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Sample records for acute alcohol effects

  1. After-effects of acute alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    York, J L; Regan, S G

    1988-01-01

    Female, Long-Evans hooded rats (N = 10, 4 months of age) were given ethanol via intragastric intubation in doses of 2.0, 3.0 or 4.0 g/kg (repeated measures design). After-effects (hypothermia, free operant activity, motor performance) were measured at six, twelve and sixteen hours, respectively, for the above doses and were compared to the effects observed after the intubation of equivolume amounts of tap water. The after-effects of ethanol on rectal temperature were varied. Both rotarod performance and free operant activity were impaired after each of the above doses of ethanol. Blood ethanol analyses revealed low blood levels of ethanol (range 6.6 +/- 1.5 to 24.6 +/- 3.4 mg/100 ml) at the time behavioral tests were performed. Thus, quantifiable behavioral impairment was observed after blood ethanol values had declined following acute intoxication episodes. These changes may be related to "hangover" symptomatology in man and may serve as a model for investigating the influence of a variety of factors related to drug dosage, rate of ethanol ingestion, type of alcoholic beverage, and prophylactic or acute intervention therapeutics.

  2. The Protective Effects of Buzui on Acute Alcoholism in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Da-Chao; Gao, Shu-di; Hu, Xiao-yu; Yi, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of a traditional buzui recipe in anti-inebriation treatment. Buzui consists of Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis, Fructus Chebulae, Fructus Mume, Fructus Crataegi, Endothelium Corneum Gigeriae Galli, and Excrementum Bombycis. The buzui mixture was delivered by gavage, and ethanol was delivered subsequent to the final treatment. The effects of buzui on the righting reflex, inebriation rates, and the survival curve are depicted. Blood alcohol concentrations, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were recorded. The activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as malonaldehyde (MDA) levels, were also measured. Our results demonstrated that a traditional buzui recipe showed significant effects on promoting wakefulness and the prevention of acute alcohol intoxication, accelerating the metabolism of alcohol in the liver and reducing the oxidative damage caused by acute alcoholism. PMID:26884793

  3. Low dose acute alcohol effects on GABAA receptor subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Wallner, Martin; Hanchar, H. Jacob; Olsen, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    GABAA receptors (GABAARs) are the main inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors and have long been implicated in mediating at least part of the acute actions of ethanol. For example, ethanol and GABAergic drugs including barbiturates and benzodiazepines share many pharmacological properties. Besides the prototypical synaptic GABAAR subtypes, nonsynaptic GABAARs have recently emerged as important regulators of neuronal excitability. While high doses (≥100 mM) of ethanol have been reported to enhance activity of most GABAAR subtypes, most abundant synaptic GABAARs are essentially insensitive to ethanol concentrations that occur during social ethanol consumption (<30 mM). However, extrasynaptic δ and β3 subunit-containing GABAARs, associated in the brain with α4or α6 subunits, are sensitive to low millimolar ethanol concentrations, as produced by drinking half a glass of wine. Additionally, we found that a mutation in the cerebellar α6 subunit (α6R100Q), initially reported in rats selectively bred for increased alcohol sensitivity, is sufficient to produce increased alcohol-induced motor impairment and further increases of alcohol sensitivity in recombinant α6β3δ receptors. Furthermore, the behavioral alcohol antagonist Ro15-4513 blocks the low dose alcohol enhancement on α4/6/β3δ receptors, without reducing GABA-induced currents. In binding assays α4β3δ GABAARs bind [3H] Ro15-4513 with high affinity, and this binding is inhibited, in an apparently competitive fashion, by low ethanol concentrations, as well as analogs of Ro15-4513 that are active to antagonize ethanol or Ro15-4513’s block of ethanol. We conclude that most low to moderate dose alcohol effects are mediated by alcohol actions on alcohol/Ro15-4513 binding sites on GABAAR subtypes. PMID:16814864

  4. Effect of acute alcohol use on the lethality of suicide attempts in patients with mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Sher, Leo; Oquendo, Maria A; Richardson-Vejlgaard, Randall; Makhija, Nita M; Posner, Kelly; Mann, J John; Stanley, Barbara H

    2009-07-01

    Acute alcohol use is an important risk factor for attempted and completed suicide. We evaluated the effect of acute alcohol intake on the lethality of suicide attempts to test the hypothesis that acute alcohol intoxication is associated with more lethal suicide attempts. This retrospective study included 317 suicide attempters enrolled in mood disorders protocols. Demographic and clinical parameters were assessed. The use of alcohol at the time of the most lethal suicide attempt was determined. On the basis of their responses participants were classified into three groups: participants who reported "Enough alcohol intake to impair judgment, reality testing and diminish responsibility" or "Intentional intake of alcohol in order to facilitate implementation of attempt" were included in the group "Alcohol" (A); participants who reported "Some alcohol intake prior to but not related to attempt, reportedly not enough to impair judgment, reality testing" were included in the group "Some Alcohol" (SA); and participants who reported "No alcohol intake immediately prior to attempt" were included in the group "No Alcohol" (NA). Lethality of the most lethal suicide attempts was higher in the A group compared to the SA and NA groups. Prevalence of patients with alcohol use disorders was higher in the A group compared to the SA and NA groups. SA participants reported more reasons for living and lower suicide intent scores at the time of their most lethal suicide attempt compared to the A and NA groups. Acute alcohol use increases the lethality of suicide attempts in individuals with mood disorders.

  5. The effects of acute alcohol administration on the human brain: insights from neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Bjork, James M; Gilman, Jodi M

    2014-09-01

    Over the last quarter century, researchers have peered into the living human brain to develop and refine mechanistic accounts of alcohol-induced behavior, as well as neurobiological mechanisms for development and maintenance of addiction. These in vivo neuroimaging studies generally show that acute alcohol administration affects brain structures implicated in motivation and behavior control, and that chronic intoxication is correlated with structural and functional abnormalities in these same structures, where some elements of these decrements normalize with extended sobriety. In this review, we will summarize recent findings about acute human brain responses to alcohol using neuroimaging techniques, and how they might explain behavioral effects of alcohol intoxication. We then briefly address how chronic alcohol intoxication (as inferred from cross-sectional differences between various drinking populations and controls) may yield individual brain differences between drinking subjects that may confound interpretation of acute alcohol administration effects. This article is part of the Special Issue Section entitled 'Neuroimaging in Neuropharmacology'.

  6. Alternative substance paradigm: effectiveness of beverage blinding and effects on acute alcohol responses.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Megan; McNamara, Patrick; King, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    A fundamental goal of double-blind alcohol challenge studies is to reduce alcohol expectancies, though there is little research on the effectiveness of blinding procedures and their relationship to acute alcohol responses. This study examined social drinkers' perception of beverage content and related alcohol response during 3 separate double-blind experimental sessions with placebo, low-dose alcohol (0.4 g/kg), and high-dose alcohol (0.8 g/kg). Using the alternative substance paradigm, participants (N = 182) were informed that the beverage they consumed might contain alcohol, a stimulant, a sedative, or a placebo. At several time points, subjective and objective measures were obtained, and participants were asked to identify which substance they received. During both placebo and low-dose alcohol sessions, 33% and 50% of participants, respectively, did not correctly identify the beverage content; during the high-dose alcohol session, 20% did not correctly identify the beverage. Although correct and incorrect identifiers at any dose level did not differ on major background variables, drinking characteristics, or psychomotor performance during these sessions, they did differ on self-reported subjective responses, with greater sedation reported by incorrect identifiers in the placebo and high-dose conditions. In summary, results suggest that the alternative substance paradigm may be a viable option for alcohol laboratory studies, particularly for repeated sessions in within-subject designs and in cases in which the experimenter wants to reduce expectancy by not revealing a priori that alcohol is being administered.

  7. Inhibitory effects of pretreatment with radon on acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Teruaki; Kataoka, Takahiro; Nishiyama, Yuichi; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported that radon inhalation activates antioxidative functions in the liver and inhibits carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatopathy in mice. In addition, it has been reported that reactive oxygen species contribute to alcohol-induced hepatopathy. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of radon inhalation on acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of 50% alcohol (5 g/kg bodyweight) after inhaling approximately 4000 Bq/m(3) radon for 24 h. Alcohol administration significantly increased the activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) in serum, and the levels of triglyceride and lipid peroxide in the liver, suggesting acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy. Radon inhalation activated antioxidative functions in the liver. Furthermore, pretreatment with radon inhibited the depression of hepatic functions and antioxidative functions. These findings suggested that radon inhalation activated antioxidative functions in the liver and inhibited acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice.

  8. Functional biomarkers for the acute effects of alcohol on the central nervous system in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Zoethout, Remco W M; Delgado, Wilson L; Ippel, Annelies E; Dahan, Albert; van Gerven, Joop M A

    2011-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) effects of acute alcohol administration have been frequently assessed. Such studies often use a wide range of methods to study each of these effects. Unfortunately, the sensitivity of these tests has not completely been ascertained. A literature search was performed to recognize the most useful tests (or biomarkers) for identifying the acute CNS effects of alcohol in healthy volunteers. All tests were grouped in clusters and functional domains. Afterwards, the effect of alcohol administration on these tests was scored as improvement, impairment or as no effect. Furthermore, dose–response relationships were established. A total number of 218 studies, describing 342 different tests (or test variants) were evaluated. Alcohol affected a wide range of CNS domains. Divided attention, focused attention, visuo-motor control and scales of feeling high and of subjective drug effects were identified as the most sensitive functional biomarkers for the acute CNS effects of alcohol. The large number of CNS tests that are used to determine the effects of alcohol interferes with the identification of the most sensitive ones and of drug–response relationships. Our results may be helpful in selecting rational biomarkers for studies investigating the acute CNS effects of alcohol or for future alcohol- interaction studies. PMID:21284693

  9. Acute effects of nicotine on alcohol cue-reactivity in nondependent and dependent smokers.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Daniel S; Peloquin, Marcel P; Ferdinand, Justin C; Barrett, Sean P

    2015-02-01

    Evidence from alcohol self-administration studies suggests that nicotine replacement therapy may influence subjective and behavioral responses to alcohol. However, its effect on alcohol cue-reactivity is unknown. The present study examined the impact of acutely administered nicotine on subjective responses to alcohol-focused pictorial stimuli. In a mixed within/between-subjects design, nondependent smokers (n = 51) and dependent smokers (n = 45) who socially drink were assigned to either a nicotine (4 mg) or placebo lozenge condition following overnight tobacco abstinence. Following lozenge absorption, participants viewed neutral images followed by alcohol-focused pictures. Craving measures for alcohol and tobacco were completed at baseline, following lozenge absorption, following neutral cues, and following alcohol cues. The presentation of alcohol cues increased alcohol-related craving relative to neutral cues, especially among men, but the administration of nicotine did not influence the magnitude of these effects. Nicotine lozenges were found to decrease intentions to smoke and withdrawal-related craving in dependent but not in nondependent smokers. Finally, the presentation of alcohol cues was found to increase intentions to smoke relative to neutral cues across participants regardless of lozenge condition. Findings suggest that although the presentation of alcohol cues can increase alcohol- and tobacco-related cravings in smokers, such effects do not appear to be affected by acute nicotine administration. PMID:25643027

  10. Acute effects of ethanol on sex hormones in non-alcoholic men and women.

    PubMed

    Ellingboe, J

    1987-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption has long been known to interfere with reproductive function and sexual behavior, but specific effects of acute alcohol ingestion on sex hormones have been studied only recently. An attempt is made in this review to summarize and explain conflicting results from studies of the acute effects of alcohol on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, with healthy non-alcoholic men and women as subjects. In men, moderate to high doses of ethanol have been reported to suppress plasma testosterone. Although some clinical studies have not supported this observation, considerable evidence documents direct alcohol inhibition of testosterone biosynthesis in the testis. After alcohol ingestion, plasma LH remains unchanged or increases, probably because of reduced androgen negative feedback. In analogous studies with women during the late follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, alcohol does not decrease plasma estradiol or alter LH levels. Furthermore, it has been reported that plasma levels of estradiol, progesterone and testosterone increase during alcohol treatment in the midluteal phase, while gonadotropins tend to decrease. Alcohol has no effect on LH secretion in post-menopausal women. Because reports on the acute effects of alcohol in men have not been consistent, it remains to be determined if acute alcohol effects in men and women are really different. In men, provocative tests of gonadotropin response to LHRH stimulation were normal during periods of intoxication and hangover, indicating that ethanol has no significant direct effect on LH secretion at the pituitary level. It seems more likely that alcohol changes plasma levels of sex steroids by altering hepatic, gonadal, and possibly adrenal metabolism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Acute and chronic alcohol administration: effects on performance of zebrafish in a latent learning task.

    PubMed

    Luchiari, Ana C; Salajan, Diana C; Gerlai, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Alcohol abuse is a major medical problem. Zebrafish have been proposed to model alcohol related human disorders. Alcohol impairs learning and memory. Here, we analyze the effects of alcohol on performance of zebrafish in a recently developed latent learning paradigm. We employ a 2×3×2 experimental design (chronic×acute alcohol treatment×path blocked). The latent learning task had two phases: one, 30min long exploration trials (16 days, 1 trial/day) with left or right path of a complex maze blocked, and two, a subsequent probe trial with all paths open leading to a goal box that now contained stimulus fish. During the 16 days each fish received one of two chronic treatments: freshwater or 0.50% (v/v%) alcohol. Subsequently, fish were immersed for 1h in one of the following solutions: 0.00 (freshwater), 0.50% or 1.00% alcohol, the acute challenge. Behavior of fish was recorded during the probe trial that commenced immediately after the acute treatment. Path choices, latency to leave the start box and to enter the goal box, time spent in the goal box, distance traveled, and duration of freezing were quantified. We found that acute exposure to 1.00% alcohol after chronic freshwater disrupted learning performance, so did exposure to freshwater after chronic alcohol treatment (withdrawal). We also found exposure to chronic alcohol to diminish the effect of subsequent acute alcohol suggesting development of tolerance. Our results demonstrate that analysis of learning performance of zebrafish allows detection of alcohol-induced functional changes. The simplicity and scalability of the employed task also imply the utility of the zebrafish in high throughput drug screens. PMID:25557800

  12. Acute and Chronic Alcohol Administration: Effects on Performance of Zebrafish in a Latent Learning Task

    PubMed Central

    Luchiari, Ana C; Salajan, Diana C; Gerlai, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a major medical problem. Zebrafish have been proposed to model alcohol related human disorders. Alcohol impairs learning and memory. Here, we analyze the effects of alcohol on performance of zebrafish in a recently developed latent learning paradigm. We employ a 2 × 3 × 2 experimental design (chronic × acute alcohol treatment × path blocked). The latent learning task had two phases: one, 30 min long exploration trials (16 days, 1 trial/day) with left or right path of a complex maze blocked, and two, a subsequent probe trial with all paths open leading to a goal box that now contained stimulus fish. During the 16 days each fish received one of two chronic treatments: freshwater or 0.50% (vol/vol%) alcohol. Subsequently, fish were immersed for 1h in one of the following solutions: 0.00 (freshwater), 0.50 or 1.00% alcohol, the acute challange. Behavior of fish was recorded during the probe trial that commenced immediately after the acute treatment. Path choices, latency to leave the start box and to enter the goal box, time spent in the goal box, distance travelled, and duration of freezing were quantified. We found that acute exposure to 1.00% alcohol after chronic freshwater disrupted learning performance, so did exposure to freshwater after chronic alcohol treatment (withdrawal). We also found exposure to chronic alcohol to diminish the effect of subsequent acute alcohol suggesting development of tolerance. Our results demonstrate that analysis of learning performance of zebrafish allows detection of alcohol-induced functional changes. The simplicity and scalability of the employed task also imply the utility of the zebrafish in high throughput drug screens. PMID:25557800

  13. Differential Effects of Acute Alcohol on EEG and Sedative Responses in Adolescent and Adult Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pian, Jerry P.; Criado, Jose R.; Walker, Brendan M.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2008-01-01

    Age-related developmental differences in sensitivity to the acute effects of alcohol may play an important role in the development of alcoholism. The present study was designed to evaluate the acute effects of alcohol on cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) in adolescent (P36) and adult (P78) Wistar rats. Five minutes of EEG was recorded after administration of 0, 0.75 or 1.5 g/kg alcohol. The righting reflex was performed to measure the sedative effects of alcohol (3.5 g/kg) and total sleeping time for each rat. Our results showed that alcohol (1.5 g/kg) increased power in the 1–2 Hz band and decreased the power in the 32–50 Hz band in the parietal cortical region of adolescent rats. Alcohol (1.5 g/kg) also increased stability of the EEG power in the slow-wave frequency bands (2–4 Hz, 4–6 Hz, and 6–8 Hz) of adolescent rats. In the frontal cortex of adult rats, but not in adolescent rats, alcohol (1.5 or 0.75 g/kg) decreased the power in the 16–32 Hz frequency band. Alcohol (1.5 g/kg) differentially increased power in a multiple of slow-wave frequency bands (2–4 Hz and 4–6 Hz) in the parietal cortex of adult rats as compared to adolescent rats. Adolescent rats were shown significantly shorter sleeping time and higher blood alcohol levels after regaining reflex than adult rats. Our results provide additional evidence of age-related differences in the effects of acute alcohol on cortical EEG, sedation and tolerance. PMID:18191821

  14. Electroencephalographic study of naloxone effects in the recovery of an acute alcoholic intoxication.

    PubMed

    Dawid-Milner, M S; Díaz-Calavia, E J; Lara, J P; Fernández del Moral, R; Jiménez-Vargas, J

    1989-06-01

    Experimental assays analysing EEG changes during the recovery of an acute alcoholic intoxication were carried out in three groups of cats: 1) Recovery of acute alcoholic intoxication produced by continuous intravenous perfusion of ethanol, 0.06 g/kg/min, during 20 minutes. 2) Recovery of acute alcoholic intoxication by injecting naloxone (400 micrograms/kg), just after finishing alcohol perfusion. 3) Recovery of acute alcoholic intoxication by injecting naloxone (400 micrograms/kg), 15 min after finishing perfusion. Naloxone administered after an acute alcoholic intoxication worsens the recovery of EEG parameters; 1-2 (p less than 0.05), 1-3 (p less than 0.05).

  15. Acute alcohol effects on narrative recall and contextual memory: an examination of fragmentary blackouts.

    PubMed

    Wetherill, Reagan R; Fromme, Kim

    2011-08-01

    The present study examined the effects of alcohol consumption on narrative recall and contextual memory among individuals with and without a history of fragmentary blackouts in an attempt to better understand why some individuals experience alcohol-induced memory impairments whereas others do not, even at comparable blood alcohol concentrations (BACs). Standardized beverage (alcohol and no alcohol) administration procedures and neuropsychological assessments measured narrative recall and context memory performance before and after alcohol consumption in individuals with (n=44) and without (n=44) a history of fragmentary blackouts. Findings indicate that acute alcohol intoxication led to impairments in free recall, but not next-day cued recall. Further, participants showed similar memory performance when sober, but individuals who consumed alcohol and had a positive history of fragmentary blackouts showed greater contextual memory impairments than those who had not previously experienced a fragmentary blackout. Thus, it appears that some individuals may have an inherent vulnerability to alcohol-induced memory impairments due to alcohol's effects on contextual memory processes. PMID:21497445

  16. No Effects of Acute Alcohol Ingestion on Subjective Visual Horizontal Determination During Eccentric Rotation.

    PubMed

    Lindgren; Svenson; Olsson; Ödkvist; Ledin

    1998-01-01

    Evaluating the function of the vestibular part of the inner ear comprises more than the classic analysis of the lateral semicircular canal function. In healthy subjects, positional alcohol nystagmus may be seen after acute alcohol ingestion. Posturography has shown a deteriorated equilibrium after even moderate doses of alcohol, which speculatively could be an effect of otolith disturbance or a central integrative effect. We tested the possibility of an otolith effect by using linear acceleration in the lateral direction by means of eccentric rotation, stimulating mainly the outermost ear's otolith organ. The subject is seated eccentrically in a rotatory chair facing the direction of rotation. Thus, the otolith organs are stimulated in steady-state rotation. The subject experiences a lateral tilt and, in darkness, is instructed to put a short light bar in the position thought to be that of a water surface, which is identical to the perceived tilt. Twenty healthy subjects (10 men, 10 women) aged 20-29 years were tested before and approximately 1 hour after ingestion of alcohol, the amounts consumed corresponding to an approximate blood alcohol level of 0.05%, well above the maximum permissible level for driving in Sweden. No significant effects of alcohol were found. The otolith function probably is not affected by moderate alcohol intoxication levels. From this point of view, equilibrium deterioration due to alcohol ingestion in the erect position is caused by a central integrative deficit and not by an otolith effect.

  17. Behavioral economic analysis of stress effects on acute motivation for alcohol.

    PubMed

    Owens, Max M; Ray, Lara A; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    Due to issues of definition and measurement, the heavy emphasis on subjective craving in the measurement of acute motivation for alcohol and other drugs remains controversial. Behavioral economic approaches have increasingly been applied to better understand acute drug motivation, particularly using demand curve modeling via purchase tasks to characterize the perceived reinforcing value of the drug. This approach has focused on using putatively more objective indices of motivation, such as units of consumption, monetary expenditure, and price sensitivity. To extend this line of research, the current study used an alcohol purchase task to determine if, compared to a neutral induction, a personalized stress induction would increase alcohol demand in a sample of heavy drinkers. The stress induction significantly increased multiple measures of the reinforcing value of alcohol to the individual, including consumption at zero price (intensity), the maximum total amount of money spent on alcohol (Omax), the first price where consumption was reduced to zero (breakpoint), and the general responsiveness of consumption to increases in price (elasticity). These measures correlated only modestly with craving and mood. Self-reported income was largely unrelated to demand but moderated the influence of stress on Omax. Moderation based on CRH-BP genotype (rs10055255) was present for Omax, with T allele homozygotes exhibiting more pronounced increases in response to stress. These results provide further support for a behavioral economic approach to measuring acute drug motivation. The findings also highlight the potential relevance of income and genetic factors in understanding state effects on the perceived reinforcing value of alcohol.

  18. Acute Alcohol Effects on Repetition Priming and Word Recognition Memory with Equivalent Memory Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Suchismita; Bates, Marsha E.

    2006-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication effects on memory were examined using a recollection-based word recognition memory task and a repetition priming task of memory for the same information without explicit reference to the study context. Memory cues were equivalent across tasks; encoding was manipulated by varying the frequency of occurrence (FOC) of words…

  19. Acute Ethanol Effects on Brain Activation in Low- and High-Level Responders to Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Trim, Ryan S.; Simmons, Alan N.; Tolentino, Neil J.; Hall, Shana A.; Matthews, Scott C.; Robinson, Shannon K.; Smith, Tom L.; Padula, Claudia B.; Paulus, Martin P.; Tapert, Susan F.; Schuckit, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    Background A low level of response (LR) to alcohol is an important endophenotype associated with an increased risk for alcoholism. However, little is known about how neural functioning may differ between individuals with low and high LRs to alcohol. This study examined whether LR group effects on neural activity varied as a function of acute alcohol consumption. Methods 30 matched high- and low-LR pairs (N=60 healthy young adults) were recruited from the University of California, San Diego and administered a structured diagnostic interview and laboratory alcohol challenge followed by two fMRI sessions under placebo and alcohol conditions, in randomized order. Task performance and BOLD response contrast to high relative to low working memory load in an event-related visual working memory (VWM) task was examined across 120 fMRI sessions. Results Both LR groups performed similarly on the VWM task across conditions. A significant LR group by condition interaction effect was observed in inferior frontal and cingulate regions, such that alcohol attenuated the LR group differences found under placebo (p<.05). The LR group by condition effect remained even after controlling for cerebral blood flow, age, and typical drinking quantity. Conclusions Alcohol had differential effects on brain activation for low and high LR individuals within frontal and cingulate regions. These findings represent an additional step in the search for physiological correlates of a low LR, and identify brain regions that may be associated with the low LR response. PMID:20477775

  20. Effects of acute alcohol consumption on the perception of eye gaze direction.

    PubMed

    Penton-Voak, Ian S; Cooper, Robbie M; Roberts, Rachel E; Attwood, Angela S; Munafò, Marcus R

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increases in aggressive behaviour, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood. One mechanism by which alcohol consumption may influence behaviour is via alterations in the processing of social cues such as gaze. We investigated the effects of acute alcohol consumption on the perception of gaze, using a task in which participants determined whether a stimulus face was looking towards or away from them. Gaze direction varied across trials, allowing calculation of a threshold at which participants considered gaze to switch from direct to averted. Target faces varied in both sex and attractiveness. Thirty social drinkers attended three randomized experimental sessions. At each session, participants consumed 0.0, 0.2 or 0.4 g/kg alcohol, and completed the gaze perception task. A significant three-way interaction involving target sex, participant sex and alcohol dose indicated that alcohol increased the cone of gaze for females viewing male targets (i.e. females were biased towards making a direct gaze judgement), but decreased the cone of gaze for males viewing male targets. Our data indicate that alcohol consumption influences gaze perception, but that these effects vary across sex of both stimulus and rater. These effects may have important implications for alcohol-related violence.

  1. Effects of acute alcohol consumption on the perception of eye gaze direction.

    PubMed

    Penton-Voak, Ian S; Cooper, Robbie M; Roberts, Rachel E; Attwood, Angela S; Munafò, Marcus R

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increases in aggressive behaviour, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood. One mechanism by which alcohol consumption may influence behaviour is via alterations in the processing of social cues such as gaze. We investigated the effects of acute alcohol consumption on the perception of gaze, using a task in which participants determined whether a stimulus face was looking towards or away from them. Gaze direction varied across trials, allowing calculation of a threshold at which participants considered gaze to switch from direct to averted. Target faces varied in both sex and attractiveness. Thirty social drinkers attended three randomized experimental sessions. At each session, participants consumed 0.0, 0.2 or 0.4 g/kg alcohol, and completed the gaze perception task. A significant three-way interaction involving target sex, participant sex and alcohol dose indicated that alcohol increased the cone of gaze for females viewing male targets (i.e. females were biased towards making a direct gaze judgement), but decreased the cone of gaze for males viewing male targets. Our data indicate that alcohol consumption influences gaze perception, but that these effects vary across sex of both stimulus and rater. These effects may have important implications for alcohol-related violence. PMID:20937615

  2. Acute effects of alcohol on memory: impact of emotional context and serial position.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jennie; Brignell, Catherine M; Dhiman, Sharinjeet K; Curran, H Valerie; Kamboj, Sunjeev K

    2010-03-01

    Although the amnestic effects of alcohol in humans are well known, its effects on emotional memory are unclear. In this study, using a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design, we examine narrative emotional episodic memory in healthy human female volunteers (n=32) who received either a single dose of alcohol (0.6g/kg), or a placebo and then viewed neutral story elements presented in either a neutral or emotional context. Memory was tested for gist and detail of the neutral elements 3days later in a surprise recognition test. Since alcohol modulates GABAergic neurotransmission and may exert its effects on emotion through the limbic system, we predicted that acute alcohol treatment would reduce the expected emotional memory-advantage for gist, leaving detail memory relatively unaffected. Furthermore, given previous findings showing that 'primacy' memory is enhanced by physiological arousal, we predicted that reduced arousal produced by alcohol would have the opposite effect and impair primacy memory relative to the middle or 'recency' sections of the narrative. Emotional arousal was expected to oppose this effect, so impaired primacy memory following alcohol was only expected in the neutral version of the narrative. Although there was a main effect of story phase (though not of story version), contrary to expectations, alcohol impaired primacy memory for emotionally encoded neutral material. The results suggest that under certain circumstances emotional context or physiological arousal make memories labile and susceptible to disruption through pharmacological manipulation during encoding.

  3. The effects of acute alcohol on motor impairments in adolescent, adult, and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Ornelas, Laura C; Novier, Adelle; Van Skike, Candice E; Diaz-Granados, Jaime L; Matthews, Douglas B

    2015-03-01

    Acute alcohol exposure has been shown to produce differential motor impairments between aged and adult rats and between adolescent and adult rats. However, the effects of acute alcohol exposure among adolescent, adult, and aged rats have yet to be systematically investigated within the same project using a dose-dependent analysis. We sought to determine the age- and dose-dependent effects of acute alcohol exposure on gross and coordinated motor performance across the rodent lifespan. Adolescent (PD 30), adult (PD 70), and aged (approximately 18 months) male Sprague-Dawley rats were tested on 3 separate motor tasks: aerial righting reflex (ARR), accelerating rotarod (RR), and loss of righting reflex (LORR). In a separate group of animals, blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) were determined at multiple time points following a 3.0 g/kg ethanol injection. Behavioral tests were conducted with a Latin square repeated-measures design in which all animals received the following doses: 1.0 g/kg or 2.0 g/kg alcohol or saline over 3 separate sessions via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. During testing, motor impairments were assessed on the RR 10 min post-injection and on ARR 20 min post-injection. Aged animals spent significantly less time on the RR when administered 1.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adult rats. In addition, motor performance impairments significantly increased with age after 2.0 g/kg alcohol administration. On the ARR test, aged rats were more sensitive to the effects of 1.0 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adolescents and adults. Seven days after the last testing session, animals were given 3.0 g/kg alcohol and LORR was examined. During LORR, aged animals slept longer compared to adult and adolescent rats. This effect cannot be explained solely by BEC levels in aged rats. The present study suggests that acute alcohol exposure produces greater motor impairments in older rats when compared to adolescent and adult rats and begins to establish a

  4. Kudzu Extract Treatment Does Not Increase the Intoxicating Effects of Acute Alcohol in Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Penetar, David M.; MacLean, Robert R.; McNeil, Jane F.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Isoflavone administration in the form of a purified extract from the herbal medication kudzu root has been shown to reduce, but not eliminate, alcohol consumption in alcohol-abusing and alcohol-dependent men. The precise mechanism of this action is unknown, but one possible explanation for these results is that the isoflavones in kudzu might actually increase the intensity or duration of alcohol’s effects and thus delay the desire for subsequent drinks. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis. Methods Twelve (12) healthy adult men and women (27.5±1.89 yrs old) who consumed moderate amounts of alcohol (7.8±0.63 drinks/week) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study in which they were treated with either kudzu extract (total isoflavone dose of 750 mg/day) or matched placebo for nine days. On days 8 and 9, participants received an acute challenge of ethyl alcohol (either 0.35 or 0.7 g/kg alcohol). During the challenges the following measures were collected: subjective effects, psychomotor (body sway), cognitive performance (vigilance/reaction time), physiological measures (heart rate and skin temperature), and plasma ethanol concentration. Results Alcohol resulted in a dose-related alteration in subjective measures of intoxication, impairment of stance stability, and vigilance/reaction time. Kudzu extract did not alter participants’ subjective responses to the alcohol challenge or to alcohol’s effects on stance stability or vigilance/reaction time. However, individuals treated with kudzu extract experienced a slightly more rapid rise in plasma ethanol levels, but only after the 0.7 g/kg dose. This transient effect during the first 30 minutes of the ascending plasma alcohol curve lasted only 10-15 minutes; there were no differences in peak plasma alcohol levels or alcohol elimination kinetics. Additionally, kudzu pretreatment enhanced the effects of the 0.7 g/kg dose of alcohol on heart rate and skin

  5. Effects of acute alcohol withdrawal on nest building in mice selectively bred for alcohol withdrawal severity.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Gian D; Phillips, Tamara J; Crabbe, John C

    2016-10-15

    Nest building has been used to assess thermoregulatory behavior and positive motivational states in mice. There are known genetic influences on ethanol withdrawal severity as well as individual/thermoregulatory nest building. Withdrawal Seizure-Prone (WSP-1, WSP-2) and Withdrawal Seizure-Resistant (WSR-1, WSR-2) mice were selectively bred for high vs low handling-induced convulsion (HIC) severity, respectively, during withdrawal from chronic ethanol vapor inhalation. They also differ in HIC severity during withdrawal from an acute, 4g/kg ethanol injection. In our initial study, withdrawal from an acute dose of ethanol dose-dependently impaired nest building over the initial 24h of withdrawal in genetically segregating Withdrawal Seizure Control (WSC) mice. In two further studies, acute ethanol withdrawal suppressed nest building for up to two days in WSP-1 females. Deficits in nest building from ethanol were limited to the initial 10h of withdrawal in WSR-1 females and to the initial 24h of withdrawal in WSP-1 and WSR-1 males. Effects of ethanol on nest building for up to two days were found in WSP-2 and WSR-2 mice of both sexes. Nest building deficits in female mice from the first replicate could not be explained by a general decrease in locomotor behavior. These results suggest that nest building is a novel behavioral phenotype for indexing the severity of acute ethanol withdrawal, and that genes contributing to this trait differ from those affecting acute withdrawal HIC severity. PMID:27503811

  6. Protective effect of calpain inhibitor N-acetyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-norleucinal on acute alcohol consumption related cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kartkaya, Kazim; Kanbak, Güngör; Oğlakçı, Ayşegül; Burukoğlu, Dilek; Ozer, Mehmet Caner

    2014-10-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption and alcoholism cause medical problems with high mortality and morbidity rates. In this study we aimed to decrease the alcohol related tissue damage by inhibiting calpain activation which plays an important role in apoptosis and necrosis, in rats with cardiomyopathy induced by acute alcohol consumption. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into four groups (control, vehicle, alcohol and alcohol + inhibitor) with 10 rats in each. Control group received isocaloric maltose while vehicle group received isocaloric maltose with DMSO, and alcohol group received 8 g/kg absolute ethanol by gavage. Inhibitor group received 20 mg/kg calpain inhibitor 1 intraperitonally prior to alcohol administration. Calpain activities, cathepsin L levels and cytochrome c release rates were significantly increased in alcohol group compared to control group (p < 0.05). Serum CK MB and BNP levels of alcohol group were excessively increased compared to control group (respectively p < 0.001 and p < 0.01). Serum BNP levels of alcohol + inhibitor group were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased compared to alcohol group. In addition to these, histological evaluation of light microscope images and the results of DNA fragmentation and immunohistochemical caspase-3 activity results showed significant improvement of these parameters in alcohol + inhibitor group compared to alcohol group. Results of our biochemical and histological evaluation results revealed that the calpain inhibitor N-acetyl-leu-leu-norleucinal may have an ameliorating effect on acute alcohol consumption related cardiac tissue damage due to its effects on cell death pathways. PMID:24996291

  7. Acute effect of alcohol intake on sine-wave Cartesian and polar contrast sensitivity functions.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti-Galdino, M K; Silva, J A da; Mendes, L C; Santos, N A da; Simas, M L B

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess contrast sensitivity for angular frequency stimuli as well as for sine-wave gratings in adults under the effect of acute ingestion of alcohol. We measured the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for gratings of 0.25, 1.25, 2.5, 4, 10, and 20 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd) as well as for angular frequency stimuli of 1, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 cycles/360°. Twenty adults free of ocular diseases, with normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity, and no history of alcoholism were enrolled in two experimental groups: 1) no alcohol intake (control group) and 2) alcohol ingestion (experimental group). The average concentration of alcohol in the experimental group was set to about 0.08%. We used a paradigm involving a forced-choice method. Maximum sensitivity to contrast for sine-wave gratings in the two groups occurred at 4 cpd sine-wave gratings and at 24 and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Significant changes in contrast sensitivity were observed after alcohol intake compared with the control condition at spatial frequency of 4 cpd and 1, 24, and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Alcohol intake seems to affect the processing of sine-wave gratings at maximum sensitivity and at the low and high frequency ends for angular frequency stimuli, both under photopic luminance conditions.

  8. Acute effect of alcohol intake on sine-wave Cartesian and polar contrast sensitivity functions

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti-Galdino, M.K.; da Silva, J.A.; Mendes, L.C.; dos Santos, N.A.; Simas, M.L.B.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess contrast sensitivity for angular frequency stimuli as well as for sine-wave gratings in adults under the effect of acute ingestion of alcohol. We measured the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for gratings of 0.25, 1.25, 2.5, 4, 10, and 20 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd) as well as for angular frequency stimuli of 1, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 cycles/360°. Twenty adults free of ocular diseases, with normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity, and no history of alcoholism were enrolled in two experimental groups: 1) no alcohol intake (control group) and 2) alcohol ingestion (experimental group). The average concentration of alcohol in the experimental group was set to about 0.08%. We used a paradigm involving a forced-choice method. Maximum sensitivity to contrast for sine-wave gratings in the two groups occurred at 4 cpd sine-wave gratings and at 24 and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Significant changes in contrast sensitivity were observed after alcohol intake compared with the control condition at spatial frequency of 4 cpd and 1, 24, and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Alcohol intake seems to affect the processing of sine-wave gratings at maximum sensitivity and at the low and high frequency ends for angular frequency stimuli, both under photopic luminance conditions. PMID:24676473

  9. Behavioral economic analysis of stress effects on acute motivation for alcohol.

    PubMed

    Owens, Max M; Ray, Lara A; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    Due to issues of definition and measurement, the heavy emphasis on subjective craving in the measurement of acute motivation for alcohol and other drugs remains controversial. Behavioral economic approaches have increasingly been applied to better understand acute drug motivation, particularly using demand curve modeling via purchase tasks to characterize the perceived reinforcing value of the drug. This approach has focused on using putatively more objective indices of motivation, such as units of consumption, monetary expenditure, and price sensitivity. To extend this line of research, the current study used an alcohol purchase task to determine if, compared to a neutral induction, a personalized stress induction would increase alcohol demand in a sample of heavy drinkers. The stress induction significantly increased multiple measures of the reinforcing value of alcohol to the individual, including consumption at zero price (intensity), the maximum total amount of money spent on alcohol (Omax), the first price where consumption was reduced to zero (breakpoint), and the general responsiveness of consumption to increases in price (elasticity). These measures correlated only modestly with craving and mood. Self-reported income was largely unrelated to demand but moderated the influence of stress on Omax. Moderation based on CRH-BP genotype (rs10055255) was present for Omax, with T allele homozygotes exhibiting more pronounced increases in response to stress. These results provide further support for a behavioral economic approach to measuring acute drug motivation. The findings also highlight the potential relevance of income and genetic factors in understanding state effects on the perceived reinforcing value of alcohol. PMID:25413719

  10. Acute Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Veronica L.; Arteel, Gavin E.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is customary in most cultures and alcohol abuse is common worldwide. For example, more than 50% of Americans consume alcohol, with an estimated 23.1% of Americans participating in heavy and/or binge drinking at least once a month. A safe and effective therapy for alcoholic liver disease (ALD) in humans is still elusive, despite significant advances in our understanding of how the disease is initiated and progresses. It is now clear that acute alcohol binges not only can be acutely toxic to the liver, but also can contribute to the chronicity of ALD. Potential mechanisms by which acute alcohol causes damage include steatosis, dysregulated immunity and inflammation, and altered gut permeability. Recent interest in modeling acute alcohol exposure has yielded new insights into potential mechanisms of acute injury, which also may well be relevant for chronic ALD. Recent work by this group on the role of PAI-1 and fibrin metabolism in mediating acute alcohol-induced liver damage serve as an example of possible new targets that may be useful for alcohol abuse, be it acute or chronic. PMID:22701432

  11. Differential Effects of Acute Alcohol on Prepulse Inhibition and Event-Related Potentials in Adolescent and Adult Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pian, Jerry P.; Criado, Jose R.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated that adolescent and adult rats show differential sensitivity to many of the acute effects of alcohol. We recently reported evidence of developmental differences in the effects of acute alcohol on the cortical electroencephalogram (EEG). However, it is unclear whether developmental differences are also observed in other neurophysiological and neurobehavioral measurements known to be sensitive to alcohol exposure. The present study determined the age-related effects of acute alcohol on behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) responses to acoustic startle (AS) and prepulse inhibition (PPI). Methods Male adolescent and adult Wistar rats were implanted with cortical recording electrodes. The effects of acute alcohol (0.0, 0.75, and 1.5 g/kg) on behavioral and ERP responses to AS and PPI were assessed. Results Acute alcohol (0.75 and 1.5 g/kg) significantly reduced the behavioral and electrophysiological response to AS in adolescent and adult rats. Both 0.75 and 1.5 g/kg alcohol significantly enhanced the behavioral response to PPI in adolescent, but not in adult rats. During prepulse+pulse trials, 1.5 g/kg alcohol significantly increased the N10 pulse response in the adolescent frontal cortex. Acute alcohol (0.75 and 1.5 g/kg) also increased the N1 ERP pulse response to prepulse stimuli in frontal and parietal cortices in adult rats, but not in adolescent rats. Conclusions These data suggest that alcohol’s effect on behavioral and electrophysiological indices of AS do not differ between adults and adolescents whereas developmental stage does appear to significantly modify alcohol influenced response to PPI. PMID:18828807

  12. Acute Effects of Alcohol on Inhibitory Control and Simulated Driving in DUI Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, Nicholas; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The public health costs associated with alcohol-related traffic accidents have prompted considerable research aimed at identifying characteristics of individuals who drive under the influence (DUI) in order to improve treatment and prevention strategies. Survey studies consistently show that DUI offenders self-report higher levels of impulsivity compared to their nonoffending counterparts. However, little is known about how individuals with a DUI history respond under alcohol. Inhibitory control is a behavioral component of impulsivity thought to underlie risky drinking and driving behaviors. Method The present study examined the degree to which DUI drivers display deficits of inhibitory control in response to alcohol and the degree to which alcohol impaired their simulated driving performance. It was hypothesized that DUI offenders would display an increased sensitivity to the acute impairing effects of alcohol on simulated driving performance. Young adult drivers with a history of DUI and a demographically-comparable group of drivers with no history of DUI (controls) were tested following a 0.65 g/kg dose of alcohol and a placebo. Inhibitory control was measured using a cued go/no-go task. Drivers then completed a driving simulation task that yielded multiple indicators of driving performance, such as within-lane deviation, steering rate, centerline crossings and road edge excursions, and drive speed. Results Results showed that although DUI offenders self-reported greater levels of impulsivity than did controls, no group differences were observed in the degree to which alcohol impaired inhibitory control and driving performance. The findings point to the need to identify other aspects of behavioral dysfunction underlying the self-reported impulsivity among DUI offenders, and to better understand the specific driving situations that might pose greater risk to DUI offenders. PMID:24913486

  13. Effects of acute aspartame and acute alcohol ingestion upon the cognitive performance of pilots.

    PubMed

    Stokes, A F; Belger, A; Banich, M T; Taylor, H

    1991-07-01

    Anecdotal evidence has associated the artificial sweetener aspartame with a number of symptoms of central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. There are, however, little scientific data concerning the effect of aspartame upon complex mental operations such as those necessary for flying an aircraft. Thirteen pilots were tested in a double-blind study using the SPARTANS cognitive test battery of aviation-relevant information-processing tasks. These tasks relate to perceptual-motor abilities, spatial abilities, working memory, attentional performance, risk taking, processing flexibility, planning and sequencing ability. Subjects were tested over five sessions consisting of pretest and posttest controls and three randomly ordered treatment sessions. The treatment conditions involved an aspartame dose of 50 mg/kg body weight, a placebo condition, and an ethyl alcohol (0.1% BAL) condition as the positive control. No detectable performance decrements were associated with the aspartame condition, although decrements in psychomotor and spatial abilities were detected in the ethanol condition. Results were found to be consistent with prior flight-simulator studies of alcohol, but do not appear to support the concerns expressed in anecdotal testimony regarding the deleterious effects of aspartame upon cognitive performance.

  14. Protective effects of C-phycocyanin on alcohol-induced acute liver injury in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Dong; Liu, Bing; Luan, Xiying; Sun, Junyan; Liu, Nana; Qin, Song; Du, Zhenning

    2016-03-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption leads to liver disease. Extensive evidence suggests that C-phycocyanin (C-PC), a chromophore phycocyanobilin derived from Spirulina platensis, exerts protective effects against chemical-induced organ damage. In this study, we investigated whether C-PC could protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (CHOL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), liver homogenate malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) content were measured, and pathological examination of liver sections were examined. C-PC showed obvious inhibitory effects on serum ALT, AST, TG, CHOL, LDL and MDA, and SOD content significantly increased in the liver. The structure of hepatic lobules was clear, liver sinus returned to normal, and liver cell cords were arranged in neat rows. Cloudiness, swelling, inflammatory cell infiltration and spotty necrosis of liver cells were significantly reduced. Therefore, C-PC can significantly protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury.

  15. Effects of acute alcohol consumption and vitamin E co-treatment on oxidative stress parameters in rats tongue.

    PubMed

    Carrard, V C; Pires, A S; Mendez, M; Mattos, F; Moreira, J C F; Sant'Ana Filho, M

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute alcohol consumption and vitamin E co-treatment upon oxidative stress parameters in rats tongue. Thirty-eight, Wistar rats were separated into five groups (alcohol, alcohol/vitamin E, control, Tween, vitamin E). Alcohol and alcohol vitamin E groups had the standard diet, and 40% alcohol on drinking water. Other groups were fed with the same standard diet and water ad libitum. Vitamin E was given by gavage to vitamin E and alcohol/vitamin E rats twice a week. Alcohol and control groups were subjected to saline gavage and Tween group to 5% Tween 80 solution, the vitamin E vehicle. At day 14, the animals were anesthetized and specimens were obtained from tongue. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein oxidative damage, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were quantified. Alcohol group decreased TBARS in relation to control group and alcohol vitamin-treated animals decreased TBARS when compared to Tween and vitamin E groups. SOD activity was lower and CAT activity was higher in animals treated with both alcohol and vitamin E. These results suggest that short-term alcohol consumption decreases lipid peroxidation levels. Alternatively, alcohol/vitamin E group increased CAT, showing the toxicity of this association.

  16. Effects of stress, acute alcohol treatment, or both on pre-pulse inhibition in high- and low-alcohol preferring mice.

    PubMed

    Powers, M S; Chester, J A

    2014-03-01

    Pre-pulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex (PPI) is a measure of sensorimotor gating frequently used to assess information processing in both humans and rodents. Both alcohol and stress exposure can modulate PPI, making it possible to assess how stress and alcohol interact to influence information processing. Humans with an increased genetic risk for alcoholism are more reactive to stressful situations compared to those without a family history, and alcohol may have stress-dampening effects for those with high genetic risk. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of stress, acute alcohol exposure, or both on PPI in male and female mice selectively bred for high- (HAP2) and low- (LAP2) alcohol preference. Experiment 1 assessed the effects of various doses of acute alcohol on PPI. Experiments 2 and 3 assessed the effect of 10 days of restraint stress on subsequent PPI tested at 30 min (Experiment 2) or 24 h (Experiment 3) following the termination of stress exposure. Experiment 3 also examined the effects of acute alcohol treatment (0.75 g/kg) on PPI in mice previously exposed to stress or no stress. Results indicate that 0.75 and 1.0 g/kg doses of alcohol increased PPI in HAP2 but not LAP2 mice. When PPI was tested 30 min after stress exposure, stressed HAP2 mice showed a trend toward decreased PPI and stressed LAP2 mice showed a trend toward increased PPI. The combination of stress and alcohol treatment did not alter PPI in either line 24 h following the termination of stress exposure, suggesting that alcohol does not ameliorate the effect of stress on PPI. Stressed LAP2 mice had increased basal circulating corticosterone on the final stress exposure day compared to non-stressed LAP2 mice, and no difference was found between stressed and non-stressed HAP2 mice. The results suggest that high genetic risk for alcoholism may be related to increased sensitivity to alcohol and stress effects on PPI, and this sensitivity could signify

  17. Interactive effects of contextual cues and acute alcohol intoxication on the associations between alcohol expectancy activation and urge to drink.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the joint effects of contextual cues and alcohol intoxication on the associations between activation of positive and negative alcohol expectancies in memory and self-reported urges to drink alcohol after a laboratory alcohol administration. Young adult heavy drinkers were randomly assigned to drink a moderate dose of alcohol or a placebo (alcohol manipulation), and then listened to positive or negative drinking scenarios (cue manipulation). Before and after these manipulations, participants completed an alcohol expectancy Stroop task assessing positive and negative expectancy activation, as well as self-report measures of urges to drink. Regression analyses revealed that the alcohol and cue manipulations had a joint, moderating impact on the associations between expectancy activation and postcue changes in urge to drink. Specifically, both increased activation of negative expectancies and decreased activation of positive expectancies predicted decreases in urges to drink, but only for intoxicated participants in the negative cue condition. There were no associations between expectancy activation and urges to drink for those in the positive cue condition regardless of beverage condition. Results suggest that whether memory activation of alcohol expectancies has an impact on urge to drink after alcohol is on board may depend on the relevance of the activated expectancies to the current drinking context. This process appears to be influenced by a complex interaction between contextual cues in the environment and the pharmacological effects of alcohol. PMID:25111186

  18. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Kido, Megumi; Asakawa, Akihiro; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro K; Takaoka, Toshio; Tajima, Aya; Takaoka, Shigeru; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Okutsu, Kayu; Takamine, Kazunori T; Sameshima, Yoshihiro; Inui, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m(2)) consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol) or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC) value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into consideration

  19. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kido, Megumi; Asakawa, Akihiro; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro K.; Takaoka, Toshio; Tajima, Aya; Takaoka, Shigeru; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Okutsu, Kayu; Takamine, Kazunori T.; Sameshima, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2) consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol) or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC) value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into consideration

  20. The effect of acute alcohol intoxication on gut wall integrity in healthy male volunteers; a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    de Jong, W J; Cleveringa, A M; Greijdanus, B; Meyer, P; Heineman, E; Hulscher, J B

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the effect of acute alcohol consumption on enterocytes. Chronic alcohol consumption has been known to induce a decrease in gut wall integrity in actively drinking alcoholics and patients with alcohol-induced liver disease. Data on the extent of the damage induced by acute alcohol consumption in healthy human beings is scarce. Studies show that heavy incidental alcohol consumption is a growing problem in modern society. Data on this matter may provide insights into the consequences of this behavior for healthy individuals. In a randomized clinical trial in crossover design, 15 healthy volunteers consumed water one day and alcohol the other. One blood sample was collected pre-consumption, five every hour post-consumption, and one after 24 h. Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) was used as a marker for enterocyte damage. Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were used as markers for hepatocyte damage. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and soluble CD14 (sCD14) were used as a measure of translocation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was used to assess the acute inflammatory response to endotoxemia. Alcohol consumption caused a significant increase in serum I- and L-FABP levels, compared to water consumption. Levels increased directly post-consumption and decreased to normal levels within 4 h. LBP, sCD14, and IL-6 levels were not significantly higher in the alcohol group. Moderate acute alcohol consumption immediately damages the enterocyte but does not seem to cause endotoxemia. PMID:25559494

  1. The effect of acute alcohol intoxication on gut wall integrity in healthy male volunteers; a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    de Jong, W J; Cleveringa, A M; Greijdanus, B; Meyer, P; Heineman, E; Hulscher, J B

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the effect of acute alcohol consumption on enterocytes. Chronic alcohol consumption has been known to induce a decrease in gut wall integrity in actively drinking alcoholics and patients with alcohol-induced liver disease. Data on the extent of the damage induced by acute alcohol consumption in healthy human beings is scarce. Studies show that heavy incidental alcohol consumption is a growing problem in modern society. Data on this matter may provide insights into the consequences of this behavior for healthy individuals. In a randomized clinical trial in crossover design, 15 healthy volunteers consumed water one day and alcohol the other. One blood sample was collected pre-consumption, five every hour post-consumption, and one after 24 h. Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) was used as a marker for enterocyte damage. Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were used as markers for hepatocyte damage. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and soluble CD14 (sCD14) were used as a measure of translocation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was used to assess the acute inflammatory response to endotoxemia. Alcohol consumption caused a significant increase in serum I- and L-FABP levels, compared to water consumption. Levels increased directly post-consumption and decreased to normal levels within 4 h. LBP, sCD14, and IL-6 levels were not significantly higher in the alcohol group. Moderate acute alcohol consumption immediately damages the enterocyte but does not seem to cause endotoxemia.

  2. Personality and the effects of acute alcohol intake. A contingent negative variation study in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Fattapposta, Francesco; Venturi, Piero; Carella Prada, Ozrem; Costamagna, Luisa; D'Alessio, Carmelo; Mostarda, Mirella; Mina, Concetta; Parisi, Leoluca; Pirro, Cristina; Amabile, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) and contingent negative variation (CNV). Fourteen healthy subjects were divided on the basis of their personality profiles--the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (Hs+Hy+D/3)--into a high score (HS) and low score (LS) subgroup. The CNV was recorded using a choice-reaction time (RT) task. CNV recording was performed in two conditions: inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) of 1500 ms and 2500 ms at three different BACs (0.3, 0.5 and 0.8 g/L) after acute alcohol administration. At the high BAC (0.8 g/L), both subgroups showed a reduced CNV amplitude area and a longer RT (p<.05) in both ISI conditions. No effects either on the CNV or on the RT were observed at the low BAC (0.3 g/L). At the intermediate BAC (0.5 g/L), the HS subgroup displayed an increased CNV amplitude (p<.05), not accompanied by a significantly longer RT (short ISI condition), and a reduced late CNV (p<.05) with a longer RT (p<.05) (long ISI condition). In the LS group, only a longer RT was observed in the long ISI condition. CNV modifications point to an individual, apparently personality-related, threshold of sensitivity to different alcohol levels. PMID:15212113

  3. Effects of acute administration of ethanol on cerebral glucose utilization in adult alcohol-preferring and alcohol-nonpreferring rats.

    PubMed

    Strother, Wendy N; McBride, William J; Lumeng, Lawrence; Li, Ting-Kai

    2005-02-01

    Local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) rates, as determined by the [(14)C]-2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) technique, were examined after acute ethanol administration within selected brain regions of alcohol-preferring (P) and alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats. Adult male P and NP rats were injected with saline, 0.25 g/kg, or 1.0 g/kg ethanol, intraperitoneally (ip), 10 min before an intravenous bolus of [(14)C]2-DG (125 microCi/kg). Timed arterial blood samples were collected over 45 min and assayed for plasma glucose, ethanol, and [(14)C]2-DG levels. Image densities were determined using quantitative autoradiography and LCGU values calculated. Data were collected from several key limbic, basal ganglionic, cortical, and subcortical structures. Low-dose ethanol (0.25 g/kg) significantly decreased LCGU rates in several brain regions including the medial prefrontal cortex, olfactory tubercles, and the CA1 subregion of the hippocampus of P rats. Low-dose ethanol had no significant effects on LCGU rates in the NP rats. Moderate-dose ethanol (1.0 g/kg) also significantly lowered LCGU rates in many brain regions of P rats, including key limbic structures, such as the medial prefrontal cortex, olfactory tubercles, ventral tegmental area, basolateral nucleus of the amygdala, lateral septum, and ventral pallidum. Moderate-dose ethanol also significantly lowered LCGU rates in the medial prefrontal cortex as well as in the habenula of NP rats. All other regions were unaffected in the NP rats. These findings support the suggestion that certain central nervous system regions of P rats may be more sensitive than those of NP rats to the effects of low to intermediate doses of ethanol.

  4. Neuroprotective effect of small heat shock protein, Hsp27, after acute and chronic alcohol administration.

    PubMed

    Toth, Melinda Erzsebet; Gonda, Szilvia; Vigh, Laszlo; Santha, Miklos

    2010-11-01

    Alcohol induces degeneration of neurons and inhibits neurogenesis in the brain. Small heat shock proteins are able to protect neurons in cerebral ischemia and oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of small heat shock protein, Hsp27, after acute and chronic ethanol administrations using transgenic mice overexpressing the human Hsp27 protein. Transgenic mice and wild-type littermates were injected with 2 g/kg ethanol intraperitoneally, and then motor coordination and muscle strength were analyzed using different behavioral tests, such as footprint analysis, balance beam, and inverted screen tests. Ethanol-injected transgenic mice showed similar footprints to control saline-injected mice, did not fall of the beam, and were able to climb to the top of the inverted screen, while wild-type mice showed ataxia and incoordination after ethanol injection. The effect of Hsp27 on chronic ethanol consumption was also investigated. Drinking water of mice was replaced by a 20% ethanol solution for 5 weeks, and then brain sections were stained with Fluoro Jade C staining. We found significantly lesser amount of degenerating neurons in the brain of ethanol-drinking transgenic mice compared to wild-type mice. We conclude that Hsp27 can protect neurons against the acute and chronic toxic effects of ethanol.

  5. Neuroprotective effect of small heat shock protein, Hsp27, after acute and chronic alcohol administration

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Melinda Erzsebet; Gonda, Szilvia; Vigh, Laszlo

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol induces degeneration of neurons and inhibits neurogenesis in the brain. Small heat shock proteins are able to protect neurons in cerebral ischemia and oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of small heat shock protein, Hsp27, after acute and chronic ethanol administrations using transgenic mice overexpressing the human Hsp27 protein. Transgenic mice and wild-type littermates were injected with 2 g/kg ethanol intraperitoneally, and then motor coordination and muscle strength were analyzed using different behavioral tests, such as footprint analysis, balance beam, and inverted screen tests. Ethanol-injected transgenic mice showed similar footprints to control saline-injected mice, did not fall of the beam, and were able to climb to the top of the inverted screen, while wild-type mice showed ataxia and incoordination after ethanol injection. The effect of Hsp27 on chronic ethanol consumption was also investigated. Drinking water of mice was replaced by a 20% ethanol solution for 5 weeks, and then brain sections were stained with Fluoro Jade C staining. We found significantly lesser amount of degenerating neurons in the brain of ethanol-drinking transgenic mice compared to wild-type mice. We conclude that Hsp27 can protect neurons against the acute and chronic toxic effects of ethanol. PMID:20461564

  6. Gender Differences in Acute Alcohol Effects on Self-Regulation of Arousal in Response to Emotional and Alcohol-Related Picture Cues

    PubMed Central

    Udo, Tomoko; Bates, Marsha E.; Mun, Eun Young; Vaschillo, Evgeny G.; Vaschillo, Bronya; Lehrer, Paul; Ray, Suchismita

    2010-01-01

    Basic mechanisms through which men and women self-regulate arousal have received little attention in human experimental addiction research although stress-response-dampening and craving theories suggest an important role of emotional arousal in motivating alcohol use. This study examined gender differences in the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on psychophysiological and self-reported arousal in response to emotionally negative, positive, and neutral, and alcohol-related, picture cues. Thirty-six social drinkers (16 women) were randomly assigned to an alcohol, placebo, or control beverage group, and exposed to picture cues every 10 s (0.1 Hz presentation frequency). Psychophysiological arousal was assessed via a 0.1-Hz heart rate variability (HRV) index. A statistically significant beverage group-by-gender interaction effect on psychophysiological, but not self-reported, arousal was found. 0.1-Hz HRV responses to picture cues were suppressed by alcohol only in men. This gender-specific suppression pattern did not differ significantly across picture cue types. There were no significant gender differences in the placebo or control group. Greater dampening of arousal by alcohol intoxication in men, compared to women, may contribute to men's greater tendency to use alcohol to cope with stress. PMID:19586136

  7. Purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) anthocyanins: preventive effect on acute and subacute alcoholic liver damage and dealcoholic effect.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongnan; Mu, Taihua; Liu, Xingli; Zhang, Miao; Chen, Jingwang

    2014-03-19

    This study aimed to investigate the dealcoholic effect and preventive effect of anthocyanins from purple sweet potato (PSPAs) on acute and subacute alcoholic liver damage (ALD). Seven-week-old male inbred mice were grouped into five groups: control group (without PSPAs and ethanol treatments), model group (with ethanol treatment only), low-dose group (50 mg PSPAs/kg body weight), middle-dose group (125 mg PSPAs/kg body weight), and high-dose group (375 mg PSPAs/kg body weight), and the mice in all groups were administered intragastrically. Biochemical parameters of serum and liver were determined, and the histopathological changes of liver tissue were also analyzed. Results showed that all tested parameters were ameliorated after consumption of PSPAs. Therefore, PSPAs have preventive effect on acute and subacute ALD. It is suggested that PSPAs could be used as a supplementary reagent during prophylactic and curative managements of ALD.

  8. Acute Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and Gun Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    A case–control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  9. Effects of Acute Alcohol Tolerance on Perceptions of Danger and Willingness to Drive after Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Amlung, Michael T.; Morris, David H.; McCarthy, Denis M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Drinking and driving is associated with elevated rates of motor vehicle accidents and fatalities. Previous research suggests that alcohol impairs judgments about the dangers of risky behaviors; however, how alcohol affects driving-related judgments is less clear. Impairments have also been shown to differ across limbs of the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) curve, which is known as acute tolerance. Objectives Examine whether perceptions about the dangerousness of driving after drinking and willingness to drive differed across ascending and descending limbs of the BAC curve. Test whether reductions in perceived danger were associated with willingness to drive on the descending limb. Methods Fifty-six participants were randomly assigned to receive either a moderate dose of alcohol (peak BAC = 0.10 g%) or placebo. We assessed perceived dangerousness and willingness to drive at matched BACs (~0.067-0.068 g%) on the ascending and descending limbs. Results Both perceived danger and willingness to drive showed acute tolerance in the alcohol group. Participants judged driving to be significantly less dangerous and were more willing to drive on the descending limb compared to the ascending limb. The magnitude of change in perceived danger significantly predicted willingness to drive on the descending limb. Conclusions Decreased impairment associated with acute tolerance may lead individuals to underestimate the dangerousness of driving after drinking and in turn make poor decisions regarding driving. This study further emphasizes the descending limb as a period of increased risk and offers support for enhancing prevention efforts by targeting drivers at declining BAC levels. PMID:24752657

  10. Effects of acute doses of prosocial drugs methamphetamine and alcohol on plasma oxytocin levels.

    PubMed

    Bershad, Anya K; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Seiden, Jacob A; de Wit, Harriet

    2015-06-01

    Many drugs, including alcohol and stimulants, demonstrably increase sociability and verbal interaction and are recreationally consumed in social settings. One drug, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), seems to produce its prosocial effects by increasing plasma oxytocin levels, and the oxytocin system has been implicated in responses to several other drugs of abuse. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of 2 other "social" drugs on plasma oxytocin levels--methamphetamine and alcohol. Based on their shared capacity to enhance sociability, we hypothesized that both methamphetamine and alcohol would increase plasma oxytocin levels. In study 1, 11 healthy adult volunteers attended 3 sessions during which they received methamphetamine (10 mg or 20 mg) or placebo under double-blind conditions. Subjective drug effects, cardiovascular effects, and plasma oxytocin levels were measured at regular intervals throughout the sessions. In study 2, 8 healthy adult volunteers attended a single session during which they received 1 beverage containing placebo, and then a beverage containing alcohol (0.8 g/kg). Subjective effects, breath alcohol levels, and plasma oxytocin levels were measured at regular intervals. Both methamphetamine and alcohol produced their expected physiological and subjective effects, but neither of these drugs increased plasma oxytocin levels. The neurobiological mechanisms mediating the prosocial effects of drugs such as alcohol and methamphetamine remain to be identified.

  11. Effect of L-ornithine L-aspartate on Liver Injury Due to Acute Ethyl Alcohol Intoxication in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Durgun, HM; Ozhasenekler, A; Dursun, R; Basarali, MK; Turkcu, G; Orak, M; Ustundag, M; Guloglu, C

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Ethyl alcohol is a substance that is widely used worldwide and known to exert toxic effects on liver. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of L-ornithine L-aspartate (LOLA) on the toxicity of a single dose of ethyl alcohol in rats. Subjects and Method: We used 32 randomly selected male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200–250 g. The rats were grouped into four groups with each group containing eight rats: Group 1: the control group, Group 2: the ethyl alcohol group, Group 3: the LOLA group and Group 4: the ethyl alcohol+LOLA group. Ethyl alcohol was administered orally through a nasogastric tube at a dose of 6 g/kg after diluting with distilled water. One hour after ethyl alcohol administration, LOLA was administered to pre-specified groups orally through a nasogastric tube at a dose of 200 mg/kg after diluting with distilled water. Liver tissue and blood samples were obtained from all rats 24 hours later to study total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) levels in liver samples, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), TAC, TOS and OSI levels in blood samples. Results: Serum TAC, TOS and OSI levels were higher in the groups that were administered ethyl alcohol. In addition, tissue TAC level was higher and TOS and OSI levels were lower in groups that were given ethyl alcohol. No significant changes were observed in serum and tissue TAC, TOS, OSI, ALT and AST levels in the LOLA administered groups. Conclusion: This study showed that LOLA was not biochemically effective and exerts no oxidative stress reducing activity in liver injury due to acute ethyl alcohol toxicity. PMID:26426168

  12. The effects of acute alcohol on psychomotor, set-shifting, and working memory performance in older men and women.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Lauren A; Sklar, Alfredo L; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2015-05-01

    A limited number of publications have documented the effects of acute alcohol administration among older adults. Among these, only a few have investigated sex differences within this population. The current project examined the behavioral effects of acute low- and moderate-dose alcohol on 62 older (ages 55-70) male and female, healthy, light to moderate drinkers. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three dose conditions: placebo (peak breath alcohol concentration [BrAC] of 0 mg/dL), low (peak BrAC of 40 mg/dL), and moderate (peak BrAC of 65 mg/dL). Tasks assessed psychomotor, set-shifting, and working memory performance. Better set-shifting abilities were observed among women, whereas men demonstrated more efficient working memory, regardless of dose. The moderate-dose group did not significantly differ from the placebo group on any task. However, the low-dose group performed better than the moderate-dose group across measures of set shifting and working memory. Relative to the placebo group, the low-dose group exhibited better working memory, specifically for faces. Interestingly, there were no sex by dose interactions. These data suggest that, at least for our study's task demands, low and moderate doses of alcohol do not significantly hinder psychomotor, set-shifting, or working memory performance among older adults. In fact, low-dose alcohol may facilitate certain cognitive abilities. Furthermore, although sex differences in cognitive abilities were observed, these alcohol doses did not differentially affect men and women. Further investigation is necessary to better characterize the effects of sex and alcohol dose on cognition in older adults.

