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Sample records for acute allergic skin

  1. Skin Prick Test in Patients with Chronic Allergic Skin Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Pooja; Dogra, Alka

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic allergic skin disorders are the inflammatory and proliferative conditions in which both genetic and environmental factors play important roles. Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) and atopic dermatitis (AD) are among the most common chronic allergic skin disorders. These can be provoked by various food and aeroallergens. Skin prick tests (SPTs) represent the cheapest and most effective method to diagnose type I hypersensitivity. Positive skin tests with a history suggestive of clinical sensitivity strongly incriminate the allergen as a contributor to the disease process. Aims and Objectives: To determine the incidence of positive SPT in patients with chronic allergic skin disorders and to identify the various allergens implicated in positive SPT. Methods: Fifty patients of chronic allergic disorders were recruited in this study. They were evaluated by SPT with both food and aeroallergens. Results: In our study, SPT positivity in patients of CIU was 63.41% and in AD was 77.78%. Out of the 41 patients of CIU, the most common allergen groups showing SPT positivity were dust and pollen, each comprising 26.83% patients. SPT reaction was positive with food items (21.6%), insects (17.07%), fungus (12.20%), and Dermatophagoides farinae, that is, house dust mite (HDM) (7.32%). The allergen which showed maximum positivity was grain dust wheat (19.51%). Among nine patients of AD, maximum SPT positivity was seen with Dermatophagoides farinae, pollen Amaranthus spinosus, grain dust wheat, and cotton mill dust; each comprising 22.22% of patients. Conclusion: Our study showed that a significant number of patients of CIU and AD showed sensitivity to dust, pollen, insects, Dermatophagoides farinae, and fungi on SPT. Thus, it is an important tool in the diagnosis of CIU and AD. PMID:25814704

  2. Acute allergic angioedema of upper lip.

    PubMed

    Mahendran, Kavitha; Padmini, Govindasway; Murugesan, Ramesh; Srikumar, Arthiseethalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Mishaps can occur during dental procedures, some owing to inattention to detail and others are totally unpredictable. They usually include anaphylaxis or allergic reactions to materials used for restorative purposes or drugs such as local anesthetics. A patient reported to our department with moderate dental fluorosis, and the treatment was planned with indirect composite veneering. During the procedure while cementation acute allergic reaction occurred, the specific cause could not be identified after allergic testing. During the procedure while cementationacute allergic angioedema of upper lip. Anaphylaxis, urticaria, allergy, hereditary atopic eczema, cellulitis, cheilitis granulomatosa, and cheilitis glandularis. The patient was reassured and given prednisolone 10 mg and cetirizine 10 mg orally, once daily for 3 days after which the symptoms subsided. This paper will discuss the pathogenesis, classification, identification, and management of angioedema during dental procedures. PMID:27217646

  3. Acute allergic angioedema of upper lip

    PubMed Central

    Mahendran, Kavitha; Padmini, Govindasway; Murugesan, Ramesh; Srikumar, Arthiseethalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Mishaps can occur during dental procedures, some owing to inattention to detail and others are totally unpredictable. They usually include anaphylaxis or allergic reactions to materials used for restorative purposes or drugs such as local anesthetics. A patient reported to our department with moderate dental fluorosis, and the treatment was planned with indirect composite veneering. During the procedure while cementation acute allergic reaction occurred, the specific cause could not be identified after allergic testing. During the procedure while cementationacute allergic angioedema of upper lip. Anaphylaxis, urticaria, allergy, hereditary atopic eczema, cellulitis, cheilitis granulomatosa, and cheilitis glandularis. The patient was reassured and given prednisolone 10 mg and cetirizine 10 mg orally, once daily for 3 days after which the symptoms subsided. This paper will discuss the pathogenesis, classification, identification, and management of angioedema during dental procedures. PMID:27217646

  4. Skin Testing for Allergic Rhinitis: A Health Technology Assessment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis is the most common type of allergy worldwide. The accuracy of skin testing for allergic rhinitis is still debated. This health technology assessment had two objectives: to determine the diagnostic accuracy of skin-prick and intradermal testing in patients with suspected allergic rhinitis and to estimate the costs to the Ontario health system of skin testing for allergic rhinitis. Methods We searched All Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, CRD Health Technology Assessment Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and NHS Economic Evaluation Database for studies that evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of skin-prick and intradermal testing for allergic rhinitis using nasal provocation as the reference standard. For the clinical evidence review, data extraction and quality assessment were performed using the QUADAS-2 tool. We used the bivariate random-effects model for meta-analysis. For the economic evidence review, we assessed studies using a modified checklist developed by the (United Kingdom) National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. We estimated the annual cost of skin testing for allergic rhinitis in Ontario for 2015 to 2017 using provincial data on testing volumes and costs. Results We meta-analyzed seven studies with a total of 430 patients that assessed the accuracy of skin-prick testing. The pooled pair of sensitivity and specificity for skin-prick testing was 85% and 77%, respectively. We did not perform a meta-analysis for the diagnostic accuracy of intradermal testing due to the small number of studies (n = 4). Of these, two evaluated the accuracy of intradermal testing in confirming negative skin-prick testing results, with sensitivity ranging from 27% to 50% and specificity ranging from 60% to 100%. The other two studies evaluated the accuracy of intradermal testing as a stand-alone tool for diagnosing allergic rhinitis, with

  5. IL-21R is essential for epicutaneous sensitization and allergic skin inflammation in humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Jin, Haoli; Oyoshi, Michiko K; Le, Yi; Bianchi, Teresa; Koduru, Suresh; Mathias, Clinton B; Kumar, Lalit; Le Bras, Séverine; Young, Deborah; Collins, Mary; Grusby, Michael J; Wenzel, Joerg; Bieber, Thomas; Boes, Marianne; Silberstein, Leslie E; Oettgen, Hans C; Geha, Raif S

    2009-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common allergic inflammatory skin disease caused by a combination of intense pruritus, scratching, and epicutaneous (e.c.) sensitization with allergens. To explore the roles of IL-21 and IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) in AD, we examined skin lesions from patients with AD and used a mouse model of allergic skin inflammation. IL-21 and IL-21R expression was upregulated in acute skin lesions of AD patients and in mouse skin subjected to tape stripping, a surrogate for scratching. The importance of this finding was highlighted by the fact that both Il21r-/- mice and WT mice treated with soluble IL-21R-IgG2aFc fusion protein failed to develop skin inflammation after e.c. sensitization of tape-stripped skin. Adoptively transferred OVA-specific WT CD4+ T cells accumulated poorly in draining LNs (DLNs) of e.c. sensitized Il21r-/- mice. This was likely caused by both DC-intrinsic and nonintrinsic effects, because trafficking of skin DCs to DLNs was defective in Il21r-/- mice and, to a lesser extent, in WT mice reconstituted with Il21r-/- BM. More insight into this defect was provided by the observation that skin DCs from tape-stripped WT mice, but not Il21r-/- mice, upregulated CCR7 and migrated toward CCR7 ligands. Treatment of epidermal and dermal cells with IL-21 activated MMP2, which has been implicated in trafficking of skin DCs. These results suggest an important role for IL-21R in the mobilization of skin DCs to DLNs and the subsequent allergic response to e.c. introduced antigen. PMID:19075398

  6. Acute stress affects the physiology and behavior of allergic mice.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, M A; Shome, G P; Hulbert, L E; Krebs, N; Wachtel, M; McGlone, J J

    2009-09-01

    Physical and psychological stressors have been implicated in acute asthma exacerbation. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of forced swimming stress (FST) on allergic pulmonary inflammation in BALB/c mice. Eighty female mice were allocated to one of four treatments arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial consisting of two levels of allergy and two levels of stress. The effects of stress and allergy were assessed by examination of cytokines and leukocyte differentials in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, corticosterone and immunoglobulin (Ig) E in the plasma, leukocyte differentials in the peripheral blood, natural killer cytotoxicity, and histopathology of the lungs. Behavior was recorded during the FST. Stress and allergy increased plasma corticosterone in mice. Allergy increased IgE concentrations and pulmonary inflammation. Interleukin-4 was greater among allergic stressed and non-stressed mice and stressed, non-allergic mice compared with non-stressed, non-allergic mice. Interleukin-5 (IL-5) and 6 (IL-6) were greater among allergic stressed and non-stressed mice compared with non-allergic mice. Interleukin-5 and 6 were reduced among stressed-allergic mice compared with non-stressed, allergic mice. Stress and allergy shifted mice towards a T-helper 2 response as shown by increased interleukin-4. Stress reduced IL-5 and IL-6 in allergic mice but not non-allergic mice. Pulmonary inflammation was not reduced among allergic stressed mice in spite of elevated glucocorticoids. Mice induced to be allergic responded to FST differently than non-allergic mice. Our findings suggest that stress induces a differential response among allergic and non-allergic mice. PMID:19527741

  7. Skin testing for allergic diseases: techniques, indications and interpretations.

    PubMed

    Villacorte, G V

    1978-01-01

    Despite significant strides in serologic methodologies, the skin test, when properly done, has remained the single most sensitive and practical assay for specific dermal-bound reaginic antibody. Its value could further be enhanced if and when characterization and standardization of the allergen extracts become a reality. While the technique is simple, the indications and interpretations of allergy skin tests required the expertise of well-trained allergists. A positive skin reaction is no more than a mere supportive laboratory aid in the diagnosis of allergic disease, which is arrived at through a carefully taken detailed history and a meticulously done physical examination. PMID:748833

  8. Kissing reduces allergic skin wheal responses and plasma neurotrophin levels.

    PubMed

    Kimata, Hajime

    2003-11-01

    The effect of kissing on allergen-induced skin wheal responses and plasma neurotrophin levels were studied in 30 normal subjects, 30 patients with allergic rhinitis (AR), and 30 patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). All of the patients with AR or AD are allergic to house dust mite (HDM) and Japanese cedar pollen (JCP). They are all Japanese and they do not kiss habitually. The subject kissed freely during 30 min with their lover or spouse alone in a room with closed doors while listening to soft music. Before and after kissing, skin prick tests were performed using commercial HDM allergen, JCP allergen, as well as histamine and control solution, and wheal responses were measured. Simultaneously, plasma levels of neurotrophin, including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and -4 (NT-4) were measured. Kissing significantly reduced wheal responses induced by HDM and JCP, but not by histamine, and decreased plasma levels of NGF, BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4 in patients with AR or AD, while it failed to do so in normal subjects. These finding indicate that kissing have some implication in the study of neuroimmunology in allergic patients. PMID:14637240

  9. Allergic skin test reactivity to marijuana in the Southwest.

    PubMed

    Freeman, G L

    1983-06-01

    In a general allergy consultation practice in Arizona and western New Mexico, 129 patients were tested for immediate hypersensitivity skin test reactivity to marijuana pollen and tobacco leaf, as well as to a battery of other antigens. In all, 90 patients were diagnosed as allergic (atopic) and, of these, 63 (70 percent) were found to be skin test reactive to marijuana pollen and 18 (20 percent) to tobacco leaf. The incidence of skin test reactivity to marijuana was not significantly different for persons living at low, middle or high elevations throughout the Southwest. Marijuana sensitivity occurred in patients who were, in general, also sensitive to a variety of other airborne plant pollens. There was no close correlation, however, between sensitivity to marijuana pollen and sensitivity to pollens from elm, mulberry, hop and stinging nettle, which are botanically related to marijuana. The data suggest that marijuana pollen may be a relatively common airborne pollen pollutant in the Southwest, allergic persons being sensitized through inhalation. If this is confirmed by further studies, then clinical investigation of marijuana hyposensitization (immunotherapy) may be warranted. This is in contrast to tobacco allergy for which simple avoidance is recommended. PMID:6613109

  10. Allergic Skin Test Reactivity to Marijuana in the Southwest

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Geraldine L.

    1983-01-01

    In a general allergy consultation practice in Arizona and western New Mexico, 129 patients were tested for immediate hypersensitivity skin test reactivity to marijuana pollen and tobacco leaf, as well as to a battery of other antigens. In all, 90 patients were diagnosed as allergic (atopic) and, of these, 63 (70 percent) were found to be skin test reactive to marijuana pollen and 18 (20 percent) to tobacco leaf. The incidence of skin test reactivity to marijuana was not significantly different for persons living at low, middle or high elevations throughout the Southwest. Marijuana sensitivity occurred in patients who were, in general, also sensitive to a variety of other airborne plant pollens. There was no close correlation, however, between sensitivity to marijuana pollen and sensitivity to pollens from elm, mulberry, hop and stinging nettle, which are botanically related to marijuana. The data suggest that marijuana pollen may be a relatively common airborne pollen pollutant in the Southwest, allergic persons being sensitized through inhalation. If this is confirmed by further studies, then clinical investigation of marijuana hyposensitization (immunotherapy) may be warranted. This is in contrast to tobacco allergy for which simple avoidance is recommended. PMID:6613109

  11. Skin: Major target organ of allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Merk, Hans F. Baron, Jens M.; Neis, Mark M.; Obrigkeit, Daniela Hoeller; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2007-11-01

    Skin is a major target organ for allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds. Drug allergic reactions may be life-threatening such as in the case of anaphylactic reactions or bullous drug reactions and occur in about 5% of all hospitalized patients. Allergic contact dermatitis has an enormous influence on the social life of the patient because it is the most frequent reason for occupational skin diseases and the treatment and prevention of this disease cost approximately Euro 3 billion per year in Germany. The different proposed pathophysiological pathways leading to a drug eruption are discussed in this paper. All major enzymes which are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotica were shown to be present in skin. Evidence supporting the role of metabolism in the development of drug allergy and allergic contact dermatitis is demonstrated in the example of sulphonamides and fragrances.

