Acker, Helmut; Schmidt-Rathjens, Claudia; Acker, Till; Fandrey, Joachim; Ehleben, Wilhelm
Mood expressions encompassing positive scales like "activity, elation, contemplation, calmness" and negative scales like "anger, excitement, depression, fatigue" were applied for introducing a new tool to assess the effects of acupuncture on brain structures. Traditional acupuncture points defined in the literature for their effects on task negative and task positive brain structures were applied to chronic disease patients supposed to have dominant negative mood scales. Burn-out syndrome (n=10) and female chronic pain patients (n=22) showed a significant improvement on positive mood scales and a decline in negative mood scales after 10 acupuncture sessions. We observed a direct effect of acupuncture on brain structures in 5 burn-out syndrome patients showing an immediate, fast suppression of unusual slow high amplitude EEG waves in response to acupuncture needle rotation. These EEG waves described here for the first time in awake patients disappeared after 10 sessions but gradually returned after 1-1.5 years without acupuncture. This was accompanied with deterioration of positive mood scales and a return to negative mood scales. Both male (n=16) and female chronic pain patients reported a significant decrease of pain intensity after 10 sessions. Female patients only, however, showed a linear correlation between initial pain intensity and pain relief as well as a linear correlation between changes in pain intensity and mood scales accompanied by a drop of their heart rate during the acupuncture sessions. We hypothesized that mood scale recordings are a sensitive and specific new tool to reveal individual acupuncture-brain interaction.
Acupuncture has been practiced in China and other Asian countries for thousands of years. Acupuncture involves stimulating specific points on the body. This ... functions of the body. Research has shown that acupuncture reduces nausea and vomiting after surgery and chemotherapy. ...
... but six to eight treatments are common. During acupuncture Acupuncture points are situated in all areas of ... no discomfort when the needles are removed. After acupuncture Some people feel relaxed and others feel energized ...
Weeks, Justin W.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Goldin, Philippe R.; Gross, James J.
The Fear of Positive Evaluation Scale (FPES; J. W. Weeks, R. G. Heimberg, & T. L. Rodebaugh, 2008) was designed to assess fear of positive evaluation, a proposed cognitive component of social anxiety. Although previous findings on the psychometric properties of the FPES have been highly encouraging, only 1 previous study has examined the…
Vagos, Paula; Salvador, Maria do Céu; Rijo, Daniel; Santos, Isabel M.; Weeks, Justin W.; Heimberg, Richard G.
Modified measures of Fear of Negative Evaluation and Fear of Positive Evaluation were examined among Portuguese adolescents. These measures demonstrated replicable factor structure, internal consistency, and positive relationships with social anxiety and avoidance. Gender differences were found. Implications for evaluation and intervention are…
García-Fernández, José Manuel; Espada Sánchez, José Pedro; Orgilés Amorós, Mireia; Méndez Carrillo, Xavier
This paper describes the psychometric properties of a new children's self-report measure. The School Fears Survey Scale, Form II (SFSS-II) assesses school fears in children from ages 8 to 11. The factor solution with a Spanish sample of 3,665 children isolated four factors: Fear of academic failure and punishment, fear of physical discomfort, fear of social and school assessment and anticipatory and separation anxiety. The questionnaire was tested by confirmatory factor analysis, which accounted for 55.80% of the total variance. Results indicated that the SFSS-II has a high internal consistency (alpha= .89). The results revealed high test-retest reliability and appropriate relationship with other scales. The age by gender interaction was significant. Two-way analysis of variance found that older children and girls had higher anxiety. The instrument shows adequate psychometric guarantees and can be used for the multidimensional assessment of anxiety in clinical and educational settings.
Anarte Ortiz, Maria Teresa; Caballero, Francisco Felix; Ruiz de Adana, Maria Soledad; Rondan, Rosa Maria; Carreira, Monica; Dominguez-Lopez, Marta; Machado, Alberto; Gonzalo-Marin, Montserrat; Tapia, Maria Jose; Valdes, Sergio; Gonzalez-Romero, Stella; Soriguer, Federico C.
Hypoglycemia is the most common adverse event associated with insulin treatment in diabetes. The consequences of hypoglycemia can be quite aversive and potentially life threatening. The physical sequelae provide ample reason for patients to fear hypoglycemia and avoid episodes. For these reasons, our purpose in this study was to develop a new…
Long, Wesley; Millsap, C A
This replication extended R. A. Bouton et al.'s (1987) Fear of AIDS and Homophobia Scales to an ethnic sample of university students in an attempt to understand the relation between the expression of fear of HIV/AIDS and homophobia in ethnic groups. The results of the present study suggest that ethnic groups have a greater fear of HIV/AIDS, as they were more homophobic than the sample surveyed by R. A. Bouton et al. Although the correlation between fear of AIDS and homophobia was significant, results suggest the relation between them is weaker than it was 20 years prior to the present study. The ethnic populations represented in this study did not have greater fear of AIDS by gender. Considering ethnicity, female and male participants showed significant differences in homophobia. As in the original study, male participants were more homophobic than were female participants.
Mason, Oliver J; Stevenson, Caroline; Freedman, Fleur
Delusions involving technology, and specifically the internet, are increasingly common, and fear-reality statistics suggest computer-related fears are very widespread. These fears form a continuum from the widely understandable and realistic to the unrealistic, and frankly paranoid. The present study investigated the validity of this construct in a non-clinical population by constructing a novel self-report measure. The new Cyber-Paranoia and Fear Scale aims to measure the perception of information technology-related threats originating from or enabled by computers, smartphones, social networks, and digital surveillance. Psychometric properties of the new Cyber-Paranoia and Fear Scale are reported alongside an established measure of suspiciousness and paranoia in 181 participants including a sub-group of fifty information technology professionals. Exploratory factor analysis suggested the presence of two, related, dimensions that we term cyber-paranoia and cyber-fear. Both sub-scales were internally consistent and produced a normal distribution of scores. The relationships of the sub-scales with age, gender, trait paranoia, digital literacy, and digital inclusion are supportive of construct validity. The distinctiveness of 'cyber-paranoia' from general trait paranoia appears to mirror the clinical distinctiveness of 'internet' and other technology-fuelled delusions. Knowledge provision to increase technological proficiency and awareness may bring about a reduction in cyber-paranoia.
Mason, Oliver J.; Stevenson, Caroline; Freedman, Fleur
Delusions involving technology, and specifically the internet, are increasingly common, and fear-reality statistics suggest computer-related fears are very widespread. These fears form a continuum from the widely understandable and realistic to the unrealistic, and frankly paranoid. The present study investigated the validity of this construct in a non-clinical population by constructing a novel self-report measure. The new Cyber-Paranoia and Fear Scale aims to measure the perception of information technology-related threats originating from or enabled by computers, smartphones, social networks, and digital surveillance. Psychometric properties of the new Cyber-Paranoia and Fear Scale are reported alongside an established measure of suspiciousness and paranoia in 181 participants including a sub-group of fifty information technology professionals. Exploratory factor analysis suggested the presence of two, related, dimensions that we term cyber-paranoia and cyber-fear. Both sub-scales were internally consistent and produced a normal distribution of scores. The relationships of the sub-scales with age, gender, trait paranoia, digital literacy, and digital inclusion are supportive of construct validity. The distinctiveness of ‘cyber-paranoia’ from general trait paranoia appears to mirror the clinical distinctiveness of ‘internet’ and other technology-fuelled delusions. Knowledge provision to increase technological proficiency and awareness may bring about a reduction in cyber-paranoia. PMID:25505431
Weeks, Justin W; Heimberg, Richard G; Rodebaugh, Thomas L
Cognitive-behavioral models propose that fear of negative evaluation is the core feature of social anxiety disorder. However, it may be that fear of evaluation in general is important in social anxiety, including fears of positive as well as negative evaluation. To test this hypothesis, we developed the Fear of Positive Evaluation Scale (FPES) and conducted analyses to examine the psychometric properties of the FPES, as well as test hypotheses regarding the construct of fear of positive evaluation (FPE). Responses from a large (n = 1711) undergraduate sample were utilized. The reliability, construct validity, and factorial validity of the FPES were examined; the distinction of FPE from fear of negative evaluation was evaluated utilizing confirmatory factor analysis; and the ability of FPE to predict social interaction anxiety above and beyond fear of negative evaluation was assessed. Results provide preliminary support for the psychometric properties of the FPES and the validity of the construct of FPE. The implications of FPE with respect to the study and treatment of social anxiety disorder are discussed.
Vickberg, Suzanne M Johnson
The Concerns About Recurrence Scale (CARS) systematically assesses the extent and nature of women's fears about the possibility of breast cancer recurrence. In this study with 169 breast cancer survivors, scores on the CARS indicate moderate levels of fear about recurrence overall and demonstrate a range in levels of fear. Findings further suggest that women's fears of recurrence center around the possibility of death, future treatment, and threats to health more than issues related to roles, femininity, sexuality, or body image. Younger women and women who have had chemotherapy demonstrate greater fears. There is little evidence that cancer stage, time since diagnosis, or type of surgery relate to fears. The CARS was found to be internally consistent, and there is preliminary evidence of its validity, although future research is needed. The measure will likely be a useful tool for researchers and clinicians seeking to understand women's fears about the possibility of breast cancer recurrence.
Tomas-Sabado, Joaquin; Limonero, Joaquin; Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed
The Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale (CL-FODS) consists of 4 subscales: Death of Self, Dying of Self, Death of Others, and Dying of Others. The aim of this study was to develop a Spanish version of the CL-FODS and to explore its psychometric properties. The revised version of the scale was translated into Spanish from English. Then, the back…
Turk, Dennis C; Robinson, James P; Sherman, Jeffrey J; Burwinkle, Tasha; Swanson, Kimberly
The fear avoidance model (FAM) postulates that fear of pain or reinjury is a risk factor for persistent pain and disability, because it leads to the avoidance of physical activity. Research on the FAM has not yielded consistent results, which may be attributed to the model itself, but could also be a product of the way fear of movement is assessed. Studies of the FAM have measured fear using verbal scales consisting of items that are often vague and have only an indirect relationship with fear. This study reports on the development of a Pictorial Fear of Activity Scale-Cervical (PFActS-C). The instrument consists of a set of photographs depicting movements in which four factors that determine biomechanical demands on the neck are systematically varied--Direction of Movement, Arm Position, Weight Bearing, and Extremity of Movement. Patients (n=355) who had been involved in motor vehicle collisions with minimal symptoms (n=143) and moderate to severe symptoms (n=212) rated their fear of engaging in a set of activities depicted in the PFActS-C. Based on a principle components analysis, a 19 item measure was developed. Internal consistency (alpha=.98), stability over time (n=44, IntraClass Correlation=.72), and construct validity were all good to excellent. The results indicate that the PFActS-C may be a useful tool for assessing fear of movement in patients with cervical pain. Research is needed to confirm the factor structure of the PFActS-C and to assess the generalizability of the results to other samples with neck pain.
Weeks, Justin W.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Fresco, David M.; Hart, Trevor A.; Turk, Cynthia L.; Schneier, Franklin R.; Liebowitz, Michael R.
The Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (BFNE; M. R. Leary, 1983a) is often used to assess fear of negative evaluation, the core feature of social anxiety disorder. However, few studies have examined its psychometric properties in large samples of socially anxious patients. Although the BFNE yields a single total score, confirmatory factor…
Becel, Sinan; Sezgin, Yılmaz; Akçay, Fatih
In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of acupuncture therapy based on Verbal Pain Scale (VPS) scores in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) patients admitted to the emergency department with attacks of abdominal pain. This observational study was conducted in Erzurum Regional Training and Research Hospital between August 2014 and December 2014. Twenty patients admitted to the emergency department with FMF attacks were included in the study. Acupuncture therapy was applied to three points including LI4 (Hegu), ST25 (Tianshu), and Ren12 (Zhongwan). The VPS test was applied to the patients before and after the treatment. Average VPS scores were found to be 8.45±0.75 before the treatment and 2.10±0.85 after the treatment. The difference of the VPS scores before and after treatment was statistically significant (p=0.001). To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating the effectiveness of acupuncture therapy in the treatment of FMF attacks. Our results suggest that acupuncture therapy can be used as an effective treatment method in patients with FMF attacks.
Downrange Acupuncture Robert L. Koffman, MD, Capt, US Navy* ABSTRACT Robert L. Koffman, MD, Capt, US Navy, reports his experiences using acupuncture ...satisfaction that acupuncture provides in the broad range of military medicine and psychiatry. Key Words: Acupuncture , Auricular, Battlefield, Trauma, PTSD...Medical Institute (HMI; in Berkeley, CA) military acupuncture program, and, in December, deployed to Afghanistan. My official assignment took me to
Ingersoll, Travis Sky; Poulin, John; Deng, Rong; Shan, Xu; Witt, Heather; Swain, Melanie
In this study the authors examine the reliability and validity of the Fear of Intimacy with Helping Professionals Scale (FIS-HP) with Chinese (N = 150) and American (N = 145) elderly persons. Factor analysis using principal component analysis with a varimax rotation was used to examine the FIS-HP factor structure for both samples. A three factor solution emerged for both samples. The FIS-HP has acceptable internal consistency reliability with both the United States and China samples. Correlation analysis supported five of the six hypotheses related to convergent validity. English and Mandarin versions of the scale are presented.
Feng, Yuanyuan; Bai, Lijun; Ren, Yanshuang; Wang, Hu; Liu, Zhenyu; Zhang, Wensheng; Tian, Jie
Previous neuroimaging studies have primarily focused on the neural activities involving the acute effects of acupuncture. Considering that acupuncture can induce long-lasting effects, several researchers have begun to pay attention to the sustained effects of acupuncture on the resting brain. Most of these researchers adopted functional connectivity analysis based on one or a few preselected brain regions and demonstrated various function-guided brain networks underlying the specific effect of acupuncture. Few have investigated how these brain networks interacted at the whole-brain level. In this study, we sought to investigate the functional correlations throughout the entire brain following acupuncture at acupoint ST36 (ACUP) in comparison with acupuncture at nearby nonacupoint (SHAM). We divided the whole brain into 90 regions and constructed functional brain network for each condition. Then we examined the network hubs and identified statistically significant differences in functional correlations between the two conditions. Following ACUP, but not SHAM, the limbic/paralimbic regions such as the amygdala, hippocampus and anterior cingulate gyrus emerged as network hubs. For direct comparisons, increased correlations for ACUP compared to SHAM were primarily related with the limbic/paralimbic and subcortical regions such as the insula, amygdala, anterior cingulate gyrus, and thalamus, whereas decreased correlations were mainly related with the sensory and frontal cortex. The heterogeneous modulation patterns between the two conditions may relate to the functional specific modulatory effects of acupuncture. The preliminary findings may help us to better understand the long-lasting effects of acupuncture on the entire resting brain, as well as the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying acupuncture.
Neblett, Randy; Mayer, Tom G; Hartzell, Meredith M; Williams, Mark J; Gatchel, Robert J
Pain-related fear avoidance (FA), a common problem for patients with painful medical conditions, involves pain-related catastrophizing cognitions, hypervigilance, and avoidance behaviors, which can ultimately lead to decreased functioning, depression, and disability. Several patient-reported instruments have been developed to measure FA, but they have been criticized for limited construct validity, inadequate item specificity, lack of cutoff scores, and missing important FA components. The Fear-Avoidance Components Scale (FACS) is a new patient-reported measure designed to comprehensively evaluate FA in patients with painful medical conditions. It combines important components of FA found in prior FA scales, while trying to correct some of their deficiencies, within a framework of the most current FA model. Psychometric evaluation of the FACS found high internal consistency (α = 0.92) and high test/retest reliability (r = 0.90-0.94, P < 0.01). FACS scores differentiated between 2 separate chronic pain patient samples and a nonpatient comparison group. When clinically relevant severity levels were created, FACS severity scores were highly associated with FA-related patient-reported psychosocial and objective lifting performance variables. These results suggest that the FACS is a psychometrically strong and reliable measure that can help healthcare providers assess FA-related barriers to function and recovery.
Cho, Seung-Yeon; Shim, So-Ra; Rhee, Hak Young; Park, Hi-Joon; Jung, Woo-Sang; Moon, Sang-Kwan; Park, Jung-Mi; Ko, Chang-Nam; Cho, Ki-Ho; Park, Seong-Uk
This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of both acupuncture and bee venom acupuncture as adjuvant therapies for idiopathic Parkinson's disease. We recruited 43 adults with idiopathic Parkinson's disease who had been on a stable dose of antiparkinsonian medication for at least 1 month. They were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: acupuncture, bee venom acupuncture, or control. All participants were assessed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, the Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Berg Balance Scale, and the time and number of steps required to walk 30 m. Treatment groups underwent stimulation of 10 acupuncture points using acupuncture or bee venom acupuncture twice a week for 8 weeks. The initial assessment was repeated at the completion of treatment. The control group did not receive any treatment. Participants in the bee venom acupuncture group showed significant improvement on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (total score, as well as parts II and III individually), the Berg Balance Scale, and the 30 m walking time. When compared to the control group, the bee venom acupuncture group experienced significantly greater improvement on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. In the acupuncture group, the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (part III and total scores) and the Beck Depression Inventory showed significant improvement. The control group showed no significant changes in any outcome after 8 weeks. In this pilot study, both acupuncture and bee venom acupuncture showed promising results as adjuvant therapies for Parkinson's disease.
The reliability and validity of the Social Avoidance and Distress (SAD) and Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) scales developed by D. Watson and R. Friend (1969) were tested for their use with university students in Thailand. Thai translations of both tests were administered to 176 university students on two occasions, with a month between…
Muris, Peter; Ollendick, Thomas H; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Austin, Kristin
The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Short Form of the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (FSSC-R-SF) in non-clinical and clinically referred children and adolescents from the Netherlands and the United States. Exploratory as well as confirmatory factor analyses of the FSSC-R-SF yielded support for the hypothesized five-factor structure representing fears in the domains of (1) failure and criticism, (2) the unknown, (3) animals, (4) danger and death, and (5) medical affairs. The FSSC-R-SF showed satisfactory reliability and was capable of assessing gender and age differences in youths' fears and fearfulness that have been documented in previous research. Further, the convergent validity of the scale was good as shown by substantial and meaningful correlations with the full-length FSSC-R and alternative childhood anxiety measures. Finally, support was found for the discriminant validity of the scale. That is, clinically referred children and adolescents exhibited higher scores on the FSSC-R-SF total scale and most subscales as compared to their non-clinical counterparts. Moreover, within the clinical sample, children and adolescents with a major anxiety disorder generally displayed higher FSSC-R-SF scores than youths without such a diagnosis. Altogether, these findings indicate that the FSSC-R-SF is a brief, reliable, and valid scale for assessing fear sensitivities in children and adolescents.
Musetto, Andrew P.
Agoraphobia is a complex phobia in which individuals react with intense anxiety to certain stress situations. Basically, agoraphobics live in fear of becoming afraid. Describes the psychotherapeutic treatment that helps agoraphobics to become more self-sufficient and to face their fears by understanding themselves better. (CS)
Lin, Mu-Lien; Wu, Hung-Chien; Hsieh, Ya-Hui; Su, Chuan-Tsung; Shih, Yong-Sheng; Lin, Chii-Wann; Wu, Jih-Huah
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of laser acupuncture (LA) and soft cupping on low back pain. In this study, the subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: active group (real LA and soft cupping) and placebo group (sham laser and soft cupping). Visual analog scale (VAS) and Ryodoraku were used to evaluate the effect of treatment on low back pain in this trial. Laser, 40 mW, wavelength 808 nm, pulse rate 20 Hz, was used to irradiate Weizhong (BL40) and Ashi acupoints for 10 minutes. And the Ryodoraku values were measured 2 times, that is, before and 15 minutes after treatment. The results show that there were significant difference between the first day baseline and the fifth day treatment in VAS in the two groups. Therefore, LA combined with soft cupping or only soft cupping was effective on low back pain. However, the Ryodoraku values of Bladder Meridian of the placebo group have been decreased apparently, and didn't come back to their original values. It means that "cupping" plays the role of "leak or purge" in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). On the other hand, the Ryodoraku values of Bladder Meridian of the active group have been turned back to almost their original values; "mend or reinforcing" effect is attributed to the laser radiation.
Lin, Mu-Lien; Wu, Hung-Chien; Hsieh, Ya-Hui; Su, Chuan-Tsung; Shih, Yong-Sheng; Lin, Chii-Wann; Wu, Jih-Huah
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of laser acupuncture (LA) and soft cupping on low back pain. In this study, the subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: active group (real LA and soft cupping) and placebo group (sham laser and soft cupping). Visual analog scale (VAS) and Ryodoraku were used to evaluate the effect of treatment on low back pain in this trial. Laser, 40 mW, wavelength 808 nm, pulse rate 20 Hz, was used to irradiate Weizhong (BL40) and Ashi acupoints for 10 minutes. And the Ryodoraku values were measured 2 times, that is, before and 15 minutes after treatment. The results show that there were significant difference between the first day baseline and the fifth day treatment in VAS in the two groups. Therefore, LA combined with soft cupping or only soft cupping was effective on low back pain. However, the Ryodoraku values of Bladder Meridian of the placebo group have been decreased apparently, and didn't come back to their original values. It means that “cupping” plays the role of “leak or purge” in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). On the other hand, the Ryodoraku values of Bladder Meridian of the active group have been turned back to almost their original values; “mend or reinforcing” effect is attributed to the laser radiation. PMID:23118792
Pitarch, María José Gallego
The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Brief version of the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale - Straightforward Items (BFNE-S) in a non-clinical Spanish population. Rodebaugh et al. (2004) recommend the use of this scale composed of 8 straightforwardly-worded items, instead of the 12-item version of the BFNE. The sample consisted of 542 undergraduate students, 71.3% of whom were women and 28.7% were men; the mean age was 21.71 (4.78) years. Exploratory factor analysis produced one factor which accounted for 51.28% of variance. The internal consistency of the scale was alpha = .89. The BFNE-S correlated with the Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (r = .44), the Personal Report of Confidence as Speaker Modified (r = .44), the Public Speaking Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (r = -.38) and both subscales of the Self-Statements during Public Speaking (SSPS-P r = -.22; SSPS-N r = .53). ANOVAs revealed significant differences in the BFNE-S amongst a non-clinical population, persons suffering from specific social phobia, non-generalized social phobia and generalized social phobia.
Heeren, Alexandre; Ceschi, Grazia; Valentiner, David P; Dethier, Vincent; Philippot, Pierre
Background: The main aim of this study was to assess the reliability and structural validity of the French version of the 12-item version of the Personal Report of Confidence as Speaker (PRCS), one of the most promising measurements of public speaking fear. Methods: A total of 611 French-speaking volunteers were administered the French versions of the short PRCS, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale, as well as the Trait version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II, which assess the level of anxious and depressive symptoms, respectively. Results: Regarding its structural validity, confirmatory factor analyses indicated a single-factor solution, as implied by the original version. Good scale reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.86) was observed. The item discrimination analysis suggested that all the items contribute to the overall scale score reliability. The French version of the short PRCS showed significant correlations with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (r = 0.522), the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (r = 0.414), the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = 0.516), and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (r = 0.361). Conclusion: The French version of the short PRCS is a reliable and valid measure for the evaluation of the fear of public speaking among a French-speaking sample. These findings have critical consequences for the measurement of psychological and pharmacological treatment effectiveness in public speaking fear among a French-speaking sample. PMID:23662060
Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Woods, Carol M.; Thissen, David M.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Chambless, Dianne L.; Rapee, Ronald M.
Statistical methods designed for categorical data were used to perform confirmatory factor analyses and item response theory (IRT) analyses of the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (FNE; D. Watson & R. Friend, 1969) and the Brief FNE (BFNE; M. R. Leary, 1983). Results suggested that a 2-factor model fit the data better for both the FNE and the…
Liu, Liu; Lowe, Patricia A.
The current study examined the factor structure of the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation-Straightforward Items (BFNE-S) and the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation-Version 2 (BFNE-II) among 151 college students from the United States. Results indicated that the BFNE-S and the BFNE-II scores demonstrated excellent internal consistency reliability.…
Shi, Guang-Xia; Li, Qian-Qian; Yang, Bo-Feng; Liu, Yan; Guan, Li-Ping; Wu, Meng-Meng; Wang, Lin-Peng; Liu, Cun-Zhi
In this trial, patients who agreed to random assignment were allocated to a randomized acupuncture group (R-acupuncture group) or control group. Those who declined randomization were assigned to a nonrandomized acupuncture group (NR-acupuncture group). Patients in the R-acupuncture group and NR-acupuncture group received up to 21 acupuncture sessions during a period of 6 weeks plus routine care, while the control group received routine care alone. Cognitive function, activities of daily living, and quality of life were assessed by mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADL), and dementia quality of life questionnaire (DEMQOL), respectively. All the data were collected at baseline, after 6-week treatment, and after 4-week follow-up. No significant differences of MMSE scores were observed among the three groups but pooled-acupuncture group had significant higher score than control group. Compared to control group, ADL score significantly decreased in NR-acupuncture group and pooled-acupuncture group. For DEMQOL scores, no significant differences were observed among the three groups, as well as between pooled-acupuncture group and control group. Additional acupuncture to routine care may have beneficial effects on the improvements of cognitive status and activities of daily living but have limited efficacy on health-related quality of life in VaD patients. PMID:26495416
Musculoskeletal disorders are common in people who undertake adventure travel to the Antarctic, and in those who support them, because of the hard physical demands and lack of rest. This paper describes the successful use of acupuncture as first line treatment for ten patients in these circumstances, and comments on its advantages, particularly in its capacity to reduce the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Tippens, Kimberly M.; Connelly, Erin
Abstract Objectives Acupuncture utilization in the United States has increased in recent years, but is less common among racial/ethnic minorities and those of low socioeconomic status. Group-based, community acupuncture is a delivery model gaining in popularity around the United States, due in part to low-cost treatments provided on a sliding-fee scale. Affordable, community-based acupuncture may increase access to health care at a time when increasing numbers of people are uninsured. To assess the population using local community acupuncture clinics, sociodemographic factors, health status, and utilization patterns compared to national acupuncture users were examined. Design Data were employed from (1) a cross-sectional survey of 478 clients of two community acupuncture clinics in Portland, Oregon and (2) a nationally representative sample of acupuncture users from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey. Results Portland community acupuncture clients were more homogeneous racially, had higher educational attainment, lower household income, and were more likely to receive 10 or more treatments in the past 12 months (odds ratio=5.39, 95% confidence interval=3.54, 8.22), compared to a nationally representative sample of U.S. acupuncture users. Self-reported health status and medical reasons for seeking acupuncture treatment were similar in both groups. Back pain (21%), joint pain (17%), and depression (13%) were the most common conditions for seeking treatment at community acupuncture clinics. Conclusions Study findings suggest that local community acupuncture clinics reach individuals of a broad socioeconomic spectrum and may allow for increased frequency of treatment. Limited racial diversity among community acupuncture clients may reflect local demographics of Portland. In addition, exposure to and knowledge about acupuncture is likely to vary by race and ethnicity. Future studies should examine access, patient satisfaction, frequency of treatment, and clinical
Coolidge, Trilby; Arapostathis, Konstantinos Nikolaos; Emmanouil, Dimitris; Dabarakis, Nikolaos; Patrikiou, Antonis; Economides, Nikolaos; Kotsanos, Nikolaos
Background A growing body of literature describes the performance of dental fear questionnaires in various countries. We describe the psychometric properties of Greek versions of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) and the Dental Fear Survey (DFS) in adult Greek patients. Methods Greek versions of the MDAS and DFS were administered to two samples of adult dental patients. In the first sample, 195 patients attending one of three private practice dental offices in a large city in Greece completed the questionnaires in the waiting room before dental treatment. After treatment, their dentists (who did not know how the patients had answered the questionnaire) rated their anxiety during dental treatment. In the second sample, 41 patients attending a Greek university dental school clinic completed the questionnaire twice at two separate visits, in order to provide test-retest data. Cronbach's alpha was used to compute the internal consistencies, while Spearman's rho was used to compute the test-retest reliabilities. Construct validity was assessed by correlating the responses to the MDAS and DFS by Spearman's rho. Spearman's rho was also used to examine the criterion validities, by comparing the questionnaire responses with the dentists' ratings of anxiety. Results The internal consistencies for the MDAS were 0.90 and 0.92 in the two samples; for the DFS, the internal consistencies were 0.96 in both samples. The test-retest reliabilities were 0.94 for the MDAS and 0.95 for the DFS. The correlation between the two questionnaires was 0.89. The patients' responses to both questionnaires were significantly related to the dentists' ratings of their anxiety during dental treatment (both p values <0.001). Conclusion The results indicate that the Greek versions of the MDAS and DFS have good internal consistencies and test-retest reliabilities, as well as good construct and criterion validities. The psychometric properties of the Greek versions of these questionnaires appear
Izquierdo, Ivan; Furini, Cristiane R G; Myskiw, Jociane C
Fear memory is the best-studied form of memory. It was thoroughly investigated in the past 60 years mostly using two classical conditioning procedures (contextual fear conditioning and fear conditioning to a tone) and one instrumental procedure (one-trial inhibitory avoidance). Fear memory is formed in the hippocampus (contextual conditioning and inhibitory avoidance), in the basolateral amygdala (inhibitory avoidance), and in the lateral amygdala (conditioning to a tone). The circuitry involves, in addition, the pre- and infralimbic ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the central amygdala subnuclei, and the dentate gyrus. Fear learning models, notably inhibitory avoidance, have also been very useful for the analysis of the biochemical mechanisms of memory consolidation as a whole. These studies have capitalized on in vitro observations on long-term potentiation and other kinds of plasticity. The effect of a very large number of drugs on fear learning has been intensively studied, often as a prelude to the investigation of effects on anxiety. The extinction of fear learning involves to an extent a reversal of the flow of information in the mentioned structures and is used in the therapy of posttraumatic stress disorder and fear memories in general.
Poeschl, Sandra; Doering, Nicola
Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) applications use high levels of fidelity in order to produce high levels of presence and thereby elicit an emotional response for the user (like fear for phobia treatment). State of research shows mixed results for the correlation between anxiety and presence in virtual reality exposure, with differing results depending on specific anxiety disorders. A positive correlation for anxiety and presence for social anxiety disorder is not proven up to now. One reason might be that plausibility of the simulation, namely including key triggers for social anxiety (for example verbal and non-verbal behavior of virtual agents that reflects potentially negative human evaluation) might not be acknowledged in current presence questionnaires. A German scale for measuring co-presence and social presence for virtual reality (VR) fear of public speaking scenarios was developed based on a translation and adaption of existing co-presence and social presence questionnaires. A sample of N = 151 students rated co-presence and social presence after using a fear of public speaking application. Four correlated factors were derived by item- and principle axis factor analysis (Promax rotation), representing the presenter's reaction to virtual agents, the reactions of the virtual agents as perceived by the presenter, impression of interaction possibilities, and (co-)presence of other people in the virtual environment. The scale developed can be used as a starting point for future research and test construction for VR applications with a social context.
MILITARY ACUPUNCTURE OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES Acupuncture and NATO Jean-Louis Belard, MD, Ret French Army Col,1 and Arnyce R. Pock, MD, Col, USAF...describes an opportunity by which acupuncture could be utilized as part of the initial military medical response to a cataclysmic disaster. Key Words... Acupuncture , NATO INTRODUCTION The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)was established in April 1949 as an intergovern- mental alliance aimed
Alfhaily, F; Ewies, A A A
There is an increased interest amongst women in seeking alternatives for hormone replacement therapy because of their fear of side-effects. It is claimed that acupuncture is effective for curing menopausal symptoms, and to be a safe treatment in the hands of well-trained and qualified practitioners. About one million acupuncture treatments are given in the National Health Service and two million privately each year in England for various indications. However, because its mechanism of action is not fully understood in physiological terms, acupuncture is considered by many clinicians to be of no value. This article reviews the currently available evidence as regards the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture in treating menopausal symptoms.
le Jeune, Sarah; Henneman, Kimberly; May, Kevin
Acupuncture is one of the most common veterinary integrative medicine modalities. Acupuncture can greatly contribute to a rehabilitation protocol by promoting analgesia, tissue healing, and muscle strength. Acupuncture is safe, has minimal detrimental side effects, and is well tolerated by most horses.
Chen, Min; Wu, Changqiu; Wu, Xueyi
Numerology has a long history in China and has the profound impacts on every academic field in TCM, with acupuncture involved. In this paper, the impacts on acupuncture were discussed in different aspects such as the numbers of meridians, the length of meridian, the time taboo of acupuncture, acupuncture manipulation and time acupuncture. It was found that numerology had laid the critical impact on acupuncture and had the profound imprint nowadays. It is of great significance to study the numerology theory in its impacts on acupuncture, in the exploration on the theories behind acupuncture as well as the comprehensive understanding of acupuncture.
Lee, Sook-Hyun; Lim, Sabina
Abstract Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second-most-common chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disease. The long-term use of levodopa leads to a loss of efficacy and to complications. Therefore, many patients with PD have turned to complementary therapies to help relieve their symptoms. Acupuncture is most commonly used as a complementary therapy in patients with PD. This paper presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of acupuncture for patients with PD. This study was performed to summarize and evaluate evidence regarding the effectiveness of acupuncture in the relief of PD symptoms. Methods: Seven databases, namely, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI], and three Korean medical databases, were searched from their inception through August 2015 without language restrictions. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included if they contained reports of acupuncture compared with no treatment and conventional treatment alone or acupuncture plus conventional treatment compared with conventional treatment alone for PD symptoms. Assessments were performed with the unified PD rating scales (UPDRS) I, II, III, and IV and the total score, the Webster scale, and effectiveness rating. Methodological quality was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale and the Cochrane risk of bias (ROB). Results: In all, 982 potentially relevant articles were identified; 25 RCTs met our inclusion criterion, 19 of 25 RCTs were high-quality studies (i.e., a score of 6 or higher). The included RCTs showed favorable results for acupuncture plus conventional treatment compared with conventional treatment alone in the UPDRS II, III, and IV and the total score. Acupuncture was effective in relieving PD symptoms compared with no treatment and conventional treatment alone, and acupuncture plus conventional treatment had a more significant effect than conventional treatment alone
The author proposes an acupuncture which is characterized by its complete break with the ancient chinese physiopathology and its concepts of "acupuncture points" (in the old sense of the term) of "meridians", "energies", "ying-yang" etc.. This process of renewal of the practice and the theory has been coined "contemporary acupuncture". Its originality stands out in comparison with most teachings of acupuncture which have remained faithful to traditional acupuncture. Contemporary acupuncture creates bridges between acupunture and classical medicine. It offers simple therapeutic gestures to general practitioners. Acupuncture acts, from a clinical point of view, particularly through the following forms of action: a) a relaxing action on striated muscle; b) an anti-inflammatory action on the ligaments; c) an antidepressant and anxiolytic action.
Kim, Sun Kwang; Bae, Hyunsu
Acupuncture is probably the most popular alternative therapy practiced in the United States, Europe and many Asian countries. It has been applied clinically for more than 5 thousand years according to the ancient oriental medical theory. A great deal of acupuncture research has been achieved, with particular efforts toward understanding the pain control effects. In addition to the analgesic effect of acupuncture, an increasing number of studies have demonstrated that acupuncture treatment can control autonomic nerve system functions such as blood pressure regulation, sphincter Oddi relaxation, and immune modulation. Although only a limited number of controlled studies have assessed the efficacy of acupuncture, increasing clinical evidences support that EA treatment is effective for various immunological diseases including allergic disorders, infections, autoimmune diseases and immunodifficiency-syndromes. This review will address the mechanism of acupuncture in modulating various immune responses and the relationship between acupuncture mediated immune regulation and neurological involvement.
Garcia, Gabriela E; Ma, Sheng-Xing; Feng, Lili
Acupuncture as a complex therapeutic system has been used to treat a variety of diseases and pathological conditions. Although the exact mechanism(s) of acupuncture remains unknown, some evidence suggests a mechanism initially involving signal transduction through connective tissue, with secondary involvement of other systems including the nervous system. Acupuncture has become increasingly popular in the Western countries as a therapy for pain and several chronic disorders difficult to manage with conventional treatments. Acupuncture and acupuncture-like somatic nerve stimulation have been used in different kidney diseases and several complications related to them. The effect of acupuncture techniques in some kidney diseases is reviewed on the basis of clinical reports as well as mechanisms that may possibly explain the beneficial effects mediated by acupressure/acupuncture. The potential effect of acupressure techniques in renal inflammation and whether these effects could be mediated through the newly identified cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway are discussed.
Herry, Cyril; Ferraguti, Francesco; Singewald, Nicolas; Letzkus, Johannes J; Ehrlich, Ingrid; Lüthi, Andreas
Fear extinction is a form of inhibitory learning that allows for the adaptive control of conditioned fear responses. Although fear extinction is an active learning process that eventually leads to the formation of a consolidated extinction memory, it is a fragile behavioural state. Fear responses can recover spontaneously or subsequent to environmental influences, such as context changes or stress. Understanding the neuronal substrates of fear extinction is of tremendous clinical relevance, as extinction is the cornerstone of psychological therapy of several anxiety disorders and because the relapse of maladaptative fear and anxiety is a major clinical problem. Recent research has begun to shed light on the molecular and cellular processes underlying fear extinction. In particular, the acquisition, consolidation and expression of extinction memories are thought to be mediated by highly specific neuronal circuits embedded in a large-scale brain network including the amygdala, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and brain stem. Moreover, recent findings indicate that the neuronal circuitry of extinction is developmentally regulated. Here, we review emerging concepts of the neuronal circuitry of fear extinction, and highlight novel findings suggesting that the fragile phenomenon of extinction can be converted into a permanent erasure of fear memories. Finally, we discuss how research on genetic animal models of impaired extinction can further our understanding of the molecular and genetic bases of human anxiety disorders.
... a strong swimmer might have a fear of deep water. In this case, the fear is helpful because it cautions the person to stay safe. Someone could overcome this fear by learning how to swim safely. A fear can be ...
Auricular acupuncture is a method which has been successfully used in various fields of medicine especially in the treatment of pain relief. The introduction of lasers especially low-level lasers into medicine brought besides the already existing stimulation with needles and electricity an additional technique to auricular acupuncture. This literature research looks at the historical background, the development and the anatomical and neurological aspects of auricular acupuncture in general and auricular laser acupuncture in detail. Preliminary scientific findings on auricular acupuncture with laser have been described in detail and discussed critically in this review article. The results of the studies have shown evidence of the effect of auricular laser acupuncture. However, a comparison of these studies was impossible due to their different study designs. The most important technical as well as study parameters were described in detail in order to give more sufficient evidence and to improve the quality of future studies. PMID:23935695
Manheimer, Eric; Cheng, Ke; Linde, Klaus; Lao, Lixing; Yoo, Junghee; Wieland, Susan; van der Windt, Daniëlle AWM; Berman, Brian M; Bouter, Lex M
Background Peripheral joint osteoarthritis is a major cause of pain and functional limitation. Few treatments are safe and effective. Objectives To assess the effects of acupuncture for treating peripheral joint osteoarthritis. Search strategy We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 1), MEDLINE, and EMBASE (both through December 2007), and scanned reference lists of articles. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing needle acupuncture with a sham, another active treatment, or a waiting list control group in people with osteoarthritis of the knee, hip, or hand. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. We calculated standardized mean differences using the differences in improvements between groups. Main results Sixteen trials involving 3498 people were included. Twelve of the RCTs included only people with OA of the knee, 3 only OA of the hip, and 1 a mix of people with OA of the hip and/or knee. In comparison with a sham control, acupuncture showed statistically significant, short-term improvements in osteoarthritis pain (standardized mean difference -0.28, 95% confidence interval -0.45 to -0.11; 0.9 point greater improvement than sham on 20 point scale; absolute percent change 4.59%; relative percent change 10.32%; 9 trials; 1835 participants) and function (-0.28, -0.46 to -0.09; 2.7 point greater improvement on 68 point scale; absolute percent change 3.97%; relative percent change 8.63%); however, these pooled short-term benefits did not meet our predefined thresholds for clinical relevance (i.e. 1.3 points for pain; 3.57 points for function) and there was substantial statistical heterogeneity. Additionally, restriction to sham-controlled trials using shams judged most likely to adequately blind participants to treatment assignment (which were also the same shams judged most
Wei, Jia; Zhang, Chunyu; Li, Yadan; Xue, Song; Zhang, Jinfu
Background The 12-item brief version of the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (BFNE) is one of the most widely used instruments to assess fear of negative evaluation. Recent evidence strongly supports the version composed of 8 straightforward items (BFNE-S), which possessesstronger psychometric properties. The purpose of the current study is to examine the psychometric prop-erties of the Chinese versions of the BFNE and BFNE-S for middle school students. Methodology A total of 1009 middle school students were recruited in this study. The BFNE, the BFNE-S, the Friedman-Bendas Text Anxiety Scale (FBTAS), and the Social Anxiety Scale (SAS) were administered to 497 participants, and 52 participants were re-tested after four weeks. The BFNE, the BFNE-S, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) wereadministered to 492 participants. The BFNE and BFNE-S significantly cor-related with all the scales, supporting their convergent, divergent and concurrent validity. Principal Findings The Cronbach's alpha of the BFNE (BFNE-S) was 0.864 (0.867) with 497 par-ticipants and 0.886 (0.844) with 492 participants, and the test-retest reliability coefficient was 0.791 (0.855) (ICC). Although the EFA identified a two-factor solution in which the 8 straightfor-ward items loaded on one factor and the 4 reversed items loaded on the other, the CFA, using a random intercept model to control the wording effect, supported a unidimensional factor struc-ture of the BFNE. Both EFA and CFA supported the unidimensional assumption of the BFNE-S. The correlations of the BFNE and BFNE-S were 0.929 and 0.952 in two samples. Conclusions The Chinese versions of the BFNE and BFNE-S demonstrate adequate psychometric properties for assessing fear of negative evaluation. The results support their use among the Chinese middle school students. Considering its greater parsimony and excellent reliability and validity, the BFNE-S is a better tool. PMID
Kim, Jung Heon; Lee, Yong Jik; Hong, Jung Seok; Ahn, Ryeok; Hong, Eun Seog
Acupuncture-related hemopericardium is a rare but potentially fatal complication. We describe a hemopericardium that occurred shortly after acupuncture in a 55-year-old woman. A chest CT scan and echocardiography revealed a hemopericardium, and pericardiocentesis was then immediately and successfully performed. Subsequently, her clinical course improved. This case increases the attention of emergency physicians for acupuncture-related complications, especially hemopericardium, and the necessity of rapid diagnosis and management. PMID:21155058
Cheng, Ke; Wang, Xue; Guo, Menghu; Wieland, L. Susan; Shen, Xueyong; Lao, Lixing
This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: The objective of this review is to determine the effects and, when possible, the safety of acupuncture for the treatment of acute hordeola, in comparison to no specific treatment (e.g., observation), sham acupuncture, or other active treatments. Acupuncture as an adjuvant to another treatment also will be compared to that treatment alone. PMID:25214814
Zhuang, Yi; Xing, Jing-jing; Li, Juan; Zeng, Bai-Yun; Liang, Fan-rong
The acupuncture has been practiced in China for more than 3000 years and was spread to Europe and American from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century. The history of acupuncture research was initiated in the eighteenth century and developed rapidly since then. In the past, physicians tried hard to apply acupuncture into clinical practice, while scientists were focused on the possible characteristics of acupoints and meridians. In the modern time, scientists have strived hard to evaluate the real effectiveness of acupuncture and the underlying physiological and biological mechanisms of acupuncture. Reviewing research history from past to present, we are delighted to witness this wonderful development. Accumulated evidences that acupuncture is beneficial in various conditions significantly enhanced our understanding the mechanisms of acupuncture treatment. However, there is still no conclusive evidence in acupuncture clinical studies. The clinical research still needs great improving, while the basic research results need to be appropriately transformed into clinical outcomes. Based on current achievements, we believe that although the challenges and difficulties exist, a more collaborative, innovative, and integrated approach will help us to achieve further progress in future acupuncture research.
Zhang, Shujian; Zhang, Lijian
Acupuncture scientization was a consensus of most of acupuncture scholars who had long-term perspectives in the 20th century, among them Ms. ZHULian was the important one. Ms. ZHU Lian built a systemic new acupuncture" academic structure in practice and theory aspects. At the same time, as the main architect of Institute of Acupuncture-moxibustion of China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Ms. ZHU Lian was the first one who began to carry out the acupuncture clinical trail and laboratory experiment in modern way, which meant "acupuncture therapy" was transformed into "acupuncture science" by Ms. ZHULian's endeavor.
Bäcker, M; Tao, I; Dobos, G J
On the current discussion about efficacy and "point-specificity" of the needle therapy To improve the evidence base for acupuncture in pain treatment the German health insurance initiated the so called "Acupuncture randomised trials (ART)" and "German Acupuncture Trials" (GERAC) with a sample size of 300 (ART) and 1000 (GERAC) patients, providing a new dimension in acupuncture research. These studies have yielded data, which indicate that acupuncture is effective in the treatment of migraine, tension type headache, osteoarthritis of the knee and chronic low back pain. For the two latter indications acupuncture showed an even higher therapeutic response rate than conventional standard treatment. In migraine acupuncture showed an effect comparable to pharmacological treatment. The studies moreover indicate that the relevance of point-specific effects may have been overestimated concerning some indications. This article discusses the results of ART and GERAC, based on differentiating the mechanisms of action in acupuncture therapy. It is shown that the current data neither support the postulate of a "no-matter-where acupuncture" nor the irrefutability of the theorems of Chinese Medicine. Future studies will have to determine more precisely the mechanism by which the therapeutic effect of acupuncture is mediated. Furthermore, it will be necessary to find out more clearly in what diseases the location of needling represents the crucial part of the treatment and in what diseases rather different factors, like the intensity of stimulation or the doctor-patient interaction, are more relevant for the therapeutic effect. Research into acupuncture is still at the beginning. For this reason it should be avoided to draw premature and untenable conclusions from the current data.
Vanderploeg, Kristin; Yi, Xiaobin
For at least 2,500 years, acupuncture has been an integral part of traditional Chinese medicine. However, recently as more people in western countries are diagnosed with chronic disease poorly treated with modern medical therapies, many are turning to acupuncture and other forms of alternative medical treatments. Based on the theory of harmonious flowing qi being the basis of good health, acupuncture focuses on restoring qi by manipulation of the complementary and opposing elements of yin and yang. However, in the modern medical community we struggle to with the concept of qi, given a lack of anatomic and histological evidence supporting its existence. However, with the surge in public interest in acupuncture, the scientific community begun heavy investigation of acupuncture's efficacy, as well as the physiologic basis behind it. Thus far, evidence supports the use of acupuncture in post-operative nausea and vomiting, postoperative dental pain, chronic pain conditions such as lower back pain, and possibly also such psychologic conditions as addiction. It is possible that by affecting afferent nerve signaling, acupuncture may influence the release of endogenous opioids to promote pain relief. This effect may be augmented by release of ACTH and cortisol, as well as through down-regulation of signaling through pain fibers. When treating patients who may utilize alternative forms of medicine, it is important that medical practitioners be educated in regards to the basic fundamental beliefs behind acupuncture, as well as the scientific evidence supporting its use and revealing its efficacy. The purpose of this review is to give western trained physicians exposure to history, basic knowledge and its clinical applications of acupuncture to accommodate accelerating interests in acupuncture in modern society.
Spaeth, Rosa B.; Camhi, Stephanie; Hashmi, Javeria A.; Vangel, Mark; Wasan, Ajay D.; Edwards, Robert R.; Gollub, Randy L.; Kong, Jian
Deqi is one of the core concepts in acupuncture theory and encompasses a range of sensations. In this study, we used the MGH Acupuncture Sensation Scale (MASS) to measure and assess the reliability of the sensations evoked by acupuncture needle stimulation in a longitudinal clinical trial on knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients. The Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) was used as the clinical outcome. Thirty OA patients were randomized into one of three groups (high dose, low dose, and sham acupuncture) for 4 weeks. We found that, compared with sham acupuncture, real acupuncture (combining high and low doses) produced significant improvement in knee pain (P = .025) and function in sport (P = .049). Intraclass correlation analysis showed that patients reliably rated 11 of the 12 acupuncture sensations listed on the MASS and that heaviness was rated most consistently. Overall perceived sensation (MASS Index) (P = .014), ratings of soreness (P = .002), and aching (P = .002) differed significantly across acupuncture groups. Compared to sham acupuncture, real acupuncture reliably evoked stronger deqi sensations and led to better clinical outcomes when measured in a chronic pain population. Our findings highlight the MASS as a useful tool for measuring deqi in acupuncture research. PMID:23935656
Zeng, Shi-Lin; Xu, Jin-Shui
The development status of acupuncture and moxibustion in Tunisia is introduced in this article. Although acupuncture and moxibustion only has a history of more than 30 years in Tunisia, it is very popular among the local people. Until now, there is one acupuncture and moxibustion center aided and built with the help of the Chinese government. Acupuncture and moxibustion clinical department has been set in some of the hospitals, and acupuncture and moxibustion clinical practice is also carried out in some private clinics. Cost of acupuncture and moxibustion in public hospitals has already been covered by medical insurance. As for education of acupuncture and moxibustion, training courses were set up in medical colleges of Tunisia by Tunisian government which is lectured by Chinese acupuncture experts. Acupuncture and moxibustion has been used to treat many diseases in Tunisia and is warmly welcomed by Tunisian.
Lee, Myeong Soo; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Choi, Sun-Mi; Kim, Jong Yeol
The aim of this systematic review is to compile and critically evaluate the evidence from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) for the effectiveness of acupuncture using constitutional medicine compared to standard acupuncture. Ten databases were searched through to December 2008 without language restrictions. We also hand-searched nine Korean journals of oriental medicine. We included prospective RCTs of any form of acupuncture with or without electrical stimulation. The included trials had to investigate constitutional medicine. There were no restrictions on population characteristics. Forty-one relevant studies were identified, and three RCTs were included. The methodological quality of the trials was variable. One RCT found Sasang constitutional acupuncture to be superior to standard acupuncture in terms of the Unified PD Rating Scale and freezing gate in Parkinson's disease (PD). Another two RCTs reported favorable effects of eight constitutional acupuncture on pain reduction in patients with herniated nucleus pulposi and knee osteoarthritis. Meta-analysis demonstrated positive results for eight constitutional acupuncture compared to standard acupuncture on pain reduction (weighted mean difference: 10 cm VAS, 1.69, 95% CI 0.85-2.54, P < 0.0001; heterogeneity: tau(2) = 0.00, chi(2) = 0.00, P = 0.96, I(2) = 0%). Our results provide suggestive evidence for the effectiveness of constitutional acupuncture in treating pain conditions compared to standard acupuncture. However, the total number of RCTs and the total sample size included in our analysis were too small to draw definite conclusions. Future RCTs should assess larger patient samples with longer treatment periods and appropriate controls.
Manni, Luigi; Albanesi, Marcello; Guaragna, Morena; Barbaro Paparo, Samuele; Aloe, Luigi
The aim of this review is to report recent findings and ongoing studies on the effects of acupuncture on endogenous biological mediators, in particular on neurotrophins such as nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Acupuncture is a therapeutic technique and is a part of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Western descriptions of the clinical efficacy of acupuncture on pain, inflammation, motor dysfunction, mood disorders, and seizures are based on the stimulation of several classes of sensory afferent fibers and the consequent activation of physiological processes similar to those resulting from physical exercise or deep massage. The established research on the neuro-physiological correlates of acupuncture has pointed towards endogenous opioids as the principal biological mediators of the therapeutic actions of this ancient technique. More recently, several classes of molecules, such as neurotransmitters, cytokines and growth factors, have also been identified as possible mediators for specific acupuncture effects. This review will focus on the links between acupuncture and a class of growth factors known as neurotrophins (NTs), which are the main mediators of neural activity, plasticity and repair following neurodegeneration and/or traumatic injury. A special emphasis will be placed on the work of our laboratory investigating the role of nerve growth factor (NGF), the prototypical member of the neurotrophin family, as a mediator of acupuncture effects in the central nervous system (CNS) and as a modulator of sensory and autonomic activity.
Ha, Toan Huu; Liu, Hongjie; Li, Jian; Nield, Jennifer; Lu, Zhouping
The objective of this study was to design and assess measurement instruments that accurately measure the levels of stigma among individuals with a primarily collectivist culture. A cross-sectional study was conducted among middle school students and their parents or guardians in a rural area of China. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine and determine the latent factors of the sub-scales of stigma respectively, among students and their parents. Factor analyses identified three sub-scales: HIV public stigma (seven items), drug-use public stigma (nine items), and fear of HIV infection (seven items). There were no items with cross-loading onto multiple factors, supporting the distinctness of the constructs that these scales were meant to measure. Goodness of fit indices indicated that a three-factor solution fit, the data at an acceptable level in the student sample (χ(2) /degree ratio=1.98, comparative fit index [CFI]=0.92, root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA]=0.055, standardized root mean square residual [SRMR]=0.057) and in the parent sample (χ(2)/degree ratio=1.95, CFI=0.91, RMSEA=0.06, SRMR=0.059). Reliability of the three scales was excellent (Cronbach's alpha: 0.78-0.92 for students; 0.80-0.94 for parents or guardians) and stable across split samples and for the data as a whole. The scales are brief and suitable for use in developing countries where the collectivist culture prevails.
Chadee, Derek; Ng Ying, Nikita K; Chadee, Mary; Heath, Linda
Prior research on fear of crime has focused less on psychological causes than on sociological and demographic factors. This study, however, introduces time perspective (TP) as an important psychological variable in the understanding of fear of crime. Specifically, the article assesses the relationship between TP as a stable personality factor and the mediation of risk and general fear on fear of crime levels. Data were collected using the survey method from a sample of 375 respondents utilizing the following scales: Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) consisting of five TP subscales, Ferraro's perceived risk of victimization and fear of crime scales, and a general (non-crime) fear scale measuring pragmatic and abstract fear. Path analysis shows no significant direct relationships between the five TP subscales and fear of crime. However, indirect effects are observed for Past Negative TP and Present Fatalistic TP, with general fear (pragmatic and abstract) and risk of victimization mediating the relationship, and pragmatic fear having the greatest significant effect size. Results are discussed in the context of risk and general fear sensitivity and construal level theory. We conclude with recommendations for future research.
Chambless, Dianne L.
The fear of fear present in agoraphobics can be broken down into a fear of the body sensations associated with the panic attacks that plague agoraphobics and maladaptive thoughts about the possible consequences of panic. In a retrospective examination of clinical files, 32 agoraphobic patients were compared to 36 patients with simple social…
Lembo, Anthony J.; Conboy, Lisa; Kelley, John M.; Schnyer, Rosa S; McManus, Claire; Quilty, Mary T.; Kerr, Catherine E.; Jacobson, Eric E.; Davis, Roger B; Kaptchuk, Ted J.