  13. The Acute Effects of Alcohol on Sleep Architecture in Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Julia K. M.; Trinder, John; Andrewes, Holly E.; Colrain, Ian M.; Nicholas, Christian L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is prevalent in late adolescence, however little is known about its effect on sleep in this group. In mature adults, alcohol decreases sleep onset latency (SOL) and sleep efficiency (SE) and increases wake after sleep onset (WASO). It also increases slow wave sleep (SWS) and decreases REM sleep in the first half of the night, with the inverse occurring in the second half. Alcohol’s effect on sleep during late adolescence is of interest given that this age group shows both dramatic increases in alcohol consumption, and significant developmental changes in the central nervous system. This study examined the effect of alcohol on sleep architecture in women and men aged 18–21 years and whether previously reported sleep architecture effects may have been as an artificial result of changes to sleep cycle length. Methods 24 (12 female) healthy 18–21 year old light social drinkers (19.1±1.0yrs) underwent two conditions: pre-sleep alcohol (Target BAC 0.10%) and placebo administered under controlled conditions, followed by standard polysomnography. Results In the alcohol condition, mean breath alcohol concentration (BAC) at lights out was 0.084 ±0.016%. Time in bed, total sleep time and sleep onset latency (all p>.05) did not differ between conditions. However, there was less REM (p=.011) and more stage 2 sleep (p=.035) in the alcohol condition. Further, alcohol increased SWS (p=.02) and decreased REM sleep (p<.001) in the first half of the night and disrupted sleep in the second half, with increased WASO (interaction: p=.034), and decreased SE (p=.04) and SWS (p=.01) and no REM sleep rebound in the second half of the night (p=.262). Additionally, alcohol had no effect on sleep cycle length (p=.598). Conclusions The results were broadly consistent with the adult literature with the novel extension that half night sleep architecture effects could not be attributed to changes in sleep cycle length. However, alcohol did not reduce SOL, or

  14. The effect of acute alcohol on motor-related EEG asymmetries during preparation of approach or avoid alcohol responses.

    PubMed

    Korucuoglu, Ozlem; Gladwin, Thomas E; Wiers, Reinout W

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol-approach tendencies have been associated with heavy drinking and play a role in the transition to alcohol abuse. Such cognitive biases might predict future alcohol use better under a low dose of alcohol. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate both the magnitude and the predictive power of alcohol-induced changes on approach-avoidance bias and bias-related cortical asymmetries during response preparation across heavy and light drinking adolescents. In heavy drinking adolescents greater approach-related asymmetry index in the beta-band was observed for soft-drink cues compared to alcohol ones and this increase was associated with increase in difficulty to regulate alcohol intake. Earlier findings demonstrated that young heavy drinkers hold both positive and negative implicit alcohol associations, reflecting an ambiguity towards alcohol. The increase in approach related beta-lateralization for soft-drink cues measured in this study may represent a compensatory effort for the weaker S-R mapping (approaching soft drink). The MRAA findings in this study may highlight a mechanism related to overcompensation due to ambivalent attitudes towards drinking in our heavy drinking sample who had greater problems to limit their alcohol intake compared to light drinkers. Moreover, a relatively strong approach soft-drink and weak approach alcohol reaction-time bias after alcohol predicted decreasing drinking; suggesting that the capacity to control the bias under alcohol could be a protective factor. PMID:26762699

  15. Acute effects of alcohol on brain perfusion monitored with arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging in young adults.

    PubMed

    Marxen, Michael; Gan, Gabriela; Schwarz, Daniel; Mennigen, Eva; Pilhatsch, Maximilian; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Guenther, Matthias; Smolka, Michael N

    2014-03-01

    While a number of studies have established that moderate doses of alcohol increase brain perfusion, the time course of such an increase as a function of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) has not yet been investigated, and studies differ about regional effects. Using arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated (1) the time course of the perfusion increase during a 15-minute linear increase of BrAC up to 0.6 g/kg followed by a steady exposure of 100 minutes, (2) the regional distribution, (3) a potential gender effect, and (4) the temporal stability of perfusion effects. In 48 young adults who participated in the Dresden longitudinal study on alcohol effects in young adults, we observed (1) a 7% increase of global perfusion as compared with placebo and that perfusion and BrAC are tightly coupled in time, (2) that the increase reaches significance in most regions of the brain, (3) that the effect is stronger in women than in men, and (4) that an acute tolerance effect is not observable on the time scale of 2 hours. Larger studies are needed to investigate the origin and the consequences of the effect, as well as the correlates of inter-subject variations.

  16. Dormant Masculinity: Moderating Effects of Acute Alcohol Intoxication on the Relation Between Male Role Norms and Antigay Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Ruschelle M.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication was examined as a moderator of the association between men’s adherence to traditional gender norms and aggression towards a gay male. Participants were 164 heterosexual drinking men between the ages of 21–30. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires that included a measure of adherence to male role norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), were randomly assigned to consume an alcohol or no-alcohol control beverage, and completed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm in which electric shocks were administered to, and received from, a fictitious gay or heterosexual male opponent. Results indicated a greater adherence to both the toughness (β = .50, p = .002) and antifeminine (β = .37, p = .023) norms predicted high levels of aggression towards a gay man only among participants who were intoxicated. This interaction effect was not detected for the status norm. Consistent with previous research, findings suggest that adherence to the toughness norm does not increase sober men’s risk of aggression toward gay men. However, this is the first study to demonstrate that alcohol intoxication may activate concepts of toughness, and thus influence men to act in line with this facet of the masculine concept. Importantly, these data support the view that men’s adherence to various dimensions of masculinity may be dormant in some contexts, only to be activated, and subsequently demonstrated, in other contexts. PMID:25750591

  17. Immediate and Complex Cardiovascular Adaptation to an Acute Alcohol Dose

    PubMed Central

    Buckman, Jennifer F.; Eddie, David; Vaschillo, Evgeny G.; Vaschillo, Bronya; Garcia, Aaron; Bates, Marsha E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The detrimental effects of chronic heavy alcohol use on the cardiovascular system are well established and broadly appreciated. Integrated cardiovascular response to an acute dose of alcohol has been less studied. This study examined the early effects of an acute dose of alcohol on the cardiovascular system, with particular emphasis on system variability and sensitivity. The goal was to begin to understand how acute alcohol disrupts dynamic cardiovascular regulatory processes prior to the development of cardiovascular disease. Methods Healthy participants (N = 72, age 21 to 29) were randomly assigned to an alcohol, placebo, or no-alcohol control beverage condition. Beat-to-beat heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were assessed during a low-demand cognitive task prior to and following beverage consumption. Between-group differences in neurocardiac response to an alcohol challenge (blood alcohol concentration ~ 0.06 mg/dl) were tested. Results The alcohol beverage group showed higher average HR, lower average stroke volume, lower HR variability and BP variability, and increased vascular tone baroreflex sensitivity after alcohol consumption. No changes were observed in the placebo group, but the control group showed slightly elevated average HR and BP after beverage consumption, possibly due to juice content. At the level of the individual, an active alcohol dose appeared to disrupt the typically tight coupling between cardiovascular processes. Conclusions A dose of alcohol quickly invoked multiple cardiovascular responses, possibly as an adaptive reaction to the acute pharmacological challenge. Future studies should assess how exposure to alcohol acutely disrupts or dissociates typically integrated neurocardiac functions. PMID:26614647

  18. [Brain histaminergic neurons in rats subjected to the acute effect of alcohol].

    PubMed

    Zimatkin, S M; Fedina, E M; Kuznetsova, V B

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the effect of single injection of alcohol on histaminergic neurons of rat brain. The study included 41 male albino rats, histological, histochemical, electron microscopic and morphometric methods were used. It was found that 1 hour after the intraperitoneal administration of ethanol in a dose of 4 g/kg the neurons become more spherical, the activity of NADH and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenases in their cytoplasm decreased, but the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, type B monoaminooxidase and acid phosphatase increased, at the same time significant ultrastructural disturbances were observed. Six hours following alcohol administration, the signs of histaminergic neuronal damage were reduced while the features of structural and metabolic adaptation became more expressed.

  19. [Alcohol and acute respiratory distress syndrome: casuality or causality?].

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Xavier; Guardiola, Juan J; Soler, Manuel

    2013-06-18

    Alcohol has been considered an important risk factor for the development of pneumonia since the last century. Nevertheless, it was not thought that it had relevant effects on lung structure and functions until recently. Recent studies have shown that the risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is 2-4 times higher among alcoholic patients with sepsis or trauma, and that alcoholism can play a roll in more than 50% of cases in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. Although alcoholism per se does not cause acute lung injury it predisposes to pulmonary dysfunction after inflammatory stress, that is present in clinical situations that cause ARDS leading to its development and complicating its outcome. Recent investigations in animals and humans with alcohol abuse have uncovered several alterations currently known as the "alcoholic lung". This revision discusses the association between alcohol abuse and lung injury/ARDS and tries to explain the physiopathology along with possible treatments.

  20. Effect of acute and chronic alcohol treatment and their superimposition on lysosomal, cytoplasmic, and proteosomal protease activities in rat skeletal muscle in vivo.

    PubMed

    Koll, M; Ahmed, S; Mantle, D; Donohue, T M; Palmer, T N; Simanowski, U A; Seltz, H K; Peters, T J; Preedy, V R

    2002-01-01

    Alcohol can be considered as a nutritional toxin when ingested in excess amounts and leads to skeletal muscle myopathy. We hypothesized that altered protease activities contribute to this phenomenon, and that differential effects on protease activities may occur when: (1) rats at different stages in their development are administered alcohol in vivo; (2) acute ethanol treatment is superimposed on chronic alcohol-feeding in vivo; and (3) muscles are exposed to alcohol and acetaldehyde in vivo and in vitro. In acute studies, rats weighing approximately 0.1 kg (designated immature) or approximately 0.25 kg (designated mature) body weight (BW) were dosed acutely with alcohol (75 mmol/kg BW; intraperitoneal [IP], 2.5 hours prior to killing) or identically treated with 0.15 mol/L NaCl as controls. In chronic studies, rats (approximately 0.1 kg BW) were fed between 1 to 6 weeks, with 35% of dietary energy as ethanol, controls were identically treated with isocaloric glucose. Other studies included administration of cyanamide (aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor) in vivo or addition of alcohol and acetaldehyde to muscle preparations in vitro. At the end of the treatments, cytoplasmic (alanyl-, arginyl-, leucyl-, prolyl-, tripeptidyl-aminopeptidase and dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV), lysosomal (cathepsins B, D, H, and L, dipeptidyl aminopeptidase I and II), proteasomal (chymotrypsin-, trypsin-like, and peptidylglutamyl peptide hydrolase activities) and Ca(2+)-activated (micro- and milli-calpain and calpastatin) activities were assayed. (1) Acute alcohol dosage in mature rats reduced the activities of alanyl-, arginyl- and leucyl aminopeptidase (cytoplasmic), dipeptidyl aminopeptidase II (lysosomal), and the chymotrypsin- and trypsin-like activities (proteosomal). No significant effects were observed in similarly treated immature rats. (2) Alcohol feeding in immature rats did not alter the activities of any of the enzymes assayed at 6 weeks. (3) In immature rats, activities of

  1. The effects of acute alcohol exposure on the response properties of neurons in visual cortex area 17 of cats

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Bo; Xia Jing; Li Guangxing; Zhou Yifeng

    2010-03-15

    Physiological and behavioral studies have demonstrated that a number of visual functions such as visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and motion perception can be impaired by acute alcohol exposure. The orientation- and direction-selective responses of cells in primary visual cortex are thought to participate in the perception of form and motion. To investigate how orientation selectivity and direction selectivity of neurons are influenced by acute alcohol exposure in vivo, we used the extracellular single-unit recording technique to examine the response properties of neurons in primary visual cortex (A17) of adult cats. We found that alcohol reduces spontaneous activity, visual evoked unit responses, the signal-to-noise ratio, and orientation selectivity of A17 cells. In addition, small but detectable changes in both the preferred orientation/direction and the bandwidth of the orientation tuning curve of strongly orientation-biased A17 cells were observed after acute alcohol administration. Our findings may provide physiological evidence for some alcohol-related deficits in visual function observed in behavioral studies.

  2. Effect of alcohol extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn. on acute and subacute inflammation.

    PubMed

    Vetrichelvan, T; Jegadeesan, M

    2003-01-01

    The antiinflammatory activity of an alcohol extract of Achyranthes aspera was tested on carrageenin-induced hind paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma models in albino male rats. The paw volume was measured plethysmometrically at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h. In the subacute model cotton pellet granuloma was produced by implantation of 50 +/- 1 mg sterile cotton in the axilla under ether anaesthesia. The animals were fed with an alcohol extract at various dose levels (125, 250, 375 and 500 mg/kg). Diclofenac sodium was used as a standard drug. The alcohol extract (375 and 500 mg/kg) showed the maximum inhibition of oedema of 65.38% and 72.37% at the end of 3 h with carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema, respectively. Using a chronic test, the extract exhibited a 40.03% and 45.32% reduction in granuloma weight.

  3. Pharmacotherapy of acute alcoholic hepatitis in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Abenavoli, Ludovico; Milic, Natasa; Rouabhia, Samir; Addolorato, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Severe alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute form of alcohol induced liver disease with a poor prognosis that is seen in the patients who consume large quantities of alcohol. The diagnosis of AH is based on the appropriate alcohol intake history and is supported with clinical and histological features, and several scoring systems. Glucocorticoids are the mainstay for treating severe AH with pentoxifylline used as an alternative to steroids in addition to total alcohol abstinence. Liver transplantation is a possible therapeutic option for severe AH. Among the anti-craving medications able to improve abstinence rate, baclofen seems to be effective and safe in the alcoholic patients affected by severe liver damage. PMID:24605014

  4. Alcohol Effects on Stress Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Blaine, Sara K.; Milivojevic, Verica; Fox, Helen

    2016-01-01

    A significant amount of neurobiological research regarding the development of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) has focused on alcohol-related activation and long-term alterations in the mesocortical dopaminergic reward pathways. However, alcohol does not only interact with brain reward systems. Many of its acute and chronic effects may be related to allostatic adaptations in hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic stress regulation pathways. For example, acute binge intoxication is associated with hypothalamically driven increases in blood cortisol, norepinephrine, and sex steroid metabolite levels. This may contribute to the development of mesocortical sensitization to alcohol. Furthermore, chronic alcohol exposure is associated with systemic dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, sympathetic adrenal medullary system, and sex steroid systems. This dysregulation appears to manifest as neuroendocrine tolerance. In this review, we first summarize the literature suggesting that alcohol-induced alterations in these hypothalamic systems influence craving and contribute to the development of AUDs. We note that for women, the effects of alcohol on these neuroendocrine stress regulation systems may be influenced by the rhythmic variations of hormones and steroids across the menstrual cycle. Second, we discuss how changes in these systems may indicate progression of AUDs and increased risk of relapse in both sexes. Specifically, neuroendocrine tolerance may contribute to mesocortical sensitization, which in turn may lead to decreased prefrontal inhibitory control of the dopaminergic reward and hypothalamic stress systems. Thus, pharmacological strategies that counteract alcohol-associated changes in hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic stress regulation pathways may slow the development and progression of AUDs. PMID:27254089

  5. Acute Alcohol Intoxication-Induced Microvascular Leakage

    PubMed Central

    Doggett, Travis M.; Breslin, Jerome W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol intoxication can increase inflammation and worsen injury, yet the mechanisms involved are not clear. We investigated whether acute alcohol intoxication elevates microvascular permeability, and investigated potential signaling mechanisms in endothelial cells that may be involved. Methods Conscious rats received a 2.5 g/kg alcohol bolus via gastric catheters to produce acute intoxication. Microvascular leakage of intravenously administered FITC-albumin from the mesenteric microcirculation was assessed by intravital microscopy. Endothelial-specific mechanisms were studied using cultured endothelial cell monolayers. Transendothelial electrical resistance (TER) served as an index of barrier function, before and after treatment with alcohol or its metabolite acetaldehyde. Pharmacologic agents were used to test the roles of alcohol metabolism, oxidative stress, p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), rho kinase (ROCK), and exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac). VE-cadherin localization was investigated to assess junctional integrity. Rac1 and RhoA activation were assessed by ELISA assays. Results Alcohol significantly increased FITC-albumin extravasation from the mesenteric microcirculation. Alcohol also significantly decreased TER and disrupted VE-cadherin organization at junctions. Acetaldehyde significantly decreased TER, but inhibition of ADH or application of a superoxide dismutase mimetic failed to prevent alcohol-induced decreases in TER. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase, but not MLCK or ROCK, significantly attenuated the alcohol-induced barrier dysfunction. Alcohol rapidly decreased GTP-bound Rac1 but not RhoA during the drop in TER. Activation of Epac increased TER, but did not prevent alcohol from decreasing TER. However, activation of Epac after initiation of alcohol-induced barrier dysfunction quickly resolved TER to baseline levels. Conclusions Our results suggest that alcohol intoxication increases

  6. Protective effects of patchouli alcohol isolated from Pogostemon cablin on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    SU, ZUQING; LIAO, JINBIN; LIU, YUHONG; LIANG, YONGZHUO; CHEN, HAIMING; CHEN, XIAOYING; LAI, XIAOPING; FENG, XUEXUAN; WU, DIANWEI; ZHENG, YIFENG; ZHANG, XIAOJUN; LI, YUCUI

    2016-01-01

    Patchouli alcohol (PA) is a tricyclic sesquiterpene isolated from Pogostemon cablin, which exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-influenza and cognitive-enhancing bioactivities. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of PA on acute lung injury (ALI) induced by intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. Dexamethasone was used as a positive drug for protection against LPS-induced ALI. The results of the present study demonstrated that pretreatment with PA significantly increased survival rate, attenuated histopathologic damage and lung edema, and decreased the protein content in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of mice with ALI. Furthermore, PA significantly inhibited the expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 in the BALF, downregulated the levels of myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde, and upregulated the activity levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in lung tissue. These results indicated that PA may exert potent protective effects against LPS-induced ALI in mice, the mechanisms of which are possibly associated with the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities of PA. PMID:26893665

  7. Is rat liver affected by non-alcoholic steatosis more susceptible to the acute toxic effect of thioacetamide?

    PubMed

    Kučera, Otto; Lotková, Halka; Staňková, Pavla; Podhola, Miroslav; Roušar, Tomáš; Mezera, Vojtěch; Cervinková, Zuzana

    2011-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic condition of the liver in the western world. There is only little evidence about altered sensitivity of steatotic liver to acute toxic injury. The aim of this project was to test whether hepatic steatosis sensitizes rat liver to acute toxic injury induced by thioacetamide (TAA). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed ad libitum a standard pelleted diet (ST-1, 10% energy fat) and high-fat gelled diet (HFGD, 71% energy fat) for 6 weeks and then TAA was applied intraperitoneally in one dose of 100 mg/kg. Animals were sacrificed in 24-, 48- and 72-h interval after TAA administration. We assessed the serum biochemistry, the hepatic reduced glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, cytokine concentration, the respiration of isolated liver mitochondria and histopathological samples (H+E, Sudan III, bromodeoxyuridine [BrdU] incorporation). Activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase and concentration of serum bilirubin were significantly higher in HFGD groups after application of TAA, compared to ST-1. There were no differences in activities of respiratory complexes I and II. Serum tumour necrosis factor alpha at 24 and 48 h, liver tissue interleukin-6 at 72 h and transforming growth factor β1 at 24 and 48 h were elevated in TAA-administrated rats fed with HFGD, but not ST-1. TAA-induced centrilobular necrosis and subsequent regenerative response of the liver were higher in HFGD-fed rats in comparison with ST-1. Liver affected by NAFLD, compared to non-steatotic liver, is more sensitive to toxic effect of TAA. PMID:21410800

  8. Progression of alcoholic acute to chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Ammann, R W; Muellhaupt, B

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholic chronic pancreatitis usually progresses from acute attacks to chronic pancreatitis within one to 19 years. The factors responsible for the appreciable variability in progression are unclear. In this study the relation between progression and the incidence and severity of acute episodes in a large cohort of patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis was analysed. All patients with at least one documented episode of acute pancreatitis have been studied prospectively over the past 30 years according to our protocol. Patients were classified according to their long term course into (a) calcific (n = 185), (b) non-calcific (n = 30), and (c) non-progressive (n = 39) chronic pancreatitis groups. The yearly incidence of acute attacks of pancreatitis was significantly higher in groups (a) and (b) than in group (c). Furthermore, the progression rate to advanced chronic pancreatitis (groups (a) and (b)) correlated with the incidence of severe pancreatitis (associated with pseudocysts in more than 55%). Pseudocysts were located primarily in the cephalic pancreas in groups (a) and (b) (58-71%) and in the pancreatic tail in group (c) (61%). In conclusion, these data suggest that the progression of acute to chronic pancreatitis is closely related to the incidence and severity of acute attacks. This finding and the primary location of pseudocysts in the cephalic pancreas (groups (a) plus (b)) are compatible with the 'necrosis-fibrosis' pathogenetic hypothesis. PMID:8174996

  9. An acute psychosocial stressor does not potentiate alcohol cue reactivity in non-treatment-seeking alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Suzanne E.; Randall, Patrick K.; Brady, Kathleen; See, Ronald E.; Drobes, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Relapse risk factors, such as psychological stress and alcohol cues, are often encountered together. Understanding how they interact has the potential to improve alcoholism treatments. The present study was conducted to examine whether an acute psychosocial stressor enhanced alcohol cue reactivity in non-treatment-seeking alcoholics. Methods Seventy-nine alcohol dependent individuals (39 women) randomly received either the Trier Social Stress Test or a no-stress control condition. Stress reactivity was measured with serum ACTH and cortisol, mean arterial blood pressure, and subjective distress. Immediately following the stress manipulation, participants held and sniffed a neutral cue then their preferred alcoholic beverage. Cue reactivity was measured by two subjective measures of craving following each cue. Additionally, general craving was assessed with the Alcohol Urge Questionnaire (AUQ) at the beginning and end of the laboratory procedure. Results The stress manipulation showed internal validity on all measures of stress reactivity. There was not a main effect of stress nor a stress x cue interaction on either cue reactivity measure. As expected, there was a main effect of cue (alcohol > neutral cue) on both measures of cue reactivity. General craving increased during the challenge, but not differently by stress group. Magnitude of stress reactivity was not associated with magnitude of cue reactivity, and all results were independent of gender. Conclusion In this well-controlled clinical laboratory study of non-treatment-seeking alcoholics, an acute psychological stressor did not make an alcohol cue a more potent urge-inducing stimulus, and stress had no effect on general alcohol craving. PMID:21143244

  10. The Effect of Alcohol on Gastrointestinal Motility.

    PubMed

    Grad, Simona; Abenavoli, Ludovico; Dumitrascu, Dan L

    2016-01-01

    The Gastrointestinal (GI) tract is one of the most affected systems by alcohol consumption. Alcohol can affect the esophagus in several ways: induces mucosal inflammation, increases the risk for Barrett esophagus and esophageal cancer, and also impairs the esophageal motility. Numerous studies have reported an increased prevalence of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) or erosive esophagitis in alcoholics. Some alcoholics exhibit an abnormality of esophageal motility known as a "nutcracker esophagus". Alcohol effect on gastric motility depends on the alcohol concentration. In general, beverages with high alcohol concentrations (i.e., above 15 percent) appear to inhibit gastric motility and low alcohol doses (wine and beer) accelerate gastric emptying. Also, acute administration of ethanol inhibits the gastric emptying, while chronic administration of a large dose of alcohol accelerates gastric motility. The effect of alcohol on small bowel motility differs according to the type of consumption (acute or chronic). Acute administration of alcohol has been found to inhibit small bowel transit and chronic administration of a large dose of alcohol accelerates small bowel transit. This article reviews some of the below findings. PMID:27527893

  11. Structural characterization, molecular modification and hepatoprotective effect of melanin from Lachnum YM226 on acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Sheng; Li, Shenglan; Su, Nana; Li, Jinglei; Shi, Fang; Ye, Ming

    2016-08-10

    In this paper, the possible structural formula of the intracellular homogeneous melanin of Lachnum YM226 (LM) was concluded based on an elemental assay, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mass spectrometry (MS) and equivalent series resistance (ESR). Meanwhile, a d-glucosamine melanin derivative (GLM) was also prepared and its cytotoxicity was evaluated using the MTT assay. The hepatoprotective effect of LM and GLM was evaluated in an acute alcohol-induced liver injury model. The results showed that pretreatments with LM and GLM markedly decreased subsequent alcohol elicited acute hepatic oxidative and inflammatory stress via improving the activity of antioxidant enzymes (glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and total superoxide dismutase (SOD)), reducing hepatic levels of nuclear transcription factor (NF-κB), cytokines related to its activation (interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1) and hepatic activities of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. The protection properties of alcoholic liver injury of GLM were more obvious than that of LM at the same dose. The present findings recommend that LM and GLM may be used as a prototype for the prevention of alcoholic liver injury. PMID:27485489

  12. The Difference between Anxiolytic and Anxiogenic Effects Induced by Acute and Chronic Alcohol Exposure and Changes in Associative Learning and Memory Based on Color Preference and the Cause of Parkinson-Like Behaviors in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Li, Xu; Li, Yi-Xiang; Zhang, Yuan; Chen, Di; Sun, Ming-Zhu; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Dong-Yan; Feng, Xi-Zeng

    2015-01-01

    We describe an interdisciplinary comparison of the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure in terms of their disturbance of light, dark and color preferences and the occurrence of Parkinson-like behavior in zebrafish through computer visual tracking, data mining, and behavioral and physiological analyses. We found that zebrafish in anxiolytic and anxious states, which are induced by acute and chronic repeated alcohol exposure, respectively, display distinct emotional reactions in light/dark preference tests as well as distinct learning and memory abilities in color-enhanced conditional place preference (CPP) tests. Additionally, compared with the chronic alcohol (1.0%) treatment, acute alcohol exposure had a significant, dose-dependent effect on anxiety, learning and memory (color preference) as well as locomotive activities. Acute exposure doses (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) generated an "inverted V" dose-dependent pattern in all of the behavioral parameters, with 1.0% having the greatest effect, while the chronic treatment had a moderate effect. Furthermore, by measuring locomotive activity, learning and memory performance, the number of dopaminergic neurons, tyrosine hydroxylase expression, and the change in the photoreceptors in the retina, we found that acute and chronic alcohol exposure induced varying degrees of Parkinson-like symptoms in zebrafish. Taken together, these results illuminated the behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying the changes associated with learning and memory and the cause of potential Parkinson-like behaviors in zebrafish due to acute and chronic alcohol exposure. PMID:26558894

  13. The Difference between Anxiolytic and Anxiogenic Effects Induced by Acute and Chronic Alcohol Exposure and Changes in Associative Learning and Memory Based on Color Preference and the Cause of Parkinson-Like Behaviors in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Chen, Di; Sun, Ming-Zhu; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Dong-Yan; Feng, Xi-Zeng

    2015-01-01

    We describe an interdisciplinary comparison of the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure in terms of their disturbance of light, dark and color preferences and the occurrence of Parkinson-like behavior in zebrafish through computer visual tracking, data mining, and behavioral and physiological analyses. We found that zebrafish in anxiolytic and anxious states, which are induced by acute and chronic repeated alcohol exposure, respectively, display distinct emotional reactions in light/dark preference tests as well as distinct learning and memory abilities in color-enhanced conditional place preference (CPP) tests. Additionally, compared with the chronic alcohol (1.0%) treatment, acute alcohol exposure had a significant, dose-dependent effect on anxiety, learning and memory (color preference) as well as locomotive activities. Acute exposure doses (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) generated an “inverted V” dose-dependent pattern in all of the behavioral parameters, with 1.0% having the greatest effect, while the chronic treatment had a moderate effect. Furthermore, by measuring locomotive activity, learning and memory performance, the number of dopaminergic neurons, tyrosine hydroxylase expression, and the change in the photoreceptors in the retina, we found that acute and chronic alcohol exposure induced varying degrees of Parkinson-like symptoms in zebrafish. Taken together, these results illuminated the behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying the changes associated with learning and memory and the cause of potential Parkinson-like behaviors in zebrafish due to acute and chronic alcohol exposure. PMID:26558894

  14. The Difference between Anxiolytic and Anxiogenic Effects Induced by Acute and Chronic Alcohol Exposure and Changes in Associative Learning and Memory Based on Color Preference and the Cause of Parkinson-Like Behaviors in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Li, Xu; Li, Yi-Xiang; Zhang, Yuan; Chen, Di; Sun, Ming-Zhu; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Dong-Yan; Feng, Xi-Zeng

    2015-01-01

    We describe an interdisciplinary comparison of the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure in terms of their disturbance of light, dark and color preferences and the occurrence of Parkinson-like behavior in zebrafish through computer visual tracking, data mining, and behavioral and physiological analyses. We found that zebrafish in anxiolytic and anxious states, which are induced by acute and chronic repeated alcohol exposure, respectively, display distinct emotional reactions in light/dark preference tests as well as distinct learning and memory abilities in color-enhanced conditional place preference (CPP) tests. Additionally, compared with the chronic alcohol (1.0%) treatment, acute alcohol exposure had a significant, dose-dependent effect on anxiety, learning and memory (color preference) as well as locomotive activities. Acute exposure doses (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) generated an "inverted V" dose-dependent pattern in all of the behavioral parameters, with 1.0% having the greatest effect, while the chronic treatment had a moderate effect. Furthermore, by measuring locomotive activity, learning and memory performance, the number of dopaminergic neurons, tyrosine hydroxylase expression, and the change in the photoreceptors in the retina, we found that acute and chronic alcohol exposure induced varying degrees of Parkinson-like symptoms in zebrafish. Taken together, these results illuminated the behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying the changes associated with learning and memory and the cause of potential Parkinson-like behaviors in zebrafish due to acute and chronic alcohol exposure.

  15. Acute effects of alcohol on inhibitory control and information processing in high and low sensation-seekers

    PubMed Central

    Fillmore, Mark T.; Ostling, Erik W.; Martin, Catherine A.; Kelly, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    Sensation-seeking is a personality characteristic that has been associated with drug abuse. Some evidence suggests that sensation-seekers might experience increased rewarding effects from drugs of abuse, possibly contributing to the association between sensation-seeking and risk for drug abuse. The present study examined the effects of three doses of alcohol (0.0 g/kg, 0.45 g/kg, and 0.65 g/kg) on inhibitory control, information processing, and subjective ratings in a group of high sensation-seekers and a group of low sensation-seekers (N = 20). Inhibitory control was measured by a cued go/no-go task and speed of information processing was assessed by the Rapid Information Processing (RIP) task. Alcohol impaired inhibitory control and information processing. Group differences were also observed. Compared with their low sensation-seeking counterparts, high sensation-seekers demonstrated increased sensitivity to the subjective rewarding effects of alcohol and a poorer degree of inhibitory control that was further impaired by alcohol. The findings highlight reward- and cognitive-based mechanisms by which sensation-seeking could operate to increase risk for alcohol abuse. PMID:19004578

  16. [Biochemical markers for acute and chronic alcohol consumption].

    PubMed

    Geppert, Bogna; Tezyk, Artur; Zaba, Czesław

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the fact, that ethyl alcohol is a legal and socially accepted recreational drug its abuse may cause numerous problems for the individual and society. Casualties of car accidents caused by drunk drivers, aggressive behavior, family problems and effective less work are the main problems connected with alcohol abuse. The easiest and most effective way of proving recent alcohol consumption is confirming its presence in biological samples taken from the individual. However, the main disadvantage of this method is a short window detection for ethanol, because of its high speed of elimination process. Nowadays, in order to prevent and have a better control of alcohol abuse, markers that could provide a better view of short and long term ethanol consumption are in frequent use. Ethyl alcohol present in the body cause many qualitative and quantitative disturbances in biochemical metabolites that could be used as markers of its consumption. In practice markers of ethanol consumption are usually divided into acute (tests confirm single alcohol intake) and chronic (confirm long term alcohol consumption or lack of teetotalism). Markers of ethanol consumption are valuable alternative and complementation to customary examinations performed in medical practice and forensic medicine.

  17. [Effect of Bacillus natto-fermented product (BIOZYME) on blood alcohol, aldehyde concentrations after whisky drinking in human volunteers, and acute toxicity of acetaldehyde in mice].

    PubMed

    Sumi, H; Yatagai, C; Wada, H; Yoshida, E; Maruyama, M

    1995-04-01

    Effects of Bacillus natto-fermented product (BIOZYME) on blood alcohol and aldehyde concentrations after drinking whisky (corresponding to 30-65 ml ethanol) were studied in 21 healthy volunteers. When 100 ml of BIOZYME was orally administrated to the volunteers before drinking whisky, the time delay of both blood factors to attain maximum concentrations were observed. The maximum decrease in blood alcohol and aldehyde concentrations were about 23% and 45% (p < 0.005), respectively, at 1 hr after drinking whisky. The aldehyde lowering effect of BIOZYME was continued for at least 4 hr after whisky drinking. Concentration of the breath alcohol was also sharply decreased by BIOZYME administration. The breath alcohol concentration in the administered group (0.18 +/- 0.11 mg/l) was found to be lowered about 44% than that of the control group (0.32 +/- 0.11 mg/l) (p < 0.0005, n = 21), at 1 hr after drinking whisky. In acute toxicity experiments of aldehyde in mice (12 mmol AcH/mg), BIOZYME showed the survival effect as with alpha-D-Ala (134% increase of the living, at 40 min after i.p. administration) (p < 0.005, n = 22). These findings reveal the Bacillus natto produced BIOZYME as a reasonable, safety and useful anti-hangover agent.

  18. Immune dysfunction in acute alcoholic hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Dhanda, Ashwin D; Collins, Peter L

    2015-01-01

    Acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH) is a serious complication of alcohol misuse and has high short term mortality. It is a clinical syndrome characterised by jaundice and coagulopathy in a patient with a history of recent heavy alcohol use and is associated with profound immune dysfunction with a primed but ineffective immune response against pathogens. Here, we review the current knowledge of the pathogenesis and immune defects of AAH and identify areas requiring further study. Alcohol activates the immune system primarily through the disruption of gut tight junction integrity allowing the escape of pathogen-associated molecular particles (PAMPs) into the portal venous system. PAMPs stimulate cells expressing toll-like receptors (mainly myeloid derived cells) and initiate a network of intercellular signalling by secretion of many soluble mediators including cytokines and chemokines. The latter coordinates the infiltration of neutrophils, monocytes and T cells and results in hepatic stellate cell activation, cellular damage and hepatocyte death by necrosis or apoptosis. On the converse of this immune activation is the growing evidence of impaired microbial defence. Neutrophils have reduced phagocytic capacity and oxidative burst and there is recent evidence that T cell exhaustion plays a role in this. PMID:26576079

  19. Acute and chronic effects of alcohol exposure on skeletal muscle c-myc, p53, and Bcl-2 mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Tatsuo; Hashimoto, Kijiro; Hirano, Makoto; Koll, Michael; Martin, Colin R; Preedy, Victor R

    2003-12-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common feature in alcoholism that affects up to two-thirds of alcohol misusers, and women appear to be particularly susceptible. There is also some evidence to suggest that malnutrition exacerbates the effects of alcohol on muscle. However, the mechanisms responsible for the myopathy remain elusive, and some studies suggest that acetaldehyde, rather than alcohol, is the principal pathogenic perturbant. Previous reports on rats dosed acutely with ethanol (<24 h) have suggested that increased proto-oncogene expression (i.e., c-myc) may be a causative process, possibly via activating preapoptotic or transcriptional pathways. We hypothesized that 1) increases in c-myc mRNA levels also occur in muscle exposed chronically to alcohol, 2) muscle of female rats is more sensitive than that from male rats, 3) raising acetaldehyde will also increase c-myc, 4) prior starvation will cause further increases in c-myc mRNA expression in response to ethanol, and 5) other genes involved in apoptosis (i.e., p53 and Bcl-2) would also be affected by alcohol. To test this, we measured c-myc mRNA levels in skeletal muscle of rats dosed either chronically (6-7 wk; ethanol as 35% of total dietary energy) or acutely (2.5 h; ethanol as 75 mmol/kg body wt ip) with ethanol. All experiments were carried out in male Wistar rats (approximately 0.1-0.15 kg body wt) except the study that examined gender susceptibility in male and female rats. At the end of the studies, rats were killed, and c-myc, p53, and Bcl-2 mRNA was analyzed in skeletal muscle by RT-PCR with an endogenous internal standard, GAPDH. The results showed that 1) in male rats fed ethanol chronically, there were no increases in c-myc mRNA; 2) increases, however, occurred in c-myc mRNA in muscle from female rats fed ethanol chronically; 3) raising endogenous acetaldehyde with cyanamide increased c-myc mRNA in acute studies; 4) starvation per se increased c-myc mRNA levels and at 1 day potentiated the acute

  20. Cardiovascular effects of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, D M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of alcohol on the heart include modification of the risk of coronary artery disease, the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, exacerbation of conduction disorders, atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias, and an increased risk of hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke, infectious endocarditis, and fetal heart abnormalities. PMID:2686174

  1. Chronic and acute alcohol administration induced neurochemical changes in the brain: comparison of distinct zebrafish populations.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Diptendu; Shams, Soaleha; Gerlai, Robert

    2014-04-01

    The zebrafish is increasingly utilized in the analysis of the effects of ethanol (alcohol) on brain function and behavior. We have shown significant population-dependent alcohol-induced changes in zebrafish behavior and have started to analyze alterations in dopaminergic and serotoninergic responses. Here, we analyze the effects of alcohol on levels of selected neurochemicals using a 2 × 3 (chronic × acute) between-subject alcohol exposure paradigm randomized for two zebrafish populations, AB and SF. Each fish first received the particular chronic treatment (0 or 0.5 vol/vol% alcohol) and subsequently the acute exposure (0, 0.5 or 1.0% alcohol). We report changes in levels of dopamine, DOPAC, serotonin, 5HIAA, glutamate, GABA, aspartate, glycine and taurine as quantified from whole brain extracts using HPLC. We also analyze monoamine oxidase and tyrosine hydroxylase enzymatic activity. The results demonstrate that compared to SF, AB is more responsive to both acute alcohol exposure and acute alcohol withdrawal at the level of neurochemistry, a finding that correlates well with prior behavioral observations and one which suggests the involvement of genes in the observed alcohol effects. We discuss correlations between the current results and prior behavioral findings, and stress the importance of characterization of zebrafish strains for future behavior genetic and psychopharmacology studies.

  2. Effects of alcohol abuse on reproductive function in women.

    PubMed

    Mello, N K

    1988-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are associated with disorders of reproductive function in both men and women. Amenorrhea, anovulation, and luteal phase dysfunction may occur in alcohol-dependent women and alcohol abusers. Yet there has been relatively little research on the consequences of alcohol abuse for female reproductive function. Recent clinical and survey studies of alcohol effects on pituitary gonadotropins and gonadal steroid hormones in women are reviewed. Experimental studies of the acute and chronic effects of alcohol on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in normal women and in animal models are also described. Recent studies of the acute effects of alcohol on opioid antagonist and synthetic LHRH-stimulated pituitary gonadotropins are summarized. Possible mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced disruptions of menstrual cycle regularity are discussed.

  3. Acute effects of alcohol on stimulus-induced gamma oscillations in human primary visual and motor cortices.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anne E; Sumner, Petroc; Singh, Krish D; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol is a rich drug affecting both the γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) and glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems. Recent findings from both modeling and pharmacological manipulation have indicated a link between GABAergic activity and oscillations measured in the gamma frequency range (30-80 Hz), but there are no previous reports of alcohol's modulation of gamma-band activity measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG) or electroencephalography (EEG). In this single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 16 participants completed two study days, on one day of which they consumed a dose of 0.8 g/kg alcohol, and on the other day a placebo. MEG recordings of brain activity were taken before and after beverage consumption, using visual grating and finger abduction paradigms known to induce gamma-band activity in the visual and motor cortices respectively. Time-frequency analyses of beamformer source reconstructions in the visual cortex showed that alcohol increased peak gamma amplitude and decreased peak frequency. For the motor task, alcohol increased gamma amplitude in the motor cortex. These data support the notion that gamma oscillations are dependent, in part, on the balance between excitation and inhibition. Disruption of this balance by alcohol, by increasing GABAergic inhibition at GABAA receptors and decreasing glutamatergic excitation at N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptors, alters both the amplitude and frequency of gamma oscillations. The findings provide further insight into the neuropharmacological action of alcohol.

  4. Adaptation of Mesenteric Collecting Lymphatic Pump Function Following Acute Alcohol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Souza-Smith, Flavia M.; Kurtz, Kristine M.; Molina, Patricia E.; Breslin, Jerome W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Acute alcohol intoxication increases intestinal lymph flow by unknown mechanisms, potentially impacting mucosal immunity. We tested the hypothesis that enhanced intrinsic pump function of mesenteric lymphatics contributes to increased intestinal lymph flow during alcohol intoxication. Methods Acute alcohol intoxication was produced by intragastric administration of 30% alcohol to concious, unrestrained rats through surgically-implanted catheters. Time-matched controls received either no bolus, vehicle, or isocaloric dextrose. Thirty minutes after alcohol administration, rats were anesthetized and mesenteric collecting lymphatics were isolated and cannulated to study intrinsic pumping parameters. In separate experiments, mesenteric lymphatics were isolated to examine direct effects of alcohol on intrinsic pump activity. Results Lymphatics isolated from alcohol-intoxicated animals displayed slgnificantly decreased contraction frequency (CF) than the dextrose group, elevated stroke volume index (SVI) versus all other groups, and decreased myogenic responsiveness compared to sham. Elevating pressure from 2 to 4 cm H2O increased the volume flow index 2.4-fold in the alcohol group versus 1.4-fold for shams. Isolated lymphatics exposed to 20 mM alcohol had reduced myogenic tone, without changes in CF or SVI. Conclusions Alcohol intoxication enhances intrinsic pumping by mesenteric collecting lymphatics. Alcohol directly decreases lymphatic myogenic tone, but effects on phasic contractions occur by an unidentified mechanism. PMID:21040117

  5. The incidence of acute pancreatitis: impact of social deprivation, alcohol consumption, seasonal and demographic factors1

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, SE; Akbari, A; Thorne, K; Atkinson, M; Evans, PA

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of acute pancreatitis has increased sharply in many European countries and the USA in recent years. Aim To establish trends in incidence and mortality for acute pancreatitis in Wales, UK, and to assess how incidence may be linked to factors including social deprivation, seasonal effects and alcohol consumption. Methods Use of record linked inpatient, mortality and primary care data for 10 589 hospitalised cases of acute pancreatitis between 1999 and 2010. Results The incidence of acute pancreatitis was 30.0 per 100 000 population overall, mortality was 6.4% at 60 days. Incidence increased significantly from 27.6 per 100 000 in 1999 to 36.4 in 2010 (average annual increase = 2.7% per year), there was little trend in mortality (0.2% average annual reduction). The largest increases in incidence were among women aged <35 years (7.9% per year) and men aged 35–44 (5.7%) and 45–54 (5.3%). Incidence was 1.9 times higher among the most deprived quintile of patients compared with the most affluent (3.9 times higher for alcoholic acute pancreatitis and 1.5 for gallstone acute pancreatitis). Acute pancreatitis was increased significantly during the Christmas and New Year weeks by 48% (95% CI = 24–77%) for alcoholic aetiology, but not for gallstone aetiology (9%). Alcoholic admissions were increased with higher consumption of spirits and beer, but not wine. Conclusions The study shows an elevated rate of alcoholic acute pancreatitis during the Christmas and New Year period. Acute pancreatitis continues to rise, most rapidly for young women, while alcoholic acute pancreatitis is linked strongly with social deprivation. PMID:23859492

  6. Acute alcohol intoxication in a child following ingestion of an ethyl-alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

    PubMed

    Hertzog, James H; Radwick, Allison

    2015-07-01

    While uncommon, ingestion of ethanol-based hand sanitizers by children may be associated with significant intoxication. We report the case of a 7-year-old with acute alcohol intoxication following hand sanitizer ingestion. Alcohol elimination in this patient followed zero-order kinetics with a clearance rate of 22.5 mg/kg/h, consistent with the limited pharmacokinetic information available for children who experience alcohol intoxication from more traditional sources. PMID:25943177

  7. Effect of acute lindane and alcohol intoxication on serum concentration of enzymes and fatty acids in rats.

    PubMed

    Radosavljević, T; Mladenović, D; Vucević, D; Petrović, J; Hrncić, D; Djuric, D; Loncar-Stevanović, H; Stanojlović, O

    2008-05-01

    This study examines possible synergistic effects of lindane and ethanol on inducing liver injury and serum fatty acid derangement in adult male Wistar rats. When administered together, ethanol and lindane-induced even more pronounced increase of alanine aminotransferase (165 +/- 10 U/L) and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activity (10.3 +/- 0.6 U/L) than after isolated administration of either substance. In addition, separate administration of lindane and ethanol was followed by a significant decrease of linoleic acid level in the serum (301 +/- 38 mg/L, 276 +/- 35 mg/L vs. 416 +/- 48 mg/L). However, when ethanol administration was followed by lindane injection, serum linoleic acid was at the similar level found in the control group (516 +/- 62 mg/L). Ethanol-treated rats that received lindane 30 min after ethanol administration have shown a marked increase of palmitic (421 +/- 27 mg/L) and linolic acid level (43 +/- 5 mg/L) in comparison with rats that have been treated only with ethanol (316+/-26 mg/L for palmitic and 32 +/- 2 mg/L for linolic acid) or lindane (295 +/- 26 mg/L for palmitic and 301 +/- 38 mg/L for linolic acid). Linolic acid level was significantly greater in comparison with control group (29 +/- 1 mg/L). In conclusion, this study found enough evidence to support the hypothesis that acute ethanol intoxication potentiates lindane-induced liver injury and enhances lipid derangement.

  8. Understanding the Effects of Stress and Alcohol Cues on Motivation for Alcohol via Behavioral Economics

    PubMed Central

    Amlung, Michael; MacKillop, James

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychological stress and alcohol cues are common antecedents of both ongoing drinking and relapse. One candidate mechanism of risk from these factors is acute increases in craving, but experimental support for this hypothesis is mixed. Furthermore, the combination of stress and cues has been largely unstudied. The current study employed a behavioral economic approach to investigate the combined roles of psychosocial stress and alcohol cues on motivation for alcohol. Methods In a sample of 84 adult heavy drinkers, we examined the effects of an acute laboratory stress induction and an alcohol cue exposure on subjective craving and stress, arousal, and behavioral economic decision-making. Primary dependent measures included an intertemporal cross-commodity multiple choice procedure (ICCMCP), incorporating both price and delay elements; an alcohol purchase task (APT), measuring alcohol demand; and a monetary delay discounting task (DDT), measuring intertemporal choice. Results The stress induction significantly increased stress, craving, and the incentive value of alcohol on the ICCMCP and APT. Stress-related increases in value on the ICCMCP were mediated by increased alcohol demand. Exposure to alcohol cues only significantly affected craving, APT breakpoint, and arousal. Delay discounting was not affected by either stress or cues. Conclusions These results reveal unique behavioral economic dimensions of motivation for alcohol following acute stress and an alcohol cue exposure. More broadly, as the first application of this approach to understanding the role of stress in drug motivation, these findings support its utility and potential in future applications. PMID:24890323

  9. [The mode of differential diagnostic of and acute alcoholic gastroenteritis].

    PubMed

    Makarov, V K; Makarov, P V

    2014-12-01

    The study was carried out to develop mode of differential diagnostic of salmonella and acute alcoholic gastroenteritis on the basis of phospholipid specter of blood serum. The indicators of phospholipid fractions of blood serum were analyzed in 50 healthy persons, 50 patients with acute alcoholic gastroenteritis and 50 patients with salmonella gastroenteritis were analyzed. The relative content of following fractions of whole phospholipids were analyzed--total lysophospholipids, sphyngomiyelin, phosphatidcholine, phosphatidyletanolamin. The phospholipid spectrum of blood serum can be applied in differential diagnostic of salmonella gastroenteritis and acute alcoholic gastroenteritis. The disorders of metabolism of lipids under given pathological conditions have a multidirectional character. The salmonella gastroenteritis is characterized by decreasing of relative content of total lysophospholipids and increasing of phosphatidcholine as compared with standard conditions. The acute alcoholic gastroenteritis is characterized by increasing of relative content of total lysophospholipids and phosphatidcholine and decreasing of level of phosphatidcholine. The content of total Iysophospholipids in blood serum is lower on 35% or 30.0 mg% permits diagnosing acute alcoholic gastroenteritis. The content of phosphaltidcholine in blood serum higher than 40% or 50 mg% permits diagnosing salmonella gastroenteritis.

  10. Circadian modulation of acute alcohol sensitivity but not acute tolerance in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    van der Linde, Kim; Lyons, Lisa C

    2011-05-01

    An increased understanding of the factors affecting behavioral and neurological responses to alcohol and alcohol physiology is necessary given the tremendous toll alcohol abuse and alcoholism exert on individuals and society. At the behavioral and molecular levels, the response to alcohol appears remarkably conserved from Drosophila to humans, suggesting that investigations across model species can provide insight into the identification of common modulatory factors. We investigated the interaction between the circadian clock and alcohol sensitivity, alcohol tolerance, and alcohol absorbance in Drosophila melanogaster. Using a loss-of-righting reflex (LoRR) assay, we found that flies exhibit a circadian rhythm in the LoRR, with the greatest sensitivity to alcohol occurring from mid to late night, corresponding to the flies' inactive phase. As predicted, a circadian rhythm in the LoRR was absent in circadian mutant flies and under conditions in which the circadian clock was nonfunctional. Circadian modulation of the response to alcohol was not due to circadian regulation of alcohol absorbance. Similar to other animals, Drosophila develop acute and chronic tolerance to alcohol upon repeat exposures. We found that the circadian clock did not modulate the development of acute alcohol tolerance measured as the difference in sensitivity to alcohol between naïve and pre-exposed flies. Thus, the circadian clock modulates some, but not all, of the behavioral responses to alcohol exposure, suggesting that specific mechanisms underlie the observed circadian modulation of LoRR rather than global cellular circadian regulation. This study provides valuable new insights in our understanding of the circadian modulation of alcohol-induced behaviors that ultimately could facilitate preventative measures in combating alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

  11. [Effect of alcohol on vascular function].

    PubMed

    Kudo, Risa; Yuui, Katsuya; Kasuda, Shogo; Hatake, Katsuhiko

    2015-06-01

    Vascular function is regulated by a balance of vasoconstriction and vasorelaxation. Disorder in this balance due to alcohol consumption causes various clinical conditions. In this review, we discuss the effects of acute and chronic ethanol consumption on vascular responses, including vasoconstriction, endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, and nerve-mediated vasorelaxation. Acute ethanol administration induces vasoconstriction in ethanol-naive animals in vitro. Furthermore, ethanol can both potentiate and suppress agonist-induced Ca(2+)-dependent vasoconstriction. Moreover, ethanol augments Ca(2+)-independent vasoconstriction by increasing Ca2+ sensitivity. Endothelium-dependent relaxation is mediated by the nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) pathway. Acute ethanol treatment inhibits both NO- and EDHF-mediated relaxation. Furthermore, acute ethanol ingestion can also potentiate and suppress calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-induced nerve-mediated relaxation. These opposing effects may be due to differences in species or vascular beds. Thus, acute ethanol treatment decreases vasorelaxation, thereby shifting the contraction-relaxation balance towards contraction. Combined, these effects are one mechanism by which acute heavy alcohol consumption causes circulatory disturbances such as vasospasms or ischemic heart disease. In contrast, chronic low-dose ethanol has no effect on vasoconstriction, whereas chronic high-dose ethanol increases vasoconstriction. Additionally, chronic ethanol intake has diminished, unchanged, and even increased effects on nerve-mediated relaxation; therefore, conclusions on these effects are not possible at present. Interestingly, chronic low-dose ethanol administration enhanced endothelium-dependent relaxation; however, higher doses inhibited these responses. Therefore, regular or light-to-moderate alcohol intake increases vasorelaxation and may suppress elevated blood pressure, whereas

  12. [Pecularities of correction of alcohol affctions of liver in patients with acute ethanol poisoning in the setting of consequence of toxic effect of ethanol].

    PubMed

    Shilov, V V; batotsyrenov, B V; Vasil'ev, S A; Shikalova, I A; Kuznetsov, O A

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this work was to test the usage of infusion of hepatoprotector "remaxol" in intensive therapy of acute ethanol poisoning accompanied with severe alcohol affections of the lever. In the result of the examination and treatment of 130 patients it was established that severe alcohol poisonings registered on alcohol abused patients with toxic hepatopathy, are always accompanied with serious metabolic violations. In the process of a comparative valuation of the using of heptral (ademethionin) and remaxol in the intensive therapy of alcohol poisonings it has been revealed that the using of remaxol led to improvement of the clinic of that poisonings, what had been registered as a decrease of frequency and duration of an alcohol delirium from 33,9% to 10,8%, a decrease of frequency of secondary lung complication from 18,5 to 3,1%, a decrease of a duration of treatment in intensive care unit from 7,3 +/- 0,6 to 5,6 +/- 0,3 and a hospital treatment duration from 11,8 +/- 0,5 to 9,0 +/- 0,3 days. Biochemical investigation has shown that using as heptral, as remaxol led to improvement of lever damages due to alcohol. However remaxol compared with heptral was better in the treatment of metabolic violations.

  13. Symptoms and signs of acute alcoholic hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Basra, Gurjot; Basra, Sarpreet; Parupudi, Sreeram

    2011-01-01

    Although there is not one specific sign or symptom related to alcoholic hepatitis (AH), a constellation of symptoms and signs can help make the diagnosis of AH with reasonable accuracy. Documentation of chronic and active alcohol abuse is paramount in making a diagnosis of AH. Clinical presentation after abstinence for more than 3 m should raise doubts about the diagnosis of AH and dictate the need for considering other causes of liver disease, decompensation of alcoholic cirrhosis, sepsis and malignancy as the cause of patient’s clinical profile. PMID:21731904

  14. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  15. Inpatient management of acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Perry, Elizabeth C

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is a common condition encountered in the hospital setting after abrupt discontinuation of alcohol in an alcohol-dependent individual. Patients may present with mild symptoms of tremulousness and agitation or more severe symptoms including withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. Management revolves around early identification of at-risk individuals and symptom assessment using a validated tool such as the revised Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol score. Benzodiazepines remain the mainstay of treatment and can be administered using a front-loading, fixed-dose, or symptom-triggered approach. Long-acting benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide or diazepam are commonly used and may provide a smoother withdrawal than shorter-acting benzodiazepines, but there are no data to support superiority of one benzodiazepine over another. Elderly patients or those with significant liver disease may have increased accumulation and decreased clearance of the long-acting benzodiazepines, and lorazepam or oxazepam may be preferred in these patients. Patients with symptoms refractory to high doses of benzodiazepines may require addition of a rescue medication such as phenobarbital, propofol or dexmedetomidine. Anticonvulsants (carbamazepine, valproate, gabapentin) may have a role in the management of mild to moderate withdrawal. Other medications such as β-antagonists or neuroleptics may offer additional benefit in select patients but should not be used a monotherapy.

  16. Animated bird silhouette above the tank: Acute alcohol diminishes fear responses in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Ruxandra M.; Gerlai, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse represent major unmet medical needs. The zebrafish is considered to be a promising vertebrate species with which the effects of alcohol on brain function and behavior and the mechanisms underlying these effects may be studied. Alcohol is known to induce alterations in motor function as well as fear and anxiety. Here we present a recently developed fear paradigm in which we employ an animated (moving) image of a bird silhouette. We measure the effect of acute alcohol administration (dose range employed: 0.00 – 0.75 vol/vol percentage, bath exposure for 60 minutes) on the behavioral responses of zebrafish. We test these responses during a pre-stimulus, stimulus and post-stimulus period of the task using both a video-tracking and an observation based quantification method. The fear inducing stimulus was found to decrease the distance of the zebrafish from the bottom of the tank, to increase number of erratic movements, and to increase the number of jumps in alcohol exposed fish (versus control fish). Alcohol attenuated these fear responses in a dose dependent manner. In addition, alcohol decreased general activity at the highest dose, an effect that was independent of the presentation of the stimulus. We discuss the similarities and differences between observation and video-tracking based results and conclude that fear paradigms will be useful in revealing alcohol induced functional changes in the brain of zebrafish. PMID:22266470

  17. Purtscher-like retinopathy in acute alcoholic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Nema, Nitin; Ishrat, Saba; Verma, Abha; Kela, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    A 23-year-old man with a history of alcoholism presented with vomiting, fever, and sharp epigastric pain radiating to the back and flanks. He was diagnosed as a case of acute alcoholic pancreatitis on the basis of clinical findings and investigations. On the next day of presentation, he developed sudden bilateral visual loss. His best-corrected visual acuity was finger counting at one-foot distance in both eyes. He had diffuse whitening in the circumpapillary area, haloes around the retinal vessels (Purtscher flecken) and intra-retinal hemorrhages on ophthalmoscopic examination. Optical coherence tomography revealed bilateral macular edema. These findings were characteristic of Purtscher-like retinopathy. The patient showed systemic and visual improvement at 8 weeks follow-up after receiving the conventional treatment for acute alcoholic pancreatitis. This case emphasizes the importance of fundus examination by an ophthalmologist in the diagnosis of this rare under-diagnosed entity. PMID:27433040

  18. Purtscher-like retinopathy in acute alcoholic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Nema, Nitin; Ishrat, Saba; Verma, Abha; Kela, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    A 23-year-old man with a history of alcoholism presented with vomiting, fever, and sharp epigastric pain radiating to the back and flanks. He was diagnosed as a case of acute alcoholic pancreatitis on the basis of clinical findings and investigations. On the next day of presentation, he developed sudden bilateral visual loss. His best-corrected visual acuity was finger counting at one-foot distance in both eyes. He had diffuse whitening in the circumpapillary area, haloes around the retinal vessels (Purtscher flecken) and intra-retinal hemorrhages on ophthalmoscopic examination. Optical coherence tomography revealed bilateral macular edema. These findings were characteristic of Purtscher-like retinopathy. The patient showed systemic and visual improvement at 8 weeks follow-up after receiving the conventional treatment for acute alcoholic pancreatitis. This case emphasizes the importance of fundus examination by an ophthalmologist in the diagnosis of this rare under-diagnosed entity. PMID:27433040

  19. Influences of Situational Factors and Alcohol Expectancies on Sexual Desire and Arousal Among Heavy-Episodic Drinking Women: Acute Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Availability

    PubMed Central

    George, William H.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Heiman, Julia R.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    Although studies suggest that alcohol increases women’s sexual desire, no studies to our knowledge have examined the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on women’s sexual desire. The majority of research examining alcohol’s effects on sexual arousal in women suggests that alcohol increases self-reported arousal. In an alcohol administration study in which women projected themselves into an eroticized scenario depicting a consensual sexual encounter with a new male partner, we examined the effects of alcohol and condom condition on women’s sexual desire and arousal. The moderating effects of sex-related alcohol expectancies were also examined. Results revealed that alcohol intoxication was related to less desire to engage in sex with a new partner and condom presence was related to more desire. Alcohol interacted with sexual disinhibition alcohol expectancies, indicating that more expectancy endorsement was associated with greater sexual desire and self-reported arousal in the alcohol condition, but not the control condition. Condom condition had no effect on self-reported sexual arousal. The present research suggests that sexual desire merits research attention in non-clinical samples, and experimental methodology can provide valuable information about alcohol’s influence on women’s sexual desire, thus advancing our understanding of this relationship beyond cross-sectional correlations. The current findings also provide evidence that sex-related alcohol expectancies may play an important role in alcohol-involved sexual experiences including desire and arousal. PMID:23661324

  20. Cinnamon extract protects against acute alcohol-induced liver steatosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kanuri, Giridhar; Weber, Synia; Volynets, Valentina; Spruss, Astrid; Bischoff, Stephan C; Bergheim, Ina

    2009-03-01

    Acute and chronic consumption of alcohol can cause increased intestinal permeability and bacterial overgrowth, thereby increasing portal endotoxin levels. This barrier impairment subsequently leads to an activation of hepatic Kupffer cells and increased release of reactive oxygen species as well as of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha). Recent studies have suggested that cinnamon extract may have antiinflammatory effects. In the present study, the protective effects of an alcoholic extract of cinnamon bark was assessed in a mouse model of acute alcohol-induced steatosis and in RAW 264.7 macrophages, used here as a model of Kupffer cells. Acute alcohol ingestion caused a >20-fold increase in hepatic lipid accumulation. Pretreatment with cinnamon extract significantly reduced the hepatic lipid accumulation. This protective effect of cinnamon extract was associated with an inhibition of the induction of the myeloid differentiation primary response gene (MyD) 88, inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS), and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 mRNA expression found in livers of alcohol-treated animals. In vitro prechallenge with cinnamon extract suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced MyD88, iNOS, and TNFalpha expression as well as NO formation almost completely. Furthermore, LPS treatment of RAW 264.7 macrophages further resulted in degradation of inhibitor kappaB; this effect was almost completely blocked by cinnamon extract. Taken together, our data show that an alcohol extract of cinnamon bark may protect the liver from acute alcohol-induced steatosis through mechanisms involving the inhibition of MyD88 expression. PMID:19126670

  1. [What control solutions should be used in studies on the acute effect of alcohol on the gastrointestinal tract?].

    PubMed

    Singer, M V

    1983-10-01

    There exists still a considerable confusion in the literature about the appropriate control solution for ethanol. In many studies either no control or equimolar solutions of urea, mannitol or sodium chloride were used as an osmotic control for ethanol; distilled water being given only in a few cases. The confusion is mainly derived from the opinion that the osmolality of the ethanol solution as measured by freezing point depression (= "theoretical osmotic pressure") is the determinant factor for the action of ethanol on the gastrointestinal tract. This opinion, however, is not correct. Since biological membranes are not perfectly semipermeable (i. e., they are permeable to certain solutes) the "effective osmotic pressure" produced by permeant solutes is always less than the ("theoretical") osmotic pressure as determined by freezing point depression. The ratio of the "effective" to the "theoretical" osmotic pressure of a solute is defined by the Stavermann reflection coefficient for a certain membrane. The Stavermann reflection coefficient may have any value between 1 and 0. For an impermeant solute the reflection coefficient equals 1 and for increasingly permeant solutes it becomes progressively less than 1 and closer to 0. The Stavermann reflection coefficient of ethanol for some gastrointestinal organs tested is about 0.1. The ideal osmotic control for ethanol would be a solute which exerts the same effective osmotic pressure on the gastrointestinal membrane as ethanol, i. e. which has the same Stavermann reflection coefficient as ethanol, and has no specific pharmacologic effect. Distilled water seems to be the most suitable osmotic control for ethanol because it has a Stavermann reflection coefficient of 0 and has no pharmacological actions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6649735

  2. [What control solutions should be used in studies on the acute effect of alcohol on the gastrointestinal tract?].

    PubMed

    Singer, M V

    1983-10-01

    There exists still a considerable confusion in the literature about the appropriate control solution for ethanol. In many studies either no control or equimolar solutions of urea, mannitol or sodium chloride were used as an osmotic control for ethanol; distilled water being given only in a few cases. The confusion is mainly derived from the opinion that the osmolality of the ethanol solution as measured by freezing point depression (= "theoretical osmotic pressure") is the determinant factor for the action of ethanol on the gastrointestinal tract. This opinion, however, is not correct. Since biological membranes are not perfectly semipermeable (i. e., they are permeable to certain solutes) the "effective osmotic pressure" produced by permeant solutes is always less than the ("theoretical") osmotic pressure as determined by freezing point depression. The ratio of the "effective" to the "theoretical" osmotic pressure of a solute is defined by the Stavermann reflection coefficient for a certain membrane. The Stavermann reflection coefficient may have any value between 1 and 0. For an impermeant solute the reflection coefficient equals 1 and for increasingly permeant solutes it becomes progressively less than 1 and closer to 0. The Stavermann reflection coefficient of ethanol for some gastrointestinal organs tested is about 0.1. The ideal osmotic control for ethanol would be a solute which exerts the same effective osmotic pressure on the gastrointestinal membrane as ethanol, i. e. which has the same Stavermann reflection coefficient as ethanol, and has no specific pharmacologic effect. Distilled water seems to be the most suitable osmotic control for ethanol because it has a Stavermann reflection coefficient of 0 and has no pharmacological actions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Acute Alcohol Drinking Promotes Piecemeal Percepts during Binocular Rivalry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dingcai; Zhuang, Xiaohua; Kang, Para; Hong, Sang W; King, Andrea C

    2016-01-01

    Binocular rivalry refers to perceptual alternation when two eyes view different images. One of the potential percepts during binocular rivalry is a spatial mosaic of left- and right-eye images, known as piecemeal percepts, which may result from localized rivalries between small regions in the left- and right-eye images. It is known that alcohol increases inhibitory neurotransmission, which may reduce the number of alternations during binocular rivalry. However, it is unclear whether alcohol affects rivalry dynamics in the same manner for both coherent percepts (i.e., percepts of complete left or right images) and piecemeal percepts. To address this question, the present study measured the dynamics of binocular rivalry before and after 15 moderate-to-heavy social drinkers consumed an intoxicating dose of alcohol versus a placebo beverage. Both simple rivalrous stimuli consisting of gratings with different orientations, and complex stimuli consisting of a face or a house were tested to examine alcohol effects on rivalry as a function of stimulus complexity. Results showed that for both simple and complex stimuli, alcohol affects coherent and piecemeal percepts differently. More specifically, alcohol reduced the number of coherent percepts but not the mean dominance duration of coherent percepts. In contrast, for piecemeal percepts, alcohol increased the mean dominance duration but not the number of piecemeal percepts. These results suggested that alcohol drinking may selectively affect the dynamics of transitional period of binocular rivalry by increasing the duration of piecemeal percepts, leading to a reduction in the number of coherent percepts. The differential effect of alcohol on the dynamics of coherent and piecemeal percepts cannot be accounted for by alcohol's effect on a common inhibitory mechanism. Other mechanisms, such as increasing neural noise, are needed to explain alcohol's effect on the dynamics of binocular rivalry. PMID:27092096

  4. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects in Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pancratz, Diane R.