  12. Epidermal Neuromedin U Attenuates IgE-Mediated Allergic Skin Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mizukawa, Yoshiko; Doi, Takaaki; Yamazaki, Yoshimi; Kudo, Akihiko; Shiohara, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Although keratinocyte-derived neuropeptide neuromedin U (NMU) mediates the proinflammatory effects of innate-type mast cell activation, no information is available on the physiological roles. Here, to investigate the effects of NMU on IgE-mediated allergic skin inflammation, we determined whether IgE-mediated inflammation associated with severe scratching was induced in Nmu-/- mice administered repeated hapten applications to the ear or footpad. Dry skin was induced by targeted deletion of Nmu. Mice administered repeated hapten application developed IgE-mediated allergic inflammation characterized by severe scratching and increased serum IgE levels only when the ear, and not the footpad, was subjected to scratching, indicating that depletion of NMU from the epidermis alone does not drive such allergic inflammation. Thus, the susceptibility of Nmu-/- mice to allergic inflammation depends primarily on scratching dry skin. Further, allergic skin inflammation mediated by FcεRI cross-linking in Nmu-/-mice was inhibited by prior injection of NMU. These results indicate that NMU plays an important physiological role as a negative regulator during the late stage of IgE-mediated allergic skin inflammation. PMID:27463114

  13. Epidermal Neuromedin U Attenuates IgE-Mediated Allergic Skin Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Mizukawa, Yoshiko; Doi, Takaaki; Yamazaki, Yoshimi; Kudo, Akihiko; Shiohara, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Although keratinocyte-derived neuropeptide neuromedin U (NMU) mediates the proinflammatory effects of innate-type mast cell activation, no information is available on the physiological roles. Here, to investigate the effects of NMU on IgE-mediated allergic skin inflammation, we determined whether IgE-mediated inflammation associated with severe scratching was induced in Nmu-/- mice administered repeated hapten applications to the ear or footpad. Dry skin was induced by targeted deletion of Nmu. Mice administered repeated hapten application developed IgE-mediated allergic inflammation characterized by severe scratching and increased serum IgE levels only when the ear, and not the footpad, was subjected to scratching, indicating that depletion of NMU from the epidermis alone does not drive such allergic inflammation. Thus, the susceptibility of Nmu-/- mice to allergic inflammation depends primarily on scratching dry skin. Further, allergic skin inflammation mediated by FcεRI cross-linking in Nmu-/-mice was inhibited by prior injection of NMU. These results indicate that NMU plays an important physiological role as a negative regulator during the late stage of IgE-mediated allergic skin inflammation. PMID:27463114

  14. Mouse models of acute exacerbations of allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh K; Herbert, Cristan; Foster, Paul S

    2016-07-01

    Most of the healthcare costs associated with asthma relate to emergency department visits and hospitalizations because of acute exacerbations of underlying chronic disease. Development of appropriate animal models of acute exacerbations of asthma is a necessary prerequisite for understanding pathophysiological mechanisms and assessing potential novel therapeutic approaches. Most such models have been developed using mice. Relatively few mouse models attempt to simulate the acute-on-chronic disease that characterizes human asthma exacerbations. Instead, many reported models involve relatively short-term challenge with an antigen to which animals are sensitized, followed closely by an unrelated triggering agent, so are better described as models of potentiation of acute allergic inflammation. Triggers for experimental models of asthma exacerbations include (i) challenge with high levels of the sensitizing allergen (ii) infection by viruses or fungi, or challenge with components of these microorganisms (iii) exposure to environmental pollutants. In this review, we examine the strengths and weaknesses of published mouse models, their application for investigation of novel treatments and potential future developments. PMID:26922049

  15. Preventative and Therapeutic Probiotic Use in Allergic Skin Conditions: Experimental and Clinical Findings

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Öner; Göksu Erol, Azize Yasemin

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are ingested live microbes that can modify intestinal microbial populations in a way that benefits the host. The interest in probiotic preventative/therapeutic potential in allergic diseases stemmed from the fact that probiotics have been shown to improve intestinal dysbiosis and permeability and to reduce inflammatory cytokines in human and murine experimental models. Enhanced presence of probiotic bacteria in the intestinal microbiota is found to correlate with protection against allergy. Therefore, many studies have been recently designed to examine the efficacy of probiotics, but the literature on the allergic skin disorders is still very scarce. Here, our objective is to summarize and evaluate the available knowledge from randomized or nonrandomized controlled trials of probiotic use in allergic skin conditions. Clinical improvement especially in IgE-sensitized eczema and experimental models such as atopic dermatitis-like lesions (trinitrochlorobenzene and picryl chloride sensitizations) and allergic contact dermatitis (dinitrofluorobenzene sensitization) has been reported. Although there is a very promising evidence to recommend the addition of probiotics into foods, probiotics do not have a proven role in the prevention or the therapy of allergic skin disorders. Thus, being aware of possible measures, such as probiotics use, to prevent/heal atopic diseases is essential for the practicing allergy specialist. PMID:24078929

  16. [New therapy schemes for acute, subacute and chronic variants of extrinsic allergic alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Makar'iants, N N; Shmelev, E I

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve treatment of patients with exogenous allergic alveolitis morphologically different variants of the disease, i.e. acute, subacute and chronic were identified and confirmed. For each variant of exogenous allergic alveolitis new therapy schemes were proposed. The study included 74 patients who were divided into 5 groups. In the first group with acute exogenous allergic alveolitis inhalation glycocorticosteroids in high doses in combination with plasmapheresis were prescribed, in the second group standard therapy with systemic glycocorticosteroids was prescribed. The third and the fourth group consisted of patients with subacute exogenous allergic alveolitis. The protracted ambroxol inhalation using nebulizers and the reduced dose of systemic glycocorticosteroids were used in the third group; and the standard dose of systemic glycocorticosteroids was used in the fourth. The fifth group consisted of patients with chronic exogenous allergic alveolitis, who received the standard dose of glycocorticosteroids and cytostatic drugs. After one month of therapy, it was ascertained that the use of high doses of inhalation glycocorticosteroids in combination with plasmapheresis in patients with acute exogenous allergic alveolitis led to significant improvements in clinical and CT presentation, physical activity tolerance, as well as the use of systemic glycocorticosteroids. The use of ambroxol inhalation in patients with subacute exogenous allergic alveolitis led to a significant improvement in clinical symptomatology, functional parameters and CT presentation, thus enabling to reduce the dose of glycocorticosteroids used and to avoid unwanted side effects. PMID:23457980

  17. The Relationship between Skin Symptoms and Allergic Reactions to Asian Dust

    PubMed Central

    Otani, Shinji; Onishi, Kazunari; Mu, Haosheng; Yokoyama, Yae; Hosoda, Takenobu; Okamoto, Mikizo; Kurozawa, Youichi

    2012-01-01

    Asian dust events result from displacement of atmospheric pollutants from the Chinese and Mongolian deserts, causing associated health issues throughout Northeast Asia. We investigated the relationship between skin symptoms in Asian dust events and contact allergy to Asian dust and associated metals. Increases in atmospheric levels of heavy metals such as Ni, Al, and Fe occurred during the severe Asian dust event on March 21, 2010. We conducted a case–control study (n = 62) with patch testing to compare skin symptoms on an Asian dust day with metal allergic reactions. Skin symptoms were observed in 18/62 subjects. Nine subjects with skin symptoms (group A) and 11 without (group B) were patch tested for six metals and Asian dust particles. Metal and dust samples were applied to the subjects’ backs for 2 days and the reactions were scored according to the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group guidelines. Differences in the positive rates between the groups were analyzed. Skin reactions to ferric chloride (p = 0.015), aluminum chloride (p = 0.047), nickel sulfate (p = 0.008), and Asian dust particles (p = 0.047) were more common in group A than in group B. Skin symptoms during Asian dust events may be allergic reactions to Asian dust particle-bound metals. PMID:23222253

  18. Exposure to ambient bioaerosols is associated with allergic skin diseases in Greater Taipei residents.

    PubMed

    Kallawicha, Kraiwuth; Chuang, Ying-Chih; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Han, Bor-Cheng; Ting, Yi-Fang; Chao, Hsing Jasmine

    2016-09-01

    Allergic skin diseases may result from various types of chemical and biological allergens. This study investigated the association between ambient bioaerosol exposure and allergic skin diseases by using the exposure data obtained from land use regression models and interpolated data. Data on daily average outpatient visits for atopic dermatitis (ICD-9-CM 691.8) and contact dermatitis and other eczema (ICD-9-CM 692.9) between November 2011 and August 2012 were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database. A generalized estimating equation was used to analyze the associations between the skin diseases and ambient bioaerosol levels. The results indicated that during the study period, contact dermatitis and other eczema were more prevalent than atopic dermatitis in the study area. Most cases were observed in districts of Taipei City and 3 major districts of New Taipei City, namely Xinzhuang, Banqiao, and Xindian. In univariate analysis, most bioaerosols were positively associated with both skin diseases. After adjustment for air pollution and sociodemographic factors, exposure to total fungal spores was significantly associated with atopic dermatitis in males (relative risk [RR] = 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-1.19). Contact dermatitis and other eczema had significant relationships with Cladosporium in males (RR = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.02-1.14) and with Aspergillus/Penicillium in females (RR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.02-1.07). Meteorological parameters, namely wind speed, temperature, and rainfall, were also significantly associated with skin diseases. Our findings reveal that exposure to ambient bioaerosols is a significant and independent risk factor for allergic skin diseases. PMID:27389548

  19. Juvenile allergic urethritis with urethro-ejaculatory reflux presenting as acute intermittent bilateral testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ramnik V; Brimioulle, Marina; Govani, Dhaval; Youssef, Talaat

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of juvenile allergic urethritis secondary to double concentrate orange squash of a famous brand in a 3-year-old boy who developed bilateral urethro-ejaculatory reflux (UER) and severe urethral, perineal and scrotal pain referred to both lower limbs intermittently predominantly during and after micturition-simulating features of bilateral intermittent testicular torsion. Accurate history, urinalysis, ultrasound, colour Doppler and food challenge were helpful in diagnosis. Topical steroids, antihistaminic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory medications together with withdrawal of the allergen produced complete recovery. Allergic urethritis in association with bilateral UER causing secondary seminal vesiculitis and epididymitis is rare. It presented as acute scrotum and responded to innovative treatment. Allergic disease can have a dramatic effect on a child's quality of life. This is the first documented case of allergic urethritis and associated UER presenting as juvenile acute scrotum. Steroids, antihistamines and anti-inflammatory agents together with avoidance of the allergen helped achieve recovery. PMID:26150614

  20. Contribution of endothelial selectins and alpha 4 integrins to eosinophil trafficking in allergic and nonallergic inflammatory reactions in skin.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, M M; Hellewell, P G

    1998-09-01

    The role of endothelial selectins in mediating eosinophil recruitment was assessed using the trafficking of 111In-labeled blood eosinophils in mouse skin. An intradermal injection of chemoattractants (leukotriene B4, macrophage inflammatory protein-l alpha, and eotaxin) resulted in a rapid accumulation of 111In eosinophils that was reduced 49 to 91% by anti-P-selectin mAb. An anti-E-selectin mAb was ineffective, although a combined E- and P-selectin blockade resulted in >95% inhibition of all responses. The accumulation of a pulse of 111In eosinophils at sites of active cutaneous anaphylaxis (ACA) at 4 to 8 h and at 20 to 24 h after Ag challenge was completely dependent upon E- and P-selectin in combination, but not in isolation. In contrast, at 20 to 24 h after Ag challenge in a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction in skin, 111In eosinophil accumulation was largely independent of endothelial selectins, even when L-selectin was also blocked. An anti-alpha 4 integrin mAb significantly reduced 111In eosinophil trafficking in both allergic reactions but was slightly more effective in the DTH reaction compared with the ACA reaction. These results show that P-selectin and to a lesser extent E-selectin mediate eosinophil recruitment in skin in acute inflammatory reactions. In allergic, late-onset inflammatory reactions, neither P- nor E-selectin alone are sufficient to mediate eosinophil accumulation; when combined, they are essential for trafficking in ACA but are less important in the DTH reaction. Whether alpha 4 integrin-based strategies will be more effective than selectin-based strategies at inhibiting eosinophil recruitment in human disease remains to be determined. PMID:9725251

  1. Regulatory cells induced by acute toxoplasmosis prevent the development of allergic lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Fenoy, Ignacio M; Sanchez, Vanesa R; Soto, Ariadna S; Picchio, Mariano S; Maglioco, Andrea; Corigliano, Mariana G; Dran, Graciela I; Martin, Valentina; Goldman, Alejandra

    2015-05-01

    The increased prevalence of allergies in developed countries has been attributed to a reduction of some infections. Supporting epidemiological studies, we previously showed that both acute and chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection can diminish allergic airway inflammation in BALB/c mice. The mechanisms involved when sensitization occurs during acute phase would be related to the strong Th1 response induced by the parasite. Here, we further investigated the mechanisms involved in T. gondii allergy protection in mice sensitized during acute T. gondii infection. Adoptive transference assays and ex vivo co-cultures experiments showed that not only thoracic lymph node cells from infected and sensitized mice but also from non-sensitized infected animals diminished both allergic lung inflammation and the proliferation of effector T cells from allergic mice. This ability was found to be contact-independent and correlated with high levels of CD4(+)FoxP3(+) cells. IL-10 would not be involved in allergy suppression since IL-10-deficient mice behaved similar to wild type mice. Our results extend earlier work and show that, in addition to immune deviation, acute T. gondii infection can suppress allergic airway inflammation through immune suppression. PMID:25532793

  2. Cigarette Smoking and Skin Prick Test in Patients With Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Khazaei, Hossein Ali; Khazaei, Bahman; Dashtizadeh, Gholam Ali; Mohammadi, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Allergic Rhinitis (AR) is the most common allergic disease, affecting 30% of population around the world. The disease is predominantly associated with exposure to some aeroallergens like cigarette smoking. Skin Prick Test (SPT) is a method of detecting immediate allergic reactions and is applied for controlling disease and therapeutic modality. Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on SPT results among male and female individuals with AR disease. Patients and Methods: A total of 478 patients with AR admitted to the 2 main hospitals of Zahedan City from 2005 to 2012, were recruited in this analytic-descriptive study. Categories of smokers and never smokers were used based on patient’s statements and their history of smoking. SPT was performed with panel of some allergens and results were recorded and analyzed statistically. Odds ratio and confidence interval method were calculated using univariate logistic regression. Results: The results of this study indicated that 41.4% of patients with allergic rhinitis was smoker with ages ranged from 15 to 70 years. The result of this study also showed that smoking has no effect on SPT results of pollen and weeds aeroallergens conducted on male and female AR patients. However, male were significantly more sensitive than female in terms of sensitivity to the aspergillus, cladosporium, house dust mite, grasses, wheat, cockroach, and feather allergens. Conclusions: Our findings did not support the effect of cigarette smoking on SPT reactivity to pollen and weeds aeroallergens. However, male were significantly more sensitive than female in terms of sensitivity to some allergens. PMID:26495257

  3. Mast Cells Regulate Epidermal Barrier Function and the Development of Allergic Skin Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sehra, Sarita; Serezani, Ana P M; Ocaña, Jesus A; Travers, Jeffrey B; Kaplan, Mark H

    2016-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by infiltration of eosinophils, T helper cells, and mast cells. The role of mast cells in atopic dermatitis is not completely understood. To define the effects of mast cells on skin biology, we observed that mast cells regulate the homeostatic expression of epidermal differentiation complex and other skin genes. Decreased epidermal differentiation complex gene expression in mice that genetically lack mast cells (Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice) is associated with increased uptake of protein antigens painted on the skin by dendritic cells (DCs) compared with similarly treated wild-type mice, suggesting a protective role for mast cells in exposure to nominal environmental allergens. To test this further, we crossed Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice with signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (i.e., Stat6) VT transgenic mice that develop spontaneous atopic dermatitis-like disease that is dependent on T helper cell 2 cytokines and is associated with high serum concentrations of IgE. We observed that Stat6VT × Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice developed more frequent and more severe allergic skin inflammation than Stat6VT transgenic mice that had mast cells. Together, these studies suggest that mast cells regulate epidermal barrier function and have a potential protective role in the development of atopic dermatitis-like disease. PMID:27021404

  4. Oritavancin for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Julia A.; Fowler, Vance G.; Corey, G. Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Inpatient treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) exerts a significant economic burden on the healthcare system. Oritavancin is a concentration-dependent, rapidly bactericidal agent approved for the treatment of ABSSSI. Its prolonged half-life with one-time intravenous (IV) dosing offers a potential solution to this burden. In addition, oritavancin represents an alternative therapy for Streptococci and multidrug resistant gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. Animal models have also shown promising results with oritavancin for other disease states including those that require long courses of IV therapy. Areas covered This review covers oritavancin’s basic chemistry, spectrum of activity, pharmacodynamics/ pharmacokinetics, efficacy in clinical trials, and provides expert opinion on future directions. To compose this review, a search of PubMed was performed, and articles written in the English language were selected based on full text availability. Expert Opinion If oritavancin is proven to be a cost-effective strategy for outpatient treatment and prevents complications of prolonged IV therapy, it will be sought as an alternative antibiotic therapy for ABSSSI. In addition, further clinical data demonstrating efficacy in gram-positive infections requiring prolonged therapy such as endocarditis and osteomyelitis could support oritavancin’s success in the current market. PMID:25803197

