, we design an experiment where acupuncture at acupoint ST36 of the right leg is used to obtain electroencephalograph (EEG) signals in healthy subjects. We adopt the autoregressive (AR) Burg method to estimate the power spectrum of EEG signals and analyze the relative powers in delta (0 Hz-4 Hz), theta (4 Hz-8 Hz), alpha (8 Hz-13 Hz), and beta (13 Hz-30 Hz) bands. Our results show that MA at ST36 can significantly increase the EEG slow wave relative power (delta band) and reduce the fast wave relative powers (alpha and beta bands), while there are no statistical differences in theta band relative power between different acupuncture states. In order to quantify the ratio of slow to fast wave EEG activity, we compute the power ratio index. It is found that the MA can significantly increase the power ratio index, especially in frontal and central lobes. All the results highlight the modulation of brain activities with MA and may provide potential help for the clinical use of acupuncture. The proposed quantitative method of acupuncture signals may be further used to make MA more standardized.

  17. Moxibustion regulates inflammatory mediators and colonic mucosal barrier in ulcerative colitis rats

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Tie-Ming; Xu, Na; Ma, Xian-De; Bai, Zeng-Hua; Tao, Xing; Yan, Hong-Chi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To observe the efficacy and mechanism of grain-sized moxibustion at different acupoints in a rat model of ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, UC model, grain-sized moxibustion at a single acupoint (CV 12), grain-sized moxibustion at two acupoints (CV 12 and CV 4), grain-sized moxibustion at three acupoints (CV 12, CV 4, and ST 36), and medication groups (n = 8/group). The UC model was established by enema of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. Direct moxibustion was used once a day for 7 d. Disease activity index (DAI) was evaluated before and after the treatment. Morphologic changes of intestinal tissue were observed under an optical microscope. The expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) in colonic tissue was detected using Western blot, and the levels of occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) mRNAs were detected using reverse transcription PCR. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the intestinal mucosae were incomplete in the model group, glandular structures were irregular, and submucosae were edematous, hyperemic, and infiltrated with inflammatory cells. The DAI scores and expression of TNF-α and p38MAPK were increased significantly in the model group compared to controls (Ps < 0.01), while the mRNA levels of occludin and ZO-1 were reduced significantly (Ps < 0.01). Compared with the model group, colonic mucosa and the arrangement of glands were complete and regular in the treatment groups. DAI scores and the expression of TNF-α and p38MAPK were reduced significantly in moxibustion groups compared to controls (Ps < 0.01), while the mRNA levels of occludin and ZO-1 were increased significantly (Ps < 0.01). The improvements in the above indices in the three acupoints group and the medication group were superior to those in the single and two acupoints groups (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Reduction of TNF-α and p38MAPK and increased expression of

  18. Deciphering the biological effects of acupuncture treatment modulating multiple metabolism pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aihua; Yan, Guangli; Sun, Hui; Cheng, Weiping; Meng, Xiangcai; Liu, Li; Xie, Ning; Wang, Xijun

    2016-02-16

    Acupuncture is an alternative therapy that is widely used to treat various diseases. However, detailed biological interpretation of the acupuncture stimulations is limited. We here used metabolomics and proteomics technology, thereby identifying the serum small molecular metabolites into the effect and mechanism pathways of standardized acupuncture treatments at 'Zusanli' acupoint which was the most often used acupoint in previous reports. Comprehensive overview of serum metabolic profiles during acupuncture stimulation was investigated. Thirty-four differential metabolites were identified in serum metabolome and associated with ten metabolism pathways. Importantly, we have found that high impact glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, ether lipid metabolism were acutely perturbed by acupuncture stimulation. As such, these alterations may be useful to clarify the biological mechanism of acupuncture stimulation. A series of differentially expressed proteins were identified and such effects of acupuncture stimulation were found to play a role in transport, enzymatic activity, signaling pathway or receptor interaction. Pathway analysis further revealed that most of these proteins were found to play a pivotal role in the regulation of multiple metabolism pathways. It demonstrated that the metabolomics coupled with proteomics as a powerful approach for potential applications in understanding the biological effects of acupuncture stimulation.

  19. More than DeQi: Spatial Patterns of Acupuncture-Induced Bodily Sensations

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Won-Mo; Shim, Woosun; Lee, Taehyung; Park, Hi-Joon; Ryu, Yeonhee; Beissner, Florian; Chae, Younbyoung

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture uses needles to stimulate certain parts of the body, inducing a specific sensation, termed DeQi, which regard as essential for acupuncture's therapeutic effect. Here, we used the newly developed tool, bodily sensation mapping, to investigate the spatial configuration of acupuncture-induced sensations throughout the body. Twenty-five participants randomly received acupuncture stimulation or tactile stimulation using a von Frey filament at four different acupoints (HT7, PC6, ST36, and SP10) on the left side of the body. Subjects evaluated the characteristics of DeQi sensations and marked the areas of induced sensations on a body outline. We compared the psychophysical responses of DeQi sensations and visualized the spatial patterns of these sensations using statistical parametric mapping. We found greater intensity of DeQi sensations following acupuncture stimulation compared with tactile stimulation, with relatively small differences among the four acupoints. The sensation maps exhibited similar spatial patterns for acupuncture and tactile stimulation in the areas close to the stimulated sites. However, acupuncture was associated with additional sensations in areas remote from the stimulated sites. This study demonstrates that acupuncture stimulation produces greater DeQi sensations than tactile stimulation and results in the spreading of sensations to areas remote from the stimulus sites. Investigating the spatial patterns of acupuncture-induced sensations may be crucial for understanding the underlying mechanisms of acupuncture. PMID:27807402

  20. Connectivity Study of the Neuromechanism of Acute Acupuncture Needling during fMRI in “Overweight” Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Wei; Liu, Peng; Chen, Peng; Xie, Huisheng; Gold, Mark S.; Liu, Yijun

    2015-01-01

    This functional connectivity study depicts how acupoints ST 36 and SP 9 and their sham acupoints acutely act on blood glucose (GLU), core body temperature (CBT), hunger, and sensations pertaining to needling (De-qi) via the limbic system and dopamine (DA) to affect various brain areas in fasting, adult, and “overweight” Chinese males using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Functional connectivity (FC) analysis utilized the amygdala (AMY) and hypothalamus (HYP) as regions of interest (ROIs) in the discrete cosine transform and seed correlation analysis methods. There was a significant difference in the spatial patterns of the distinct brain regions between groups. Correlation results showed that increased HYP-hippocampus FC after ACU was positively correlated with ACU-induced change in CBT; increased HYP-putamen-insula FC after ACU was positively correlated with ACU-induced change in GLU; and increased HYP-anterior cingulate cortex FC after ACU was positively correlated with ACU-induced change in HUNGER suggesting that increased DA modulation during ACU was probably associated with increased poststimulation limbic system and spinothalamic tract connectivity. Decreased HYP-thalamus FC after ACU was negatively correlated or anticorrelated with ACU-induced change in HUNGER suggesting that increased DA modulation during ACU was possibly associated with decreased poststimulation limbic system and spinothalamic tract connectivity. No correlation was found for min SHAM. This was an important study in addressing acute acupuncture effects and neural pathways involving physiology and appetite regulation in overweight individuals. PMID:25821486

  1. Electroacupuncture Ameliorates Acute Renal Injury in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Rabbits via Induction of HO-1 through the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Li-rong; Dong, Shu-an; Cao, Xin-shun; Wu, Li-li; Wu, Li-na

    2015-01-01

    Electroacupuncture at select acupoints have been verified to protect against organ dysfunctions during endotoxic shock. And, heme oxygenase (HO)-1 as a phase II enzyme and antioxidant contributed to the protection of kidney in septic shock rats. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway mediated the activation of NF-E2 related factor-2 (Nrf2), which was involved in HO-1 induction. To understand the efficacy of electroacupuncture stimulation in ameliorating acute kidney injury (AKI) through the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 pathway and subsequent HO-1 upregulation, a dose of LPS 5mg/kg was administered intravenously to replicate the rabbit model of AKI induced by endotoxic shock. Electroacupuncture pretreatment was handled bilaterally at Zusanli and Neiguan acupoints for five consecutive days while sham electroacupuncture at non-acupoints as control. Results displayed that electroacupuncture stimulation significantly alleviated the morphologic renal damage, attenuated renal tubular apoptosis, suppressed the elevated biochemical indicators of AKI caused by LPS, enhanced the expressions of phospho-Akt, HO-1protein, Nrf2 total and nucleoprotein, and highlighted the proportions of Nrf2 nucleoprotein as a parallel. Furthermore, partial protective effects of elecroacupuncture were counteracted by preconditioning with wortmannin (the selective PI3K inhibitor), indicating a direct involvement of PI3K/Akt pathway. Inconsistently, wortmannin pretreatment made little difference to the expressions of HO-1, Nrf2 nucleoprotein and total protein, which indicated that PI3K/Akt may be not the only pathway responsible for electroacupuncture-afforded protection against LPS-induced AKI. These findings provide new insights into the potential future clinical applications of electroacupuncture for AKI induced by endotoxic shock instead of traditional remedies. PMID:26524181

  2. The Effect of Repeated Electroacupuncture Analgesia on Neurotrophic and Cytokine Factors in Neuropathic Pain Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junying; Duanmu, Chenlin; Feng, Xiumei; Yan, Yaxia

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain is a common disability influencing quality of life. Results of previous studies showed that acupuncture has a cumulative analgesic effect, but the relationship with spinal cytokines neurotrophic factors released by astrocytes remains unknown. The present study was designed to observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) treatment on spinal cytokines neurotrophic factors in chronic neuropathic pain rats. The chronic neuropathic pain was established by chronic constrictive injury (CCI). EA treatment was applied at Zusanli (ST36) and Yanglingquan (GB34) (both bilateral) once a day, for 30 min. IL-1β mRNA, TNF-α mRNA, and IL-1 mRNA were detected by quantitative real-time PCR, and the proteins of BDNF, NGF, and NT3/4 were detected by Western blot. The expression levels of cytokines such as IL-1β mRNA, TNF-α mRNA, IL-6 mRNA, and neurotrophic factors such as BDNF, NGF, and NT3/4 in the spinal cord were increased significantly after CCI. The astrocytes released more IL-1β and BDNF after CCI. Repeated EA treatment could suppress the elevated expression of IL-1β mRNA, TNFα mRNA, and BDNF, NGF, and NT3/4 but had no effect on IL-6 mRNA. It is suggested that cytokines and neurotrophic factors which may be closely associated with astrocytes participated in the process of EA relieving chronic pain. PMID:27800006

  3. "Warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture alters acetylcholine receptor expression in the neuromuscular junction of rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hai-Peng; Pan, Hong; Wang, Hong-Feng

    2016-03-01

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies have been shown to form against the nicotinic acetylcholine nicotinic postsynaptic receptors located at the neuromuscular junction. "Warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture treatment has been shown to reduce serum inflammatory cytokine expression and increase transforming growth factor beta expression in rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. However, few studies have addressed the effects of this type of acupuncture on the acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction. Here, we used confocal laser scanning microscopy to examine the area and density of immunoreactivity for an antibody to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction in the phrenic nerve of rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis following "warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture therapy. Needles were inserted at acupressure points Shousanli (LI10), Zusanli (ST36), Pishu (BL20), and Shenshu (BL23) once daily for 7 consecutive days. The treatment was repeated after 1 day of rest. We found that area and the integrated optical density of the immunoreactivity for the acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction of the phrenic nerve was significantly increased following acupuncture treatment. This outcome of the acupuncture therapy was similar to that of the cholinesterase inhibitor pyridostigmine bromide. These findings suggest that "warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture treatment increases acetylcholine receptor expression at the neuromuscular junction in a rat model of autoimmune myasthenia gravis.

  4. Effects of Electroacupuncture on Interstitial Cells of Cajal (ICC) Ultrastructure and Connexin 43 Protein Expression in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Functional Dyspepsia (FD) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoshan; Xie, Shen; Hu, Wei; Liu, Yuer; Liu, Mailan; Liu, Mi; Chang, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal motility disorder is the main clinical manifestation in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. Electroacupuncture is effective in improving gastrointestinal motility disorder in FD; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. It has been demonstrated that interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are pacemaker cells in the gastrointestinal tract, and the pacemaker potential is transmitted to nearby cells through gap junctions between ICC or ICC and the smooth muscle. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effects of electroacupuncture on ICC ultrastructure and expression of the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) in FD rats. Material/Methods The animals were randomized into 3 groups: control, model, and electroacupuncture. Electroacupuncture was applied at Zusanli (ST36) in the electroacupuncture group daily for 10 days, while no electroacupuncture was applied to model group animals. Results Ultrastructure of ICC recovered normally in gastric antrum and small intestine specimens was improved, with Cx43 expression levels in these tissues significantly increased in the electroacupuncture group compared with the model group. Conclusions These findings indicated that electroacupuncture is effective in alleviating ICC damage and reduces Cx43 levels in FD rats, and suggest that ICC and Cx43 are involved in electroacupuncture treatment in rats with FD to improve gastrointestinal motility disorders. PMID:27297942

  5. Electroacupuncture Improves Insulin Resistance by Reducing Neuroprotein Y/Agouti-Related Protein Levels and Inhibiting Expression of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B in Diet-induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xia; He, Jun-Feng; Qu, Ya-Ting; Liu, Zhi-Jun; Pu, Qing-Yang; Guo, Sheng-Tong; Du, Jia; Jiang, Peng-Fei

    2016-04-01

    Electroacupuncture (EA) has been shown to exert beneficial effects on obesity, but the mechanism is unclear. This study investigated the effects of EA on diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into low-fat diet (LFD, 10 rats) and high-fat diet (HFD, 40 rats) groups. After the DIO models had been established, successful model rats were randomly divided into HFD, EA, and orlistat (OLST) groups. The EA group received EA at Zusanli (ST36) and Quchi (LI11) for 20 minutes once per day for 28 days. The OLST group was treated with orlistat by gavage. The body weight, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index, adipocyte diameters, and neuroprotein Y/agouti-related protein and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B levels were significantly lower in the EA group than in the HFD group. The rats of the OLST group showed watery stools and yellow hairs whereas those of the EA group had regular stools and sleek coats. The effect of EA on weight loss may be related to improved insulin resistance caused by changes in the adipocyte size and by reductions in the expressions of neuroprotein Y/agouti-related protein and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B. This study indicates that EA may be a better method of alternative therapy for treating obesity and other metabolic diseases.

  6. Acupuncture for Preventing Complications after Radical Hysterectomy: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Wei-min; Chen, Qing; Liu, Chang-hao; Hou, Jia-yun; Chen, Liu-dan; Wu, Wei-kang

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the preventive effects of acupuncture for complications after radical hysterectomy. A single-center randomized controlled single-blinded trial was performed in a western-style hospital in China. One hundred and twenty patients after radical hysterectomy were randomly allocated to two groups and started acupuncture from sixth postoperative day for five consecutive days. Sanyinjiao (SP6), Shuidao (ST28), and Epangxian III (MS4) were selected with electrical stimulation and Zusanli (ST36) without electrical stimulation for thirty minutes in treatment group. Binao (LI14) was selected as sham acupuncture point without any stimulation in control group. The main outcome measures were bladder function and prevalence of postoperative complications. Compared with control group, treatment group reported significantly improved bladder function in terms of maximal cystometric capacity, first voiding desire, maximal flow rate, residual urine, and bladder compliance, and decreased bladder sensory loss, incontinence, and urinary retention on fifteenth and thirtieth postoperative days. Treatment group showed significant advantage in reduction of urinary tract infection on thirtieth postoperative day. But no significant difference between groups was observed for lymphocyst formation. By improving postoperative bladder function, early intervention of acupuncture may provide a valuable alternative method to prevent bladder dysfunctional disorders and urinary tract infection after radical hysterectomy. PMID:24839455

  7. Effects of Electroacupuncture on the Daily Rhythmicity of Intestinal Movement and Circadian Rhythmicity of Colonic Per2 Expression in Rats with Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xueqiang; Zhang, Wenyi; Xie, Bin; Zhu, Zhaojin; Lu, Yuemei

    2016-01-01

    Background. Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to bowel dysfunction. Electroacupuncture (EA) may improve bowel function. Objective. To assess EA on daily rhythmicity of intestinal movement and circadian rhythmicity of colonic Per2 expression in rats with SCI. Methods. Rats were randomized to the sham, SCI, and SCI+EA groups. EA was performed at bilateral Zusanli point (ST36) during daytime (11:00–11:30) for 14 days following SCI. Intestinal transit and daily rhythmicity of intestinal movement were assessed. Circadian rhythmicity of colonic Per2 expression was assessed by real-time RT-PCR. Results. EA shortened the stool efflux time and increased the dry fecal weight within 24 h in SCI rats. Daily rhythmicity of intestinal movements was unaffected by SCI. The expression of colonic Per2 peaked at 20:00 and the nadir was observed at 8:00 in the SCI and sham groups. In the SCI+EA group, colonic Per2 expression peaked at 12:00 and 20:00, and the nadir was observed at 8:00. Conclusion. SCI did not change the circadian rhythmicity of colonic Per2 expression in rats, and daily intestinal movement rhythmicity was retained. EA changed the daily rhythmicity of intestinal movement and the circadian rhythmicity of colonic Per2 expression in rats with SCI, increasing Per2 expression shortly after EA treatment. PMID:27999821

  8. Ganoderma lucidum Pharmacopuncture for the Treatment of Acute Gastric Ulcers in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Heung; Jang, Kyung-Jun; kim, Cheol-Hong; Lee, Yoo-Hwan; Lee, Soo-Jung; kim, Bum-Hoi; Yoon, Hyun-Min

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the stomach and duodenum. The basic physiopathology of a gastric ulcer results from an imbalance between some endogenous aggressive and cytoprotective factors. This study examined whether Ganoderma lucidum pharmacopuncture (GLP) would provide protection against acute gastric ulcers in rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 4 groups of 8 rats each: normal, control, normal saline (NP) and GLP groups. The experimental acute gastric ulcer was induced by using an EtOH/HCl solution and the normal group received the same amount of normal saline instead of ethanol. The NP and the GLP groups were treated once with injections of saline and GLP, respectively. Two local acupoints were used: CV12 (中脘) which is the alarm point of the Stomach Meridian, and ST36 (足三里), which is the sea point of the Stomach Meridian. The stomachs from the rats in each group were collected and analyzed for gross appearance and histology. Also, immunohistochemistry staining for BAX, Bcl-2 and TGF-β1 was performed. Results: Histological observations of the gastric lesions in the control group showed comparatively extensive damage of the gastric mucosa and necrotic lesions had penetrated deeply into the mucosa. The lesions were long, hemorrhagic, and confined to the glandular portions. The lesions were measured microscopically by using the clear depth of penetration into the gastric mucosal surface. The length and the width of the ulcer were measured and the inhibition percentage was calculated. Wound healing of the acute gastric ulcer was promoted by using GLP, and significant alterations of indices in gastric mucosa were observed. Such protection was shown by gross appearance, histology and immunohistochemistry staining for BAX, Bcl-2 and TGF-β1. Conclusion: These results suggest that GLP administered at CV12 and ST36 can provide significant protection to the gastric mucosa against an ethanol-induced acute

  9. Treatment of TMJDS with helium-neon laser beam irradiation on the acupoints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ping

    1993-03-01

    Through He-NE laser stimulation of acupuncture points, we treated and observed 50 cases of Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome (TMJDS). The results proved that this treatment was very effective for relieving the patient's pain. In cases which had structural disturbances and organic damage such as limitation of mouth-opening and joint clink, there was less improvement of symptoms and no relief for joint clink.

  10. Functional brain networks in healthy subjects under acupuncture stimulation: An EEG study based on nonlinear synchronization likelihood analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haitao; Liu, Jing; Cai, Lihui; Wang, Jiang; Cao, Yibin; Hao, Chongqing

    2017-02-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal evoked by acupuncture stimulation at "Zusanli" acupoint is analyzed to investigate the modulatory effect of manual acupuncture on the functional brain activity. Power spectral density of EEG signal is first calculated based on the autoregressive Burg method. It is shown that the EEG power is significantly increased during and after acupuncture in delta and theta bands, but decreased in alpha band. Furthermore, synchronization likelihood is used to estimate the nonlinear correlation between each pairwise EEG signals. By applying a threshold to resulting synchronization matrices, functional networks for each band are reconstructed and further quantitatively analyzed to study the impact of acupuncture on network structure. Graph theoretical analysis demonstrates that the functional connectivity of the brain undergoes obvious change under different conditions: pre-acupuncture, acupuncture, and post-acupuncture. The minimum path length is largely decreased and the clustering coefficient keeps increasing during and after acupuncture in delta and theta bands. It is indicated that acupuncture can significantly modulate the functional activity of the brain, and facilitate the information transmission within different brain areas. The obtained results may facilitate our understanding of the long-lasting effect of acupuncture on the brain function.

  11. Synchrony dynamics underlying effective connectivity reconstruction of neuronal circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haitao; Guo, Xinmeng; Qin, Qing; Deng, Yun; Wang, Jiang; Liu, Jing; Cao, Yibin

    2017-04-01

    Reconstruction of effective connectivity between neurons is essential for neural systems with function-related significance, characterizing directionally causal influences among neurons. In this work, causal interactions between neurons in spinal dorsal root ganglion, activated by manual acupuncture at Zusanli acupoint of experimental rats, are estimated using Granger causality (GC) method. Different patterns of effective connectivity are obtained for different frequencies and types of acupuncture. Combined with synchrony analysis between neurons, we show a dependence of effective connection on the synchronization dynamics. Based on the experimental findings, a neuronal circuit model with synaptic connections is constructed. The variation of neuronal effective connectivity with respect to its structural connectivity and synchronization dynamics is further explored. Simulation results show that reciprocally causal interactions with statistically significant are formed between well-synchronized neurons. The effective connectivity may be not necessarily equivalent to synaptic connections, but rather depend on the synchrony relationship. Furthermore, transitions of effective interaction between neurons are observed following the synchronization transitions induced by conduction delay and synaptic conductance. These findings are helpful to further investigate the dynamical mechanisms underlying the reconstruction of effective connectivity of neuronal population.

  12. Acupuncture Improved Neurological Recovery after Traumatic Brain Injury by Activating BDNF/TrkB Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohong; Chen, Chong; Yang, Xiping; Wang, Jingjing; Zhao, Ming-liang; Sun, Hongtao

    2017-01-01

    How to promote neural repair following traumatic brain injury (TBI) has long been an intractable problem. Although acupuncture has been demonstrated to facilitate the neurological recovery, the underlying mechanism is elusive. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) exerts substantial protective effects for neurological disorders. In this study, we found that the level of BDNF and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) was elevated spontaneously after TBI and reached up to the peak at 12 h. Nevertheless, this enhancement is quickly declined to the normal at 48 h. After combined stimulation at the acupoints of Baihui, Renzhong, Hegu, and Zusanli, we found that BDNF and TrkB were still significantly elevated at 168 h. We also observed that the downstream molecular p-Akt and p-Erk1/2 were significantly increased, suggesting that acupuncture could persistently activate the BDNF/TrkB pathway. To further verify that acupuncture improved recovery through activating BDNF/TrkB pathway, K252a (specific inhibitor of TrkB) was treated by injection stereotaxically into lateral ventricle. We observed that K252a could significantly prevent the acupuncture-induced amelioration of motor, sensation, cognition, and synaptic plasticity. These data indicated that acupuncture promoted the recovery of neurological impairment after TBI by activating BDNF/TrkB signaling pathway, providing new molecular mechanism for understanding traditional therapy of acupuncture. PMID:28243312

  13. Treating angina pectoris by acupuncture therapy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lixian; Xu, Hao; Gao, Wei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hui; Lu, Dominic P

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture therapy on PC 6 (Neiguan) has a therapeutic effect on cardiac and chest ailments including angina pectoris. Additional beneficial acupuncture points are PC 4 (Ximen), HT 7 (Shenmen point), PC 7 (Daling point), PC 5 (Jianshi point), PC 3 (Quze point), CV 17 (Danzhong point), CV 6 (Qihai point), BL 15 (Xinshu point), L 20 (Pishu point), BL 17 (Geshu point), BL23 (Shenshu point), BL18 (Ganshu point), HT 5 (Tongli point), and ST36 (Zusanli point). Acupuncture not only quickly relieve the symptoms of acute angina pectoris, but also improve nitroglycerine's therapeutic effects. Therefore, it is an efficient simple therapeutic method used for emergency and for regular angina treatment. Review of studies on acupuncture therapy has shown effectiveness were between 80% to 96.2% that are almost as effective as conventional drug regimen. When compared with conventional medical treatment, the acupuncture therapy shows the obvious advantage of lacking, adverse side effects commonly associated with the Western anti-anginal drugs such as 1) Nitroglycerine (headache--63% with nitroglycerine patch and 50% with spray; syncope--4%; and dizziness--8% with patch; hypotension--4% with patch; and increased angina 2% with patch). 2) Isosorbide mononitrate (dizziness--3 to 5%; nausea/vomiting--2 to 4% and other reactions including hypotension, and syncope even with small doses). 3) Propranolol (bradycardia, chest pain, hypotension, worsening of AV conduction disturbance, Raynaud's syndrome, mental depression, hyperglycemia, etc.). Many conventional anti-anginal medications cause inter-drug reactions with other medications the patients taking for other diseases. Whereas, acupuncture therapy does not pose such an interference with patient's medications. Nevertheless, surgery is still the treatment of choice when acupuncture or conventional drug therapy fails. Combination of conventional drug therapy and acupuncture would considerably decrease the frequency and the required dosage

  14. Effect of electroacupuncture on the mRNA and protein expression of Rho-A and Rho-associated kinase II in spinal cord injury rats

    PubMed Central

    Min, You-jiang; Ding, Li-li-qiang; Cheng, Li-hong; Xiao, Wei-ping; He, Xing-wei; Zhang, Hui; Min, Zhi-yun; Pei, Jia

    2017-01-01

    Electroacupuncture is beneficial for the recovery of spinal cord injury, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. The Rho/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway regulates the actin cytoskeleton by controlling the adhesive and migratory behaviors of cells that could inhibit neurite regrowth after neural injury and consequently hinder the recovery from spinal cord injury. Therefore, we hypothesized electroacupuncture could affect the Rho/ROCK signaling pathway to promote the recovery of spinal cord injury. In our experiments, the spinal cord injury in adult Sprague-Dawley rats was caused by an impact device. Those rats were subjected to electroacupuncture at Yaoyangguan (GV3), Dazhui (GV14), Zusanli (ST36) and Ciliao (BL32) and/or monosialoganglioside treatment. Behavioral scores revealed that the hindlimb motor functions improved with those treatments. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, fluorescence in situ hybridization and western blot assay showed that electroacupuncture suppressed the mRNA and protein expression of Rho-A and Rho-associated kinase II (ROCKII) of injured spinal cord. Although monosialoganglioside promoted the recovery of hindlimb motor function, monosialoganglioside did not affect the expression of Rho-A and ROCKII. However, electroacupuncture combined with monosialoganglioside did not further improve the motor function or suppress the expression of Rho-A and ROCKII. Our data suggested that the electroacupuncture could specifically inhibit the activation of the Rho/ROCK signaling pathway thus partially contributing to the repair of injured spinal cord. Monosialoganglioside could promote the motor function but did not suppress expression of RhoA and ROCKII. There was no synergistic effect of electroacupuncture combined with monosialoganglioside.

  15. Depressing effect of electroacupuncture on the spinal non-painful sensory input of the rat.

    PubMed

    Quiroz-González, Salvador; Segura-Alegría, Bertha; Jiménez-Estrada, Ismael

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) applied in the Zusanli (ST36) and Sanyinjiao (SP6) points on the N1 component of the cord dorsum potential (CDP) evoked by electrical stimulation of the sural nerve (SU) in the rat. The experiments were performed in 44 Wistar rats (250-300 g) anesthetized with ketamine (100 mg/kg) and xylazine (2 mg/kg). A bilateral laminectomy was performed to expose the L3 to S2 segments of the spinal cord. The SU nerve was exposed and placed on pairs of hook electrodes for electrical stimulation. The N1-CDPs were recorded with three silver-ball electrodes located on the dorsal surface of the L5 to S1 segments. Ipsilateral high and low EA stimulation (100, 2 Hz, 6 mA, 30 min) induced a considerable reduction in the amplitude (45 ± 5.6, 41 ± 6.2%) of the N1-CDP recorded at the L6 segmental level. Recovery of the N1-CDP amplitude occurred approximately 1-3 s after EA. Sectioning of the saphenous and superficial peroneal nerves reduced the depressing effect provoked by the EA stimulation (18.7 ± 1.3, 27 ± 3.8%). Similarly, sectioning of the posterior and anterior tibial, deep peroneal and gastrocnemius nerves partially reduced the effect provoked by EA (11 ± 1.5, 9.8 ± 1.1, 12.6 ± 1.9%). Intravenous picrotoxin (1 mg/kg) also reduced the action of low and high EA (23 ± 4.8, 27 ± 5.2%). It is suggested that EA stimulation depresses non-painful sensory pathways through the activation of specific inhibitory pathways that receive modulatory actions from other sensory and muscle afferent inputs in the rat spinal cord.

  16. Is there any energy transfer during acupuncture?

    PubMed

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, Yong-Heum; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Jeong, Dong-Myong; Kim, Mo Kyung; Eo, Yoon-Gi; Ko, Su-Bok

    2005-01-01

    Acupuncture therapy is based on the principle of restoring equilibrium of the body's energy state by regulating the flow of Qi in the corresponding meridians and acupoints. The purpose of this study was to determine whether bio-energy transfer occurs during acupuncture of the meridians. We treated 20 normal healthy subjects with acupuncture and measured changes in the direct current (DC) potential between the stomach meridian points ST-39 and ST-37 in response to invasive insertion of a needle at ST-36. Using a crossover study design, the practitioner performed the procedure on each subject once with bare (uncovered) hands (ABH) and once wearing surgical gloves (ASH) to shield the electric energy transfer. ABH produced a response pattern to each stimulation, whereas ASH produced a response pattern only to the first step. ABH elicited a significantly higher response potential than did ASH (p < 0.001). These results suggest that there may be bio-energy (Qi) transfer during acupuncture along the meridians. This transferred bio-energy (Qi) seems to act as an electromotive force, which is purported to remove the stagnation or blockage of energy and restore an equilibrium state.

  17. Effects of Different Electroacupuncture Scheduling Regimens on Murine Bone Tumor-Induced Hyperalgesia: Sex Differences and Role of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Smeester, Branden A.; Al-Gizawiy, Mona; Beitz, Alvin J.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that electroacupuncture (EA) is able to reduce hyperalgesia in rodent models of persistent pain, but very little is known about the analgesic effects and potential sex differences of different EA treatment regimens. In the present study, we examined the effects of five different EA treatments on tumor-induced hyperalgesia in male and female mice. EA applied to the ST-36 acupoint either twice weekly (EA-2X/3) beginning on postimplantation day (PID) 3 or prophylactically three times prior to implantation produced the most robust and longest lasting antinociceptive effects. EA treatment given once per week beginning at PID 7 only produced an antinociceptive effect in female animals. The analgesic effect of EA-2X/3 began earlier in males, but lasted longer in females indicating sex differences in EA. We further demonstrate that EA-2X/3 elicits a marked decrease in tumor-associated inflammation as evidenced by a significant reduction in tumor-associated neutrophils at PID 7. Moreover, EA-2X/3 produced a significant reduction in tumor-associated PGE2 as measured in microperfusate samples. Collectively, these data provide evidence that EA-2X/3 treatment reduces tumor-induced hyperalgesia, which is associated with a decrease in tumor-associated inflammation and PGE2 concentration at the tumor site suggesting possible mechanisms by which EA reduces tumor nociception. PMID:23320035

  18. Electroacupuncture protects against ischemic stroke by reducing autophagosome formation and inhibiting autophagy through the mTORC1-ULK1 complex-Beclin1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    LIU, WEILIN; SHANG, GUANHAO; YANG, SHANLI; HUANG, JIA; XUE, XIEHUA; LIN, YUNJIAO; ZHENG, YI; WANG, XIAN; WANG, LULU; LIN, RUHUI; TAO, JING; CHEN, LIDIAN

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study by our group, we demonstrated that electroacupuncture (EA) activates the class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. There is considerable evidence that the downstream mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) plays an important role in autophagy following ischemic stroke. The aim of the present study was to determine whether EA exerts a neuroprotective effect through mTORC1-mediated autophagy following ischemia/reperfusion injury. Our results revealed that EA at the LI11 and ST36 acupoints attenuated motor dysfunction, improved neurological deficit outcomes and decreased the infarct volumes. The number of autophagosomes, autolysosomes and lysosomes was decreased following treatment with EA. Simultaneously, the levels of the autophagosome membrane maker, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta (LC3B)II/I, Unc-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1), autophagy related gene 13 Atg13) and Beclin1 (ser14) were decreased, whereas mTORC1 expression was increased in the peri-infarct cortex. These results suggest that EA protects against ischemic stroke through the inhibition of autophagosome formation and autophagy, which is mediated through the mTORC1-ULK complex-Beclin1 pathway. PMID:26647915

  19. The effectiveness of dry-cupping in preventing post-operative nausea and vomiting by P6 acupoint stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Farhadi, Khosro; Choubsaz, Mansour; Setayeshi, Khosro; Kameli, Mohammad; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Zadie, Zahra H.; Ahmadi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common complication after general anesthesia, and the prevalence ranges between 25% and 30%. The aim of this study was to determine the preventive effects of dry cupping on PONV by stimulating point P6 in the wrist. Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial conducted at the Imam Reza Hospital in Kermanshah, Iran. The final study sample included 206 patients (107 experimental and 99 controls). Inclusion criteria included the following: female sex; age>18 years; ASA Class I-II; type of surgery: laparoscopic cholecystectomy; type of anesthesia: general anesthesia. Exclusion criteria included: change in the type of surgery, that is, from laparoscopic cholecystectomy to laparotomy, and ASA-classification III or more. Interventions are as follows: pre surgery, before the induction of anesthesia, the experimental group received dry cupping on point P6 of the dominant hand's wrist with activation of intermittent negative pressure. The sham group received cupping without activation of negative pressure at the same point. Main outcome was that the visual analogue scale was used to measure the severity of PONV. Results: The experimental group who received dry cupping had significantly lower levels of PONV severity after surgery (P < 0.001) than the control group. The differences in measure were maintained after controlling for age and ASA in regression models (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Traditional dry cupping delivered in an operation room setting prevented PONV in laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients. PMID:27661022

  20. Antihypertensive and Antihypertrophic Effects of Acupuncture at PC6 Acupoints in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and the Underlying Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Juan-Juan; Gao, Jun-Hong; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Lu, Feng-Yan; Zhao, Yu-Xue; Jing, Xiang-Hong

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at PC6 on the hypertension and myocardial hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Thirty SHRs were randomized into model, SHR + EA, and SHR + Sham EA group with WKY rats as normal control. EA was applied once a day in 8 consecutive weeks. The blood pressure (BP), cardiac function, and hypertrophy as well as the underlying mechanisms were investigated. After EA treatment, the enhanced BP in SHR + EA group was significantly lower compared to both the period before EA and model group. Echocardiographic, morphological studies showed that the enhanced left ventricular anterior and posterior wall end-diastolic (LVAWd and LVPWd) thickness, diameters and cross-sectional area (CSA) of cardiac myocyte, as well as the ratio of heart weight to body weight (HW/BW), were markedly diminished in SHR + EA group, while the reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular short axis fraction shortening, and E/A ratio were significantly ameliorated. The levels of Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and Angiotensin II Type 1 and 2 receptors (AT1R, AT2R) in SHRs were also significantly attenuated by EA. The results suggest that EA at bilateral PC6 could arrest the hypertension development and ameliorate the cardiac hypertrophy and malfunction in SHRs, which might be mediated by the regulation of ACE, AT1R, and AT2R. PMID:28293268

  1. Transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation alleviates remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia in patients undergoing thyroidectomy: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanqing; Yao, Yusheng; Wu, Yihuan; Dai, Dongsheng; Zhao, Qiuyan; Qiu, Liangcheng

    2015-01-01

    Background: In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study, we verified the hypothesis that TEAS can alleviate remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia in patients undergoing thyroidectomy. Methods: 60 American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status (ASA) I-IIpatients, aged 18-60 year, scheduled for thyroidectomy were randomly allocated to TEAS or sham groups. TEAS consisted of 30 min of stimulation (6-9 mA, 2/10 Hz) on the Hegu (LI4) and Neiguan (PC6) before anesthesia. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane adjusted to bispectral index (40-60) and target remifentanil 5.0 ng/ml. Mechanical pain thresholds were assessed using electronic von Frey. The primary outcome was mechanical pain thresholds. Secondary outcomes included postoperative pain scores, the time to first rescue analgesic, cumulative number of rescue analgesia, and side effects, including postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), dizziness and shivering in 24 h postoperatively. Results: Baseline mechanical pain thresholds were similar between the groups. The analysis revealed the decrease in mechanical threshold was greater in the sham group than the TEAS group (P < 0.001). Postoperative pain scores and cumulative number of rescue analgesia were lower in the TEAS group (P < 0.05). In addition, TEAS group patients reduced the incidence of PONV and shivering. Conclusion: Preoperative TEAS can attenuate remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia in patients undergoing thyroidectomy. PMID:26131165

  2. Antihypertensive and Antihypertrophic Effects of Acupuncture at PC6 Acupoints in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and the Underlying Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Xin, Juan-Juan; Gao, Jun-Hong; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Lu, Feng-Yan; Zhao, Yu-Xue; Jing, Xiang-Hong; Yu, Xiao-Chun

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at PC6 on the hypertension and myocardial hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Thirty SHRs were randomized into model, SHR + EA, and SHR + Sham EA group with WKY rats as normal control. EA was applied once a day in 8 consecutive weeks. The blood pressure (BP), cardiac function, and hypertrophy as well as the underlying mechanisms were investigated. After EA treatment, the enhanced BP in SHR + EA group was significantly lower compared to both the period before EA and model group. Echocardiographic, morphological studies showed that the enhanced left ventricular anterior and posterior wall end-diastolic (LVAWd and LVPWd) thickness, diameters and cross-sectional area (CSA) of cardiac myocyte, as well as the ratio of heart weight to body weight (HW/BW), were markedly diminished in SHR + EA group, while the reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular short axis fraction shortening, and E/A ratio were significantly ameliorated. The levels of Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and Angiotensin II Type 1 and 2 receptors (AT1R, AT2R) in SHRs were also significantly attenuated by EA. The results suggest that EA at bilateral PC6 could arrest the hypertension development and ameliorate the cardiac hypertrophy and malfunction in SHRs, which might be mediated by the regulation of ACE, AT1R, and AT2R.

  3. Efficacy and Safety of Sanfu Herbal Patch at Acupoints for Persistent Allergic Rhinitis: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiankun; Lu, Chuanjian; Stålsby-Lundborg, Cecilia; Li, Yunying; Li, Xiaoyan; Sun, Jian; Ouyang, Wenwei; Li, Geng; Su, Guobin; Lu, Liming; Fu, Wenbin; Wen, Zehuai

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Sanfu herbal patch (SHP) has been widely used to treat allergic rhinitis (AR) in China. SHP has been reported to be effective for managing the symptoms of AR, but the evidence suffers from methodological limitations. Therefore, we designed a three-armed, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SHP for persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR). Methods. The trial consists of 5 treatment sessions along with a one-year follow-up. This process is then repeated in the second and third years. Eligible participants diagnosed with PAR were randomized at a ratio of 2 : 2 : 1 into one of three groups: (a) SHP group; (b) placebo group; or (c) waiting-list group. The waiting-list group will receive no treatment in the first year but will receive SHP in the following two years. The primary outcome, total nasal symptoms score, is self-assessed at the beginning of each treatment session and during each annual follow-up. Secondary outcomes include the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality-of-Life Questionnaire, allergic rhinitis attacks, and relief medications. The trial will be stopped if early termination criteria are met during the interim analysis. Ethics. This protocol has been approved by site ethics committee (number B2014-014-01) and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02192645. PMID:26300945

  4. Effects of infrared laser moxibustion on cancer‐related fatigue: A randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Huijuan; Mao, Jun J.; Guo, Menghu; Cheng, Ke; Wei, Jianzi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fatigue is the most common symptom negatively affecting the quality of life of patients with cancer. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and safety of 10.6‐μm infrared laser moxibustion for cancer‐related fatigue (CRF). METHODS The authors conducted a randomized, placebo‐controlled trial among 78 patients with cancer who were diagnosed with CRF. The group treated with infrared laser moxibustion received 10.6 μm of infrared laser moxibustion on the ST36 (bilateral), CV4, and CV6 acupoints. Each participant received a 20‐minute treatment session 3 times per week for 4 weeks. The sham group received the same treatment duration on the same acupoints, but without infrared laser output. The outcome was change in fatigue as measured by the Chinese version of the Brief Fatigue Inventory between groups at week 4 with additional evaluation at week 8 for durability of treatment effects. A mixed effects model was used to evaluate the difference in treatment effect over time. RESULTS Among those randomized, 61 patients (78%) completed the entire study. At the end of the intervention, the individuals in the group treated with the laser were found to have significantly less fatigue than those in the sham group (3.01 vs 4.40; P = .002). The improvement in fatigue persisted to week 8, favoring the group treated with laser moxibustion (3.03 vs 4.26; P = .006). Laser moxibustion was safe, with 3 cases of mild local erythema that resolved without medical intervention reported. CONCLUSIONS Infrared laser moxibustion appeared to be safe and efficacious for improving CRF in a Chinese patient population. Larger studies in more racial/ethnically diverse populations are needed to confirm the benefit of this technique for fatigue in patients with cancer. Cancer 2016;122:3667‐72. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society. This is an open access article under the

  5. Bee Venom Ameliorates Cognitive Dysfunction Caused by Neuroinflammation in an Animal Model of Vascular Dementia.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mudan; Lee, Jun Hwan; Yang, Eun Jin

    2016-09-29

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is caused by the reduction of blood supply by vessel occlusion and is characterized by progressive cognitive decline. VaD incidence has been growing due to the aging population, placing greater strain on social and economic resources. However, the pathological mechanisms underlying VaD remain unclear. Many studies have used the bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) animal model to investigate potential therapeutics for VaD. In this study, we investigated whether bee venom (BV) improves cognitive function and reduces neuroinflammation in the hippocampus of BCCAO animals. Animals were randomly divided into three groups: a sham group (n = 15), BCCAO control group (n = 15), and BV-treated BCCAO group (n = 15). BCCAO animals were treated with 0.1 μg/g BV at ST36 ("Joksamli" acupoint) four times every other day. In order to investigate the effect of BV treatment on cognitive function, we performed a Y-maze test. In order to uncover any potential relationship between these results and neuroinflammation, we also performed Western blotting in the BCCAO group. Animals that had been treated with BV showed an improved cognitive function and a reduced expression of neuroinflammatory proteins in the hippocampus, including Iba-1, TLR4, CD14, and TNF-α. Furthermore, we demonstrated that BV treatment increased pERK and BDNF in the hippocampus. The present study thus underlines the neuroprotective effect of BV treatment against BCCAO-induced cognitive impairment and neuroinflammation. Our findings suggest that BV may be an effective complementary treatment for VaD, as it may improve cognitive function and attenuate neuroinflammation associated with dementia.