    This literature review defines Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) and considers their causes, diagnoses, prevalence, and educational ramifications. Effects of alcohol during each of the trimesters of pregnancy are summarized. Specific diagnostic characteristics of FAS are listed: (1) growth deficiency, (2) a…

  5. [Features of acute alcoholic psychoses in the Far North].

    PubMed

    Korolenko, Ts P; Bochkareva, N L

    1977-01-01

    An analysis of the clinical picture and development of acute alcoholic psychosis in 300 inhabitants of the North Region permitted to distinguish some traits of these conditions. Psychoses were characterized by an expressed atypicity of the psychopathological picture, somato-vegetative disorders, a complication of the development of the psychoses in comparison with the inhabitants of the middle latitudes. The authors also distinguished some differences in the predilectiveness of some syndromes or symptoms, the character and content of them in alcoholic psychoses in natives and newcomers. It was also possible to establish disorders of psychophysiological adaptation to conditions of the North Regions in the newcomers and first of all in the clinical picture and development of alcoholic delirium.

  6. Acute influence of alcohol, THC or central stimulants on violent suicide: A Swedish population study.

    PubMed

    Lundholm, Lena; Thiblin, Ingemar; Runeson, Bo; Leifman, Anders; Fugelstad, Anna

    2014-03-01

    Alcohol and substance abuse in general is a risk factor for suicide, but very little is known about the acute effect in relation to suicide method. Based on information from 18,894 medico-legal death investigations, including toxicological findings and manner of death, did the present study investigate whether acute influence of alcohol, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), or central stimulants (amphetamine and cocaine) was related to the use of a violent suicide method, in comparison with the nonviolent method self-poisoning and alcohol-/illicit drug-negative suicide decedents. Multivariate analysis was conducted, and the results revealed that acute influence of THC was related to using the violent suicide method–– jumping from a height (RR 1.62; 95% CI 1.01–2.41). Alcohol intoxication was not related to any violent method, while the central stimulant-positive suicide decedent had a higher, albeit not significant, risk of several violent methods. The study contributes with elucidating suicide methods in relation to acute intoxication. PMID:24745078

  7. Cardiac effects of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Gould, L; Reddy, C V; Singh, B K; Zen, B

    1980-11-01

    There is little information on the echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular performance after the ingestion of alcohol. Therefore, we obtained echocardiograms and systolic time intervals in 9 normal subjects before and after a cocktail party. These subjects drank 5-6 ounces of 87 proof whiskey during the party. An additional 19 normal subjects drank 3 ounces of 87 proof whiskey and had similar studies performed. The results of the study with 5-6 ounces of alcohol are in Table 3. The 19 subjects who drank 3 ounces of alcohol showed no statistical changes except that the systolic ejection time fell from a control of 0.31 +/- 03 (see formula in text) to 0.30 +/- 0.4 (P less than 0.05). These data indicate that 5-6 ounces of whiskey can depress left ventricular function in normal subjects.

  8. Alcohol effects on drug-nutrient interactions.

    PubMed

    Seitz, H K

    1985-01-01

    The interaction of ethanol with drugs and xenobiotics is complex because ethanol can affect any of the following steps; absorption, plasma protein binding, hepatic blood flow, distribution, hepatic uptake of drugs, and phase I and II hepatic metabolism. The ingestion of ethanol can lead to malabsorption of a variety of nutrients and can modify the absorption of various drugs. High concentrations of ethanol in conjunction with aspirin causes gastric mucosal damage. The principal effect of acute ethanol ingestion on drug metabolism is inhibition of microsomal drug metabolism. The synergistic effects of ethanol on central nervous system depressants can be explained by this mechanism. In contrast, chronic ethanol consumption increases mixed function oxidation and drug metabolism. The cross tolerance between ethanol and sedatives in chronic alcoholics may be due to this effect of alcohol. In addition, enhanced production of hepatotoxic products from certain drugs and xenobiotics and an increased activation of procarcinogens to carcinogens can result from this microsomal induction. The increased susceptibility to hepatotoxins and the enhanced carcinogenesis in the alcoholic may be explained by this fact. Other effects of the interaction between drugs and ethanol are the result of changes in organ susceptibility, best demonstrated for the central nervous system. Subsequently, the presence of liver disease has a great effect on drug metabolism in alcoholics.

  9. [Comparative characteristics of glucose metabolism in the liver of rats under acute alcohol and morphine intoxication].

    PubMed

    Lelevich, S V

    2011-01-01

    The comparative analysis effect of acute alcohol and morphine intoxications on rats on hepatic glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway was done. The dose-dependent inhibitory effect of ethanol on activity of limiting enzymes of these metabolic ways, as well as anaerobic reorientation of glucose metabolism was recognised with the increase of the dose of the intake alcohol. Morfine (10 mg/kg) activated enymes of glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway, but in contrast to ethanol it did not influence these parameters at the dose 20 or 40 mg/kg.

  10. Acute Alcohol Drinking Promotes Piecemeal Percepts during Binocular Rivalry

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dingcai; Zhuang, Xiaohua; Kang, Para; Hong, Sang W.; King, Andrea C.

    2016-01-01

    Binocular rivalry refers to perceptual alternation when two eyes view different images. One of the potential percepts during binocular rivalry is a spatial mosaic of left- and right-eye images, known as piecemeal percepts, which may result from localized rivalries between small regions in the left- and right-eye images. It is known that alcohol increases inhibitory neurotransmission, which may reduce the number of alternations during binocular rivalry. However, it is unclear whether alcohol affects rivalry dynamics in the same manner for both coherent percepts (i.e., percepts of complete left or right images) and piecemeal percepts. To address this question, the present study measured the dynamics of binocular rivalry before and after 15 moderate-to-heavy social drinkers consumed an intoxicating dose of alcohol versus a placebo beverage. Both simple rivalrous stimuli consisting of gratings with different orientations, and complex stimuli consisting of a face or a house were tested to examine alcohol effects on rivalry as a function of stimulus complexity. Results showed that for both simple and complex stimuli, alcohol affects coherent and piecemeal percepts differently. More specifically, alcohol reduced the number of coherent percepts but not the mean dominance duration of coherent percepts. In contrast, for piecemeal percepts, alcohol increased the mean dominance duration but not the number of piecemeal percepts. These results suggested that alcohol drinking may selectively affect the dynamics of transitional period of binocular rivalry by increasing the duration of piecemeal percepts, leading to a reduction in the number of coherent percepts. The differential effect of alcohol on the dynamics of coherent and piecemeal percepts cannot be accounted for by alcohol’s effect on a common inhibitory mechanism. Other mechanisms, such as increasing neural noise, are needed to explain alcohol’s effect on the dynamics of binocular rivalry. PMID:27092096

  11. Effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored emergency-room intervention among adolescents admitted to hospital due to acute alcohol intoxication - A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wurdak, Mara; Wolstein, Jörg; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test the effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored intervention for adolescents hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication in eight cities in Germany between December 2011 and May 2012 against a similar, non-motive-tailored intervention. In a randomized controlled trial, 254 adolescents received a psychosocial intervention plus motive-tailored (intervention group; IG) or general exercises (control group; CG). Adolescents in the IG received exercises in accordance with their drinking motives as indicated at baseline (e.g. alternative ways of spending leisure time or dealing with stress). Exercises for the CG contained alcohol-related information in general (e.g. legal issues). The data of 81 adolescents (age: M = 15.6, SD = 1.0; 42.0% female) who participated in both the baseline and the follow-up were compared using ANOVA with repeated measurements and effect sizes (available case analyses). Adolescents reported lower alcohol use at the four-week follow-up independently of the kind of intervention. Significant interaction effects between time and IG were found for girls in terms of drinking frequency (F = 7.770, p < 0.01) and binge drinking (F = 7.0005, p < 0.05) but not for boys. For the former, the proportional reductions and corresponding effect sizes of drinking frequency (d = - 1.18), binge drinking (d = - 1.61) and drunkenness (d = - 2.87) were much higher than the .8 threshold for large effects. Conducting psychosocial interventions in a motive-tailored way appears more effective for girls admitted to hospital due to alcohol intoxication than without motive-tailoring. Further research is required to address the specific needs of boys in such interventions. (German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS ID: DRKS00005588).

  12. Effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored emergency-room intervention among adolescents admitted to hospital due to acute alcohol intoxication — A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Wurdak, Mara; Wolstein, Jörg; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test the effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored intervention for adolescents hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication in eight cities in Germany between December 2011 and May 2012 against a similar, non-motive-tailored intervention. In a randomized controlled trial, 254 adolescents received a psychosocial intervention plus motive-tailored (intervention group; IG) or general exercises (control group; CG). Adolescents in the IG received exercises in accordance with their drinking motives as indicated at baseline (e.g. alternative ways of spending leisure time or dealing with stress). Exercises for the CG contained alcohol-related information in general (e.g. legal issues). The data of 81 adolescents (age: M = 15.6, SD = 1.0; 42.0% female) who participated in both the baseline and the follow-up were compared using ANOVA with repeated measurements and effect sizes (available case analyses). Adolescents reported lower alcohol use at the four-week follow-up independently of the kind of intervention. Significant interaction effects between time and IG were found for girls in terms of drinking frequency (F = 7.770, p < 0.01) and binge drinking (F = 7.0005, p < 0.05) but not for boys. For the former, the proportional reductions and corresponding effect sizes of drinking frequency (d = − 1.18), binge drinking (d = − 1.61) and drunkenness (d = − 2.87) were much higher than the .8 threshold for large effects. Conducting psychosocial interventions in a motive-tailored way appears more effective for girls admitted to hospital due to alcohol intoxication than without motive-tailoring. Further research is required to address the specific needs of boys in such interventions. (German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS ID: DRKS00005588). PMID:26844193

  13. Effects of naltrexone on alcohol drinking patterns and extinction of alcohol seeking in baboons

    PubMed Central

    Kaminski, Barbara J.; Duke, Angela N.; Weerts, Elise M.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Understanding naltrexone’s effect on motivation to drink and pattern of drinking is important for better treatment outcomes and for comparison with novel medications. Objectives Naltrexone’s effects on number and pattern of seeking, self-administration, and extinction responses were evaluated in two groups of baboons trained under a 3 component chained schedule of reinforcement (CSR). Methods Alcohol (4% w/v; n=4; Alcohol Group) or a preferred non-alcoholic beverage (n=4; Control Group) was available for self-administration only in Component 3 of the CSR. Responses in Component 2 provided indices of motivation to drink (seeking). Naltrexone (0.32 – 3.2 mg/kg) and saline were administered before drinking and Component 2 extinction sessions. Results Acute doses of naltrexone significantly decreased total self-administration responses (p<0.01), intake volume (p<0.001) and g/kg of alcohol (p<0.01) in the Alcohol Group only. Pattern of drinking did not change, but number of drinks during the initial drinking bout was decreased significantly by naltrexone for both groups (P<0.05). During within-session extinction tests, acute naltrexone significantly decreased time to reach extinction (p<0.01) and number of seeking responses (p<0.05), particularly early in the extinction period in the Alcohol Group only. When administered chronically, naltrexone did not decrease progressive-ratio breaking points to gain access to alcohol, but dose-dependently reduced alcohol self-administration (p<0.05) by decreasing the magnitude of the initial drinking bout. Conclusions The results support clinical observations that naltrexone may be most effective at reducing self-administration in the context of ongoing alcohol availability and may reduce motivation to drink in the presence of alcohol-related cues. PMID:22451093

  14. Acute alcoholic hepatitis, end stage alcoholic liver disease and liver transplantation: an Italian position statement.

    PubMed

    Testino, Gianni; Burra, Patrizia; Bonino, Ferruccio; Piani, Francesco; Sumberaz, Alessandro; Peressutti, Roberto; Giannelli Castiglione, Andrea; Patussi, Valentino; Fanucchi, Tiziana; Ancarani, Ornella; De Cerce, Giovanna; Iannini, Anna Teresa; Greco, Giovanni; Mosti, Antonio; Durante, Marilena; Babocci, Paola; Quartini, Mariano; Mioni, Davide; Aricò, Sarino; Baselice, Aniello; Leone, Silvia; Lozer, Fabiola; Scafato, Emanuele; Borro, Paolo

    2014-10-28

    Alcoholic liver disease encompasses a broad spectrum of diseases ranging from steatosis steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis to hepatocellular carcinoma. Forty-four per cent of all deaths from cirrhosis are attributed to alcohol. Alcoholic liver disease is the second most common diagnosis among patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT). The vast majority of transplant programmes (85%) require 6 mo of abstinence prior to transplantation; commonly referred to as the "6-mo rule". Both in the case of progressive end-stage liver disease (ESLD) and in the case of severe acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH), not responding to medical therapy, there is a lack of evidence to support a 6-mo sobriety period. It is necessary to identify other risk factors that could be associated with the resumption of alcohol drinking. The "Group of Italian Regions" suggests that: in a case of ESLD with model for end-stage liver disease < 19 a 6-mo abstinence period is required; in a case of ESLD, a 3-mo sober period before LT may be more ideal than a 6-mo period, in selected patients; and in a case of severe AAH, not responding to medical therapies (up to 70% of patients die within 6 mo), LT is mandatory, even without achieving abstinence. The multidisciplinary transplant team must include an addiction specialist/hepato-alcohologist. Patients have to participate in self-help groups.

  15. Acute alcoholic hepatitis, end stage alcoholic liver disease and liver transplantation: An Italian position statement

    PubMed Central

    Testino, Gianni; Burra, Patrizia; Bonino, Ferruccio; Piani, Francesco; Sumberaz, Alessandro; Peressutti, Roberto; Giannelli Castiglione, Andrea; Patussi, Valentino; Fanucchi, Tiziana; Ancarani, Ornella; De Cerce, Giovanna; Iannini, Anna Teresa; Greco, Giovanni; Mosti, Antonio; Durante, Marilena; Babocci, Paola; Quartini, Mariano; Mioni, Davide; Aricò, Sarino; Baselice, Aniello; Leone, Silvia; Lozer, Fabiola; Scafato, Emanuele; Borro, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease encompasses a broad spectrum of diseases ranging from steatosis steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis to hepatocellular carcinoma. Forty-four per cent of all deaths from cirrhosis are attributed to alcohol. Alcoholic liver disease is the second most common diagnosis among patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT). The vast majority of transplant programmes (85%) require 6 mo of abstinence prior to transplantation; commonly referred to as the “6-mo rule”. Both in the case of progressive end-stage liver disease (ESLD) and in the case of severe acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH), not responding to medical therapy, there is a lack of evidence to support a 6-mo sobriety period. It is necessary to identify other risk factors that could be associated with the resumption of alcohol drinking. The “Group of Italian Regions” suggests that: in a case of ESLD with model for end-stage liver disease < 19 a 6-mo abstinence period is required; in a case of ESLD, a 3-mo sober period before LT may be more ideal than a 6-mo period, in selected patients; and in a case of severe AAH, not responding to medical therapies (up to 70% of patients die within 6 mo), LT is mandatory, even without achieving abstinence. The multidisciplinary transplant team must include an addiction specialist/hepato-alcohologist. Patients have to participate in self-help groups. PMID:25356027

  16. Acute alcoholic hepatitis, end stage alcoholic liver disease and liver transplantation: an Italian position statement.

    PubMed

    Testino, Gianni; Burra, Patrizia; Bonino, Ferruccio; Piani, Francesco; Sumberaz, Alessandro; Peressutti, Roberto; Giannelli Castiglione, Andrea; Patussi, Valentino; Fanucchi, Tiziana; Ancarani, Ornella; De Cerce, Giovanna; Iannini, Anna Teresa; Greco, Giovanni; Mosti, Antonio; Durante, Marilena; Babocci, Paola; Quartini, Mariano; Mioni, Davide; Aricò, Sarino; Baselice, Aniello; Leone, Silvia; Lozer, Fabiola; Scafato, Emanuele; Borro, Paolo

    2014-10-28

    Alcoholic liver disease encompasses a broad spectrum of diseases ranging from steatosis steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis to hepatocellular carcinoma. Forty-four per cent of all deaths from cirrhosis are attributed to alcohol. Alcoholic liver disease is the second most common diagnosis among patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT). The vast majority of transplant programmes (85%) require 6 mo of abstinence prior to transplantation; commonly referred to as the "6-mo rule". Both in the case of progressive end-stage liver disease (ESLD) and in the case of severe acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH), not responding to medical therapy, there is a lack of evidence to support a 6-mo sobriety period. It is necessary to identify other risk factors that could be associated with the resumption of alcohol drinking. The "Group of Italian Regions" suggests that: in a case of ESLD with model for end-stage liver disease < 19 a 6-mo abstinence period is required; in a case of ESLD, a 3-mo sober period before LT may be more ideal than a 6-mo period, in selected patients; and in a case of severe AAH, not responding to medical therapies (up to 70% of patients die within 6 mo), LT is mandatory, even without achieving abstinence. The multidisciplinary transplant team must include an addiction specialist/hepato-alcohologist. Patients have to participate in self-help groups. PMID:25356027

  17. Adolescents and Alcohol: Acute Sensitivities, Enhanced Intake, and Later Consequences*

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is an evolutionarily conserved developmental period characterized by notable maturational changes in brain along with various age-related behavioral characteristics, including the propensity to initiate alcohol and other drug use and consume more alcohol per occasion than adults. After a brief review of adolescent neurobehavioral function from an evolutionary perspective, the paper will turn to assessment of adolescent alcohol sensitivity and consequences, with a focus on work from our laboratory. After summarizing evidence showing that adolescents differ considerably from adults in their sensitivity to various effects of alcohol, potential contributors to these age-typical sensitivities will be discussed, and the degree to which these findings are generalizable to other drugs and to human adolescents will be considered. Recent studies are then reviewed to illustrate that repeated alcohol exposure during adolescence induces behavioral, cognitive, and neural alterations that are highly specific, replicable, persistent and dependent on the timing of the exposure. Research in this area is in its early stages, however, and more work will be necessary to characterize the extent of these neurobehavioral alterations and further determine the degree to which observed effects are specific to alcohol exposure during adolescence. PMID:24291291

  18. Effects of Alcohol Intoxication on Anger Experience and Expression among Partner Assaultive Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckhardt, Christopher I.

    2007-01-01

    The author investigated the acute effects of alcohol intoxication on anger experience and expression among 46 maritally violent (MV) and 56 maritally nonviolent (NV) men randomly assigned to receive alcohol, placebo, or no alcohol. Participants completed an anger-arousing articulated thoughts in simulated situations (ATSS) paradigm and imagined…

  19. The effect of prior alcohol consumption on the ataxic response to alcohol in high-alcohol preferring mice.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Brandon M; Boehm, Stephen L

    2014-12-01

    We have previously shown that ethanol-naïve high-alcohol preferring (HAP) mice, genetically predisposed to consume large quantities of alcohol, exhibited heightened sensitivity and more rapid acute functional tolerance (AFT) to alcohol-induced ataxia compared to low-alcohol preferring mice. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prior alcohol self-administration on these responses in HAP mice. Naïve male and female adult HAP mice from the second replicate of selection (HAP2) underwent 18 days of 24-h, 2-bottle choice drinking for 10% ethanol vs. water, or water only. After 18 days of fluid access, mice were tested for ataxic sensitivity and rapid AFT following a 1.75 g/kg injection of ethanol on a static dowel apparatus in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, a separate group of mice was tested for more protracted AFT development using a dual-injection approach where a second, larger (2.0 g/kg) injection of ethanol was given following the initial recovery of performance on the task. HAP2 mice that had prior access to alcohol exhibited a blunted ataxic response to the acute alcohol challenge, but this pre-exposure did not alter rapid within-session AFT capacity in Experiment 1 or more protracted AFT capacity in Experiment 2. These findings suggest that the typically observed increase in alcohol consumption in these mice may be influenced by ataxic functional tolerance development, but is not mediated by a greater capacity for ethanol exposure to positively influence within-session ataxic tolerance.

  20. The effect of prior alcohol consumption on the ataxic response to alcohol in high-alcohol preferring mice

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Brandon M.; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that ethanol-naïve high-alcohol preferring (HAP) mice, genetically predis-posed to consume large quantities of alcohol, exhibited heightened sensitivity and more rapid acute functional tolerance (AFT) to alcohol-induced ataxia compared to low-alcohol preferring mice. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prior alcohol self-administration on these responses in HAP mice. Naïve male and female adult HAP mice from the second replicate of selection (HAP2) underwent 18 days of 24-h, 2-bottle choice drinking for 10% ethanol vs. water, or water only. After 18 days of fluid access, mice were tested for ataxic sensitivity and rapid AFT following a 1.75 g/kg injection of ethanol on a static dowel apparatus in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, a separate group of mice was tested for more protracted AFT development using a dual-injection approach where a second, larger (2.0 g/kg) injection of ethanol was given following the initial recovery of performance on the task. HAP2 mice that had prior access to alcohol exhibited a blunted ataxic response to the acute alcohol challenge, but this pre-exposure did not alter rapid within-session AFT capacity in Experiment 1 or more protracted AFT capacity in Experiment 2. These findings suggest that the typically observed increase in alcohol consumption in these mice may be influenced by ataxic functional tolerance development, but is not mediated by a greater capacity for ethanol exposure to positively influence within-session ataxic tolerance. PMID:25454537

  1. Acute Alcohol Consumption Elevates Serum Bilirubin, an Endogenous Antioxidant

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Stephanie S.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Wu, Ran; Jatlow, Peter I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with both negative and favorable effects on health. The mechanisms responsible for reported favorable effects remain unclear. Higher (not necessarily elevated) concentrations of serum bilirubin, an antioxidant, have also been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. This study tests the hypothesis that single dose alcohol consumption elevates bilirubin providing a potential link between these observations. Methods 18 healthy individuals (8 cigarette smokers) were administered alcohol, calibrated to achieve blood concentrations of 20, 80 and 120 mg/dL, in random order in 3 laboratory sessions separated by a week. Each session was preceded by and followed by 5–7 days of alcohol abstinence. Serum bilirubin was measured at 7:45 am prior to drinking, at 2 pm, and at 7:45 the next morning. Mixed effects regression models compared baseline and 24 hr. post-drinking bilirubin concentrations. Results Total serum bilirubin (sum of indirect and direct) concentration increased significantly after drinking from baseline to 24 hours in non-smokers (from Mean=0.38, SD=0.24 to Mean=0.51 SD=0.30, F(1, 32.2) =24.24, p<.0001) but not in smokers (from Mean=0.25, SD=0.12 to Mean=0.26, SD=0.15, F(1, 31.1) =0.04, p=0.84). In nonsmokers the indirect bilirubin concentration and the ratio of indirect (unconjugated) to direct (conjugated) bilirubin also increased significantly. Conclusions Alcohol consumption leads to increases in serum bilirubin in nonsmokers. Considering the antioxidant properties of bilirubin, our findings suggest one possible mechanism for the reported association between alcohol consumption and reduced risk of some disorders that could be tested in future longitudinal studies. PMID:25707709

  2. Maltol, a Food Flavoring Agent, Attenuates Acute Alcohol-Induced Oxidative Damage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ye; Xu, Qi; Hu, Jiang-ning; Han, Xin-yue; Li, Wei; Zhao, Li-chun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of maltol, a food-flavoring agent, on alcohol-induced acute oxidative damage in mice. Maltol used in this study was isolated from red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A Meyer) and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry. For hepatoprotective activity in vivo, pretreatment with maltol (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg; 15 days) drastically prevented the elevated activities of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and triglyceride (TG) in serum and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in liver tissue (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the levels of hepatic antioxidant, such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were elevated by maltol pretreatment, compared to the alcohol group (p < 0.05). Histopathological examination revealed that maltol pretreatment significantly inhibited alcohol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and fatty degeneration. Interestingly, pretreatment of maltol effectively relieved alcohol-induced oxidative damage in a dose-dependent manner. Maltol appeared to possess promising anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory capacities. It was suggested that the hepatoprotective effect exhibited by maltol on alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury may be due to its potent antioxidant properties. PMID:25608939

  3. Quantifying alcohol-related emergency admissions in a UK tertiary referral hospital: a cross-sectional study of chronic alcohol dependency and acute alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Vardy, J; Keliher, T; Fisher, J; Ritchie, F; Bell, C; Chekroud, M; Clarey, F; Blackwood, L; Barry, L; Paton, E; Clark, A; Connelly, R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Alcohol is responsible for a proportion of emergency admissions to hospital, with acute alcohol intoxication and chronic alcohol dependency (CAD) implicated. This study aims to quantify the proportion of hospital admissions through our emergency department (ED) which were thought by the admitting doctor to be (largely or partially) a result of alcohol consumption. Setting ED of a UK tertiary referral hospital. Participants All ED admissions occurring over 14 weeks from 1 September to 8 December 2012. Data obtained for 5497 of 5746 admissions (95.67%). Primary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions related to alcohol as defined by the admitting ED clinician. Secondary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions due to alcohol diagnosed with acute alcohol intoxication or CAD according to ICD-10 criteria. Results 1152 (21.0%, 95% CI 19.9% to 22.0%) of emergency admissions were thought to be due to alcohol. 74.6% of patients admitted due to alcohol had CAD, and significantly greater than the 26.4% with ‘Severe’ or ‘Very Severe’ acute alcohol intoxication (p<0.001). Admissions due to alcohol differed to admissions not due to alcohol being on average younger (45 vs 56 years, p<0.001) more often male (73.4% vs 45.1% males, p<0.001) and more likely to have a diagnosis synonymous with alcohol or related to recreational drug use, pancreatitis, deliberate self-harm, head injury, gastritis, suicidal ideation, upper gastrointestinal bleeds or seizures (p<0.001). An increase in admissions due to alcohol on Saturdays reflects a surge in admissions with acute alcohol intoxication above the weekly average (p=0.003). Conclusions Alcohol was thought to be implicated in 21% of emergency admissions in this cohort. CAD is responsible for a significantly greater proportion of admissions due to alcohol than acute intoxication. Interventions designed to reduce alcohol-related admissions must incorporate measures to tackle CAD. PMID:27324707

  4. Irish coffee: Effects of alcohol and caffeine on object discrimination in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Santos, Luana C; Ruiz-Oliveira, Julia; Oliveira, Jéssica J; Silva, Priscila F; Luchiari, Ana C

    2016-04-01

    Many studies regarding the effects of drugs investigate the acute and chronic use of alcohol, but only a few address the effects of caffeine and alcohol combined to the performance of the zebrafish in cognitive tasks. The zebrafish is an important model for studying the effects of drugs on learning, because it has large genetic similarities to humans and the non-invasive administration of the substances favors translational bias of research. In this study, we observed the effects of alcohol and caffeine on zebrafish cognition through an object discrimination test. We noticed that animals subjected to acute alcohol dose and those under alcohol or caffeine withdrawal did not show discrimination. When fish were treated with associated alcohol and caffeine, those chronically treated with alcohol and subjected to moderate acute dose of caffeine showed learning of the task. Our results reinforce the harmful effects of the alcohol use on cognitive tasks, and suggest that continued use of high doses of caffeine cause cognitive impairment during withdrawal of the substance. However, the acute use of caffeine appears to reverse the harmful effects of alcohol withdrawal, allowing discriminative performance equivalent to control fish. Finally, we reiterate the use of zebrafish as a model for drug effects screening and search for active compounds that modulate the alcohol and caffeine effects. PMID:26850919

  5. Can Exercise Offset Alcohol's Damaging Effects?

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160853.html Can Exercise Offset Alcohol's Damaging Effects? Even gardening, brisk walking may reduce ... study says moderate exercise may offset some of alcohol's harmful effects. Normally, drinking raises the risk of ...

  6. Purtscher's-like retinopathy in acute alcoholic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Subudhi, Praveen; Kanungo, Sanghamitra; Rao Subudhi, Nageswar

    2016-01-01

    A 28-year-old man presented with a sudden onset of visual loss in both eyes (OU). He had a known history of acute pancreatitis and hepatitis following alcohol abuse. Examination of the anterior segment of the eye revealed non-sustained pupillary light reaction. The fundus showed typical Purtscher's flecken over the posterior pole with multiple cotton wool spots and retinal superficial haemorrhages in OU. Fundus fluorescein angiogram revealed abnormal hypofluorescence in both the posterior poles. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) for Purtscher's flecken showed abnormal retinal thickening with hyper-reflective areas in the inner neurosensory layers. The patient responded favourably to high-dose corticosteroid therapy (1.5 mg/kilogram per body weight) with a tapering dose. There was a mild reduction of the ischaemic areas with a corresponding improvement in visual acuity. This case has been presented owing to its rarity and under-reporting. Treatment with corticosteroids yielded favourable results. PMID:27628016

  7. Communication Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abkarian, G. G.

    1992-01-01

    This literature review addresses studies of speech, language, and communication skills evidenced by children diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects. Concomitant physical, behavioral, intellectual, and learning patterns are reviewed, and symptoms presented by alcohol-exposed children are compared to those seen in other…

  8. Exercise capacity is not impaired after acute alcohol ingestion: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Dejana; Damjanovic, Svetozar S; Plecas-Solarovic, Bosiljka; Pešić, Vesna; Stojiljkovic, Stanimir; Banovic, Marko; Ristic, Arsen; Mantegazza, Valentina; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe

    2014-08-01

    The usage of alcohol is widespread, but the effects of acute alcohol ingestion on exercise performance and the stress hormone axis are not fully elucidated.We studied 10 healthy white men, nonhabitual drinkers, by Doppler echocardiography at rest, spirometry, and maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) in two visits (2-4 days in between), one after administration of 1.5 g/kg ethanol (whisky) diluted at 15% in water, and the other after administration of an equivalent volume of water. Plasma levels of NT-pro-BNP, cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were also measured 10 min before the test, at maximal effort and at the third minute of recovery. Ethanol concentration was measured from resting blood samples by gas chromatography and it increased from 0.00 ± 0.00 to 1.25 ± 0.54‰ (P < 0.001). Basal echocardiographic and spirometric parameters were normal and remained so after acute alcohol intake, whereas ACTH, cortisol, and NT-pro-BNP nonsignificantly increased in all phases of the test. CPET data suggested a trend toward a slight reduction of exercise performance (peak VO2 = 3008 ± 638 vs. 2900 ± 543 ml/min, ns; peak workload = 269 ± 53 vs. 249 ± 40 W, ns; test duration 13.7 ± 2.2 vs. 13.3 ± 1.7 min, ns; VE/VCO2 22.1 ± 1.4 vs. 23.3 ± 2.9, ns). Ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide at rest was higher after alcohol intake (28 ± 2.5 vs. 30.4 ± 3.2, P = 0.039) and maximal respiratory exchange ratio was lower after alcohol intake (1.17 ± 0.02 vs. 1.14 ± 0.04, P = 0.04). In conclusion, we showed that acute alcohol intake in healthy white men is associated with a nonsignificant exercise performance reduction and stress hormone stimulation, with an unchanged exercise metabolism. PMID:25083719

  9. Marchiafava-Bignami and Alcohol Related Acute Polyneuropathy: The Cooccurrence of Two Rare Entities

    PubMed Central

    Boloursaz, Samine; Nekooei, Sirous; Seilanian Toosi, Farrokh; Rezaei-Dalouei, Hossein; Davachi, Behrooz; Kazemi, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this article is to represent the first reported case with cooccurrence of two rare alcohol related complications. Case Report. We report a 38-year-old man with chronic alcoholism who presented with both cranial and peripheral nerve palsy. On MRI examination characteristic findings of Marchiafava-Bignami disease were recognized. Discussion. Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) is a rare complication of long-term, heavy alcohol abuse that has characteristic MRI findings. Acute alcohol related polyneuropathy (AARP) is another rare and not-well-understood complication of chronic alcohol abuse. We could not find any previous report of the cooccurrence of these two complications in the literature.

  10. A randomised controlled trial of extended brief intervention for alcohol dependent patients in an acute hospital setting (ADPAC)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence affects approximately 3% of the English population, and accounts for significant medical and psychiatric morbidity. Only 5.6% of alcohol-dependent individuals ever access specialist treatment and only a small percentage ever seek treatment. As people who are alcohol dependent are more likely to have experienced health problems leading to frequent attendance at acute hospitals it would seem both sensible and practical to ensure that this setting is utilised as a major access point for treatment, and to test the effectiveness of these treatments. Methods/Design This is a randomised controlled trial with a primary hypothesis that extended brief interventions (EBI) delivered to alcohol-dependent patients in a hospital setting by an Alcohol Specialist Nurse (ASN) will be effective when compared to usual care in reducing overall alcohol consumption and improving on the standard measures of alcohol dependence. Consecutive patients will be screened for alcohol misuse in the Emergency Department (ED) of a district general hospital. On identification of an alcohol-related problem, following informed written consent, we aim to randomize 130 patients per group. The ASN will discharge to usual clinical care all control group patients, and plan a programme of EBI for treatment group patients. Follow-up interview will be undertaken by a researcher blinded to the intervention at 12 and 24 weeks. The primary outcome measure is level of alcohol dependence as determined by the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (SADQ) score. Secondary outcome measures include; Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score, quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption, health-related quality of life measures, service utilisation, and patient experience. The trial will also allow an assessment of the cost-effectiveness of EBI in an acute hospital setting. In addition, patient experience will be assessed using qualitative methods. Discussion This paper

  11. [The therapeutic effect of metadoxine on alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis].

    PubMed

    Váli, László; Blázovics, Anna; Fehér, János

    2005-11-20

    The therapeutic effect of metadoxine on alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Alcohol-induced liver disease is one of the main epidemic problems of nowadays. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis has been described only for some years, but it also needs much more attention in the future. The etiologic factors of both entities are quite different, but the pathologic changes of the liver are nearly the same, therefore there could be certain drugs, that are equally effective in their therapy. Metadoxine is one of them, mainly because its protective effect against the damage done by free radicals. Metadoxine is a pyridoxine-pyrrolidone carboxylate with significant scavenging property. There are a lot of patients suffering from steatohepatitis, and they will face the complications of the liver damage. The aim is to provide better recovery and proper quality of life, which is based on the deeper understanding of these mechanisms. Metadoxine is suitable for increasing reduced glutathione level, which is very important for the redox homeostasis of the liver and the whole body. The effectiveness of the drug is established both in acute and in chronic alcoholism, moreover it helps in staying abstinent. PMID:16398154

  12. [THE ROLE OF BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES IN DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSTICS OF SALMONELLA AND ACUTE ALCOHOL GASTROENTERITIS].

    PubMed

    Makarov, V K; Makarov, P V

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of Salmonella infection and alcohol on biological membranes from the content of serum phospholipid fraction known to be a component ofenterocyte membranes. Any change of membrane phospholipid content leads to a change of their blood level. The study included 50 patients with acute alcohol gastroenteritis, 50 ones with salmonella gastroenteritis, and 50 healthy subjects. Both salmonellosis and alcohol caused differently directed changes in biological membranes. The mechanism of diarrhea in patients with salmonella and acute alcohol gastroenteritis is different. Diarrhea associated with alcohol gastroenteritis is due to enhanced viscosity of biomembranes that decreases in salmonella gastroenteritis. It suggests different approaches to the treatment of these conditions. The membrane destruction coefficient below 2 is an additional proof of alcoholic etiology of gastroenteritis whereas its value above 3 confirms the involvement of salmonellosis in pathogenesis of gastroenteritis.

  13. Chronic alpha-tocopherol supplementation in rats does not ameliorate either chronic or acute alcohol-induced changes in muscle protein metabolism.

    PubMed

    Koll, Michael; Beeso, Julie A; Kelly, Frank J; Simanowski, Ulrich A; Seitz, Helmut K; Peters, Timothy J; Preedy, Victor R

    2003-03-01

    Chronic alcohol muscle disease is characterized by reduced skeletal muscle mass precipitated by acute reduction in protein synthesis. The pathogenic mechanisms remain obscure, but several lines of evidence suggest that increased oxidative stress occurs in muscle in response to alcohol and this may be associated with impaired alpha-tocopherol status. Potentially, this implies a therapeutic role for alpha-tocopherol, especially as we have shown that supplemental alpha-tocopherol may increase the rate of protein synthesis in normal rats [Reilly, Patel, Peters and Preedy (2000) J. Nutr. 130, 3045-3049]. We investigated the therapeutic effect of alpha-tocopherol on plantaris muscle protein synthesis in rats treated either acutely, chronically or chronically+acutely with ethanol. Protein synthesis rates were measured with a flooding dose of L-[4-(3)H]phenylalanine. Protein, RNA and DNA contents were determined by standard laboratory methods. Ethanol caused defined metabolic changes in muscle, including decreased protein, RNA and DNA contents in chronically treated rats. In acute or chronic+acute studies, ethanol suppressed fractional rates of protein synthesis. alpha-Tocopherol supplementation did not ameliorate the effects of either acute, chronic or chronic+acute alcohol on plantaris muscle protein content or rates of protein synthesis. In control animals (not treated with alcohol), alpha-tocopherol supplementation decreased muscle protein content owing to increases in protein turnover (both synthesis and degradation). alpha-Tocopherol supplementation is not protective against the deleterious effects of alcohol on protein metabolism in skeletal muscle.

  14. Effects of alcohol on beta-endorphin and reproductive hormones in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Adams, M L; Cicero, T J

    1991-08-01

    In an attempt to examine the relationship between alcohol-induced alterations in immunoreactive beta-endorphin (i-beta E) levels in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and the synthesis and release of reproductive hormones, male rats were treated with either an acute intraperitoneal injection of alcohol or were chronically exposed to an alcohol-containing liquid diet. Hypothalamic, pituitary, serum, and testicular levels of immunoreactive beta-endorphin (i-beta E) and serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone were measured at various times after initiation of these treatments. Testicular interstitial fluid (TIF) volumes and levels of TIF i-beta E and testosterone were also measured 4 hr after acute treatment as an index of testicular release of these substances. Acute alcohol decreased pituitary levels of i-beta E and increased serum levels of the peptide for up to 1 hr after its injection, but did not alter hypothalamic or testicular levels. Acute alcohol markedly increased TIF i-beta E and decreased TIF testosterone and TIF volume. Sharp decreases in serum LH and testosterone were observed in association with these acute changes in i-beta E levels in the pituitary, blood, and testes. During chronic alcohol exposure serum testosterone levels were substantially depressed, but tolerance appeared to develop quickly to the chronic effects of alcohol on serum LH. Similarly, tolerance to alcohol's effects on i-beta E levels in the pituitary and serum also appeared to develop during chronic alcohol administration. However, hypothalamic and testicular i-beta E levels were markedly suppressed by chronic alcohol administration in contrast to the lack of effect observed after acute alcohol administration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Necro-inflammatory response of pancreatic acinar cells in the pathogenesis of acute alcoholic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Gu, H; Werner, J; Bergmann, F; Whitcomb, D C; Büchler, M W; Fortunato, F

    2013-01-01

    The role of pancreatic acinar cells in initiating necro-inflammatory responses during the early onset of alcoholic acute pancreatitis (AP) has not been fully evaluated. We investigated the ability of acinar cells to generate pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, including inflammasome-associated IL-18/caspase-1, and evaluated acinar cell necrosis in an animal model of AP and human samples. Rats were fed either an ethanol-containing or control diet for 14 weeks and killed 3 or 24 h after a single lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. Inflammasome components and necro-inflammation were evaluated in acinar cells by immunofluorescence (IF), histology, and biochemical approaches. Alcohol exposure enhanced acinar cell-specific production of TNFα, IL-6, MCP-1 and IL-10, as early as 3 h after LPS, whereas IL-18 and caspase-1 were evident 24 h later. Alcohol enhanced LPS-induced TNFα expression, whereas blockade of LPS signaling diminished TNFα production in vitro, indicating that the response of pancreatic acinar cells to LPS is similar to that of immune cells. Similar results were observed from acinar cells in samples from patients with acute/recurrent pancreatitis. Although morphologic examination of sub-clinical AP showed no visible signs of necrosis, early loss of pancreatic HMGB1 and increased systemic levels of HMGB1 and LDH were observed, indicating that this strong systemic inflammatory response is associated with little pancreatic necrosis. These results suggest that TLR-4-positive acinar cells respond to LPS by activating the inflammasome and producing pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators during the development of mild, sub-clinical AP, and that these effects are exacerbated by alcohol injury.

  16. Necro-inflammatory response of pancreatic acinar cells in the pathogenesis of acute alcoholic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Gu, H; Werner, J; Bergmann, F; Whitcomb, D C; Büchler, M W; Fortunato, F

    2013-01-01

    The role of pancreatic acinar cells in initiating necro-inflammatory responses during the early onset of alcoholic acute pancreatitis (AP) has not been fully evaluated. We investigated the ability of acinar cells to generate pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, including inflammasome-associated IL-18/caspase-1, and evaluated acinar cell necrosis in an animal model of AP and human samples. Rats were fed either an ethanol-containing or control diet for 14 weeks and killed 3 or 24 h after a single lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. Inflammasome components and necro-inflammation were evaluated in acinar cells by immunofluorescence (IF), histology, and biochemical approaches. Alcohol exposure enhanced acinar cell-specific production of TNFα, IL-6, MCP-1 and IL-10, as early as 3 h after LPS, whereas IL-18 and caspase-1 were evident 24 h later. Alcohol enhanced LPS-induced TNFα expression, whereas blockade of LPS signaling diminished TNFα production in vitro, indicating that the response of pancreatic acinar cells to LPS is similar to that of immune cells. Similar results were observed from acinar cells in samples from patients with acute/recurrent pancreatitis. Although morphologic examination of sub-clinical AP showed no visible signs of necrosis, early loss of pancreatic HMGB1 and increased systemic levels of HMGB1 and LDH were observed, indicating that this strong systemic inflammatory response is associated with little pancreatic necrosis. These results suggest that TLR-4-positive acinar cells respond to LPS by activating the inflammasome and producing pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators during the development of mild, sub-clinical AP, and that these effects are exacerbated by alcohol injury. PMID:24091659

  17. Acute Alcohol Use and Injury Patterns in Young Adult Prehospital Patients.

    PubMed

    Barton, David J; Tift, Frank W; Cournoyer, Lauren E; Vieth, Julie T; Hudson, Korin B

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine if acute alcohol consumption is associated with differences in injury pattern among young adult patients with traumatic injuries presenting to emergency medical services (EMS). A cross-sectional, retrospective review of prehospital patient care reports (PCRs) was conducted evaluating injured patients who presented to a collegiate EMS agency from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2012. Included patients were age 18-24 y and sustained an injury within the previous 24 h. PCRs were reviewed independently by two abstractors to determine if the patient was documented to have acutely consumed alcohol proximate to his/her injury. Primary and secondary sites of regional body injury were recorded. Injury severity was recorded using the Revised Trauma Score (RTS). The association between primary injury site and acute alcohol use was assessed using a chi-square test. Multiple logistic regression was used to control for sex in predicting injury type. Of 440 injured patients, 135 (30.6%) had documented alcohol use prior to injury. Acute alcohol consumption altered the overall pattern of regional injury (p < 0.001). Alcohol users were more likely to present with injury secondary to assault, fall/trip, and unknown mechanism of injury (p < 0.001, all comparisons). RTS scores were statistically lower in the alcohol group (p < 0.001), although the clinical significance of this is unclear. Controlling for sex, acute alcohol consumption predicted increased risk of head/neck injury 5.59-fold (p < 0.001). Acute alcohol use in collegiate EMS patients appears to alter injury patterns in young adults and increases risk of head/neck injury. EMS providers in similar agencies should consider these trends when assessing and treating injured college-aged patients. PMID:27002348

  18. Changes in heart rate variability associated with acute alcohol consumption: current knowledge and implications for practice and research.

    PubMed

    Romanowicz, Magdalena; Schmidt, John E; Bostwick, John M; Mrazek, David A; Karpyak, Victor M

    2011-06-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with a broad array of physiologic and behavioral effects including changes in heart rate. However, the physiologic mechanisms of alcohol effects and the reasons for individual differences in the cardiac response remain unknown. Measuring changes in resting heart rate (measured as beats/min) has not been found to be as sensitive to alcohol's effects as changes in heart rate variability (HRV). HRV is defined as fluctuations in interbeat interval length which reflect the heart's response to extracardiac factors that affect heart rate. HRV allows simultaneous assessment of both sympathetic and parasympathetic activity and the interplay between them. Increased HRV has been associated with exercise and aerobic fitness, while decreased HRV has been associated with aging, chronic stress, and a wide variety of medical and psychiatric disorders. Decreased HRV has predictive value for mortality in general population samples and patients with myocardial infarction and used as an indicator of altered autonomic function. A significant inverse correlation was found between HRV and both the severity of depression and the duration of the depressive episode. HRV analysis provides insights into mechanisms of autonomic regulation and is extensively used to clarify relationships between depression and cardiovascular disease. This article will review the methodology of HRV measurements and contemporary knowledge about effects of acute alcohol consumption on HRV. Potential implications of this research include HRV response to alcohol that could serve as a marker for susceptibility to alcoholism. At present however there is almost no research data supporting this hypothesis. PMID:21332532

  19. Alcohol effects on synaptic transmission in periaqueductal gray dopamine neurons

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chia; McCall, Nora M.; Lopez, Alberto J.; Kash, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    The role of dopamine (DA) signaling in regulating the rewarding properties of drugs, including alcohol, has been widely studied. The majority of these studies, however, have focused on the DA neurons located in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and their projections to the nucleus accumbens. DA neurons within the ventral periaqueductal gray (vPAG) have been shown to regulate reward but little is known about the functional properties of these neurons, or how they are modified by drugs of abuse. This lack of knowledge is likely due to the highly heterogeneous cell composition of the vPAG, with both γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) and glutamate neurons present in addition to DA neurons. In this study, we performed whole-cell recordings in a TH–eGFP transgenic mouse line to evaluate the properties of vPAG-DA neurons. Following this initial characterization, we examined how both acute and chronic alcohol exposure modify synaptic transmission onto vPAG-DA neurons. We found minimal effects of acute alcohol exposure on GABA transmission, but a robust enhancement of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in vPAG-DA. Consistent with this effect on excitatory transmission, we also found that alcohol caused an increase in firing rate. These data were in contrast to the effects of chronic intermittent alcohol exposure, which had no significant impact on either inhibitory or excitatory synaptic transmission on the vPAG-DA neurons. These data add to a growing body of literature that points to alcohol having both region-dependent and cell-type dependent effects on function. PMID:23597415

  20. Acute alcohol exposure, acidemia or glutamine administration impacts amino acid homeostasis in ovine maternal and fetal plasma.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Shannon E; Sawant, Onkar B; Lunde, Emilie R; Wu, Guoyao; Cudd, Timothy A

    2013-09-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a significant problem in human reproductive medicine. Maternal alcohol administration alters maternal amino acid homeostasis and results in acidemia in both mother and fetus, causing fetal growth restriction. We hypothesized that administration of glutamine, which increases renal ammoniagenesis to regulate acid-base balance, may provide an intervention strategy. This hypothesis was tested using sheep as an animal model. On day 115 of gestation, ewes were anesthetized and aseptic surgery was performed to insert catheters into the fetal abdominal aorta as well as the maternal abdominal aorta and vena cava. On day 128 of gestation, ewes received intravenous administration of saline, alcohol [1.75 g/kg body weight (BW)/h], a bolus of 30 mg glutamine/kg BW, alcohol + a bolus of 30 mg glutamine/kg BW, a bolus of 100 mg glutamine/kg BW, alcohol + a bolus of 100 mg glutamine/kg BW, or received CO2 administration to induce acidemia independent of alcohol. Blood samples were obtained simultaneously from the mother and the fetus at times 0 and 60 min (the time of peak blood alcohol concentration) of the study. Administration of alcohol to pregnant ewes led to a reduction in concentrations of glutamine and related amino acids in plasma by 21-30%. An acute administration of glutamine to ewes, concurrent with alcohol administration, improved the profile of most amino acids (including citrulline and arginine) in maternal and fetal plasma. We suggest that glutamine may have a protective effect against alcohol-induced metabolic disorders and FAS in the ovine model.

  1. Neurotoxic effects of alcohol in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Jacobus, Joanna; Tapert, Susan F

    2013-01-01

    This review examines neuroimaging and neurocognitive findings on alcohol-related toxicity in adolescents. Teens who meet criteria for alcohol use disorders, as well as those who engage in subdiagnostic binge drinking behaviors, often show poorer neurocognitive performance, alterations in gray and white matter brain structure, and discrepant functional brain activation patterns when compared to nonusing and demographically matched controls. Abnormalities are also observed in teens with a family history of alcoholism, and such differences in neuromaturation may leave youths at increased risk for the development of an alcohol use disorder or increased substance use severity. More prospective investigations are needed, and future work should focus on disentangling preexisting differences from dose-dependent effects of alcohol on neurodevelopment. Intervention strategies that utilize neuroimaging findings (e.g., identified weaknesses in particular neural substrates and behavioral correlates) may be helpful in both prevention and intervention campaigns for teens both pre- and postinitiation of alcohol use.

  2. Brief motivational intervention for adolescents treated in emergency departments for acute alcohol intoxication – a randomized-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol misuse among youth is a major public health concern and numbers of adolescents admitted to the emergency department for acute alcoholic intoxication in Germany are recently growing. The emergency setting offers an opportunity to reach at-risk alcohol consuming adolescents and provide brief interventions in a potential “teachable moment”. However, studies on brief interventions targeting adolescents in emergency care are scarce and little is known about their effectiveness when delivered immediately following hospitalization for acute alcohol intoxication. In this protocol we present the HaLT-Hamburg trial evaluating a brief motivational intervention for adolescents treated in the emergency department after an episode of acute alcoholic intoxication. Methods The trial design is a parallel two-arm cluster randomized-controlled trial with follow-up assessment after 3 and 6 months. N = 312 participants aged 17 years and younger will be recruited Fridays to Sundays in 6 pediatric clinics over a period of 30 months. Intervention condition is a manual-based brief motivational intervention with a telephone booster after 6 weeks and a manual-guided intervention for caregivers which will be compared to treatment as usual. Primary outcomes are reduction in binge drinking episodes, quantity of alcohol use on a typical drinking day and alcohol-related problems. Secondary outcome is further treatment seeking. Linear mixed models adjusted for baseline differences will be conducted according to intention-to-treat (ITT) and completers (per-protocol) principles to examine intervention effects. We also examine quantitative and qualitative process data on feasibility, intervention delivery, implementation and receipt from intervention providers, receivers and regular emergency department staff. Discussion The study has a number of strengths. First, a rigorous evaluation of HaLT-Hamburg is timely because variations of the HaLT project are widely used in

  3. The effect of exercise, alcohol or both combined on health and physical performance.

    PubMed

    Suter, P M; Schutz, Y

    2008-12-01

    Alcohol (ethanol) is consumed on a daily basis by a large fraction of the population, and in many countries, light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is considered as an integral part of the diet. Although the relationship between alcohol intake and obesity is controversial, regular consumption of alcohol, through its effects in suppressing fat oxidation, is regarded as a risk factor for weight gain, increased abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridemia. Indeed, alcohol taken with a meal leads to an increase in postprandial lipemia-an effect on postprandial metabolism that is opposite to that observed with exercise. Furthermore, although regular exercise training and/or a preprandial exercise session reduce postprandial lipemia independently of alcohol ingestion, the exercise-induced reduction in postprandial lipemia is nonetheless less pronounced when alcohol is also consumed with the meal. Whether or not alcohol influences exercise and sport performance remains contradictory. It is believed that alcohol has deleterious effects on the performance, although it may contribute to reduce pain and anxiety. The alcohol effects on sports performance depend on the type and dosage of alcohol, acute vs chronic administration, the alcohol elimination rate as well as the type of exercise. PMID:19079280

  4. [Psychopathology and various mechanisms contributing to the formation of the Kandinsky syndrome in acute alcoholic hallucinosis].

    PubMed

    Guliamova, N M

    1983-01-01

    Forty patients with acute alcoholic hallucinosis associated with the Kandinsky syndrome were examined clinicopsychopathologically. Manifestation of the Kandinsky syndrome was limited by associative automatism in patients with stage II alcoholism with transient hallucinosis lasting 2-4 days. In patients with stage III alcoholism with more prolonged (6-9 days) psychoses, the non-extensive Kandinsky syndrome manifested itself in integrity. Psychopathological phenomena of the syndrome in the picture of acute alcoholic hallucinosis were notable for their descriptiveness, concreteness, extreme simplicity, and instability. Senestopathic and kinesthetic automatisms were localized at the sites of real painful disorders. Therefore, apart from cerebral disorders, the peripheral sensory mechanisms are considered to be of importance in the genesis of the Kandinsky syndrome.

  5. The effect of cannabis compared with alcohol on driving.

    PubMed

    Sewell, R Andrew; Poling, James; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of both alcohol and cannabis use and the high morbidity associated with motor vehicle crashes has lead to a plethora of research on the link between the two. Drunk drivers are involved in 25% of motor vehicle fatalities, and many accidents involve drivers who test positive for cannabis. Cannabis and alcohol acutely impair several driving-related skills in a dose-related fashion, but the effects of cannabis vary more between individuals than they do with alcohol because of tolerance, differences in smoking technique, and different absorptions of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient in marijuana. Detrimental effects of cannabis use vary in a dose-related fashion, and are more pronounced with highly automatic driving functions than with more complex tasks that require conscious control, whereas alcohol produces an opposite pattern of impairment. Because of both this and an increased awareness that they are impaired, marijuana smokers tend to compensate effectively while driving by utilizing a variety of behavioral strategies. Combining marijuana with alcohol eliminates the ability to use such strategies effectively, however, and results in impairment even at doses which would be insignificant were they of either drug alone. Epidemiological studies have been inconclusive regarding whether cannabis use causes an increased risk of accidents; in contrast, unanimity exists that alcohol use increases crash risk. Furthermore, the risk from driving under the influence of both alcohol and cannabis is greater than the risk of driving under the influence of either alone. Future research should focus on resolving contradictions posed by previous studies, and patients who smoke cannabis should be counseled to wait several hours before driving, and avoid combining the two drugs.

  6. Alcohol Alert: Alcohol's Damaging Effects on the Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Crews, F.T. , and Nixon, K. Alcohol, neural stem cells, and adult neurogenesis. Alcohol Research & Health 27(2): 197–204, 2003. (31) Nixon, ... Miller, M.W.; Ma, W.; et al. Neural stem cells and alcohol. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 27(2):324–335, 2003. (34) Oscar–Berman, ...

  7. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  8. Marchiafava-Bignami and Alcohol Related Acute Polyneuropathy: The Cooccurrence of Two Rare Entities

    PubMed Central

    Boloursaz, Samine; Nekooei, Sirous; Seilanian Toosi, Farrokh; Rezaei-Dalouei, Hossein; Davachi, Behrooz; Kazemi, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this article is to represent the first reported case with cooccurrence of two rare alcohol related complications. Case Report. We report a 38-year-old man with chronic alcoholism who presented with both cranial and peripheral nerve palsy. On MRI examination characteristic findings of Marchiafava-Bignami disease were recognized. Discussion. Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) is a rare complication of long-term, heavy alcohol abuse that has characteristic MRI findings. Acute alcohol related polyneuropathy (AARP) is another rare and not-well-understood complication of chronic alcohol abuse. We could not find any previous report of the cooccurrence of these two complications in the literature. PMID:27668107

  9. Marchiafava-Bignami and Alcohol Related Acute Polyneuropathy: The Cooccurrence of Two Rare Entities.

    PubMed

    Boloursaz, Samine; Nekooei, Sirous; Seilanian Toosi, Farrokh; Rezaei-Dalouei, Hossein; Davachi, Behrooz; Kazemi, Sahar; Abbasi, Bita

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this article is to represent the first reported case with cooccurrence of two rare alcohol related complications. Case Report. We report a 38-year-old man with chronic alcoholism who presented with both cranial and peripheral nerve palsy. On MRI examination characteristic findings of Marchiafava-Bignami disease were recognized. Discussion. Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) is a rare complication of long-term, heavy alcohol abuse that has characteristic MRI findings. Acute alcohol related polyneuropathy (AARP) is another rare and not-well-understood complication of chronic alcohol abuse. We could not find any previous report of the cooccurrence of these two complications in the literature. PMID:27668107

  10. Hepatic Steatosis in Response to Acute Alcohol Exposure in Zebrafish requires Srebp Activation

    PubMed Central

    Passeri, Michael J.; Cinaroglu, Ayca; Gao, Chuan; Sadler, Kirsten C.

    2008-01-01

    Steatosis is the most common consequence of acute alcohol abuse and may predispose to more severe hepatic disease. Increased lipogenesis driven by the sterol response element binding protein (SREBP) transcription factors is essential for steatosis associated with chronic alcohol ingestion, but the mechanisms underlying steatosis following acute alcohol exposure are unknown. Zebrafish larvae represent an attractive vertebrate model for studying alcoholic liver disease (ALD), because they possess the pathways to metabolize alcohol, the liver is mature by 4 days post-fertilization (dpf), and alcohol can be simply added to their water. Exposing 4 dpf zebrafish larvae to 2% ethanol (EtOH) for 32 hours achieves ∼80 mM intracellular EtOH and upregulation of hepatic cyp2e1, sod and bip, indicating that EtOH is metabolized and provokes oxidant stress. EtOH-treated larvae develop hepatomegaly and steatosis accompanied by changes in the expression of genes required for hepatic lipid metabolism. Based on the importance of SREPBs in chronic ALD, we explored the role of Srebps in this model of acute ALD. Srebp activation was prevented in gonzo larvae, which harbor a mutation in the membrane bound transcription factor protease 1 (mbtps1) gene, and in embryos injected with a morpholino to knock-down Srebp cleavage activating protein (scap). Both gonzo mutants and scap morphants were resistant to steatosis in response to 2% EtOH, and the expression of many Srebp target genes are down regulated in gonzo mutant livers. Conclusion Zebrafish larvae develop signs of acute ALD, including steatosis. Srebp activation is required for steatosis in this model. The tractability of zebrafish genetics provides a valuable tool for dissecting the molecular pathogenesis of acute ALD. PMID:19127516

  11. Dose-dependent effects of alcohol administration on behavioral profiles in the MCSF test.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Oskar; Roman, Erika

    2016-02-01

    The acute effects of alcohol administration are age-, dose-, time- and task-dependent. Although generally considered to be a sedative drug, alcohol has both stimulatory and depressant effects on behavior, depending on dose and time. Alcohol-induced motor activating effects are consistently shown in mice but rarely demonstrated in adult, outbred rats using conventional behavioral tests. The aim of the present experiment was to study acute alcohol-induced effects on behavioral profiles in a more complex environment using the novel multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test, designed for assessing different behaviors in the same trial including locomotor activity. Adult male Wistar rats (Sca:WI) were administered one intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of alcohol (0.0 g/kg, 0.5 g/kg, 1.0 g/kg, or 1.5 g/kg) 5 min prior to the 30-min MCSF test. The two highest doses induced marked motor-suppressing effects. A significant interaction between group and time was found in general activity when comparing rats exposed to alcohol at 0.0 g/kg and 0.5 g/kg. In contrast to the 0.0 g/kg dose that increased the activity over time, animals administered the low dose (0.5 g/kg) demonstrated an initial high activity followed by a decline over time. No indications for acute alcohol-induced anxiolytic-like effects were found. The multivariate setting in the MCSF test appears to be sensitive for detecting motor-activating effects of low doses of alcohol as well as reduced locomotion at doses lower than in other behavioral tasks. The detection of subtle changes in behavior across time and dose is important for understanding alcohol-induced effects. This approach may be useful in evaluating alcohol doses that correspond to different degrees of intoxication in humans. PMID:26695588

  12. Alcohol and Tension Reduction: Cognitive and Physiological Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polivy, Janet; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This research examines separately the cognitive and pharmacological effects of alcohol by manipulating subjects' expectancies. It was found that although alcohol is a pharmacologic sedative and reduces anxiety, the cognition that one is drinking alcohol increases anxiety. (Editor/RK)

  13. Effects of alcohol on the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2013-09-01

    Chronic consumption of a large amount of alcohol disrupts the communication between nervous, endocrine, and immune system and causes hormonal disturbances that lead to profound and serious consequences at physiologic and behavioral levels. These alcohol-induced hormonal dysregulations affect the entire body and can result in various disorders such as stress abnormalities, reproductive deficits, body growth defect, thyroid problems, immune dysfunction, cancers, bone disease, and psychological and behavioral disorders. This review summarizes the findings from human and animal studies that provide consistent evidence on the various effects of alcohol abuse on the endocrine system.

  14. The effects of alcohol on fetal development.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kenneth Lyons

    2011-03-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol has profound effects on many aspects of fetal development. Although alterations of somatic growth and specific minor malformations of facial structure are most characteristic, the effects of alcohol on brain development are most significant in that they lead to substantial problems with neurobehavioral development. Since the initial recognition of the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), a number of important observations have been made from studies involving both humans and animals. Of particular importance, a number of maternal risk factors have been identified, which may well be of relevance relative to the development of strategies for prevention of the FAS as well as intervention for those who have been affected. These include maternal age >30 years, ethnic group, lower socioeconomic status, having had a previously affected child, maternal under-nutrition, and genetic background. The purpose of this review is to discuss these issues as well as to set forth a number of questions that have not adequately been addressed relative to alcohol's effect on fetal development. Of particular importance is the critical need to identify the full spectrum of structural defects associated with the prenatal effects of alcohol as well as to establish a neurobehavioral phenotype. Appreciation of both of these issues is necessary to understand the full impact of alcohol on fetal development.

  15. Acute alcohol consumption aggravates the decline in muscle performance following strenuous eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Matthew J; Mündel, Toby; Stannard, Stephen R

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of acute moderate alcohol intake on muscular performance during recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. Eleven healthy males performed 300 maximal eccentric contractions of the quadriceps muscles of one leg on an isokinetic dynamometer. They then consumed a beverage containing 1g/kg bodyweight ethanol (as vodka and orange juice) (ALC). On another occasion they performed an equivalent bout of eccentric exercise on the contralateral leg after which they consumed an isocaloric quantity of orange juice (OJ). Measurement of maximal isokinetic (concentric and eccentric) and isometric torque produced across the knee, plasma creatine kinase (CK) concentrations and muscle soreness were made before and at 36 and 60h following each exercise bout. All measures of muscle performance were significantly reduced at 36 and 60h post-exercise compared to pre-exercise measures (all p<0.05). The greatest decreases in peak strength were observed at 36h with losses of 12%, 28% and 19% occurring for OJ isometric, concentric, and eccentric contractions, respectively. However, peak strength loss was significantly greater in ALC with the same performance measures decreasing by 34%, 40% and 34%, respectively. Post-exercise plasma creatine kinase activity and ratings of muscle soreness were not different between conditions (both p>0.05). These results indicate that consumption of even moderate amounts of alcohol following eccentric-based exercise magnifies the normally observed losses in dynamic and static strength. Therefore, to minimise exercise related losses in muscle function and expedite recovery, participants in sports involving eccentric muscle work should avoid alcohol-containing beverages in the post-event period. PMID:19230764

  16. Acute withdrawal, protracted abstinence and negative affect in alcoholism: Are they linked?

    PubMed Central

    Heilig, M.; Egli, M.; Crabbe, J.C.; Becker, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    The role of withdrawal-related phenomena in development and maintenance of alcohol addiction remains under debate. A “self-medication” framework postulates that emotional changes are induced by a history of alcohol use, persist into abstinence, and are a major factor in maintaining alcoholism. This view initially focused on negative emotional states during early withdrawal: these are pronounced, occur in the vast majority of alcohol dependent patients, and are characterized by depressed mood and elevated anxiety. This concept lost popularity with the realization that, in most patients, these symptoms abate over 3 – 6 weeks of abstinence, while relapse risk persists long beyond this period. More recently, animal data have established that a prolonged history of alcohol dependence induces more subtle neuroadaptations. These confer altered emotional processing that persists long into protracted abstinence. The resulting behavioral phenotype is characterized by excessive voluntary alcohol intake and increased behavioral sensitivity to stress. Emerging human data support the clinical relevance of negative emotionality for protracted abstinence and relapse. These developments prompt a series of research questions: 1) Are processes observed during acute withdrawal, while transient in nature, mechanistically related to those that remain during protracted abstinence? 2) Is susceptibility to negative emotionality in acute withdrawal in part due to heritable factors, similar to what animal models have indicated for susceptibility to physical aspects of withdrawal? 3) To what extent is susceptibility to negative affect that persists into protracted abstinence heritable? PMID:20148778

  17. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects: Principles for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess,Donna M.; Streissguth, Ann P.

    1992-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), the leading cause of mental retardation, often goes unrecognized because of social and emotional taboos about alcohol and alcoholism. This article describes medical and behavioral characteristics of FAS children and describes guiding principles for educators, based on early intervention, teaching communication and…

  18. Effect of alcohol consumption status and alcohol concentration on oral pain induced by alcohol-containing mouthwash.

    PubMed

    Satpathy, Anurag; Ravindra, Shivamurthy; Porwal, Amit; Das, Abhaya C; Kumar, Manoj; Mukhopadhyay, Indranil

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol exposure alters oral mucosa. Patient compliance with mouthwash use may be reduced by oral pain resulting from rinsing with alcohol-containing mouthwash. However, information regarding the effects of alcohol consumption and mouthwash alcohol concentration on oral pain is limited. In this double-blind, randomized, controlled cross-over study, we investigated the effects of alcohol consumption status and mouthwash alcohol concentration on response to and perception of oral pain induced by alcohol-containing mouthwash. Fifty healthy men aged 33 to 56 years were enrolled and classified as drinkers and nondrinkers according to self-reported alcohol consumption. All subjects rinsed with two commercially available mouthwash products (which contained high and low concentrations of alcohol) and a negative control, in randomized order. Time of onset of oral pain, time of cessation of oral pain (after mouthwash expectoration), and pain duration were recorded, and oral pain intensity was recorded on a verbal rating scale. Drinkers had later oral pain onset and lower pain intensity. High-alcohol mouthwash was associated with earlier pain onset and greater pain intensity. In addition, oral pain cessation was later and pain duration was longer in nondrinkers rinsing with high-alcohol mouthwash. In conclusion, alcohol consumption status and mouthwash alcohol concentration were associated with onset and intensity of oral pain.