  5. Acute and chronic exposure to Tyrophagus putrescentiae induces allergic pulmonary response in a murine model

    PubMed Central

    Nuñez, Nailê Karine; dos Santos Dutra, Moisés; Barbosa, Gustavo Leivas; Morassutti, Alessandra Loureiro; de Souza, Rodrigo Godinho; Vargas, Mauro Henrique Moraes; Antunes, Géssica Luana; Silveira, Josiane Silva; da Silva, Guilherme Liberato; Pitrez, Paulo Márcio

    2016-01-01

    Background Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Tp) is a source of aeroallergen that causes allergic diseases. Objective To describe an acute and chronic murine model of allergic asthma with Tp extract with no systemic sensitization and no use of adjuvant. Methods Mites from dust sample were cultured and a raw extract was produced. Female BALB/c mice (6-8 weeks) were challenged intranasally with Tp extract or Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline, for 10 consecutive days (acute protocol) or for 6 weeks (chronic protocol). Twenty-four hours after the last intranasal challenge, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was performed for total and differential cells count, cytokine analysis, and eosinophil peroxidase activity. Lung tissue was also removed for histopathologic analysis. Results Tp extract has shown a significant increase in total cells count from BALF as well as an increase in absolute eosinophils count, eosinophil peroxidase activity, interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 levels, in both acute and chronic protocols. Peribronchovascular infiltrate, goblet cells hyperplasia and collagen deposition were shown in the airways of acute and chronic Tp-exposed mice. Conclusion Our data suggest that the intranasal exposure to Tp extract, with no systemic sensitization and no use of adjuvants, induces a robust allergic inflammation in the lungs of mice, in both acute and chronic models. Our Tp extract seems to be a potent allergen extract which may be used in asthma model studies. PMID:26844220

  6. Staphylococcus δ-toxin promotes mouse allergic skin disease by inducing mast cell degranulation

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yuumi; Oscherwitz, Jon; Cease, Kemp B.; Chan, Susana M.; Muñoz-Planillo, Raul; Hasegawa, Mizuho; Villaruz, Amer E.; Cheung, Gordon Y. C.; McGavin, Martin J.; Travers, Jeffrey B.; Otto, Michael; Inohara, Naohiro; Núñez, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects 15 to 30% of children and ~5% of adults in industrialized countries1. Although the pathogenesis of AD is not fully understood, the disease is mediated by an abnormal immunoglobulin E (IgE) immune response in the setting of skin barrier dysfunction2. Mast cells (MCs) contribute to IgE-mediated allergic disorders including AD3. Upon activation, MCs release their membrane-bound cytosolic granules leading to the release of multiple molecules that are important in the pathogenesis of AD and host defense4. More than 90% of AD patients are colonized with Staphylococcus aureus in the lesional skin whereas most healthy individuals do not harbor the pathogen5. Several Staphylococcal exotoxins (SEs) can act as superantigens and/or antigens in models of AD6. However, the role of these SEs in disease pathogenesis remains unclear. Here, we report that culture supernatants of S. aureus contain potent MC degranulation activity. Biochemical analysis identified δ-toxin as the MC degranulation-inducing factor produced by S. aureus. MC degranulation induced by δ-toxin depended on phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and calcium (Ca2+) influx, but unlike that mediated by IgE crosslinking, it did not require the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). In addition, IgE enhanced δ-toxin-induced MC degranulation in the absence of antigen. Furthermore, S. aureus isolates recovered from AD patients produced high levels of δ-toxin. Importantly, skin colonization with S. aureus, but not a mutant deficient in δ-toxin, promoted IgE and IL-4 production, as well as inflammatory skin disease. Furthermore, enhancement of IgE production and dermatitis by δ-toxin was abrogated in KitW-sh/W-sh MC-deficient mice and restored by MC reconstitution. These studies identify δ-toxin as a potent inducer of MC degranulation and suggest a mechanistic link between S. aureus colonization and allergic skin disease. PMID:24172897

  7. Skin Prick Test Analysis in Allergic Rhinitis Patients: A Preliminary Study in Abuja, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ibekwe, T. S.

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is prevalent in Nigeria, though little information exists on the allergen. We assessed the clinical features of AR patients in our environment based on the allergic rhinitis impact on asthma (ARIA) classification. Only patients with positive skin prick test (SPT) were recruited. Seventy-four patients participated in the study. AR and asthma comorbidity were observed in 13.5%. The proportion of “sneezers-runners” was higher than “blockers” with significantly more “sneezers-runners” having persistent AR (P = 0.007). No relationship was established between these predominant symptoms and the aeroallergens used in this study. Intermittent mild and moderate/severe AR were evident in 13.5% and 31.1%, while persistent mild and moderate/severe were seen in 20.3% and 35.1%, respectively. House dust mites allergen yielded the highest number of positive responses (22.6%) followed by tree pollen (16.8%). No relationship was observed between the allergens tested and AR severity. Majority of patients were oligosensitive (33.8%) and polysensitive (35.1%) and were not significantly associated with AR severity (P = 0.07). Most AR patients presenting for treatment in Abuja, Nigeria, had moderate-severe persistent AR and showed similar SPT sensitization pattern with countries having similar climatic conditions. Sensitization patterns were not related to ARIA classification or predominant AR symptoms. PMID:27247577

  8. Nerve growth factor partially recovers inflamed skin from stress-induced worsening in allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Peters, Eva M J; Liezmann, Christiane; Spatz, Katharina; Daniltchenko, Maria; Joachim, Ricarda; Gimenez-Rivera, Andrey; Hendrix, Sven; Botchkarev, Vladimir A; Brandner, Johanna M; Klapp, Burghard F

    2011-03-01

    Neuroimmune dysregulation characterizes atopic disease, but its nature and clinical impact remain ill-defined. Induced by stress, the neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF) may worsen cutaneous inflammation. We therefore studied the role of NGF in the cutaneous stress response in a mouse model for atopic dermatitis-like allergic dermatitis (AlD). Combining several methods, we found that stress increased cutaneous but not serum or hypothalamic NGF in telogen mice. Microarray analysis showed increased mRNAs of inflammatory and growth factors associated with NGF in the skin. In stress-worsened AlD, NGF-neutralizing antibodies markedly reduced epidermal thickening together with NGF, neurotrophin receptor (tyrosine kinase A and p75 neurotrophin receptor), and transforming growth factor-β expression by keratinocytes but did not alter transepidermal water loss. Moreover, NGF expression by mast cells was reduced; this corresponded to reduced cutaneous tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA levels but not to changes in mast cell degranulation or in the T helper type 1 (Th1)/Th2 cytokine balance. Also, eosinophils expressed TNF receptor type 2, and we observed reduced eosinophil infiltration after treatment with NGF-neutralizing antibodies. We thus conclude that NGF acts as a local stress mediator in perceived stress and allergy and that increased NGF message contributes to worsening of cutaneous inflammation mainly by enhancing epidermal hyperplasia, pro-allergic cytokine induction, and allergy-characteristic cellular infiltration. PMID:21085186

  9. Epicutaneous Allergic Sensitization by Cooperation between Allergen Protease Activity and Mechanical Skin Barrier Damage in Mice.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Sakiko; Takai, Toshiro; Iida, Hideo; Maruyama, Natsuko; Ochi, Hirono; Kamijo, Seiji; Nishioka, Izumi; Hara, Mutsuko; Matsuda, Akira; Saito, Hirohisa; Nakae, Susumu; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko; Ikeda, Shigaku

    2016-07-01

    Allergen sources such as mites, insects, fungi, and pollen contain proteases. Airway exposure to proteases induces allergic airway inflammation and IgE/IgG1 responses via IL-33-dependent mechanisms in mice. We examined the epicutaneous sensitization of mice to a model protease allergen, papain; the effects of tape stripping, which induces epidermal barrier dysfunction; and the atopic march upon a subsequent airway challenge. Papain painting on ear skin and tape stripping cooperatively promoted dermatitis, the skin gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors, up-regulation of serum total IgE, and papain-specific IgE/IgG1 induction. Epicutaneous sensitization induced T helper (Th) 2 cells and Th17 differentiation in draining lymph nodes. Ovalbumin and protease inhibitor-treated papain induced no or weak responses, whereas the co-administration of ovalbumin and papain promoted ovalbumin-specific IgE/IgG1 induction. Wild-type and IL-33-deficient mice showed similar responses in the epicutaneous sensitization phase. The subsequent airway papain challenge induced airway eosinophilia and maintained high papain-specific IgE levels in an IL-33-dependent manner. These results suggest that allergen source-derived protease activity and mechanical barrier damage such as that caused by scratching cooperatively promote epicutaneous sensitization and skin inflammation and that IL-33 is dispensable for epicutaneous sensitization but is crucial in the atopic march upon a subsequent airway low-dose encounter with protease allergens. PMID:26987428

  10. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2013.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2014-02-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin diseases that were reported in the Journal in 2013. Studies on food allergy suggest that (1) 7.6% of the US population is affected, (2) a "healthy" early diet might prevent food allergy, (3) the skin might be an important route of sensitization, (4) allergen component testing might aid diagnosis, (5) the prognosis of milk allergy might be predictable through early testing, (6) oral or sublingual immunotherapy show promise but also have caveats, and (7) preclinical studies show promising alternative modes of immunotherapy and desensitization. Studies on eosinophilic esophagitis show a relationship to connective tissue disorders and that dietary management is an effective treatment for adults. Markers of anaphylaxis severity have been determined and might inform potential diagnostics and therapeutic targets. Insights on serum tests for drug and insect sting allergy might result in improved diagnostics. Genetic and immune-mediated defects in skin epithelial differentiation contribute to the severity of atopic dermatitis. Novel management approaches to treatment of chronic urticaria, including use of omalizumab, are being identified. PMID:24373349

  11. Allergic Urticaria: A Case Report of Rare Skin Allergy with a Common Mouthwash

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Viresh; Chopra, Harneet; Sharma, Anamika

    2013-01-01

    Chlorhexidine is a widely used antiseptic and disinfectant in medical and non-medical environments. Compared to its ubiquitous use, allergic contact dermatitis from chlorhexidine has rarely been reported and so its sensitization rate seems to be low. Chlorhexidine has been used for more than 50 years but it was only in the last two decades, that reports of immediate- type reactions to chlorhexidine were seen. Reactions ranging from localized urticaria to anaphylactic shock and hypersensitivity reactions, including delayed hypersensitivity reactions such as contact dermatitis, fixed drug eruptions, and photosensitivity reactions, began to appear more frequently. However the prevalence of contact urticaria and anaphylaxis due to chlorhexidine remains to be unknown. In this case report we have reported a case of urticaria due to oral use of chlorhexidine. The adverse reaction was confirmed by a skin prick test. PMID:23372227

  12. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2009.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2010-01-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects, as well as advances in allergic skin disease that were reported in the Journal in 2009. Among key epidemiologic observations, several westernized countries report that more than 1% of children have peanut allergy, and there is some evidence that environmental exposure to peanut is a risk factor. The role of regulatory T cells, complement, platelet-activating factor, and effector cells in the development and expression of food allergy were explored in several murine models and human studies. Delayed anaphylaxis to mammalian meats appears to be related to IgE binding to the carbohydrate moiety galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose, which also has implications for hypersensitivity to murine mAb therapeutics containing this oligosaccharide. Oral immunotherapy studies continue to show promise for the treatment of food allergy, but determining whether the treatment causes tolerance (cure) or temporary desensitization remains to be explored. Increased baseline serum tryptase levels might inform the risk of venom anaphylaxis and might indicate a risk for mast cell disorders in persons who have experienced such episodes. Reduced structural and immune barrier function contribute to local and systemic allergen sensitization in patients with atopic dermatitis, as well as increased propensity of skin infections in these patients. The use of increased doses of nonsedating antihistamines and potential usefulness of omalizumab for chronic urticaria was highlighted. These exciting advances reported in the Journal can improve patient care today and provide insights on how we can improve the diagnosis and treatment of these allergic diseases in the future. PMID:20109740

  13. What is living on your dog's skin? Characterization of the canine cutaneous mycobiota and fungal dysbiosis in canine allergic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Meason-Smith, Courtney; Diesel, Alison; Patterson, Adam P.; Older, Caitlin E.; Mansell, Joanne M.; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Rodrigues Hoffmann, Aline

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the skin-associated fungal microbiota (mycobiota) in dogs, and to evaluate the influence of body site, individual dog or health status on the distribution of fungi, next-generation sequencing was performed targeting the internal transcribed spacer region. A total of 10 dogs with no history of skin disease were sampled at 10 distinct body sites consisting of haired and mucosal skin, and 8 dogs with diagnosed skin allergies were sampled at six body sites commonly affected by allergic disease. Analysis of similarities revealed that body site was not an influencing factor on membership or structure of fungal communities in healthy skin; however, the mucosal sites were significantly reduced in fungal richness. The mycobiota from body sites in healthy dogs tended to be similar within a dog, which was visualized in principle coordinates analysis (PCoA) by clustering of all sites from one dog separate from other dogs. The mycobiota of allergic skin was significantly less rich than that of healthy skin, and all sites sampled clustered by health status in PCoA. Interestingly, the most abundant fungi present on canine skin, across all body sites and health statuses, were Alternaria and Cladosporium—two of the most common fungal allergens in human environmental allergies. PMID:26542075

  14. What is living on your dog's skin? Characterization of the canine cutaneous mycobiota and fungal dysbiosis in canine allergic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Meason-Smith, Courtney; Diesel, Alison; Patterson, Adam P; Older, Caitlin E; Mansell, Joanne M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Rodrigues Hoffmann, Aline

    2015-12-01

    To characterize the skin-associated fungal microbiota (mycobiota) in dogs, and to evaluate the influence of body site, individual dog or health status on the distribution of fungi, next-generation sequencing was performed targeting the internal transcribed spacer region. A total of 10 dogs with no history of skin disease were sampled at 10 distinct body sites consisting of haired and mucosal skin, and 8 dogs with diagnosed skin allergies were sampled at six body sites commonly affected by allergic disease. Analysis of similarities revealed that body site was not an influencing factor on membership or structure of fungal communities in healthy skin; however, the mucosal sites were significantly reduced in fungal richness. The mycobiota from body sites in healthy dogs tended to be similar within a dog, which was visualized in principle coordinates analysis (PCoA) by clustering of all sites from one dog separate from other dogs. The mycobiota of allergic skin was significantly less rich than that of healthy skin, and all sites sampled clustered by health status in PCoA. Interestingly, the most abundant fungi present on canine skin, across all body sites and health statuses, were Alternaria and Cladosporium--two of the most common fungal allergens in human environmental allergies. PMID:26542075

  15. Acute myelomonocytic leukaemia presenting as xanthomatous skin eruption

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, JR; Tansey, P; Chung, P; Burnett, AK; Thomson, J; McDonald, GA

    1982-01-01

    A case of acute myelomonocytic leukaemia (AMMOL) is reported in which skin infiltration with xanthomatous nodules was the presenting feature. The histological, including ultrastructural, appearances are described. Images PMID:6958680

  16. Allergic rhinitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... your symptoms. Skin testing is the most common method of allergy testing. If your doctor determines you ... Others cause little or no sleepiness. Antihistamine nasal sprays work well for treating allergic rhinitis. Ask your ...