  6. Repetitive Electroacupuncture Attenuates Cold-Induced Hypertension through Enkephalin in the Rostral Ventral Lateral Medulla

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Tjen-A-Looi, Stephanie C.; Guo, Zhi-Ling; Longhurst, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture lowers blood pressure (BP) in hypertension, but mechanisms underlying its action are unclear. To simulate clinical studies, we performed electroacupuncture (EA) in unanesthetized rats with cold-induced hypertension (CIH) induced by six weeks of cold exposure (6 °C). EA (0.1 – 0.4 mA, 2 Hz) was applied at ST36-37 acupoints overlying the deep peroneal nerve for 30 min twice weekly for five weeks while sham-EA was conducted with the same procedures as EA except for no electrical stimulation. Elevated BP was reduced after six sessions of EA treatment and remained low 72 hrs after EA in 18 CIH rats, but not in sham-EA (n = 12) and untreated (n = 6) CIH ones. The mRNA level of preproenkephalin in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (rVLM) 72 hr after EA was increased (n = 9), compared to the sham-EA (n = 6), untreated CIH rats (n = 6) and normotensive control animals (n = 6). Microinjection of ICI 174,864, a δ-opioid receptor antagonist, into the rVLM of EA-treated CIH rats partially reversed EA’s effect on elevated BP (n = 4). Stimulation of rVLM of CIH rats treated with sham-EA using a δ-opioid agonist, DADLE, decreased BP (n = 6). These data suggest that increased enkephalin in the rVLM induced by repetitive EA contributes to BP lowering action of EA. PMID:27775047

  7. Investigation of the large-scale functional brain networks modulated by acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuanyuan; Bai, Lijun; Ren, Yanshuang; Wang, Hu; Liu, Zhenyu; Zhang, Wensheng; Tian, Jie

    2011-09-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have primarily focused on the neural activities involving the acute effects of acupuncture. Considering that acupuncture can induce long-lasting effects, several researchers have begun to pay attention to the sustained effects of acupuncture on the resting brain. Most of these researchers adopted functional connectivity analysis based on one or a few preselected brain regions and demonstrated various function-guided brain networks underlying the specific effect of acupuncture. Few have investigated how these brain networks interacted at the whole-brain level. In this study, we sought to investigate the functional correlations throughout the entire brain following acupuncture at acupoint ST36 (ACUP) in comparison with acupuncture at nearby nonacupoint (SHAM). We divided the whole brain into 90 regions and constructed functional brain network for each condition. Then we examined the network hubs and identified statistically significant differences in functional correlations between the two conditions. Following ACUP, but not SHAM, the limbic/paralimbic regions such as the amygdala, hippocampus and anterior cingulate gyrus emerged as network hubs. For direct comparisons, increased correlations for ACUP compared to SHAM were primarily related with the limbic/paralimbic and subcortical regions such as the insula, amygdala, anterior cingulate gyrus, and thalamus, whereas decreased correlations were mainly related with the sensory and frontal cortex. The heterogeneous modulation patterns between the two conditions may relate to the functional specific modulatory effects of acupuncture. The preliminary findings may help us to better understand the long-lasting effects of acupuncture on the entire resting brain, as well as the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying acupuncture.

  8. Laser Acupuncture at HT7 Acupoint Improves Cognitive Deficit, Neuronal Loss, Oxidative Stress, and Functions of Cholinergic and Dopaminergic Systems in Animal Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Sutalangka, Chatchada

    2014-01-01

    To date, the therapeutic strategy against cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still not in satisfaction level and requires novel effective intervention. Based the oxidative stress reduction and cognitive enhancement induced by laser acupuncture at HT7, the beneficial effect of laser acupuncture at HT7 against cognitive impairment in PD has been focused. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of laser acupuncture at HT7 on memory impairment, oxidative stress status, and the functions of both cholinergic and dopaminergic systems in hippocampus of animal model of PD. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 g, were induced unilateral lesion at right substantianigra by 6-OHDA and were treated with laser acupuncture continuously at a period of 14 days. The results showed that laser acupuncture at HT7 enhanced memory and neuron density in CA3 and dentate gyrus. The decreased AChE, MAO-B, and MDA together with increased GSH-Px in hippocampus of a 6-OHDA lesion rats were also observed. In conclusion, laser acupuncture at HT7 can improve neuron degeneration and memory impairment in animal model of PD partly via the decreased oxidative stress and the improved cholinergic and dopaminergic functions. More researches concerning effect of treatment duration are still required.

  9. Network analysis of acupuncture points used in the treatment of low back pain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soon-Ho; Kim, Chang-Eop; Lee, In-Seon; Jung, Won-Mo; Kim, Hong-Gee; Jang, Hyunchul; Kim, Sang-Jeong; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Hi-Joon; Chae, Younbyoung

    2013-01-01

    Background. The appropriate selection of acupoints is fundamental to obtain a therapeutic effect from clinical acupuncture. Objective. Using a network analysis method, we investigated the acupoints that are combined to treat low back pain (LBP). Methods. To analyze the patterns of the combinations of acupoints, we used acupoint information from clinical trials to calculate the modified mutual information (MI) value, integrated these data, and visualized the network. Results. Based on the highest MI values, we found two different types of acupoint pairs used in the treatment of LBP: pairs of distant acupoints and pairs of local acupoints. Using modular analysis, we found that three acupoint modules were applied in the treatment of LBP: local acupoints, distant acupoints along the meridian, and distant acupoints based on the symptom differentiations. Conclusion. Using the modified MI technique, we provide a systematic framework for the acupoint combination network, and reveal how the technique of acupoint combination is used in the treatment of LBP. Application of this knowledge in acupuncture research may help clarify the mechanisms underlying acupuncture treatment at the systems level, bridging the gap between traditional medicine and modern science.

  10. Simultaneous transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation mitigates simulator sickness symptoms in healthy adults: a crossover study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Flight simulators have been used to train pilots to experience and recognize spatial disorientation, a condition in which pilots incorrectly perceive the position, location, and movement of their aircrafts. However, during or after simulator training, simulator sickness (SS) may develop. Spatial disorientation and SS share common symptoms and signs and may involve a similar mechanism of dys-synchronization of neural inputs from the vestibular, visual, and proprioceptive systems. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), a maneuver used for pain control, was found to influence autonomic cardiovascular responses and enhance visuospatial abilities, postural control, and cognitive function. The purpose of present study was to investigate the protective effects of TENS on SS. Methods Fifteen healthy young men (age: 28.6 ± 0.9 years, height: 172.5 ± 1.4 cm, body weight: 69.3 ± 1.3 kg, body mass index: 23.4 ± 1.8 kg/m2) participated in this within-subject crossover study. SS was induced by a flight simulator. TENS treatment involved 30 minutes simultaneous electrical stimulation of the posterior neck and the right Zusanli acupoint. Each subject completed 4 sessions (control, SS, TENS, and TENS + SS) in a randomized order. Outcome indicators included SS symptom severity and cognitive function, evaluated with the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) and d2 test of attention, respectively. Sleepiness was rated using the Visual Analogue Scales for Sleepiness Symptoms (VAS-SS). Autonomic and stress responses were evaluated by heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV) and salivary stress biomarkers (salivary alpha-amylase activity and salivary cortisol concentration). Results Simulator exposure increased SS symptoms (SSQ and VAS-SS scores) and decreased the task response speed and concentration. The heart rate, salivary stress biomarker levels, and the sympathetic parameter of HRV increased with simulator exposure, but

  11. Differential cerebral response to somatosensory stimulation of an acupuncture point vs. two non-acupuncture points measured with EEG and fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Nierhaus, Till; Pach, Daniel; Huang, Wenjing; Long, Xiangyu; Napadow, Vitaly; Roll, Stephanie; Liang, Fanrong; Pleger, Burkhard; Villringer, Arno; Witt, Claudia M.

    2015-01-01

    Acupuncture can be regarded as a complex somatosensory stimulation. Here, we evaluate whether the point locations chosen for a somatosensory stimulation with acupuncture needles differently change the brain activity in healthy volunteers. We used EEG, event-related fMRI, and resting-state functional connectivity fMRI to assess neural responses to standardized needle stimulation of the acupuncture point ST36 (lower leg) and two control point locations (CP1 same dermatome, CP2 different dermatome). Cerebral responses were expected to differ for stimulation in two different dermatomes (CP2 different from ST36 and CP1), or stimulation at the acupuncture point vs. the control points. For EEG, mu rhythm power increased for ST36 compared to CP1 or CP2, but not when comparing the two control points. The fMRI analysis found more pronounced insula and S2 (secondary somatosensory cortex) activation, as well as precuneus deactivation during ST36 stimulation. The S2 seed-based functional connectivity analysis revealed increased connectivity to right precuneus for both comparisons, ST36 vs. CP1 and ST36 vs. CP2, however in different regions. Our results suggest that stimulation at acupuncture points may modulate somatosensory and saliency processing regions more readily than stimulation at non-acupuncture point locations. Also, our findings suggest potential modulation of pain perception due to acupuncture stimulation. PMID:25741269

  12. Differential cerebral response to somatosensory stimulation of an acupuncture point vs. two non-acupuncture points measured with EEG and fMRI.

    PubMed

    Nierhaus, Till; Pach, Daniel; Huang, Wenjing; Long, Xiangyu; Napadow, Vitaly; Roll, Stephanie; Liang, Fanrong; Pleger, Burkhard; Villringer, Arno; Witt, Claudia M

    2015-01-01

    Acupuncture can be regarded as a complex somatosensory stimulation. Here, we evaluate whether the point locations chosen for a somatosensory stimulation with acupuncture needles differently change the brain activity in healthy volunteers. We used EEG, event-related fMRI, and resting-state functional connectivity fMRI to assess neural responses to standardized needle stimulation of the acupuncture point ST36 (lower leg) and two control point locations (CP1 same dermatome, CP2 different dermatome). Cerebral responses were expected to differ for stimulation in two different dermatomes (CP2 different from ST36 and CP1), or stimulation at the acupuncture point vs. the control points. For EEG, mu rhythm power increased for ST36 compared to CP1 or CP2, but not when comparing the two control points. The fMRI analysis found more pronounced insula and S2 (secondary somatosensory cortex) activation, as well as precuneus deactivation during ST36 stimulation. The S2 seed-based functional connectivity analysis revealed increased connectivity to right precuneus for both comparisons, ST36 vs. CP1 and ST36 vs. CP2, however in different regions. Our results suggest that stimulation at acupuncture points may modulate somatosensory and saliency processing regions more readily than stimulation at non-acupuncture point locations. Also, our findings suggest potential modulation of pain perception due to acupuncture stimulation.

  13. Mechanism of acupuncture regulating visceral sensation and mobility.

    PubMed

    Rong, Peijing; Zhu, Bing; Li, Yuqing; Gao, Xinyan; Ben, Hui; Li, Yanhua; Li, Liang; He, Wei; Liu, Rupeng; Yu, Lingling

    2011-06-01

    Chinese ancient medical scientists have long focused on the internal and external contacts between acupoints on the surface of the body and the viscera. The Miraculous Pivot (it is one of the earliest medical classics in China) stated, "Twelve regular channels belong to the zang-fu organs internally, and connect to the extremities and joints externally." Traditional Chinese medicine considers acupoints as defined areas where the Qi of viscera and meridians are transfused. These include the reaction points of visceral diseases on the body surface as well as the acupuncture trigger points that promote the flow of Qi and blood, and regulate visceral function. Chinese ancient medical scientists classified the specificity of the main acupoints in the body based on the meridian doctrine, which has been instructing clinical application for about 2000 years. Laws on the domino effect of acupoints have mainly focused on conclusions to clinical experiences. Indications of some acupoints exceed the practical paradigm since the excessive extension occurred during theory derivation. The current research direction on acupuncture focuses on three aspects: the effectiveness of acupuncture and moxibustion; the relevances and associations between meridians and viscera; and the physical and chemical properties and relevant physical basis of acupoints. The relevance between meridians and viscera is the central theory in the meridian doctrine, and acupoints are regarded as an important link in the relationship between meridians and viscera. Specific relationships between acupoints and target organs exist. Stimulating different acupoints on the body surface can help deal with different diseases, especially visceral diseases. In addition, acupoints have a dual function of reflecting and treating visceral diseases. There is no systemic research available on acupoint specificity, despite current knowledge and clinical experiences, which results in a weak foundation for acupuncture theory

  14. Differential spatial activity patterns of acupuncture by a machine learning based analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Youbo; Bai, Lijun; Xue, Ting; Zhong, Chongguang; Liu, Zhenyu; Tian, Jie

    2011-03-01

    Acupoint specificity, lying at the core of the Traditional Chinese Medicine, underlies the theoretical basis of acupuncture application. However, recent studies have reported that acupuncture stimulation at nonacupoint and acupoint can both evoke similar signal intensity decreases in multiple regions. And these regions were spatially overlapped. We used a machine learning based Support Vector Machine (SVM) approach to elucidate the specific neural response pattern induced by acupuncture stimulation. Group analysis demonstrated that stimulation at two different acupoints (belong to the same nerve segment but different meridians) could elicit distinct neural response patterns. Our findings may provide evidence for acupoint specificity.

  15. Changes of gene expression profiles in the cervical spinal cord by acupuncture in an MPTP-intoxicated mouse model: microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yeong-Gon; Yeo, Sujung; Hong, Yeon-Mi; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lim, Sabina

    2011-07-15

    It has been shown that acupuncture at acupoints GB34 and LR3 inhibits the degeneration of nigrostriatal neurons in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease. The degeneration of spinal cord was reported to be induced in the MPTP-treated pre-symptomatic mouse. In this study, the gene expression profile changes following acupuncture at the acupoints were investigated in the cervical spinal cord of an MPTP-induced parkinsonism model using a whole transcript array (Affymetrix GeneChip mouse gene 1.0 ST array). It was shown that 8 of the probes up-regulated in MPTP, as compared to the control, were down-regulated after acupuncture at the acupoints. Of these 8 probes, 6 probes (4 annotated genes in 6 probes: Ctla2a, EG383229, Ppbp and Ube2l6) were exclusively down-regulated by acupuncture at the specific acupoints except for 2 probes as these 2 probes were commonly down-regulated by acupuncture at both the acupoints and the non-acupoints. In addition, 11 of the probes down-regulated in MPTP, as compared to the control, were up-regulated by acupuncture at the acupoints. Of these 11 probes, 10 probes (5 annotated genes in 10 probes: EG665033, ENSMUSG00000055323, Obox6, Pbp2 and Tmem150) were exclusively up-regulated by acupuncture at the specific acupoints except for the Fut11 because the Fut11 was commonly up-regulated by acupuncture at both the acupoints and the non-acupoints. The expression levels of the representative genes in the microarray were validated by real-time RT-PCR. These data suggest that the expression of these exclusively regulated 16 probes (9 genes) may be, at least in part, affected by acupuncture at the acupoints in the cervical spinal cord which can be damaged by MPTP intoxication.

  16. The Limbic-Prefrontal Network Modulated by Electroacupuncture at CV4 and CV12

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jiliang; Wang, Xiaoling; Liu, Hesheng; Wang, Yin; Zhou, Kehua; Hong, Yang; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lei; Xue, Chao; Song, Ming; Liu, Baoyan; Zhu, Bing

    2012-01-01

    fMRI studies showed that acupuncture could induce hemodynamic changes in brain networks. Many of these studies focused on whether specific acupoints could activate specific brain regions and were often limited to manual acupuncture at acupoints on the limbs. In this fMRI study, we investigated acupuncture's modulation effects on brain functional networks by electroacupuncture (EA) at acupoints on the midline of abdomen. Acupoints Guanyuan (CV4) and Zhongwan (CV12) were stimulated in 21 healthy volunteers. The needling sensations, brain activation, and functional connectivity were studied. We found that the limbic-prefrontal functional network was deactivated by EA at CV4 and CV12. More importantly, the local functional connectivity was significantly changed during EA stimulation, and the change persisted during the period after the stimulation. Although minor differences existed, both acupoints similarly modulated the limbic-prefrontal functional network, which is overlapped with the functional circuits associated with emotional and cognitive regulation. PMID:22291848

  17. [The extensiveness and specificity of analgesia of electroacupuncture (EA) at different points on the nociceptive responses of neuron in spinal dorsal horn].

    PubMed

    He, X; Zhu, B; Liu, X; Zhang, S; Xu, W

    1993-01-01

    The experiments were performed in anaesthetized rats. The responses of convergent neurons in spinal dorsal horn to noxious stimuli (10mA, 2ms) given at the hindpaw receptive field were recorded extracellularly by glass microelectrodes. The effects of EA on the nociceptive response were observed. EA was applied on ipsilateral "Zusanli" or "Xiaguan" point with high and low intensity. EA (18V, 100Hz) applied on ipsilateral either "Zusanli" or "Xiaguan" could produce strong inhibition on nociceptive responses of convergent neurones (62.74 +/- 4.94% and 64.24 +/- 7.30%). EA (2V, 100Hz) of "Zusanli" also obviously inhibited the nociceptive responses (52.05 +/- 6.69%). But the same EA of "Xiaguan" lacked this inhibitory effect (9.50 +/- 7.67%). There was statistically significant difference between EA effects of "Zusanli" and "Xiaguan" (P < 0.001) when intensity of EA is lower. These results suggested that analgesia of high intensity EA is extensive, but that of low intensity EA is produced only when the point is in the same or nearby spinal segment with nociceptive field, showing the extensiveness and specificity of EA analgesia of different points.

  18. Positioning Standardized Acupuncture Points on the Whole Body Based on X-Ray Computed Tomography Images.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungdae; Kang, Dae-In

    2014-02-01

    Objective: The goal of this research was to position all the standardized 361 acupuncture points on the entire human body based on a 3-dimensional (3D) virtual body. Materials and Methods: Digital data from a healthy Korean male with a normal body shape were obtained in the form of cross-sectional images generated by X-ray computed tomography (CT), and the 3D models for the bones and the skin's surface were created through the image-processing steps. Results: The reference points or the landmarks were positioned based on the standard descriptions of the acupoints, and the formulae for the proportionalities between the acupoints and the reference points were presented. About 37% of the 361 standardized acupoints were automatically linked with the reference points, the reference points accounted for 11% of the 361 acupoints, and the remaining acupoints (52%) were positioned point-by-point by using the OpenGL 3D graphics libraries. Based on the projective 2D descriptions of the standard acupuncture points, the volumetric 3D acupoint model was developed; it was extracted from the X-ray CT images. Conclusions: This modality for positioning acupoints may modernize acupuncture research and enable acupuncture treatments to be more personalized.

  19. Positioning Standardized Acupuncture Points on the Whole Body Based on X-Ray Computed Tomography Images

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jungdae

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The goal of this research was to position all the standardized 361 acupuncture points on the entire human body based on a 3-dimensional (3D) virtual body. Materials and Methods: Digital data from a healthy Korean male with a normal body shape were obtained in the form of cross-sectional images generated by X-ray computed tomography (CT), and the 3D models for the bones and the skin's surface were created through the image-processing steps. Results: The reference points or the landmarks were positioned based on the standard descriptions of the acupoints, and the formulae for the proportionalities between the acupoints and the reference points were presented. About 37% of the 361 standardized acupoints were automatically linked with the reference points, the reference points accounted for 11% of the 361 acupoints, and the remaining acupoints (52%) were positioned point-by-point by using the OpenGL 3D graphics libraries. Based on the projective 2D descriptions of the standard acupuncture points, the volumetric 3D acupoint model was developed; it was extracted from the X-ray CT images. Conclusions: This modality for positioning acupoints may modernize acupuncture research and enable acupuncture treatments to be more personalized. PMID:24761187

  20. Moxibustion at mingmen reduces inflammation and decreases IL-6 in a collagen-induced arthritis mouse model.

    PubMed

    Kogure, Morihiro; Mimura, Naomi; Ikemoto, Hideshi; Ishikawa, Shintaro; Nakanishi-Ueda, Takako; Sunagawa, Masataka; Hisamitsu, Tadashi

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of moxibustion (MOX) treatment at the GV4 and CV12 acupoints, and to determine the correlations between MOX treatment and interleukin (IL)-6 and corticosterone levels in a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model. CIA mice were immunized twice intradermally over a 3-week interval with bovine type II collagen. After the second immunization (day 21), MOX was applied to the mouse equivalent of the GV4 and CV12 acupoints with a 1mg moxa cone five times/day. Clinical symptoms of CIA were observed three times/week until day 35. The concentrations of IL-6 and corticosterone in the blood samples were measured by immunoassay kits. At day 35, the incidence of CIA was significantly decreased in mice treated with MOX at the GV4 acupoint (78%, n=23, p<0.05), compared to untreated CIA mice (100%) and mice treated with MOX at the CV12 acupoint (100%). IL-6 and corticosterone levels were significantly increased by immunization. IL-6 levels significantly decreased in mice treated with MOX at the GV4 acupoint. These results suggest that MOX treatment suppressed CIA at the GV4 acupoint, not at the CV12 acupoint, possibly through inhibition of IL-6 production.

  1. Association of high expression in rat gastric mucosal heat shock protein 70 induced by moxibustion pretreatment with protection against stress injury

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Xiao-Rong; Peng, La; Yi, Shou-Xiang; Peng, Yan; Yan, Jie

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of moxibustion on Zusanli or Liangmeng point on gastric mucosa injury in stress-induced ulcer rats and its correlation with the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). METHODS: Sixty healthy SD rats (30 males, 30 females) were divided into control group, injury model group, Zushanli point group, Liangmeng point group. Stress gastric ulcer model was induced by binding cold stress method. Gastric mucosa ulcer injury (UI) index was calculated by Guth method. Gastric mucosa blood flow (GMBF) was recorded with a biological signal analyzer. Protein content and gene expression in gastric mucosal HSP70 were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Thiobarbital method was used to determine malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Gastric mucosal endothelin (ET) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: High gastric mucosal UI index, high HSP70 expression, low GMBF and PGF2, elevated MDA and ET were observed in gastric mucosa of rats subjected to cold stress. Moxibustion on Zusanli or Liangmeng point decreased rat gastric mucosal UI index, MDA and ET. Conversely, the expression of HSP70, GMBF, and PGE2 was elevated in gastric mucosa after pretreatment with moxibustion on Zusanli or Liangmeng point. The observed parameters were significantly different between Zusanli and Liangmeng points. CONCLUSION: Pretreatment with moxibustion on Zusanli or Liangmeng point protects gastric mucosa against stress injury. This protection is associated with the higher expression of HSP70 mRNA and protein, leading to release of PGE2 and inhibition of MDA and ET, impairment of gastric mucosal index. PMID:17708611

  2. [Clinical examples of professor LI Zhi-dao's "tonifying three qi" acupuncture method].

    PubMed

    Li, Rui-Chao; Li, Yan; Fu, Yuan-Xin; Zhao, Xiang-Fei; Sun, Jing; Li, Lan-Yuan

    2014-08-01

    Professor LI Zhi-dao, according to acupoint selection of syndrome differentiation in TCM basic theory, concluded a new therapy, namely "tonifying three qi" that is mainly based on three acupoints in the Conception Vessel. This method is consisted of Danzhong (CV 17), Zhongwan (CV 12) and Qihai (CV 6) in the Conception Vessel, which could successively nourish clear qi, stomach qi and original qi. In clinic, according to the severity of symptoms of three qi, the acupoints are selected flexibly, which could respectively treat deficiency of heart-lung qi, deficiency of stomach-spleen qi and deficiency of original qi. Some examples are also given in the article.

  3. Effects of Electroacupuncture at BL60 on Formalin-Induced Pain in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kyung-Ha; Won, Ran; Shim, Insop; Lee, Hyejung; Lee, Bae Hwan

    2012-01-01

    Acupuncture was used to treat symptoms of pain in the ancient orient. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at the BL60 acupoint on male Sprague-Dawley rats. Each rat received EA at BL60 acupoint before formalin injection. Behavioral responses were recorded using a video camera and c-Fos immunohistochemistry was performed thereafter. Treatment of EA at BL60 significantly inhibited flinching behavior and c-fos expression induced by formalin injection into the paw, compared to a control group. These results suggest that electroacupuncture at BL60 acupoint may be effective in relieving inflammatory pain. PMID:22550540

  4. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Propionibacterium acnes Strains Isolated from Implant-Related Infections.

    PubMed

    Aubin, Guillaume Ghislain; Kambarev, Stanimir; Guillouzouic, Aurélie; Lepelletier, Didier; Bémer, Pascale; Corvec, Stéphane

    2016-12-15

    Propionibacterium acnes was previously described as a potential implant-related pathogen. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of four P. acnes strains, isolated from spine material, hip arthroplasty, and knee arthroplasty infections in France belonging to different sequence types (ST18, ST27, and ST36).

  5. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Propionibacterium acnes Strains Isolated from Implant-Related Infections

    PubMed Central

    Aubin, Guillaume Ghislain; Kambarev, Stanimir; Guillouzouic, Aurélie; Lepelletier, Didier; Bémer, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes was previously described as a potential implant-related pathogen. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of four P. acnes strains, isolated from spine material, hip arthroplasty, and knee arthroplasty infections in France belonging to different sequence types (ST18, ST27, and ST36). PMID:27979946

  6. Comparative host specificity of human- and pig- associated Staphylococcus aureus clonal lineages.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Arshnee; Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Nielsen, Søren S; McCarthy, Alex J; Lindsay, Jodi A; Guardabassi, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion is a crucial step in colonization of the skin. In this study, we investigated the differential adherence to human and pig corneocytes of six Staphylococcus aureus strains belonging to three human-associated [ST8 (CC8), ST22 (CC22) and ST36(CC30)] and two pig-associated [ST398 (CC398) and ST433(CC30)] clonal lineages, and their colonization potential in the pig host was assessed by in vivo competition experiments. Corneocytes were collected from 11 humans and 21 pigs using D-squame® adhesive discs, and bacterial adherence to corneocytes was quantified by a standardized light microscopy assay. A previously described porcine colonization model was used to assess the potential of the six strains to colonize the pig host. Three pregnant, S. aureus-free sows were inoculated intravaginally shortly before farrowing with different strain mixes [mix 1) human and porcine ST398; mix 2) human ST36 and porcine ST433; and mix 3) human ST8, ST22, ST36 and porcine ST398] and the ability of individual strains to colonize the nasal cavity of newborn piglets was evaluated for 28 days after birth by strain-specific antibiotic selective culture. In the corneocyte assay, the pig-associated ST433 strain and the human-associated ST22 and ST36 strains showed significantly greater adhesion to porcine and human corneocytes, respectively (p<0.0001). In contrast, ST8 and ST398 did not display preferential host binding patterns. In the in vivo competition experiment, ST8 was a better colonizer compared to ST22, ST36, and ST433 prevailed over ST36 in colonizing the newborn piglets. These results are partly in agreement with previous genetic and epidemiological studies indicating the host specificity of ST22, ST36 and ST433 and the broad-host range of ST398. However, our in vitro and in vivo experiments revealed an unexpected ability of ST8 to adhere to porcine corneocytes and persist in the nasal cavity of pigs.

  7. [Professor ZHANG Yu-Lian's experiences in treatment of post-stroke ataxia by regulating marrow sea acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Su-Ling

    2014-08-01

    The experiences and characteristics of professor ZHANG Yu-lian in regulating marrow sea acupuncture for treatment of post-stroke ataxia is introduced. Professor ZHANG established regulating marrow sea acupuncture based on the fundamentals of traditional Chinese medicine combined with brain functional region projection and cerebrovascular distribution of modern medicine. "Three acupoints regulating balance" "3 acupoints regulating transportation" "3 acupoints regulating tremor" and Fengchi (GB 20), Fengfu (GB 16), Wangu (GB 12), Tianzhu (BL 10) and C3-C6 Jiaji (Ex-B2) acupoints were applied in this kind of manipulation. We combined holding spirits of doctor and patient together, and controlled the sensation transduction with different manipulations to reach the foci, which emphasis on the doctor-patient cooperation and body-mind co-regulation, finally promote patients' comprehensive rehabilitation.

  8. Neuroprotective changes of thalamic degeneration-related gene expression by acupuncture in an MPTP mouse model of parkinsonism: microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Sujung; Choi, Yeong-Gon; Hong, Yeon-Mi; Lim, Sabina

    2013-02-25

    Acupuncture stimulations at GB34 and LR3 inhibit the reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in the parkinsonism animal models. Especially, behavioral tests showed that acupuncture stimulations improved the motor dysfunction in a previous study by almost 87.7%. The thalamus is a crucial area for the motor circuit and has been identified as one of the most markedly damaged areas in Parkinson's disease (PD), so acupuncture stimulations might also have an effect on the thalamic damage. In this study, gene expression changes following acupuncture at the acupoints were investigated in the thalamus of a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced parkinsonism model using a whole transcript array. It was confirmed that acupuncture at these acupoints could inhibit the decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase in the thalamic regions of the MPTP model, while acupuncture at the non-acupoints could not suppress this decrease by its level shown in the acupoints. GeneChip gene array analysis showed that 18 (5 annotated genes: Dnase1l2, Dusp4, Mafg, Ndph and Pgm5) of the probes down-regulated in MPTP, as compared to the control, were exclusively up-regulated by acupuncture at the acupoints, but not at the non-acupoints. In addition, 14 (3 annotated genes; Serinc2, Sp2 and Ucp2) of the probes up-regulated in MPTP, as compared to the control, were exclusively down-regulated by acupuncture at the acupoints, but not at the non-acupoints. The expression levels of the representative genes in the microarray were validated by real-time RT-PCR. These results suggest that the 32 probes (8 annotated genes) which are affected by MPTP and acupuncture may be responsible for exerting the inhibitory effect of acupuncture in the thalamus which can be damaged by MPTP intoxication.

  9. Electroacupuncture for Moderate and Severe Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Baoyan; Yu, Jinna; Wu, Jiani; Wang, Jing; Liu, Zhishun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), postvoid residual urine (PVR), and maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), and explore the difference between EA at acupoints and non-acupoints in patients with moderate to severe benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Subjects and Methods Men with BPH and IPSS ≥8 were enrolled. Participants were randomly allocated to receive EA at acupoint (treatment group, n = 50) and EA at non-acupoint (control group, n = 50). The primary outcome measure includes the change of IPSS at the 6th week and the secondary outcome measures include changes of PVR and Qmax at the 6th week and change of IPSS at the 18th week. Results 100/192 patients were included. At the 6th week, treatment group patients had a 4.51 (p<0.001) and 4.12 (p<0.001) points greater decline in IPSS than the control group in the intention to treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) populations. At the 18th week, a 3.2 points (p = 0.001) greater decline was found in IPSS for the treatment. No significant differences were found between the two groups in Qmax at the 6th week (p = 0.819). No significant difference was observed in PVR (P = 0.35). Conclusion Acupoint EA at BL 33 had better effects on IPSS, but no difference on PVR and Qmax as compared with non-acupoint EA. The results indicate that EA is effective in improving patient's quality of life and acupoint may have better therapeutic effects than non-acupoints in acupuncture treatments of BPH. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01218243. PMID:23593139

  10. A survey on acupuncture for giving up heroin and treatment of the withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Lanqiong; Zeng, Lin; Liao, Qishun; Chen, Ping

    2007-06-01

    This paper summarizes the study of acupuncture for giving up heroin and treatment of withdrawal syndrome in China from 1995 to 2003, which includes the selection of acupoints, the evaluation of the therapeutic effects, studies of acupoints and application of relevant instruments, as well as treatment of the withdrawal syndromes of heroin with acupuncture. The therapeutic effect of acupuncture and moxibustion is definite and indispensable, especially at the time when there is no specific remedy for heroin addition.

  11. [Analysis on the ancient clinical application of Taiyuan (LU 9)].

    PubMed

    Mao, Gai; Jia, Hongling; Zhang, Yongchen

    2015-10-01

    The ancient literature on Taiyuan (LU 9) was collected to summarize the application laws of this acupoint. One thousand TCM ancient works collected in Chinese Medical Dictionary (fourth edition) were retrieved. The literature on the indications of Taiyuan (LU 9), the indications of Taiyuan (LU 9) combined prescriptions, the laws of acupoints combination and the techniques of acupuncture and moxibustion was collected systematically and the database was set up. It is found that there are 333 provisions in compliance with the inclusive standard of Taiyuan (LU 9), 306 provisions for the treatment of disorders and 66 relevant ancient works. There are 119 provisions relevant with the indication of single Taiyuan (LU 9) , 187 provisions for the applications of the combined prescriptions and 143 acupoints for the combined acupoints. Taiyuan (LU 9) and the combined prescriptions are applied to every department in clinic, especially for the disorders of TCM internal medicine department. The combined acupoints are distributed among the fourteen meridians and extra points and had been used totally for 1142 times. Of these points, there are 9 acupoints from the lung meridian of hand-taiyin and 25 acupoints from the bladder meridian of foot-taiyang, with the highest use frequency, 195 times and 141 times respectively, accounting for 17.08% and 12.35% of the total frequency. The common pairs of combination are Taiyuan (LU 9) and Yuji (LU 10), Taiyuan (LU 9) and Lieque (LU 7) and Taiyuan (LU 9) and Taibai (SP 3). The common dose of moxibustion at the acupoint is 3 cones. The depth of insertion is 0.2 cun and the acupuncture time is two breathes.

  12. [Contribution of teacher MEI Jian-Han to modern acup-moxibustion science].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Bin

    2008-09-01

    Acup-moxibustion experts are indispensable for probing into establishment of modern higher education and academic system of acupuncture and moxibustion. Among them, teacher MEI made a great distribution, mainly including: summarizing the outline of indications of acupoints of 14 channels, raising making prescription law of acupoints and indications law of acupoints, expounding the relationship between channels running and disease symptoms, summing up characteristics of theories of the twelve divergent meridians and the twelve muscle regions, drawing an indications diagram of acupoints of the 14 meridians and a schematic diagram of relation between the running of meridians and disease symptoms, a schematic diagram of running of the twelve divergent meridians, and a diagram of the relations between running of the twelve muscle regions and disease symptoms, inventing acupoint location method with finger-equal division, expounding Xiaheshu, simplifying the calculation of Ziwuliuzhu and inventing a calculation scale and simple acupoints selection table. In his later years, he systematically studied on the theories of eight extra meridians and clinical application, and raised theorem of meridians, etc.

  13. Introduction to photon traditional Chinese medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Songhao; Liu, Timon C.; Li, Yan; Meng, Yao-Yong

    2000-10-01

    Photon traditional Chinese medicine (PTCM), and inter- discipline of photonics and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), studies TCM, such as the diagnostics, therapeutics, indistinct disease theory, rehabilitation, health care and so forth, by using photonics. IN this paper, we will give an introduction of PTCM and review its progress in the collective interaction of low intensity laser irradiation with biological systems, the propagation of low intensity laser irradiation through tissue, the biophotonics representation of acupoint, low intensity laser therapy, TCM laser hemotherapy, laser acupuncture. In this paper, the concept of biological unit was put forward for acupoint and cell membrane receptors to be considered as an identical particle model. The interaction of identical particles was studied by quantum chemistry, as well as the response of the system interacting with physical factors by the time quantum theory on radiation-matter interaction. It was shown that the identical particles from coherent states, the response rate of the super-change state is a linear function of N2 and N3 (N is the particle number), and the one of the sub-change state is zero. Its application led to the explanation of the contribution of biological unit number of acupoint to acupoint specificity and the contribution of cell membrane receptors to low in tensity laser irradiation. The comparative research of acupoint effect and cell function with biophoton emission showed that acupoint states and the membrane receptor state are related to body diseases.

  14. Significance of physical exercise in hypertension. Influence of water temperature and beta-blockade on blood pressure, degree of cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac function in swimming training of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Vogt, M; Ott, B; Rupp, H; Jacob, R

    1986-01-01

    In previous studies swimming training (ST) of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) at 36 degrees water temperature (WT) led to a decrease in blood pressure (BP). A similar effect of ST has not been described in human hypertension. Our purpose was to investigate the influence of WT on this training effect, the influence of ST on LV hypertrophy and the involvement of adrenergic stimuli in the latter. Male SHR (20 weeks old) were divided randomly into 4 groups. 1) SHR sedentary 2) SHR ST 36 degrees 3) SHR ST 26 degrees 4) SHR ST 36 degrees + atenolol (50 mg/kg/die). ST was performed 2 X 90 min/day for 31 days and then reduced to 2 X 60 min/day. After 7 weeks of ST BP was lower in all ST groups compared with SHR sedentary (p less than 0.001). BP was higher in ST 26 degrees than in ST 36 degrees (p less than 0.05). No additional effect of atenolol on BP was observed. The increase in the degree of LV hypertrophy during ST (ST 36 degrees: +15%; ST 26 degrees: +26%) could be prevented by atenolol (ST 36 degrees + atenolol: -1.5%). ST 36 degrees led to improved ventricular and myocardial performance with decreased LV wall stress ("luxury hypertrophy"), while in ST 26 degrees ventricular dilatation occurred with increased systolic wall stress and elevated LVEDP. It was uncertain whether this should be interpreted as a state of LV pre-insufficiency in ST 26 degrees in spite of no indications of impaired myocardial contractile capability. Peripheral vascular resistance (PVR) was significantly reduced by ST. The reduction was more evident in ST 26 degrees, but was partially compensated for by an increased cardiac output. The weights of adrenal glands increased (p less than 0.001), most markedly for ST 26 degrees. The level of thyroid hormones (T3 and fT3) was increased in ST 26 degrees. In summary, ST proved to be effective in lowering BP of SHR. WT had great influence with respect to cardiovascular adaptation and mechanisms involved in ST of SHR. Cardioadrenergic drive was of

  15. Evaluation of Applied Kinesiology meridian techniques by means of surface electromyography (sEMG): demonstration of the regulatory influence of antique acupuncture points

    PubMed Central

    Moncayo, Roy; Moncayo, Helga

    2009-01-01

    Background The use of Applied Kinesiology techniques based on manual muscle tests relies on the relationship between muscles and acupuncture meridians. Applied Kinesiology detects body dysfunctions based on changes in muscle tone. Muscle tonification or inhibition within the test setting can be achieved with selected acupoints. These acupoints belong to either the same meridian or related meridians. The aim of this study is to analyze muscle sedation and tonification by means of surface electromyography. Methods Manual muscle tests were carried out using standard Applied Kinesiology (AK) techniques. The investigation included basic AK procedures such as sedation and tonification with specific acupoints. The sedation and tonification acupoints were selected from related meridians according to the Five Elements. The tonification effect of these acupoints was also tested while interfering effects were induced by manual stimulation of scars. The effects of selective neural therapy, i.e. individually tested and selected anesthetic agent, for the treatment of scars were also studied. The characteristics of muscle action were documented by surface electromyographys (sEMG). Results The sEMG data showed a diminution of signal intensity when sedation was used. Graded sedation resulted in a graded diminution of signal amplitude. Graded increase in signal amplitude was observed when antique acupuncture points were used for tonification. The tactile stretch stimulus of scars localized in meridian-independent places produced diminution of signal intensity on a reference muscle, similar to sedation. These changes, however, were not corrected by tonification acupoints. Correction of these interferences was achieved by lesion specific neural therapy with local anesthetics. Conclusion We demonstrated the central working principles, i.e. sedation and tonification, of Applied Kinesiology through the use of specific acupoints that have an influence on manual muscle tests. Sedation

  16. [Mr. Wang Le-ting: a master of acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Niu, Xue-Song; Wang, Fan

    2012-11-01

    Mr. WANG Le-ting attaches great importance to accurate differentiation of syndromes, strict selection of acupoints, technique and direction of needle insertion, clear reinforcing and reducing methods after the appearance of needling sensations, proper opportunities of manipulations as well as needle withdrawal techniques, and reasonable application of acupuncture and moxibustion respectively. The above mentioned principles are known as his "5 agreements". He emphasizes that the selection of acupoints should be "in accordance with both the meridians and the accurate location of the points", and "needling sensation is necessary for each point". He holds that the back-shu points of the five-zang organs and Geshu (BL 17) can be adopted for patient with deficiency of qi, blood, yin and yang. In the aspect of acupoint theory, he insists the accurate location of Xuanzhong (GB 39). He also adjusts the locations of Huatuo Jiaji (EX-B 2) points, and finds the location of the new Dubi (ST 35). For easier applications, he divides the functions of acupoints into different schools of qi, blood, cold, heat, deficiency, excess, wind and dampness. And 41 combinations of acupoints are also invented as innovation. He is always strict to his students, instructing and influencing them by his own words and deeds. He is always conscientious and meticulous, which benefit immensely his followers, and remains a lot of precious experiences for the later generations.

  17. Acupuncture induce the different modulation patterns of the default mode network: an fMRI study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie; Zhang, Yi

    2009-02-01

    According to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory and certain clinical treatment reports, the sustained effects of acupuncture indeed exist, which may last several minutes or hours. Furthermore, increased attention has fallen on the sustained effects of acupuncture. Recently, it is reported that the sustained acupuncture effects may alter the default mode network (DMN). It raises interesting questions: whether the modulations of acupuncture effects to the DMN are still detected at other acupoints and whether the modulation patterns are different induced by different acupoints. In the present study, we wanted to investigate the questions. An experiment fMRI design was carried out on 36 subjects with the electroacupuncture stimulation (EAS) at the three acupoints: Guangming (GB37), Kunlun (BL60) and Jiaoxin (KI8) on the left leg. The data sets were analyzed by a data driven method named independent component analysis (ICA). The results indicated that the three acupoints stimulations may modulate the DMN. Moreover, the modulation patterns were distinct. We suggest the different modulation patterns on the DMN may attribute to the distinct functional effects of acupoints.

  18. Antiemetic efficacy of capsicum plaster on acupuncture points in patients undergoing thyroid operation

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Min Seok; Lee, Hee-Jong; Jeong, Ji Seon; Lee, Jung-Won

    2013-01-01

    Background Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) occurs in up to 63-84% of patients after thyroid surgery. This study aims to assess the effects of using a capsicum plaster to reduce PONV after thyroid surgery at either the Chinese acupuncture point (acupoint) Pericardium 6 (P6) or Korean hand acupuncture point K-D2. Methods One-hundred eighty-four patients who underwent thyroid surgery were randomized in four groups (n = 46 each): control group = inactive tape at P6 acupoints and on both shoulders as a nonacupoint; P6 group = capsicum plaster at P6 points and inactive tape on both shoulders; K-D2 group = capsicum plaster at K-D2 acupoints and inactive tape on both shoulders; Sham group = capsicum plaster on both shoulders and inactive tape at P6 acupoints. The capsicum plaster was applied before the induction of anesthesia and removed at 8 hr after surgery. Results The incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting and the need for rescue antiemetics were decreased in the patients in the P6 and K-D2 groups compared to the patients in the control and sham groups (P < 0.001). The patients in the P6 and K-D2 groups also reported that they were more satisfied (P < 0.05). Conclusions We conclude that the capsicum plaster at the P6 and K-D2 acupoint was a promising antiemetic method for the patients undergoing thyroid surgery. PMID:24427460

  19. Simulated annealing model of acupuncture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2015-05-01

    The growth control singularity model suggests that acupuncture points (acupoints) originate from organizers in embryogenesis. Organizers are singular points in growth control. Acupuncture can cause perturbation of a system with effects similar to simulated annealing. In clinical trial, the goal of a treatment is to relieve certain disorder which corresponds to reaching certain local optimum in simulated annealing. The self-organizing effect of the system is limited and related to the person's general health and age. Perturbation at acupoints can lead a stronger local excitation (analogous to higher annealing temperature) compared to perturbation at non-singular points (placebo control points). Such difference diminishes as the number of perturbed points increases due to the wider distribution of the limited self-organizing activity. This model explains the following facts from systematic reviews of acupuncture trials: 1. Properly chosen single acupoint treatment for certain disorder can lead to highly repeatable efficacy above placebo 2. When multiple acupoints are used, the result can be highly repeatable if the patients are relatively healthy and young but are usually mixed if the patients are old, frail and have multiple disorders at the same time as the number of local optima or comorbidities increases. 3. As number of acupoints used increases, the efficacy difference between sham and real acupuncture often diminishes. It predicted that the efficacy of acupuncture is negatively correlated to the disease chronicity, severity and patient's age. This is the first biological - physical model of acupuncture which can predict and guide clinical acupuncture research.