Objective To compare the effects of true and sham acupuncture in relieving symptoms of IBS. Methods A total of 230 adult IBS patients (75% females, average age 38.4 yrs) were randomly assigned to 3 weeks of true or sham acupuncture (6 treatments) following a 3 week ‘run-in’ with sham acupuncture in an ‘augmented’ or ‘limited’ patient-practitioner interaction. A third arm of the study included a waitlist control group. The primary outcome was the IBS Global Improvement Scale (IBS-GIS) (range 1–7); secondary outcomes included IBS Symptom Severity Scale (IBS-SSS), Adequate Relief (IBS-AR) and IBS-Quality of life (IBS-QOL). Results Though there was no statistically significant difference between acupuncture and sham acupuncture on the IBS-GIS (41% vs. 32%, p=0.25), both groups improved significantly compared to the wait list control group (37% vs. 4%, p=0.001). Similarly, small differences that were not statistically significant favored acupuncture on the other three outcomes: IBS-AR (59% vs 57%, p=0.83), IBS-SSS (31% vs 21%, p=0.18) and IBS-QOL (17% vs 13%, p=0.56). Eliminating responders during the run-in period did not substantively change the results. Side effects were generally mild and only slightly greater in the acupuncture group. Conclusion This study did not find evidence to support the superiority of acupuncture compared to sham acupuncture in the treatment of IBS. PMID:19455132
Hunter, Emma K
This case study describes the use of acupuncture in a professional musician with myogenic temporomandibular dysfunction. The 3-year history of symptoms was associated with persistent episodic tension-type headaches. Acupuncture was used for trigger point release, primarily of the masticatory muscles, in conjunction with exercise therapy. After 8 weekly acupuncture sessions, the patient's pain had completely resloved, headaches had resolved and the Patient-Specific Functional Scale showed significant improvements.
large population. The Samueli Institute is currently testing the effectiveness of this standardized approach compared to a more holistic acupuncture...supported by the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Com‐ mand under Award No. W81XWH-06-1-0279 to Samueli Institute. The views, opinions and/or findings...and Wayne B. Jonas1 1 Samueli Institute, USA 2 United States Air Force Acupuncture Center, Joint Base Andrews, USA References  CDC National Center
Chen, Xiaoqin; Li, Ying; Zheng, Hui; Hu, Kaming; Zhang, Hongxing; Zhao, Ling; Li, Yan; Liu, Lian; Mang, Lingling; Yu, Shuyuan
Acupuncture to treat Bell's palsy is one of the most commonly used methods in China. There are a variety of acupuncture treatment options to treat Bell's palsy in clinical practice. Since Bell's palsy has three different path-stages (acute stage, resting stage and restoration stage), so whether acupuncture is effective in the different path-stages and which acupuncture treatment is the best method are major issues in acupuncture clinical trials about Bell's palsy. In this article, we report the design and protocol of a large sample multi-center randomized controlled trial to treat Bell's palsy with acupuncture. There are five acupuncture groups, with four according to different path-stages and one not. In total, 900 patients with Bell's palsy are enrolled in this study. These patients are randomly assigned to receive one of the following four treatment groups according to different path-stages, i.e. 1) staging acupuncture group, 2) staging acupuncture and moxibustion group, 3) staging electro-acupuncture group, 4) staging acupuncture along yangming musculature group or non-staging acupuncture control group. The outcome measurements in this trial are the effect comparison achieved among these five groups in terms of House-Brackmann scale (Global Score and Regional Score), Facial Disability Index scale, Classification scale of Facial Paralysis, and WHOQOL-BREF scale before randomization (baseline phase) and after randomization. The result of this trial will certify the efficacy of using staging acupuncture and moxibustion to treat Bell's palsy, and to approach a best acupuncture treatment among these five different methods for treating Bell's palsy.
in, Su-Ll; Gwak, Young S.; Kim, Hye Rim; Razzaq, Abdul; Lee, Kyeong-Seok; Kim, Hee Young; Chang, Suchan; Lee, Bong Hyo; Grimes, Craig A.; Yang, Chae Ha
Acupuncture as a therapeutic intervention has been widely used for treatment of many pathophysiological disorders. For achieving improved therapeutic effects, relatively thick acupuncture needles have been frequently used in clinical practice with, in turn, enhanced stimulation intensity. However due to the discomforting nature of the larger-diameter acupuncture needles there is considerable interest in developing advanced acupuncture therapeutical techniques that provide more comfort with improved efficacy. So motivated, we have developed a new class of acupuncture needles, porous acupuncture needles (PANs) with hierarchical micro/nano-scale conical pores upon the surface, fabricated via a simple and well known electrochemical process, with surface area approximately 20 times greater than conventional acupuncture needles. The performance of these high-surface-area PANs is evaluated by monitoring the electrophysiological and behavioral responses from the in vivo stimulation of Shenmen (HT7) points in Wistar rats, showing PANs to be more effective in controlling electrophysiological and behavioral responses than conventional acupuncture needles. Comparative analysis of cocaine induced locomotor activity using PANs and thick acupuncture needles shows enhanced performance of PANs with significantly less pain sensation. Our work offers a unique pathway for achieving a comfortable and improved acupuncture therapeutic effect.
In, Su-ll; Gwak, Young S.; Kim, Hye Rim; Razzaq, Abdul; Lee, Kyeong-Seok; Kim, Hee Young; Chang, SuChan; Lee, Bong Hyo; Grimes, Craig A.; Yang, Chae Ha
Acupuncture as a therapeutic intervention has been widely used for treatment of many pathophysiological disorders. For achieving improved therapeutic effects, relatively thick acupuncture needles have been frequently used in clinical practice with, in turn, enhanced stimulation intensity. However due to the discomforting nature of the larger-diameter acupuncture needles there is considerable interest in developing advanced acupuncture therapeutical techniques that provide more comfort with improved efficacy. So motivated, we have developed a new class of acupuncture needles, porous acupuncture needles (PANs) with hierarchical micro/nano-scale conical pores upon the surface, fabricated via a simple and well known electrochemical process, with surface area approximately 20 times greater than conventional acupuncture needles. The performance of these high-surface-area PANs is evaluated by monitoring the electrophysiological and behavioral responses from the in vivo stimulation of Shenmen (HT7) points in Wistar rats, showing PANs to be more effective in controlling electrophysiological and behavioral responses than conventional acupuncture needles. Comparative analysis of cocaine induced locomotor activity using PANs and thick acupuncture needles shows enhanced performance of PANs with significantly less pain sensation. Our work offers a unique pathway for achieving a comfortable and improved acupuncture therapeutic effect. PMID:27713547
In, Su-Ll; Gwak, Young S; Kim, Hye Rim; Razzaq, Abdul; Lee, Kyeong-Seok; Kim, Hee Young; Chang, SuChan; Lee, Bong Hyo; Grimes, Craig A; Yang, Chae Ha
Acupuncture as a therapeutic intervention has been widely used for treatment of many pathophysiological disorders. For achieving improved therapeutic effects, relatively thick acupuncture needles have been frequently used in clinical practice with, in turn, enhanced stimulation intensity. However due to the discomforting nature of the larger-diameter acupuncture needles there is considerable interest in developing advanced acupuncture therapeutical techniques that provide more comfort with improved efficacy. So motivated, we have developed a new class of acupuncture needles, porous acupuncture needles (PANs) with hierarchical micro/nano-scale conical pores upon the surface, fabricated via a simple and well known electrochemical process, with surface area approximately 20 times greater than conventional acupuncture needles. The performance of these high-surface-area PANs is evaluated by monitoring the electrophysiological and behavioral responses from the in vivo stimulation of Shenmen (HT7) points in Wistar rats, showing PANs to be more effective in controlling electrophysiological and behavioral responses than conventional acupuncture needles. Comparative analysis of cocaine induced locomotor activity using PANs and thick acupuncture needles shows enhanced performance of PANs with significantly less pain sensation. Our work offers a unique pathway for achieving a comfortable and improved acupuncture therapeutic effect.
Littlefield, Christine; Fleming, Stephen
Examined fear of death in 87 students who viewed films designed to manipulate anxiety. Results showed high scores on the Templer fear of death scale correlated with longer response latencies to death than neutral words on the word association test, indicating a positive association between direct and indirect measures. (JAC)
Thiagarajah, Anandan Gerard
INTRODUCTION Plantar fasciitis is a commonly seen outpatient condition that has numerous treatment modalities of varying degrees of efficacy. This systematic review aimed to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture in reducing pain caused by plantar fasciitis. METHODS Online literature searches were performed on the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases for studies on the use of acupuncture for pain caused by plantar fasciitis. Studies designed as randomised controlled trials and that compared acupuncture with standard treatments or had real versus sham acupuncture arms were selected. The Delphi list was used to assess the methodological quality of the studies retrieved. RESULTS Three studies that compared acupuncture with standard treatment and one study on real versus sham acupuncture were found. These showed that acupuncture significantly reduced pain levels in patients with plantar fasciitis, as measured on the visual analogue scale and the Plantar Fasciitis Pain/Disability Scale. These benefits were noted between four and eight weeks of treatment, with no further significant reduction in pain beyond this duration. Side effects were found to be minimal. CONCLUSION Although acupuncture may reduce plantar fasciitis pain in the short term, there is insufficient evidence for a definitive conclusion regarding its effectiveness in the longer term. Further research is required to strengthen the acceptance of acupuncture among healthcare providers. PMID:27526703
Yan, X. H.; Zhang, X. Y.; Liu, C. L.; Dang, R. S.; Ando, M.; Sugiyama, H.; Chen, H. S.; Ding, G. H.
The topographic structures of acupuncture points were investigated by using the synchrotron radiation based Dark Field Image (DFI) method. Four following acupuncture points were studied: Sanyinjiao, Neiguan, Zusanli and Tianshu. We have found that at acupuncture point regions there exists the accumulation of micro-vessels. The images taken in the surrounding tissue out of the acupuncture points do not show such kind of structure. It is the first time to reveal directly the specific structure of acupuncture points by X-ray imaging.
Shen, Yoshi F.; Younger, Jarred; Goddard, Greg; Mackey, Sean
Aims To evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture in treating symptoms associated with myofascial pain of the jaw muscles. Methods Twenty-eight subjects over the age of 18 and diagnosed with chronic myofascial pain of the jaw muscles were randomized to receive real (n = 16) or sham (n = 12) acupuncture. Prior to treatment, each subject clenched his or her teeth for 2 minutes. Acupuncture or sham acupuncture was then administered at the Hegu large intestine 4 (LI4) acupoint for 15 minutes. Real acupuncture was given by penetrating the needle through a sticky foam pad at the acupoint. Sham acupuncture was conducted by pricking the skin, without penetration, with a shortened, blunted acupuncture needle through a foam pad placed away from the acupoint. General head and neck pain ratings were obtained before and after treatment on a numerical rating scale. A mechanical pain stimulus on the masseter muscle was given before and after treatment and rated on a visual analog scale to measure pain tolerance level. Paired t tests were performed to detect significant changes in pain levels. Results Subjects receiving real acupuncture experienced a significant reduction in jaw pain (P = .04), jaw/face tightness (P = .04), and neck pain (P = .04), and a significant increase in pain tolerance of the masseter muscle (P = .001). Subjects were not able to determine whether they received real or sham acupuncture (P = .69). No significant pain reductions were observed in the sham acupuncture group. Conclusion A single acupuncture session using one acupoint at Hegu large intestine 4 significantly reduced most myofascial pain endpoints when compared to sham acupuncture. PMID:19888488
Brătilă, F; Moldovan, C
Harmonic Medicine is the model using the theory that the body rhythms synchronize to an outer rhythm applied for therapeutic purpose, can restores the energy balance in acupuncture channels and organs and the condition of well-being. The purpose of this scientific work was to demonstrate the role played by harmonic sounds in the stimulation of the Lung (LU) Meridian (Shoutaiyin Feijing) and of the Kidney (KI) Meridian (Zushaoyin Shenjing). It was used an original method that included: measurement and electronic sound stimulation of the Meridian Entry Point, measurement of Meridian Exit Point, computer data processing, bio feed-back adjustment of the music stimulation parameters. After data processing, it was found that the sound stimulation of the Lung Meridian Frequency is optimal between 122 Hz and 128 Hz, with an average of 124 Hz (87% of the subjects) and for Kidney Meridian from 118 Hz to 121 Hz, with an average of 120 Hz (67% of the subjects). The acupuncture stimulation was more intense for female subjects (> 7%) than for the male ones. We preliminarily consider that an informational resonance phenomenon can be developed between the acupuncture music stimulation frequency and the cellular dipole frequency, being a really "resonant frequency signature" of an acupoint. The harmonic generation and the electronic excitation or low-excitation status of an acupuncture point may be considered as a resonance mechanism. By this kind of acupunctural stimulation, a symphony may act and play a healer role.
Zhao, Jing-Jun; Rong, Pei-Jing; Shi, Li; Ben, Hui; Zhu, Bing
Acupuncture is an oldest somato stimulus medical technique. As the most representative peripheral nerve stimulation therapy, it has a complete system of theory and application and is applicable to a large population. This paper expounds the bionic origins of acupuncture and analyzes the physiological mechanism by which acupuncture works. For living creatures, functionally sound viscera and effective endurance of pain are essential for survival. This paper discusses the way in which acupuncture increases the pain threshold of living creatures and the underlying mechanism from the perspective of bionics. Acupuncture can also help to adjust visceral functions and works most effectively in facilitating the process of digestion and restraining visceral pain. This paper makes an in-depth overview of peripheral nerve stimulation therapy represented by acupuncture. We look forward to the revival of acupuncture, a long-standing somato stimulus medicine, in the modern medical systems.
Pach, Daniel; Yang-Strobel, Xiaoli; Lüdtke, Rainer; Roll, Stephanie; Icke, Katja; Brinkhaus, Benno; Witt, Claudia M
We aimed to compare the effectiveness of standardized and individualized acupuncture treatment in patients with chronic low back pain. A single-center randomized controlled single-blind trial was performed in a general medical practice in Germany run by a Chinese-born medical doctor trained in western and Chinese medicine. One hundred and fifty outpatients with chronic low back pain were randomly allocated to two groups (78 standardized and 72 individualized acupuncture). Patients received either standardized acupuncture or individualized acupuncture. Treatment encompassed between 10 and 15 treatments based on individual symptoms with two treatments per week. The main outcome measure was the area under the curve (AUC) summarizing eight weeks of daily rated pain severity measured with a visual analogue scale (0 mm = no pain, 100 mm = worst imaginable pain). No significant differences between groups were observed for the AUC (individualized acupuncture mean: 1768.7 (95% CI, 1460.4; 2077.1); standardized acupuncture 1482.9 (1177.2; 1788.7); group difference, 285.8 (-33.9; 605.5) P = 0.080). In this single-center trial, individualized acupuncture was not superior to standardized acupuncture for patients suffering from chronic pain. As a next step, a multicenter noninferiority study should be performed to investigate whether standardised acupuncture treatment for chronic low back pain might be applicable in a broader usual care setting. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00758017.
Aroxa, Fábio Henrique de Amorim; Gondim, Ihana Thaís Guerra de Oliveira; Santos, Elba Lúcia Wanderley; Coriolano, Maria das Graças Wanderley de Sales; Asano, Amdore Guescel C; Asano, Nadja Maria Jorge
There are few studies which attest the efficacy of acupuncture on treatment of sleep disturbs in Parkinson disease. The aimed of this randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the effects of acupuncture on sleep disturbs of 22 patients with diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson disease (Hoehn-Yahr 1 to 3) who have assistance on the Pro-Parkinson Program of Clinical Hospital at Federal University of Pernambuco in Brazil. All participants were evaluated by Parkinson Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS) before and after 8 weeks. The experimental group was submitted to 8 sections (once a week) which had duration of 30 minutes. The control group had no intervention. The intervention was executed using the acupuncture points LR3 (Taichong), SP6 (Sanyinjiao), LI4 (Hegu), TE5 (Wai-Guan), HT7 (Shenmen), PC6 (Neiguan), LI11 (Quchi), GB20 (Fengchi). Paired analyses were obtained by Wilcoxon test and independent analyses were made according to Mann-Whitney test. This study presented a potential therapeutic benefit of acupuncture on sleep disturbs of Parkinson's disease patients. This study showed a possible therapeutic benefit through acupuncture in sleep disorders in patients with PD. However, we propose new studies related to the effects of acupuncture on the clinical symptoms and evolution of the disease.
Chernyak, Grigory V.; Sessler, Daniel I.
Acupuncture and related techniques are increasingly practiced in conventional medical settings, and the number of patients willing to use these techniques is increasing. Despite more than 30 years of research, the exact mechanism of action and efficacy of acupuncture have not been established. Furthermore, most aspects of acupuncture have yet to be adequately tested. There thus remains considerable controversy about the role of acupuncture in clinical medicine. Acupuncture apparently does not reduce volatile anesthetic requirement by a clinically important amount. However, preoperative sedation seems to be a promising application of acupuncture in perioperative settings. Acupuncture may be effective for postoperative pain relief but requires a high level of expertise by the acupuncture practitioner. Acupuncture and related techniques can be used for treatment and prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting in routine clinical practice in combination with, or as an alternative to, conventional antiemetics when administered before induction of general anesthesia. Summary Statement: The use of acupuncture for perioperative analgesia, nausea and vomiting, sedation, anesthesia, and complications is reviewed. PMID:15851892
Lee, Myeong Soo; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Kong, Jae Cheol; Ernst, Edzard
The objective of this review is to assess the clinical evidence for or against acupuncture as a treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). We searched the literature using 17 databases from their inception to September 2007 (searched again 3rd January 2008), without language restrictions. We included all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) regardless of their design. Methodological quality was assessed using the Jadad score. Eleven RCTs met all inclusion criteria. Three RCTs assessed the effectiveness of acupuncture on Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) compared with placebo acupuncture. A meta-analysis of these studies showed no significant effect (n = 96, WMD, 5.7; 95% CI -2.8 to 14.2, P = 0.19, heterogeneity: tau(2) = 0, chi(2) = 0.97, P = 0.62, I(2) = 0%). Another six RCTs compared acupuncture plus conventional drugs on improvement of symptoms of PD with drugs only. A meta-analysis of two of these studies suggested a positive effect of scalp acupuncture (n = 106, RR, 1.46, 95% CI = 1.15 to 1.87, P = 0.002; heterogeneity: tau(2) = 0.00, chi(2) = 1.14, P = 0.29, I(2) = 12%). Two further RCTs tested acupuncture versus no treatment. The meta-analysis of these studies also suggested beneficial effects of acupuncture. The results of the latter two types of RCTs fail to adequately control for nonspecific effects. In conclusion, the evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture for treating PD is not convincing. The number and quality of trials as well as their total sample size are too low to draw any firm conclusion. Further rigorous trials are warranted.
Fear is powerful and pervasive in English schools and central to many education discourses. However, it has received very little "focussed" attention in the education literature, despite the increasing interest afforded to it in other disciplines. Understanding how fear works is extremely important as fear and wellbeing are inextricably…
We recently reported acupuncture sample injection that leads to reproducible injection of nL-scale sample segments into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel for microchip capillary electrophoresis. The advantages of the acupuncture injection in microchip capillary electrophoresis include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware and capability of introducing sample plugs into any desired position of a microchannel. However, the challenge in the previous study was to achieve reproducible, pL-scale sample injections into PDMS microchannels. In the present study, we introduce an acupuncture injection technique combined with electrokinetic injection (AICEI) technique to inject pL-scale sample segments for microchip capillary electrophoresis. We carried out the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) separation of FITC and fluorescein, and the mixture of 10 μM FITC and 10 μM fluorescein was separated completely by using the AICEI method. PMID:28326222
Pailhez, Guillem; Rosado, Silvia; Bulbena Cabré, Andrea; Bulbena, Antonio
Our purpose was to evaluate joint hypermobility, an inherited disorder of the connective tissue significantly associated with anxiety disorders, in a sample of nonclinical students in relation to the frequency of severe fears and consumption of chocolate, coffee, cigarettes, and alcohol. One hundred fifty students completed the Hakim and Grahame Simple Questionnaire to detect hypermobility and the self-administered modified Wolpe Fear Scale (100 items). Severe fears and daily consumption of cigarettes, alcohol, coffee, and chocolate were compared with the hypermobility scores. We found significant differences when comparing severe fears between the groups with and without hypermobility (7.6 vs. 11; p = 0.001), reinforcing the hypothesis that the intensity of fears is greater in subjects with hypermobility. Only the frequency of chocolate intake was significantly higher among subjects with hypermobility (31.2% vs. 51.2%; p = 0.038) and may correspond to attempts of self-treatment of the collagen condition.
Stör, W; Irnich, D
Acupuncture, which originated with traditional Chinese medicine, has been increasingly used in Western medicine over the last three decades. A huge body of scientific literature reports the physiological and clinical effects of acupuncture. In Germany, about 30,000 physicians apply acupuncture at least occasionally, and German health insurances reimburse acupuncture treatment for chronic low back pain and osteoarthritis of the knee. This overview discusses the most important historical, theoretical, practical, and scientific aspects of acupuncture in general, with a special look at anaesthesia. Regarding anaesthesia, supportive acupuncture treatment is performed for postoperative pain, anxiolysis, and postoperative nausea and vomiting, based on promising results of rigorous randomised trials. However, many unresolved questions remain, such as regarding specificity of concepts, indications, and optimum dose.
Stör, W; Irnich, D
Acupuncture, which originated with traditional Chinese medicine, has been increasingly used in Western medicine over the last three decades. A huge body of scientific literature reports the physiological and clinical effects of acupuncture. In Germany, about 30,000 physicians apply acupuncture at least occasionally, and German health insurances reimburse acupuncture treatment for chronic low back pain and osteoarthritis of the knee. This overview discusses the most important historical, theoretical, practical, and scientific aspects of acupuncture in general, with a special look at anaesthesia. Regarding anaesthesia, supportive acupuncture treatment is performed for postoperative pain, anxiolysis, and postoperative nausea and vomiting, based on promising results of rigorous randomised trials. However, many unresolved questions remain, such as regarding specificity of concepts, indications, and optimum dose.
Wang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Zengjian; Liu, Jian; Chen, Jun; Liu, Xian; Nie, Guangning; Byun, Joon-Seok; Liang, Yilin; Park, Joel; Huang, Ruiwang; Liu, Ming; Liu, Bo; Kong, Jian
As a widely-applied alternative therapy, acupuncture is gaining popularity in Western society. One challenge that remains, however, is incorporating it into mainstream medicine. One solution is to combine acupuncture with other conventional, mainstream treatments. In this study, we investigated the combination effect of acupuncture and the antidepressant fluoxetine, as well as its underlying mechanism using resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) in patients with major depressive disorders. Forty-six female depressed patients were randomized into a verum acupuncture plus fluoxetine or a sham acupuncture plus fluoxetine group for eight weeks. Resting-state fMRI data was collected before the first and last treatments. Results showed that compared with those in the sham acupuncture treatment, verum acupuncture treatment patients showed 1) greater clinical improvement as indicated by Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) scores; 2) increased rsFC between the left amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC)/preguenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC); 3) increased rsFC between the right amygdala and left parahippocampus (Para)/putamen (Pu). The strength of the amygdala-sgACC/pgACC rsFC was positively associated with corresponding clinical improvement (as indicated by a negative correlation with MADRS and SDS scores). Our findings demonstrate the additive effect of acupuncture to antidepressant treatment and suggest that this effect may be achieved through the limbic system, especially the amygdala and the ACC.
Buckley, Ralf C.
persists only during the most intense concentration. For events long enough to differentiate time within the events, fear and thrill can arise and fade in different fine-scale sequences. PMID:27559323
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0533 TITLE: Bench to Bedside: Understanding Symptom Response to Acupuncture Treatment and Designing a Successful... Acupuncture Treatment Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Lisa Conboy CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: New England School of Acupuncture ...Understanding Symptom Response to 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Acupuncture Treatment and Designing a Successful Acupuncture 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0533
Qin, Zongshi; Li, Bo; Wu, Jiani; Tian, Jinhui; Xie, Shang; Mao, Zhi; Zhou, Jing; Kim, Tae-Hun; Liu, Zhishun
Abstract Background: As 2 major common types of chronic diarrhea, functional diarrhea (FD) and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) affect 1.54% to 1.72% of people in China. Acupuncture is commonly used in clinical practice for patients with chronic diarrhea. Here, we present a protocol of systematic review aimed at systematically review all the clinical evidence on the effectiveness of acupuncture for treating FD and IBS-D in adults. Methods: The review will be performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement. We will search the following databases from their inception to January 2017: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, China Biology Medicine disc, Wan-Fang Data, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Citation Information by National Institute of Informatics, Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System by Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, and Japan Science and Technology Information Aggregator (J-stage). Clinical trial registrations will also be searched. Primary outcome measures are the change of bowel movements. The secondary outcomes include stool consistency, quality of life scales, other standardized rating scales, patient satisfaction, and acupuncture-related adverse effects assessment. Ethics and dissemination: This review does not require ethical approval and will be disseminated electronically or in print. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42015017574. PMID:28121941
Wasan, Ajay Darsh; Kong, Jian; Pham, Loc-Duyen; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Edwards, Robert; Gollub, Randy L.
Comorbid psychopathology is a variable not explored in the acupuncture RCTs that could explain whether subgroups of patients with chronic low back pain have differential responses to acupuncture or placebo treatments. This was a controlled, blinded, crossover trial of verum acupuncture and validated sham acupuncture in 40 CLBP patients, with a Low or High level of psychiatric comorbidity. They completed a 0–10 rating scale for pain at the beginning and end of each treatment session, and rated their expectations for change in pain. Verum acupuncture was performed at Large Intestine 4 on the dorsal right hand for 30 minutes by a licensed acupuncturist. Data analysis used percent improvement in pain as the primary outcome for each of the treatment sessions. Both groups (21 Low and 19 High) reported significant analgesia with verum acupuncture needling, mean 33%, p=.90 for difference between groups; and with placebo, 26%, p=.09. In both groups expectations were only a significant predictor of verum acupuncture response, p=.002, such that those with greater expectations had greater pain relief. Psychiatric comorbidity does not significantly impact acupuncture or placebo acupuncture analgesia in CLBP. It does not affect the positive impact of expectations on reported pain relief from real acupuncture. PMID:20075014
Crespin, Daniel J.; Griffin, Kristen H.; Johnson, Jill R.; Miller, Cynthia; Finch, Michael D.; Rivard, Rachael L.; Anseth, Scott; Dusek, Jeffery A.
Objective Given the risks of opioid medications, non-pharmacological strategies should be considered for total joint replacement patients. We investigated acupuncture as an adjunct therapy for post-surgical pain management in a total joint replacement program by examining which total hip and knee replacement patients elected to receive acupuncture and the effect of acupuncture on short-term pain. Design A total joint replacement program using fast-track physiotherapy offered elective post-surgical acupuncture to all patients, at no additional cost, as an adjunct therapy to opioids for pain management. Setting The Joint Replacement Center at Abbott Northwestern Hospital, a 630-bed teaching and specialty hospital in Minneapolis, Minnesota from 2010 to 2012. Subjects Our sample included 2,500 admissions of total hip and total knee replacement patients. Methods Self-reported pain was assessed before and after acupuncture using a 0-10 scale and categorized as none/mild (0-4) and moderate/severe pain (5-10). Results Seventy-five percent of admissions included acupuncture. Women (Odds Ratio: 1.48, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.22, 1.81) had higher odds of receiving acupuncture compared to men, and non-white patients (Odds Ratio: 0.55, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.39, 0.78) had lower odds of receiving acupuncture compared to white patients. Average short-term pain reduction was 1.91 points (95% Confidence Interval: 1.83, 1.99), a 45% reduction from the mean pre-pain score. Forty-one percent of patients reported moderate/severe pain prior to receiving acupuncture, while only 15% indicated moderate/severe pain after acupuncture. Conclusions Acupuncture may be a viable adjunct to pharmacological approaches for pain management after total hip or total knee replacement. PMID:25586769
Wang, Mingzhe; Li, Mao; Wang, Qiudong; Kwak, Shin; Jiang, Wenfei; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu
We evaluated the effects of acupuncture in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) by actigraph recordings. Among the 38 patients with RLS enrolled, 31 (M = 12, F = 19; mean age, 47.2 ± 9.7 years old) completed the study. Patients were treated with either standard acupuncture (n = 15) or randomized acupuncture (n = 16) in a single-blind manner for 6 weeks. Changes in nocturnal activity (NA) and early sleep activity (ESA) between week 0 (baseline), week 2, week 4, and week 6 were assessed using leg actigraph recordings, the International Restless Legs Syndrome Rating Scale (IRLSRS), and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Standard but not randomized acupuncture reduced the abnormal leg activity of NA and ESA significantly in week 2, week 4, and week 6 based on the changes in the clinical scores for IRLSRS and ESS in week 4 and week 6 compared with the baseline. No side effects were observed. The results indicate that standard acupuncture might improve the abnormal leg activity in RLS patients and thus is a potentially suitable integrative treatment for long-term use. PMID:25763089
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to pierce the skin in the practice of acupuncture. The device consists of a solid, stainless steel needle....
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to pierce the skin in the practice of acupuncture. The device consists of a solid, stainless steel needle....
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to pierce the skin in the practice of acupuncture. The device consists of a solid, stainless steel needle....
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to pierce the skin in the practice of acupuncture. The device consists of a solid, stainless steel needle....
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to pierce the skin in the practice of acupuncture. The device consists of a solid, stainless steel needle....
Huang, Yimei; Yang, Hongqin; Wang, Yuhua; Zheng, Liqin; Xie, Shusen
The physical properties of acupuncture point were important to discover the mechanism of acupuncture meridian. In this paper, we used an optical coherence tomography to monitor in vivo the changes of optical attenuation coefficients of Hegu acupuncture point and non-acupuncture point during laser irradiation on Yangxi acupuncture point. The optical attenuation coefficients of Hegu acupuncture point and non-acupuncture point were obtained by fitting the raw data according to the Beer-Lambert's law. The experimental results showed that the optical attenuation coefficient of Hegu acupuncture point decreased during the laser acupuncture, in contrast to a barely changed result in that of non-acupuncture point. The significant change of optical attenuation coefficient of Hegu acupuncture point indicated that there was a correlation between Hegu and Yangxi acupuncture points to some extent.
Mao, Wen-Chao; Liu, Bao-Yan; He, Li-Yun; Liu, Zhi-Shun
Differences and relations between effects of acupuncture therapy and sham acupuncture are systematically analyzed in this article through the influential factors of acupuncture effect. And it is held that sham acupuncture effect is not exactly equal to placebo effect. The effects of both acupuncture and sham acupuncture are composed by specific effects and non-specific effects, and the differences of non-specific effects between acupunc ture and sham acupuncture can be minimized furthest with blinding and randomized method. Therefore, the difference of acupuncture and sham acupuncture treatment rests with the degree of differences of the specific effects. Only when both of the specific effect of acupuncture and the effect of acupuncture are minimized, can it be applied as the ideal placebo control. Consequently when placebo acupunture are setted up, factors such as the body condition, site of stimulation and stimulation parameters which can influence the specific effect of acupuncture should be taken into consideration to produce the relatively minimum specific effect.
scalable to a large population. The Samueli Institute is currently testing the effectiveness of this standardized approach compared to a more holistic...is supported by the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Com‐ mand under Award No. W81XWH-06-1-0279 to Samueli Institute. The views, opinions and...Niemtzow2 and Wayne B. Jonas1 1 Samueli Institute, USA 2 United States Air Force Acupuncture Center, Joint Base Andrews, USA References  CDC
Background Dizziness is one of the most challenging symptoms in medicine. No medication for dizziness in current use has well-established curative or prophylactic value or is suitable for long-term palliative use. Unconventional remedies, such as acupuncture, should be considered and scientifically evaluated. However, there has been relatively little evidence in randomized controlled clinical trials on acupuncture to treat chronic dizziness. The aim of our study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture in patients with dizziness. Methods/Design This trial is a randomized, single-blind, controlled study. A total of 80 participants will be randomly assigned to two treatment groups receiving acupuncture and sham acupuncture treatment, respectively, for 4 weeks. The primary outcome measures are the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) and the Vertigo Symptom Scale (VSS). Treatment will be conducted over a period of 4 weeks, at a frequency of two sessions per week. The assessment is at baseline (before treatment initiation), 4 weeks after the first acupuncture session, and 8 weeks after the first acupuncture session. Discussion The results from this study will provide clinical evidence on the efficacy and safety of acupuncture in patients with chronic dizziness. Trial registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number Register: ISRCTN52695239 PMID:24330810
Mallory, Molly J; Croghan, Katrina A; Sandhu, Nicole P; Lemaine, Valerie; Degnim, Amy C; Bauer, Brent A; Cha, Stephen S; Croghan, Ivana T
Acupuncture is used to treat a variety of symptoms and conditions associated with cancer and cancer treatments. The present study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of providing acupuncture in the hospital setting for breast cancer patients and to evaluate the short-term effect of acupuncture on stress, anxiety, and pain. This was an open label study conducted at Mayo Clinic Hospital, Methodist and Saint Marys Campus, Rochester, Minnesota. A total of 20 adult breast cancer patients undergoing mastectomy and/or breast reconstruction were recruited and offered daily acupuncture intervention beginning postoperative day 1 and continuing for the duration of the hospital stay. Outcome measures included the Symptom Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Satisfaction Question and Was-it-Worth-it (WIWI) Questionnaire. It was found that acupuncture is a feasible option for postoperative breast cancer patients. In addition, it can significantly decrease the levels of anxiety (p = 0.0065), tension/muscular discomfort (p < 0.001) and pain (p = 0.023). The association between acupuncture and relaxation was found to be statistically borderline (p = 0.053). This feasibility study showed that acupuncture can be integrated into a busy postsurgical clinical practice. These results also suggest that acupuncture may be an important intervention in the postoperative setting for breast cancer patients.
Schlaeger, Judith M; Gabzdyl, Elizabeth M; Bussell, Jeanie L; Takakura, Nobuari; Yajima, Hiroyoshi; Takayama, Miho; Wilkie, Diana J
Acupuncture and acupressure, 2 modalities of Traditional Chinese Medicine, are based on reducing pain and symptoms of disease through balancing yin and yang. Acupuncture and acupressure have been used in China for reduction of labor pain, labor augmentation, and other intrapartum indications for more than 2 millennia. This article presents a review of the current literature that has addressed the effects of acupuncture and acupressure on intrapartum events. Studies of acupuncture have demonstrated that acupuncture may reduce labor pain, the use of pharmacologic agents, the use of forceps and vacuum-assisted births, and the length of labor. Studies that examined the effect of acupuncture on labor that is induced or augmented for premature rupture of membranes have found that acupuncture may increase the degree of cervical ripening but does not reduce the amount of oxytocin or epidural analgesia administration, nor does it shorten length of induced labor. Acupressure may reduce labor pain and labor duration, but acupressure has not been found to increase cervical ripening or induce labor. There are insufficient studies about acupuncture and acupressure and their effects on labor at this time, and there is need for further research. Areas of uncertainty include efficacy, optimal point selection, best techniques, and length of time for point stimulation.
Kilian-Kita, Aneta; Püsküllüoglu, Mirosława; Krzemieniecki, Krzysztof
The mystery of Traditional Chinese Medicine has been attracting people for years. Acupuncture, ranked among the most common services of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, has recently gained a lot of interest in the scientific world. Contemporary researchers have been continuously trying to shed light on its possible mechanism of action in human organism. Numerous studies pertaining to acupuncture’s application in cancer symptoms or treatment-related side effects management have already been published. Moreover, since the modern idea of acupuncture’s immunomodulating effect seems to be promising, scientists have propounded a concept of its potential application as part of direct anti-tumor therapy. In our previous study we summarized possible use of acupuncture in management of cancer symptoms and treatment-related ailments, such as chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, pain, xerostomia, vasomotor symptoms, neutropenia, fatigue, anxiety, insomnia, lymphoedema after mastectomy and peripheral neuropathy. This article reviews the studies concerning acupuncture as a possible tool in modern anticancer treatment. PMID:28239282
Zeng, Xiang-Hong; Li, Qian-Qian; Xu, Qian; Li, Fang; Liu, Cun-Zhi
Oxidative stress participates in the pathological process of various diseases. Acupuncture is a component of the health care system in China that can be traced back for at least 3000 years. Recently, increased evidences indicate that acupuncture stimulation could reduce oxidative damage in organisms under pathological state, but the exact mechanism remains unclear. This review focuses on the emerging links between acupuncture and redox modulation in various disorders, such as vascular dementia, Parkinson's disease, and hypertension, ranging from redox system, antioxidant system, anti-inflammatory system, and nervous system to signaling pathway. Although the molecular and cellular pathways studies of acupuncture effect on oxidative stress are preliminary, they represent an important step forward in the research of acupuncture antioxidative effect.
Barr, Peter; Cacciatore, Joanne
The study explored the relation of fear of death (Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale) to maternal grief (Perinatal Grief Scale-33) following miscarriage, stillbirth, neonatal death, or infant/child death. The 400 women participants were recruited from the website, e-mail lists, and parent groups of an organization that supports bereaved parents.…
Fox, Christopher; Asquith, Nicole L
Fear of crime (FoC) has dominated the political landscape over the last 20 years, with many crime policy developments during this period linked not to actual experiences of violence but to the fear of victimization. Fear of crime studies, in most cases, are conducted with populations that have only a passing, mediated knowledge of crime victimization. The research discussed in this article, in contrast, considers the impact of FoC with a highly victimized community, and establishes psychometric testing to validate an instrument to measure the impact of that fear (Fear of Heterosexism Scale [FoHS]). If FoC is related to experiences of crime as the existing research suggests, then victims of heterosexist prejudice, discrimination, and/or violence would be more likely to fear such incidents in the future. It was also predicted that participants who concealed their sexual and/or gender identity and had lower levels of social connectedness would experience higher levels of fear. The findings highlight the importance of contextual factors in FoH, and identify the critical roles that disclosure and social connectedness play in ameliorating the damaging effects of heterosexist victimization.
Lee, Jeungchan; Napadow, Vitaly; Kim, Jieun; Lee, Seunggi; Choi, Woojin; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Park, Kyungmo
In a clinical setting, acupuncture treatment consists of multiple components including somatosensory stimulation, treatment context, and attention to needle-based procedures. In order to dissociate somatosensory versus contextual and attentional aspects of acupuncture, we devised a novel form of placebo acupuncture, a visual manipulation dubbed phantom acupuncture, which reproduces the acupuncture needling ritual without somatosensory tactile stimulation. Subjects (N = 20) received both real (REAL) and phantom (PHNT) acupuncture. Subjects were retrospectively classified into two groups based on PHNT credibility (PHNTc, who found phantom acupuncture credible; and PHNTnc, who did not). Autonomic and psychophysical responses were monitored. We found that PHNT can be delivered in a credible manner. Acupuncture needling, a complex, ritualistic somatosensory intervention, induces sympathetic activation (phasic skin conductance [SC] response), which may be specific to the somatosensory component of acupuncture. In contrast, contextual effects, such as needling credibility, are instead associated with a shift toward relative cardiovagal activation (decreased heart rate) during needling and sympathetic inhibition (decreased SC) and parasympathetic activation (decreased pupil size) following acupuncture needling. Visual stimulation characterizing the needling ritual is an important factor for phasic autonomic responses to acupuncture and may undelie the needling orienting response. Our study suggests that phantom acupuncture can be a viable sham control for acupuncture as it completely excludes the somatosensory component of real needling while maintaining the credibility of the acupuncture treatment context in many subjects.
... With Fear of Recurrence Request Permissions Coping With Fear of Recurrence Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... affects your life. Tips for coping with the fear of recurrence Living with uncertainty is never easy. ...
For years, mainstream thinking about math anxiety assumed that people fear math because they are bad at it. However, a growing body of research shows a much more complicated relationship between math ability and anxiety. It is true that people who fear math have a tendency to avoid math-related classes, which decreases their math competence.…
Fear of success in a group of high school students (N=127) was studied, with research findings supporting the following generalizations: (1) high school students with an intermediate level of self-esteem have greater fear of success than those with high and low levels of self-esteem; (2) high school students with BSRI (Bem Sex Role Inventory)…
Enck, Paul; Klosterhalfen, Sibylle; Zipfel, Stephan
With growing use of acupuncture treatment in various clinical conditions, the question has been posed whether the reported effects reflect specific mechanisms of acupuncture or whether they represent placebo responses, as they often are similar in effect size and resemble similarities to placebo analgesia and its mechanisms. We reviewed the available literature for different placebos (sham procedures) used to control the acupuncture effects, for moderators and potential biases in respective clinical trials, and for central and peripheral mechanisms involved that would allow differentiation of placebo effects from acupuncture and sham acupuncture effects. While the evidence is still limited, it seems that biological differences exist between a placebo response, e.g. in placebo analgesia, and analgesic response during acupunture that does not occur with sham acupuncture. It seems advisable that clinical trials should include potential biomarkers of acupuncture, e.g. measures of the autonomic nervous system function to verify that acupuncture and sham acupuncture are different despite similar clinical effects.
Wang, Hai-Qiao; Bao, Chun-Ling; Jiao, Zhi-Hua; Dong, Gui-Rong
Abstract Background: Acupuncture, especially acupuncture treatment on head for acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), has long been disputable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of penetration acupuncture on head in patients with acute ICH. Methods: Eighty-two patients with acute ICH were randomized to receive penetration acupuncture treatment on head combined with conventional treatment (treatment group [TG]) or conventional treatment only (control group [CG]). Acupuncture treatments were given in 24 sessions over 4 weeks, with 3-month follow-up period. Measures included Clinical Neurological Function Deficit Scale (CNFDS), Barthel Index (BI), vital signs (respiration, heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation), and hematoma absorption ratio. Results: Both groups showed a progressively improvement in CNFDS and BI scores from day 7 to 90. The TG showed a significantly greater improvement in CNFDS than CG over time (P < 0.05). However, BI failed to show significant difference between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). The vital signs were stable and no expansion of hematoma occurred over the course of acupuncture treatment. Conclusion: Penetration acupuncture treatment on head appeared to be safe over the course of treatment on acute ICH and may result in additional functional improvements detected in the CNFDS but not reflected in the BI. A larger-scale clinical trial with longer follow-up assessments is required to confirm these findings. PMID:27902622
Each of us has felt afraid, and we can all recognize fear in many animal species. Yet there is no consensus in the scientific study of fear. Some argue that “fear” is a psychological construct rather than discoverable through scientific investigation. Others argue that the term “fear” cannot properly be applied to animals because we cannot know whether they feel afraid. Studies in rodents show that there are highly specific brain circuits for fear, whereas findings from human neuroimaging seem to make the opposite claim. Here I review the field and urge three approaches that could reconcile the debates. For one, we need a broadly comparative approach that would identify core components of fear conserved across phylogeny. This also pushes us towards the second point of emphasis: an ecological theory of fear that is essentially functional. Finally, we should aim even to incorporate the conscious experience of being afraid, reinvigorating the study of feelings across species. PMID:23347946
Motlagh, Farid Esmaeili; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Rashid, Rusdi Abd; Seghatoleslam, Tahereh; Habil, Hussain
Acupuncture therapy has been used to treat substance abuse. This study aims to review experimental studies examining the effects of acupuncture on addiction. Research and review articles on acupuncture treatment of substance abuse published between January 2000 and September 2014 were searched using the databases ISI Web of Science Core Collection and EBSCO's MEDLINE Complete. Clinical trial studies on the efficacy of acupuncture therapy for substance abuse were classified according to substance (cocaine, opioid, nicotine, and alcohol), and their treatment protocols, assessments, and findings were examined. A total of 119 studies were identified, of which 85 research articles addressed the efficacy of acupuncture for treating addiction. There were substantial variations in study protocols, particularly regarding treatment duration, frequency of electroacupuncture, duration of stimulation, and choice of acupoints. Contradictory results, intergroup differences, variation in sample sizes, and acupuncture placebo effects made it difficult to evaluate acupuncture effectiveness in drug addiction treatment. This review also identified a lack of rigorous study design, such as control of confounding variables by incorporating sham controls, sufficient sample sizes, reliable assessments, and adequately replicated experiments.
He, Wei; Wang, Xiaoyu; Shi, Hong; Shang, Hongyan; Li, Liang; Jing, Xianghong; Zhu, Bing
Auricular acupuncture has been utilized in the treatment of diseases for thousands of years. Dr. Paul Nogier firstly originated the concept of an inverted fetus map on the external ear. In the present study, the relationship between the auricular acupuncture and the vagal regulation has been reviewed. It has been shown that auricular acupuncture plays a role in vagal activity of autonomic functions of cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems. Mechanism studies suggested that afferent projections from especially the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (ABVN) to the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) form the anatomical basis for the vagal regulation of auricular acupuncture. Therefore, we proposed the “auriculovagal afferent pathway” (AVAP): both the autonomic and the central nervous system could be modified by auricular vagal stimulation via projections from the ABVN to the NTS. Auricular acupuncture is also proposed to prevent neurodegenerative diseases via vagal regulation. There is a controversy on the specificity and the efficacy of auricular acupoints for treating diseases. More clinical RCT trials on auricular acupuncture and experimental studies on the mechanism of auricular acupuncture should be further investigated. PMID:23304215
Shang, Charles; Szu, Harold
The growth control singularity model suggests that acupuncture points (acupoints) originate from organizers in embryogenesis. Organizers are singular points in growth control. Acupuncture can cause perturbation of a system with effects similar to simulated annealing. In clinical trial, the goal of a treatment is to relieve certain disorder which corresponds to reaching certain local optimum in simulated annealing. The self-organizing effect of the system is limited and related to the person's general health and age. Perturbation at acupoints can lead a stronger local excitation (analogous to higher annealing temperature) compared to perturbation at non-singular points (placebo control points). Such difference diminishes as the number of perturbed points increases due to the wider distribution of the limited self-organizing activity. This model explains the following facts from systematic reviews of acupuncture trials: 1. Properly chosen single acupoint treatment for certain disorder can lead to highly repeatable efficacy above placebo 2. When multiple acupoints are used, the result can be highly repeatable if the patients are relatively healthy and young but are usually mixed if the patients are old, frail and have multiple disorders at the same time as the number of local optima or comorbidities increases. 3. As number of acupoints used increases, the efficacy difference between sham and real acupuncture often diminishes. It predicted that the efficacy of acupuncture is negatively correlated to the disease chronicity, severity and patient's age. This is the first biological - physical model of acupuncture which can predict and guide clinical acupuncture research.
Law, Simon K; Li, Tianjing
Background Glaucoma is a multifactorial optic neuropathy in which there is an acquired loss of retinal ganglion cells at levels beyond normal age-related loss and corresponding atrophy of the optic nerve. Although there are many existing treatments, glaucoma is a chronic condition. Some patients may seek complementary or alternative medicine such as acupuncture to supplement their regular treatment. The underlying plausibility of acupuncture is that disorders related to the flow of Chi (the traditional Chinese concept translated as vital force or energy) can be prevented or treated by stimulating the relevant points on the body surface. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture in people with glaucoma. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 3), MEDLINE (January 1950 to March 2010), EMBASE (January 1980 to March 2010), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to March 2010), ZETOC (January 1993 to March 2010), Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) (January 1985 to March 2010), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine web site (NCCAM) (http://nccam.nih.gov). There were no language or date restrictions in the search for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 23 March 2010 with the exception of NCCAM which was last searched on 14 July 2010. We also handsearched Chinese medical journals at Peking Union Medical College Library in April 2007. Although the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Chinese Acupuncture Trials Register, the Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (TCMLARS), and the Chinese
Fogarty, Sarah; Ramjan, Lucie Michelle
Anorexia nervosa is a potentially life-threatening eating disorder where people intentionally refuse to eat sufficient amounts to maintain a healthy body-weight for fear of becoming fat. The intense preoccupation with restriction of food and control of body weight makes this one of the most complex and confusing conditions for practitioners to treat. While no single treatment has been found to be superior to another in the treatment of anorexia nervosa, general practice guidelines are available to guide mainstream treatment, however there are no guidelines for practitioners of complementary therapies. Complementary therapies such as acupuncture show promise as an adjunctive therapy in improving co-morbidities such as depression and anxiety levels among people with anorexia nervosa, by strengthening mind, body and overall well-being. The aim of this guideline is to assist and support acupuncture practitioners to deliver effective and safe adjunctive acupuncture treatments to people with anorexia nervosa, by providing a practice guideline that is underpinned by an ethical and evidence-based framework. The use of complementary therapies and specifically acupuncture in the treatment of anorexia nervosa may provide important adjunctive care to allow a comprehensive treatment approach that potentially improves quality of life, reduces anxiety and instils hope for recovery. It is hoped that acupuncture practitioners treating patients with anorexia nervosa will refer to these guidelines and apply the guidance (as deemed appropriate).
Yan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xinyi; Liu, Chenglin; Dang, Ruishan; Huang, Yuying; He, Wei; Ding, Guanghong
We used synchrotron x-ray fluorescence analysis to probe the distribution of four chemical elements in and around acupuncture points, two located in the forearm and two in the lower leg. Three of the four acupuncture points showed significantly elevated concentrations of elements Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in relation to levels in the surrounding tissue, with similar elevation ratios for Cu and Fe. The mapped distribution of these elements implies that each acupuncture point seems to be elliptical with the long axis along the meridian.
Li, Xue-feng; Wang, Xian
Cardiac injury is the most serious adverse event in acupuncture therapy. The causes include needling chest points near the heart, the cardiac enlargement and pericardial effusion that will enlarge the projected area on the body surface and make the proper depth of needling shorter, and the incorrect needling method of the points. Therefore, acupuncture practitioners must be familiar with the points of the heart projected area on the chest and the correct needling methods in order to reduce the risk of acupuncture therapy related cardiac injury.
Even though modern medicine continues to be governed by the morphological point of view, cybernetics and systems theory are beginning to gain in importance. The concept of "Infomedicine" serves as the basis for a discussion of regulation and the information mechanisms necessary for this to occur. Some of the new insights being made in physics, such as the theory of relativity, quantum physics, and chaos theory provide many valuable explanations. Acupuncture represents a regulation and information therapy, and many parallels can be drawn between traditional Chinese medicine and the discoveries being made in today's physics.
Du, Huai-bin; Liang, Fan-rong
PU Xiang-cheng is the eminent acupuncture master in modern history of China. He studied diligently in early years and devoted his life to the cause of acupuncture practice and education in Chinese medicine. Combination of acupuncture and herbal medicine, coordination of acupuncture and moxibustion, unique application of acupoints, flexible combination of acupoints and focusing on needling techniques are the essence of his academic thoughts. The life of PU Xiang-cheng, the acupuncture master, and his major academic thoughts are described in this paper, so as to commemorate his contributions to acupuncture theory, practice and promotions.
Li, Jie; Niu, Wenmin
Scalp acupuncture is a method of treating whole-body diseases. The author takes the easy positioning of scalp acupuncture as starting point, covers the positioning of scalp acupuncture and needle insertion points, acupuncture manipulation and the selection of acupoints, so as to introduce the design of teaching the international standardized scalp acupuncture with texts and illustrations. The positions of scalp acupuncture are 4 lines in frontal area, 5 lines in parietal area, 2 lines in temporal area and 3 lines in occipital area. The needle insertion angle is 30° to the skin. Acupoints can be selected crossly and correspondingly in clinic.
Acupuncture has traditionally been used for problems including anxiety, insomnia, stress, and depression in China and other East Asian countries. A range of different neurobiological responses to acupuncture have been investigated including modulation of serotonergic, noradrenergic, and dopaminergic systems; effects on GABA and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; and inflammatory responses. Interpretation of the findings is challenging because the neurobiology of psychiatric disorders has yet to be fully elucidated. Limitations also arise from the use of animal models and the selection of appropriate control treatments. Further complexity is added by acupuncture treatment being nonstandardized with acupuncture points often selected on the basis on traditional practice and theory. Potentially promising findings require further investigation and substantiation.
Jiao, Jian-Ling; Liu, Timon C.; Li, Cheng-Zhang; Liu, Song-Hao
Laser acupuncture as an alternative, noninvasive, painless and cost-effective therapy is widely used for acute and chronic pain, nausea, circulatory functions, and mood-related behavioral disorders. It was suggested one of the pathways mediated laser acupuncture was from laser biomodulation on acupuncture point cells to autonomic nervous subsystems through meridian. As laser irradiation used for acupuncture is red or infra red, we put forward the following model: at dose 1(100-3 J/m2), the irradiation activates parasympathetic nervous subsystem (PSN); at dose 2(103-5 J/m2), the irradiation activates sympathetic nervous subsystem (SN); at dose 3(105-6 J/m2), the irradiation activates PSN; and at dose 4(106-7 J/m2), the irradiation activates SN. This model was verified by its successful applications.
Background Menstrual-related migraine is a common form of migraine affecting >50% of female migraineurs. Acupuncture may be a choice for menstrual-related migraine, when pharmacological prophylaxis is not suitable. However, the efficacy of acupuncture has not been confirmed. We design and perform a randomized controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture compared with naproxen in menstrual-related migraine patients. Methods/Design This is a multicenter, single blind, randomized controlled clinical trial. A total of 184 participants will be randomly assigned to two different groups. Participants will receive verum acupuncture and placebo medicine in the treatment group, while participants in the control group will be treated with sham acupuncture and medicine (Naproxen Sustained Release Tablets). All treatments will be given for 3 months (menstrual cycles). The primary outcome measures are the change of migraine days inside the menstrual cycle and the proportion of responders (defined as the proportion of patients with at least a 50% reduction in the number of menstrual migraine days). The secondary outcome measures are the change of migraine days outside the menstrual cycle, duration of migraine attack, the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and intake of acute medication. The assessment will be made at baseline (before treatment), 3 months (menstrual cycles), and 4 months (menstrual cycles) after the first acupuncture session. Discussion The results of this trial will be helpful to supply the efficacy of acupuncture for menstrual-related migraine prophylaxis. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN57133712 PMID:24195839
Fear Memory in High and Low Fear Mice” Period of Award 01AUG2011-31JUL2013 Applicant Organization Henry M. Jackson Foundation Address of...1. REPORT DATE 18 NOV 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 01 AUG 2011 - 31 JUL 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Encoding of Fear Memory ...neurobiological illness and improve quality of life for nurses and patients. 15. SUBJECT TERMS fear memory , PTSD, high fear, neurobiological illness, fit
Jones, Elizabeth A.; Borgers, Sherry
Examined fears of fifth grade students and ways in which their parents perceived the fears. Responses from 66 students and 47 parents suggest that children have more fears than parents think they have. Children reported concerns over accidents, nuclear war, and death, while parents expected children to have more fears about scary movies, the dark,…
Li, Xin; Wang, Qiang
Acupuncture is one of the most important parts of Traditional Chinese Medicine, has been used for more than 3000 years as prevention and treatment for various diseases in China as well as in adjacent regions, and is widely accepted in western countries in recent years. More and more clinical trials revealed that acupuncture shows positive effect in stroke, not only as a complementary and alternative medicine for poststroke rehabilitation but also as a preventive strategy which could induce cerebral ischemic tolerance, especially when combined with modern electrotherapy. Acupuncture has some unique characteristics, which include acupoint specificity and parameter-dependent effect. It also involves complicated mechanism to exert the beneficial effect on stroke. Series of clinical trials have shown that acupuncture primarily regulates the release of neurochemicals, hemorheology, cerebral microcirculation, metabolism, neuronal activity, and the function of specific brain region. Animal studies showed that the effects of acupuncture therapy on stroke were possibly via inhibition of postischemic inflammatory reaction, stimulation of neurogenesis and angiogenesis, and influence on neural plasticity. Mechanisms for its preconditioning effect include activity enhancement of antioxidant, regulation of the endocannabinoid system, and inhibition of apoptosis. Although being controversial, acupuncture is a promising preventive and treatment strategy for stroke, but further high-quality clinical trials would be needed to provide more confirmative evidence.