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis to plants: an analysis of 68 patients tested at the Skin and Cancer Foundation.

    PubMed

    Cook, D K; Freeman, S

    1997-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to plant allergens is a common problem in Australia. We present the cumulative experience of the Contact Dermatitis Clinic of the Skin and Cancer Foundation (Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia) a tertiary referral clinic. Results from a series of 68 patients with positive patch tests to 88 plant allergens are reported. We found that Grevillea species, Compositae, Rhus, Alstroemeria and various timber sawdusts were the most common plant allergens. PMID:9293658

  18. Positive skin prick tests of immediate type in non-allergic children.

    PubMed

    Cserháti, E; Kiss, A G; Mezei, G; Kelemen, J; Puskás, J

    1983-01-01

    Prick tests with twenty different Beneard antigens were performed in 300 children aged 2-16 years, all having a negative individual and familial history for allergic disease. At least one positive result was obtained in 64% of the children and among the 6000 tests a total of 727 were positive. Of the positive tests 93% were + or ++, 7% were +++ or ++++. No relationship was found between age and the incidence of positive skin tests. Mild reactions against more than one antigen in the same individual were quite frequent, pronounced reactions (+++ or ++++) against more than one antigen were exceptional. The incidence of mild reactions was found to be independent of the gender; strong reactions occurred in girls twice as often as in boys. The highest incidence of positive reactions was observed with house-dust mite, pollens, hay and straw dust, and canine and feline hairs. The diagnostic value of mild positivity is slight but pronounced positivity, especially against more than one antigen, must carefully be considered and in any case followed by a bronchial provocation test. PMID:6639791

  19. Novel concept of iSALT (inducible skin-associated lymphoid tissue) in the elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    HONDA, Tetsuya; KABASHIMA, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is one of the most common inflammatory skin diseases, which is classified as a delayed-type hypersensitivity immune response. The development of ACD is divided into two phases: sensitization and elicitation. In the sensitization phase, antigen-specific effector T cells are induced in the draining lymph nodes by antigen-captured cutaneous dendritic cells (DCs) that migrate from the skin. In the elicitation phase, the effector T cells are activated in the skin by antigen-captured cutaneous DCs and produce various chemical mediators, which create antigen-specific inflammation. In this review, we discuss the recent advancements in the immunological mechanisms of ACD, focusing on the mechanisms in the elicitation phase. The observations of elicitation of CHS lead to the emerging novel concept of iSALT (inducible skin-associated lymphoid tissue). PMID:26755397

  20. Comparison of allergic reactions to intravenous and intramuscular pegaspargase in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Petersen, William C; Clark, Dana; Senn, Stacy L; Cash, W Thomas; Gillespie, Scott E; McCracken, Courtney E; Keller, Frank G; Lew, Glen

    2014-05-01

    Pegaspargase (PEG) is a standard component of therapy for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Because PEG preparations are bacterially derived, they are highly immunogenic. PEG has traditionally been delivered intramuscularly (IM), but over the last several years, more PEG has been given intravenously (IV) in order to provide a less painful and more convenient means of delivery. However, there are limited data comparing allergic reactions between IV and IM PEG recipients, especially in a large cohort of patients. We reviewed the charts of pediatric ALL patients diagnosed from 2006 to 2011 who received PEG at our institution and compared the incidence, time to onset of symptoms, reaction grade, and hospitalization rate for patients who had allergic reactions to PEG. Of 318 evaluable patients, 159 received IV and 159 received IM PEG. Thirty-one (19.5%) IV patients had an allergic reaction, compared to 17 (10.7%) IM patients (P = .028). Time to onset of symptoms was ≤ 30 minutes for 26 of 27 evaluable IV patients (96.3%) versus only two of 11 evaluable IM patients (18.2%; P < .001). Four of 31 IV patients (12.9%) and six of 17 IM patients (35.5%) required hospitalization (P = .134). There is increased incidence of allergy in patients who received IV PEG compared to IM. Grade of reaction was similar between IV and IM, but allergic reactions to IV PEG had a more rapid onset. While the risk of allergy may be increased, IV delivery appears to have an acceptable safety profile for administration in ALL patients. PMID:24498943

  1. Allergic reactions (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction can be provoked by skin contact with poison plants, chemicals and animal scratches, as well as by ... dust, nuts and shellfish, may also cause allergic reaction. Medications such as penicillin and other antibiotics are ...

  2. Acute allergic contact dermatitis of the lips from peppermint oil in a lip balm.

    PubMed

    Tran, Anh; Pratt, Melanie; DeKoven, Joel

    2010-01-01

    The etiology of cheilitis is often not readily apparent. We present a case series of four patients with allergic contact cheilitis (ACC) secondary to exposure to peppermint oil contained in a lip balm product. These patients developed eczematous dermatitis involving their lips and perioral skin. They were tested with the North American Contact Dermatitis Group standard series as well as with an expanded series of flavoring agents, sunscreens, plant and fragrance components, and their own products. The lip balm contained potential sensitizers such as propolis, lanolin, coconut oil, almond oil, peppermint oil, and vitamin E. Our patch-test results showed that peppermint oil was the most likely culprit in these patients' ACC. Peppermint oil is less commonly reported as causing ACC than are more common contactants such as balsam of Peru or nickel sulfate. However, with the widespread use of lip balms containing peppermint oil, more cases of peppermint oil-induced ACC may be expected. PMID:20233551

  3. Dalbavancin for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Silvano; Noviello, Silvana; Leone, Sebastiano

    2015-12-01

    Dalbavancin is a novel parenteral lipoglycopeptide antibiotic approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) in adults. Dalbavancin is highly active against common Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Dalbavancin has a prolonged half-life that allows for once weekly dosing. Phase III trials have demonstrated non-inferiority compared with vancomycin/linezolid in the treatment of ABSSSIs, including those sustained by MRSA. PMID:26700080

  4. A new, rapid in vivo method to evaluate allergic responses through distinctive distribution of a fluorescent-labeled immune complex: Potential to investigate anti-allergic effects of compounds administered either systemically or topically to the skin.

    PubMed

    Yamaki, Kouya; Yoshino, Shin

    2016-01-01

    We herein established a new method to evaluate allergic responses in mice rapidly and easily with ethical improvement by reducing the number of animals used. A single intravenous injection of a mixture of anti-OVA monoclonal IgE and fluorescein-ovalbumin (FITC-OVA) induced the distinctive spotted distribution of FITC-OVA in skin, named "ASDIS (Anaphylaxis-dependent Spotted Distribution of a fluorescent-labeled Immune complex in Skin)", and this was easily detected by in vivo imaging. The parallel induction of hypothermia, scratching, serum histamine increases, and ASDIS as well as the inhibition of ASDIS by either the systemic administration of a histamine H1 receptor antagonist or mast cell-depleting antibody suggested that our method, which only required 15 min, induced these allergic responses including ASDIS. Relatively mild but significant ASDIS was induced also in mice with passive systemic anaphylaxis by the method, requiring 2 separate days. The painting of anti-histamines on the skin markedly reduced ASDIS in the painted area only, suggesting the potential of this model to simultaneously compare the anti-allergic effects of several candidate compounds with control drugs in the same mice. ASDIS was suggested to originate from extravasated FITC-OVA/OE-1 immune complexes from blood to skin tissues other than mast cells. Our new method has the advantages of rapidity, easy method, and lower animal numbers to evaluate anti-allergic compounds as well as the characteristics of the used antibody, antigen, labeling molecules, additives, and other formulations. Our model for inducing ASDIS may contribute to the development of anti-allergic drugs, especially those intended for application to the skin. PMID:26643682

  5. [The incidence of occupationally-induced allergic skin diseases in a large flower market].

    PubMed

    Hausen, B M; Oestmann, G

    1988-01-01

    150 questionnaires as well as epicutaneous tests in 56 individuals from a total of 675 persons cultivating and selling ornamental plants at the largest German flower market revealed that half of those investigated were suffering from allergic contact dermatitis. The leading plant species with sensitizing properties was found to be the chrysanthemum, followed by tulips and Alstroemeria cultivars. Allergic reactions to daffodils and primulas were rarely observed. Most of the reactions obtained with other Compositae species such as arnica, marguerite, sunflower, tansy and yarrow must be interpreted as cross-reactions due to the fact that cross-reactivity predominates within the sesquiterpene lactone constituents of the various Compositae species. PMID:2971519

  6. Skin temperature reveals the intensity of acute stress.

    PubMed

    Herborn, Katherine A; Graves, James L; Jerem, Paul; Evans, Neil P; Nager, Ruedi; McCafferty, Dominic J; McKeegan, Dorothy E F

    2015-12-01

    Acute stress triggers peripheral vasoconstriction, causing a rapid, short-term drop in skin temperature in homeotherms. We tested, for the first time, whether this response has the potential to quantify stress, by exhibiting proportionality with stressor intensity. We used established behavioural and hormonal markers: activity level and corticosterone level, to validate a mild and more severe form of an acute restraint stressor in hens (Gallus gallus domesticus). We then used infrared thermography (IRT) to non-invasively collect continuous temperature measurements following exposure to these two intensities of acute handling stress. In the comb and wattle, two skin regions with a known thermoregulatory role, stressor intensity predicted the extent of initial skin cooling, and also the occurrence of a more delayed skin warming, providing two opportunities to quantify stress. With the present, cost-effective availability of IRT technology, this non-invasive and continuous method of stress assessment in unrestrained animals has the potential to become common practice in pure and applied research. PMID:26434785

  7. Skin temperature reveals the intensity of acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Herborn, Katherine A.; Graves, James L.; Jerem, Paul; Evans, Neil P.; Nager, Ruedi; McCafferty, Dominic J.; McKeegan, Dorothy E.F.

    2015-01-01

    Acute stress triggers peripheral vasoconstriction, causing a rapid, short-term drop in skin temperature in homeotherms. We tested, for the first time, whether this response has the potential to quantify stress, by exhibiting proportionality with stressor intensity. We used established behavioural and hormonal markers: activity level and corticosterone level, to validate a mild and more severe form of an acute restraint stressor in hens (Gallus gallus domesticus). We then used infrared thermography (IRT) to non-invasively collect continuous temperature measurements following exposure to these two intensities of acute handling stress. In the comb and wattle, two skin regions with a known thermoregulatory role, stressor intensity predicted the extent of initial skin cooling, and also the occurrence of a more delayed skin warming, providing two opportunities to quantify stress. With the present, cost-effective availability of IRT technology, this non-invasive and continuous method of stress assessment in unrestrained animals has the potential to become common practice in pure and applied research. PMID:26434785

  8. Levocetirizine: a review of its use in the management of allergic rhinitis and skin allergies.

    PubMed

    Hair, Philip I; Scott, Lesley J

    2006-01-01

    Levocetirizine (Xyzal) is a selective, potent, oral histamine H(1) receptor antagonist of the latest generation that is licensed for the symptomatic treatment of allergic rhinitis (including persistent allergic rhinitis [PER]) and chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). Large, well designed trials indicate that levocetirizine is effective and generally well tolerated in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and CIU. Its pharmacological profile offers many positive aspects: a rapid onset and long duration of antihistaminic effect; rapid absorption and high bioavailability; a low potential for drug interactions; a low volume of distribution; and a lack of effect on cognition, psychomotor function and the cardiovascular system. Allergen challenge chamber studies suggest that levocetirizine has better efficacy than desloratadine, loratadine or fexofenadine. Well controlled, long-term studies with other later-generation H(1) receptor antagonists are required to fully define its clinical profile relative to other agents in this class. Overall, levocetirizine is a valuable addition to the oral H(1) receptor antagonists available for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and as first-line therapy in patients with CIU. PMID:16740020

  9. Acute methyl salicylate toxicity complicating herbal skin treatment for psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Bell, Anthony J; Duggin, Geoffrey

    2002-06-01

    We present an interesting case of salicylism arising from the use of methyl salicylate as part of a herbal skin cream for the treatment of psoriasis. A 40-year-old man became quite suddenly and acutely unwell after receiving treatment from an unregistered naturopath. Methyl salicylate (Oil of Wintergreen) is widely available in many over the counter topical analgesic preparations and Chinese medicated oils. Transcutaneous absorption of the methyl salicylate was enhanced in this case due to the abnormal areas of skin and use of an occlusive dressing. The presence of tinnitus, vomiting, tachypnoea and typical acid/base disturbance allowed a diagnosis of salicylate toxicity to be made. Our patient had decontaminated his skin prior to presentation, limiting the extent of toxicity and was successfully treated with rehydration and establishment of good urine flow. PMID:12147116

  10. What if skin eruption is not caused by allergic reaction to drugs?

    PubMed

    Bobik, O; Bobik, O; Arganova, H

    2010-01-01

    In this case report authors have described a case of a 39 years old Caucasian single man who was unsuccessfully treated for an allergic reaction to drugs by multiple dermatologists, due to two etiologically different diseases. It was a classical second stage syphilitic infection and positive serologic tests for HIV infection, proved by screening and confirmatory tests. Syphilitic infection was treated and followed up by dermatologist and for the treatment of HIV infection, the patient was referred to the Centre for treatment HIV/AIDS in Kosice (Fig. 4, Ref. 3). PMID:20586153

  11. Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections in internal medicine wards: old and new drugs.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Marco; Concia, Ercole; Giusti, Massimo; Mazzone, Antonino; Santini, Claudio; Stefani, Stefania; Violi, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are a common cause of hospital admission among elderly patients, and traditionally have been divided into complicated and uncomplicated SSTIs. In 2010, the FDA provided a new classification of these infections, and a new category of disease, named acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs), has been proposed as an independent clinical entity. ABSSSIs include three entities: cellulitis and erysipelas, wound infections, and major cutaneous abscesses This paper revises the epidemiology of SSTIs and ABSSSIs with regard to etiologies, diagnostic techniques, and clinical presentation in the hospital settings. Particular attention is owed to frail patients with multiple comorbidities and underlying significant disease states, hospitalized on internal medicine wards or residing in nursing homes, who appear to be at increased risk of infection due to multi-drug resistant pathogens and treatment failures. Management of ABSSSIs and SSTIs, including evaluation of the hemodynamic state, surgical intervention and treatment with appropriate antibiotic therapy are extensively discussed. PMID:27084183

  12. Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Kakli, Hasan A; Riley, Timothy D

    2016-09-01

    Among the atopic disorders, allergic rhinitis is the most prevalent. Patients who suffer from allergic rhinitis sustain significant morbidity and loss of productivity. Cardinal symptoms include nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, sneezing, and nasal itching, although multiple related symptoms may occur. Causes should be ruled out with a thorough history and physical examination, with particular attention to red flag or atypical symptoms. Skin testing or serum sampling can confirm diagnosis and also guide therapy. Therapy is multimodal, tailored to a particular patient's symptom burden and quality of life. PMID:27545735

  13. Current and future trends in antibiotic therapy of acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections.

    PubMed

    Russo, A; Concia, E; Cristini, F; De Rosa, F G; Esposito, S; Menichetti, F; Petrosillo, N; Tumbarello, M; Venditti, M; Viale, P; Viscoli, C; Bassetti, M