  20. Use of Whole-Genome Phylogeny and Comparisons for Development of a Multiplex PCR Assay To Identify Sequence Type 36 Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jeffrey A.; Xu, Feng; Ilyas, Saba; Siwakoti, Puskar; Cooper, Vaughn S.; Jones, Stephen H.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus sequence type 36 (ST36) strains that are native to the Pacific Ocean have recently caused multistate outbreaks of gastroenteritis linked to shellfish harvested from the Atlantic Ocean. Whole-genome comparisons of 295 genomes of V. parahaemolyticus, including several traced to northeastern U.S. sources, were used to identify diagnostic loci, one putatively encoding an endonuclease (prp), and two others potentially conferring O-antigenic properties (cps and flp). The combination of all three loci was present in only one clade of closely related strains of ST36, ST59, and one additional unknown sequence type. However, each locus was also identified outside this clade, with prp and flp occurring in only two nonclade isolates and cps in four. Based on the distribution of these loci in sequenced genomes, prp identified clade strains with >99% accuracy, but the addition of one more locus increased accuracy to 100%. Oligonucleotide primers targeting prp and cps were combined in a multiplex PCR method that defines species using the tlh locus and determines the presence of both the tdh and trh hemolysin-encoding genes, which are also present in ST36. Application of the method in vitro to a collection of 94 clinical isolates collected over a 4-year period in three northeastern U.S. states and 87 environmental isolates revealed that the prp and cps amplicons were detected only in clinical isolates identified as belonging to the ST36 clade and in no environmental isolates from the region. The assay should improve detection and surveillance, thereby reducing infections. PMID:25832299

  1. Sustained Effects of Acupuncture Stimulation Investigated with Centrality Mapping Analysis.

    PubMed

    Long, Xiangyu; Huang, Wenjing; Napadow, Vitaly; Liang, Fanrong; Pleger, Burkhard; Villringer, Arno; Witt, Claudia M; Nierhaus, Till; Pach, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture can have instant and sustained effects, however, its mechanisms of action are still unclear. Here, we investigated the sustained effect of acupuncture by evaluating centrality changes in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging after manually stimulating the acupuncture point ST36 at the lower leg or two control point locations (CP1 same dermatome, CP2 different dermatome). Data from a previously published experiment evaluating instant BOLD effects and S2-seed-based resting state connectivity was re-analyzed using eigenvector centrality mapping and degree centrality mapping. These data-driven methods might add new insights into sustained acupuncture effects on both global and local inter-region connectivity (centrality) by evaluating the summary of connections of every voxel. We found higher centrality in parahippocampal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus after ST36 stimulation in comparison to the two control points. These regions are positively correlated to major hubs of the default mode network, which might be the primary network affected by chronic pain. The stronger integration of both regions within the whole-brain connectome after stimulation of ST36 might be a potential contributor to pain modulation by acupuncture. These findings highlight centrality mapping as a valuable analysis for future imaging studies investigating clinically relevant outcomes associated with physiological response to acupuncture stimulation.

  2. Bee Venom Acupuncture Augments Anti-Inflammation in the Peripheral Organs of hSOD1G93A Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Hwa; Choi, Sun-Mi; Yang, Eun Jin

    2015-07-29

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) includes progressively degenerated motor neurons in the brainstem, motor cortex, and spinal cord. Recent reports demonstrate the dysfunction of multiple organs, including the lungs, spleen, and liver, in ALS animals and patients. Bee venom acupuncture (BVA) has been used for treating inflammatory diseases in Oriental Medicine. In a previous study, we demonstrated that BV prevented motor neuron death and increased anti-inflammation in the spinal cord of symptomatic hSOD1G93A transgenic mice. In this study, we examined whether BVA's effects depend on acupuncture point (ST36) in the organs, including the liver, spleen and kidney, of hSOD1G93A transgenic mice. We found that BV treatment at ST36 reduces inflammation in the liver, spleen, and kidney compared with saline-treatment at ST36 and BV injected intraperitoneally in symptomatic hSOD1G93A transgenic mice. Those findings suggest that BV treatment combined with acupuncture stimulation is more effective at reducing inflammation and increasing immune responses compared with only BV treatment, at least in an ALS animal model.

  3. Sustained Effects of Acupuncture Stimulation Investigated with Centrality Mapping Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Long, Xiangyu; Huang, Wenjing; Napadow, Vitaly; Liang, Fanrong; Pleger, Burkhard; Villringer, Arno; Witt, Claudia M.; Nierhaus, Till; Pach, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture can have instant and sustained effects, however, its mechanisms of action are still unclear. Here, we investigated the sustained effect of acupuncture by evaluating centrality changes in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging after manually stimulating the acupuncture point ST36 at the lower leg or two control point locations (CP1 same dermatome, CP2 different dermatome). Data from a previously published experiment evaluating instant BOLD effects and S2-seed-based resting state connectivity was re-analyzed using eigenvector centrality mapping and degree centrality mapping. These data-driven methods might add new insights into sustained acupuncture effects on both global and local inter-region connectivity (centrality) by evaluating the summary of connections of every voxel. We found higher centrality in parahippocampal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus after ST36 stimulation in comparison to the two control points. These regions are positively correlated to major hubs of the default mode network, which might be the primary network affected by chronic pain. The stronger integration of both regions within the whole-brain connectome after stimulation of ST36 might be a potential contributor to pain modulation by acupuncture. These findings highlight centrality mapping as a valuable analysis for future imaging studies investigating clinically relevant outcomes associated with physiological response to acupuncture stimulation. Clinical trial registration: NCT01079689, ClinicalTrials.gov. PMID:27803655

  4. Design and study of deep laser acupuncture stimulator of modulation and multibeam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Haitao; Wang, Qingguo; Xing, Qian; Li, Fangzheng; Cheng, Dongan

    2002-04-01

    The laser acupuncture stimulation has been applied extensively to replace the acupuncture needles. But the laser is transmitted to the acupoint through the skin, so the curative effect of the laser irradiation on an acupoint from cuticle is limited. We have developed the deep laser acupuncture stimulator of modulation and multibeam. The laser beam (such as He-Ne, LD, etc.) is turned into the modulated waveform. The modulated laser beam can simulate the customary acupuncture way such as twirling and rotating, etc. The laser beam is split into 3-8 beams by the means of optical shunt. After that they enter into laser acupuncture pins separately through the optical fiber joiners. The laser beam and pins can give simultaneously the stimulation in the depths of 3-8 acupoints. It has been proved by the clinical practice that the deep laser acupuncture has the notable efficiency for the apoplexy and sequelae of apoplexy, sciatica, rheumatoid arthritis, etc.

  5. [Discussion on different methods of painless needle insertion based on positions].

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Shi, Xuemin

    2016-03-01

    Based on multiple painless needle insertion skills in clinic combined with own experience, the authors propose the opinion that different painless needle insertion methods need to be used according to the positions where acupoints are. The appropriate needle insertion mean must be selected in accord with the anatomical characteristic of acupoint position, namely, tapping insertion is applied in scalp part, skin-pinching up needle insertion is used in forehead and superficial nerve trunk, fingernail-pressure needle insertion in ocular region and positions where large blood vessels distribute, flying acupuncture insertion in face and finger tip, vibrating needle in occipitonuchal region, quivering insertion in abdomen, quick pricking by single hand in the four limbs and back, and chop acupuncture in palm and pelma. The insertion methods are systematically discussed in terms of preparation, acupoint position, manipulation and attention, etc, so that to provide the reference for painless needle insertion.

  6. [Preliminary summarization of a new method, extrinsic shock wave acupuncture and moxibustion].

    PubMed

    Everke, Heinrich

    2006-12-01

    In medical field, extrinsic shock wave is only used to crush kidney stone to pieces. In recent years, a new instrument has been produced, which outputs a more gentle extrinsic shock wave that also can be used for treatment of pain excitation region in the muscular system. This shock wave is called rectilinear ballistic extrinsic shock wave. In 2002, the author designed an instrument, which could generate the rectilinear ballistic extrinsic shock wave and was used at acupoints. The author used the instrument for treatment of over 500 patients and proved that the method had a better effect than that of simple acupuncture and moxibustion for many kinds of diseases. Extrinsic shock wave acupuncture and moxibustion is another method for stimulating acupoints, besides acupuncture, moxihustion, massage of acupoints, electroacupuncture and laser acupuncture.

  7. Visualizing Motion Patterns in Acupuncture Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ye-Seul; Jung, Won-Mo; Lee, In-Seon; Lee, Hyangsook; Park, Hi-Joon; Chae, Younbyoung

    2016-07-16

    Acupuncture manipulation varies widely among practitioners in clinical settings, and it is difficult to teach novice students how to perform acupuncture manipulation techniques skillfully. The Acupuncture Manipulation Education System (AMES) is an open source software system designed to enhance acupuncture manipulation skills using visual feedback. Using a phantom acupoint and motion sensor, our method for acupuncture manipulation training provides visual feedback regarding the actual movement of the student's acupuncture manipulation in addition to the optimal or intended movement, regardless of whether the manipulation skill is lifting, thrusting, or rotating. Our results show that students could enhance their manipulation skills by training using this method. This video shows the process of manufacturing phantom acupoints and discusses several issues that may require the attention of individuals interested in creating phantom acupoints or operating this system.

  8. Modulatory effects of acupuncture on brain networks in mild cognitive impairment patients

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ting-ting; Wang, Dan; Huang, Ju-ke; Zhou, Xiao-mei; Yuan, Xu; Liang, Jiu-ping; Yin, Liang; Xie, Hong-liang; Jia, Xin-yan; Shi, Jiao; Wang, Fang; Yang, Hao-bo; Chen, Shang-jie

    2017-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging has been widely used to investigate the effects of acupuncture on neural activity. However, most functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have focused on acute changes in brain activation induced by acupuncture. Thus, the time course of the therapeutic effects of acupuncture remains unclear. In this study, 32 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment were randomly divided into two groups, where they received either Tiaoshen Yizhi acupuncture or sham acupoint acupuncture. The needles were either twirled at Tiaoshen Yizhi acupoints, including Sishencong (EX-HN1), Yintang (EX-HN3), Neiguan (PC6), Taixi (KI3), Fenglong (ST40), and Taichong (LR3), or at related sham acupoints at a depth of approximately 15 mm, an angle of ± 60°, and a rate of approximately 120 times per minute. Acupuncture was conducted for 4 consecutive weeks, five times per week, on weekdays. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging indicated that connections between cognition-related regions such as the insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, inferior parietal lobule, and anterior cingulate cortex increased after acupuncture at Tiaoshen Yizhi acupoints. The insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus acted as central brain hubs. Patients in the Tiaoshen Yizhi group exhibited improved cognitive performance after acupuncture. In the sham acupoint acupuncture group, connections between brain regions were dispersed, and we found no differences in cognitive function following the treatment. These results indicate that acupuncture at Tiaoshen Yizhi acupoints can regulate brain networks by increasing connectivity between cognition-related regions, thereby improving cognitive function in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

  9. [Acupuncture messenger--Pu Xiang-cheng].

    PubMed

    Du, Huai-bin; Liang, Fan-rong

    2011-06-01

    PU Xiang-cheng is the eminent acupuncture master in modern history of China. He studied diligently in early years and devoted his life to the cause of acupuncture practice and education in Chinese medicine. Combination of acupuncture and herbal medicine, coordination of acupuncture and moxibustion, unique application of acupoints, flexible combination of acupoints and focusing on needling techniques are the essence of his academic thoughts. The life of PU Xiang-cheng, the acupuncture master, and his major academic thoughts are described in this paper, so as to commemorate his contributions to acupuncture theory, practice and promotions.

  10. [Teaching design of mastering scalp acupuncture fast].

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Niu, Wenmin

    2016-05-01

    Scalp acupuncture is a method of treating whole-body diseases. The author takes the easy positioning of scalp acupuncture as starting point, covers the positioning of scalp acupuncture and needle insertion points, acupuncture manipulation and the selection of acupoints, so as to introduce the design of teaching the international standardized scalp acupuncture with texts and illustrations. The positions of scalp acupuncture are 4 lines in frontal area, 5 lines in parietal area, 2 lines in temporal area and 3 lines in occipital area. The needle insertion angle is 30° to the skin. Acupoints can be selected crossly and correspondingly in clinic.

  11. [Transition of the blind acupuncture and massage industry and its impacts in Japan].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    After being introduced to Japan, the Chinese acupuncture and massage therapy has changed a lot, in which the influence aroused by the blind practitioners cannot be ignored. Through analyzing the development and the transition of the blind acupuncture and massage industry in Japan, it is found that the tube needle technique, changeable acupoints concept, technical deviation and the importance on acupoints rather than meridians are still existed commonly today, which are introduced by the blind acupuncture and massage practitioners, the special group in Japan. In the process of development, the interaction with the governmental strategy has played the essential role in the consolidation of the above features.

  12. [Mr ZHENG Yugui's academic thoughts: in memory of the successor of Chengjiang acupuncture school in Shandong province].

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiaobin; Du, Guangzhong; Tian, Daozheng

    2016-03-01

    Mr ZHENG Yugui, a distinguished acupuncturist in Qilu area, is one of the successors of Chengjiang acupuncture school in Shandong province. Through collecting the papers and works concerning Mr ZHENG, the academic thoughts are summarized, including careful and clear differentiation of syndrome, specific and precise selection of acupoints, reinforcing and reducing methods based on qi, and gentle and soft manipulation of needles. He has discovered new acupoints such as Fengyan point, etc. He also focuses on moxibustion and creates Taiyang moxibustion method. In addition, to develop acupuncture education, Mr ZHENG has played a deep and important role in spreading Chengjiang acupuncture school in Shandong province.

  13. [Study on Chinese Acup-Mox Medicine by YAO Tianmin].

    PubMed

    Li, Jianrong; Huang, Longxiang; Du, Guangzhong; Gang, Weijuan

    2015-06-01

    The characteristics and academic thoughts of Chinese Acup-Mox Medicine written by YAO Tianmin during the Republic of China was studied and analyzed in this paper. The academic thoughts of this book were confluence of Chinese and western knowledge, respecting for classics culture but not stubborn, using western science and medicine without worshiping it. The main characteristics were the scientific meridian-acupoint theory, extensive acupoint selection, "qie" method of acupuncture, high recommendation on medicated thread and ironing moxibustion, reinforcing and reducing based on the meridian direction in infantile massage, using acupuncture and cream formula for surgical treatment, and creating his own acupuncture codes.

  14. Visualization of the Meridian System Based on Biomedical Information about Acupuncture Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In-Seon; Lee, Soon-Ho; Kim, Song-Yi; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Hi-Joon; Chae, Younbyoung

    2013-01-01

    The origin of the concept of the meridian system is closely connected with the treatment effects of acupuncture, and it serves as an empirical reference system in the clinical setting. Understanding the meridian channels would be a first step in enhancing the clinical efficacy of acupuncture treatment. To understand the relationship between the location of the disease and the sites of relevant acupoints, we investigated acupuncture treatment regimens for low-back pain in 37 clinical studies. We found that the most frequently used acupoints in the treatment of low-back pain were BL23 (51%), BL25 (43%), BL24 (32%), BL40 (32%), BL60 (32%), GB30 (32%), BL26 (28%), BL32 (28%), and GB34 (21%). For the example of low-back pain, we visualized the biomedical information (frequency rates) about acupuncture treatment on the meridians of a three-dimensional (3D) model of the human body. We found that both local and distal acupoints were used to treat low-back pain in clinical trials based on the meridian theory. We suggest a new model for the visualization of a data-driven 3D meridian system of biomedical information about the meridians and acupoints. These findings may be helpful in understanding the meridian system and revealing the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment. PMID:23781270

  15. [Academic thoughts on Practice of acupuncture and moxibustion written by CHEN Jingwen, the acupuncture master in the Republic of China].

    PubMed

    Huang, Weiping; Li, Naiqi

    2015-03-01

    Through the collection of Practice of acupuncture and moxibustion written by CHEN Jingwen, the acupuncture master in the Republic of China, the academic characteristics on acupuncture and moxibusiton were analyzed. The literature comparison method was adopted to compare the works of LUO Zhaoju, ZENG Tianzhi and LI Wenxian, etc. at the same period. It was discovered that CHEN Jingwen was the medical master who systematicly brought up the theory of acupoint properties earlier in the modern times. Classifying drugs based on acupoints was his academic feature. Additionally, the compatibility therapy of Chinese medicine was introduced to explain the essential ideas on the acupoints combination. The treatment was determined on the basis of zangxiang theory and the reinforcing and reducing therapy of acupuncture was emphasized in the determination of treatment and prescription. CHEN Jingwen's theory of acupoint property had been stressed and spread among the medical scholars in the Republic of China and he had made the beneficial exploration for the development of modern acupuncture and moxibustion therapy.

  16. Probable Mechanisms of Needling Therapies for Myofascial Pain Control

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Li-Wei; Kao, Mu-Jung; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2012-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) has been defined as a regional pain syndrome characterized by muscle pain caused by myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) clinically. MTrP is defined as the hyperirritable spot in a palpable taut band of skeletal muscle fibers. Appropriate treatment to MTrPs can effectively relieve the clinical pain of MPS. Needling therapies, such as MTrP injection, dry needling, or acupuncture (AcP) can effectively eliminate pain immediately. AcP is probably the first reported technique in treating MPS patients with dry needling based on the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory. The possible mechanism of AcP analgesia were studied and published in recent decades. The analgesic effect of AcP is hypothesized to be related to immune, hormonal, and nervous systems. Compared to slow-acting hormonal system, nervous system acts in a faster manner. Given these complexities, AcP analgesia cannot be explained by any single mechanism. There are several principles for selection of acupoints based on the TCM principles: “Ah-Shi” point, proximal or remote acupoints on the meridian, and extra-meridian acupoints. Correlations between acupoints and MTrPs are discussed. Some clinical and animal studies of remote AcP for MTrPs and the possible mechanisms of remote effectiveness are reviewed and discussed. PMID:23346211

  17. Partially Automated Method for Localizing Standardized Acupuncture Points on the Heads of Digital Human Models

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jungdae; Kang, Dae-In

    2015-01-01

    Having modernized imaging tools for precise positioning of acupuncture points over the human body where the traditional therapeutic method is applied is essential. For that reason, we suggest a more systematic positioning method that uses X-ray computer tomographic images to precisely position acupoints. Digital Korean human data were obtained to construct three-dimensional head-skin and skull surface models of six individuals. Depending on the method used to pinpoint the positions of the acupoints, every acupoint was classified into one of three types: anatomical points, proportional points, and morphological points. A computational algorithm and procedure were developed for partial automation of the positioning. The anatomical points were selected by using the structural characteristics of the skin surface and skull. The proportional points were calculated from the positions of the anatomical points. The morphological points were also calculated by using some control points related to the connections between the source and the target models. All the acupoints on the heads of the six individual were displayed on three-dimensional computer graphical image models. This method may be helpful for developing more accurate experimental designs and for providing more quantitative volumetric methods for performing analyses in acupuncture-related research. PMID:26101534

  18. Acupuncture stimulation inhibits somato-renal sympathetic A- and C-reflexes in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Min; Wu, Gen-Cheng; Arita, Hideko; Hanaoka, Kazuo

    2002-01-01

    Stimulation of peripheral nerve afferent for example tibial nerve by a strong electrical stimulation (rectanfular wave with 20V amplitude; pulse duration of 0.5 ms, 0.3 pulses/sec) can evoke a discharge of the somato-sympathetic reflex which is recorded on the efferent of renal sympathetic nerve. The component of the somato-sympathetic reflex can be divided into two parts: one is related to the transmission of the myelinated afferent fibers with a short lantency (41+/-2 ms) and is defined A-reflex, the other is related to the transmission of the unmyelinated afferent fibers with a long latency (210+/-13 ms) and is defined C-reflex. In the present study, an acupuncture needle (diameter 0.34 mm) was inserted into the hind limbs of the rat, dorsolaterally at the area of acupoint: huantiao (GB30), at a depth of 4-5 mm and was twisted right and left twice every second during recording the somato-renal sympathetic reflex. It was found that acupuncture on the huantiao acupoint significantly inhibited both A- and C-reflexes. There was no different inhibition of the A- and C-reflexes by acupuncture on the right or left side. However acupuncture on the fore limbs of the rat dorsolaterally at the area of acupoint: quchi (LI11) showed no effect on neither A- nor C-reflexes. These results suggest that acupuncture at the same spinal segment of the acupoint inhibits the somatorenal sympathetic reflex.

  19. Imaging study on acupuncture points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, X. H.; Zhang, X. Y.; Liu, C. L.; Dang, R. S.; Ando, M.; Sugiyama, H.; Chen, H. S.; Ding, G. H.

    2009-09-01

    The topographic structures of acupuncture points were investigated by using the synchrotron radiation based Dark Field Image (DFI) method. Four following acupuncture points were studied: Sanyinjiao, Neiguan, Zusanli and Tianshu. We have found that at acupuncture point regions there exists the accumulation of micro-vessels. The images taken in the surrounding tissue out of the acupuncture points do not show such kind of structure. It is the first time to reveal directly the specific structure of acupuncture points by X-ray imaging.

  20. [Effect of electro-acupuncture on cortical and hippocampal EEG in adjuvant arthritis rats].

    PubMed

    Lou, Z; Sun, W; Liu, Y; Tong, Z

    1992-01-01

    Adjuvant arthritis (AA) rats were used as the chronic pain model. The cortical and hippocampal (HPC) EEG were recorded. The behaviour and local inflammatory reaction were observed. The results showed an arousal response of desynchronization of the ECoG and HPC EEG in the AA rats, the delta waves were decreased and beta waves increased significantly. However, the inhibited effect to the desynchronization were showed could be inhibited by the electro-acupuncture (EA) on bilateral Zusanli points and morphine in the AA rats. The results suggested that the cortex and hippocampus participate in the modulating action of chronic pain, and the EA has an analgesic action.

  1. Within-limb somatotopic organization in human SI and parietal operculum for the leg: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Bao, Ruixue; Wei, Pengxu; Li, Kuncheng; Lu, Jie; Zhao, Cheng; Wang, Yuping; Zhang, Tong

    2012-03-22

    Somatotopic organizations in human somatosensory cortex (SI and SII) for scattered portions of the leg have not been systematically observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In this research we compared functional representations in the contralateral SI and bilateral parietal operculum (that contained subregions OP1, 3-4 of SII and OP2) of four acupoints in right leg in proximal-distal and medial-lateral arrangement. The results were: (1) somatotopy of SI demonstrated a lateral-to-medial and inferior-to-superior pattern when acupoints were shifting from proximal to distal or from medial to lateral; (2) the contralateral OP1 also showed a clear somatotopic organization for the four separated leg portions, and the ipsilateral OP1 showed a similar pattern to the contralateral OP1, thus arrangements of responses in the two areas were mirror-symmetric against y-axis; (3) the contralateral OP2 showed a somatotopic organization when acupoints shifting from proximal to distal, while the contralateral OP3 presented a trend of somatotopy opposite to that of the contralateral OP1. These results first show definite within-leg somatotopy of human SI for scattered leg portions in medial-lateral arrangement using fMRI. Within-limb somatotopic organization of OP1 for leg portions arranging from proximal to distal as well as from medial to lateral, and somatotopy of OP2 for leg portions arranging from proximal to distal, are also shown for the first time. Our results also reinforce the proposal of a somatotopic map existing in human OP3, and indicating a fourth somatotopic map in OP2 in human parietal operculum, which suggests that OP 2 is not just a vestibular area. In addition, separable activations in somatosensory cortex induced by adjacent acupoints should play a fundamental role in acupoint-specific effects in the brain.

  2. Stimulation of the wrist acupuncture point PC6 for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anna; Chan, Simon KC; Fan, Lawrence TY

    2015-01-01

    Background Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are common complications following surgery and anaesthesia. Antiemetic drugs are only partially effective in preventing PONV. An alternative approach is to stimulate the PC6 acupoint on the wrist. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2004, updated in 2009 and now in 2015. Objectives To determine the effectiveness and safety of PC6 acupoint stimulation with or without antiemetic drug versus sham or antiemetic drug for the prevention of PONV in people undergoing surgery. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Library, Issue 12, 2014), MEDLINE (January 2008 to December 2014), EMBASE (January 2008 to December 2014), ISI Web of Science (January 2008 to December 2014), World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry, ClinicalTrials.gov, and reference lists of articles to identify additional studies. We applied no language restrictions. Selection criteria All randomized trials of techniques that stimulated the PC6 acupoint compared with sham treatment or drug therapy, or combined PC6 acupoint and drug therapy compared to drug therapy, for the prevention of PONV. Interventions used in these trials included acupuncture, electro-acupuncture, transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation, transcutaneous nerve stimulation, laser stimulation, capsicum plaster, acu-stimulation device, and acupressure in people undergoing surgery. Primary outcomes were the incidences of nausea and vomiting after surgery. Secondary outcomes were the need for rescue antiemetic therapy and adverse effects. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias domains for each trial. We used a random-effects model and reported risk ratio (RR) with associated 95% confidence interval (95% CI). We used trial sequential analyses to help provide information on when we had reached firm evidence in cumulative meta

  3. The Effects of Auricular Electro-Acupuncture on Ameliorating the Dysfunction of Interstitial Cells of Cajal Networks and nNOSmRNA Expression in Antrum of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huan; Zhu, Weijian; Lu, Jing; Fan, Jinqing; Sun, Luning; Feng, Xiaoke; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Zhaohui; Wang, Yongqing

    2016-01-01

    Backgroud Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) and nNOS play a crucial role in diabetic gastrointestinal dysmotility(DGD). Our previous study found that electro-acupuncture(EA) on ear point ‘stomach’ could repair the gastric dysrhythmias in rats induced by rectal distention(RD) after meal. However, little were known about the possible effect of auricular electro-acupuncture (AEA) on diabetic rats. Thus, we designed this study to investigate the effect of AEA on streptozotocin(STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Method Forty male Sprague_Dawley (SD) rats were injected with STZ, at the end of 8th week after injection, animals were randomly divided into four groups and received 2 weeks-treatment(10 times) respectively: control group(CON,n = 10, no stimulation), sham auricular electro-acupuncture group(SEA,n = 10, low frequency EA on earlobes), auricular eletro-acupuncture group(AEA,n = 10, low frequency EA on ear point ‘stomach’), and ST-36 group(ST-36,n = 10, low frequency EA on ST-36). Gastrointestinal (GI) motility was measured by GI transit rate. ICCs(c-kit+ expression) in antrum were analyzed by Immunohistochemistry and western blotting. NO level in blood serum were detected by Griess Reagent, and nNOSmRNA expression in antrum were determined by Real-time PCR. Results GI transit rate and ICCs(c-kit+ expression) in antrum of AEA group have the tendency to increase compared with CON group, but had no statistics difference (P>0.05). nNOSmRNA expression in antrum of AEA group was dramatically increased compared with CON group (P = 0.037). Conclusions Low frequency EA on ear ‘stomach’ point could significantly up-regulate nNOS mRNA expression and ameliorate the ICCs networks partly in gastric antrum of STZ -induced diabetic rats, which may has benefits on regulating the GI motility. PMID:27930657

  4. [Specific disturbances of psychomotor development in children with thymomegaly].

    PubMed

    Ignat'eva, O N; Kuz'menko, L G; Kozlovskaia, G V; Kliushnik, T P

    2008-01-01

    Ninety children, aged from 2 month to 3 years, with thymomegaly and 25 aged-matched controls were studied. Most children with thymomegaly had disturbances of psychomotor development. Depending on their types, the cohort of children was stratified into 4 subgroups: 1st - 36 patients (40%) with schizotypal signs; 2nd - 30 hyperactive children (33%); 3rd - 19 children with hyperthymia signs (21%); 4th - 5 normal children (6%). The deviations of locomotion and psychiatric development were correlated with the extent of thymus enlargement and activation of innate and adaptive immunity.

  5. Deqi Is Double-Faced: The Acupuncture Practitioner's and the Subject's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Chang Shik; Chae, Younbyeong; Kang, O-Seok; Kim, Seung-Tae; Hahm, Dae-Hyun; Park, Ji-Yeun; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Hi-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background. While therapeutic acupuncture perception (deqi) has recently been investigated only for the subject's perception, classical acupuncture discussed acupuncture perception for both the practitioner and the subject. The aim of this study was to explore the practitioner's and the subject's acupuncture perception during acupuncture. Methods. Explorative crossover study to quantitatively document acupuncture perception of both the practitioner and the subject. Eighty-one participants acted as a practitioner or a subject. The practitioner's and the subject's acupuncture perceptions were collected using self-report type checklists. Acupuncture needles were inserted to LI4 or ST36, adopting a four-phase method: insertion into shallow, middle, and deep depths, followed by twirling manipulation. Pain, transmission, dullness, and soreness feelings of the subject and thick, tangled, solid, and empty feelings of the practitioner were analyzed for their correlation. Results. The practitioner's and the subject's perception showed a significant correlation. Acupuncture perception varied over four phases of needling, with a tendency to be rated higher when inserted deep. Perception for LI4 was generally higher than those for ST36. Conclusion. The practitioner's acupuncture perception was successfully documented and analyzed in relation to the subject's acupuncture perception and different needling conditions. PMID:26689128

  6. [Hypothesis on "all the 12 channels entering the brain"].

    PubMed

    Xu, Fang-ming; Xie, Peng; Mou, Jun; Yang, De-yu

    2007-09-01

    Out of the 20 channels in the channel and collateral system, only 5 enter the brain, with unclear circulation pathway in the brain. Electrophysiologic and imaging studies indicate that the signal induced by acupuncture at acupoints can enter the brain no matter whether the channel connecting the acupoint enters the brain. Therefore, the authors put forward the hypothesis of "all the 12 channels enter the brain", i.e., the hypothesis of "channels and collaterals in brain". In the theory system of channels, less channels enter the brain with unclear circulation pathway. This possibly is related with that sensation is main way for descovery of channels. In future, we should adopt modern scientific and technical ways and strengthen the study on circulation of channels in the brain, so as to perfect the channel theory.

  7. [Analysis on intestinal disorders in Jiujing Tu (Illustration of Moxiustion) found from Dunhuang].

    PubMed

    Shi, Yin; Shang, Haixia; Wu, Huangan

    2016-05-01

    Jiujing Tu (Illustration of Moxibustion), excavated from Mo Kao Grotto at Dunhuang, is one of the earliest existing monographs on moxibustion. The medical masters from different schools have focused on this book because it is different from the existing ancient medical works and have not been collected in the medical works of different dynasties. In this study, the literature of Jiujing Tu on five acupoints (Dachangshu, Pangguangshu, Daxiaochangshu, Nieshu and Cigong) relevant with intestinal disorders is collected. It is intended to discuss and analyze the acupoint location, main intestinal disorder, moxibustion characters, recognition on the literature of different dynasties and modern clinical applications. It is believed that the thought of strong moxibustion in the treatment of intestinal disorders advocated in Jiujing Tu has profound impact on the medical development in later generations. It deserves us to have a further digging, collection and promotion of this thought in the modern time.

  8. The Effects of Needling Fenglong (ST40) and Neiguan (PC6) on IL-17 of ApoE-Gene-Knockout Mice's Liver

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Fu Yun; Huo, Ze Jun; Guo, Jia; Chen, Huan; Liu, Tong; Hong, Pei Xin; Peng, Yuan Yuan; Fan, Yi Fan; Chen, Yu Pei

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to observe the effects of needling ST40 and PC6 on IL-17 of ApoE−/− mice with fatty liver. Forty male ApoE−/− mice were randomized into Needling-Acupoint Group, Simvastatin Intragastric Administration Group, Needling Nonacupoint Group, and Model Group. Each was fed with high fat diet for 8 weeks since 16 weeks of age; after 8 weeks of intervention, mice were sacrificed and tested for various examinations. Result showed that the body weight, TC, and serum IL-17 in Needling-Acupoint Group decreased. Compared with Model Group, the immunohistochemical expressions of IL-17 in liver tissue were significantly decreased among the other three groups. In conclusion, acupuncture was able to lower the expression of IL-17 level both in serum and liver tissue in ApoE−/− mice, which is helpful to reduce the inflammation and defers the progress from fatty liver to cirrhosis. PMID:24778705

  9. [Theoretical and clinical application of insomnia caused by "stomach disorder could lead to excess of yang-qiao meridian"].

    PubMed

    Ren, Jian-Ning

    2013-02-01

    To explore the mechanism of insomnia caused by "stomach disorder could lead to excess of yang-qiao meridian" and clinical application of treating insomnia with acupoints in qiao meridian as the main points. From meridian theory, intersection between stomach meridian of Foot-Yangming and yang-qiao meridian is through Chengqi (ST 1). Qiao meridian for sleep is mainly because it is connected with eyes through the Bladder Meridian of Foot-Taiyang. For Stomach Meridian of Foot-Yangming is intersected with the Bladder Meridian of Foot-Taiyang in Jingming (BL 1), and intersected with yin and yang qiao meridian beside the mouth and under the eye, once functional disorder of the stomach, it can affect qi movements of the whole body and give rise to various pathological changes that cause insomnia. Meanwhile examples are given to explain the clinical application of treating subborn insomnia with corresponding acupoint of stomach and yang-qiao meridian.

  10. [An overview of researches on underlying mechanisms of acupuncture therapy by functional magnetic resonance imaging in recent 5 years].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hai-Zhen; Chang, Jing-Ling; Zhu, Dan; Gao, Ying

    2012-04-01

    In the present paper, the authors review the development of researches on acupuncture therapy with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in recent 5 years in both China and foreign countries. The current researches mainly involve 1) specificity of efficacies of acupoints, 2) mechanisms of acupuncture intervention underlying improvement of various clinical conditions or illnesses, 3) individual difference of the subjects, and 4) sustained efficacies of acupuncture. In the early stage, researches on acupuncture therapy mostly focus on the immediate efficacy and the specificity of efficacies of acupoints. Along with the actuality of sustained effect of acupuncture, new test design paradigms agreeable with clinical practice are necessary in the future. In addition, more attentions about the stability of the tested results should be paid.

  11. Effect of acupuncture on the brain in children with spastic cerebral palsy using functional neuroimaging (FMRI).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yun; Jin, Zhen; Li, Ke; Lu, Zhong-Li; Wong, Virginia; Han, Tong-Li; Zheng, Hua; Caspi, Opher; Liu, Gang; Zeng, Ya-Wei; Zou, Li-Ping

    2008-11-01

    We study the effect of acupuncture on brain activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). fMRI of the whole brain was performed in 11 children with cerebral palsy and 10 healthy children during stimulation of a common acupoint in Traditional Medicine [Liv3 (Taichong)] on the left foot. We use both twisting and nontwisting methods with a blocked paradigm on a 2.0 Tesla MRI scanner. Functional data were analyzed by using Statistical Parametric Mapping software (SPM 99). Both signal increase and decrease in various regions of the brain were found in both groups of children. However, the pattern was different for the 2 groups, especially with decreases in signal regions. We suggest that the observed differences between children with cerebral palsy and healthy children with the stimulation of acupoint Liv3 might be due to blockage of the liver meridian in children with cerebral palsy.

  12. [Textual research and differentiation of Dou Han-qing's works catalogue].

    PubMed

    Li, Bao-jin; Li, Tao-hua; Liu, Qing-guo

    2008-04-01

    This paper aims at probing into evolving course of DOU Han-qing's works catalogue. On the basis of summarizing and referring to study achievements of our predecessors, through analysis of book lists and relative works and chapters, it is hold that the catalogue which were not attained by ZHULiang-neng possibly are the contents of acupuncture reinforcing and reducing methods; the books printed and published by ZHULiang-neng include the contents of both channels and acupoints; the book, Zhinan, which was attained by DOUGui-fang, includes the content catalogue of needling methods; Fu Zhenjiu Zashuo in Zhenjiu Sisu. Zhenjiu Zhinan also were extracted by DOU Gui-fang from Illustrated Manual of Acupoints of the Bronze Figure, and The Zhenjiu Biji Taiyi Zhi Tuxu and Dongzhi Yezhe Gongshuo should belong to The Fu Zhenjiu Zashuo.

  13. Effects of He-Ne laser acupuncture-point irradiation on serology hepatitis virus markers in chronic hepatitis B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yue-lan; Huang, Bing-chen; Ni, Liu-da

    1993-03-01

    For most of the patients with chronic hepatitis B the immunologic function is deficient. Immunopotentiation and immunoregulation can be used as effective treatments. Laser irradiation can potentiate the cellular immune function of the human body and has good effects on improving clinical symptoms, cutting short the process of diseases, and promoting HBsAg negative change. Thereby we have a randomized opportunity to study the effect of He-Ne laser acupoint irradiation on serological HBV markers (HBVM) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB).

  14. Amygdaloid corticotropin-releasing factor is involved in the anxiolytic effect of acupuncture during ethanol withdrawal in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, ZhengLin; Jin, XiuDong; Wu, YiYan; Yang, XudXuDongong; Xu, YanJi; Jiang, James ZhongJian; Kim, Sang Chan; Lee, Bong Hyo; Yang, Chae Ha; Zhao, RongJie

    2013-10-01

    In a previous study, acupuncture at acupoint HT7 attenuated ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behavior in rats by normalizing amygdaloid catecholamines. In the present study, the involvement of amygdaloid corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the anxiolytic effect of acupuncture was investigated during ethanol withdrawal. Rats were intraperitoneally treated with 3 g /kg/day of ethanol for 28 days, and the CRF mRNA levels in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) were measured by using a RT-PCR analysis 72 hours after the last dose of ethanol. During ethanol withdrawal, the rats were bilaterally treated with acupuncture at acupoints HT7, PC6 or at a non-acupoint (Tail) for one min/day for three days. Also, rats were bilaterally injected with CRF into the CEA five minutes after the third acupuncture treatment, after which followed by the elevated-plus maze (EPM) test and the plasma corticosterone radioimmunoassay (RIA) were administered. The RT-PCR analysis showed a significant increase in the amygdaloid CRF mRNA levels in the ethanol-withdrawn rats compared with both the saline-treated rats and the rats treated with acupuncture at HT7, but neither acupuncture at PC6 nor acupuncture at a non-acupoint significantly inhibited the increased mRNA expression. The EPM test and the RIA also showed that the post-acupuncture infusion of CRF greatly reduced the anxiolytic effect of acupuncture at HT7. These results suggest that during ethanol withdrawal, the anxiolytic effect of acupuncture may be mediated through the modulation of amydaloid CRF during ethanol withdrawal.

  15. Battlefield Acupuncture: Update

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    the development of the Voltaic pile by Alessandro Volta in the 1800s.2 By inserting both a gold ASP needle and a second stain- less steel or silver ASP...to the “Battlefield Acupuncture”1 technique, as recommended by Niemtzow, consists of first following the orginal protocol to determine the dominant ear...Figure 2). First Measurements Using Electrical Stimulation of Battlefield Acupoints To demonstrate for the first time that an electrical stim- ulation of

  16. Electrical stimulation of acupuncture points for analgesia during bone marrow aspiration and biopsy: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Shokrani, Omid; Saghaei, Mahmood; Ashrafi, Farzaneh; Sadeghi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy (BMA/BMB) is a painful procedure mostly used in diagnosing and staging of a broad spectrum of hematological diseases. In spite of local anesthesia, the prevalence and intensity of the pain and patient discomfort caused by this procedure are considerable. The effect of acupuncture and electrical stimulation of acupoints (acupuncture points) in the treatment of many medical conditions, including pain, have been approved. The study is designed to evaluate the effect of electrical stimulation of acupoints to decrease the pain during BMA/BMB in adults. Materials and Methods: In a double-blind controlled clinical trial, 50 patients undergoing BMA/BMB were randomly allocated into two groups, to receive either true or placebo electrical stimulation of acupoints LI-4 (large intestine 4, Hegu) and LI-11 (large intestine 11, Quchi), bilaterally. Both groups received infiltrative local anesthesia. The pain level caused by BMA/BMB was measured using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Results: The means of the VAS in the case and control groups were 41.84 ± 20.54 and 69.40 ± 20.06 respectively (P < 0.001). The systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate rose significantly in both the groups compared to the basal values. The rise was lower in the acupuncture group compared to the placebo group regarding systolic blood pressure and pulse rate (P = 0.018 and P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions: The results of this study show that the electrical stimulation of acupoints significantly decreases the pain caused by BMA/BMB and some of the complications of the pain. PMID:24949296

  17. Randomized Clinical Trial of Acupuncture for Myofascial Pain of the Jaw Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yoshi F.; Younger, Jarred; Goddard, Greg; Mackey, Sean

    2010-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture in treating symptoms associated with myofascial pain of the jaw muscles. Methods Twenty-eight subjects over the age of 18 and diagnosed with chronic myofascial pain of the jaw muscles were randomized to receive real (n = 16) or sham (n = 12) acupuncture. Prior to treatment, each subject clenched his or her teeth for 2 minutes. Acupuncture or sham acupuncture was then administered at the Hegu large intestine 4 (LI4) acupoint for 15 minutes. Real acupuncture was given by penetrating the needle through a sticky foam pad at the acupoint. Sham acupuncture was conducted by pricking the skin, without penetration, with a shortened, blunted acupuncture needle through a foam pad placed away from the acupoint. General head and neck pain ratings were obtained before and after treatment on a numerical rating scale. A mechanical pain stimulus on the masseter muscle was given before and after treatment and rated on a visual analog scale to measure pain tolerance level. Paired t tests were performed to detect significant changes in pain levels. Results Subjects receiving real acupuncture experienced a significant reduction in jaw pain (P = .04), jaw/face tightness (P = .04), and neck pain (P = .04), and a significant increase in pain tolerance of the masseter muscle (P = .001). Subjects were not able to determine whether they received real or sham acupuncture (P = .69). No significant pain reductions were observed in the sham acupuncture group. Conclusion A single acupuncture session using one acupoint at Hegu large intestine 4 significantly reduced most myofascial pain endpoints when compared to sham acupuncture. PMID:19888488

  18. Amygdala opioid receptors mediate the electroacupuncture-induced deterioration of sleep disruptions in epilepsy rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical and experimental evidence demonstrates that sleep and epilepsy reciprocally affect each other. Previous studies indicated that epilepsy alters sleep homeostasis; in contrast, sleep disturbance deteriorates epilepsy. If a therapy possesses both epilepsy suppression and sleep improvement, it would be the priority choice for seizure control. Effects of acupuncture of Feng-Chi (GB20) acupoints on epilepsy suppression and insomnia treatment have been documented in the ancient Chinese literature, Lingshu Jing (Classic of the Miraculous Pivot). Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of bilateral Feng-Chi acupoints on sleep disruptions in rats with focal epilepsy. Results Our result indicates that administration of pilocarpine into the left central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) induced focal epilepsy and decreased both rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep. High-frequency (100 Hz) EA stimulation of bilateral Feng-Chi acupoints, in which a 30-min EA stimulation was performed before the dark period of the light:dark cycle in three consecutive days, further deteriorated pilocarpine-induced sleep disruptions. The EA-induced exacerbation of sleep disruption was blocked by microinjection of naloxone, μ- (naloxonazine), κ- (nor-binaltorphimine) or δ-receptor antagonists (natrindole) into the CeA, suggesting the involvement of amygdaloid opioid receptors. Conclusion The present study suggests that high-frequency (100 Hz) EA stimulation of bilateral Feng-Chi acupoints exhibits no benefit in improving pilocarpine-induced sleep disruptions; in contrast, EA further deteriorated sleep disturbances. Opioid receptors in the CeA mediated EA-induced exacerbation of sleep disruptions in epileptic rats. PMID:24215575

  19. [Acupuncture for aphasia: a retrospective analysis of clinical literature].