  19. Rape-Myth Congruent Beliefs in Women Resulting from Exposure to Violent Pornography: Effects of Alcohol and Sexual Arousal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Martell, Joel; Heiman, Julia R.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research findings indicate that women suffer a variety of detrimental effects from exposure to violent pornography. This study used an experimental paradigm to examine the effects of a moderate alcohol dose and alcohol expectancies on women's acute reactions to a violent pornographic stimulus. A community sample of female social drinkers…

  20. Endovascular Treatment of Acute Arterial Hemorrhage in Trauma Patients Using Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx)

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller-Wille, R. Heiss, P.; Herold, T.; Jung, E. M. Schreyer, A. G. Hamer, O. W. Rennert, J. Hoffstetter, P. Stroszczynski, C.; Zorger, N.

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to determine the feasibility and efficacy of endovascular embolization with liquid embolic agent ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx) in patients with acute traumatic arterial bleeding. Methods: This is a retrospective review of 13 patients (9 men and 4 women; mean age 45 years) with severe trauma who underwent embolotherapy using Onyx from November 2003 to February 2009. Bleeding was located in the pelvis (5 patients), kidney (3 patients), mesenteric region (2 patients), retroperitoneal space (2 patients), neck (1 patient), and thigh (1 patient). In three cases (23.1%), Onyx was used in conjunction with coils. We evaluate the technical and clinical success, procedural and embolization time, occurrence of rebleeding, and embolotherapy-related complications, such as necrosis or migration of Onyx into nontarget vessels. Results: In all patients, embolotherapy was technically and clinically successful on the first attempt. Control of bleeding could be reached with a mean time of 19 (range, 4-63) min after correct placement of the microcatheter in the feeding artery. No recurrent bleeding was detected. No unintended necrosis or migration of Onyx into a nontarget region was observed. During the follow-up period, three patients (23.1%) died due to severe intracranial hemorrhage, cardiac arrest, and sepsis. Conclusions: Transcatheter embolization with new liquid embolic agent Onyx is technically feasible and effective in trauma patients with acute arterial hemorrhage.

  1. Does Moderate Level of Alcohol Consumption Produce a Relaxation Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, William; Lockhart, Judy O.

    Although many individuals use alcohol to cope with stress (their behavior being based on the belief that alcohol can produce a relaxation effect), research has reported conflicting results on the effects of alcohol on tension reduction. A study was conducted to examine the psychophysiological effects of moderate levels of alcohol consumption under…

  2. Management of Acute Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Critically Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Deepali; Endicott, Jeffrey; Burry, Lisa; Ramos, Liz; Yeung, Siu Yan Amy; Devabhakthuni, Sandeep; Chan, Claire; Tobia, Anthony; Bulloch, Marilyn N

    2016-07-01

    Approximately 16-31% of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) have an alcohol use disorder and are at risk for developing alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Patients admitted to the ICU with AWS have an increased hospital and ICU length of stay, longer duration of mechanical ventilation, higher costs, and increased mortality compared with those admitted without an alcohol-related disorder. Despite the high prevalence of AWS among ICU patients, no guidelines for the recognition or management of AWS or delirium tremens in the critically ill currently exist, leading to tremendous variability in clinical practice. Goals of care should include immediate management of dehydration, nutritional deficits, and electrolyte derangements; relief of withdrawal symptoms; prevention of progression of symptoms; and treatment of comorbid illnesses. Symptom-triggered treatment of AWS with γ-aminobutyric acid receptor agonists is the cornerstone of therapy. Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are most studied and are often the preferred first-line agents due to their efficacy and safety profile. However, controversy still exists as to who should receive treatment, how to administer BZDs, and which BZD to use. Although most patients with AWS respond to usual doses of BZDs, ICU clinicians are challenged with managing BZD-resistant patients. Recent literature has shown that using an early multimodal approach to managing BZD-resistant patients appears beneficial in rapidly improving symptoms. This review highlights the results of recent promising studies published between 2011 and 2015 evaluating adjunctive therapies for BZD-resistant alcohol withdrawal such as antiepileptics, baclofen, dexmedetomidine, ethanol, ketamine, phenobarbital, propofol, and ketamine. We provide guidance on the places in therapy for select agents for management of critically ill patients in the presence of AWS. PMID:27196747

  3. The effects of a priming dose of alcohol and drinking environment on snack food intake.

    PubMed

    Rose, A K; Hardman, C A; Christiansen, P

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor for being overweight. We aimed to investigate the effects of an alcohol priming dose and an alcohol-related environment on snacking behaviour. One hundred and fourteen social drinkers completed one of four experimental sessions either receiving a priming dose of alcohol (.6 g/kg) or soft drink in a bar-lab or a sterile lab. Participants provided ratings of appetite, snack urge, and alcohol urge before and after consuming their drinks. Participants completed an ad libitum snack taste test of savoury and sweet, healthy and unhealthy foods before completing the self-reports a final time. Appetite and snack urge increased more following alcohol consumption, and decreased to a lesser extent following the taste test relative to the soft drink. Total calories (including drink calories) consumed were significantly higher in the alcohol groups. There was a marginal effect of environment; those in the bar-lab consumed a higher proportion of unhealthy foods. These effects were more pronounced in those who were disinhibited. While alcohol may not increase food consumption per se, alcohol may acutely disrupt appetite signals, perhaps via processes of reward and inhibitory control, resulting in overall greater calorie intake. Individuals who are generally disinhibited may be more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol and drinking environments on eating behaviour.

  4. The effects of a priming dose of alcohol and drinking environment on snack food intake.

    PubMed

    Rose, A K; Hardman, C A; Christiansen, P

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor for being overweight. We aimed to investigate the effects of an alcohol priming dose and an alcohol-related environment on snacking behaviour. One hundred and fourteen social drinkers completed one of four experimental sessions either receiving a priming dose of alcohol (.6 g/kg) or soft drink in a bar-lab or a sterile lab. Participants provided ratings of appetite, snack urge, and alcohol urge before and after consuming their drinks. Participants completed an ad libitum snack taste test of savoury and sweet, healthy and unhealthy foods before completing the self-reports a final time. Appetite and snack urge increased more following alcohol consumption, and decreased to a lesser extent following the taste test relative to the soft drink. Total calories (including drink calories) consumed were significantly higher in the alcohol groups. There was a marginal effect of environment; those in the bar-lab consumed a higher proportion of unhealthy foods. These effects were more pronounced in those who were disinhibited. While alcohol may not increase food consumption per se, alcohol may acutely disrupt appetite signals, perhaps via processes of reward and inhibitory control, resulting in overall greater calorie intake. Individuals who are generally disinhibited may be more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol and drinking environments on eating behaviour. PMID:26210606

  5. Anticipated effects of alcohol stimulate craving and impair inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Paul; Jennings, Emily; Rose, Abigail K

    2016-05-01

    A considerable evidence base has demonstrated that priming doses of alcohol impair inhibitory control and activate motivation to consume alcohol. There is, however, a lack of studies investigating the effect of placebo-alcohol on these processes and their association with alcohol outcome expectancies (AOE). We investigated the effect of placebo-alcohol on craving and inhibitory control, and the extent to which placebo effects correlated with AOE in 32 nondependent drinkers. Participants completed questionnaires assessing typical alcohol use (fortnightly alcohol consumption, AUDIT) and AOE (measured using the Alcohol Outcome Expectancy Scale). On a within-subjects basis participants consumed a placebo-alcohol drink and control drink. Measures of craving were taken pre- and postdrink, and participants completed a go/no-go task following the drink. Craving was increased by the placebo-alcohol and, importantly, placebo-alcohol impaired inhibitory control. Furthermore expectancies of cognitive and behavioral impairment were correlated with go/no-go task performance following a placebo. Increases in craving were associated with a range of elevated outcome expectancies. This suggests that the anticipated effects of alcohol can impair inhibitory control and increase craving; therefore studies using placebo versus alcohol comparisons relative to studies using a pure no-alcohol control are underestimating the real-world effect of alcohol on these processes, which is a combination of pharmacological and anticipated effects of alcohol. Furthermore, individual differences in AOE may influence reactivity to the anticipated effects of alcohol. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27031087

  6. [Effect of alcohol on circadian blood pressure].

    PubMed

    Stiffler, B; Suter, P M; Vetter, W

    1999-09-30

    The effects of alcohol on blood pressure have been studied extensively. Abstention is recommended in high blood pressure as basic non pharmacological treatment. On the other hand short term lowering of blood pressure by alcohol is known. Blood pressure effects of alcohol vary according to chronicity and amount of intake. It is not known how alcohol affects the 24 hour profile of blood pressure, in particular day- and night-time differences. This explorative study investigates the effects of a single dose of alcohol in the evening on the 24 hour blood pressure profile. Nine individuals with essential hypertension (mean age 65.4 +/- 8.7 years) were compared to 10 normotensives (29.6 +/- 3.0 years). Blood pressure was followed on 2 consecutive days by means of a 24 hour ABPM. On one evening the test persons consumed 0.6 g/kg ethanol before bed time. Apart from the direct comparison of the two groups, effects of body weight and daily alcohol consumption were also considered. For analysis of the 24 hour recording the mean 24 hour values, the mean difference between day and night and loads (fraction of blood pressure > 140/90 mm Hg) as well as heart rate were used. Ethanol led to nocturnal drops of blood pressure in normotensives and hypertensives alike and thus to an increased day/night difference. The latter increased by 2 +/- 4 mm Hg for the systolic and 2 +/- 1 mm Hg for the diastole values in normotensives and by 6 +/- 2 mm Hg and 3 +/- 1 mm Hg, respectively, in hypertensives on the day of alcohol intake. This trend was more marked in individuals with smaller daily alcohol consumption as well as in obese hypertensives. The blood pressure differences were not significant in our test sample because of a large variance in the response. Two normotensives were found to be borderline hypertensives. They exhibited a marked increase of nocturnal blood pressure values above 140/90 mm Hg when compared to the control night. Our study indicates that alcohol consumption should

  7. Effects of aspirin on gastroduodenal permeability in alcoholics and controls.

    PubMed

    Farhadi, Ashkan; Keshavarzian, Ali; Kwasny, Mary J; Shaikh, Maliha; Fogg, Louis; Lau, Cynthia; Fields, Jeremy Z; Forsyth, Christopher B

    2010-08-01

    have greater gastroduodenal permeability than healthy controls. This difference was independent of the duration of any preceding period of sobriety, gender, smoking history, or illicit drug abuse. The injurious effects of alcohol on the gastroduodenal epithelial barrier are long lasting, persisting even after 7 days of sobriety. Although, acute aspirin and chronic alcohol each increase intestinal permeability in alcoholics, their effects appear to be additive rather than synergistic. PMID:20598487

  8. Effects of Aspirin on Gastroduodenal Permeability in Alcoholics and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Farhadi, Ashkan; Keshavarzian, Ali; Kwasny, Mary J.; Shaikh, Maliha; Fogg, Louis; Lau, Cynthia; Fields, Jeremy Z.; Forsyth, Christopher B.

    2010-01-01

    ). Our data show that alcoholics have greater gastroduodenal permeability than healthy controls. This difference was independent of the duration of any preceding period of sobriety, gender, smoking history, or illicit drug abuse. The injurious effects of alcohol on the gastroduodenal epithelial barrier are long lasting, persisting even after 7 days of sobriety. Although, acute aspirin and chronic alcohol each increase intestinal permeability in alcoholics, their effects appear to be additive rather than synergistic. PMID:20598487

  9. Effects of alcohol on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Cicero, T J; Badger, T M

    1977-05-01

    The effects of acute and chronic alcohol administration on serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were examined in the male rat. Chronic alcohol administration resulted in depressed serum testosterone and LH levels when alcohol-fed rats were compared with rats maintained, ad libitum, on rat chow and water. However, neither testosterone nor LH levels were significantly lower in alcohol-treated rats when comparisons were made to pair-fed control animals, indicating that the nutritional deficits imposed by the chronic alcohol-feeding regimen contributed heavily to the observed reductions in the two hormones. To avoid the problems associated with a chronic drug delivery model, we injected rats with a single acute injection of alcohol. LH levels dropped significantly within 2 hours after the injection of a 2.5 g/kg dose of alcohol and remained depressed, at a level between 25 and 30% of control values, from 2 to 4 hours. By 6 hours after the injection, LH levels had returned to base-line levels. Testosterone levels were also reduced by alcohol, but this drop was not significant until at least 3 hours after the injection. Testosterone levels did not return to control levels throughout the 6-hour course of the experiment. Dose-response determinations revealed that alcohol produced a biphasic effect on serum testosterone and LH: low doses of alcohol significantly increased testosterone and LH, whereas high doses decreased the levels of both hormones. The results of these studies suggest that the ability of alcohol to depress serum testosterone levels, and thus produce symptoms of hypogonadism in the male of several species, is due to a primary effect of alcohol on the hypothalamic-pituitary aspect of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

  10. Handwriting changes under the effect of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Aşicioğlu, Faruk; Turan, Nurten

    2003-04-01

    Document examiners are often faced with difficulties in evaluating handwriting by persons under the influence of alcohol. Although numerous articles are available on the subject of alcohol influence on handwriting quality, most of them were based on empirical data such as "few" or "increased", without any statistical evaluation. The aim of this research is to determine whether previous observations on reported effects of alcohol on handwriting are valid and to establish the predictability of observing specific effects. A total of 73 participants, who completed all steps of the experiment, were surveyed. Handwriting samples were taken before and after the consumption of alcohol. The test form, including criteria of prior studies used by document examiners, was evaluated with the help of a Olympus X-Tr stereo microscope, direct and oblique angle lighting and a video spectral comparator (VSC 2000). Measurements were done by means of digital caliper, statistics using repeated measures ANOVA, Pearson correlation, Pearson Chi square test, McNemar test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. The results revealed that the handwriting parameters such as word lengths, height of upper and lower case letters, height of ascending letter, height of descending letter, spacing between words, number of angularity, number of tremor, and number of tapered ends are all significantly increased under the effect of alcohol. It was also determined that the significant correlation between the alteration of handwriting parameters such as height of upper and lower case letters, number of angularity, number of tapered ends and the amount of alcohol. Furthermore, it does not confirm the conclusions of previous studies stating that alcohol levels are not proper indicators. Our data strongly confirms that handwriting changes can be observed at any level of alcohol. None of the alterations in handwriting can be attributed to the effects of alcohol intake alone. However, the presence of some alterations

  11. The Effect Of Alcohol Priming On Neural Markers Of Alcohol Cue-Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Courtney, Kelly E.; Ghahremani, Dara G.; Ray, Lara A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Priming doses of alcohol are associated with increased desire to drink and disinhibitory effects on subsequent control over drinking. Despite the importance of alcohol priming in the cue-reactivity literature, the effects of priming on brain responses to alcohol cues remains unclear. Further, evidence suggests this relationship may be moderated by OPRM1 genotype. Methods Twenty individuals with alcohol dependence (6 females; 90% Caucasian; mean age=29.4) who were prospectively genotyped on the OPRM1 gene underwent two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions, before and after a priming dose of alcohol, each including a gustatory alcohol cue reactivity paradigm and self-reported craving measures. Results Self-reported alcohol craving generally increased and remained higher for alcohol versus water cue presentations across pre- and post-priming scans. Compared to alcohol cues delivered during the post-priming scan, alcohol cues delivered pre-priming were associated with greater activation in regions including the hippocampus, amygdala, inferior frontal gyrus, temporal cortex, and occipital cortex. Controlling for alcoholism severity increased statistical significance of activation in these regions. Follow-up analyses revealed a positive correlation between alcoholism severity and pre- versus post-priming alcohol cue-reactivity primarily in frontal regions. OPRM1 genotype was also found to moderate alcohol cue-reactivity across scans. Conclusion This study provides initial evidence of alcohol cue-elicited habituation in fronto-temporal regions, despite continued craving, following a priming dose of alcohol. Further, it provides preliminary evidence for moderating roles of alcoholism severity and OPRM1 genotype on priming-related changes in cue-reactivity, adding to our understanding of the function of alcohol priming in alcohol dependence. PMID:26125586

  12. Influence of the acute alcoholism on the phagocytic function of the mononuclear phagocytic system

    PubMed Central

    Sabino, KR; Petroianu, A; Alberti, LR

    2011-01-01

    Rationale:Alcoholics are more likely to have infections, mainly in the respiratory system. Alcohol seems to inhibit the immune system. Despite the extensive literature related to alcoholism, data related to the immune system are still not conclusive. Objective: The purpose of this study was to verify the influence of acute alcohol intake on colloid distribution in the organs of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Methods and Results: Thirteen male Swiss mice were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 5) – control, and Group 2 (n = 8) – animals that received 0.5 ml ethanol 50%, 30 minutes before the experiment. Colloidal sulphur labeled with ⁸⁸mTc was used to evaluate colloid distribution in the liver, spleen and lungs. Colloid clearance was assessed as well. A gamma camera was used to measure the radioactivity of these organs and of a blood clot. No difference was found in the presence of colloid in the organs of both groups. The liver showed the highest phagocytic intake, followed by the spleen and lungs (p = 0.021 for Group 1 and p = 0.003 for Group 2). A minimum amount of radiation remained in the blood of both groups. Discussion: According to the experiential conditions of this work, acute ingestion of alcohol did not interfere with the phagocytic function of the mononuclear phagocyte system in mice. PMID:22514578

  13. Alcohol Effects on Stress Pathways: Impact on Craving and Relapse Risk.

    PubMed

    Blaine, Sara K; Milivojevic, Verica; Fox, Helen; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-03-01

    A significant amount of neurobiological research regarding the development of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) has focused on alcohol-related activation and long-term alterations in the mesocortical dopaminergic reward pathways. However, alcohol does not only interact with brain reward systems. Many of its acute and chronic effects may be related to allostatic adaptations in hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic stress regulation pathways. For example, acute binge intoxication is associated with hypothalamically driven increases in blood cortisol, norepinephrine, and sex steroid metabolite levels. This may contribute to the development of mesocortical sensitization to alcohol. Furthermore, chronic alcohol exposure is associated with systemic dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, sympathetic adrenal medullary system, and sex steroid systems. This dysregulation appears to manifest as neuroendocrine tolerance. In this review, we first summarize the literature suggesting that alcohol-induced alterations in these hypothalamic systems influence craving and contribute to the development of AUDs. We note that for women, the effects of alcohol on these neuroendocrine stress regulation systems may be influenced by the rhythmic variations of hormones and steroids across the menstrual cycle. Second, we discuss how changes in these systems may indicate progression of AUDs and increased risk of relapse in both sexes. Specifically, neuroendocrine tolerance may contribute to mesocortical sensitization, which in turn may lead to decreased prefrontal inhibitory control of the dopaminergic reward and hypothalamic stress systems. Thus, pharmacological strategies that counteract alcohol-associated changes in hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic stress regulation pathways may slow the development and progression of AUDs. PMID:27254089

  14. Alcohol Effects on Stress Pathways: Impact on Craving and Relapse Risk.

    PubMed

    Blaine, Sara K; Milivojevic, Verica; Fox, Helen; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-03-01

    A significant amount of neurobiological research regarding the development of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) has focused on alcohol-related activation and long-term alterations in the mesocortical dopaminergic reward pathways. However, alcohol does not only interact with brain reward systems. Many of its acute and chronic effects may be related to allostatic adaptations in hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic stress regulation pathways. For example, acute binge intoxication is associated with hypothalamically driven increases in blood cortisol, norepinephrine, and sex steroid metabolite levels. This may contribute to the development of mesocortical sensitization to alcohol. Furthermore, chronic alcohol exposure is associated with systemic dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, sympathetic adrenal medullary system, and sex steroid systems. This dysregulation appears to manifest as neuroendocrine tolerance. In this review, we first summarize the literature suggesting that alcohol-induced alterations in these hypothalamic systems influence craving and contribute to the development of AUDs. We note that for women, the effects of alcohol on these neuroendocrine stress regulation systems may be influenced by the rhythmic variations of hormones and steroids across the menstrual cycle. Second, we discuss how changes in these systems may indicate progression of AUDs and increased risk of relapse in both sexes. Specifically, neuroendocrine tolerance may contribute to mesocortical sensitization, which in turn may lead to decreased prefrontal inhibitory control of the dopaminergic reward and hypothalamic stress systems. Thus, pharmacological strategies that counteract alcohol-associated changes in hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic stress regulation pathways may slow the development and progression of AUDs.

  15. The Subjective Effects of Alcohol Scale: Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Novel Assessment Tool for Measuring Subjective Response to Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Morean, Meghan E.; Corbin, William R.; Treat, Teresa A.

    2013-01-01

    Three decades of research demonstrate that individual differences in subjective response (SR) to acute alcohol effects predict heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. However, the SR patterns conferring the greatest risk remain under debate. Morean and Corbin (2010) highlighted that extant SR measures commonly have limitations within the following areas: assessment of a comprehensive range of effects, assessment of effects over the complete course of a drinking episode, and/or psychometric validation. Furthermore, the consistent pairing of certain SR measures and theoretical models has made integration of findings difficult. To address these issues, we developed the Subjective Effects of Alcohol Scale (SEAS), a novel, psychometrically sound SR measure for use in alcohol administration studies. Pilot data ensured that the SEAS comprised a comprehensive range of effects that varied in terms of valence and arousal and were perceived as plausible effects of drinking. For validation purposes, the SEAS was included in a two-site placebo-controlled alcohol administration study (N=215). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses identified a 14-item, 4-factor model categorizing effects into affective quadrants (high/low arousal positive; high/low arousal negative). SEAS scores evidenced the following: (1) scalar measurement invariance by limb of the blood alcohol curve (BAC) and beverage condition (2) good internal consistency, (3) convergence/divergence with extant SR measures, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol use, and (4) concurrent/incremental utility in accounting for alcohol-related outcomes, highlighting the novel high arousal negative and low arousal positive subscales. PMID:23647036

  16. Clinical effect of a polysaccharide-rich extract of Acanthopanax senticosus on alcohol hangover.

    PubMed

    Bang, Joon Seok; Chung, Yoon Hee; Chung, Su Jin; Lee, Ho Sung; Song, Eun Ho; Shin, Yong Kyoo; Lee, Yu Jeung; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Nam, Yunsung; Jeong, Ji Hoon

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effects polysaccharide-rich extract of Acanthopanax senticosus (PEA) on blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and hangover as well as blood lab parameters. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial was conducted. The PEA was orally administered before and after consuming alcohol 1.75 g/kg of pure alcohol. After alcohol consumption, BAC was measured for evaluation of alcohol pharmacokinetics. In the second day morning, subjects were asked to complete the Acute Hangover Scale (AHS) questionnarie. BAC results showed little difference between placebo and PEA groups, indicating that PEA does not have an effect on the pharmacokinetics of alcohol. However, several AHS items (i.e., tired, headache, dizziness, stomachache and nausea) and AHS total score were significantly improved by PEA. Blood lab parameters were significantly altered by alcohol in the placebo group. The alteration by alcohol of glucose and C-reactive protein (CRP) level was significantly attenuated by PEA. Therefore, PEA may have potential to reduce the severity of the alcohol hangover by inhibiting the alcohol-induced hypoglycemia and inflammatory response. PMID:26012258

  17. Clinical effect of a polysaccharide-rich extract of Acanthopanax senticosus on alcohol hangover.

    PubMed

    Bang, Joon Seok; Chung, Yoon Hee; Chung, Su Jin; Lee, Ho Sung; Song, Eun Ho; Shin, Yong Kyoo; Lee, Yu Jeung; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Nam, Yunsung; Jeong, Ji Hoon

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effects polysaccharide-rich extract of Acanthopanax senticosus (PEA) on blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and hangover as well as blood lab parameters. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial was conducted. The PEA was orally administered before and after consuming alcohol 1.75 g/kg of pure alcohol. After alcohol consumption, BAC was measured for evaluation of alcohol pharmacokinetics. In the second day morning, subjects were asked to complete the Acute Hangover Scale (AHS) questionnarie. BAC results showed little difference between placebo and PEA groups, indicating that PEA does not have an effect on the pharmacokinetics of alcohol. However, several AHS items (i.e., tired, headache, dizziness, stomachache and nausea) and AHS total score were significantly improved by PEA. Blood lab parameters were significantly altered by alcohol in the placebo group. The alteration by alcohol of glucose and C-reactive protein (CRP) level was significantly attenuated by PEA. Therefore, PEA may have potential to reduce the severity of the alcohol hangover by inhibiting the alcohol-induced hypoglycemia and inflammatory response.

  18. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  19. Non-invasive brain stimulation in the functional evaluation of alcohol effects and in the treatment of alcohol craving: a review.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Bergmann, Jürgen; Christova, Monica; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Tezzon, Frediano; Golaszewski, Stefan; Trinka, Eugen; Brigo, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    Acute and chronic consumption of alcohol have direct effects on central nervous system by altering predominantly gamma-aminobutyric acidergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission. Abnormalities in these neurotransmitter systems can be demonstrated by changes in cortical excitability parameters assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Furthermore, integrated approaches utilizing TMS combined with electroencephalography (EEG) enable the evaluation of the focal effects of alcohol on the human cortex, providing useful information, different from that obtained using other functional brain imaging modalities. Alcohol was found to modulate EEG responses evoked by motor-cortex TMS, predominantly at the right prefrontal cortex, indicating that ethanol alters the functional connectivity between motor and prefrontal areas. Alcohol decreases amplitudes of EEG responses of anterior parts of the cortex after left prefrontal TMS, suggesting a decrease of prefrontal cortical excitability. High-frequency repetitive TMS (rTMS) revealed significant changes in short-term plasticity of the primary motor cortex after acute ethanol intake and in patients with chronic alcohol abuse. TMS findings also support the recently emerged theory that abnormal function of glutamate receptors plays a relevant role in the development of alcohol dependence and manifestation of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Finally, initial studies provide evidence that non-invasive brain stimulation techniques (rTMS and transcranial direct current stimulation) might represent a potential therapeutic tool to reduce alcohol craving. Future studies with larger sample size evaluating the clinical effects of these neuromodulatory approaches are required to confirm and extend the preliminary findings.

  20. Effect of dissolved oxygen in alcoholic beverages and drinking water on alcohol elimination in humans.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Su-jin; Chae, Jung-woo; Song, Byung-jeong; Lee, Eun-sil; Kwon, Kwang-il

    2013-02-01

    Oxygen plays an important role in the metabolism of alcohol. An increased dissolved oxygen level in alcoholic beverages reportedly accelerates the elimination of alcohol. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of dissolved oxygen in alcohol and the supportive effect of oxygenated water on alcohol pharmacokinetics after the excessive consumption of alcohol, i.e., 540 ml of 19.5% alcohol (v/v). Fifteen healthy males were included in this randomized, 3 × 3 crossover study. Three combinations were tested: X, normal alcoholic beverage and normal water; Y, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and normal water; Z, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and oxygenated water. Blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were determined by conversion of breath alcohol concentrations. Four pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), T(max), K(el), and AUCall) were obtained using non-compartmental analysis and the times to reach 0.05% and 0.03% BAC (T(0.05%) and T(0.03%)) were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's post hoc test. With combination Z, the BAC decreased to 0.05% significantly faster (p < 0.05) than with combination X. Analyzing the pharmacokinetic parameters, the mean K(el) was significantly higher for combination Z than for combinations X and Y (p < 0.05), whereas the mean values of C(max), T(max) and AUCall did not differ significantly among the combinations. Dissolved oxygen in drinks accelerates the decrease in BAC after consuming a large amount of alcohol. However, the oxygen dissolved in the alcoholic beverage alone did not have a sufficient effect in this case. We postulate that highly oxygenated water augments the effect of oxygen in the alcoholic beverage in alcohol elimination. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the supportive effect of ingesting additional oxygenated water after heavy drinking of normal alcoholic beverages.

  1. Acute aquatic toxicity of nine alcohol ethoxylate surfactants to fathead minnow and Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.C.L.; Dorn, P.B.; Chai, E.Y.

    1995-12-31

    The aquatic toxicity of nine commercial-grade alcohol ethoxylate surfactants was studied in acute exposures to fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and Daphnia magna. All studies were conducted in accordance with USEPA TSCA Good Laboratory Practice Standards. Mean measured surfactant concentrations in exposure solutions showed good agreement with nominal concentrations for both fathead minnow and daphnid tests. Surfactant recoveries ranged from 59 to 97% and 67 to 106% in the fathead minnow and daphnid solutions, respectively. The response of both species to the surfactants was generally similar with the daphnids being slightly more sensitive to a few surfactants. Surfactant toxicity tended to increase with increasing alkyl chain lengths. The effect of low average EO groups on increased surfactant toxicity was more evident in the daphnid exposures. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models were developed form the data which relates surfactant structure to toxicity. The models predict increasing toxicity with decreasing EO number and increasing alkyl chain length. The models also indicate that alkyl chain length has a greater effect on toxicity than EO groups. Further, the models indicate that both species did not differ markedly in their sensitivity to alkyl chain length effects, while the number of EO groups had a stronger effect on daphnids than fathead minnow. Good agreement was found between QSAR model-predicted toxicity and reported toxicity values from the literature for several surfactants previously studied.

  2. A Heart too Drunk to Drive; AV Block following Acute Alcohol Intoxication.

    PubMed

    van Stigt, Arthur H; Overduin, Ruben J; Staats, Liza C; Loen, Vera; van der Heyden, Marcel A G

    2016-02-29

    Acute excessive alcohol consumption is associated with heart rhythm disorders like atrial fibrillation but also premature ventricular contractions, collectively known as the "holiday heart syndrome". More rarely but clinically significant are reports of atrioventricular (AV) conduction disturbances in binge drinkers with no underlying heart disease or chronic alcohol consumption. To obtain better insights into common denominators and the potential underlying mechanisms we collected and compared individual case reports of AV block following acute alcohol intoxication in otherwise healthy people. By screening PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and JSTOR, fifteen cases were found of which eight were sufficiently documented for full analysis. Blood alcohol levels ranged from 90 to 958 mg/dl (19 to 205 mM). Second and third degree AV block was observed most (6/8) albeit that in two of these patients a vagal stimulus led to deterioration from first into higher order AV block. In all cases, patients reverted to normal sinus rhythm upon becoming sober again. Mildly lowered body temperature (35.9 ± 0.5°C) was observed but can be excluded as a major cause of conduction blockade. We hypothesize that ethanol induced partial inhibition of calcium and potentially also sodium currents in conductive tissue structures may be one of the mechanisms of conduction slowing and block that may become exaggerated upon increased vagal tone. An impairment of gap junction function cannot be excluded as a contributing factor. In conclusion, cases of documented alcohol induced AV block are very rare but events can occur at relatively low serum alcohol levels which should prompt to awareness of this phenomenon in alcohol intoxicated patients. PMID:26875557

  3. A Heart too Drunk to Drive; AV Block following Acute Alcohol Intoxication.

    PubMed

    van Stigt, Arthur H; Overduin, Ruben J; Staats, Liza C; Loen, Vera; van der Heyden, Marcel A G

    2016-02-29

    Acute excessive alcohol consumption is associated with heart rhythm disorders like atrial fibrillation but also premature ventricular contractions, collectively known as the "holiday heart syndrome". More rarely but clinically significant are reports of atrioventricular (AV) conduction disturbances in binge drinkers with no underlying heart disease or chronic alcohol consumption. To obtain better insights into common denominators and the potential underlying mechanisms we collected and compared individual case reports of AV block following acute alcohol intoxication in otherwise healthy people. By screening PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and JSTOR, fifteen cases were found of which eight were sufficiently documented for full analysis. Blood alcohol levels ranged from 90 to 958 mg/dl (19 to 205 mM). Second and third degree AV block was observed most (6/8) albeit that in two of these patients a vagal stimulus led to deterioration from first into higher order AV block. In all cases, patients reverted to normal sinus rhythm upon becoming sober again. Mildly lowered body temperature (35.9 ± 0.5°C) was observed but can be excluded as a major cause of conduction blockade. We hypothesize that ethanol induced partial inhibition of calcium and potentially also sodium currents in conductive tissue structures may be one of the mechanisms of conduction slowing and block that may become exaggerated upon increased vagal tone. An impairment of gap junction function cannot be excluded as a contributing factor. In conclusion, cases of documented alcohol induced AV block are very rare but events can occur at relatively low serum alcohol levels which should prompt to awareness of this phenomenon in alcohol intoxicated patients.

  4. Acute Alcohol Intoxication Decreases Glucose Metabolism but Increases Acetate Uptake in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Volkow, Nora D.; Kim, Sung Won; Wang, Gene-Jack; Alexoff, David; Logan, Jean; Muench, Lisa; Shea, Colleen; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S.; Wong, Christopher; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol intoxication results in marked reductions in brain glucose metabolism, which we hypothesized reflect not just its GABAergic enhancing effects but also metabolism of acetate as an alternative brain energy source. To test this hypothesis we separately assessed the effects of alcohol intoxication on brain glucose and acetate metabolism using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). We found that alcohol intoxication significantly decreased whole brain glucose metabolism (measured with FDG) with the largest decrements in cerebellum and occipital cortex and the smallest in thalamus. In contrast, alcohol intoxication caused a significant increase in [1-11C]acetate brain uptake (measured as standard uptake value, SUV), with the largest increases occurring in cerebellum and the smallest in thalamus. In heavy alcohol drinkers [1-11C]acetate brain uptake during alcohol challenge trended to be higher than in occasional drinkers (p <0.06) and the increases in [1-11C]acetate uptake in cerebellum with alcohol were positively associated with the reported amount of alcohol consumed (r=0.66, p<0.01). Our findings corroborate a reduction of brain glucose metabolism during intoxication and document an increase in brain acetate uptake. The opposite changes observed between regional brain metabolic decrements and regional increases in [1-11C]acetate uptake support the hypothesis that during alcohol intoxication the brain may rely on acetate as an alternative brain energy source and provides preliminary evidence that heavy alcohol exposures may facilitate the use of acetate as an energy substrate. These findings raise the question of the potential therapeutic benefits that increasing plasma acetate concentration (ie ketogenic diets) may have in alcoholics undergoing alcohol detoxification. PMID:22947541

  5. Acute alcohol intoxication decreases glucose metabolism but increases acetate uptake in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Volkow, Nora D; Kim, Sung Won; Wang, Gene-Jack; Alexoff, David; Logan, Jean; Muench, Lisa; Shea, Colleen; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S; Wong, Christopher; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol intoxication results in marked reductions in brain glucose metabolism, which we hypothesized reflect not just its GABAergic enhancing effects but also the metabolism of acetate as an alternative brain energy source. To test this hypothesis we separately assessed the effects of alcohol intoxication on brain glucose and acetate metabolism using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). We found that alcohol intoxication significantly decreased whole brain glucose metabolism (measured with FDG) with the largest decrements in cerebellum and occipital cortex and the smallest in the thalamus. In contrast, alcohol intoxication caused a significant increase in [1-(11)C]acetate brain uptake (measured as standard uptake value, SUV), with the largest increases occurring in the cerebellum and the smallest in the thalamus. In heavy alcohol drinkers [1-(11)C]acetate brain uptake during alcohol challenge tended to be higher than in occasional drinkers (p<0.06) and the increases in [1-(11)C]acetate uptake in cerebellum with alcohol were positively associated with the reported amount of alcohol consumed (r=0.66, p<0.01). Our findings corroborate a reduction of brain glucose metabolism during intoxication and document an increase in brain acetate uptake. The opposite changes observed between regional brain metabolic decrements and regional increases in [1-(11)C]acetate uptake support the hypothesis that during alcohol intoxication the brain may rely on acetate as an alternative brain energy source and provides preliminary evidence that heavy alcohol exposures may facilitate the use of acetate as an energy substrate. These findings raise the question of the potential therapeutic benefits that increasing plasma acetate concentration (i.e. ketogenic diets) may have in alcoholics undergoing alcohol detoxification. PMID:22947541

  6. Acute and chronic ethanol exposure differentially alters alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in the zebrafish liver.

    PubMed

    Tran, Steven; Nowicki, Magda; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Chronic ethanol exposure paradigms have been successfully used in the past to induce behavioral and central nervous system related changes in zebrafish. However, it is currently unknown whether chronic ethanol exposure alters ethanol metabolism in adult zebrafish. In the current study we examine the effect of acute ethanol exposure on adult zebrafish behavioral responses, as well as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity in the liver. We then examine how two different chronic ethanol exposure paradigms (continuous and repeated ethanol exposure) alter behavioral responses and liver enzyme activity during a subsequent acute ethanol challenge. Acute ethanol exposure increased locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner. ADH activity was shown to exhibit an inverted U-shaped curve and ALDH activity was decreased by ethanol exposure at all doses. During the acute ethanol challenge, animals that were continuously housed in ethanol exhibited a significantly reduced locomotor response and increased ADH activity, however, ALDH activity did not change. Zebrafish that were repeatedly exposed to ethanol demonstrated a small but significant attenuation of the locomotor response during the acute ethanol challenge but ADH and ALDH activity was similar to controls. Overall, we identified two different chronic ethanol exposure paradigms that differentially alter behavioral and physiological responses in zebrafish. We speculate that these two paradigms may allow dissociation of central nervous system-related and liver enzyme-dependent ethanol induced changes in zebrafish.

  7. Alcohol and marijuana effects on ocular tracking.

    PubMed

    Flom, M C; Brown, B; Adams, A J; Jones, R T

    1976-12-01

    Experienced alcohol and marijuana users were instructed to track with their eyes a small spot that moved horizontally back and forth in pendular (sinusoidal) motion across a 7.5-degree field. The frequency of spot oscillation was gradually increased from 0.5 to 3.0 Hz in 40 sec. Eye movement recordings showed the frequency at which smooth tracking and, soon thereafter, saccadic tracking broke down. These smooth and saccadic cutoff frequencies were reduced after administration of alcohol, but not after marijuana or placebo. For low alcohol doses, smooth tracking was impaired and saccadic tracking was unaffected, much like an effect previously reported for barbiturates. Alcohol seems to affect smooth tracking by increasing the central processing time required to generate the appropriate eye movement. It affects saccadic tracking by slightly decreasing saccadic velocity and to a greater extent by increasing latency time, part of which may be devoted to central processing. The site of action of alcohol appears to be central to both the paramedian pontine reticular formation and the flocculus of the cerebellum.

  8. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE): Implications For Rural Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenck, Rosalie; And Others

    This report reviews literature on the effects of maternal alcohol consumption on the fetus and the resulting impact on the learning abilities and behavior of children born with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Recent reports indicate that an estimated 73 percent of infants are exposed to alcohol before birth, resulting in varying degrees of learning…

  9. Skeletal muscle protein synthesis and degradation exhibit sexual dimorphism after chronic alcohol consumption but not acute intoxication.

    PubMed

    Lang, Charles H; Frost, Robert A; Vary, Thomas C

    2007-06-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests alcoholic myopathy is more severe in females than males, but comparable animal studies are lacking that make elucidating the biochemical locus for this defect problematic. The present study determined whether skeletal muscle protein synthesis and markers of degradation exhibit a sexual dimorphic response to either chronic alcohol consumption or acute intoxication. Male and female rats were fed an alcohol-containing diet, pair-fed for 26 wk (chronic), or received an intraperitoneal injection of alcohol (acute). In males, chronic alcohol decreased gastrocnemius protein synthesis by 20%. This reduction was associated with a twofold increase in the inactive eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E.4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) complex and a 60% reduction in the active eIF4E.eIF4G complex. This redistribution of eIF4E was associated with decreased phosphorylation of both 4E-BP1 and eIF4G (50-55%). The phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 was also reduced 60% in alcohol-consuming male rats. In contrast, neither rates of protein synthesis nor indexes of translation initiation in muscle were altered in alcohol-fed female rats despite blood alcohol levels comparable to males. Chronic alcohol ingestion did not alter atrogin-1 or muscle RING finger-1 mRNA content (biomarkers of muscle proteolysis) in males but increased their expression in females 50-100%. Acute alcohol intoxication produced a comparable decrease in muscle protein synthesis and translation initiation in both male and female rats. Our data demonstrate a sexual dimorphism for muscle protein synthesis, translation initiation, and proteolysis in response to chronic, but not acute, alcohol intoxication; however, they do not support evidence indicating females are more sensitive toward the development of alcoholic skeletal muscle myopathy.

  10. Effects of naltrexone on post-abstinence alcohol drinking in C57BL/6NCRL and DBA/2J mice.

    PubMed

    Tomie, Arthur; Azogu, Idu; Yu, Lei

    2013-07-01

    The present experiment evaluated the effects of naltrexone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, on post-abstinence alcohol drinking in C57BL/6NCRL and DBA/2J male mice. Home cage 2-bottle (alcohol vs. water) free-choice procedures were employed. During the pre-abstinence period, alcohol intake was much lower for the DBA/2J mice relative to the C57BL/6NCRL mice, and this strain difference was observed for groups receiving either 3% or 10% alcohol concentrations. The four-day abstinence period effectively reduced alcohol intakes (i.e., a negative alcohol deprivation effect, negative ADE) in both groups of DBA/2J mice, but had no effect on alcohol intakes in either group of C57BL/6NCRL mice. Both groups trained with 3% alcohol received the second four-day abstinence period, where the effects of acute administration of either naltrexone or saline on post-abstinence alcohol drinking were assessed. Naltrexone was more effective in reducing post-abstinence drinking of 3% alcohol in the DBA/2J mice than in the C57BL/6NCRL mice. In the DBA/2J mice, naltrexone further reduced, relative to saline-injected controls, the low levels of post-abstinence alcohol intake. Thus, the low baseline levels of alcohol drinking in DBA/2J mice were further diminished by the four-day abstinence period (negative ADE), and this suppressed post-abstinence level of alcohol drinking was still further reduced by acute administration of naltrexone. The results indicate that naltrexone is effective in reducing further the low levels of alcohol drinking induced by the negative ADE.

  11. Acamprosate and alcohol: II. Effects on alcohol withdrawal in the rat.

    PubMed

    Spanagel, R; Putzke, J; Stefferl, A; Schöbitz, B; Zieglgänsberger, W

    1996-06-01

    The suppressing effect of acamprosate (calcium-acetyl homotaurinate) on alcohol drinking is well established; however, little is known about its effects upon the alcohol-induced withdrawal syndrome. Male Wistar rats received as a sole drinking fluid a 20% (v/v) alcohol solution for one week. Animals consumed on average 5.3 +/- 0.3 g/kg per day alcohol, which resulted in blood alcohol levels of 38 +/- 14 mg/dl. For the quantification of alcohol withdrawal we used a new radio-telemetric system which enabled us to monitor body temperature, locomotor activity, food and water intake patterns constantly during alcohol withdrawal. Although alcohol intake and the resulting blood alcohol levels were low, clear signs of withdrawal could be observed. Thus, hyperthermia and hyperlocomotion occurred 18 h after the termination of forced alcohol drinking. Food intake was initially enhanced but dropped significantly below basal food intake in control animals one day after the termination of forced alcohol drinking. Acamprosate given twice a day (200 mg/kg, i.p., 8 a.m. and 8 p.m.) reduced hyperlocomotion and food intake significantly in the alcohol withdrawal animals, however, it did not change withdrawal-induced hyperthermia. When acamprosate was given to alcohol-naive animals, it increased locomotor activity and body temperature transiently, in particular during the rats' active night phase. In summary, (i) the radio-telemetric system used in the present study proved to be a very sensitive method for quantifying alcohol-induced withdrawal symptoms; (ii) acamprosate reduced alcohol-induced physical signs of withdrawal, however, this effect could not be observed for all parameters measured, which might be explained by the fact that (iii) acamprosate exerts a slight, transient psychomotor stimulant effects by itself.

  12. Acute multiple focal neuropathies and delayed postanoxic encephalopathy after alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Che; Yang, Hsiu-Chun; Chen, Yao-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Acute-onset alcohol-associated neuropathy is only occasionally reported, and delayed postanoxic encephalopathy is rare. Here, we report a male who developed acute multiple focal neuropathies and later delayed postanoxic encephalopathy after alcohol intoxication. He had hypoxia and rhabdomyolysis, presenting with acute renal failure initially, and cardiopulmonary support, including mechanical ventilation, led to improvement of the patient at the acute stage. He suffered from bilateral hand numbness and mild weakness of the right lower limb thereafter. Nerve-conduction study revealed no pickup of compound muscle action potential or sensory nerve action potential in the bilateral ulnar nerve, but showed attenuated amplitude of compound muscle action potential in the right femoral nerve. Multiple focal neuropathies were suspected, and he received outpatient rehabilitation after being discharged. However, the patient developed gradual onset of weakness in four limbs and cognitive impairment 23 days after the hypoxia event. Brain computed tomography showed low attenuation over bilateral globus pallidus, and brain magnetic resonance imaging disclosed diffuse increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery in bilateral white matter. He was admitted again under the impression of delayed postanoxic brain injury. Supportive treatment and active rehabilitation were given. He had gradual improvement in motor and functional status after rehabilitation. He could walk with festinating gait under supervision, and needed only minimal assistance in performing activities of daily living approximately 1 year later. PMID:26229472

  13. The sap of Acer okamotoanum decreases serum alcohol levels after acute ethanol ingestion in rats.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yeong-Min; Jung, Eui-Man; Kang, Ha-Young; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2011-10-01

    In the present study, we examined whether Acer okamotoanum (A. okamotoanum) sap decreased the serum alcohol and acetaldehyde levels after acute ethanol treatment in a rat model. Male rats were orally administered 25, 50 or 100% A. okamotoanum sap 30 min prior to oral challenge with 3 ml of ethanol (15 ml/kg of a 20% ethanol solution in water), and the blood concentrations of alcohol and acetaldehyde were analyzed up to 7 h after the treatment. Pre-treatment with the sap significantly decreased the blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations after 5 h when compared with ethanol treatment alone (a negative control). The expression levels of liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) mRNA were increased significantly in animals pre-treated with A. okamotoanum sap when compared with negative and positive controls. The data suggest that sap pre-treatment enhanced the alcohol metabolism rate in the rat liver. To investigate the involvement of mitochondrial regulation in the ethanol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis, we carried out an immunohistochemical analysis of Bax and Bcl-2. Pre-treatment with sap significantly decreased Bax expression and increased Bcl-2 expression 7 h after ethanol administration when compared with the negative control. The data suggest that A. okamotoanum sap pre-treatment may reduce the alcohol-induced oxidative stress in the rat liver.

  14. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  15. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  16. Effect of alcohol references in music on alcohol consumption in public drinking places.

    PubMed

    Engels, Rutger C M E; Slettenhaar, Gert; ter Bogt, Tom; Scholte, Ron H J

    2011-01-01

    People are exposed to many references to alcohol, which might influence their consumption of alcohol directly. In a field experiment, we tested whether textual references to alcohol in music played in bars lead to higher revenues of alcoholic beverages. We created two databases: one contained songs referring to alcohol, the parallel database contained songs with matching artists, tempo, and energetic content, but no references to alcohol. Customers of three bars were exposed to either music textually referring to alcohol or to the control condition, resulting in 23 evenings in both conditions. Bartenders were instructed to play songs with references to alcohol (or not) during a period of 2 hours each of the evenings of interest. They were not blind to the experimental condition. The results showed that customers who were exposed to music with textual references to alcohol spent significantly more on alcoholic drinks compared to customers in the control condition. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence that alcohol-related lyrics directly affect alcohol consumption in public drinking places. Since our study is one of the first testing direct effects of music lyrics on consumption, our small-scale, preliminary study needs replication before firm conclusions can be drawn. PMID:21999498

  17. Effect of alcohol references in music on alcohol consumption in public drinking places.

    PubMed

    Engels, Rutger C M E; Slettenhaar, Gert; ter Bogt, Tom; Scholte, Ron H J

    2011-01-01

    People are exposed to many references to alcohol, which might influence their consumption of alcohol directly. In a field experiment, we tested whether textual references to alcohol in music played in bars lead to higher revenues of alcoholic beverages. We created two databases: one contained songs referring to alcohol, the parallel database contained songs with matching artists, tempo, and energetic content, but no references to alcohol. Customers of three bars were exposed to either music textually referring to alcohol or to the control condition, resulting in 23 evenings in both conditions. Bartenders were instructed to play songs with references to alcohol (or not) during a period of 2 hours each of the evenings of interest. They were not blind to the experimental condition. The results showed that customers who were exposed to music with textual references to alcohol spent significantly more on alcoholic drinks compared to customers in the control condition. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence that alcohol-related lyrics directly affect alcohol consumption in public drinking places. Since our study is one of the first testing direct effects of music lyrics on consumption, our small-scale, preliminary study needs replication before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  18. Length of smoking deprivation moderates the effects of alcohol administration on urge to smoke.

    PubMed

    Day, Anne M; Kahler, Christopher W; Spillane, Nichea S; Metrik, Jane; Rohsenow, Damaris J

    2014-05-01

    Although smoking deprivation is often used in laboratory studies to induce urges to smoke cigarettes, the optimal length of deprivation has not been established. Previous research showed that overnight abstinence from cigarettes led to high baseline urge to smoke that potentially masked alcohol's acute effects on urge to smoke (Kahler et al., 2012). The current study examined whether alcohol's effects on smoking urge were more pronounced when a shorter length of smoking deprivation was used (i.e., 3h instead of overnight abstinence). Using a balanced placebo design for alcohol administration, we found that participants experienced a significant increase in self-reported urge to smoke when administered alcohol after a 3-h smoking deprivation (n=32), whereas this effect was smaller and nonsignificant when smokers were required to be abstinent overnight (n=96). Research on factors that heighten smoking urges may find stronger effects if a 3-h deprivation is used compared to using overnight abstinence.

  19. Correlates of Baclofen Effectiveness in Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Lekhansh; Shukla, Tulika; Bokka, Spandana; Kandasamy, Arun; Benegal, Vivek; Murthy, Pratima; Chand, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a global concern. Baclofen has shown promise as an anti-craving agent but its efficiency remains to be settled. We reviewed 549 male cases diagnosed with alcohol dependence who received Acamprosate (201) or Baclofen (348). ‘Time to first drink’ was compared between two groups and multiple regression analysis was done in baclofen group to identify correlates of effectiveness. There was a significant difference in outcome measure between Baclofen (M = 4.44, SD = 3.75) and Acamprosate group (M = 3.73, SD = 2.19); t (547) = 2.45, P = 0.01. Initial regression analysis with six predictor variables (average daily alcohol units, current age, age at onset of dependence, family history, duration of dependence and dose of baclofen in mg/day) showed significant correlation of outcome variable with only two predictor variables — dose of baclofen and average daily intake. Using the hierarchical method it was found that ‘dose of baclofen’ and ‘average alcohol intake’ explain a significant amount of variance in ‘time to first drink’. [F (1, 345) = 182.8, P < 0.001, R2 = 0.52, R2adjusted = 0.51]. This information can be used to select patients in long term longitudinal studies and may explain variable results seen in clinical trials of baclofen done earlier. PMID:26664095

  20. Sex and alcohol: the effects of alcohol on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    PubMed

    Greene, L W; Hollander, C S

    1980-01-01

    Effects of alcohol on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis are complex. Those at the gonadal level are best defined in studies such as those presented in this issue. However, there is an accumulating body of data supporting central effects of alcohol. The precise locus or loci is not certain. Further investigations probably including in vitro methodologies are likely to enhance our knowledge in this area. Our understanding of the effects of alcohol in the human female is especially limited.

  1. Acute Alcohol Consumption Impairs Controlled but Not Automatic Processes in a Psychophysical Pointing Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Kevin; Timney, Brian; Goodale, Melvyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Such studies have shown that alcohol impairs performance on tasks requiring conscious, intentional control, while leaving automatic performance relatively intact. Here, we sought to extend these findings to aspects of visuomotor control by investigating the effects of alcohol in a visuomotor pointing paradigm that allowed us to separate the influence of controlled and automatic processes. Six male participants were assigned to an experimental “correction” condition in which they were instructed to point at a visual target as quickly and accurately as possible. On a small percentage of trials, the target “jumped” to a new location. On these trials, the participants’ task was to amend their movement such that they pointed to the new target location. A second group of 6 participants were assigned to a “countermanding” condition, in which they were instructed to terminate their movements upon detection of target “jumps”. In both the correction and countermanding conditions, participants served as their own controls, taking part in alcohol and no-alcohol conditions on separate days. Alcohol had no effect on participants’ ability to correct movements “in flight”, but impaired the ability to withhold such automatic corrections. Our data support the notion that alcohol selectively impairs controlled processes in the visuomotor domain. PMID:23861934

  2. Glucose Effect in the Acute Porphyrias

    MedlinePlus

    ... You are here Home Diet and Nutrition The glucose effect in acute porphyrias The disorders Acute Intermittent ... are treated initially with the administration of carbohydrate/glucose. This therapy has its basis in the ability ...

  3. Effectiveness of Policies Restricting Hours of Alcohol Sales in Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team’s initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084080

  4. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  5. Spontaneous resolution of pancreatic masses (pseudocysts?)--Development and disappearance after acute alcoholic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Czaja, A J; Fisher, M; Marin, G A

    1975-04-01

    To determine the incidence and the natural history of retroperitoneal masses complicating acute pancreatitis, 104 cases of acute alcoholic pancreatitis were evaluated prospectively for mass formation. Abdominal masses detected by physical examination and serial x-ray films of the upper portion of the gastrointestinal tract were localized to the retroperitoneum by additional contrast studies, including abdominal angiography. Nonoperative management was urged only for patients with an asymptomatic mass. An abdominal mass developed in 19 patients (18%). In eight of these, it disappeared rapidly, but in 11 (11%), it persisted, and was considered to be a pancreatic pseudocyst. Eight of the 11 patients were treated nonoperatively, and the mass resolved without complication three weeks to three months after diagnosis. In three patients, a pseudocyst was confirmed at laparotomy. Exploration was justified by an unstable clinical course in only one instance. A routine surgical approach to an asymptomatic retroperitoneal mass developing after acute alcoholic pancreatitis may not be necessaary in patients who are improving clinically because the mass may resolve without complication.

  6. Effects of DA-Phen, a dopamine-aminoacidic conjugate, on alcohol intake and forced abstinence.

    PubMed

    Sutera, Flavia Maria; De Caro, Viviana; Cannizzaro, Carla; Giannola, Libero Italo; Lavanco, Gianluca; Plescia, Fulvio

    2016-09-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system plays a key role in drug reinforcement and is involved in the development of alcohol addiction. Manipulation of the DAergic system represents a promising strategy to control drug-seeking behavior. Previous studies on 2-amino-N-[2-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-3-phenyl-propionamide (DA-Phen) showed in vivo effects as a DA-ergic modulator. This study was aimed at investigate DA-Phen effects on operant behavior for alcohol seeking behavior, during reinstatement following subsequent periods of alcohol deprivation. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were tested in an operant paradigm of self-administration; behavioral reactivity and anxiety like-behavior during acute abstinence were evaluated. A characterization of DA-Phen CNS targeting by its quantification in the brain was also carried out. Our findings showed that DA-Phen administration was able to reduce relapse in alcohol drinking by 50% and reversed the alterations in behavioral reactivity and emotionality observed during acute abstinence. In conclusion, DA-Phen can reduce reinstatement of alcohol drinking in an operant-drinking paradigm following deprivation periods and reverse abstinence-induced behavioral phenotype. DA-Phen activity seems to be mediated by the modulation of the DAergic transmission. However further studies are needed to characterize DA-Phen pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and its potential therapeutic profile in alcohol addiction. PMID:27155501

  7. Effects of DA-Phen, a dopamine-aminoacidic conjugate, on alcohol intake and forced abstinence.

    PubMed

    Sutera, Flavia Maria; De Caro, Viviana; Cannizzaro, Carla; Giannola, Libero Italo; Lavanco, Gianluca; Plescia, Fulvio

    2016-09-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system plays a key role in drug reinforcement and is involved in the development of alcohol addiction. Manipulation of the DAergic system represents a promising strategy to control drug-seeking behavior. Previous studies on 2-amino-N-[2-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-3-phenyl-propionamide (DA-Phen) showed in vivo effects as a DA-ergic modulator. This study was aimed at investigate DA-Phen effects on operant behavior for alcohol seeking behavior, during reinstatement following subsequent periods of alcohol deprivation. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were tested in an operant paradigm of self-administration; behavioral reactivity and anxiety like-behavior during acute abstinence were evaluated. A characterization of DA-Phen CNS targeting by its quantification in the brain was also carried out. Our findings showed that DA-Phen administration was able to reduce relapse in alcohol drinking by 50% and reversed the alterations in behavioral reactivity and emotionality observed during acute abstinence. In conclusion, DA-Phen can reduce reinstatement of alcohol drinking in an operant-drinking paradigm following deprivation periods and reverse abstinence-induced behavioral phenotype. DA-Phen activity seems to be mediated by the modulation of the DAergic transmission. However further studies are needed to characterize DA-Phen pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and its potential therapeutic profile in alcohol addiction.

  8. [Characteristics of the pharmacological treatment of toxic liver damage in patients with an alcohol abused syndrome and an acute severe ethanol poison].

    PubMed

    Shilov, V V; Shikalova, I A; Vasil'ev, S A; Loladze, A T; Batotsyrenov, B V

    2012-01-01

    The examination of 130 patients with an alcohol abused syndrome and a severe ethanol poison have revealed that ethanol action are accompanied by significant metabolic disturbances. The comparative evaluation of the inclusion of heptral and remaxol in the treatment has shown that remaxol improves the clinical course of mentioned disorders decreasing the frequency and duration of alcohol delirium. Patients treated with this drug spent less time in acute care and their treatment duration was shorter. Remaxol reduces more effectively the severity of metabolic disorders.

  9. The effectiveness of alcohol control policies on alcohol-related traffic fatalities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Chang, Koyin; Wu, Chin-Chih; Ying, Yung-Hsiang

    2012-03-01

    Multiple alcohol control policies have been enacted since the early 1980s to keep drunk drivers off the roads and to prevent more alcohol-related traffic fatalities. In this paper, we analyze nine traffic policies to determine the extent to which each policy contributes to effective alcohol-related fatality prevention. Compared with the existing literature, this paper addresses a more comprehensive set of traffic policies. In addition, we used a panel GLS model that holds regional effects and state-specific time effects constant to analyze their impact on alcohol-related fatalities with two distinct rates: alcohol-related traffic deaths per capita and alcohol-related traffic deaths per total traffic deaths. While per capita alcohol-related traffic deaths is used more often in other studies, alcohol-related traffic deaths per total traffic deaths better reflects the impact of policies on deterring drunk driving. In addition, regional analyses were conducted to determine the policies that are more effective in certain regions. The findings of this study suggest that zero tolerance laws and increased beer taxes are the most effective policies in reducing alcohol-related fatalities in all regions.

  10. The Effects of Alcohol on Spiders: What Happens to Web Construction after Spiders Consume Alcohol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Victor E.

    2006-01-01

    In the high school experiment reported in this paper, spiders were provided with 40% ethanol (ETOH) in order to determine the effects of alcohol on the web-spinning ability of orb weaver spiders. It was hypothesized that alcohol would have a deleterious effect on the number of radii, number of cells, and area of cells in the webs of orb weaving…

  11. Zn(II)-curcumin protects against hemorheological alterations, oxidative stress and liver injury in a rat model of acute alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chuan; Mei, Xue-Ting; Zheng, Yan-Ping; Xu, Dong-Hui

    2014-03-01

    Curcumin can chelate metal ions, forming metallocomplexes. We compared the effects of Zn(II)-curcumin with curcumin against hemorheological alterations, oxidative stress and liver injury in a rat model of acute alcoholism. Oral administration of Zn(II)-curcumin dose-dependently prevented the ethanol-induced elevation of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) content and reductions in glutathione level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Zn(II)-curcumin also inhibited ethanol-induced liver injury. Additionally, Zn(II)-curcumin dose-dependently inhibited hemorheological abnormalities, including the ethanol-induced elevation of whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, blood viscosity at corrected hematocrit (45%), erythrocyte aggregation index, erythrocyte rigidity index and hematocrit. Compared to curcumin at the same dose, Zn(II)-curcumin more effectively elevated SOD activity, ameliorated liver injury and improved hemorheological variables. These results suggest that Zn(II)-curcumin protected the rats from ethanol-induced liver injury and hemorheological abnormalities via the synergistic effect of curcumin and zinc.

  12. Effectiveness of Alcohol Media Literacy Programmes: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindmarsh, Chloe S.; Jones, Sandra C.; Kervin, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol media literacy is an emerging field that aims to address the link between exposure to alcohol advertising and subsequent expectancies and behaviours for children and adolescents. The design, rigour and results of alcohol media literacy programmes vary considerably, resulting in a number of unanswered questions about effectiveness. To…

  13. The Effect of Cancer Warning Statements on Alcohol Consumption Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle I.; Glance, David; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Pratt, Iain S.; Slevin, Terry; Liang, Wenbin; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    In response to increasing calls to introduce warning labels on alcoholic beverages, this study investigated the potential effectiveness of alcohol warning statements designed to increase awareness of the alcohol-cancer link. A national online survey was administered to a diverse sample of Australian adult drinkers (n = 1,680). Along with…

  14. Effects of Alcohol on the Endocrine System

    PubMed Central

    Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sarkar, Dipak K.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The endocrine system ensures a proper communication between various organs of the body to maintain a constant internal environment. The endocrine system also plays an essential role in enabling the body to respond and appropriately cope with changes in the internal or external environments, such as respond to stress and injury. These functions of the endocrine system to maintain body homeostasis are aided by its communication with the nervous system, immune system and body’s circadian mechanism. Chronic consumption of a large amount of alcohol disrupts the communication between nervous, endocrine and immune system and causes hormonal disturbances that lead to profound and serious consequences at physiological and behavioral levels. These alcohol-induced hormonal dysregulations affect the entire body and can result in various disorders such as stress abnormalities, reproductive deficits, body growth defect, thyroid problems, immune dysfunction, cancers, bone disease and psychological and behavioral disorders. This review summarizes the findings from human and animal studies that provide consistent evidence on the various effects of alcohol abuse on the endocrine system. PMID:24011889

  15. Influence of drugs of abuse and alcohol upon patients admitted to acute psychiatric wards: physician's assessment compared to blood drug concentrations.

    PubMed

    Mordal, Jon; Medhus, Sigrid; Holm, Bjørn; Mørland, Jørg; Bramness, Jørgen G

    2013-06-01

    In acute psychiatric services, rapid and accurate detection of psychoactive substance intake may be required for appropriate diagnosis and intervention. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between (a) drug influence as assessed by physicians and (b) blood drug concentrations among patients admitted to acute psychiatric wards. We also explored the possible effects of age, sex, and psychotic symptoms on physician's assessment of drug influence. In a cross-sectional study, the sample comprised 271 consecutive admissions from 2 acute psychiatric wards. At admission, the physician on call performed an overall judgment of drug influence. Psychotic symptoms were assessed with the positive subscale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Blood samples were screened for a wide range of psychoactive substances, and quantitative results were used to calculate blood drug concentration scores. Patients were judged as being under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol in 28% of the 271 admissions. Psychoactive substances were detected in 56% of the blood samples. Altogether, 15 different substances were found; up to 8 substances were found in samples from 1 patient. Markedly elevated blood drug concentration scores were estimated for 15% of the patients. Physician's assessment was positively related to the blood drug concentration scores (r = 0.52; P < 0.001), to symptoms of excitement, and to the detection of alcohol, cannabis, and amphetamines. The study demonstrates the major impact of alcohol and drugs in acute psychiatric settings and illustrates the challenging nature of the initial clinical assessment.