    2016-04-01

    In 2013 the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued recommendations and guidance on developing drugs for treatment of skin infection using a new definition of acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infection (ABSSSI). The new classification includes cellulitis, erysipelas, major skin abscesses and wound infection with a considerable extension of skin involvement, clearly referring to a severe subset of skin infections. The main goal of the FDA was to better identify specific infections where the advantages of a new antibiotic could be precisely estimated through quantifiable parameters, such as improvement of the lesion size and of systemic signs of infection. Before the spread and diffusion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in skin infections, antibiotic therapy was relatively straightforward. Using an empiric approach, a β-lactam was the preferred therapy and cultures from patients were rarely obtained. With the emergence of MRSA in the community setting, initial ABSSSI management has been changed and readdressed. Dalbavancin, oritavancin and tedizolid are new drugs, approved or in development for ABSSSI treatment, that also proved to be efficient against MRSA. Dalbavancin and oritavancin have a long half-life and can be dosed less frequently. This in turn makes it possible to treat patients with ABSSSI in an outpatient setting, avoiding hospitalization or potentially allowing earlier discharge, without compromising efficacy. In conclusion, characteristics of long-acting antibiotics could represent an opportunity for the management of ABSSSI and could profoundly modify the management of these infections by reducing or in some cases eliminating both costs and risks of hospitalization. PMID:27125562

  14. Allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a common disorder that is strongly linked to asthma and conjunctivitis. It is usually a long-standing condition that often goes undetected in the primary-care setting. The classic symptoms of the disorder are nasal congestion, nasal itch, rhinorrhea and sneezing. A thorough history, physical examination and allergen skin testing are important for establishing the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis. Second-generation oral antihistamines and intranasal corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment. Allergen immunotherapy is an effective immune-modulating treatment that should be recommended if pharmacologic therapy for allergic rhinitis is not effective or is not tolerated. This article provides an overview of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and appropriate management of this disorder. PMID:22166009

  15. Topical tacrolimus does not negatively impact acute skin wound healing.

    PubMed

    Namkoong, Sun; Chung, Jimin; Yoo, Jiyeon; Jung, Minyoung; Gye, Jiwon; Kim, Ji Seok; Kim, Jee Young; Ahn, Sung Ku; Park, Byung Cheol; Kim, Myung Hwa; Hong, Seung Phil

    2013-05-01

    Despite the increasing use of topical tacrolimus, there is little information about its effect on skin wound healing. To determine effects on acute cutaneous wound healing, two full-thickness skin wounds were imparted on the backs of 45 hairless mice, which were then divided into vehicle-, topical tacrolimus- and topical steroid-treated group. Each drug was topically applied once daily. The wound area was assessed by using dermoscopic images every two days after wounding. At 3, 7 and 11 days after wounding, 10 wounds in each group were collected for semi-quantitative analysis of histological features including re-epithelialization, polymorphonuclear leucocytes, fibroblasts and collagen. We also checked the mRNA expression levels of EGF, TGF-β, TNF-α and IL-1α. While topical application of clobetasol propionate was found to delay re-epithelialization and infiltration of polymorphonuclear leucocyte, topical treatment with tacrolimus showed patterns similar to that of the vehicle. In the tacrolimus-treated group, mRNA expression levels of IL-1α and TGF-β were slightly decreased, while the others were similar with the vehicle-treated group. Unlike steroid, topical tacrolimus, therefore, did not disturb the wound healing process in a murine skin wound model. PMID:23614749

  16. Allergic skin inflammation induced by chemical sensitizers is controlled by the transcription factor Nrf2.

    PubMed

    El Ali, Zeina; Gerbeix, Cédric; Hemon, Patrice; Esser, Philipp R; Martin, Stefan F; Pallardy, Marc; Kerdine-Römer, Saadia

    2013-07-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is induced by low-molecular weight electrophilic chemicals and metal ions. Chemical contact sensitizers trigger reactive oxygen species production and provoke electrophilic stress, leading to the accumulation of the transcription factor nuclear-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in innate immune cell types. The objective of this work was to identify the role of Nrf2 in the regulation of ACD. We used the local lymph node assay (LLNA) and the mouse ear swelling test (MEST) to study the role of Nrf2 in both the sensitization and elicitation phase in nrf2 knockout (nrf2(-/-)) and wild-type (nrf2(+/+)) mice. Five chemicals were used: two compounds known to react with cysteine residues, 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and cinnamaldehyde (CinA); one sensitizer known to exhibit mixed reactivity to cysteine and lysine residues, isophorone diisocyanate; and one reacting specifically with lysine residues, trimellitic anhydride and croton oil, a well-known irritant. In the MEST assay, DNCB (1 and 2%) induced a significant increase in ear thickness in nrf2(-/-) compared with nrf2(+/+) mice, suggesting a role for Nrf2 in the control of the inflammatory process. When DNCB was used at 0.25 and 0.5% or when mice were treated with CinA, inflammation was found only in nrf2(-/-) mice. In the LLNA, all chemical sensitizers induced an increase of lymphocyte proliferation in nrf2(-/-) compared with nrf2(+/+) mice for the same chemical concentration. These results reveal an important role for Nrf2 in controlling ACD and lymphocyte proliferation in response to sensitizers. PMID:23564646

  17. Acute effects of cigarette smoke exposure on experimental skin flaps

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, J.; Jenkins, R.A.; Kurihara, K.; Schultz, R.C.

    1985-04-01

    Random vascular patterned caudally based McFarlane-type skin flaps were elevated in groups of Fischer 344 rats. Groups of rats were then acutely exposed on an intermittent basis to smoke generated from well-characterized research filter cigarettes. Previously developed smoke inhalation exposure protocols were employed using a Maddox-ORNL inhalation exposure system. Rats that continued smoke exposure following surgery showed a significantly greater mean percent area of flap necrosis compared with sham-exposed groups or control groups not exposed. The possible pathogenesis of this observation as well as considerations and correlations with chronic human smokers are discussed. Increased risks of flap necrosis by smoking in the perioperative period are suggested by this study.

  18. Skin nodules in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Le Clech, Lenaïg; Hutin, Pascal; Le Gal, Solène; Guillerm, Gaëlle

    2014-01-01

    Opportunistic infections cause a significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. We describe the case of a patient with skin fusariosis and a probable cerebral toxoplasmosis after UCB stem cell transplantation for B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Fusarium species (spp) infections are difficult to treat. To date, there has been no consensus on the treatment of fusariosis and the management of its side effects. Given the negative pretransplant Toxoplasma serology in this case, identifying the origin of the Toxoplasma infection was challenging. All usual transmission routes were screened for and ruled out. The patient's positive outcome was not consistent with that of the literature reporting 60% mortality due to each infection. PMID:24408938

  19. Allergic reactions (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction is a sensitivity to a specific substance, called an allergen, that is contacted through the skin, inhaled into the lungs, swallowed or injected. The body's reaction to an allergen can be mild, such as ...

  20. Evaluation of efficacy of a skin lipid mixture in patients with irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis or atopic dermatitis: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Berardesca, E; Barbareschi, M; Veraldi, S; Pimpinelli, N

    2001-11-01

    Disturbances of skin barrier function occur in several skin diseases, e.g., atopic dermatitis (AD), irritant/allergic contact dermatitis (ICD, ACD). Skin barrier damage triggers the production of cytokines that stimulate lipogenesis which may also cause inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a topical skin lipid mixture in the treatment of ICD, ACD and AD. 580 consecutive patients suffering from ICD, ACD or AD were treated with a skin lipid mixture containing ceramide-3 and patented nanoparticles. Patients received the lipid mixture alone or in combination with topical corticosteroids until clearance or for 8 weeks. Both treatment groups statistically improved all parameters considered at week 4 and 8 as compared to baseline. Between the 2 treatment groups, there was a statistically significant difference in favour of combined therapy for (ICD, ACD, AD, respectively): erythema, pruritus and overall disease severity; erythema and pruritus; erythema, pruritus, fissuring and overall disease severity. No statistically significant difference was found for (ICD, ACD, AD, respectively): dryness, scaling and fissuring; scaling, fissuring and overall disease severity; dryness and scaling. Between the 2 ACD treatment groups, there was a statistically significant difference in favour of the skin lipid mixture for dryness. In conclusion, the study shows that balanced lipid mixtures are effective in improving barrier properties and the clinical condition of the skin in contact dermatitis. PMID:11722487

  1. Oritavancin: a review in acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections.

    PubMed

    Syed, Yahiya Y; Scott, Lesley J

    2015-11-01

    Oritavancin (Orbactiv(®)) is a new generation lipoglycopeptide approved for use in adult patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). It is administered as a single 1200 mg intravenous infusion over 3 h. In phase 3 trials in adult patients with ABSSSI, oritavancin was noninferior to vancomycin in terms of a composite outcome (cessation of spreading or reduction in the size of the baseline lesion, absence of fever and no rescue antibacterials required; primary endpoint) assessed at an US FDA-recommended early timepoint of 48-72 h after initiation of treatment. Oritavancin was also noninferior to vancomycin in terms of a ≥20 % reduction in the baseline lesion size at the early timepoint and clinical cure rate 7-14 days after the end of treatment. Oritavancin was generally well tolerated in the phase 3 trials, with most treatment-emergent adverse reactions being mild in severity. The most common adverse events occurring in oritavancin recipients were nausea, headache, vomiting, limb and subcutaneous abscesses, and diarrhoea. Oritavancin offers a number of potential advantages, including a convenient single dose treatment that may shorten or eliminate hospital stays, a reduction in healthcare resource utilization and cost, no need for dosage adjustment in patients with mild to moderate hepatic or renal impairment, no need for therapeutic drug monitoring, and elimination of compliance concerns. Therefore, oritavancin is a useful treatment option for adults with ABSSSI. PMID:26464319

  2. Clinical efficacy of dalbavancin for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI)

    PubMed Central

    Leuthner, Kimberly D; Buechler, Kristin A; Kogan, David; Saguros, Agafe; Lee, H Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) are a common disease causing patients to seek treatment through the health care system. With the continued increase of drug-resistant bacterial pathogens, these infections are becoming more difficult to successfully cure. Lipoglycopeptides have unique properties that allow the drug to remain active toward both common and challenging pathogens at the infected site for lengthy periods of time. Dalbavancin, a new lipoglycopeptide, provides two unique dosing regimens for the treatment of ABSSSI. The original regimen of 1,000 mg intravenous infusion followed by a 500 mg intravenous infusion after a week has been shown as safe and effective in multiple, randomized noninferiority trials. These studies also demonstrated that dalbavancin was similar to standard regimens in terms of both safety and tolerability. Recently a single 1,500 mg dose was demonstrated to be equivalent to the dalbavancin two-dose regimen for treating ABSSSI. With the introduction of dalbavancin, clinicians have the option to provide an intravenous antimicrobial agent shown to be as effective as traditional therapies, without requiring admission into the hospitals or prescribing a medication which may not be utilized optimally. Further understanding of dalbavancin and its unusual properties can provide unique treatment situations with potential benefits for both the patient and the overall health care system, which should be further explored. PMID:27354809

  3. Dalbavancin for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections

    PubMed Central

    Ramdeen, Sheena; Boucher, Helen W

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) have increased in incidence and severity. The involvement of resistant organisms, particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, presents additional challenges. The lipoglycopeptide dalbavancin has a prolonged half-life, high protein binding, and excellent tissue levels which led to its development as a once-weekly treatment for ABSSSI. In the pivotal DISCOVER 1 and DISCOVER 2 trials, dalbavancin proved non-inferior to vancomycin followed by linezolid when used sequentially for ABSSSI, forming the basis for its recent approval in the US and Europe for ABSSSI. Areas covered A literature search of published pharmacologic and clinical data was conducted to review the chemistry, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of dalbavancin. We also discuss its development process, highlighting efficacy and safety data from pertinent clinical trials and the role it could play in the current clinical landscape. Expert opinion DISCOVER 1 and DISCOVER 2 demonstrated dalbavancin’s non-inferiority to vancomycin followed by linezolid for ABSSSI and confirmed its safety and tolerability. They were among the first trials to use new, early primary efficacy endpoints, and dalbavancin was among the first agents designated a Qualified Infectious Disease Product for expedited review. Dalbavancin may prove to be a valuable option for ABSSSI patients in whom conventional therapy is limited. PMID:26239321

  4. Evaluation of acute skin irritation and phototoxicity by aqueous and ethanol fractions of Angelica keiskei

    PubMed Central

    LEE, SANG-HAN

    2013-01-01

    In this study, to assess whether aqueous and ethanol fractions of Angelica keiskei induce acute skin irritation and phototoxicity, acute skin irritancy and phototoxicity tests were performed. The skin of rabbits or guinea pigs was treated with these fractions (100 mg/dose) and whether the animals sustained significant skin damage was determined. The data demonstrated that the aqueous and ethanol fractions of Angelica keiskei did not induce acute toxicity in the skin of the animals, as assessed by anatomical and pathological observations. The results from the present study suggest that these aqueous and ethanol fractions of Angelica keiskei have promising potential uses as cosmetic ingredients that do not induce significant levels of skin irritation or phototoxicity. PMID:23251240

  5. Acute skin lesions due to localized ``hot particle`` radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.W.; Carsten, A.L.; Kaurin, D.G.L.; Schaefer, C.W.

    1996-06-01

    Purpose of the studies was to determine incidence and severity of lesions resulting from localized deposition of dose to the skin from small (<0.5 mm) discrete radioactive particles. Hanford mini-swine were exposed to localized doses from 0.2 to over 600 Gy (averaged over 1 cm{sup 2} at 70{mu}m depth) from isotopes having max beta particle energies from about 0.3-3 MeV. Incidence of erythema and scabs (indicating ulceration) were scored routinely for up to 71 days post-irradiation. Responses followed normal probability distributions, and thus, no true threshold could be defined. Ten and 50% incidence rates were deduced using probit analyses. Lowest dose producing 10% incidence was about 1 Gy for exposures to Yb-175 (0.5 MeV max energy) beta particles. Severity of lesions was estimated using diameters and persistence. From preliminary considerations of probability of induction, size, and persistence of acute lesions, a special limit for hot particle exposures in the range of 5-50 Gy may be reasonable, with an action level between about 1 Gy and the limit.

  6. Listening to mozart reduces allergic skin wheal responses and in vitro allergen-specific IgE production in atopic dermatitis patients with latex allergy.

    PubMed

    Kimata, Hajime

    2003-01-01

    In atopic dermatitis patients with latex allergy, listening to Mozart reduced skin wheal responses induced by latex, but not by histamine, whereas listening to Beethoven failed to produce similar results. Listening to Mozart also decreased in vitro total IgE and latex-specific IgE production with concomitant skewing of the cytokine pattern toward the Th1 type, that is, an increase in Th1 cytokine production and decrease in Th2 cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells, whereas listening to Beethoven failed to do so. These results suggest that therapy using specific types of music may be an effective treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:14977243

  7. Allergic Skin Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  8. Rapid creation of skin substitutes from human skin cells and biomimetic nanofibers for acute full-thickness wound repair.