    PubMed

    Tan, Jie; Zhang, Hong; Han, Guodong; Ai, Kun; Deng, Shifeng

    2016-04-01

    With the Meta-analysis method, the clinical efficacy of acupuncture and other regular methods for aphasia was evaluated, and the acupoints selection for aphasia was explored. The acupuncture literature of clinical randomized control trials for aphasia published in CNKI, WANFANG, VIP and CBM database was searched; the statistical analysis of clinical efficacy of acupuncture and other regular methods for aphasia was performed by using software Revman 5. 2 provided by Cochrane library. A file of Microsoft Excel was established to perform the analysis of acupoints selection based on frequency analysis method, so as to summarize the characteristics and rules. Totally 385 articles were searched, and 37 articles those met the inclusive criteria was included, involving 1,260 patients in the acupuncture group and 1 238 patients in the control group. The Meta-analysis results showed OR = 3.82, 95% Cl [3.01, 4.85]; rhombus was located on the right side and the funnel plot was nearly symmetry, indicating the treatment effect of the acupuncture group for aphasia was superior to the control group (Z = 11.04, P < 0.000 01). The frequency-analysis results showed that the frequency of acupoints from top to bottom was Lian-quan (CV 23), Tongli (HT 5), Yamen (GV 15), Jinjin (EX-HN 12), Yuye (EX-HN 13), Baihui (GV 20), Yuyan II, Yuyan I and Yuyan III. The frequency of meridians from top to bottom was the governor vessel, extra channels, conception vessel, heart meridian and large intestine meridian. It is concluded that the clinical efficacy of acupuncture combined with speech rehabilitation training and medication treatment for aphasia is superior to that of speech rehabilitation training and medication treatment alone. The clinical treatment for aphasia focuses on its local effect; the main acupoints are in the head and face, and the meridians are governor vessel, extra channels and conception vessel.

  20. Zhong Yi acupuncture and low-back pain: traditional Chinese medical acupuncture differential diagnoses and treatments for chronic lumbar pain.

    PubMed

    Birch, S; Sherman, K

    1999-10-01

    Little attention has been given to selecting treatments in clinical trials of acupuncture. Yet in order to perform objective tests of this procedure, it is crucial that the selected treatments are considered representative of the style of practice being tested. We examined 16 traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) acupuncture texts or treatment articles to determine the consistency of diagnosis and recommended treatment for chronic low-back pain. Although 24 diagnostic patterns were described by 1 or more texts, only 4 patterns were described by at least half of the texts. Most texts (12/16) described only 3 or 4 patterns. These could be categorized into 3 broad types: cold, damp, wind, heat channel obstruction patterns; kidney vacuity patterns (sometimes differentiated into yang and yin patterns); and blood (or blood and qi) stasis patterns. Several acupuncture points were recommended by most texts regardless of the diagnosis, whereas other acupoints were recommended for specific diagnostic patterns. There was, however, substantial variation between texts in recommended acupoints, with less than 20% of all acupoints recommended by half or more of the texts. This varibility will make it difficult to select TCM treatments for clinical trials of chronic low-back pain that have wide applicability. We believe that examining treatment patterns in actual clinical practice is crucial in this situation. We suggest that this method of selecting treatments should be part of the process used when selecting treatments for all clinical trials of acupuncture, regardless of the style of practice.

  1. Acupuncture reduces memory impairment and oxidative stress and enhances cholinergic function in an animal model of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Phunchago, Nattaporn; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Chaisiwamongkol, Kowit; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Thukham-Mee, Wipawee

    2015-02-01

    Currently, the therapeutic strategy against memory deficit induced by alcoholism is not satisfactory and is expensive. Therefore, an effective, low-cost strategy is required. On the basis of the memory-enhancing effect of stimulation of the HT7 acupoint, we aimed to determine whether acupuncture at the HT7 acupoint can reduce alcoholism-induced memory impairment. The possible underlying mechanism was also explored. Alcoholism was induced in male Wistar rats weighing 180-220 g. The alcoholic rats received either acupuncture at HT7 or sham acupuncture for 1 minute bilaterally once daily for 14 days. Their spatial memory was assessed after 1 day, 7 days, and 14 days of treatment. At the end of the study, the malondialdehyde level and the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and acetylcholinesterase enzymes in the hippocampus were determined using colorimetric assays. The results showed that acupuncture at HT7 significantly decreased the acetylcholinesterase activity and the malondialdehyde level, but increased the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase in the hippocampus. These results suggest that acupuncture at HT7 can effectively reduce the alcoholism-induced memory deficit. However, further studies concerning the detailed relationships between the location of the HT7 acupoint and the changes in the observed parameters are required.

  2. Development of laser diode deep-acupuncture stimulator and its clinical practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Haitao; Wang, Qingguo; Wang, Jishan; Li, Fangzheng; Cheng, Dongan

    2000-10-01

    The laser acupuncture stimulation has been applied extensively, but the laser is diffusely reflected by the skin as well as scattered and absorbed by the subcutaneous tissue, so the curative effect of the laser irradiation on the acupoints is limited. To solve above problem, we have developed the new laser deep acupuncture stimulator of diode. Its lasing wavelength is 630nm. The lasing beam is modulated into the special wave forms (such as sine wave, rectangular wave, etc.). The modulation frequency and phase may be self-synchronized in the patient's pulse. For the multi-acupoint are stimulated simultaneously, there are 3-7 laser pins on this stimulator. The modulated laser beams are coupled into 50/125 micrometers nonofil optical fibers separately. After that they enter into the laser acupuncture pins through the fiber optic connectors. The lasing beams and pins are stimulated as the customary acupuncture in the depth of the acupoints simultaneously. The output power of the single pin is 0.5-1.5 mW. The outside diameter of the pin is 0.4mm. For the price of the acupuncture pin is lower, thus the laser acupuncture pin can be used only once. Seven hundred patients were treated on the period of the clinical practice. The case of illness contains palsy, post-palsy, apoplexy, tenositis and sactalgia etc. The rate of efficiency (cure of improvement) is 85%.

  3. Study on the Mechanism Underlying the Regulation of the NMDA Receptor Pathway in Spinal Dorsal Horns of Visceral Hypersensitivity Rats by Moxibustion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L. D.; Zhao, J. M.; Huang, R. J.; Tan, L. Y.; Hu, Z. H.; Weng, Z. J.; Wang, K.; Wu, H. G.; Liu, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Visceral hypersensitivity is enhanced in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. Treatment of IBS visceral pain by moxibustion methods has a long history and rich clinical experience. In the clinic, moxibustion on the Tianshu (ST25) and Shangjuxu (ST37) acupoints can effectively treat bowel disease with visceral pain and diarrhea symptoms. To investigate the regulatory function of moxibustion on the Tianshu (ST25) and Shangjuxu (ST37) acupoints on spinal cord NR1, NR2B, and PKCε protein and mRNA expression in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) visceral hypersensitivity rats, we did some research. In the study, we found that moxibustion effectively relieved the IBS visceral hyperalgesia status of rats. Analgesic effect of moxibustion was similar to intrathecal injection of Ro 25-6981. The expression of NR1, NR2B, and PKCε in the spinal dorsal horns of IBS visceral hyperalgesia rats increased. Moxibustion on the Tianshu and Shangjuxu acupoints might inhibit the visceral hypersensitivity, simultaneously decreasing the expression of NR1, NR2B, and PKCε in spinal cord of IBS visceral hyperalgesia rats. Based on the above experimental results, we hypothesized NR1, NR2B, and PKCε of spinal cord could play an important role in moxibustion inhibiting the process of central sensitization and visceral hyperalgesia state. PMID:27200098

  4. Wrist acupressure for post-operative nausea and vomiting (WrAP): A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Marie; Rapchuk, Ivan; Doi, Suhail A; Spooner, Amy; Wendt, Tameka; Best, Jessica; Edwards, Melannie; O'Connell, Leanda; McCabe, Donna; McDonald, John; Fraser, John; Rickard, Claire

    2015-06-01

    Post-operative nausea and vomiting are undesirable complications following anaesthesia and surgery. It is thought that acupressure might prevent nausea and vomiting through an alteration in endorphins and serotonin levels. In this two-group, parallel, superiority, randomised control pilot trial we aimed to test pre-defined feasibility outcomes and provide preliminary evidence for the efficacy of PC 6 acupoint stimulation vs. placebo for reducing post-operative nausea and vomiting in cardiac surgery patients. Eighty patients were randomly assigned to either an intervention PC 6 acupoint stimulation via beaded intervention wristbands group (n=38) or placebo sham wristband group (n=42). The main outcome was assessment of pre-defined feasibility criteria with secondary outcomes for nausea, vomiting, rescue anti-emetic therapy, quality of recovery and adverse events. Findings suggest that a large placebo-controlled randomised controlled trial to test the efficacy of PC 6 stimulation on PONV in the post-cardiac surgery population is feasible and justified given the preliminary clinically significant reduction in vomiting in the intervention group in this pilot. The intervention was tolerated well by participants and if wrist acupressure of PC 6 acupoint is proven effective in a large trial it is a simple non-invasive intervention that could easily be incorporated into practice.

  5. Glucocorticoid-induced laminitis with hepatopathy in a Thoroughbred filly.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Seung Ho; Kim, Byung Sun; Lee, Chang Woo; Yoon, Junghee; Lee, Yonghoon Lyon

    2004-09-01

    A 3-year-old Thoroughbred filly was referred to the Equine Hospital, Korea Racing Association for evaluation of hematuria, inappetite, weight loss and depression. From 25 days prior to admission, the horse was treated for right carpal lameness with 20 mg intramuscular administration of triamcinolone acetonide per day for consecutive 10 days by a local veterinarian. Clinical and laboratory findings included vaginal hyperemia, flare in bladder wall, neutrophilia, lymphopenia, polyuria, polydipsia and laminitis in the end. High activities of aspartate transaminase and gamma glutamyltransferase and high concentration of total bilirubin indicated hepatopathy. Further hematology, serum biochemistry and urinalysis did not reveal any abnormalities. Medical history, physical and clinicopathologic findings suggest that the laminitis and hepatopathy in this horse were most likely induced by repeated administration of exogenous corticosteroid. However, guarded prognosis of treating laminitis undermined the benefit of improvement of hematuria following electroacupuncture stimulation. The combined stimulation of kidney related acupoints (Shen Peng, Shen Shu), lumber related acupoints (Yao Qian, Yao Zhong) and associate acupoints (Guan Yuan Shu, Bai Hui) at 5Hz, 1-2V, for 40 minutes was of value in the treatment of hematuria. This case shows that horses under steroids may exhibit laminitis and steroid hepatopathy. Early recognition and good management of laminitis are important in the limitation of complications.

  6. Treatment for an Adult Patient With Psoriasis with Traditional Korean Medicine, Especially Sa-Am Acupuncture and Herbal Medicine.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yong-Cheol

    2016-04-01

    In this clinical study, the author tried to prove that meridians, each having its own characteristics, exist in humans through which skin diseases can be treated. Three meridians, the hand tai-yin meridian, the hand tai-yang meridian, and the shao-yang meridian, were used to control lung dryness and heat and liver fire. By using the LU9 and SP3 acupoints to tonify the hand tai-yin meridian and the SI3 acupoint to tonify the hand tai-yang meridian, we could sedate lung dryness and heat, and by using the TW2 acupoint to sedate the hand shao-yang meridian, we could sedate liver fire. As psoriasis is known not to respond well to many clinical treatments, this report presents the case of an adult woman with psoriasis who was effectively treated using traditional Korean medicine (TKM). The patient was diagnosed with psoriasis based on lung dryness and heat and liver fire. Acupuncture and herbal medicine based on the theory of Sa-Am acupuncture were given to the patient. With this treatment, her symptoms completely disappeared in ∼14 months. This study gives a preliminary indication that TKM, especially Sa-Am acupuncture, can be effective for treating psoriasis. Thus, further study is warranted.

  7. A birdcage model for the Chinese Meridian System: part I. A channel as a transmission line.

    PubMed

    Yung, Kaung-Ti

    2004-01-01

    The concept of Qi and the concept of channel are so closely related that they must be defined and comprehended simultaneously in a coordinated fashion. Once the nature of Qi is established in terms of physics, we may be able to explain the functional role that the channels play, as well as explain other Chinese medical terminology with a language of modem science. Based on the low electrical impedance characteristics of acupoints, we propose that the meridian channel is equivalent to an electromagnetic transmission line and the Qi is the electromagnetic (EM) standing wave riding on the line, with acupoints as its nodes. The standing wave within each segment of the channel separated by acupoints is in natural oscillation thus the segment may be analyzed as a lambda/4 open circuit that behaves like a series RLC resonator. Acupuncture until De Qi is effectively equivalent to charging the capacitor Ceq of the RLC resonator in the transmission line. The mechanism of bu and xie are charging or discharging the capacitor to bring the capacititive (or inductive) behavior of the segment back to that of the resonant state. Kirlian photograph may serve as a visual observation of the EM waves on channels.

  8. Biomedical engineering meets acupuncture - development of a miniaturized 48-channel skin impedance measurement system for needle and laser acupuncture

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Due to controversially discussed results in scientific literature concerning changes of electrical skin impedance before and during acupuncture a new measurement system has been developed. Methods The prototype measures and analyzes the electrical skin impedance computer-based and simultaneously in 48 channels within a 2.5×3.5 cm matrix. Preliminary measurements in one person were performed using metal needle and violet laser (405 nm) acupuncture at the acupoint Kongzui (LU6). The new system is an improvement on devices previously developed by other researchers for this purpose. Results Skin impedance in the immediate surroundings of the acupoint was lowered reproducibly following needle stimulation and also violet laser stimulation. Conclusions A new instrumentation for skin impedance measurements is presented. The following hypotheses suggested by our results will have to be tested in further studies: Needle acupuncture causes significant, specific local changes of electrical skin impedance parameters. Optical stimulation (violet laser) at an acupoint causes direct electrical biosignal changes. PMID:21092296

  9. Acupuncture Decreases Blood Pressure Related to Hypothalamus Functional Connectivity with Frontal Lobe, Cerebellum, and Insula: A Study of Instantaneous and Short-Term Acupuncture Treatment in Essential Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Zhang, Jiping; Wang, Yanjie; Wang, Yuying; Lan, Yujun; Qu, Shanshan; Tang, Chunzhi; Huang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic effects of acupuncture in decreasing blood pressure are ambiguous and underlying acupuncture in hypertension treatment has not been investigated. Our objective was to observe the change of quality of life and compare the differences in brain functional connectivity by investigating instantaneous and short-term acupuncture treatment in essential hypertension patients. A total of 30 patients were randomly divided into the LR3 group and sham acupoint group. Subjects received resting-state fMRI among preacupuncture, postinstantaneous, and short-term acupuncture treatment in two groups. Hypothalamus was selected as the seed point to analyze the changes in connectivity. We found three kinds of results: (1) There was statistical difference in systolic blood pressure in LR3 group after the short-term treatment and before acupuncture. (2) Compared with sham acupoint, acupuncture at LR3 instantaneous effects in the functional connectivity with seed points was more concentrated in the frontal lobe. (3) Compared with instantaneous effects, acupuncture LR3 short-term effects in the functional connectivity with seed points had more regions in frontal lobe, cerebellum, and insula. These brain areas constituted a neural network structure with specific functions that could explain the mechanism of therapy in hypertension patients by LR3 acupoint.

  10. Comparison of treatment for 153 cases of circumferential facial paralysis by low-power laser and galvan acupuncture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hai-Ling; Zhuo, Qing-shan

    1993-03-01

    Seventy-six patients were treated by low power He-Ne laser irradiation on Yangbai, Sibai, and other related acupoints. The other 77 cases were treated by Galvan-acupuncture with infrared radiation on the same acupoints. There was little difference between the therapeutic effects of these two groups (P > 0.05). However, the laser group had a much shorter treatment time than the other group. According to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, circumferential facial paralysis is caused by exposure to cold which blocks the channel of vital energy resulting in the damage of bodily function. Acupuncture and moxibustion on certain acupoints can warm up the channels and remove the stasis allowing vital energy to pass through their passages to regulate bodily functions. Laser can do the same effectively with much less time. The laser therapy also features painlessness, safeness, and is free of bacteria. Circumferential facial paralysis is a common disease, which is clinically treated by acupuncture with reliable results. However, acupuncture is not fit for children who are not cooperative and those patients who are afraid of the pain accompanied with acupuncture. So we applied low power laser irradiation in the treatment of circumferential facial paralysis starting in 1985. The results were favorable. And the treatment time was shortened. The treatment procedures are reported.

  11. [Analysis on research projects for acupuncture and moxibustion supported by NSFC during the 11th 5-year-plan].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chang-Long; Jing, Xiang-Hong; Li, Yu-Qing; Li, Liang; Rong, Pei-Jing; Wang, Chang-En

    2012-08-01

    In the present paper, the authors introduce the approved and finished research projects for acupuncture and moxibustion therapies supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) during the 11th 5-year-plan. A total of 194 research projects were subsidized by NSFC from 2006 to 2010. These projects include 6 aspects: meridian-collaterals, acupoint theory, acupuncture analgesia, mechanisms underlying improvement of different clinical problems, clinical trials, and moxibustion therapy. The research on acupoints has been becoming a new hotspot in recent years. Majority of the research projects focus on the mechanism of acu-moxibustion underlying improvement of different clinical problems, while fewer projects on clinical trials. During the 11th 5-year-plan, 119 projects were completed; most of them involved meridian-collateral theory, acupoint theory, mechanism of acu-moxibustion underlying improvement of clinical problems and acupuncture manipulations. Following analysis of the finished research projects, we find that 1) many neurobiological methods and techniques are commonly used in the research on meridian-collateral theory; 2) the research on acupoint theory is changing from observing the local morphological structure to identifying characteristics of the regional activated receptors, particularly under the circumstances of visceral pathological conditions and efficacies of acupoints; 3) researches on the underlying mechanism of acu-moxibusiton for improving clinical disorders mainly focused on its cerebral protective effects against cerebral ischemia, in addition, researches about other diseases on clinical conditions have been also carried out, but the related mechanisms are far from understanding; 4) In many research projects, various new methods and techniques, such as fMRI, position emission tomography, genomics, proteomics, molecular biology, nerve stem cell, etc. were widely used; 5) Randomized controlled multi-center clinical trials are

  12. [The correlation between postsynaptic inhibition and GABA, opioid peptides, SP in electroacupuncture].

    PubMed

    Fang, Z; Yu, Q; Li, Y

    1993-01-01

    Identified tract cells in lumbar enlargement were recorded from intact anaesthetized rats. The prolongation of the latency of antidromic action potential was a measure of postsynaptic inhibition. Both ST 36 and SP 6 were stimulated electrically. In EA group (N = 12) EA prolonged the latency for 0.111 +/- 0.022 ms (P < 0.001). In bicuculline group (N = 12) the prolongation of the latency for 0.010 +/- 0.004 ms (P < 0.05) by EA was less than that of EA group with statistical significance. In naloxone group (N = 12) and SP antiserum group (N = 12) EA did not induce a significant prolongation of the latency. It suggested that GABA, opioides and SP might be involved in postsynaptic inhibition induced by EA.

  13. Genetic characterization of clinical and environmental Vibrio parahaemolyticus from the Northeast USA reveals emerging resident and non-indigenous pathogen lineages.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Ilyas, Saba; Hall, Jeffrey A; Jones, Stephen H; Cooper, Vaughn S; Whistler, Cheryl A

    2015-01-01

    Gastric infections caused by the environmentally transmitted pathogen, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, have increased over the last two decades, including in many parts of the United States (US). However, until recently, infections linked to shellfish from the cool northeastern US waters were rare. Cases have risen in the Northeast, consistent with changes in local V. parahaemolyticus populations toward greater abundance or a shift in constituent pathogens. We examined 94 clinical isolates from a period of increasing disease in the region and compared them to 200 environmental counterparts to identify resident and non-indigenous lineages and to gain insight into the emergence of pathogenic types. Genotyping and multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) of clinical isolates collected from 2010 to 2013 in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine revealed their polyphyletic nature. Although 80% of the clinical isolates harbored the trh hemolysin either alone or with tdh, and were urease positive, 14% harbored neither hemolysin exposing a limitation for these traits in pathogen detection. Resident sequence type (ST) 631 strains caused seven infections, and show a relatively recent history of recombination with other clinical and environmental lineages present in the region. ST34 and ST674 strains were each linked to a single infection and these strain types were also identified from the environment as isolates harboring hemolysin genes. Forty-two ST36 isolates were identified from the clinical collection, consistent with reports that this strain type caused a rise in regional infections starting in 2012. Whole-genome phylogenies that included three ST36 outbreak isolates traced to at least two local sources demonstrated that the US Atlantic coastal population of this strain type was indeed derived from the Pacific population. This study lays the foundation for understanding dynamics within natural populations associated with emergence and invasion of pathogenic strain types in the

  14. Genetic characterization of clinical and environmental Vibrio parahaemolyticus from the Northeast USA reveals emerging resident and non-indigenous pathogen lineages

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feng; Ilyas, Saba; Hall, Jeffrey A.; Jones, Stephen H.; Cooper, Vaughn S.; Whistler, Cheryl A.

    2015-01-01

    Gastric infections caused by the environmentally transmitted pathogen, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, have increased over the last two decades, including in many parts of the United States (US). However, until recently, infections linked to shellfish from the cool northeastern US waters were rare. Cases have risen in the Northeast, consistent with changes in local V. parahaemolyticus populations toward greater abundance or a shift in constituent pathogens. We examined 94 clinical isolates from a period of increasing disease in the region and compared them to 200 environmental counterparts to identify resident and non-indigenous lineages and to gain insight into the emergence of pathogenic types. Genotyping and multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) of clinical isolates collected from 2010 to 2013 in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine revealed their polyphyletic nature. Although 80% of the clinical isolates harbored the trh hemolysin either alone or with tdh, and were urease positive, 14% harbored neither hemolysin exposing a limitation for these traits in pathogen detection. Resident sequence type (ST) 631 strains caused seven infections, and show a relatively recent history of recombination with other clinical and environmental lineages present in the region. ST34 and ST674 strains were each linked to a single infection and these strain types were also identified from the environment as isolates harboring hemolysin genes. Forty-two ST36 isolates were identified from the clinical collection, consistent with reports that this strain type caused a rise in regional infections starting in 2012. Whole-genome phylogenies that included three ST36 outbreak isolates traced to at least two local sources demonstrated that the US Atlantic coastal population of this strain type was indeed derived from the Pacific population. This study lays the foundation for understanding dynamics within natural populations associated with emergence and invasion of pathogenic strain types in the

  15. CHROMASSI: a therapy advice system based on chrono-massage and acupression using the method of ZiWuLiuZhu.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, H P; Le, D L; Tran, Q M; Nguyen, V T; Nguyen, N O

    1995-01-01

    Massage and Acupression have a history of many years of use by the Vietnamese people in the treatment of diseases, and they can give wonderful therapeutic effects in painful syndromes and chronic diseases, etc. On the other hand, some methods of Chrono-Acupuncture based on chronobiological theory and the holistic concept of traditional medicine are studied and applied in clinical applications. This paper presents the therapy advice system based on Chrono-Massage and Acupression using the method of ZiWuLiuZhu called CHROMASSI. The system includes four major parts. Massage and Acupression Teaching: This part can provide the user with some background in Massage and Acupression theory such as the pathology of the meridians, the classification of points and their function, the therapeutic properties of points, the methods of Massage and Acupression (including Pression, Friction, Rubbing, Light Massage, Petrissage, Rolling and Rubbing, Percussion and Vibration), and the direction of the meridians circulation, displaying AcuPoints represented by color pictures of the 12 main meridians and 2 vessels. More than 330 popular AcuPoints are used in the system. Open AcuPoint Calculating: This module can help us to calculate open AcuPoints based on data about days, months, years and hours using the special method of ZiWuLiuZhu. The Points adopted by ZiWuLiuZhu are the Five Shu Points and Source Points including 66 points (all of them are located below the elbows and knees). The effectiveness of these points becomes particularly evident when they are needled or punctured at optimum time intervals. For example, at 9:00 a.m., September 22, 1994, the open Points by the ZiWuLiuZhu method will be the points K2 (Nhien Coc) and K10 (Am Coc). According to the chronotherapeutic method, first we have to pressure (or puncture) the above points in order to attain the sensation RDac KhiS (arrival of energy), then pressure the other treating points as in ordinary Massage and Acupression

  16. Endogenous Opiates in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarius Mediate Electroacupuncture-Induced Sleep Activities in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chiung-Hsiang; Yi, Pei-Lu; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chang, Fang-Chia

    2011-01-01

    Electroacupuncture (EA) possesses various therapeutic effects, including alleviation of pain, reduction of inflammation and improvement of sleep disturbance. The mechanisms of EA on sleep improvement, however, remain to be determined. It has been stated in ancient Chinese literature that the Anmian (EX17) acupoint is one of the trigger points that alleviates insomnia. We previously demonstrated that EA stimulation of Anmian acupoints in rats during the dark period enhances non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, which involves the induction of cholinergic activity in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). In addition to cholinergic activation of the NTS, activation of the endogenous opioidergic system may also be a mechanism by which acupuncture affects sleep. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the involvement of the NTS opioidergic system in EA-induced alterations in sleep. Our present results indicate that EA of Anmian acupoints increased NREM sleep, but not rapid eye movement sleep, during the dark period in rats. This enhancement in NREM sleep was dose-dependently blocked by microinjection of opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, and the μ-opioid receptor antagonist, naloxonazine, into the NTS; administrations of δ-receptor antagonist, natrindole, and the κ-receptor antagonist, nor-binaltrophimine, however, did not affect EA-induced alterations in sleep. Furthermore, β-endorphin was significantly increased in both the brainstem and hippocampus after the EA stimuli, an effect blocked by administration of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine into the NTS. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of EA-induced NREM sleep enhancement may be mediated, in part, by cholinergic activation, stimulation of the opiodergic neurons to increase the concentrations of β-endorphin and the involvement of the μ-opioid receptors. PMID:19729491

  17. Electroacupuncture modulated the inflammatory reaction in MCAO rats via inhibiting the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway in microglia.

    PubMed

    Han, Bingbing; Lu, Yan; Zhao, Haijun; Wang, Yuan; Li, Lin; Wang, Tong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aim to investigate the effects of electroacupuncture on the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway in microglia. Male Wistar rat of SPF grade (weighing 200 ± 20 g) were randomly divided into (i): sham control group, which was subjected to sham operation (ii) vehicle group, which underwent the occlusion of middle cerebral artery; (iii-v): acupuncture groups, which were subjected to the occlusion of middle cerebral artery and treated with acupuncture on the Neiguan acupoint (P6), Quchi acupoint (LI11), and Diji acupoint (SP8), respectively. HE staining was performed to detect the necrotic rate of neurons. Mediators of inflammation were measured using ELISA. Immunofluorescence was performed to measure the expression of TLR4, HMGB1, TRAF6, IKKβ and NF-κB p65 in microglia. Severe decrease was noticed in the neurological score, necrotic rates of neuron, expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TLR4, HMGB1, TRAF6, IKKβ and NF-κB p65 in microglia. Compared with the vehicle group, significant decrease was revealed in the neurological score, necrotic rate, IL-1β, TLR4, TRAF6, IKKβ and NF-κB p65 in Neiguan group and Quchi group, respectively. In addition, remarkable decrease was observed in the expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in Quchi group. Compared with the Diji group, the necrotic rate of neurons in hippocampus region was significantly decreased in the Quchi group (P < 0.05). In Neiguan group, the expression of TLR4 and IKKβ was significantly attenuated (P < 0.05). The expression of TRAF6 was remarkably decreased in the Neiguan group and Quchi group, respectively. Electroacupuncture on Neiguan and Quchi could improve the neurological injury, attenuate the inflammation, and inhibit the activity of TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway in microglia.

  18. The effect of complementary therapies on post-operative pain control in ambulatory knee surgery: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Timothy; Downham, Christopher; Barlow, David

    2013-10-01

    Ambulatory knee surgery is a common procedure with over 100,000 knee arthroscopies performed in the U.K. in 2010-2011. Pain after surgery can decrease patient satisfaction, delay discharge, and decrease cost effectiveness. Multi-modal therapies, including complementary therapies, to improve pain control after surgery have been recommended. However, a comprehensive review of the literature regarding the use of complementary therapies to enhance pain control after ambulatory knee surgery is lacking, and this article aims to address this deficit. CINHAL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, AMED and CENTRAL databases were searched. Only Randomised Controlled Trials were included. All eligible papers were quality assessed using the Jadad system, and data was extracted using piloted forms. Two independent reviewers performed each stage of the review. Full details of the study methodology can be found on Prospero, a systematic review register. Five studies satisfied our eligibility criteria: three reporting on acupuncture, one on homeopathy, and one on acupoints. Acupoint pressure was the only study that demonstrated reduced pain compared with placebo. This study was the least methodologically robust. Arnica, although demonstrating a significant reduction in swelling, did not affect post-operative pain. Acupuncture did not affect post-operative pain; however, a reduction in ibuprofen use was demonstrated in two studies. Before recommending complementary therapy for routine use in ambulatory knee surgery, further work is required. Two areas of future research likely to bear fruit are demonstrating robust evidence for the effect of acupoint pressure on post-operative pain, and quantifying the positive effect of homeopathic arnica on post-operative swelling.

  19. Auricular Acupressure on Specific Points for Hemodialysis Patients with Insomnia: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuchi; Su, Guobin; Chen, Shuhui; Guo, Xinfeng; Wu, Xiuqing; Liu, Xusheng; Lin, Qizhan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the feasibility and acceptability of a randomized controlled trial compared auricular acupressure (AA) on specific acupoints with AA on non-specific acupoints for treating maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients with insomnia. Methods Sixty three (63) eligible subjects were randomly assigned into either AA group received AA on specific acupoints (n=32), or sham AA (SAA) group received AA on points irrelevant to insomnia treatment (n=31) for eight weeks. All participants were followed up for 12 weeks after treatments. The primary outcome was clinical response at eight weeks after randomization, defined as a reduction of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) global score by 3 points and more. Results Fifty-eight (58) participants completed the trial and five dropped out. Twenty participants in AA group (62.5%) and ten in SAA group (32.3%) responded to the eight-week interventions (χ2 = 5.77, P = 0.02). PSQI global score declined 3.75 ± 4.36 (95%CI -5.32, -2.18) and 2.26 ± 3.89 (95%CI -3.68, -0.83) in AA group and SAA group respectively. Three participants died during the follow-up period. No evidence supported their deaths were related to the AA intervention. No other adverse event was observed. Conclusion Feasibility and logistics of patient recruitment, randomization procedure, blinding approach, interventions application and outcome assessment had been tested in this pilot trial. The preliminary data appeared to show a favorable result on AA treatment. A full-scale trial is warranted. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-12002272. PMID:25874938

  20. Endogenous opiates in the nucleus tractus solitarius mediate electroacupuncture-induced sleep activities in rats.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chiung-Hsiang; Yi, Pei-Lu; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chang, Fang-Chia

    2011-01-01

    Electroacupuncture (EA) possesses various therapeutic effects, including alleviation of pain, reduction of inflammation and improvement of sleep disturbance. The mechanisms of EA on sleep improvement, however, remain to be determined. It has been stated in ancient Chinese literature that the Anmian (EX17) acupoint is one of the trigger points that alleviates insomnia. We previously demonstrated that EA stimulation of Anmian acupoints in rats during the dark period enhances non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, which involves the induction of cholinergic activity in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). In addition to cholinergic activation of the NTS, activation of the endogenous opioidergic system may also be a mechanism by which acupuncture affects sleep. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the involvement of the NTS opioidergic system in EA-induced alterations in sleep. Our present results indicate that EA of Anmian acupoints increased NREM sleep, but not rapid eye movement sleep, during the dark period in rats. This enhancement in NREM sleep was dose-dependently blocked by microinjection of opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, and the μ-opioid receptor antagonist, naloxonazine, into the NTS; administrations of δ-receptor antagonist, natrindole, and the κ-receptor antagonist, nor-binaltrophimine, however, did not affect EA-induced alterations in sleep. Furthermore, β-endorphin was significantly increased in both the brainstem and hippocampus after the EA stimuli, an effect blocked by administration of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine into the NTS. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of EA-induced NREM sleep enhancement may be mediated, in part, by cholinergic activation, stimulation of the opiodergic neurons to increase the concentrations of β-endorphin and the involvement of the μ-opioid receptors.

  1. Electroacupuncture Reduces Cocaine-Induced Seizures and Mortality in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Hung; Chuang, Chieh-Min; Lu, Dah-Yuu; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the protective profile of electroacupuncture (EA) on cocaine-induced seizures and mortality in mice. Mice were treated with EA (2 Hz, 50 Hz, and 100 Hz), or they underwent needle insertion without anesthesia at the Dazhui (GV14) and Baihui (GV20) acupoints before cocaine administration. EA at 50 Hz applied to GV14 and GV20 significantly reduced the seizure severity induced by a single dose of cocaine (75 mg/kg; i.p.). Furthermore, needle insertion into GV14 and GV20 and EA at 2 Hz and 50 Hz at both acupoints significantly reduced the mortality rate induced by a single lethal dose of cocaine (125 mg/kg; i.p.). In the sham control group, EA at 50 Hz applied to bilateral Tianzong (SI11) acupoints had no protective effects against cocaine. In addition, EA at 50 Hz applied to GV14 and GV20 failed to reduce the incidence of seizures and mortality induced by the local anesthetic procaine. In an immunohistochemistry study, EA (50 Hz) pretreatment at GV14 and GV20 decreased cocaine (75 mg/kg; i.p.)-induced c-Fos expression in the paraventricular thalamus. While the dopamine D3 receptor antagonist, SB-277011-A (30 mg/kg; s.c), did not by itself affect cocaine-induced seizure severity, it prevented the effects of EA on cocaine-induced seizures. These results suggest that EA alleviates cocaine-induced seizures and mortality and that the dopamine D3 receptor is involved, at least in part, in the anticonvulsant effects of EA in mice. PMID:23690833

  2. [Investigation on the biophysical features of strong luminescence phenomena in the 14 channel of human body].

    PubMed

    Yan, Z Q; Shi, Y Q; Wang, Y Z

    1989-01-01

    During the last few years, using the ultra-feeble cold luminescence signal of the body surface as an indicator, we had previously characterized quantitatively the dominant propagated sensation along the classical channels and the regulatory effects of acupuncture on human body. There was a great improvement upon our original apparatus for the measurement which permitted the precise detection for the superficial luminescence phenomena at the acupoints along the classical channels on body surface, by which the intense luminescence lines (various points were described as a line) were found. The nature bio-luminescence of human body surface was investigated in 158 healthy subjects, 158 times for regular channels and 11,582 times for acupoints. It was found that existed intense cold luminescent points (or described as the lines) on body surface along the courses identical with Fourteen Classical Channels, i.e. Back Middle Channel, Front Middle Channel, Lung Channel of Hand Taiyin, Heart Channel of Hand Shaoyin, Pericardium Channel of Hand Jueyin, Large intestine Channel of Hand Yangming, Small Intestine Channel of Hand Taiyang, Triple Burners (warmer) Channel of Hand Shaoyang, Stomach Channel of Foot Yangming, Urinary Bladder Channel of Foot Taiyang, Gall Bladder Channel of Foot Shaoyang, Spleen Channel of Foot Taiyin, Kidney Channel of Foot Thaoyin and Liver Channel of Foot Jueyin. The intensity of luminescence at the classical acupoints was 1.5 times higher than that of the matched points bilaterally 0.5 cm apart from either side of each classical channel, providing that the observation data were displayed by an automatic digital computer, the mean values and standard errors calculated logarithmically and the comparisons assessed with T-test.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Sham Acupressure Controls Used in Randomized Controlled Trials: A Systematic Review and Critique

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jing-Yu; Suen, Lorna K. P.; Wang, Tao; Molassiotis, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    cannot be derived because of significant clinical heterogeneity among the analyzed trials. Non-acupoints are generally recommended but the definite locations should be identified with caution. For studies using single sham acupoints on hands or legs, it is suggested to apply identical acupressure devices on the same acupoint as in the active intervention without any stimulation. While for studies on pain, stimulation of sham acupoints should be avoided. PMID:26177378

  4. [New merge of knowledge of the acu-moxibustion academic in the Republican period].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Le; Zhu, Jianping

    2015-05-01

    During the republican period, western science and technology as well as western medicine spread quickly in China, and inevitably had a profound influence on the academic of acu-moxibustion. The confluence of Chinese and western medicine with the scientification of acu-moxibustion had left an obvious mark on the academic of acu-moxibustion. No matter whether the theory involves science of channels and collaterals, acupoints and methods of needling and moxibustion or the improvement of acu-moxibustion apparatus and new therpy methods, all carrying remarkable characteristic of new merge of knowledge, and providing solid foundation and valuable reference for the development of contemporary academic of acu-moxibustion.

  5. Meridian is a three-dimensional network from bio-electromagnetic radiation interference: an interference hypothesis of meridian.

    PubMed

    Han, Jinxiang

    2012-03-01

    An electromagnetic radiation field within a biological organism is characterized by non-local interference. The interfering beams form a unitary tridimensional network with beams of varying intensity, also called striae, which are distributed on the organism surface. These striae are equivalent to semi-reflectors. The striae carry bio-information of corresponding organs and, thus, integrate all tissues, and organs of the organism. The longitudinal striae are classified as channels, while the transverse striae are collaterals. The acupoints are seen as the points where electromagnetic interfering striae intersect or converge. This hypothesis builds a foundation to understand the traditional Chinese medicine, including acupuncture, from the perspective of scientific knowledge.

  6. [Lin Xue-Jian's experience on treatment of a part of cerebral diseases with scalp acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Li; Wu, Jiu-Wei

    2005-10-01

    LIN Xue-Jian adopts Chinese traditional acupuncture and moxibustion manipulation methods to stimulate the special area of scalp to treat a part of brain-derived diseases, such as infantile cerebral palsy, nerve deafness, cerebellar ataxia, lacunar cerebral infarction, senile dementia, Parkinson's disease, anxiety, insomnia and central constipation, and so on. Scalp acupuncture can improve ability of blood and oxygen supply for general blood vessels; stimulation of corresponding acupoint area according to symptoms and signs can control condition of disease; and can repair, activate and regenerate the injured, dormancy and aging neurons, so as to dredge nerve network in the brain, hence better therapeutic effect.

  7. [Getting qi and arrival of qi].

    PubMed

    Liu, Nong-Yu

    2014-08-01

    In order to clarify the inter-relationship between getting qi and arrival of qi, the relevant theory in the Inner Canon of Yellow Emperor is re-considered, and then the relationship of the two concepts by combining with some opinions from scholars is compared and analyzed. Getting qi is the signal of acupuncture at an acupoint; also it is a sign of arrival of qi at an acupoint; what's more, it is the premise for reinforcing or reducing manipulation. The sensation of arrival of qi comes from both doctors and patients, characterized with explicit symptoms including "tight and swift", "sunken, sticky and tight", "light, loose and slow", "warm at the acupoint" or "cold at the acupoint" as well as implicit symptom including "qi moving along the meridians"; also there is the condition of qi regulation that is characterized with "paced and harmony" stomach qi. The arrival of qi could be divided into "qi moving to the needles" and "qi traveling to the diseases". The "qi moving to the needles" has similar meaning to getting qi. The "qi traveling to the diseases" is reflected as "qi arrival with efficacy" and characterized as an immediate effect or a delayed effect. There are differences between the concepts of getting qi and arrival of qi. Getting qi focuses on the importance of the doctor during acupuncture processes (differentiate the nature of qi, guard qi, manipulate qi), which also suggests the clinical significance of implicit getting qi. "Arrival of qi" emphasizes "qi arrival with efficacy", and indicates that during treatment the differences of the exterior or interior and deficit or surplus should be distinguished. For external and shallow diseases involving myofascia-related diseases, miu needling and shallow needling can achieve an immediate treatment effect; for deep, internal and deficient diseases, reinforcing or reducing manipulation should be used to achieve stomach qi, which has delayed effects but can be used as an indicator. It is believed that pulse

  8. [Acupuncture master Xu Yi-nian and his Practical Acupuncture in the Republic of China].

    PubMed

    Li, Nai-qi; Liu, Xiao-bin

    2014-09-01

    By collecting and studying Practical Acupuncture written by XU Yi-nian, Guangdong acupuncture master in the Republic of China, and using literature methodology, the life story of XU Yi-nian is textually researched and his acupuncture characteristics is analyzed. The results indicate that XU Yi-nian emphasizes on the utility of acupuncture manipulations and acupoint selection, the application of folk experiences in moxibustion and Sha disorders. He pays attention to the co-work of acupuncture and medicine and his work collects the therapeutic experiences of different schools and deserves to be further explored and validated.

  9. [Vicissitude and enlightenment of Bonghan theory].

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang

    2011-03-01

    Dr. KIM Bonghan in North Korea in 1963 proclaimed that he discovered the physical structure of the acupoints and meridian systems which were corresponding to the Bonghan Corpuscles and Bonghan Ducts. The original discovery could not be replicated by other international researchers; therefore, it was neglected as a pseudoscience for years. This paper reviewed the relevant literatures which were published in the past 40 years, stated the findings published by Satoru Fujiwara A and Kwang-sup SOH and his colleagues. This paper also presented the perspective in meridian research after the Bonghan theory was proposed.