Ondrejkovicova, Alena; Petrovics, Gabriel; Svitkova, Katarína; Bajtekova, Bibiana; Bangha, Ondrej
Acupuncture is one of the branches of Chinese Traditional Medicine dating back almost 5 000 years. The expansion of China's trade and business relations with other Asian countries brought about the spreading of acupuncture in 7th Century. Nowadays, acupuncture is an interdisciplinary clinical field of Medicine dealing with treatment, diagnostics and prevention of mainly functional disorders, algic, allergic and addictive conditions of various etiology, localization and intensity. It draws from the millennia of experience of Oriental Medicine as well as contemporary knowledge of morphology, physiology and neurophysiology. The acupuncture method is based on influencing the body functions in a precise way by controlled irritation of particular active meridian points using special needles, heat (moxibustion), pressure (acupressure), underpressure (cupping), electricity (electroacupuncture), light (laser therapy), ultrasound (sonopuncture), static or pulsating electromagnetic field (magnetic therapy) and solutions (pharmacopuncture).The use of acupuncture as a method of pain relief in Modern Western Medicine is based on a wide range of clinical trials, and there is no doubt that it has significant effect in the treatment of acute and chronic pain classification. The introduction of gate-control theory and endogenous opioids facilitated the recognition of acupuncture in pain treatment.
Acupuncture has played an important part in pain research. Bischko was the first in the Western hemisphere to undertake surgery using acupuncture analgesia. This tonsillectomy was performed in 1972. Decisive research work has been carried out at the Ludwig Boltzmann Acupuncture Institute in Vienna. We now have far more knowledge about the importance of the basic system. Furthermore, we know that the theories on chaos research, and, especially the fractals play an important role. Various ways of treating pain by means of acupuncture will be discussed: e.g. body acupuncture (with or without supportive transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation); treatment via the so-called somatotopies (ear, oral mucous membrane, scalp acupuncture according to Yamamoto etc.). The Ludwig Boltzmann Acupuncture Institute, in close collaboration with the II. Dept. of Internal Medicine at the Kaiserin-Elisabeth Hospital, Vienna, has been able to demonstrate on inpatients with a variety of conditions, that acupuncture could significantly reduce the quantity of analgesics required.
Crease, Robert P.
In 1988 the science historian Spencer Weart published a groundbreaking book called Nuclear Fear: A History of Images, which examined visions of radiation damage and nuclear disaster in newspapers, television, film, literature, advertisements and popular culture.
Kirkpatrick, Dwight R.; Berg, Alan J.
Previous studies on common fears have been vague and have not met requirements for using factor analysis. To avoid some of these problems, a broader age range and a separate analysis of males and females were designed for a sample of 545 individuals, ages 15-89, who responded to 133 fear-scale items. "Death of a loved one" was the greatest fear…
Ho, Wen-Chao; Chen, Chun-Chung; Chang, Chia-chi; Chen, Liang-Yu; Lee, De-Chih
Background and Purpose. The effect of acupuncture as treatment for poststroke complications is questionable. We performed a randomized, sham-controlled double-blind study to investigate it. Methods. Patients with first-time acute stroke were randomized to receive 24 sessions of either real or sham acupuncture during an eight-week period. The primary outcome measure was change in National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score. Secondary outcome measures included changes in Barthel Index (BI), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain scores. Results. Of the 52 patients who were randomized to receive acupuncture (n = 28) or placebo (n = 24), 10 patients in the acupuncture group and 9 patients in the placebo group failed to complete the treatment. In total, 18 patients in the acupuncture group and 15 patients in the control group completed the treatment course. Reduction in pain was significantly greater in the acupuncture group than in the control group (p value = 0.04). There were no significant differences in the other measures between the two groups. Conclusions. Acupuncture provided more effective poststroke pain relief than sham acupuncture treatment. However, acupuncture had no better effect on neurological, functional, and psychological improvement.
Aslaksen, Per M; Lyby, Peter S
Nocebo hyperalgesia has received sparse experimental attention compared to placebo analgesia. The aim of the present study was to investigate if personality traits and fear of pain could predict experimental nocebo hyperalgesia. One hundred and eleven healthy volunteers (76 females) participated in an experimental study in which personality traits and fear of pain were measured prior to induction of thermal heat pain. Personality traits were measured by the Big-Five Inventory-10. Fear of pain was measured by the Fear of Pain Questionnaire III. Heat pain was induced by a PC-controlled thermode. Pain was measured by a computerized visual analog scale. Stress levels during the experiment were measured by numerical rating scales. The participants were randomized to a Nocebo group or to a no-treatment Natural History group. The results revealed that pain and stress levels were significantly higher in the Nocebo group after nocebo treatment. Mediation analysis showed that higher levels of the Fear of Pain Questionnaire III factor "fear of medical pain" significantly increased stress levels after nocebo treatment and that higher stress levels were associated with increased nocebo hyperalgesic responses. There were no significant associations between any of the personality factors and the nocebo hyperalgesic effect. The results from the present study suggest that dispositional fear of pain might be a useful predictor for nocebo hyperalgesia and emotional states concomitant with expectations of increased pain. Furthermore, measurement of traits that are specific to pain experience is probably better suited for prediction of nocebo hyperalgesic responses compared to broad measures of personality.
Belgrade, M J; Solomon, L M; Lichter, E A
We evaluated the effect of acupuncture on histamine-induced itch and flare in healthy volunteers (n = 25) and compared it with the effect of a pseudo-acupuncture procedure and of no-intervention in a single-blind randomized cross-over study. A cumulative itch index is defined and was found to be smaller with acupuncture than with either pseudo-acupuncture (p less than 0.02) or with no-intervention (p less than 0.005). The duration of itching was shorter with acupuncture than with either pseudo-acupuncture (p = 0.006) or with no-intervention (p less than 0.001). In addition, maximal flare area was decreased with acupuncture compared with pseudo-acupuncture (p less than 0.04) and with no intervention (p = 0.003). Acupuncture had little or no effect on the itch onset time or on the maximal itch intensity after intradermal injection of histamine. Measurements of itching correlated poorly with measurements of flare size in all three experimental groups. Acupuncture appears to be an effective inhibitor of histamine-induced itch and flare. Moreover, acupuncture points displayed specificity in that needling near-by, non-acupuncture sites resulted in greater itching and larger flares.
Chen, Fang-Pey; Chang, Ching-Mao; Shiu, Jing-Huei; Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Wu, Ta-Peng; Yang, Jen-Lin; Kung, Yen-Ying; Chen, Fun-Jou; Chern, Chang-Ming; Hwang, Shinn-Jang
Complementary therapy with acupuncture for Parkinson's disease (PD) has been studied for quite a long time, but the effectiveness of the treatment still remains unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the integrated effects of acupuncture treatment in PD patients who received western medicine. In the short-term acupuncture treatment study, 20 patients received acupuncture therapy twice a week in acupoints DU 20, GB 20, LI 11, LI 10, LI 4, GB 31, ST 32, GB 34 and GB 38 along with western medicine for 18 weeks, and 20 controlled patients received western medicine only. In the long-term acupuncture treatment, 13 patients received acupuncture treatment twice a week for 36 weeks. The outcome parameters include Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory-Version 2 (BDI-II), and WHO quality of life (WHOQOL). In the short-term clinical trial, a higher percentage of patients in the acupuncture group had score improvement in UPDRS total scores (55% vs. 15%, p = 0.019), sub-score of mind, behavior and mood (85% vs. 25%, p < 0.001), activity of daily living (65% vs. 15%, p = 0.003), mobility (40% vs. 15%, p = 0.155) and complication of treatment (75% vs. 15%, p < 0.001), BDI-II score (85% vs. 35%, p = 0.003), and WHOQOL score (65% vs. 15%, p = 0.003) when compared to control group at the end of the 18 weeks' follow up. After 36 weeks of long-term acupuncture treatment, the mean UPDRS total scores and sub-score of mentation, behavior and mood, sub-score of complications of therapy and BDI-II score decreased significantly when compared to the pretreatment baseline. In conclusion, acupuncture treatment had integrated effects in reducing symptoms and signs of mind, behavior, mood, complications of therapy and depression in PD patients who received Western medicine.
Chen, Haiyong; Ning, Zhipeng; Lam, Wing Lok; Lam, Wai-Yee; Zhao, Ying Ke; Yeung, Jerry Wing Fai; Ng, Bacon Fung-Leung; Ziea, Eric Tat-Chi; Lao, Lixing
Analgesic effects of acupuncture have been extensively studied in various clinical trials. However, the conclusion remains controversial, even among large scale randomized controlled trials. This study aimed to evaluate the association between the conclusion of the trials and the types of control used in those trials via systematic review. Published randomized controlled trials of acupuncture for pain were retrieved from electronic databases (Medline, AMED, Cochrane libraries, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Clinicaltrials.gov, and CAB Abstracts) using a prespecified search strategy. One hundred and thirty-nine studies leading to 166 pairs of acupuncture-control treatment effect comparisons (26 studies comprised of 53 intervention-control pairs) were analyzed based on the proportion of positive conclusions in different control designs. We found that treatment effects of acupuncture compared with nontreatment controls had the highest tendency to yield a positive conclusion (84.3%), compared with nonneedle-insertion controls (53.3%). Whereas with needle-insertion controls, the lowest tendency of positive conclusions was observed (37.8%). Consistently, in studies reporting successful blinding, a higher tendency of positive findings on the treatment effect of acupuncture was found in the noninsertion sham controls compared with that in the insertion sham controls. We conclude that the type of control is likely to affect the conclusion in acupuncture analgesic trials. Appropriate control should be chosen according to the aims of studies.
Cochrane, Suzanne; Smith, Caroline A; Possamai-Inesedy, Alphia; Bensoussan, Alan
Background Acupuncture and other modalities of Chinese/East Asian medicine have been used to treat women’s health for many centuries. Gynecology specialties focus particularly on menstrual and reproductive disorders. Both the adoption of the use of acupuncture outside Asia, and the incorporation of scientific analysis in Asia have challenged biomedical conceptions of what can be achieved with this treatment method. The scale of research activity in relation to acupuncture and women’s health has increased over the last 20 years. Objective This review aims to explore the research evidence in relation to acupuncture use for women’s reproductive disorders, focusing on both clinical findings and experimental research on acupuncture’s mechanisms of action in relation to women’s health. Methods A narrative literature search was undertaken using searches of electronic databases and manual searches of journals and textbooks. The search included all literature published prior to June 2013. The literature was assessed as to the nature of the study it was reporting and findings synthesized into a commentary. Results For acupuncture’s mechanism of action the search resulted in 114 relevant documents; in relation to clinical reports on the use of acupuncture for women’s health 204 documents were found and assessed. Conclusion There is preliminary data indicating acupuncture may improve menstrual health and coping for women experiencing delays falling pregnant. There is experimental data showing that acupuncture can influence female reproductive functioning, although the actual mechanisms involved are not yet clarified. Further well-conducted clinical research would benefit our understanding of the usefulness of acupuncture to women’s health. PMID:24669195
Kaneko, Robert T.; Simeon, Erika; Moren, Alexis; Rowell, Susan; Watters, Jennifer M.
Abstract Background: Acupuncture-related pneumothorax (PTX) is a poorly reported complication of thoracic needling. Recent Chinese literature reviews cited PTXs as the most common adverse outcome. Because of delayed presentation, this complication is thought to be underrecognized by acupuncturists and is largely addressed by hospital and emergency room personnel. The goal of this case study was to demonstrate common risk factors for a PTX, the mechanisms for its development, and protocols to use if one is suspected. Case: A 43-year-old, athletic female with chronic neck pain that was poorly managed with oral medications sought an alternative intervention for pain control. Her treatment plan consisted of weekly acupuncture sessions in the prone and supine positions targeting points along the Bladder, Gall Bladder, and Small Intestine meridians, as well as the right scapular Ah Shi point. She also received infrared lamp therapy. The aim of this approach was to help the patient achieve subjective pain reduction and increased range of motion. Results: One hour after her third treatment session, this patient experienced pleuritic chest pain and dyspnea. She was transported to a local Level-1 trauma center by emergency medical services and was diagnosed with a right-sided PTX. Conclusions: The acupoints addressed, a practitioner's knowledge of variations in anatomy, and a patient's body habitus and medical history are risk factors for PTX development. A patient's initial presentation does not predict future outcome. A benign presentation can evolve into a potentially life-threatening cardiovascular collapse. When PTX is suspected, discussing it with the patient and facilitating appropriate evaluation and intervention by a tertiary-care facility is warranted. PMID:25184016
Kim, Hee Jin; Jeon, Beom S
This review aims to assess the evidences from recent clinical studies regarding the efficacy of acupuncture on Parkinson's disease. Relevant literatures were searched from 13 databases under the condition "published between 2000 and 2012" with language restrictions. Eleven studies were indentified including 6 randomized clinical trials (RCTs), 4 uncontrolled open label studies, and 1 crossover trial. The number of trials, and their total sample size were not enough to prove the favorable effects of acupuncture. Five studies failed to report proper diagnostic criteria for enrollment. Two of the 6 RCTs did not include the randomization methods and whether the assessors were blinded. Drop-outs were unreported or insufficiently reported in 2 trials. Three RCTs compared the effects of acupuncture with placebo acupuncture. Two of these trials failed to show superiority of acupuncture. One RCT showed beneficial effects of constitutional acupuncture, but not needle acupuncture. Three RCTs that assessed the effects of acupuncture adjunctive to conventional drugs reported beneficial effects of acupuncture. The placebo response to acupuncture was not excluded, because there was no control acupuncture group in these studies. Two uncontrolled studies showed significant positive effects of acupuncture, while other two uncontrolled trials failed. There were no recognized validated acupuncture treatment protocols and a lack of consensus on the location of acupoints. Safety and tolerability were reported only in 5 studies. No study evaluated the long-lasting effect of acupuncture following cessation of the treatment. To date, the evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture for treating Parkinson's disease is not convincing. There are needs for further studies with improved methodological quality.
The development of Chinese acupuncture in Algeria and realistic working status in recent years is in- troduced. From five aspects, including general condition of acupuncture in Algeria, clinical application and analysis, of acupuncture, promotion and publicity of acupuncture, existing problem and deficiency, and awards and honor, the status quo and progress of Chinese acupuncture in Algeria are discussed in detail.
Coeytaux, Remy R; Garland, Eric
Evidence supports the safety and efficacy of acupuncture compared with no treatment, but it is unclear what role the placebo effect plays in acupuncture's efficacy. In determining whether acupuncture is indicated for a given individual or patient population, clinicians should consider acupuncture's effectiveness compared with no acupuncture--as well as the effectiveness, safety, and cost of alternative types of treatment.
Cho, Young-Hun; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Heo, Kwang-Ho; Lee, Myeong Soo; Ha, In-Hyuk; Son, Dong Wuk; Choi, Byung Kwan; Song, Geun-Sung; Shin, Byung-Cheul
Objectives Acupuncture is commonly used as a complimentary treatment for pain management. However, there has been no systematic review summarizing the current evidence concerning the effectiveness of acupuncture for acute postoperative pain after back surgery. This systematic review aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment for acute postoperative pain (≤1 week) after back surgery. Methods We searched 15 electronic databases without language restrictions. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for eligibility and extracted data, outcomes, and risk of bias. Random effect meta-analyses and subgroup analyses were performed. Results Five trials, including 3 of high quality, met our inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis showed positive results for acupuncture treatment of pain after surgery in terms of the visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain intensity 24 hours after surgery, when compared to sham acupuncture (standard mean difference −0.67 (−1.04 to −0.31), P = 0.0003), whereas the other meta-analysis did not show a positive effect of acupuncture on 24-hour opiate demands when compared to sham acupuncture (standard mean difference −0.23 (−0.58 to 0.13), P = 0.21). Conclusion Our systematic review finds encouraging but limited evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment for acute postoperative pain after back surgery. Further rigorously designed clinical trials are required. PMID:24766648
Ha, Ji Won; Hahn, Jong Hoon
Acupuncture sample injection is a simple method to deliver well-defined nanoliter-scale sample plugs in PDMS microfluidic channels. This acupuncture injection method in microchip CE has several advantages, including minimization of sample consumption, the capability of serial injections of different sample solutions into the same microchannel, and the capability of injecting sample plugs into any desired position of a microchannel. Herein, we demonstrate that the simple and cost-effective acupuncture sample injection method can be used for PDMS microchip-based field amplified sample stacking in the most simplified straight channel by applying a single potential. We achieved the increase in electropherogram signals for the case of sample stacking. Furthermore, we present that microchip CGE of ΦX174 DNA-HaeⅢ digest can be performed with the acupuncture injection method on a glass microchip while minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware.
Hao, Linda Lingzhi
Chinese scalp acupuncture is a contemporary acupuncture technique integrating traditional Chinese needling methods with Western medical knowledge of representative areas of the cerebral cortex. It has been proven to be a most effective technique for treating acute and chronic central nervous system disorders. Scalp acupuncture often produces remarkable results with just a few needles and usually brings about immediate improvement, sometimes taking only several seconds to a minute. Acupuncture, a therapeutic technique of Oriental Medicine, can be traced back more than 2500 years. Throughout its long history, acupuncture has evolved as its own unique traditional medicine. By embracing newly developed knowledge and technology, the profession continues to create additional methods of treatment. Techniques such as electrical and laser acupuncture and even new acupuncture points are currently being developed. We believe scalp acupuncture, which integrates Western medicine with Traditional Chinese Medicine, to be the most significant development that Chinese acupuncture has made in the past 60 years. PMID:24278807
Yu, Daxiong; Ma, Ruijie; Fang, Jianqiao
There are many eminent acupuncture masters in modern times in the regions of Zhejiang province, which has developed the acupuncture schools of numerous characteristics and induces the important impacts at home and abroad. Through the literature collection on the acupuncture schools in Zhejiang and the interviews to the parties involved, it has been discovered that the acupuncture manipulation techniques of acupuncture masters in modern times are specifically featured. Those techniques are developed on the basis of Neijing (Internal Classic), Jinzhenfu (Ode to Gold Needle) and Zhenjiu Dacheng (Great Compendium of Acupuncture and Moxibustion). No matter to obey the old maxim or study by himself, every master lays the emphasis on the research and interpretation of classical theories and integrates the traditional with the modern. In the paper, the acupuncture manipulation techniques of Zhejiang acupuncture masters in modern times are stated from four aspects, named needling techniques in Internal Classic, feijingzouqi needling technique, penetrating needling technique and innovation of acupuncture manipulation.
Carlos, Luís; da Cruz, Lóris Aparecida Prado; Leopoldo, Vanessa Cristina; de Campos, Fabrício Ribeiro; de Almeida, Ana Maria; Silveira, Renata Cristina de Campos Pereira
ABSTRACT Objective: to identify and synthesize the evidence from randomized clinical trials that tested the effectiveness of traditional Chinese acupuncture in relation to sham acupuncture for the treatment of hot flashes in menopausal women with breast cancer. Method: systematic review guided by the recommendations of the Cochrane Collaboration. Citations were searched in the following databases: MEDLINE via PubMed, Web of Science, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and LILACS. A combination of the following keywords was used: breast neoplasm, acupuncture, acupuncture therapy, acupuncture points, placebos, sham treatment, hot flashes, hot flushes, menopause, climacteric, and vasomotor symptoms. Results: a total of 272 studies were identified, five of which were selected and analyzed. Slight superiority of traditional acupuncture compared with sham acupuncture was observed; however, there were no strong statistical associations. Conclusions: the evidence gathered was not sufficient to affirm the effectiveness of traditional acupuncture compared with sham acupuncture. PMID:27533271
Grillo, Cássia Maria; Wada, Ronaldo Seichi; da Luz Rosário de Sousa, Maria
Acute dental pain is the main reason for seeking dental services to provide urgent dental care; there is consensus about the use of alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, to control dental pain in pre-dental care. This study aimed to evaluate the use of acupuncture in reducing the intensity of acute dental pain in pre-dental care in patients waiting for emergency dental care, and was conducted at the After-Hours Emergency Dental Clinic of Piracicaba Dental School, and at the Emergency Center Dental Specialties I in Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil. The sample consisted of 120 patients. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to measure pain intensity. All patients underwent one session of acupuncture; the points LI4, ST44 and CV23 were selected and were used alone or in combinations. Reduction in pain was observed in 120 patients (mean initial VAS=6.558±1.886, p<0; mean final VAS=0.962±2.163, p<0.00001). The results of this study indicate that acupuncture analgesia could be a technical adjunct to pain control in patients with acute dental pain, contributing to the restoration of health with social benefit.
Higgins, Louise T.
To compare the culturally acquired aspects of fears in two different cultures, the author gave an augmented version of the I. M. Marks and A. M. Mathews Fear Scale (1979) to 50 female students in China and 49 female students in England. When the rank ordering of the fears measured in both groups was compared, the author found a high positive…
Yang, Jing-Wen; Li, Qian-Qian; Li, Fang; Fu, Qing-Nan; Zeng, Xiang-Hong; Liu, Cun-Zhi
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), as a complex medical science which reflects philosophical principles and embodies large dialectical thought, is used to place the human body into a large system for observation. Acupuncture as a vital part of TCM, has been practiced to treat various diseases and symptoms. However, acupuncture is also facing severe challenges resulted from insufficient modern scientific research. Nowadays, the holistic effects of acupuncture can be researched by some modern approaches, such as the systems biology and fMRI technique. It is believed that having a better understand will greatly promote acupuncture research and be beneficial to scientization and modernization of acupuncture. PMID:24527051
Serafini, Kelly; Bryant, Katurah; Ikomi, Jolomi; LaPaglia, Donna
Objective Acupuncture has been studied as an adjunct for addictions treatment. Because many hospitals, outpatient clinics, and facilities are integrating acupuncture treatment, it is important that psychiatrists remain informed about this treatment. This manuscript describes the National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) protocol and its inclusion as part of the curriculum for psychiatry addictions fellows. Methods Psychiatry and psychology fellows completed the NADA training (N = 20) and reported on their satisfaction with the training. Results Overall, participants stated that they found the training beneficial and many were integrating acupuncture within their current practice. Conclusions Results support the acceptability of acupuncture training among psychiatry fellows in this program. PMID:26048457
Cristian, Adrian; Katz, Meredith; Cutrone, Eileen; Walker, Ruth H
As many as 40% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) use some form of complementary medicine during the course of their illness, and many try acupuncture. One nonblinded study of the effects of acupuncture in PD suggested that it might be helpful for some aspects of PD. We performed a double-blind, randomized, pilot study comparing acupuncture to a control nonacupuncture procedure to determine the effects of acupuncture upon a variety of PD-associated symptoms. Fourteen patients with Stage II or III PD received acupuncture or a control nonacupuncture protocol. Before and after treatment, patients were evaluated using the Motor subscale of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39), and the Geriatric Depression Scale. There were no statistically significant changes for the outcomes measured. In the patients who received acupuncture, nonsignificant trends toward improvement were noted in the Activities of Daily Living score of the PDQ-39, the PDQ-39 Summary Index(c) 2005 Movement Disorder Society.
Quality assurance for acupuncture therapy requires a good basic and on-going training in both conventional western medicine as well as in the theory and practice of acupuncture, the ability to synthesize the patient's objective findings and subjective feelings, and honesty with the patient and towards oneself. Thus, based on the continuous critical evaluation of the objective and subjective parameters, the question of acupunture as the optimal form of therapy for this specific case is honestly answered and one has the courage to admit failures. With regard to the theory, surveys of the acupuncture literature show that a considerable improvement in quality and honesty is necessary. There is a lack of standardised experimental methods (e.g. 28 different placebos in 28 different studies!). Especially German acupuncture journals have a disturbed relation to failures. To hide or deny failures is of no benefit neither to acupuncture, science to the relationship between the physician and the patient since the practitioner must be able to rely on the information in the literature. Furthermore, one should be open minded to alternative methods even if this means to refer a patient to a colleague.
Wang, Zengjian; Wang, Xiaoyun; Liu, Jian; Chen, Jun; Liu, Xian; Nie, Guangning; Jorgenson, Kristen; Sohn, Ki Cheul; Huang, Ruiwang; Liu, Ming; Liu, Bo; Kong, Jian
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common disorder with a high prevalence and significant social and economic impacts. Nevertheless, the treatment of MDD is far from satisfactory. Acupuncture treatment has emerged as a promising method for treating MDD. However, the neural mechanism by which acupuncture reduces depressive symptoms is not fully understood. Studies have shown that the corticostriatal reward circuitry is associated with the pathophysiology of MDD; thus, we investigated the corticostriatal resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) before and after real and sham acupuncture treatments combined with the antidepressant fluoxetine. Forty-six female major depressive patients were assigned to either verum acupuncture plus fluoxetine (n = 22) or sham acupuncture plus fluoxetine (n = 24) treatment for 8 weeks, and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected before the first and after the last treatment sessions. The results showed that compared with sham acupuncture, the verum acupuncture group showed: (1) significantly increased rsFC between inferior ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex, ventral rostral putamen and amygdala/parahippocampus, as well as dorsal caudate and middle temporal gyrus; (2) significantly decreased rsFC between right ventral rostral putamen and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and right dorsal caudate and bilateral cerebellar tonsil. The increased rsFC between the inferior ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex, ventral rostral putamen and amygdala/parahippocampus were significantly positively associated with decreased clinical scores (Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale and Self-Rating Depression Scale scores) at the end of the eight-week treatment. Our findings suggest that acupuncture may achieve treatment effects by modulating the corticostriatal reward/motivation circuitry in MDD patients.
Bartlam, Bernadette; Bishop, Annette; Holden, Melanie A.; Barlas, Panos; Foster, Nadine E.
Background Low back pain is often accepted as a “normal” part of pregnancy. Despite research suggesting that quality of life for women who are pregnant is adversely affected, most are advised to self-manage. Although the use of acupuncture for the management of persistent nonspecific low back pain has been recommended in recent UK national guidelines, its use in the management of pregnancy-related low back pain remains limited. Objectives This study aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences of physical therapists involved in treating women who are pregnant and have low back pain with the objective of informing the pretrial training program for a pilot randomized trial (Evaluating Acupuncture and Standard care for pregnant womEn with Back pain [EASE Back]). Design A qualitative phenomenological method with purposive sampling was used in the study. Methods Three focus groups and 3 individual semistructured interviews were undertaken, and an iterative exploratory thematic analysis was performed. To ensure transparency of the research process and the decisions made, an audit trail was created. Results Twenty-one physical therapists participated, and emergent issues included: a lack of experience in treating pregnancy-related complaints, mixed messages from previous acupuncture education, a mistrust of the current evidence for acupuncture safety and effectiveness, and personal and professional fear of causing harm. Conclusions The findings suggest that UK physical therapists are reluctant to use acupuncture in the management of pregnancy-related low back pain. The explanations for these findings include perceived lack of knowledge and confidence, as well as a pervasive professional culture of caution, particularly fears of inducing early labor and of litigation. These findings have been key to informing the content of the training program for physical therapists delivering acupuncture within the pilot EASE Back trial. PMID:25929530
The biological effects of acupuncture include the regulation of a variety of neurohumoral factors and growth control factors. In science, models or hypotheses with confirmed predictions are considered more convincing than models solely based on retrospective explanations. Literature review showed that two biological models of acupuncture have been prospectively tested with independently confirmed predictions: The neurophysiology model on the long-term effects of acupuncture emphasizes the trophic and anti-inflammatory effects of acupuncture. Its prediction on the peripheral effect of endorphin in acupuncture has been confirmed. The growth control model encompasses the neurophysiology model and suggests that a macroscopic growth control system originates from a network of organizers in embryogenesis. The activity of the growth control system is important in the formation, maintenance and regulation of all the physiological systems. Several phenomena of acupuncture such as the distribution of auricular acupuncture points, the long-term effects of acupuncture and the effect of multimodal non-specific stimulation at acupuncture points are consistent with the growth control model. The following predictions of the growth control model have been independently confirmed by research results in both acupuncture and conventional biomedical sciences: (i) Acupuncture has extensive growth control effects. (ii) Singular point and separatrix exist in morphogenesis. (iii) Organizers have high electric conductance, high current density and high density of gap junctions. (iv) A high density of gap junctions is distributed as separatrices or boundaries at body surface after early embryogenesis. (v) Many acupuncture points are located at transition points or boundaries between different body domains or muscles, coinciding with the connective tissue planes. (vi) Some morphogens and organizers continue to function after embryogenesis. Current acupuncture research suggests a convergence
Dilber, Dario; Čerkez-Habek, Jasna; Barić, Hrvoje; Gradišer, Marina
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia and it is an independent risk for serious events. Acupuncture has been growing in popularity in the West, and there are reports of its benefits in treating AF. We report a 57-year-old man who was admitted after having an allergic reaction to amiodarone administered to treat paroxysmal AF with fast ventricular response. Cardioversion with intravenous propafenone was uneventful. Before an attempt of electric cardioversion, he was treated with acupuncture as additional therapy to peroral propafenone. After acupuncture treatment consisting of 10 treatments during 30 days period, both immediate cardioversion to sinus rhythm and no paroxysmal AF during 30 days period were recorded. PMID:26593171
During the past 40 years, acupuncture, a therapeutic technique of oriental medicine, has become more and more popular, evolving into one of the most utilized forms of complementary integrative medicine interventions in the United States. In fact, more than 10 million acupuncture treatments are administered annually in the United States alone.1 Its rise in popularity, particularly in the West, can be attributed in part to its effectiveness for pain relief and in part to the fact that scientific studies have begun to prove its efficacy. PMID:25105069
Zotelli, Vera Lucia Rasera; Grillo, Cássia Maria; de Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture point PC6 (Neiguan) in controlling nausea during intraoral impression taking. This study was conducted in Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil. The sample consisted of 33 adult volunteers with nausea, who were randomly divided into control and study groups, and treated with nonpenetrating sham acupuncture and real acupuncture, respectively, at acupoint PC6. The two groups had two maxillary impressions taken, one prior to acupuncture and the other after acupuncture. The nausea assessment was made using the visual analog scale, Gagging Severity Index (GSI), and Gagging Prevention Index. Volunteers' expectation that nausea would be reduced through acupuncture was also assessed. For statistical analysis, we used the t test and the Spearman correlation (p < 0.05). When assessed by Gagging Severity Index/Gagging Prevention Index, nausea was reduced in the real acupuncture group (p < 0.01). In the visual analog scale assessment, similar reductions of nausea were noted in both groups (p > 0.05). No correlation existed between the expected and the actual reductions in nausea. Our results indicate that acupoint PC6 was effective for controlling nausea during the maxillary impression-taking procedure. Patients' expectation did not influence the results.
Academic thinking on Cheng Dan-an's theory of acupuncture is analyzed. It is stated that Cheng's theory of acupuncture has put exceptional emphasis and efforts on inheriting the tradition and learning from the west by pursuing truth. He concisely reinterpretes the traditional theory of acupuncture and practically improves the acupuncture instruments according to clinical experiences. Meanwhile, he introduces the advanced achievements of anatomy and neurophysiology into acupuncture teaching and research, which plays an important role for modernization of acupuncture.
Penson, Richard T; Partridge, Rosamund A; Shah, Muhammad A; Giansiracusa, David; Chabner, Bruce A; Lynch, Thomas J
Shortly before his death in 1995, Kenneth B. Schwartz, a cancer patient at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) founded The Kenneth B. Schwartz Center at MGH. The Schwartz Center is a nonprofit organization dedicated to supporting and advancing compassionate health care delivery, which provides hope to the patient and support to caregivers and encourages the healing process. The center sponsors the Schwartz Center Rounds, a monthly multidisciplinary forum where caregivers reflect on important psychosocial issues faced by patients, their families, and their caregivers, and gain insight and support from fellow staff members. For many, cancer is synonymous with death. Fearing death is a rational response. For too long, medicine has ignored this primeval fear. Increasingly, clinicians recognize and address end-of-life issues, facing patients' and our own emotional vulnerabilities in order to connect and explore problems and fears. Listening and learning from the patient guides us as we acknowledge much of the mystery that still surrounds the dying process. Rarely is there a simple or right answer. An empathetic response to suffering patients is the best support. Support is vital in fostering the adjustment of patients. A silent presence may prove more helpful than well-meant counsel for many patients. Through an examination of eight caregiver narratives of their patients' experiences, the role of the health care provider in the dying process, particularly in regard to challenging fear, is reviewed.
Itoh, Kazunori; Saito, Shingo; Sahara, Shunsaku; Naitoh, Yuki; Imai, Kenji; Kitakoji, Hiroshi
There is evidence for the efficacy of acupuncture treatment for chronic shoulder pain, but it remains unclear which acupuncture modes are most effective. We compared the effect of trigger point acupuncture (TrP), with that of sham (SH) acupuncture treatments, on pain and shoulder function in patients with chronic shoulder pain. The participants were 18 patients (15 women, 3 men; aged 42-65 years) with nonradiating shoulder pain for at least 6 months and normal neurological findings. The participants were randomized into two groups, each receiving five treatment sessions. The TrP group received treatment at trigger points for the muscle, while the other group received SH acupuncture treatment on the same muscle. Outcome measures were pain intensity (visual analogue scale, VAS) and shoulder function (Constant-Murley Score: CMS). After treatment, pain intensity between pretreatment and 5 weeks after TrP decreased significantly (p<0.001). Shoulder function also increased significantly between pretreatment and 5 weeks after TrP (p<0.001). A comparison using the area under the outcome curves demonstrated a significant difference between groups (p=0.024). Compared with SH acupuncture therapy, TrP therapy appears more effective for chronic shoulder pain.
Hadianfard, Mohammadjavad; Bazrafshan, Esmaeel; Momeninejad, Hadi; Jahani, Navid
This study compared the efficacies of acupuncture and anti-inflammatory treatment in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Fifty patients with mild to moderate CTS were randomly divided into two groups. Both groups received night wrist splints as the standard conservative treatment for 1 month. The acupuncture group also received eight sessions of acupuncture therapy (twice a week for 4 weeks). The control group received 400 mg of ibuprofen three times a day for 10 days. The visual analog scale (VAS) score, the score on the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire for Functional Status and Symptom Severity (BCTQ FUNCT and SYMPT), and the electrodiagnostic findings were evaluated at baseline and 1 month after treatment. At the final follow up, significant improvements were found in both groups (p < 0.05). Statistically significant improvements were observed in the VAS score, the score on the global BCTQ FUNCT and SYMPT, and the electrodiagnostic findings, but not in the distal motor latency (DML), in the acupuncture group (p < 0.05). Our findings indicate that acupuncture affected the score on the global BCTQ FUNCT and SYMPT, the VAS score, and the electrodiagnostic findings, except the DML, more than ibuprofen did and that acupuncture might be an effective treatment for CTS.
Pappens, Meike; Smets, Elyn; Van Den Bergh, Omer; Van Diest, Ilse
We aimed to investigate whether fear of suffocation predicts healthy persons' respiratory and affective responses to obstructed breathing as evoked by inspiratory resistive loads. Participants (N = 27 women, ages between 18 and 21 years) completed the Fear of Suffocation scale and underwent 16 trials in which an inspiratory resistive load of 15 cmH(2)O/l/s (small) or 40 cmH(2)O/l/s (large) was added to the breathing circuit for 40 s. Fear of suffocation was associated with higher arousal ratings for both loads. Loaded breathing was associated with a decrease in minute ventilation, but progressively less so for participants scoring higher on fear of suffocation when breathing against the large load. The present findings document a potentially panicogenic mechanism that may maintain and worsen respiratory discomfort in persons with fear of suffocation.
Costa, Daniel S J; Smith, Allan Ben; Fardell, Joanna E
Fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) is increasingly recognised as a major concern for people with cancer once active treatment is completed. Several instruments have been designed to assess FCR; however, no gold standard has emerged. Many instruments conceptualise FCR as a multidimensional construct. However, this potentially conflates FCR as an outcome with its antecedents and consequences. This is problematic when an aggregate of distinct dimensions is calculated, as is commonly recommended. For example, the total score on the Fear of Cancer Recurrence Inventory is an aggregate of items from seven sub-scales: triggers, severity, psychological distress, coping strategies, functioning impairments, insight and reassurance. Similarly, the total score on the Fear of Progression Questionnaire is an aggregate of affective reaction, partnership/family, work and loss of autonomy. Arguably, the severity and affective reaction domains represent fear, and the other sub-scales represent related concepts, rather than "dimensions" of FCR. The total score represents a combination of concepts whose meaning is unclear. The same total score could be produced by patients with very different experiences, and patients with the same level of fear could have very different total scores. Therefore, we argue that although the level of FCR may be determined by a complex network of antecedents and modifiers and have variable consequences, FCR itself may be a simple concept, which can be assessed using a smaller number of items. Conceptual clarity in its research infancy should prevent FCR becoming a construct that is vaguely operationalised and interpreted.
Sodipo, J O; Falaiye, J M
The effects of therapeutic acupuncture on gastric acid secretion on pain relief in chronic duodenal ulcer patients were studied. Ten adult Nigerian patients with clinical, endoscopic as well as radiological evidence of duodenal ulcer constituted the "Ulcer Group." Four other patients who gave history of dyspepsia formed the "Dyspeptic Group." Pentagastrin stimulation test was performed on all subjects pre- and post-acupuncture therapy. The classical Chinese acupuncture loci were employed. The mean Basal Acid Output (BAO) in the duodenal ulcer group was markedly reduced from 4.04 +/- 1.01 mMols/hour to 1.05 +/- 2.5 mMols/hour. The mean Maximal Acid Output (MAO) was lowered from 34.72 +/- 13.81 mMols/hour to 15.34 +/- 4.01 mMols/hour. The difference was statistically significant (P less than 0.001). It is more probable, therefore, that the relief of pain is attributable to the therapeutic inhibition of gastric hyperacidity in our patients. Thus, though pain relief has been previously demonstrated in response to acupuncture, the results of this investigation have gone further to show that acupunture achieves symptomatic relief through therapeutic gastric depression in duodenal ulcer patients.
After a brief introduction dealing with the great development of acupuncture in management of various painful conditions in the West today, its increased importance, use and role in acute and chronic pain, benign and intractable pain, are discussed. Recent acquisitions about known and yet unknown neurophysiological parameters (evoked cns potentials, endorphines, action of acupuncture in "regulation" of many functions--so called homeostasis--milieu) in connection with good pain relief properties of acupuncture, are referred. The main methods of acupuncture in pain treatment (acupuncture as reflexotherapy--so called electroacupuncture and the very effective auriculotherapy, in comparison with traditional acupuncture as "regulating" method of homeostasis and others minor methods, with our casuistry and positive results in 724 cases of various pain conditions are stressed. Own conclusions about the positive results and the great significance of physician-patient relations in delicate field of pain therapy are referred.
Lee, Ye-Seul; Jung, Won-Mo; Lee, In-Seon; Lee, Hyangsook; Park, Hi-Joon; Chae, Younbyoung
Acupuncture manipulation varies widely among practitioners in clinical settings, and it is difficult to teach novice students how to perform acupuncture manipulation techniques skillfully. The Acupuncture Manipulation Education System (AMES) is an open source software system designed to enhance acupuncture manipulation skills using visual feedback. Using a phantom acupoint and motion sensor, our method for acupuncture manipulation training provides visual feedback regarding the actual movement of the student's acupuncture manipulation in addition to the optimal or intended movement, regardless of whether the manipulation skill is lifting, thrusting, or rotating. Our results show that students could enhance their manipulation skills by training using this method. This video shows the process of manufacturing phantom acupoints and discusses several issues that may require the attention of individuals interested in creating phantom acupoints or operating this system.
Bauer, Elizabeth P
This review describes the latest developments in our understanding of how the serotonergic system modulates Pavlovian fear conditioning, fear expression and fear extinction. These different phases of classical fear conditioning involve coordinated interactions between the extended amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortices. Here, I first define the different stages of learning involved in cued and context fear conditioning and describe the neural circuits underlying these processes. The serotonergic system can be manipulated by administering serotonin receptor agonists and antagonists, as well as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and these can have significant effects on emotional learning and memory. Moreover, variations in serotonergic genes can influence fear conditioning and extinction processes, and can underlie differential responses to pharmacological manipulations. This research has considerable translational significance as imbalances in the serotonergic system have been linked to anxiety and depression, while abnormalities in the mechanisms of conditioned fear contribute to anxiety disorders.
Hesselink, Jan M Keppel; Kopsky, David J
To find appropriate and effective treatment options for chronic pain syndromes is a challenging task. Multimodal treatment approach has been gaining acceptance for chronic pain. However, combining treatments, such as acupuncture, with rational pharmacology is still in its infancy. Acupuncture influences the opioid and cannabinoid system through releasing endogenous receptor ligands. Low dose naltrexone also acts on both these systems, and upregulates the opioid and cannabinoid receptors. The authors hypothesise that low dose naltrexone could enhance the pain-relieving effect of acupuncture.
Shin, Jae-Young; Ku, Boncho; Kim, Jaeuk U; Lee, Yu Jung; Kang, Jae Hui; Heo, Hyun; Choi, Hyo-Joon; Lee, Jun-Hwan
Purpose. This trial was performed to investigate the efficacy of laser acupuncture for the alleviation of lower back pain. Methods. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Fifty-six participants were randomly assigned to either the laser acupuncture group (n = 28) or the sham laser acupuncture group (n = 28). Participants in both groups received three treatment sessions over the course of one week. Thirteen acupuncture points were selected. The visual analogue scale for pain, pressure pain threshold, Patient Global Impression of Change, and Euro-Quality-of-Life Five Dimensions questionnaire (Korean version) were used to evaluate the effect of laser acupuncture treatment on lower back pain. Results. There were no significant differences in any outcome between the two groups, although the participants in both groups showed a significant improvement in each assessed parameter relative to the baseline values. Conclusion. Although there was no significant difference in outcomes between the two groups, the results suggest that laser acupuncture can provide effective pain alleviation and can be considered an option for relief from lower back pain. Further studies using long-term intervention, a larger sample size, and rigorous methodology are required to clarify the effect of laser acupuncture on lower back pain.
In the aftermath of the school shootings in Newtown, Connecticut this past December, people experienced the world around them as less safe--understandably so. In response to such a tragic event, there is a degree of fear instilled in all people that for many was at its peak in the New Year as they prepared to send their children back to school.…
Takagishi, Haruto; Fujii, Takayuki; Nishina, Kuniyuki; Okada, Hiroyuki
The purpose of this study was to examine whether the tendency to fear negative evaluation moderates the effect of fear emotion on the rejection of unfair offers in the ultimatum game (UG). A photograph of a fearful face or landscape was displayed subliminally (i.e., for 10 ms) before the proposer’s offer in the UG was presented to participants. We used the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNES) to measure participants’ anxiety regarding negative evaluations from others. Results showed a significant interaction between FNES and condition (fearful face vs. landscape) in relation to the rejection of an unfair offer. Furthermore, the mean rejection rate of an unfair offer was significantly higher in the fearful face condition relative to that in the landscape condition among participants whose FNES scores were higher than the median; however, this difference was not observed in participants whose FNES scores were lower than the median. These results suggest that fear of negative evaluation moderates the effect of subliminal fear priming on the rejection of unfair offers in the UG, and that negative emotion induced by unconscious stimuli enhances rejection of these unfair offers. PMID:27549022
Zhang, Chun-hong; Bian, Jin-ling; Meng, Zhi-hong; Meng, Li-na; Ren, Xue-song; Wang, Zhi-lin; Guo, Xiao-yan; Shi, Xue-min
Tongguan Liqiao acupuncture therapy has been shown to effectively treat dysphagia after stroke-based pseudobulbar paralysis. We presumed that this therapy would be effective for dysphagia after bulbar paralysis in patients with brainstem infarction. Sixty-four patients with dysphagia following brainstem infarction were recruited and divided into a medulla oblongata infarction group (n = 22), a midbrain and pons infarction group (n = 16), and a multiple cerebral infarction group (n = 26) according to their magnetic resonance imaging results. All patients received Tongguan Liqiao acupuncture for 28 days. The main acupoints were Neiguan (PC6), Renzhong (DU26), Sanyinjiao (SP6), Fengchi (GB20), Wangu (GB12), and Yifeng (SJ17). Furthermore, the posterior pharyngeal wall was pricked. Before and after treatment, patient swallowing functions were evaluated with the Kubota Water Test, Fujishima Ichiro Rating Scale, and the Standard Swallowing Assessment. The Barthel Index was also used to evaluate their quality of life. Results showed that after 28 days of treatment, scores on the Kubota Water Test and Standard Swallowing Assessment had decreased, but scores on the Fujishima Ichiro Rating Scale and Barthel Index had increased in each group. The total efficacy rate was 92.2% after treatment, and was most obvious in patients with medulla oblongata infarction (95.9%). These findings suggest that Tongguan Liqiao acupuncture therapy can repair the connection of upper motor neurons to the medulla oblongata motor nucleus, promote the recovery of brainstem infarction, and improve patient's swallowing ability and quality of life. PMID:27073382
Liu, Yan-Song; Gadau, Marcus; Zhang, Guo-Xue; Liu, Hao; Wang, Fu-Chun; Zaslawski, Christopher; Li, Tie; Tan, Yuan-Sheng; Berle, Christine; Li, Wei-Hong; Bangrazi, Sergio; Liguori, Stefano; Zhang, Shi-Ping
In planning for a large-scale multicenter trial to evaluate the effect of acupuncture for the treatment of lateral elbow pain, a pilot study was conducted. This was a prospective, investigator- and patient-blinded, nonrandomized, placebo controlled trial. Subjects were evaluated at baseline, before fourth, seventh, and ninth treatment, and at a two-week posttreatment follow-up. The treatment group received unilateral acupuncture at LI 10 and LI 11 at the affected side with manual needle manipulation; the control group received sham-laser acupuncture at the same acupoints. Measures included (i) disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) questionnaire, (ii) pain-free grip strength (PFGS), and (iii) a visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain. Significant differences in DASH score, PFGS, and VAS between treatment and control group were found at the ninth treatment (n = 20 for each group, P < 0.05). Only DASH showed significant differences compared to the control for all the measurement time points after treatment commenced and appears to be a sensitive and appropriate primary outcome measure for the future multisite trial. Results from this pilot study provided relevant information about treatment efficacy, credibility of control treatment, and sensitivity of different outcome measures for the planning of the future trial. PMID:27006679
Nguyen, Theresa M; Roy, Neil K; Zlupko, George R
Acupuncture is becoming increasingly popular in the United States for a wide variety of uses, ranging from the treatment of chronic back pain to aiding in addiction therapy. As this form of complementary and alternative medicine becomes more prevalent in certain areas of the country, it is of paramount importance that the emergency physician be familiar with its methods and potential complications. In general, acupuncture is perceived as fairly safe. However, it is not without risks or side effects. In this case report, we discuss the history, methods, and common complications of acupuncture in the context of a patient who presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with bilateral pneumothoraces secondary to acupuncture therapy.
Maren, Stephen; Holmes, Andrew
Stress has a critical role in the development and expression of many psychiatric disorders, and is a defining feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Stress also limits the efficacy of behavioral therapies aimed at limiting pathological fear, such as exposure therapy. Here we examine emerging evidence that stress impairs recovery from trauma by impairing fear extinction, a form of learning thought to underlie the suppression of trauma-related fear memories. We describe the major structural and functional abnormalities in brain regions that are particularly vulnerable to stress, including the amygdala, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus, which may underlie stress-induced impairments in extinction. We also discuss some of the stress-induced neurochemical and molecular alterations in these brain regions that are associated with extinction deficits, and the potential for targeting these changes to prevent or reverse impaired extinction. A better understanding of the neurobiological basis of stress effects on extinction promises to yield novel approaches to improving therapeutic outcomes for PTSD and other anxiety and trauma-related disorders. PMID:26105142
Li, Nai-qi; Liu, Xiao-bin
By collecting and studying Practical Acupuncture written by XU Yi-nian, Guangdong acupuncture master in the Republic of China, and using literature methodology, the life story of XU Yi-nian is textually researched and his acupuncture characteristics is analyzed. The results indicate that XU Yi-nian emphasizes on the utility of acupuncture manipulations and acupoint selection, the application of folk experiences in moxibustion and Sha disorders. He pays attention to the co-work of acupuncture and medicine and his work collects the therapeutic experiences of different schools and deserves to be further explored and validated.
Lund, Iréne; Näslund, Jan; Lundeberg, Thomas
Placebo-control of acupuncture is used to evaluate and distinguish between the specific effects and the non-specific ones. During 'true' acupuncture treatment in general, the needles are inserted into acupoints and stimulated until deqi is evoked. In contrast, during placebo acupuncture, the needles are inserted into non-acupoints and/or superficially (so-called minimal acupuncture). A sham acupuncture needle with a blunt tip may be used in placebo acupuncture. Both minimal acupuncture and the placebo acupuncture with the sham acupuncture needle touching the skin would evoke activity in cutaneous afferent nerves. This afferent nerve activity has pronounced effects on the functional connectivity in the brain resulting in a 'limbic touch response'. Clinical studies showed that both acupuncture and minimal acupuncture procedures induced significant alleviation of migraine and that both procedures were equally effective. In other conditions such as low back pain and knee osteoarthritis, acupuncture was found to be more potent than minimal acupuncture and conventional non-acupuncture treatment. It is probable that the responses to 'true' acupuncture and minimal acupuncture are dependent on the aetiology of the pain. Furthermore, patients and healthy individuals may have different responses. In this paper, we argue that minimal acupuncture is not valid as an inert placebo-control despite its conceptual brilliance.
Lauzeral, Christine; Chamaillé-Jammes, Simon; Yoccoz, Nigel G.; Pontier, Dominique
Although proximity to cover has been routinely considered as an explanatory variable in studies investigating prey behavioral adjustments to predation pressure, the way it shapes risk perception still remains equivocal. This paradox arises from both the ambivalent nature of cover as potentially both obstructive and protective, making its impact on risk perception complex and context-dependent, and from the choice of the proxy used to measure proximity to cover in the field, which leads to an incomplete picture of the landscape of fear experienced by the prey. Here, we study a simple predator-prey-habitat system, i.e., rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus facing feral cat Felis catus predation on Kerguelen archipelago. We assess how cover shapes risk perception in prey and develop an easily implementable field method to improve the estimation of proximity to cover. In contrast to protocols considering the “distance to nearest cover”, we focus on the overall “area to cover”. We show that fine-scale habitat use by rabbits is clearly related to our measure, in accordance with our hypothesis of higher risk in patches with smaller area to cover in this predator-prey-habitat system. In contrast, classical measures of proximity to cover are not retained in the best predictive models of habitat use. The use of this new approach, together with a more in-depth consideration of contrasting properties of cover, could help to better understand the role of this complex yet decisive parameter for predator-prey ecology. PMID:26989615
Tian, Kaiyu; Ma, Qiaolin; Ren, Shan; Liu, Fang
Bilingual teaching is a innovative method of higher education of China to gear the need of the world. Acupuncture and Moxibustion, a higher international TCM course, has been the model of bilingual teaching in many colleges and universities of TCM successively. To meet the aim and original intention of bilingual education in China, we have supplemented international acupuncture and moxibustion in teaching program for many years. The related contents about acupuncture and moxibustion of World Health Organization (WHO) and International Standardization Organization(ISO) have been added into the chapters of introduction, meridians and acupoints, the technology of acupuncture and moxibustion, the therapy of acupuncture and moxibustion. Teaching international acupuncture and moxibustion not only enlarges the international perspective of students, but also makes them more interested in learning Acupuncture and Moxibustion with a bigger sense of mission.
Hadianfard, Mohammadjavad; Ashraf, Alireza; Fakheri, Maryamsadat; Nasiri, Aref
There is no consensus on the management of De Quervain's tenosynovitis, but local corticosteroid injection is considered the mainstay of treatment. However, some patients are reluctant to take steroid injections. This study was performed to compare the efficacy of acupuncture versus corticosteroid injection for the treatment of this disease. Thirty patients were consequently treated in two groups. The acupuncture group received five acupuncture sessions of 30 minutes duration on classic points of LI-5, LU-7, and LU-9 and on ahshi points. The injection group received one methylprednisolone acetate injection in the first dorsal compartment of the wrist. The degree of disability and pain was evaluated by using the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (Q-DASH) scale and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at baseline and at 2 weeks and 6 weeks after the start of treatment. The baseline means of the Q-DASH and the VAS scores were 62.8 and 6.9, respectively. At the last follow-up, the mean Q-DASH scores were 9.8 versus 6.2 in the acupuncture and injection groups, respectively, and the mean VAS scores were 2 versus 1.2. We demonstrated short-term improvement of pain and function in both groups. Although the success rate was somewhat higher with corticosteroid injection, acupuncture can be considered as an alternative option for treatment of De Quervain's tenosynovitis.
Spielmann, Stephanie S; MacDonald, Geoff; Maxwell, Jessica A; Joel, Samantha; Peragine, Diana; Muise, Amy; Impett, Emily A
The present research demonstrates that fear of being single predicts settling for less in romantic relationships, even accounting for constructs typically examined in relationship research such as anxious attachment. Study 1 explored the content of people's thoughts about being single. Studies 2A and 2B involved the development and validation of the Fear of Being Single Scale. Study 2C provided preliminary support for the hypothesis that fear of being single predicts settling for less in ongoing relationships, as evidenced by greater dependence in unsatisfying relationships. Study 3 replicated this effect in a longitudinal study demonstrating that fear of being single predicts lower likelihood of initiating the dissolution of a less satisfying relationship. Studies 4A and 4B explored the predictive ability of fear of being single for self-reported dating standards. Across both samples, fear of being single was unrelated to self-reported standards for a mate, with the exception of consistently higher standards for parenting. Studies 5 and 6 explored romantic interest in targets that were manipulated to vary in responsiveness and physical attractiveness. These studies found that fear of being single consistently predicted romantic interest in less responsive and less attractive dating targets. Study 7 explored fear of being single during a speed-dating event. We found that fear of being single predicted being less selective in expressing romantic interest but did not predict other daters' romantic interest. Taken together, the present research suggests that fear of being single is a meaningful predictor of settling for less in relationships.