    PubMed

    Mahjour, Seyed Babak; Fu, Xiaoling; Yang, Xiaochuan; Fong, Jason; Sefat, Farshid; Wang, Hongjun

    2015-12-01

    Creation of functional skin substitutes within a clinically acceptable time window is essential for timely repair and management of large wounds such as extensive burns. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of fabricating skin substitutes via a bottom-up nanofiber-enabled cell assembly approach and using such substitutes for full-thickness wound repair in nude mice. Following a layer-by-layer (L-b-L) manner, human primary skin cells (fibroblasts and keratinocytes) were rapidly assembled together with electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL)/collagen (3:1, w/w; 8%, w/v) nanofibers into 3D constructs, in which fibroblasts and keratinocytes were located in the bottom and upper portion respectively. Following culture, the constructs developed into a skin-like structure with expression of basal keratinocyte markers and deposition of new matrix while exhibiting good mechanical strength (as high as 4.0 MPa by 14 days). Treatment of the full-thickness wounds created on the back of nude mice with various grafts (acellular nanofiber meshes, dermal substitutes, skin substitutes and autografts) revealed that 14-day-cultured skin substitutes facilitated a rapid wound closure with complete epithelialization comparable to autografts. Taken together, skin-like substitutes can be formed by L-b-L assembling human skin cells and biomimetic nanofibers and they are effective to heal acute full-thickness wounds in nude mice. PMID:26187057

  9. Use of drug therapy to manage acute cutaneous necrosis of the skin.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Jill S; Hall, John C

    2010-04-01

    Acute cutaneous necrosis is defined as a sudden onset of gangrenous skin changes in the skin, associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The following diseases are included in this discussion: coumadin necrosis, heparin necrosis, brown recluse spider bite, necrotizing fasciitis, vasculitis, pyoderma gangrenosum, calciphylaxis, clotting abnormalities and embolic phenomena. The importance of early diagnosis, early distinction and early drug therapy or drug withdrawal must match the diagnosis for maximal preservation of the skin and underlying tissue. PMID:20514791

  10. Allergic rhinitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic to, such as dust, animal dander, or pollen. Symptoms can also occur when you eat a ... article focuses on allergic rhinitis due to plant pollens. This type of allergic rhinitis is commonly called ...

  11. Rare allergic reaction of the kidney: sitagliptin-induced acute tubulointerstitial nephritis.

    PubMed

    Alsaad, Ali A; Dhannoon, Sarah M; Pantin, Sally-Ann L; Porter, Ivan E

    2016-01-01

    A 56-year-old man with a history of diabetes mellitus type-2 and stage-2 chronic kidney disease secondary to diabetic nephropathy presented with an acute deterioration of kidney function. Non-invasive work-up failed to reveal the underlying aetiology for the acute kidney failure. Kidney biopsy revealed acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (ATIN) which was attributed to sitagliptin use. Only few case reports have shown this correlation. Our aim is to alert physicians and other providers of the potential effect of sitagliptin to cause ATIN with this biopsy-proven case. PMID:27436034

  12. Retrosternal mass: An interesting allergic reaction to intravenous thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Motamed, Mohammad Reza; Aghaei, Mahboubeh; Badi, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is an important cause of disability and death worldwide, with the majority of strokes occurring in older people. Thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-TPA) is the approved treatment for acute ischemic stroke. A major concern of physicians, who treat acute ischemic stroke with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-TPA,) is the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. However, other adverse reactions, including anaphylaxis and angioedema, can also occur. Here we report an interesting soft tissue reaction to intravenous r-TPA in an 80 year-old male who was treated for acute ischemic stroke. PMID:24250917

  13. Retrosternal mass: An interesting allergic reaction to intravenous thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Mehrpour, Masoud; Motamed, Mohammad Reza; Aghaei, Mahboubeh; Badi, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is an important cause of disability and death worldwide, with the majority of strokes occurring in older people. Thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-TPA) is the approved treatment for acute ischemic stroke. A major concern of physicians, who treat acute ischemic stroke with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-TPA,) is the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. However, other adverse reactions, including anaphylaxis and angioedema, can also occur. Here we report an interesting soft tissue reaction to intravenous r-TPA in an 80 year-old male who was treated for acute ischemic stroke. PMID:24250917

  14. Acute, but not resolved, influenza A infection enhances susceptibility to house dust mite-induced allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Al-Garawi, Amal A; Fattouh, Ramzi; Walker, Tina D; Jamula, Erin B; Botelho, Fernando; Goncharova, Susanna; Reed, Jennifer; Stampfli, Martin R; O'Byrne, Paul M; Coyle, Anthony J; Jordana, Manel

    2009-03-01

    The impact of respiratory viral infections on the emergence of the asthmatic phenotype is a subject of intense investigation. Most experimental studies addressing this issue have used the inert Ag OVA with controversial results. We examined the consequences of exposure to a low dose of the common aeroallergen house dust mite (HDM) during the course of an influenza A infection. First, we delineated the kinetics of the immune-inflammatory response in the lung of mice following intranasal infection with influenza A/PR8/34. Our data demonstrate a peak response during the first 10 days, with considerable albeit not complete resolution at day 39 postinfection (p.i.). At day 7 p.i., mice were exposed, intranasally, to HDM for 10 consecutive days. We observed significantly enhanced eosinophilic inflammation, an expansion in Th2 cells, enhanced HDM-specific IgE and IgG1 responses and increased mucous production. Furthermore, lung mononuclear cells produced enhanced IFN-gamma and IL-5, unchanged IL-13, and reduced IL-4. These immunologic and structural changes lead to marked lung dysfunction. This allergic phenotype occurs at a time when there is a preferential increase in plasmacytoid dendritic cells over myeloid dendritic cells, activated CD8(+) T cells, and increased IFN-gamma production, all of which have been proposed to inhibit allergic responses. In contrast, the inflammatory response elicited by HDM was reduced when exposure occurred during the resolution phase (day 40 p.i.). Interestingly, this was not associated with a reduction in sensitization. Thus, the proinflammatory environment established during an acute influenza A infection enhances Th2-polarized immunity to a low dose of HDM and precipitates marked lung dysfunction. PMID:19234206

  15. [Antihistamines in allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Kruszewski, Jerzy

    2007-01-01

    Antihistamines are the first line of pharmacotherapy in allergic diseases, especially in allergic rhinitis. The article also presents the interesting 2005-2007 publications on the use of antihistamine in practical point of view, especially the newly introduced ones (desloratadine, fexofenadine, levocetirizine) and those which are to be introduced soon (rupatadine). The efficacy in skin histamine provocation model and various clinical model were discussed. PMID:18260244

  16. New developments in the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections: considerations for the effective use of dalbavancin

    PubMed Central

    Juul, Janelle J; Mullins, Caitlin F; Peppard, William J; Huang, Angela M

    2016-01-01

    Dalbavancin, an intravenous glycopeptide, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in May 2014 for use in adult patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. The recommended dosing regimen for effective use of dalbavancin is 1,000 mg followed by a 500 mg dose after 1 week. Two multinational, identically designed, non-inferiority trials, DISCOVER 1 and 2, demonstrated similar early clinical success with dalbavancin compared to vancomycin with an option to switch to oral linezolid. In a recently published non-inferiority trial, a single-dose regimen of dalbavancin was compared to the traditional two-dose administration and was found to have a non-inferior clinical response. In the aforementioned trials, dalbavancin was well tolerated, with patients experiencing transient adverse events of mild to moderate severity. The prolonged half-life, excellent skin and soft tissue penetration, bactericidal activity against Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and convenient dosing make dalbavancin a reasonable option for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections in adult patients who have tried and failed other therapies. PMID:26937194

  17. Acute glutathione depletion leads to enhancement of airway reactivity and inflammation via p38MAPK-iNOS pathway in allergic mice.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, A; Siddiqui, N; Alharbi, Naif O; Alharbi, M M; Imam, F

    2014-09-01

    Glutathione (GSH) plays a major role in allergic airway responses through a variety of mechanism which include direct scavenging of oxidative species, being a reducing equivalent and regulation of cellular signaling through redox sensitive mechanisms. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of acute GSH depletion on airway reactivity, inflammation and NO signaling in a mouse model of allergic asthma. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase was used for depletion of GSH levels. Acute depletion of GSH with BSO worsened allergen induced airway reactivity and inflammation through increase in nitrosative stress as reflected by increased inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression, total nitrates and nitrites (NOx), nitrotyrosine, protein carbonyls, and decreased total antioxidant capacity. Treatment with p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and iNOS inhibitors attenuated the effects of GSH depletion on airway reactivity and inflammation through attenuation of nitrosative stress as evidenced by a decrease in NOx, nitrotyrosine, protein carbonyls and increase in total antioxidant capacity (TAC). In conclusion, these data suggest that acute depletion of glutathione is associated with alteration of airway responses through an increase in nitrosative stress in allergic airways of mice. PMID:24978607

  18. Brief analysis of causes of sensitive skin and advances in evaluation of anti-allergic activity of cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Fan, L; He, C; Jiang, L; Bi, Y; Dong, Y; Jia, Y

    2016-04-01

    This review focuses on the causes of sensitive skin and elaborates on the relationship between skin sensitivity and skin irritations and allergies, which has puzzled cosmetologists. Here, an overview is presented of the research on active ingredients in cosmetic products for sensitive skin (anti-sensitive ingredients), which is followed by a discussion of their experimental efficacy. Moreover, several evaluation methods for the efficacy of anti-sensitive ingredients are classified and summarized. Through this review, we aim to provide the cosmetic industry with a better understanding of sensitive skin, which could in turn provide some theoretical guidance to the research on targeted cosmetic products. PMID:26444676

  19. Comparative analysis of the acute response of zebrafish Danio rerio skin to two different bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Lü, Aijun; Hu, Xiucai; Wang, Yi; Shen, Xiaojing; Zhu, Aihua; Shen, Lulu; Ming, Qinglei; Feng, Zhaojun

    2013-12-01

    Skin is an important innate immune organ in fish; however, little is known about the skin's immune response to infectious pathogens. We conducted a comparative analysis of the acute immune response of Zebrafish Danio rerio skin against gram-positive (Staphylococcus chromogenes) and gram-negative (Citrobacter freundii) bacterial infections. Gene expression profiles induced from the two different infections were identified by microarray hybridization, with many genes demonstrating an acute immune response in the skin. Differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in response to stress and stimulus, complement activation, acute-phase response, and defense and immune response. Compared with transcription patterns of skin from the two infections, a similar innate immunity (e.g., transferrin, coagulation factor, complements, and lectins) was observed but with different acute-phase genes (e.g., ceruloplasmin, alpha-1-microglobulin, vitellogenin, and heat shock protein). These results suggest that the skin of fish plays an important role in the innate immune responses to bacterial infection. PMID:24341765

  20. Transitions of care in the management of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections: a paradigm shift.

    PubMed

    Verastegui, Jaime E; Hamada, Yukihiro; Nicolau, David P

    2016-08-01

    Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) have evolved over a relatively short period of time to become one of the most challenging medical problems encountered in clinical practice. Notably the high incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) across the continuum of care has coincided with increased outpatient failures and higher rates of hospital admissions for parental antibiotic therapy. Consequently the management of ABSSSI constitutes a tremendous burden to the healthcare system in terms of cost of care and consumption of institutional and clinical resources. This perspective piece discusses current and new approaches to the management of ABSSSI in a hospital setting and the need for a multifaceted approach. Treatment strategies for the management through the utilization of observation units (OU), Outpatient Parental Antibiotic Therapy (OPAT), and newly developed antibiotics for the use against skin infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria will be discussed in the context of ABSSSI. PMID:27248789

  1. Efficacy and safety of oclacitinib for the control of pruritus and associated skin lesions in dogs with canine allergic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, Sallie B; Wren, Jody A; Cleaver, Dawn M; Martin, David D; Walsh, Kelly F; Harfst, Jessica A; Follis, Stacey L; King, Vickie L; Boucher, Joseph F; Stegemann, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Background Oclacitinib (Apoquel®) inhibits the function of a variety of pro-inflammatory, pro-allergic and pruritogenic cytokines that are dependent on Janus kinase enzyme activity. Oclacitinib selectively inhibits Janus kinase 1. Hypothesis/Objectives We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of oclacitinib for the control of pruritus associated with allergic dermatitis in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Methods Client-owned dogs (n = 436) with moderate to severe owner-assessed pruritus and a presumptive diagnosis of allergic dermatitis were enrolled. Dogs were randomized to either oclacitinib at 0.4–0.6 mg/kg orally twice daily or an excipient-matched placebo. An enhanced 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS) was used by the owners to assess the severity of pruritus from day 0 to 7 and by veterinarians to assess the severity of dermatitis on days 0 and 7. Dogs could remain on the study for 28 days. Results Pretreatment owner and veterinary VAS scores were similar for the two treatment groups. Oclacitinib produced a rapid onset of efficacy within 24 h. Mean oclacitinib Owner Pruritus VAS scores were significantly better than placebo scores (P < 0.0001) on each assessment day. Pruritus scores decreased from 7.58 to 2.59 cm following oclacitinib treatment. The day 7 mean oclacitinib Veterinarian Dermatitis VAS scores were also significantly better (P < 0.0001) than placebo scores. Diarrhoea and vomiting were reported with similar frequency in both groups. Conclusions and clinical importance In this study, oclacitinib provided rapid, effective and safe control of pruritus associated with allergic dermatitis, with owners and veterinarians noting substantial improvements in pruritus and dermatitis VAS scores. PMID:23829933

  2. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT) and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without history of, and clinically reactions to foods botanically related to grass. Methods 70 subjects (41 females; mean age 32 years) and 20 healthy controls (13 females; mean age 24 years) were tested by open food challenge (OFC) with cereals and peanut. SPT and sIgE both with Immulite® (Siemens) and ImmunoCAP® (Phadia) to grass and birch pollen, cereals, peanut and bromelain were performed. Results Of the 65 OFC-negative subjects 29-46% (SPT, depending on cut-off), 20% (Immulite) and 38% (ImmunoCAP) had positive results to one or more of the foods tested. Controls were negative in all tests. Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD) as evidenced by reaction to bromelain could explain only a minority of the measured IgE-sensitizations. Conclusion Grass pollen allergic patients with documented food tolerance to cereals and peanut may express significant sensitization. False-positive cereal or peanut allergy diagnoses may be a quantitatively important problem both in routine clinical work and epidemiological studies. PMID:22409998

  3. Severe systemic allergic reaction induced by accidental skin contact with cow milk in a 16-year-old boy. A case report.

    PubMed

    Liccardi, G; De Falco, F; Gilder, J A; D'Amato, M; D'Amato, G

    2004-01-01

    The symptoms of food allergy are rarely induced by skin contact. A 16-year-old boy was referred to our Allergology Centre after an episode of systemic symptoms triggered by accidental skin contact with a drop of cow milk (CM) dripped from a sandwich containing fresh cheese. The patient had been allergic to CM from the age of 24 months and had experienced several episodes of urticaria-angioedema after the ingestion of tiny or "hidden" amounts of CM proteins. In vivo and in vitro diagnostic procedures showed intense sensitisation to all CM proteins (1/100 dilutions of allergenic extracts produced large wheals, and class 4 specific IgE antibodies. Total IgE antibodies were elevate (770.0 UI/). A moderate degree of bronchial hyperresponsiveness was found (PC20 metacholine: 3.90 milligrams). This case report suggests that patients with a high degree of sensitisation to CM proteins should be alert to the danger of skin contact and should beware of "hidden" CM allergens. PMID:15301310

  4. Topical versus Systemic Antibiotics in the Treatment of Acute Superficial Skin Infections

    PubMed Central

    Belcon, Michael C.