  16. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN AGE AND MODERATE ALCOHOL EFFECTS ON SIMULATED DRIVING PERFORMANCE

    PubMed Central

    Sklar, Alfredo L.; Boissoneault, Jeff; Fillmore, Mark T.; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2013-01-01

    Rationale There is a substantial body of literature documenting the deleterious effects of both alcohol consumption and age on driving performance. There is, however, limited work examining the interaction of age and acute alcohol consumption. Objectives The current study was conducted to determine if moderate alcohol doses differentially affect the driving performance of older and younger adults. Methods Healthy older (55 – 70) and younger (25 – 35) adults were tested during a baseline session and again following consumption of one of three beverages (0.0% (placebo), 0.04% or 0.065% target breath alcohol concentration). Measures of driving precision and average speed were recorded. Results Older adults performed more poorly on precision driving measures and drove more slowly than younger adults at baseline. After controlling for baseline performance, interactions between alcohol and age were observed following beverage consumption on two measures of driving precision with older adults exhibiting greater impairment as a result of alcohol consumption. Conclusions These data provide evidence that older adults may be more susceptible to the effects of alcohol on certain measures of driving performance. An investigation of mechanisms accounting for alcohol’s effects on driving in older and younger adults is required. Further evaluation using more complex driving environments is needed to assess the real-world implication of this interaction. PMID:24030469

  17. Acute subjective response to alcohol as a function of reward and punishment sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Morris, David H; Treloar, Hayley; Tsai, Chia-Lin; McCarty, Kayleigh N; McCarthy, Denis M

    2016-09-01

    Individual differences in subjective response to alcohol play a crucial role in the development of heavy drinking and related problems. In light of this, a growing focus of research has been identifying factors that contribute to differences in response. The aim of the present study was to determine whether individual differences in the subjective experience of rewarding and aversive effects of alcohol are a specific manifestation of general differences in reward and punishment sensitivity. Eighty-nine participants (M age=22.4, SD=1.9; 47.2% women) consumed a moderate dose of alcohol, i.e., peak breath alcohol concentration (BrAC)≈0.080g%, and rated their level of stimulation and sedation at seven timepoints over the BrAC curve. Sensitivity to reward and punishment were assessed by a self-report questionnaire prior to consumption. Multilevel growth models showed that post-consumption changes in stimulation ratings varied as a function of participants' level of reward and punishment sensitivity. Drinkers more sensitive to reward reported feeling more stimulated shortly after drinking and exhibited an attenuated rate of decline in stimulation over the blood alcohol curve, relative to drinkers with less strong reward sensitivity. Reward sensitivity was not related to subjective ratings of sedation, and punishment sensitivity was not related to either stimulation or sedation ratings. Findings suggest that reward sensitivity may increase risk for alcohol misuse among young adult social drinkers by increasing their subjective feelings of stimulation while drinking. PMID:27104798

  18. Concurrent Alcohol and Tobacco Treatment: Effect on Daily Process Measures of Alcohol Relapse Risk

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, Ned L.; Litt, Mark D.; Sevarino, Kevin A.; Levy, Lucienne; Kranitz, Linda S.; Sackler, Helen; Cooney, Judith L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the effects of alcohol treatment along with concurrent smoking treatment or delayed smoking treatment on process measures related to alcohol relapse risk. Method Alcohol dependent smokers (N = 151) who were enrolled in an intensive outpatient alcohol treatment program and were interested in smoking cessation were randomized to a concurrent smoking cessation (CSC) intervention or to a waiting list for delayed smoking cessation (DSC) intervention scheduled to begin three months later. Daily assessments of relapse process measures were obtained using an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system for 12 weeks after the onset of smoking treatment in the CSC condition, and before beginning smoking treatment in the DSC condition. Smoking outcomes were assessed at 2 and 13 weeks after starting treatment. Results Seven-day CO-verified smoking abstinence in the CSC condition was 50.5% at 2 weeks and 19.0% at 13 weeks compared to 2.2% abstinence at two weeks and 0% abstinence at 13 weeks for those in the DSC condition. Drinking outcomes were not significantly different for CSC vs. DSC treatment conditions. On daily IVR assessments, CSC participants had significantly lower positive alcohol outcome expectancies relative to DSC participants. Multilevel modeling (MLM) analyses of within-person effects across the 12 weeks of daily monitoring showed that daily smoking abstinence was significantly associated with same day reports of lower alcohol consumption, lower urge to drink, lower negative affect, lower positive alcohol outcome expectancies, greater alcohol abstinence self-efficacy, greater alcohol abstinence readiness to change, and greater perceived self-control demands. Conclusions; Analyses of process measures provide support for recommending smoking intervention concurrent with intensive outpatient alcohol treatment. Public Health Significance Statement Study results support conveying a message to alcohol dependent smokers that

  19. Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Donald E.; Carlton, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    There are important measurements of alcoholism that are poorly understood by physicians. Professional attitudes toward alcoholic patients are often counterproductive. Americans spend about $30 billion on alcohol a year and most adults drink alcohol. Even though traditional criteria allow for recognition of the disease, diagnosis is often made late in the natural course, when intervention fails. Alcoholism is a major health problem and accounts for 10 percent of total health care costs. Still, this country's 10 million adult alcoholics come from a pool of heavy drinkers with well defined demographic characteristics. These social, cultural and familial traits, along with subtle signs of addiction, allow for earlier diagnosis. Although these factors alone do not establish a diagnosis of alcoholism, they should alert a physician that significant disease may be imminent. Focus must be directed to these aspects of alcoholism if containment of the problem is expected. PMID:685264

  20. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... to. I spend a lot of time getting alcohol, drinking alcohol, or recovering from the effects of alcohol. ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Overview of Alcohol Consumption. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  1. Acute Alcohol Consumption and Secondary Psychopathic Traits Increase Ratings of the Attractiveness and Health of Ethnic Ingroup Faces but Not Outgroup Faces

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Ian J.; Gillespie, Steven M.; Leverton, Monica; Llewellyn, Victoria; Neale, Emily; Stevenson, Isobel

    2015-01-01

    Studies have consistently shown that both consumption of acute amounts of alcohol and elevated antisocial psychopathic traits are associated with an impaired ability for prepotent response inhibition. This may manifest as a reduced ability to inhibit prepotent race biased responses. Here, we tested the effects of acute alcohol consumption, and elevated antisocial psychopathic traits, on judgments of the attractiveness and health of ethnic ingroup and outgroup faces. In the first study, we show that following acute alcohol consumption, at a dose that is sufficient to result in impaired performance on tests of executive function, Caucasian participants judged White faces to be more attractive and healthier compared to when sober. However, this effect did not extend to Black faces. A similar effect was found in a second study involving sober Caucasian participants where secondary psychopathic traits were related to an intergroup bias in the ratings of attractiveness for White versus Black faces. These results are discussed in terms of a model which postulates that poor prefrontal functioning leads to increases in ingroup liking as a result of impaired abilities for prepotent response inhibition. PMID:25745403

  2. Alcohol effects on simulated driving performance and self-perceptions of impairment in DUI offenders

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, Nicholas; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Drivers with a history of driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol self-report heightened impulsivity and display reckless driving behaviors as indicated by increased rates of vehicle crashes, moving violations, and traffic tickets. Such poor behavioral self-regulation could also increase sensitivity to the disruptive effects of alcohol on driving performance. The present study examined the degree to which DUI drivers display an increased sensitivity to the acute impairing effects of alcohol on simulated driving performance and overestimate their driving fitness following alcohol consumption. Adult drivers with a history of DUI and a demographically-matched group of drivers with no history of DUI (controls) were tested following a 0.65 g/kg alcohol and a placebo. Results indicated that alcohol impaired several measures of driving performance and there was no difference between DUI offenders and controls in these impairments. However, following alcohol DUI drivers self-reported a greater ability and willingness to drive compared with controls. These findings indicate that drivers with a history of DUI might perceive themselves as more fit to drive after drinking which could play an important role in their decisions to drink and drive. PMID:25347077

  3. Plasma glucose, lactate, sodium, and potassium levels in children hospitalized with acute alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Tõnisson, Mailis; Tillmann, Vallo; Kuudeberg, Anne; Väli, Marika

    2010-09-01

    The aim of our research was to study prevalence of changes in plasma levels of lactate, potassium, glucose, and sodium in relation to alcohol concentration in children hospitalized with acute alcohol intoxication (AAI). Data from 194 under 18-year-old children hospitalized to the two only children's hospital in Estonia over a 2-year period were analyzed. The pediatrician on call filled in a special form on the clinical symptoms of AAI; a blood sample was drawn for biochemical tests, and a urine sample taken to exclude narcotic intoxication. The most common finding was hyperlactinemia occurring in 66% of the patients (n=128) followed by hypokalemia (<3.5 mmol/L) in 50% (n=97), and glucose above of reference value (>6.1 mmol/L) in 40.2% of the children (n=78). Hypernatremia was present in five children. In conclusion, hyperlactinemia, hypokalemia, and glucose levels above of reference value are common biochemical findings in children hospitalized with acute AAI. PMID:20846615

  4. Preschool Teacher Attitude and Knowledge Regarding Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Faite R-P.

    The Centers for Disease Control estimate that each year more than 8,000 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) babies are born, and that many more babies go undiagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE), a less severe condition. FAS and FAE have been identified as major contributors to poor memory, shorter attention spans, lower IQs, diminished achievement…

  5. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects-- Support for Teachers and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Susanna V.; Norton, Terry L.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews genesis of fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects in children. Identifies physical characteristics and behavioral indicators found and provides three checklists of observable signs for both disorders. Recommends seven steps for educators to follow in seeking assistance with these conditions. (DLH)

  6. The Effects of Alcohol on the Fetus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furey, Eileen M.

    1982-01-01

    The article explores recent findings on Fatal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), patterns of malformation, alcohol and other drugs, the toxicity of ethanol, the incidence of FAS, and implications of the syndrome. (Author)

  7. Effects of Alcohol on a Fetus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lupton, C.; Burd, L.; and Harwood R. 2004. Cost of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. American Journal of Medical Genetics 127C(676):42-50. 5. University of Wisconsin. 2003. “Alcohol as a Teratogen—Fetal ...

  8. Assessing the stimulant effects of alcohol in humans.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Dena; Hutchison, Kent; Dagon, Connie; Swift, Robert

    2002-05-01

    The stimulant effects of alcohol were assessed in humans. Twenty social drinkers were tested in dyads in the laboratory on three separate occasions, held 7 days apart. For their first session, one-third of the group consumed a dose of alcohol that was calculated to reach a target peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.05 g/dl, one-third of the group consumed placebo-alcohol, and one-third consumed diet Sprite. For alcohol and placebo-alcohol conditions, subjects were told that they may or may not be given alcohol. For the soda condition, subjects were told they were consuming soda. Subjective stimulation, activity levels, and speech production were assessed over a 15-min period after beverage consumption (posttreatment) and compared to measurements taken prior to beverage consumption (baseline). Scores on the stimulant subscale of the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (BAES) were significantly greater for the alcohol condition relative to the soda condition. There was also a trend for stimulant scores to be greater for the alcohol condition relative to the placebo-alcohol condition. Activity levels were significantly greater for the alcohol condition compared to either the placebo-alcohol or soda conditions. There were no group differences found for speech production. Subjective stimulant score and activity levels were not correlated. Peak BAC obtained in subjects who consumed alcohol was not correlated with either subjective stimulant scores or activity levels. Activity levels may provide a useful behavioral assay for assessing the stimulant effects of alcohol in humans. PMID:11900782

  9. Effectiveness of Mandatory Alcohol Testing Programs in Reducing Alcohol Involvement in Fatal Motor Carrier Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Joanne E.; Baker, Susan P.; DiMaggio, Charles; McCarthy, Melissa L.; Rebok, George W.

    2009-01-01

    Mandatory alcohol testing programs for motor carrier drivers were implemented in the United States in 1995 and have not been adequately evaluated. Using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System during 1982–2006, the authors assessed the effectiveness of mandatory alcohol testing programs in reducing alcohol involvement in fatal motor carrier crashes. The study sample consisted of 69,295 motor carrier drivers and 83,436 non–motor-carrier drivers who were involved in 66,138 fatal multivehicle crashes. Overall, 2.7% of the motor carrier drivers and 19.4% of the non–motor-carrier drivers had positive blood alcohol concentrations. During the study period, the prevalence of alcohol involvement in fatal crashes decreased by 80% among motor carrier drivers and 41% among non–motor-carrier drivers. With adjustment for driver age, sex, history of driving while intoxicated, and survival status, implementation of the mandatory alcohol testing programs was found to be associated with a 23% reduced risk of alcohol involvement in fatal crashes by motor carrier drivers (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.94). Results from this study indicate that mandatory alcohol testing programs may have contributed to a significant reduction in alcohol involvement in fatal motor carrier crashes. PMID:19692328

  10. The effects of prices on alcohol use and its consequences.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2011-01-01

    Over the past three decades, economists and others have devoted considerable effort to assessing the impact of alcoholic-beverage taxes and prices on alcohol consumption and its related adverse consequences. Federal and State excise taxes have increased only rarely and, when adjusted for inflation, have declined significantly over the years, as have overall prices for alcoholic beverages. Yet studies examining the effects of increases of monetary prices (e.g., through raising taxes) on alcohol consumption and a wide range of related behavioral and health problems have demonstrated that price increases for alcoholic beverages lead to reduced alcohol consumption, both in the general population and in certain high-risk populations, such as heavier drinkers or adolescents and young adults. These effects seem to be more pronounced in the long run than in the short run. Likewise, price increases can help reduce the risk for adverse consequences of alcohol consumption and abuse, including drinking and driving, alcohol-involved crimes, liver cirrhosis and other alcohol-related mortality, risky sexual behavior and its consequences, and poor school performance among youth. All of these findings indicate that increases in alcoholic-beverage taxes could be a highly effective option for reducing alcohol abuse and its consequences. PMID:22330223

  11. Disuse exaggerates the detrimental effects of alcohol on cortical bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hefferan, Theresa E.; Kennedy, Angela M.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse is associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis. However, comorbidity factors may play an important role in the pathogenesis of alcohol-related bone fractures. Suboptimal mechanical loading of the skeleton, an established risk factor for bone loss, may occur in some alcohol abusers due to reduced physical activity, muscle atrophy, or both. The effect of alcohol consumption and reduced physical activity on bone metabolism has not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mechanical disuse alters bone metabolism in a rat model for chronic alcohol abuse. METHODS: Alcohol was administered in the diet (35% caloric intake) of 6-month-old male rats for 4 weeks. Rats were hindlimb-unloaded the final 2 weeks of the experiment to prevent dynamic weight bearing. Afterward, cortical bone histomorphometry was evaluated at the tibia-fibula synostosis. RESULTS: At the periosteal surface of the tibial diaphysis, alcohol and hindlimb unloading independently decreased the mineralizing perimeter, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate. In addition, alcohol, but not hindlimb unloading, increased endocortical bone resorption. The respective detrimental effects of alcohol and hindlimb unloading to inhibit bone formation were additive; there was no interaction between the two variables. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced weight bearing accentuates the detrimental effects of alcohol on cortical bone in adult male rats by further inhibiting bone formation. This finding suggests that reduced physical activity may be a comorbidity factor for osteoporosis in alcohol abusers.

  12. Nutrition and Alcoholic Liver Disease: Effects of Alcoholism on Nutrition, Effects of Nutrition on Alcoholic Liver Disease, and Nutritional Therapies for Alcoholic Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Dasarathy, Srinivasan

    2016-08-01

    Malnutrition is the most frequent and nearly universal consequence in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) that adversely affects clinical outcomes. Sarcopenia or skeletal muscle loss is the major component of malnutrition in liver disease. There are no effective therapies to prevent or reverse sarcopenia in ALD because the mechanisms are not well understood. Consequences of liver disease including hyperammonemia, hormonal perturbations, endotoxemia and cytokine abnormalities as well as the direct effects of alcohol and its metabolites contribute to sarcopenia in ALD. This article focuses on the prevalence, methods to quantify malnutrition, specifically sarcopenia and potential therapies including novel molecular targeted treatments. PMID:27373615

  13. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dependence and related harms in Spain, and the effect of treatment-based interventions on alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Jürgen; Rehm, Maximilien X; Shield, Kevin D; Gmel, Gerrit; Gual, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in Spain has traditionally followed the Mediterranean drinking pattern, featuring daily drinking with meals, beer as the preferred beverage, and comparatively little drinking to intoxication. Alcohol dependence (AD), one of the most detrimental disorders caused by alcohol, was prevalent in 0.2% of women and 1.2% of men, corresponding to 31,200 women and 186,000 men in Spain with AD in 2005 in the age group of 15 to 64 year. These prevalence estimates of alcohol dependence are likely underestimated due to limitations in the World Mental Health Survey which cannot be fully corrected for; however, the estimates of AD for Spain represent the most accurate and up to date estimates available. Alcohol creates a significant health burden in Spain with 11.3 premature deaths in women per 100,000 aged 15 to 64 years, and 40.9 premature deaths in men per 100,000 in the same age group were due to alcohol consumption (data for 2004). This amounts to 8.4% of all female deaths and 12.3% of all the male deaths in this age group being attributable to alcohol consumption. A large percentage of these harms were due to heavy alcohol consumption and AD. AD is undertreated in Spain, with less than 10% of all people with AD treated. For those who are treated, psychotherapy is the most utilized form of treatment to avoid relapse. If 40% of AD patients in Spain were treated with pharmacological treatment (the most effective treatment method), 2.2% of female and 6.2% of male deaths due to AD would be prevented within one year. Thus by increasing treatment rates is an important means of reducing the alcohol-attributable mortality and health burden in Spain.

  14. Ecological Momentary Assessment of Acute Alcohol Use Disorder Symptoms: Associations With Mood, Motives, and Use on Planned Drinking Days

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, Robert D.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Day, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    Several theories posit that alcohol is consumed both in relation to one’s mood and in relation to different motives for drinking. However, there are mixed findings regarding the role of mood and motives in predicting drinking. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods provide an opportunity to evaluate near real-time changes in mood and motives within individuals to predict alcohol use. In addition, endorsement of criteria of an alcohol use disorder (AUD) may also be sensitive to changes within subjects. The current study used EMA with 74 moderate drinkers who responded to fixed and random mood, motive, alcohol use, and AUD criteria prompts over a 21-day assessment period. A temporal pattern of daytime mood, evening drinking motivation, and nighttime alcohol use and acute AUD symptoms on planned drinking days was modeled to examine how these associations unfold throughout the day. The results suggest considerable heterogeneity in drinking motivation across drinking days. Additionally, an affect regulation model of drinking to cope with negative mood was observed. Specifically, on planned drinking days, the temporal association between daytime negative mood and the experience of acute AUD symptoms was mediated via coping motives and alcohol use. The current study found that motives are dynamic, and that changes in motives may predict differential drinking patterns across days. Further, the study provides evidence that emotion-regulation-driven alcohol involvement may need to be examined at the event level to fully capture the ebb and flow of negative affect motivated drinking. PMID:24932896

  15. Alcohol intoxication and condom use self-efficacy effects on women's condom use intentions.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N Tatiana; Eakins, Danielle; Danube, Cinnamon L; George, William H; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R

    2014-01-01

    Although research has consistently demonstrated that condom use self-efficacy significantly predicts condom use, there has been little investigation of whether acute alcohol intoxication moderates this relationship. Because alcohol intoxication is often associated with increased sexual risk taking, further examination of such moderating effects is warranted. Using a community sample of young heterosexual women (n=436) with a history of heavy episodic drinking, this alcohol administration experiment examined the effects of intoxication and condom use self-efficacy on women's condom negotiation and future condom use intentions. After a questionnaire session, alcohol condition (control, .10% target peak BAL) was experimentally manipulated between subjects. Participants then read and responded to a hypothetical risky sexual decision-making scenario. SEM analyses revealed that alcohol intoxication directly decreased women's intentions to use condoms in the future. Women with greater condom use self-efficacy had stronger intentions to engage in condom negotiation; however, this effect was moderated by intoxication. Specifically, the association between condom use self-efficacy and condom negotiation intentions was stronger for intoxicated women than for sober women. These novel findings regarding the synergistic effects of alcohol intoxication and condom use self-efficacy support continued prevention efforts aimed at strengthening women's condom use self-efficacy, which may reduce even those sexual risk decisions made during states of intoxication. PMID:24129265

  16. Physiological and psychological effects of a high dose of alcohol in young men and women.

    PubMed

    Vinader-Caerols, Concepción; Monleón, Santiago; Parra, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a high dose of alcohol on physiological and psychological parameters in young men and women with a previous history of alcohol consumption. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, state anxiety, attention, time estimation and manual dexterity were registered before (phase 1) and after (phase 2) intake of alcohol (38.4 g) or a non-alcoholic beverage. Trait anxiety was registered in phase 2 only. The results showed that acute consumption of a high dose of alcohol: i) improves attention in men (although the performance of alcohol consumers was not better than that of non-consumers); ii) blocks the systolic blood pressure habituation phenomenon (observed in controls) in women; and iii) blocks the improvement in manual dexterity (associated with experience in non-consumers) in both sexes. On the other hand, male consumers had a lower heart rate than non-consumers, independently of the phase, while female consumers had a higher state anxiety and performed worse in attention than controls, also independently of the phase. These results help to understand the extent of performance impairment of different tasks produced by risk alcohol consumption in young men and women.

  17. Learning to dislike alcohol: conditioning negative implicit attitudes toward alcohol and its effect on drinking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Havermans, Remco C.; Wiers, Reinout W.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Since implicit attitudes toward alcohol play an important role in drinking behavior, a possible way to obtain a behavioral change is changing these implicit attitudes. Objectives This study examined whether a change in implicit attitudes and in drinking behavior can be achieved via evaluative conditioning. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to an experimental condition and a control condition. In the experimental condition, participants were subjected to an evaluative conditioning procedure that consistently pairs alcohol-related cues with negative stimuli. In the control condition, alcohol-related cues were consistently paired with neutral stimuli during the evaluative conditioning phase. Implicit attitudes, explicit attitudes, and drinking behavior were measured before and after the evaluative conditioning phase. Results Following the evaluative conditioning procedure, participants in the experimental condition showed stronger negative implicit attitudes toward alcohol and consumed less alcohol compared to participants in the control condition. However, this effect was only found when the evaluative conditioning task paired alcohol-related cues with general negative pictures, but not when using pictures of frowning faces. Conclusions These results demonstrate that evaluative conditioning can effectively change implicit attitudes toward alcohol and also suggest that this procedure can be used to change drinking behavior. Hence, evaluative conditioning may be a useful new intervention tool to combat alcohol misuse. PMID:20431994

  18. [Alcohol and cardiovascular system: mechanisms of the protective effects].

    PubMed

    Schlienger, J L

    2001-11-01

    Moderate and regularly alcohol consumption reduces death rate from coronary heart disease and thrombotic stroke. This beneficial correlation observed with several alcoholic beverages seems to be mainly due to an ethanol effect. However the particular role of microconstituants contained in red wine must be considered. The mechanism of the putative protective effect of alcohol intake is mediated through the elevation of HDL cholesterol and through the aintioxydative effect of polyphenolic compounds. In addition, alcohol acts favourably on platelets agregation, fibrinolysis and several other coagulation parameters. Despite these explanations are yet speculative and there is no causal relation between alcohol and reduced coronary death, epidemiological data are consistent with the belief that daily consumption of one or two glasses of an alcoholic beverage has salutary effect on health.

  19. Alcohol and adult hippocampal neurogenesis: promiscuous drug, wanton effects.

    PubMed

    Geil, Chelsea R; Hayes, Dayna M; McClain, Justin A; Liput, Daniel J; Marshall, S Alex; Chen, Kevin Y; Nixon, Kimberly

    2014-10-01

    Adult neurogenesis is now widely accepted as an important contributor to hippocampal integrity and function but also dysfunction when adult neurogenesis is affected in neuropsychiatric diseases such as alcohol use disorders. Excessive alcohol consumption, the defining characteristic of alcohol use disorders, results in a variety of cognitive and behavioral impairments related wholly or in part to hippocampal structure and function. Recent preclinical work has shown that adult neurogenesis may be one route by which alcohol produces hippocampal neuropathology. Alcohol is a pharmacologically promiscuous drug capable of interfering with adult neurogenesis through multiple mechanisms. This review will discuss the primary mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced changes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis including alcohol's effects on neurotransmitters, CREB and its downstream effectors, and the neurogenic niche.

  20. Hyperbilirubinaemia and haemolytic anaemia in acute alcoholic hepatitis: there's oil in them thar veins

    PubMed Central

    Hashmi, Salman; Allison, Michael G; McCurdy, Michael T; Reed, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    A Caucasian woman in her late 30s was evaluated after a period of binge drinking and found to have hyperbilirubinaemia for which she was referred for consideration of cholecystectomy. After exclusion of other possibilities, Zieve's syndrome was diagnosed. This is a condition of hyperbilirubinaemia, Coombs’ negative haemolytic anaemia and hyperlipidaemia associated with alcoholism. Abstinence from alcohol remains the only known effective treatment, and appreciation of the entity can prevent unnecessary biliary procedures. The patient improved with supportive measures and was discharged in stable condition. PMID:24748143

  1. Acute alcohol intoxication increases atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA without increasing proteolysis in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Vary, Thomas C.; Frost, Robert A.; Lang, Charles H.

    2008-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication decreases muscle protein synthesis, but there is a paucity of data on the ability of alcohol to regulate muscle protein degradation. Furthermore, various types of atrophic stimuli appear to regulate ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolysis by increasing the muscle-specific E3 ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF1 (i.e., “atrogenes”). Therefore, the present study was designed to test the hypothesis that acute alcohol intoxication increases atrogene expression leading to an elevated rate of muscle protein breakdown. In male rats, the intraperitoneal injection of alcohol dose- and time-dependently increased atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA in gastrocnemius, the latter of which was most pronounced. A comparable change was absent in the soleus and heart. The ability of in vivo-administered ethanol to increase atrogene expression was independent of the route of alcohol administration (intraperitoneal vs. oral), as well as of nutritional status (fed vs. fasted) and gender (male vs. female). The increase in atrogin-1 and MuRF1 was independent of alcohol metabolism, and the overproduction of endogenous glucocorticoids and could not be prevented by maintaining the circulating concentration of insulin-like growth factor-I. Despite marked changes in atrogene expression, acute alcohol in vivo did not alter the release of either 3-methylhistidine (MH) or tyrosine from the isolated perfused hindlimb, suggesting that the rate of muscle proteolysis remains unchanged. Moreover, alcohol did not increase the directly determined rate of protein degradation in isolated epitrochlearis muscles or cultured myocytes. Finally, no increase in atrogene expression or 3-MH release was detected in muscle from rats fed an alcohol-containing diet. Our results indicate that although acute alcohol intoxication increases atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA preferentially in fast-twitch skeletal muscle, this change was not associated with increased rates of muscle proteolysis. Therefore, the loss

  2. Amphetamine sensitization and cross-sensitization with acute restraint stress: impact of prenatal alcohol exposure in male and female rats

    PubMed Central

    Uban, Kristina A.; Comeau, Wendy L.; Bodnar, Tamara; Yu, Wayne K.; Weinberg, Joanne; Galea, Liisa A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) are at increased risk for substance use disorders (SUD). In typically developing individuals, susceptibility to SUD is associated with alterations in dopamine and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) systems, and their interactions. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) alters dopamine and HPA systems, yet effects of PAE on dopamine-HPA interactions are unknown. Amphetamine-stress cross-sensitization paradigms were utilized to investigate sensitivity of dopamine and stress (HPA) systems, and their interactions following PAE. Methods Adult Sprague-Dawley offspring from PAE, pair-fed, and ad libitum-fed control groups were assigned to amphetamine-(1–2mg/kg) or saline-treated conditions, with injections every other day for 15 days. 14 days later, all animals received an amphetamine challenge (1mg/kg) and 5 days later, hormones were measured under basal or acute stress conditions. Amphetamine sensitization (augmented locomotion, days 1–29) and cross-sensitization with acute restraint stress (increased stress hormones, day 34) were assessed. Results PAE rats exhibited a lower threshold for amphetamine sensitization compared to controls, suggesting enhanced sensitivity of dopaminergic systems to stimulant-induced changes. Cross-sensitization between amphetamine (dopamine) and stress (HPA hormone) systems was evident in PAE, but not in control rats. PAE males exhibited increased dopamine receptor expression (mPFC) compared to controls. Conclusions PAE alters induction and expression of sensitization/cross-sensitization, as reflected in locomotor, neural, and endocrine changes, in a manner consistent with increased sensitivity of dopamine and stress systems. These results provide insight into possible mechanisms that could underlie increased prevalence of SUD, as well as the impact of widely prescribed stimulant medications among adolescents with FASD. PMID:25420606

  3. The effect of alcohol and nicotine abuse on gene expression in the brain.

    PubMed

    Flatscher-Bader, Traute; Wilce, Peter A

    2009-12-01

    Alcohol intake at levels posing an acute heath risk is common amongst teenagers. Alcohol abuse is the second most common mental disorder worldwide. The incidence of smoking is decreasing in the Western world but increasing in developing countries and is the leading cause of preventable death worldwide. Considering the longstanding history of alcohol and tobacco consumption in human societies, it might be surprising that the molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol and smoking dependence are still incompletely understood. Effective treatments against the risk of relapse are lacking. Drugs of abuse exert their effect manipulating the dopaminergic mesocorticolimbic system. In this brain region, alcohol has many potential targets including membranes and several ion channels, while other drugs, for example nicotine, act via specific receptors or binding proteins. Repeated consumption of drugs of abuse mediates adaptive changes within this region, resulting in addiction. The high incidence of alcohol and nicotine co-abuse complicates analysis of the molecular basis of the disease. Gene expression profiling is a useful approach to explore novel drug targets in the brain. Several groups have utilised this technology to reveal drug-sensitive pathways in the mesocorticolimbic system of animal models and in human subjects. These studies are the focus of the present review.

  4. Some effects of alcohol and eye movements on cross-race face learning.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Alistair J

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the impact of acute alcohol intoxication on visual scanning in cross-race face learning. The eye movements of a group of white British participants were recorded as they encoded a series of own-and different-race faces, under alcohol and placebo conditions. Intoxication reduced the rate and extent of visual scanning during face encoding, reorienting the focus of foveal attention away from the eyes and towards the nose. Differences in encoding eye movements also varied between own-and different-race face conditions as a function of alcohol. Fixations to both face types were less frequent and more lingering following intoxication, but in the placebo condition this was only the case for different-race faces. While reducing visual scanning, however, alcohol had no adverse effect on memory, only encoding restrictions associated with sober different-race face processing led to poorer recognition. These results support perceptual expertise accounts of own-race face processing, but suggest the adverse effects of alcohol on face learning published previously are not caused by foveal encoding restrictions. The implications of these findings for alcohol myopia theory are discussed.

  5. Phenethyl Alcohol I. Effect on Macromolecular Synthesis of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Rosenkranz, Herbert S.; Carr, Howard S.; Rose, Harry M.

    1965-01-01

    Rosenkranz, Herbert S. (Columbia University, New York, N.Y.), Howard S. Carr, and Harry M. Rose. Phenethyl alcohol. I. Effect on macromolecular synthesis of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 89:1354–1369. 1965.—An investigation of the mode of action of phenethyl alcohol produced the following results. Phenethyl alcohol had no effect on the physicochemical properties of isolated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The DNA isolated from phenethyl alcohol-treated bacteria had physicochemical properties identical with those of DNA isolated from normal cells. The metabolic functions most sensitive to the inhibitory action of phenethyl alcohol appeared to be the process of enzyme induction and, possibly, the synthesis of messenger ribonucleic acid. Phenethyl alcohol did not affect the polyuridylic acid-mediated synthesis of polyphenylalanine in a cell-free amino acid-incorporating system. Images PMID:14293009

  6. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of the canine pancreas: applications to acute alcoholic pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Janes, N.; Clemens, J.A.; Glickson, J.D.; Cameron, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The first nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of the canine pancreas is described. Both in-vivo, ex-vivo protocols and NMR observables are discussed. The stability of the ex-vivo preparation based on the NMR observables is established for at least four hours. The spectra obtained from the in-vivo and ex-vivo preparations exhibited similar metabolite ratios, further validating the model. Metabolite levels were unchanged by a 50% increase in perfusion rate. Only trace amounts of phosphocreatine were observed either in the intact gland or in extracts. Acute alcoholic pancreatitis was mimicked by free fatty acid infusion. Injury resulted in hyperamylasemia, edema (weight gain), increased hematocrit and perfusion pressure, and depressed levels of high energy phosphates.

  7. Effect of genotype x alcoholism interaction on linkage analysis of an alcoholism-related quantitative phenotype.

    PubMed

    Arya, Rector; Dyer, Thomas D; Warren, Diane M; Jenkinson, Christopher P; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Almasy, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Studies have shown that genetic and environmental factors and their interactions affect several alcoholism phenotypes. Genotype x alcoholism (GxA) interaction refers to the environmental (alcoholic and non-alcoholic) influences on the autosomal genes contributing to variation in an alcoholism-related quantitative phenotype. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of GxA interaction on the detection of linkage for alcoholism-related phenotypes. We used phenotypic and genotypic data from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism relating to 1,388 subjects as part of Genetic Analysis Workshop 14 problem 1. We analyzed the MXDRNK phenotype to detect GxA interaction using SOLAR. Upon detecting significant interaction, we conducted variance-component linkage analyses using microsatellite marker data. For maximum number of drinks per a 24 hour period, the highest LODs were observed on chromosomes 1, 4, and 13 without GxA interaction. Interaction analysis yielded four regions on chromosomes 1, 4, 13, and 15. On chromosome 4, a maximum LOD of 1.5 at the same location as the initial analysis was obtained after incorporating GxA interaction effects. However, after correcting for extra parameters, the LOD score was reduced to a corrected LOD of 1.1, which is similar to the LOD observed in the non-interaction analysis. Thus, we see little differences in LOD scores, while some linkage regions showed large differences in the magnitudes of estimated quantitative trait loci heritabilities between the alcoholic and non-alcoholic groups. These potential hints of differences in genetic effect may influence future analyses of variants under these linkage peaks.

  8. Effective Family Position and Likelihood of Becoming an Alcoholic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majumdar, Mahbubon N.; Bhatia, Pritam S.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses effective family position as a new variable developed to measure the effect of birth order and childhood home environment on the likelihood of becoming an alcoholic. Constructs of fixation and regression may also be helpful in differentiating two types of alcoholism. (JAC)

  9. Effects of Alcohol and Sexual Prejudice on Aggression Toward Sexual Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Dominic J.; Lisco, Claire G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was the first to test the moderating effect of acute alcohol intoxication on the relation between heterosexual men’s sexual prejudice and perpetration of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Method Participants were 320 heterosexual men aged 21-30 recruited from a large southeastern United States city. Participants completed a measure of prejudice toward sexual minorities and were randomly assigned to one of eight experimental groups within a 2 (Beverage: Alcohol, No-Alcohol Control) × 2 (Opponent Gender: Male, Female) × 2 (Opponent Sexual Orientation: Homosexual, Heterosexual) design. Following beverage consumption, participants were provoked via reception of electric shocks from a fictitious opponent. Participants’ physical aggression was measured using a shock-based aggression task. Results The association between sexual prejudice and aggression toward the gay male opponent was stronger among intoxicated, relative to sober, participants. This pattern of association was not observed among participants who competed against the heterosexual male, heterosexual female, or lesbian opponent. Conclusions Findings provide the first experimental evidence that alcohol intoxication moderates sexually-prejudiced aggression toward gay men. These data offer a first step toward understanding how alcohol facilitates bias-motivated aggression. Such knowledge contributes to the empirical foundation needed to guide the development of interventions for alcohol-related aggression toward sexual minorities. PMID:26171278

  10. The Adverse Effects of Alcohol on Vitamin A Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Clugston, Robin D.; Blaner, William S.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this review is to explore the relationship between alcohol and the metabolism of the essential micronutrient, vitamin A; as well as the impact this interaction has on alcohol-induced disease in adults. Depleted hepatic vitamin A content has been reported in human alcoholics, an observation that has been confirmed in animal models of chronic alcohol consumption. Indeed, alcohol consumption has been associated with declines in hepatic levels of retinol (vitamin A), as well as retinyl ester and retinoic acid; collectively referred to as retinoids. Through the use of animal models, the complex interplay between alcohol metabolism and vitamin A homeostasis has been studied; the reviewed research supports the notion that chronic alcohol consumption precipitates a decline in hepatic retinoid levels through increased breakdown, as well as increased export to extra-hepatic tissues. While the precise biochemical mechanisms governing alcohol’s effect remain to be elucidated, its profound effect on hepatic retinoid status is irrefutable. In addition to a review of the literature related to studies on tissue retinoid levels and the metabolic interactions between alcohol and retinoids, the significance of altered hepatic retinoid metabolism in the context of alcoholic liver disease is also considered. PMID:22690322

  11. Failure to Consider Future Consequences Increases the Effects of Alcohol on Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Bushman, Brad J.; Giancola, Peter R.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Roth, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    The failure to consider the future consequences of one’s behavior is a major risk factor for aggression. Aggressive people tend to act first, and think later. Some people focus on the —here and now rather than on the future, a tendency measured by the Consideration of Future Consequences (CFC) scale (Strathman, Gleicher, Boninger, & Edwards, 1994). Alcohol intoxication is a neuro-biological variable that produces similar effects. Participants in the present experiment completed the CFC scale and then consumed either an alcohol or a placebo beverage. Next, they competed against a same-sex ostensible partner on an interpersonally adversarial competitive task in which the winner could administer electric shocks to the loser (the aggression measure). As expected, aggression was highest in intoxicated persons with low CFC scores. Being unconcerned about the future consequences of one’s actions, in conjunction with acute alcohol intoxication, combine in a pernicious manner to increase aggression. PMID:22639468

  12. The Anticipated Effects of Alcohol Scale: Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Novel Assessment Tool for Measuring Alcohol Expectancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morean, Meghan E.; Corbin, William R.; Treat, Teresa A.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol expectancy (AEs) research has enhanced our understanding of how anticipated alcohol effects confer risk for heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. However, extant AE measures have limitations within 1 or more of the following areas: assessing a comprehensive range of effects, specifying the hypothetical number of drinks consumed,…

  13. Social anxiety and alcohol use: evaluation of the moderating and mediating effects of alcohol expectancies.

    PubMed

    Meade Eggleston, A; Woolaway-Bickel, Kelly; Schmidt, Norman B

    2004-01-01

    Previous work suggests that social anxiety is inconsistently related to alcohol use. To further explore this relationship, alcohol outcome expectancies were evaluated as potential moderator and mediators in a large sample (N=284) of college undergraduates. The expectancy variables included positive and negative alcohol outcome expectancies as well as expectancies specific to social facilitation. Consistent with a self-presentation model of shyness, social anxiety was related to decreased drinking. Interestingly, social anxiety was associated with increased positive as well as increased negative expectancies. There was not support for moderator or mediator effects. Consistent with prior work, social facilitation expectancies appear to operate as a suppressor variable in the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol use.

  14. The Effects of Learned Helplessness on Alcohol Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Nora E.; Lisman, Stephen A.

    Widely held cultural beliefs assert that alcohol can offer both an ameliorative and preventive solution to the problem of depression. This study attempted to assess the effects of learned helplessness--a possible laboratory analog to reactive depression--on alcohol consumption. Thirty-eight female undergraduates were randomly assigned (within…

  15. The Effects of Intensive Supervision with Alcoholic Probationers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latessa, Edward J.; Travis, Lawrence F., III

    1988-01-01

    Examined the effects of intensive probation supervision and treatment on 40 alcoholic offenders. Forty regularly supervised probationers served as control group. Analyzed contacts, services, criminal behavior, social adjustment and employment. Results indicated that the alcohol group performed as well as the control group despite their alcohol…

  16. The Effects of Alcohol on the Speed of Memory Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stempel, Jennifer J.; And Others

    Recent research has clearly indicated that intoxication with alcohol impairs memory. The present study investigated the effects of alcohol on retrieval from long-term memory by using a set of cognitive decision tasks. Subjects (N=24) were female college students in good health not taking oral contraceptives. Subjects were administered 0 or 1.0…

  17. Fetal Alcohol Effects in Children: Cognitive, Educational, and Behavioral Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Sheldon

    The effects of alcohol on the developing fetus are examined. Noted is the existence of both structural problems (such as microcephaly and cardiac anomalies) and behavioral problems (such as mental retardation and speech and language deficits). The potential damage of alcohol at a very early stage of fetal development is discussed. It is thought…

  18. Negative Effects of Alcohol on Physical Fitness and Athletic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiken, Gail B.

    1991-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects virtually every organ and system of the body. The article examines the negative physiological and psychomotor effects of short-term alcohol consumption relevant to physical fitness and athletic performance. Educators must be responsible for reaching students and discussing the issue. (SM)

  19. Effects of N-acetylcysteine on alcohol abstinence and alcohol-induced adverse effects in rats.

    PubMed

    Ferreira Seiva, Fábio Rodrigues; Amauchi, Juliana Fujihara; Ribeiro Rocha, Katiucha Karolina; Souza, Gisele Aparecida; Ebaid, Geovana Xavier; Burneiko, Regina Miranda; Novelli, Ethel Lourenzi Barbosa

    2009-03-01

    Alcoholism is rampant in modern society and some antioxidant compound could perhaps be useful to reduce the damage done by alcohol consumption and abstinence. The present study was undertaken to investigate the association of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) intake, alcoholism, and alcohol abstinence on lipid profile, in vivo low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, oxidative stress, and antioxidant status in serum and liver of rats. Initially, male Wistar 30 rats were divided into two groups: (C, N=6) given standard chow and water; (E, N=24) receiving standard chow and aqueous ethanol solution in semi-voluntary research. After 30 days of ethanol exposure, (E) group was divided into four subgroups (N=6/group): (E-E) continued drinking 30% ethanol solution; (E-NAC) drinking ethanol solution containing 2 g/L NAC; (AB) changed ethanol solution to water; (AB-NAC) changed ethanol to aqueous solution 2 g/L NAC. After 15 days of the E-group division, E-E rats had higher serum alanine transaminase, lower body weight, and surface area, despite higher energy intake than C. E-E rats had also lower feed efficiency, dyslipidemia with enhanced triacylglycerol, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), lipid hydroperoxide (LH) and in vivo oxidized-LDL (ox-LDL). AB, E-NAC, and AB-NAC rats ameliorated serum oxidative stress markers and normalized serum lipids. E-E rats had higher hepatic LH and lower reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio than C, indicating hepatic oxidative stress. AB and E-NAC rats normalized hepatic LH, GSSG, and the GSH/GSSG ratio, compared to E-E. AB-NAC rats had the lowest serum ox-LDL, hepatic LH levels, and the highest GSH reductase activity in hepatic tissue. In conclusion, the present study brought new insights into alcohol consumption, because ethanol exposure enhanced serum in vivo ox-LDL, as well as serum and hepatic oxidative stress. N-acetylcysteine offers promising therapeutic value to inhibit ethanol-induced adverse effects. Ethanol

  20. Effect of alcohol consumption selenium bioavailability in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, H.K.

    1986-01-01

    This study was done to determine the effects of alcohol consumption on selenium bioavailability in initially Se-depleted rats. Weanling male rats were fed a Se deficient basal diet for 4 weeks and then for the subsequent 4 weeks were supplemented at 0.031 mg Se/Kg or at 0.085 mg Se/Kg of diet in the form of high Se yeast. During the Se repletion period alcohol replaced medium chain triglycerides in the diet at three levels: 0%, 10% and 20% of calories. Dietary Se level significantly affected urinary Se, fecal Se, Se absorption, Se balance whole blood Se, whole blood glutathione peroxidase activity, liver Se concentration, and total liver Se content. Alcohol consumption significantly increased liver Se concentrations and total liver Se in rats fed the adequate Se diet. In rates fed the low Se diet, this pattern was not shown. There was a significant interaction between alcohol and Se level in terms of liver Se concentration and total liver Se. In the first week of Se repletion, fecal Se. Se absorption and Se balance were significantly higher in the 10% alcohol group fed the low Se repletion diet compared to rats given 0% and 20% alcohol in the same Se group. In the final week Se repletion the parameters of Se balance were not affected by alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption did not influence whole blood Se and whole blood glutathione peroxidase activity; however alcohol consumption significantly reduced growth rate at both Se levels.

  1. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  2. 49 CFR 40.273 - What is the effect of a cancelled alcohol test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the effect of a cancelled alcohol test? 40... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.273 What is the effect of a cancelled alcohol test? (a) A cancelled alcohol test is neither positive nor negative. (1)...

  3. Neuropeptide Y Opposes Alcohol Effects on GABA Release in Amygdala and Blocks the Transition to Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Misra, Kaushik; Herman, Melissa A.; Cruz, Maureen T.; Koob, George F.; Roberto, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    Background During the transition to alcohol and drug addiction, neuromodulator systems in the extended amygdala are recruited to mediate aspects of withdrawal and relapse via convergence on inhibitory GABA neurons in central amygdala (CeA). Methods This study investigated the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in excessive alcohol drinking by making rats dependent on alcohol via alcohol vapor inhalation. This study also utilized intracellular and whole-cell recording techniques to determine the effects of NPY on GABAergic inhibitory transmission in CeA, synaptic mechanisms involved in these NPY effects, and NPY interactions with alcohol in the CeA of alcohol-naïve and alcohol-dependent rats. Results Chronic NPY treatment blocked excessive operant alcohol-reinforced responding associated with alcohol dependence, as well as gradual increases in alcohol responding by intermittently tested non-dependent controls. NPY decreased baseline GABAergic transmission and reversed alcohol-induced enhancement of inhibitory transmission in CeA by suppressing GABA release via actions at presynaptic Y2 receptors. Conclusions These results highlight NPY modulation of GABAergic signaling in central amygdala as a promising pharmacotheraputic target for the treatment of alcoholism. GABA neurons in the CeA likely constitute a major point of convergence for neuromodulator systems recruited during the transition to alcohol dependence. PMID:21459365

  4. Serum Metabolomic Profiling in Acute Alcoholic Hepatitis Identifies Multiple Dysregulated Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Rachakonda, Vikrant; Gabbert, Charles; Raina, Amit; Bell, Lauren N.; Cooper, Sara; Malik, Shahid; Behari, Jaideep

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives While animal studies have implicated derangements of global energy homeostasis in the pathogenesis of acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH), the relevance of these findings to the development of human AAH remains unclear. Using global, unbiased serum metabolomics analysis, we sought to characterize alterations in metabolic pathways associated with severe AAH and identify potential biomarkers for disease prognosis. Methods This prospective, case-control study design included 25 patients with severe AAH and 25 ambulatory patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. Serum samples were collected within 24 hours of the index clinical encounter. Global, unbiased metabolomics profiling was performed. Patients were followed for 180 days after enrollment to determine survival. Results Levels of 234 biochemicals were altered in subjects with severe AAH. Random-forest analysis, principal component analysis, and integrated hierarchical clustering methods demonstrated that metabolomics profiles separated the two cohorts with 100% accuracy. Severe AAH was associated with enhanced triglyceride lipolysis, impaired mitochondrial fatty acid beta oxidation, and upregulated omega oxidation. Low levels of multiple lysolipids and related metabolites suggested decreased plasma membrane remodeling in severe AAH. While most measured bile acids were increased in severe AAH, low deoxycholate and glycodeoxycholate levels indicated intestinal dysbiosis. Several changes in substrate utilization for energy homeostasis were identified in severe AAH, including increased glucose consumption by the pentose phosphate pathway, altered tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity, and enhanced peptide catabolism. Finally, altered levels of small molecules related to glutathione metabolism and antioxidant vitamin depletion were observed in patients with severe AAH. Univariable logistic regression revealed 15 metabolites associated with 180-day survival in severe AAH. Conclusion Severe AAH is

  5. Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects: Patterns of Performance on IQ and Visual Motor Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopera-Frye, Karen; Zielinski, Sharon

    This study explored relationships between intelligence and visual motor ability and patterns of impairment of visual motor ability in children prenatally affected by alcohol. Fourteen children (mean age 8.2 years) diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and 50 children with possible fetal alcohol effects (FAE) were assessed with the Bender…

  6. Effects of alcohol on human carboxylesterase drug metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Robert B.; Hu, Zhe-Yi; Meibohm, Bernd; Laizure, S. Casey

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Human carboxylesterase-1 (CES1) and human carboxylesterase-2 (CES2) play an important role in metabolizing many medications. Alcohol is a known inhibitor of these enzymes but the relative effect on CES1 and CES2 is unknown. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of alcohol on the metabolism of specific probes for CES1 (oseltamivir) and CES2 (aspirin). Methods The effect of alcohol on CES1- and CES2-mediated probe drug hydrolysis was determined in vitro using recombinant human carboxylesterase. To characterize the in vivo effects of alcohol, healthy volunteers received each probe drug alone and in combination with alcohol followed by blood sample collection and determination of oseltamivir, aspirin, and respective metabolite pharmacokinetics. Results Alcohol significantly inhibited oseltamivir hydrolysis by CES1 in vitro but did not affect aspirin metabolism by CES2. Alcohol increased the oseltamivir area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from 0-6 h by 27% (range 11-46%, p=0.011) and decreased the metabolite/oseltamivir AUC 0-6 h ratio by 34% (range 25-41%, p<0.001). Aspirin pharmacokinetics were not affected by alcohol. Conclusions Alcohol significantly inhibited the hydrolysis of oseltamivir by CES1 both in vitro and in humans, but did not affect the hydrolysis of aspirin to salicylic acid by CES2. These results suggest that alcohol's inhibition of CES1 could potentially result in clinically significant drug interactions with other CES1-substrate drugs, but it is unlikely to significantly affect CES2-substrate drug hydrolysis. PMID:25511794

  7. A model system for QTL analysis: Effects of alcohol dehydrogenase genotype on alcohol pharmacokinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, N.G.; Nightingale, B.; Whitfield, J.B.

    1994-09-01

    There is much interest in the detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) - major genes which affect quantitative phenotypes. The relationship of polymorphism at known alcohol metabolizing enzyme loci to alcohol pharmacokinetics is a good model system. The three class I alcohol dehydrogenase genes are clustered on chromosome 4 and protein electrophoresis has revealed polymorphisms at the ADH2 and ADH3 loci. While different activities of the isozymes have been demonstrated in vitro, little work has been done in trying to relate ADH polymorphism to variation in ethanol metabolism in vivo. We previously measured ethanol metabolism and psychomotor reactivity in 206 twin pairs and demonstrated that most of the repeatable variation was genetic. We have now recontacted the twins to obtain DNA samples and used PCR with allele specific primers to type the ADH2 and ADH3 polymorphisms in 337 individual twins. FISHER has been used to estimate fixed effects of typed polymorphisms simultaneously with remaining linked and unlinked genetic variance. The ADH2*1-2 genotypes metabolize ethanol faster and attain a lower peak blood alcohol concentration than the more common ADH2*1-1 genotypes, although less than 3% of the variance is accounted for. There is no effect of ADH3 genotype. However, sib-pair linkage analysis suggests that there is a linked polymorphism which has a much greater effect on alcohol metabolism that those typed here.

  8. Recognizing and Managing Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Fetal Alcohol Effects: A Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCreight, Brenda

    A family counselor and mother of adopted children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Effects (FAS/E) offers practical advice and information on dealing with FAS/E's lifelong effects on behavior and learning. The book begins by discussing the historical, medical, and social aspects of FAS/E, and details common behavioral characteristics associated with…

  9. Effects of Alcohol and Combined Marijuana and Alcohol Use During Adolescence on Hippocampal Volume and Asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Schweinsburg, Alecia D.; Cohen-Zion, Mairav; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2007-01-01

    Background Converging lines of evidence suggest that the hippocampus may be particularly vulnerable to deleterious effects of alcohol and marijuana use, especially during adolescence. The goal of this study was to examine hippocampal volume and asymmetry in adolescent users of alcohol and marijuana. Methods Participants were adolescent (aged 15–18) alcohol (ALC) users (n=16), marijuana and alcohol (MJ+ALC) users (n=26), and demographically similar controls (n=21). Extensive exclusionary criteria included prenatal toxic exposure, left handedness, and psychiatric and neurologic disorders. Substance use, cognitive, and anatomical measures were collected after at least 2 days of abstinence from all substances. Results Adolescent ALC users demonstrated a significantly different pattern of hippocampal asymmetry (p<.05) and reduced left hippocampal volume (p<.05) compared to MJ+ALC users and non-using controls. Increased alcohol abuse/dependence severity was associated with increased right > left (R>L) asymmetry and smaller left hippocampal volumes while marijuana abuse/dependence was associated with increased L>R asymmetry and larger left hippocampal volumes. Although MJ+ALC users did not differ from controls in asymmetry, functional relationships with verbal learning were found only among controls, among whom greater right than left hippocampal volume was associated with superior performance (p<.05). Conclusions Aberrations in hippocampal asymmetry and left hippocampal volumes were found for adolescent heavy drinkers. Further, the functional relationship between hippocampal asymmetry and verbal learning was abnormal among adolescent substance users compared to healthy controls. These findings suggest differential effects of alcohol and combined marijuana and alcohol use on hippocampal morphometry and the relationship between hippocampal asymmetry and verbal learning performance among adolescents. PMID:17169528

  10. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Behavioral Teratology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavale, Kenneth A.; Karge, Belinda D.

    1986-01-01

    The review examines the literature on the behaviorally teratogenic aspects of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, including: (1) prevalence of alcohol abuse among women, (2) acute and chronic effects of alcohol on the fetus, (3) genetic susceptibility, (4) neuropathology, (5) correlative conditions, and (6) animal studies. (Author/DB)

  11. Self-Control and the Effects of Movie Alcohol Portrayals on Immediate Alcohol Consumption in Male College Students

    PubMed Central

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In movies, alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought to be important in avoiding or resisting certain temptations. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of movie alcohol portrayals on drinking of male social drinkers and to assess the moderating role of self-control in this relation. It was hypothesized that participants would drink more when exposed to movie alcohol portrayals and that especially participants with low self-control would be affected by these portrayals. Methods: A between-subjects design comparing two movie conditions (alcohol or no portrayal of alcohol) was used, in which 154 pairs of male friends (ages 18–30) watched a 1-h movie in a semi-naturalistic living room setting. Their alcohol consumption while watching was examined. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing self-control as well as their self-reported weekly alcohol use. A multivariate regression analysis was conducted to test the effects of movie condition on alcohol comsumption. Results: Self-control moderated the relation between movie condition and alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol movie condition increased alcohol consumption during the movie for males with high self-control but not for males with low self-control. Conclusion: Viewing a movie with alcohol portrayals can lead to higher alcohol consumption in a specific sample of young men while watching a movie. PMID:25691873

  12. Alcohol hangover effects on memory functioning and vigilance performance after an evening of binge drinking.

    PubMed

    Verster, Joris C; van Duin, Danielle; Volkerts, Edmund R; Schreuder, Antonia H C M L; Verbaten, Marinus N

    2003-04-01

    The impairing effects on memory functioning after acute alcohol intoxication in healthy volunteers and after chronic use in alcoholics are well established. However, research determining the next-morning effects of a single episode of binge drinking on memory functioning is scarce. A total of 48 healthy volunteers participated in a single-blind study comprising an evening (baseline) session, followed by a treatment administration (ethanol 1.4 g/kg or placebo), and a morning session. Memory was tested with a word-learning test (including immediate and delayed recall, and recognition). Further, a 45-min Mackworth clock test for measuring vigilance was included (parameters: number of hits and false alarms) and subjective alertness was assessed, to infer whether word-learning test findings reflect sedation or specific memory impairments. Delayed recall in the morning session was significantly worse in the alcohol group when compared to the placebo group (F(1,42)=6.0, p<0.02). In contrast, immediate recall and recognition were unimpaired in the alcohol group. In the morning session, relative to the placebo group, subjective alertness was significantly reduced in the alcohol group before and after the tests (F(1,44)=8.7, p<0.005; F(1,44)=13.3, p&<0.001, respectively). However, in the Mackworth clock test, the alcohol group and placebo group did not differ significantly in the morning session. The specific findings of impaired delayed recall show that memory retrieval processes are significantly impaired during alcohol hangover. Vigilance performance was not significantly affected, indicating that this memory impairment does not reflect sedation.

  13. Speech Volume Indexes Sex Differences in the Social-Emotional Effects of Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Fairbairn, Catharine E.; Sayette, Michael A.; Amole, Marlissa C.; Dimoff, John D.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Girard, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Men and women differ dramatically in their rates of alcohol use disorder (AUD), and researchers have long been interested in identifying mechanisms underlying male vulnerability to problem drinking. Surveys suggest that social processes underlie sex differences in drinking patterns, with men reporting greater social enhancement from alcohol than women, and all-male social drinking contexts being associated with particularly high rates of hazardous drinking. But experimental evidence for sex differences in social-emotional response to alcohol has heretofore been lacking. Research using larger sample sizes, a social context, and more sensitive measures of alcohol’s rewarding effects may be necessary to better understand sex differences in the etiology of AUD. This study explored the acute effects of alcohol during social exchange on speech volume –an objective measure of social-emotional experience that was reliably captured at the group level. Social drinkers (360 male; 360 female) consumed alcohol (.82g/kg males; .74g/kg females), placebo, or a no-alcohol control beverage in groups of three over 36-minutes. Within each of the three beverage conditions, equal numbers of groups consisted of all males, all females, 2 females and 1 male, and 1 female and 2 males. Speech volume was monitored continuously throughout the drink period, and group volume emerged as a robust correlate of self-report and facial indexes of social reward. Notably, alcohol-related increases in group volume were observed selectively in all-male groups but not in groups containing any females. Results point to social enhancement as a promising direction for research exploring factors underlying sex differences in problem drinking. PMID:26237323

  14. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  15. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  16. Neuropathological effects of alcohol on the developing nervous system.

    PubMed

    Lewis, P D

    1985-01-01

    The formation of functional neuronal networks in the developing nervous system is dependent on three mechanisms which have been shown to be susceptible to disturbance by alcohol exposure. These are cell acquisition, cell migration and cellular maturation. Cell acquisition can be reduced by either impaired proliferation or increased cell deletion. Effects of alcohol on cell proliferation, both early in development and in the postnatal cerebellum, are overshadowed by cell loss, which in the cerebellum may affect both small and large neurones. Disturbed cell migration in the developing nervous system is well-known, through neuropathological studies on human fetal alcohol syndrome. Related changes have been produced experimentally in primates, and retarded migration of nerve cells may also occur in the developing cerebellum of the alcohol-exposed rat. Altered nerve cell maturation as shown by examination of dendritic arborisation has been described in the developing hippocampus and brainstem of alcohol-exposed animals. The effects of alcohol on the developing nervous system are unlikely to be specific, and nutritional, hormonal and other pharmacological influences may play a part in their genesis. Moreover, diverse experimental methodology clouds the interpretation of some findings. Although developmental alcohol exposure may have severe and multiple neuropathological effects on the nervous system, reversibility of many lesions, and restoration of functional competence, appears possible in the light of nutritional studies.

  17. [Impact of acute alcoholism on the women's mortality in the northern region of Slovak Republic].

    PubMed

    Straka, L; Stuller, F; Novomeský, F; Zelený, M

    2009-10-01

    Problem of women's alcoholism doesn't belong among main topics of Slovak or Czech public discussions. Though everyone meeting the phenomenon of women's alcoholism can feel the fatal consequences of this mistake, our society used to perceive alcoholism as a men's problem. The authors performed the complex analysis of the mortuary files with particular focusing on the cases of women's deaths caused by alcohol intoxication, and the cases of deaths where an alcohol played the dominating role, in the northern regions of Slovak republic. Submitted article is author's next referring to urgent need of public discussion concerning the alcohol consumption in Slovakia, the phenomenon being widely tolerated by the society. PMID:20302040

  18. Opposing effects of alcohol on the immune system.

    PubMed

    Barr, Tasha; Helms, Christa; Grant, Kathleen; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2016-02-01

    Several studies have described a dose-dependent effect of alcohol on human health with light to moderate drinkers having a lower risk of all-cause mortality than abstainers, while heavy drinkers are at the highest risk. In the case of the immune system, moderate alcohol consumption is associated with reduced inflammation and improved responses to vaccination, while chronic heavy drinking is associated with a decreased frequency of lymphocytes and increased risk of both bacterial and viral infections. However, the mechanisms by which alcohol exerts a dose-dependent effect on the immune system remain poorly understood due to a lack of systematic studies that examine the effect of multiple doses and different time courses. This review will summarize our current understanding of the impact of moderate versus excessive alcohol consumption on the innate and adaptive branches of the immune system derived from both in vitro as well as in vivo studies carried out in humans and animal model studies.

  19. Effects of alcohol intake on time-based event expectations.

    PubMed

    Kunchulia, Marina; Thomaschke, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Previous evidence suggests that alcohol affects various forms of temporal cognition. However, there are presently no studies investigating whether and how alcohol affects on time-based event expectations. Here, we investigated the effects of alcohol on time-based event expectations. Seventeen healthy volunteers, aged between 19 and 36 years, participated. We employed a variable foreperiod paradigm with temporally predictable events, mimicking a computer game. Error rate and reaction time were analyzed in placebo (0 g/kg), low dose (0.2 g/kg) and high dose (0.6 g/kg) conditions. We found that alcohol intake did not eliminate, but substantially reduced, the formation of time-based expectancy. This effect was stronger for high doses, than for low doses, of alcohol. As a result of our studies, we have evidence that alcohol intake impairs time-based event expectations. The mechanism by which the level of alcohol impairs time-based event expectations needs to be clarified by future research. PMID:26680768

  20. Social determinants of alcohol and marijuana effects: a systematic theory.

    PubMed

    Orcutt, J D

    1975-01-01

    Based on the sociological perspective on recreational drug effects, three social determinants are propositionally related to the normal effects of alcohol and marijuana. Effects vary across drugs, users, and situations along an experimental-behavioral dimension termed "effect-orientation." The content of normative expectations toward effects and the interactional characteristics of drug-using situations are conceptualized as direct determinants of effect-orientations. The relative clarity of normative expectations indirectly influences effect-orientations through its relationship to the other two social determinants. The theory stresses the importance of comparative research on the normal uses of alcohol and marijuana.

  1. The effects of alcohol on rat placenta.

    PubMed

    Turan Akay, Mehmet; Arzu Koçkaya, Evrim

    2005-01-01

    In this study, daily food and water consumption and body weights, histopathology of placenta, tenascin (TN), type IV collagen and EGF and its receptor immunolocalization in the placenta of albino rats treated with two doses of alcohol (1 and 5 g kg(-1) day(-1)) were determined. Alcohol was administered in three different periods i.e. the whole 4 weeks before the pregnancy, during the pregnancy, and during the 4 weeks before the pregnancy plus pregnancy itself. The samples of placenta obtained from control and treated rats on days 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20 and 21 of gestation were evaluated morphologically and fixed for histology and immunohistochemistry. Some differences in food and water consumption between the groups were determined. The placental weight, especially in the groups receiving 1 and 5 g kg(-1) day(-1) alcohol during the pregnancy, showed increases. The changes in placental histology such as increases in the number and the size of trophoblastic giant cells, cytoplasmic dissolution and nuclear polymorphism, degenerations in spongiotrophoblasts, hyperemia at the basal zone and labyrinth, hyperplasia at the labyrinth and irregular vascularization were seen particularly in the groups receiving alcohol during the pregnancy, and during the 4 weeks before the pregnancy plus pregnancy itself. Increases in the immunolocalization of TN and type IV collagen and decreases in the immunolocalization of EGF and EGFR in the placentas of alcohol-receiving rats were found. In conclusion, ethanol treatment during pregnancy in rats affected placentation and the immunolocalization of TN, type IV collagen, EGF and EGFR in the placentas.

  2. Causal effects of alcoholism on earnings: estimates from the NLSY.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alison Snow; Richmond, David W

    2006-08-01

    Propensity score matching is used to investigate the causal relationship between alcoholism and earnings in a young cohort of males and females drawn from the 1989 and 1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) in order to investigate productivity losses attributed to alcoholism and to quantify these effects. Results suggest that there are productivity losses attributable to alcoholism; that they become more pronounced over the life cycle; and that they differ between men and women. Ways in which estimates from propensity score matching may or may not improve on instrumental variables estimates are discussed.

  3. Effectiveness of Policies Maintaining or Restricting Days of Alcohol Sales on Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national laws and policies that limit the days of the week on which alcoholic beverages may be sold may be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms of laws and policies maintaining or reducing the days when alcoholic beverages may be sold. Outcomes assessed in 14 studies that met qualifying criteria were excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms, including motor vehicle injuries and deaths, violence-related and other injuries, and health conditions. Qualifying studies assessed the effects of changes in days of sale in both on-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) and off-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages may not be consumed where purchased). Eleven studies assessed the effects of adding days of sale, and three studies assessed the effects of imposing a ban on sales on a given weekend day. The evidence from these studies indicated that increasing days of sale leads to increases in excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms and that reducing the number of days that alcoholic beverages are sold generally decreases alcohol-related harms. Based on these findings, when the expansion of days of sale is being considered, laws and policies maintaining the number of days of the week that alcoholic beverages are sold at on- and off-premises outlets in local, state, and national jurisdictions are effective public health strategies for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084079

  4. Neuroendocrine consequences of alcohol abuse in women.

    PubMed

    Mello, N K; Mendelson, J H; Teoh, S K

    1989-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are associated with a broad spectrum of reproductive system disorders. Amenorrhea, anovulation, luteal phase dysfunction, and ovarian pathology may occur in alcohol-dependent women and alcohol abusers. Luteal phase dysfunction, anovulation and persistent hyperprolactinemia have also been observed in social drinkers studied under clinical research ward conditions. The mechanisms underlying alcohol-related disruptions of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian-adrenal axis are unknown. The reproductive consequences of alcohol abuse and alcoholism range from infertility and increased risk for spontaneous abortion to impaired fetal growth and development. Recent studies of alcohol's effects on pituitary gonadotropins and on gonadal, steroid and adrenal hormones in women are reviewed. Research on the acute effects of alcohol on opioid antagonist and synthetic LHRH-stimulated pituitary gonadotropins is summarized. The implications of alcohol's effects on reproductive hormones for impairment of fetal growth and development are discussed.

  5. Effectiveness of public health programs for decreasing alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Kelly-Weeder, Susan; Phillips, Kathryn; Rounseville, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption and the associated negative consequences are a major public health concern in the United States and throughout the world. Historically, there have been numerous attempts to develop policies and prevention programs aimed at decreasing high-risk alcohol use. Policy initiatives have demonstrated considerable effectiveness and include changes in the minimum legal drinking age, reductions in acceptable legal limits for blood alcohol concentration while operating a motor vehicle, as well as decreasing availability and access to alcohol for underage individuals. Primary prevention programs that have used exclusively educational approaches have received mixed results. Increasing effectiveness has been associated with prevention programs that have utilized a multi-component approach and have included educational initiatives with environmental changes. PMID:23180975

  6. On the effects of higher alcohols on red wine aroma.

    PubMed

    de-la-Fuente-Blanco, Arancha; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Ferreira, Vicente

    2016-11-01

    This work aims to assess the aromatic sensory contribution of the four most relevant wine higher alcohols (isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, methionol and β-phenylethanol) on red wine aroma. The four alcohols were added at two levels of concentration, within the natural range of occurrence, to eight different wine models (WM), close reconstitutions of red wines differing in levels of fruity (F), woody (W), animal (A) or humidity (H) notes. Samples were submitted to discriminant and descriptive sensory analysis. Results showed that the contribution of methionol and β-phenylethanol to wine aroma was negligible and confirmed the sensory importance of the pair isobutanol-isoamyl alcohol. Sensory effects were only evident in WM containing intense aromas, demonstrating a strong dependence on the aromatic context. Higher alcohols significantly suppress strawberry/lactic/red fruity, coconut/wood/vanilla and humidity/TCA notes, but not the leather/animal/ink note. The spirit/alcoholic/solvent character generated by higher alcohols has been shown to be wine dependent.