Considers acupuncture as an increasingly popular alternative medical therapy, but difficult to describe in technical communication. Notes that traditional Chinese medical explanations of acupuncture are unscientific, and that scientific explanations of acupuncture are inconclusive. Finds that technical communicators must translate acupuncture for…
Goode, Travis D.; Maren, Stephen
Whereas fear memories are rapidly acquired and enduring over time, extinction memories are slow to form and are susceptible to disruption. Consequently, behavioral therapies that involve extinction learning (e.g., exposure therapy) often produce only temporary suppression of fear and anxiety. This review focuses on the factors that are known to influence the relapse of extinguished fear. Several phenomena associated with the return of fear after extinction are discussed, including renewal, spontaneous recovery, reacquisition, and reinstatement. Additionally, this review describes recent work, which has focused on the role of psychological stress in the relapse of extinguished fear. Recent developments in behavioral and pharmacological research are examined in light of treatment of pathological fear in humans. PMID:25225304
LeDoux, Joseph E.
The brain mechanisms of fear have been studied extensively using Pavlovian fear conditioning, a procedure that allows exploration of how the brain learns about and later detects and responds to threats. However, mechanisms that detect and respond to threats are not the same as those that give rise to conscious fear. This is an important distinction because symptoms based on conscious and nonconscious processes may be vulnerable to different predisposing factors and may also be treatable with different approaches in people who suffer from uncontrolled fear or anxiety. A conception of so-called fear conditioning in terms of circuits that operate nonconsciously, but that indirectly contribute to conscious fear, is proposed as way forward. PMID:24501122
Zhang, Yi; Guo, Chang-Qing
Acupotomology is a technique of percutaneous minimally invasive soft tissue releasing. It can be found in traditional acupuncture, but is deemphasized in modern times. Therefore, the development of acupotomology is held as restoring of ancient ways of acupuncture. Compared with traditional acupuncture, acupotomology makes modern interpretations on the theory of muscle regions, absorbs theories of anatomy and pathology as well as techniques of asepsis and anaesthesia. It improves traditional needling tool. Therefore, it is also held as an innovation of acupuncture. The development of acupotomology makes up for the deficiency of acupuncture study. It. will promote the differentiation and crossing of acupuncture discipline, and become a new trend of acupuncture.
Golkar, Armita; Bellander, Martin; Olsson, Andreas; Öhman, Arne
Recent advances in the field of fear learning have demonstrated that a single reminder exposure prior to extinction training can prevent the return of extinguished fear by disrupting the process of reconsolidation. These findings have however proven hard to replicate in humans. Given the significant implications of preventing the return of fear, the purpose of the present study was to further study the putative effects of disrupting reconsolidation. In two experiments, we assessed whether extinction training initiated within the reconsolidation time window could abolish the return of fear using fear-relevant (Experiment 1) or fear-irrelevant (Experiment 2) conditioned stimuli (CS). In both experiments, participants went through conditioning, extinction, and reinstatement testing on three consecutive days, with one of two reinforced CS being reactivated 10 min prior to extinction. We found that a single reminder exposure prior to extinction training did not prevent the return of extinguished fear responding using either fear-relevant or fear-irrelevant CSs. Our findings point to the need to further study the specific parameters that enable disruption of reconsolidation. PMID:23181015
Lin, Yii-Jeng; Kung, Yen-Ying; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Niddam, David M; Chou, Chih-Che; Cheng, Chou-Ming; Yeh, Tzu-Chen; Hsieh, Jen-Chuen; Chiu, Jen-Hwey
Objective Recent functional MRI (fMRI) studies show that brain activity, including the default mode network (DMN), can be modulated by acupuncture. Conventional means to enhance the neurophysiological ‘dose’ of acupuncture, including an increased number of needles and manual needle manipulation, are expected to enhance its physiological effects. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of both methods on brain activity. Methods 58 healthy volunteers were randomly assigned into four groups that received single needle acupuncture (SNA, n=15) or transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS, n=13) as active controls, or enhanced acupuncture by way of three needle acupuncture (TNA, n=17) or SNA plus manual stimulation (SNA+MS, n=13). Treatment-associated sensations were evaluated using a visual analogue scale. Central responses were recorded before, during, and after treatment at LI4 on the left hand using resting state fMRI. Results TNA and SNA+MS induced DMN-insula activity and extensive DMN activity compared to SNA, despite comparable levels of de qi sensation. The TNA and SNA+MS groups exhibited a delayed and enhanced modulation of the DMN, which was not observed followed SNA and TENS. Furthermore, TNA increased precuneus activity and increased the DMN-related activity of the cuneus and left insula, while SNA+MS increased activity in the right insula. Conclusions The results showed that conventional methods to enhance the acupuncture dose induce different DMN modulatory effects. TNA induces the most extensive DMN modulation, compared with other methods. Conventional methods of enhancing the acupuncture dose could potentially be applied as a means of modulating brain activity. PMID:27841974
Martin, Thomas E.
What should parents do when they detect indications of more predators nearby that might eat their babies? This scenario is commonly faced by parents in the wild, and the consequences are important. The number of offspring that organisms produce has a major influence on fitness and, when averaged across a population, affects whether this population will increase or decrease. Offspring production thus has critical implications for evolution via fitness, and ecology and conservation via demography. On page 1398 of this issue, Zanette et al. (1) show that the fear of predation can, by itself, strongly affect the number of offspring produced over an annual cycle by song sparrows (see the figure).
Wu, Jiang-Ying; Wu, Jiang-Yan; Liu, Xiao-Xin
The loss of cultural information transmission, inaccurate of translation or misunderstanding of the whole sentence in acupuncture translation are illustrated in this article. It suggests that these mistakes should be paid attention to and avoided; simultaneously, the solutions are stated so as to insure the accurate transmission of acupuncture.
Lundeberg, T; Bondesson, L; Thomas, M
The effect of acupuncture on experimentally induced itch was studied in 10 healthy volunteers. Itching was induced by intradermal injections of histamine on the upper arm. 'Placebo-acupuncture', acupuncture and electro-acupuncture at 2 Hz or 80 Hz were applied over the injection site, proximal to the injection site (in the same dermatome) or extrasegmentally (ipsilateral to the injected arm) for a period of 5 min following induction of itch. In addition, the effect of a 5 min period and a 20 min period of stimulation of the skin area prior to the induction of itch were studied. The same periods of stimulation were also applied to extrasegmental points prior to the induction of itch on the arm. Acupuncture and 2 Hz and 80 Hz electro-acupuncture significantly reduced subjective itch intensity when applied intrasegmentally. No significant effects were obtained when stimulation was applied extrasegmentally. The results suggest that acupuncture or electro-acupuncture could be tried in clinical conditions associated with pruritus.
Teplan, Michal; Kukučka, Marek; Ondrejkovičová, Alena
Investigation of impedance characteristics of acupuncture points from acoustic to radio frequency range is addressed. Discernment and localization of acupuncture points in initial single subject study was unsuccessfully attempted by impedance map technique. Vector impedance analyses determined possible resonant zones in MHz region.
Feng, Junfei; Wang, Xuehui; Li, Xing; Zhao, Dejun; Xu, Jinquan
Abstract Background: Acupuncture has been suggested to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in China. However, current evidence is insufficient to draw a firm conclusion regarding the effectiveness of acupuncture in COPD. Therefore, this multicenter, randomized, sham-controlled study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture for treating patients with COPD. Methods: This is a two-arm, parallel group, multicenter, randomized, sham-controlled trial with concealed allocation, and participants, assessor, and analyst blinding. Seventy-two participants with COPD were recruited and randomly divided into 2 groups (real acupuncture group and sham acupuncture group) in a 1:1 ratio. Patients received either real or sham needling at the same acupoints 3 times weekly for 8 weeks. The primary outcome was dyspnea on exertion evaluated using the 6-minute walk test. In addition, health-related quality of life was also evaluated. Measurements were obtained at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment. Results: Six-minute walking distance measurements and health-related quality of life were significantly better in the real acupuncture group than that in the sham acupuncture group. Conclusion: The findings suggest that acupuncture can be used as an adjunctive therapy to reduce dyspnea in patients with COPD. PMID:27749542
SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ear acupuncture for acute sore throat. A randomized controlled trial...Auncular Acupuncture is a low risk option for acute pain control •Battlefield acupuncture (BFA) IS a specific auncular acupuncture technique •BFA IS...Strengths: Prospect1ve RCT •Weaknesses Small sample stze. no sham acupuncture performed, patients not blinded to treatment •Th1s study represents an
Krevsky, Michael A; Zinina, Ekaterina S; Koshurinov, Yuri; Ovechkin, Aleck M; Tkachenko, Yuri A; Han, Wantaek; Lee, Sang-Min; Yoon, Gilwon
Quantitative studies on functional state of acupuncture points and meridians have been done mostly by electrical measurement that requires the contact of the electrode on skin and is subject to pressure, humidity, etc. In this study, a new modality of using microwave was investigated. Microwave energy in the frequency range of 250 approximately 550MHz was irradiated on an acupuncture point. Transmitted microwave energy along the meridian was measured at the next acupuncture point of the same meridian. Diabetic and cancer patients were compared with healthy persons. Normal group consisted of 50 healthy persons. Diabetic group included 50 diabetic patients. Breast cancer group had also 50 patients. All 12 meridians on both right and left hands and feet were measured. For the diabetic group, the microwave energy propagation in this frequency range was 1.417 dB lower along Lung channel and 1.601 dB higher along Spleen channel compared with the normal group regardless of sex and diabetic types. For cancer patients, the propagation was 1.620 dB lower along Liver channel and 1.245 dB higher along Kidney channel compared with the normal group. Microwave energy proved to be a potential diagnostic method.
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Sardella, Andrea; Lodi, Giovanni; Tarozzi, Marco; Varoni, Elena; Franchini, Roberto; Carrassi, Antonio
Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic condition most common in middle-aged and elderly women, with prevalence rates in the general population ranging from 0.5% to 5%. Defined by the International Headache Society as "an intraoral burning sensation for which no medical or dental cause can be found," BMS is considered a form of neuropathic pain. The management of BMS remains unsatisfactory. In this pilot study, we investigated the use of acupuncture in a small group of BMS patients. The study group, after 4 refusals, was composed of 10 BMS patients (9 females and 1 male; mean age, 65.2 years; range, from 48 to 80 years; mean duration of BMS, 2.6 years; SD ± 0.8 years). Oral pain/burning sensation (primary outcome) was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Health-related quality of life (secondary outcome) was measured using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Acupuncture treatment lasted 8 weeks and consisted of 20 sessions. Patients reported a mean reduction in pain of 0.99 points on the VAS (max 2.1-min 0.1), which, although slight, was statistically significant (Wilcoxon test P < 0.009). No significant improvement in the overall score for quality of life was observed, although subjects receiving acupuncture treatment seemed better able cope with their oral symptoms.
English, Andrea; Stengel, Barbara
Fear is not the first feature of educational experience associated with the best-known progressive educational theorists--Jean-Jacques Rousseau, John Dewey, and Paolo Freire. But each of these important thinkers did, in fact, have something substantive to say about how fear functions in the processes of learning and growth. Andrea English and…
Leung, Mason Chin Pang; Yip, Ka Keung; Lam, Chung Tsung; Lam, Ka Shun; Lau, Wai; Yu, Wing Lam; Leung, Amethyst King Man; So, Kwok-fai
BACKGROUND: Acupuncture has been used as a treatment for cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: This review assesses clinical evidence for or against acupuncture as a treatment for cognitive impairment. This review also discusses the proposed mechanism(s) that could link acupuncture to improved cognitive function. METHODS: We searched the literature using PolyUone search from its inception to January 2013, with full text available and language limited to English. Levels of evidence were examined using Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine–Levels of Evidence (March, 2009). RESULTS: Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria: 3 human studies and 9 animal studies. Levels of evidence ranged from level 1b to level 5. CONCLUSION: Most animal studies demonstrated a positive effect of acupuncture on cognitive impairment. However, the results of human studies were inconsistent. Further high-quality human studies with greater statistical power are needed to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture and an optimal protocol. PMID:25206464
Muñoz-Ortego, Juan; Solans-Domènech, Maite; Carrion, Carme
Acupuncture is a medical procedure with a very wide range of indications according to the WHO. However the indications require robust scientific evidence to support them. We have conducted a systematic review (2010-2015) in order to define in which pathologies acupuncture can be an effective strategy, STRICTA criteria that aim to set up acupuncture clinical trials standard criteria were defined in 2010. Only systematic reviews and meta-analyses of good or very good methodological quality according to SIGN criteria were selected. Its main objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture in the management of any disease. Most of the final 31 selected reviews focus on chronic pain-related diseases, mainly in the disciplines of Neurology, Orthopaedics and Rheumatology. Current evidence supports the use of acupuncture in the treatment of headaches, migraines, back pain, cervical pain and osteoarthritis. The remaining pathologies still require further good quality studies.
Wang, Fang; Wu, Bin-jiang
The history of acupuncture in Ontario, Canada was traced, and the current status as welI as the prospection were introduced in this paper. Statistics showed that the history of acupuncture in Ontario started in the 1880s, and it was only popular in China Town and Chinese community. In the 1970s, it gradually merged into the mainstream of the society, and entered into a growing period. With the tide of Chinese immigration in the 1980s and 1990s, acupuncture matured rapidly. In 2006, the "Traditional Chinese Medicine Act" was passed in Ontario, it was considered as a milestone in the history of acupuncture. At present, just like the other 23 health care professions, acupuncture has already be included into the legislation system, and become a component of Ontario's health care system. At the same time, the law and regulation may also promote the establishment of "pure Chinese Medicine" in Ontario.
Zijlstra, Freek J; van den Berg-de Lange, Ineke; Huygen, Frank J P M; Klein, Jan
Acupuncture has a beneficial effect when treating many diseases and painful conditions, and therefore is thought to be useful as a complementary therapy or to replace generally accepted pharmacological intervention. The attributive effect of acupuncture has been investigated in inflammatory diseases, including asthma, rhinitis, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, epicondylitis, complex regional pain syndrome type 1 and vasculitis. Large randomised trials demonstrating the immediate and sustained effect of acupuncture are missing. Mechanisms underlying the ascribed immunosuppressive actions of acupuncture are reviewed in this communication. The acupuncture-controlled release of neuropeptides from nerve endings and subsequent vasodilative and anti-inflammatory effects through calcitonine gene-related peptide is hypothesised. The complex interactions with substance P, the analgesic contribution of beta-endorphin and the balance between cell-specific pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-10 are discussed. PMID:12775355
Ming, Xue; Chen, Xiang; Wang, Xiao T.; Zhang, Zhen; Kang, Victor; Zimmerman-Bier, Barbie
Background. There has been lack of reviews of evidence on efficacy, methodology, and/or safety of acupuncture in autism spectrum disorders. This paper examines the emerging evidence of the effects of acupuncture in the treatment of autistic children. Method. A literature review was completed via Medline and three Chinese search engines. A total of 31 studies were evaluated for acupuncture methodology, study design, treatment effects, and tolerability. Results. The acupoints used, the duration of needling, the frequency of treatment, the choice of stimulation, and the course of the treatment were highly variable amongst the studies. Behavioral and/or developmental improvements were reported in all acupuncture treatment studies. All studies reported general tolerability. Weakness of experimental designs was discussed. Conclusions. Vigorously controlled double-blinded clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture in children with autism spectrum disorders. PMID:22203876
Lewith, George T; White, Peter J; Kaptchuk, Ted J
This strategic overview revisits some of the basic assumptions that relate to the clinical evaluation of acupuncture. We look at the evidence available to estimate both the specific and nonspecific effect size of acupuncture (efficacy and effectiveness) and consider the placebo within acupuncture trials, as well as the value of both placebo controlled trials and pragmatic acupuncture studies. We argue for an augmented, mixed methodology that integrates basic mechanism studies, including modern imaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance, quantitative and qualitative research, as well as safety and health economic data to obtain a more rigorous understanding of acupuncture. We hope that by taking a broad, patient-centered, and rigorous approach we may arrive at a realistic and thoughtful evaluation of its relative value in comparison to placebo treatment, conventional medicine, and its potential for integration into conventional clinical care.
Lee, Y H; Lee, W C; Chen, M T; Huang, J K; Chung, C; Chang, L S
A prospective randomized study was performed to compare the effect of acupuncture and intramuscular Avafortan injection in the treatment of renal colic. Our results showed that acupuncture is as effective in relieving renal colic as Avafortan but it had a more rapid analgesic onset (3.14 +/- 2.88 minutes versus 15.44 +/- 7.55 minutes, p less than 0.05). Of the patients in the Avafortan group 7 (43.8%) had side effects, including skin rash in 3, tachycardia in 2, drowsiness in 1 and facial flush in 1. No side effects were noted in the acupuncture group. During 2 hours of observation acupuncture and Avafortan seemed to be ineffective in promoting stone passage. However, patients receiving Avafortan treatment were more likely to have paralytic ileus. In summary, acupuncture can be a good alternative for the treatment of renal colic.
Background Like any other form of healthcare, acupuncture takes place in a particular context which can enhance or diminish treatment outcomes (i.e. can produce contextual effects). Patients’ expectations of acupuncture might be an important component of contextual effects, but we know relatively little about the origins and nature of patients’ expectations or wider preconceptions about acupuncture. Our aim was to identify the processes the underpin patients’ decisions to try acupuncture and thus begin to tease out the origins and nature of patients’ preconceptions. Methods One-off semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive, varied sample of 35 adults who had tried acupuncture for various conditions. Interviews explored people’s experiences of acupuncture treatment and techniques from framework and inductive thematic analysis were used to relate the data to the research question. Results We identified four distinct processes within participants’ accounts of deciding to try acupuncture: establishing a need for treatment, establishing a need for a new treatment, deciding to try acupuncture, and finding an acupuncturist. Family, friends and health care professionals played a role in these processes, providing support, advice, and increasing people’s general familiarity with acupuncture. When they came to their first acupuncture appointment, participants had hopes, concerns, and occasionally concrete expectations as to the nature of acupuncture treatment and its likely effects. Conclusions Existing theories of how context influences health outcomes could be expanded to better reflect the psychological components identified here, such as hope, desire, optimism and open-mindedness. Future research on the context of acupuncture should consider these elements of the pre-treatment context in addition to more established components such as expectations. There appears to be a need for accessible (i.e. well-disseminated), credible, and
This article examines the processes through which civilian fear was turned into a practicable investigative object in the inter-war period and the opening stages of the Second World War, and how it was invested with significance at the level of science and of public policy. Its focus is on a single historical actor, Solly Zuckerman, and on his early war work for the Ministry of Home Security-funded Extra Mural Unit based in Oxford’s Department of Anatomy (OEMU). It examines the process by which Zuckerman forged a working relationship with fear in the 1930s, and how he translated this work to questions of home front anxiety in his role as an operational research officer. In doing so it demonstrates the persistent work applied to the problem: by highlighting it as an ongoing research project, and suggesting links between seemingly disparate research objects (e.g. the phenomenon of ‘blast’ exposure as physical and physiological trauma), the article aims to show how civilian ‘nerve’ emerged from within a highly specific analytical and operational matrix which itself had complex foundations. PMID:23626409
Amezaga Urruela, Matxalen; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E
Acupuncture has been used for millennia in traditional Chinese medicine as a technique believed to restore the balance of energy in the body caused by disease through the use of needles inserted into specific points or energy channels. This energy is called the de qi. The use of acupuncture for the treatment of pain in musculoskeletal disorders is increasing. Some patients seek alternative therapies because of lack of improvement with conventional treatments. The potential physiological effects of acupuncture on pain relief have been attributed to biochemical processes, such as the release of endorphins into the limbic structures, subcortical areas and brain stem, mechanisms that are also present in placebo-induced analgesia. In addition, pain relief with acupuncture is also associated with patient expectations, beliefs, and interactions with their acupuncturists. In this review, we summarize the latest evidence on the treatment of musculoskeletal conditions including rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, neck pain, shoulder pain, low back pain, and knee pain with traditional Chinese acupuncture (TCA), electroacupuncture (EA), and the use of moxibustion. Acupuncture is relatively safe, but there are still reports of serious and fatal side effects that must be taken into account when recommending this therapy. Many of the latest trials assessing the benefits of acupuncture in rheumatic diseases found that acupuncture was not better than sham acupuncture, implying that the analgesic effects observed are related to a strong placebo response. While the literature on this topic is extensive, many of the studies lack methodological rigor, and additional large, well-controlled, high quality trials are still needed to determine if acupuncture might be useful in the treatment of chronic rheumatic diseases.
Qin, Zongshi; Ding, Yulong; Wu, Jiani; Zhou, Jing; Yang, Likun; Liu, Xiaoxu; Liu, Zhishun
Introduction Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) is a major public health problem and the primary reason why older adults seek lumbar spine surgery. Acupuncture may be effective for DLSS, but the evidence supporting this possibility is still limited. Methods and analysis A total of 80 participants with DLSS will be randomly allocated to either an acupuncture group or a sham acupuncture (SA) group at a ratio of 1:1. 24 treatments will be provided over 8 weeks. The primary outcome is the score change of the Modified Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) responses from baseline to week 8. The secondary outcomes include the assessment of lower back pain and leg pain using the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), the change in the number of steps per month, and the assessment of the specific quality of life using the Swiss Spinal Stenosis Questionnaire (SSSQ). We will follow-up with the participants until week 32. All of the participants who received allocation will be included in the statistical analysis. Ethics/dissemination This protocol has been approved by the Research Ethical Committee of Guang'anmen Hospital (Permission number: 2015EC114) and Fengtai Hospital of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine (Permission number: 16KE0409). The full data set will be made available when this trial is completed and published. Applications for the release of data should be made to ZL (principal investigator). Trial registration number NCT02644746. PMID:27852717
Furini, Cristiane; Myskiw, Jociane; Izquierdo, Ivan
Recent work on the extinction of fear-motivated learning places emphasis on its putative circuitry and on its modulation. Extinction is the learned inhibition of retrieval of previously acquired responses. Fear extinction is used as a major component of exposure therapy in the treatment of fear memories such as those of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is initiated and maintained by interactions between the hippocampus, basolateral amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which involve feedback regulation of the latter by the other two areas. Fear extinction depends on NMDA receptor activation. It is positively modulated by d-serine acting on the glycine site of NMDA receptors and blocked by AP5 (2-amino-5-phosphono propionate) in the three structures. In addition, histamine acting on H2 receptors and endocannabinoids acting on CB1 receptors in the three brain areas mentioned, and muscarinic cholinergic fibers from the medial septum to hippocampal CA1 positively modulate fear extinction. Importantly, fear extinction can be made state-dependent on circulating epinephrine, which may play a role in situations of stress. Exposure to a novel experience can strongly enhance the consolidation of fear extinction through a synaptic tagging and capture mechanism; this may be useful in the therapy of states caused by fear memory like PTSD.
Golkar, Armita; Olsson, Andreas
Social fear learning offers an efficient way to transmit information about potential threats; little is known, however, about the learning processes that counteract the social transmission of fear. In three separate experiments, we found that safety information transmitted from another individual (i.e., demonstrator) during preexposure prevented subsequent observational fear learning (Experiments 1-3), and this effect was maintained in a new context involving direct threat confrontation (Experiment 3). This protection from observational fear learning was specific to conditions in which information about both safety and danger was transmitted from the same demonstrator (Experiments 2-3) and was unaffected by increasing the number of the safety demonstrators (Experiment 3). Collectively, these findings demonstrate that observational preexposure can limit social transmission of fear. Future research is needed to better understand the conditions under which such effects generalize across individual demonstrators. (PsycINFO Database Record
Kesting, Marco Rainer; Thurmüller, Petra; Hölzle, Frank; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Holland-Letz, Tim; Stücker, Markus
In order to assess an objective measure for the outcome of ear acupuncture, we evaluated the effect of electrical ear acupuncture on areas of histamine-induced alloknesis in 32 healthy volunteers. In a first assessment 5 min after histamine application on both volar forearms, 16 subjects received right ear and 16 left ear acupuncture. Immediately before and 5 min after acupuncture, alloknesis areas on both forearms were planimetrically evaluated. A second assessment was carried out 4 weeks later with the same patients. They underwent histamine application once more, but received no acupuncture. Alloknesis areas were then compared with reference to time, assessment and therapy side. Forearms relating to ipsilateral acupuncture showed significantly reduced or even no alloknesis areas after therapy. On the contralateral sides and during the "non-acupuncture" assessment 4 weeks later, alloknesis areas were significantly enlarged compared with sides ipsilateral to right and left ear acupuncture. Hence, results verify the effects of electrical ear acupuncture by objective measures.
Background Spondylolisthesis is the major cause of refractory low back pain. There are many studies of the surgical treatment of spondylolisthesis, but few of conservative treatments. There is also no optimal conservative treatment protocol, however, low back pain caused by low-grade spondylolisthesis is controlled with non-surgical pain management. Acupuncture has become a useful method for treating low back pain, but there has not been any study of its efficacy in relation to spondylolisthesis. This study was designed to establish the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial and the safety of acupuncture for low back pain due to low-grade spondylolisthesis. Methods/Design The study is a randomized controlled pilot clinical trial of five weeks duration. Fourteen patients will be recruited and randomly allocated to two groups: an acupuncture plus interlaminar epidural steroid injection group (experimental group), and an interlaminar epidural steroid injection group (control group). All patients will be administered an interlaminar epidural steroid injection once a week for three weeks (three injections in total), but only the experimental group will receive additional treatment with three acupuncture sessions a week for three weeks (nine acupuncture sessions in total). The primary outcome will be measured by the visual analogue scale (VAS). Our primary end point is three-week VAS. The secondary outcome will be measured using the PainVision system, the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire, and the Oswestry Disability Index. Assessments will be made at baseline and at one, three and five weeks thereafter (that is, the five-week assessment will be made two weeks after treatment cessation). Discussion This randomized controlled pilot trial will inform the design of a further full-scale trial. The outcomes will provide some resources for incorporating acupuncture into existing pain management methods such as interlaminar epidural steroid injection in low
Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neuro-psychiatric problem, affecting 7-9% of children. Pharmacological interventions are widely used with behavioral treatments in ADHD. Still, the origin of ADHD is unclear, limiting pharmacological effectiveness and making adverse effects common. The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has increased, especially for developmental and behavioral disorders, such as ADHD. CAM is used by 60-65% of parents of children with ADHD to relieve ADHD-associated symptoms and to avoid the side effects of conventional medication. Acupuncture has been widely used to treat patients with ADHD, but the available evidence of its effectiveness is insufficient. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture in patients (both and each treatment naive and conventional therapy children) with ADHD (any subtype) compared to the waitlist control. Methods/Design This study is a waitlist controlled open trial. We used a computer generated randomization scheme. This randomised, controlled trial had two parallel arms (acupuncture, and waitlist group). Each arm consisted of 40 participants. The acupuncture group received acupuncture treatment two times per week for a total of 12 sessions over 6 weeks. Post-treatment follow-up was performed 3 weeks later to complement the 12 acupuncture sessions. Participants in the waitlist group did not receive acupuncture treatments during the first six weeks but were only required to be assessed. After 6 weeks, the same treatments given to the acupuncture group were provided to the waitlist group. The primary outcome of this trial included differences in Korean version of ADHD-Rating Scale (K-ADHD-RS) before randomization, 3 weeks and 6 weeks after randomization, and 3 weeks after completing the treatment. Discussion Subjective measurements, like K-ADHD-RS, are commonly used in ADHD. Although these measurements have adequate reliability and validity
Moore, R; Birn, H
Odontophobia is a rather unique phobia with special psychosomatic components that impact on the dental health of odontophobic persons. It also has psychosocial components largely as a result of destruction of the teeth and subsequent embarrassment that can affect a person and cause a vicious cycle of dental fear. The phenomenon is facilitated by misunderstandings and myths generated by both patients and dentists. The most common reasons given in the literature for such strong fears of dental treatment are: 1) bad experiences in childhood for 85% of cases, 2) feeling of powerlessness and lack of control over personal emotional reactions and over the social situation in the dental chair, 3) social learning processes in which the image of the dentist is cast in a negative light by the mass media or by the person's relatives or friends and 4) that the person has other psychologic problems (in 20% of cases), such as serious phobias and/or neuroses. A strategy of researching and thus tackling the problem is presented which focuses on three essential targets that require studying and change: 1) the community at large and their image of the dentist, 2) the patient role and 3) the dentist role. Various model projects are presented along with their diagnostic systems. These are seen to focus in varying degrees on different elements of the target groups that effect the dentist-patient relationship but the need to come out into the community and make the social environment right for these patients is an important factor in all strategies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Perrin, Jeffrey; O'Neil, Jennifer; Grimes, Ashley; Bryson, Laura
While previous research has examined the various relationships between fear and learning in K-12 academic settings, the relationship is surprisingly unexplored amongst law students. Using a descriptive qualitative approach, we examine the role fear plays in law students' learning experiences. Through a series of semi-structured interviews a few…
Li, Hui; He, Tian; Xu, Qian; Li, Zhe; Liu, Yan; Li, Fang; Yang, Bo-Feng; Liu, Cun-Zhi
In China, acupuncture has been considered an effective method for treating gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction diseases for thousands of years. In fact, acupuncture has gained progressive acceptance from both practitioners and patients worldwide. However, the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms in treating GI dysfunction have not yet been established due to a lack of systematic and comprehensive review articles. Therefore, the aim of this review is to discuss the efficacy of acupuncture as a treatment for GI dysfunction and the associated underlying mechanisms. A search of PubMed was conducted for articles that were published over the past 10 years using the terms “acupuncture”, “gastrointestine”, and other relevant keywords. In the following review, we describe the effect and underlying mechanisms of acupuncture on GI function from the perspectives of GI motility, visceral sensitivity, the GI barrier, and the brain-gut axis. The dual regulatory effects of acupuncture may manifest by promoting gastric peristalsis in subjects with low initial gastric motility, and suppressing peristalsis in subjects with active initial motility. In addition, the regulation of acupuncture on gastric motility may be intensity-dependent. Our findings suggest that further studies are needed to investigate the effects and more systematic mechanisms in treating GI dysfunction, and to promote the application of acupuncture for the treatment of GI diseases. PMID:26217082
Zhuang, Juanjuan; Wang, Jihong; Lai, Xinsheng
Qijie theory is one of the important components of TCM meridian and collateral system. It is the shortcut for the communication from the exterior to the interior and for the transverse connection, strengthens the therapeutic effects of acupuncture and moxibustion on the disorders of internal organs and enlarges the indications of acupoints. Professor LAI Xinsheng originally creats Tongyuan acupuncture technique. It is a kind of acupuncture therapeutic methods, including promoting the circulation of the governor vessel, regulating the mind and conducting qi to the origin. In order to analyze the connection between Tongyuan acupuncture technique and traditional meridian and collateral theory, the connotations of Tongyuan acupuncture technique and qijie, as well as the in-terrelationship between them are taken as the basis in the paper. By tracing the literature records, the original concept of qijie is detected. Through proving clinically Tongyuan acupuncture technique, it is revealed that qijie is the arrowhead on the main road of meridian qi circulation and is the essential connotation of the direct path of the body surface connecting with the deep layers of the body as well as the zangfu organs and tissues. It is summarized that the traditional qijie theory provides the powerful theoretic evidence for the treatment with Tongyuan acupuncture technique.
Chae, Younbyoung; Olausson, Håkan
Acupuncture is a therapeutic treatment that is characterised by the insertion of a needle at a particular location on the body. Acupuncture stimulation includes sensory-discriminative and affective-social touch dimensions. In this review, we discuss the role of touch during acupuncture stimulation with an emphasis on the therapeutic, sensory-discriminative and affective-social aspects. In the discriminative dimension, de qi, which is associated with needling, includes a combination of various sensations, such as heaviness, numbness, soreness and distension. Achieving the appropriate de qi sensation appears to be fundamental to the therapeutic outcome following acupuncture treatment. In the affective dimension, the acupuncture procedure typically includes gentle manual touch stimulation, which induces feelings of calm and well-being, perhaps by activating C tactile fibres. Enhanced activity of C tactile afferents may induce a 'limbic touch' response, resulting in emotional and hormonal reactions. Because acupuncture is a 'therapist intensive' and complex intervention, it is necessary to understand the role of social touch between the practitioner and patient. Both sensory-discriminative and affective-social touch aspects play an important role in the therapeutic effect of acupuncture treatment in clinical practice.
Swanson, Barbara; Keithley, Joyce K.; Johnson, Angela; Fogg, Louis; Adeyemi, Oluwatoyin; Sha, Beverly E.; Snell, Kimberly A.
Background. HIV infection is associated with systemic inflammation that can increase risk for cardiovascular events. Acupuncture has been shown to have immunomodulatory effects and to improve symptoms in persons with inflammatory conditions. Objective. To test the anti-inflammatory effects of an acupuncture protocol that targets the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAIP), a neural mechanism whose activation has been shown to reduce the release of proinflammatory cytokines, in persons with HIV-associated inflammation. Design, Setting, Participants, and Interventions. Double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted in an outpatient clinic located in a medically underserved urban neighborhood. Twenty-five clinically-stable HIV-infected persons on antiretroviral therapy were randomized to receive once weekly CAIP-based acupuncture or sham acupuncture. Main Outcome Measures. Outcomes included plasma concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein and D-dimer and fasting lipids. Results. Twenty-five participants completed the protocol (treatment group n = 12, control group n = 13). No adverse events related to the acupuncture protocol were observed. Compared to baseline values, the two groups did not significantly differ in any outcome measures at the end of the acupuncture protocol. Conclusions. CAIP-based acupuncture did not favorably modulate inflammatory or lipid parameters. Additional studies are warranted of CAIP-based protocols of different frequencies/durations. PMID:25922615
Liu, Yen-Ting; Chiu, Chih-Wen; Chang, Chin-Fu; Lee, Tsung-Chieh; Chen, Chia-Yun; Chang, Shun-Chang; Lee, Chia-Ying; Lo, Lun-Chien
Introduction. Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common complaints in the emergency department (ED). There are several research articles providing evidence for acupuncture for treating chronic LBP but few about treating acute LBP. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for the treatment of acute LBP in the ED. Materials and methods. A clinical pilot cohort study was conducted. 60 participants, recruited in the ED, were divided into experimental and control groups with 1 dropout during the study. Life-threatening conditions or severe neurological defects were excluded. The experimental group (n = 45) received a series of fixed points of acupuncture. The control group (n = 14) received sham acupuncture by pasting seed-patches near acupoints. Back pain was measured using the visual analog scale (VAS) at three time points: baseline and immediately after and 3 days after intervention as the primary outcome. The secondary outcomes were heart rate variability (HRV) and adverse events. Results. The VAS demonstrated a significant decrease (P value <0.001) for the experimental group after 15 minutes of acupuncture. The variation in HRV showed no significant difference in either group. No adverse event was reported. Conclusion. Acupuncture might provide immediate effect in reducing the pain of acute LBP safely.
Ji, Laixi; Wang, Haijun; Cao, Yuxia; Yan, Ping; Jin, Xiaofei; Nie, Peirui; Wang, Chaojian; Li, Rangqian; Zhang, Chunlong; Yang, Mingxiao; Yang, Jie
The Feng Gou Zhen (sharp-hook acupuncture) as a traditional form of ancient acupuncture is said to be particularly effective for managing periarthritis of shoulder. We conducted this randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of Feng Gou Zhen as an add-on compared to conventional analgesics for patients with PAS. 132 patients were randomly assigned in a 1 : 1 ratio to either a acupuncture group receiving sharp-hook acupuncture plus acupoint injection with conventional analgesics or a control group. Patients from both groups were evaluated at week 0 (baseline), week 1, and week 4. The primary outcome measure was the change from baseline shoulder pain, measured by Visual Analogue Scale at 7 days after treatment. Secondary outcome measures include the (i) function of shoulder joint and (ii) McGill pain questionnaire. The results showed that patients in acupuncture group had better pain relief and function recovery compared with control group (P < 0.05) at 1 week after treatment. Moreover, there were statistical differences between two groups in VAS and shoulder joint function and McGill pain questionnaire at 4 weeks after treatment (P < 0.05). Therefore, the sharp-hook acupuncture helps to relieve the pain and restore the shoulder function for patients with periarthritis of shoulder. PMID:26640496
Liu, Yen-Ting; Chiu, Chih-Wen; Chang, Chin-Fu; Lee, Tsung-Chieh; Chen, Chia-Yun; Chang, Shun-Chang; Lee, Chia-Ying; Lo, Lun-Chien
Introduction. Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common complaints in the emergency department (ED). There are several research articles providing evidence for acupuncture for treating chronic LBP but few about treating acute LBP. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for the treatment of acute LBP in the ED. Materials and methods. A clinical pilot cohort study was conducted. 60 participants, recruited in the ED, were divided into experimental and control groups with 1 dropout during the study. Life-threatening conditions or severe neurological defects were excluded. The experimental group (n = 45) received a series of fixed points of acupuncture. The control group (n = 14) received sham acupuncture by pasting seed-patches near acupoints. Back pain was measured using the visual analog scale (VAS) at three time points: baseline and immediately after and 3 days after intervention as the primary outcome. The secondary outcomes were heart rate variability (HRV) and adverse events. Results. The VAS demonstrated a significant decrease (P value <0.001) for the experimental group after 15 minutes of acupuncture. The variation in HRV showed no significant difference in either group. No adverse event was reported. Conclusion. Acupuncture might provide immediate effect in reducing the pain of acute LBP safely. PMID:26346626
The objective of this randomized comparative study was to provide preliminary data of comparative effectiveness of Thai traditional massage (TTM) and Chinese acupuncture for the treatment of myofascial back pain in young military personnel. Eighteen Thai military personnel, aged ranging from 20-40 years were randomly divided into TTM and acupuncture groups. Each group received 5 sessions of massage or acupuncture during a 10-day period. The Thai version McGill Pain Questionnaire, 100-mm, visual analog scale (VAS) and summation of pain threshold in each trigger point measured by pressure algometer were assessed at day 0, 3, 8 and 10. At the end of treatment protocols, McGill scores decreased significantly in TTM and acupuncture groups (p = 0.024 and 0.002, respectively). VAS also decreased significantly (p = 0.029 and 0.003, respectively). However, the pain pressure threshold increased significantly in the acupuncture group but not in the TTM group (p = 0.006 and 0.08, respectively). When outcomes were compared between the two groups, no significant difference was found in the VAS (p = 0.115) and pain pressure threshold (p = 0.116), whereas the acupuncture group showed significantly lower McGill scores than the TTM group (p = 0.039). In conclusion, five sessions of Thai traditional massage and Chinese acupuncture were effective for the treatment of myofascial back pain in young Thai military personnel. Significant effects in both groups begin after the first session. Acupuncture is more effective than Thai traditional massage when affective aspect is also evaluated.
Pan, Wei; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Wang, Yi-Tao
The structure of international flow of acupuncture knowledge was explored in this article so as to promote the globalization of acupuncture technology innovation. Statistical methods were adopted to reveal geographical distribution of acupuncture patents in the U.S.A. and the influencing factors of cumulative advantage of acupuncture techniques as well as innovation value of application of acupuncture patents. Social network analysis was also utilized to establish a global innovation network of acupuncture technology. The result shows that the cumulative strength on acupuncture technology correlates with the patent retention period. The innovative value of acupuncture invention correlates with the frequency of patent citation. And the U. S. A. and Canada seize central positions in the global acupuncture information and technology delivery system.
Park, Jongbae; Park, Hijoon; Lee, Hyangsook; Lim, Sabina; Ahn, Kyooseok; Lee, Hyejung
Previous experience of acupuncture is believed to affect people's expectation of future treatments. Therefore, subjects who have had acupuncture are generally excluded from sham-controlled acupuncture clinical trials. However, this assumption has not been proven, but just accepted because of the lack of evidence to the contrary. To investigate the difference in frequency and intensity of acupuncture sensation between subjects who have had acupuncture and those who have not, 36 acupuncture-experienced subjects were invited to take part in the study. After informed consent was obtained, participants were asked to complete the acupuncture sensation scale (ASS) according to what they expected needling to feel like. The needling was done at the left Hegu (LI 4) point and consisted of insertion, stimulation for 30 seconds and removal. After needling, the subjects were asked to complete the same ASS according to what they actually experienced. Adverse events were monitored. The frequency of each sensation expected and experienced, as well as acupuncture sensation scores were compared. More than 60% of the subjects expected to feel sensations of penetrating (87.6% to 100%), aching (71.2% to 95.5%), tingling (87.6% to 100%), pricking (79.7% to 99.2%) and throbbing (64.2% to 91.4%). In fact, the subjects experienced sharp (60.9% to 89.1%), intense (60.9% to 89.1%), radiating (71.2% to 95.5%) and heavy (74.8% to 97.4%) sensations just as much. The subjects expected more hurting (p = 0.001), tingling (p < 0.001), pricking (p = 0.010), stinging (p = 0.012), burning (p = 0.001) and pulsing (p = 0.009) than they experienced, while more heaviness (p = 0.011) was experienced than expected. The same outcome measures were also compared between experienced and naive groups. Apart from the fact that the acupuncture-experienced participants expected to feel pricking (p = 0.030) and stinging (p = 0.002), and experienced hurting (p = 0.022) and stinging (p = 0.028) significantly less than
Meng, Xian-Jun; Zhu, An-Ning; Liao, Xiu-Lian; Ouyang, Qiang-Bo
The development history, education, legislation, charge and institutes of acupuncture and moxibustion in Singapore are introduced in this article. Acupuncture and moxibustion has been developed in Singapore since 1840. Nowadays there are three universities that set up standard Chinese medicine courses and two acupuncture-moxibustion associations. Legislation of acupuncture and moxibustion is published in 2000. The acupuncture and moxibustion is applied for approximately 50 kinds of diseases. The acupuncture and moxibustion is at one's own expense in public or private institutions, but cheap or completely free in charity.
Simonsen, I.; Ahlgren, P. T. H.; Jensen, M. H.; Donangelo, R.; Sneppen, K.
The value of stocks, indices and other assets, are examples of stochastic processes with unpredictable dynamics. In this paper, we discuss asymmetries in short term price movements that can not be associated with a long term positive trend. These empirical asymmetries predict that stock index drops are more common on a relatively short time scale than the corresponding raises. We present several empirical examples of such asymmetries. Furthermore, a simple model featuring occasional short periods of synchronized dropping prices for all stocks constituting the index is introduced with the aim of explaining these facts. The collective negative price movements are imagined triggered by external factors in our society, as well as internal to the economy, that create fear of the future among investors. This is parameterized by a “fear factor” defining the frequency of synchronized events. It is demonstrated that such a simple fear factor model can reproduce several empirical facts concerning index asymmetries. It is also pointed out that in its simplest form, the model has certain shortcomings.
Li, Gui-lan; Guo, Yi; Chen, Ze-lin; Li, Gui-hua
The main difficulties and disputable problems on develping the national standard Standardized Manipulation of Acupuncture and Moribustion, Part 3: Auricular Acupuncture are debated in this paper from the three aspects of its meaning, scientific basis and key point. The difficult points mainly include manipulation standandization of auricular acupuncture, basis and science of the standards stipulated, selection of technical terms and definition, and why only the four kinds of manipulations are used for auricular acupuncture. Finally, the authors suggest that the Standardized Manipulation of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Part 3: Auricular Acupuncture needs further to be studied and improved.
... AGENCY No FEAR Act Notice AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal... and Federal Employee Antidiscrimination and Retaliation Act of 2002, which is now known as the No FEAR Act (No FEAR Act), (Pub. L. 107-174). One purpose of the No FEAR Act is to require that...
Tippey, Jacalyn G.; Burnham, Joy J.
Few studies have considered the fears of gifted children. Using the American Fear Survey Schedule for Children (FSSC-AM; Burnham, 1995), a modified version of the Australian Fear Survey Schedule for Children-II (Gullone & King, 1992, 1993), this study focused on the fears of 287 gifted children ages 7-10. This study is a first step in…
Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Aggarwal, Richa; Baker, Courtney; Mathapati, Santosh; Molitoris, Sarah; Mayes, Rebecca D.
Unusual fears have long been recognized as common in autism, but little research exists. In our sample of 1033 children with autism, unusual fears were reported by parents of 421 (41%) of the children, representing 92 different fears. Many additional children had common childhood fears (e.g., dogs, bugs, and the dark). More than half of children…
Lu, Weidong; Rosenthal, David S
Cancer pain is one of most prevalent symptoms in patients with cancer. Acupuncture and related techniques have been suggested for the management of cancer pain. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for adult cancer pain recommends acupuncture, as one of several integrative interventions, in conjunction with pharmacologic intervention as needed. This review presents the latest available evidence regarding the use of acupuncture for cancer pain. It also provides "actionable" acupuncture protocols for specific cancer pain conditions and related symptoms in order to provide more clinically relevant solutions for clinicians and cancer patients with pain. These conditions include postoperative cancer pain, postoperative nausea and vomiting, postsurgical gastroparesis syndrome, opioid-induced constipation, opioid-induced pruritus, chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, aromatase inhibitor-associated joint pain, and neck dissection-related pain and dysfunction.
It is reported that a professor of otolaryngology in Japan found no evidence that acupuncture improved sensorineural hearing impairment during observations of education and medical treatment of aurally handicapped children in mainland China. (MC)
Kim, Jae Soo; Lee, Hyun Jong; Lee, Sang Hoon; Lee, Bong Hyo
Acupuncture and pharmacopuncture have been shown to be effective in tumor treatment. However, their effectiveness for treating oligodendroglioma has not been reported yet. The purpose of this study was to provide an initial report on the effectiveness of acupuncture and pharmacopuncture for the treatment of an oligodendroglioma by presenting a case that was treated successfully. A 54-year-old man, who had experienced intracranial hemorrhage, was diagnosed with recurrent oligodendroglioma. His expected survival period was 3-6 months. The patient received daily acupuncture and weekly pharmacopuncture of mountain ginseng and bee venom. After treatment for 18 months, the tumor size was decreased markedly on brain magnetic resonance imaging, and severe seizures had disappeared. In this case, a combination of acupuncture and pharmacopuncture was shown to be effective for the treatment of recurrent oligodendroglioma.
Chen, Shuping; Wang, Shubin; Rong, Peijing; Liu, Junling; Zhang, Hongqi; Zhang, Jianliang
Neurostimulation procedures like vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) and deep brain stimulation have been used to treat refractory epilepsy and other neurological disorders. While holding promise, they are invasive interventions with serious complications and adverse effects. Moreover, their efficacies are modest with less seizure free. Acupuncture is a simple, safe, and effective traditional healing modality for a wide range of diseases including pain and epilepsy. Thalamus takes critical role in sensory transmission and is highly involved in epilepsy genesis particularly the absence epilepsy. Considering thalamus serves as a convergent structure for both acupuncture and VNS and the thalamic neuronal activities can be modulated by acupuncture, we propose that acupuncture could be a promising therapy or at least a screening tool to select suitable candidates for those invasive modalities in the management of refractory epilepsy. PMID:25548594
Nam, Min-Ho; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Choi, Seung-Hoon
The discovery of adult neurogenesis was a turning point in the field of neuroscience. Adult neurogenesis offers an enormous possibility to open a new therapeutic paradigm of neurodegenerative diseases and stroke. Recently, several studies suggested that acupuncture may enhance adult neurogenesis. Acupuncture has long been an important treatment for brain diseases in the East Asia. The scientific mechanisms of acupuncture treatment for the diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and stroke, have not been clarified yet; however, the neurogenic effect of acupuncture can be a possible reason. Here, we have reviewed the studies on the effect of stimulation at various acupoints for neurogenesis, such as ST36 and GV20. The suggested mechanisms are also discussed including upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, basic fibroblast growth factor and neuropeptide Y, and activation of the function of primo vascular system.
Sahin, A E; Cayir, Y; Imerci, A; Uzkeser, H; Akcay, F
Heel spur is also known as a result of plantar calcaneal bone spur which is a common complaint associated with pain at heel. Heel spur is more common in females. Anti-inflammatory drugs, local steroid injections, physical therapy, low-dose radiotherapy and shock wave therapy are the commonly used treatment choices. There is no evidence that acupuncture is an effective method for heel spur in the literature. However, we know that acupuncture can be used for many orthopaedic diseases like frozen shoulder, tennis elbow, sciatic pain, joint sprains, several forms of bursitis and arthritis. In this case, we aimed to demonstrate whether acupuncture is effective in a patient with heel spur. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case in which only acupuncture is used alone for treatment of heel spur up-to-date in the literature.
de Groot, Jasper H B; Semin, Gün R; Smeets, Monique A M
Recent evidence suggests that humans can become fearful after exposure to olfactory fear signals, yet these studies have reported the effects of fear chemosignals without examining emotion-relevant input from traditional communication modalities (i.e., vision, audition). The question that we pursued here was therefore: How significant is an olfactory fear signal in the broader context of audiovisual input that either confirms or contradicts olfactory information? To test this, we manipulated olfactory (fear, no fear) and audiovisual (fear, no fear) information and demonstrated that olfactory fear signals were as potent as audiovisual fear signals in eliciting a fearful facial expression. Irrespective of confirmatory or contradictory audiovisual information, olfactory fear signals produced by senders induced fear in receivers outside of conscious access. These findings run counter to traditional views that emotions are communicated exclusively via visual and linguistic channels.
Sun, Y; Gan, T J; Dubose, J W; Habib, A S
Postoperative pain management remains a significant challenge for all healthcare providers. The objective of this systematic review was to quantitatively evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture and related techniques as adjunct analgesics for acute postoperative pain management. We searched the databases of Medline (1966-2007), CINAHL, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2006), and Scopus for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using acupuncture for postoperative pain management. We extracted data about postoperative opioid consumption, postoperative pain intensity, and opioid-related side-effects. Combined data were analysed using a random effects model. Fifteen RCTs comparing acupuncture with sham control in the management of acute postoperative pain were included. Weighted mean difference for cumulative opioid analgesic consumption was -3.14 mg (95% confidence interval, CI: -5.15, -1.14), -8.33 mg (95% CI: -11.06, -5.61), and -9.14 mg (95% CI: -16.07, -2.22) at 8, 24, and 72 h, respectively. Postoperative pain intensity (visual analogue scale, 0-100 mm) was also significantly decreased in the acupuncture group at 8 and 72 h compared with the control group. The acupuncture treatment group was associated with a lower incidence of opioid-related side-effects such as nausea (relative risk, RR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.86), dizziness (RR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.81), sedation (RR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.99), pruritus (RR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.96), and urinary retention (RR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.74). Perioperative acupuncture may be a useful adjunct for acute postoperative pain management.
Ahsin, Sadia; Saleem, Salman; Bhatti, Ahsin Manzoor; Iles, Ray K; Aslam, Mohammad
Neurobiological mechanisms invoking the release of endogenous opioids and depression of stress hormone release are believed to be the basis of acupuncture analgesia. This study compared plasma beta-endorphin and cortisol levels with self assessment scores of intensity of pain, before and after 10 days of electro-acupuncture treatment in patients suffering from chronic pain as a result of osteoarthritis knees. Forty patients of either sex over 40 years with primary osteoarthritis knee were recruited into a single-blinded, sham-controlled study. For electro-acupuncture group the points were selected according to the Traditional Chinese Medicine Meridian Theory. In the sham group needles were inserted at random points away from true acupoints and no current was passed. Both groups were treated for 10 days with one session every day lasting for 20-25min. Pre- and post-treatment Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) index of osteoarthritis knee and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain were recorded and blood samples were taken for the measurement of plasma cortisol and beta-endorphin levels. Following electro-acupuncture treatment there was a significant improvement in WOMAC index and VAS (p=0.001), a significant rise in plasma beta-endorphin (p=0.001), and a significant fall in plasma cortisol (p=0.016). In conclusion electro-acupuncture resulted in an improvement in pain, stiffness and disability. Of clinical importance is that an improvement in objective measures of pain and stress/pain associated biomarkers was shown above that of a sham treatment; hence demonstrating acupuncture associated physiological changes beyond that of the placebo effects.
Duvarci, Sevil; Pare, Denis
We review recent work on the role of intrinsic amygdala networks in the regulation of classically conditioned defensive behaviors, commonly known as conditioned fear. These new developments highlight how conditioned fear depends on far more complex networks than initially envisioned. Indeed, multiple parallel inhibitory and excitatory circuits are differentially recruited during the expression versus extinction of conditioned fear. Moreover, shifts between expression and extinction circuits involve coordinated interactions with different regions of the medial prefrontal cortex. However, key areas of uncertainty remain, particularly with respect to the connectivity of the different cell types. Filling these gaps in our knowledge is important because much evidence indicates that human anxiety disorders results from an abnormal regulation of the networks supporting fear learning. PMID:24908482
Academics in Iran have been left in a state of fear following the murder in Tehran last November of nuclear physicist Majid Shahriari and the attempted assassination of another nuclear researcher, Fereydoon Abbasi.
... for several minutes or longer. These are called panic attacks . Panic attacks are characterized by a fear of disaster or ... also have a strong physical reaction during a panic attack. It may feel like having a heart attack. ...
Susskind, Joshua M; Lee, Daniel H; Cusi, Andrée; Feiman, Roman; Grabski, Wojtek; Anderson, Adam K
It has been proposed that facial expression production originates in sensory regulation. Here we demonstrate that facial expressions of fear are configured to enhance sensory acquisition. A statistical model of expression appearance revealed that fear and disgust expressions have opposite shape and surface reflectance features. We hypothesized that this reflects a fundamental antagonism serving to augment versus diminish sensory exposure. In keeping with this hypothesis, when subjects posed expressions of fear, they had a subjectively larger visual field, faster eye movements during target localization and an increase in nasal volume and air velocity during inspiration. The opposite pattern was found for disgust. Fear may therefore work to enhance perception, whereas disgust dampens it. These convergent results provide support for the Darwinian hypothesis that facial expressions are not arbitrary configurations for social communication, but rather, expressions may have originated in altering the sensory interface with the physical world.