    1979-01-01

    Use of antibiotics in some superficial skin infections is examined. The choice of a route of administration is dependent on a number of factors, including the site and extent of skin lesions, frequency of recurrence, and clinical and immunological state of the host. However, the consensus of various studies on the subject seem to indicate a preference for the systemic route in acute infectious dermatoses. PMID:423278

  5. γ-Secretase Inhibitor Alleviates Acute Airway Inflammation of Allergic Asthma in Mice by Downregulating Th17 Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weixi; Zhang, Xueya; Sheng, Anqun; Weng, Cuiye; Zhu, Tingting; Zhao, Wei; Li, Changchong

    2015-01-01

    T helper 17 (Th17) cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. Th17 cell differentiation requires Notch signaling. γ-Secretase inhibitor (GSI) blocks Notch signaling; thus, it may be considered as a potential treatment for allergic asthma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of GSI on Th17 cell differentiation in a mouse model of allergic asthma. OVA was used to induce mouse asthma model in the presence and absence of GSI. GSI ameliorated the development of OVA-induced asthma, including suppressing airway inflammation responses and reducing the severity of clinical signs. GSI also significantly suppressed Th17-cell responses in spleen and reduced IL-17 levels in serum. These findings suggest that GSI directly regulates Th17 responses through a Notch signaling-dependent pathway in mouse model of allergic asthma, supporting the notion that GSI is a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of allergic asthma. PMID:26339131

  6. Understanding the Acute Skin Injury Mechanism Caused by Player-Surface Contact During Soccer

    PubMed Central

    van den Eijnde, Wilbert A.J.; Peppelman, Malou; Lamers, Edwin A.D.; van de Kerkhof, Peter C.M.; van Erp, Piet E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Superficial skin injuries are considered minor, and their incidence is probably underestimated. Insight into the incidence and mechanism of acute skin injury can be helpful in developing suitable preventive measures and safer playing surfaces for soccer and other field sports. Purpose: To gain insight into the incidence and severity of skin injuries related to soccer and to describe the skin injury mechanism due to player-surface contact. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: The prevention model by van Mechelen et al (1992) combined with the injury causation model of Bahr and Krosshaug (2005) were used as a framework for the survey to describe the skin injury incidence and mechanism caused by player-surface contact. Results: The reviewed literature showed that common injury reporting methods are mainly based on time lost from participation or the need for medical attention. Because skin abrasions seldom lead to absence or medical attention, they are often not reported. When reported, the incidence of abrasion/laceration injuries varies from 0.8 to 6.1 injuries per 1000 player-hours. Wound assessment techniques such as the Skin Damage Area and Severity Index can be a valuable tool to obtain a more accurate estimation of the incidence and severity of acute skin injuries. Conclusion: The use of protective equipment, a skin lubricant, or wet surface conditions has a positive effect on preventing abrasion-type injuries from artificial turf surfaces. The literature also shows that essential biomechanical information of the sliding event is lacking, such as how energy is transferred to the area of contact. From a clinical and histological perspective, there are strong indications that a sliding-induced skin lesion is caused by mechanical rather than thermal injury to the skin. PMID:26535330

  7. Profile of oritavancin and its potential in the treatment of acute bacterial skin structure infections

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Subhashis; Saeed, Usman; Havlichek, Daniel H; Stein, Gary E

    2015-01-01

    Oritavancin, a semisynthetic derivative of the glycopeptide antibiotic chloroeremomycin, received the US Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections caused by susceptible Gram-positive bacteria in adults in August 2014. This novel second-generation semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide antibiotic has activity against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA), and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. Oritavancin inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis and is rapidly bactericidal against many Gram-positive pathogens. The long half-life of this drug enables a single-dose administration. Oritavancin is not metabolized in the body, and the unchanged drug is slowly excreted by the kidneys. In two large Phase III randomized, double-blind, clinical trials, oritavancin was found to be non-inferior to vancomycin in achieving the primary composite end point in the treatment of acute Gram-positive skin and skin structure infections. Adverse effects noted were mostly mild with nausea, headache, and vomiting being the most common reported side effects. Oritavancin has emerged as another useful antimicrobial agent for treatment of acute Gram-positive skin and skin structure infections, including those caused by MRSA and VISA. PMID:26185459

  8. Emerging concepts: mast cell involvement in allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Modena, Brian D; Dazy, Kristen; White, Andrew A

    2016-08-01

    In a process known as overt degranulation, mast cells can release all at once a diverse array of products that are preformed and present within cytoplasmic granules. This occurs typically within seconds of stimulation by environmental factors and allergens. These potent, preformed mediators (ie, histamine, heparin, serotonin, and serine proteases) are responsible for the acute symptoms experienced in allergic conditions such as allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, allergy-induced asthma, urticaria, and anaphylaxis. Yet, there is reason to believe that the actions of mast cells are important when they are not degranulating. Mast cells release preformed mediators and inflammatory cytokines for periods after degranulation and even without degranulating at all. Mast cells are consistently seen at sites of chronic inflammation, including nonallergic inflammation, where they have the ability to temper inflammatory processes and shape tissue morphology. Mast cells can trigger actions and chemotaxis in other important immune cells (eg, eosinophils and the newly discovered type 2 innate lymphocytes) that then make their own contributions to inflammation and disease. In this review, we will discuss the many known and theorized contributions of mast cells to allergic diseases, focusing on several prototypical allergic respiratory and skin conditions: asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis, aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease, allergic conjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis, and some of the more common medication hypersensitivity reactions. We discuss traditionally accepted roles that mast cells play in the pathogenesis of each of these conditions, but we also delve into new areas of discovery and research that challenge traditionally accepted paradigms. PMID:26976119

  9. Evaluating the consistency of location of the most severe acute skin reaction and highest skin dose measured by thermoluminescent dosimeter during radiotherapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Min; Huang, Chih-Jen; Chen, Hsiao-Yun; Chang, Gia-Hsin; Tsao, Min-Jen

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this prospective study to evaluate whether the location of the most severe acute skin reaction matches the highest skin dose measured by thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) during adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for patients with breast cancer after breast conservative surgery. To determine whether TLD measurement can reflect the location of the most severe acute skin reaction, 80 consecutive patients were enrolled in this prospective study. We divided the irradiated field into breast, axillary, inframammary fold, and areola/nipple areas. In 1 treatment session when obvious skin reaction occurred, we placed the TLD chips onto the 4 areas and measured the skin dose. We determined whether the highest measured skin dose area is consistent with the location of the most severe skin reaction. The McNemar test revealed that the clinical skin reaction and TLD measurement are more consistent when the most severe skin reaction occurred at the axillary area, and the p = 0.0108. On the contrary, TLD measurement of skin dose is less likely consistent with clinical observation when the most severe skin reaction occurred at the inframammary fold, breast, and areola/nipple areas (all the p > 0.05). Considering the common site of severe skin reaction over the axillary area, TLD measurement may be an appropriate way to predict skin reaction during RT. PMID:27158022

  10. Acute painful paraplegia in a 49-year-old man with allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Sorino, Claudio; Agati, Sergio; Milani, Giuseppe; Maspero, Annarosa

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a 49-year-old man, with a 10-year history of bronchial asthma and nasal polyposis, who developed acutely painful paraplegia and paresthesias. Laboratory data showed elevated blood creatine kinase levels and myoglobinuria, which were diagnostic for rhabdomyolysis but only partially explained the neurological deficit. Electrophysiological studies revealed a sensorimotor neuropathy of multiple mononeuritis type. The patient also had leucocytosis with marked eosinophilia and antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies. Bronchial biopsies showed inflammatory infiltrates with a prevalence of eosinophils. All these findings led us to diagnose eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, a systemic vasculitis with almost constant respiratory tract involvement and good response to corticosteroid treatment. This can also affect other organs including the nervous system, while muscular involvement is unusual. Some diseases deserve attention in differential diagnosis. Histology can support the diagnosis which remains essentially clinical. Steroid sparing agents/immunosuppressants are suggested for extensive disease. PMID:24980994

  11. Bilayer Cryogel Wound Dressing and Skin Regeneration Grafts for the Treatment of Acute Skin Wounds.

    PubMed

    Priya, S Geetha; Gupta, Ankur; Jain, Era; Sarkar, Joyita; Damania, Apeksha; Jagdale, Pankaj R; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Gupta, Kailash C; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-06-22

    In this study, the potential of cryogel bilayer wound dressing and skin regenerating graft for the treatment of surgically created full thickness wounds was evaluated. The top layer was composed of polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine (PVP-I) cryogel and served as the antiseptic layer, while the bottom regenerative layer was made using gelatin cryogel. Both components of the bilayer showed typical features of a cryogel interconnected macropore network, rapid swelling, high water uptake capacity of about 90%. Both PVP and gelatin cryogel showed high tensile strength of 45 and 10 kPa, respectively. Gelatin cryogel sheets were essentially elastic and could be stretched without any visible deformation. The antiseptic PVP-I layer cryogel sheet showed sustained iodine release and suppressed microbial growth when tested with skin pathogens (zone of inhibition ∼2 cm for sheet of 0.9 cm diameter). The gelatin cryogel sheet degraded in vitro in weeks. The gelatin cryogel sheet supported cell infiltration, attachment, and proliferation of fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Microparticles loaded with bioactive molecules (mannose-6-phosphate and human fibrinogen) were also incorporated in the gelatin cryogel sheets for their role in enhancing skin regeneration and scar free wound healing. In vivo evaluation of healing capacity of the bilayer cryogel was checked in rabbits by creating full thickness wound defect (diameter 2 cm). Macroscopic and microscopic observation at regular time intervals for 4 weeks demonstrated better and faster skin regeneration in the wound treated with cryogel bilayer as compared to untreated defect and the repair was comparable to commercial skin regeneration scaffold Neuskin-F. Complete skin regeneration was observed after 4 weeks of implantation with no sign of inflammatory response. Defects implanted with cryogel having mannose-6-phosphate showed no scar formation, while the wound treated with bilayer incorporated with human fibrinogen microparticles showed

  12. Allergic Conjunctivitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... water. This is called conjunctivitis, also known as “pink eye.” Causes & Risk Factors What causes allergic conjunctivitis? ... example, if you are allergic to pollen or mold, stay indoors when pollen and mold levels are ...

  13. Bathing Effects of Various Seawaters on Allergic (Atopic) Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions Induced by 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene in Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Choong Gon; Kang, Meehye; Lee, Youn-Ho; Min, Won Gi; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kang, Su Jin; Song, Chang Hyun; Park, Soo Jin; Park, Ji Ha; Han, Chang Hyun; Lee, Young Joon; Ku, Sae Kwang

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the preventive effects of four types of seawater collected in Republic of Korea on hairless mice with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB-) induced allergic/atopic dermatitis (AD). The anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated by measuring tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α and interleukins (ILs). Glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide anion, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were measured to evaluate the antioxidant effects. Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were observed to measure the antiapoptotic effects; matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 9 levels were also evaluated. Mice with AD had markedly higher clinical skin severity scores and scratching behaviors; higher TNF-α and ILs (1β, 10, 4, 5, and 13) levels; higher MDA, superoxide anion, caspase-3, PARP, and MMP-9 levels; and greater iNOS activity. However, the severity of AD was significantly decreased by bathing in seawaters, but it did not influence the dermal collagen depositions and skin tissue antioxidant defense systems. These results suggest that bathing in all four seawaters has protective effects against DNCB-induced AD through their favorable systemic and local immunomodulatory effects, active cytoprotective antiapoptotic effects, inhibitory effects of MMP activity and anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. PMID:26221169

  14. Effects of glycerol on human skin damaged by acute sodium lauryl sulphate treatment.

    PubMed

    Atrux-Tallau, Nicolas; Romagny, Céline; Padois, Karine; Denis, Alain; Haftek, Marek; Falson, Françoise; Pirot, Fabrice; Maibach, Howard I

    2010-08-01

    Glycerol, widely used as humectant, is known to protect against irritants and to accelerate recovery of irritated skin. However, most studies were done with topical formulations (i.e. emulsions) containing glycerol in relatively high amounts, preventing drawing conclusions from direct effects. In this study, acute chemical irritations were performed on the forearm with application of a 10% sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) aqueous solution under occlusion for 3 h. Then, glycerol aqueous solutions from 1 to 10% were applied under occlusion for 3 h. After elimination of moist excess consecutive to occlusive condition, in ambient air for 15 and 30 min, skin barrier function was investigated by dual measurement of skin hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Treatments with SLS solution under occlusion significantly increased TEWL and decreased skin hydration as assessed by capacitance measurements. The SLS irritant property was raised by the occlusion and the water barrier function as well as water content appeared impaired. Recovery with glycerol at low doses was remarkable through a mechanism that implies its hygroscopic properties and which is saturable. This precocious effect acts through skin rehydration by enhancing water-holding capacity of stratum corneum that would facilitate the late physiological repair of impaired skin barrier. Thus, glycerol appears to substitute for natural moisturizing factors that have been washed out by the detergent action of SLS, enhancing skin hydration but without restoring skin barrier function as depicted by TEWL values that remained high. Thus, irritant contact dermatitis treated with glycerol application compensate for skin dehydration, favouring physiological process to restore water barrier function of the impaired skin. Empirical use of glycerol added topical formulations onto detergent altered skin was substantiated in the present physicochemical approach. PMID:20043170

  15. Astemizole, a potent histamine H1-receptor antagonist: effect in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, on antigen and histamine induced skin weal responses and relationship to serum levels.

    PubMed

    Howarth, P H; Emanuel, M B; Holgate, S T

    1984-07-01

    The efficacy of astemizole, a new, long acting, oral histamine H1-receptor antagonist was compared to placebo for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis during the grass pollen season of 1982. Sixty-three patients with a positive skin prick test to grass pollen and current symptoms participated in an 8 week, double-blind, randomized study. Astemizole, 10 mg, was significantly better than placebo in alleviating both nose (P less than 0.05) and eye (P less than 0.01) symptoms despite significantly greater use of the reserve medication, clemastine, by the placebo group (P less than 0.003). There was a lag period of 5 days after initiation of therapy before treatment benefit became manifest. Subdivision of nasal symptoms indicated significant improvement compared to placebo over the 8 weeks for sneezing (P less than 0.05) and runny nose (P less than 0.05) but not blocked nose. The absence of effect on nasal blockage was confirmed by parallel measurement of nasal calibre by body plethysmography. The antihistaminic potency of astemizole was indicated by an 80% inhibition of the histamine induced skin weal response after 8 weeks therapy. A positive correlation was found between serum drug levels and % inhibition of histamine skin weal (r = 0.64, P less than 0.001). Astemizole was free from adverse sedative or anticholinergic effects but did cause a mean increase in weight of 1.3 kg (P less than 0.01) after 8 weeks therapy, not found with placebo. PMID:6146346

  16. Acute irritant threshold correlates with barrier function, skin hydration and contact hypersensitivity in atopic dermatitis and rosacea.