  7. Effects of alcohol and frustration on experimental graffiti.

    PubMed

    Norlander, T; Nordmarker, A; Archer, T

    1998-12-01

    This study aimed to examine effects between alcohol and frustration in regard to graffiti. Forty-two subjects, 21 men and 21 women were randomly assigned in equal numbers to each of the three experimental groups, namely a Control group, an Alcohol group, and an Alcohol + Frustration group (alcohol dose: 1 ml 100% alcohol/kg body weight). For the purposes of this experiment, a test (AET) was constructed that provided scores of "scrawling-graffiti" (i.e., the amount of scrawling on pictures), "destruction", "aggression", and "sexuality". An elaboration test and a test measuring the "dispositional optimism" were also applied. The primary results indicated that (a) the Alcohol + Frustration group scored significantly higher on scrawling-graffiti compared to the Control group, (b) female subjects performed graffiti-scrawling to a greater extent than male subjects in all three groups, (c) women scored significantly higher on elaboration as compared to men. These results were interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that alcohol intake by itself is unlikely to induce destructive behavior unless accompanied by a "provocative" factor (e.g. frustration) that precipitates the putative expressions of aggressiveness. PMID:9883098

  8. Effect of alcohol consumption on selenium (Se) bioavailability in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, H.K.; Snook, J.T.; Yang, F.L.

    1986-03-01

    This study was done to determine the effects of alcohol ingestion on Se bioavailability in initially Se-depleted rats. Weanling male rats were fed a Se deficient (0.012 mg/kg) basal diet for 4 weeks and then for the subsequent 4 weeks were supplemented at 0.031 mg Se/kg or at 0.085 mg Se/kg of diet in the form of high Se yeast. During the Se repletion period alcohol replaced medium chain triglycerides in the diet at 3 levels: 0%, 10%, and 20% of calories. Dietary Se level significantly (P < .0001) affected urinary Se, fecal Se, Se absorption, Se balance, whole blood Se, whole blood glutathione peroxidase activity, and liver Se. In rats fed the higher Se diet total liver Se increased 50% when 20% rather than 0% alcohol was given. In rats fed the lower Se diet total liver Se decreased 12% as dietary alcohol increased from 0 to 20%. There was a significant (P < .0015) interaction between alcohol and Se level. All the other parameters for Se bioavailability were not affected by alcohol consumption. However, alcohol consumption significantly reduced growth rate at both Se levels.

  9. The effect of cancer warning statements on alcohol consumption intentions.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle I; Glance, David; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Pratt, Iain S; Slevin, Terry; Liang, Wenbin; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-02-01

    In response to increasing calls to introduce warning labels on alcoholic beverages, this study investigated the potential effectiveness of alcohol warning statements designed to increase awareness of the alcohol-cancer link. A national online survey was administered to a diverse sample of Australian adult drinkers (n = 1,680). Along with attitudinal, intentions and demographic items, the survey included an online simulation that exposed respondents to one of six cancer warning statements delivered across a range of situational contexts. Half of the statements made general reference to cancer and half mentioned specific forms of cancer. Respondents reported on the believability, convincingness and personal relevance of the warning statements. Pre- and post-exposure data were captured relating to respondents' alcohol consumption intentions. Of the six statements tested, Alcohol increases your risk of bowel cancer produced the highest scores across all outcome measures. All statements produced favorable changes in alcohol consumption intentions, including among high-risk drinkers. There is thus the potential for these and similar statements to be used as a suite of rotating warning messages located on alcoholic beverage labels and applied in various public education contexts. PMID:26787351

  10. On the effects of higher alcohols on red wine aroma.

    PubMed

    de-la-Fuente-Blanco, Arancha; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Ferreira, Vicente

    2016-11-01

    This work aims to assess the aromatic sensory contribution of the four most relevant wine higher alcohols (isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, methionol and β-phenylethanol) on red wine aroma. The four alcohols were added at two levels of concentration, within the natural range of occurrence, to eight different wine models (WM), close reconstitutions of red wines differing in levels of fruity (F), woody (W), animal (A) or humidity (H) notes. Samples were submitted to discriminant and descriptive sensory analysis. Results showed that the contribution of methionol and β-phenylethanol to wine aroma was negligible and confirmed the sensory importance of the pair isobutanol-isoamyl alcohol. Sensory effects were only evident in WM containing intense aromas, demonstrating a strong dependence on the aromatic context. Higher alcohols significantly suppress strawberry/lactic/red fruity, coconut/wood/vanilla and humidity/TCA notes, but not the leather/animal/ink note. The spirit/alcoholic/solvent character generated by higher alcohols has been shown to be wine dependent. PMID:27211627

  11. Effects of alcohol consumption on hepatocellular injury in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Dakeishi, Miwako; Iwata, Toyoto; Ishii, Noriko; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2004-01-01

    To clarify the effects of alcohol consumption on hepatocellular injury, we examined aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), together with weekly alcohol consumption calculated from a self-rating questionnaire, in 1113 Japanese salesmen. The thresholds of associations between alcohol consumption and liver markers were estimated by the benchmark dose (BMD) method. The AST, ALT and GGT were positively correlated with alcohol intake (p<0.001), as well as age and body mass index (BMI); the relations to alcohol were statistically significant even when controlling for age, BMI and smoking habit. Although the AST and GGT were associated with four types of alcoholic beverage (p<0.01), it was only whiskey that had close relation to the ALT (p<0.05). The thresholds of alcohol consumption (ethanol g/week), i.e., 95% lower confidence limits of the BMD, were 362 for AST, 660 for ALT, and 252 for GGT. The thresholds for GGT and AST in Japanese men seem to be somewhat higher than those reported in Western countries. It is suggested that hepatocellular injury (i.e., AST elevation) in Japanese men may emerge at the ethanol level of more than 50 g/day. PMID:14738322

  12. Effects of alcohol and frustration on experimental graffiti.

    PubMed

    Norlander, T; Nordmarker, A; Archer, T

    1998-12-01

    This study aimed to examine effects between alcohol and frustration in regard to graffiti. Forty-two subjects, 21 men and 21 women were randomly assigned in equal numbers to each of the three experimental groups, namely a Control group, an Alcohol group, and an Alcohol + Frustration group (alcohol dose: 1 ml 100% alcohol/kg body weight). For the purposes of this experiment, a test (AET) was constructed that provided scores of "scrawling-graffiti" (i.e., the amount of scrawling on pictures), "destruction", "aggression", and "sexuality". An elaboration test and a test measuring the "dispositional optimism" were also applied. The primary results indicated that (a) the Alcohol + Frustration group scored significantly higher on scrawling-graffiti compared to the Control group, (b) female subjects performed graffiti-scrawling to a greater extent than male subjects in all three groups, (c) women scored significantly higher on elaboration as compared to men. These results were interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that alcohol intake by itself is unlikely to induce destructive behavior unless accompanied by a "provocative" factor (e.g. frustration) that precipitates the putative expressions of aggressiveness.

  13. A comparative analysis of the effects of narcotics, alcohol and the barbiturates on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    PubMed

    Cicero, T J; Badger, T M

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of our current state of knowledge regarding the effects of alcohol, the narcotics and the barbiturates on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the male. Three facets of this problem will be considered: acute drug effects; chronic effects, particularly with respect to the development of tolerance and physical dependence; and, finally, an attempt will be made to indicate the way in which these three substances of abuse are similar and/or dissimilar in their effects on this system. The effects of acute and chronic treatment with narcotics, alcohol and the barbiturates will be discussed first and then an attempt will be made, in a General Discussion, to summarize the data, make general comparisons between the drugs and suggest future lines of research.

  14. Alcohol Consumption as a Risk Factor for Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis: A Systematic Review and a Series of Meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Samokhvalov, Andriy V.; Rehm, Jürgen; Roerecke, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Pancreatitis is a highly prevalent medical condition associated with a spectrum of endocrine and exocrine pancreatic insufficiencies. While high alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for pancreatitis, its relationship with specific types of pancreatitis and a potential threshold have not been systematically examined. Methods We conducted a systematic literature search for studies on the association between alcohol consumption and pancreatitis based on PRISMA guidelines. Non-linear and linear random-effect dose–response meta-analyses using restricted cubic spline meta-regressions and categorical meta-analyses in relation to abstainers were conducted. Findings Seven studies with 157,026 participants and 3618 cases of pancreatitis were included into analyses. The dose–response relationship between average volume of alcohol consumption and risk of pancreatitis was monotonic with no evidence of non-linearity for chronic pancreatitis (CP) for both sexes (p = 0.091) and acute pancreatitis (AP) in men (p = 0.396); it was non-linear for AP in women (p = 0.008). Compared to abstention, there was a significant decrease in risk (RR = 0.76, 95%CI: 0.60–0.97) of AP in women below the threshold of 40 g/day. No such association was found in men (RR = 1.1, 95%CI: 0.69–1.74). The RR for CP at 100 g/day was 6.29 (95%CI: 3.04–13.02). Interpretation The dose–response relationships between alcohol consumption and risk of pancreatitis were monotonic for CP and AP in men, and non-linear for AP in women. Alcohol consumption below 40 g/day was associated with reduced risk of AP in women. Alcohol consumption beyond this level was increasingly detrimental for any type of pancreatitis. Funding The work was financially supported by a grant from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (R21AA023521) to the last author. PMID:26844279

  15. The effect of different alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin and plasma glucose in humans.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, L C; Couri, S; Trugo, N F; Lollo, P C B

    2014-09-01

    In the present work we studied the effects of four alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin concentrations and plasma glucose concentrations in men and women. The volunteers were healthy non-smokers and they were divided according to sex into two groups of ten individuals. The alcoholic beverages used in the study were beer, red wine, whisky and "cachaça". In men, ingestion of the distilled drinks promoted a spike in blood alcohol levels more quickly than ingestion of the fermented drinks. In women, beer promoted the lowest blood alcohol levels over the 6h of the experiment. Whisky promoted highest blood alcohol levels in both sexes. The ingestion of wine promoted a significant difference in relation to the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as a function of gender. The ingestion of cachaça by women produced BAC levels significantly smaller than those obtained for wine.

  16. The Effect of Contracted Abstinence on College Students' Behavior toward Alcohol Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Steven B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Assessed the relative effects of contracted abstinence and a class in alcoholism on college students' attitudes and behavior toward alcohol use. The alcohol class was effective in modifying self-reported drinking behavior,while contracted abstinence was an effective tool when used in the context of an alcohol class. (Author)

  17. Gabapentin potentiates sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol and increases alcohol self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Besheer, Joyce; Frisbee, Suzanne; Randall, Patrick A; Jaramillo, Anel A; Masciello, Maria

    2016-02-01

    Gabapentin, a drug used in the treatment of epileptic seizures and neuropathic pain, has shown efficacy in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Moreover, given that gabapentin is used in the general population (e.g., non-dependent individuals, social drinkers), we sought to utilize preclinical assessments to examine the effects of gabapentin on sensitivity to moderate alcohol doses and alcohol self-administration in rats with a history of moderate drinking. To this end, we assessed whether gabapentin (0, 10, 30, 120 mg/kg, IG) pretreatment alters sensitivity to experimenter- and self-administered alcohol, and whether gabapentin alone has alcohol-like discriminative stimulus effects in rats trained to discriminate alcohol dose (1 g/kg, IG) vs. water. Second, we assessed whether gabapentin (0, 10, 30, 60 mg/kg, IG) would alter alcohol self-administration. Gabapentin pretreatment potentiated the interoceptive effects of both experimenter-administered and self-administered alcohol in discrimination-trained rats. Additionally, the highest gabapentin doses tested (30 and 120 mg/kg) were found to have partial alcohol-like discriminative stimulus effects when administered alone (e.g., without alcohol). In the self-administration trained rats, gabapentin pretreatment (60 mg/kg) resulted in an escalation in alcohol self-administration. Given the importance of interoceptive drug cues in priming and maintaining self-administration, these data define a specific behavioral mechanism (i.e., potentiation of alcohol effects) by which gabapentin may increase alcohol self-administration in non-dependent populations.

  18. A prospective study of the influence of acute alcohol intoxication versus chronic alcohol consumption on outcome following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Shewchuk, Jason R; Rauscher, Alexander; Jarrett, Michael; Heran, Manraj K S; Brubacher, Jeffrey R; Iverson, Grant L

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to disentangle the relative contributions of day-of-injury alcohol intoxication and pre-injury alcohol misuse on outcome from TBI. Participants were 142 patients enrolled from a Level 1 Trauma Center (in Vancouver, Canada) following a traumatic brain injury (TBI; 43 uncomplicated mild TBI and 63 complicated mild-severe TBI) or orthopedic injury [36 trauma controls (TC)]. At 6-8 weeks post-injury, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the whole brain was undertaken using a Phillips 3T scanner. Participants also completed neuropsychological testing, an evaluation of lifetime alcohol consumption (LAC), and had blood alcohol levels (BALs) taken at the time of injury. Participants in the uncomplicated mild TBI and complicated mild-severe TBI groups had higher scores on measures of depression and postconcussion symptoms (d = 0.45-0.83), but not anxiety, compared with the TC group. The complicated mild-severe TBI group had more areas of abnormal white matter on DTI measures (all p < .05; d = 0.54-0.61) than the TC group. There were no difference between groups on all neurocognitive measures. Using hierarchical regression analyses and generalized linear modeling, LAC and BAL did provide a unique contribution toward the prediction of attention and executive functioning abilities; however, the variance accounted for was small. LAC and BAL did not provide a unique and meaningful contribution toward the prediction of self-reported symptoms, DTI measures, or the majority of neurocognitive measures. In this study, BAL and LAC were not predictive of mental health symptoms, postconcussion symptoms, cognition, or white-matter changes at 6-8 weeks following TBI. PMID:24964748

  19. Alcohol and lithium have opposing effects on the period and phase of the behavioral free-running activity rhythm.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Nara F; Carlson, Karen N; Amaral, Danielle N; Logan, Ryan W; Seggio, Joseph A

    2015-06-01

    Bipolar patients have a high prevalence of comorbid alcohol use and abuse disorders, while chronic alcohol drinking may increase the presence and severity of certain symptoms of bipolar disorder. As such, there may be many individuals that are prescribed lithium to alleviate the manic symptoms of bipolar disorder, but also drink alcohol concurrently. In addition, both alcoholics and individuals with bipolar disorder often exhibit disruptions to their sleep-wake cycles and other circadian rhythms. Interestingly, both ethanol and lithium are known to alter both the period and the phase of free-running rhythms in mammals. While lithium is known to lengthen the period, ethanol seems to shorten the period and attenuate the responses to acute light pulses. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine whether ethanol and lithium have opposing effects on the circadian pacemaker when administered together. C57BL/6J mice were provided drinking solutions containing lithium, alcohol, or both, and their free-running rhythms along with their response to photic phase shifts were investigated. Mice treated with lithium displayed period lengthening, which was almost completely negated when ethanol was added. Moreover, ethanol significantly attenuated light-induced phase delays while the addition of lithium partially restored this response. These results indicate that alcohol and lithium have opposing effects on behavioral circadian rhythms. Individuals with bipolar disorder who are prescribed lithium and who drink alcohol might be inadvertently altering their sleep and circadian cycles, which may exacerbate their symptoms.

  20. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Mahesh M.; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used “over the counter” sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to understand how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models, and a combination of multi-disciplinary experimental methodologies to examine and understand anatomical and cellular substrates mediating the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on sleep-wakefulness. The results of our studies suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol’s action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Lesions of the BF cholinergic neurons or blockade of AD A1 receptors results in attenuation of alcohol-induced sleep promotion, suggesting that AD and BF cholinergic neurons are critical for sleep-promoting effects of alcohol. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern

  1. [The effects of alcohol on the developing brain].

    PubMed

    Zimatkin, S M; bon', E I

    2014-01-01

    In the review the literature data on the effect of alcohol on the developing brain of human and animals are summarized. The information is presented on the neuroimaging, histological, cellular and molecular-genetic disturbances in the brain in fetal alcohol syndrome and following exposure to alcohol during the early postnatal period. The structural developmental abnormalities of the different parts of the brain, disorders of neurogenesis and neuronal apoptosis, changes in metabolism, receptors and secondary signals system of neurons are described. Prenatal alcohol exposure causes significant, various long-term disturbances of the brain structures at the organ, tissue, cellular and subcellular level, which may lay in the basis of the observed neurological, behavioral and metal disorders. PMID:25282832

  2. Effectiveness of alcohol media literacy programmes: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Chloe S; Hindmarsh, Chloe S; Jones, Sandra C; Kervin, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol media literacy is an emerging field that aims to address the link between exposure to alcohol advertising and subsequent expectancies and behaviours for children and adolescents. The design, rigour and results of alcohol media literacy programmes vary considerably, resulting in a number of unanswered questions about effectiveness. To provide insight into some of these questions, a systematic literature review of alcohol media literacy studies was conducted. The review was guided by the following research question: What considerations are needed to develop an effective school-based alcohol media literacy programme? On the basis of a critical synthesis of 10 interventions (published in the period 1997 to May 2014), our findings provide a comprehensive understanding of the descriptive, methodological and outcome characteristics of this small body of significant research. The review provides considerations for future alcohol media literacy programmes, including the need for an interactive pedagogical approach within the naturalistic school setting, implementation fidelity and a holistic approach to programme evaluation, a means for maintaining relevance, consideration of gender differences, relevance for an international audience and use of follow-up and longitudinal data.

  3. The contribution of electrophysiology to knowledge of the acute and chronic effects of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Little, H J

    1999-12-01

    This review describes the effects of ethanol on the components of neuronal transmission and the relationship of such effects to the behavioural actions of ethanol. The concentrations of ethanol with acute actions on voltage-sensitive ion channels are first described, then the actions of ethanol on ligand-gated ion channels, including those controlled by cholinergic receptors, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors, the various excitatory amino acid receptors, and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors. Acute effects of ethanol are then described on brain areas thought to be involved in arousal and attention, the reinforcing effects of ethanol, the production of euphoria, the actions of ethanol on motor control, and the amnesic effects of ethanol; the acute effects of ethanol demonstrated by EEG studies are also discussed. Chronic effects of alcohol on neuronal transmission are described in the context of the various components of the ethanol withdrawal syndrome, withdrawal hyperexcitability, dysphoria and anhedonia, withdrawal anxiety, craving, and relapse drinking. Electrophysiological studies on the genetic influences on the effects of ethanol are discussed, particularly the acute actions of ethanol and electrophysiological differences reported in individuals predisposed to alcoholism. The conclusion notes the concentration of studies on the classical transmitters, with relative neglect of the effects of ethanol on peptides and on neuronal interactions between brain areas and integrated patterns of neuronal activity. PMID:10665833

  4. Effect of calcitonin on the alcohol drinking of rats.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, K; Sinclair, D; Nurmi, M; Hietala, R; Kröger, H; Kiianmaa, K; Salaspuro, M

    1992-10-01

    Previous work has shown that calcitonin inhibits eating by rats and that it affects several neurotransmitter systems suspected to play a role in alcohol consumption. The present study was an initial test of whether calcitonin does affect voluntary alcohol consumption by male Wistar rats with prolonged alcohol experience. Calcitonin (20 IU/kg) or saline was injected subcutaneously on 10 consecutive days when the rats (n = 20) had continual access to 10% (v/v) ethanol solution, and to food and water. Using a cross-over design, the effects of 40 IU/kg calcitonin vs. saline were then examined in a second 10-day treatment period. Similar patterns of effects were obtained with both calcitonin doses, but the patterns differed with alcohol, food, and water intake. Alcohol drinking showed biphasic changes with both doses, producing highly significant Treatment x Day interactions (p < 1E-10 and p = 6E-7): it was significantly reduced on the first day of calcitonin treatment and significantly increased on the last few days. Food intake was reduced on all calcitonin days although most markedly on the first. Water drinking was not altered on the first calcitonin day, but was greatly increased on the second, then gradually returned toward the baseline. In a second experiment, the animals were switched to 1 hr of alcohol access per day, and calcitonin (20 IU/kg) was administered periodically to one group 4 hr before the alcohol access. Alcohol drinking was significantly reduced in all cases when the calcitonin injection was preceded by at least 1 day without calcitonin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Asymmetry of Influence in Alcoholics' Marital Communication: Alcohol's Effects on Interaction Dominance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenstein, William; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Data from study of dominance in alcoholics' marriage (N=8 couples) revealed little support for contention that alcoholics are submissive or less influential than their spouses. Alcohol may reduce discrepancy between alcoholics' perceptions of their influencing ability and their actual performance, supporting models of alcoholism and marriage which…

  6. Searching for an environmental effect of parental alcoholism on offspring alcohol use disorder: a genetically informed study of children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Slutske, Wendy S; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E; Harden, K Paige; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

    2008-08-01

    The children-of-twins design was used to isolate a potentially causal environmental impact of having an alcoholic parent on offspring alcohol use disorder, by an examination of whether the children of alcoholics were at a higher risk for alcohol use disorders than were the children of nonalcoholic parents, even after correlated familial factors were controlled. Participants were 1,224 male and female twins from 836 twin pairs selected from the Australian Twin Registry, 2,334 of the twins' 18-39-year-old offspring, and 983 spouses of the twins. Lifetime histories of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) alcohol use disorders were obtained by structured, psychiatric, telephone interviews conducted individually with each of the family members. Comparisons of the offspring of twins who were discordant for alcoholism indicated that there was no longer a statistically significant difference between the children of alcoholics and the children of nonalcoholics after genetic and family environmental factors correlated with having an alcoholic parent were controlled. The results of this study suggest that the direct causal effect of being exposed to an alcoholic parent on offspring alcohol use disorder is modest at best. PMID:18729607

  7. Effect of alcohol on vagal regulation of cardiovascular function: contributions of the polyvagal theory to the psychophysiology of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Reed, S F; Porges, S W; Newlin, D B

    1999-11-01

    Research was conducted to evaluate the influence of acute alcohol consumption on vagal regulation of heart rate. Nine men with histories of polydrug use participated in this residential study. On 5 separate days, they drank liquids consisting of cold water (on 2 days), a moderate dose of alcohol (0.64 g/kg), a high dose of alcohol (1.12 g/kg), and a placebo. Continuous recordings of heart period were quantified to produce 3 measures of heart rate variability, reflecting the amplitude of 3 neurophysiologically mediated rhythms. Heart period, respiratory rhythm (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]), and the 0.064-0.10-Hz vasomotor rhythm were significantly lower during the high alcohol dose condition, relative to the placebo and water conditions. Because the neural regulation of the heart by the vagus contributes to these variables, these findings suggest that alcohol reduces cardiac vagal tone. In support of this explanation, alcohol also decreased the coupling between changes in heart period and changes in RSA. This study demonstrated that alcohol produces a dysregulated state in which heart rate is relatively uncoupled from vagal activity.

  8. Alcohol-medical drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Bankole A; Seneviratne, Chamindi

    2014-01-01

    Concomitant use of alcohol and medications may lead to potentially serious medical conditions. Increasing prescription medication abuse in today's society necessitates a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in alcohol-medication interactions in order to help prevent adverse events. Interactions of medications with alcohol result in altered bioavailability of the medication or alcohol (pharmacokinetic interactions) or modification of the effects at receptor or ion channel sites to alter behavioral or physical outcome (pharmacodynamic interactions). The nature of pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions involved in alcohol-medication interactions may differ between acute and chronic alcohol use and be influenced by race, gender, or environmental or genetic factors. This review focuses on the mechanisms underlying pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between alcohol and medications and provides examples for such interactions from replicated research studies. In conclusion, further translational research is needed to address several gaps in our current knowledge of alcohol-medication interactions, including those under various pathologic conditions.

  9. Acute marijuana effects on social conversation.

    PubMed

    Higgins, S T; Stitzer, M L

    1986-01-01

    The present study assessed the acute effects of smoked marijuana on social conversation. Speech quantity was recorded continuously in seven moderate marijuana users during separate 1 h experimental sessions following the paced smoking of 0, 1.01, 1.84, and 2.84% THC marijuana cigarettes. Subjects engaged in conversation with undrugged partners who smoked placebo marijuana cigarettes. The active marijuana produced significant decreases in speech quantity, increases in heart rate, and increases in self-reports of "high" and sedation. Partners showed no effects in speech quantity or self-reports of drug effects that were systematically related to the doses administered to the subject pair members. The effects on speech quantity observed in the present study after acute dosing are similar to the effects on social conversation reported previously during chronic marijuana dosing. Marijuana appears to be an exception to the general rule that drugs of abuse increase verbal interaction.

  10. The effects of US state income inequality and alcohol policies on symptoms of depression and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Claire; Liu, Xinhua; Diez Roux, Ana V; Link, Bruce G; Hasin, Deborah

    2004-02-01

    Mental health is likely to be influenced by contextual variables that emerge only at the level of the group. We studied the effect of two such group-level variables, within-state income inequality and alcohol tax policy, on symptoms of current depression and alcohol dependence in a US national sample, controlling for state-level and individual characteristics. A cross-sectional US national probability sample provided the individual-level data. State income data were obtained from the 1990 US census. The Gini coefficient (raw and adjusted) indicated income inequality. Outcome measures included current symptoms of depression and alcohol dependence. Controlling for individual-level variables and state median income, the odds of depressive symptoms was not positively associated with state income inequality. Controlling for individual-level variables, state median income and alcohol distribution method, a weak negative association between Gini and alcohol dependence was observed in women, but this association disappeared after additional adjustment for beer tax. No association was observed in men. Higher state beer tax was significantly associated with lower prevalence of alcohol dependence symptoms for both men and women. The results suggest that state income inequality does not increase the experience of alcohol dependence or depression symptoms. However, evidence was found for a protective effect of increased beer taxation against alcohol dependence symptoms, suggesting the need to further consider the impact of alcohol policies on alcohol use disorders.

  11. Effects of alcohol administration on the disinhibition of racial prejudice.

    PubMed

    Reeves, S B; Nagoshi, C T

    1993-10-01

    Eighty-two white male undergraduate social drinkers were selected from high and low scorers on the Modern Racism Scale. Subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 balanced placebo design conditions. After consuming their beverages, subjects viewed a videotape interaction between a Black and a White confederate. The subjects were told to rate the behaviors of the confederates, including an ambiguous shove of the White confederate by the Black confederate. It was expected, according to attribution theory, that high racism subjects would label the shove as more aggressive when they believed they had consumed alcohol, because alcohol could be used as an excuse for the socially unacceptable behavior of racial discrimination. A mood measure was also administered. Significant main effects of racism group and alcohol dosing were found for seriousness of aggression ratings, with high racism subjects and those expecting alcohol reporting more serious aggression, but the racism group by dosing condition interaction was not significant. A significant racism group by dosing condition interaction was found for the tension/anxiety mood scale, with greater tension being reported by high racism subjects who received alcohol. The results were related to theories of alcohol's disinhibiting and attention-limiting properties.

  12. Cross-border health and productivity effects of alcohol policies.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Per; Pekkarinen, Tuomas; Verho, Jouko

    2014-07-01

    This paper studies the cross-border health and productivity effects of alcohol taxes. We estimate the effect of a large cut in the Finnish alcohol tax on mortality, alcohol-related illnesses and work absenteeism in Sweden. This tax cut led to large differences in the prices of alcoholic beverages between these two countries and to a considerable increase in cross-border shopping. The effect is identified using differences-in-differences strategy where changes in these outcomes in regions near the Finnish border are compared to changes in other parts of northern Sweden. We use register data where micro level data on deaths, hospitalisations and absenteeism is merged to population-wide micro data on demographics and labour market outcomes. Our results show that the Finnish tax cut did not have any clear effect on mortality or alcohol-related hospitalisations in Sweden. However, we find that workplace absenteeism increased by 9% for males and by 15% for females near the Finnish border as a result of the tax cut.

  13. Cross-border health and productivity effects of alcohol policies.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Per; Pekkarinen, Tuomas; Verho, Jouko

    2014-07-01

    This paper studies the cross-border health and productivity effects of alcohol taxes. We estimate the effect of a large cut in the Finnish alcohol tax on mortality, alcohol-related illnesses and work absenteeism in Sweden. This tax cut led to large differences in the prices of alcoholic beverages between these two countries and to a considerable increase in cross-border shopping. The effect is identified using differences-in-differences strategy where changes in these outcomes in regions near the Finnish border are compared to changes in other parts of northern Sweden. We use register data where micro level data on deaths, hospitalisations and absenteeism is merged to population-wide micro data on demographics and labour market outcomes. Our results show that the Finnish tax cut did not have any clear effect on mortality or alcohol-related hospitalisations in Sweden. However, we find that workplace absenteeism increased by 9% for males and by 15% for females near the Finnish border as a result of the tax cut. PMID:24792191

  14. Effect of indomethacin on alcohol-induced morphological anomalies in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, C.L.; Anton, R.F.; Becker, H.C.

    1987-07-20

    The purpose of the present study was 1) to examine the effect of indomethacin (INDO), a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor, on alcohol-induced growth and morphological impairment in C57BL/6J mice (Study 1) and 2) to determine if INDO crosses the placenta (Study 2). On day 10 of gestation, mice were injected (s.c.) acutely with either 0, 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg INDO, followed one hour later by alcohol (5.8 g/kg orally) or isocaloric sucrose. Fetuses were removed on day 19 of pregnancy, weighed, and examined for anomalous development. As expected, Study 1 demonstrated that maternal alcohol treatment decreased fetal weight and increased the number of fetuses with birth defects. INDO alone decreased fetal weight but did not affect morphologic development. More importantly, INDO antagonized alcohol-induced birth defects, but only at the highest dose. The results of Study 2 suggest that the relative ineffectiveness of INDO may be related to its inability to readily cross the placenta. Since high doses of INDO also caused maternal toxicity, the usefulness of this compound in future studies of this type was questioned. 22 references, 4 tables.

  15. MR Imaging Findings in Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Acute Wernicke's Encephalopathy: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Manzo, Gaetana; De Gennaro, Angela; Cozzolino, Attilio; Serino, Antonietta; Fenza, Giacomo; Manto, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a severe neurological syndrome caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency and clinically characterized by the sudden onset of mental status changes, ocular abnormalities, and ataxia. Apart from chronic alcoholism, the most common cause of WE, a lot of other conditions causing malnutrition and decreasing thiamine absorption such as gastrointestinal surgical procedures and hyperemesis gravidarum must be considered as predisposing factors. Due to its low prevalence and clinical heterogeneity, WE is often misdiagnosed, leading to persistent dysfunctions and, in some cases, to death. Nowadays, MR imaging of the brain, showing T2 and FLAIR hyperintensities in typical (thalami, mammillary bodies, tectal plate, and periaqueductal area) and atypical areas (cerebellum, cranial nerve nuclei, and cerebral cortex), is surely the most important and effective tool in the diagnostic assessment of WE. The aim of this paper is to propose a state of the art of the role of MR imaging in the early diagnosis of this complex disease. PMID:25050351

  16. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  17. Prenatal Exposure to Drugs/Alcohol: Characteristics and Educational Implications of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Cocaine/Polydrug Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soby, Jeanette M.

    This book presents the characteristics of children affected by prenatal drug exposure, fetal alcohol syndrome, fetal alcohol effects, and fetal cocaine/polydrug effects. It outlines incidence, service needs, prevention, and identification. The medical literature on the physical, cognitive, and behavioral characteristics of this population is…

  18. Alcohol, athletic performance and recovery.

    PubMed

    Vella, Luke D; Cameron-Smith, David

    2010-08-01

    Alcohol consumption within elite sport has been continually reported both anecdotally within the media and quantitatively in the literature. The detrimental effects of alcohol on human physiology have been well documented, adversely influencing neural function, metabolism, cardiovascular physiology, thermoregulation and skeletal muscle myopathy. Remarkably, the downstream effects of alcohol consumption on exercise performance and recovery, has received less attention and as such is not well understood. The focus of this review is to identify the acute effects of alcohol on exercise performance and give a brief insight into explanatory factors. PMID:22254055

  19. Alcohol, athletic performance and recovery.

    PubMed

    Vella, Luke D; Cameron-Smith, David

    2010-08-01

    Alcohol consumption within elite sport has been continually reported both anecdotally within the media and quantitatively in the literature. The detrimental effects of alcohol on human physiology have been well documented, adversely influencing neural function, metabolism, cardiovascular physiology, thermoregulation and skeletal muscle myopathy. Remarkably, the downstream effects of alcohol consumption on exercise performance and recovery, has received less attention and as such is not well understood. The focus of this review is to identify the acute effects of alcohol on exercise performance and give a brief insight into explanatory factors.

  20. Tlr4-mutant mice are resistant to acute alcohol-induced sterol-regulatory element binding protein activation and hepatic lipid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Qian; Zhang, Cheng; He, Wei; Wang, Hua; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Chen, Xi; Xu, De-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that acute alcohol intoxication caused hepatic lipid accumulation. The present study showed that acute alcohol intoxication caused hepatic lipid accumulation in Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1, a transcription factor regulating fatty acid and triglyceride (TG) synthesis, was activated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic Fas, Acc, Scd-1 and Dgat-2, the key genes for fatty acid and TG synthesis, were up-regulated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Additional experiment showed that hepatic MyD88 was elevated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic NF-κB was activated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Moreover, hepatic GSH content was reduced and hepatic MDA level was elevated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic CYP2E1 was elevated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic p67phox and gp91phox, two NADPH oxidase subunits, were up-regulated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone (PBN), a free radical spin-trapping agent, protected against alcohol-induced hepatic SREBP-1 activation and hepatic lipid accumulation. In conclusion, Tlr4-mutant mice are resistant to acute alcohol-induced hepatic SREBP-1 activation and hepatic lipid accumulation. PMID:27627966

  1. Tlr4-mutant mice are resistant to acute alcohol-induced sterol-regulatory element binding protein activation and hepatic lipid accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Qian; Zhang, Cheng; He, Wei; Wang, Hua; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Chen, Xi; Xu, De-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that acute alcohol intoxication caused hepatic lipid accumulation. The present study showed that acute alcohol intoxication caused hepatic lipid accumulation in Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1, a transcription factor regulating fatty acid and triglyceride (TG) synthesis, was activated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic Fas, Acc, Scd-1 and Dgat-2, the key genes for fatty acid and TG synthesis, were up-regulated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Additional experiment showed that hepatic MyD88 was elevated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic NF-κB was activated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Moreover, hepatic GSH content was reduced and hepatic MDA level was elevated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic CYP2E1 was elevated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic p67phox and gp91phox, two NADPH oxidase subunits, were up-regulated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone (PBN), a free radical spin-trapping agent, protected against alcohol-induced hepatic SREBP-1 activation and hepatic lipid accumulation. In conclusion, Tlr4-mutant mice are resistant to acute alcohol-induced hepatic SREBP-1 activation and hepatic lipid accumulation. PMID:27627966

  2. Physiological and behavioral effects of acute ethanol hangover in juvenile, adolescent, and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Brasser, Susan M; Spear, Norman E

    2002-04-01

    This study examined differential responding of juvenile, adolescent, and adult rats after intoxication from an acute alcohol challenge. Experiment I generated blood ethanol curves for subjects 25, 35, or 110 days postnatal, after doses of 2.0 or 4.0 g/kg, assessing elimination rates and time of drug clearance. Experiment 2 compared ethanol's initial hypothermic and delayed hyperthermic effect across age by 48-hr temperature measurement with telemetry. At clearance or 24 hr after alcohol exposure, Experiment 3 tested subjects for changes in acoustic startle reactivity and ultrasonic vocalization (USV). Younger rats showed an absent or reduced tendency for residual hyperthermia, and adults showed alterations in USV observed as aftereffects of intoxication, despite greater initial blood alcohol levels and ethanol hypothermia in the former. The lesser ethanol hangover effects in weanlings and adolescents may be due in part to faster ethanol elimination at these ages compared with adults.

  3. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca.

    PubMed

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30-50 and 50-100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca's chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered. PMID:26421727

  4. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca

    PubMed Central

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D.; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A.; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8–13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30–50 and 50–100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca’s chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered. PMID:26421727

  5. Effects of response requirement and alcohol on human aggressive responding.

    PubMed Central

    Cherek, D R; Spiga, R; Egli, M

    1992-01-01

    Nine men participated in two experiments to determine the effects of increased response requirement and alcohol administration on free-operant aggressive responding. Two response buttons (A and B) were available. Pressing Button A was maintained by a fixed-ratio 100 schedule of point presentation. Subjects were instructed that completion of each fixed-ratio 10 on Button B resulted in the subtraction of a point from a fictitious second subject. Button B presses were defined as aggressive because they ostensibly resulted in the presentation of an aversive stimulus to another person. Aggressive responses were engendered by a random-time schedule of point loss and were maintained by initiation of intervals free of point loss. Instructions attributed these point losses to Button B presses of the fictitious other subject. In Experiment 1, increasing the ratio requirement on Button B decreased the number of ratios completed in 4 of 5 subjects. In Experiment 2, the effects of placebo and three alcohol doses (0.125, 0.25, and 0.375 g/kg) were determined when Button B presses were maintained at ratio values of 20, 40 and 80. Three subjects who reduced aggressive responding with increasing fixed-ratio values reduced aggressive responding further at higher alcohol doses. One subject who did not reduce aggressive responding with increasing fixed-ratio values increased aggressive responding at the highest alcohol dose. The results of this study support suggestions that alcohol alters aggressive behavior by reducing the control of competing contingencies. PMID:1447545

  6. Prazosin + naltrexone decreases alcohol drinking more effectively than does either drug alone in P rats with a protracted history of extensive voluntary alcohol drinking, dependence and multiple withdrawals

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Dennis D; Kincaid, Carrie L; Froehlich, Janice C

    2015-01-01

    Background Prazosin (PRZ, an α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist) and naltrexone (NTX, a non-specific opioid receptor antagonist) each decrease alcohol drinking when administered to rats selectively-bred for high voluntary alcohol drinking (alcohol-preferring, or “P”), and the combination of PRZ+NTX decreases alcohol drinking more effectively than does either drug alone. Since drug responsiveness can depend on history of alcohol drinking and dependence, we investigated whether various schedules of PRZ and NTX administration, alone or in combination, are effective in decreasing alcohol drinking in male P rats with a history of protracted voluntary alcohol drinking, dependence and repeated withdrawals closely resembling human alcoholism. Methods Male P rats became alcohol-dependent during 1 year of ad libitum 24 h/day access to food, water and 20% alcohol with repetitive temporary alcohol withdrawals. Four sequential studies then addressed effects of oral PRZ (2 mg/kg) and NTX (10 mg/kg), alone or together, on alcohol drinking during: 1) daily alcohol access with daily drug treatment, 2) intermittent alcohol access with daily drug treatment, 3) intermittent alcohol access with occasional drug treatment, and 4) post-deprivation reinstatement of alcohol access. Results The combination of PRZ+NTX consistently suppressed alcohol drinking during daily or intermittent alcohol access conditions and when drug treatment was either daily or occasional. PRZ+NTX was consistently more effective than either drug alone. The reduction in alcohol drinking was not due to sedation, motor effects or malaise. Conclusions Both daily and “as-needed” treatment with PRZ+NTX are highly effective in suppressing daily, intermittent and post-deprivation alcohol drinking in male P rats with a protracted history of alcohol dependence and repeated withdrawals. This drug combination may be especially effective for treating individuals with long histories of heavy alcohol abuse, dependence and

  7. Effects of acute caffeine administration on adolescents.

    PubMed

    Temple, Jennifer L; Dewey, Amber M; Briatico, Laura N

    2010-12-01

    Acute caffeine administration has physiological, behavioral, and subjective effects. Despite its widespread use, few studies have described the impact of caffeine consumption in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute caffeine administration in adolescents. We measured cardiovascular responses and snack food intake after acute administration of 0 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, and 200 mg of caffeine. We also compared usual food intake and subjective effects of caffeine between high- and low-caffeine consumers. Finally, we conducted a detailed analysis of caffeine sources and consumption levels. We found main effects of caffeine dose on heart rate (HR) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), with HR decreasing and DBP increasing with increasing caffeine dose. There were significant interactions among gender, caffeine use, and time on DBP. High caffeine consumers (>50 mg/day) reported using caffeine to stay awake and drinking coffee, tea, soda, and energy drinks more than low consumers (<50 mg/day). Boys were more likely than girls to report using getting a rush, more energy, or improved athletic performance from caffeine. Finally, when we examined energy and macronutrient intake, we found that caffeine consumption was positively associated with laboratory energy intake, specifically from high-sugar, low-fat foods and also positively associated with protein and fat consumption outside of the laboratory. When taken together, these data suggest that acute caffeine administration has a broad range of effects in adolescents and that the magnitude of these effects is moderated by gender and chronic caffeine consumption. PMID:21186925

  8. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of policies and programmes to reduce the harm caused by alcohol.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter; Chisholm, Dan; Fuhr, Daniela C

    2009-06-27

    This paper reviews the evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of policies and programmes to reduce the harm caused by alcohol, in the areas of education and information, the health sector, community action, driving while under the influence of alcohol (drink-driving), availability, marketing, pricing, harm reduction, and illegally and informally produced alcohol. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses show that policies regulating the environment in which alcohol is marketed (particularly its price and availability) are effective in reducing alcohol-related harm. Enforced legislative measures to reduce drink-driving and individually directed interventions to already at-risk drinkers are also effective. However, school-based education does not reduce alcohol-related harm, although public information and education-type programmes have a role in providing information and in increasing attention and acceptance of alcohol on political and public agendas. Making alcohol more expensive and less available, and banning alcohol advertising, are highly cost-effective strategies to reduce harm. In settings with high amounts of unrecorded production and consumption, increasing the proportion of alcohol that is taxed could be a more effective pricing policy than a simple increase in tax.

  9. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of policies and programmes to reduce the harm caused by alcohol.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter; Chisholm, Dan; Fuhr, Daniela C

    2009-06-27

    This paper reviews the evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of policies and programmes to reduce the harm caused by alcohol, in the areas of education and information, the health sector, community action, driving while under the influence of alcohol (drink-driving), availability, marketing, pricing, harm reduction, and illegally and informally produced alcohol. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses show that policies regulating the environment in which alcohol is marketed (particularly its price and availability) are effective in reducing alcohol-related harm. Enforced legislative measures to reduce drink-driving and individually directed interventions to already at-risk drinkers are also effective. However, school-based education does not reduce alcohol-related harm, although public information and education-type programmes have a role in providing information and in increasing attention and acceptance of alcohol on political and public agendas. Making alcohol more expensive and less available, and banning alcohol advertising, are highly cost-effective strategies to reduce harm. In settings with high amounts of unrecorded production and consumption, increasing the proportion of alcohol that is taxed could be a more effective pricing policy than a simple increase in tax. PMID:19560605

  10. The effect of some drugs on acute toxoplasmosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Hamadto, H H; Rashed, S M; Marii, N E; Sobhy, M M; el-Ridi, A M; el-Fakahany, A F

    1989-12-01

    The effect of some chemotherapeutics, on the course of acute toxoplasmosis in experimentally infected mice was studied. Obtained results showed that, praziquantel, levamisole had no effect on acute toxoplasmosis, while trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and clindamycin showed some prophylactic effect on acute toxoplasmosis in mice. PMID:2788673

  11. Effects of school, family and alcohol marketing communication on alcohol use and intentions to drink among Thai students.

    PubMed

    Kheokao, Jantima K; Kirkgulthorn, Tassanee; Yingrengreung, Siritorn; Singhprapai, Phuwasith

    2013-07-01

    This study explored effects of family, school, and marketing communications on alcohol use and intention to drink of Thai students. We conducted a survey in which 5,184 students participated. Respondents were selected randomly from school districts throughout Thailand. In this survey we measured the exposure to, reception of, and perceptions concerning alcohol marketing communication, school absenteeism and achievement, family alcohol use, students' alcohol use, and drinking intentions. Findings indicated students' low alcohol use, moderate intention to drink, and high prevalence of family drinking. The levels of exposure and also the information receptivity to alcohol media marketing of Thai students were low. The respondents had a high level of media literacy on alcohol marketing communication. Multiple regression and focus group discussions provided support for the contention that there were significant effects of school achievement, absenteeism and media marketing communication on alcohol use (R2 = 14%) and intention to drink (R2 = 11%). Therefore, consideration of relevant school and alcohol policies, including monitoring of media marketing communication, will be needed.

  12. Effects of Alcohol on Women's Risky Sexual Decision Making during Social Interactions in the Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawacki, Tina

    2011-01-01

    This experiment examined the effects of alcohol on women's sexual decision making during a laboratory social interaction with a potential dating partner. Participants completed an assessment of sex-related alcohol expectancies, were randomly assigned to consume alcohol, no alcohol, or a placebo, and then interacted with a male confederate.…

  13. Effects of herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Sha; Gan, Li-Qin; Li, Shu-Ke; Zheng, Jie-Cong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Various alcoholic beverages containing different concentrations of ethanol are widely consumed, and excessive alcohol consumption may result in serious health problems. The consumption of alcoholic beverages is often accompanied by non-alcoholic beverages, such as herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages to relieve drunk symptoms. The aim of this study was to supply new information on the effects of these beverages on alcohol metabolism for nutritionists and the general public, in order to reduce problems associated with excessive alcohol consumption. The effects of 57 kinds of herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity were evaluated. Generally, the effects of these beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity are very different. The results suggested that some beverages should not be drank after excessive alcohol consumption, and several beverages may be potential dietary supplements for the prevention and treatment of problems related to excessive alcohol consumption.

  14. Beliefs about Alcohol and the College Experience as Moderators of the Effects of Perceived Drinking Norms on Student Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Lizabeth A.; Novak, Katherine B.

    2010-01-01

    Many students view the abuse of alcohol as integral to the student role. Thus, they feel entitled to drink heavily without sanction. OLS regression was used to assess the extent to which these beliefs about alcohol and the college experience moderate the effects of descriptive and injunctive campus drinking norms on students' levels of alcohol…

  15. Literacy-Based Supports for Young Adults with FAS/FAE [Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Fetal Alcohol Effects].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Margaret; Belanger, Joe

    During a 1-year period, a study investigated the contributions made by 3 literacy-based supports (support circles, cognitive compensatory tools, and cognitive enhancement tools) to the lives of 5 young adults, aged 16-34, with FAS/FAE (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Fetal Alcohol Effects). Four of the five subjects had IQs (intelligence quotients) above…

  16. EFFECT OF NALTREXONE AND ONDANSETRON ON ALCOHOL CUE-INDUCED ACTIVATION OF THE VENTRAL STRIATUM IN ALCOHOL-DEPENDENT PEOPLE

    PubMed Central

    Myrick, Hugh; Anton, Raymond F.; Li, Xingbao; Henderson, Scott; Randall, Patrick K.; Voronin, Konstantin

    2008-01-01

    Context Medication treatment of alcoholism is presently not particularly robust. Neuroimaging techniques might predict which medications could be useful in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Objective To explore the effect of naltrexone, ondansetron, or the combination of these medications on cue-induced craving and ventral striatum activation. Design, Setting, Participants Functional brain imaging (Phillips 1.5T scanner) was conducted during alcohol cue presentation in 90 non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent (by DSM-IV criteria) and 17 social drinking (less than 14 drinks per week) paid volunteers recruited through advertisements at an academic center. Interventions A taste of alcohol and a series of alcohol related pictures, neutral beverage pictures and visual control images were provided to volunteers after seven days of double blind randomly assigned daily dosing with 50mg naltrexone (n=23), 0.50mg ondansetron (n=23), the combination of the two medications (n=20), or matching placebos (n=24). Main Outcome Measures Difference in brain blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance when viewing alcohol pictures versus neutral beverage pictures with a particular focus on ventral striatum activity comparison across medication groups. Self-ratings of alcohol craving. Results The combination treatment decreased craving for alcohol. Naltrexone with (p=0.02) or without (p=0.049) ondansetron decreased alcohol cue-induced activation of the ventral striatum. Ondansetron by itself was similar to naltrexone and the combination in the overall analysis but intermediate in a regions specific analysis. Conclusions Consistent with animal data suggesting that both naltrexone and ondansetron reduce alcohol-stimulated dopamine output in the ventral striatum, the current study found evidence that these medications, alone or in combination, could decrease alcohol cue-induced activation of the ventral striatum, consistent with their putative treatment efficacy. PMID

  17. Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi extract protects against alcohol-induced acute liver injury in mice and affects the mechanism of ER stress

    PubMed Central

    DONG, QINGQING; CHU, FEI; WU, CHENGZHU; HUO, QIANG; GAN, HUAIYONG; LI, XIAOMING; LIU, HAO

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to examine the hepatoprotective effect of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi extract (Scutellariae Radix extract; SRE) against acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice, and investigate the mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. High performance liquid chromatography was used for the phytochemical analysis of SRE. Animals were administered orally with 50% alcohol (12 ml/kg) 4 h following administration of doses of SRE every day for 14 days, with the exception of normal control group. The protective effect was investigated by measuring the levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT) and triglyceride (TG) in the serum, and the levels of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver tissues. The levels of glucose-related protein 78 (GRP78) were detected using immunohistochemical localization and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hepatocyte apoptosis was assessed using terminal-deoxynucleoitidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling. The SRE contained 31.2% baicalin. Pretreatment with SRE had a marked protective effect by reversing the levels of biochemical markers and levels of GRP78 in a dose-dependent manner. The results of the present study demonstrated that pretreatment with SRE exerted a marked hepatoprotective effect by downregulating the expression of GRP78, which is a marker of ER stress. PMID:26936686

  18. Mood Effects of Alcohol and Expectancies during the Menstrual Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adesso, Vincent J.; Freitag, Wendy J.

    This research attempted to develop a profile of women's moods across the menstrual cycle and to determine alcohol's effects upon those moods. The Profile of Mood States was used to measure mood in 96 female college students who were heavy drinkers. Subjects were randomly assigned to the cells of the balanced placebo design with equal numbers in…

  19. Alcohol Use and the Effects on University Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Charles H.; Leonard, Valorie M.; Lebrasseur, Rolland

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of alcohol consumption on university undergraduate students in eight management schools in the province of Ontario, Canada. The study establishes two contrasting groups--the socially oriented and the academically oriented. It elaborates on the potential consequences that excessive drinking may have on the learning,…

  20. Effect of tryptophan depletion on impulsive behavior in men with or without a family history of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Crean, John; Richards, Jerry B; de Wit, Harriet

    2002-11-15

    This study investigated the effects of acute serotonin depletion on two measures of impulsive behavior in healthy men with a family history of alcoholism. Serotonin has been implicated in several forms of impulsive behavior, as well as in the etiology of Type II alcoholism. The present study was designed to determine if an acute disturbance of serotonin function would increase impulsive responding on two behavioral indices of impulsivity, and whether this effect would be greater in individuals with a genetic predisposition to alcoholism. Forty healthy men, half of whom had an alcoholic father, participated in a two-session study. Subjects ingested a tryptophan-depleting diet on one session and a balanced diet on the other session, and completed tasks measuring behavioral inhibition and delay discounting. Tryptophan depletion impaired performance on the behavioral inhibition task in the males with a positive family history, relative to the males without alcoholic relatives, whereas it improved behavioral inhibition in the family history negative group. Tryptophan depletion had negligible effects on mood, and it did not alter performance on the delay discounting task. The results provide partial support for the hypothesis that impulsive behavior is related to low serotonin function, and further suggests that the role of serotonin depends on genetic factors related to alcoholism. The results complement the results of a parallel study investigating the effects of serotonin depletion on a similar behavioral inhibition procedure in rats. Parallel studies in rats and humans are important to validate the large body of neurobiological research with non-human species to humans.

  1. Acute effects of meals, noise and nightwork.

    PubMed

    Smith, A; Miles, C

    1986-08-01

    An experimental study of the acute effects of meals, noise and nightwork showed that there was a post-meal impairment in detection of targets in a cognitive vigilance task. This was found both during the day and at night, although certain features of the results suggested that the day and night effects were not equivalent. Noise increased the number of false alarms but reduced the post-meal impairment in hit rate. Subjects with low levels of trait or state anxiety showed the greatest post-lunch impairments in performance, but this effect was reduced when the meal was eaten at night.

  2. Comparison of microcoils and polyvinyl alcohol particles in selective microcatheter angioembolization of non variceal acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Tanveer-Ul-Haq; Idris, Muhammad; Salam, Basit; Akhtar, Waseem; Jamil, Yasir

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the efficacy of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles with microcoils in angiembolisation of non variceal acute gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of patients who underwent transcatheter angioembolization from January, 1995 to December, 2013 at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. Patients were divided into two groups on basis of use of either microcoils or PVA particles and compared in terms of technical success, clinical success, re-bleeding and ischemic complication rates. Chi (χ2) square and Fisher’s exact tests were applied and a P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Fifty seven patients underwent angioembolization. Microcoil and PVA particles embolization was performed in 63% (36/57) and 35% (20/57) cases respectively. Technical success was achieved in all cases (100%). Clinical success rate was higher in microcoils group (92%) than PVA particles group (75%) with statistically significant P value (p=0.048). Ischemic complication was seen in one case (3%) in the microcoil group, while no such complications were seen in the PVA particles group. Conclusion: In angioembolization of non variceal acute gastrointestinal haemorrhage microcoils are better than Polyvinyl alcohol particles with higher clinical success and lower re-bleed rates. PMID:26430397

  3. [Acute alcohol intoxication among children and adolescents admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice during 2000-2010--preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Kamińska, Halla; Agnieszka, Zachurzok-Buczyńska; Gawlik, Aneta; Małecka-Tendera, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The alcohol drinking at the young age is a risk factor of alcohol addiction later in life, and is connected with school problems, binge drinking, tobacco addiction, illegal drug use, violence, crime commitment, and risky sexual behaviors. Alcohol drinking in the last 12 months is declared by 78% Polish children. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of admissions due to alcohol intoxication to the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Pediatric Center of Silesia and the identification of the risk factors of the acute alcohol intoxication among Polish children and adolescents. Ten-year retrospective study includes investigation of patients medical records from the Department of Pediatrics. Among 8048 patients hospitalized in the Department of Pediatrics between the years 2000-2010, 220 (2.7%) cases of acute alcohol poisoning occurred The detailed data analysis from 139 patients [66 (47.5%) girls, 73 (52,5%) boys] was done. In the years 2006-2010 the number of girls admitted to the department increased in comparison to boys. The largest group of patients was at age between 14 and 16 years [61 (44%) children]. The blood alcohol concentration at the moment of admission to the hospital was 0.1 to 4.0 per thousand. In most cases (92.8%) the alcohol intoxication was intentional. Five percent of them were suicide attempts. In the youngest group of children alcohol abuse was unintentional. 23 (16.5%) of patients initially needed admission to the intensive care unit. In 30 (21.6%) patient the family was incomplete and five times more often father was absent. The alcohol addiction occurs in 18 (13.0%) fathers and 10 (7.2%) mothers of our patients. It is concluded that over the last decade the number of girls admitted due to alcohol abuse increased. Children at school grade between 7-9 are intoxicated most often. One six of intoxicated patents needed hospitalization at intensive care unit.

  4. Alcohol intoxication effects on simulated driving: exploring alcohol-dose effects on brain activation using functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Vince D; Pekar, James J; Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2004-11-01

    Driving while intoxicated is a major public health problem. We investigated impaired driving using a simulated driving skill game that presents an 'in-car' view of a road and a readout of speed. We explored brain activation and behavioral alterations from baseline at two blood alcohol concentrations (BACs). Participants received single-blind individualized doses of beverage alcohol designed to produce blood alcohol content (BAC) of 0.04 and 0.08 or placebo. Scanning occurred on a 1.5 Tesla Philips MRI scanner after training to asymptote performance. Analysis was performed using independent component analysis (ICA) to isolate systematically nonoverlapping 'networks' and their time courses. Imaging results revealed seven separate driving-related brain networks with different time courses. Several significant findings were observed for the imaging data. First, dose-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) changes were revealed in orbitofrontal (OF) and motor (but not cerebellar) regions; visual and medial frontal regions were unaffected. Second, cerebellar regions were significantly associated with driving behavior in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, a global disruptive effect of alcohol on the ICA time courses was observed with highly significant differences in OF and motor regions. Alcohol thus demonstrated some behavioral effects and unique, disruptive, dose-dependent effects on fMRI signal within several brain circuits. The fMRI data also suggest that the deficits observed in alcohol intoxication may be modulated primarily through OF/anterior cingulate, motor and cerebellar regions as opposed to attentional areas in frontoparietal cortex.

  5. In vivo relationship between monoamine oxidase type B and alcohol dehydrogenase: effects of ethanol and phenylethylamine

    SciTech Connect

    Aliyu, S.U.; Upahi, L.

    1988-01-01

    The role of acute ethanol and phenylethylamine on the brain and platelet monoamine oxidase activities, hepatic cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase, redox state and motor behavior were studied in male rats. Ethanol on its own decreased the redox couple ratio, as well as, alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the liver while at the same time it increased brain and platelet monoamine oxidase activity due to lower Km with no change in Vmax. The elevation in both brain and platelet MAO activity was associated with ethanol-induced hypomotility in the rats. Co-administration of phenylethylamine and ethanol to the animals, caused antagonism of the ethanol-induced effects described above. The effects of phenylethylamine alone, on the above mentioned biochemical and behavioral indices, are more complex. Phenylethylamine on its own, like ethanol, caused reduction of the cytosolic redox, ratio and elevation of monoamine oxidase activity in the brain and platelets. However, in contrast to ethanol, this monoamine produced hypermotility and activation of the hepatic cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the animals.

  6. Effects of Alcohol Injection in Rat Sciatic Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Mazoch, Mathew J.; Cheema, Gulraiz A.; Suva, Larry J.; Thomas, Ruth L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that the injection of dehydrated alcohol has been successful for the treatment of Morton's neuroma in the foot. In this study, we determined the cellular effect of injection of alcohol into and around the sciatic nerve of rats, and measured the extent of cell necrosis and/or any associated histologic or inflammatory changes. Methods Twenty-two male (~375g) Wistar rats were randomized into two groups each receiving alcohol injections into or around the sciatic nerve after nerve exposure under sterile technique. Group 1 rats were injected with a 0.5ml solution of 0.5% Marcaine in the left sciatic nerve as a control group. In the right sciatic nerve a 0.5ml solution of 4% ethanol with 0.5% Marcaine was injected. Group 2 rats received 0.5ml of 20%ethanol with 0.5% Marcaine injected into the left sciatic nerve and 0.5 ml of 30% ethanol with 0.5% Marcaine injected into the right sciatic nerve. In each group, the rats were placed in 3 subgroups: intraneural, perineural, perimuscular injections. All rats were sacrificed and tissue harvested for histologic evaluation at day 10 post injection. Results No evidence of alcohol-associated cell necrosis, apoptosis or apparent inflammation was observed in histologic specimens of any injected nerves, perineural tissue, or muscles in controls or experimental groups regardless of concentration of ethanol injected on day 10. Conclusion We concluded that alcohol injection (≤30% ethanol) into and/or around the sciatic nerve or the adjacent muscle of rats has no histologic evidence of necrosis or inflammation to the nerve or surrounding tissue. There was no observable histological change in apoptosis, or cell number, in response to the alcohol injection. PMID:25097192

  7. Acute ethanol effects on focal cerebral ischemia in fasted rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y J; Yang, G Y; Ben-Joseph, O; Ross, B D; Chenevert, T L; Domino, E F

    1998-05-01

    The effects of acute ethanol intoxication were investigated in a rat model of unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion. Groups of 5 to 8 male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 4 hr of left middle cerebral artery occlusion. All groups were deprived of food overnight and were pretreated intraperitoneally with 5% dextrose solution (10 ml/kg), 20% ethyl alcohol in 5% dextrose solution (2 g/kg), or 30% ethyl alcohol in a 5% dextrose solution (3 g/kg) 1 hr before middle cerebral artery occlusion. Regional cerebral blood flow during ipsilateral occlusion was approximately 9.1 to 10% of baseline in all groups. The mean % brain water content in control, 2 g/kg ethanol-treated groups, and 3 g/kg ethanol-treated groups were: in the ischemic core--81.6, 81.2, and 82.4; intermediate zone--80.5, 80.6, and 81.7; and outer zone--79.7, 79.7, and 80.8, respectively. Brain Na+ and K+ content in the three groups was related to water content, but much greater with ethanol pretreatment. The water content of the intermediate zones in the 3 g/kg ethanol-treated animals was significantly greater than in the control (p < 0.01 and 0.001) and the 2 g/kg ethanol-treated groups. One-way analysis of variance indicated a significant dose-effect relationship in which the lower dose of ethanol tended to reduce ischemic core water content, and the larger dose increased ischemic core water, compared with the control. None of the overnight fasted groups had any significant hyperglycemia. The group given 3 g/kg i.p. ethanol 1 hr before had exacerbated edema formation with a mean whole blood level of ethanol of approximately 230 mg/dl. The neurotoxic effects of high concentrations of ethanol were unrelated to any change in plasma glucose concentrations.

  8. A clinical laboratory paradigm for evaluating medication effects on alcohol consumption: naltrexone and nalmefene.

    PubMed

    Drobes, David J; Anton, Raymond F; Thomas, Suzanne E; Voronin, Konstantin

    2003-04-01

    Opiate antagonist medications have been shown to improve alcoholism treatment, but few human laboratory-based studies investigating mechanisms for these effects have been conducted on alcohol dependent persons. The present study was designed to determine the impact of two opiate antagonists on alcohol consumption among nontreatment-seeking alcoholics (n=125) and social drinkers (n=90). Participants were randomly assigned to receive placebo, naltrexone (titrated to 50 mg/day), or nalmefene (titrated to 40 mg/day) for 8 days with an alcohol laboratory session on the final day. Alcohol consumption was monitored in the natural environment during the first 5 medication days, and during a choice consumption paradigm following a standard 'priming' alcohol dose in a bar-laboratory setting. Social drinkers consumed less alcohol than alcoholics during the prelab medication period and the laboratory choice consumption paradigm, and they attained lower blood alcohol levels than alcoholics following the priming drink. Both opiate antagonist medications equally reduced drinking amounts and frequency among alcoholics but not social drinkers, relative to placebo, during natural environment and bar-lab alcohol consumption evaluations. Greater medication side effects, mostly mild in nature, were observed in participants taking nalmefene. These findings demonstrate that both naltrexone and nalmefene can lead to reductions in alcohol consumption among alcoholics who are not attempting to reduce drinking. Similar laboratory paradigms may offer substantial advantages for observing these effects during evaluation of other medications as well.

  9. Automatically-Activated Attitudes as Mechanisms for Message Effects: The Case of Alcohol Advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Goodall, Catherine E.; Slater, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol advertisements may influence impulsive, risky behaviors indirectly, via automatically-activated attitudes toward alcohol. Results from an experiment in which participants were exposed to either four alcohol advertisements, four control advertisements, or four drunk driving public service advertisements, suggested that alcohol advertisements had more measurable effects on implicit, than on explicit attitude measures. Moreover, there were significant indirect paths from alcohol advertisement exposure through automatically-activated alcohol attitudes on willingness to engage in risky alcohol-related behaviors, notably drinking and driving. A mechanism that may explain how these advertisements activate automatic, non-deliberative alcohol attitudes was investigated. Associative evidence was found supportive of an evaluative conditioning mechanism, in which positive responses to an alcohol advertisement may lead to more positive automatically-activated attitudes toward alcohol itself. PMID:21258609

  10. [Acute tonsillopharyngitis: the effectiveness of topical therapy].

    PubMed

    Nosulya, E V; Kim, I A; Chernykh, N M; Karnoukhova, O A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a furasol sore throat gargle solution for the treatment of acute tonsillopharyngitis. Forty patients presenting with acute tonsillopharyngitis were allocated to two groups, 20 subjects in each, by means of independent sequential randomization. Prior to the onset of the treatment, all the patients were examined for determining the species composition of pharyngeal microflora with the use of an «AutoScan4 System» analyzer («Siemens», USA) and estimating the resistance to antibacterial preparations (by the disk diffusion method). All the participants of the study were prescribed antibacterial therapy. In the patients of group 1 (study group), the antibacterial treatment of acute tonsillopharyngitis was supplemented by a furasol sore throat gargle solution whereas those of group 2 (controls) were treated without topical therapy. The quantitative evaluation of the severity of manifestations of the disease before and after the treatment was based on a 5-point visual-analog scale. It was shown that systemic antibacterial therapy resulted in the consistent decrease of the frequency of occurrence of pathogenic and potentially pathogenic microflora in the patients comprising both groups. Treatment with a furasol sore throat gargle solution did not lead to the appearance of bacterial species alien to the oropharynx, nor was it accompanied by the impairment of resistance of its mucous membrane to the colonization by microorganisms. The results of the study give evidence of the well apparent regression of the subjective signs of tonsillopharyngitis and the inflammatory changes in the mucous membrane of the pharynx in the patients given the topical treatment in the form of a furasol sore throat gargle solution in addition to antibacterial therapy. It is concluded that a furasol sore throat gargle solution can be recommended for the introduction into the combined treatment of the patients

  11. Resistance to change of alcohol self-administration: effects of alcohol-delivery rate on disruption by extinction and naltrexone.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Gomez, Corina; Shahan, Timothy A

    2007-03-01

    A common finding in resistance to change research with food-maintained operant behavior is that the persistence of behavior depends on the rate of reinforcement delivered in the context in which the behavior occurs. The present experiment evaluated the effects of rate of response-dependent alcohol delivery on the resistance to change of rats' alcohol self-administration in the face of disruption produced by extinction and a range of doses of naltrexone (1.0, 3.0, 10.0 mg/kg, subcutaneous). Rats responded for a 10% alcohol solution in a multiple schedule of reinforcement arranging a higher rate of alcohol delivery (variable interval 15 s) in the presence of one stimulus and a lower rate of alcohol delivery (variable interval 45 s) in the presence of another stimulus. Baseline response rates and resistance to extinction were higher in the presence of the stimulus associated with higher rates of alcohol delivery. This finding is consistent with studies of the resistance to change of food-maintained behavior. The rate of alcohol delivered in the components, however, did not systematically affect resistance to disruption by naltrexone. One interpretation of this finding from the perspective of behavioral momentum theory is that naltrexone may decrease the impact of alcohol-associated stimuli on the persistence of drinking by reducing sensitivity to the relative reinforcement conditions arranged in the presence of different stimuli.