The popularity of horror fiction among adolescents is discussed in terms of the use of grammar for social interaction, personal development, and emotional therapy during a developmental stage characterized by fear and emotional upheaval. (MSE)
Xu, Lixian; Xu, Hao; Gao, Wei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hui; Lu, Dominic P
Acupuncture therapy on PC 6 (Neiguan) has a therapeutic effect on cardiac and chest ailments including angina pectoris. Additional beneficial acupuncture points are PC 4 (Ximen), HT 7 (Shenmen point), PC 7 (Daling point), PC 5 (Jianshi point), PC 3 (Quze point), CV 17 (Danzhong point), CV 6 (Qihai point), BL 15 (Xinshu point), L 20 (Pishu point), BL 17 (Geshu point), BL23 (Shenshu point), BL18 (Ganshu point), HT 5 (Tongli point), and ST36 (Zusanli point). Acupuncture not only quickly relieve the symptoms of acute angina pectoris, but also improve nitroglycerine's therapeutic effects. Therefore, it is an efficient simple therapeutic method used for emergency and for regular angina treatment. Review of studies on acupuncture therapy has shown effectiveness were between 80% to 96.2% that are almost as effective as conventional drug regimen. When compared with conventional medical treatment, the acupuncture therapy shows the obvious advantage of lacking, adverse side effects commonly associated with the Western anti-anginal drugs such as 1) Nitroglycerine (headache--63% with nitroglycerine patch and 50% with spray; syncope--4%; and dizziness--8% with patch; hypotension--4% with patch; and increased angina 2% with patch). 2) Isosorbide mononitrate (dizziness--3 to 5%; nausea/vomiting--2 to 4% and other reactions including hypotension, and syncope even with small doses). 3) Propranolol (bradycardia, chest pain, hypotension, worsening of AV conduction disturbance, Raynaud's syndrome, mental depression, hyperglycemia, etc.). Many conventional anti-anginal medications cause inter-drug reactions with other medications the patients taking for other diseases. Whereas, acupuncture therapy does not pose such an interference with patient's medications. Nevertheless, surgery is still the treatment of choice when acupuncture or conventional drug therapy fails. Combination of conventional drug therapy and acupuncture would considerably decrease the frequency and the required dosage
For the problems specifically associated with conducting randomized controlled trials (RCTs) research into acupuncture, studies focus on these factors of sample population, test quality, baseline, diagnostic criteria, inclusive and exclusive criteria, the choice of control group, the interventions, efficacy evaluation, standardization and objective observation indice, long-term follow-up, and adverse reaction. Sound suggestions are provided to improve the quality of acupuncture research.
Yang, Shu Ching; Chen, Shih-Fen
This study administered an open-ended questionnaire about death and the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (MODS) to explore the relationships between personal constructs about death and fears of death among Taiwanese adolescents. The sample included 329 adolescents in junior and senior high school grades 7 to 12. A coding manual was used to…
Power, Trinda L.; Smith, Steven M.
This research was undertaken to explore gender, religiosity, perceived time-left-to-live and the interactions between these variables as predictors of fear of death in 144 Atlantic Canadian students using the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (MFODS). Predictions about cause, age, marital status, and place of death were also derived from the…
Beckers, Tom; Krypotos, Angelos-Miltiadis; Boddez, Yannick; Effting, Marieke; Kindt, Merel
Fear conditioning is one of the prime paradigms of behavioural neuroscience and a source of tremendous insight in the fundamentals of learning and memory and the psychology and neurobiology of emotion. It is also widely regarded as a model for the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders in a diathesis-stress model of psychopathology. Starting from the apparent paradox between the adaptive nature of fear conditioning and the dysfunctional nature of pathological anxiety, we present a critique of the human fear conditioning paradigm as an experimental model for psychopathology. We discuss the potential benefits of expanding the human fear conditioning paradigm by (1) including action tendencies as an important index of fear and (2) paying more attention to "weak" (i.e., ambiguous) rather than "strong" fear learning situations (Lissek et al., 2006), such as contained in selective learning procedures. We present preliminary data that illustrate these ideas and discuss the importance of response systems divergence in understanding individual differences in vulnerability for the development of pathological anxiety.
Tauro, Flavia; Petroselli, Andrea; Fiori, Aldo; Romano, Nunzio; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Porfiri, Maurizio; Palladino, Mario; Grimaldi, Salvatore
Hydrological processes occurring at the hillslope scale highly influence the response of natural catchments. However, modelling hillslope dynamics is often extremely challenging, and conceptualizations may be inadequate to simulate such complex processes. Towards this aim, field experiments on natural and artificial catchments have proved highly beneficial. In this work, we present Cape Fear, an ad hoc designed experimental plot whereby traditional and new measurement systems are integrated for improved comprehension of hillslope processes. This outdoor hillslope laboratory hosts diverse sensing apparatuses, spanning from a system of rainfall simulators, a v-notch weir for input and output fluxes analysis, sophisticated instrumentation for continuous measurements of surface and subsurface water and soil transport, to innovative image-based setups to remotely sense surface waters. We demonstrate the potential of such a versatile and thoroughly instrumented outdoor laboratory through a proof-of-concept experiment conducted during a natural rainfall event. The response of the plot to the storm is reconstructed based on continuous monitoring of input and output fluxes. Further, an innovative tracer-based approach involving the use of fluorescent particles is utilized to remotely investigate the onset of overland flow from captured images. Insight from experimental observations is utilized to identify the physical phenomena governing the response of the hillslope to the precipitation event. Cape Fear is a powerful resource for the hydrological community and this small scale experimental observatory is expected to provide diverse and innovative observations to advance current knowledge on hydrological processes at the hillslope scale.
da Silva, João Bosco Guerreiro; Saidah, Rassen; Megid, Cecília Baccili Cury; Ramos, Neil Alvimar
Complementary and alternative medicine, and in particular acupuncture, has been practised and taught in recent years in many universities in the Western world. Here, we relate our experiences since 1997 in teaching acupuncture to medical students at Rio Preto Medical School (Faculty of Medicine of São José do Rio Preto (FAMERP)), Brazil. Classes are given in the third and fifth years. The main goals of understanding the mechanisms of action and being able to recognise patients who may benefit from treatment and referring them have been well achieved, scoring 3.6 and 4.1, respectively, on a scale of 1-5. Also using that scale, medical students believe that acupuncture is important in the curriculum (4.6), course time is not sufficient (2.7) and they would like more information (4.6). To overcome these concerns, many students join an undergraduate study group (Acupuncture League) where they have more time to learn. We also describe the presence of foreign medical students who, since 2000, have enrolled in a course of 150 h in an exchange programme.
Acupuncture, which is gaining credibility among the Western medical establishment, is just one element of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) being used to treat fatigue, nausea, insomnia, diarrhea, menstrual problems, and HIV-related peripheral neuropathy. Acupuncture is often used in combination with exercise massage, meditation, and herbal therapy. Special combinations of Chinese herbs are used to treat HIV-conditions, promote digestion, increase energy, and fight fungal infections. "Enhance", "Resist", and "Combination A", are three such formulas. Another benefit of acupuncture and Chinese herbs is their ability to decrease side effects associated with Western medicine. The growing medical interest in acupuncture is evidenced in the progress of CPCRA 022, a phase II/III trial to study acupuncture alone or in combination with amitriptyline, an anti-depressant, as a treatment for peripheral neuropathy. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recently awarded the Bastyr University in Seattle, with funds to study alternative therapies. Regardless of outcomes, these studies may encourage other organizations to pursue acupuncture trials.
Tan, Eunice K; Millington, George W M; Levell, Nick J
Classical acupuncture focuses primarily on treating the person, and secondarily treating the illness. The "symptoms" are regarded as "branch" expressions of a "root" (constitutional) imbalance. Different root imbalances can produce the same symptoms. Five patients with eczema, for example, may reveal five distinct root imbalances and would all be treated very differently. Because acupuncture treats the whole person, it has something to offer almost every condition. In many cases, acupuncture aims to bring about a complete cure; in others, it aims to manage the problem. Acupuncture remains a substantial part of the traditional Chinese medicine, which is used to treat many conditions including acne, alopecia, dermatitis, pruritus, psoriasis, rosacea, systemic lupus erythematosus, urticaria, herpes zoster, chicken pox, impetigo, leprosy, vitiligo, and tinea. This review introduces the historical context of acupuncture within Chinese medicine and how it relates to skin disease. Specifically, a key question is, what can we learn from the ancients with regard to their use of acupuncture as part of a holistic system of medicine, and how does this relate to the practice of modern dermatology?
Yang, Pengyan; Luo, Xi; Xia, Youbing
Nowadays extensive attention has been paid on the research of acupuncture academic schools, however, a widely accepted method of partition of acupuncture academic schools is still in need. In this paper, the methods of partition of acupuncture academic schools in the history have been arranged, and three typical methods of"partition of five schools" "partition of eighteen schools" and "two-stage based partition" are summarized. After adeep analysis on the disadvantages and advantages of these three methods, a new method of partition of acupuncture academic schools that is called "three-stage based partition" is proposed. In this method, after the overall acupuncture academic schools are divided into an ancient stage, a modern stage and a contemporary stage, each schoolis divided into its sub-school category. It is believed that this method of partition can remedy the weaknesses ofcurrent methods, but also explore a new model of inheritance and development under a different aspect through thedifferentiation and interaction of acupuncture academic schools at three stages.
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Wang, Hong-Cai; Deng, Liang-Yue; Liu, Bao-Yan
The history of the World Federation of Acupuncture-Moxibustion Societies (WFAS) was reviewed through summarizing the background and process of the establishment of WFAS. The establishment background was explained in different aspects, named the recovery of acupuncture-Moxibustion in the world, the successive setup of world acupuncture-Moxibustion organizations, the divergences of International Association of Acupuncture-Moxibustion, striding forward of China reform and opening policy as well as the attention of the World Health Organization (WHO), etc. The establishment of WFAS was introduced on the proposal from eight countries, the important time of the development of acupuncture and moxibustion in China, 1984, divergences and consensus as well as the final phase. The official establishment of WFAS represents the global benefits of acupuncture-Moxibustion colleagues. It is the international organization of acupuncture and moxibustion, contributing to the promotion of acupuncture and moxibustion in the world.
Hirose, Yasuyuki; Togo, Toshihiro; Yamamoto, Shunsei
Recent increase in the number of clinical reports of acupuncture requires terminological resources based on conceptual frameworks for knowledge management. For this purpose, we developed a categorial structure for acupuncture points based on ISO 17115.
Zhang, Jian-Bin; Dong, Qin
The understanding and classification of academic systems of acupuncture-moxibustion of GAO Wu can be initially clarified through Keynotes of Acupuncture-Moxibustion. On the base of theoretical system of Neijing (Internal Classic) and Nanjing (Classic on Medical Problems), needling manipulations, treatment, meridians and acupoints were taken as the major knowledge models to construct the framework of the academic system by GAO Wu. The "nine needles" and "manipulations" were taken as the starting point of acupuncture. "Reducing and reinforcing methods" were held as the requirement for advanced skills of acupuncturists. Moreover, syndromes based on the theory of was 12 regular meridians was emphasized to combine the theory and clinical practice tightly. Therefore, it is concluded that GAO Wu's classification of acupuncture-moxibustion academic system enlightened and provided experiences for the modern acupuncture education and academic research.
Wang, Xian-ju; Zeng, Chang-chun; Liu, Han-ping; Liu, Song-hao; Liu, Liang-gang
Based on Pennes equation, the influences of the intensity and the impulse frequency of laser acupuncture on the point tissues' blood flow perfusion rate are discussed. We find that the blood perfusion rate of point tissue increases with the intensity of laser acupuncture increasing. After impulse laser acupuncture the point tissue blood perfusion rate increase little, but after continuum laser acupuncture the point tissues blood perfusion rate increase much.
Shulman, Lisa M; Wen, X; Weiner, William J; Bateman, Dinorah; Minagar, Alireza; Duncan, Robert; Konefal, Janet
Interest in alternative medical treatments, including acupuncture, is increasing. Alternative treatments must be subjected to the same objective standards as all medical treatments. A non-blinded pilot study of the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of acupuncture (ACUPX) for the symptoms of (PD) was performed. Twenty PD patients (mean age, 68 years; disease duration, 8.5 years; Hoehn and Yahr [H&Y] stage, 2.2; Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score [UPDRS], 38.7) each received acupuncture treatments by a licensed acupuncturist. All patients were treated with two acupuncture treatment sessions per week. The first seven patients received 10 treatments and the last 13 patients 16 treatments. Patients were evaluated before and after ACUPX with the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP); UPDRS; H & Y; Schwab and England (S & E); Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI); Beck Depression Inventory (BDI); quantitative motor tests, including timed evaluations of arm pronation supination movements, finger dexterity, finger movements between two fixed measured points, and the stand-walk-sit test; and a patient questionnaire designed for the study. Following ACUPX, there were no significant changes in the UPDRS, H&Y, S&E, BAI, BDI, quantitative motor tests, total SIP or the two SIP Dimension scores. Analysis of the 12 SIP categories not corrected for multiple comparisons revealed a post-ACUPX improvement in the sleep and rest category only (P = 0.03). On the patient questionnaire, 85% of patients reported subjective improvement of individual symptoms including tremor, walking, handwriting, slowness, pain, sleep, depression, and anxiety. There were no adverse effects. ACUPX therapy is safe and well tolerated in PD patients. A range of PD and behavioral scales failed to show improvement following ACUPX other than sleep benefit, although patients reported other discrete symptomatic improvements. A broad battery of tests in PD patients suggested that ACUPX resulted in improvement of sleep and
Hadianfard, Mohammad J; Aminlari, Ali; Daneshian, Arghavan; Safarpour, Ali R
Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a major cause of debilitation in adults, and acupuncture is a recommended treatment. We assessed the effect of acupuncture on pain and quality of life in patients with LSS. Twenty-four patients with LSS who had symptoms of neurogenic claudication were randomly selected and underwent 10 sessions of acupuncture. Pain and quality of life were evaluated before and immediately after the intervention and 6 weeks later using a visual analogue scale and Short Form-36 Health Survey. Paired t tests and repeated measure tests were used to analyze the data. The mean age of the patients was 48.2 ± 10.8 years. The mean visual analogue scale scores before and immediately after intervention (7.9 ± 1.3 and 4.3 ± 2.1) were statistically different (p < 0.001), as was the mean score (3.08 ± 2.3) 6 weeks later (p = 0.01). Five aspects of the Short Form-36 Health Survey score were associated with significant improvements immediately after acupuncture (p < 0.05). Comparisons of the scores before and 6 weeks after intervention showed significant improvements in emotions, vitality, general health, bodily pain, and physical well-being. Therefore, acupuncture had a significant short-term effect on pain and quality of life in patients with LSS.
Kılıç, Cengiz; Ak, Sertaç; Ak, Hacer Birgül
Although dental phobia is classified under the heading of blood-injury phobia, studies show differences between the two conditions in terms of frequency of fainting and gender distribution. Anxiety sensitivity (AS), which refers to discomfort and negative attributions to bodily anxiety sensations, was useful in differentiating panic anxiety from other phobic anxieties. No study has compared dental phobia with blood-injury phobia directly. We examined 61 subjects, working at a military aircraft factory, using measures on demographics, dental fears (MDAS - Modified Dental Anxiety Scale) and blood-injury fears (MBPI - Multidimensional Blood/Injury Phobia Inventory), in addition to Anxiety Sensitivity Index. Regression analyses revealed that dental phobia was predicted by ASI, whereas blood/injury phobia was not. Our results provide additional support for the proposed distinction between the two conditions.
AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-09-2-0064 TITLE: Effectiveness of Acupuncture in the...CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: New England School of Acupuncture , Inc. Newton, MA 02458-1005...December 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Effectiveness of Acupuncture in the Treatment of Gulf War Illness 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH
Xie, Yufeng; Yang Zongbao; Chen, Yun; Wang, Ling; Wang, Shuhui; Yang, Lixia
The origin time, representative physicians and medical works of Xujiang acupuncture school were traced, so as to explore the academic origin and development and summarize the academic characteristic of Xujiang acupuncture school, which could make a better inheritance of academic essence and prompt the innovation and development of Xujiang acupuncture school.
Burkhardt, Käthe; Loxton, Helene; Kagee, Ashraf; Ollendick, Thomas H
The Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (Ollendick, 1983) is an 80-item self-report instrument that has been used internationally to asses the number of fears and general level of fearfulness among children. Despite its widespread use, this instrument has not been adapted to the South African context. The present study addressed this gap by means of a 2-phase investigation aimed at developing a South African version of the instrument. In Phase 1, semistructured interviews were conducted with 40 children (7 to 13 years of age). Qualitative data obtained from these interviews were used to construct additional items for inclusion in the South African Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised. The modified scale, consisting of 97 items, was then administered to a sample of 646 children between the ages of 7 and 13 years. Further psychometric considerations resulted in the final version of the scale consisting of 74 items with high internal consistency (α=.97). The factor structure was explored by means of principal component analysis with varimax rotation and a 5-factor solution was found to provide the best conceptual fit. The factors identified were as follows: Fear of Death and Danger; Fear of the Unknown; Fear of Small Animals and Minor Threats to Self; Large Animal Fears; and Situational Fears. Differences between the South African version and the original Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised are noted and implications for the study of fear in South Africa and other countries are discussed.
Fan, Arthur Yin; Xu, Jun; Li, Yong-Ming
In the United States and other Western countries, dry needling has been a topic in academic and legal fields. This White Paper is to provide the authoritative information of dry needling versus acupuncture to academic scholars, healthcare professionals, administrators, policymakers, and the general public by providing the authoritative evidence and expertise regarding critical issues of dry needling and reaching a consensus. We conclude that Dr. Travell, Dr. Gunn, Dr. Baldry and others who have promoted dry needling by simply rebranding (1) acupuncture as dry needling and (2) acupuncture points as trigger points (dry needling points). Dry needling simply using English biomedical terms (especially using "fascia" hypothesis) in replace of their equivalent Chinese medical terms. Dry needling is an over-simplified version of acupuncture derived from traditional Chinese acupuncture except for emphasis on biomedical language when treating neuromuscularskeletal pain (dry needling promoters redefined it as "myofascial pain"). Trigger points belong to the category of Ashi acupuncture points in traditional Chinese acupuncture, and they are not a new discovery. By applying acupuncture points, dry needling is actually trigger point acupuncture, an invasive therapy (a surgical procedure) instead of manual therapy. Dr. Travell admitted to the general public that dry needling is acupuncture, and acupuncture professionals practice dry needling as acupuncture therapy and there are several criteria in acupuncture profession to locate trigger points as acupuncture points. Among acupuncture schools, dry needling practitioners emphasize acupuncture's local responses while other acupuncturists pay attention to the responses of both local, distal, and whole body responses. For patients' safety, dry needling practitioners should meet standards required for licensed acupuncturists and physicians.
Amadi, Ugwechi; Lim, Seh Hong; Liu, Elizabeth; Baratta, Michael V; Goosens, Ki A
Despite the ubiquitous use of Pavlovian fear conditioning as a model for fear learning, the highly predictable conditions used in the laboratory do not resemble real-world conditions, in which dangerous situations can lead to unpleasant outcomes in unpredictable ways. In the current experiments, we varied the timing of aversive events after predictive cues in rodents and discovered that temporal ambiguity of aversive events greatly enhances fear. During fear conditioning with unpredictably timed aversive events, pharmacological inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus or optogenetic silencing of cornu ammonis 1 cells during aversive negative prediction errors prevented this enhancement of fear without affecting fear learning for predictable events. Dorsal hippocampal inactivation also prevented ambiguity-related enhancement of fear during auditory fear conditioning under a partial-reinforcement schedule. These results reveal that information about the timing and occurrence of aversive events is rapidly acquired and that unexpectedly timed or omitted aversive events generate hippocampal signals to enhance fear learning.
Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín; Vianna, Mónica M R; Bevilaqua, Lía R M
A conditioned stimulus (CS) associated with a fearsome unconditioned stimulus (US) generates learned fear. Acquired fear is at the root of a variety of mental disorders, among which phobias, generalized anxiety, the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and some forms of depression. The simplest way to inhibit learned fear is to extinguish it, which is usually done by repeatedly presenting the CS alone, so that a new association, CS-"no US", will eventually overcome the previously acquired CS-US association. Extinction was first described by Pavlov as a form of "internal inhibition" and was recommended by Freud and Ferenczi in the 1920s (who called it "habituation") as the treatment of choice for phobic disorders. It is used with success till this day, often in association with anxiolytic drugs. Extinction has since then been applied, also successfully and also often in association with anxiolytics, to the treatment of panic, generalized anxiety disorders and, more recently, PTSD. Extinction of learned fear involves gene expression, protein synthesis, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and signaling pathways in the hippocampus and the amygdala at the time of the first CS-no US association. It can be enhanced by increasing the exposure to the "no US" component at the time of behavioral testing, to the point of causing the complete uninstallment of the original fear response. Some theorists have recently proposed that reiteration of the CS alone may induce a reconsolidation of the learned behavior instead of its extinction. Reconsolidation would preserve the original memory from the labilization induced by its retrieval. If true, this would of course be disastrous for the psychotherapy of fear-motivated disorders. Here we show that neither the CS nor retrieval cause anything remotely like reconsolidation, but just extinction. In fact, our findings indicate that the reconsolidation hypothesis is essentially incorrect, at least for the form of contextual fear most
Woodman, Tim; Steer, Rebecca
We explored ideal, ought, and feared body image self-discrepancies as predictors of social physique anxiety within Carver, Lawrence, and Scheier's and Woodman and Hemmings' interaction frameworks. One hundred women completed actual, ideal, ought, and feared body self-discrepancy visual analogue scales, the Social Physique Anxiety Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Moderated hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the relationship between ought body fat discrepancies and social physique anxiety was moderated by proximity to the feared fat self. Specifically, the positive relationship between ought fat discrepancies and social physique anxiety was stronger when women were far from their feared body self. The results highlight the importance of considering the feared self in order to more fully understand the relationship between body image and social physique anxiety.
Dunsmoor, Joseph E; Mitroff, Stephen R; LaBar, Kevin S
The present study investigated the extent to which fear generalization in humans is determined by the amount of fear intensity in nonconditioned stimuli relative to a perceptually similar conditioned stimulus. Stimuli consisted of graded emotionally expressive faces of the same identity morphed between neutral and fearful endpoints. Two experimental groups underwent discriminative fear conditioning between a face stimulus of 55% fear intensity (conditioned stimulus, CS+), reinforced with an electric shock, and a second stimulus that was unreinforced (CS-). In Experiment 1 the CS- was a relatively neutral face stimulus, while in Experiment 2 the CS- was the most fear-intense stimulus. Before and following fear conditioning, skin conductance responses (SCR) were recorded to different morph values along the neutral-to-fear dimension. Both experimental groups showed gradients of generalization following fear conditioning that increased with the fear intensity of the stimulus. In Experiment 1 a peak shift in SCRs extended to the most fear-intense stimulus. In contrast, generalization to the most fear-intense stimulus was reduced in Experiment 2, suggesting that discriminative fear learning procedures can attenuate fear generalization. Together, the findings indicate that fear generalization is broadly tuned and sensitive to the amount of fear intensity in nonconditioned stimuli, but that fear generalization can come under stimulus control. These results reveal a novel form of fear generalization in humans that is not merely based on physical similarity to a conditioned exemplar, and may have implications for understanding generalization processes in anxiety disorders characterized by heightened sensitivity to nonthreatening stimuli.
Kopp, Bruno; Schlimm, Mike; Hermann, Christiane
Discriminative fear learning and fear generalization were examined in animal-fearful individuals and in control participants. Electrical shocks were administered contingent upon discriminative pictures of spiders or snakes, respectively, in a generalization-after-discrimination paradigm. Neither discriminative fear learning nor extinction was affected by the individual fear status of the animal categories. Novel feared stimuli, which resembled discriminative stimuli, were treated as more shock predictive than novel non-feared stimuli during generalization testing. Neither preparedness theory nor selective sensitization theory was capable to account for these observations. The findings are commensurable with the hypothesis that phobic fear interferes with the retrieval of memory traces.
Hellman, Kevin; Abel, Ted
To understand the role that sleep may play in memory storage, the authors investigated how fear conditioning affects sleep–wake states by performing electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic recordings of C57BL/6J mice receiving fear conditioning, exposure to conditioning stimuli, or immediate shock treatment. This experimental design allowed us to examine the effects of associative learning, presentation of the conditioning stimuli, and presentation of the unconditioned stimuli on sleep–wake states. During the 24 hr after training, fear-conditioned mice had approximately 1 hr more of nonrapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep and less wakefulness than mice receiving exposure to conditioning stimuli or immediate shock treatment. Mice receiving conditioning stimuli had more delta power during NREM sleep, whereas mice receiving fear conditioning had less theta power during rapid-eye-movement sleep. These results demonstrate that a single trial of fear conditioning alters sleep–wake states and EEG oscillations over a 24-hr period, supporting the idea that sleep is modified by experience and that such changes in sleep–wake states and EEG oscillations may play a role in memory consolidation. PMID:17469920
Lu, Weidong; Wayne, Peter M.; Davis, Roger B.; Buring, Julie E.; Li, Hailun; Goguen, Laura A.; Rosenthal, David S.; Tishler, Roy B.; Posner, Marshall R.; Haddad, Robert I.
Introduction Dysphagia is a common side effect following chemoradiation therapy (CRT) in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. Current dysphagia management includes swallowing therapy and dilation procedures, but these treatments have limitations. While acupuncture has been reported to positively impact swallowing function and quality of life (QOL) in patients with dysphagia, current evidence is inconclusive. Material and Methods In an ongoing trial, 42 squamous cell carcinoma HNC patients, who are receiving platinum-based CRT with curative intent, are being recruited from a comprehensive cancer center. They are randomized to 12 sessions of either active acupuncture or to sham acupuncture during and following CRT over a 24-week period. Blinded research staff assesses outcomes at baseline, 20 weeks post-CRT (end of acupuncture), and 12 months after baseline (6-month follow-up). The primary outcome is change in M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory score from baseline to 12 months. Secondary outcomes include QOL measures pertaining to HNC patients. In addition, a subset of study patients are tested for salivary flow rates and cytokines, including plasma transforming growth factor –β1 and interleukin 6 (n=10 per arm), to preliminarily explore the biological mechanisms of acupuncture for dysphagia. Discussion This paper addresses unique challenges related to study design in nonpharmacological, sham-controlled acupuncture trials including development of evidence-based credible verum and sham treatment protocols, blinding, and assuring fidelity of treatment. Results of this study will inform the feasibility of conducting a large scale trial and will provide preliminary evidence regarding the value of acupuncture for dysphagia in HNC patients. PMID:22406102
Guo, Yuan Qi
Background. Dysphagia is one of the most common complications of stroke. Acupuncture is widely employed to treat poststroke dysphagia in East Asia. No evidence is established to support such treatment approach. This proposed study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for the treatment of poststroke dysphagia. Methods and Design. This is a multicenter, pragmatic, single-blinded, nonrandomized controlled clinical trial. A total of 140 eligible patients will be enrolled in the study. Subjects who are eligible in study but refuse to have acupuncture treatment will be put on the no-acupuncture control arm. Both groups of patients will receive standard routine care, while the patients of intervention group will receive add-on standardized acupuncture treatment. Each participant in intervention group will receive a total of 24 sessions of acupuncture treatment (three times per week). The primary outcome measure is the Royal Brisbane Hospital Outcome Measure for Swallowing (RBHOMS). Secondary outcome measures include functional oral intake scale, swallow quality-of-life questionnaire in Chinese version, BMI of the participant, and adverse events. All outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, at the end of acupuncture treatment (month 2), and at two months after treatment (month 4). Ethics and Dissemination. The ethics approval of clinical research study was granted by the Research Ethics Committee of both New Territories East and West Cluster of Hong Kong. Written informed consent will be obtained from all participants and the study will be undertaken according to the ICH-GCP Guidelines. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with chictr.org (registration number: ChiCTR-TRC-12002621 and registration date: 2012-10-26). PMID:28246537
Zhang, Zhang-Jin; Wang, Xiao-Min; McAlonan, Grainne M.
When an acupuncture needle is inserted into a designated point on the body and mechanical or electrical stimulation is delivered, various neural and neuroactive components are activated. The collection of the activated neural and neuroactive components distributed in the skin, muscle, and connective tissues surrounding the inserted needle is defined as a neural acupuncture unit (NAU). The traditionally defined acupoints represent an anatomical landmark system that indicates local sites where NAUs may contain relatively dense and concentrated neural and neuroactive components, upon which acupuncture stimulation would elicit a more efficient therapeutic response. The NAU-based local mechanisms of biochemical and biophysical reactions play an important role in acupuncture-induced analgesia. Different properties of NAUs are associated with different components of needling sensation. There exist several central pathways to convey NAU-induced acupuncture signals, Electroacupuncture (EA) frequency-specific neurochemical effects are related to different peripheral and central pathways transmitting afferent signals from different frequency of NAU stimulation. More widespread and intense neuroimaging responses of brain regions to acupuncture may be a consequence of more efficient NAU stimulation modes. The introduction of the conception of NAU provides a new theoretical approach to interpreting effects and mechanisms of acupuncture in modern biomedical knowledge framework. PMID:22474503
Mao, Jun James; Styles, Terry; Cheville, Andrea; Wolf, James; Fernandes, Shawn; Farrar, John T
PURPOSE To determine the feasibility of an acupuncture clinical trial to prevent radiation therapy (RT) -induced fatigue. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional survey study and a single arm acupuncture clinical trial among patients undergoing RT. Patients with a Karnofsky score of less than 60, severe anemia, or substantial psychological diagnoses were excluded. Patients received up to 12 treatments of acupuncture over the entire course of their RT. Lee Fatigue Scale (LFS) was administered at baseline, in the middle and at the end of RT, along with the Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC). RESULTS Among the 48/53 (91% response rate) survey participants, 20(42%) reported they would participate if the study were available, 13(27%) would not participate and 15 (31%) were unsure. Among the 16 trial participants, average fatigue and energy domains of the LFS remained stable during and after RT without any expected statistical decline due to RT. Based on PGIC at the end of RT, two subjects (13%) reported fatigue being worse, 8 (50%) stable and 6 (37%) better. Conclusion Acupuncture has the potential to prevent RT-related fatigue, which will need to be confirmed by conducting a randomized controlled trial. PMID:19476739
Concepts of acupuncture in traditional Chinese medicine are presented for clarity and contrast to Western medical concepts. Various acupuncture techniques and methods are discussed including dry needling, electroacupuncture, acupuncture using hypodermic needles, and injecting various solutions into the acupuncture sites. Potential complications and precautions are also presented. A type of chronic back pain is discussed that is possibly associated with a radiculopathically induced, hypersensitivity myofascial syndrome that presents as a fibromyalgia-like syndrome. Effective acupuncture treatment for the described chronic fibromyalgia-like syndrome is discussed.
Zhang, Li-Jian; Liu, Bing; Xu, Qing-Yan; Ran, Sheng-Qi
ZHU Lian is a deceased famous acupuncture and Moxibustion specialist, the first director and the founder of institute of Acupuncture-Moxibustion of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences. This article discusses the thought and idea of education and teaching of acupuncture-moxibustion from the following three aspects: diversified education and training mode, teaching idea of new acupuncture-moxibustion with a lot of characteristics, and the founding of professional acupuncture-moxibustion college. All above have both distinct characteristics of the times and positively enlightening significance of reality.
Jin, Lei; Wu, Jin-Song; Chen, Gong-Bai; Zhou, Liang-Fu
Acupuncture Anesthesia originated from the pain relief and pain prevention theory in acupuncture and moxibustion. This technique is a new exploration of anesthesiology and an original achievement of China, representing a landmark combination of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Western medicine. Acupuncture Anesthesia was initiated in 1958, and, reflecting the historical background of China after the 1960s, the use of this technique widely spread throughout the country. Reaching other countries after 1971, Acupuncture Anesthesia made a significant impact, drawing attention from medical academia worldwide. Thus, Acupuncture Anesthesia has made a special contribution to the medical science of modern China.
Chan, Kara; Siu, Judy Yuen-Man; Fung, Timothy K F
This study uses a qualitative methodology to examine the perception of acupuncture among users and nonusers. Altogether 37 participants, age 35 or older, were interviewed. Participants' perception of advantages and disadvantages of adopting acupuncture, and their criteria in selecting acupuncturists, were collected. Results found that among the user group, acupuncture was perceived as being effective, having little side effects, and generating lasting impact. Among nonusers, acupuncture was perceived as lacking a clinical base, high risk, and nonstandardized. Nonusers had less confidence in acupuncture than biomedicine. Participants relied on social communication and the practitioner's professional qualifications in choosing acupuncturists. Marketing implications are discussed.
Yancey, James R; Vaidyanathan, Uma; Patrick, Christopher J
Enhanced startle reactivity during exposure to unpleasant cues (aversive startle potentiation; ASP) appears in the RDoC matrix as a physiological index of acute threat response. Increased ASP has been linked to focal fear disorders and to scale measures of dispositional fearfulness (i.e., threat sensitivity; THT+). However, some studies have reported reduced ASP for fear pathology accompanied by major depressive disorder (MDD) or pervasive distress. The current study evaluated whether (a) THT+ as indexed by reported dispositional fearfulness mediates the relationship between fear disorders (when unaccompanied by depression) and ASP, and (b) depression moderates relations of THT+ and fear disorders with ASP. Fear disorder participants without MDD showed enhanced ASP whereas those with MDD (or other distress conditions) showed evidence of reduced ASP. Continuous THT+ scores also predicted ASP, and this association: (a) was likewise moderated by depression/distress, and (b) accounted for the relationship between ASP and fear pathology without MDD. These findings point to a role for the RDoC construct of acute threat, operationalized dispositionally, in enhanced ASP shown by individuals with fear pathology unaccompanied by distress pathology.
Burnham, Joy J.; Lomax, Richard G.
The American Fear Survey Schedule for Children (FSSC-AM; J. J. Burnham, 1995, 2005) has been used to measure fears of children and adolescents. The FSSC-AM is based on the 2nd revision of a psychometrically sound and well-known fear scale (i.e., FSSC-II; E. Gullone & N. J. King, 1992). In this study, age and gender differences, fear intensity…
North, Max M; Schoeneman, Curt M; Mathis, James R
The major goal of this research case study was to investigate the effectiveness of Virtual Reality Therapy (VRT) in the treatment of the fear of public speaking. A twenty-eight-year-old Caucasian male was selected from questionnaires distributed to a class of undergraduate students enrolled at Kennesaw State University. Two assessment measures were used in this study. The first measure used was the Attitude Towards Public Speaking (ATPS) Questionnaire. The second measure used was the eleven-point Subjective Units of Disturbance (SUD) scale. These measurements assessed the anxiety, avoidance, attitudes and disturbance associated with the subject's fear of public speaking before and after each VRT treatment session. This case study of public speaking fear indicates that VRT may be used as an effective treatment method for reducing self-reported anxiety.
Li, Jian; Shen, Dan; Chang, Hui; He, Da-Ren
Chinese medical theory is ancient and profound, however is confined by qualitative and faint understanding. The effect of Chinese acupuncture in clinical practice is unique and effective, and the human acupuncture points play a mysterious and special role, however there is no modern scientific understanding on human acupuncture points until today. For this reason, we attend to use complex network theory, one of the frontiers in the statistical physics, for describing the human acupuncture points and their connections. In the network nodes are defined as the acupuncture points, two nodes are connected by an edge when they are used for a medical treatment of a common disease. A disease is defined as an act. Some statistical properties have been obtained. The results certify that the degree distribution, act degree distribution, and the dependence of the clustering coefficient on both of them obey SPL distribution function, which show a function interpolating between a power law and an exponential decay. The results may be helpful for understanding Chinese medical theory.
Yu, D Y; Lee, S P
1. Needle acupuncture was performed at three sites in twenty patients in a clinical attack of bronchial asthma. 2. In all patients the symptoms of bronchoconstriction improved during the attacks when the correct site was stimulated, and in five patients wheezing was abolished. 3. Stimulation at the correct site produced a significant increase in the mean FEV1-0 (58%) and FVC (29%) but not in maximal mid-expiratory flow rate (MMFR; 76%), when compared with the findings before acupuncture, along with a significant fall in the Pa,CO2 and an insignificant fall in Pa,O2. A mild tachycardia was also observed. 4. After acupuncture a greater improvement in FEV1-0, FVC and MMFR was produced by inhalation of isoprenaline. 5. No significant changes in FEV1-0, FVC, MMFR, pulse rate or arterial blood gas tensions occurred after acupuncture at control sites. 6. In four of the patients during clinical remission acupuncture was performed before and after histamine aerosol challenge, but there was no effect on either the severity or the duration of the histamine-induced bronchoconstriction. 7. It is concluded that acupunture probably reduced the reflex component of the bronchoconstriction, but failed to influence direct smooth muscle constriction caused by histamine.
Adolph, Karen E.; Kretch, Kari S.; LoBue, Vanessa
Based largely on the famous “visual cliff” paradigm, conventional wisdom is that crawling infants avoid crossing the brink of a dangerous drop-off because they are afraid of heights. However, recent research suggests that the conventional wisdom is wrong. Avoidance and fear are conflated, and there is no compelling evidence to support fear of heights in human infants. Infants avoid crawling or walking over an impossibly high drop-off because they perceive affordances for locomotion—the relations between their own bodies and skills and the relevant properties of the environment that make an action such as descent possible or impossible. PMID:25267874
Adolph, Karen E; Kretch, Kari S; LoBue, Vanessa
Based largely on the famous "visual cliff" paradigm, conventional wisdom is that crawling infants avoid crossing the brink of a dangerous drop-off because they are afraid of heights. However, recent research suggests that the conventional wisdom is wrong. Avoidance and fear are conflated, and there is no compelling evidence to support fear of heights in human infants. Infants avoid crawling or walking over an impossibly high drop-off because they perceive affordances for locomotion-the relations between their own bodies and skills and the relevant properties of the environment that make an action such as descent possible or impossible.
Hammerschlag, Richard; Coeytaux, Remy R.; Davis, Robert T.; Harris, Richard E.; Kong, Jiang-Ti; Langevin, Helene M.; Lao, Lixing; Milley, Ryan J.; Napadow, Vitaly; Schnyer, Rosa N.; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Witt, Claudia M.; Wayne, Peter M.
Abstract Research into acupuncture has had ripple effects beyond the field of acupuncture. This paper identifies five exemplars to illustrate that there is tangible evidence of the way insights gleaned from acupuncture research have informed biomedical research, practice, or policy. The first exemplar documents how early research into acupuncture analgesia has expanded into neuroimaging research, broadening physiologic understanding and treatment of chronic pain. The second describes how the acupuncture needle has become a tool to enhance biomedical knowledge of connective tissue. The third exemplar, which illustrates use of a modified acupuncture needle as a sham device, focuses on emergent understanding of placebo effects and, in turn, on insights into therapeutic encounters in treatments unrelated to acupuncture. The fourth exemplar documents that two medical devices now in widespread use were inspired by acupuncture: transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulators for pain control and antinausea wrist bands. The final exemplar describes how pragmatic clinical trial designs applied in acupuncture research have informed current general interest in comparative effectiveness research. In conclusion, these exemplars of unanticipated outcomes of acupuncture research comprise an additional rationale for continued support of basic and clinical research evaluating acupuncture and other under-researched therapies. PMID:26745452
MacPherson, Hugh; Hammerschlag, Richard; Coeytaux, Remy R; Davis, Robert T; Harris, Richard E; Kong, Jiang-Ti; Langevin, Helene M; Lao, Lixing; Milley, Ryan J; Napadow, Vitaly; Schnyer, Rosa N; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Witt, Claudia M; Wayne, Peter M
Research into acupuncture has had ripple effects beyond the field of acupuncture. This paper identifies five exemplars to illustrate that there is tangible evidence of the way insights gleaned from acupuncture research have informed biomedical research, practice, or policy. The first exemplar documents how early research into acupuncture analgesia has expanded into neuroimaging research, broadening physiologic understanding and treatment of chronic pain. The second describes how the acupuncture needle has become a tool to enhance biomedical knowledge of connective tissue. The third exemplar, which illustrates use of a modified acupuncture needle as a sham device, focuses on emergent understanding of placebo effects and, in turn, on insights into therapeutic encounters in treatments unrelated to acupuncture. The fourth exemplar documents that two medical devices now in widespread use were inspired by acupuncture: transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulators for pain control and antinausea wrist bands. The final exemplar describes how pragmatic clinical trial designs applied in acupuncture research have informed current general interest in comparative effectiveness research. In conclusion, these exemplars of unanticipated outcomes of acupuncture research comprise an additional rationale for continued support of basic and clinical research evaluating acupuncture and other under-researched therapies.
Clarke, Lee; Chess, Caron
Attributions of panic are almost exclusively directed at members of the general public. Here, we inquire into the relationships between elites and panic. We review current research and theorizing about panic, including problems of identifying when it has occurred. We propose three relationships: elites fearing panic, elites causing panic and…
Holmes, Nathan M.; Leung, Hiu T.; Westbrook, R. Frederick
This series of experiments used rats to compare counterconditioning and extinction of conditioned fear responses (freezing) with respect to the effects of a context shift. In each experiment, a stimulus was paired with shock in context A, extinguished or counterconditioned through pairings with sucrose in context B, and then tested for renewal…
Gao, Xi-Yan; Wang, Xin; Gao, Ling; Chen, Xin-Wang
Through study on Bianque Shenying Zhenjiu Yulong Jing (Bianque's Classic of Effective Acupuncture Prescriptions), acupuncture experiences and ideology of WANG Guo-rui, an acupuncture physician of the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368), is discussed in this article. Inherited and carried forward DOU's acupuncture theory, WANG Guo-rui encouraged to use experiential points and to expand extra points. Penetrating needling method was created, and the application of acupoints according to needling opportunities and seasonal factors were enriched by him. Great importance was also attached on treatment according to differentiation of syndromes, which including the simultaneous acupuncture and moxibustion, simultaneous reinforcing and reducing, reducing after reinforcing, reinforcing after reducing, predomination of reducing and predomination of reinforcing. The flexible treating methods are still extensively adopted in clinic nowadays. WANG Guo-rui is a master of clinical acupuncture who made great contribution to the development of acupuncture and moxibustion.
Hu, Min; Liu, Jian-Ping; Wu, Xiao-Ke
Acupuncture clinical trials are designed to provide reliable evidence of clinical efficacy, and SCI papers is one of the high-quality clinical efficacy of acupuncture research. To analyze these papers published in high impact factor journals on acupuncture clinical trials, we can study clinical trials from design to implementation, the efficacy of prevention and cure, combined with international standard practices to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture. That is the core of acupuncture clinical trials, as well as a prerequisite for outstanding academic output. A scientific and complete acupuncture clinical trial should be topically novel, designed innovative, logically clear, linguistically refining, and the most important point lies in a great discovery and solving the pragmatic problem. All of these are critical points of papers to be published in high impact factor journal, and directly affect international evaluation and promotion of acupuncture.
Kim, Peter S Y; Hsu, William
Recent papers, including a review conducted by van Tulder et al., have suggested that there is paucity of information as to the efficacy of acupuncture treatment. However, there has been a significant increase in the use of acupuncture therapy for treatment of various ailments, including lower back pain. Chiropractors, along with other health care professionals, are using acupuncture as an adjunct to their main therapeutic intervention as demonstrated by a recent survey by the Canadian Chiropractic Protective Association (CCPA). However, like many other interventions, including NSAIDs and spinal manipulations, signs of side effects should be monitored when acupuncture treatments are considered. Recent papers have noted such complications as pneumothorax and hepatitis following acupuncture treatments. A case is presented in which a patient, who received previous acupuncture treatments, presented to a chiropractic clinic complaining of low back and leg pain. Early recognition of potential complications after acupuncture treatment may minimize significant impairments and disability.
Lu, Wei-wei; Zhang, Jin-ming; Lv, Zheng-tao
Objective. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of acupuncture therapy in the treatment of acute gouty arthritis. Methods. A literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, CENTRAL, and CNKI was conducted from the inception date of each database up to October 2015. Two investigators screened each article independently and were blinded to the findings of the other reviewer. Data was extracted according to the predetermined collection form. Meta-analysis was performed. Results. We analyzed data from 28 RCTs involving 2237 patients with gouty arthritis. Compared with conventional pharmacological treatments acupuncture was more effective in rendering patients free from symptoms after 24 hours, lowering serum urate, alleviating pain associated with gouty arthritis, and decreasing the ESR; regarding CRP, no statistically significant difference was found. In addition, the frequency of adverse events in acupuncture treatment was lower than that in control group. Conclusion. Based on the findings of our study, we cautiously suggest that acupuncture is an effective and safe therapy for patients with gouty arthritis. However, the potential beneficial effect of acupuncture might be overstated due to the methodological deficiency of included studies. High quality RCTs with larger scale are encouraged. PMID:27847529
Heo, In; Kim, Young-Dae; Hwang, Eui-Hyoung; Han, Chang Woo; Heo, Kwang-Ho
To evaluate the evidence supporting the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment for SCI and its complications, we conducted search across 19 electronic databases to find all of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that used acupuncture as a treatment for SCI and its complications. The methodological quality of each RCT was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the PEDro scale. Sixteen RCTs, including 2 high-quality RCTs, met our inclusion criteria (8 for functional recovery from SCI, 6 for bladder dysfunction, and 2 for pain control). The meta-analysis showed positive results for the use of acupuncture combined with conventional treatments for the functional recovery in terms of motor ASIA scores and total FIM scores when compared to conventional treatments alone. Positive results were also obtained for the treatment of bladder dysfunction, in terms of the total efficacy rate, when comparing acupuncture to conventional treatments. However, 2 RCTs for pain control reported conflicting results. Our systematic review found encouraging albeit limited evidence for functional recovery, bladder dysfunction, and pain in SCI. However, to obtain stronger evidence without the drawbacks of trial design and the quality of studies, we recommend sham-controlled RCTs or comparative effectiveness research for each condition to test the effectiveness of acupuncture. PMID:23476688
Yuan, Qi-ling; Wang, Peng; Liu, Liang; Sun, Fu; Cai, Yong-song; Wu, Wen-tao; Ye, Mao-lin; Ma, Jiang-tao; Xu, Bang-bang; Zhang, Yin-gang
The aims of this systematic review were to study the analgesic effect of real acupuncture and to explore whether sham acupuncture (SA) type is related to the estimated effect of real acupuncture for musculoskeletal pain. Five databases were searched. The outcome was pain or disability immediately (≤1 week) following an intervention. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Meta-regression was used to explore possible sources of heterogeneity. Sixty-three studies (6382 individuals) were included. Eight condition types were included. The pooled effect size was moderate for pain relief (59 trials, 4980 individuals, SMD −0.61, 95% CI −0.76 to −0.47; P < 0.001) and large for disability improvement (31 trials, 4876 individuals, −0.77, −1.05 to −0.49; P < 0.001). In a univariate meta-regression model, sham needle location and/or depth could explain most or all heterogeneities for some conditions (e.g., shoulder pain, low back pain, osteoarthritis, myofascial pain, and fibromyalgia); however, the interactions between subgroups via these covariates were not significant (P < 0.05). Our review provided low-quality evidence that real acupuncture has a moderate effect (approximate 12-point reduction on the 100-mm visual analogue scale) on musculoskeletal pain. SA type did not appear to be related to the estimated effect of real acupuncture. PMID:27471137
Lu, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Lv, Zheng-Tao; Chen, An-Min
Objective. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of acupuncture therapy in the treatment of acute gouty arthritis. Methods. A literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, CENTRAL, and CNKI was conducted from the inception date of each database up to October 2015. Two investigators screened each article independently and were blinded to the findings of the other reviewer. Data was extracted according to the predetermined collection form. Meta-analysis was performed. Results. We analyzed data from 28 RCTs involving 2237 patients with gouty arthritis. Compared with conventional pharmacological treatments acupuncture was more effective in rendering patients free from symptoms after 24 hours, lowering serum urate, alleviating pain associated with gouty arthritis, and decreasing the ESR; regarding CRP, no statistically significant difference was found. In addition, the frequency of adverse events in acupuncture treatment was lower than that in control group. Conclusion. Based on the findings of our study, we cautiously suggest that acupuncture is an effective and safe therapy for patients with gouty arthritis. However, the potential beneficial effect of acupuncture might be overstated due to the methodological deficiency of included studies. High quality RCTs with larger scale are encouraged.
... 5 and 20 needles are used per treatment. Music may be played in the background to help ... Yoga Tweets by @CYWH The Center for Young Women’s Health (CYWH) is a collaboration between the Division ...
Berkovitz, Saul; Cummings, Mike; Perrin, Chris; Ito, Rieko
Recent research has established the efficacy, effectiveness and cost effectiveness of acupuncture for some forms of chronic musculoskeletal pain. However, there are practical problems with delivery which currently prevent its large scale implementation in the National Health Service. We have developed a delivery model at our hospital, a 'high volume' acupuncture clinic (HVAC) in which patients are treated in a group setting for single conditions using standardised or semi-standardised electroacupuncture protocols by practitioners with basic training. We discuss our experiences using this model for chronic knee pain and present an outcome audit for the first 77 patients, demonstrating satisfactory initial (eight week) clinical results. Longer term (one year) data are currently being collected and the model should next be tested in primary care to confirm its feasibility.
... being rejected can fail to learn important social skills, causing social isolation. Many adults are tormented by fears that stem from childhood experiences. An adult's fear of public speaking may be the result of embarrassment in front ...
Yang, Xing-Yue; Shi, Guang-Xia; Li, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Xu, Qian; Liu, Cun-Zhi
Acupuncture stimulation elicits deqi, a composite of unique sensations. According to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), deqi experienced by patients is often described as suan (aching or soreness), ma (numbness or tingling), zhang (fullness, distention, or pressure), and zhong (heaviness) and is felt by the acupuncturists (needle grasping) as tense, tight, and full. It is believed that deqi may be an important variable in the studies of the mechanism and efficacy of acupuncture treatment. In recent years, great efforts have been made to understand deqi, which include a couple of questionnaires to qualify and quantify deqi sensations, neuroimaging studies of deqi and acupuncture, physiological mechanisms of deqi, and the relation between deqi and clinical efficacy. However, many problems need to be resolved, and more researches are required to be made in the future. PMID:23864884
Is a painful experience less bad for you if you will not remember it? Do you have less reason to fear it? These questions bear on how we think about medical procedures and surgeries that use an anesthesia regimen that leaves patients conscious - and potentially in pain - but results in complete 'drug-induced amnesia' after the fact. I argue that drug-induced amnesia does not render a painful medical procedure a less fitting object of fear, and thus the prospect of amnesia does not give patients a reason not to fear it. I expose three mistakes in reasoning that might explain our tendency to view pain or discomfort as less fearful in virtue of expected amnesia: a mistaken view of personal identity; a mistaken view of the target of anticipation; and a mistaken method of incorporating past evidence into calculations about future experiences. Ultimately my argument has implications for whether particular procedures are justified and how medical professionals should speak with anxious patients about the prospect of drug-induced amnesia.
Davis, Michael; Myers, Karyn M.; Ressler, Kerry J.
Fear extinction is defined as a decline in conditioned fear responses (CRs) following nonreinforced exposure to a feared conditioned stimulus (CS). Behavioral evidence indicates that extinction is a form of inhibitory learning: Extinguished fear responses reappear with the passage of time (spontaneous recovery), a shift of context (renewal), and…
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Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Eczema , ringworm , and psoriasis ...
Bunzli, Samantha; Smith, Anne; Schütze, Robert; O'Sullivan, Peter
Objectives The fear-avoidance model describes how the belief that pain is a sign of damage leads to pain-related fear and avoidance. But other beliefs may also trigger the fear and avoidance responses described by the model. Experts have called for the next generation of fear avoidance research to explore what beliefs underlie pain-related fear and how they evolve. We have previously described damage beliefs and suffering/functional loss beliefs underlying high pain-related fear in a sample of individuals with chronic back pain. The aim of this study is to identify common and differential factors associated with the beliefs in this sample. Design A qualitative study employing semistructured interviews. Setting Musculoskeletal clinics in Western Australia. Participants 36 individuals with chronic back pain and high scores on the Tampa Scale (mean 47/68). Results The overarching theme was a pain experience that did not make sense to the participants. The experience of pain as unpredictable, uncontrollable and intense made it threatening. Attempting to make sense of the threatening pain, participants with damage beliefs drew on past personal experiences of pain, societal beliefs, and sought diagnostic certainty. Met with diagnostic uncertainty, or diagnoses of an underlying pathology that could not be fixed, they were left fearful of damage and confused about how to ‘fix’ it. Participants with suffering/functional loss beliefs drew on past personal experiences of pain and sought help from healthcare professionals to control their pain. Failed treatments and the repeated failure to achieve functional goals left them unable to make ‘sensible’ decisions of what to do about their pain. Conclusions The findings raise the suggestion that sense-making processes may be implicated in the fear-avoidance model. Future research is needed to explore whether fear reduction may be enhanced by considering beliefs underlying fear and providing targeted intervention to help
Robinson, Edward H.; Rotter, Joseph C.; Robinson, Sandra L.; Fey, Mary Ann; Vogel, Joanne E.
This book explains how fears, anxiety, and stress develop in children, and how they can learn to successfully cope with these factors. It offers specific activities designed to assist in coping with a particular aspect of fear or stress. Part I, "Overview of Fears and Stress," contains activities to complement the various curricular…
... COMMISSION No Fear Act AGENCY: American Battle Monuments Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The American... FEAR Act), as implemented by the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) regulations at 5 CFR part 724... Retaliation Act of 2002,'' which is now known as the No FEAR Act. See Public Law 107-174, codified at 5...
... No FEAR Act Notice Summary: 5 CFR part 724.202 requires that each Federal agency provide notice to... notice in the Federal Register. No FEAR Act Notice On May 15, 2002, Congress enacted the Notification and Federal Employee Antidiscrimination and Retaliation Act of 2002, which is now known as the No FEAR...
... TRANSPARENCY BOARD No FEAR Act Notice AGENCY: Recovery Accountability and Transparency Board. ACTION: Notice... and Retaliation Act (No FEAR Act or Act), as implemented by Office of Personnel Management (OPM... No FEAR Act. See Public Law 107-174, codified at 5 U.S.C. 2301 note. One purpose of the Act is...
... FOR AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION No FEAR Act Notice AGENCY: Special Inspector General for Afghanistan... Reconstruction's (SIGAR) ``No FEAR Act Notice'' Federal Register publication obligations, as required by the... FEAR) Act and by the Office of Personnel Management implementing regulations at 5 CFR 724.202, to...
Burnham, Joy J.; Hooper, Lisa M.
Two months after 9/11, the fears of children and adolescents in Grades 2-12 were examined utilizing the American Fear Survey Schedule for Children and Adolescents (FSSC-AM). Fear intensity scores and age and gender differences are reported. Terrorist-related content on the FSSC-AM (e.g., terrorist attacks, our country being invading by enemies)…
Heath, Linda; Weeks, Kyle; Murphy, Marie Mackay
Using three studies, examined the relationship between attitudes toward guns and fear of crime. Findings indicate a connection between fear of crime and attitudes toward guns: people higher in fear of crime favored gun control. Results also established a relationship between stereotypical beliefs about gun victims and support for gun control. (RJM)
Draper, Thomas W.; James, Rebecca Smoak
Using longitudinal data gathered between 1966 and 1981, parent-reported fears of 49 university preschool children were examined with particular attention given to age changes and sex differences. Categories of types of fears reported by Jersild and Holmes (1933) determined a substantial increase in preschool children's fears of the dark, being…
Ferreira, Luciano Ambrosio; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Guerra; Guimarães, Josemar Parreira; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Pires; De Paula, Marcos Vinicius Queiroz
A prospective, double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial was conducted in patients with chronic temporomandibular disorder (TMD) to check the analgesic efficacy of infrared low-power GaAlAs diode laser applied to acupuncture points. Forty female subjects, ranging in age from 20 to 40 years, with diagnoses of chronic myofascial pain and arthralgia were randomly allocated to two groups: an experimental group (EG) who received the laser acupuncture as adjunct to reversible occlusal splint therapy and a control group (CG) who received a placebo laser associated with occlusal splint therapy. Both approaches were applied once a week for 3 months. Laser acupuncture was defined by the following parameters: 50-mW continuous radiation for 90 s to acupoints ST6, SI19, GB20, GB43, LI4, LR3, NT3, and EX-HN3; defining 4.5-J energy; 1250-W/cm(2) density point; and 112.5-J/cm(2) total density. The outcome measurements included a symptom evolution assessment carried out by checking spontaneous and palpation pain intensity, which was indicated on a visual analog scale (VAS). All evaluations were made by an assessor who was blind to the treatment. The symptom reduction was significant in both groups (EG: VAS = 0, n = 20; CG: VAS between 2 and 4, n = 18). The measurements showed significantly faster and lower pain intensity values in the EG (p ≤ 0.002), where there was a higher proportion of patients with remission of symptoms related to the action of laser acupuncture. For patients in whom conservative treatment was adopted, the laser acupuncture is a secure, noninvasive, and effective treatment modality because it improves the chronic pain associated with TMD and has no side effects.