  10. Laser-electromagnetism combined therapy in chronic prostatitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rong; Liu, Lina; Ye, Meiyun; Li, Yongzeng; Lin, Aizhen

    2005-01-01

    The therapeutic effectiveness of laser-electromagnetism combined therapy in chronic prostatitis is studied. Four patients were treated by irradiating the prostate"s correlative parts and acupoints with 650nm semiconductor laser and pulse electromagnetism respectively. Three of them were recovery and only one was ineffective. This demonstrates the feasibility of using laser-combined electromagnetism for assistant treatment on chronic prostatitis. A further study on combined therapy of chronic prostatitis using 810nm, 650nm semiconductor laser and pulse electromagnetic wave is also introduced.

  11. [Analysis on the contribution of HUA Tuo to acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Cai, Ronglin; Hu, Ling

    2015-12-01

    The academic contribution of HUA Tuo to acupuncture, such as HUA Tuo Jiaji points, the drawing of viscera and channels, "diagnosis by observing the eyes", focusing on the clinical application of moxibustion, being the first to treat headache with Geshu (BL 17), selecting essential acupoints and paying attention to spirit management, etc. were summarized in this paper. It was believed that HUA Tuo made an outstanding contribution to acupuncture, which still had important guiding significance and academic value for clinical acupuncture and research work.

  12. [Zhu Lian's characteristics and experiences in clinical practice of acupuncture and moxibustion].

    PubMed

    Wei, Li fu; Pan, Xiaoria; Liu, Bing; Yue, Jin; Zhang, Lijian

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at discussing the clinical characteristics and experiences of ZHU Lian, the renowned contemporary acupuncture master from the following three aspects: "characteristics of clinical manipulations and techniques", "thoughts on diagnosis and treatment" and "examples of clinical cases". The study has shown that ZHU Lian invented the slow insertion technique by rotating needle and the embedding needle technique, improved moxibustion technique with moxa roll and proposed the three keys on the treatment with acupuncture and moxibustion, as well as discovered new acupoints for treatment. The pioneering and distinguished achievements she con tributed play the great demonstrating and driving role in the development of clinical study and practice of acupuncture and moxibustion.

  13. [Serving for the longevity and health of people, being the teacher with righteousness and charity: professor XIA Shouren, the acupuncture master in modern times].

    PubMed

    Li, Jiajian; Guo Jing; Wang, Linpeng

    2015-02-01

    Professor XIA Shouren is a famous acupuncture master in China and has devoted his life to clinical practice, teaching and scientific study of TCM. In his 50 years of medical career, he has studied Chinese and western medicine, innovated ancient masters' experiences, adhered to the theory of "less but highly-effective needling", specified at genjie points and deeply explored the specificity of acupoints. Additionally, the acupuncture stfudy has been firstly conducted in the diagnosis and treatment of trigeminal neuralgia in China and his own unique academic thought has been formed. Professor XIA Shouren makes the contribution to the theory, practice and inheritance of acupuncture and moxibustion.

  14. Preliminary study on weight reduction of obesity Patients with semiconductor laser acupuncture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Chun; Wang, Jannan; Liao, Jianghong; Zhang, Jinghe; Qiao, Yongfan; Liu, Jindong; Liu, Jun-Qi; Lu, Zhenwu

    1998-08-01

    To study the effects of the laser on simple obesity (SO), 40 cases of SO patients, which was treated with Semiconductor Laser Acupuncture (SLA), were observed. The treatment Results: the obvious effect were 19 cases (47.5%), the effect 19(47.5%) and no effect 2(5%), so the total effect reached to 95% (P less than 0.01). No any side affection has been observed, and it is suggested that the Laser beam on acupoint can regulate the function of endocrine why the obesity happens.

  15. [Analysis on acupuncture related articles published in periodicals in science citation index (SCI) in 2008].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; He, Wen-Ju; Guo, Yi

    2010-09-01

    Acupuncture related articles published in periodicals in Science Citation Index (SCI) in 2008 were summarized and analyzed. About 583 articles were collected using "acupuncture" and "in 2008" as keywords in the Web of Science data base by information retrieval. These papers were summarized and analyzed from various aspects of country, language, subject category, literature type, publication sources, impact factor, research method, acupoints, disease category and needling methods by using Excel software combined with manual sorting of the literature, the aim is to provide a reference for domestic acupuncture research.

  16. Proteomic response to acupuncture treatment in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Lai, Xinsheng; Wang, Jiayou; Nabar, Neel R; Pan, Sanqiang; Tang, Chunzhi; Huang, Yong; Hao, Mufeng; Yang, Zhonghua; Ma, Chunmei; Zhang, Jin; Chew, Helen; He, Zhenquan; Yang, Junjun; Su, Baogui; Zhang, Jian; Liang, Jun; Sneed, Kevin B; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Previous animal and clinical studies have shown that acupuncture is an effective alternative treatment in the management of hypertension, but the mechanism is unclear. This study investigated the proteomic response in the nervous system to treatment at the Taichong (LR3) acupoint in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Unanesthetized rats were subject to 5-min daily acupuncture treatment for 7 days. Blood pressure was monitored over 7 days. After euthanasia on the 7(th) day, rat medullas were dissected, homogenized, and subject to 2D gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF analysis. The results indicate that blood pressure stabilized after the 5th day of acupuncture, and compared with non-acupoint treatment, Taichong-acupunctured rat's systolic pressure was reduced significantly (P<0.01), though not enough to bring blood pressure down to normal levels. The different treatment groups also showed differential protein expression: the 2D images revealed 571 ± 15 proteins in normal SD rats' medulla, 576 ± 31 proteins in SHR's medulla, 597 ± 44 proteins in medulla of SHR after acupuncturing Taichong, and 616 ± 18 proteins in medulla of SHR after acupuncturing non-acupoint. In the medulla of Taichong group, compared with non-acupoint group, seven proteins were down-regulated: heat shock protein-90, synapsin-1, pyruvate kinase isozyme, NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-2, protein kinase C inhibitor protein 1, ubiquitin hydrolase isozyme L1, and myelin basic protein. Six proteins were up-regulated: glutamate dehydrogenase 1, aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, glutathione S-transferase M5, Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor 1, DJ-1 protein and superoxide dismutase. The altered expression of several proteins by acupuncture has been confirmed by ELISA, Western blot and qRT-PCR assays. The results indicate an increase in antioxidant enzymes in the medulla of the SHRs subject to acupuncture, which may provide partial explanation for the antihypertensive effect of acupuncture. Further

  17. Neuroprotective Effects of Different Modalities of Acupuncture on Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Song-he; Tu, Wen-zhan; Zou, En-miao; Hu, Jie; Wang, Sai; Li, Jiang-ru; Wang, Wan-sheng; He, Rong; Cheng, Rui-dong; Liao, Wei-jing

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) can induce a series of histological, biochemical, and functional changes. Acupuncture is commonly used for SCI patients. Using male rats of spinal cord injury with the New York University (NYU) Impactor, we investigated the response of electroacupuncture (EA), manual acupuncture (MA), and transcutaneous acupoint electrical stimulation (TAES) at Shuigou (DU26) and Fengfu (DU16) acupoints to understand the effects and mechanisms of acupuncture in neuroprotection and neuronal function recovery after SCI. Histological study showed a restored neural morphology and an increase in the quantity of neurons after EA, MA, and TAES administrations. Acupuncture's antioxidation effects were demonstrated by alleviation of the post-SCI superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increase and malondialdehyde (MDA) level decrease. The anti-inflammation effect of acupuncture was shown as the reduced expression of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) when SCI was treated. And the antiapoptosis role was approved by TUNEL staining. Our data confirmed that the role of acupuncture in neuroprotection and dorsal neuronal function recovery after rat SCI, especially, EA stimulating at Shuigou (DU26) and Fengfu (DU16) can greatly promote neuronal function recovery, which may result from antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and antiapoptosis effects of acupuncture. PMID:24803946

  18. Involvement of amygdaloid neuropeptide Y in the anxiolytic effects of acupuncture during ethanol withdrawal in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenglin; Kim, Sang Chan; Wu, Yiyan; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Yanji; Cho, Il Je; Yang, Chae Ha; Lee, Bong Hyo; Zhao, Rongjie

    2014-05-01

    The role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) in the preventive effects of acupuncture against ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety was investigated. Rats were treated with 3g/kg/day of ethanol for 28 days, followed by 3 days of withdrawal. Bilateral acupuncture treatment at HT7 (Shen-Men), PC6 (Nei-Guan) or a non-acupoint was respectively added to the rats during the withdrawal once a day for three days. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses showed there was a significant decrease in NPY protein and mRNA expression in the CeA during ethanol withdrawal, which was reversed by acupuncture at HT7 but neither at PC6 nor at a non-acupoint. Acupuncture at HT7 also greatly inhibited the decrease in cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in the CeA. In elevated plus maze tests, a selective NPY Y1 receptor antagonist BIBP 3226 into the CeA before the acupuncture abolished almost completely the anxiolytic effect of acupuncture at HT7. These results suggest that acupuncture at HT7 rescues the depletion of amygdaloid NPY and reverses the decrease in CREB phosphorylation to produce anxiolytic effects during ethanol withdrawal.

  19. Changes in the spectral composition of animal-brain electrical activity under the influence of nonthermal millimeter-wave radiation on acupuncture points

    SciTech Connect

    Khramov, R.N.; Vorob`ev, V.V.

    1994-07-01

    The frequency spectra (0-26 Hz) of electrograms (EG) of the preoptic region of the hypothalamus were studied in chronic experiments on nine awake rabbits under the influence of nonthermal millimeter-bank (55-75 GHz) electromagnetic fields on various acupuncture points: (I) the auricular {open_quotes}heart{close_quotes} point (after F. G. Portnov); (II) the cranial acupoint (TR-20; the {open_quotes}hypothalamus{close_quotes} point after R. Voll); and (III) the {open_quotes}longevity{close_quotes} acupoint (E-36). Irradiation of point I was accompanied by significant suppression of hypothalamic electrical activity at 5 and 16 Hz and enhancement at 7-8, 12, and 26 Hz. Irradiation of point II, and III were, respectively, 31%, 21%, and 5% (p < 0.05, U-criterion). These results suggest that acupuncture points I and II are more sensitive to millimeter-band radiation than is point III. The presence of individual characteristics of the effects and their change after stress to sign inversion were shown in rat experiments in which the acupuncture points were irradiated.

  20. Minimal acupuncture is not a valid placebo control in randomised controlled trials of acupuncture: a physiologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Lund, Iréne; Näslund, Jan; Lundeberg, Thomas

    2009-01-30

    Placebo-control of acupuncture is used to evaluate and distinguish between the specific effects and the non-specific ones. During 'true' acupuncture treatment in general, the needles are inserted into acupoints and stimulated until deqi is evoked. In contrast, during placebo acupuncture, the needles are inserted into non-acupoints and/or superficially (so-called minimal acupuncture). A sham acupuncture needle with a blunt tip may be used in placebo acupuncture. Both minimal acupuncture and the placebo acupuncture with the sham acupuncture needle touching the skin would evoke activity in cutaneous afferent nerves. This afferent nerve activity has pronounced effects on the functional connectivity in the brain resulting in a 'limbic touch response'. Clinical studies showed that both acupuncture and minimal acupuncture procedures induced significant alleviation of migraine and that both procedures were equally effective. In other conditions such as low back pain and knee osteoarthritis, acupuncture was found to be more potent than minimal acupuncture and conventional non-acupuncture treatment. It is probable that the responses to 'true' acupuncture and minimal acupuncture are dependent on the aetiology of the pain. Furthermore, patients and healthy individuals may have different responses. In this paper, we argue that minimal acupuncture is not valid as an inert placebo-control despite its conceptual brilliance.

  1. Cortical Activation Patterns of Bodily Attention triggered by Acupuncture Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Won-Mo; Lee, In-Seon; Wallraven, Christian; Ryu, Yeon-Hee; Park, Hi-Joon; Chae, Younbyoung

    2015-01-01

    We investigated commonalities and differences in brain responses to enhanced bodily attention around acupuncture points with and without stimulation. Fourteen participants received acupuncture needles at both PC6 and HT7 acupoints in the left hand. To enhance bodily attention to acupoints, participants responded to the locations of stimulations in a two-alternative forced choice task. Two fMRI scans were taken in a block design: session 1 labeled with manual stimulation (genuine stimulation) and session 2 labeled with electro-acupuncture (pseudo-stimulation). To compare cortical activation patterns, data were analyzed using the Freesurfer software package. Both genuine-and pseudo-stimulation resulted in brain activations in the insula, anterior cingulate cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, superior parietal cortex, and brain deactivation in the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, inferior parietal cortex, and the parahippocampus. Genuine acupuncture stimulation exhibited greater brain activation in the posterior insula, posterior operculum and the caudal part of the anterior cingulate cortex, compared with pseudo-stimulation. We demonstrated that enhanced bodily attention triggered by genuine acupuncture stimulation can activate the salience network and deactivate the default mode network regardless of the type of stimulation. The component of enhanced attention to a certain part of the body is significant in the brain response to acupuncture stimulation. PMID:26211895

  2. Proteomic analysis of the neuroprotective mechanisms of acupuncture treatment in a Parkinson's disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Songhee; Kim, Youn Jung; Kim, Seung-Tae; Moon, Woongjoon; Chae, Younbyoung; Kang, Minjeong; Chung, Mi-Young; Lee, Hyangsook; Hong, Mi-Sook; Chung, Joo-Ho; Joh, Tong H; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Hi-Joon

    2008-11-01

    Acupuncture is frequently used as an alternative therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD), and it attenuates dopaminergic (DA) neurodegeneration in the substantia nigra (SN) in PD animal models. Using proteomic analysis, we investigated whether acupuncture alters protein expression in the SN to favor attenuation of neuronal degeneration. In C57BL/6 mice treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP, 30 mg/kg/day), intraperitoneal (i.p.) for 5 days, 2 or 100 Hz electroacupuncture (EA) was applied at the effective and specific acupoint, GB34, once a day for 12 consecutive days from the first MPTP treatment. Both treatments in MPTP mice led to restoration of behavioral impairment and rescued tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive DA neurodegeneration. Using peptide fingerprinting MS, we identified changes in 22 proteins in the SN following MPTP treatment, and nine of these proteins were normalized by EA. They were involved in cell death regulation, inflammation, or restoration from damage. The levels of cyclophilin A (CypA), which is a neuroprotective agent, were unchanged by MPTP treatment but were increased in MPTP-EA mice. These results suggest that acupoint GB34-specific EA changes protein expression profiles in the SN in favor of DA neuronal survival in MPTP-treated mice, and that EA treatment may be an effective therapy for PD patients.

  3. Defining meridians: a modern basis of understanding.

    PubMed

    Longhurst, John C

    2010-06-01

    Acupuncture, one of the primary methods of treatment in traditional Oriental medicine, is based on a system of meridians. Along the meridians lie acupuncture points or acupoints, which are stimulated by needling, pressure or heat to resolve a clinical problem. A number of methods have been used to identify meridians and to explain them anatomically. Thus, tendinomuscular structures, primo-vessels (Bonghan ducts), regions of increased temperature and low skin resistance have been suggested to represent meridians or as methods to identify them. However, none of these methods have met the criteria for a meridian, an entity that, when stimulated by acupuncture can result in clinical improvement. More recently, modern physiologists have put forward the "neural hypothesis" stating that the clinical influence of acupuncture is transmitted primarily through stimulation of sensory nerves that provide signals to the brain, which processes this information and then causes clinical changes associated with treatment. Although additional research is warranted to investigate the role of some of the structures identified, it seems clear that the peripheral and central nervous system can now be considered to be the most rational basis for defining meridians. The meridian maps and associated acupoints located along them are best viewed as road maps that can guide practitioners towards applying acupuncture to achieve optimal clinical results.

  4. Acupuncture promotes mTOR-independent autophagic clearance of aggregation-prone proteins in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tian; Sun, Yanhong; Wu, Huangan; Pei, Jian; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Lu; Li, Bin; Wang, Lihua; Shi, Jiye; Hu, Jun; Fan, Chunhai

    2016-01-21

    Acupuncture has historically been practiced to treat medical disorders by mechanically stimulating specific acupoints with fine needles. Despite its well-documented efficacy, its biological basis remains largely elusive. In this study, we found that mechanical stimulation at the acupoint of Yanglingquan (GB34) promoted the autophagic clearance of α-synuclein (α-syn), a well known aggregation-prone protein closely related to Parkinson's disease (PD), in the substantia nigra par compacta (SNpc) of the brain in a PD mouse model. We found the protein clearance arose from the activation of the autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP) in a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-independent approach. Further, we observed the recovery in the activity of dopaminergic neurons in SNpc, and improvement in the motor function at the behavior level of PD mice. Whereas acupuncture and rapamycin, a chemical mTOR inhibitor, show comparable α-syn clearance and therapeutic effects in the PD mouse model, the latter adopts a distinctly different, mTOR-dependent, autophagy induction process. Due to this fundamental difference, acupuncture may circumvent adverse effects of the rapamycin treatment. The newly discovered connection between acupuncture and autophagy not only provides a new route to understanding the molecular mechanism of acupuncture but also sheds new light on cost-effective and safe therapy of neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. Use of pupil size to determine the effect of electromagnetic acupuncture on activation level of the autonomic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Byeong; Choi, Woo-Hyuk; Liu, Wen-Xue; Lee, Na-Ra; Shin, Tae-Min; Lee, Yong-Heum

    2014-06-01

    Magnetic fields are widely considered as a method of treatment to increase the therapeutic effect when applied to acupoints. Hence, this study proposes a new method which creates significant stimulation of acupoints by using weak magnetic fields. We conducted this experiment in order to confirm the effect on the activation level of the autonomic nervous system by measuring pupil sizes in cases of stimulation by using manual acupuncture and electromagnetic acupuncture (EMA) at BL15. We selected 30 Hz of biphasic wave form with 570.1 Gauss. To confirm the biopotential by the magnetic flux density occurring in EMA that affected the activation of the autonomic nervous system, we observed the biopotential induced at the upper and the mid left and right trapezius. We observed a significant decrease in pupil size only in the EMA group (p < 0.05), thus confirming that EMA decreased the pupil size through activation of the parasympathetic nerve in the autonomic nervous system. Moreover, we confirmed that the amplitude of the biopotential which was caused by 570.1 Gauss was higher than ±20 μA. Thus, we can conclude that EMA treatment successfully activates the parasympathetic nerve in the autonomic nervous system by inducing a biotransformation by the induced biopotential.

  6. Changes in the spectral composition of animal-brain electrical activity under the influence of nonthermal millimeter-wave radiation on acupuncture points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khramov, R. N.; Vorob'ev, V. V.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency spectra (0 26 Hz) of electrograms (EG) of the preoptic region of the hypothalamus were studied in chronic experiments on nine awake rabbits under the influence of nonthermal millimeter-band (55 75 GHz) electromagnetic fields on various acupuncture points: I) the auricular “heart” point (after F. G. Portnov); II) the cranial acupoint (TR-20; the “hypothalamus” point after R. Voll); and III) the “longevity” acupoint (E-36). Irradiation of point I was accompanied by significant suppression of hypothalamic electrical activity at 5 and 16 Hz and enhancement at 7 8, 12, and 26 Hz. Irradiation of point II had similar but less-prominent effects at 7 8 and 12 Hz. Minimal EG changes were observed with exposure of point III. The probabilities of significant changes in EG spectra for irradiation of points I, II, and III were, respectively, 31%, 21%, and 5% (p<0.05, U-criterion). These results suggest that acupuncture points I and II are more sensitive to millimeter-band radiation than is point III. The presence of individual characteristics of the effects and their change after stress to sign inversion were shown in rat experiments in which the acupuncture points were irradiated.

  7. [Acupressure and Evidence-Based Nursing].

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Li; Lin, Jun-Dai

    2015-12-01

    Acupressure is a traditional Chinese medicine approach to disease prevention and treatment that may be operated by nurses independently. Therefore, acupressure is being increasingly applied in clinical nursing practice and research. Recently, the implementation of evidence-based nursing (EBN) in clinical practice has been encouraged to promote nursing quality. Evidence-based nursing is a method-ology and process of implementation that applies the best-available evidence to clinical practice, which is acquired through the use of empirical nursing research. Therefore, in this paper, we address the topic of acupressure within the context of empirical nursing practice. We first introduce the current status of acupressure research and provide the locations of common acupoints in order to guide future empirical nursing research and to help nurses use these acupoints in clinical practice. Finally, we describe the steps that are necessary to apply the current empirical information on acupressure as well as provide suggestions to promote safety and efficacy in order to guide nurses in the accurate application of acupressure in nursing practice.

  8. Nausea control by needling at acupuncture point Neiguan (PC6) during an intraoral impression-taking procedure.

    PubMed

    Zotelli, Vera Lucia Rasera; Grillo, Cássia Maria; de Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture point PC6 (Neiguan) in controlling nausea during intraoral impression taking. This study was conducted in Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil. The sample consisted of 33 adult volunteers with nausea, who were randomly divided into control and study groups, and treated with nonpenetrating sham acupuncture and real acupuncture, respectively, at acupoint PC6. The two groups had two maxillary impressions taken, one prior to acupuncture and the other after acupuncture. The nausea assessment was made using the visual analog scale, Gagging Severity Index (GSI), and Gagging Prevention Index. Volunteers' expectation that nausea would be reduced through acupuncture was also assessed. For statistical analysis, we used the t test and the Spearman correlation (p < 0.05). When assessed by Gagging Severity Index/Gagging Prevention Index, nausea was reduced in the real acupuncture group (p < 0.01). In the visual analog scale assessment, similar reductions of nausea were noted in both groups (p > 0.05). No correlation existed between the expected and the actual reductions in nausea. Our results indicate that acupoint PC6 was effective for controlling nausea during the maxillary impression-taking procedure. Patients' expectation did not influence the results.

  9. Effects of Auricular Acupressure Therapy on Stress and Sleep Disturbance of Middle-Aged Women in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Cha, Nam Hyun; Park, Yi Kyun; Sok, Sohyune R

    This study sought to examine the effect of auricular acupressure therapy on the stress and sleep status of middle-aged women in South Korea. A quasi-experimental pretest/posttest control group design was employed. The study sample consisted of 67 middle-aged women (experimental: 35 samples; control: 32 samples) in Seoul, South Korea. Auricular acupressure therapy including the auricular acupressure needle on the skin paper tape was applied on an ear for 2 weeks, 2 times per week. The acupoints were Gyogam, Sinmun, Bushin, Naebunbi, and Pijilha. For the placebo control group, only the skin paper tape without the auricular acupressure needle was applied on the same acupoints. Measures were a stress scale, cortisol level in blood, and a sleep status scale. The findings showed that there were significant differences on stress (physical: t = 2.170, P < .033; psychological: t = 2.117, P < .037), cortisol level in blood (t = 2.277, P < .025), and sleep status (t = -3.127, P < .004). Health care providers should consider providing auricular acupressure therapy as an alternative method for reducing physical and psychological stress, cortisol level in blood, and sleep disturbance of middle-aged women in South Korea.

  10. [Establishment of data warehouse of needling and moxibustion literature based on data mining].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Ling; Li, Ren-Ling; Jia, Chun-Sheng

    2012-02-01

    In order to explore the efficacy specificity and valuable rules of clinical application of needling and moxibustion methods in a large quantity of information from literature, a data warehouse needs being established. On the basis of the original databases of red-hot needle therapy and hydro-acupuncture therapy, and the newly-established databases of acupoint catgut embedding therapy, acupoint application therapy, etc., and in accordance with the characteristics of different types of needling-moxibustion literature information, databases on different subjects were established first. These subject databases constitute a general "literature data warehouse on needling moxibustion methods" composing of multi-subjects and multiple dimensions so as to discover useful regularities about clinical treatment and trials collected in the literature by using data mining techniques. In the present paper, the authors introduce the design of the data warehouse, determination of subjects, establishment of subject relations, application of the administration platform, and application of data. This data warehouse will provide a standard data representation mode, enlarge data attributes and create extensive data links among literature information in the network, and may bring us with considerable convenience and profits in clinical application decision making and scientific research about needling-moxibustion techniques.

  11. A randomized clinical trial of auricular point acupressure for chronic low back pain: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chao Hsing; Chien, Lung Chang; Balaban, Devora; Sponberg, Rebecca; Primavera, Jaclyn; Morone, Natalia E; Glick, Ronald; Albers, Kathryn M; Cohen, Susan M; Ren, Dianxu; Huang, Li Chun; Suen, Lorna Kwai-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This prospective, randomized clinical trial (RCT) was designed to investigate the feasibility and effects of a 4-week auricular point acupressure (APA) for chronic low back pain (CLBP). Methods. Participants were randomized to either true APA (true acupoints with taped seeds on the designated ear points for CLBP) or sham APA (sham acupoints with taped seeds but on different locations than those designated for CLBP). The duration of treatment was four weeks. Participants were assessed before treatment, weekly during treatment, and 1 month following treatment. Results. Participants in the true APA group who completed the 4-week APA treatment had a 70% reduction in worst pain intensity, a 75% reduction in overall pain intensity, and a 42% improvement in disability due to back pain from baseline assessment. The reductions of worst pain and overall pain intensity in the true APA group were statistically greater than participants in the sham group (P < 0.01) at the completion of a 4-week APA and 1 month followup. Discussion. The preliminary findings of this feasibility study showed a reduction in pain intensity and improvement in physical function suggesting that APA may be a promising treatment for patients with CLBP.

  12. [Thinking on current treatment situation of acupuncture foe functional defecation disorders].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiuzhu; Zhang, Jianbin; Ding, Shuqing; Zhou, Huifen; Cai, Jinya; Zhu, Dan; Bai, Jiejing; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Zou, Yangyang; Hu, Guangyong

    2015-05-01

    In order to optimize acupuncture treatment protocol for functional defecation disorders, literature during past 20 years is reviewed, and factors which influences acupuncture therapeutic effect are analyzed from aspects of acupoint, acupuncture technique, etc. As for the selection of acupoint, more attention should be paid on the use of Baliao, especially Zhongliao (BL 33) and Xialiao (BL 34); when Baliao is deeply needled, it is essential to acquire scientific technique. The relationship between acupuncture parameter (including electroacupuncture waveform and frequency), acupuncture techniques (including reinforcing and reducing technique, quantity of stimulation, etc. ) and acupuncture efficacy is complicated, and the scientific values of present research conclusion are in need, of further improvement. The diagnosis and treatment awareness on types of functional defecation should be strengthened, and the mental health of the constipation patients should be concerned. The combination of acupuncture and biofeedback training can have a synergistic effect, which is benefit to achieve a better long-term effect. Based on this, acupuncture treatment protocol for functional defecation disorders can be optimized to further improve the efficacy.

  13. Electroacupuncture Regulates Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity via miR-134-Mediated LIMK1 Function in Rats with Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weilin; Wu, Jie; Zhuo, Peiyuan; Lin, Yunjiao; Wang, Lulu; Lin, Ruhui

    2017-01-01

    MircoRNAs (miRs) have been implicated in learning and memory, by regulating LIM domain kinase (LIMK1) to induce synaptic-dendritic plasticity. The study aimed to investigate whether miRNAs/LIMK1 signaling was involved in electroacupuncture- (EA-) mediated synaptic-dendritic plasticity in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion induced cognitive deficit (MICD). Compared to untreatment or non-acupoint-EA treatment, EA at DU20 and DU24 acupoints could shorten escape latency and increase the frequency of crossing platform in Morris water maze test. T2-weighted imaging showed that the MICD rat brain lesions were located in cortex, hippocampus, corpus striatum, and thalamus regions and injured volumes were reduced after EA. Furthermore, we found that the density of dendritic spine and the number of synapses in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells were obviously reduced at Day 14 after MICD. However, synaptic-dendritic loss could be rescued after EA. Moreover, the synaptic-dendritic plasticity was associated with increases of the total LIMK1 and phospho-LIMK1 levels in hippocampal CA1 region, wherein EA decreased the expression of miR-134, negatively regulating LIMK1 to enhance synaptic-dendritic plasticity. Therefore, miR-134-mediated LIMK1 was involved in EA-induced hippocampal synaptic plasticity, which served as a contributor to improving learning and memory during the recovery stage of ischemic stroke. PMID:28116173

  14. Effects of Electroacupuncture on Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress Rats Depression-Like Behavior and Expression of p-ERK/ERK and p-P38/P38

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; She, Yanling; Su, Ning; Zhang, Ruixin; Lao, Lixing; Xu, Shifen

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the antidepressant-like effect and mechanism of electroacupuncture (EA) on a chronic unpredictable mild stress rats depression-like behavior. In our study, depression in rats was induced by unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) and isolation for four weeks. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: Normal, Model, EA, and Sham EA. EA treatment was administered for two weeks, once a day for five days a week. Two acupoints, Yintang (EX-HN3) and Baihui (GV20), were selected. For sham EA, acupuncture needles were inserted shallowly into the acupoints: EX-HN3 and GV20. No electrostimulator was connected. The antidepressant-like effect of the electroacupuncture treatment was measured by sucrose intake test, open field test, and forced swimming test in rats. The protein levels of phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinases (p-ERK1/2)/ERK1/2 and p-P38/P38 in the hippocampus (HP) were examined by Western blot analysis. Our data demonstrate that EA treatment decreased the immobility time of forced swimming test and improved the sucrose solution intake in comparison to unpredictable chronic mild stress and placebo sham control. Electroacupuncture may act on depression by enhancing p-ERK1/2 and p-p38 in the hippocampus. PMID:26366182

  15. Differential localization of pain-related neural responses during acupuncture stimulation using Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) fMRI in a canine model.

    PubMed

    Chang, Suk-Ki; Jahng, Geon-Ho; Lee, Sung-Ho; Choi, Il-Whan; Choi, Chi-Bong; Choi, Woo-Suk

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to differentiate the neuronal responses, which was related or unrelated, to pain associated with acupuncture stimulation, and to localize the brain regions with response to stimulation that is unrelated to pain by using Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI). BOLD fMRI was performed in six normal healthy beagle dogs, during placebo and verum acupuncture stimulations, at the right side of BL60 (KunLun) acupoint before and after local anesthesia of the acupoint. The order of the four sessions was placebo; verum acupuncture stimulation; before local anesthesia; and followed by the same stimulation after local anesthesia. One-sample t-test analysis was performed to localize the activated or deactivated areas, during both pre-anesthesia and post-anesthesia. In order to compare the pre-anesthesia to post-anesthetic responses, and placebo to verum acupuncture stimulation, within-subject analysis was performed. The post-anesthetic verum acupuncture stimulation resulted in increased activations in the left somatic afferent area I and II, right visual and auditory association area, and the descending reticular activating system of the brainstem. In addition, differential areas during post-anesthesia compared to that of the pre-anesthesia were in the left olfactory peduncle and descending reticular activating system of the brainstem. These results indicate that the areas of specific neural pathway are considered to be unrelated to the pain response during acupuncture stimulation.

  16. [Differences of bi-directional regulative effects between acu-moxibustion and Chinese materia medica interventions].

    PubMed

    Cao, Xin; Yu, Zhi; Xu, Bin

    2012-10-01

    Bi-directional regulation is referred to a balancing effect of both acu-moxibustion and Chinese materia medica interventions when the human body is experiencing a hyperactivity or hypoactivity due to abnormal intrinsic or external factors. In the present paper, the authors analyze their identical and different characteristics from: 1) definition; 2) characters of regulative effects of acu-moxibustion therapy: A) differentiation of meridian and zangfu-organs being the basis of treatment, B) four factors (acupoint-location, body's functional state, acupoint-formula and needle-manipulation techniques) dependant, C) entirety regulation, and D) centrotaxis modulation; 3) characters of Chinese materia medica intervention: including a) correspondence between the drug property and the syndrome being the basis of the regulative effect, b) multi-factors [components (antagonist and agonist), combination, dosages and processing quality of Chinese materia medica, and functional state of the human body] dependant, c) entirety regulation, and d) both centrotaxis and deviation adjustment. In one word, the bi-directional regulation effect is one of the basic characteristics of both acu-moxibustion and Chinese materia medica in clinical practice, but their basis and modes for inducing effects are different.

  17. Electroacupuncture-induced neuroprotection against focal cerebral ischemia in the rat is mediated by adenosine A1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Qin-xue; Geng, Wu-jun; Zhuang, Xiu-xiu; Wang, Hong-fa; Mo, Yun-chang; Xin, He; Chen, Jiang-fan; Wang, Jun-lu

    2017-01-01

    The activation of adenosine A1 receptors is important for protecting against ischemic brain injury and pretreatment with electroacupuncture has been shown to mitigate ischemic brain insult. The aim of this study was to test whether the adenosine A1 receptor mediates electroacupuncture pretreatment-induced neuroprotection against ischemic brain injury. We first performed 30 minutes of electroacupuncture pretreatment at the Baihui acupoint (GV20), delivered with a current of 1 mA, a frequency of 2/15 Hz, and a depth of 1 mm. High-performance liquid chromatography found that adenosine triphosphate and adenosine levels peaked in the cerebral cortex at 15 minutes and 120 minutes after electroacupuncture pretreatment, respectively. We further examined the effect of 15 or 120 minutes electroacupuncture treatment on ischemic brain injury in a rat middle cerebral artery-occlusion model. We found that at 24 hours reperfusion,120 minutes after electroacupuncture pretreatment, but not for 15 minutes, significantly reduced behavioral deficits and infarct volumes. Last, we demonstrated that the protective effect gained by 120 minutes after electroacupuncture treatment before ischemic injury was abolished by pretreatment with the A1-receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Our results suggest that pretreatment with electroacupuncture at the Baihui acupoint elicits protection against transient cerebral ischemia via action at adenosine A1 receptors.

  18. The tegmental-accumbal dopaminergic system mediates the anxiolytic effect of acupuncture during ethanol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Zhao, ZhengLin; Kim, Sang Chan; Zhao, RongJie; Wu, YiYan; Zhang, Jie; Liu, HongFeng; Kim, Young Woo; Zhu, XiaoDong; Gu, ChangHong; Lee, Chul Won; Lee, Bong Hyo; Jang, Eun Young; Ko, Hae Li; Yang, Chae Ha

    2015-06-15

    This study investigated the involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system in the anxiolytic effects of acupuncture during ethanol withdrawal (EW). Rats were intraperitoneally treated with 3g/kg/day of ethanol for 28 days and experienced 3 days of withdrawal. During EW, the rats were bilaterally treated with acupuncture at acupoints HT7 (Shenmen) or PC6 (Neiguan) or at a non-acupoint (tail) once daily for 1min over 3 days. High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis showed that EW significantly decreased both DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels in the nucleus accumbens shell (NaccSh); however, these processes were inhibited by acupuncture at HT7 but not at PC6. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot assays also revealed that acupuncture at HT7 prevented the EW-induced reductions in tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and tyrosine hydroxylase protein expression in the NaccSh. A prior intra-NaccSh infusion of a cocktail of the selective DA1 receptor antagonist SCH23390 and the selective DA2 receptor antagonist eticlopride blocked the anxiolytic effect of acupuncture at HT7 in elevated plus maze tests. In addition, acupuncture at HT7 suppressed EW-induced increased BDNF levels in the VTA. These findings suggest that acupuncture at HT7 improves the VTA-Nacc DAergic function via inhibition of BDNF expression in the VTA, thereby exerting anxiolytic effects during EW.

  19. Review of Clinical Studies of the Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis Using Acupuncture and Moxibustion

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan; Wang, Xia-Fei; Ma, Zhe; Im, Hyoyoung

    2016-01-01

    Background. Clinical studies suggest that acupuncture and moxibustion therapy in ulcerative colitis (UC) can regulate bowel inflammation, and these treatments have the advantages of low rates of adverse reactions and recurrence as well as good long-term efficacy. We reviewed the current status of clinical studies of the treatment. Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using the therapy as the major intervention for treating UC were included from 1995 to 2015. The extracted data mainly included diagnostic standards, treatment methods, selection of acupoints, treatment times and courses, and efficacy determination criteria. Results. The use of diagnostic standards and efficacy criteria lacked unification and standardization. There were two main groups: acupuncture and moxibustion therapy combined with drug treatment and the use of all types of acupuncture and moxibustion therapy alone or in combination. The acupoint compositions included distal-proximal point combinations, back-shu point and front-mu point combinations, and acupuncture through meridians. The treatment courses in all the clinical trials had large variations. Conclusion. The treatment of UC in the examined articles was mainly based on the classical theory. However, many links of the clinical regimen design were still lacking, which affected the repeatability of the clinical studies and the accuracy of the clinical conclusions. PMID:27885326

  20. MicroRNA Profiling Response to Acupuncture Therapy in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia-You; Li, Hui; Ma, Chun-Mei; Wang, Jia-Lu; Lai, Xin-Sheng; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of endogenous noncoding RNAs that play important roles in many biological processes. This study aimed to check if miRNAs were involved in the response to acupuncture in rats. Microarray analysis was performed to compare the miRNA expression profiles of medulla in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) treated with or without acupuncture. Our microarray analysis identified 222 differentially expressed miRNAs in the medulla of SHRs treated with acupuncture at taichong acupoint. Among these miRNAs, 23 miRNAs with a significant difference were found in acupuncture-treated SHRs compared to untreated rats. These 23 miRNAs could regulate 2963 target genes which were enriched in at least 14 pathways based on our bioinformatic analysis. miRNA-339, miR-223, and miR-145 were downregulated in the medulla of SHRs compared to normotensive rats. Notably, these miRNAs were upregulated to basal levels in the medulla of SHRs treated with acupuncture at taichong in comparison with SHRs receiving acupuncture at nonacupoint group or SHRs without any treatment. Our findings have revealed significant changes of a panel of selective miRNAs in hypertensive rats treated at taichong acupoint. These data provide insights into how acupuncture elicits beneficial effects on hypertension. PMID:25861353

  1. A randomized treatment-placebo study of the effectiveness of acupuncture for benign vocal pathologies.

    PubMed

    Yiu, Edwin; Xu, Jie Jie; Murry, Tom; Wei, William I; Yu, Ming; Ma, Estella; Huang, Wei; Kwong, Yee-Lan Elaine

    2006-03-01

    Acupuncture is a widely accepted treatment option for many medical ailments in China. Some reports claim that acupuncture is effective for treating dysphonia associated with benign pathological tissue changes. However, many of these reports are based on anecdotal evidence that lacks a scientific experimental design. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of intensive acupuncture therapy for dysphonias associated with benign pathological changes with a randomized, control design. Twenty-four subjects aged between 19 and 51 years were randomly assigned to either an experimental group or a placebo group. The experimental group received acupuncture on acupoints Renyin (Stomach Channel 9), Lieque (Lung Channel 7), and Zhaohai (Kidney Channel 6), which are all related to improving throat problems and vocal function, whereas the placebo group received acupuncture on acupoints Houxi (Small Intestine Channel 3) and Kunlun (Bladder Channel 60), which are not related to voicing. All subjects received 10 intensive acupuncture sessions within a 20-day period. Acoustic analysis of voice range profile, perceptual analysis of voice quality, and self-perceptions of quality-of-life (QOL) measurement by patients were the outcome measures for determining treatment efficacy. Results revealed significant improvement in the treatment group in all three aspects when compared with the placebo group. The acupuncture effect was maintained into the second week after the completion of acupuncture treatment.

  2. Research on nonlinear feature of electrical resistance of acupuncture points.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jianzi; Mao, Huijuan; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Lina; Liu, Sheng; Shen, Xueyong

    2012-01-01

    A highly sensitive volt-ampere characteristics detecting system was applied to measure the volt-ampere curves of nine acupuncture points, LU9, HT7, LI4, PC6, ST36, SP6, KI3, LR3, and SP3, and corresponding nonacupuncture points bilaterally from 42 healthy volunteers. Electric currents intensity was increased from 0 μA to 20 μA and then returned to 0 μA again. The results showed that the volt-ampere curves of acupuncture points had nonlinear property and magnetic hysteresis-like feature. On all acupuncture point spots, the volt-ampere areas of the increasing phase were significantly larger than that of the decreasing phase (P < 0.01). The volt-ampere areas of ten acupuncture point spots were significantly smaller than those of the corresponding nonacupuncture point spots when intensity was increase (P < 0.05 ~ P < 0.001). And when intensity was decrease, eleven acupuncture point spots showed the same property as above (P < 0.05 ~ P < 0.001), while two acupuncture point spots showed opposite phenomenon in which the areas of two acupuncture point spots were larger than those of the corresponding nonacupuncture point spots (P < 0.05 ~ P < 0.01). These results show that the phenomenon of low skin resistance does not exist to all acupuncture points.

  3. Hemiparesis after Operation of Astrocytoma Grade II in Adults: Effects of Acupuncture on Sensory-Motor Behavior and Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haibo; Schröder, Sven; Li, Zhifeng; Yang, Ying; Chen, Yu; Huang, Xingxian

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of acupuncture on hemiparesis and quality of life for adults with brain astrocytoma grade II, we conducted a randomized, observer-blinded clinical trial. Fifty-eight patients were randomized to standard rehabilitation (SR) therapy without acupuncture (n = 20), SR plus standard acupuncture (SA) (n = 19), and SR plus individualized acupuncture (IA) (n = 19). SA points were PC6, SP6, HT1, LU5, BL40, and ST36, while a special concept called “connecting and regulation Ren and Du” and “Jin-3-needling” served as IA. This treatment was individualized according to the clinical syndrome. The outcome was measured by the Barthel Index (BI), the Fugl-Meyer scale (FM), and the EORTC Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30) with the Brain Cancer Module (BCM20). IA + SR reached significantly higher BI scores than SA + SR, which reached significantly higher BI scores than SR. IA + SR was significantly superior to SA + SR and to SR at the 8th week for the scores of FM motor and sensory assessments and most QLQ-C30-BCM20 items. In conclusion, the individualized acupuncture concept of “connecting and regulating Ren and Du” combined with “Jin-3-needling” offers a promising possibility for the treatment of hemiparesis due to astrocytoma, but further evaluation is mandatory. PMID:23864900

  4. Prevalence and characteristics of pks genotoxin gene cluster-positive clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Tsong; Lai, Yi-Chyi; Tan, Mei-Chen; Hsieh, Li-Yun; Wang, Jann-Tay; Shiau, Yih-Ru; Wang, Hui-Ying; Lin, Ann-Chi; Lai, Jui-Fen; Huang, I-Wen; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling

    2017-01-01

    The pks gene cluster encodes enzymes responsible for the synthesis of colibactin, a genotoxin that has been shown to induce DNA damage and contribute to increased virulence. The present study investigated the prevalence of pks in clinical K. pneumoniae isolates from a national surveillance program in Taiwan, and identified microbiological and molecular factors associated with pks-carriage. The pks gene cluster was detected in 67 (16.7%) of 400 isolates from various specimen types. Multivariate analysis revealed that isolates of K1, K2, K20, and K62 capsular types (p < 0.001), and those more susceptible to antimicrobial agents (p = 0.001) were independent factors strongly associated with pks-carriage. Phylogenetic studies on the sequence type (ST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns indicated that the pks-positive isolates belong to a clonal group of ST23 in K1, a locally expanding ST65 clone in K2, a ST268-related K20 group, and a highly clonal ST36:K62 group. Carriage of rmpA, iutC, and ybtA, the genes associated with hypervirulence, was significantly higher in the pks-positive isolates than the pks-negative isolates (95.5% vs. 13.2%, p < 0.001). Further studies to determine the presence of hypervirulent pks-bearing bacterial populations in the flora of community residents and their association with different disease entities may be warranted. PMID:28233784

  5. A descriptive statistical approach to the Korean pharmacopuncture therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungdae; Kang, Dae-In

    2010-09-01

    This paper reviews trends in research related to Korean pharmacopuncture therapy. Specifically, basic and clinical research in pharmacopuncture within the last decade is summarized by introducing categorical variables for classification. These variables are also analyzed for association. This literature review is based on articles published from February 1997 to December 2008 in a Korean journal, the Journal of the Korean Institute of Herbal Acupuncture, which was renamed the Journal of the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute in 2007. Among the total of 379 papers published in the journal during this period, 164 papers were selected for their direct relevance to pharmacopuncture research and were categorized according to three variables: medicinal materials, acupuncture points and disease. The most frequently studied medicinal materials were bee-venom pharmacopuncture (42%), followed by meridian-field pharmacopuncture (24%), single-compound pharmacopuncture (24%), and eight-principle pharmacopuncture (10%). The frequency distributions of the acupuncture points and meridians for the injection of medicinal materials are presented. The most frequently used meridian and acupuncture point was the Bladder meridian and ST36, respectively. Contingency tables are also displayed to analyze the relationship between the categorized variables. Chi-squared analysis showed a significant association between the type of pharmacopuncture and disease. The trend in research reports on Korean pharmacopuncture therapy was reviewed and analyzed using a descriptive statistical approach to evaluate the therapeutic value of this technique for future research.