  12. Npy deletion in an alcohol non-preferring rat model elicits differential effects on alcohol consumption and body weight

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Bin; Bell, Richard L.; Cao, Yong; Zhang, Lingling; Stewart, Robert B.; Graves, Tamara; Lumeng, Lawrence; Yong, Weidong; Liang, Tiebing

    2016-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is widely expressed in the central nervous system and influences many physiological processes. It is located within the rat quantitative trait locus (QTL) for alcohol preference on chromosome 4. Alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats consume very little alcohol, but have significantly higher NPY expression in the brain than alcohol-preferring (P) rats. We capitalized on this phenotypic difference by creating an Npy knockout (KO) rat using the inbred NP background to evaluate NPY effects on alcohol consumption. Zinc finger nuclease (ZNF) technology was applied, resulting in a 26-bp deletion in the Npy gene. RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry confirmed the absence of Npy mRNA and protein in KO rats. Alcohol consumption was increased in Npy+/− but not Npy−/− rats, while Npy−/− rats displayed significantly lower body weight when compared to Npy+/+ rats. In whole brain tissue, expression levels of Npy-related and other alcohol-associated genes, Npy1r, Npy2r, Npy5r, Agrp, Mc3r, Mc4r, Crh and Crh1r, were significantly greater in Npy−/− rats, whereas Pomc and Crhr2 expressions were highest in Npy+/− rats. These findings suggest that the NPY-system works in close coordination with the melanocortin (MC) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) systems to modulate alcohol intake and body weight. PMID:27461754

  13. Npy deletion in an alcohol non-preferring rat model elicits differential effects on alcohol consumption and body weight.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Bin; Bell, Richard L; Cao, Yong; Zhang, Lingling; Stewart, Robert B; Graves, Tamara; Lumeng, Lawrence; Yong, Weidong; Liang, Tiebing

    2016-07-20

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is widely expressed in the central nervous system and influences many physiological processes. It is located within the rat quantitative trait locus (QTL) for alcohol preference on chromosome 4. Alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats consume very little alcohol, but have significantly higher NPY expression in the brain than alcohol-preferring (P) rats. We capitalized on this phenotypic difference by creating an Npy knockout (KO) rat using the inbred NP background to evaluate NPY effects on alcohol consumption. Zinc finger nuclease (ZNF) technology was applied, resulting in a 26-bp deletion in the Npy gene. RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry confirmed the absence of Npy mRNA and protein in KO rats. Alcohol consumption was increased in Npy(+/-) but not Npy(-/-) rats, while Npy(-/-) rats displayed significantly lower body weight when compared to Npy(+/+) rats. In whole brain tissue, expression levels of Npy-related and other alcohol-associated genes, Npy1r, Npy2r, Npy5r, Agrp, Mc3r, Mc4r, Crh and Crh1r, were significantly greater in Npy(-/-) rats, whereas Pomc and Crhr2 expressions were highest in Npy(+/-) rats. These findings suggest that the NPY-system works in close coordination with the melanocortin (MC) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) systems to modulate alcohol intake and body weight.

  14. Npy deletion in an alcohol non-preferring rat model elicits differential effects on alcohol consumption and body weight.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Bin; Bell, Richard L; Cao, Yong; Zhang, Lingling; Stewart, Robert B; Graves, Tamara; Lumeng, Lawrence; Yong, Weidong; Liang, Tiebing

    2016-07-20

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is widely expressed in the central nervous system and influences many physiological processes. It is located within the rat quantitative trait locus (QTL) for alcohol preference on chromosome 4. Alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats consume very little alcohol, but have significantly higher NPY expression in the brain than alcohol-preferring (P) rats. We capitalized on this phenotypic difference by creating an Npy knockout (KO) rat using the inbred NP background to evaluate NPY effects on alcohol consumption. Zinc finger nuclease (ZNF) technology was applied, resulting in a 26-bp deletion in the Npy gene. RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry confirmed the absence of Npy mRNA and protein in KO rats. Alcohol consumption was increased in Npy(+/-) but not Npy(-/-) rats, while Npy(-/-) rats displayed significantly lower body weight when compared to Npy(+/+) rats. In whole brain tissue, expression levels of Npy-related and other alcohol-associated genes, Npy1r, Npy2r, Npy5r, Agrp, Mc3r, Mc4r, Crh and Crh1r, were significantly greater in Npy(-/-) rats, whereas Pomc and Crhr2 expressions were highest in Npy(+/-) rats. These findings suggest that the NPY-system works in close coordination with the melanocortin (MC) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) systems to modulate alcohol intake and body weight. PMID:27461754

  15. Acute marijuana effects on human risk taking.

    PubMed

    Lane, Scott D; Cherek, Don R; Tcheremissine, Oleg V; Lieving, Lori M; Pietras, Cythia J

    2005-04-01

    Previous studies have established a relationship between marijuana use and risky behavior in natural settings. A limited number of laboratory investigations of marijuana effects on human risk taking have been conducted. The present study was designed to examine the acute effects of smoked marijuana on human risk taking, and to identify behavioral mechanisms that may be involved in drug-induced changes in the probability of risky behavior. Using a laboratory measure of risk taking designed to address acute drug effects, 10 adults were administered placebo cigarettes and three doses of active marijuana cigarettes (half placebo and half 1.77%; 1.77%; and 3.58% Delta9-THC) in a within-subject repeated-measures experimental design. The risk-taking task presented subjects with a choice between two response options operationally defined as risky and nonrisky. Data analyses examined cardiovascular and subjective effects, response rates, distribution of choices between the risky and nonrisky option, and first-order transition probabilities of trial-by-trial data. The 3.58% THC dose increased selection of the risky response option, and uniquely shifted response probabilities following both winning and losing outcomes following selection of the risky option. Acute marijuana administration thereby produced measurable changes in risky decision making under laboratory conditions. Consistent with previous risk-taking studies, shifts in trial-by-trial response probabilities at the highest dose suggested a change in sensitivity to both reinforced and losing risky outcomes. Altered sensitivity to consequences may be a mechanism in drug-induced changes in risk taking. Possible neurobiological sites of action related to THC are discussed.

  16. Acute renal failure, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzymes after concurrent abuse of alcohol and cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinnezhad, Alireza; Vijayakrishnan, Rajakrishnan; Farmer, Mary Jo S.

    2011-01-01

    Cocaine has been associated with known adverse effects on cardiac, cerebrovascular and pulmonary systems. However, the effect of cocaine on other organs has not been extensively reported. A middle age man presented with abdominal pain and nausea after inhalation of crack cocaine. On admission, he was found to be hypertensive and tachycardic. Physical examination revealed mild abdominal tenderness without rebound. Laboratory investigations were significant for acute kidney failure with elevated serum creatinine (3.72 mg/dL), thrombocytopenia (platelet count 74,000/UL), elevated alanine and aspartate transaminases (ALT 331 U/L; AST 462 U/L) and elevated creatine phosphokinase (CPK 5885 U/L). Urine toxicology screening solely revealed cocaine. A clinical diagnosis of cocaine toxicity was made and patient was admitted to the intensive care unit because of multi organ failure. Despite downward trending of liver enzymes during the hospital course, he continued to have residual renal insufficiency and a low platelet count at the time of discharge. In a patient with history of recent cocaine use presenting with these manifestations, cocaine itself should be considered as a likely cause. PMID:24765297

  17. Facts on the Effects of Alcohol. Clearinghouse Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milgram, Gail Gleason

    Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is one of the few alcohols that humans can drink. This alcohol is a byproduct of yeast's reaction with the sugars in fruit or vegetable juice and the process stops naturally with about an 11 to 14 percent alcoholic concentration, although distillation can greatly increase the alcoholic content. Once ingested, most alcohol…

  18. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Understanding the Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Supporting Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jennifer H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) affect a significant number of children in this country. This article addresses diagnostic issues related to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and other alcohol-related disabilities, discusses associated features and behaviors of FASD, and introduces interventions to support children with FASD in…

  19. Assessing Women’s Sexual Arousal in the Context of Sexual Assault History and Acute Alcohol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Amanda K.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; George, William H.; Otto, Jacqueline M.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have examined differences in women’s sexual arousal based on sexual assault history (SAH) or in-the-moment alcohol intoxication. Only one has examined combined effects. Findings regarding the relationship between SAH and arousal are contradictory. Aim We aimed to determine the relationship between SAH, alcohol intoxication, and sexual arousal. Main Outcome Measures Genital response was measured by vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA) using vaginal photoplethysmography while watching erotic films. Self-reported sexual arousal was assessed after watching erotic films. Methods Women were randomly assigned to an alcohol (target blood alcohol level = .10%) or control condition and categorized as having a SAH or not. After beverage administration, all women watched erotic films while genital arousal (vaginal pulse amplitude; VPA) was measured. Afterwards self-reported sexual arousal was measured. Results Women with a SAH had smaller increases in genital arousal in response to the films than women without a SAH. Intoxicated women had smaller increases in genital arousal than sober women. However, no differences for SAH or intoxication were found in self-reported arousal. Conclusion SAH and alcohol intoxication are associated with smaller increases in genital arousal compared to women without a SAH and sober women, suggesting that these co-occurring factors impact sexual arousal. PMID:20367775

  20. Cannabis effects on driving longitudinal control with and without alcohol.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Rebecca L; Brown, Timothy L; Milavetz, Gary; Spurgin, Andrew; Pierce, Russell S; Gorelick, David A; Gaffney, Gary; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-11-01

    Although evidence suggests cannabis impairs driving, its driving-performance effects are not fully characterized. We aimed to establish cannabis' effects on driving longitudinal control (with and without alcohol, drivers' most common drug combination) relative to psychoactive ∆(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) blood concentrations. Current occasional (≥1×/last 3 months, ≤3 days per week) cannabis smokers drank placebo or low-dose alcohol, and inhaled 500 mg placebo, low (2.9%), or high (6.7%) THC vaporized cannabis over 10 min ad libitum in separate sessions (within-subject, six conditions). Participants drove (National Advanced Driving Simulator, University of Iowa) simulated drives 0.5-1.3 h post-inhalation. Blood and breath alcohol samples were collected before (0.17 and 0.42 h) and after (1.4 and 2.3 h) driving. We evaluated the mean speed (relative to limit), standard deviation (SD) of speed, percent time spent >10% above/below the speed limit (percent speed high/percent speed low), longitudinal acceleration, and ability to maintain headway relative to a lead vehicle (headway maintenance) against blood THC and breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC). In N=18 completing drivers, THC was associated with a decreased mean speed, increased percent speed low and increased mean following distance during headway maintenance. BrAC was associated with increased SD speed and increased percent speed high, whereas THC was not. Neither was associated with altered longitudinal acceleration. A less-than-additive THC*BrAC interaction was detected in percent speed high (considering only non-zero data and excluding an outlying drive event), suggesting cannabis mitigated drivers' tendency to drive faster with alcohol. Cannabis was associated with slower driving and greater headway, suggesting a possible awareness of impairment and attempt to compensate. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Effect of alcohol exposure on fetal brain development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudheendran, Narendran; Bake, Shameena; Miranda, Rajesh C.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2013-02-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can be severely damage to the brain development in fetuses. This study investigates the effects of maternal ethanol consumption on brain development in mice embryos. Pregnant mice at gestational day 12.5 were intragastrically gavaged with ethanol (3g/Kg bwt) twice daily for three consecutive days. On gestational day 14.5, fetuses were collected and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and imaged using a swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) system. 3D images of the mice embryo brain were obtained and the volumes of the left and right ventricles of the brain were measured. The average volumes of the left and the right volumes of 5 embryos each alcohol-exposed and control embryos were measured to be 0.35 and 0.15 mm3, respectively. The results suggest that the left and right ventricle volumes of brain are much larger in the alcohol-exposed embryos as compared to control embryos indicating alcohol-induced developmental delay.

  2. Effects of low doses of alcohol on delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol's effects in pregnant rats

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, E.L.; Subramanian, M.G. )

    1990-01-01

    Pregnant rats were intubated with 50 mg/kg of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or with THC plus alcohol to determine if a low dose of alcohol would significantly increase blood levels of THC. On the basis of this study, a second study was conducted in which pregnant rats were intubated with THC plus alcohol from gestation day six to parturition. THC reduced birth weights but did not significantly affect litter size or passive avoidance learning. Alcohol did not have a significant effect on offspring birth weight nor did it interact with THC to affect offspring.

  3. Bone Changes in Alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Raymond O.

    1979-01-01

    Man has consumed alcohol for its euphoric and sedative effect down through the ages. Attention in the medical literature has been primarily focused on the effects of alcohol on the nervous system and liver. In the past few years, isolated reports have appeared in the medical literature concerning the effects of alcohol on the bony skeleton. The purpose of this paper is to classify these lesions, discuss their pathophysiology, and briefly review their clinical course. The lesions discussed include osteoporosis, hip fractures, aseptic necrosis of the hip, and fat embolism. For the purpose of this discussion these lesions are divided into two groups. Group I includes the battered alcoholic syndrome. Group II includes fat embolism, both acute and chronic, and aseptic necrosis of the hip. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:522187

  4. Murine Models of Acute Alcoholic Hepatitis and Their Relevance to Human Disease.

    PubMed

    Wilkin, Richard J W; Lalor, Patricia F; Parker, Richard; Newsome, Philip N

    2016-04-01

    Alcohol-induced liver damage is a major burden for most societies, and murine studies can provide a means to better understand its pathogenesis and test new therapies. However, there are many models reported with widely differing phenotypes, not all of which fully regenerate the spectrum of human disease. Thus, it is important to understand the implications of these variations to efficiently model human disease. This review critically appraises key articles in the field, detailing the spectrum of liver damage seen in different models, and how they relate to the phenotype of disease seen in patients. A range of different methods of alcohol administration have been studied, ranging from ad libitum consumption of alcohol and water to modified diets (eg, Lieber deCarli liquid diet). Other feeding regimens have taken more invasive routes using intragastric feeding tubes to infuse alcohol directly into the stomach. Notably, models using wild-type mice generally produce a milder phenotype of liver damage than those using genetically modified mice, with the exception of the chronic binge-feeding model. We recommend panels of tests for consideration to standardize end points for the evaluation of the severity of liver damage-key for comparison of models of injury, testing of new therapies, and subsequent translation of findings into clinical practice. PMID:26835538

  5. Alcohols solubilization in a nonionic fluorinated surfactant based system: effects on the characteristics of mesoporous silica.

    PubMed

    Blin, J L; Du, N; Stébé, M J

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we have used hydrogenated alcohols with different chain lengths and one fluorinated alcohol as additives to determine their effect on the characteristics of mesoporous materials prepared from fluorinated micelles.

  6. Pentoxifylline Treatment in Acute Pancreatitis (AP)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-14

    Acute Pancreatitis (AP); Gallstone Pancreatitis; Alcoholic Pancreatitis; Post-ERCP/Post-procedural Pancreatitis; Trauma Acute Pancreatitis; Hypertriglyceridemia Acute Pancreatitis; Idiopathic (Unknown) Acute Pancreatitis; Medication Induced Acute Pancreatitis; Cancer Acute Pancreatitis; Miscellaneous (i.e. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis)

  7. Gender Specific Effects of Mood on Alcohol Seeking Behaviors: Preliminary Findings Using Intravenous Alcohol Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Cyders, Melissa A.; VanderVeen, J. Davis; Plawecki, Martin; Millward, James B.; Hays, James; Kareken, David A.; O’Connor, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Background Although negative mood has long been implicated in differences in alcohol seeking by men and women, little research has used precise, well-controlled laboratory experiments to examine how negative mood affects alcohol seeking behaviors. Methods A total of 34 (19 Women) community-dwelling, alcohol using adults aged 21–32 (mean age=24.86, SD=3.40, 74.3% Caucasian; Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test [AUDIT]= 10.1, SD= 3.4) completed two counter-balanced intravenous alcohol self-administration sessions: one under negative mood and one under neutral mood. Fourteen individuals (9 women; mean age=25.00, SD=2.77) participated in an alcohol “liking” experiment (i.e., free access drinking) and 20 individuals (10 women; mean age=24.77, SD=3.73) participated in an alcohol “wanting” experiment, in which gaining access to alcohol required progressively effortful work. There was no significant difference between men and women on the AUDIT (t(34)=−0.38, p=.71). Results Priming with negative mood induction caused a significant decrease in self-reported mood (mean change=−1.90, t(39)=−6.81, p<.001), as intended. In free access, negative mood was associated with a significantly increased peak breath alcohol concentration (BrAC; F=9.41, p=.01), with a trend toward a greater effect in men than in women (F=2.67, p=.13). Negative mood also had a significant effect on peak BrAC achieved in the progressive work paradigm (F=5.28, p=.04), with a significantly stronger effect in men (F=5.35, p=.03) than women; men also trended toward more consistent work for alcohol across both neutral and negative sessions. Conclusions These preliminary findings demonstrate a gender-specific response on how mood affects alcohol seeking and suggest gender-specific interventions to prevent mood-based alcohol consumption. PMID:26842258

  8. Alcohol and Memory: Storage and State Dependency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Elizabeth S.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Effects of acute alcohol intoxication on the storage phase of memory were evaluated with two tasks that minimized response retrieval: unpaced paired-associate learning with highly available responses and forced-choice picture recognition. It was concluded that storage processes are sensitive to disruption by alcohol. (CHK)

  9. Effect of alcohol on the proestrous surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) and the activation of LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons in the female rat.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, K M; Rivier, C

    1997-04-01

    Reproduction is adversely affected by alcohol abuse in humans and laboratory animals. In rats, alcohol exposure suppresses both luteinizing hormone (LH) and sex steroid secretion, although consensus is lacking as to which level of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is primarily affected. We tested the hypothesis that acute alcohol treatment inhibits the HPG axis by blunting release of LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) in female rats, by examining the effect of this drug on the central reproductive endocrine event; i.e., the proestrous surge of gonadotropins, which triggers ovulation. In a first series of experiments, we injected alcohol at 8 A.M. and 12 P.M. on proestrus and measured plasma levels of LH, estradiol (E2), and progesterone during the afternoons of proestrus and estrus. Alcohol administration blocked the proestrous surge of LH and ovulation. In subsequent experiments, alcohol inhibited the surge of LHRH (measured by push-pull cannulation) and LHRH neuronal activation (measured by Fos labeling in LHRH neurons). Because alcohol also decreased E2 levels, we reasoned that it might have prevented positive feedback; however, alcohol retained its ability to inhibit the LH surge evoked by E2 implantation in ovariectomized females, disproving this hypothesis. Additionally, alcohol does not act via increased corticosteroid secretion, because alcohol also blocked the proestrous surge in adrenalectomized females. Last, exogenous administration of LHRH to alcohol-blocked animals evoked LH secretion and ovulation, indicating that pituitary and/or ovarian function could be restored by mimicking the hypothalamic signal. Collectively, these data indicate that in female rats, alcohol inhibits the gonadotropin surge primarily by decreasing LHRH secretion.

  10. A major QTL for acute ethanol sensitivity in the alcohol tolerant and non-tolerant selected rat lines.

    PubMed

    Radcliffe, R A; Erwin, V G; Bludeau, P; Deng, X; Fay, T; Floyd, K L; Deitrich, R A

    2009-08-01

    The Alcohol Tolerant and Alcohol Non-Tolerant rats (AT, ANT) were selectively bred for ethanol-induced ataxia as measured on the inclined plane. Here we report on a quantitative trait locus (QTL) study in an F(2) intercross population derived from inbred AT and ANT (IAT, IANT) and a follow-up study of congenics that were bred to examine one of the mapped QTLs. Over 1200 F(2) offspring were tested for inclined plane sensitivity, acute tolerance on the inclined plane, duration of the loss of righting reflex (LORR) and blood ethanol at regain of the righting reflex (BECRR). F(2) rats that were in the upper and lower 20% for inclined plane sensitivity were genotyped with 78 SSLP markers. Significant QTLs for inclined plane sensitivity were mapped on chromosomes 8 and 20; suggestive QTLs were mapped on chromosomes 1, 2 and 3. Highly significant QTLs for LORR duration (LOD = 12.4) and BECRR (LOD = 5.7) were mapped to the same locus on chromosome 1. Breeding and testing of reciprocal congenic lines confirmed the chromosome 1 LORR/BECRR QTL. A series of recombinant congenic sub-lines were bred to fine-map this QTL. Current results have narrowed the QTL to an interval of between 5 and 20 Mb. We expect to be able to narrow the interval to less than 5 Mb with additional genotyping and continued breeding of recombinant sub-congenic lines.

  11. Alcohol and pregnancy: Effects on maternal care, HPA axis function, and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult females.

    PubMed

    Workman, Joanna L; Raineki, Charlis; Weinberg, Joanne; Galea, Liisa A M

    2015-07-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption negatively affects health, and has additional consequences if consumption occurs during pregnancy as prenatal alcohol exposure adversely affects offspring development. While much is known on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in offspring less is known about effects of alcohol in dams. Here, we examine whether chronic alcohol consumption during gestation alters maternal behavior, hippocampal neurogenesis and HPA axis activity in late postpartum female rats compared with nulliparous rats. Rats were assigned to alcohol, pair-fed or ad libitum control treatment groups for 21 days (for pregnant rats, this occurred gestation days 1-21). Maternal behavior was assessed throughout the postpartum period. Twenty-one days after alcohol exposure, we assessed doublecortin (DCX) (an endogenous protein expressed in immature neurons) expression in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and HPA axis activity. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy reduced nursing and increased self-directed and negative behaviors, but spared licking and grooming behavior. Alcohol consumption increased corticosterone and adrenal mass only in nulliparous females. Surprisingly, alcohol consumption did not alter DCX-expressing cell density. However, postpartum females had fewer DCX-expressing cells (and of these cells more immature proliferating cells but fewer postmitotic cells) than nulliparous females. Collectively, these data suggest that alcohol consumption during pregnancy disrupts maternal care without affecting HPA function or neurogenesis in dams. Conversely, alcohol altered HPA function in nulliparous females only, suggesting that reproductive experience buffers the long-term effects of alcohol on the HPA axis. PMID:25900594

  12. Alcohol and pregnancy: Effects on maternal care, HPA axis function, and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult females.

    PubMed

    Workman, Joanna L; Raineki, Charlis; Weinberg, Joanne; Galea, Liisa A M

    2015-07-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption negatively affects health, and has additional consequences if consumption occurs during pregnancy as prenatal alcohol exposure adversely affects offspring development. While much is known on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in offspring less is known about effects of alcohol in dams. Here, we examine whether chronic alcohol consumption during gestation alters maternal behavior, hippocampal neurogenesis and HPA axis activity in late postpartum female rats compared with nulliparous rats. Rats were assigned to alcohol, pair-fed or ad libitum control treatment groups for 21 days (for pregnant rats, this occurred gestation days 1-21). Maternal behavior was assessed throughout the postpartum period. Twenty-one days after alcohol exposure, we assessed doublecortin (DCX) (an endogenous protein expressed in immature neurons) expression in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and HPA axis activity. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy reduced nursing and increased self-directed and negative behaviors, but spared licking and grooming behavior. Alcohol consumption increased corticosterone and adrenal mass only in nulliparous females. Surprisingly, alcohol consumption did not alter DCX-expressing cell density. However, postpartum females had fewer DCX-expressing cells (and of these cells more immature proliferating cells but fewer postmitotic cells) than nulliparous females. Collectively, these data suggest that alcohol consumption during pregnancy disrupts maternal care without affecting HPA function or neurogenesis in dams. Conversely, alcohol altered HPA function in nulliparous females only, suggesting that reproductive experience buffers the long-term effects of alcohol on the HPA axis.

  13. Effectiveness of a nonrinse, alcohol-free antiseptic hand wash.

    PubMed

    Moadab, A; Rupley, K F; Wadhams, P

    2001-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a novel surfactant, allantoin, and benzalkonium chloride hand sanitizer using the US Food and Drug Administration's method for testing antiseptic hand washes that podiatric physicians and other health-care personnel use. The alcohol-free product, HandClens, was compared with an alcohol-based product, Purell. Independent researchers from the California College of Podiatric Medicine conducted the study using 40 volunteer students from the class of 2001. The results show that HandClens outperformed Purell and met the regulatory requirements for a hand sanitizer. Purell failed as an antimicrobial hand wash and was less effective than a control soap used in the study. PMID:11420346

  14. Chronic cerebral effects of alcohol and drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Grant, I; Mohns, L

    1975-01-01

    A minority of alcohol abusers develop severe cerebral dysfunction in the form of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. There is also evidence to suggest that cerebral dysfunction, particularly impaired abstracting ability, occurs in that larger population of heavy drinkers who do not go on to develop the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. There is no consistent evidence that long-term marijuana, hallucinogen, or sedative use causes lasting neuropsychological disturbance. The deficits in abstract thinking reported by some LSD studies are similar to deficits others have reported among alcoholics. Since the LSD studies were not controlled for alcohol use, their interpretation is difficult. It appears that cerebrovascular accidents occur more frequently and at a younger age among amphetamine abusers. There is no reliable information about possible other long-term effects of stimulants on the brain per se (i.e., nonvascular complications). Abuse of intravenous narcotics has been associated with case reports of transverse myelitis and encephalitis. It is not known whether this pathology is a direct or hypersensitivity effect of narcotic drugs, of adulterants, or of infection.

  15. Acute toxic effects of fragrance products.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R C; Anderson, J H

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate whether fragrance products can produce acute toxic effects in mammals, we allowed groups of male Swiss-Webster mice to breathe the emissions of five commercial colognes or toilet water for 1 h. We used the ASTM-E-981 test method to evaluate sensory irritation and pulmonary irritation. We used a computerized version of this test to measure the duration of the break at the end of inspiration and the duration of the pause at the end of expiration. Decreases in expiratory flow velocity indicated airflow limitation. We subjected the mice to a functional observational battery to probe for changes in nervous system function. The emissions of these fragrance products caused various combinations of sensory irritation, pulmonary irritation, decreases in expiratory airflow velocity, as well as alterations of the functional observational battery indicative of neurotoxicity. Neurotoxicity was more severe after mice were repeatedly exposed to the fragrance products. Evaluation of one of the test atmospheres with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed the presence of chemicals for which irritant and neurotoxic properties had been documented previously. In summary, some fragrance products emitted chemicals that caused a variety of acute toxicities in mice.

  16. Effects of Alcoholism on Grandchildren: A Bowenian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralph, Barbara J.; Coll, Kenneth M.

    In comparing the personality characteristics of late adolescent and young adult children of alcoholics with those of their peers, it was found that individuals with grandparents who were alcoholics in the absence of parental alcoholism were very similar to children of alcoholics. Grandparents may exert a social influence by passing on…

  17. [Effect of painting work on alcoholic liver dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Goji, Junko; Tsuchiya, Goro; Fujita, Daisuke; Koizumi, Naoko

    2003-11-01

    The effect of painting on alcoholic liver dysfunction was investigated. The subjects were male workers engaged in small-scale enterprises under contract to with heavy industries. Painting involved metal cleaning and painting, and the air concentrations of organic solvents were frequently high. The study population consisted of 1,157 male workers over 40 yr of age. Of them, 85 were painters engaged for a mean duration of 20.9 +/- 9.8 yr. There was no significant difference in GOT and GPT between painters who did not drink and non-painters who did not drink, but GOT and GPT were significantly higher in painters drinking several days a week than in non-painters. A past history of hepatitis affected GOT, GPT and gamma-GTP. Painting, daily alcohol consumption, drinking frequency and body mass index affected gamma-GTP. A questionnaire survey of hepatitis was also conducted in 206 male workers (age range 18-67 yr). Of them, 134 were painters (mean duration of painting, 16.8 +/- 10.4 yr). This questionnaire survey showed that 13 painters (9.6% of the painters) and two non-painters (2.6% of the non-painters) had a history of hepatitis. Of the 13 painters, five painters had a history of hepatitis C and four had a history of alcoholic hepatitis. All of these 13 painters had the habit of drinking. This study indicated that painting had little effect on the liver function in painters not drinking, but increased alcoholic liver dysfunction in painters with the drinking habit. PMID:14696391

  18. A Review of Existing Studies Reporting the Negative Effects of Alcohol Access and Positive Effects of Alcohol Control Policies on Interpersonal Violence.

    PubMed

    Fitterer, Jessica L; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Stockwell, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption often leads to elevated rates of violence yet alcohol access policies continue to relax across the globe. Our review establishes the extent alcohol policy can moderate violent crime through alcohol availability restrictions. Results were informed from comprehensive selection of peer-reviewed journals from 1950 to October 2015. Our search identified 87 relevant studies on alcohol access and violence conducted across 12 countries. Seventeen studies included quasi-control design, and 23 conducted intervention analysis. Seventy-one (82%) reported a significant relationship between alcohol access and violent offenses. Alcohol outlet studies reported the greatest percentage of significant results (93%), with trading hours (63%), and alcohol price following (58%). Results from baseline studies indicated the effectiveness of increasing the price of commonly consumed alcohol, restricting the hours of alcohol trading, and limiting the number of alcohol outlets per region to prevent violent offenses. Unclear are the effects of tax reductions, restriction of on-premises re-entry, and different outlet types on violent crime. Further, the generalization of statistics over broad areas and the low number of control/intervention studies poses some concern for confounding or correlated effects on study results, and amount of information for local-level prevention of interpersonal violence. Future studies should focus on gathering longitudinal data, validating models, limiting crime data to peak drinking days and times, and wherever possible collecting the joint distribution between violent crime, intoxication, and place. A greater uptake of local-level analysis will benefit studies comparing the influence of multiple alcohol establishment types by relating the location of a crime to establishment proximity. Despite, some uncertainties particular studies showed that even modest policy changes, such as 1% increases in alcohol price, 1 h changes to closing times

  19. A Review of Existing Studies Reporting the Negative Effects of Alcohol Access and Positive Effects of Alcohol Control Policies on Interpersonal Violence.

    PubMed

    Fitterer, Jessica L; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Stockwell, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption often leads to elevated rates of violence yet alcohol access policies continue to relax across the globe. Our review establishes the extent alcohol policy can moderate violent crime through alcohol availability restrictions. Results were informed from comprehensive selection of peer-reviewed journals from 1950 to October 2015. Our search identified 87 relevant studies on alcohol access and violence conducted across 12 countries. Seventeen studies included quasi-control design, and 23 conducted intervention analysis. Seventy-one (82%) reported a significant relationship between alcohol access and violent offenses. Alcohol outlet studies reported the greatest percentage of significant results (93%), with trading hours (63%), and alcohol price following (58%). Results from baseline studies indicated the effectiveness of increasing the price of commonly consumed alcohol, restricting the hours of alcohol trading, and limiting the number of alcohol outlets per region to prevent violent offenses. Unclear are the effects of tax reductions, restriction of on-premises re-entry, and different outlet types on violent crime. Further, the generalization of statistics over broad areas and the low number of control/intervention studies poses some concern for confounding or correlated effects on study results, and amount of information for local-level prevention of interpersonal violence. Future studies should focus on gathering longitudinal data, validating models, limiting crime data to peak drinking days and times, and wherever possible collecting the joint distribution between violent crime, intoxication, and place. A greater uptake of local-level analysis will benefit studies comparing the influence of multiple alcohol establishment types by relating the location of a crime to establishment proximity. Despite, some uncertainties particular studies showed that even modest policy changes, such as 1% increases in alcohol price, 1 h changes to closing times

  20. A Review of Existing Studies Reporting the Negative Effects of Alcohol Access and Positive Effects of Alcohol Control Policies on Interpersonal Violence

    PubMed Central

    Fitterer, Jessica L.; Nelson, Trisalyn A.; Stockwell, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption often leads to elevated rates of violence yet alcohol access policies continue to relax across the globe. Our review establishes the extent alcohol policy can moderate violent crime through alcohol availability restrictions. Results were informed from comprehensive selection of peer-reviewed journals from 1950 to October 2015. Our search identified 87 relevant studies on alcohol access and violence conducted across 12 countries. Seventeen studies included quasi-control design, and 23 conducted intervention analysis. Seventy-one (82%) reported a significant relationship between alcohol access and violent offenses. Alcohol outlet studies reported the greatest percentage of significant results (93%), with trading hours (63%), and alcohol price following (58%). Results from baseline studies indicated the effectiveness of increasing the price of commonly consumed alcohol, restricting the hours of alcohol trading, and limiting the number of alcohol outlets per region to prevent violent offenses. Unclear are the effects of tax reductions, restriction of on-premises re-entry, and different outlet types on violent crime. Further, the generalization of statistics over broad areas and the low number of control/intervention studies poses some concern for confounding or correlated effects on study results, and amount of information for local-level prevention of interpersonal violence. Future studies should focus on gathering longitudinal data, validating models, limiting crime data to peak drinking days and times, and wherever possible collecting the joint distribution between violent crime, intoxication, and place. A greater uptake of local-level analysis will benefit studies comparing the influence of multiple alcohol establishment types by relating the location of a crime to establishment proximity. Despite, some uncertainties particular studies showed that even modest policy changes, such as 1% increases in alcohol price, 1 h changes to closing times

  1. Vitamin C Deficiency of Korean Homeless Patients Visiting to Emergency Department with Acute Alcohol Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hui Jai; Shin, Jonghwan; Hong, Kijeong; Jung, Jin Hee

    2015-12-01

    Vitamins are essential micronutrients for maintenance of tissue functions. Vitamin deficiency is one of the most serious and common health problems among both chronic alcoholics and the homeless. However, the vitamin-level statuses of such people have been little studied. We evaluated the actual vitamin statuses of alcoholic homeless patients who visited an emergency department (ED). In this study the blood levels of vitamins B1, B12, B6, and C of 217 alcoholic homeless patients were evaluated retrospectively in a single urban teaching hospital ED. Vitamin C deficiency was observed in 84.3% of the patients. The vitamin B1, B12, and B6 deficiency rates, meanwhile, were 2.3%, 2.3%, and 23.5%, respectively. Comparing the admitted patients with those who were discharged, only the vitamin C level was lower. (P=0.003) In fact, the patients' vitamin C levels were markedly diminished, vitamin C replacement therapy for homeless patients should be considered in EDs.

  2. Vitamin C Deficiency of Korean Homeless Patients Visiting to Emergency Department with Acute Alcohol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Vitamins are essential micronutrients for maintenance of tissue functions. Vitamin deficiency is one of the most serious and common health problems among both chronic alcoholics and the homeless. However, the vitamin-level statuses of such people have been little studied. We evaluated the actual vitamin statuses of alcoholic homeless patients who visited an emergency department (ED). In this study the blood levels of vitamins B1, B12, B6, and C of 217 alcoholic homeless patients were evaluated retrospectively in a single urban teaching hospital ED. Vitamin C deficiency was observed in 84.3% of the patients. The vitamin B1, B12, and B6 deficiency rates, meanwhile, were 2.3%, 2.3%, and 23.5%, respectively. Comparing the admitted patients with those who were discharged, only the vitamin C level was lower. (P=0.003) In fact, the patients' vitamin C levels were markedly diminished, vitamin C replacement therapy for homeless patients should be considered in EDs. PMID:26713065

  3. Regarding the fitness to ride a bicycle under the acute influence of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Benno; Mindiashvili, Nona; Maatz, Rüdiger; Schwender, Holger; Roth, Eckhard H; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Moody, Justin; Malczyk, Axel; Daldrup, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    To determine the threshold for the absolute inability to ride a bicycle, practical cycling tests and medical examinations at different blood alcohol concentrations were performed. Special attention was given to additional medical examinations, reaction tests and alcohol consumption under real-life conditions. Seventy-eight test subjects were included in the trials (37 females, 41 males). Five test subjects participated twice; thus, there were a total of 83 evaluable trials. Alcohol-related deficits were already identifiable at very low BACs. A significant increase in gross motoric disturbances compared to the soberness state did not regularly occur until a BAC of at least 0.8 g/kg was reached. At the BAC of 1.4 g/kg and above, no test subjects were able to achieve or surpass their sober driving results. Isolated highly alcoholised test subjects rode the bike in a manner that was not conspicuously different than the other sober test persons. Contrary to the assumptions of current German legal practise, it cannot be stated that all people are 'absolutely impaired' to the point of being incapable of riding bicycle at BACs of at least 1.6 g/kg. PMID:25428289

  4. Effects of Linderae radix extracts on a rat model of alcoholic liver injury

    PubMed Central

    WANG, JUN-WEI; CHEN, XIN-YI; HU, PEI-YANG; TAN, MING-MING; TANG, XIAO-GANG; HUANG, MIN-CONG; LOU, ZHAO-HUAN

    2016-01-01

    Traditional treatments have a poor effect on alcoholic liver diseases. Linderae radix (LR), the dried root of Lindera aggregata (Sims) Kosterm., has been frequently used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating various diseases, and has been shown to exhibit a protective effect on liver injury. In the present study, LR extracts were made using various solvents, and then administrated to rats to establish a model of ethanol-induced liver injury. The study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects and potential mechanism of LR extracts on acute alcoholic liver injury. The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglycercide (TG), cholesterol (TC), methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined using an automatic biochemistry analyzer. In addition, pathological examination was performed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The levels of MDA and SOD, and the expression levels of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β in liver tissue were investigated immunohistochemically. The expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) mRNA was quantified by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that LR extracts improved the histopathological status and decreased the serum levels of ALT, AST, TG, TC and MDA. Furthermore, the levels of MDA and inflammatory mediators (NF-κB, TNF-α and IL-1β) were decreased in liver tissues, and the overexpression of CYP2E1 mRNA induced by ethanol treatment. LR extracts exhibited a protective effect on alcoholic liver injury and the mechanism may be associated with the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative action. PMID:27313665

  5. Effect of boric acid on oxidative stress in rats with fetal alcohol syndrome

    PubMed Central

    SOGUT, IBRAHIM; OGLAKCI, AYSEGUL; KARTKAYA, KAZIM; OL, KEVSER KUSAT; SOGUT, MELIS SAVASAN; KANBAK, GUNGOR; INAL, MINE ERDEN

    2015-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study concerning the effect of boric acid (BA) administration on fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). In this study, the aim was to investigate prenatal alcohol-induced oxidative stress on the cerebral cortex of newborn rat pups and assess the protective and beneficial effects of BA supplementation on rats with FAS. Pregnant rats were divided into three groups, namely the control, alcohol and alcohol + boric acid groups. As markers of alcohol-induced oxidative stress in the cerebral cortex of the newborn pups, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels were measured. Although the MDA levels in the alcohol group were significantly increased compared with those in the control group (P<0.05), the MDA level in the alcohol + boric acid group was shown to be significantly decreased compared with that in the alcohol group (P<0.01). The CAT activity of the alcohol + boric acid group was significantly higher than that in the alcohol group (P<0.05). The GPx activity in the alcohol group was decreased compared with that in the control group (P<0.05). These results demonstrate that alcohol is capable of triggering damage to membranes of the cerebral cortex of rat pups and BA could be influential in antioxidant mechanisms against oxidative stress resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure. PMID:25667671

  6. Acute care for alcohol intoxication. Be prepared to consider clinical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Yost, David A

    2002-12-01

    The clinical assessment of an acutely intoxicated patient should be performed with meticulous care and include repetitive examinations to properly determine the patient's condition. Multiple factors, such as trauma and concomitant use of other drugs, can confuse the diagnostic picture and affect the choice of therapy. In this article, Dr Yost reviews the diagnostic considerations, appropriate treatment, and clinic discharge for the intoxicated patient.

  7. Effect of acute ethanol administration on zebrafish tail-beat motion.

    PubMed

    Bartolini, Tiziana; Mwaffo, Violet; Butail, Sachit; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-11-01

    Zebrafish is becoming a species of choice in neurobiological and behavioral studies of alcohol-related disorders. In these efforts, the activity of adult zebrafish is typically quantified using indirect activity measures that are either scored manually or identified automatically from the fish trajectory. The analysis of such activity measures has produced important insight into the effect of acute ethanol exposure on individual and social behavior of this vertebrate species. Here, we leverage a recently developed tracking algorithm that reconstructs fish body shape to investigate the effect of acute ethanol administration on zebrafish tail-beat motion in terms of amplitude and frequency. Our results demonstrate a significant effect of ethanol on the tail-beat amplitude as well as the tail-beat frequency, both of which were found to robustly decrease for high ethanol concentrations. Such a direct measurement of zebrafish motor functions is in agreement with evidence based on indirect activity measures, offering a complementary perspective in behavioral screening.

  8. Geniposide protects against acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice via up-regulating the expression of the main antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junming; Zhang, Yueyue; Liu, Ruixin; Li, Xiaobing; Cui, Ying; Qu, Lingbo

    2015-04-01

    Geniposide (GP) is one of main compounds in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, with both medicinal and nutritional value. This study was designed to determine, for the first time, how GP from G. jasminoides protects against acute alcohol-induced liver injury, and the underlying mechanisms. Mice were orally administered alcohol (6.0 g/kg body mass) 2 h after intragastric administration of GP and bifendate, every day for 7 continuous days. Six hours after the alcohol was administered, levels of serum alanine/aspartate transaminase (ALT/AST), hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), and catalase (CAT), and mRNA expression of CuZn-SOD and CAT were assayed. The results demonstrated that GP (20.0, 40.0, or 80 mg/kg) significantly reversed the excessive, alcohol-induced elevation in both serum ALT/AST and hepatic LPO levels. Moreover, hepatic GSH, GST, GPx, CuZn-SOD, and CAT levels were all decreased in the alcohol-treated mice, whereas treatment with GP reversed these decreases. Further analysis indicated that hepatic mRNA expression of CuZn-SOD and CAT in the alcohol-treated mice was significantly down-regulated, whereas GP up-regulated such decreases. Taken together, this study shows that GP protects against acute alcohol-induced liver injury via up-regulating the expression of the main antioxidant enzymes, and thus ameliorates alcohol-induced oxidative stress injury in the liver. PMID:25730420

  9. Geniposide protects against acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice via up-regulating the expression of the main antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junming; Zhang, Yueyue; Liu, Ruixin; Li, Xiaobing; Cui, Ying; Qu, Lingbo

    2015-04-01

    Geniposide (GP) is one of main compounds in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, with both medicinal and nutritional value. This study was designed to determine, for the first time, how GP from G. jasminoides protects against acute alcohol-induced liver injury, and the underlying mechanisms. Mice were orally administered alcohol (6.0 g/kg body mass) 2 h after intragastric administration of GP and bifendate, every day for 7 continuous days. Six hours after the alcohol was administered, levels of serum alanine/aspartate transaminase (ALT/AST), hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), and catalase (CAT), and mRNA expression of CuZn-SOD and CAT were assayed. The results demonstrated that GP (20.0, 40.0, or 80 mg/kg) significantly reversed the excessive, alcohol-induced elevation in both serum ALT/AST and hepatic LPO levels. Moreover, hepatic GSH, GST, GPx, CuZn-SOD, and CAT levels were all decreased in the alcohol-treated mice, whereas treatment with GP reversed these decreases. Further analysis indicated that hepatic mRNA expression of CuZn-SOD and CAT in the alcohol-treated mice was significantly down-regulated, whereas GP up-regulated such decreases. Taken together, this study shows that GP protects against acute alcohol-induced liver injury via up-regulating the expression of the main antioxidant enzymes, and thus ameliorates alcohol-induced oxidative stress injury in the liver.

  10. Acute Alcohol Intoxication and Suicide Among U.S. Ethnic/Racial Groups: Findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Raul; Kaplan, Mark S.; Huguet, Nathalie; McFarland, Bentson H.; Conner, Kenneth; Giesbrecht, Norman; Nolte, Kurt B.

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of suicide involving acute alcohol intoxication among U.S. ethnic minorities. Methods Data were derived from the restricted 2003–2009 National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS). The study focused on the sociodemographic and toxicological information of 59,384 male and female suicide decedents for 16 states of the U.S. Acute alcohol intoxication was defined as having a blood alcohol content (BAC) ≥ 0.08 g/dl. Overall, 76% of decedents were tested for the presence of alcohol. Results The proportion of suicide decedents with a positive BAC ranged from 47% among American Indians/Alaska Natives (AIs/ANs) to 23% among Asians/Pacific Islanders (PIs). Average BAC was highest among AIs/ANs. Among those who were tested for BAC, the proportion of decedents legally intoxicated prior to suicide was: Blacks, 15%; AIs/ANs, 36%; Asians/PIs, 13%; Hispanics, 28%. Bivariate associations showed that most suicide decedents who were legally intoxicated were male, younger than 30 years of age, with a high school education, not married, non-veterans, lived in metropolitan areas, and used a firearm to complete suicide. However, with the exception of Whites, most of these associations became not statistically significant in multivariate analysis. Conclusions Alcohol use and legal intoxication prior to completing suicide are common among U.S. ethnic groups, especially among males and those who are younger than 30 years of age. The AI/AN group had the highest mean BAC, the highest rate of legal intoxication and decedents who were particularly young. Suicide prevention strategies should address alcohol use as a risk factor. Alcohol problems prevention strategies should focus on suicide as a consequence of alcohol use, especially among AI/AN youth and young adults. PMID:23384174

  11. Effect of Drug and Alcohol Education on Attitudes of High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lignell, Constance; Davidhizar, Ruth

    1991-01-01

    Examined effects of 3-week alcohol and drug education course on attitudes about alcohol and drugs in ninth grade students (n=180). Results showed mean attitude score changed in desired direction after education indicating negative feelings toward drugs and alcohol use and abuse, polydrug use, dependency, social pressure, and media pressure and…

  12. Effects of Beverage-Specific Alcohol Consumption on Drinking Behaviors among Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Reingle, Jennifer M.; Tobler, Amy L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholic beverage consumption among high school students has shifted from beer to liquor. The current longitudinal study examined the effects of beverage-specific alcohol use on drinking behaviors among urban youth. Data included 731 adolescents who participated in Project Northland Chicago and reported consuming alcohol in 7th grade. Logistic…

  13. The Effects of Education on the Attitudes of Counselors in Training toward Alcoholism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Kampen, Pamela Sue

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine the effects of education on the attitudes of counselors in training toward alcoholism. Alcoholism is a treatable disease if recognized, properly diagnosed and the appropriate interventions are made available to the alcoholic and their families. There is estimated to be more than two billion people…

  14. Effects of Beverages on Alcohol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic beverages are usually consumed accompanying alcoholic drinks, and their effects on alcohol metabolism are unclear in vivo. In this study, the effects of 20 nonalcoholic beverages on alcohol metabolism and liver injury caused by alcohol were evaluated in mice. Kunming mice were orally fed with alcohol (52%, v/v) and beverages. The concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood as well as the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in liver were assessed to indicate alcohol metabolism. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) in serum as well as the levels of malonaldehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver were measured to reflect the alcohol-induced liver injury. The results showed that the treatment of soda water, green tea and honey chrysanthemum tea could accelerate ethanol metabolism and prevent liver injuries caused by alcohol when companied with excessive alcohol drinking. They might be potential dietary supplements for the alleviation of harmful effects from excessive alcohol consumption. On the contrary, some beverages such as fresh orange juice and red bull are not advised to drink when companied with alcohol consumption due to their adverse effects on ethanol induced liver injury. PMID:27005619

  15. Effects of Beverages on Alcohol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic beverages are usually consumed accompanying alcoholic drinks, and their effects on alcohol metabolism are unclear in vivo. In this study, the effects of 20 nonalcoholic beverages on alcohol metabolism and liver injury caused by alcohol were evaluated in mice. Kunming mice were orally fed with alcohol (52%, v/v) and beverages. The concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood as well as the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in liver were assessed to indicate alcohol metabolism. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) in serum as well as the levels of malonaldehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver were measured to reflect the alcohol-induced liver injury. The results showed that the treatment of soda water, green tea and honey chrysanthemum tea could accelerate ethanol metabolism and prevent liver injuries caused by alcohol when companied with excessive alcohol drinking. They might be potential dietary supplements for the alleviation of harmful effects from excessive alcohol consumption. On the contrary, some beverages such as fresh orange juice and red bull are not advised to drink when companied with alcohol consumption due to their adverse effects on ethanol induced liver injury. PMID:27005619

  16. Effects of Beverages on Alcohol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic beverages are usually consumed accompanying alcoholic drinks, and their effects on alcohol metabolism are unclear in vivo. In this study, the effects of 20 nonalcoholic beverages on alcohol metabolism and liver injury caused by alcohol were evaluated in mice. Kunming mice were orally fed with alcohol (52%, v/v) and beverages. The concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood as well as the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in liver were assessed to indicate alcohol metabolism. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) in serum as well as the levels of malonaldehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver were measured to reflect the alcohol-induced liver injury. The results showed that the treatment of soda water, green tea and honey chrysanthemum tea could accelerate ethanol metabolism and prevent liver injuries caused by alcohol when companied with excessive alcohol drinking. They might be potential dietary supplements for the alleviation of harmful effects from excessive alcohol consumption. On the contrary, some beverages such as fresh orange juice and red bull are not advised to drink when companied with alcohol consumption due to their adverse effects on ethanol induced liver injury.

  17. The Anticipated Effects of Alcohol Scale: Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Novel Assessment Tool for Measuring Alcohol Expectancies

    PubMed Central

    Morean, Meghan E.; Corbin, William R.; Treat, Teresa A.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol expectancy (AEs) research has enhanced our understanding of how anticipated alcohol effects confer risk for heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. However, extant AE measures have limitations within one or more of the following areas: assessing a comprehensive range of effects, specifying the hypothetical number of drinks consumed, assessing AEs by limb of the blood alcohol curve (BAC), and/or psychometric evaluation. Building upon the strengths of existing measures, we employed conceptual and statistical advances in measurement development to create the novel, psychometrically-sound Anticipated Effects of Alcohol Scale (AEAS). Unique to this study, pilot data ensured that the SEAS comprised a comprehensive sampling of effects that varied in valence (positive/negative) and arousal (low/high) and were identified as plausible outcomes of drinking. The AEAS specified the number of drinks individuals imagined consuming (adjusted for sex) and the hypothetical drinking episode length (2 hours). AEs were also assessed separately by BAC limb. For validation purposes, the AEAS was included in several survey studies of young adults (ages 18-30). The validity argument for the proposed interpretation of AEAS test scores was based upon the following: 1) exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (N=546) identified a 22-item, 4-factor internal structure, categorizing alcohol effects into quadrants (high/low arousal crossed with positive/negative valence); 2) scalar measurement invariance was established for BAC limb, sex, and binge drinking status; 3) convergence/divergence was observed with alternative AEs measures and mood; and 4) test-criterion relationships were observed with several alcohol-related outcomes. The reliability argument was based on test-retest and internal consistency coefficients. PMID:22708572

  18. The Effect of Religiosity and Campus Alcohol Culture on Collegiate Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Gayle M.

    2010-01-01

    Religiosity and campus culture were examined in relationship to alcohol consumption among college students using reference group theory. Participants and Methods: College students (N = 530) at a religious college and at a state university complete questionnaires on alcohol use and religiosity. Statistical tests and logistic regression were…

  19. Effects of Interpretations of Televised Alcohol Portrayals on Children's Alcohol Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Erica Weintraub; Meili, Heidi Kay

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a model of television interpretation processes regarding the influences of alcohol advertising and describes a study that tested the model with preadolescent at-risk students. Highlights include perceptions of alcohol use at home and on television; social norms; perceived realism of commercials; and intent to drink. (41 references) (LRW)

  20. Subgroup-dependent effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in outbred Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Roman, Erika

    2014-12-15

    Experimental animal models are critical for understanding the genetic, environmental and neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol use disorders. Limited studies investigate alcohol-induced effects on behavior using free-choice paradigms. The aims of the present experiment were to study voluntary alcohol intake using a modified intermittent access paradigm, investigate the effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in water- and alcohol-drinking rats, and select extreme low- and high-drinking animals for a more detailed behavioral characterization. Sixty outbred male Wistar rats were randomized into water and alcohol groups. Behavioral profiles in the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test were assessed prior to and after voluntary alcohol intake. The animals had intermittent access to 20% alcohol and water for three consecutive days per week for seven weeks. The results revealed increased alcohol intake over time. No major alcohol-induced differences on behavior profiles were found when comparing water- and alcohol-drinking animals. The high-drinking animals displayed an alcohol deprivation effect, which was not found in the low-drinking animals. High-drinking rats had lower risk-taking behavior prior to alcohol access and lower anxiety-like behavior after voluntary alcohol intake compared to low-drinking rats. In conclusion, the modified intermittent access paradigm may be useful for pharmacological manipulation of alcohol intake. With regard to behavior, the present findings highlights the importance of studying subgroup-dependent differences and add to the complexity of individual differences in behavioral traits of relevance to the vulnerability for excessive alcohol intake. PMID:25200519

  1. Subgroup-dependent effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in outbred Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Roman, Erika

    2014-12-15

    Experimental animal models are critical for understanding the genetic, environmental and neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol use disorders. Limited studies investigate alcohol-induced effects on behavior using free-choice paradigms. The aims of the present experiment were to study voluntary alcohol intake using a modified intermittent access paradigm, investigate the effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in water- and alcohol-drinking rats, and select extreme low- and high-drinking animals for a more detailed behavioral characterization. Sixty outbred male Wistar rats were randomized into water and alcohol groups. Behavioral profiles in the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test were assessed prior to and after voluntary alcohol intake. The animals had intermittent access to 20% alcohol and water for three consecutive days per week for seven weeks. The results revealed increased alcohol intake over time. No major alcohol-induced differences on behavior profiles were found when comparing water- and alcohol-drinking animals. The high-drinking animals displayed an alcohol deprivation effect, which was not found in the low-drinking animals. High-drinking rats had lower risk-taking behavior prior to alcohol access and lower anxiety-like behavior after voluntary alcohol intake compared to low-drinking rats. In conclusion, the modified intermittent access paradigm may be useful for pharmacological manipulation of alcohol intake. With regard to behavior, the present findings highlights the importance of studying subgroup-dependent differences and add to the complexity of individual differences in behavioral traits of relevance to the vulnerability for excessive alcohol intake.

  2. A Novel Cholinergic Action of Alcohol and the Development of Tolerance to That Effect in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Edward G.; Martin, Ian; Kondo, Lindsay M.; Judy, Meredith E.; Brings, Victoria E.; Chan, Chung-Lung; Blackwell, GinaMari G.; Bettinger, Jill C.; Davies, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the genes and mechanisms involved in acute alcohol responses has the potential to allow us to predict an individual’s predisposition to developing an alcohol use disorder. To better understand the molecular pathways involved in the activating effects of alcohol and the acute functional tolerance that can develop to such effects, we characterized a novel ethanol-induced hypercontraction response displayed by Caenorhabditis elegans. We compared body size of animals prior to and during ethanol treatment and showed that acute exposure to ethanol produced a concentration-dependent decrease in size followed by recovery to their untreated size by 40 min despite continuous treatment. An increase in cholinergic signaling, leading to muscle hypercontraction, is implicated in this effect because pretreatment with mecamylamine, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, blocked ethanol-induced hypercontraction, as did mutations causing defects in cholinergic signaling (cha-1 and unc-17). Analysis of mutations affecting specific subunits of nAChRs excluded a role for the ACR-2R, the ACR-16R, and the levamisole-sensitive AChR and indicated that this excitation effect is dependent on an uncharacterized nAChR that contains the UNC-63 α-subunit. We performed a forward genetic screen and identified eg200, a mutation that affects a conserved glycine in EAT-6, the α-subunit of the Na+/K+ ATPase. The eat-6(eg200) mutant fails to develop tolerance to ethanol-induced hypercontraction and remains contracted for at least 3 hr of continuous ethanol exposure. These data suggest that cholinergic signaling through a specific α-subunit-containing nAChR is involved in ethanol-induced excitation and that tolerance to this ethanol effect is modulated by Na+/K+ ATPase function. PMID:25342716

  3. A novel cholinergic action of alcohol and the development of tolerance to that effect in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Edward G; Martin, Ian; Kondo, Lindsay M; Judy, Meredith E; Brings, Victoria E; Chan, Chung-Lung; Blackwell, GinaMari G; Bettinger, Jill C; Davies, Andrew G

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the genes and mechanisms involved in acute alcohol responses has the potential to allow us to predict an individual's predisposition to developing an alcohol use disorder. To better understand the molecular pathways involved in the activating effects of alcohol and the acute functional tolerance that can develop to such effects, we characterized a novel ethanol-induced hypercontraction response displayed by Caenorhabditis elegans. We compared body size of animals prior to and during ethanol treatment and showed that acute exposure to ethanol produced a concentration-dependent decrease in size followed by recovery to their untreated size by 40 min despite continuous treatment. An increase in cholinergic signaling, leading to muscle hypercontraction, is implicated in this effect because pretreatment with mecamylamine, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, blocked ethanol-induced hypercontraction, as did mutations causing defects in cholinergic signaling (cha-1 and unc-17). Analysis of mutations affecting specific subunits of nAChRs excluded a role for the ACR-2R, the ACR-16R, and the levamisole-sensitive AChR and indicated that this excitation effect is dependent on an uncharacterized nAChR that contains the UNC-63 α-subunit. We performed a forward genetic screen and identified eg200, a mutation that affects a conserved glycine in EAT-6, the α-subunit of the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase. The eat-6(eg200) mutant fails to develop tolerance to ethanol-induced hypercontraction and remains contracted for at least 3 hr of continuous ethanol exposure. These data suggest that cholinergic signaling through a specific α-subunit-containing nAChR is involved in ethanol-induced excitation and that tolerance to this ethanol effect is modulated by Na(+)/K(+) ATPase function.

  4. Decreased effective connectivity in the visuomotor system after alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Luchtmann, Michael; Jachau, Katja; Adolf, Daniela; Baecke, Sebastian; Lützkendorf, Ralf; Müller, Charles; Tempelmann, Claus; Bernarding, Johannes

    2013-05-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allows observing cerebral activity not only in separated cortical regions but also in functionally coupled cortical networks. Although moderate doses of ethanol slowdown the neurovascular coupling, the functions of the primary sensorimotor and the visual system remain intact. Yet little is known about how more complex interactions between cortical regions are affected even at moderate doses of alcohol. Therefore the method of psychophysiological interaction (PPI) was applied to analyze ethanol-induced effects on the effective connectivity in the visuomotor system. Fourteen healthy social drinkers with no personal history of neurological disorders or substance abuse were examined. In a test/re-test design they served as their own controls by participating in both the sober and the ethanol condition. All participants were scanned in a 3 T MR scanner before and after ingestion of a body-weight-dependent amount of ethanol calculated to achieve a blood alcohol concentration of 1.0‰. PPIs were calculated for the primary visual cortex, the supplementary motor area, and the left and right primary motor cortex using the statistical software package SPM. The PPI analysis showed selective disturbance of the effective connectivity between different cortical areas. The regression analysis revealed the influence of the supplementary motor area on connected regions like the primary motor cortex to be decreased yet preserved. However, the connection between the primary visual cortex and the posterior parietal cortex was more severely impaired by the influence of ethanol, leading to an uncoupled regression between these regions. The decreased effective connectivity in the visuomotor system suggests that complex tasks requiring interaction or synchronization between different brain areas are affected even at moderate levels of alcohol. This finding may have important consequences for determining which components of demanding tasks such

  5. The Effects of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease on Forensic Breath Alcohol Testing.

    PubMed

    Booker, James L; Renfroe, Kathryn

    2015-11-01

    Fifteen test subjects, 10 of whom were diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), were dosed with alcohol to BACs above 0.150 g/dL. Blood and breath assays taken at 20-min intervals for 8 h after dosing demonstrated close agreement between postabsorptive BAC and BrAC values. Three subjects exhibited elevated breath alcohol concentrations up to 0.105 g/dL during the absorptive phase that were apparently due to the passage of gastric alcohol through the lower esophageal sphincter not attributable to eruction or regurgitation. The effect of gastric alcohol was not consistently proportional to the amount of unabsorbed gastric alcohol. Absorption of alcohol in the esophagus explains the nonproportionality. Breath samples contaminated by GERD-related alcohol leakage from the stomach into a breath sample were found only when there was a high concentration of alcohol in the stomach. When contaminated breath samples were encountered, they were irreproducible in magnitude.

  6. Nutraceutical strategies for ameliorating the toxic effects of alcohol.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F

    2013-04-01

    Rodent studies reveal that oxidative stress, much of it generated via induction/activation of NADPH oxidase, is a key mediator of a number of the pathogenic effects of chronic ethanol overconsumption. The highly reactive ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde is a key driver of this oxidative stress, and doubtless works in other ways to promote alcohol-induced pathology. Effective antioxidant measure may therefore be useful for mitigating the adverse health consequences of alcohol consumption; spirulina may have particular utility in this regard, as its chief phycochemical phycocyanobilin has recently been shown to function as an inhibitor of certain NADPH oxidase complexes, mimicking the physiological role of its chemical relatives biliverdin/bilirubin in this respect. Moreover, certain nutraceuticals, including taurine, pantethine, and lipoic acid, may have the potential to boost the activity of the mitochondrial isoform of aldehyde dehydrogenase, ALDH-2, accelerating conversion of acetaldehyde to acetate (which arguably has protective health effects). Little noticed clinical studies conducted nearly three decades ago reported that pre-ingestion of either taurine or pantethine could blunt the rise in blood acetaldehyde following ethanol consumption. Other evidence suggests that lipoic acid may function within mitochondria to maintain aldehyde dehydrogenase in a reduced active conformation; the impact of this agent on ethanol metabolism has however received little or no study. Studies evaluating the impact of nutracetical strategies on prevention of hangovers - which likely are mediated by acetaldehyde - may represent a quick, low-cost way to identify nutraceutical regimens that merit further attention for their potential impact on alcohol-induced pathology. Measures which boost or preserve ALDH-2 activity may also have important antioxidant potential, as this enzyme functions physiologically to protect cells from toxic aldehydes generated by oxidant stress. PMID

  7. Understanding alcohol expectancy effects: revisiting the placebo condition.

    PubMed

    Testa, Maria; Fillmore, Mark T; Norris, Jeanette; Abbey, Antonia; Curtin, John J; Leonard, Kenneth E; Mariano, Kristin A; Thomas, Margaret C; Nomensen, Kim J; George, William H; Vanzile-Tamsen, Carol; Livingston, Jennifer A; Saenz, Christopher; Buck, Philip O; Zawacki, Tina; Parkhill, Michele R; Jacques, Angela J; Hayman, Lenwood W

    2006-02-01

    This article summarizes a symposium organized and cochaired by Maria Testa and presented at the 2005 Annual Meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism, in Santa Barbara, California. The symposium explored issues relevant to understanding the function of placebo conditions and to interpreting placebo effects. Cochair Mark Fillmore began with an overview of the use of placebo conditions in alcohol research, focusing on methodological issues. Jeanette Norris and her colleagues conducted a review of studies examining placebo conditions among women. They conclude that expectancy effects are limited to a few domains. Maria Testa and Antonia Abbey presented papers suggesting that placebo manipulations may result in unanticipated compensatory effects in actual or hypothetical social situations. That is, placebo participants may compensate for anticipated cognitive impairment through vigilant attention to situational cues. John Curtin's research suggests that the compensatory strategies of placebo participants appear to involve a sensitization of evaluative control, resulting in improved performance. Kenneth Leonard provided concluding remarks on the meaning of placebo effects and the value of placebo conditions in research.

  8. Nonhuman primate model of alcohol abuse: effects of early experience, personality, and stress on alcohol consumption.

    PubMed Central

    Higley, J D; Hasert, M F; Suomi, S J; Linnoila, M

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-two 50-month-old rhesus monkeys were provided concurrent free access to an aspartame-sweetened 7% ethanol solution and an aspartame-sweetened vehicle before, during, and after social separation. Subjects had been reared for their first 6 months of life either without access to adults but with constant access to age mates (peer reared), a condition producing reduced exploration and increased fear-related behaviors, or as controls with their mothers; thereafter, all subjects received identical treatment. During home-cage periods, for 1 hr each day, 4 days a week, when the ethanol solution and vehicle were freely available, peer-reared subjects consumed significantly more alcohol than mother-reared subjects. When stress was increased via social separation, mother-reared animals increased their alcohol consumption to a level nearly as high as that of peer-reared monkeys. Average individual differences in alcohol consumption were markedly stable over time. In addition, there were strong positive correlations between alcohol consumption and distress behaviors. Biological indices of increased stress, such as plasma cortisol and corticotropin, were higher in peer-reared subjects. Within the peer- and mother-reared groups, these indices were positively correlated with alcohol consumption. The results suggest that early rearing experiences that predispose monkeys to increased fear-related behaviors produce excessive alcohol consumption under normal living conditions. Furthermore, a major challenge such as social separation increases alcohol consumption to levels producing intoxication even in monkeys not particularly vulnerable to stress. Images PMID:1871131

  9. Nonhuman primate model of alcohol abuse: effects of early experience, personality, and stress on alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Higley, J D; Hasert, M F; Suomi, S J; Linnoila, M

    1991-08-15

    Twenty-two 50-month-old rhesus monkeys were provided concurrent free access to an aspartame-sweetened 7% ethanol solution and an aspartame-sweetened vehicle before, during, and after social separation. Subjects had been reared for their first 6 months of life either without access to adults but with constant access to age mates (peer reared), a condition producing reduced exploration and increased fear-related behaviors, or as controls with their mothers; thereafter, all subjects received identical treatment. During home-cage periods, for 1 hr each day, 4 days a week, when the ethanol solution and vehicle were freely available, peer-reared subjects consumed significantly more alcohol than mother-reared subjects. When stress was increased via social separation, mother-reared animals increased their alcohol consumption to a level nearly as high as that of peer-reared monkeys. Average individual differences in alcohol consumption were markedly stable over time. In addition, there were strong positive correlations between alcohol consumption and distress behaviors. Biological indices of increased stress, such as plasma cortisol and corticotropin, were higher in peer-reared subjects. Within the peer- and mother-reared groups, these indices were positively correlated with alcohol consumption. The results suggest that early rearing experiences that predispose monkeys to increased fear-related behaviors produce excessive alcohol consumption under normal living conditions. Furthermore, a major challenge such as social separation increases alcohol consumption to levels producing intoxication even in monkeys not particularly vulnerable to stress.