Qin, Ying-Mei; Wang, Jiang; Men, Cong; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xi-Le; Yu, Hai-Tao; Chan, Wai-Lok
Effects of noises and some other network properties on the weak signal propagation are studied systematically in feedforward acupuncture networks (FFN) based on FitzHugh-Nagumo neuron model. It is found that noises with medium intensity can enhance signal propagation and this effect can be further increased by the feedforward network structure. Resonant properties in the noisy network can also be altered by several network parameters, such as heterogeneity, synapse features, and feedback connections. These results may also provide a novel potential explanation for the propagation of acupuncture signal.
Rossi, Ricardo; Creus, Mariano; Gallego Lluesma, Eliseo
Acupuncture has been recognized by W.H.O. in 1989. It admits this therapy and accepts more than forty point on the external ear. After making thermograms to Odontology patients treated with acupuncture, we were able to compare the temperature distribution maps and we found that they were quasi repetitive in the same zones on several patients for a specific illness. We made this technique available to different patients that lack good irrigation on face and neck with the aim to establish patterns.
Bledsoe, T. Scott; Baskin, Janice J.
Understanding fear, its causes, and its impact on students can be important for educators who seek ways to help students manage their fears. This paper explores common types of student fears such as performance-based anxiety, fear of failure, fear of being laughed at, and cultural components of fear that impact learning. The cognitive, emotional,…
Cicirelli, Victor G
Previously overlooked factors in elders' depressive symptomatology were examined, including death fear, sibling death, and sibling closeness. Participants were 150 elders (61 men, 89 women) aged 65-97 years with at least one sibling. Measures were proportion of deceased siblings, sibling closeness, the Death Fear Subscale of the Death Attitude Profile-Revised, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (20-item adult form). Age and education were exogenous variables in a structural equation model. Death fear, sibling closeness, and proportion of dead siblings were directly related to depression, with path coefficients of .42, -.24, and .13, respectively. Proportion of dead siblings had indirect effects on depression, as did age and education. Depressive symptomatology in old age is influenced by death fear related to sibling death as well as by poor relationships with them; it must be understood within a situational context including death fear and sibling relationships.
Zeng, Bai-Yun; Salvage, Sarah; Jenner, Peter
Parkinson's disease is an age-related progressive neurodegenerative disease. The etiology and pathogenetic mechanisms that cause PD are still not fully understood. The available treatments to PD are only symptomatic relief. Acupuncture is used to treat many medical conditions for 1000 years in China and has gained wider and increasing acceptance within both public and medical profession because it has been a very safe and well-tolerated treatment. In this chapter, we reviewed relevant laboratory findings regarding acupuncture mechanism on Parkinson's. We showed that acupuncture stimulation in Parkinson's models had generated valuable mechanistic insight of Parkinson's and showed that acupuncture treatment is in fact a neuroprotective therapy that increase the release of various neuroprotective agents such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, and cyclophilin A. In addition, acupuncture therapy slows cell death process and attenuates oxidative stress to dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Further, acupuncture therapy modulates neuronal activity of the basal ganglia output structures. These results suggest that early application of acupuncture therapy to Parkinson's patients may be helpful for the best efficacy of acupuncture treatment. It is hopeful that translation of achievement in acupuncture research in Parkinson's models will maximize the potentials of acupuncture treatment.
Kleinstäuber, Maria; Jasper, Kristine; Schweda, Isabell; Hiller, Wolfgang; Andersson, Gerhard; Weise, Cornelia
The current study investigated the role of fear-avoidance-a concept from chronic pain research-in chronic tinnitus. A self-report measure the "Tinnitus Fear-Avoidance Cognitions and Behaviors Scale (T-FAS)" was developed and validated. Furthermore, the role of fear-avoidance behavior as mediator of the relationship between anxiety sensitivity and tinnitus handicap was investigated. From a clinical setting, N = 373 patients with chronic tinnitus completed questionnaires assessing tinnitus handicap (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory), anxiety, depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), anxiety sensitivity (Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3), personality factors (Big Five Inventory-10), and fear-avoidance. To analyze the psychometric properties, principal component analysis with parallel component extraction and correlational analyses were used. To examine a possible mediating effect, hierarchical regression analysis was applied. The principal component analysis resulted in a three-factor solution: Fear-avoidance Cognitions, Tinnitus-related Fear-Avoidance Behavior, and Ear-related Fear-Avoidance Behavior. Internal consistency was satisfactory for the total scale and all subscales. High correlations between tinnitus-related handicap scales, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and the T-FAS were found, whereas associations with personality factors were low. Moreover, results indicate a significant partial mediation of fear-avoidance behaviors in the relationship between anxiety sensitivity and the cognitive dimension of tinnitus handicap. Results show that fear-avoidance behavior plays an important role in tinnitus handicap. More attention should be paid to this concept in research and clinical practice of psychotherapy for chronic tinnitus.
Mondragón-Sánchez, Edna Johana; Cordero, Erika Alejandra Torre; Espinoza, María de Lourdes Morales; Landeros-Olvera, Erick Alberto
OBJECTIVE: to compare the level of fear of death in nursing students and professionals. METHOD: this was a comparative-transversal study examining 643 nursing students and professionals from a third-level institution. A random sampling method was employed, and the sample size was calculated by power analysis. The study was developed during three stages: the first stage consisted of the application of a pilot test, the second stage involved the recruitment of the participants, and the third stage measured the participants' responses on the Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale. RESULTS: the average fear of death was moderate-high (-X=3.19±0.55), and the highest score was observed for the fear of the death of others (-X=3.52±0.20). Significant differences in the perceptions of fear of death were observed among the students of the first three years (p<.05). However, no significant differences were observed among the first- and fourth-year students and professionals (p>.05). CONCLUSIONS: it is possible that first-year students exhibit a reduced fear of death because they have not had the experience of hospital practice. Students in their second and third year may have a greater fear of death because they have cared for terminal patients. However, it appears that greater confidence is acquired over time, and thus fourth-year students and professionals exhibit less fear of death than second- and third-year students (p<.05). PMID:26039304
Hong, Ingie; Kang, Taewook; Yun, Ki Na; Yoo, YongCheol; Park, Sungmo; Kim, Jihye; An, Bobae; Song, Sukwoon; Lee, Sukwon; Kim, Jeongyeon; Song, Beomjong; Kwon, Kyung-Hoon; Kim, Jin Young; Park, Young Mok; Choi, Sukwoo
Auditory fear conditioning is a well-characterized rodent learning model where a neutral auditory cue is paired with an aversive outcome to induce associative fear memory. The storage of long-term auditory fear memory requires long-term potentiation (LTP) in the lateral amygdala and de novo protein synthesis. Although many studies focused on individual proteins have shown their contribution to LTP and fear conditioning, non-biased genome-wide studies have only recently been possible with microarrays, which nevertheless fall short of measuring changes at the level of proteins. Here we employed quantitative proteomics to examine the expression of hundreds of proteins in the lateral amygdala in response to auditory fear conditioning. We found that various proteins previously implicated in LTP, learning and axon/dendrite growth were regulated by fear conditioning. A substantial number of proteins that were regulated by fear conditioning have not yet been studied specifically in learning or synaptic plasticity.
Elliot, Andrew J; Thrash, Todd M
The intergenerational transmission of fear of failure was examined in two studies with undergraduates and their parents. Parent-undergraduate concordance in fear of failure was documented for mothers and fathers, controlling for parents' and undergraduate's impression management and self-deceptive enhancement response tendencies. Love withdrawal was validated as a mediator of parent-undergraduate concordance in fear of failure for mothers but not for fathers. Mothers' and fathers' fear of failure was also a positive predictor of undergraduate's adoption of performance-avoidance goals in the classroom, and undergraduate's fear of failure was shown to mediate this relationship. Fathers' fear of failure was also a negative predictor of undergraduate's mastery goal adoption, and this relationship was likewise mediated by undergraduate's fear of failure. The results are discussed in terms of the reorienting of positive, appetitive achievement motivation toward negative, aversive achievement motivation.
Mosig, Carina; Merz, Christian J; Mohr, Cornelia; Adolph, Dirk; Wolf, Oliver T; Schneider, Silvia; Margraf, Jürgen; Zlomuzica, Armin
Avoidance is considered as a central hallmark of all anxiety disorders. The acquisition and expression of avoidance, which leads to the maintenance and exacerbation of pathological fear is closely linked to Pavlovian and operant conditioning processes. Changes in conditionability might represent a key feature of all anxiety disorders but the exact nature of these alterations might vary across different disorders. To date, no information is available on specific changes in conditionability for disorder-irrelevant stimuli in specific phobia (SP). The first aim of this study was to investigate changes in fear acquisition and extinction in spider-fearful individuals as compared to non-fearful participants by using the de novo fear conditioning paradigm. Secondly, we aimed to determine whether differences in the magnitude of context-dependent fear retrieval exist between spider-fearful and non-fearful individuals. Our findings point to an enhanced fear discrimination in spider-fearful individuals as compared to non-fearful individuals at both the physiological and subjective level. The enhanced fear discrimination in spider-fearful individuals was neither mediated by increased state anxiety, depression, nor stress tension. Spider-fearful individuals displayed no changes in extinction learning and/or fear retrieval. Surprisingly, we found no evidence for context-dependent modulation of fear retrieval in either group. Here, we provide first evidence that spider-fearful individuals show an enhanced discriminative fear learning of phobia-irrelevant (de novo) stimuli. Our findings provide novel insights into the role of fear acquisition and expression for the development and maintenance of maladaptive responses in the course of SP.
Lewin, Andrew J.
Although both the philosophic and physiologic basis of acupuncture seems fanciful to Western medical thinking, the results obtained in the treatment of certain disease states cannot be lightly dismissed. Its use in the induction of surgical analgesia may have immediate application for Western Medicine. Its mechanism of action is a complete enigma, but information accumulated from research in hypnosis, visceral learning and, most important, the physiology of pain perception may contain clues to the pathophysiologic principles involved. The fact that many disorders for which acupuncture therapy is useful are thought to have a large psychosomatic component only serves to reinforce the Eastern concept of inseparability of mind and body. A great deal of attention is being given to this concept in the current medical literature. In order to define the role of acupuncture in modern medical practice, a more scientific approach in both clinical and basic research is necessary. If acupuncture can be proved safe and efficacious in the treatment of certain diseases, lack of knowledge regarding its mechanism of action should not delay its incorporation into our medical armamentarium. PMID:4590887
Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, Yong-Heum; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Jeong, Dong-Myong; Kim, Mo Kyung; Eo, Yoon-Gi; Ko, Su-Bok
Acupuncture therapy is based on the principle of restoring equilibrium of the body's energy state by regulating the flow of Qi in the corresponding meridians and acupoints. The purpose of this study was to determine whether bio-energy transfer occurs during acupuncture of the meridians. We treated 20 normal healthy subjects with acupuncture and measured changes in the direct current (DC) potential between the stomach meridian points ST-39 and ST-37 in response to invasive insertion of a needle at ST-36. Using a crossover study design, the practitioner performed the procedure on each subject once with bare (uncovered) hands (ABH) and once wearing surgical gloves (ASH) to shield the electric energy transfer. ABH produced a response pattern to each stimulation, whereas ASH produced a response pattern only to the first step. ABH elicited a significantly higher response potential than did ASH (p < 0.001). These results suggest that there may be bio-energy (Qi) transfer during acupuncture along the meridians. This transferred bio-energy (Qi) seems to act as an electromotive force, which is purported to remove the stagnation or blockage of energy and restore an equilibrium state.
Li, Chengwei; Huang, Zhen; Li, Dongyu; Zhang, Xiaoyuan
Since the first laser-needles acupuncture apparatus was introduced in therapy, this kind of apparatus has been well used in laser biomedicine as its non-invasive, pain- free, non-bacterium, and safetool. The laser acupuncture apparatus in this paper is based on single-chip microcomputer and associated by semiconductor laser technology. The function like traditional moxibustion including reinforcing and reducing is implemented by applying chaos method to control the duty cycle of moxibustion signal, and the traditional lifting and thrusting of acupuncture is implemented by changing power output of the diode laser. The radiator element of diode laser is made and the drive circuit is designed. And chaos mathematic model is used to produce deterministic class stochastic signal to avoid the body adaptability. This function covers the shortages of continuous irradiation or that of simple disciplinary stimulate signal, which is controlled by some simple electronic circuit and become easily adjusted by human body. The realization of reinforcing and reducing of moxibustion is technological innovation in traditional acupuncture coming true in engineering.
Smesny, Dunja B.
Cervicoocipital headache observed in 112 patient were treated, half of them with acupuncture, and other 50% with He-e laser (con tinuous emission- lo mW, 633nm: IEC). With this treatment was also combined an exercise program ne cesary for the mobilisation of functionaly blocked vertebral segment.
Zhou, Kehua; Ma, Yan; Brogan, Michael S
Although Western medical acupuncture (WMA) is commonly practised in the UK, a particular approach called dry needling (DN) is becoming increasingly popular in other countries. The legitimacy of the use of DN by conventional non-physician healthcare professionals is questioned by acupuncturists. This article describes the ongoing debate over the practice of DN between physical therapists and acupuncturists, with a particular emphasis on the USA. DN and acupuncture share many similarities but may differ in certain aspects. Currently, little information is available from the literature regarding the relationship between the two needling techniques. Through reviewing their origins, theory, and practice, we found that DN and acupuncture overlap in terms of needling technique with solid filiform needles as well as some fundamental theories. Both WMA and DN are based on modern biomedical understandings of the human body, although DN arguably represents only one subcategory of WMA. The increasing volume of research into needling therapy explains its growing popularity in the musculoskeletal field including sports medicine. To resolve the debate over DN practice, we call for the establishment of a regulatory body to accredit DN courses and a formal, comprehensive educational component and training for healthcare professionals who are not physicians or acupuncturists. Because of the close relationship between DN and acupuncture, collaboration rather than dispute between acupuncturists and other healthcare professionals should be encouraged with respect to education, research, and practice for the benefit of patients with musculoskeletal conditions who require needling therapy.
Paley, Carole A.; Bennett, Michael I.; Johnson, Mark I.
Bone pain is the most common type of pain in cancer. Bony metastases are common in advanced cancers, particularly in multiple myeloma, breast, prostate or lung cancer. Current pain-relieving strategies include the use of opioid-based analgesia, bisphosphonates and radiotherapy. Although patients experience some pain relief, these interventions may produce unacceptable side-effects which inevitably affect the quality of life. Acupuncture may represent a potentially valuable adjunct to existing strategies for pain relief and it is known to be relatively free of harmful side-effects. Although acupuncture is used in palliative care settings for all types of cancer pain the evidence-base is sparse and inconclusive and there is very little evidence to show its effectiveness in relieving cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP). The aim of this critical review is to consider the known physiological effects of acupuncture and discuss these in the context of the pathophysiology of malignant bone pain. The aim of future research should be to produce an effective protocol for treating CIBP with acupuncture based on a sound, evidence-based rationale. The physiological mechanisms presented in this review suggest that this is a realistic objective. PMID:21799687
Fleckenstein, Johannes; Kramer, Sybille; Hoffrogge, Philipp; Thoma, Sarah; Lang, Philip M; Lehmeyer, Lukas; Schober, Gabriel M; Pfab, Florian; Ring, Johannes; Weisenseel, Peter; Schotten, Klaus J; Mansmann, Ulrich; Irnich, Dominik
Background Acute herpes zoster is a prevalent condition. One of its major symptoms is pain, which can highly influence patient's quality of life. Pain therapy is limited. Acupuncture is supposed to soften neuropathic pain conditions and might therefore act as a therapeutic alternative. Objective of the present study is to investigate whether a 4 week semi-standardised acupuncture is non-inferior to sham laser acupuncture and the anticonvulsive drug gabapentine in the treatment of pain associated with herpes zoster. Methods/Design Three-armed, randomised, placebo-controlled trial with a total follow-up time of 6 months. Up to estimated 336 patients (interim analyses) with acute herpes zoster pain (VAS > 30 mm) will be randomised to one of three groups (a) semi-standardised acupuncture (168 patients); (b) gabapentine with individualised dosage between 900–3600 mg/d (84 patients); (c) sham laser acupuncture. Intervention takes place over 4 weeks, all patients will receive analgesic therapy (non-opioid analgesics: metamizol or paracetamol and opioids: tramadol or morphine). Therapy phase includes 4 weeks in which group (a) and (c) consist of 12 sessions per patient, (b) visits depend on patients needs. Main outcome measure is to assess the alteration of pain intensity before and 1 week after treatment sessions (visual analogue scale VAS 0–100 mm). Secondary outcome measure are: alteration of pain intensity and frequency of pain attacks; alteration of different aspects of pain evaluated by standardised pain questionnaires (NPI, PDI, SES); effects on quality of life (SF 36); analgesic demand; alteration of sensoric perception by systematic quantitative sensory testing (QST); incidence of postherpetic neuralgia; side effects and cost effectiveness. Credibility of treatments will be assessed. Discussion This study is the first large-scale randomised placebo controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture compared to gabapentine and sham treatment and will
Acupuncture and PC6 stimulation for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic resection of colorectal cancer: a study protocol for a three-arm randomised pilot trial
Kim, Kun Hyung; Kim, Dae Hun; Bae, Ji Min; Son, Gyung Mo; Kim, Kyung Hee; Hong, Seung Pyo; Yang, Gi Young; Kim, Hee Young
Introduction This study aims to assess the feasibility of acupuncture and a Pericardium 6 (PC6) wristband as an add-on intervention of antiemetic medication for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic colorectal cancer resection. Methods and analysis A total of 60 participants who are scheduled to undergo elective laparoscopic resection of colorectal cancer will be recruited. An enhanced recovery after surgery protocol using standardised antiemetic medication will be provided for all participants. Participants will be equally randomised into acupuncture plus PC6 wristband (Acupuncture), PC6 wristband alone (Wristband), or no acupuncture or wristband (Control) groups using computer-generated random numbers concealed in opaque, sealed, sequentially numbered envelopes. For the acupuncture combined with PC6 wristband group, the embedded auricular acupuncture technique for preoperative anxiolysis and up to three sessions of acupuncture treatments with manual and electrical stimulation within 48 hours after surgery will be provided by qualified Korean medicine doctors. The PC6 wristband will be applied in the Acupuncture and Wristband groups, beginning 1 hour before surgery and lasting 48 hours postoperatively. The primary outcome will be the number of participants who experience moderate or severe nausea, defined as nausea at least 4 out of 10 on a severity numeric rating scale or vomiting at 24 hours after surgery. Secondary outcomes, including symptom severity, participant global assessments and satisfaction, quality of life, physiological recovery, use of medication and length of hospital stay, will be assessed. Adverse events and postoperative complications will be measured for 1 month after surgery. Ethics and dissemination All participants will provide written informed consent. The study has been approved by the institutional review board (IRB). This pilot trial will inform a full-scale
Because of a terrorist incident against Bangkok's Relief Center for HIV/AIDS Carriers, it is feared that a rising intolerance is occurring in Thailand. Such fears are damaging efforts to help those with HIV/AIDS. Misconceptions about the nature of HIV/AIDS continue to dominate Thai society. The Thai government is particularly worried that an overemphasis on HIV/AIDS will hurt tourism. According to the Population and Community Development Association, Thai people are infected with HIV at the rate of 500 per day and treatment costs may exceed $170 million a year by the year 2000. Unfortunately, the lack of nongovernmental institutions (other than Buddhist monasteries) and the lack of positive response from other Thai social institutions is driving relatives and friends to take care of the afflicted, and the terrorist attack shows that many Thai people are still unprepared for the challenge.
Campbell, Andrew J; Cumming, Steven R; Hughes, Ian
The Internet has often been argued to have adverse psychological consequences, such as depression or anxiety symptoms, among "over-users." The present study offers an alternative understanding, suggesting the Internet may be used as a forum for expanding social networks and consequently enhancing the chance of meaningful relationships, self-confidence, social abilities, and social support. An online sample of 188 people was recruited over the Internet, while paper and pencil tests were administered to an offline sample group of 27 undergraduate university students, who were regular Internet users. Subjects completed the Zung Depression Scale (ZDS), Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire?Revised Short Scale (EPQ-R Short), Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) scale, Internet Use Questionnaire (IUQ), and an Internet Effects Questionnaire (IEQ). Results suggested that there was no relationship between time spent online and depression, anxiety, or social fearfulness. Those who primarily used the Internet for online chat believed that the Internet is psychologically beneficial to them, but also believed that frequent Internet users are lonely and that the Internet can be addictive. It is argued that "chat" users who are socially fearful may be using the Internet as a form of low-risk social approach and an opportunity to rehearse social behavior and communication skills, which, may help them improve interaction with offline, face-to-face, social environments.
Xia, You-Bing; He, Ting
To explore the origin and development of modern acupuncture in Hong Kong, and to find its relationship with the over-sea dissemination of Chengjiang Acupuncture School. Through study on the related literature and interview of experts, the origin of acupuncture education and academic research associations in 1930's to 1950's were investigated. The approaches of the international dissemination of acupuncture by those associations and their representatives were also studied. And it is held that the popularization of acupuncture in Hong Kong in mid-20th century were mainly due to the effort of CHENG Dan-an and his followers. And at the same time, because of the geographic and time factors, Hong Kong is taken as an important place for the international dissemination of acupuncture from the mainland of China before the opening and reforming.
He, Xiaoxuan; Hu, Sheng; Li, Chuanfu; Xu, Chunsheng; Kan, Hongxing; Xue, Qiuju; Qiu, Bensheng
Bell's palsy (BP), an acute unilateral facial paralysis, is frequently treated with acupuncture in many countries. However, the mechanism of treatment is not clear so far. In order to explore the potential mechanism, 22 healthy volunteers and 17 BP patients with different clinical duration were recruited. The resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were conducted before and after acupuncture at LI4 (Hegu), respectively. By comparing BP-induced functional connectivity (FC) changes with acupuncture-induced FC changes in the patients, the abnormal increased FC that could be reduced by acupuncture was selected. The FC strength of the selected FC at various stages was analyzed subsequently. Our results show that FC modulation of acupuncture is specific and consistent with the tendency of recovery. Therefore, we propose that FC modulation by acupuncture may be beneficial to recovery from the disease. PMID:27293461
Zhou, Wei; Benharash, Peyman
Acupuncture has been practiced in China for over 2000 years to treat a variety of diseases based on the "meridian theory," as described in the "Yellow Emperor's Classics of Internal Medicine." Deqi refers to the excitation of qi or vital energy inside meridians by acupuncture needle stimulation. Patients often experience multidimensional and intense needling sensations such as numbness, soreness, distention, heaviness, dull pain, and sharp pain during acupuncture stimulation. Deqi is considered as an important parameter in the process of achieving therapeutic effectiveness in acupuncture treatment. Understanding this phenomenon from neurophysiological aspects is important for clinical practice and enables practitioners to perform quantitative acupuncture evaluation to obtain a reliable prognosis of acupuncture treatment. This review paper describes our current knowledge and understanding of Deqi from a physiological aspect.
The overwhelming majority of fear appeal research came from the between-individuals approach and yielded consistent evidence for a linear fear-persuasion relationship. A recent review suggested that the within-individuals approach might be more appropriate. Studies that measured fear at multiple time points have consistently revealed a curvilinear association between fear and persuasion predicted by the drive model. A Web-based experiment (N = 454) using tobacco warning labels was conducted to replicate the inverted-U shape curvilinear relationship between fear and persuasion, and to revisit the role of fear in fear appeal theories. Results showed that the inverted-U fear curve positively predicted persuasion and reduced maladaptive responses, and that the linear trajectory of fear positively predicted maladaptive responses and failure of persuasion.
Durm, M W; Glaze, P E
For 55 students (13 men, 42 women) there was a significant inverse correlation for scores on the Self-acceptance Scale and scores on the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, thereby giving credence to the construct validity of both scales, that is, the more one accepts oneself, the less negative evaluation there is of oneself.
Bellanti, Dawn M.; Paat, Charmagne F.; Boyd, Courtney C.; Duncan, Alaine; Price, Ashley; Zhang, Weimin; French, Louis M.; Chae, Heechin
Abstract Background: Headaches are prevalent among Service members with traumatic brain injury (TBI); 80% report chronic or recurrent headache. Evidence for nonpharmacologic treatments, such as acupuncture, are needed. Objective: The aim of this research was to determine if two types of acupuncture (auricular acupuncture [AA] and traditional Chinese acupuncture [TCA]) were feasible and more effective than usual care (UC) alone for TBI–related headache. Materials and Methods: Design: This was a three-armed, parallel, randomized exploratory study. Setting: The research took place at three military treatment facilities in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Patients: The subjects were previously deployed Service members (18–69 years old) with mild-to-moderate TBI and headaches. Intervention: The interventions explored were UC alone or with the addition of AA or TCA. Outcome Measures: The primary outcome was the Headache Impact Test (HIT). Secondary outcomes were the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist, Symptom Checklist-90-R, Medical Outcome Study Quality of Life (QoL), Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, and expectancy of outcome and acupuncture efficacy. Results: Mean HIT scores decreased in the AA and TCA groups but increased slightly in the UC-only group from baseline to week 6 [AA, −10.2% (−6.4 points); TCA, −4.6% (−2.9 points); UC, +0.8% (+0.6 points)]. Both acupuncture groups had sizable decreases in NRS (Pain Best), compared to UC (TCA versus UC: P = 0.0008, d = 1.70; AA versus UC: P = 0.0127, d = 1.6). No statistically significant results were found for any other secondary outcome measures. Conclusions: Both AA and TCA improved headache-related QoL more than UC did in Service members with TBI. PMID:27458496
Arnaudova, Inna; Krypotos, Angelos-Miltiadis; Effting, Marieke; Boddez, Yannick; Kindt, Merel; Beckers, Tom
Complex fear learning procedures might be better suited than the common differential fear-conditioning paradigm for detecting individual differences related to vulnerability for anxiety disorders. Two such procedures are the blocking procedure and the protection-from-overshadowing procedure. Their comparison allows for the examination of discriminatory fear learning under conditions of ambiguity. The present study examined the role of individual differences in such discriminatory fear learning. We hypothesized that heightened trait anxiety would be related to a deficit in discriminatory fear learning. Participants gave US-expectancy ratings as an index for the threat value of individual CSs following blocking and protection-from-overshadowing training. The difference in threat value at test between the protected-from-overshadowing conditioned stimulus (CS) and the blocked CS was negatively correlated with scores on a self-report tension-stress scale that approximates facets of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-Stress (DASS-S), but not with other individual difference variables. In addition, a behavioral test showed that only participants scoring high on the DASS-S avoided the protected-from-overshadowing CS. This observed deficit in discriminatory fear learning for participants with high levels of tension-stress might be an underlying mechanism for fear overgeneralization in diffuse anxiety disorders such as GAD.
Arnaudova, Inna; Krypotos, Angelos-Miltiadis; Effting, Marieke; Boddez, Yannick; Kindt, Merel; Beckers, Tom
Complex fear learning procedures might be better suited than the common differential fear-conditioning paradigm for detecting individual differences related to vulnerability for anxiety disorders. Two such procedures are the blocking procedure and the protection-from-overshadowing procedure. Their comparison allows for the examination of discriminatory fear learning under conditions of ambiguity. The present study examined the role of individual differences in such discriminatory fear learning. We hypothesized that heightened trait anxiety would be related to a deficit in discriminatory fear learning. Participants gave US-expectancy ratings as an index for the threat value of individual CSs following blocking and protection-from-overshadowing training. The difference in threat value at test between the protected-from-overshadowing conditioned stimulus (CS) and the blocked CS was negatively correlated with scores on a self-report tension-stress scale that approximates facets of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-Stress (DASS-S), but not with other individual difference variables. In addition, a behavioral test showed that only participants scoring high on the DASS-S avoided the protected-from-overshadowing CS. This observed deficit in discriminatory fear learning for participants with high levels of tension-stress might be an underlying mechanism for fear overgeneralization in diffuse anxiety disorders such as GAD. PMID:23755030
Nemeth, Banne; Scheres, Luuk J J; Lijfering, Willem M
Objective To assess whether, as has been hypothesised since medieval times, acute fear can curdle blood. Design Crossover trial. Setting Main meeting room of Leiden University’s Department of Clinical Epidemiology, the Netherlands, converted to a makeshift cinema. Participants 24 healthy volunteers aged ≤30 years recruited among students, alumni, and employees of the Leiden University Medical Center: 14 were assigned to watch a frightening (horror) movie followed by a non-threatening (educational) movie and 10 to watch the movies in reverse order. The movies were viewed more than a week apart at the same time of day and both lasted approximately 90 minutes. Main outcome measures The primary outcome measures were markers, or “fear factors” of coagulation activity: blood coagulant factor VIII, D-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, and prothrombin fragments 1+2. The secondary outcome was participant reported fear experienced during each movie using a visual analogue fear scale. Results All participants completed the study. The horror movie was perceived to be more frightening than the educational movie on a visual analogue fear scale (mean difference 5.4, 95% confidence interval 4.7 to 6.1). The difference in factor VIII levels before and after watching the movies was higher for the horror movie than for the educational movie (mean difference of differences 11.1 IU/dL (111 IU/L), 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 21.0 IU/dL). The effect of either movie on levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes, D-dimer, and prothrombin fragments 1+2 did not differ. Conclusion Frightening (in this case, horror) movies are associated with an increase of blood coagulant factor VIII without actual thrombin formation in young and healthy adults. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02601053. PMID:26673787
Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; Mitroff, Stephen R.; LaBar, Kevin S.
The present study investigated the extent to which fear generalization in humans is determined by the amount of fear intensity in nonconditioned stimuli relative to a perceptually similar conditioned stimulus. Stimuli consisted of graded emotionally expressive faces of the same identity morphed between neutral and fearful endpoints. Two experimental groups underwent discriminative fear conditioning between a face stimulus of 55% fear intensity (conditioned stimulus, CS+), reinforced with an electric shock, and a second stimulus that was unreinforced (CS−). In Experiment 1 the CS− was a relatively neutral face stimulus, while in Experiment 2 the CS− was the most fear-intense stimulus. Before and following fear conditioning, skin conductance responses (SCR) were recorded to different morph values along the neutral-to-fear dimension. Both experimental groups showed gradients of generalization following fear conditioning that increased with the fear intensity of the stimulus. In Experiment 1 a peak shift in SCRs extended to the most fear-intense stimulus. In contrast, generalization to the most fear-intense stimulus was reduced in Experiment 2, suggesting that discriminative fear learning procedures can attenuate fear generalization. Together, the findings indicate that fear generalization is broadly tuned and sensitive to the amount of fear intensity in nonconditioned stimuli, but that fear generalization can come under stimulus control. These results reveal a novel form of fear generalization in humans that is not merely based on physical similarity to a conditioned exemplar, and may have implications for understanding generalization processes in anxiety disorders characterized by heightened sensitivity to nonthreatening stimuli. PMID:19553384
Wang, Sheng-Qiang; Yu, Su; Wang, Jian-Ping
Articles on acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis were picked up from CNKI database. The retrieved original studies were evaluated and summarized. The problems of acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis were analyzed, and concrete solutions were proposed. Problems that differential diagnosis, prognosis, treatment of severe facial paralysis, and identification of sequelae and compliation were not embasized in clinical treatment of facial paralysis. Consequently, the effectiveness of acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis will be improved by sloving above problems.
It has been over 30 years that acupuncture was first introduced and later used to treat patients in Eritrea. There are acupuncture clinics at three hospitals to treat various common diseases. As one of the valuable treatments to cure diseases, acupuncture has been accepted by the government and the public in Eritrea. It is the fruits of public recognition, government support and the devotion of Chinese clinic practitioners.
Technical Reporting: 1 year Progress Report GW080059 - Effectiveness of Acupuncture in the Treatment of Gulf War Illness PI - Lisa Conboy, MA, MS, ScD...individualized acupuncture treatment on sUbjects’ overall health and disease burden. This three-year project collects main outcomes after 2 months of biweekly... acupuncture treatment. Longer-term effectiveness will be measured with a 6 month follow-up. Our objectives are to find : a successful treatment of GW I
Algie, Jennifer; Rossiter, John R
This research studies fear patterns within fear appeal anti-speeding television commercials. A pattern of fear is the sequence of fear arousal and fear reduction, if any, that is felt by the viewing audience when exposed to a fear appeal advertisement. Many road safety advertisers use fear appeals, such as "shock" advertising, that result in fear arousal, leaving the viewer feeling extremely tense. The moment-to-moment reactions of young drivers to 12 road safety commercials are gauged using a dynamic, temporal measure of fear. The fear patterns generated from each ad are analyzed and a new perspective on creating fear appeal road safety advertisements, with an emphasis on fear-relief, fear-partial relief, and fear-only patterns, is discussed.
Riggs, Samantha; Cook, Carrie L
The shadow hypothesis regarding the impact of fear of sexual assault on fear of violent crime suggests that female fear of crime is characterized by concern about sexual assault as a contemporaneous victimization event during a violent crime event. Recent research has found that other types of crime, namely physical assault, may also be feared as a contemporaneous offense. We know of no research that has examined the unique impact of fear of murder versus fear of sexual assault on fear of violent crime. There is also a lack of research that explores how these two types of fear uniquely affect men and women. In addition to gender, we examine factors that have been suggested in previous research to correlate with fear of crime: race, victimization, vicarious victimization, and perceived risk. Through survey methodology, this research examines the unique relationship between both fear of murder and fear of sexual assault and fear of three types of violent crime for men and women. Results suggest differences in how fear of murder and fear of sexual assault are related to fear of other types of violence for men and women. Specifically, fear of murder is important in estimating male fear of robbery and aggravated assault. However, fear of sexual assault is almost as important as fear of murder for men in estimating fear of home invasion. Similarly, for women, fear of sexual assault and fear of murder both are significant factors associated with fear of violent crime, and differences between the levels of significance are marginal. This study is a first to examine whether murder may also be feared as a contemporaneous offense. The results are informative in identifying what drives fear of crime, particularly violent crime, for both men and women. Avenues for future research are discussed.
Pappens, Meike; Schroijen, Mathias; Van den Bergh, Omer; Van Diest, Ilse
Fear reduction obtained during a fear extinction procedure can generalize from the extinction stimulus to other perceptually similar stimuli. Perceptual generalization of fear extinction typically follows a perceptual gradient, with increasing levels of fear reduction the more a stimulus resembles the extinction stimulus. The current study aimed to investigate whether perceptual generalization of fear extinction can be observed also after a retention interval of 24h. Fear was acquired to three geometrical figures of different sizes (CS(+), CS1(+) and CS2(+)) by consistently pairing them with a short-lasting suffocation experience (US). Three other geometrical figures that were never followed by the US served as control stimuli (CS(-), CS1(-), CS2(-)). Next, only the CS(+) was extinguished by presenting it in the absence of the US. One day later, fear responses to all stimuli were assessed without any US-presentation. Outcome measures included startle blink EMG, skin conductance, US expectancy, respiratory rate and tidal volume. On day 2 spontaneous recovery of fear was observed in US expectancy and tidal volume, but not in the other outcomes. Evidence for the retention of fear extinction generalization was present in US expectancy and skin conductance, but a perceptual gradient in the retention of generalized fear extinction could not be observed.
In this case report, a 48-year-old female who had suffered severe scar pain for 3 months was treated with acupuncture using the Wei Ci technique (surrounding the dragon). Scar tissue usually forms after deep trauma, such as piercings, burns, and surgery, to the dermis. In Chinese Medicine, scar tissue causes local Qi and blood stagnation which lead to pain. The Wei Ci technique (surrounding the dragon) and distal points Hegu-LI-4, Taichong-LIV-3, Zusanli-ST-36 were used. The patient received a total of eight treatments in 5 weeks. The scar pain decreased from 7 to 1 or 2 on a Likert scale of 0-10, with 0 being no pain and 10 being the worst pain. Acupuncture may have a good short-term pain-relieving effect on scar pain but its long-term scar-pain-relieving effects are still unclear.
Soravia, Leila M; Heinrichs, Markus; Aerni, Amanda; Maroni, Caroline; Schelling, Gustav; Ehlert, Ulrike; Roozendaal, Benno; de Quervain, Dominique J-F
Phobias are characterized by excessive fear, cued by the presence or anticipation of a fearful situation. Whereas it is well established that glucocorticoids are released in fearful situations, it is not known whether these hormones, in turn, modulate perceived fear. As extensive evidence indicates that elevated glucocorticoid levels impair the retrieval of emotionally arousing information, they might also inhibit retrieval of fear memory associated with phobia and, thereby, reduce phobic fear. Here, we investigated whether acutely administrated glucocorticoids reduced phobic fear in two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in 40 subjects with social phobia and 20 subjects with spider phobia. In the social phobia study, cortisone (25 mg) administered orally 1 h before a socio-evaluative stressor significantly reduced self-reported fear during the anticipation, exposure, and recovery phase of the stressor. Moreover, the stress-induced release of cortisol in placebo-treated subjects correlated negatively with fear ratings, suggesting that endogenously released cortisol in the context of a phobic situation buffers fear symptoms. In the spider phobia study, repeated oral administration of cortisol (10 mg), but not placebo, 1 h before exposure to a spider photograph induced a progressive reduction of stimulus-induced fear. This effect was maintained when subjects were exposed to the stimulus again 2 days after the last cortisol administration, suggesting that cortisol may also have facilitated the extinction of phobic fear. Cortisol treatment did not reduce general, phobia-unrelated anxiety. In conclusion, the present findings in two distinct types of phobias indicate that glucocorticoid administration reduces phobic fear.
Kuriyama, Kenichi; Honma, Motoyasu; Yoshiike, Takuya; Kim, Yoshiharu
Sleep deprivation immediately following an aversive event reduces fear by preventing memory consolidation during homeostatic sleep. This suggests that acute insomnia might act prophylactically against the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) even though it is also a possible risk factor for PTSD. We examined total sleep deprivation and memory suppression to evaluate the effects of these interventions on subsequent aversive memory formation and fear conditioning. Active suppression of aversive memory impaired retention of event memory. However, although the remembered fear was more reduced in sleep-deprived than sleep-control subjects, suppressed fear increased, and seemed to abandon the sleep-dependent plasticity of fear. Active memory suppression, which provides a psychological model for Freud's ego defense mechanism, enhances fear and casts doubt on the potential of acute insomnia as a prophylactic measure against PTSD. Our findings bring into question the role of sleep in aversive-memory consolidation in clinical PTSD pathophysiology.
Kuriyama, Kenichi; Honma, Motoyasu; Yoshiike, Takuya; Kim, Yoshiharu
Sleep deprivation immediately following an aversive event reduces fear by preventing memory consolidation during homeostatic sleep. This suggests that acute insomnia might act prophylactically against the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) even though it is also a possible risk factor for PTSD. We examined total sleep deprivation and memory suppression to evaluate the effects of these interventions on subsequent aversive memory formation and fear conditioning. Active suppression of aversive memory impaired retention of event memory. However, although the remembered fear was more reduced in sleep-deprived than sleep-control subjects, suppressed fear increased, and seemed to abandon the sleep-dependent plasticity of fear. Active memory suppression, which provides a psychological model for Freud's ego defense mechanism, enhances fear and casts doubt on the potential of acute insomnia as a prophylactic measure against PTSD. Our findings bring into question the role of sleep in aversive-memory consolidation in clinical PTSD pathophysiology. PMID:23863955
To probe into the relation between spirit, pivot and the way for holding pivot. Find out the discussion about spirit, pivot and holding pivot in acupuncture from ancient books, including literature, history and philosophy, and analyze, check and compare with the theory of controlling spirit in acupuncture, and find out the internal relations. Controlling spirit is applied to hold pivot, the way for holding pivot includes finding fine evidence of diseases, holding chance for needling, seizing opportunity, using circumstances and considering the coming-and-going of evil, constitution of patients and reinforcing-reducing methods of acupuncture. The way of holding pivot generalizes the main thought of acupuncture treatment.
Jiang, Jun; Wang, Fu-Bo; Guo, Hai-Dong; Shao, Shui-Jin; Miao, Peng; Zhang, Qi; Guo, Chun-Xia; Mou, Fang-Fang; Yan, Zhen-Guo
Acupuncture manipulations on Fengchi (GB 20) of famous doctors were taken through force feedback device, then the data was input into a digitized virtual human. Virtual Fengchi (GB 20) acupuncture force feedback simulation system was built through the virtual reality technology to achieve one-to-one high simulative manipulation effect for acupuncture students. The interaction force of the needle body and human tissues was analyzed during the acupuncture process on the 3D digital human integrated with information of Fengchi (GB 20) according to the physical characteristics of the tissues under this point. The mechanical model which is used to imitate the stress received by the body of the needle was established, and transmitted truly to the operator by the force feedback device. Thus, Fengchi (GB 20) virtual acupuncture force feedback simulation was preliminary established, and the sense of touch could be reproduced lively on the visualized virtual acupuncture human. It is held that Fengchi (GB 20) acupuncture force feedback research is a preliminary exploration for virtual acupuncture that integrated with the information of visual, tactile and force feedback. And it also provided a dynamic one-to-one simulation approach for acupuncture teaching.
Wang, Hong-cai; Deng, Liang-yue; Liu, Bao-yan
From cooperation between World Federation of Acupuncture-Moxibustion Societies (WFAS) and World Health Organization, works of academics and standardization, acupuncture-moxibustion education, technique service, organization development, etc., the 27-year development of WFAS since 1987 was summarized and reviewed in details. The growth of WFAS witnesses and promotes the development of acupuncture and moxibustion in the world, so by learning the experience and lessons, WFAS could have a wider path, becoming a core organization for communicating and promoting the development of acupuncture, even the traditional medicine in the world.
Akechi, Tatuo; Momino, Kanae; Yamashita, Toshinari; Fujita, Takashi; Hayashi, Hironori; Tsunoda, Nobuyuki; Iwata, Hiroji
Although fear of recurrence is a major concern among breast cancer survivors after surgery, no standard strategies exist that alleviate their distress. This study examined the association of patients' problem-solving skills and fear of recurrence and psychological distress among breast cancer survivors. Randomly selected, ambulatory, female patients with breast cancer participated in this study. They were asked to complete the Concerns about Recurrence Scale (CARS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine their associations. Data were obtained from 317 patients. Patients' problem-solving skills were significantly associated with all subscales of fear of recurrence and overall worries measured by the CARS. In addition, patients' problem-solving skills were significantly associated with both their anxiety and depression. Our findings warrant clinical trials to investigate effectiveness of psychosocial intervention program, including enhancing patients' problem-solving skills and reducing fear of recurrence among breast cancer survivors.
Fan, Arthur Yin; Xu, Jun; Li, Yong-Ming
In the last twenty years, in the United States and other Western countries, dry needling (DN) became a hot and debatable topic, not only in academic but also in legal fields. This White Paper is to provide the authoritative information of DN versus acupuncture to academic scholars, healthcare professional administrators, lawmakers, and the general public through providing the authoritative evidence and experts' opinions regarding critical issues of DN versus acupuncture, and then reach consensus. DN is the use of dry needles alone, either solid filiform acupuncture needles or hollow-core hypodermic needles, to insert into the body for the treatment of muscle pain and related myofascial pain syndrome. DN is sometimes also known as intramuscular stimulati on, trigger points (TrP) acupuncture, TrP DN, myofascial TrP DN, or biomedical acupuncture. In Western countries, DN is a form of simplified acupuncture using biomedical language in treating myofascial pain, a contemporary development of a portion of Ashi point acupuncture from Chinese acupuncture. It seeks to redefine acupuncture by reframing its theoretical principles in a Western manner. DN-like needling with filiform needles have been widely used in Chinese acupuncture practice over the past 2,000 years, and with hypodermic needles has been used in China in acupuncture practice for at least 72 years. In Eastern countries, such as China, since late of 1800s or earlier, DN is a common name of acupuncture among acupuncturists and the general public, which has a broader scope of indications, not limited to treating the myofascial pain.
respectively. Martin, Sletten, Williams, and Berger (2006) found acupuncture improved symptoms of anxiety and fatigue for patients with fibromyalgia , but...did not improve levels of activity and physical function. Acupuncture Patients in the MHS 11 Wonderling, Vickers, Grieve, and McCarney (2004...Patients in the MHS 12 by their doctors, or self-referred. Acupuncture techniques varied depending on diagnosis, and standard medical therapies
Simons, Laura E; Smith, Allison; Kaczynski, Karen; Basch, Molly
Fear and avoidance have been consistently associated with poor pain-related outcomes in children. In the context of the pediatric pain experience, parent distress and behaviors can be highly influential. This study validated the Parent Fear of Pain Questionnaire (PFOPQ) to assess a parent's fears and avoidance behaviors associated with their child's pain. Using the PFOPQ in conjunction with measures of parent and child pain-related variables, we tested the interpersonal fear-avoidance model (IFAM). The sample comprised 321 parents and their child with chronic or new-onset pain who presented to a multidisciplinary outpatient pain clinic. An exploratory factor analysis yielded a 4-factor structure for the PFOPQ consisting of Fear of Pain, Fear of Movement, Fear of School, and Avoidance. As hypothesized, Fear of Pain was most closely related to parent pain catastrophizing and child fear of pain, whereas Avoidance was most closely related to parent protective behaviors and child avoidance of activities. In testing the IFAM, parent behavior contributed directly and indirectly to child avoidance, whereas parent fear and catastrophizing contributed indirectly to child avoidance through parent behavior and child fear and catastrophizing, in turn, influencing child functional disability levels. This study provides the first measure of parent pain-related fears and avoidance behaviors and evaluates the theorized IFAM. These results underscore the important influence of parents on child pain-related outcomes and put forth a psychometrically sound measure to assess parent fear and avoidance in the context of their child's pain.
Chen, Lung Hung; Chen, Mei-Yen; Lin, Meng-Shyan; Kee, Ying Hwa; Shui, Shang-Hsueh
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between fear of failure and self-handicapping within the context of physical education. Participants were 103 college freshmen enrolled in aerobic dance physical education classes in Taiwan. They completed the Performance Failure Appraisal Inventory and Self-Handicapping Scale for Sport 3 mo. after entering the class. Hierarchical regression indicated that scores on fear of failure predicted self-handicapping scores.
He, Wei; Tong, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Ying-Kai; Rong, Pei-Jing; Wang, Hong-Cai
In the present paper, the authors make a bibliometrics study on clinical indications of acupuncture therapy based on the published foreign articles about acupuncture clinical trials collected from PubMed database and Excerpta Medica database (EMbase). In 1996, 64 acupuncture indications were declared by WHO in Milan conference. But in recent 15 years, clinical trials have been conducted extensively in the foreign countries. Till now, 77 new indications for acupuncture therapy have been found in the foreign journals. The authors recommended that 29 indications (knee osteoarthritis, critique age problems, muscular fasciae ache, anxiety, etc.) should be added to the first class, 4 indications (irritable bowel syndrome, malposition, backache, simple obesity) should be upgraded from the second class to the first class, and the other 3 indications (childbirth pain, male and female barren) should be upgraded from the third class to the first class due to their application frequency in clinical trials. Increase of clinical indications reflects extensive application of acupuncture therapy and may help providing a better service for people's health.
Background Chronic knee pain is a common and disabling condition in people over 50 years of age, with knee joint osteoarthritis being a major cause. Acupuncture is a popular form of complementary and alternative medicine for treating pain and dysfunction associated with musculoskeletal conditions. This pragmatic Zelen-design randomised controlled trial is investigating the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of needle and laser acupuncture, administered by medical practitioners, in people with chronic knee pain. Methods/Design Two hundred and eighty two people aged over 50 years with chronic knee pain have been recruited from metropolitan Melbourne and regional Victoria, Australia. Participants originally consented to participate in a longitudinal natural history study but were then covertly randomised into one of four treatment groups. One group continued as originally consented (ie natural history group) and received no acupuncture treatment. The other three were treatment groups: i) laser acupuncture, ii) sham laser or, iii) needle acupuncture. Acupuncture treatments used a combined Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine style, were delivered by general practitioners and comprised 8–12 visits over 12 weeks. Follow-up is currently ongoing. The primary outcomes are pain measured by an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS) and self-reported physical function measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster (WOMAC) Universities Osteoarthritis Index subscale at the completion of treatment at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes include quality of life, global rating of change scores and additional measures of pain (other NRS and WOMAC subscale) and physical function (NRS). Additional parameters include a range of psychosocial measures in order to evaluate potential relationships with acupuncture treatment outcomes. Relative cost-effectiveness will be determined from health service usage and outcome data. Follow-up assessments will also occur at 12 months. Discussion The
Zhang, Xin-chang; Xu, Xiu-ping; Xu, Wen-tao; Hou, Wen-zhen; Cheng, Ying-ying; Li, Chang-xi; Ni, Guang-xia
and small sample sizes, large-scale RCTs are required to confirm the current findings regarding acupuncture therapy for SSHL. PMID:25919000
Do Monte, Fabricio H.; Quirk, Gregory J.; Li, Bo; Penzo, Mario A.
Fear conditioning researches have led to a comprehensive picture of the neuronal circuit underlying the formation of fear memories. In contrast, knowledge about the retrieval of fear memories is much more limited. This disparity may stem from the fact that fear memories are not rigid, but reorganize over time. To bring clarity and raise awareness on the time-dependent dynamics of retrieval circuits, we review current evidence on the neuronal circuitry participating in fear memory retrieval at both early and late time points after conditioning. We focus on the temporal recruitment of the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, and its BDNFergic efferents to the central nucleus of the amygdala, for the retrieval and maintenance of fear memories. Finally, we speculate as to why retrieval circuits change across time, and the functional benefits of recruiting structures such as the paraventricular nucleus into the retrieval circuit. PMID:27217148
Kim, Me-Riong; Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Lee, Yoon Jae; Ahn, Yong-Jun; Park, Ki Byung; Lee, Hwa Dong; Lee, Yoonmi; Kim, Sung Geun; Ha, In-Hyuk
Abstract We investigated the range and frequency of significant adverse events (AEs) in use of pharmacopuncture and acupuncture using large-scale, single-center safety data as evidence supporting safety of acupuncture with pharmacopuncture, used extensively in Asia, is scarce. Status reports (nurse records in ambulatory and inpatient care units, and administrative event records) as a part of an internal audit at a Korean Medicine hospital specializing in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders, patient complaints filed through the hospital website, and medical records of patients visiting from December, 2010 (inception of internal audit) to October, 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. A total 80,523 patients (5966 inpatients and 74,557 outpatients) visited during this period. Inpatients received an average 31.9 ± 20.7 acupuncture, 23.0 ± 15.6 pharmacopuncture, and 15.4 ± 11.3 bee venom pharmacopuncture sessions, and outpatients were administered 8.2 ± 12.2 acupuncture, 7.8 ± 11.5 pharmacopuncture, and 10.0 ± 12.3 bee venom sessions, respectively. AEs associated with acupuncture/pharmacopuncture were forgotten needle (n = 47), hypersensitivity to bee venom (n = 37), presyncopic episode (n = 4), pneumothorax (n = 4), and infection (n = 2). Most cases were mild requiring little or no additional intervention and leaving no sequelae. Although serious AEs including infection (n = 2) and anaphylaxis associated with bee venom treatment (n = 3) were also reported, incidence was rare at 0.002% in infection and 0.019% in anaphylaxis. Incidence of AEs associated with acupuncture/pharmacopuncture treatment was low, and most cases were not serious. Still, however rare, avoidable AEs can and should be prevented through education and corrective action. Further prospective studies on the effect of error reduction strategies on incidence of adverse effects are warranted. PMID:27149503
Carleton, R Nicholas; Collimore, Kelsey C; Asmundson, Gordon J G
The Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale [BFNE; Leary, M. R. (1983). A brief version of the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 9, 371-375] is a self-report measure designed to assess fear of negative evaluation, a characteristic feature of social anxiety disorders [Rapee, R. M., & Heimberg, R. G. (1997). A cognitive-behavioral model of anxiety in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 741-756]. Recent psychometric assessments have suggested that a 2-factor model is most appropriate, with the first factor comprising the straightforwardly worded items and the second factor comprising the reverse-worded items [Carleton, R. N., McCreary, D., Norton, P. J., & Asmundson, G. J. G. (in press-a). The Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, Revised. Depression & Anxiety; Rodebaugh, T. L., Woods, C. M., Thissen, D. M., Heimberg, R. G., Chambless, D. L., & Rapee, R. M. (2004). More information from fewer questions: the factor structure and item properties of the original and brief fear of negative evaluation scale. Psychological Assessment, 2, 169-181; Weeks, J. W., Heimberg, R. G., Fresco, D. M., Hart, T. A., Turk, C. L., Schneier, F. R., et al. (2005). Empirical validation and psychometric evaluation of the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale in patients with social anxiety disorder. Psychological Assessment, 17, 179-190]. Some researchers recommend the reverse-worded items be removed from scoring [e.g., Rodebaugh, T. L., Woods, C. M., Thissen, D. M., Heimberg, R. G., Chambless, D. L., & Rapee, R. M. (2004). More information from fewer questions: the factor structure and item properties of the original and brief fear of negative evaluation scale. Psychological Assessment, 2, 169-181; Weeks, J. W., Heimberg, R. G., Fresco, D. M., Hart, T. A., Turk, C. L., Schneier, F. R., et al. (2005). Empirical validation and psychometric evaluation of the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale in patients with social anxiety
Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; Prince, Steven E.; Murty, Vishnu P.; Kragel, Philip A.; LaBar, Kevin S.