  6. Research on Nonlinear Feature of Electrical Resistance of Acupuncture Points

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jianzi; Mao, Huijuan; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Lina; Liu, Sheng; Shen, Xueyong

    2012-01-01

    A highly sensitive volt-ampere characteristics detecting system was applied to measure the volt-ampere curves of nine acupuncture points, LU9, HT7, LI4, PC6, ST36, SP6, KI3, LR3, and SP3, and corresponding nonacupuncture points bilaterally from 42 healthy volunteers. Electric currents intensity was increased from 0 μA to 20 μA and then returned to 0 μA again. The results showed that the volt-ampere curves of acupuncture points had nonlinear property and magnetic hysteresis-like feature. On all acupuncture point spots, the volt-ampere areas of the increasing phase were significantly larger than that of the decreasing phase (P < 0.01). The volt-ampere areas of ten acupuncture point spots were significantly smaller than those of the corresponding nonacupuncture point spots when intensity was increase (P < 0.05 ~ P < 0.001). And when intensity was decrease, eleven acupuncture point spots showed the same property as above (P < 0.05 ~ P < 0.001), while two acupuncture point spots showed opposite phenomenon in which the areas of two acupuncture point spots were larger than those of the corresponding nonacupuncture point spots (P < 0.05 ~ P < 0.01). These results show that the phenomenon of low skin resistance does not exist to all acupuncture points. PMID:23346191

  7. Comparative pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of schisandrin, deoxyschisandrin and schisandrin B in rats after combining acupuncture and herb medicine (schisandra chinensis).

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Yuan; Yin, Fangzhou; Dai, Guoliang; Li, Lin; Xu, Bin; Ji, De; Sun, Yong; Mao, Chunqin; Lu, Tulin

    2014-08-01

    Recently, combination therapy with acupuncture and medicine as a practical strategy to treat diseases has gained increasing attention. The present study aimed to investigate whether acupuncture stimulation at ST.36 had a potential impact on the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of lignans. An HPLC-ESI/MS analytical method was established and successfully applied to a comparative study of drug concentration in plasma and tissues of three lignans. The parameters area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the final measurable point and from time zero to infinity, and peak concentration were significantly increased, with a prolonged mean residence time and a corresponding decrease in clearance in comparision with the Schisandra-alone group. Additionally, tissue concentrations of three lignans were improved in the group with acupuncture, especially in liver. The results indicated that acupuncture has a synergistic effect on the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of the three lignans, which could postpone their elimination, resulting in a longer blood circulating time in rat plasma and prolonged residence time in target tissues, leading to higher tissue concentration. The findings provide some scientific evidence for the mechanism of the combined use of acupuncture and herbal medicine. Furthermore, we suggest that acupuncture and its combination with herbal medicine should be investigated further as a possible adjuvant therapy in clinical treatment for liver injury.

  8. Electroacupuncture Treatment Improves Neurological Function Associated with Regulation of Tight Junction Proteins in Rats with Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-min; Xu, Hong; Sun, Hua; Chen, Su-hui; Wang, Fu-ming

    2014-01-01

    Strategies to develop effective neuroprotective therapy to reduce brain damage and related behavioral deficits in stroke patients are of great significance. Electroacupuncture (EA), which derives from traditional Chinese medicine, may be effective as a complementary and alternative method for promoting recovery of neurological function and quality of life. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: (1) sham, (2) middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model groups of 2 h MCAO followed by 1, 3, 5, or 7 d of reperfusion, and (3) EA groups of 2 h MCAO followed by 1, 3, 5, or 7 d of reperfusion. EA groups received EA therapy by needling at GV20 and left ST36. The results show that EA therapy improved the neurological function and reduced infarct volume, confirmed by modified neurological severity scores and TTC staining. Real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, and western blot assay verified that EA upregulated the expression of tight junction (TJ) claudin-5, occludin, and zonula occluding-1 from 1 to 7 d after reperfusion. Our findings suggest that EA reduces brain damage and related behavioral deficits via upregulation of the TJ proteins. PMID:25009574

  9. Electroacupuncture treatment improves neurological function associated with regulation of tight junction proteins in rats with cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Min; Xu, Hong; Sun, Hua; Chen, Su-Hui; Wang, Fu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Strategies to develop effective neuroprotective therapy to reduce brain damage and related behavioral deficits in stroke patients are of great significance. Electroacupuncture (EA), which derives from traditional Chinese medicine, may be effective as a complementary and alternative method for promoting recovery of neurological function and quality of life. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: (1) sham, (2) middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model groups of 2 h MCAO followed by 1, 3, 5, or 7 d of reperfusion, and (3) EA groups of 2 h MCAO followed by 1, 3, 5, or 7 d of reperfusion. EA groups received EA therapy by needling at GV20 and left ST36. The results show that EA therapy improved the neurological function and reduced infarct volume, confirmed by modified neurological severity scores and TTC staining. Real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, and western blot assay verified that EA upregulated the expression of tight junction (TJ) claudin-5, occludin, and zonula occluding-1 from 1 to 7 d after reperfusion. Our findings suggest that EA reduces brain damage and related behavioral deficits via upregulation of the TJ proteins.

  10. Combined Effects of Bee Venom Acupuncture and Morphine on Oxaliplatin-Induced Neuropathic Pain in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woojin; Kim, Min Joon; Go, Donghyun; Min, Byung-Il; Na, Heung Sik; Kim, Sun Kwang

    2016-01-01

    Oxaliplatin, a chemotherapeutic drug for colorectal cancer, induces severe peripheral neuropathy. Bee venom acupuncture (BVA) has been used to attenuate pain, and its effect is known to be mediated by spinal noradrenergic and serotonergic receptors. Morphine is a well-known opioid used to treat different types of pain. Here, we investigated whether treatment with a combination of these two agents has an additive effect on oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain in mice. To assess cold and mechanical allodynia, acetone and von Frey filament tests were used, respectively. Significant allodynia signs were observed three days after an oxaliplatin injection (6 mg/kg, i.p.). BVA (0.25, 1, and 2.5 mg/kg, s.c., ST36) or morphine (0.5, 2, and 5 mg/kg, i.p.) alone showed dose-dependent anti-allodynic effects. The combination of BVA and morphine at intermediate doses showed a greater and longer effect than either BVA or morphine alone at the highest dose. Intrathecal pretreatment with the opioidergic (naloxone, 20 μg) or 5-HT3 (MDL-72222, 15 μg) receptor antagonist, but not with α2-adrenergic (idazoxan, 10 μg) receptor antagonist, blocked this additive effect. Therefore, we suggest that the combination effect of BVA and morphine is mediated by spinal opioidergic and 5-HT3 receptors and this combination has a robust and enduring analgesic action against oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain. PMID:26805884

  11. Raptor Acupuncture for Treating Chronic Degenerative Joint Disease.

    PubMed

    Choi, Keum Hwa; Buhl, Gail; Ponder, Julia

    2016-12-01

    A permanently captive 21-year-old male bald eagle was diagnosed with chronic degenerative joint disease in the right stifle with severe lameness (Grade 5) based on radiography. Clinical signs included decreased movement, vocalization, non weight-bearing on the affected limb, inappetence, depression, and pododermatitis on the left foot (bumblefoot, Grade 3). The eagle was treated with anti-inflammatory or analgesic drugs including carprofen and celecoxib. As there was no observed clinical improvement with any of the treatments, acupuncture treatment was provided. The eagle was treated with dry needle acupuncture once per week for 2 months and biweekly for another 2 months. The Traditional Eastern Medicine diagnosis of this eagle was Bony Bi syndrome. The selected acupuncture points were ST 36, LI 4, BL 40, BL 60, GB 34, and Ba Feng (Table 3). The lameness score improved from Grade 5 to Grade 1 after 4 months of acupuncture treatment. The observed pododermatitis improved from Grade 3 to Grade 0. Symptoms including inappetence and vocalizations were significantly reduced over the 4 month period. There was no significant improvement in the radiographic signs. In conclusion, acupuncture may be a potential medical option for permanently captive raptors having musculoskeletal conditions, such as degenerative joint disease.

  12. The modulation of brain functional connectivity with manual acupuncture in healthy subjects: An electroencephalograph case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Jiang; Han, Chun-Xiao; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xi-Le; Li, Nuo

    2013-02-01

    Manual acupuncture is widely used for pain relief and stress control. Previous studies on acupuncture have shown its modulatory effects on the functional connectivity associated with one or a few preselected brain regions. To investigate how manual acupuncture modulates the organization of functional networks at a whole-brain level, we acupuncture at ST36 of a right leg to obtain electroencephalograph (EEG) signals. By coherence estimation, we determine the synchronizations between all pairwise combinations of EEG channels in three acupuncture states. The resulting synchronization matrices are converted into functional networks by applying a threshold, and the clustering coefficients and path lengths are computed as a function of threshold. The results show that acupuncture can increase functional connections and synchronizations between different brain areas. For a wide range of thresholds, the clustering coefficient during acupuncture and post-acupuncture period is higher than that during the pre-acupuncture control period, whereas the characteristic path length is shorter. We provide further support for the presence of “small-world" network characteristics in functional networks by using acupuncture. These preliminary results highlight the beneficial modulations of functional connectivity by manual acupuncture, which could contribute to the understanding of the effects of acupuncture on the entire brain, as well as the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying acupuncture. Moreover, the proposed method may be a useful approach to the further investigation of the complexity of patterns of interrelations between EEG channels.

  13. Characteristics analysis of acupuncture electroencephalograph based on mutual information Lempel—Ziv complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xi-Liu; Wang, Jiang; Han, Chun-Xiao; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xi-Le; Bian, Hong-Rui

    2012-02-01

    As a convenient approach to the characterization of cerebral cortex electrical information, electroencephalograph (EEG) has potential clinical application in monitoring the acupuncture effects. In this paper, a method composed of the mutual information method and Lempel—Ziv complexity method (MILZC) is proposed to investigate the effects of acupuncture on the complexity of information exchanges between different brain regions based on EEGs. In the experiments, eight subjects are manually acupunctured at ‘Zusanli’ acupuncture point (ST-36) with different frequencies (i.e., 50, 100, 150, and 200 times/min) and the EEGs are recorded simultaneously. First, MILZC values are compared in general. Then average brain connections are used to quantify the effectiveness of acupuncture under the above four frequencies. Finally, significance index P values are used to study the spatiality of the acupuncture effect on the brain. Three main findings are obtained: (i) MILZC values increase during the acupuncture; (ii) manual acupunctures (MAs) with 100 times/min and 150 times/min are more effective than with 50 times/min and 200 times/min; (iii) contralateral hemisphere activation is more prominent than ipsilateral hemisphere's. All these findings suggest that acupuncture contributes to the increase of brain information exchange complexity and the MILZC method can successfully describe these changes.

  14. Liver cirrhosis as a predisposing condition for Legionnaires' disease: a report of four laboratory-confirmed cases from China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Tian; Xia, Jie; Ren, Hongyu; Zhou, Haijian; Tang, Bo; Shao, Zhujun

    2012-07-01

    Here, we describe four cases of laboratory-confirmed Legionella infection. Case 1 was a culture-confirmed case of Legionella infection in a patient with liver cirrhosis. Following this, three other liver cirrhosis cases (cases 2-4) were diagnosed with Legionella infection as confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. The cause of the pneumonia was determined as Legionella pneumophila by positive direct fluorescence assay and isolation of the causative agent. The infections were successfully treated by administering appropriate antibiotics. These cases highlight the importance of considering Legionella as a cause of pneumonia in patients with liver disease and lung infections. The strain of L. pneumophila isolated from Case 1 was characterized as being closely related to strain Philadelphila-1 (ATCC 33152(T)), which is the type strain of the species, belonging to serogroup 1 and sequence type 36 (ST36), and is known to be distributed worldwide. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Legionella infection on the Chinese mainland for a decade and highlights the need to raise awareness of diagnostic methods for Legionnaires' disease in China and the requirement for further epidemiological surveillance strategies to monitor this disease.

  15. Effect of Laser Acupuncture on Heart Rate Variability of Nonpatients and Patients with Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yiu Ming

    2017-01-01

    Sensory loss in a complete spinal cord injury (SCI) can be described as an injury that removes the ability of the brain to receive electrical afferent signals generated below the site of the injury. The sensory nervous system appears to be the same as the meridians in the concept of Oriental medicine, thus, we assumed that a complete SCI would lead to discontinuation of the meridians in humans. In this case series report with a cross-sectional view, we observed quantitative changes in heart rate variability induced by laser acupuncture at bilateral GB34 and ST36 points for 15 minutes in eight patients with complete SCIs between the levels of T8 and T12, and eight healthy individuals as a control group. A comparison between pre- and post-treatment data demonstrated that the physiological effect on the heart rate variability was absent when the laser acupuncture was applied below the level of injury among the patients with complete SCI, while the healthy counterparts showed the opposite pattern. The preliminary data suggest that the purported meridian system may not be different from the known sensory nervous system, as the transected spinal cord leads to interrupted meridians. The findings in the present case series warranted further investigation.

  16. Acupuncture in Practice: Investigating Acupuncturists' Approach to Treating Infantile Colic

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Infantile colic is common, but no safe and effective conventional treatment exists. The use of acupuncture has increased despite weak evidence. This practitioner survey explores and discusses how infantile colic is regarded and treated in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). The study is based on personal communication with 24 acupuncturists from nine countries. These acupuncturists specialize in pediatric acupuncture and represent different styles of acupuncture. Their experiences are discussed and related to relevant books and articles. Informants claimed good results when treating infants with colic. The TCM patterns commonly described by informants matched the textbooks to a great extent. The most common syndromes were “stagnation of food” and “Spleen Qi Xu.” Regarding treatment, some informants followed the teachers' and the textbook authors' advice on differentiated treatment according to syndrome. The points used most often were LI4, ST36, and Sifeng. Other informants treated all infants alike in one single point, LI4. The results demonstrate the diversity of TCM. The use of acupuncture for infantile colic presents an interesting option, but further research is needed in order to optimize the effects and protect infants from unnecessary or less effective treatment. PMID:24324513

  17. An introduction to sequential electric acupuncture (SEA) in the treatment of stress related physical and mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Chen, A

    1992-01-01

    A method of sequential electrical stimulation to certain acupuncture loci was found to be effective in the treatment of stress related physical and mental disorders. Recent research found that cerebral serotonin has anti-depressant and analgesic effects. It was reported that cerebral serotonin can be released by the stimulation of certain acupuncture loci. Omura reported that the stimulation of ST36 and GB20 increased intracephalic blood flow. Increasing intracephalic blood flow may indirectly increase the quantity of serotonin released. The release of serotonin can be enhanced further by sequential stimulation of these acupuncture loci. A marked degree of mental relaxation by SEA was shown in this study of 85 clinical cases of chronic physical disorders, e.g. intractable pain, headache, with most disorders complicated by reactive depression. Some of the cases were psycho-somatic disorders. The percentage of improvement from slight to remarkable between mental disorders (78.8%) and physical disorders (77.1%) is about equal. The method of treatment and schematic of the SEA device are discussed and shown.

  18. Electroacupuncture treatment partly promotes the recovery time of postoperative ileus by activating the vagus nerve but not regulating local inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jun-fan; Fang, Jian-qiao; Shao, Xiao-mei; Du, Jun-ying; Liang, Yi; Wang, Wen; Liu, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    Postoperative ileus (POI) after abdominal surgery significantly lowers the life quality of patients and increase hospital costs. However, few treatment strategies have successfully shortened the duration of POI. Electroacupuncture (EA) is a modern way of administering acupuncture and widely used in various gastrointestinal (GI) diseases in the world. Here, we studied the effect of EA on POI and its underlying mechanisms. Intestinal manipulation resulted in significant delays of GI transit, colonic transit and gastric emptying. Surgery also up-regulated c-fos in nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and induced inflammation response in the small intestine. Further, operation and inhale anesthesia inhibited NTS neuron excitation duration for the whole observation time. EA administered at ST36 indeed shortened the recovery time of GI and colonic transit, and significantly increased the gastric emptying. EA also significantly activated the NTS neurons after operation. However, there was no anti-inflammation effect of EA during the whole experiment. Finally, atropine blocked the regulatory effect of EA on GI function, when it was injected after surgery, but not before surgery. Thus, the regulatory effect of EA on POI was mainly mediated by exciting NTS neurons to improve the GI tract transit function but not by activating cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. PMID:28051128

  19. Electroacupuncture Promotes CNS-Dependent Release of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Tatiana E; Richardson, Matthew R; Beli, Eleni; Ripsch, Matthew S; George, John; Kim, Youngsook; Duan, Yaqian; Moldovan, Leni; Yan, Yuanqing; Bhatwadekar, Ashay; Jadhav, Vaishnavi; Smith, Jared A; McGorray, Susan; Bertone, Alicia L; Traktuev, Dmitri O; March, Keith L; Colon-Perez, Luis M; Avin, Keith; Sims, Emily; Mund, Julie A; Case, Jamie; Deng, Shaolin; Kim, Min Su; McDavitt, Bruce; Boulton, Michael E; Thinschmidt, Jeffrey; Li Calzi, Sergio; Fitz, Stephanie D; Fuchs, Robyn K; Warden, Stuart J; McKinley, Todd; Shekhar, Anantha; Febo, Marcelo; Johnson, Phillip L; Chang, Lung Ji; Gao, Zhanguo; Kolonin, Mikhail G; Lai, Song; Ma, Jinfeng; Dong, Xinzhong; White, Fletcher A; Xie, Huisheng; Yoder, Mervin C; Grant, Maria B

    2017-03-16

    Electro-acupuncture (EA) performed in rats and humans using front-limb acupuncture sites, LI-4 and LI-11, and Du-14 and Du-20 increased functional connectivity between the anterior hypothalamus and the amygdala and mobilized mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) into the systemic circulation. In human subjects, the source of the MSC was found to be primarily adipose tissue whereas in rodents the tissue sources were considered more heterogeneous. Pharmacological disinhibition of rat hypothalamus enhanced sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and similarly resulted in a release of MSC into the circulation. EA-mediated SNS activation was further supported by browning of white adipose tissue in rats. EA treatment of rats undergoing partial rupture of the Achilles tendon resulted in reduced mechanical hyperalgesia, increased serum IL-10 levels and tendon remodeling, effects blocked in propranolol-treated rodents. To distinguish the afferent role of the peripheral nervous system, phosphoinositide-interacting regulator of transient receptor potential channels (Pirt)-GCaMP3 (genetically encoded calcium sensor) mice were treated with EA directed at hind limb immune points, ST-36 and Liv-3 and resulted in a rapid activation of primary sensory neurons. EA activated sensory ganglia and SNS centers to mediate the release of MSC that can enhance tissue repair, increase anti-inflammatory cytokine production and provide pronounced analgesic relief. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of electroacupuncture on ethanol-induced impairments of spatial learning and memory and Fos expression in the hippocampus in rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bin; Ma, Zhao; Cheng, Fei; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Xin; Mao, Huijuan; Shen, Xueyong; Liu, Sheng

    2014-07-25

    It is well established that alcohol impairs spatial learning and memory. Here, we investigated the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at ST36 or nonacupoint on ethanol-induced learning and memory impairment and the expression of Fos in the hippocampus. Ethanol (5g/kg) was administered intragastrically once a day for 5 consecutive days; 2Hz EA was administered immediately after ethanol exposure. After a 2-day ethanol abstinence, for 6 consecutive days, the rats were submitted to Morris water maze training. Probe trials were performed on 1 day after the final training session. We also applied immunohistochemistry to detect Fos-positive nuclei in the hippocampus. We found that 5-day ethanol exposure markedly decreased spatial learning and memory abilities in the Morris water maze task as indicated by escape latency and time in the target quadrant. EA treatment shortened the time of reaching platform and increased times traveled in the target quadrant (P<0.05). Animals administered with ethanol emitted significantly fewer Fos expression in the hippocampal CA1 area. EA increased Fos expression in the hippocampal CA1 area. Significant correlations were obtained between Fos protein expression in CA1 and time in the target quadrant. Altogether, these results suggest that EA protects against ethanol-induced impairments of spatial learning and memory, which may be involved in the hippocampal CA1 area. EA treatment may provide a novel nonpharmacological strategy for ethanol-induced learning and memory impairment.

  1. Combined Effects of Bee Venom Acupuncture and Morphine on Oxaliplatin-Induced Neuropathic Pain in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woojin; Kim, Min Joon; Go, Donghyun; Min, Byung-Il; Na, Heung Sik; Kim, Sun Kwang

    2016-01-22

    Oxaliplatin, a chemotherapeutic drug for colorectal cancer, induces severe peripheral neuropathy. Bee venom acupuncture (BVA) has been used to attenuate pain, and its effect is known to be mediated by spinal noradrenergic and serotonergic receptors. Morphine is a well-known opioid used to treat different types of pain. Here, we investigated whether treatment with a combination of these two agents has an additive effect on oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain in mice. To assess cold and mechanical allodynia, acetone and von Frey filament tests were used, respectively. Significant allodynia signs were observed three days after an oxaliplatin injection (6 mg/kg, i.p.). BVA (0.25, 1, and 2.5 mg/kg, s.c., ST36) or morphine (0.5, 2, and 5 mg/kg, i.p.) alone showed dose-dependent anti-allodynic effects. The combination of BVA and morphine at intermediate doses showed a greater and longer effect than either BVA or morphine alone at the highest dose. Intrathecal pretreatment with the opioidergic (naloxone, 20 μg) or 5-HT3 (MDL-72222, 15 μg) receptor antagonist, but not with α2 adrenergic (idazoxan, 10 μg) receptor antagonist, blocked this additive effect. Therefore, we suggest that the combination effect of BVA and morphine is mediated by spinal opioidergic and 5-HT3 receptors and this combination has a robust and enduring analgesic action against oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain.

  2. Safety of Moxibustion: A Systematic Review of Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ji; Shen, Xueyong

    2014-01-01

    Moxibustion is a traditional medical treatment originating in China. It involves using the heat of burning moxa to stimulate acupoints. It is considered safe and effective and is widely used throughout the world. The increasing use of moxibustion has drawn attention to the procedure's adverse events (AEs). This review covers a total of 64 cases of AEs associated with moxibustion in 24 articles, reported in six countries. Some evidence of the risks of moxibustion has been found in these cases. AEs include allergies, burns, infection, coughing, nausea, vomiting, fetal distress, premature birth, basal cell carcinoma (BCC), ectropion, hyperpigmentation, and even death. The position, duration, distance between moxa and skin, proficiency of the practitioners, conditions of the patients, presence of smoke, and even the environment of treatment can affect the safety of moxibustion. Improving practitioner skill and regulating operations may reduce the incidence of adverse reactions and improve the security of moxibustion. PMID:24976851

  3. [Supplementing the international acupuncture and moxibustion in bilingual teaching of Acupuncture and Moxibustion Science].

    PubMed

    Tian, Kaiyu; Ma, Qiaolin; Ren, Shan; Liu, Fang

    2016-04-01

    Bilingual teaching is a innovative method of higher education of China to gear the need of the world. Acupuncture and Moxibustion, a higher international TCM course, has been the model of bilingual teaching in many colleges and universities of TCM successively. To meet the aim and original intention of bilingual education in China, we have supplemented international acupuncture and moxibustion in teaching program for many years. The related contents about acupuncture and moxibustion of World Health Organization (WHO) and International Standardization Organization(ISO) have been added into the chapters of introduction, meridians and acupoints, the technology of acupuncture and moxibustion, the therapy of acupuncture and moxibustion. Teaching international acupuncture and moxibustion not only enlarges the international perspective of students, but also makes them more interested in learning Acupuncture and Moxibustion with a bigger sense of mission.

  4. [Research of Zhanbra Dorje's contribution on the development of Mongolian medicine].

    PubMed

    Bao, Ha-shen

    2010-01-01

    Zhanbra Dorje, a famous Mongolian physician, is one of the top ten Mongolian scientists. He firstly presented the illustrations for 561 kinds of Mongolian materia medica in his book, Classic Canon of Mongolian Materia Medica, which was greatly helpful to the recognition, collection, using, learning, research and identification of Mongolian materia medica. In this book, he annotated the name of Mongolian materia medica by four kinds of languages, which contributed significantly to the academic and cultural exchanges among Mongolian, Tibetan, Han and Manchu medicine. He also cleared up the confusion of the name of Mongolian materia medica, which led to the irrational use of materia medica, and improved the qualities and clinical effects of Mongolian patent medicine. In addition, he pointed out 82 acu-points and their locations for moxibustion with relevant indications, which promoted actively to the maturity and systematization of Mongolian traditional therapeutics.

  5. The use of acupuncture in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fung Kei

    2016-12-29

    Parkinson's disease, a progressive neuro-degeneration of multiple systems damaging motor and non-motor functions, affects individual and societal dimensions negatively. In addition to standard treatments, complementary and alternative medicine has been adopted, in which acupuncture, a traditional Chinese medical practice by needle penetration at specific stimulation points (acupoints) along the body, indicates positive outcomes in this illness. Apart from offering an overview of using acupuncture in Parkinson's disease, this literature review analyses the effects of acupuncture on Parkinson's-induced physical symptoms and mental problems such as slow movements, stiffness, constipation, and sleep disorders. In light of the 35 reviewed research projects in mainland China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and the United States of America, this study reveals the optimization of this approach through combined therapy and its preventive contribution using acupuncture alone. It also suggests research and practical implications that hint at enhancements in medical applications.

  6. Electroacupuncture-regulated neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuju; Fang, Jianqiao; Ma, Jun; Wang, Yanchun; Liang, Shaorong; Zhou, Dan; Sun, Guojie

    2013-02-25

    Acupuncture for the treatment of Parkinson's disease has a precise clinical outcome. This study investigated the effect of electroacupuncture at Fengfu (GV16) and Taichong (LR3) acupoints in rat models of Parkinson's disease induced by subcutaneous injection of rotenone into rat neck and back. Reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression was significantly increased in the substantia nigra of rat models of Parkinson's disease, and that abnormal behavior of rats was significantly improved following electroacupuncture treatment. These results indicated that electroacupuncture treatment upregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in the substantia nigra of rat models of Parkinson's disease. Thus, electroacupuncture may be useful in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  7. High-frequency electroacupuncture evidently reinforces hippocampal synaptic transmission in Alzheimer's disease rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Kong, Li-hong; Wang, Hui; Shen, Feng; Wang, Ya-wen; Zhou, Hua; Sun, Guo-jie

    2016-01-01

    The frequency range of electroacupuncture in treatment of Alzheimer's disease in rats is commonly 2–5 Hz (low frequency) and 50–100 Hz (high frequency). We established a rat model of Alzheimer's disease by injecting β-amyloid 1–42 (Aβ1–42) into the bilateral hippocampal dentate gyrus to verify which frequency may be better suited in treatment. Electroacupuncture at 2 Hz or 50 Hz was used to stimulate Baihui (DU20) and Shenshu (BL23) acupoints. The water maze test and electrophysiological studies demonstrated that spatial memory ability was apparently improved, and the ranges of long-term potentiation and long-term depression were increased in Alzheimer's disease rats after electroacupuncture treatment. Moreover, the effects of electroacupuncture at 50 Hz were better than that at 2 Hz. These findings suggest that high-frequency electroacupuncture may enhance hippocampal synaptic transmission and potentially improve memory disorders in Alzheimer's disease rats. PMID:27335565

  8. [Application of "disharmony of stomach leads to insomnia" theory in acupuncture treatment for insomnia].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Li; Liu, Jian-Wu; Chen, Li-Guo; Wang, Chen-Guang; Zhang, Yan-Hong

    2014-12-01

    When looking back to the literature regarding insomnia, it is believed that "disharmony of stomach leads to insomnia" is an important mechanism for the attack of insomnia. This theory is widely accepted in clinical practices by ancient and modern acupuncturists, thus the method treating insomnia from the stomach is developed. But deeper research on its mechanism is still lacking. Through correlation between stomach meridian and heart meridian, spleen and stomach being the pivot of rise and decline of qi movement and yin-yang and being the pivot of five zang-viscera housing spirit, modern abdomen-brain theory and experimental research, the mechanism of treating insomnia from the stomach is discussed in this paper, so as to be better to guide clinical acupoint-selection and treatment.

  9. [Discussion on WANG Guo-rui's acupuncture academy thought].

    PubMed

    Gao, Xi-Yan; Wang, Xin; Gao, Ling; Chen, Xin-Wang

    2013-12-01

    Through study on Bianque Shenying Zhenjiu Yulong Jing (Bianque's Classic of Effective Acupuncture Prescriptions), acupuncture experiences and ideology of WANG Guo-rui, an acupuncture physician of the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368), is discussed in this article. Inherited and carried forward DOU's acupuncture theory, WANG Guo-rui encouraged to use experiential points and to expand extra points. Penetrating needling method was created, and the application of acupoints according to needling opportunities and seasonal factors were enriched by him. Great importance was also attached on treatment according to differentiation of syndromes, which including the simultaneous acupuncture and moxibustion, simultaneous reinforcing and reducing, reducing after reinforcing, reinforcing after reducing, predomination of reducing and predomination of reinforcing. The flexible treating methods are still extensively adopted in clinic nowadays. WANG Guo-rui is a master of clinical acupuncture who made great contribution to the development of acupuncture and moxibustion.

  10. [Classification on academic systems of acupuncture in Keynotes of Acupuncture-Moxibustion].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Bin; Dong, Qin

    2012-12-01

    The understanding and classification of academic systems of acupuncture-moxibustion of GAO Wu can be initially clarified through Keynotes of Acupuncture-Moxibustion. On the base of theoretical system of Neijing (Internal Classic) and Nanjing (Classic on Medical Problems), needling manipulations, treatment, meridians and acupoints were taken as the major knowledge models to construct the framework of the academic system by GAO Wu. The "nine needles" and "manipulations" were taken as the starting point of acupuncture. "Reducing and reinforcing methods" were held as the requirement for advanced skills of acupuncturists. Moreover, syndromes based on the theory of was 12 regular meridians was emphasized to combine the theory and clinical practice tightly. Therefore, it is concluded that GAO Wu's classification of acupuncture-moxibustion academic system enlightened and provided experiences for the modern acupuncture education and academic research.

  11. [Classification and characteristic of the acupuncture medical literature during the period of the Republic of China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianlan; Zhang, ShuJian

    2015-07-01

    The acupuncture medical literature during the Republic of China is divided into four categories, including theoretical literature, acupuncture channels and acupoints drawing literature, translations, and teaching materials and medical cases. It is found that the theoretical literature focuses on inheriting the traditional theories as well as combining traditional Chinese and Western medicine. The drawings are becoming more and more precise, and in these drawing works anatomy begins to appear at that time. Translations are the achievements of communication between TCM and Western medicine, which promote the scientization of acupuncture greatly. Teaching materials are also influenced by Western medicine, presenting a rough frame of modern acupuncture disciplinary system. As important clinic data, medical cases have great clinical value. Overall, acupuncture medical literature during the Republic of China is widely published, which is influenced greatly by the Western medicine and presents a significant tendency of scientization.

  12. Visualization of acupuncture meridians in the hypodermis of rat using Trypan blue.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Cheon; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2010-03-01

    Bonghan Kim claimed that the primo-vessel (Bonghan duct) and the primo-node (Bonghan corpuscle) are anatomical structures corresponding to acupuncture meridians and acupoints, respectively, but this claim has not been confirmed. Recently we found that Trypan blue preferentially stained primo-vessels and primo-nodes on the surfaces of internal organs, not staining other structures like blood or lymph vessels or nerves. In this work, we applied Trypan blue to visualize the putative acupuncture meridian along skin skeletal muscles in the hypodermal layer of a rat. The Trypan blue stained-structures are morphologically similar to the meridian primo-vessels, as claimed by Bonghan Kim. Further study is needed to investigate the network of these Trypan blue-stained structures in order to establish them as acupuncture meridians.

  13. [ZHANG Tangfa's characteristics of acupuncture academic ideology and clinical treatment of syndrome differentiation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongxing

    2015-10-01

    Through collecting and sorting of works, literature and medical cases regarding professor ZHANG Tangfa, it is found that his acupuncture academic ideology and clinical treatment of syndrome differentiation can be summarized as: tracing the source and paying attention to basic theory, especially the meridian theory and conception vessel and governor vessel; focusing on acupuncture manipulation and emphasizing acupuncture basic skills; highly valuing treating spirit, acquiring and maintaining needling sensation; underlining "three differentiations" that is consisted of syndrome differentiation, disease differentiation and meridian differentiation to guide the clinical prescriptions of acupoints; exploring and ingenious use of scalp acupuncture; being concerned on research of difficult and complicated diseases; advocating comparative studies to optimize the clinical treatment plan; proposing the combination of Chinese and western medicine, including diagnosis, treatment and basic theory, to improve the clinical therapeutic effects of acupuncture.

  14. [Pain relief by low-intensity frequency-modulated millimeter waves acting on the acupuncture points].

    PubMed

    Samosiuk, I Z; Kulikovich, Iu N; Tamarova, Z A; Samosiuk, N I; Kazhanova, A K

    2000-01-01

    Analgetic effect of low-intensive frequency-modulated millimetric waves (MW) was studied in mice with formalin induced nociceptive behavior reaction (licking of defeat hindpaw). MW were applied to the acupoint E 36 of the defeat hindpaw. The following MW were used: 60 GHz (1) and 118 GHz (2) which were modulated by 4 Hz; noise MW within the range of 42-95 GHz (3) and 90-140 GHz (4) which were modulated in accidental order by frequencies 1-60 Hz; combinations of fixed frequencies with noise - 60 GHz + noise 42-95 GHz (5) and 118 GHz + noise 90-140 GHz (6). All used MW combinations suppressed licking of the defeat hindpaw and increased duration of sleep and eating. The strongest analgesia was achieved in series 1-3 (42.4-69.7%), the weakest in series 6 and 4 of the experiment (12.2-19.7%).

  15. [Study on signal transmission characteristics of meridian based on electrical network theory and experiments].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Gong; Lü, Xiao-Ying; Gao, Jian-Yun; Wang, Yu-Hang; Huang, Cen-Yu; Chen, Yue-Lin; Xing, Li-Yang; Wang, Gui-Ying

    2011-08-01

    Study on features of acupoints with resistance test in the past half century is reviewed in this article. Mechanism and technology of the method are introduced as well as its shortcomings. The determination method of signal transmission along meridians with the combination of electrical network theories and practice is advanced. And the result of a series experiments on one meridian at the superficial part of the body are given as well. Thus, it is concluded that the signals of the point-in/point-out and the signals along a non-meridian path with the same distance are significantly different, which gives a verification of the feasibility of the method by using electrical network theories to set out characteristics of signal transmission along meridians dynamically.

  16. Acupuncture for the treatment of urinary incontinence: A review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    PAIK, SUN-HO; HAN, SU-RYUN; KWON, OH-JUN; AHN, YOUNG-MIN; LEE, BYUNG-CHEOL; AHN, SE-YOUNG

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of acupuncture on urinary incontinence and to discuss why these acupoints were selected. Seven databases were searched for any randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the use of acupuncture or acupressure as a treatment for urinary incontinence, and the Cochrane risk of bias tool was utilized to evaluate the risk of bias in each study. Four RCTs met all the inclusion criteria. The results from the selected RCTs failed to demonstrate any statistically significant improvements in urinary incontinence, although acupuncture or acupressure did exhibit favorable effects on overactive bladder symptoms and quality of life, in comparison with other conventional therapies. There have been limited results supporting acupuncture or acupressure as an effective treatment method for urinary incontinence; therefore, further RCTs are required to confirm the effectiveness of acupuncture or acupressure in the treatment of urinary incontinence. PMID:24137264

  17. [Analysis on academic frame of A-B classic of acupuncture and moxibustion by Huang Fumi].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianbin

    2015-01-01

    The acupuncture-moxibustion academic frame system was firstly and systematically established in A-B Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion authored by HUANG Fu-mi, which explained the knowledge and logical relationship among different parts of acupuncture-moxibustion. The academic frame consisted of acupuncture-moxibustion basis and clinical application. In the basic theory, zang-fu, qi-blood, meridians, acupoint, pulse diagnosis, acupuncture manipulation, etiology and pathogenesis, etc. were included; in the clinical application, various kinds of clinical diseases and their acupuncture treatment were included. The academic frame established by A-B Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion is broader than the modern academic frame of acupuncture-moxibustion, in which the attribution and location of four-seas theory has certain differences from modern acupuncture-moxibustion theory.

  18. [Bone-length measurement at low back and its application].

    PubMed

    Fang, Jin

    2015-06-01

    By reviewing some acupuncture literature regarding the settings of bone-length measurement at low back, it was found out that ancient and modern descriptions were not consistent. In China current acupuncture textbook, it was mostly described as "the horizontal distance between inner borders of two scapulas was 6 cun". However, after analysis, it was believed that this setting was not reasonable in the clinical application of acupuncture, and it was agreed with the opinion that "midpoint of inner borders of two scapulas when scapulas are in abduction position" should be taken as bone-length measurement of low back. Besides, a self-made bone-length scale was applied to locate acupoint at low back, which could provide references for its standardized application manipulation.

  19. Cardioprotection of Electroacupuncture for Enhanced Recovery after Surgery on Patients Undergoing Heart Valve Replacement with Cardiopulmonary Bypass: A Randomized Control Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fangxiang; Xiao, Hong

    2017-01-01

    We attempted to investigate cardioprotection of electroacupuncture (EA) for enhanced recovery after surgery on patients undergoing heart valve replacement with cardiopulmonary bypass. Forty-four patients with acquired heart valve replacement were randomly allocated to the EA group or the control group. Patients in the EA group received EA stimulus at bilateral Neiguan (PC6), Ximen (PC4), Shenting (GV24), and Baihui (GV20) acupoints twenty minutes before anesthesia induction to the end of surgery. The primary end point was cardioprotection effect of electroacupuncture postoperatively and the secondary endpoints were quality of recovery and cognitive functioning postoperatively. The present study demonstrated that electroacupuncture reduced the occurrence of complications and played a role of cardioprotective effect on patients after heart valve replacement surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, and it benefits patients more comfortable and contributes to recovery after surgery. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-IOC-16009123. PMID:28298935

  20. Electroacupuncture preconditioning attenuates ischemic brain injury by activation of the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Qiang-qiang; Chen, Huai-long; Liu, Yan-li; Yu, Hai-xia; Shi, Fei; Wang, Ming-shan

    2015-01-01

    Electroacupuncture has therapeutic effects on ischemic brain injury, but its mechanism is still poorly understood. In this study, mice were stimulated by electroacupuncture at the Baihui (GV20) acupoint for 30 minutes at 1 mA and 2/15 Hz for 5 consecutive days. A cerebral ischemia model was established by ligating the bilateral common carotid artery for 15 minutes. At 72 hours after injury, neuronal injury in the mouse hippocampus had lessened, and the number of terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive cells reduced after electroacupuncture treatment. Moreover, expression of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) and phosphorylated AMPKα was up-regulated. Intraperitoneal injection of the AMPK antagonist, compound C, suppressed this phenomenon. Our findings suggest that electroacupuncture preconditioning alleviates ischemic brain injury via AMPK activation. PMID:26330828

  1. Acupuncture for Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Xue; Chen, Xiang; Wang, Xiao T.; Zhang, Zhen; Kang, Victor; Zimmerman-Bier, Barbie

    2012-01-01

    Background. There has been lack of reviews of evidence on efficacy, methodology, and/or safety of acupuncture in autism spectrum disorders. This paper examines the emerging evidence of the effects of acupuncture in the treatment of autistic children. Method. A literature review was completed via Medline and three Chinese search engines. A total of 31 studies were evaluated for acupuncture methodology, study design, treatment effects, and tolerability. Results. The acupoints used, the duration of needling, the frequency of treatment, the choice of stimulation, and the course of the treatment were highly variable amongst the studies. Behavioral and/or developmental improvements were reported in all acupuncture treatment studies. All studies reported general tolerability. Weakness of experimental designs was discussed. Conclusions. Vigorously controlled double-blinded clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture in children with autism spectrum disorders. PMID:22203876

  2. Pre-moxibustion and moxibustion prevent Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yanjun; Liu, Ruolan; Sun, Guojie; Meng, Peiyan; Song, Jie

    2013-01-01

    The Alzheimer's disease model in Wistar rats was established by injection of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ1–42) into the hippocampal CA1 region. Rats were treated with suspended moxibustion on Baihui (GV20) and Shenshu (BL23) acupoints. Prior to and post Aβ1–42 exposure. Results showed no evidence of apoptosis in hippocampal neurons, a significantly reduced apoptosis rate of neurons and improved learning and memory abilities were observed in the Alzheimer's disease model. In particular, moxibustion prior to Aβ1–42 exposure was more effective than moxibustion after Aβ1–42 exposure in protecting the neuronal structure and lowering the apoptosis rate. Our findings indicate that a combination of preventive and therapeutic moxibustion has a beneficial effect for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease development. PMID:25206602

  3. Effects of Auricular Acupressure on Constipation in Patients With Breast Cancer Receiving Chemotherapy: A Randomized Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jeongran; Park, Hyojung

    2016-11-30

    The purpose was to examine the effects of auricular acupressure to relieve constipation in patients with breast cancer who were undergoing chemotherapy. Participants were 52 patients with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy at E University Hospital, Seoul, Korea, randomized into two groups of equal size. For the experimental group, auricular acupressure was applied to seven auricular acupoints for 6 weeks using vaccaria seeds, whereas the control group received the usual care. Constipation-assessment scores of the experimental group were significantly lower compared with the control group (p < .001). Stool-form scores of the experimental group were significantly higher compared with the control group (p = .003). Patient Assessment of Constipation-Quality of Life scores of the experimental group were significantly lower compared with the control group (p < .001). Auricular acupressure was effective at relieving constipation in patients with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy. Auricular acupressure was also a safe and acceptable nursing intervention.