  10. Alcohol and Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  11. Ameliorative Effects of 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) from Schisandra chinensis on Alcoholic Liver Oxidative Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Qu, Xin-Nan; Han, Ye; Zheng, Si-Wen; Wang, Jia; Wang, Ying-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the protective effect of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) on acute alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury in mice. 5-HMF, a maillard reaction product, was isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis for animal experiments. Experimental ICR mice were pretreated with different doses of 5-HMF (7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg) for seven days by gavage feeding. Biochemical markers and enzymatic antioxidants from serum and liver tissue were examined. Our results showed that the activities of ALT (alanine aminotransferase), AST (aspartate transaminase), TC (total cholesterol), TG (triglyceride), L-DLC (low density lipoprotein) in serum and the levels of MDA (malondialdehyde) in liver tissue, decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the 5-HMF-treated group compared with the alcohol group. On the contrary, enzymatic antioxidants CAT (catalase), GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase), and GSH SOD (superoxide dismutase) were markedly elevated in liver tissue treated with 5-HMF (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the hepatic levels of pro-inflammatory response marker tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were significantly suppressed (p < 0.05). Histopathological examination revealed that 5-HMF (30 mg/kg) pretreatment noticeably prevented alcohol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and fatty degeneration. It is suggested that the hepatoprotective effects exhibited by 5-HMF on alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury may be due to its potent antioxidant properties. PMID:25622257

  12. Ameliorative effects of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) from Schisandra chinensis on alcoholic liver oxidative injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Qu, Xin-Nan; Han, Ye; Zheng, Si-Wen; Wang, Jia; Wang, Ying-Ping

    2015-01-22

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the protective effect of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) on acute alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury in mice. 5-HMF, a maillard reaction product, was isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis for animal experiments. Experimental ICR mice were pretreated with different doses of 5-HMF (7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg) for seven days by gavage feeding. Biochemical markers and enzymatic antioxidants from serum and liver tissue were examined. Our results showed that the activities of ALT (alanine aminotransferase), AST (aspartate transaminase), TC (total cholesterol), TG (triglyceride), L-DLC (low density lipoprotein) in serum and the levels of MDA (malondialdehyde) in liver tissue, decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the 5-HMF-treated group compared with the alcohol group. On the contrary, enzymatic antioxidants CAT (catalase), GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase), and GSH SOD (superoxide dismutase) were markedly elevated in liver tissue treated with 5-HMF (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the hepatic levels of pro-inflammatory response marker tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were significantly suppressed (p < 0.05). Histopathological examination revealed that 5-HMF (30 mg/kg) pretreatment noticeably prevented alcohol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and fatty degeneration. It is suggested that the hepatoprotective effects exhibited by 5-HMF on alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury may be due to its potent antioxidant properties.

  13. Alcoholic myopathy: lack of effect of zinc supplementation.

    PubMed

    Durán Castellón, M C; González-Reimers, E; López-Lirola, A; Martín Olivera, R; Santolaria-Fernández, F; Galindo-Martín, L; Abreu-González, P; González-Hernández, T

    2005-09-01

    A chronic form of myopathy has been described in alcoholics, characterized by atrophy of type II fibers, due both to reduced protein synthesis and increased protein breakdown. Increased production of reactive oxygen species could probably play a role in increased protein breakdown. In addition, treatment with zinc might be beneficial, since it acts as a cofactor of several enzymes involved in the synthesis of proteins and antioxidants as copper-zinc-superoxidedismutase (SOD) and selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPX). Based on these facts, we analyze the relative and combined effects of ethanol, protein malnutrition and treatment with zinc, 227 mg/l in form of zinc sulphate, on muscle changes in 8 groups of adult Sprague-Dawley rats fed following the Lieber-de Carli model during 5 weeks. We also study the association between muscle histological changes and the activity of GPX, SOD and lipid peroxidation products (MDA), with hormones such as IGF-1, and with trace elements involved in antioxidant systems and/or in lipid peroxidation, such as selenium, copper, zinc, and iron. We found type IIa and IIb fiber atrophy in the alcoholic animals, especially in the low-protein fed ones. This effect was mainly due to protein deficiency. Zinc played no role at all. Muscle iron increased in ethanol, low protein fed rats, either with or without zinc, and was directly related with muscle MDA levels, which in turn were related with muscle atrophy, as was also found for serum IGF-1 levels. Ethanol was the main responsible for all these changes, although protein undernutrition also played an independent role in MDA levels. A positive interaction between ethanol and protein deficiency on serum IGF-1 was also detected. These results suggest that both protein deficiency and ethanol contribute to muscle atrophy observed in alcoholized rats; this atrophy is associated with increased lipid peroxidation and muscle iron overload. Treatment with zinc sulphate confers no benefit.

  14. Effects of dose and time on the ability of alcohol to prime social drinkers.

    PubMed

    Rose, Abigail K; Duka, Theodora

    2006-02-01

    Interoceptive drug cues, through associations with the drug's reinforcing properties, may act as conditioned stimuli and elicit conditioned responses. For instance, a dose of alcohol, given to alcohol-experienced people, can lead to an enhancement of alcohol drinking, a phenomenon known as the priming effect. The present study aimed to investigate the alcohol priming effect in non-dependent social drinkers with respect to the dose of alcohol preload and the time of testing after preload. Fifteen social drinkers participated in five daily consecutive sessions. On days 1 and 2 (training sessions), participants consumed a 500 ml beverage of either 0.6 g/kg of alcohol or placebo (50 ml aliquots) presented in 10 colour-coded cups. During days 3, 4 and 5 (testing sessions), a preload of placebo, 0.3 or 0.6 g/kg of alcohol was given (in randomized sequence) in 10 opaque colourless cups. Thirty, 60 and 90 min following the preload, participants responded to an imagery script referring to the drinks sampled at training including a question on the number of aliquots participants would consume from each of the drinks if given the opportunity (hypothetical choice). Participants completed questionnaires evaluating mood and alcohol desires at baseline (before the beverages were given) and after the hypothetical choice. The hypothetical choice showed significant interactions between dose and time: the greatest number of alcohol aliquots were wanted 30 min following the 0.6 g/kg dose of alcohol preload. Ratings from the Desires for Alcohol Questionnaire also showed that alcohol desires peaked 30 min following the 0.6 g/kg of alcohol preload. These data support previous evidence that priming with alcohol can occur and indicate that dose of, and time after preload might affect the strength of, the priming effect for alcohol-related behaviours.

  15. Effects of dose and time on the ability of alcohol to prime social drinkers.

    PubMed

    Rose, Abigail K; Duka, Theodora

    2006-02-01

    Interoceptive drug cues, through associations with the drug's reinforcing properties, may act as conditioned stimuli and elicit conditioned responses. For instance, a dose of alcohol, given to alcohol-experienced people, can lead to an enhancement of alcohol drinking, a phenomenon known as the priming effect. The present study aimed to investigate the alcohol priming effect in non-dependent social drinkers with respect to the dose of alcohol preload and the time of testing after preload. Fifteen social drinkers participated in five daily consecutive sessions. On days 1 and 2 (training sessions), participants consumed a 500 ml beverage of either 0.6 g/kg of alcohol or placebo (50 ml aliquots) presented in 10 colour-coded cups. During days 3, 4 and 5 (testing sessions), a preload of placebo, 0.3 or 0.6 g/kg of alcohol was given (in randomized sequence) in 10 opaque colourless cups. Thirty, 60 and 90 min following the preload, participants responded to an imagery script referring to the drinks sampled at training including a question on the number of aliquots participants would consume from each of the drinks if given the opportunity (hypothetical choice). Participants completed questionnaires evaluating mood and alcohol desires at baseline (before the beverages were given) and after the hypothetical choice. The hypothetical choice showed significant interactions between dose and time: the greatest number of alcohol aliquots were wanted 30 min following the 0.6 g/kg dose of alcohol preload. Ratings from the Desires for Alcohol Questionnaire also showed that alcohol desires peaked 30 min following the 0.6 g/kg of alcohol preload. These data support previous evidence that priming with alcohol can occur and indicate that dose of, and time after preload might affect the strength of, the priming effect for alcohol-related behaviours. PMID:16377964

  16. Mechanisms of Acute Alcohol Intoxication-Induced Modulation of Cyclic Mobilization of [Ca2+] in Rat Mesenteric Lymphatic Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Kerut, Edmund K.; Breslin, Jerome W.; Molina, Patricia E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: We have demonstrated that acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) increases the magnitude of Ca2+ transients in pumping lymphatic vessels. We tested the contribution of extracellular Ca2+ via L-type Ca2+ channels and intracellular Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) to the AAI-induced increase in Ca2+ transients. Methods and Results: AAI was produced by intragastric administration of 30% alcohol to conscious, unrestrained rats; isovolumic administration of water served as the control. Mesenteric lymphatic vessels were isolated, cannulated, and loaded with Fura-2 AM to measure changes in intracellular Ca2+. Measurements were made at intraluminal pressures of 2, 6, and 10 cm H2O. L-type Ca2+ channels were blocked with nifedipine; IP-3 receptors were inhibited with xestospongin C; and SR Ca2+ release and Ca2+ pool (Ca2+ free APSS) were achieved using caffeine. Nifedipine reduced lymphatic Ca2+ transient magnitude in both AAI and control groups at all pressures tested, but reduced lymphatic contraction frequency only in the control group. Xestospongin C did not significantly change any of the Ca2+ parameters in either group; however, fractional shortening increased in the controls at low transmural pressure. RyR (ryanodine receptor) activation with caffeine resulted in a single contraction with a greater Ca2+ transient in lymphatics from AAI than those from controls. SR Ca2+ pool was also greater in lymphatics isolated from AAI- than from control animals. Conclusions: These data suggest that 1) L-type Ca2+ channels contribute to the AAI-induced increase in lymphatic Ca2+ transient, 2) blockage of IP-3 receptors could increase calcium sensitivity, and 3) AAI increases Ca2+ storage in the SR in lymphatic vessels. PMID:26056854

  17. Ethnic differences in alcohol treatment outcomes and the effect of concurrent smoking cessation treatment.

    PubMed

    Fu, Steven S; Kodl, Molly; Willenbring, Mark; Nelson, David B; Nugent, Sean; Gravely, Amy A; Joseph, Anne M

    2008-01-01

    The Timing of Alcohol and Smoking Cessation (TASC) Study tested the optimal timing of smoking cessation treatment in an alcohol-dependent population. Previously reported results suggest that providing concurrent smoking cessation treatment adversely affects alcohol outcomes. The purpose of this analysis was to investigate whether there are ethnic differences in alcohol and tobacco outcomes among a diverse sample of alcohol-dependent smokers using data from the TASC trial in which 499 participants were randomized to either concurrent (during alcohol treatment) or delayed (6 months later) smoking intervention. This analysis focused on smokers of Caucasian (n=381) and African American (n=78) ethnicity. Alcohol outcomes included 6 months sustained alcohol abstinence rates and time to first use of alcohol post-treatment. Tobacco outcomes included 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence. Random effects logistic regression analysis was used to investigate intervention group and ethnic differences in the longitudinally assessed alcohol outcomes. Alcohol abstinence outcomes were consistently worse in the concurrent group than the delayed group among Caucasians, but this was not the case for African Americans. No significant ethnic differences were observed in smoking cessation outcomes. Findings from this analysis suggest that concurrent smoking cessation treatment adversely affects alcohol outcomes for Caucasians but not necessarily for African Americans.

  18. Effect of resveratrol on alcohol-induced mortality and liver lesions in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bujanda, Luis; García-Barcina, María; Juan, Virginia Gutiérrez-de; Bidaurrazaga, Joseba; de Luco, Marian Fernández; Gutiérrez-Stampa, Marian; Larzabal, Mikel; Hijona, Elisabeth; Sarasqueta, Cristina; Echenique-Elizondo, Miguel; Arenas, Juan I

    2006-01-01

    Background Resveratrol is a polyphenol with important antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties. We investigated the effect of resveratrol on alcohol-induced mortality and liver lesions in mice. Methods Mice were randomly distributed into four groups (control, resveratrol-treated control, alcohol and resveratrol-treated alcohol). Chronic alcohol intoxication was induced by progressively administering alcohol in drinking water up to 40% v/v. The mice administered resveratrol received 10 mg/ml in drinking water. The animals had free access to standard diet. Blood levels were determined for transaminases, IL-1 and TNF-α. A histological evaluation was made of liver damage, and survival among the animals was recorded. Results Transaminase concentration was significantly higher in the alcohol group than in the rest of the groups (p < 0.05). IL-1 levels were significantly reduced in the alcohol plus resveratrol group compared with the alcohol group (p < 0.05). TNF-α was not detected in any group. Histologically, the liver lesions were more severe in the alcohol group, though no significant differences between groups were observed. Mortality in the alcohol group was 78% in the seventh week, versus 22% in the alcohol plus resveratrol group (p < 0.001). All mice in the alcohol group died before the ninth week. Conclusion The results obtained suggest that resveratrol reduces mortality and liver damage in mice. PMID:17105669

  19. Caffeinated Alcoholic Beverages - An Emerging Trend in Alcohol Abuse.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Kelle M; Hauser, Sheketha R; Bell, Richard L; Engleman, Eric A

    2013-08-20

    Alcohol use disorders are pervasive in society and their impact affects quality of life, morbidity and mortality, as well as individual productivity. Alcohol has detrimental effects on an individual's physiology and nervous system, and is associated with disorders of many organ and endocrine systems impacting an individual's health, behavior, and ability to interact with others. Youth are particularly affected. Unfortunately, adolescent usage also increases the probability for a progression to dependence. Several areas of research indicate that the deleterious effects of alcohol abuse may be exacerbated by mixing caffeine with alcohol. Some behavioral evidence suggests that caffeine increases alcohol drinking and binge drinking episodes, which in turn can foster the development of alcohol dependence. As a relatively new public health concern, the epidemiological focus has been to establish a need for investigating the effects of caffeinated alcohol. While the trend of co-consuming these substances is growing, knowledge of the central mechanisms associated with caffeinated ethanol has been lacking. Research suggests that caffeine and ethanol can have additive or synergistic pharmacological actions and neuroadaptations, with the adenosine and dopamine systems in particular implicated. However, the limited literature on the central effects of caffeinated ethanol provides an impetus to increase our knowledge of the neuroadaptive effects of this combination and their impact on cognition and behavior. Research from our laboratories indicates that an established rodent animal model of alcoholism can be extended to investigate the acute and chronic effects of caffeinated ethanol. PMID:25419478

  20. Caffeinated Alcoholic Beverages – An Emerging Trend in Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Kelle M; Hauser, Sheketha R; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders are pervasive in society and their impact affects quality of life, morbidity and mortality, as well as individual productivity. Alcohol has detrimental effects on an individual’s physiology and nervous system, and is associated with disorders of many organ and endocrine systems impacting an individual’s health, behavior, and ability to interact with others. Youth are particularly affected. Unfortunately, adolescent usage also increases the probability for a progression to dependence. Several areas of research indicate that the deleterious effects of alcohol abuse may be exacerbated by mixing caffeine with alcohol. Some behavioral evidence suggests that caffeine increases alcohol drinking and binge drinking episodes, which in turn can foster the development of alcohol dependence. As a relatively new public health concern, the epidemiological focus has been to establish a need for investigating the effects of caffeinated alcohol. While the trend of co-consuming these substances is growing, knowledge of the central mechanisms associated with caffeinated ethanol has been lacking. Research suggests that caffeine and ethanol can have additive or synergistic pharmacological actions and neuroadaptations, with the adenosine and dopamine systems in particular implicated. However, the limited literature on the central effects of caffeinated ethanol provides an impetus to increase our knowledge of the neuroadaptive effects of this combination and their impact on cognition and behavior. Research from our laboratories indicates that an established rodent animal model of alcoholism can be extended to investigate the acute and chronic effects of caffeinated ethanol. PMID:25419478

  1. Nicotine administration in the wake-promoting basal forebrain attenuates sleep-promoting effects of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rishi; Lodhi, Shafi; Sahota, Pradeep; Thakkar, Mahesh M

    2015-10-01

    Nicotine and alcohol co-abuse is highly prevalent, although the underlying causes are unclear. It has been suggested that nicotine enhances pleasurable effects of alcohol while reducing aversive effects. Recently, we reported that nicotine acts via the basal forebrain (BF) to activate nucleus accumbens and increase alcohol consumption. Does nicotine suppress alcohol-induced aversive effects via the BF? We hypothesized that nicotine may act via the BF to suppress sleep-promoting effects of alcohol. To test this hypothesis, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with sleep-recording electrodes and bilateral guides targeted toward the BF. Nicotine (75 pmol/500 nL/side) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF; 500 nL/side) was microinjected into the BF followed by intragastric alcohol (ACSF + EtOH and NiC + EtOH groups; 3 g/kg) or water (NiC + W and ACSF + W groups; 10 mL/kg) administration. On completion, rats were killed and processed to localize injection sites in the BF. The statistical analysis revealed a significant effect of treatment on sleep-wakefulness. While rats exposed to alcohol (ACSF + EtOH) displayed strong sleep promotion, nicotine pre-treatment in the BF (NiC + EtOH) attenuated alcohol-induced sleep and normalized sleep-wakefulness. These results suggest that nicotine acts via the BF to suppress the aversive, sleep-promoting effects of alcohol, further supporting the role of BF in alcohol-nicotine co-use.

  2. Effect of alcohol on behavioral and autonomic thermoregulation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, C.J.; Stead, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    Male, BALB/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with ethyl alcohol (ethanol) in dosages of 0, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 g/kg and then placed in a temperature gradient that permitted the measurement of preferred ambient temperature (Ta). The 3 g/kg dosage of ethanol resulted in a slight lowering of the preferred Ta during the first 30 min of placement in the gradient. However, there was no overall statistically significant effect of alcohol dosage on preferred Ta. In another experiment, BALB/c mice were treated with the aforementioned ethanol dosages while metabolic rate (MR), evaporative water loss (EWL), and colonic temperature were measured 60 min post-injection at Ta's of 20, 30, and 35 C a dosage of 3 g/kg caused a significant decrease in MR, EWL, and colonic temperature. At a Ta of 30 C this same dosage caused significant reduction in colonic temperature, however; at Ta of 35 C ethanol had no effect on these parameters. In spite of the significant decrease in colonic temperature at a Ta of 30 C, which approximates the normal preferred Ta, the behavioral thermal preference was marginally affected. It is not clear whether or not ethanol injection results in a decrease in the set-point body temperature.

  3. Monsters, Monkeys, & Mandalas: Art Therapy with Children Experiencing the Effects of Trauma and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerteisen, June

    2008-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is an umbrella term that describes the range of effects associated with the diagnoses of Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). FASD itself is not a diagnosis, but rather encompasses a wide range of symptomatic behaviors that occur in an individual whose mother drank alcohol during…

  4. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... varies. Almost none of these babies have normal brain development. Infants and children with fetal alcohol syndrome have many different problems, which can be ...

  5. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such ... alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, ...

  6. Effects of the benzodiazepine GABAA α1-preferring ligand, 3-propoxy-β-carboline hydrochloride (3-PBC), on alcohol seeking and self-administration in baboons

    PubMed Central

    Kaminski, Barbara J.; Van Linn, Michael L.; Cook, James M.; Yin, Wenyuan; Weerts, Elise M.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale The various α subtypes of GABAA receptors have been strongly implicated in alcohol reinforcement and consumption. Objectives The effects of the GABAA α1-preferring ligand, 3-propoxy-β-carboline hydrochloride (3-PBC), on seeking and self-administration responses were evaluated in two groups of baboons trained under a 3 component chained schedule of reinforcement (CSR). Methods Alcohol (4% w/v; n=5; alcohol group) or a preferred non-alcoholic beverage (n=4; control group) was available for self-administration only in component 3 of the CSR. Responses in component 2 provided indices of motivation to drink (seeking). 3-PBC (1.0 – 30.0 mg/kg) and saline were administered before drinking sessions under both acute and 5-day dosing conditions. Results Repeated, and not acute, doses of 3-PBC significantly decreased total self-administration responses (p<0.05), volume consumed (p<0.05) and g/kg of alcohol (p<0.05) in the alcohol group. In the control group, 5-day administration of 3-PBC significantly decreased total self-administration responses (p<0.05) but produced nonsignificant decreases in volume consumed. Within-session pattern of drinking was characterized by a high level of drinking in the first 20 min of the session for both groups, which was significantly (p<0.05) decreased by all doses of 3-PBC (1.0-18.0 mg/kg) only in the alcohol group. In contrast, the first drinking bout in the control group was only reduced at the highest doses of 3-PBC (10.0 and 18.0 mg/kg). Conclusions The results support the involvement of the GABAA α1 subtype receptor in alcohol reinforcement and consumption. PMID:23271191

  7. Perillyl alcohol protects against ethanol induced acute liver injury in Wistar rats by inhibiting oxidative stress, NFκ-B activation and proinflammatory cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Quaiyoom; Nafees, Sana; Sultana, Sarwat

    2011-01-11

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are two major etiological factors that are suggested to play key roles in the development of ethanol induced liver injury. Release of proinflammatory cytokine like tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and activation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκ-B) may strongly intensify inflammation and cell damage. Additionally, reactive oxygen species (ROS) also exerts significant effect in this whole cell signaling machinery. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of perillyl alcohol (POH) on ethanol-induced acute liver injury in Wistar rats and its probable mechanism. We have successfully demonstrated that pre-treatment with POH, besides exerting antioxidant activity might be able to modulate TNF-α release and NFκ-B activation. Rats were divided into five groups and treated with ethanol or POH via an intragastric tube for one week. Control group was treated with vehicle, and ethanol treated group was given ethanol (5 g/kg body wt). Animal of treatment groups were pretreated with POH (50 & 100 mg/kg body wt) and have been given ethanol. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase and hepatic malondialdehyde were increased significantly by ethanol treatment. Ethanol administration decreased hepatic reduced glutathione content and various antioxidant enzymes activity. TNF-α production and NFκ-B activation was also found to be increased after ethanol administration. POH pre-treatment significantly ameliorates ethanol induced acute liver injury possibly by inhibition of lipid peroxidation, replenishment of endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic defense system, downregulation of TNF-α as well as NFκ-B.

  8. Alcohol and the heart: theoretical considerations.

    PubMed

    Rubin, E

    1982-06-01

    It is now well established that consumption of ethyl alcohol, both acute and chronic, exerts deleterious effects on the heart. Evidence is presented that the initial event that precipitates both acute and chronic changes reflects the physical effects of alcohol on membrane phospholipids and perhaps proteins. The presence of alcohol increases membrane fluidity, a condition that leads to an adaptive change in the phospholipid composition of the membranes, with resultant greater rigidity of the membranes. The effects of alcohol on the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane, when combined with other nonspecific insults, may lead to a drastic increase in calcium permeability; the resulting calcium influx may cause cell necrosis and initiate irreversibly cardiomyopathy. It is likely that changes in membrane fluidity also exert profound effects on enzyme and transport activities of membrane-bound proteins. In addition, alcohol may interact directly with the hydrophobic regions of proteins. Such interactions may play an important role not only in membrane-bound proteins, but also in alcohol-induced changes in contractile proteins of the heart. It is suggested that, in general, the effects of alcohol are similar to those of other anesthetic agents, and that the elucidation of the pathogenesis of alcoholic cardiomyopathy may require a deeper understanding of the physical interaction among alcohol, phospholipids, and proteins.

  9. Effectiveness of ignition interlocks for preventing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes: a Community Guide systematic review.

    PubMed

    Elder, Randy W; Voas, Robert; Beirness, Doug; Shults, Ruth A; Sleet, David A; Nichols, James L; Compton, Richard

    2011-03-01

    A systematic review of the literature to assess the effectiveness of ignition interlocks for reducing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). Because one of the primary research issues of interest--the degree to which the installation of interlocks in offenders' vehicles reduces alcohol-impaired driving in comparison to alternative sanctions (primarily license suspension)--was addressed by a 2004 systematic review conducted for the Cochrane Collaboration, the current review incorporates that previous work and extends it to include more recent literature and crash outcomes. The body of evidence evaluated includes the 11 studies from the prior review, plus four more recent studies published through December 2007. The installation of ignition interlocks was associated consistently with large reductions in re-arrest rates for alcohol-impaired driving within both the earlier and later bodies of evidence. Following removal of interlocks, re-arrest rates reverted to levels similar to those for comparison groups. The limited available evidence from three studies that evaluated crash rates suggests that alcohol-related crashes decrease while interlocks are installed in vehicles. According to Community Guide rules of evidence, these findings provide strong evidence that interlocks, while they are in use in offenders' vehicles, are effective in reducing re-arrest rates. However, the potential for interlock programs to reduce alcohol-related crashes is currently limited by the small proportion of offenders who participate in the programs and the lack of a persistent beneficial effect once the interlock is removed. Suggestions for facilitating more widespread and sustained use of ignition interlocks are provided.

  10. Moderating Effects of Positive Parenting and Maternal Alcohol Use on Emerging Adults’ Alcohol Use: Does Living At Home Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, Michael J.; Reavy, Racheal; Mallett, Kimberly A.; Turrisi, Rob; White, Helene R.

    2014-01-01

    Positive parenting behaviors and parental modeling of alcohol use are consistent predictors of offspring’s alcohol use. Recent research extends these findings to emerging adult children and confirms continued parental influence beyond adolescence. This paper examines how maternal warmth and supervision moderate the effects of mother’s heavy alcohol use on their offspring’s alcohol use among a sample of non-college-attending emerging adults. Three-way interactions were used to examine if these moderating effects differed between emerging adults who lived at home and those with other living arrangements. Separate analyses within gender were used to further examine these associations. Participants were 245 emerging adults between ages 18–22 years with no post-secondary education (59% female) who were selected from a national probability-based Internet panel. Path analyses indicated that, regardless of living arrangements, male emerging adults who were more likely to witness their mother getting drunk were themselves more likely to engage in risky drinking. However, among female emerging adults, similarity between mothers’ and daughters’ drunkenness was strongest among participants who resided with their family and also reported low levels of maternal warmth. This study extends previous research by indicating that the effects of maternal modeling of heavy alcohol use on emerging adults’ heavy alcohol use depend upon several factors, including the gender of the child and the family context. Implications of the study findings are discussed in terms of expanding the scope of a parent-based intervention (PBI) to all emerging adults, including those who do not attend colleges or universities. PMID:24583277

  11. ALCOHOL-RELATED CUES POTENTIATE ALCOHOL IMPAIRMENT OF BEHAVIORAL CONTROL IN DRINKERS

    PubMed Central

    Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    The acute impairing effects of alcohol on inhibitory control are well-established, and these disinhibiting effects are thought to play a role in its abuse potential. Alcohol impairment of inhibitory control is typically assessed in the context of arbitrary cues, yet drinking environments are comprised of an array of alcohol-related cues that are thought to influence drinking behavior. Recent evidence suggests that alcohol-related stimuli reduce behavioral control in sober drinkers, suggesting that alcohol impairment of inhibitory control might be potentiated in the context of alcohol cues. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining performance on the attentional-bias behavioral activation (ABBA) task that measures the degree to which alcohol-related stimuli can reduce inhibition of inappropriate responses in a between-subjects design. Social drinkers (N=40) performed the task in a sober condition, and then again following placebo (0.0 g/kg) and a moderate dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) in counter-balanced order. Inhibitory failures were greater following alcohol images compared to neutral images in sober drinkers, replicating previous findings with the ABBA task. Moreover, alcohol-related cues exacerbated alcohol impairment of inhibitory control as evidenced by more pronounced alcohol-induced disinhibition following alcohol cues compared to neutral cues. Finally, regression analyses showed that greater alcohol-induced disinhibition following alcohol cues predicted greater self-reported alcohol consumption. These findings have important implications regarding factors contributing to binge or ‘loss of control’ drinking. That is, the additive effect of disrupted control mechanisms via both alcohol-cues and the pharmacological effects of the drug could compromise an individual’s control over ongoing alcohol consumption. PMID:25134023

  12. Effects of Varenicline on Neural Correlates of Alcohol Salience in Heavy Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Gowin, Joshua L.; Schwandt, Melanie L.; Momenan, Reza; Coe, Marion A.; Cooke, Megan E.; Hommer, Daniel W.; Bartlett, Selena; Heilig, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preclinical and emerging clinical evidence indicates that varenicline, a nicotinic partial agonist approved for smoking cessation, attenuates alcohol seeking and consumption. Reductions of alcohol craving have been observed under varenicline treatment and suggest effects of the medication on alcohol reward processing, but this hypothesis remains untested. Methods: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized experimental medicine study, 29 heavy drinkers underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan after 2 weeks of varenicline (2mg/d) or placebo administration. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants performed the Alcohol-Food Incentive Delay task, where they could earn points for snacks or alcohol. At baseline and after 3 weeks of medication, participants underwent intravenous alcohol self-administration sessions in the laboratory. Results: During the functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, participants in the varenicline group (N=17) reported lower feelings of happiness and excitement on subjective mood scales when anticipating alcohol reward compared with the placebo group (N=12). Linear mixed effects analysis revealed that anticipation of alcohol reward was associated with significant blood oxygen level dependent activation of the ventral striatum, amygdala, and posterior insula in the placebo group; this activation was attenuated in the varenicline group. The varenicline group showed no difference in intravenous alcohol self-administration relative to the placebo group for either session. Participants with higher insula activation when anticipating alcohol reward showed higher alcohol self-administration behavior across groups. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that varenicline decreases blood oxygen level dependent activation in striato-cortico-limbic regions associated with motivation and incentive salience of alcohol in heavy drinkers. This mechanism may underlie the clinical effectiveness of varenicline

  13. Interactive Effects of OPRM1 and DAT1 Genetic Variation on Subjective Responses to Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Lara A.; Bujarski, Spencer; Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Ashenhurst, James R.; Anton, Raymond F.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Subjective response to alcohol represents a marker of alcoholism risk. The A118G single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the mu opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene has been associated with subjective response to alcohol. Recently, the dopamine transporter (DAT1) variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR; SLC6A3) has been found to interact with the OPRM1 A118G SNP in predicting neural and behavioral responses to naltrexone and to alcohol. This exploratory study examines the OPRM1 × DAT1 interaction on subjective responses to alcohol. Methods: Non-treatment-seeking problem drinkers (n = 295) were assessed in the laboratory for alcohol dependence. Following prospective genotyping for the OPRM1 gene, 43 alcohol-dependent individuals were randomized to two intravenous infusion sessions, one of alcohol (target BrAC = 0.06 g/dl) and one of saline. Measures of subjective responses to alcohol were administered in both infusion sessions. Results: Analyses revealed significant Alcohol × OPRM1 × DAT1 interactions for alcohol-induced stimulation, vigor and positive mood as well as significant Alcohol × OPRM1 × DAT1 × Time interactions for stimulation and positive mood. These effects were such that, compared with other genotype groups, OPRM1 G-allele carriers + DAT1 A10 homozygotes reported steeper increases in stimulation and positive mood across rising BrAC, when compared with placebo. All Alcohol × OPRM1 × DAT1 interactions remained significant when analyses were restricted to a subsample of Caucasian participants (n = 34); however, 4-way interactions did not reach statistical significance in this subsample. Conclusions: This study suggests that the contribution of OPRM1 genotype to alcohol-induced stimulation, vigor and positive mood is moderated by DAT1 genotype. These findings are consistent with the purported interaction between opioidergic and dopaminergic systems in determining the reinforcing properties of alcohol. PMID:24421289

  14. Effects of an Online Alcohol Education Course Among College Freshmen: An Investigation of Potential Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Ringwalt, Chris; Wyatt, Todd; DeJong, William

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated possible mediating effects of psychosocial variables (perceived drinking norms, positive and negative alcohol expectancies, personal approval of alcohol use, protective behavioral strategies) targeted by an online alcohol education course (AlcoholEdu for College) as part of a 30-campus randomized trial with 2,400 first-year students. Previous multi-level analyses found significant effects of the AlcoholEdu course on the frequency of past-30-day alcohol use and binge drinking during the fall semester, and the most common types of alcohol related problems. Exposure to the online AlcoholEdu course was inversely related to perceived drinking norms, but was not related to any of the other psychosocial variables. Multi-level analyses indicated at least partial mediating effects of perceived drinking norms on the behavioral outcomes. Findings of this study suggest that AlcoholEdu for College affects alcohol use and related consequences indirectly through its effect on student perceptions of drinking norms. Further research is needed to better understand why this online course did not appear to affect other targeted psychosocial variables. PMID:24156616

  15. EFFECT OF FLUOXETINE AND BROMOCRIPTINE ON CRAVING OCCURRING DURING WITHDRAWAL FROM ALCOHOL

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Sudipto; Isaac, Mohan K.

    1996-01-01

    Craving is an integral element in the understanding of alcohol dependence. Recent human and animal research implicates the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems in the mediation of excessive alcohol consumption. In this study, a cue-based approach was used to qualify and quantify craving occurring during acute withdrawal from alcohol. Fifty alcoholics were given either placebo, bromocriptine or fluoxetine in a randomised double-blind fashion and craving was sequentially measured over the next 15 days. Both fluoxetine and bromocriptine significantly attenuated total craving scores without similarly affecting withdrawal symptoms. The results suggest the importance of neurotransmitters in mediating craving. The significance of these data in the light of various behavioural and neurochemical models have been discussed. PMID:21584128

  16. Effects of alcohol on the acquisition and expression of fear-potentiated startle in mouse lines selectively bred for high and low alcohol preference

    PubMed Central

    Barrenha, Gustavo D.; Coon, Laran E.; Chester, Julia A.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Anxiety disorders and alcohol use disorders frequently co-occur in humans perhaps because alcohol relieves anxiety. Studies in humans and rats indicate that alcohol may have greater anxiolytic effects in organisms with increased genetic propensity for high alcohol consumption. Objectives and methods The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate doses of alcohol (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 g/kg) on the acquisition and expression of anxiety-related behavior using a fear-potentiated startle (FPS) procedure. Experiments were conducted in two replicate pairs of mouse lines selectively bred for high- (HAP1 and HAP2) and low- (LAP1 and LAP2) alcohol preference; these lines have previously shown a genetic correlation between alcohol preference and FPS (HAP>LAP; Barrenha and Chester, Alcohol Clin Exp Res 31:1081–1088, 2007). In a control experiment, the effect of diazepam (4.0 mg/kg) on the expression of FPS was tested in HAP2 and LAP2 mice. Results The 1.5 g/kg alcohol dose moderately decreased the expression of FPS in both HAP lines but not LAP lines. Alcohol had no effect on the acquisition of FPS in any line. Diazepam reduced FPS to a similar extent in both HAP2 and LAP2 mice. Conclusions HAP mice may be more sensitive to the anxiolytic effects of alcohol than LAP mice when alcohol is given prior to the expression of FPS. These data collected in two pairs of HAP/LAP mouse lines suggest that the anxiolytic response to alcohol in HAP mice may be genetically correlated with their propensity toward high alcohol preference and robust FPS. PMID:21487654

  17. Human alcohol-related neuropathology

    PubMed Central

    Kril, Jillian J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol-related diseases of the nervous system are caused by excessive exposures to alcohol, with or without co-existing nutritional or vitamin deficiencies. Toxic and metabolic effects of alcohol (ethanol) vary with brain region, age/developmental stage, dose, and duration of exposures. In the mature brain, heavy chronic or binge alcohol exposures can cause severe debilitating diseases of the central and peripheral nervous systems, and skeletal muscle. Most commonly, long-standing heavy alcohol abuse leads to disproportionate loss of cerebral white matter and impairments in executive function. The cerebellum (especially the vermis), cortical-limbic circuits, skeletal muscle, and peripheral nerves are also important targets of chronic alcohol-related metabolic injury and degeneration. Although all cell types within the nervous system are vulnerable to the toxic, metabolic, and degenerative effects of alcohol, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and synaptic terminals are major targets, accounting for the white matter atrophy, neural inflammation and toxicity, and impairments in synaptogenesis. Besides chronic degenerative neuropathology, alcoholics are predisposed to develop severe potentially life-threatening acute or subacute symmetrical hemorrhagic injury in the diencephalon and brainstem due to thiamine deficiency, which exerts toxic/metabolic effects on glia, myelin, and the microvasculature. Alcohol also has devastating neurotoxic and teratogenic effects on the developing brain in association with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder/fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol impairs function of neurons and glia, disrupting a broad array of functions including neuronal survival, cell migration, and glial cell (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) differentiation. Further progress is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of this exposure-related constellation of nervous system diseases and better correlate the underlying pathology with in vivo imaging and biochemical lesions

  18. WEAKENING OF ONE MORE ALCOHOL CONTROL PILLAR: A REVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF THE ALCOHOL TAX CUTS IN FINLAND IN 2004

    PubMed Central

    Mäkelä, Pia; Österberg, Esa

    2010-01-01

    Aims To review the consequences of the changes in Finnish alcohol policy in 2004, when quotas for travellers’ tax free imports of alcoholic beverages from other European Union (EU) countries were abolished, Estonia joined the EU, and excise duties on alcoholic beverages were reduced by one-third, on the average. Design A review of published research and routinely available data. Setting Finland. Measurements Prices of alcoholic beverages, recorded and unrecorded alcohol consumption, data on criminality and other police statistics, alcohol-related deaths and hospitalizations, service use. Findings Alcohol consumption increased 10% in 2004, clearly more than in the early 2000’s. With few exceptions, alcohol-related harms increased. Alcohol-induced liver disease deaths increased the most, by 46% in 2004–2006 compared to 2001–2003, which indicates a strong effect on pre-2004 heavy drinkers. Consumption and harms increased most among middle-aged and older segments of the population, and in the worst-off parts of the population in particular. Conclusions Alcohol taxation and alcohol prices affect consumption and related harms, and heavy drinkers are responsive to price. In Finland in 2004, the worst-off parts of the population paid the highest price in terms of health for cuts in alcohol prices. The removal of travellers’ import quotas, which was an inherent part of creating the single European market, had serious public health consequences in Finland. PMID:19335654

  19. Sedative effect of monoterpene alcohols in mice: a preliminary screening.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; Raphael, Ellen; Brocksom, Ursula; Brocksom, Timothy John

    2007-01-01

    Many essential oils and monoterpenes are used therapeutically as relaxing drugs and tranquilizers. In this study, ten structurally related monoterpene alcohols, present in many essential oils, were evaluated in mice to investigate their pharmacological potential in the central nervous system. Isopulegol (1), neoisopulegol (2), (+/-)-isopinocampheol (3), (-)-myrtenol (4), (-)-cis-myrtanol (5), (+)-p-menth-1-en-9-ol (6) and (+/-)-neomenthol (8) exhibited a depressant effect in the pentobarbital-induced sleep test, indicating a sedative property. (-)-Menthol (7), (+)-dihydrocarveol (9), and (+/-)-isoborneol (10) were ineffective in this test. The results show that these psychoactive monoterpenes have the profile of sedative drugs, and this pharmacological effect is influenced by the structural characteristics of the molecules. PMID:17913072

  20. Optical Kerr-effect measurement for a series of alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Neil J.; Jennings, Barry R.

    1993-06-01

    Nanosecond optical Kerr-effect (OKE) measurements are reported using a modified apparatus, designed to enable rapid and precise data recording in pure liquids. Careful design of the apparatus enables measurements to be made at several inducing wavelengths without substantial apparatus modifications. The first measurement of the optical Kerr effect for benzene at an inducing wavelength of 532 nm is presented together with novel OKE data for the hitherto unstudied homologous alcohol series from methanol to 1-dodecanol. Analysis of the results indicates for this series the existence of a linear relationship between the carbon chain length and the optically induced Kerr constant somewhat similar to the behavior previously observed in the n-alkanes.

  1. Were our forebears aware of prenatal alcohol exposure and its effects? A review of the history of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Sanders, James L

    2009-01-01

    Many historical records have been taken out of context when reviewing the history of prenatal alcohol exposure, and the impacts of these histories on modern-day FASD research have been overestimated. Historical records, as early as biblical times, do suggest at least a working awareness of an interaction between alcohol and reproduction of some kind. Contrary to assertions made in some fetal alcohol research, these records do not suggest an ancient awareness of the deleterious effects of alcohol on the developing fetus. Historical records regarding alcoholism and reproduction need to be interpreted critically, in context, and in consideration of the Zeitgeist, or the Spirit of the Times.

  2. Metabolic and genetic factors contributing to alcohol induced effects and fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gemma, Simonetta; Vichi, Susanna; Testai, Emanuela

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol-related damages on newborns and infants include a wide variety of complications from facial anomalies to neurodevelopmental delay, known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). However, only less than 10% of women drinking alcohol during pregnancy have children with FAS. Understanding the risk factors increasing the probability for newborn exposed in utero to alcohol to develop FAS is therefore a key issue. The involvement of genetics as a one risk factor in FAS has been suggested by animal models and by molecular epidemiological studies on different populations, bearing allelic variants for those enzymes, such as ADH e CYP2E1, involved in ethanol metabolism. Indeed, one of the major factors determining the peak blood alcohol exposure to the fetus is the metabolic activity of the mother, in addition to placental and fetal metabolism, explaining, at least partially, the risk of FAS. The different rates of ethanol metabolism may be the result of genetic polymorphisms, the most relevant of which have been described in the paper.

  3. The effects of chronic smoking on the pathology of alcohol-related brain damage.

    PubMed

    McCorkindale, A N; Sheedy, D; Kril, J J; Sutherland, G T

    2016-06-01

    Both pathological and neuroimaging studies demonstrate that chronic alcohol abuse causes brain atrophy with widespread white matter loss limited gray matter loss. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that tobacco smoking also causes brain atrophy in both alcoholics and neurologically normal individuals; however, this has not been confirmed pathologically. In this study, the effects of smoking and the potential additive effects of concomitant alcohol and tobacco consumption were investigated in autopsied human brains. A total of 44 cases and controls were divided into four groups: 16 non-smoking controls, nine smoking controls, eight non-smoking alcoholics, and 11 smoking alcoholics. The volumes of 26 gray and white matter regions were measured using an established point-counting technique. The results showed trends for widespread white matter loss in alcoholics (p < 0.007) but no effect on gray matter regions. In contrast, smoking alone had no effect on brain atrophy and the combination of smoking and alcohol showed no additional effect. Neuronal density was analyzed as a more sensitive assay of gray matter integrity. Similar to the volumetric analysis, there was a reduction in neurons (29%) in the prefrontal cortex of alcoholics, albeit this was only a trend when adjusted for potential confounders (p < 0.06). There were no smoking or combinatorial effects on neuronal density in any of the three regions examined. These results do not support the hypothesis that smoking exacerbates alcohol-related brain damage. The trends here support previous studies that alcohol-related brain damage is characterized by focal neuronal loss and generalized white matter atrophy. These disparate effects suggest that two different pathogenic mechanisms may be operating in the alcoholic brain. Future studies using ultrastructural or molecular techniques will be required to determine if smoking has more subtle effects on the brain and how chronic alcohol consumption leads to

  4. Effects of a 2009 Illinois Alcohol Tax Increase on Fatal Motor Vehicle Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Melvin D.; Staras, Stephanie S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effects of a 2009 increase in alcohol taxes in Illinois on alcohol-related fatal motor vehicle crashes. Methods. We used an interrupted time-series design, with intrastate and cross-state comparisons and measurement derived from driver alcohol test results, for 104 months before and 28 months after enactment. Our analyses used autoregressive moving average and generalized linear mixed Poisson models. We examined both population-wide effects and stratifications by alcohol level, age, gender, and race. Results. Fatal alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes declined 9.9 per month after the tax increase, a 26% reduction. The effect was similar for alcohol-impaired drivers with positive alcohol levels lower than 0.15 grams per deciliter (−22%) and drivers with very high alcohol levels of 0.15 or more (−25%). Drivers younger than 30 years showed larger declines (−37%) than those aged 30 years and older (−23%), but gender and race stratifications did not significantly differ. Conclusions. Increases in alcohol excise taxes, such as the 2009 Illinois act, could save thousands of lives yearly across the United States as part of a comprehensive strategy to reduce alcohol-impaired driving. PMID:25790414

  5. Pattern of alcohol consumption and its effect on gastrointestinal symptoms in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Garth R; Sedghi, Shahriar; Farhadi, Ashkan; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2010-05-01

    Alcohol consumption is a potential trigger for flare in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) flare because of alcohol's pro-oxidant effects and its deleterious effects on gut barrier function. The association with alcohol consumption and IBD flare is unclear. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the pattern of alcohol consumption and its self-reported effect on gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in patients with IBD. We recruited 129 consecutive patients: 52 patients with Crohn's disease, 38 patients with ulcerative colitis, and 39 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). All the participants completed a validated questionnaire on disease activity (the Crohn's disease activity index or ulcerative colitis clinical activity index, respectively) validated questionnaires to quantify alcohol consumption by National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism criteria, and two structured questionnaires we designed to access patients' perception of the effect of alcohol on their GI symptoms and on overall GI symptom severity. The pattern of current, light, moderate, and heavy alcohol consumption in inactive IBD was similar to the general U.S. population. Specifically, of the 90 inactive IBD patients, 56 (62%) were current drinkers, compared with 61% in the general U.S. population. Of current drinkers, 75% of IBD (N=42) and 43% of IBS (N=9) reported a worsening of GI symptoms with alcohol consumption (P=.01); however, overall GI symptom severity did not differ when compared with quantity of alcohol consumed. Patients with inactive IBD drink alcohol in quantities similar to the general population. Current drinkers with inactive IBD are more likely to report worsening of GI symptoms with alcohol than current drinkers with IBS. PMID:20682190

  6. Are alcohol expectancies associations? Comment on Moss and Albery (2009).

    PubMed

    Wiers, Reinout W; Stacy, Alan W

    2010-01-01

    Moss and Albery presented a dual-process model of the alcohol-behavior link, integrating alcohol expectancy and alcohol myopia theory. Their integrative theory rests on a number of assumptions including, first, that alcohol expectancies are associations that can be activated automatically by an alcohol-relevant context, and second, that alcohol selectively reduces propositional reasoning. As a result, behavior comes under the control of associative processes after alcohol consumption. We agree with the second but not with the first assumption, based on theoretical and empirical arguments. Although in some cases expectancies may involve a simple association, they are propositional in nature. We demonstrate that this assertion is supported by existing literature cited in Moss and Albery. Moreover, 6 recent studies consistently demonstrated that under circumstances in which executive control is impaired (either as a stable individual difference or under the acute influence of alcohol), associative processes, over and above expectancies, predict alcohol-related behavior. Taken together, the evidence strongly suggests a fundamental distinction between expectancies and associations in memory: Effects of propositional expectancies and executive functions are impaired under the acute influence of alcohol, but memory associations are not. This difference in perspective not only has theoretical implications but also leads to different predictions regarding acute alcohol effects in society.

  7. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption and exercise on the skeleton of adult male rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Adam H.; McCarty, Heidi L.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.; Westerlind, Kim C.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors are known to affect skeletal development and integrity. Specifically, running has been reported to increase risk of fatigue fractures, whereas chronic alcohol consumption has been shown to reduce bone formation and bone mass. The combined effect of exercise and alcohol on the skeleton has yet to be explored, although alcohol consumption is common among certain physically active populations (e.g., military recruits, college athletes). It was hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption would accentuate the inherent risk associated with endurance running exercise. METHODS: Six-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups: baseline, exercise-alcohol diet, exercise-normal diet, sham-alcohol diet, and sham-normal diet. Alcohol-fed rats (35% caloric intake) received a liquid diet ad libitum. Normal animals were pair-fed the identical diet with a maltose dextrin caloric substitute. Exercise was conducted on a motorized treadmill 5 days/wk for 16 weeks. Sham rats were placed on a stationary treadmill for matching time periods. Fluorochrome labels were administered 3 days before baseline and at 10 and 2 days before animals were killed. Heart, soleus, and rectus femoris muscles were wet weighed to assess the effects of training. Tibiae were collected for static and dynamic histomorphometric measurements on cancellous and cortical bone. RESULTS: Muscle weights were larger in the exercised rats versus the sham rats. Alcohol had no significant effect on skeletal muscle weight but did result in larger heart weights in both alcohol-treated groups. Cancellous and periosteal bone formation rates were significantly decreased in the alcohol-fed rats versus rats on the normal diet and were associated with a significant reduction in trabecular thickness in the tibial metaphysis. Cortical and cross-sectional areas were also significantly lower in the alcohol-fed groups compared with the non-alcohol-fed groups. Exercise had no

  8. Effects of Intoxicating Free-Choice Alcohol Consumption During Adolescence on Drinking and Impulsivity During Adulthood in Selectively Bred High Alcohol Preferring Mice

    PubMed Central

    O’Tousa, David Scott; Matson, Liana Marie; Grahame, Nicholas Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background Abuse of alcohol during adolescence continues to be a problem, and it has been shown that earlier onset of drinking predicts increased alcohol abuse problems later in life. High levels of impulsivity have been demonstrated to be characteristic of alcoholics, and impulsivity has also been shown to predict later alcohol use in teenage subjects, showing that impulsivity may precede the development of alcohol use disorders. These experiments examined adolescent drinking in a high-drinking, relatively impulsive mouse population, and assessed its effects on adult drinking and adult impulsivity. Methods Experiment 1: Selectively bred High-Alcohol Preferring (HAPII) mice were given either alcohol (free choice access) or water only for two weeks during middle adolescence or adulthood. All mice were given free choice access to alcohol 30 days later, in adulthood. Experiment 2: Adolescent HAPII mice drank alcohol and water, or water alone, for two weeks, and were then trained to perform a delay discounting task as adults to measure impulsivity. In each experiment, effects of volitional ethanol consumption on later behavior were assessed. We expected adolescent alcohol exposure to increase subsequent drinking and impulsivity. Results Mice consumed significant quantities of ethanol, reaching average blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) of 142 mg/dl (adolescent) or 154 mg/dl (adult) in Experiment 1. Adolescent mice in experiment 2 reached an average of 108 mg/dl. Mice exposed to alcohol in either adolescence or adulthood showed a transient increase in ethanol consumption, but we observed no differences in impulsivity in adult mice as a function of whether mice drank alcohol during adolescence. Conclusions These findings indicate that HAPII mice drink intoxicating levels of alcohol during both adolescence and adulthood, and that this volitional intake has long-term effects on subsequent drinking behavior. Nonetheless, this profound exposure to alcohol during adolescence

  9. Interacting effects of naltrexone and OPRM1 and DAT1 variation on the neural response to alcohol cues.

    PubMed

    Schacht, Joseph P; Anton, Raymond F; Voronin, Konstantin E; Randall, Patrick K; Li, Xingbao; Henderson, Scott; Myrick, Hugh

    2013-02-01

    Variation at a single nucleotide polymorphism in the μ-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1), A118G (Asn40Asp), may moderate naltrexone (NTX) effects in alcohol dependence. Both NTX and A118G variation have also been reported to affect alcohol cue-elicited brain activation. This study investigated whether sub-acute NTX treatment and A118G genotype interacted in their effects on cue-elicited activation of the ventral striatum (VS), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Secondarily, variation at a variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1/SLC6A3), which has been associated with increased reward-related activation in VS, was analyzed as a moderator of medication and A118G effects. Seventy-four non-treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent individuals, half preselected to carry at least one copy of the A118G G (Asp) allele, were randomized to NTX (50 mg) or placebo for 7 days, and performed an fMRI alcohol cue reactivity task on day 6. Region-of-interest analyses indicated no main effects of medication or A118G genotype. However, these factors interacted in their effects on OFC activation, such that, among NTX-treated individuals, G-allele carriers had less activation than A-allele homozygotes. DAT1 variation also moderated medication/A118G effects. There was a three-way interaction between medication and A118G and DAT1 genotypes on VS activation, such that, among G-allele carriers who received NTX, DAT1 10-repeat-allele (10R) homozygotes had less activation than 9-repeat-allele (9R) carriers. Further, 10R homozygotes who received NTX had less mPFC activation than 9R carriers. Polymorphic variation in OPRM1 and DAT1 should be considered in future studies of NTX, particularly regarding its effects on reward processing.

  10. Differential effects of ghrelin antagonists on alcohol drinking and reinforcement in mouse and rat models of alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Juan L.; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Finn, Deborah A.; Young, Emily A.; Helpenstell, Lily K.; Schuette, Lindsey M.; Fidler, Tara L.; Kosten, Therese A.; Ryabinin, Andrey E.

    2015-01-01

    An effort has been mounted to understand the mechanisms of alcohol dependence in a way that may allow for greater efficacy in treatment. It has long been suggested that drugs of abuse seize fundamental reward pathways and disrupt homeostasis to produce compulsive drug seeking behaviors. Ghrelin, an endogenous hormone that affects hunger state and release of growth hormone, has been shown to increased alcohol intake following administration, while antagonists decrease intake. Using rodent models of dependence, the current study examined the effects of two ghrelin receptor antagonists, [DLys3]-GHRP-6 (DLys) and JMV2959, on dependence-induced alcohol self-administration. In two experiments adult male C57BL/6J mice and Wistar rats were made dependent via intermittent ethanol vapor exposure. In another experiment, adult male C57BL/6J mice were made dependent using the intragastric alcohol consumption (IGAC) procedure. Ghrelin receptor antagonists were given prior to voluntary ethanol drinking. Ghrelin antagonists reduced ethanol intake, preference, and operant self-administration of ethanol and sucrose across these models, but did not decrease food consumption in mice. In experiments 1 and 2, voluntary drinking was reduced by ghrelin receptor antagonists, however this reduction did not persist across days. Despite the transient effects to ghrelin antagonists, the drugs had renewed effectiveness following a break in administration as seen in experiment 1. The results show the ghrelin system as a potential target for studies of alcohol abuse. Further research is needed to determine the central mechanisms of these drugs and their influence on addiction in order to design effective pharmacotherapies. PMID:26051399

  11. Differential effects of ghrelin antagonists on alcohol drinking and reinforcement in mouse and rat models of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Juan L; Cunningham, Christopher L; Finn, Deborah A; Young, Emily A; Helpenstell, Lily K; Schuette, Lindsey M; Fidler, Tara L; Kosten, Therese A; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2015-10-01

    An effort has been mounted to understand the mechanisms of alcohol dependence in a way that may allow for greater efficacy in treatment. It has long been suggested that drugs of abuse seize fundamental reward pathways and disrupt homeostasis to produce compulsive drug seeking behaviors. Ghrelin, an endogenous hormone that affects hunger state and release of growth hormone, has been shown to increase alcohol intake following administration, while antagonists decrease intake. Using rodent models of dependence, the current study examined the effects of two ghrelin receptor antagonists, [DLys3]-GHRP-6 (DLys) and JMV2959, on dependence-induced alcohol self-administration. In two experiments adult male C57BL/6J mice and Wistar rats were made dependent via intermittent ethanol vapor exposure. In another experiment, adult male C57BL/6J mice were made dependent using the intragastric alcohol consumption (IGAC) procedure. Ghrelin receptor antagonists were given prior to voluntary ethanol drinking. Ghrelin antagonists reduced ethanol intake, preference, and operant self-administration of ethanol and sucrose across these models, but did not decrease food consumption in mice. In experiments 1 and 2, voluntary drinking was reduced by ghrelin receptor antagonists, however this reduction did not persist across days. Despite the transient effects of ghrelin antagonists, the drugs had renewed effectiveness following a break in administration as seen in experiment 1. The results show the ghrelin system as a potential target for studies of alcohol abuse. Further research is needed to determine the central mechanisms of these drugs and their influence on addiction in order to design effective pharmacotherapies.

  12. Does alcohol have any effect on male reproductive function? A review of literature

    PubMed Central

    La Vignera, Sandro; Condorelli, Rosita A; Balercia, Giancarlo; Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E

    2013-01-01

    Although alcohol is widely used, its impact on the male reproductive function is still controversial. Over the years, many studies have investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on sperm parameters and male infertility. This article reviews the main preclinical and clinical evidences. Studies conducted on the experimental animal have shown that a diet enriched with ethanol causes sperm parameter abnormalities, a number of alterations involving the reproductive tract inhibition, and reduced mouse oocyte in vitro fertilization rate. These effects were partly reversible upon discontinuation of alcohol consumption. Most of the studies evaluating the effects of alcohol in men have shown a negative impact on the sperm parameters. This has been reported to be associated with hypotestosteronemia and low–normal or elevated gonadotropin levels suggesting a combined central and testicular detrimental effect of alcohol. Nevertheless, alcohol consumption does not seem to have much effect on fertility either in in vitro fertilization programs or population-based studies. Finally, the genetic background and other concomitant, alcohol consumption-related conditions influence the degree of the testicular damage. In conclusion, alcohol consumption is associated with a deterioration of sperm parameters which may be partially reversible upon alcohol consumption discontinuation. PMID:23274392

  13. Amounts of nutrients recommended by the NRC abate the effects of a toxic alcohol dose

    SciTech Connect

    Derr, R.F.; Draves, K. )

    1989-02-09

    Diet is the food and drink taken daily by an animal. Although the composition of the Lieber-DeCarli 36% alcohol diet is such that recommended amounts of nutrients could be ingested when the diet is fed, the fact is that rats have an aversion to alcohol, ingestion is reduced and the intake of total energy and several nutrients are below recommended levels. Hence the diet is nutritionally inadequate for growth, gestation and lactation. Recent studies with baboons have also shown that the baboon liquid diet is also deficient in total energy and several nutrients. Hence all studies with these liquid alcohol diets have involved two treatments; namely, ethanol and malnutrition. Thus, effects observed when these diets were fed could have been due to alcohol, malnutrition or an interaction effect of alcohol and malnutrition. When liquid diets are fed to rats that provide recommended amounts of nutrients for growth, gestation and lactation and the same dose of ethanol per kg body weight as the 36% alcohol diet, no toxic effects of alcohol are observed. Hence, effects not observed in the malnourished pair-fed controls but observed in the alcohol diet fed rats were likely due to the interaction effect of alcohol and malnutrition.

  14. [Metadoxine in alcohol-related pathology].

    PubMed

    Santoni, S; Corradini, P; Zocchi, M; Camarri, F

    1989-07-31

    Metadoxine is an active drug for treatment of acute and chronic alcohol intoxication, affecting both liver and brain function. The authors reviewed the international pharmacological and clinical literature on the drug which shows the potential usefulness of metadoxine in the treatment of alcohol-induced diseases. The case report concerns the results in 20 chronic alcoholics, admitted to the hospital for acute alcohol intake treated with metadoxine (one 500 mg tablet twice daily). Biohumoral hepatopathy parameters and clinical parameters of neuropsychic behaviour were examined simultaneously. Compared with a control group of patients undergoing traditional therapy (sedative and multi-vitamin drugs), metadoxine showed a significant improvement of the values of gamma-GT, GPT, blood ammonia, blood alcohol and of neuropsychic and behavioural parameters such as agitation, tremor, asterixis, sopor and depression. No side-effects or unfavourable reactions occurred during metadoxine treatment, which confirms the safety of this molecule. PMID:2529084

  15. Effect of Substituents in Alcohol-Amine Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Anne Schou; Du, Lin; Kjærgaard, Henrik

    2014-06-01

    A series of alcohol-amine complexes have been investigated to gain physical insight into the effect on the hydrogen bond strength as different substituents are attached. The series of complexes investigated are shown in the figure, where R_1 = CH_3, CH_3CH_2 or CF_3CH_2 and R_2 = H or CH_3. To estimate the hydrogen bond strength, redshifts of the OH-stretching transition frequency upon complexation were measured using gas phase Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy. Equilibrium constants for the formation of the complexes were also determined, exploiting a combination of a calculated oscillator strength and the measured integrated absorbance of the fundamental OH-stretching and second overtone NH-stretching transitions.

  16. [Effect Of Polyelectrolytes on Catalytic Activity of Alcohol Dehydrogenase].

    PubMed

    Dubrovsky, A V; Musina, E V; Kim, A L; Tikhonenko, S A

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent and optical spectroscopy were used to study the interaction of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) with negatively charged polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) and dextran sulfate (DS), as well as positively charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium) (PDADMA). As found, DS and PDADMA did not affect the structural and catalytic enzyme properties. In contrast, PSS slightly decreased the protein self-fluorescence over 1 h of incubation, which is associated with partial destruction of its quaternary (globular) structure. Investigation of the ADH activity with and without PSS showed its dependency on the incubation time and the PSS presence. Sodium chloride (2.0 M and 0.2 M) or ammonium sulfate (0.1 M) added to the reaction mixture did not completely protect the enzyme quaternary structure from the PSS action. However ammonium sulfate or 0.2 M sodium chloride stabilized the enzyme and partially inhibited the negative PSS effect. PMID:27266256

  17. The Effects of Syzygium samarangense, Passiflora edulis and Solanum muricatum on Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Zhou, Tong; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Zheng, Jie; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that fruits have different effects on alcohol metabolism and alcohol-induced liver injury. The present work selected three fruits and aimed at studying the effects of Syzygium samarangense, Passiflora edulis and Solanum muricatum on alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. The animals were treated daily with alcohol and fruit juices for fifteen days. Chronic treatment with alcohol increased the levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), total bilirubin (TBIL), triglyceride (TG), malondialdehyde (MDA), and decreased total protein (TP). Histopathological evaluation also showed that ethanol induced extensive fat droplets in hepatocyte cytoplasm. Syzygium samarangense and Passiflora edulis normalized various biochemical parameters. Solanum muricatum increased the level of ALT and induced infiltration of inflammatory cells in the liver. These results strongly suggest that treatment with Syzygium samarangense and Passiflora edulis could protect liver from the injury of alcohol, while Solanum muricatum could aggravate the damage. PMID:27681723

  18. Semen quality: variations among fathers and effects of moderate alcohol drinking.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Trevor G

    2015-01-01

    Semen analysis results from over 750 fathers in the USA demonstrated marked differences in the quality of semen from men at different locations and of different ethnic groups. Another paper failed to demonstrate any effects of moderate alcohol consumption during the week before provision of an ejaculate on semen quality and few on serum hormones, of over 8300 men in Europe and the USA. While these observations are interesting, the reasons for regional and ethnic differences in semen quality of fathers are unclear. Although, there was no attempt to confirm the participant-provided level of alcohol consumption, an increase in serum testosterone in the men at the higher end of alcohol intake is compatible with an alcohol effect on liver metabolism, although whether alcohol intake was the cause of higher testosterone, or men with higher androgen levels consume more alcohol, is not known.

  19. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol and Other Drug Effects. A Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Div. of General Academic Education.

    This curriculum guide on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is intended to help meet New Jersey secondary-level learning objectives in the area of chemical health education. The guide is organized into six sections, each with a conceptual statement, content outline, specific objectives, and lesson plans. The six sections and corresponding major concepts…

  20. Effects of alcohol on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the developing male rat.

    PubMed

    Little, P J; Adams, M L; Cicero, T J

    1992-12-01

    The ontogeny of the effects of alcohol on serum testosterone levels was examined in male rats throughout sexual maturation (25-70 days). Alcohol decreased serum testosterone levels in rats 45 days or older as expected. In contrast to these results, we found precisely the opposite effects in prepubescent male rats (25-30 days old): namely, a marked stimulation of serum testosterone. Alcohol produced dose-dependent increases in serum testosterone levels in the prepubescent animal with increases of over 300% observed. In contrast to the biphasic effects of alcohol on serum testosterone levels in the developing animal, we found either no changes or modest decreases in serum luteinizing hormone levels at all ages tested. These data indicate that the increase in testosterone occurred independently of changes in luteinizing hormone in the prepubescent animal. Thus, it appears that the primary site of action of alcohol on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in prepubescent male rats is the testes and that alcohol acts to directly stimulate testosterone's biosynthesis. In contrast, alcohol appears to act at both central and testicular sites in rats 45 days or older to depress the synthesis and release of testosterone. The mechanisms underlying these age-dependent, biphasic effects of alcohol on serum testosterone levels are unknown at the present time, but it seems unlikely that differences in the biodisposition of alcohol were involved.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Alcohol and Caffeine: The Perfect Storm

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Mary Claire

    2011-01-01

    Although it is widely believed that caffeine antagonizes the intoxicating effects of alcohol, the molecular mechanisms underlying their interaction are incompletely understood. It is known that both caffeine and alcohol alter adenosine neurotransmission, but the relationship is complex, and may be dose dependent. In this article, we review the available literature on combining caffeine and alcohol. Ethical constraints prohibit laboratory studies that would mimic the high levels of alcohol intoxication achieved by many young people in real-world settings, with or without the addition of caffeine. We propose a possible neurochemical mechanism for the increase in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences that have been observed in persons who simultaneously consume caffeine. Caffeine is a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist. During acute alcohol intake, caffeine antagonizes the “unwanted” effects of alcohol by blocking the adenosine A1 receptors that mediate alcohol's somnogenic and ataxic effects. The A1 receptor–mediated “unwanted” anxiogenic effects of caffeine may be ameliorated by alcohol-induced increase in the extracellular concentration of adenosine. Moreover, by means of interactions between adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors, caffeine-mediated blockade of adenosine A2A receptors can potentiate the effects of alcohol-induced dopamine release. Chronic alcohol intake decreases adenosine tone. Caffeine may provide a “treatment” for the withdrawal effects of alcohol by blocking the effects of upregulated A1 receptors. Finally, blockade of A2A receptors by caffeine may contribute to the reinforcing effects of alcohol. PMID:24761263

  2. Sleep Quality and Alcohol Risk in College Students: Examining the Moderating Effects of Drinking Motives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Shannon R.; Paves, Andrew P.; Grimaldi, Elizabeth M.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Sleep problems and alcohol misuse are common issues experienced by college students that can have detrimental effects on overall health. Previous work indicates a strong relationship between poor sleep quality and alcohol risk in this population. This study explored the moderating effect of drinking motives in the relationship between…

  3. The Effect of Alcohol and Private Self-Consciousness on Self-Report of Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Ken

    Many studies have supported the finding that alcohol consumption may lead to socially inappropriate behaviors. One theory which appears promising in accounting for the effects of intoxication is Hull's (1981) self-consciousness theory which is based on the idea that alcohol consumption affects behavior indirectly as a result of its effect on…

  4. An Investigation into the Effects of Alcohol Use in Ontario Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, James; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of alcohol use on student behaviors in Ontario schools. The study was designed to investigate the prevalence of alcohol use by students in grades 7-13 and the effects of drinking on classroom and school behaviors by interviewing both students and teachers. The teachers were surveyed to…

  5. The effects of varenicline on alcohol seeking and self-administrati