While much research has elucidated the neurobiology of fear learning, the neural systems supporting the generalization of learned fear are unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we show that regions involved in the acquisition of fear support the generalization of fear to stimuli that are similar to a learned threat, but vary in fear intensity value. Behaviorally, subjects retrospectively misidentified a learned threat as a more intense stimulus and expressed greater skin conductance responses (SCR) to generalized stimuli of high intensity. Brain activity related to intensity-based fear generalization was observed in the striatum, insula, thalamus/periacqueductal gray, and subgenual cingulate cortex. The psychophysiological expression of generalized fear correlated with amygdala activity, and connectivity between the amygdala and extrastriate visual cortex was correlated with individual differences in trait anxiety. These findings reveal the brain regions and functional networks involved in flexibly responding to stimuli that resemble a learned threat. These regions may comprise an intensity-based fear generalization circuit that underlies retrospective biases in threat value estimation and overgeneralization of fear in anxiety disorders. PMID:21256233
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Zheng, Mei; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Xia, You-Bing; Meng, Xian-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Shu
Mr. LIU Zhang-jie, one of the disciples of CHENG Dan-an who is considered as the initiator of the Chengjiang acupuncture school, is a famous acupuncturist in Fujian Province. With the collection and arrangement of Mr. LIU's literatures, medical records, books and interview of his student. ZHANG Yong-shu, Mr. LIU's academic characteristics are analyzed and summarized in this paper, mainly including being focused on finger power and manipulating without pain; being good at direct moxibustion to elevate yang-qi and drive out evil spirits; highlighting meridian syndrome differentiation and combined use of the four diagnostic methods; each disease has its own pathogeny, eliminating pathogen is the key; valuing the curative effect with flexible apply of acupuncture and Chinese medicine. In a word, Mr. LIU, who inherited the school's scholarism and developed it into next level, is one of Chengjiang acupuncture school's representative figures.
Park, Joon Soo; Lee, Min Jung; Chung, Ki Hun; Ko, Dong Kyun; Chung, Hyun
Live bee acupuncture (Bong-Chim) dermatitis is an iatrogenic disease induced by so-called live bee acupuncture therapy, which applies the honeybee (Apis cerana) stinger directly into the lesion to treat various diseases in Korea. We present two cases of live bee acupuncture dermatitis and review previously published articles about this disease. We classify this entity into three stages: acute, subacute, and chronic. The acute stage is an inflammatory reaction, such as anaphylaxis or urticaria. In the chronic stage, a foreign body granuloma may develop from the remaining stingers, similar to that of a bee sting reaction. However, in the subacute stage, unlike bee stings, we see the characteristic histological "flame" figures resulting from eosinophilic stimulation induced by excessive bee venom exposure. We consider this stage to be different from the adverse skin reaction of accidental bee sting.
Meng, Xian-Jun; Huang, Jun; Zhu, An-Ning
The development courses of acupuncture and moxibustion as well as the present situation, education and legislation in Portugal were reviewed in this article. Acupuncture and Moxibustion has been developed in Portugal since 1980's. The first acupuncture school appeared in the year of 1992. Until now, courses on Chinese medicine and acupuncture has already been set up in about six universities. Acupuncture legislation started in the year 2003. At present, professional levels of acupuncture practitioners vary a lot. There are over 50 indications currently. And acupuncture treatment is basically at one's own expense.
Su, Yang-Shuai; Liu, Bing; Jing, Xiang-Hong; He, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Li-Jian
This article discussed ZHU Lian's contributions to acupuncture-moxibustion scientific research from three aspects: building the scientific thought of "new acupuncture-moxibustion", constructing the first domestic acupuncture-moxibustion institution and opening the door to modern acupuncture-moxibustion scientific research. ZHU Lian's visionary thought of "new acupuncture-moxibustion" has influenced the following researchers till now. She established the acupuncture-Moxibustion therapeutic institute affiliated to the Ministry of Health, set up the acupuncture-Moxibustion research platforms and teams and made research cooperation. She firstly carried out acupuncture-Moxibustion clinical and basic scientific research, which started the acupuncture-Moxi- bustion scientific research in China. ZHU Lian is the Pioneer of Chinese acupuncture-Moxibustion scientific research.
Zhang, Jian-Bin; Zhang, Hong-Ru; Jin, Xun; Xia, You-Bing
Under the influence of Chinese medicine scientization, Chengjiang Acupuncture School, which was originated in the Republic of China (1912 - 1949), has also undergone a series of scientific practice. The Chengjiang School established scientific research, education and medical organizations such as the Research Society of China Acupuncture-Moxibustion, China Acupuncture-Moxibustion School, Training School of China Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Sanatorium of Acupuncture-Moxibustion. Zhenjiu Zazhi (Journal of Acupuncture-Moxibustion) was established, and monographs and textbooks such as Zhongguo Zhenjiu Zhiliaoxue (Therapeutics of Chinese Acupuncture-Moxibustion) and Zhongguo Zhenjiuxue Jiangyi (Lectures on Chinese Acupuncture-Moxibustion) were published. Meanwhile, based on clinical practice, large members of acupuncture personnel with scientific literacy emerged. Therefore, it is held that the scientization of Chengjiang School has performed a profound influence on the development of modern acupuncture-moxibustion.
Huang, Tao; Cheng, Xinnong
Purpose. To observe the change of transcutaneous CO2 emission on meridian points or nonacupoints when the different needle sensations were gotten and study the associativity between Deqi acupuncture and periphery constitution energy metabolism effect. Method. 20 healthy volunteers were punctured on Neiguan (P6) in different ways including sham, shallow, Deqi acupuncture, and Deqi plus pressed P5, and measured TCE of different points before, during, and after acupuncture. Result. Needle sensations of sham acupuncture and shallow acupuncture were less than those of Deqi acupuncture. TCE of meridian points increased significantly and showed the specificity of meridian/channels. Conclusion. Verum acupuncture could cause the stronger needling sensations including distention, aching, numbness, and tingling than sham and shallow acupuncture. The strength of needling sensation caused by Deqi acupuncture is moderate and brought the best curative effects in TCE measurement. Deqi acupuncture could improve the energy metabolism of the points on the corresponding meridian/channel.
Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; Mitroff, Stephen R.; LaBar, Kevin S.
The present study investigated the extent to which fear generalization in humans is determined by the amount of fear intensity in nonconditioned stimuli relative to a perceptually similar conditioned stimulus. Stimuli consisted of graded emotionally expressive faces of the same identity morphed between neutral and fearful endpoints. Two…
Giachero, Marcelo; Calfa, Gaston D.; Molina, Victor A.
The present research investigated the resulting contextual fear memory and structural plasticity changes in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) following stress and fear conditioning. This combination enhanced fear retention and increased the number of total and mature dendritic spines in DH. Intra-basolateral amygdala (BLA) infusion of midazolam prior to…
Davies, Michael H.
The Children's Fear Expression and Research Survey (Children's F.E.A.R.S.) is a new self-report measure of fear suitable for children in grades two through six. The survey is designed to meet current psychometric standards and to be useful in both clinical and research settings. Originally 200 test items were drawn from existing measures; from the…
Baker, Kathryn D.; Richardson, Rick
Fear inhibition is markedly impaired in adolescent rodents and humans. The present experiments investigated whether this impairment is critically determined by the animal's age at the time of fear learning or their age at fear extinction. Male rats (n = 170) were tested for extinction retention after conditioning and extinction at different ages.…
Norrholm, Seth D.; Jovanovic, Tanja; Vervliet, Bram; Myers, Karyn M.; Davis, Michael; Rothbaum, Barbara O.; Duncan, Erica J.
The purpose of this study was to analyze fear extinction and reinstatement in humans using fear-potentiated startle. Participants were fear conditioned using a simple discrimination procedure with colored lights as the conditioned stimuli (CSs) and an airblast to the throat as the unconditioned stimulus (US). Participants were extinguished 24 h…
Burnham, Joy J.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Giesen, Judy
Fears profiles among children and adolescents were explored using the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-American version (FSSC-AM; J.J. Burnham, 1995, 2005). Eight cluster profiles were identified via multistage Euclidean grouping and supported by homogeneity coefficients and replication. Four clusters reflected overall level of fears (i.e., very…
Background In consideration of patients seeking to use traditional Chinese medicine, an evidence-based potentiality for safe and effective use of herbal medicine and acupuncture in treatment of acne vulgaris has been suggested. However, despite common use of a combination of herbal medicine and acupuncture in clinical practice, the current level of evidence is insufficient to draw a conclusion for an interaction and efficacy of herbal medicine and acupuncture. Therefore, considering these methodological flaws, this study was designed to assess the interaction and efficacy of an available herbal medicine, Keigai-rengyo-to extract (KRTE), and acupuncture for treatment of acne using the 2 × 2 factorial design and the feasibility of a large clinical trial. Methods/Design A randomized, assessor single blinded, 2 × 2 factorial pilot trial will be conducted. Forty four participants with acne vulgaris will be randomized into one of four groups: waiting list group (WL), KRTE only group (KO), acupuncture only group (AO), and KRTE and acupuncture combined treatment group (KA). After randomization, a total of 8 sessions of acupuncture treatment will be performed twice a week in the AO- and KA groups, respectively. Patients in the KO- and KA groups will be prescribed KRTE 3 times a day at a dose of 7.4 g after meals for 4 weeks. The following outcome measurements will be used in examination of subjects: the mean percentage change and the count change of inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions, the Skindex 29, visual analogue scale (VAS) and investigator global assessment (IGA) from baseline to the end of the trial. Trial Registration The trial is registered with the Clinical Research Information Service (CRiS), Republic of Korea: KCT0000071. PMID:21418585
Randall, C L; McNeil, D W; Shaffer, J R; Crout, R J; Weyant, R J; Marazita, M L
Fear of pain is experienced in acute and chronic pain populations, as well as in the general population, and it affects numerous aspects of the orofacial pain experience, including pain intensity, pain-related disability, and pain behavior (e.g., avoidance). A related but separate construct-dental fear-is also experienced in the general population, and it influences dental treatment-seeking behavior and oral and systemic health. Minimal work has addressed the role of genetics in the etiologies of fear of pain and dental fear. Limited available data suggest that variants of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene may predict greater levels of dental fear. The MC1R gene also may be etiologically important for fear of pain. This study aimed to replicate the finding that MC1R variant status predicts dental fear and to determine, for the first time, whether MC1R variant status predicts fear of pain. Participants were 817 Caucasian participants (62.5% female; mean ± SD age: 34.7 ± 8.7 y) taking part in a cross-sectional project that identified determinants of oral diseases at the community, family, and individual levels. Participants were genotyped for single-nucleotide polymorphisms on MC1R and completed self-report measures of fear of pain and dental fear. Presence of MC1R variant alleles predicted higher levels of dental fear and fear of pain. Importantly, fear of pain mediated the relation between MC1R variant status and dental fear (B = 1.60, 95% confidence interval: 0.281 to 3.056). MC1R variants may influence orofacial pain perception and, in turn, predispose individuals to develop fears about pain. Such fears influence the pain experience and associated pain behaviors, as well as fears about dental treatment. This study provides support for genetic contributions to the development/maintenance of fear of pain and dental fear, and it offers directions for future research to identify potential targets for intervention in the treatment of fear of pain and dental
The development of Science of Acupuncture and Moxibustion should be in accord with the trend of standardization and internationalization of the science of acupuncture and moxibustion. Based on the arrangement of chapters and sections in the textbook, 29 national standards, 6 standards or guidelines made by World Health Or- ganization(WHO) and 1 standard out of International Standardization Organization (ISO) are classified and intro- duced. It is suggested that the above contents should be considered as the evidence when the textbook is reedited. Also, it is proposed that humanization should be supplemented and the newest research findings should be traced.
Conboy, Lisa; Gerke, Travis; Hsu, Kai-Yin; St John, Meredith; Goldstein, Marc; Schnyer, Rosa
Background Gulf War Illness is a Complex Medical Illness characterized by multiple symptoms, including fatigue, sleep and mood disturbances, cognitive dysfunction, and musculoskeletal pain affecting veterans of the first Gulf War. No standard of care treatment exists. Methods This pragmatic Randomized Clinical Trial tested the effects of individualized acupuncture treatments offered in extant acupuncture practices in the community; practitioners had at least 5 years of experience plus additional training provided by the study. Veterans with diagnosed symptoms of Gulf War Illness were randomized to either six months of biweekly acupuncture treatments (group 1, n = 52) or 2 months of waitlist followed by weekly acupuncture treatments (group 2, n = 52). Measurements were taken at baseline, 2, 4 and 6 months. The primary outcome is the SF-36 physical component scale score (SF-36P) and the secondary outcome is the McGill Pain scale. Results Of the 104 subjects who underwent randomization, 85 completed the protocol (82%). A clinically and statistically significant average improvement of 9.4 points (p = 0.03) in the SF-36P was observed for group 1 at month 6 compared to group 2, adjusting for baseline pain. The secondary outcome of McGill pain index produced similar results; at 6 months, group 1 was estimated to experience a reduction of approximately 3.6 points (p = 0.04) compared to group 2. Conclusions Individualized acupuncture treatment of sufficient dose appears to offer significant relief of physical disability and pain for veterans with Gulf War Illness. This work was supported by the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs through the Gulf War Illness Research Program under Award No. W81XWH-09-2-0064. Opinions, interpretations, conclusions and recommendations are those of the author and are not necessarily endorsed by the Department of Defense. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01305811 PMID:27031099
Wei, Jianzi; Mao, Huijuan; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Lina; Liu, Sheng; Shen, Xueyong
A highly sensitive volt-ampere characteristics detecting system was applied to measure the volt-ampere curves of nine acupuncture points, LU9, HT7, LI4, PC6, ST36, SP6, KI3, LR3, and SP3, and corresponding nonacupuncture points bilaterally from 42 healthy volunteers. Electric currents intensity was increased from 0 μA to 20 μA and then returned to 0 μA again. The results showed that the volt-ampere curves of acupuncture points had nonlinear property and magnetic hysteresis-like feature. On all acupuncture point spots, the volt-ampere areas of the increasing phase were significantly larger than that of the decreasing phase (P < 0.01). The volt-ampere areas of ten acupuncture point spots were significantly smaller than those of the corresponding nonacupuncture point spots when intensity was increase (P < 0.05 ~ P < 0.001). And when intensity was decrease, eleven acupuncture point spots showed the same property as above (P < 0.05 ~ P < 0.001), while two acupuncture point spots showed opposite phenomenon in which the areas of two acupuncture point spots were larger than those of the corresponding nonacupuncture point spots (P < 0.05 ~ P < 0.01). These results show that the phenomenon of low skin resistance does not exist to all acupuncture points.
Wei, Jianzi; Mao, Huijuan; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Lina; Liu, Sheng; Shen, Xueyong
A highly sensitive volt-ampere characteristics detecting system was applied to measure the volt-ampere curves of nine acupuncture points, LU9, HT7, LI4, PC6, ST36, SP6, KI3, LR3, and SP3, and corresponding nonacupuncture points bilaterally from 42 healthy volunteers. Electric currents intensity was increased from 0 μA to 20 μA and then returned to 0 μA again. The results showed that the volt-ampere curves of acupuncture points had nonlinear property and magnetic hysteresis-like feature. On all acupuncture point spots, the volt-ampere areas of the increasing phase were significantly larger than that of the decreasing phase (P < 0.01). The volt-ampere areas of ten acupuncture point spots were significantly smaller than those of the corresponding nonacupuncture point spots when intensity was increase (P < 0.05 ~ P < 0.001). And when intensity was decrease, eleven acupuncture point spots showed the same property as above (P < 0.05 ~ P < 0.001), while two acupuncture point spots showed opposite phenomenon in which the areas of two acupuncture point spots were larger than those of the corresponding nonacupuncture point spots (P < 0.05 ~ P < 0.01). These results show that the phenomenon of low skin resistance does not exist to all acupuncture points. PMID:23346191
Chae, Younbyoung; Lee, Hyejung; Kim, Hackjin; Kim, Chang-Hwan; Chang, Dae-Il; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Park, Hi-Joon
Acupuncture, a common treatment modality within complementary and alternative medicine, has been widely used for Parkinson's disease (PD). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we explored the neural mechanisms underlying the effect of specific and genuine acupuncture treatment on the motor function in patients with PD. Three fMRI scans were performed in random order in a block design, one for verum acupuncture (VA) treatment, another one for a covert placebo (CP), and the third one for an overt placebo (OP) at the motor function implicated acupoint GB34 on the left foot of 10 patients with PD. We calculated the contrast that subtracts the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) response for the acupuncture effect (VA vs. CP) and the placebo effect (CP vs. OP). We found a significant improvement in the motor function of the affected hand after acupuncture treatment. The putamen and the primary motor cortex were activated when patients with PD received the acupuncture treatment (VA vs. CP) and these activations correlated with individual enhanced motor function. Expectation towards acupuncture modality (CP vs. OP) elicited activation over the anterior cingulate gyrus, the superior frontal gyrus, and the superior temporal gyrus. These findings suggest that acupuncture treatment might facilitate improvement in the motor functioning of patients with PD via the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit.
Jia, Yunfang; Hou, Xianning; Zhang, Xuaoping; Xing, Haijiao; Zhang, Xin; Du, Yuzhu; Jia, Chunsheng
Professor JIA Chunsheng believes that "Dongyuan's acupuncture therapy" proposed by GAO Wu could not entirely reflect LI Dongyuan's academic thought of acupuncture and moxibustion. Hence, we collected all of the academic works of LI Dongyuan and extracted the texts relevant with acupuncture-moxibustion therapy, titled as Dongyuan's acupuncture-moxibustion therapy. This process contributed to the deeper study on Dongyuan's acupuncture and moxibustion academic thought. By the influence of Dongyuan's acupuncture-moxibustion academic thought, in association with his clinical experience for dozens of years, Professor JIA Chunsheng proposed that acupuncture and moxibustion should pay attention to the regulation and tonification of spleen and kidney. In clinical practice, Zhongwan (CV 12), bilateral Tianshu (ST 25), Qihai (CV 6) and Guanyuan (CV 4) are commonly selected to consolidate the root, cultivate the primary and treat the spleen and kidney simultaneously. The locations of the above selected points are distributed like a star. This "star-like point selection method" points to the importance of the spleen and kidney (the primary qi). For many diseases, especially the disorders of internal injury, the star-like acupuncture therapy is commonly used and the relevant acupoints are supplemented. The good clinical efficacy has been achieved.
Rosted, Palle; Woolley, David R
A case of Bell's palsy after acupuncture is presented. It concerns a healthy 47 year old man who developed Bell's palsy less than 24 hours after local acupuncture treatment for temporomandibular dysfunction. The Bell's palsy recovered within two weeks, and may have been caused by a haematoma around the facial nerve.
Naik, Purnachandrarao N; Kiran, Ravi A; Yalamanchal, Samatha; Kumar, Vijay A; Goli, Suresh; Vashist, Neha
Background: Traditional Chinese acupuncture has a history of more than 2500 years and is one of the best-known complementary and alternative therapies. Acupuncture stimulates the nervous system and alters the processing and perception of pain signals and also releases natural painkillers, such as endorphins and serotonin in the nervous system. Acupuncture's successful use for various dental conditions has been proven. Thus, it is important for the dental clinicians to be familiar with the applications of acupuncture for dental disorders. Objective: One aim of this article is to review related articles in the literature that have focused on acupuncture and its applications in dentistry. Another aim is to provide a quick sketch of acupuncture use in dentistry for dental clinicians. Materials and Methods: A detailed search was performed to identify systematic reviews and research articles, using PUBMED and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Language was restricted to English. Key search terms were acupuncture in dentistry, myofacial pain, temporomandibular disorders, xerostomia, dental pain and gag reflex. Results: All of the current the authors independently extracted data for analysis and review. Two independent reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of all the articles for eligibility. When the reviewers noted that an abstract or title of an article indicated that the article was potentially useful, full copies were retrieved. Ultimately, 40 articles underwent full-text review. Conclusions: The research to date certainly offers valid applications of acupuncture in dentistry. Meanwhile, practical strategies with the highest success rates are needed to use in further interventions.
Lundeberg, Thomas; Lund, Iréne
Both specific and non-specific factors, as well as the therapist, may play a role in acupuncture therapy. Recent results suggest that verum acupuncture has specific physiological effects and that patients expectations and belief regarding a potentially beneficial treatment modulate activity in the reward and self-appraisal systems in the brain. We suggest that acupuncture treatment may partly be regarded and used as an intervention that preconditions expectancy, which results in both conditional reflexes and conditioning of expected reward and self-appraisal. If so, acupuncture should preferably be applied before the start of the specific treatment (drug or behavioural intervention which is given with the intention of achieving a specific outcome) to enhance the specific and non-specific effects. This hypothesis is further supported by the suggestions that acupuncture may be viewed as a neural stimulus that triggers Pavlovian extinction. If this is the case, acupuncture should preferably be applied repeatedly (ie in a learning process) before the start of the specific treatment to initiate the extinction of previous unpleasant associations like pain or anxiety. Our clinical data suggest that acupuncture may precondition expectancy and conditional reflexes as well as induce Pavlovian extinction. Based on the above we suggest that acupuncture should be tried (as an adjunct) before any specific therapy.
patients; complications of pulmonary tuberculosis and HIV infection ; severe malnutrition subjects; women during lactation or pregnancy; failure to...outer- ear infection , were actively psychotic or suicidal Content of acupuncture intervention: Daily acupuncture bilaterally in three auricular...Major physical or psychiatric comorbidity; concurrent treatment with antidepressant or neuroleptic medication; pregnancy; ear infection ; or
Oyola-Santiago, Tamara; Knopf, Rachel; Robin, Tracy; Harvey, Kristen
Auricular acupuncture using the National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) protocol stimulates 5 points in each ear--the Shen Men, sympathetic nervous system, liver, kidney, and lung. This protocol is also known as Acu Detox, and has been used for recovery in community-based settings and drug use treatment programs. It has also been…
Sherman, Karen J; Coeytaux, Remy R
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a critical review of the literature on acupuncture for chronic back pain, osteoarthritis and headache. METHODS: Review of meta-analyses, systematic reviews and some well-conducted, recent studies. RESULTS: Overall, acupuncture appears superior to no treatment or usual care for persons with chronic back pain, osteoarthritis, or headache. However, these findings vary depending on the specific outcome and the follow-up period. The magnitude of the effect varies, but is consistent with a small to moderate effect size in most cases. Moreover, acupuncture is not clearly superior to sham acupuncture, although the latter is a controversial control group. Acupuncture has a favorable safety profile, with relatively few side effects and serious ones quite rare. Limited evidence suggests that acupuncture is a cost effective treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence suggests that acupuncture is a reasonable therapeutic option, but not the clear therapy of choice for any of these conditions. Acupuncture may be especially valuable for patients who prefer it to other options or are concerned about using analgesic medications.
Fitzgerald, Paul J.; Pinard, Courtney R.; Camp, Marguerite C.; Feyder, Michael; Sah, Anupam; Bergstrom, Hadley; Graybeal, Carolyn; Liu, Yan; Schlüter, Oliver; Grant, Seth G.N.; Singewald, Nicolas; Xu, Weifeng; Holmes, Andrew
Traumatic fear memories are highly durable but also dynamic, undergoing repeated reactivation and rehearsal over time. While overly persistent fear memories underlie anxiety disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder, the key neural and molecular mechanisms underlying fear memory durability remain unclear. Post-synaptic density 95 (PSD-95) is a synaptic protein regulating glutamate receptor anchoring, synaptic stability and certain types of memory. Employing a loss-of-function mutant mouse lacking the guanylate kinase domain of PSD-95 (PSD-95GK), we analyzed the contribution of PSD-95 to fear memory formation and retrieval, and sought to identify the neural basis of PSD-95-mediated memory maintenance using ex vivo immediate-early gene mapping, in vivo neuronal recordings and viral-mediated knockdown approaches. We show that PSD-95 is dispensable for the formation and expression of recent fear memories, but essential for the formation of precise and flexible fear memories and for the maintenance of memories at remote time points. The failure of PSD-95GK mice to retrieve remote cued fear memories was associated with hypoactivation of the infralimbic cortex (IL) (not anterior cingulate (ACC) or prelimbic cortex), reduced IL single-unit firing and bursting, and attenuated IL gamma and theta oscillations. Adeno-associated PSD-95 virus-mediated knockdown in the IL, not ACC, was sufficient to impair recent fear extinction and remote fear memory, and remodel IL dendritic spines. Collectively, these data identify PSD-95 in the IL as a critical mechanism supporting the durability of fear memories over time. These preclinical findings have implications for developing novel approaches to treating trauma-based anxiety disorders that target the weakening of overly persistent fear memories. PMID:25510511
Fitzgerald, P J; Pinard, C R; Camp, M C; Feyder, M; Sah, A; Bergstrom, H C; Graybeal, C; Liu, Y; Schlüter, O M; Grant, S G; Singewald, N; Xu, W; Holmes, A
Traumatic fear memories are highly durable but also dynamic, undergoing repeated reactivation and rehearsal over time. Although overly persistent fear memories underlie anxiety disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder, the key neural and molecular mechanisms underlying fear memory durability remain unclear. Postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95) is a synaptic protein regulating glutamate receptor anchoring, synaptic stability and certain types of memory. Using a loss-of-function mutant mouse lacking the guanylate kinase domain of PSD-95 (PSD-95(GK)), we analyzed the contribution of PSD-95 to fear memory formation and retrieval, and sought to identify the neural basis of PSD-95-mediated memory maintenance using ex vivo immediate-early gene mapping, in vivo neuronal recordings and viral-mediated knockdown (KD) approaches. We show that PSD-95 is dispensable for the formation and expression of recent fear memories, but essential for the formation of precise and flexible fear memories and for the maintenance of memories at remote time points. The failure of PSD-95(GK) mice to retrieve remote cued fear memory was associated with hypoactivation of the infralimbic (IL) cortex (but not the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) or prelimbic cortex), reduced IL single-unit firing and bursting, and attenuated IL gamma and theta oscillations. Adeno-associated virus-mediated PSD-95 KD in the IL, but not the ACC, was sufficient to impair recent fear extinction and remote fear memory, and remodel IL dendritic spines. Collectively, these data identify PSD-95 in the IL as a critical mechanism supporting the durability of fear memories over time. These preclinical findings have implications for developing novel approaches to treating trauma-based anxiety disorders that target the weakening of overly persistent fear memories.
Yu, Jinna; Ye, Yongming; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yang; Peng, Weina
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder that affects both children and adults. We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using acupuncture to treat TS written in English or Chinese without restrictions on publication status. Study selection, data extraction, and assessment of study quality were conducted independently by two reviewers. Meta-analyses were performed using Review Manager (RevMan) 5.3 software from the Cochrane Collaboration. Data were combined with the fixed-effect model based on a heterogeneity test. Results were presented as risk ratios for dichotomous data and mean differences (MDs) for continuous data. This review included 7 RCTs with a total of 564 participants. The combined results showed that acupuncture may have better short-term effect than Western medicine for TS and that acupuncture may be an effective adjuvant therapy in improving the effect of Western medicine on TS, but the evidence is limited because of existing biases. Rigorous high-quality RCTs are needed to verify these findings. PMID:27725839
Qin, Yuwen; Ji, Hong-Wei; Chen, Jin-Long; Li, Hong-Qi
Thermographic technique can be used to measure temperature distribution of body surface in real-time, non-contact and full-field, which has been successfully used in medical diagnosis, remote sensing, and NDT, etc. The authors have developed a thermographic experiment that can be applied to inspect the effect of action of acupuncture and qi-gong (a system of deep breathing exercises) by measuring the temperature of hand and arm. The observation is performed respectively by thermography for the dynamic changes of temperature of the arm and hand after acupuncture therapy and qi-gong therapy. Thermographic results show that the temperature on the collateral channels increases markedly. In the meantime, it can be seen that the above therapies of Chinese medicine can stimulate the channel collateral system. This also contributes a new basis to the effect of action of the therapies of Chinese medicine. The work shows that thermographic technique is a powerful tool for research in Chinese medicine. In this paper, some thermal images are obtained from the persons treated with acupuncture and qi- gong.
Hotta, Patrícia Tiemy; Hotta, Takami Hirono; Bataglion, César; Bataglion, Solange Aparecida; de Souza Coronatto, Elaine Angélica; Siéssere, Selma; Regalo, Simone Cecilio Hallak
The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of low level laser applied to acupuncture points of patients diagnosed with temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD). Ten patients aged between 20 and 50 years were clinically examined with regard to pain and dysfunction of the masticatory system. They received laser applications (GaAlAs diode laser, 780 nm wavelength; 70 mW power output, 35 j/cm(2)) in acupuncture specific points (Ig4, C3, E6, E7) once a week, for ten sessions. The range of jaw movement was registered after each session and visual analogue scale (VAS) was applied. Results were analyzed (SPSS-15.0-Chicago) during the comparison, before and after treatment. Statistical tests showed significant improvements (p < 0.01) in painful symptoms and electromyographic activities of masseter muscles in maximal habitual occlusion after laser applications but no significant improvements (p = 0.05) in measurements of mandibular movements. The laser therapy in specific acupuncture points promoted improvement of symptoms and it may be used as complementary therapy for TMD.
Jeong, Jong-Jin; Sun, Seung-Ho
The purpose of this study was to report the effect of a combination of Sa-am five-element acupuncture and eight-principle pharmacopuncture (EPP) for the treatment of an essential tremor (ET). This study reviewed the medical records treated at OO Korean medical hospital for ET by using diverse types of acupuncture without herbal medicine, other types of physical therapy, and western medication related ET or Parkinson's disease and was performed after the approval of the institutional review board (IRB). The three cases that were finally selected were then extracted and reviewed. The three cases that were finally selected involved three women in their 70s to 80s. The evaluation of the progress was made by using the numeric rating scale. A combined treatment, the method of liver excess (), from amongSa-am five-element acupuncture, and Hwangyeonhaedoktang ePP at CV23 and CV17, was applied to all cases. In all three cases, the ET was improved, and recurred ETs improved with the same treatment. The results suggest that the combined treatment of Sa-am five-element acupuncture and Hwangyeonhaedoktang ePP may be effective for treating an ET, even though this conclusion is based on only three cases.
Coyle, Meaghan E; Liang, Haiying; Wang, Kaiyi; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Guo, Xinfeng; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie C
Herpes zoster is an acute inflammatory condition which can have a significant impact on quality of life. Antiviral therapies are effective, but do not meet patients' expectations of symptomatic relief. Acupuncture and moxibustion have been used for herpes zoster; this systematic review evaluated their efficacy and safety. Nine English and Chinese databases were searched from their inceptions to March 2016. Randomized controlled trials evaluating the combination of acupuncture plus moxibustion in adult herpes zoster were included. Outcomes included pain intensity and duration, quality of life and adverse events. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan software (version 5.3). Nine studies (945 participants) were included. Studies were of low to moderate methodological quality based on risk of bias assessment. Pain intensity (visual analogue scale) was lower among those who received acupuncture plus moxibustion compared with pharmacotherapy (one study; MD -8.25 mm, 95% CI -12.36 to -4.14). The clinical significance of this result is yet to be established. Some benefits were seen for other pain and cutaneous outcomes, and global improvement in symptoms. Mild adverse events were reported in the intervention groups. Acupuncture plus moxibustion may improve pain and cutaneous outcomes, although current evidence is limited by the number of studies and methodological shortcomings.
Kwok, Timothy; Leung, Ping Chung; Wing, Yun Kwok; Ip, Isaac; Wong, Bel; Ho, Daniel Wai Hung; Wong, Wai Ming; Ho, Florence
Purpose Elderly with dementia are often afflicted with sleep problems. Recent studies have suggested that acupuncture may be a feasible alternative to traditional sleep medicine for treating sleep disturbance. This study investigated the effectiveness of acupuncture on sleep quality of elderly with dementia. Patients and methods Nineteen elders with dementia were followed through a control period and an acupuncture treatment period, each lasting 6 weeks. Outcome measures were subjects’ sleep quality and cognitive function. Sleep parameters were recorded by wrist actigraphy. Cognitive function was assessed by the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale – Cognitive (ADAS-Cog). Pretests and posttests were conducted immediately before and after the control and treatment periods. Changes in the outcome measures between control and treatment periods were compared. Results Wilcoxon signed rank tests revealed that the subjects gained significantly more resting time and total sleep time in the treatment period than in the control period (P < 0.05). A nonsignificant trend for improvement in sleep efficiency was observed. Improvement in cognitive function was not statistically significant. A total of 86% of the subjects completed the treatment regime. Conclusion Results reveal that acupuncture was effective in improving some domains of sleep quality of elderly with dementia, and the subjects showed acceptance towards the intervention. Strengths and limitations of the present study as well as suggestions for further studies were considered. PMID:23940415
Schiller, Daniela; Levy, Ifat; Niv, Yael; LeDoux, Joseph E; Phelps, Elizabeth A
Fear learning is a rapid and persistent process that promotes defense against threats and reduces the need to relearn about danger. However, it is also important to flexibly readjust fear behavior when circumstances change. Indeed, a failure to adjust to changing conditions may contribute to anxiety disorders. A central, yet neglected aspect of fear modulation is the ability to flexibly shift fear responses from one stimulus to another if a once-threatening stimulus becomes safe or a once-safe stimulus becomes threatening. In these situations, the inhibition of fear and the development of fear reactions co-occur but are directed at different targets, requiring accurate responding under continuous stress. To date, research on fear modulation has focused mainly on the shift from fear to safety by using paradigms such as extinction, resulting in a reduction of fear. The aim of the present study was to track the dynamic shifts from fear to safety and from safety to fear when these transitions occur simultaneously. We used functional neuroimaging in conjunction with a fear-conditioning reversal paradigm. Our results reveal a unique dissociation within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex between a safe stimulus that previously predicted danger and a "naive" safe stimulus. We show that amygdala and striatal responses tracked the fear-predictive stimuli, flexibly flipping their responses from one predictive stimulus to another. Moreover, prediction errors associated with reversal learning correlated with striatal activation. These results elucidate how fear is readjusted to appropriately track environmental changes, and the brain mechanisms underlying the flexible control of fear.
Fear inhibition learning induces plasticity and remodeling of circuits within the amygdala. Most studies examine these changes in nondiscriminative fear conditioning paradigms. Using a discriminative fear, safety, and reward conditioning task, Sangha et al. (2013) have previously reported several neural microcircuits within the basal amygdala (BA) which discriminate among these cues, including a subpopulation of neurons responding selectively to a safety cue and not a fear cue. Here, the hypothesis that these “safety” neurons isolated during discriminative conditioning are biased to become fear cue responsive as a result of extinction, when fear behavior diminishes, was tested. Although 41% of “safety” neurons became fear cue responsive as a result of extinction, the data revealed that there was no bias for these neurons to become preferentially responsive during fear extinction compared to the other identified subgroups. In addition to the plasticity seen in the “safety” neurons, 44% of neurons unresponsive to either the fear cue or safety cue during discriminative conditioning became fear cue responsive during extinction. Together these emergent responses to the fear cue as a result of extinction support the hypothesis that new learning underlies extinction. In contrast, 47% of neurons responsive to the fear cue during discriminative conditioning became unresponsive to the fear cue during extinction. These findings are consistent with a suppression of neural responding mediated by inhibitory learning, or, potentially, by direct unlearning. Together, the data support extinction as an active process involving both gains and losses of responses to the fear cue and suggests the final output of the integrated BA circuit in influencing fear behavior is a balance of excitation and inhibition, and perhaps reversal of learning-induced changes. PMID:26733838
Ström, Dan; Behrenth, Erik; Ekman, Kristina; Johansson, Anders; Unell, Lennart; Carlsson, Gunnar E
Associations between signs and symptoms from the masticatory system and tinnitus have been reported.The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of intraoral splint therapy and acupuncture on jaw-muscle tenderness and tinnitus. The study comprised 45 patients (24 men, 21 women; mean age 48 +/- 12 years) with long-standing tinnitus (duration 6.5 +/- 5.9 years).The patients were referred from the audiology department at the University hospital in Orebro, Sweden, where a complete audiological survey was performed. Jaw muscles were palpated and the subjective tinnitus evaluated on a 100 mm scale (VAS) at baseline and after one year. All patients received stabilization (Michigan type) splints at start of treatment. After 6 months, nonresponders (n=25) were subjected to acupuncture (6 sessions with duration of 30 minutes). Standard statistical methods were used. All patients had tender jaw muscles at palpation. Patients reported a significant decrease of the intensity of tinnitus during the observation period (from 78 +/- 20 mm to 52 +/- 24 mm after one year; P < 0.001). Only 6 (13%) of the 45 patients did not report any improvement of their tinnitus.The number of jaw muscles tender to palpation also decreased significantly from 7.9 +/- 5.9 to 4.6 +/- 5.3; (P<0.001). In conclusion, all 45 patients with tinnitus had tenderjaw muscles. Intraoral splint therapy and acupuncture had a favorable effect on tinnitus and the jaw muscle symptoms. One year after the start of treatment, all but 6 of the 45 patients reported improvement of their tinnitus. Based on the results it is suggested that many tinnitus patients with jaw muscle tenderness can benefit by a treatment including intraoral splint and acupuncture.
Watanabe, Mayumi; Unuma, Kana; Fujii, Yusuke; Noritake, Kanako; Uemura, Koichi
Acupuncture is one of the most popular oriental medical techniques in China, Korea and Japan. This technique is also popular as alternative therapy in the Western World. Serious adverse events are rare following acupuncture, and fatal cases have been rarely reported. A male in his late forties died right after acupuncture treatment. A medico-legal autopsy disclosed severe haemorrhaging around the right vagus nerve in the neck. Other organs and laboratory data showed no significant findings. Thus, it was determined that the man could have died from severe vagal bradycardia and/or arrhythmia resulting from vagus nerve stimulation following acupuncture. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a death due to vagus nerve injury after acupuncture.
Chen, Teng-Fei; Ma, Zeng-Bin; Xin, Si-Yuan; Zhu, Jiang
Taking Doctor HUANG Shi-ping as the representative, the school of Huang's golden needle is based on Chinese martial art. Golden needles are adopted as main tool. Attaching great importance on the combination of acupuncture and moxibustioin, it is also characterized with penetrating needling with long needles. Through the development of three generations, it once outshone other schools in the field of acupuncture, and became famous all over the world. It made great contribution to the development of the course of acupuncture. However, with the development of the history, the form of acupuncture education as well as apparatus were all undergone an unified reform. Therefore, Doctor HUANG Shi-ping's acupuncture school be lost gradually.
Chen, S C; Lu, S N; Lai, C T; Jean, J Y; Hsiao, C L; Hsu, P T
The analgesic effects of acupuncture are well-documented. Aqueous acupuncture, or point injection, is a conveniently modified modern acupuncture method. This matched controlled trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of aqueous acupuncture in postoperative pain control. A total of 12 patients were selected as age-, sex- and operative-style-matched controls. In treating group, 2 to 5 ml of 20% glucose solution was injected into Ho-Ku (LI 4) and Yang-Ling-Chuan (GB 34) when patients had regained conciousness from operation anesthesia. The pain intensity were recorded as score system included verbal, sleep disturbance and use of narcotics. In comparisons with the control group, the intensity of postoperative pain, and the amounts and frequency of narcotics used were significantly lower in the study group, especially for the first 12 postoperative hours. Aqueous acupuncture is a convenient and effective procedure in postoperative pain control.
Cui, Linhua; Xing, Xiao; Xue, Weihua; Wang, Yanjun; Xu, Cejun; Xuc, Jun; Gao, Yuchun; Kang, Suobin
As one of the important founders of GAO's acupuncture academic school in YanZhao area, Professor GAO Yuchun 's experience of acupuncture for headache is summarized in this paper. In the opinion of Professor GAO, the treatment of headache should focus on eliminating evil and relieving pain, and the syndrome differentiation should be based on meridian differentiation, especially on three yang meridians of foot as well as liver meridian and kidney meridian. In the acupoint prescription, attention should be placed on strengthening the spleen and stomach. The midnight-midday ebb flow acupuncture is advocated. The combination between acupuncture order and movement of qi is emphasized. In the manipulation, the role of pressing hand, the stimulation during reinforcing and reducing methods, and needle-retention time are important. The breathing reinforcing and reducing method of acupuncture are also advocated.
Norrholm, Seth D; Anderson, Kemp M; Olin, Ilana W; Jovanovic, Tanja; Kwon, Cliffe; Warren, Victor T; McCarthy, Alexander; Bosshardt, Lauren; Sabree, Justin; Duncan, Erica J; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Bradley, Bekh
Fear conditioning methodologies have often been employed as testable models for assessing learned fear responses in individuals with anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and specific phobia. One frequently used paradigm is measurement of the acoustic startle reflex under conditions that mimic anxiogenic and fear-related conditions. For example, fear-potentiated startle is the relative increase in the frequency or magnitude of the acoustic startle reflex in the presence of a previously neutral cue (e.g., colored shape; termed the conditioned stimulus or CS+) that has been repeatedly paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (e.g., airblast to the larynx). Our group has recently used fear-potentiated startle paradigms to demonstrate impaired fear extinction in civilian and combat populations with PTSD. In the current study, we examined the use of either auditory or visual CSs in a fear extinction protocol that we have validated and applied to human clinical conditions. This represents an important translational bridge in that numerous animal studies of fear extinction, upon which much of the human work is based, have employed the use of auditory CSs as opposed to visual CSs. Participants in both the auditory and visual groups displayed robust fear-potentiated startle to the CS+, clear discrimination between the reinforced CS+ and non-reinforced CS-, significant extinction to the previously reinforced CS+, and marked spontaneous recovery. We discuss the current results as they relate to future investigations of PTSD-related impairments in fear processing in populations with diverse medical and psychiatric histories.
Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain â a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).
Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).
Cheng, Jie; Cao, Yang; Xia, Youbing
ABSTRACT The exploration course on production standard of acupuncture needle by Chengjiang acupuncture school is reviewed in this paper. After new China was established, acupuncture needle standard was unified by Mr. CHENG Dan-an, which guided Suzhou Hua Erfang (predecessor of Suzhou Medical Supplies Factory) to make the quality standards and testing methods of acupuncture needle and improved the production process to make the modern acupuncture needle. Based on this, Suzhou Medical Supplies Factory followed the time development pace, ac tively introduced new technology, carried out technological innovation, and constantly improved the level of production technology, as a result, it gradually developed into one of the world's largest acupuncture needle production suppliers. Meanwhile, after establishing China's first national standard on acupuncture needle (GB 2024-1980), the Suzhou Medical Supplies Factory took the lead to draft "ISO) 17218:2014 the disposable use asepsis acupuncture needle", which was officially published as an international standard. The Suzhou Medical Supplies Factory developed from a manual workshop to an international standard maker.
Deckner, C. William; Rogers, Ronald W.
It is hypothesized that the drug, epinephrine, used in conjunction with a fear arousing film on the consquences of smoking would be more effective than either alone in increasing fear and negative attitudes toward smoking and, resultantly, in reducing cigarette consumption. The experimenters assigned 119 subjects to the four cells of a 2x2…
Abraham, Antony D.; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Lattal, K. Matthew
Methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin) is a norepinephrine and dopamine transporter blocker that is widely used in humans for treatment of attention deficit disorder and narcolepsy. Although there is some evidence that targeted microinjections of MPH may enhance fear acquisition, little is known about the effect of MPH on fear extinction. Here, we show…
Hoelter, Jon W.
Presents a multidimensional conception of fear of death and provides subscales for measuring suggested dimensions (fear of the dying process, of the dead, of being destroyed, for significant others, of the unknown, of conscious death, for body after death, and of premature death). Evidence for construct validity is provided. (Author/BEF)
Schroijen, Mathias; Pappens, Meike; Schruers, Koen; Van den Bergh, Omer; Vervliet, Bram; Van Diest, Ilse
Interoceptive fear conditioning (IFC), fear generalization and a lack of safety learning have all been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of panic disorder, but have never been examined in a single paradigm. The present study aims to investigate whether healthy participants (N=43) can learn both fear and safety to an interoceptive sensation, and whether such learning generalizes to other, similar sensations. Two intensities of inspiratory breathing impairment (induced by two pressure threshold loads of 6 and 25 cm H2O) served as interoceptive conditional stimuli (CSs) in a differential conditioning paradigm. An inspiratory occlusion was used as the unconditioned stimulus (US). Generalization was tested 24h after conditioning, using four generalization stimuli with intensities in-between CS+ and CS- (GSs: 8-10.5-14-18.5 cm H2O). Measures included US-expectancy, startle blink EMG responses, electrodermal activity and respiration. Perceptual discrimination of interoceptive CSs and GSs was explored with a discrimination task prior to acquisition and after generalization. Results indicate that differential fear learning was established for US-expectancy ratings. The group with a low intensity CS+ and a high intensity CS- showed the typical pattern of differential fear responding and a similarity-based generalization gradient. In contrast, the high intensity CS+ and low intensity CS- group showed impaired differential learning and complete generalization of fear. Our findings suggest that interoceptive fear learning and generalization are modulated by stimulus intensity and that the occurrence of discriminatory learning is closely related to fear generalization.
Carlson, Erik A.
This dissertation examines the development of the Old English vocabulary for fear under the influence of the Latinate discourse of Christian doctrine. The first chapter arranges the Old English words for fear into etymologically organized families and describes their incidence and usage across attested corpus of Old English, using the Dictionary…
Hartley, Catherine A; Gorun, Alyson; Reddan, Marianne C; Ramirez, Franchesca; Phelps, Elizabeth A
Traumatic events are proposed to play a role in the development of anxiety disorders, however not all individuals exposed to extreme stress experience a pathological increase in fear. Recent studies in animal models suggest that the degree to which one is able to control an aversive experience is a critical factor determining its behavioral consequences. In this study, we examined whether stressor controllability modulates subsequent conditioned fear expression in humans. Participants were randomly assigned to an escapable stressor condition, a yoked inescapable stressor condition, or a control condition involving no stress exposure. One week later, all participants underwent fear conditioning, fear extinction, and a test of extinction retrieval the following day. Participants exposed to inescapable stress showed impaired fear extinction learning and increased fear expression the following day. In contrast, escapable stress improved fear extinction and prevented the spontaneous recovery of fear. Consistent with the bidirectional controllability effects previously reported in animal models, these results suggest that one's degree of control over aversive experiences may be an important factor influencing the development of psychological resilience or vulnerability in humans.
Walz, Garry R., Ed.; Bleuer, Jeanne C., Ed.
This document consists of two modules extracted from a six-module larger work. Module 1 presents six articles on the topic of "helping students to cope with fears and crises." Module 2 contains 17 articles on "programs and practices for helping students cope with fears and crises." Article titles and authors are as follows: (1)…
Tugut, N; Tirkes, D; Demirel, G
The aim of the study was to identify knowledge and fear related to childbirth and the postpartum period in pregnant women. The sample consisted of 114 pregnant women. It was determined that pregnant women had insufficient levels of knowledge related to childbirth and the postpartum period. The Fear of Childbirth and Postpartum Anxiety Scale score for childbirth and the postpartum period related to 'fear regarding the action of childbirth', was found to be the highest. The highest causes for concern were determined to be 'infant-related anxiety' and 'fear regarding infant and puerperal health'. No statistically significant correlation was observed between the perceived sufficiency of the knowledge of pregnant women in terms of maintaining their own health and care, and their mean childbirth and postpartum period concern score. These findings indicate that the level of concern among pregnant women with relation to the postpartum period and childbirth is rather high.
Tian, S; Gao, J; Han, L; Fu, J; Li, C; Li, Z
Clinical observations have shown a link for the high comorbid rate between smoking and psychiatric disorders, including anxiety disorders. However, little is known about the neural mechanism underlying the progression from nicotine dependence to an anxiety disorder. A deficit in fear extinction in general is considered to contribute to anxiety disorders. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of chronic nicotine on fear extinction in rats. Rats were administrated s.c. nicotine twice per day for 14 days. Two weeks after the last injection rats received a cued or contextual fear conditioning session. Twenty-four hours and 48 h after conditioning, rats received an extinction training session and an extinction test session, respectively. Percent freezing was assessed during all phases of training. In the cued task, prior chronic nicotine did not affect the acquisition of fear response or the within-session fear extinction, but impaired the between-session fear extinction. In the contextual task, the same nicotine treatment schedule did not affect the acquisition of fear response or the within- and between-session fear extinction, but enhanced the retention of fear conditioning. This prior chronic nicotine-induced deficit in cued fear extinction and/or enhanced fear to context may be one of the critical components that contribute to the progression from nicotine dependence to an anxiety disorder.
Michalowski, Jaroslaw M; Weymar, Mathias; Hamm, Alfons O
In the present study we investigated long-term memory for unpleasant, neutral and spider pictures in 15 spider-fearful and 15 non-fearful control individuals using behavioral and electrophysiological measures. During the initial (incidental) encoding, pictures were passively viewed in three separate blocks and were subsequently rated for valence and arousal. A recognition memory task was performed one week later in which old and new unpleasant, neutral and spider pictures were presented. Replicating previous results, we found enhanced memory performance and higher confidence ratings for unpleasant when compared to neutral materials in both animal fearful individuals and controls. When compared to controls high animal fearful individuals also showed a tendency towards better memory accuracy and significantly higher confidence during recognition of spider pictures, suggesting that memory of objects prompting specific fear is also facilitated in fearful individuals. In line, spider-fearful but not control participants responded with larger ERP positivity for correctly recognized old when compared to correctly rejected new spider pictures, thus showing the same effects in the neural signature of emotional memory for feared objects that were already discovered for other emotional materials. The increased fear memory for phobic materials observed in the present study in spider-fearful individuals might result in an enhanced fear response and reinforce negative beliefs aggravating anxiety symptomatology and hindering recovery.
Leach, Matthew J; Bishop, Felicity L.; Leung, Brenda
Abstract Objectives: To determine whether acupuncture use, sociodemographic characteristics, and existing health conditions differ between acupuncture-preferred consumers (i.e., those who deem acupuncture to be one of the three most important complementary and alternative medicine [CAM] modalities used) and non–acupuncture-preferred consumers who used acupuncture in the past 12 months Methods: This is a secondary analysis of the National Health Interview Survey Sample Adult File and Adult Alternative Medicine datasets collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during 2012. The sample was drawn from the noninstitutionalized civilian population of the United States. The datasets yielded 34,525 respondents aged 18 years and older. Measures included in the analysis were acupuncture use in the past 12 months, sociodemographic characteristics, and existing health conditions. Analyses were performed by using Stata software, version 9.0 (Stata Corp., College Station, TX). Results: Of the 10,158 adults who responded to the question regarding the “three most important” CAM modalities used, 572 (5.6%) had used acupuncture in the past 12 months. Of these, 456 (79.7%) chose acupuncture as one of the top three CAM modalities most important to their health. Acupuncture-preferred consumers reported significantly more visits to acupuncturists (7.46 versus 3.99 visits; p < 0.001), as well as higher out-of-pocket costs ($342.8 versus $246.4; p < 0.001), compared with non–acupuncture-preferred consumers. The logistic regression model revealed that with every additional CAM modality used, the likelihood of deeming acupuncture as one of the three CAM modalities most important to one's health decreased by 39% (odds ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.52–0.71; p < 0.001). Health conditions were not statistically significant predictors. Conclusions: A consumer's preference for acupuncture appeared not to be driven by health conditions but rather
Schiele, Miriam A; Reinhard, Julia; Reif, Andreas; Domschke, Katharina; Romanos, Marcel; Deckert, Jürgen; Pauli, Paul
Most research on human fear conditioning and its generalization has focused on adults whereas only little is known about these processes in children. Direct comparisons between child and adult populations are needed to determine developmental risk markers of fear and anxiety. We compared 267 children and 285 adults in a differential fear conditioning paradigm and generalization test. Skin conductance responses (SCR) and ratings of valence and arousal were obtained to indicate fear learning. Both groups displayed robust and similar differential conditioning on subjective and physiological levels. However, children showed heightened fear generalization compared to adults as indexed by higher arousal ratings and SCR to the generalization stimuli. Results indicate overgeneralization of conditioned fear as a developmental correlate of fear learning. The developmental change from a shallow to a steeper generalization gradient is likely related to the maturation of brain structures that modulate efficient discrimination between danger and (ambiguous) safety cues.
Yu, Haibo; Schröder, Sven; Li, Zhifeng; Yang, Ying; Chen, Yu; Huang, Xingxian
To evaluate the effect of acupuncture on hemiparesis and quality of life for adults with brain astrocytoma grade II, we conducted a randomized, observer-blinded clinical trial. Fifty-eight patients were randomized to standard rehabilitation (SR) therapy without acupuncture (n = 20), SR plus standard acupuncture (SA) (n = 19), and SR plus individualized acupuncture (IA) (n = 19). SA points were PC6, SP6, HT1, LU5, BL40, and ST36, while a special concept called “connecting and regulation Ren and Du” and “Jin-3-needling” served as IA. This treatment was individualized according to the clinical syndrome. The outcome was measured by the Barthel Index (BI), the Fugl-Meyer scale (FM), and the EORTC Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30) with the Brain Cancer Module (BCM20). IA + SR reached significantly higher BI scores than SA + SR, which reached significantly higher BI scores than SR. IA + SR was significantly superior to SA + SR and to SR at the 8th week for the scores of FM motor and sensory assessments and most QLQ-C30-BCM20 items. In conclusion, the individualized acupuncture concept of “connecting and regulating Ren and Du” combined with “Jin-3-needling” offers a promising possibility for the treatment of hemiparesis due to astrocytoma, but further evaluation is mandatory. PMID:23864900
Haaker, Jan; Lonsdorf, Tina B; Schümann, Dirk; Bunzeck, Nico; Peters, Jan; Sommer, Tobias; Kalisch, Raffael
The odds-ratio of smoking is elevated in populations with neuropsychiatric diseases, in particular in the highly prevalent diagnoses of post-traumatic stress and anxiety disorders. Yet, the association between smoking and a key dimensional phenotype of these disorders-maladaptive deficits in fear learning and fear inhibition-is unclear. We therefore investigated acquisition and memory of fear and fear inhibition in healthy smoking and non-smoking participants (N=349, 22% smokers). We employed a well validated paradigm of context-dependent fear and safety learning (day 1) including a memory retrieval on day 2. During fear learning, a geometrical shape was associated with an aversive electrical stimulation (classical fear conditioning, in danger context) and fear responses were extinguished within another context (extinction learning, in safe context). On day 2, the conditioned stimuli were presented again in both contexts, without any aversive stimulation. Autonomic physiological measurements of skin conductance responses as well as subjective evaluations of fear and expectancy of the aversive stimulation were acquired. We found that impairment of fear inhibition (extinction) in the safe context during learning (day 1) was associated with the amount of pack-years in smokers. During retrieval of fear memories (day 2), smokers showed an impairment of contextual (safety context-related) fear inhibition as compared with non-smokers. These effects were found in physiological as well as subjective measures of fear. We provide initial evidence that smokers as compared with non-smokers show an impairment of fear inhibition. We propose that smokers have a deficit in integrating contextual signs of safety, which is a hallmark of post-traumatic stress and anxiety disorders.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 15 February 2017; doi:10.1038/npp.2017.17.