  4. [Modern research progress regarding effect mechanism of acupuncture on post-traumatic stress disorder].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhongting; Zhang, Wei; Xing, Jiaming; Yan, Xingke

    2015-10-01

    From the TCM theoretical basis and the evidences of acupoint selection and acupuncture and moxibustion methods regarding acupuncture for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a theoretical discussion is made in this article, also a review regarding the key mechanism of experiment researches on acupuncture for PTSD is made from aspects of neurobiology and brain functional imaging, etc., which could further clarify the effect mechanism of acupuncture on PTSD. It is found that PTSD is a kind of stress syndrome accompanied with a variety of abnormal mental symptom , and acupuncture has superior effect on PTSD. Based on these, the research progress and deficiency on current mechanism study of PTSD are reviewed, hoping to offer ideas for upcoming research and to serve the clinical practice better.

  5. [Theory analysis and clinical application of spirit-regulating and pain-relieving acupuncture method].

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Tang, Lewei; Du, Huaibin; Zheng, Hui; Liang, Fanrong

    2015-04-01

    The theoretical foundation and scientific connotation of spirit-regulating and pain-relieving acupuncture method as well as its clinical application for pain are discussed. During spirit regulation, attention should be paid on regulating heart and brain, while acupoints should be selected mainly from the Heart Meridian, Pericardium Meridian and Governor Vessel. It has significant efficacy for refractory pain in clinical treatment. Spirit-regulating and pain-relieving acupuncture method is development of acupuncture treating spirit, and it is an important method for pain in clinic. Improvement on sensitization of pain center and brain function is considered as one of the mechanisms in spirit-regulating and pain-relieving acupuncture method.

  6. [Ancient needling method--essence of ZHANG Shi-jie: a famous acupuncturist].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xin-Ping; Jiang, Yan

    2014-07-01

    ZHANG Shi-jie is one of the 500 famous TCM doctors designated by the State Administration of TCM and Beijing Municipal Health Bureau. ZHANG advocates ancient needling method and uses a unique treating method which includes comprehensive analysis of the four examinations and analogy; in his ancient treatment, he usually selects few acupoints and prefers Taixi (KI 3), he insists on stopping needling after the harmonious of qi and needling on alternative days; theoretically, ZHANG is versatile and full of learning, he follows the rule of yin and yang and adjusts his ways to cultivate the health; in his treatment, ZHANG considers the patients in diagnosis and treatment and combines the acupuncture with drugs; in teaching, he is strict and rigorous, on one hand, he is ruthless, but on the other hand, he is patient, demonstrating the sincere shining example of great doctors.

  7. [Analysis on the accuracy of simple selection method of Fengshi (GB 31)].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhixing; Zhang, Haihua; Li, Suhe

    2015-12-01

    To explore the accuracy of simple selection method of Fengshi (GB 31). Through the study of the ancient and modern data,the analysis and integration of the acupuncture books,the comparison of the locations of Fengshi (GB 31) by doctors from all dynasties and the integration of modern anatomia, the modern simple selection method of Fengshi (GB 31) is definite, which is the same as the traditional way. It is believed that the simple selec tion method is in accord with the human-oriented thought of TCM. Treatment by acupoints should be based on the emerging nature and the individual difference of patients. Also, it is proposed that Fengshi (GB 31) should be located through the integration between the simple method and body surface anatomical mark.

  8. [Professor WU Xu's clinical experiences on acupuncture for acute upper abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Liang; Lu, Bin; Sun, Jian-Hua; Ai, Bing-Wei; Bao, Chao; Wu, Wen-Zhong; Li, Jian-Bing; Liu, Lan-Ying; Wu, Wen-Yun; Pei, Li-Xia; Zhou, Jun-Ling; Li, Yan-Cai; Qin, Shan

    2014-03-01

    The clinical experiences and proven cases of distinguished doctor of TCM, professor WU Xu, on acupuncture for acute upper abdominal pain is introduced. Professor WU's manipulation characteristics of acupuncture for acute upper abdominal pain, including acute cholecystitis, kidney stone, acute stomach pain, are one-hand shape but both hands in nature, moving like Tai Chi, force on the tip of needle, movement of qi mainly. The main technique posture is one-hand holding needle with middle finger for pressing, the needle is hold by thumb and index finger, and is assisted by middle finger. The special acupuncture experience of emergency is treatment according to syndrome differentiation, combination of acupuncture and moxibustion, selecting acupoint based on experience, blood-letting acupuncture therapy and so on.

  9. [Professor GAO Yuchun's experience of acupuncture for headache].

    PubMed

    Cui, Linhua; Xing, Xiao; Xue, Weihua; Wang, Yanjun; Xu, Cejun; Xuc, Jun; Gao, Yuchun; Kang, Suobin

    2015-12-01

    As one of the important founders of GAO's acupuncture academic school in YanZhao area, Professor GAO Yuchun 's experience of acupuncture for headache is summarized in this paper. In the opinion of Professor GAO, the treatment of headache should focus on eliminating evil and relieving pain, and the syndrome differentiation should be based on meridian differentiation, especially on three yang meridians of foot as well as liver meridian and kidney meridian. In the acupoint prescription, attention should be placed on strengthening the spleen and stomach. The midnight-midday ebb flow acupuncture is advocated. The combination between acupuncture order and movement of qi is emphasized. In the manipulation, the role of pressing hand, the stimulation during reinforcing and reducing methods, and needle-retention time are important. The breathing reinforcing and reducing method of acupuncture are also advocated.

  10. Sham Control Methods Used in Ear-Acupuncture/Ear-Acupressure Randomized Controlled Trials: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Claire Shuiqing; Yang, Angela Weihong; Zhang, Anthony Lin; May, Brian H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Ear-acupuncture/ear-acupressure (EAP) has been used for a range of health conditions with numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating its efficacy and safety. However, the design of sham interventions in these RCTs varied significantly. This study systematically reviewed RCTs on EAP for all clinical conditions involving a number of sham EAPs as a control intervention. The review is guided by the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 5.1.0 and investigated the types and differences of sham EAP interventions. Four electronic English databases (The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL®) and two Chinese databases (CQVIP, CNKI) were searched in December 2012 and 55 published RCTs comparing real and sham EAP for any clinical condition were included. Characteristics of participants, real and sham interventions, and outcomes were extracted. Four types of sham methods were identified. Among the 55 RCTs, 25 studies involved treatment on nonspecific ear acupoints as the sham method; seven studies used nonacupoints on the ear; nine studies selected placebo needles or placebo ear-acupressure on the same ear acupoints for the real treatment; 10 studies employed pseudo-intervention; and five studies combined two of the above methods to be the sham control. Other factors of treatment such as number of points, treatment duration, and frequency also varied greatly. Risk of bias assessment suggests that 32 RCTs were “high risk” in terms of participants blinding, and 45 RCTs were “high risk” in terms of personnel blinding. Meta-analysis was not conducted due to the high clinical heterogeneity across included studies. No relationship was found between the sham designs and efficacy outcomes, or between the sham types and dropout rate. No solid conclusion of which design is the most appropriate sham control of EAP could be drawn in this review. PMID:24138333

  11. Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Efficacy of Simo Decoction and Acupuncture or Chewing Gum Alone on Postoperative Ileus in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma After Hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    You, Xue-Mei; Mo, Xin-Shao; Ma, Liang; Zhong, Jian-Hong; Qin, Hong-Gui; Lu, Zhan; Xiang, Bang-De; Wu, Fei-Xiang; Zhao, Xin-Hua; Tang, Juan; Pang, Yong-Hui; Chen, Jie; Li, Le-Qun

    2015-11-01

    To compare the efficacy of simo decoction (SMD) combined with acupuncture at the tsusanli acupoint or chewing gum alone for treating postoperative ileus in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after hepatectomy.In postoperative ileus, a frequent complication following hepatectomy, bowel function recovery is delayed, which increases length of hospital stay. Studies suggest that chewing gum may reduce postoperative ileus; SMD and acupuncture at the tsusanli acupoint have long been used in China to promote bowel movement.Patients with primary HCC undergoing hepatectomy between January 2015 and August 2015 were randomized to receive SMD and acupuncture (n = 55) or chewing gum (n = 53) or no intervention (n = 54) starting on postoperative day 1 and continuing for 6 consecutive days or until flatus. Primary endpoints were occurrence of postoperative ileus and length of hospital stay; secondary endpoints were surgical complications.Groups treated with SMD and acupuncture or with chewing gum experienced significantly shorter time to first peristalsis, flatus, and defecation than the no-intervention group (all P < 0.05). Hospital stay was significantly shorter in the combined SMD and acupuncture group (mean 14.0 d, SD 4.9) than in the no-intervention group (mean 16.5 d, SD 6.8; P = 0.014), while length of stay was similar between the chewing gum group (mean 14.7, SD 6.2) and the no-intervention group (P = 0.147). Incidence of grades I and II complications was slightly lower in both intervention groups than in the no-intervention group.The combination of SMD and acupuncture may reduce incidence of postoperative ileus and shorten hospital stay in HCC patients after hepatectomy. Chewing gum may also reduce incidence of ileus but does not appear to affect hospital stay. (Clinicaltrials.gov registration number: NCT02438436.).

  12. [Needling technique of Professor Li Yan-Fang].

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Experiences of needling techniques of Professor LI Ya- fang is introduced in this article. Gentle and superficial insertion is adopted by Professor LI in clinic. Emphases are put on the qi regulation function, needling sensation to the affected region and insertion with both hands, especially the function of the left hand as pressing hand. The gentle and superficial insertion should be done as the follows: hold the needle with the right hand, press gently along the running course of meridians with the left hand to promote qi circulation, hard pressing should be applied at acupoints to disperse the local qi and blood, insert the needle gently and quickly into the subcutaneous region with the right hand, and stop the insertion when patient has the needling sensation. While the fast needling is characterized with shallow insertion and swift manipulation: the left hand of the manipulator should press first along the running course of the meridian, and fix the local skin, hold the needle with the right hand and insert the needle quickly into the acupoint. Withdrawal of the needle should be done immediately after the reinforcing and reducing manipulations. Professor LI is accomplished in qi regulation. It is held by him that regulating qi circulation is essence of acupuncture, letting the patient get the needling sensation is the most important task of needling. Lifting, thrusting and rotation manipulations should be applied to do reinforcing or reducing. The tissue around the tip of the needle should not be too contracted or too relaxed, and the resistance should not be too strong or too weak. The feeling of the insertion hand of the practitioner should not be too smooth or too hesitant. Needle should be inserted into the skin quickly at the moment of hard pressing by the left hand. And then, slow rotation and gentle lifting and thrusting can be applied to promote the needling sensation like electric current pass through and to reach the affected region along the

  13. Chronic depression treated successfully with novel taping therapy: a new approach to the treatment of depression

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chang Hyun; Hwang, Hwa Soo; Lee, Young Joon; Lee, Sang Nam; Abanes, Jane J; Lee, Bong Hyo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite improved research in the treatment, depression remains difficult to treat. Till date, successful treatment of depression using taping therapy has not been known yet. We report cases where patients with severe depressive symptoms were successfully treated by taping therapy, a new approach. Methods In case 1, a patient was taking several psychiatric medications for 10 years and admitted often to the psychiatric hospital with a leaning head, flexible legs, and nearly closed eyes; in case 2, a patient after a hysterectomy complained with heart palpitations, depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, insomnia, and gastrointestinal problems; and in case 3, a patient with complaints of adverse effects from antidepressant medications had suicidal thoughts frequently. The medical tapes were placed on acupoints, trigger points, and pain points found by finger pressing examination in the chest, sides, and upper back of the patients. Results In case 1, the patient started weeping immediately after the first treatment. He discontinued psychiatric drugs and returned to baseline functioning after 2 months. In case 2, the patient felt at ease showing decreased palpitation immediately after the first treatment, and after 1 week, she quit medications. In case 3, the patient experienced a sense of calmness following the first treatment and recovered from her symptoms after 2 weeks. Conclusion These results suggest the following key points: examination of acupoints and trigger points of chest, sides, and upper back is useful in the assessment of depression; regulating bioelectric currents on these points is helpful in the treatment of depression; and depression can be treated successfully with taping therapy. PMID:27330295

  14. “Oriental anthropometry” in plastic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Senna-Fernandes, Vasco

    2008-01-01

    Background: According to Chinese medicine, the acupuncture-points' (acupoints) locations are proportionally and symmetrically distributed in well-defined compartment zones on the human body surface Oriental Anthropometry” (OA). Acupoints, if considered as aesthetic-loci, might be useful as reference guides in plastic surgery (PS). Aim: This study aimed to use aesthetic-loci as anatomical reference in surgical marking of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. Method: This was an observational study based on aesthetic surgeries performed in private clinic. This study was based on 106 cases, comprising of 102 women and 4 men, with ages varying from 07 to 73 years, and with heights of between 1.34 m and 1.80 m. Patients were submitted to aesthetic surgical planning by relating aesthetic-loci to conventional surgical marking, including breast surgeries, abdominoplasty, rhytidoplasty, blepharoplasty, and hair implant. The aesthetic-surgical-outcome (ASO) of the patients was assessed by a team of plastic surgeons (who were not involved in the surgical procedures) over a follow-up period of one year by using a numeric-rating-scale in percentage (%) terms. A four-point-verbal-rating-scale was used to record the patients' opinion of therapeutic-satisfaction (TS). Results: ASO was 75.3 ± 9.4% and TS indicated that most patients (58.5%) obtained “good” results. Of the remainder, 38.7% found the results “excellent”, and 2.8% found them “fair”. Discussion and Conclusion: The data suggested that the use of aesthetic-loci may be a useful tool for PS as an anatomical reference for surgical marking. However, further investigation is required to assess the efficacy of the OA by providing the patients more reliable balance and harmony in facial and body contours surgeries. PMID:19753249

  15. The Efficacy of Acupuncture in Post-Operative Pain Management: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ming-Shun; Chen, Kee-Hsin; Chen, I-Fan; Huang, Shihping Kevin; Tzeng, Pei-Chuan; Yeh, Mei-Ling; Lee, Fei-Peng; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chen, Chiehfeng

    2016-01-01

    Background Postoperative pain resulting from surgical trauma is a significant challenge for healthcare providers. Opioid analgesics are commonly used to treat postoperative pain; however, these drugs are associated with a number of undesirable side effects. Objective This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the effectiveness of acupuncture and acupuncture-related techniques in treating postoperative pain. Data Source MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE databases were searched until Sep 30, 2014. Study Eligibility Criteria Randomized controlled trials of adult subjects (≥ 18 years) who had undergone surgery and who had received acupuncture, electroacupuncture, or acupoint electrical stimulation for managing acute post-operative pain were included. Results We found that patients treated with acupuncture or related techniques had less pain and used less opioid analgesics on Day 1 after surgery compared with those treated with control (P < 0.001). Sensitivity analysis using the leave-one-out approach indicated the findings are reliable and are not dependent on any one study. In addition, no publication bias was detected. Subgroup analysis indicated that conventional acupuncture and transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation (TEAS) were associated with less postoperative pain one day following surgery than control treatment, while electroacupuncture was similar to control (P = 0.116). TEAS was associated with significantly greater reduction in opioid analgesic use on Day 1 post surgery than control (P < 0.001); however conventional acupuncture and electroacupuncture showed no benefit in reducing opioid analgesic use compared with control (P ≥ 0.142). Conclusion Our findings indicate that certain modes of acupuncture improved postoperative pain on the first day after surgery and reduced opioid use. Our findings support the use of acupuncture as adjuvant therapy in treating postoperative pain. PMID:26959661

  16. Effect of laser acupuncture versus traditional acupuncture in neck pain of cervical spondylosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kharbotly, Ahmed M.; El-Gendy, Alyaa A.; Mohammed, Mouchira A.; El-Masry, Manal R.; Daoud, Eitedal M.; Hassan, Nagwa; Abdel-Wahab, Khaled G.; Helmy, Ghada; Mostafa, Taymour

    2014-02-01

    This prospective cohort study aimed to compare the efficiency of laser versus traditional acupuncture in treating cervical spondylosis (CS) pain. Forty female patients were randomized into two equal groups that received 3 sessions / week for 4 weeks. Group A received needle acupuncture therapy with electrical stimulation for 20 min at standard acupoints, ear points and Ashi point on the average 3 points. Group B received low level laser therapy (LLLT) acupuncture at the same acupoints. The results demonstrated that tenderness disappeared in 65% of patients in group A and 75% of patients in group B with improved percentage of 85.5% and 89.2%. Pain on VAS related to direction of motion at 6 directions was improved in all cases where with improvement percentage 76.45% and 85.88%. Pain on VAS at rest was improved in all patients with improvement percentage of 80.41% and 84.28%. NDIQ score improved in all patients with improvement percentage of 69.78% and 73.77%. Follow up of VAS after 6 months from the last session revealed persistent improvement in 55% of patients of group A vs 80% of patients of group B. Mean serum TNF-α was decreased in 85% of patients of group A vs 95% of patients of group B where serum beta endorphins was increased in all patients. It is concluded that both modes of treatment for CS gave improvement regarding pain intensity, disability and quality of life being more evident in LLLT followed for 6 months supported with improved serum TNFα and beta endorphin.

  17. Effects of Treatment of Treadmill Combined with Electro-Acupuncture on Tibia Bone Mass and Substance PExpression of Rabbits with Sciatic Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Qiang; Zhu, Luwen; Huang, Ruyi; Huang, Lei; Koleini, Melanie; Zou, Dequan

    2016-01-01

    The peripheral nervous system may play an important role in normal bone maintenance and remodeling. Substance P (SP) is a neuropeptide associated with bone loss and formation that may mediate the effects of the nervous system. The purpose of this study is to determine if treadmill running combined with electro-acupuncture at Jiaji acupoints (Jiaji-EA) affects tibial bone mass and SP expression in rabbits with sciatic nerve injury. Twenty-four juvenile male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups: sham injury control (sham), sciatic never crush control (SNCr), treadmill running (treadmill), and Jiaji-EA combined with treadmill running (ET group). The SNCr, treadmill, and ET groups all had an induced sciatic never crush injury of approximately 2mm. Control groups received no intervention; the treadmill and ET groups were trained by treadmill; the ET group also received Jiaji-EA. After the 4 weeks of treatment, toe-spreading index (TSI), BMD, bone strength, and SP expression in the tibia were significantly lower in the nerve injury groups (SNCr, treadmill, and ET) compared to the sham groups (p<0.05). Treatment (treadmill and ET groups) increased all measures compared to the SNCr group (p<0.05). Further, TSI, BMD, bone strength, and SP expression in the ET group were higher than the treadmill group (p<0.05). Our results indicate that treadmill therapy combined with electro-acupuncture at Jiaji acupoints prevents bone loss in rabbit tibias after sciatic nerve injury. This may occur in two ways: indirectly in association with axon regeneration and directly via loading on the bone mediated through increased SP expression. This study provides important evidence for the clinical treatment of bone loss after peripheral nerve injury. PMID:27880769

  18. Non-pharmacological interventions for improving sleep quality in patients on dialysis: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Xu, Jiaruo; Xue, Qiang; Wei, Tingting; Xu, Jing; Ye, Chaoyang; Mei, Changlin; Mao, Zhiguo

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis to summarise and quantify the effects of non-pharmacological interventions on sleep quality improvement in uraemic patients on dialysis. We defined the primary outcome as the change of sleep quality before and after interventions (evaluated by polysomonography or subjective questionnaires such as Pittsburgh sleep quality index, PSQI). The change of fatigue scales, inflammatory cytokines and adverse events were analysed as secondary outcomes. Twelve eligible randomised controlled trials and one prospective cohort study were identified. All three identified non-pharmacological interventions could result in a greater PSQI score reduction compared to controls: 1) cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) versus sleep hygiene education (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.85, 95% CI 0.37-1.34); 2) physical training versus no training (SMD 3.36, 95% CI 2.16-4.57) and 3) Acupressure (including other acupoints massages) versus control (SMD 1.77, 95% CI 0.80-2.73). In terms of subscores, we found that CBT may shorten sleep latency, alleviate sleep disturbance and reduce the use of sleep medications. The finding of the cohort study suggested that intradialytic aerobic exercise training improved sleep quality in haemodialysis patients with restless leg syndrome. In conclusion, in dialysis-dependent patients, CBT could shorten sleep latency, alleviate sleep disturbance and reduce the use of sleep medications. Acupressure (including other acupoints massages) and exercise training are promising interventions but the results in these subgroups should be interpreted cautiously due to the concern of methodological quality and potential confounding factors.

  19. P(VDF-TrFE) Polymer-Based Thin Films Deposited on Stainless Steel Substrates Treated Using Water Dissociation for Flexible Tactile Sensor Development

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Hong-Jie; Tian, Wei-Cheng; Wu, Wen-Jong

    2013-01-01

    In this work, deionized (DI) water dissociation was used to treat and change the contact angle of the surface of stainless steel substrates followed by the spin coating of P(VDF-TrFE) material for the fabrication of tactile sensors. The contact angle of the stainless steel surface decreased 14° at −30 V treatment; thus, the adhesion strength between the P(VDF-TrFE) thin film and the stainless steel substrate increased by 90%. Although the adhesion strength was increased at negative voltage treatment, it is observed that the crystallinity value of the P(VDF-TrFE) thin film declined to 37% at −60 V. In addition, the remanent polarization value of the P(VDF-TrFE) thin film declined from 5.6 μC/cm2 to 4.61 μC/cm2 for treatment voltages between −5 V and −60 V. A maximum value of approximately 1000 KV/cm of the coercive field value was obtained with the treatment at −15 V. The d33 value was approximately −10.7 pC/N for the substrate treated at 0 V and reached a minimum of −5 pC/N for treatment at −60 V. By using the P(VDF-TrFE) thin-film as the sensing material for tactile sensors, human pulse measurements were obtained from areas including the carotid, brachial, ankle, radial artery, and apical regions. In addition, the tactile sensor is suitable for monitoring the Cun, Guan, and Chi acupoints located at the radial artery region in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Waveform measurements of the Cun, Guan, and Chi acupoints are crucial because, in TCM, the various waveforms provided information regarding the health conditions of organs. PMID:24177729

  20. Electroacupuncture suppresses capsaicin-induced secondary hyperalgesia through an endogenous spinal opioid mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Young; Wang, Jigong; Lee, Inhyung; Kim, Hee Kee; Chung, Kyungsoon; Chung, Jin Mo

    2009-01-01

    Central sensitization, caused either by tissue inflammation or peripheral nerve injury, plays an important role in persistent pain. An animal model of capsaicin-induced pain has well-defined peripheral and central sensitization components, thus is useful for studying the analgesic effect on two separate components. The focus of this study is to examine the analgesic effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on capsaicin-induced secondary hyperalgesia, which represents central sensitization. Capsaicin (0.5%, 10 μl) was injected into the plantar side of the left hind paw, and foot withdrawal thresholds in response to von Frey stimuli (mechanical sensitivity) were determined for both primary and secondary hyperalgesia in rats. EA (2 Hz, 3 mA) was applied to various pairs of acupoints, GB30-GB34, BL40-BL60, GV2-GV6, LI3-LI6 and SI3-TE8, for 30 min under isofluraine anesthesia and then the effect of EA on mechanical sensitivity of paw was determined. EA applied to the ipsilateral SI3-TE8, but none the other acupoints, significantly reduced capsaicin-induced secondary hyperalgesia but not primary hyperalgesia. EA analgesic effect was inhibited by a systemic non-specific opioid receptor (OR) antagonist or an intrathecal μ- or δ-OR antagonist. EA analgesic effect was not affected by an intrathecal κ-OR antagonist or systemic adrenergic receptor antagonist. This study demonstrates that EA produces a stimulation point specific analgesic effect on capsaicin-induced secondary hyperalgesia (central sensitization), mediated by activating endogenous spinal μ and δ opioid receptors. PMID:19646817

  1. Contralateral needling at unblocked collaterals for hemiplegia following acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Huanmin; Li, Xugang; Gao, Xia; Ma, Benxu

    2013-01-01

    Hemiplegia caused by stroke indicates dysfunction of the network between the brain and limbs, namely collateral shock in the brain. Contralateral needling is the insertion of needles into acupoints on the relative healthy side of the body to treat diseases such as apoplexy. However, there is little well-designed and controlled clinical evidence for this practice. This study investigated whether contralateral needling could treat hemiplegia after acute ischemic stroke in 106 randomly selected patients with acute ischemic stroke. These patients were randomly assigned to three groups: 45 in the contralateral needling group, receiving acupuncture on the unaffected limbs; 45 in the tional acupuncture group, receiving acupuncture on the hemiplegic limbs; and 16 in the control group, receiving routine treatments without acupuncture. Acupuncture at acupoints Chize (LU5) in the upper limb and Jianliao (TE14) in the lower limb was performed for 45 minutes daily for 30 consecutive days. The therapeutic effective rate, Neurological Deficit Score, Modified Barthel Index and Fugl-Meyer Assessment were evaluated. The therapeutic effective rate of contralateral needling was higher than that of conventional acupuncture (46.67% vs. 31.11%, P < 0.05). The neurological deficit score of contralateral needling was significantly decreased compared with conventional acupuncture (P < 0.01). The Modified Barthel Index and Fugl-Meyer Assessment score of contralateral needling increased more significantly than those of conventional acupuncture (both P < 0.01). The present findings suggest that contralateral needling unblocks collaterals and might be more effective than conventional acupuncture in the treatment of hemiplegia following acute ischemic stroke. PMID:25206612

  2. Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Efficacy of Simo Decoction and Acupuncture or Chewing Gum Alone on Postoperative Ileus in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma After Hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    You, Xue-Mei; Mo, Xin-Shao; Ma, Liang; Zhong, Jian-Hong; Qin, Hong-Gui; Lu, Zhan; Xiang, Bang-De; Wu, Fei-Xiang; Zhao, Xin-Hua; Tang, Juan; Pang, Yong-Hui; Chen, Jie; Li, Le-Qun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To compare the efficacy of simo decoction (SMD) combined with acupuncture at the tsusanli acupoint or chewing gum alone for treating postoperative ileus in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after hepatectomy. In postoperative ileus, a frequent complication following hepatectomy, bowel function recovery is delayed, which increases length of hospital stay. Studies suggest that chewing gum may reduce postoperative ileus; SMD and acupuncture at the tsusanli acupoint have long been used in China to promote bowel movement. Patients with primary HCC undergoing hepatectomy between January 2015 and August 2015 were randomized to receive SMD and acupuncture (n = 55) or chewing gum (n = 53) or no intervention (n = 54) starting on postoperative day 1 and continuing for 6 consecutive days or until flatus. Primary endpoints were occurrence of postoperative ileus and length of hospital stay; secondary endpoints were surgical complications. Groups treated with SMD and acupuncture or with chewing gum experienced significantly shorter time to first peristalsis, flatus, and defecation than the no-intervention group (all P < 0.05). Hospital stay was significantly shorter in the combined SMD and acupuncture group (mean 14.0 d, SD 4.9) than in the no-intervention group (mean 16.5 d, SD 6.8; P = 0.014), while length of stay was similar between the chewing gum group (mean 14.7, SD 6.2) and the no-intervention group (P = 0.147). Incidence of grades I and II complications was slightly lower in both intervention groups than in the no-intervention group. The combination of SMD and acupuncture may reduce incidence of postoperative ileus and shorten hospital stay in HCC patients after hepatectomy. Chewing gum may also reduce incidence of ileus but does not appear to affect hospital stay. (Clinicaltrials.gov registration number: NCT02438436.) PMID:26559269

  3. Neural specificity of acupuncture stimulation from support vector machine classification analysis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ting; Bai, Lijun; Chen, Shangjie; Zhong, Chongguang; Feng, Yuanyuan; Wang, Hu; Liu, Zhenyu; You, Youbo; Cui, Fangyuan; Ren, Yanshuang; Tian, Jie; Liu, Yijun

    2011-09-01

    Acupoint specificity, as a crucial issue in acupuncture neuroimaging studies, is still a controversial topic. Previous studies have generally adopted a block-based general linear model (GLM) approach, which predicts the temporal changes in the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal conforming to the "on-off" specifications. However, this method might become impractical since the precise timing and duration of acupuncture actions cannot be specified a priori. In the current study, we applied a data-driven multivariate classification approach, namely, support vector machine (SVM), to explore the neural specificity of acupuncture at gall bladder 40 (GB40) using kidney 3 (KI3) as a control condition (belonging to different meridians but the same nerve segment). In addition, to verify whether the typical GLM approach is sensitive enough in exploring the neural response patterns evoked by acupuncture, we also employed the GLM method to the same data sets. The SVM analysis detected distinct neural response patterns between GB40 and KI3--positive predominantly for the GB40, while negative following the KI3. By contrast, group analysis from the GLM showed that acupuncture at these different acupoints can both evoke similar widespread signal decreases in multiple brain regions, and most of these regions were spatially overlapped, mainly distributing in the limbic and subcortical structures. Our findings may provide additional evidence to support the specificity of acupuncture, relevant to its clinical efficacy. Moreover, we also proved that GLM analysis is prone to be susceptible to errors and is not appropriate for detecting neural response patterns evoked by acupuncture stimulation.

  4. Effect of low-level laser irradiating point on immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, ChangSong; Qi, Qiong-fang; Xin, Jiang

    1993-03-01

    This paper reports that cellular immune function was observed when He-Ne laser was used to irradiate `zusanli' point in rats using various power, time, and periods. The indicator was a lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) by MTT colorimetric analysis. The best irradiating condition was determined, the effect and both virtues and defects of the laser were compared with those of electropuncture. The results show (1) LTT was enhanced in the group of laser irradiating point, but LTT was not enhanced in non-point (t' test, P < 0.01). (2) Lower power -- 2 mW or 5 mW of irradiating for 15 - 20 min, was better; 10 mW or 20 mW of irradiating for 10 - 15 min was suitable. Prolonged irradiating time did not enhance the immune function of the rats. On the contrary, immune function was inhibited. (3) A 7-day period of irradiating was best (once a day, 10 mW for 10 min). Enhanced LTT was not seen when irradiation days were added (SNK, P > 0.05). (4) Laser irradiation point and electropuncture were compared with vehicle control, LTT in the former two groups was enhanced significantly (ANOVA, P < 0.01), and laser irradiating point and electropuncture had the same effect (SNK, P > 0.05). The data suggest that laser irradiating point was able to enhance cell immunity and the enhancement of LTT had a point specific characteristic. The best condition of laser irradiating point was 2 mW for 15 - 20 min, and 10 mW or 20 mW for 10 - 15 min. The best period was 7-day irradiation. The results show laser irradiating the point may activate the main and collateral channels system, then modify the immune function of the body. Our observations provide experimental evidence for proper clinical application of laser irradiating points. The paper theoretically discusses and analyzes the experiment results in detail.

  5. Electro-acupuncture stimulation improves spontaneous locomotor hyperactivity in MPTP intoxicated mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haomin; Liang, Xibin; Wang, Xuan; Luo, Dingzhen; Jia, Jun; Wang, Xiaomin

    2013-01-01

    Bradykinesia is one of the major clinical symptoms of Parkinson`s disease (PD) for which treatment is sought. In most mouse models of PD, decreased locomotor activity can be reflected in an open field behavioral test. Therefore the open field test provides a useful tool to study the clinic symptoms of PD patients. Our previous work demonstrated that 100 Hz electro-acupuncture (EA) stimulation at ZUSANLI and SANYINJIAO protected the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system of C57BL/6 mice from MPTP toxicity, indicating that acupuncture might be an effective therapy for PD sufferers. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 100 Hz EA stimulation on the spontaneous locomotor activity in MPTP injured mice. Here we found that, in MPTP treated mice, the total movements significantly decreased and the movement time, velocity and distance dramatically increased, although the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system was devastated, revealed by immunohistochemistry and HPLC-ECD. After 12 sessions of 100 Hz EA stimulation, the total movements elevated and the movement time, velocity and distance decreased, in MPTP mice. 100 Hz EA increased striatal dopamine content in MPTP mice by 35.9%, but decreased its striatal dopamine turnover. We assumed that the injury of other regions in the brain, such as the A11 group in diencephalon, might be involved in the hypermotility in MPTP mice. The effects of 100 Hz EA on spontaneous locomotor activity in MPTP mice might not relate with the striatal dopamine, but with its neuroprotective and regulatory effects on motor circuits in the brain. Our study suggests that EA might be a promising treatment for neurological disorders including PD.

  6. [C fiber is not necessary in electroacupuncture analgesia, but necessary in diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC)].

    PubMed

    Bao, H; Zhou, Z; Yu, Y; Han, J

    1991-01-01

    Experiments were carried on rats. We applied capsaicin topically on sciatic nerve and used the techniques of extracellular recording and nerve trunk recording, Our results showed that the size of C compound action potentials in nerve trunk and C fiber response of spinal cord WDR neurons were decreased by at least 70% (mean) after topical application of capsaicin (250 micrograms) on the nerve, but A compound action potentials and A fiber response did not change significantly. It indicated that capsaicin blocked C fiber conduction selectively. Electroacupuncture (EA: 100 Hz, 0.1 ms, 3V) applied on left Zusanli (S36) and Sanyinjiao (Sp6) points inhibited C fiber response of spinal WDR neurons in the right side. The effect was similar to animal behavior analgesia elicited by EA. After applying capsaicin (250 micrograms) topically on left sciatic nerve, the inhibitory effect of EA on WDR neurons remained essentially intact (from 61.3 +/- 12.0% to 59.0 +/- 11.6%, n = 6, P greater than 0.05). It indicated that C fiber was not important in EA analgesia. Noxious heat (NH) applied on left hind paw by immersing the hind paw into 52 degrees C water inhibited C fiber response of spinal WDR neurons in the right side. It was called diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC). After applying capsaicin (250 micrograms) topically on left sciatic nerve, the inhibitory effect of NH on WDR neurons was dramatically decreased (from 77.7 +/- 8.5% to 8.1 +/- 8.9%, n = 6, P less than 0.001). It indicated that C fiber was important in DNIC. Both inhibitory effects of NH and EA were not changed by vehicle treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Comparative analysis of phenol-soluble modulin production and Galleria mellonella killing by community-associated and healthcare-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcusaureus strains.

    PubMed

    Boakes, Eve; Marbach, Helene; Lynham, Steven; Ward, Malcolm; Edgeworth, Jonathan D; Otter, Jonathan A

    2016-12-01

    Community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) have emerged globally and have been associated with more severe disease than healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA). The purpose of this study was to determine whether laboratory measures of virulence can distinguish dominant CA-MRSA clones from HA-MRSA clones. We compared the production of phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) and ability to kill Galleria mellonella caterpillars for a range of CA- and HA-MRSA strains. Twenty-two HA-MRSA strains [ST22-IV (EMRSA-15), ST36-II (EMRSA-16) and ST239-III] and 26 CA-MRSA strains [ST1-IV (PVL+ USA400), ST1-IV (PVL-), ST8-IV (USA300), ST22-IV (PVL+), ST30-IV, ST59-IV and ST80-IV] were analysed. PSM production was measured using and compared using t-tests and ANOVA. A G mellonella (caterpillar) pathogenicity model was performed, and differences were compared using survival analysis and the log-rank test. There was no significant difference in overall PSM production between HA and CA strains (P=0.090), but there was significant variation between clones (P=0.003). G. mellonella caterpillar killing varied significantly by clone (P<0.001), and overall killing was greater for HA compared with CA clones (P=0.007). The increased acute virulence phenotype of CA-MRSA clones in humans is not associated with increased PSM production in vitro or increased killing in an in vivo caterpillar pathogenicity model.

  8. New clinical findings on the longevity gene in disease, health, & longevity: Sirtuin 1 often decreases with advanced age & serious diseases in most parts of the human body, while relatively high & constant Sirtuin 1 regardless of age was first found in the hippocampus of supercentenarians.

    PubMed

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Lu, Dominic P; Jones, Marilyn; O'Young, Brian; Duvvi, Harsha; Paluch, Kamila; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2011-01-01

    The expression of the longevity gene, Sirtuin 1, was non-invasively measured using Electro-Magnetic Field (EMF) resonance phenomenon between a known amount of polyclonal antibody of the C-terminal of Sirtuin 1 & Sirtuin 1 molecule inside of the body. Our measurement of over 100 human adult males and females, ranging between 20-122 years old, indicated that the majority of subjects had Sirtuin 1 levels of 5-10 pg BDORT units in most parts of the body. When Sirtuin 1 was less than 1 pg, the majority of the people had various degrees of tumors or other serious diseases. When Sirtuin 1 levels were less than 0.25 pg BDORT units, a high incidence of AIDS was also detected. Very few people had Sirtuin 1 levels of over 25 pg BDORT units in most parts of the body. We selected 7 internationally recognized supercentenarians who lived between 110-122 years old. To our surprise, most of their body Sirtuin 1 levels were between 2.5-10 pg BDORT units. However, by evaluating different parts of the brain, we found that both sides of the Hippocampus had a much higher amount of Sirtuin 1, between 25-100 pg BDORT units. With most subjects, Sirtuin 1 was found to be higher in the Hippocampus than in the rest of the body and remains relatively constant regardless of age. We found that Aspartame, plastic eye contact lenses, and asbestos in dental apparatuses, which reduce normal cell telomeres, also significantly reduce Sirtuin 1. In addition, we found that increasing normal cell telomere by electrical or mechanical stimulation of True ST-36 increases the expression of the Sirtuin 1 gene in people in which expression is low. This measurement of Sirtuin 1 in the Hippocampus has become a reliable indicator for detecting potential longevity of an individual.

  9. Prevalence and Trends of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia in Hospitalized Patients in South Africa, 2010 to 2012: Laboratory-Based Surveillance Mapping of Antimicrobial Resistance and Molecular Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Perovic, Olga; Iyaloo, Samantha; Kularatne, Ranmini; Lowman, Warren; Bosman, Noma; Wadula, Jeannette; Seetharam, Sharona; Duse, Adriano; Mbelle, Nontombi; Bamford, Colleen; Dawood, Halima; Mahabeer, Yesholata; Bhola, Prathna; Abrahams, Shareef; Singh-Moodley, Ashika

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to obtain an in-depth understanding on recent antimicrobial resistance trends and molecular epidemiology trends of S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB). Methods Thirteen academic centres in South Africa were included from June 2010 until July 2012. S. aureus susceptibility testing was performed on the MicroScan Walkaway. Real-time PCR using the LightCycler 480 II was done for mecA and nuc. SCCmec and spa-typing were finalized with conventional PCR. We selected one isolate per common spa type per province for multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Results S. aureus from 2709 patients were included, and 1231 (46%) were resistant to methicillin, with a significant decline over the three-year period (p-value = 0.003). Geographical distribution of MRSA was significantly higher in Gauteng compared to the other provinces (P<0.001). Children <5 years were significantly associated with MRSA with higher rates compared to all other age groups (P = 0.01). The most prevalent SCCmec type was SCCmec type III (531 [41%]) followed by type IV (402 [31%]). Spa-typing discovered 47 different spa-types. The five (87%) most common spa-types were t037, t1257, t045, t064 and t012. Based on MLST, the commonest was ST612 clonal complex (CC8) (n = 7) followed by ST5 (CC5) (n = 4), ST36 (CC30) (n = 4) and ST239 (CC8) (n = 3). Conclusions MRSA rate is high in South Africa. Majority of the isolates were classified as SCCmec type III (41%) and type IV (31%), which are typically associated with hospital and community- acquired infections, respectively. Overall, this study reveals the presence of a variety of hospital-acquired MRSA clones in South Africa dominance of few clones, spa 037 and 1257. Monitoring trends in resistance and molecular typing is recommended to detect changing epidemiological trends in AMR patterns of SAB. PMID:26719975

  10. Prevalence of Sequence Types among Clinical and Environmental Isolates of Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 in the United States from 1982 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Kozak-Muiznieks, Natalia A.; Lucas, Claressa E.; Brown, Ellen; Pondo, Tracy; Taylor, Thomas H.; Frace, Michael; Miskowski, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Since the establishment of sequence-based typing as the gold standard for DNA-based typing of Legionella pneumophila, the Legionella laboratory at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has conducted routine sequence-based typing (SBT) analysis of all incoming L. pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp1) isolates to identify potential links between cases and to better understand genetic diversity and clonal expansion among L. pneumophila bacteria. Retrospective genotyping of Lp1 isolates from sporadic cases and Legionnaires' disease (LD) outbreaks deposited into the CDC reference collection since 1982 has been completed. For this study, we compared the distribution of sequence types (STs) among Lp1 isolates implicated in 26 outbreaks in the United States, 571 clinical isolates from sporadic cases of LD in the United States, and 149 environmental isolates with no known association with LD. The Lp1 isolates under study had been deposited into our collection between 1982 and 2012. We identified 17 outbreak-associated STs, 153 sporadic STs, and 49 environmental STs. We observed that Lp1 STs from outbreaks and sporadic cases are more similar to each other than either group is to environmental STs. The most frequent ST for both sporadic and environmental isolates was ST1, accounting for 25% and 49% of the total number of isolates, respectively. The STs shared by both outbreak-associated and sporadic Lp1 included ST1, ST35, ST36, ST37, and ST222. The STs most commonly found in sporadic and outbreak-associated Lp1 populations may have an increased ability to cause disease and thus may require special attention when detected. PMID:24197883

  11. Population structure analyses of Staphylococcus aureus at Tygerberg Hospital, South Africa, reveals a diverse population, a high prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes, and unique local methicillin-resistant S. aureus clones.

    PubMed

    Oosthuysen, W F; Orth, H; Lombard, C J; Sinha, B; Wasserman, E

    2014-07-01

    Studies reporting on the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in South Africa have focused only on methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). This study describes the population structure of S. aureus, including methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolated from patients at Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Western Cape province. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), detection of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), spa typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), agr typing and SCCmec typing were used to characterize strains. Of 367 non-repetitive S. aureus isolates collected over a period of 1 year, 56 (15.3%) were MRSA. Skin and soft tissue infections were the most frequent source (54.8%), followed by bone and joint (15.3%) and respiratory tract infections (7.7%). For strain typing, PFGE was the most discriminative method, and resulted in 31 pulsotypes (n = 345, 94.0%), as compared with 16 spa clonal complexes (CCs) (n = 344, 93.4%). Four MLST CCs were identified after eBURST of sequence types (STs) of selected isolates. One hundred and sixty isolates (MSSA, n = 155, 42.2%) were PVL-positive, and agr types I-IV and SCCmec types I-V were identified. Our S. aureus population consisted of genotypically diverse strains, with PVL being a common characteristic of MSSA. MSSA and MRSA isolates clustered in different clones. However, the dominant MRSA clone (ST612) also contained an MSSA isolate, and had a unique genotype. Common global epidemic MRSA clones, such as ST239-MRSA-III and ST36-MRSA-II, were identified. A local clone, ST612-MRSA-IV, was found to be the dominant MRSA clone.

  12. Molecular epidemiology of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Africa: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Abdulgader, Shima M.; Shittu, Adebayo O.; Nicol, Mark P.; Kaba, Mamadou

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are a serious global problem, with considerable impact on patients and substantial health care costs. This systematic review provides an overview on the clonal diversity of MRSA, as well as the prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive MRSA in Africa. A search on the molecular characterization of MRSA in Africa was conducted by two authors using predefined terms. We screened for articles published in English and French through to October 2014 from five electronic databases. A total of 57 eligible studies were identified. Thirty-four reports from 15 countries provided adequate genotyping data. CC5 is the predominant clonal complex in the healthcare setting in Africa. The hospital-associated MRSA ST239/ST241-III [3A] was identified in nine African countries. This clone was also described with SCCmec type IV [2B] in Algeria and Nigeria, and type V [5C] in Niger. In Africa, the European ST80-IV [2B] clone was limited to Algeria, Egypt and Tunisia. The clonal types ST22-IV [2B], ST36-II [2A], and ST612-IV [2B] were only reported in South Africa. No clear distinctions were observed between MRSA responsible for hospital and community infections. The community clones ST8-IV [2B] and ST88-IV [2B] were reported both in the hospital and community settings in Angola, Cameroon, Gabon, Ghana, Madagascar, Nigeria, and São Tomé and Príncipe. The proportion of PVL-positive MRSA carriage and/or infections ranged from 0.3 to 100% in humans. A number of pandemic clones were identified in Africa. Moreover, some MRSA clones are limited to specific countries or regions. We strongly advocate for more surveillance studies on MRSA in Africa. PMID:25983721

  13. The effect of acupressure on cancer-related fatigue among school-aged children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Bastani, Farideh; Khosravi, Maryam; Borimnejad, Leili; Arbabi, Negar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fatigue is the most common side effect of chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Acupressure is one of the most popular non-pharmacologic methods used to reduce fatigue in other settings. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of acupressure on reducing fatigue among children with ALL compared with a placebo treatment. Materials and Methods: In a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of 120 hospitalized school-aged children with ALL, 24 h after chemotherapy, they were randomly divided into experimental (n = 60) and placebo groups (n = 60). Intensity of fatigue was rated using the Visual Analog Scale. The intervention (finger acupressure) was applied on ST36 (true points) in the experimental group and on LI12 (sham points) in the placebo group. We evaluated the symptoms of fatigue intensity immediately and 1 h after intervention. Fatigue was also measured 24 h after intervention by Fatigue Scale-Child (FS-C). Data were analyzed by SPSS version 16.0 using descriptive statistics, independent t-test, and Chi-square and Fisher exact tests. Results: Significant differences were observed between the two groups in the intensity of fatigue 1 h after intervention (P < 0.001). But there was no significant difference between them regarding fatigue 24 h after intervention. Conclusions: Applying one time acupressure may reduce the intensity of fatigue at 1 h post-treatment. Therefore, acupressure could be recommended as an effective, non-pharmacologic method for some CRF control. Applying one time acupressure did not have a long-term effect. PMID:26457090

  14. Can Acupuncture Affect the Circadian Rhythm of Blood Pressure? A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Mi; Cho, Seung-Yeon; Sohn, Il-Suk; Jung, Woo-Sang; Moon, Sang-Kwan; Park, Jung-Mi; Ko, Chang-Nam; Cho, Ki-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of acupuncture on the circadian rhythm of blood pressure (BP) in patients with hypertension. Design The study was designed as a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Subjects were randomly divided into an active acupuncture group and a sham acupuncture group. Each patient received real or sham acupuncture treatment twice a week for 8 weeks. Acupuncture needles were inserted at bilateral ST 36 plus PC 6; placebo points. Subjects Thirty-three (33) patients with essential hypertension were the subjects. Outcome measures Twenty-four (24)-hour ambulatory BP was assessed before and after treatment. Results After the treatment period, there was a significant increase in nocturnal diastolic BP dipping compared to that at baseline (10.20±7.56 mm Hg versus 5.21±10.19 mm Hg, p=0.038) in the active acupuncture group but not in the sham acupuncture group. The nocturnal diastolic BP dipping response to active acupuncture treatment was significantly different from the response seen with the sham acupuncture treatment (p=0.041). The number of dippers also increased from 4 to 8 in the active acupuncture group. Average systolic and diastolic BP was not changed significantly except for nighttime diastolic BP (90.32±11.47 mm Hg to 87.83±9.16 mm Hg, p=0.041). Conclusions It is suggested that acupuncture treatment could be useful for improving the circadian rhythm of BP in patients with hypertension. PMID:22906144

  15. Electro-acupuncture decreases postoperative pain and improves recovery in patients undergoing a supratentorial craniotomy.

    PubMed

    An, Li-Xin; Chen, Xue; Ren, Xiu-Jun; Wu, Hai-Feng

    2014-01-01

    We performed this study to examine the effect of electro-acupuncture (EA) on postoperative pain, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and recovery in patients after a supratentorial tumor resection. Eighty-eight patients requiring a supratentorial tumor resection were anesthetized with sevoflurane and randomly allocated to a no treatment group (Group C) or an EA group (Group A). After anesthesia induction, the patients in Group A received EA at LI4 and SJ5, at BL63 and LR3 and at ST36 and GB40 on the same side as the craniotomy. The stimulation was continued until the end of the operation. Patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) was used for the postoperative analgesia. The postoperative pain scores, PONV, the degree of dizziness and appetite were recorded. In the first 6 hours after the operation, the mean total bolus, the effective times of PCIA bolus administrations and the VAS scores were much lower in the EA group (p < 0.05). In the EA group, the incidence of PONV and degree of dizziness and feeling of fullness in the head within the first 24 hours after the operation was much lower than in the control group (p < 0.05). In the EA group, more patients had a better appetite than did the patients in group C (51.2% vs. 27.5%) (p < 0.05). The use of EA in neurosurgery patients improves the quality of postoperative analgesia, promotes appetite recovery and decreases some uncomfortable sensations, such as dizziness and feeling of fullness in the head.

  16. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Canadian Clinical Isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Collected from 2000 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, Ashley K.; Nadon, Celine A.; Peterson, Christy-Lynn; Tyler, Kevin; Bakouche, Laurene; Clark, Clifford G.; Hoang, Linda; Gilmour, Matthew W.; Farber, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading bacterial cause of food-borne illness due to the consumption of contaminated seafood. The aim of the present study was to determine the population of its subtypes and establish a better understanding of the various types of V. parahaemolyticus strains that are causing human illness in Canada. The subtypes for 100 human clinical isolates of V. parahaemolyticus collected between 2000 and 2009 were determined by performing serotyping, ribotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and multilocus sequence typing. Within this panel of strains, there was a high level of diversity (between 22 and 53 subtypes per method), but the presence of predominant clones with congruent subtypes between the various methods was also observed. For example, all 32 isolates belonging to sequence type 36 (ST36) were from serogroup O4, while 31 of them were ribotype EcoVib235-287, and 24 of the 32 were SfiI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern VPSF1.0001. With regard to the presence of known virulence genes, 74 of the 100 isolates were PCR positive for the presence of the thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh); and 59 of these 74 strains also contained the second virulence marker, the tdh-related hemolysin (trh). The detection of trh was more predominant (81%) among the clinical isolates, and only four (4%) of the clinical isolates tested negative for the presence of both tdh and trh. This database, comprising 100 clinical isolates of V. parahaemolyticus strains from Canada, forms a baseline understanding of subtype diversity for future source attribution and other epidemiologic studies. PMID:24452166

  17. Model acupuncture point: Bone marrow-derived stromal stem cells are moved by a weak electromagnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Emelyanov, Artem N; Borisova, Marina V; Kiryanova, Vera V

    2016-01-01

    AIM To show the existence of a structural formative role of magnetic fields (MFs) with respect to biological objects by using our proposed model of an acupoint. METHODS We introduced a magnetised 10-100 μT metal rod (needle) into culture dishes with a negatively charged working surface and observed during 24 h how cells were arranged by MFs and by electrical fields (EFs) when attached. Rat and human bone marrow-derived stromal stem cells (rBMSCs and hBMSCs), human nonadherent mononuclear blood cells, NCTCs and A172 cells, and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were evaluated. The dish containing BMSCs was defined as the model of an acupoint. rBMSCs proliferative activity affected by the needle was investigated. For investigating electromagnetic field structures, we used the gas discharge visualisation (GDV) method. RESULTS During 24 h of incubation in 50-mm culture dishes, BMSCs or the nonadherent cells accumulated into a central heap in each dish. BMSCs formed a torus (central ring) with an inner diameter of approximately 10 mm only upon the introduction of the needle in the centre of the dish. The cells did not show these effects in 35- or 90-mm culture dishes or hydrophobic dishes or rectangular cuvettes. NCTCs and A172 cells showed unstable the effects and only up to two weeks after thawing. Moreover, we observed that the appearance of these effects depended on the season. In winter, BMSCs showed no the effects. GDV experiments revealed that the resonant annular illumination gradually formed from 10 to 18-20 s in polar solutions with and without cell suspension of BMSCs, NCTCs and E. coli when using circular 50-mm dishes, stimulation at 115 V and switching of the electrode poles at 1 kHz. All these data demonstrate the resonant nature of the central ring. Significant influence of MFs on the rBMSC proliferation rate was not observed. CONCLUSION BMSCs can be moved by MFs when in the presence of a constant EF and MF, when the cells are in the responsive functional state

  18. Effect of acupressure with valerian oil 2.5% on the quality and quantity of sleep in patients with acute coronary syndrome in a cardiac intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Gorji, Mohammad Ali Heidari; Rezaie, Somayeh; Pouresmail, Zahra; Cherati, Jamshid Yazdani

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this three-group double-blind clinical trial study was to investigate the effect of acupressure ( zhǐ yā) with valerian ( xié cǎo) oil 2.5% on the quality and quantity of sleep in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in a coronary intensive care unit (CCU). This study was conducted on 90 patients with ACS in Mazandaran Heart Center (Sari, Iran) during 2013. The patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Patients in the acupressure with valerian oil 2.5% group (i.e., valerian acupressure group) received bilateral acupoint ( xué wèi) massage with two drops of valerian oil for 2 minutes for three nights; including every point this treatment lasted in total 18 minutes. Patients in the acupressure group received massage at the same points with the same technique but without valerian oil. Patients in the control group received massage at points that were 1-1.5 cm from the main points using the same technique and for the same length of time. The quality and quantity of the patients' sleep was measured by the St. Mary's Hospital Sleep Questionnaire (SMHSQ). After the intervention, there was a significant difference between sleep quality and sleep quantity in the patients in the valerian acupressure group and the acupressure group, compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Patients that received acupressure with valerian oil experienced improved sleep quality; however, this difference was not statistically significant in comparison to the acupressure only group. Acupressure at the ear spirit gate ( shén mén), hand Shenmen, glabella ( yìn táng), Wind Pool ( fēng chí), and Gushing Spring ( yǒng quán) acupoints can have therapeutic effects and may improve the quality and quantity of sleep in patients with ACS. Using these techniques in combination with herbal medicines such valerian oil can have a greater impact on improving sleep and reducing waking during the night.

  19. Effect of acupressure with valerian oil 2.5% on the quality and quantity of sleep in patients with acute coronary syndrome in a cardiac intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Gorji, Mohammad Ali Heidari; Rezaie, Somayeh; Pouresmail, Zahra; Cherati, Jamshid Yazdani

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this three-group double-blind clinical trial study was to investigate the effect of acupressure (指壓 zhǐ yā) with valerian (纈草 xié cǎo) oil 2.5% on the quality and quantity of sleep in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in a coronary intensive care unit (CCU). This study was conducted on 90 patients with ACS in Mazandaran Heart Center (Sari, Iran) during 2013. The patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Patients in the acupressure with valerian oil 2.5% group (i.e., valerian acupressure group) received bilateral acupoint (穴位 xué wèi) massage with two drops of valerian oil for 2 minutes for three nights; including every point this treatment lasted in total 18 minutes. Patients in the acupressure group received massage at the same points with the same technique but without valerian oil. Patients in the control group received massage at points that were 1–1.5 cm from the main points using the same technique and for the same length of time. The quality and quantity of the patients' sleep was measured by the St. Mary's Hospital Sleep Questionnaire (SMHSQ). After the intervention, there was a significant difference between sleep quality and sleep quantity in the patients in the valerian acupressure group and the acupressure group, compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Patients that received acupressure with valerian oil experienced improved sleep quality; however, this difference was not statistically significant in comparison to the acupressure only group. Acupressure at the ear spirit gate (神門 shén mén), hand Shenmen, glabella (印堂 yìn táng), Wind Pool (風池 fēng chí), and Gushing Spring (湧泉 yǒng quán) acupoints can have therapeutic effects and may improve the quality and quantity of sleep in patients with ACS. Using these techniques in combination with herbal medicines such valerian oil can have a greater impact on improving sleep and reducing waking during the night. PMID:26587395

  20. Effect of Acupressure on Cervical Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Torkzahrani, Shahnaz; Ghobadi, Khadighe; Heshmat, Reza; Shakeri, Nezhat; Jalali Aria, Katayoun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical ripening is one of the main stages of initiation labor. Acupressure in Chinese medicine is considered as an invasive technique, which through reliving oxytocin ripens the cervix. Acupoint Sanyinjiao (SP6) was selected in this study because it is the acupoint selected in gynecology and it is easy for women to locate and apply pressure without medical assistance. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of acupressure on cervical ripening. Patients and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 150 primigravida with term pregnancy who had referred to Deziani hospital in Gorgan were chosen and divided to three groups: in the first group acupressure was done by the researcher while in the second groups this was performed by the mother her self, and the third group served as a control and only received routine care. For both intervention groups the pressure was applied on Sp6 for about 20 minutes during one to five days. Elements were checked from cervical ripening at 48 and 96 hours after intervention and at the time of hospitalization. The tools for gathering information included demographic characteristics and midwifery history questionnaire, daily records and follow up forms. Content validity was used for validity of tools. Reliability of the observation check-list and physical examination was confirmed by inter-rater scores (inter observer), and daily records by test-re-test. Data was analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-squared tests (P ≤ 0.05). Results: There was a significant difference between mothers’ educations in the three groups. Most of the mothers (59.5%) in the researcher-performed acupressure group had secondary education. Cervical ripening was significantly different between the three groups after 48 hours (P ≤ 0.05), yet there was no significant difference after 96 hours and at the time of admission. Mean Bishop score was enhanced after 48 hours in the researcher

  1. Protective Effects of Acupuncture Against Gentamicin-Induced Ototoxicity in Rats: Possible Role of Neurotrophin-3

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ping; Ma, Weijun; Sheng, Ying; Duan, Maoli; Zhang, Xiaotong

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of acupuncture against gentamicin-induced ototoxicity and explore the possible protective role of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). Material/Methods Twenty-four rats were divided randomly into 4 groups: control group, gentamicin group, neitinggong group, and tinggong group. Rats in the gentamicin, neitinggong, and tinggong groups received intraperitoneal injection of gentamicin (100 mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days. Rats in the neitinggong and tinggong groups further received acupuncture at neitinggong or tinggong acupoints once every 2 days for 20 days. Rats in the control group received intraperitoneal injection of saline. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) was tested in all rats on the day before treatment (day 0), and again on day 14 and day 20 to determine the average threshold value of ABR for each treatment group. The expression of NT-3 in the cochlear nucleus and the inferior colliculus nucleus were detected by immunohistochemical staining. Results The average threshold value of ABR was significantly higher in the gentamicin group as compared with that of the control group on day 14 (P<0.05). On day 20, the average threshold values of ABR in the neitinggong and tinggong groups were significantly lower than that of the gentamicin group (P<0.05). No statistically significant differences in NT-3 expression in the cochlear nucleus were observed among the groups (P>0.05). However, the expression of NT-3 in the inferior colliculus nucleus in both the neitinggong and tinggong groups was significantly higher than that of the gentamicin group (P<0.01). Conclusions A decrease in NT-3 expression in the inferior colliculus nucleus may contribute to gentamicin-induced ototoxicity in rats. Acupuncture at neitinggong or tinggong acupoints effectively improved hearing, which was attributed partially to the rescue of NT-3 expression in the inferior colliculus nucleus. Therefore, preserving NT-3 expression in the

  2. Effectiveness of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) treatments on the cognitive functioning of elderly persons with mild cognitive impairment associated with white matter lesions

    PubMed Central

    HE, Songming; LI, Lijun; HU, Juying; CHEN, Qiaoli; SHU, Weiqun

    2015-01-01

    Background Cerebral white matter lesion (WML) is a pathological change of the white matter which is considered an early sign of brain impairment in elderly individuals, so it is reasonable to administer early dementia prevention programs to individuals with WML.Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has developed several approaches to prevent or delay the onset of dementia that have, as yet, not been formally tested. Aim Evaluate the effects of a 6-month TCM intervention for elderly persons with mild cognitive impairment and WML. Methods Eighty individuals 65 years of age or older with radiological evidence of WML and mild cognitive impairment based on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) were classified into the four main TCM constitutional types (qi deficiency, yang deficiency, phlegm dampness, or blood stasis) and randomly assigned to a treatment group or a treatment-as-usual control group. The treatment group participated in training focused on diet, lifestyle, exercises, and emotional regulation adjustment; they also received six monthly courses of moxibustion (heating acupoints by burning the moxa of dried mugwort), each of which involved 10 daily 15-minute sessions focused on three targeted acupoints (one of which was specific to the constitutional type). Changes in the MoCA and in the score of each of the four constitutional types were the main outcomes assessed. Results Two participants dropped out of each group over the 6 months, leaving 38 in each group. Based on repeated measures analysis of variance, the total MoCA score, four of the six MoCA subscales scores (visual space and executive function, naming, attention and calculation, and delayed memory), and all four of the TCM constitution type scores showed significantly greater improvement over the 6 months in the treatment group than in the control group. Conclusion This study shows that TCM interventions can improve both the cognitive functioning and the severity of symptoms considered in the TCM

  3. Understanding propagated sensation along meridians by volume transmission in peripheral tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Bo; Zhao, Yan; Kjell, Fuxe

    2013-05-01

    Propagated sensation along meridians (PSM) is a phenomenon that a sensation moves along meridians during stimulation of an acupoint. PSM has an appearance rate of 1.3% among people and have characteristics of low speed, going toward afflicted sites and being blocked by physical pressure which is difficult to be explained by known neural and blood transmission. Volume transmission (VT) is a widespread mode of intercellular communication in the central nervous system that occurs in the extracellular fluid and in the cerebrospinal fluid. VT signals moves from source to target cells via energy gradients leading to diffusion and convection (flow) which is slow, long distance and much less space filling. VT channel diffuse forming a plexus in the extracellular space with two parameters of volume fraction and tortuosity. Some experiments showed an information transmission between adjacent and distant acupoints along meridians cross spinal segments. This process is a cross-excitation between peripheral nerve terminals which is related to nonsynaptic transmission. Some neurotransmitters or neuropeptides such as glutamate, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and neuropeptide such as substance P, neurokinin A and calcitonin gene-related peptide relate with the cross-excitation which can be regards as VT signals. Comparing the characteristics of PSM and VT, many similar aspects can be found leading to an assumption that PSM is a process of VT in peripheral tissue along meridians. The reason why VT signals transmit along meridians is that the meridian is rich in interstitial fluid under the condition of low hydraulic resistance which has been proven experimentally. According to Darcy's law which descript the flow of interstitial fluid and conservation equation, interstitial fluid will move toward meridians and flow along meridians that restrict the VT signals within the channel and accelerate the flow according to Fick's diffusion law. During the process, a degranulation of histamine

  4. Acupuncture and vitamin B12 injection for Bell’s palsy: no high-quality evidence exists

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-li; Guan, Ling; Hao, Peng-liang; Du, Jin-long; Zhang, Meng-xue

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of acupuncture combined with vitamin B12 acupoint injection versus acupuncture alone to reduce incomplete recovery in patients with Bell’s palsy. DATA RETRIEVAL: A computer-based online retrieval of Medline, Web of Science, CNKI, CBM databases until April 2014 was performed for relevant trials, using the key words “Bell’s palsy or idiopathic facial palsy or facial palsy” and “acupuncture or vitamin B12 or methylcobalamin”. STUDY SELECTION: All randomized controlled trials that compared acupuncture with acupuncture combined with vitamin B12 in patients with Bell’s palsy were included in the meta-analysis. The initial treatment lasted for at least 4 weeks. The outcomes of incomplete facial recovery were monitored. The scoring index varied and the definition of healing was consistent. The combined effect size was calculated by using relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) using the fixed effect model of Review Manager. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incomplete recovery rates were chosen as the primary outcome. RESULTS: Five studies involving 344 patients were included in the final analysis. Results showed that the incomplete recovery rate of Bell’s palsy patients was 44.50% in the acupuncture combined with vitamin B12 group but 62.57% in the acupuncture alone group. The major acupoints were Taiyang (EX-HN5), Jiache (ST6), Dicang (ST4) and Sibai (ST2). The combined effect size showed that acupuncture combined with vitamin B12 was better than acupuncture alone for the treatment of Bell’s palsy (RR = 0.71, 95%CI: 0.58–0.87; P = 0.001), this result held true when 8 patients lost to follow up in one study were included into the analyses (RR = 0.70, 95%CI: 0.58–0.86; P = 0.0005). In the subgroup analyses, the therapeutic effect in patients of the electroacupuncture subgroup was better than in the non-electroacupuncture subgroup (P = 0.024). There was no significant difference in the incomplete recovery rate by

  5. Electro-acupuncture on functional peripheral nerve regeneration in mice: a behavioural study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The improvement of axonal regeneration is a major objective in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of electro-acupuncture on the functional recovery of sensorimotor responses following left sciatic nerve crush in mice. Methods Sciatic nerve crush was performed on seven week old female mice. Following the injury, the control group was untreated while the experimental group received an electro-acupuncture application to the injured limb under isoflurane anesthesia at acupoints GB 30 and GB 34. Mechanical and heat sensitivity tests were performed to evaluate sensory recovery. Gait analysis was performed to assess sensorimotor recovery. Results Our results show that normal sensory recovery is achieved within five to six weeks with a two-week period of pain preceding the recovery to normal sensitivity levels. While electro-acupuncture did not accelerate sensory recovery, it did alleviate pain-related behaviour but only when applied during this period. Application before the development of painful symptoms did not prevent their occurrence. The analysis of gait in relation to the sensory tests suggests that the electro-acupuncture specifically improved motor recovery. Conclusions This study demonstrates that electro-acupuncture exerts a positive influence on motor recovery and is efficient in the treatment of pain symptoms that develop during target re-innervation. PMID:22937957

  6. Catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphisms do not play a significant role in pain perception in male Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xiaohui; Jiang, Yin; Ni, Yanjun; Fan, Min; Shen, Fang; Wang, Xuewei; Han, Jisheng; Cui, Cailian

    2012-03-01

    Polymorphisms in the human catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene have been widely studied for their role in pain and analgesia. In this study, sensitivity to potassium iontophoresis, visual analog scale measurements for fixed twofold pain threshold stimulation and pain threshold changes induced by transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) were assessed in a population of healthy Chinese males. These results were correlated with the alleles of six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) or diplotypes of common haplotypes designated as low pain sensitive, average pain sensitive, and high pain sensitive in the COMT gene of these subjects. Our results reveal that the alleles of each SNP are not significantly correlated with pain perception except for the rs4633 allele in the 2 Hz TEAS session (P < 0.05). In addition, the six diplotypes of COMT haplotypes, which cover 92.5% of the Chinese population, are also not correlated with pain perception. Moreover, there were no significant differences in pain threshold changes induced by 2 and 100 Hz TEAS among the diplotypes of each SNP or the various haplotypes. These results suggest that COMT activity do not play a significant role in pain perception and TEAS-induced analgesia in the Chinese Han male population.

  7. Electroacupuncture Ameliorates Learning and Memory and Improves Synaptic Plasticity via Activation of the PKA/CREB Signaling Pathway in Cerebral Hypoperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Min; Guo, Ya-Bi; Zhang, Feng-Xia; Liu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Electroacupuncture (EA) has shown protective effects on cognitive decline. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are ill-understood. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the cognitive function was ameliorated in cerebral hypoperfusion rats following EA and to investigate the role of PKA/CREB pathway. We used a rat 2-vessel occlusion (2VO) model and delivered EA at Baihui (GV20) and Dazhui (GV14) acupoints. Morris water maze (MWM) task, electrophysiological recording, Golgi silver stain, Nissl stain, Western blot, and real-time PCR were employed. EA significantly (1) ameliorated the spatial learning and memory deficits, (2) alleviated long-term potentiation (LTP) impairment and the reduction of dendritic spine density, (3) suppressed the decline of phospho-CREB (pCREB) protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein, and microRNA132 (miR132), and (4) reduced the increase of p250GAP protein of 2VO rats. These changes were partially blocked by a selective protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, N-[2-(p-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinoline-sulfonamide (H89), suggesting that the PKA/CREB pathway is potentially involved in the effects of EA. Moreover, any significant damage to the pyramidal cell layer of CA1 subregion was absent. These results demonstrated that EA could ameliorate learning and memory deficits and alleviate hippocampal synaptic plasticity impairment of cerebral hypoperfusion rats, potentially mediated by PKA/CREB signaling pathway. PMID:27829866

  8. The Mechanism of Moxibustion: Ancient Theory and Modern Research

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xueyong

    2013-01-01

    The moxibustion has a dual effect of tonification and purgation in TCM theories, which are based on two aspects: the actions of the meridian system and the roles of moxa and fire. Modern research works of the moxibustion mechanism mainly relate to the thermal effects, radiation effects, and pharmacological actions of moxa and its combustion products. Experimental results showed that moxibustion thermal stimulation affects both shallow and deep tissues of the skin, and the warm-heat effects of moxibustion have a close relation to the warm receptors or/and the polymodal receptor. The burning moxa radiation spectrum ranges from 0.8 to 5.6 μm; peak is nearby 1.5 μm, lying within the near infrared portion. There is an amazing consistency in the infrared spectrums of three types of indirect moxibustion and the unified spectrum of acupoints; all have their peaks of radiation near 10 μm. Lots of ingredients had been identified from mugwort leaves and moxa smoke, which have a variety of biological activities; they were considered to participate in the comprehensive effects of moxibustion. Although lots of research works have been carried out and made some progress, there is still a great distance from fully understanding the mechanism of moxibustion. PMID:24159344

  9. Anatomo-Functional Correlation between Head Zones and Acupuncture Channels and Points: A Comparative Analysis from the Perspective of Neural Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán Molano, Martha Liliana; Pinilla Bonilla, Laura Bibiana; Beltrán Dussan, Eduardo Humberto; Vásquez Londoño, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Background. Neural therapy and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are part of complementary and alternative medicine in western world. Both of them share characteristics in diagnosis and therapeutics in search of changes in tenderness, pain, and skin stiffness related to visceral disease, as well as therapeutic procedures with specific stimuli on the skin that generate local, segmental, or remote reactions. Head zones explain segmental viscerocutaneous relations in neural therapy; however, interference fields and remote reactions after infiltration of local anesthetic go beyond this segmental distribution. Methods. This descriptive research required review and analysis of texts of Henry Head and traditional Chinese medicine. Results. Anatomical and functional relationships were found between Head zones in body, and head and neck with 14 acupuncture channels and their points. Anatomical areas of strong correlations were found: Head zones of heart and lung with heart and pericardium channels; Head zones of genitals with bladder and kidney channels. Strong functional relations between all Head zones, channels, and acupoints were found when following the pattern of segmental dermatomes; 235 acupuncture points were found in concordance. PMID:25506384

  10. Biophysics behavior of acupuncture points irradiated with low energy lasers.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, C

    2007-01-01

    This work describes the Low Energy Laser (LEL) coherent light interaction with the skin cover on acupuncture loci for the purpose of detecting and measuring the spatial and temporal alteration of the thermal, electric and optical properties of the LI4 (HEGU) acupoint, irradiated with a 685 nm, 30 mW, III.B Laser. Novel electrostatic imaging technique, an original Acupuncture 3-D Thermal and Electric Mapping Technique and an original Method for Laser-Skin Reflectance, were used in the study. The results indicate that the visible laser light, with low frequency and low power, specifically modify the 3-D pattern of the temperature, electric potential and electric impedance outline of an acupuncture point, meanwhile with a significant decrease of the laser reflectance index, all measured on a 27 apparently healthy subject lot (48 years mean age, 54% male), when comparing with a non-active, non-acupunctural skin area, placed on the volar side of the same hand. The biophysical method presented, combines in a complex way and reproducible the electro stasis exploration (bioelectric homeostasis), with cutaneous thermodynamic exploration and photo-optical exploration of the derma and provides information that can be appreciated in dynamics and compared depending on the exploration target.

  11. Evaluation of the effect of laser acupuncture and cupping with ryodoraku and visual analog scale on low back pain.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mu-Lien; Wu, Hung-Chien; Hsieh, Ya-Hui; Su, Chuan-Tsung; Shih, Yong-Sheng; Lin, Chii-Wann; Wu, Jih-Huah

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of laser acupuncture (LA) and soft cupping on low back pain. In this study, the subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: active group (real LA and soft cupping) and placebo group (sham laser and soft cupping). Visual analog scale (VAS) and Ryodoraku were used to evaluate the effect of treatment on low back pain in this trial. Laser, 40 mW, wavelength 808 nm, pulse rate 20 Hz, was used to irradiate Weizhong (BL40) and Ashi acupoints for 10 minutes. And the Ryodoraku values were measured 2 times, that is, before and 15 minutes after treatment. The results show that there were significant difference between the first day baseline and the fifth day treatment in VAS in the two groups. Therefore, LA combined with soft cupping or only soft cupping was effective on low back pain. However, the Ryodoraku values of Bladder Meridian of the placebo group have been decreased apparently, and didn't come back to their original values. It means that "cupping" plays the role of "leak or purge" in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). On the other hand, the Ryodoraku values of Bladder Meridian of the active group have been turned back to almost their original values; "mend or reinforcing" effect is attributed to the laser radiation.

  12. Efficacy and Safety of Acupuncture for Acute Low Back Pain in Emergency Department: A Pilot Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yen-Ting; Chiu, Chih-Wen; Chang, Chin-Fu; Lee, Tsung-Chieh; Chen, Chia-Yun; Chang, Shun-Chang; Lee, Chia-Ying; Lo, Lun-Chien

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common complaints in the emergency department (ED). There are several research articles providing evidence for acupuncture for treating chronic LBP but few about treating acute LBP. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for the treatment of acute LBP in the ED. Materials and methods. A clinical pilot cohort study was conducted. 60 participants, recruited in the ED, were divided into experimental and control groups with 1 dropout during the study. Life-threatening conditions or severe neurological defects were excluded. The experimental group (n = 45) received a series of fixed points of acupuncture. The control group (n = 14) received sham acupuncture by pasting seed-patches near acupoints. Back pain was measured using the visual analog scale (VAS) at three time points: baseline and immediately after and 3 days after intervention as the primary outcome. The secondary outcomes were heart rate variability (HRV) and adverse events. Results. The VAS demonstrated a significant decrease (P value <0.001) for the experimental group after 15 minutes of acupuncture. The variation in HRV showed no significant difference in either group. No adverse event was reported. Conclusion. Acupuncture might provide immediate effect in reducing the pain of acute LBP safely.

  13. Acupuncture does not protect against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced damage of dopaminergic neurons in a preclinical mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui-Jun; Gao, Yu; Yun, Ji Young; Kim, Young Eun; Ehm, Gwanhee; Lee, Ji Yeon; Yoon, Min-Yung; Lee, Young-Shin; Kim, Han-Joon; Jeon, Beomseok

    2017-01-01

    Acupuncture treatment, a complementary and alternative medicine, is associated with a suggested neuroprotective effect in previous preclinical studies of Parkinson's disease (PD); however, results from human clinical trials have been mixed or unsuccessful. Recent systematic reviews of translational neuroprotective studies showed that the supposed efficacy is confounded by low methodological quality, particularly by a lack of randomization and concealed allocation. We sought to replicate previous experimental findings with a study design that mitigates the introduction of bias, including randomization, blinded outcome measures, sham acupuncture application, and allocation concealment by blinded neurotoxin administration. We performed 12 sessions of manual acupuncture at acupoint GB34 (yanglingquan) in mice that were administered the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine neurotoxin for five consecutive days. In this animal model of PD, acupuncture treatment did not attenuate tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neuronal death, depletion of striatal dopamine levels, or reduced striatal tyrosine hydroxylase expression. Our results indicate that acupuncture is not neuroprotective against nigrostriatal loss in a subacute 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of PD.

  14. Kappa-Opioid Receptors in the Caudal Nucleus Tractus Solitarius Mediate 100 Hz Electroacupuncture-Induced Sleep Activities in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chiung-Hsiang; Yi, Pei-Lu; Chang, Han-Han; Tsai, Yi-Fong; Chang, Fang-Chia

    2012-01-01

    Previous results demonstrated that 10 Hz electroacupuncture (EA) of Anmian acupoints in rats during the dark period enhances slow wave sleep (SWS), which involves the induction of cholinergic activity in the caudal nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and subsequent activation of opioidergic neurons and μ-receptors. Studies have shown that different kinds of endogenous opiate peptides and receptors may mediate the consequences of EA with different frequencies. Herein, we further elucidated that high-frequency (100 Hz)-EA of Anmian enhanced SWS during the dark period but exhibited no direct effect on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. High-frequency EA-induced SWS enhancement was dose-dependently blocked by microinjection of naloxone or κ-receptor antagonist (nor-binaltorphimine) into the caudal NTS, but was affected neither by μ- (naloxonazine) nor δ-receptor antagonists (natatrindole), suggesting the role of NTS κ-receptors in the high-frequency EA-induced SWS enhancement. Current and previous results depict the opioid mechanisms of EA-induced sleep. PMID:22454676

  15. Neuroprotective changes in degeneration-related gene expression in the substantia nigra following acupuncture in an MPTP mouse model of Parkinsonism: Microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Sujung; An, Keon Sang; Hong, Yeon-Mi; Choi, Yeong-Gon; Rosen, Bruce; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lim, Sabina

    2015-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the death of dopamine-generating cells in the substantia nigra (SN). Acupuncture stimulation results in an enhanced survival of dopaminergic neurons in the SN in Parkinsonism animal models. The present study investigated changes in gene expression profiles measured using whole transcript array in the SN region related to the inhibitory effects of acupuncture in a chronic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) Parkinsonism model. In this model, acupuncture stimulation at GB34 and LR3 attenuated the decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase in the SN region; stimulation at non-acupoints did not suppress this decrease. Gene array analysis revealed that 22 (10 annotated genes: Cdh1, Itih2, Mpzl2, Rdh9, Serping1, Slc6a13, Slc6a20a, Slc6a4, Tph2, and Ucma) probes that were up-regulated in MPTP animals relative to controls were exclusively down-regulated by acupuncture stimulation. In addition, 17 (two annotated genes: 4921530L21Rik and Gm13931) probes that were down-regulated in MPTP animals compared to controls were exclusively up-regulated by acupuncture stimulation. These findings indicate that the 39 probes (12 annotated genes) affected by MPTP and acupuncture may be responsible for the inhibitory effects of acupuncture on degeneration-related gene expression in the SN following damage induced by MPTP intoxication.

  16. Parsing brain activity associated with acupuncture treatment in Parkinson's diseases.

    PubMed

    Chae, Younbyoung; Lee, Hyejung; Kim, Hackjin; Kim, Chang-Hwan; Chang, Dae-Il; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Park, Hi-Joon

    2009-09-15

    Acupuncture, a common treatment modality within complementary and alternative medicine, has been widely used for Parkinson's disease (PD). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we explored the neural mechanisms underlying the effect of specific and genuine acupuncture treatment on the motor function in patients with PD. Three fMRI scans were performed in random order in a block design, one for verum acupuncture (VA) treatment, another one for a covert placebo (CP), and the third one for an overt placebo (OP) at the motor function implicated acupoint GB34 on the left foot of 10 patients with PD. We calculated the contrast that subtracts the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) response for the acupuncture effect (VA vs. CP) and the placebo effect (CP vs. OP). We found a significant improvement in the motor function of the affected hand after acupuncture treatment. The putamen and the primary motor cortex were activated when patients with PD received the acupuncture treatment (VA vs. CP) and these activations correlated with individual enhanced motor function. Expectation towards acupuncture modality (CP vs. OP) elicited activation over the anterior cingulate gyrus, the superior frontal gyrus, and the superior temporal gyrus. These findings suggest that acupuncture treatment might facilitate improvement in the motor functioning of patients with PD via the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit.

  17. Electroacupuncture Attenuates Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury in Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion of Rat via Modulation of Apoptosis, Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Excitotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Mei-hong; Zhang, Chun-bing; Zhang, Jia-hui; Li, Peng-fei

    2016-01-01

    Electroacupuncture (EA) has several properties such as antioxidant, antiapoptosis, and anti-inflammatory properties. The current study was to investigate the effects of EA on the prevention and treatment of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and to elucidate possible molecular mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h followed by reperfusion for 24 h. EA stimulation was applied to both Baihui and Dazhui acupoints for 30 min in each rat per day for 5 successive days before MCAO (pretreatment) or when the reperfusion was initiated (treatment). Neurologic deficit scores, infarction volumes, brain water content, and neuronal apoptosis were evaluated. The expressions of related inflammatory cytokines, apoptotic molecules, antioxidant systems, and excitotoxic receptors in the brain were also investigated. Results showed that both EA pretreatment and treatment significantly reduced infarct volumes, decreased brain water content, and alleviated neuronal injury in MCAO rats. Notably, EA exerts neuroprotection against I/R injury through improving neurological function, attenuating the inflammation cytokines, upregulating antioxidant systems, and reducing the excitotoxicity. This study provides a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying the traditional use of EA. PMID:27123035

  18. Acupuncture inhibits microglial activation and inflammatory events in the MPTP-induced mouse model.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jun Mo; Park, Hi Joon; Choi, Yeong Gon; Choe, Il Hwan; Park, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yong Sik; Lim, Sabina

    2007-02-02

    Using a mouse model of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinson's disease (PD), this study investigated on the neuroprotective effects of acupuncture by examining whether acupuncture contributed to inhibiting microglial activation and inflammatory events. C57BL/6 mice were treated with MPTP (30 mg/kg, i.p.) for 5 consecutive days. Acupuncture was then applied to acupoints Yanglingquan (GB34) and Taichong (LR3) starting 2 h after the first MPTP administration and then at 48 h intervals until the mice were sacrificed for analyses at 1, 3, and 7 days after the last MPTP injection. These experiments demonstrated that acupuncture inhibited the decreased of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity (IR) and generated a neuroprotective effects in the striatum (ST) and the substantia nigra (SN) on days 1, 3, and 7 post-MPTP injections. Acupuncture attenuated the increase of macrophage antigen complex-1 (MAC-1), a marker of microglial activation, at 1 and 3 days and reduced the increases in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression on days 1, 3, and 7. In MPTP group, striatal dopamine (DA) was measured by 46% at 7 days, whereas DA in the acupuncture group was 78%. On the basis of these results, we suggest that acupuncture could be used as a neuroprotective intervention for the purpose of inhibiting microglial activation and inflammatory events in PD.

  19. Acupuncture enhances the synaptic dopamine availability to improve motor function in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Nam; Doo, Ah-Reum; Park, Ji-Yeun; Bae, Hyungjin; Chae, Younbyoung; Shim, Insop; Lee, Hyangsook; Moon, Woongjoon; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Hi-Joon

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is caused by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and the depletion of striatal dopamine (DA). Acupuncture, as an alternative therapy for PD, has beneficial effects in both PD patients and PD animal models, although the underlying mechanisms therein remain uncertain. The present study investigated whether acupuncture treatment affected dopamine neurotransmission in a PD mouse model using 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). We found that acupuncture treatment at acupoint GB34 improved motor function with accompanying dopaminergic neuron protection against MPTP but did not restore striatal dopamine depletion. Instead, acupuncture treatment increased dopamine release that in turn, may lead to the enhancement of dopamine availability in the synaptic cleft. Moreover, acupuncture treatment mitigated MPTP-induced abnormal postsynaptic changes, suggesting that acupuncture treatment may increase postsynaptic dopamine neurotransmission and facilitate the normalization of basal ganglia activity. These results suggest that the acupuncture-induced enhancement of synaptic dopamine availability may play a critical role in motor function improvement against MPTP.

  20. IL-10 Cytokine Released from M2 Macrophages Is Crucial for Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Acupuncture in a Model of Inflammatory Muscle Pain

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Morgana D.; Bobinski, Franciane; Sato, Karina L.; Kolker, Sandra J.; Sluka, Kathleen A.; Santos, Adair R. S.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle pain is a common medical problem that is difficult to treat. One nonpharmacological treatment used is acupuncture, a procedure in which fine needles are inserted into body points with the intent of relieving pain and other symptoms. Here we investigated the effects of manual acu-puncture (MA) on modulating macrophage phenotype and interleukin-10 (IL-10) concentrations in animals with muscle inflammation. Carrageenan, injected in the gastrocnemius muscle of mice, induces an inflammatory response characterized by mechanical hyperalgesia and edema. The inflammation is initially a neutrophilic infiltration that converts to a macrophage-dominated inflammation by 48 h. MA of the Sanyinjiao or Spleen 6 (SP6) acupoint reduces nociceptive behaviors, heat, and mechanical hyperalgesia and enhanced escape/avoidance and the accompanying edema. SP6 MA increased muscle IL-10 levels and was ineffective in reducing pain behaviors and edema in IL-10 knockout (IL-10−/−) mice. Repeated daily treatments with SP6 MA induced a phenotypic switch of muscle macrophages with reduced M1 macrophages (pro-inflammatory cells) and an increase of M2 macrophages (anti-inflammatory cells and important IL-10 source). These findings provide new evidence that MA produces a phenotypic switch in macrophages and increases IL-10 concentrations in muscle to reduce pain and inflammation. PMID:24961568

  1. Caffeine at Moderate Doses Can Inhibit Acupuncture-Induced Analgesia in a Mouse Model of Postoperative Pain

    PubMed Central

    Moré, Ari O.; Cidral-Filho, Francisco J.; Mazzardo-Martins, Leidiane; Martins, Daniel F.; Nascimento, Francisney P.; Li, Shin Min

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of acupuncture in the treatment of pain conditions has been extensively investigated. However, the influence of dietary ingredients on acupuncture-induced analgesia (AA) remains unexplored. Recently, the role of adenosine receptors in AA has been shown, and caffeine, one of the world's most commonly consumed dietary ingredients, is an antagonist of these receptors. In this study, the postincisional pain model was used to investigate caffeine's influence on AA. Method Mice submitted to plantar incision surgery were treated with acupuncture needling after administration of acute or chronic caffeine. Acupuncture needling was performed using two different types of stimuli, manual acupuncture and electroacupuncture bilaterally in the acupoint SP6. Results We found that acute preadministration of caffeine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) completely reversed AA in both types of acupuncture. In the chronic preadministration, we used two doses that mimicked the average daily caffeine consumption in Western countries and China. Interestingly, the Western dose of caffeine (70 mg/kg/day) administered during 8 days in the drinking water reversed AA and the Chinese dose (4 mg/kg/day) administered during the same period did not. Conclusions These results indicate that the use of caffeine can inhibit the analgesic effect of different forms of acupuncture. In addition, our findings suggest that doses of caffeine relevant to dietary human intake levels could be a confounding factor in the context of acupuncture research. PMID:24761281

  2. Tongguan Liqiao acupuncture therapy improves dysphagia after brainstem stroke