Background Acupuncture and moxibustion have widely been used to treat lateral elbow pain (LEP). A comprehensive systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) including both English and Chinese databases was conducted to assess the efficacy of acupuncture and moxibustion in the treatment of LEP. Methods Revised STRICTA (2010) criteria were used to appraise the acupuncture procedures, the Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the methodological quality of the studies. A total of 19 RCTs that compared acupuncture and/or moxibustion with sham acupuncture, another form of acupuncture, or conventional treatment were included. Results All studies had at least one domain rated as high risk or uncertain risk of bias in the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results from three RCTs of moderate quality showed that acupuncture was more effective than sham acupuncture. Results from 10 RCTs of mostly low quality showed that acupuncture or moxibustion was superior or equal to conventional treatment, such as local anesthetic injection, local steroid injection, non-steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs, or ultrasound. There were six low quality RCTs that compared acupuncture and moxibustion combined with manual acupuncture alone, and all showed that acupuncture and moxibustion combined was superior to manual acupuncture alone. Conclusion Moderate quality studies suggest that acupuncture is more effective than sham acupuncture. Interpretations of findings regarding acupuncture vs. conventional treatment, and acupuncture and moxibustion combined vs. manual acupuncture alone are limited by the methodological qualities of these studies. Future studies with improved methodological design are warranted to confirm the efficacy of acupuncture and moxibustion for LEP. PMID:24726029
Wu, Jun-Yi; Zhang, Chao; Xu, Yang-Peng; Yu, Ya-Yu; Peng, Le; Leng, Wei-Dong; Niu, Yu-Ming; Deng, Mo-Hong
Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate conventional acupuncture therapy in the management of clinical outcomes for temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in adults. Methods: The electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Clinical Trails.gov were searched for reports published until March 31, 2016. Results: Nine eligible studies from 8 publications involving 231 patients were included in the meta-analysis. A comparison of the main outcome of visual analog scale (VAS) values of pain between the acupuncture group and control group showed a significant decrease (MD = −0.98, 95% CI [−1.62, −0.34], I2=54%, P = 0.003) in the VAS following acupuncture treatment. However, subgroup analysis according to the type of sham control group indicated that there were significant differences in the results when sham acupuncture was used as the control group (MD = −1.54, 95% CI [−2.63, −0.45], I2=58%, P = 0.006) as well as when sham laser treatment was used as the control group (MD = −1.29, 95% CI [−2.32, −0.27], I2 = 0%, P = 0.01). However, there was no significant difference when the splint treatment group was used as the control group (MD = −0.09, 95% CI [−0.69, 0.50], I2 = 0%, P = 0.76). Subgroup analyses of VAS for pain by the classification of diseases indicated that the myogenous TMD subgroup demonstrated a significant difference (MD = −1.49, 95% CI [−2.45, −0.53], I2 = 47%, P = 0.002), and TMD showed no statistically significant difference (MD = −0.42, 95% CI [−1.14, 0.30], I2 = 46%, P = 0.25). Subgroup analysis according to whether the subgroup penetrated the skin showed that nonpenetrating sham acupuncture as the control group showed a significant difference (MD = −1.56, 95% CI [−2.70, −0.41], I2 = 58%, P = 0.008) compared with the conventional acupuncture as the treatment modality, while penetrating sham acupuncture as the control group showed no
Walker, Patricia Hinton; Pock, Arnyce; Ling, Catherine G; Kwon, Kyung Nancy; Vaughan, Megan
Battlefield acupuncture is a unique auricular acupuncture procedure which is being used in a number of military medical facilities throughout the Department of Defense (DoD). It has been used with anecdotal published positive impact with warriors experiencing polytrauma, post-traumatic stress disorder, and traumatic brain injury. It has also been effectively used to treat warriors with muscle and back pain from carrying heavy combat equipment in austere environments. This article highlights the history within the DoD related to the need for nonpharmacologic/opioid pain management across the continuum of care from combat situations, during evacuation, and throughout recovery and rehabilitation. The article describes the history of auricular acupuncture and details implementation procedures. Training is necessary and partially funded through DoD and Veteran's Administration (VA) internal Joint Incentive Funds grants between the DoD and the VA for multidisciplinary teams as part of a larger initiative related to the recommendations from the DoD Army Surgeon General's Pain Management Task Force. Finally, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences School of Medicine and Graduate School of Nursing faculty members present how this interdisciplinary training is currently being integrated into both schools for physicians and advanced practice nurses at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. Current and future research challenges and progress related to the use of acupuncture are also presented.
Chen, Li-Fang; Fang, Jian-Qiao; Chen, Lu-Ni; Wang, Chao
Up to now, in the treatment of stroke patients by acupuncture therapy, three main representative achievements involving scalp acupuncture intervention, "Xing Nao Kai Qiao" (restoring consciousness and inducing resuscitation) acupuncture technique and nape acupuncture therapy have been got. Regarding their neurobiological mechanisms, the scalp acupuncture therapy is based on the functional localization of the cerebral cortex, "Xing Nao Kai Qiao" acupuncture therapy is closely related to nerve stem stimulation, and the nape acupuncture therapy is based on the nerve innervation of the regional neck-nape area in obtaining therapeutic effects. In fact, effects of these three acupuncture interventions are all closely associated with the modern neuroanatomy. In the treatment of post-stroke spastic paralysis, cognitive disorder and depression with acupuncture therapy, modern neuroanatomical knowledge should be one of the key theoretical basis and new therapeutic techniques should be explored and developed continuously.
The acupuncture-moxibustion academic frame system was firstly and systematically established in A-B Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion authored by HUANG Fu-mi, which explained the knowledge and logical relationship among different parts of acupuncture-moxibustion. The academic frame consisted of acupuncture-moxibustion basis and clinical application. In the basic theory, zang-fu, qi-blood, meridians, acupoint, pulse diagnosis, acupuncture manipulation, etiology and pathogenesis, etc. were included; in the clinical application, various kinds of clinical diseases and their acupuncture treatment were included. The academic frame established by A-B Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion is broader than the modern academic frame of acupuncture-moxibustion, in which the attribution and location of four-seas theory has certain differences from modern acupuncture-moxibustion theory.
Qu, Shan-Shan; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Zhang-Jin; Chen, Jun-Qi; Lin, Ren-Yong; Wang, Chong-Qi; Li, Gan-Long; Wong, Hei Kiu; Zhao, Cang-Huan; Pan, Ji-Yang; Guo, Shen-Chang; Zhang, Yan-Chi
Acupuncture possesses the antidepressant potential. In this 6-week randomized controlled trial with 4-week follow-up, 160 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) were randomly assigned to paroxetine (PRX) alone (n = 48) or combined with 18 sessions of manual acupuncture (MA, n = 54) or electrical acupuncture (EA, n = 58). Treatment outcomes were measured mainly using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17), Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), clinical response and remission rates. Average PRX dose taken and proportion of patients who required an increased PRX dose due to symptom aggravation were also obtained. Both additional MA and EA produced a significantly greater reduction from baseline in score on HAMD-17 and SDS at most measure points from week 1 through week 6 compared to PRX alone. The clinical response was markedly greater in MA (69.8%) and EA (69.6%) groups than the group treated with PRX alone (41.7%, P = 0.004). The proportion of patients who required an increase dose of PRX due to symptom aggravation was significantly lower with MA (5.7%) and EA (8.9%) than PRX alone (22.9%, P = 0.019). At 4 weeks follow-up after completion of acupuncture treatment, patients with EA, but not MA, continued to show significantly greater clinical improvement. Incidence of adverse events was not different in the three groups. Our study indicates that acupuncture can accelerate the clinical response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and prevent the aggravation of depression. Electrical acupuncture may have a long-lasting enhancement of the antidepressant effects (Trial Registration: ChiCTR-TRC-08000278).
Viggiano, Maria Pia; Giganti, Fiorenza; Rossi, Arianna; Di Feo, Daniele; Vagnoli, Laura; Calcagno, Giovanna; Defilippi, Claudio
Children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging examination frequently experience anxiety and fear before and during the scanning. The aim of the present study was to assess: i) whether and to what extent psychological interventions might reduce anxiety and fear levels; ii) whether the intervention is related to a decrease in the need for sedation. The interventions consisted of three activities: a clown show, dog interaction and live music. The emotional status (anxiety and fear) of the children was evaluated before and after the activities through a rating scale questionnaire. The results showed that the activities had high effectiveness in reducing the level of anxiety and fear and decreased the need for sedation in the experimental group compared to the control group. This approach proved to be a positive patient experience, helping to alleviate children’s anxiety and fear, decreasing the need for sedation, and was cost-effective. PMID:25918624
Glenn, Catherine R.; Lieberman, Lynne; Hajcak, Greg
The potency of an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) can impact the degree of fear learning. One of the most common and effective UCSs is an electric shock, which is inappropriate for certain populations (e.g., children). To address this need, a novel fear learning paradigm was recently developed that uses a fearful female face and scream as the UCS. The present study directly compared the efficacy of the screaming female UCS and a traditional shock UCS in two fear learning paradigms. Thirty-six young adults completed two fear learning tasks and a measure of trait anxiety; fear learning was indexed with fear-potentiated startle (FPS) and self-reported fear ratings. Results indicated comparable FPS across the two tasks. However, larger overall startle responses were exhibited in the shock task, and participants rated the shock UCS and overall task as more aversive than the screaming female. In addition, trait anxiety was only related to FPS in the fear learning task that employed a shock as the UCS. Taken together, results indicate that, although both UCS paradigms can be used for fear conditioning (i.e., to produce differences between CS+ and CS−), the shock UCS paradigm is more aversive and potentially more sensitive to individual differences in anxiety. PMID:23007035
Park, Manyong; Kim, Sungchul
Saam acupuncture is one of the original therapeutic modalities representing traditional Korean medicine. It was originally described in a manuscript that is estimated to be published at some point between 1644 and 1742, in the middle of the Cho Sun dynasty, by a Korean Buddhist monk whose name is unknown. The principle of combining five shu points is based on the theory of Nan-jing. The treatment and diagnosis concepts in Saam acupuncture were mainly influenced by Dongeuibogam and Chimgoogyeong-heombang. The basic characteristic of combining five shu points in Saam acupuncture is the selection of the tonification and sedation points along the self-meridian and other meridians based on creation and governor relationships. Saam acupuncture clinical studies have mainly focused on musculoskeletal pain and autonomic nervous system regulation. From a neurophysiological perspective, Saam acupuncture, which involves five shu points as the main treatment aspect, has the advantage of increasing parasympathetic nerve activation and adjusting the balance of the autonomic nervous system. Inserting a needle into the skin layer while considering the respiratory phase and stimulating the needle gently and lightly could maximize the effect of Saam acupuncture. The specific Saam acupuncture prescribed should be identified on the basis of the neurobiological perspective. PMID:26539231
Liu, Lizhou; Skinner, Margot; McDonough, Suzanne; Mabire, Leon; Baxter, George David
Objective. As evidence of the effectiveness of acupuncture for low back pain (LBP) is inconsistent, we aimed to critically appraise the evidence from relevant systematic reviews. Methods. Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) concerning acupuncture and LBP were searched in seven databases. Internal validity and external validity of systematic reviews were assessed. Systematic reviews were categorized and high quality reviews assigned greater weightings. Conclusions were generated from a narrative synthesis of the outcomes of subgroup comparisons. Results. Sixteen systematic reviews were appraised. Overall, the methodological quality was low and external validity weak. For acute LBP, evidence that acupuncture has a more favorable effect than sham acupuncture in relieving pain was inconsistent; it had a similar effect on improving function. For chronic LBP, evidence consistently demonstrated that acupuncture provides short-term clinically relevant benefits for pain relief and functional improvement compared with no treatment or acupuncture plus another conventional intervention. Conclusion. Systematic reviews of variable quality showed that acupuncture, either used in isolation or as an adjunct to conventional therapy, provides short-term improvements in pain and function for chronic LBP. More efforts are needed to improve both internal and external validity of systematic reviews and RCTs in this area.
Liao, Sung J.
The controversy about acupuncture is familiar to us since its recent reintroduction into this country. Much of its philosophical concepts were taken at their face values as the bases for condemnation. Since I last reviewed these antiquated concepts in the light of modern medicine, much has developed. It seems that if the effects of acupuncture were transmitted along the peripheral nerves to the central nervous system, it would be more effective if applied segmentally to the site of noxious stimulation. Disruption of extralamniscal pathways would abolish its analgesic effect. The distant and nonsegmentally located acupuncture points exert their influences through the integrative efforts of the reticular formation and the thalamus. The demonstration of transmissibility of acupuncture analgesia through blood and cerebrospinal fluid in animals implicates the involvement of humoral factors. Since such an effect can be suppressed by naloxone or by hypophysectomy, endorphins are thought to be involved. Such laboratory evidences indeed begin to shed some light on a possible neurohumoral mechanism of acupuncture. The differences between acupuncture and hypnosis are discussed. Acupuncture points were compared with referred pain, trigger points and motor points of the skeletal muscles. Its possible uses for other than pain, such as drug addiction, alcoholism, etc. are also reviewed. PMID:209630
Napadow, Vitaly; Li, Ang; Loggia, Marco L; Kim, Jieun; Schalock, Peter C; Lerner, Ethan; Tran, Thanh-Nga; Ring, Johannes; Rosen, Bruce R; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Pfab, Florian
Itch is an aversive sensory experience and while systemic therapies, such as acupuncture, have shown promise in alleviating itch in patients suffering from chronic itch, their antipruritic mechanisms are unknown. As several lines of evidence implicate brain-focused mechanisms, we applied functional magnetic resonance imaging and our validated temperature-modulation itch model to evaluate the underlying brain circuitry supporting allergen-induced itch reduction in atopic dermatitis patients by acupuncture, antihistamine, and respective placebo treatments. Brain response to allergen itch demonstrated phase dependency. During an increasing itch phase, activation was localized in anterior insula and striatum, regions associated with salience/interoception and motivation processing. Once itch reached peak plateau, robust activation was noted in prefrontal cognitive and premotor areas. Acupuncture reduced itch and itch-evoked activation in the insula, putamen, and premotor and prefrontal cortical areas. Neither itch sensation nor itch-evoked brain response was altered following antihistamine or placebo acupuncture. Greater itch reduction following acupuncture was associated with greater reduction in putamen response, a region implicated in motivation and habitual behavior underlying the urge to scratch, specifically implicating this region in acupuncture's antipruritic effects. Understanding brain circuitry underlying itch reduction following acupuncture and related neuromodulatory therapies will significantly impact the development and applicability of novel therapies to reduce an itch.
Kubista, E; Kucera, H; Müller-Tyl, E
This is a report on 35 patients on whom electro-acupuncture was tested as a method of initiating contractions. In all cases the membranes remained intact up to the end of the electro-acupuncture. Before the electro-acupuncture none of the patients had experienced any labor pains. The subjective reports were checked by planimetric evaluation of the tocogram curves. A statistical comparison of the values before and after electro-acupuncture was undertaken. Thirty-one cases evidenced certain increase in the intensity of labor contraction frequency (p less than 0.01). Amniotomy was performed immediately after the electro-acupuncture on 31 cases. In a control group likewise consisting of 35 gravidae with intact membranes, no electro-acupuncture was performed. In this control group no significant increase in labor activity could be observed. If amniotomy was performed on gravidae with contractions induced by electro-acupuncture, there was no latent period to be observed. Through avoidance of a lengthened latent period after amniotomy, fetal jeopardy during labor induction can be reduced.
Shaw, Vivien; Mclennan, Amy K
Anatomical dissection has begun to reveal striking similarities between gross anatomical structures and the system of nomenclature used in traditional Chinese acupuncture. This paper argues that acupuncture point nomenclature is rooted in systematic anatomical investigation of cadaveric specimens, and that acupuncture points and meridians are purposefully named to reflect observable physical form. Two types of evidence are compared: observations of physical structures based on anatomical dissection, and translation and analysis of original Chinese texts. Evidence is contextualized through in-depth practical understanding of acupuncture. Points designated as [Chinese character] tian (heavenly/superior), [Chinese character] xia (below/inferior), [Chinese character] liao (bone-hole), [Chinese character] fei (flying), [Chinese character] wei (bend), and [Chinese character] xi (mountain stream/ravine) are investigated. These acupuncture point names: (a) specify position; (b) reflect function and/or form; (c) indicate homologous structures; (d) mark unusual structures; and/or (e) describe the physical appearance of a deep (dissected) structure by likening it to a homologous everyday object. Results raise intriguing possibilities for developing an understanding of acupuncture points and meridians firmly based in the material and functional anatomy of the human body. Such an understanding has the potential to open new fields of thought about functional anatomy. It also has implications for future investigations into the mechanisms of acupuncture, and gives some insights into the possible origins of this iconic area of Chinese medicine.
Liu, Lizhou; Skinner, Margot; McDonough, Suzanne; Mabire, Leon; Baxter, George David
Objective. As evidence of the effectiveness of acupuncture for low back pain (LBP) is inconsistent, we aimed to critically appraise the evidence from relevant systematic reviews. Methods. Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) concerning acupuncture and LBP were searched in seven databases. Internal validity and external validity of systematic reviews were assessed. Systematic reviews were categorized and high quality reviews assigned greater weightings. Conclusions were generated from a narrative synthesis of the outcomes of subgroup comparisons. Results. Sixteen systematic reviews were appraised. Overall, the methodological quality was low and external validity weak. For acute LBP, evidence that acupuncture has a more favorable effect than sham acupuncture in relieving pain was inconsistent; it had a similar effect on improving function. For chronic LBP, evidence consistently demonstrated that acupuncture provides short-term clinically relevant benefits for pain relief and functional improvement compared with no treatment or acupuncture plus another conventional intervention. Conclusion. Systematic reviews of variable quality showed that acupuncture, either used in isolation or as an adjunct to conventional therapy, provides short-term improvements in pain and function for chronic LBP. More efforts are needed to improve both internal and external validity of systematic reviews and RCTs in this area. PMID:25821485
Besnard, Antoine; Sahay, Amar
The generalization of fear is an adaptive, behavioral, and physiological response to the likelihood of threat in the environment. In contrast, the overgeneralization of fear, a cardinal feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), manifests as inappropriate, uncontrollable expression of fear in neutral and safe environments. Overgeneralization of fear stems from impaired discrimination of safe from aversive environments or discernment of unlikely threats from those that are highly probable. In addition, the time-dependent erosion of episodic details of traumatic memories might contribute to their generalization. Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying the overgeneralization of fear will guide development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat PTSD. Here, we conceptualize generalization of fear in terms of resolution of interference between similar memories. We propose a role for a fundamental encoding mechanism, pattern separation, in the dentate gyrus (DG)–CA3 circuit in resolving interference between ambiguous or uncertain threats and in preserving episodic content of remote aversive memories in hippocampal–cortical networks. We invoke cellular-, circuit-, and systems-based mechanisms by which adult-born dentate granule cells (DGCs) modulate pattern separation to influence resolution of interference and maintain precision of remote aversive memories. We discuss evidence for how these mechanisms are affected by stress, a risk factor for PTSD, to increase memory interference and decrease precision. Using this scaffold we ideate strategies to curb overgeneralization of fear in PTSD. PMID:26068726
Ponnusamy, Ravikumar; Zhuravka, Irina; Poulos, Andrew M.; Shobe, Justin; Merjanian, Michael; Huang, Jeannie; Wolvek, David; O’Neill, Pia-Kelsey; Fanselow, Michael S.
Extinction is the primary mode for the treatment of anxiety disorders. However, extinction memories are prone to relapse. For example, fear is likely to return when a prolonged time period intervenes between extinction and a subsequent encounter with the fear-provoking stimulus (spontaneous recovery). Therefore there is considerable interest in the development of procedures that strengthen extinction and to prevent such recovery of fear. We contrasted two procedures in rats that have been reported to cause such deepened extinction. One where extinction begins before the initial consolidation of fear memory begins (immediate extinction) and another where extinction begins after a brief exposure to the consolidated fear stimulus. The latter is thought to open a period of memory vulnerability similar to that which occurs during initial consolidation (reconsolidation update). We also included a standard extinction treatment and a control procedure that reversed the brief exposure and extinction phases. Spontaneous recovery was only found with the standard extinction treatment. In a separate experiment we tested fear shortly after extinction (i.e., within 6 h). All extinction procedures, except reconsolidation update reduced fear at this short-term test. The findings suggest that strengthened extinction can result from alteration in both retrieval and consolidation processes. PMID:27242459
Sagara, Yoshiko; Fuse, Nobuo; Seimiya, Motohiko; Yokokura, Syunji; Watanabe, Kei; Nakazawa, Toru; Kurusu, Masayuki; Seki, Takashi; Tamai, Makoto
Visual evoked potential (VEP) testing is used frequently and is an important ophthalmologic physiological test to examine visual functions objectively. The VEP is a complicated waveform consisting of negative waveform named N75 and N135, and positive waveform named P100. Delayed P100 latency and greatly attenuated amplitude on VEP are known characteristics for diagnosing optic nerve disease. Acupuncture has been used to treat wide clinical symptoms with minimal side effects. The confirmation of the efficacy of acupuncture generally relies on subjective symptoms. There is not much scientific evidence supporting the acupuncture treatments for eye diseases up to today. However, the VEP test can evaluate objectively and numerically the efficacy of the treatment by the acupuncture. We analyzed 19 healthy subjects (38 eyes). The P100 latencies in the group of less than 101.7 msec (total average) before acupuncture stimulations were not different than those after treatment (98.2 +/- 3.0 msec, 98.2 +/- 4.0 msec, respectively, p = 0.88, n = 17), but the latencies in those subjects with longer or equal to 101.7 msec were statistically different after acupuncture (104.6 +/- 2.8 msec, 101.9 +/- 3.7 msec, respectively, p = 0.006, n = 21). These results show that the acupuncture stimulation contributes to the P100 latencies of pattern reversal (PR)-VEP to some subjects who have delayed latencies, and this electrophysiological method is a valuable technique in monitoring the effectiveness of acupuncture therapy in the improvements of visual functions. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the physiological effects by acupuncture stimulations using PR-VEP in normal subjects.
de Souza, Regina Célia; Pansini, Mario; Arruda, Gisele; Valente, Caroline; Brioschi, Marcos Leal
The acupuncture meridians represent the flow of corporal energy which contains the acupuncture points. Laser acupuncture is a form of acupuncture stimulation by the use of laser. Thermographic images represent the propagation of heat in micro-environmental systems. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of thermographic images to document the changes on the small intestine meridian (S.I.M.) when submitted to laser acupuncture. Another important issue regards to the analysis of the flow direction if it is upward when stimulated by acupuncture points. For the execution of this work, a laser acupuncture pen was used in points of the meridian in the S.I.M. Two healthy male volunteers were selected (18 and 60 years old, respectively), and doses of 576,92 J/cm(2) with low-power infrared laser equipment with a wavelength of 780 nm in the SI.3 and SI.19 points were applied. An infrared thermal camera was used to measure the temperature of the S.I.M. during the 6 min laser acupuncture pen stimulus. When the laser acupuncture of both volunteers was conducted in the SI.3 point, it presented hyper-radiation of the hemi face in the same side, far from the application site. When this was applied in the SI.19 point, hyper-radiation in the same point and temperature lowering at the end of the meridian were observed. The laser energy caused thermal changes along the path of the S.I.M., distal, and proximal at the same time, proving the existence of the S.I.M.
Ebesutani, Chad; Smith, Ashley; Bernstein, Adam; Chorpita, Bruce F; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine; Nakamura, Brad
The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children (PANAS-C) is a 27-item youth-report measure of positive affectivity and negative affectivity. Using 2 large school-age youth samples (clinic-referred sample: N = 662; school-based sample: N = 911), in the present study, we thoroughly examined the structure of the PANAS-C NA and PA scales and fit a bifactor model to the PANAS-C NA items. Our exploratory factor analytic results demonstrated that negative affectivity is comprised of 2 main components-NA: Fear and NA: Distress-specifically among older youth. A bifactor model also evidenced the best model fit relative to a unidimensional and second-order factor structure of the PANAS-C NA items. The NA: Fear group factor evidenced significant correspondence with external criterion measures of anxiety. However, the original PANAS-C NA scale evidenced equal (and in some cases greater) correspondence with criterion measures of anxiety. We thus recommend continued usage and interpretation of the full PANAS-C NA scale despite the identification of the fear and distress group factors underlying general negative affectivity. The identification of these fear and distress group factors nonetheless suggest that negative affectivity may be comprised largely of a fear and distress component among older youth. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to better understanding the structure of psychopathology across childhood development and informing the development of future treatments of negative emotions.
Schneider, A; Enck, P; Streitberger, K; Weiland, C; Bagheri, S; Witte, S; Friederich, H‐C; Herzog, W; Zipfel, S
Background and aims Despite occasional positive reports on the efficacy of acupuncture (AC) on functions of the gastrointestinal tract, there is no conclusive evidence that AC is effective in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Patients and methods Forty three patients with IBS according to the Rome II criteria were randomly assigned to receive either AC (n = 22) or sham acupuncture (SAC) (n = 21) using the so‐called “Streitberger needle”. Treatment duration was 10 sessions with an average of two AC sessions per week. The primary end point was improvement in quality of life (QOL) using the functional digestive diseases quality of life questionnaire (FDDQL) and a general quality of life questionnaire (SF‐36), compared with baseline assessments. QOL measurements were repeated three months after treatment. Results Both the AC and SAC groups improved significantly in global QOL, as assessed by the FDDQL, at the end of treatment (p = 0.022), with no differences between the groups. SF‐36 was insensitive to these changes (except for pain). This effect was partially reversed three months later. Post hoc comparison of responders and non‐responders in both groups combined revealed a significant prediction of the placebo response by two subscales of the FDDQL (sleep, coping) (F = 6.746, p = 0.003) in a stepwise regression model. Conclusions Acupuncture in IBS is primarily a placebo response. Based on the small differences found between the AC and SAC groups, a study including 566 patients would be necessary to prove the efficacy of AC over SAC. The placebo response may be predicted by high coping capacity and low sleep quality in individual patients. PMID:16150852
Liu, Bing; Zhang, Li-jian; Zhang, Shou-xin; Li, Su-yun
ZHU Lian is the founder of international communication of acupuncture-moxibustion after establishment of New China. This article discussed ZHU Lian's great deal of pioneering work and historic contributions from the aspects of acupuncture-moxibustion treatments for foreign people, international training and communication, and the international influence of Xin Zhenjiu Xue. Our research showed that ZHU Lian's early work didn't only enlarge acupuncture's worldwide influence and spreading pace, especially in Soviet Union, India and Korea, but also accumulated precious experiences for each subject of Chinese medicine attending into international medical care and academic communication in the future.
Cai, Ronglin; Hu, Ling
The academic contribution of HUA Tuo to acupuncture, such as HUA Tuo Jiaji points, the drawing of viscera and channels, "diagnosis by observing the eyes", focusing on the clinical application of moxibustion, being the first to treat headache with Geshu (BL 17), selecting essential acupoints and paying attention to spirit management, etc. were summarized in this paper. It was believed that HUA Tuo made an outstanding contribution to acupuncture, which still had important guiding significance and academic value for clinical acupuncture and research work.
Chen, Shuwang; Li, Chunhua; Liang, Guozhuang; Wang, Shuhai
The application of the infrared imaging using in the brain cognition and the acupuncture is introduced. Acupuncturing a certain point of the healthy experimental cats, observing the responds of the cerebral cortical temperature by using of infrared imaging, and researching the corresponding relation between the acupuncture points with the active sections of the cerebral cortex, so the effect of the acupuncture is obtained. The theory of the refreshment and induce resuscitation pinprick is approved. The method of the "refreshment and induce resuscitation pinprick" can promote the metabolize renovation, improve the living function and increase the healing rate. However, the relations between the points and the cortical functional sections have not the last word still. After removing the skulls on the head, full of the cerebral cortex of a cat are exposed. Observing the infrared imaging and measuring the temperatures of the visual cerebral cortex during the process of acupuncturing the points to judge the activation position. During the process of acupuncture, the trend of the rising temperature on cerebral cortex is primary in terms of the phenomena in the infrared pictures. The cortical hemogram variety is measured in terms of the infrared pictures and the temperature values, so the characteristic curve of the temperature for a corresponding position on the cerebral cortex and the acupuncture point can be obtained. When the acupuncture point is changed, the position where temperature varied on cerebral cortex is different correspondingly. The variety in the cortical functional sections is corresponding to the result of the acupuncture point in terms of the imaging and the temperatures. The experimental results accord with the theoretic model, so they validate the correctness of the "refreshment and induce resuscitation pinprick". According to the experimental results, we know that the variety of a cortical functional section is corresponding to a special acupuncture
Federman, Daniel G; Gunderson, Craig G
The use of prescription opioids for chronic pain has increased markedly within the past few decades; thus, death rates associated with opioid overdoses have increased dramatically. Nonopioid pharmacologic therapies also are associated with adverse effects. Other pain-abatement modalities such as acupuncture may be useful in the treatment of several painful conditions. Battlefield acupuncture is being promulgated as a potential low-risk, nonpharmacological therapy for pain. In this narrative review we examine the published literature to support battlefield acupuncture. We conclude that the amount and quality of published research presently do not justify wide adoption of this practice by those strictly adherent to evidence-based medicine.
Yang, Chih-Wei; Hsu, Shun-Neng; Liu, Jhih-Syuan; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan
The formation of spinal epidural abscess following acupuncture is very rare. We herein report the case of a 54-year-old woman who presented with progressive low back pain and fever with a root sign. She underwent surgical decompression, with an immediate improvement of the low back pain. A culture of the epidural abscess grew Serratia marcescens. One year postoperatively, magnetic resonance imaging revealed the almost complete eradication of the abscess. This case is the first case of Serratia marcescens-associated spinal epidural abscess formation secondary to acupuncture. The characteristics of spinal epidural abscess that develop after acupuncture and how to prevent such complications are also discussed.
Oyola-Santiago, Tamara; Knopf, Rachel; Robin, Tracy; Harvey, Kristen
Auricular acupuncture using the National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) protocol stimulates 5 points in each ear--the Shen Men, sympathetic nervous system, liver, kidney, and lung. This protocol is also known as Acu Detox, and has been used for recovery in community-based settings and drug use treatment programs. It has also been proven to be effective in alleviating stress and enhancing a general sense of well-being. This article describes the auricular acupuncture and acupressure program developed for a university setting and its use as a tool to enhance harm reduction and mental health services.
Professor YANG Chang-sen, devoted himself entirely to the clinical practice, education and research of modern acupuncture-moxibustion for over 50 years, has made great contribution to the construction and development of the theoretical system of the science. His main achievements includes constructing and perfecting acupuncture-moxibustion module in differentiation of syndromes, editing textbooks such as Zhenjiuxue Jiangyi (Teaching Materials of Acupuncture-Moxibustion) and Zhenjiu Zhi-liaoxue (Acupuncture Therapeutics) from innovational viewpoints, explaining the reducing and reinforcing manipulations of acupuncture therapy systematically and historically, exploring means of high-level personnel cultivation and insisting to carry out acupuncture-moxibustion academic research in clinical practice.
Acupuncture and acupuncture-like somatic nerve stimulation exert modulatory effects upon cardiovascular and renal activity under different physiological and pathophysiological conditions. It seems that acupuncture facilitates the physiological reflexes in response to changes in internal or external environment. Thus, acupuncture can lower high blood pressure in hypertensives, elevate low blood pressure in hypotensives, and promote urinary sodium excretion during hyperosmotic challenge, etc. Acupuncture effects are thought to be mediated by activation of the small myelinated fibres coming from muscle receptors. Preliminary studies show that different neurotransmitters and neuropeptides are involved in the effects of acupuncture.
Wang, Lingling; He, Chong; Liu, Yueguang; Zhu, Lili
Under the auditory evoked brain stem potential (ABP) examination, the latent period of V wave and the intermittent periods of III-V peak and I-V peak were significantly shortened in Parkinson's disease patients of the treatment group (N = 29) after acupuncture treatment. The difference of cumulative scores in Webster's scale was also decreased in correlation analysis. The increase of dopamine in the brain and the excitability of the dopamine neurons may contribute to the therapeutic effects, in TCM terms, of subduing the pathogenic wind and tranquilizing the mind.
Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S; Bulten, Berend H; Brazil, Inti A
Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by interpersonal manipulation and callousness, and reckless and impulsive antisocial behavior. It is often seen as a disorder in which profound emotional disturbances lead to antisocial behavior. A lack of fear in particular has been proposed as an etiologically salient factor. In this review, we employ a conceptual model in which fear is parsed into separate subcomponents. Important historical conceptualizations of psychopathy, the neuroscientific and empirical evidence for fear deficits in psychopathy are compared against this model. The empirical evidence is also subjected to a meta-analysis. We conclude that most studies have used the term "fear" generically, amassing different methods and levels of measurement under the umbrella term "fear." Unlike earlier claims that psychopathy is related to general fearlessness, we show there is evidence that psychopathic individuals have deficits in threat detection and responsivity, but that the evidence for reduced subjective experience of fear in psychopathy is far less compelling. (PsycINFO Database Record
Flykt, Anders; Lindeberg, Sofie; Derakshan, Nazanin
To investigate whether fear affects the strength with which responses are made, 12 animal-fearful individuals (five snake fearful and seven spider fearful) were instructed to decide as quickly as possible whether an animal target from a deviant category was present in a 3 × 4 item (animal) search array. The animal categories were snakes, spiders, and cats. Response force was measured, in newtons. The results showed that the strength of the response was greater when the feared animal served as the target than when it served as the distractors. This finding was corroborated by evoked heart rate changes to the stimuli. Our findings strengthen the argument that focused attention on a single, feared animal can lead to increases in manual force.
Dollinger, Stephen J.; And Others
Compares fears of lightning-strike victims (N=29) with matched control children (N=58), using fear reports from children and their mothers. Differences between samples were most pronounced for child-reported fears. Correspondence between mothers' and children's reports of intense storm-related fears was markedly larger in the lightning sample than…
Fear, such as fear of saying the wrong thing, fear of doing the wrong thing, and fear of being branded as intolerant, a racist, or worse, can be paralyzing for many school administrators in the United States because developing a culturally proficient school is a difficult task filled with the toughest land mines of all: the perceptions and…
Bredy, Timothy W.; Barad, Mark
Mice communicate through visual, vocal, and olfactory cues that influence innate, nonassociative behavior. We here report that exposure to a recently fear-conditioned familiar mouse impairs acquisition of conditioned fear and facilitates fear extinction, effects mimicked by both an olfactory chemosignal emitted by a recently fear-conditioned…
Gore, Jonathan S.; Thomas, Jessica; Jones, Stevy; Mahoney, Lauren; Dukes, Kristina; Treadway, Jodi
Fear of academic success is ultimately a fear of social exclusion. Therefore, various forms of social inclusion may alleviate this fear. Three studies tested the hypothesis that social inclusion variables negatively predict fear of success. In Study 1, middle and high school students (n = 129) completed surveys of parental involvement, parental…
Reports on the use of participant modeling in a study of 56 college-level students to reduce fear of laboratory rats. Discovers that even mild exposure reduced fear significantly. Finds that women were more fearful initially but that their fear reduction was equal to that of men. (CFR)
Dal Vera, Anne
Drawing from research on fear of failure and anecdotes from personal experience with the first women's expedition to ski to the South Pole, this discussion centers on how fear of failure affects women. Fear of failure leads to procrastination and performance well below one's ability. Women generally express more fear of failure than do men, partly…
Moracco, John C.; Camilleri, Jack
Investigated fears of 121 third graders who completed a checklist of 25 items. Results showed girls were generally more fearful than boys. Loss of parents was the principal source of fear. Fears of natural phenomena (tornados and storms) and of animals resulted in the most consistency. (JAC)
... the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to ... should be considered as a factor in your child's normal development. Many kids experience age-appropriate fears, such as ...
Stern, Paul C.
Scientists often expect fear of climate change and its impacts to motivate public support of climate policies. A study suggests that climate change deniers don't respond to this, but that positive appeals can change their views.
Hindi Attar, Catherine; Finckh, Barbara; Büchel, Christian
Learning of associations between aversive stimuli and predictive cues is the basis of Pavlovian fear conditioning and is driven by a mismatch between expectation and outcome. To investigate whether serotonin modulates the formation of such aversive cue-outcome associations, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and dietary tryptophan depletion to reduce brain serotonin (5-HT) levels in healthy human subjects. In a Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm, 5-HT depleted subjects compared to a non-depleted control group exhibited attenuated autonomic responses to cues indicating the upcoming of an aversive event. These results were closely paralleled by reduced aversive learning signals in the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex, two prominent structures of the neural fear circuit. In agreement with current theories of serotonin as a motivational opponent system to dopamine in fear learning, our data provide first empirical evidence for a role of serotonin in representing formally derived learning signals for aversive events.
Pursuant to the No Fear Act, a federal agency must post on its public Web site summary statistical data pertaining to complaints of employment discrimination filed by employees, former employees and applicants for employment under 29 CFR part 1614
Pearson, Rebecca; Lewis, Michael B
This study assesses the mediating role of stage of menstrual cycle in the recognition of emotional expressions. It was hypothesised that fear recognition ability would be stronger at high-oestrogen stages of the menstrual cycle. The accuracy of recognising emotional expressions was compared across 50 women who were at different stages of their menstrual cycle. It was found that accuracy to recognise emotions was significantly affected by the interaction between stages of the menstrual cycle and the emotion being displayed. Further analysis revealed that for the emotion expression of fear alone, participants were significantly more accurate at the preovulatory surge (highest oestrogen levels) than at menstruation (oestrogen levels at lowest point). The results have implications for the processes that underlie fear processing and a possible insight into the sexual dimorphism of this ability and conditions that show variations in fear recognition (e.g., autism, Turner syndrome).
King, Elizabeth C.; Pattwell, Siobhan S.; Glatt, Charles E.; Lee, Francis S.
Adolescence represents a uniquely sensitive developmental stage in the transition from childhood to adulthood. During this transition, neuronal circuits are particularly susceptible to modification by experience. In addition, adolescence is a stage in which the incidence of anxiety disorders peaks in humans and over 75% of adults with fear-related disorders met diagnostic criteria as children and adolescents. While postnatal critical periods of plasticity for primary sensory processes, such as in the visual system are well established, less is known about potential critical or sensitive periods for fear learning and memory. Here, we review the nonlinear developmental aspects of fear learning and memory during a transition period into and out of adolescence. We also review the literature on the non-linear development of GABAergic neurotransmission, a key regulator of critical period plasticity. We provide a model that may inform improved treatment strategies for children and adolescents with fear-related disorders. PMID:23611461
The history of military and civilian nuclear energy is not only a matter of hard technology, politics, and economics. Our thinking about bombs and reactors is also affected by images with a curious and sometimes overwhelming power. Weird rays that can transform flesh or create monsters, the atom-powered marvels of a future uptopia, the mad scientist who plots to destroy the world: all have an influence on the way people think. Already decades before scientists had discovered how to exploit nuclear energy, a web of interconnected symbols was fully formed in the public mind. These images can be traced back to primitive imagery and, still deeper, into common human experiences, but they were often connected specifically to nuclear energy by nuclear scientists themselves. After the actual development of nuclear technology, a variety of groups used the old symbolism for their propaganda. Since nuclear energy was the most impressive case of the application of the arcane mysteries of science by modern technological authorities, it came to stand for all that people hoped, and still more what they feared, from such authorities.
Disgust is a protective emotion associated with certain types of animal fears. Given that a primary function of disgust is to protect against harm, increasing children’s disgust-related beliefs for animals may affect how threatening they think animals are and their avoidance of them. One way that children’s disgust beliefs for animals might change is via vicarious learning: by observing others responding to the animal with disgust. In Experiment 1, children (ages 7–10 years) were presented with images of novel animals together with adult faces expressing disgust. Children’s fear beliefs and avoidance preferences increased for these disgust-paired animals compared with unpaired control animals. Experiment 2 used the same procedure and compared disgust vicarious learning with vicarious learning with fear faces. Children’s fear beliefs and avoidance preferences for animals again increased as a result of disgust vicarious learning, and animals seen with disgust or fear faces were also rated more disgusting than control animals. The relationship between increased fear beliefs and avoidance preferences for animals was mediated by disgust for the animals. The experiments demonstrate that children can learn to believe that animals are disgusting and threatening after observing an adult responding with disgust toward them. The findings also suggest a bidirectional relationship between fear and disgust with fear-related vicarious learning leading to increased disgust for animals and disgust-related vicarious learning leading to increased fear and avoidance. PMID:24955571
Askew, Chris; Cakır, Kübra; Põldsam, Liine; Reynolds, Gemma
Disgust is a protective emotion associated with certain types of animal fears. Given that a primary function of disgust is to protect against harm, increasing children's disgust-related beliefs for animals may affect how threatening they think animals are and their avoidance of them. One way that children's disgust beliefs for animals might change is via vicarious learning: by observing others responding to the animal with disgust. In Experiment 1, children (ages 7-10 years) were presented with images of novel animals together with adult faces expressing disgust. Children's fear beliefs and avoidance preferences increased for these disgust-paired animals compared with unpaired control animals. Experiment 2 used the same procedure and compared disgust vicarious learning with vicarious learning with fear faces. Children's fear beliefs and avoidance preferences for animals again increased as a result of disgust vicarious learning, and animals seen with disgust or fear faces were also rated more disgusting than control animals. The relationship between increased fear beliefs and avoidance preferences for animals was mediated by disgust for the animals. The experiments demonstrate that children can learn to believe that animals are disgusting and threatening after observing an adult responding with disgust toward them. The findings also suggest a bidirectional relationship between fear and disgust with fear-related vicarious learning leading to increased disgust for animals and disgust-related vicarious learning leading to increased fear and avoidance.
Martel, Guillaume; Hevi, Charles; Friebely, Olivia; Baybutt, Trevor; Shumyatsky, Gleb P
Synaptically released Zn²+ is a potential modulator of neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity in fear-conditioning pathways. Zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) knock-out (KO) mice are well suited to test the role of zinc in learned fear, because ZnT3 is colocalized with synaptic zinc, responsible for its transport to synaptic vesicles, highly enriched in the amygdala-associated neural circuitry, and ZnT3 KO mice lack Zn²+ in synaptic vesicles. However, earlier work reported no deficiency in fear memory in ZnT3 KO mice, which is surprising based on the effects of Zn²+ on amygdala synaptic plasticity. We therefore reexamined ZnT3 KO mice in various tasks for learned and innate fear. The mutants were deficient in a weak fear-conditioning protocol using single tone-shock pairing but showed normal memory when a stronger, five-pairing protocol was used. ZnT3 KO mice were deficient in memory when a tone was presented as complex auditory information in a discontinuous fashion. Moreover, ZnT3 KO mice showed abnormality in trace fear conditioning and in fear extinction. By contrast, ZnT3 KO mice had normal anxiety. Thus, ZnT3 is involved in associative fear memory and extinction, but not in innate fear, consistent with the role of synaptic zinc in amygdala synaptic plasticity.
Botnick, M R
In this second part of the trilogy, I review the concepts of panic, the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, and how internally inconsistent opinions and attitudes can be made consistent (or consonant). The theory explains, in some measure, how AIDS has been socialized into our thinking about identity, and goes beyond a medical condition. The pervasive identification of gay men with HIV and AIDS has resulted for many in an over-identification with fears of contagion and on a societal level in a fear of all gays as pools of contagion. The conversion of dissonance to consonance has taken many forms; within the gay community it has resulted in the rejection of the "100% safe-100% of the time" safe-sex message, and the adoption (for many) of a new form of deviant label-someone who is not in conformity with the social norm of gay community sexual behavior. However, we shall see that this so-called norm is a sham-that many gay men do not, as a rule, practice safe(r) sex on a consistent basis. This information indicates that the educational efforts of the last decade have at best lost their potency, and at worst were less than efficacious to begin with. The dissonant messages have also informed both the construction of the gay community and its interpretation of what it means to be gay. The result has been a tri-lateral perception of HIV and AIDS as either a medical, political or a social phenomenon. This fragmented understanding has exacerbated the already polarized ASOs and GSOs in that each has determined its ideology based on a particular interpretation of HIV and AIDS. This polarization has been operationalized by the GSOs and ASOs primarily in the manner by which they define their target markets, and more importantly, in the manner by which they exclude certain gays from participation. At the extreme, some gay men feel entirely left out of the community, and are consequently unable to convert their dissonance regarding being gay into consonance, if only by developing
Chowdhury, Najwa; Quinn, Jennifer J; Fanselow, Michael S
Placing a "trace" interval between a warning signal and an aversive shock makes consolidation of the memory for trace conditioning hippocampus dependent. To determine the trace at which memory consolidation requires the hippocampus, mice were trained with 0-s, 1-s, 3-s, or 20-s trace intervals and tested for freezing to context and tone. Posttraining dorsal hippocampus (DH) lesions decreased context conditioning regardless of trace interval. However, DH lesions attenuated only the 20-s trace tone freezing. Like eyeblink conditioning, the DH is necessary for trace fear conditioning only at long trace intervals, but the time scale for the effective interval in fear conditioning is about 40 times longer. Manipulations that alter trace fear conditioning with short trace intervals probably do not reflect altered DH function. Given this difference in time scale along with the use of posttraining DH lesions, hippocampus dependency of trace conditioning is not related to a bridging function or response timing.
Yi, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Jiang; Han, Chun-Xiao; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xi-Le; Li, Nuo
Manual acupuncture is widely used for pain relief and stress control. Previous studies on acupuncture have shown its modulatory effects on the functional connectivity associated with one or a few preselected brain regions. To investigate how manual acupuncture modulates the organization of functional networks at a whole-brain level, we acupuncture at ST36 of a right leg to obtain electroencephalograph (EEG) signals. By coherence estimation, we determine the synchronizations between all pairwise combinations of EEG channels in three acupuncture states. The resulting synchronization matrices are converted into functional networks by applying a threshold, and the clustering coefficients and path lengths are computed as a function of threshold. The results show that acupuncture can increase functional connections and synchronizations between different brain areas. For a wide range of thresholds, the clustering coefficient during acupuncture and post-acupuncture period is higher than that during the pre-acupuncture control period, whereas the characteristic path length is shorter. We provide further support for the presence of “small-world" network characteristics in functional networks by using acupuncture. These preliminary results highlight the beneficial modulations of functional connectivity by manual acupuncture, which could contribute to the understanding of the effects of acupuncture on the entire brain, as well as the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying acupuncture. Moreover, the proposed method may be a useful approach to the further investigation of the complexity of patterns of interrelations between EEG channels.
Iseki, Chifumi; Furuta, Taiga; Suzuki, Masao; Koyama, Shingo; Suzuki, Keiji; Suzuki, Tomoko; Kaneko, Akiyo
A woman started to feel intractable pain on her lower legs when she was 76. At the age of 78, she was diagnosed as having Parkinson's disease (PD). The leg pain was suspected to be a symptom of PD after eliminating other causes. The patient also suffered from nonmotor symptoms, depression, anxiety, hot flashes, and paroxysmal sweating. Though the patient had received pharmacotherapy including levodopa for 5 years, she still suffered from the nonmotor symptoms and was referred to our department. We treated her with acupuncture based on the Chinese traditional medicine and electroacupuncture five times per week. After the 2-week treatment, the assessment for the symptoms was as follows; visual analogue scale (VAS) score of the leg pain was 16 mm (70 mm, before), Hamilton's rating scales for depression (HAM-D) score was 9 (18, before), timed 3 m Up and Go took 20 steps in 30 sec (24 steps in 38 sec, before), and the Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) Part 1 score was 13 (21, before). Autonomic symptoms, hot flashes and paroxysmal sweating, were also alleviated. Acupuncture may be a good treatment modality for nonmotor symptoms in PD. PMID:25628905
Iseki, Chifumi; Furuta, Taiga; Suzuki, Masao; Koyama, Shingo; Suzuki, Keiji; Suzuki, Tomoko; Kaneko, Akiyo; Mitsuma, Tadamichi
A woman started to feel intractable pain on her lower legs when she was 76. At the age of 78, she was diagnosed as having Parkinson's disease (PD). The leg pain was suspected to be a symptom of PD after eliminating other causes. The patient also suffered from nonmotor symptoms, depression, anxiety, hot flashes, and paroxysmal sweating. Though the patient had received pharmacotherapy including levodopa for 5 years, she still suffered from the nonmotor symptoms and was referred to our department. We treated her with acupuncture based on the Chinese traditional medicine and electroacupuncture five times per week. After the 2-week treatment, the assessment for the symptoms was as follows; visual analogue scale (VAS) score of the leg pain was 16 mm (70 mm, before), Hamilton's rating scales for depression (HAM-D) score was 9 (18, before), timed 3 m Up and Go took 20 steps in 30 sec (24 steps in 38 sec, before), and the Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) Part 1 score was 13 (21, before). Autonomic symptoms, hot flashes and paroxysmal sweating, were also alleviated. Acupuncture may be a good treatment modality for nonmotor symptoms in PD.
White, Ursula E; Black, Alex A; Wood, Joanne M; Delbaere, Kim
Falls are the leading cause of injury-related morbidity and mortality among older adults. In addition to the resulting physical injury and potential disability after a fall, there are also important psychological consequences, including depression, anxiety, activity restriction, and fear of falling. Fear of falling affects 20 to 43% of community-dwelling older adults and is not limited to those who have previously experienced a fall. About half of older adults who experience fear of falling subsequently restrict their physical and everyday activities, which can lead to functional decline, depression, increased falls risk, and reduced quality of life. Although there is clear evidence that older adults with visual impairment have higher falls risk, only a limited number of studies have investigated fear of falling in older adults with visual impairment and the findings have been mixed. Recent studies suggest increased levels of fear of falling among older adults with various eye conditions, including glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration, whereas other studies have failed to find differences. Interventions, which are still in their infancy in the general population, are also largely unexplored in those with visual impairment. The major aims of this review were to provide an overview of the literature on fear of falling, its measurement, and risk factors among older populations, with specific focus on older adults with visual impairment, and to identify directions for future research in this area.
Soler-Cedeño, Omar; Cruz, Emmanuel; Criado-Marrero, Marangelie; Porter, James T
Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) show hypo-active ventromedial prefrontal cortices (vmPFC) that correlate with their impaired ability to discriminate between safe and dangerous contexts and cues. Previously, we found that auditory fear conditioning depresses the excitability of neurons populating the homologous structure in rodents, the infralimbic cortex (IL). However, it is undetermined if IL depression was mediated by the cued or contextual information. The objective of this study was to examine whether contextual information was sufficient to depress IL neuronal excitability. After exposing rats to context-alone, pseudoconditioning, or contextual fear conditioning, we used whole-cell current-clamp recordings to examine the excitability of IL neurons in prefrontal brain slices. We found that contextual fear conditioning reduced IL neuronal firing in response to depolarizing current steps. In addition, neurons from contextual fear conditioned animals showed increased slow afterhyperpolarization potentials (sAHPs). Moreover, the observed changes in IL excitability correlated with contextual fear expression, suggesting that IL depression may contribute to the encoding of contextual fear.
Background While evidence supports efficacy of acupuncture and/or dry needling in treating musculoskeletal pain, it is unclear which needling method is most effective. This study aims to determine the effects of depth of needle penetration on muscle pain. Methods A total of 22 healthy volunteers performed repeated eccentric contractions to induce muscle soreness in their extensor digital muscle. Subjects were assigned randomly to four groups, namely control group, skin group (depth of 3 mm: the extensor digital muscle), muscle group (depth of 10 mm: the extensor digital muscle) and non-segmental group (depth of 10 mm: the anterior tibial muscle). Pressure pain threshold and electrical pain threshold of the skin, fascia and muscle were measured at a point 20 mm distal to the maximum tender point on the second day after the exercise. Results Pressure pain thresholds of skin group (depth of 3 mm: the extensor digital muscle) and muscle group (depth of 10 mm: the extensor digital muscle) were significantly higher than the control group, whereas the electrical pain threshold at fascia of muscle group (depth of 10 mm: the extensor digital muscle) was a significantly higher than control group; however, there was no significant difference between the control and other groups. Conclusion The present study shows that acupuncture stimulation of muscle increases the PPT and EPT of fascia. The depth of needle penetration is important for the relief of muscle pain. PMID:21696603
Cheng, Fung Kei
Parkinson's disease, a progressive neuro-degeneration of multiple systems damaging motor and non-motor functions, affects individual and societal dimensions negatively. In addition to standard treatments, complementary and alternative medicine has been adopted, in which acupuncture, a traditional Chinese medical practice by needle penetration at specific stimulation points (acupoints) along the body, indicates positive outcomes in this illness. Apart from offering an overview of using acupuncture in Parkinson's disease, this literature review analyses the effects of acupuncture on Parkinson's-induced physical symptoms and mental problems such as slow movements, stiffness, constipation, and sleep disorders. In light of the 35 reviewed research projects in mainland China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and the United States of America, this study reveals the optimization of this approach through combined therapy and its preventive contribution using acupuncture alone. It also suggests research and practical implications that hint at enhancements in medical applications.
Qu, Shan-Shan; Huang, Yong
Mr. ZENG Tian-zhi, one of the first generation students of CHENG Dan-an in Chengjiang School of acupuncture and Moxibustion, integrated traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine even if just began to study medicine from his mid-life. He has practiced medicine in Guangdong, Guangxi and Hong Kong. He founded the Medical School of Science Acupuncture and Moxibustion in Hong Kong to teach students, impart professional knowledge, write and publish monographs, and carried forward acupuncture with all his life. The medical learning way, medical ethics, medical achievement and experience of Mr. ZENG, and the Scientific Acupuncture Therapeutics will bring a light to the inheritance and development of Chengjiang School and can be reference for the modern medical physicians.
Li, Jun; Xia, Yong; Liu, Li-Gong
Huang's school of acupuncture and moxibustion, whose representative figures are HUANG Hong-fang and HUANG Xian-ming, is one of the schools of acupuncture and moxibustion in Shanghai. The life stories of the representative figures of Huang's school of acupuncture and moxibustion and three academic viewpoints of Huang's school are briefly introduced in this article: (1) syndrome differentiation for seeking the pathogenic roots and developing treatment principle based on the roots; (2) focusing on spleen and stomach and putting stomach first in the treatment; (3) simple point selection with clear structures showing major and assistant points. Their characteristics of the needling techniques are summarized, involving needling manipulations, qi induction, reinforcing and reducing method, etc. so as to lay a foundation for further study and inheritance of the academic thought in Huang's school of acupuncture and moxibustion.
Acar, H Volkan
Acupuncture has been used in the Far East for more than 2000 years. Since the early 1970s, this technique has been gaining popularity among Western medical community. A number of studies suggest that its mechanism of effect can be explained in biomedical terms. In this context, a number of transmitters and modulators including beta-endorphin, serotonin, substance P, interleukins, and calcitonin gene-related peptide are released. For that reason, acupuncture can be used in a wide variety of clinical conditions. Studies showed that acupuncture may have beneficial effect in perioperative period. It relieves preoperative anxiety, decreases postoperative analgesic requirements, and decreases the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. In this review article, we examine perioperative use of acupuncture for a variety of conditions.