    PubMed

    Darlenski, Razvigor; Kazandjieva, Jana; Tsankov, Nikolai; Fluhr, Joachim W

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to disclose interactions between epidermal barrier, skin irritation and sensitization in healthy and diseased skin. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum hydration (SCH) were assessed in adult patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), rosacea and healthy controls. A 4-h patch test with seven concentrations of sodium lauryl sulphate was performed to determine the irritant threshold (IT). Contact sensitization pattern was revealed by patch testing with European baseline series. Subjects with a lower IT had higher TEWL values and lower SCH. Subjects with positive allergic reactions had significantly lower IT. In AD, epidermal barrier deterioration was detected on both volar forearm and nasolabial fold, while in rosacea, impeded skin physiology parameters were observed on the facial skin only, suggesting that barrier impediment is restricted to the face in rosacea, in contrast with AD where the abnormal skin physiology is generalized. PMID:24112695

  17. Prophylaxis and management of acute radiation-induced skin reactions: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Salvo, N.; Barnes, E.; van Draanen, J.; Stacey, E.; Mitera, G.; Breen, D.; Giotis, A.; Czarnota, G.; Pang, J.; De Angelis, C.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation therapy is a common treatment for cancer patients. One of the most common side effects of radiation is acute skin reaction (radiation dermatitis) that ranges from a mild rash to severe ulceration. Approximately 85% of patients treated with radiation therapy will experience a moderate-to-severe skin reaction. Acute radiation-induced skin reactions often lead to itching and pain, delays in treatment, and diminished aesthetic appearance—and subsequently to a decrease in quality of life. Surveys have demonstrated that a wide variety of topical, oral, and intravenous agents are used to prevent or to treat radiation-induced skin reactions. We conducted a literature review to identify trials that investigated products for the prophylaxis and management of acute radiation dermatitis. Thirty-nine studies met the pre-defined criteria, with thirty-three being categorized as prophylactic trials and six as management trials. For objective evaluation of skin reactions, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria and the U.S. National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria were the most commonly used tools (65% of the studies). Topical corticosteroid agents were found to significantly reduce the severity of skin reactions; however, the trials of corticosteroids evaluated various agents, and no clear indication about a preferred corticosteroid has emerged. Amifostine and oral enzymes were somewhat effective in preventing radiation-induced skin reactions in phase ii and phase iii trials respectively; further large randomized controlled trials should be undertaken to better investigate those products. Biafine cream (Ortho–McNeil Pharmaceuticals, Titusville, NJ, U.S.A.) was found not to be superior to standard regimes in the prevention of radiation-induced skin reactions (n = 6). In conclusion, the evidence is insufficient to support the use of a particular agent for the prevention and management of acute radiation-induced skin reactions. Future trials should focus

  18. Prophylaxis and management of acute radiation-induced skin reactions: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Salvo, N; Barnes, E; van Draanen, J; Stacey, E; Mitera, G; Breen, D; Giotis, A; Czarnota, G; Pang, J; De Angelis, C

    2010-08-01

    Radiation therapy is a common treatment for cancer patients. One of the most common side effects of radiation is acute skin reaction (radiation dermatitis) that ranges from a mild rash to severe ulceration. Approximately 85% of patients treated with radiation therapy will experience a moderate-to-severe skin reaction. Acute radiation-induced skin reactions often lead to itching and pain, delays in treatment, and diminished aesthetic appearance-and subsequently to a decrease in quality of life. Surveys have demonstrated that a wide variety of topical, oral, and intravenous agents are used to prevent or to treat radiation-induced skin reactions. We conducted a literature review to identify trials that investigated products for the prophylaxis and management of acute radiation dermatitis. Thirty-nine studies met the pre-defined criteria, with thirty-three being categorized as prophylactic trials and six as management trials.For objective evaluation of skin reactions, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria and the U.S. National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria were the most commonly used tools (65% of the studies). Topical corticosteroid agents were found to significantly reduce the severity of skin reactions; however, the trials of corticosteroids evaluated various agents, and no clear indication about a preferred corticosteroid has emerged. Amifostine and oral enzymes were somewhat effective in preventing radiation-induced skin reactions in phase II and phase III trials respectively; further large randomized controlled trials should be undertaken to better investigate those products. Biafine cream (Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceuticals, Titusville, NJ, U.S.A.) was found not to be superior to standard regimes in the prevention of radiation-induced skin reactions (n = 6).In conclusion, the evidence is insufficient to support the use of a particular agent for the prevention and management of acute radiation-induced skin reactions. Future trials should focus on

  19. Common aeroallergens in patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis living in southwestern part of Iran: based on skin prick test reactivity.

    PubMed

    Farrokhi, Shokrollah; Gheybi, Mohammad Kazzem; Movahed, Ali; Tahmasebi, Rahim; Iranpour, Dariush; Fatemi, Atena; Etemadan, Razieh; Gooya, Mostafa; Zandi, Sahar; Ashourinejad, Hamid; Alavizadeh, Sara; Khoddami, Shaghayegh

    2015-04-01

    Aeroallergens continue to have a key role in the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic diseases and have recently received increased attention in medical research throughout the world. The prevalence of aeroallergens vary in different regions, depending on the type of climate. The aim of the present study was to determine prevalence of the sensitivity to aeroallergens among patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR), based on skin prick test (SPT) reactivity in the province of Bushehr, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 743 patients were enrolled. The participants had asthma and AR and reacted to at least one allergen with SPT. Skin prick test with standard extracts including house dust mites (HDMs), animal dander, molds and pollens were performed on patients according to the herbal geography of the area. The male to female ratio and mean age of the patients were 1.03 and 27.6± 15.4 year, respectively. Out of 567 patients with AR, the common aeroallergens were HDMs (88.5%), molds (82.9%), animal dander (79.5%), weeds (77.6%), trees (75.5%) and grass pollen (71.5%). Moreover, among 176 patients with asthma, the prevalence of aeroallergens were HDMs (90.5 %), molds (80.7%), animal dander (77.5%), weeds (73.3%), trees (73.3%) and grass pollen (67.9%). The sensitivity to animal dander, Chenopodium album and Russian thistle pollens were significantly associated with the severity of AR. Moreover, sensitivity to animal dander such as cat and feather of birds, cockroach, Bermuda grass and Chenopodium album pollens were significantly associated with the severity of asthma. The results of this study revealed that HDM was the most common sensitizing aeroallergen in patients with asthma and AR. Molds and animal dander as indoor allergens were also common aeroallergens. We suggest that the hot weather and ambient humidity in the region may be the main cause of the change in the pattern of SPT reactivity. PMID:25780879

  20. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  1. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  2. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  3. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  4. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  5. Differentially expressed miRNAs in acute wound healing of the skin: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; He, Quanyong; Luo, Chengqun; Qian, Liyuan

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) from scar and normal skin areas in patients who suffered acute injuries in the skin. A total of 9 patients with acute injuries in the skin who received surgical treatment from December 2012 to March 2013 were included in this pilot study. Specimens from the hypertrophic scar and normal skin areas were obtained from the same patient during surgery. To screen for differentially expressed miRNAs, we applied 3 statistical methods, namely the traditional t test, the false discovery rate (FDR), and a novel sure independence screening procedure based on the distance correlation (DC-SIS). We examined the functional trends and metabolic and regulatory pathways for the target genes of the identified miRNAs, and explored interaction of these miRNAs in the implication of scar healing using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. DC-SIS identified 18 differentially expressed miRNAs, 4 of which (miR-149, miR-203a, miR-222, miR-122) were also identified by FDR. The target genes of the 4 miRNAs exhibit a variety of biological functions, and are involved in various pathways such as mitogen-activated protein kinase, Wnt signaling, and focal adhesion. We identified 1 network in which 14 out of the 18 differentially expressed miRNAs were involved. Many of the miRNAs in the network target genes were involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis.In this pilot study, we identified several miRNAs exhibiting differential expression in patients who suffered acute injuries in the skin. Further studies on these miRNAs are needed to validate our findings and explore their roles in the wound healing process of the skin. PMID:25700309

  6. Acute Pain Speeds Skin Barrier Recovery in Healthy Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Jennifer E.; Song, Sunmi; Engeland, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Psychological stress is known to impair skin barrier recovery, but little is known about the impact of pain on skin healing processes. Our primary goals were to examine the degree to which acute pain affects recovery from skin barrier disruption, and the potential mediating impact of cortisol and catecholamines. Methods Healthy non-smokers aged 18-43 (N=53, 65% women) underwent a 3-minute cold pressor pain stimulus to their foot. Tape-stripping of forearm skin occurred at two separate locations: before (site 1) and after (site 2) the pain stimulus. Transepidural water loss (TEWL) was assessed at baseline (pre-stripping), immediately post-stripping, and at 75 minutes to determine skin barrier recovery. Cortisol and catecholamine responses were obtained from multiple saliva and plasma samples, respectively. Results Contrary to expectations, greater pain was associated with faster skin barrier recovery, even after controlling for demographics, mood, anxiety, and other factors. Those who reported higher pain showed faster recovery at site 2 compared to a) individuals who experienced lower pain; and b) their own recovery at site 1. Greater increase in norepinephrine (but not in cortisol) was also associated with faster recovery at site 2, and mediated the impact of pain on recovery. Discussion Results bolster evidence that acute pain can affect immune-related processes. It is possible that acute pain may speed recovery from dermal abrasions, although pain is likely to impair recovery from more severe wounds. As pain is an important potential target for clinical intervention, further investigation of pain, stress, and healing processes is warranted. PMID:23148814

  7. Acute management of skin tears: a change in practice pilot study.

    PubMed

    Vandervord, John G; Tolerton, Sarah K; Campbell, Peter A; Darke, Jan M; Loch-Wilkinson, Anna-Marie V

    2016-02-01

    Skin tears are an increasingly common injury occurring in the elderly population and have significant associated morbidity secondary to poor wound healing, prolonged hospital stays and reduced mobility. There has been a shift in practice for the acute management of skin tears within our institution, which has resulted in improved outcomes and reduced morbidity for this common and debilitating injury. Review of past and current practices including cost analyses has led to the establishment of a management protocol for the hospital and wider area health service with the aim to reduce the burden of disease amongst our ever-expanding elderly population. PMID:24612698

  8. Valuing the Economic Costs of Allergic Rhinitis, Acute Bronchitis, and Asthma from Exposure to Indoor Dampness and Mold in the US.

    PubMed

    Mudarri, David H

    2016-01-01

    Two foundational methods for estimating the total economic burden of disease are cost of illness (COI) and willingness to pay (WTP). WTP measures the full cost to society, but WTP estimates are difficult to compute and rarely available. COI methods are more often used but less likely to reflect full costs. This paper attempts to estimate the full economic cost (2014$) of illnesses resulting from exposure to dampness and mold using COI methods and WTP where the data is available. A limited sensitivity analysis of alternative methods and assumptions demonstrates a wide potential range of estimates. In the final estimates, the total annual cost to society attributable to dampness and mold is estimated to be $3.7 (2.3-4.7) billion for allergic rhinitis, $1.9 (1.1-2.3) billion for acute bronchitis, $15.1 (9.4-20.6) billion for asthma morbidity, and $1.7 (0.4-4.5) billion for asthma mortality. The corresponding costs from all causes, not limited to dampness and mold, using the same approach would be $24.8 billion for allergic rhinitis, $13.5 billion for acute bronchitis, $94.5 billion for asthma morbidity, and $10.8 billion for asthma mortality. PMID:27313630

  9. Valuing the Economic Costs of Allergic Rhinitis, Acute Bronchitis, and Asthma from Exposure to Indoor Dampness and Mold in the US

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Two foundational methods for estimating the total economic burden of disease are cost of illness (COI) and willingness to pay (WTP). WTP measures the full cost to society, but WTP estimates are difficult to compute and rarely available. COI methods are more often used but less likely to reflect full costs. This paper attempts to estimate the full economic cost (2014$) of illnesses resulting from exposure to dampness and mold using COI methods and WTP where the data is available. A limited sensitivity analysis of alternative methods and assumptions demonstrates a wide potential range of estimates. In the final estimates, the total annual cost to society attributable to dampness and mold is estimated to be $3.7 (2.3–4.7) billion for allergic rhinitis, $1.9 (1.1–2.3) billion for acute bronchitis, $15.1 (9.4–20.6) billion for asthma morbidity, and $1.7 (0.4–4.5) billion for asthma mortality. The corresponding costs from all causes, not limited to dampness and mold, using the same approach would be $24.8 billion for allergic rhinitis, $13.5 billion for acute bronchitis, $94.5 billion for asthma morbidity, and $10.8 billion for asthma mortality. PMID:27313630

  10. Enhancement of allergic skin wheal responses and in vitro allergen-specific IgE production by computer-induced stress in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kimata, Hajime

    2003-04-01

    Computer-induced stress enhanced allergen-specific skin wheal responses in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) while it failed to do so in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR). Computer-induced stress also enhanced plasma levels of substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in patients with AD, but not with AR. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with combination of IL-4, IL-10, anti-CD40 mAb, and allergen produced allergen-specific IgE production in both patients with AD and AR. Computer-induced stress enhanced allergen-specific IgE production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with AD, but not from patients with AR. This is the first report that computer-induced stress enhances allergen-specific responses with concomitant increase of plasma levels of SP and VIP specifically in patients with AD. Since AD is often aggravated by stress, these finding may have implications for the pathophysiology and treatment of AD. PMID:12676575

  11. A study of the pharmacologic control of blood flow to acute skin flaps using xenon washout. Part I

    SciTech Connect

    Hendel, P.M.; Lilien, D.L.; Buncke, H.J.

    1983-03-01

    This study was undertaken to understand the control mechanisms differentiating circulation to normal skin and acute skin flaps. The approach was to compare the effects of systemic vasoactive drugs on skin blood flow in rats in acute skin flaps and identical areas of control skin. With this model it was felt that systemic changes would affect both areas equally and any difference in response would be due to vascular control mechanisms unique to the flap. Xenon washout by percutaneous injection was chosen to measure blood flow. The results of over 8000 observations in these studies were: 1. Vasodilation enhances blood flow and flap survival. 2. Vasoconstriction decreases blood flow. 3. Depletion of sympathetic nerve terminals enhances blood flow and flap survival. 4. The acute flap is less sensitive to systemic alpha-agonists than control skin. 5. The acute flap is less sensitive to vasodilators acting at the receptor-site level than control skin. 6. Total sympathetic denervation does not occur. 7. Biologic increases in area of flap survival did occur in drug dose ranges predicted by xenon washout measurements in this model. These findings indicate that the vessels in an acutely raised skin flap have a greater vasospastic tone than is optimal for maximum nutrient blood flow. One explanation consistent with these findings is offered in which the mechanism responsible for this tone is the release of catecholamines from the sympathetic nerve terminals after the flap has been raised.

  12. Acute Skin Toxicity Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Who's at Risk?

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, Bradford S.; Laser, Benjamin; Kowalski, Alex V.; Fontenla, Sandra C.; Pena-Greenberg, Elizabeth; Yorke, Ellen D.; Lovelock, D. Michael; Hunt, Margie A.; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: We examined the rate of acute skin toxicity within a prospectively managed database of patients treated for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and investigated factors that might predict skin toxicity. Methods: From May 2006 through January 2008, 50 patients with Stage I NSCLC were treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center with 60 Gy in three fractions or 44-48 Gy in four fractions. Patients were treated with multiple coplanar beams (3-7, median 4) with a 6 MV linac using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and dynamic multileaf collimation. Toxicity grading was performed and based on the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects. Factors associated with Grade 2 or higher acute skin reactions were calculated by Fisher's exact test. Results: After a minimum 3 months of follow-up, 19 patients (38%) developed Grade 1, 4 patients (8%) Grade 2, 2 patients (4%) Grade 3, and 1 patient Grade 4 acute skin toxicity. Factors associated with Grade 2 or higher acute skin toxicity included using only 3 beams (p = 0.0007), distance from the tumor to the posterior chest wall skin of less than 5 cm (p = 0.006), and a maximum skin dose of 50% or higher of the prescribed dose (p = 0.02). Conclusions: SBRT can be associated with significant skin toxicity. One must consider the skin dose when evaluating the treatment plan and consider the bolus effect of immobilization devices.

  13. Protective Effects of Soy Oligopeptides in Ultraviolet B-Induced Acute Photodamage of Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li-wen; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Jia-an; Xu, Yang; Wu, Di; Permatasari, Felicia

    2016-01-01

    Aim. We explored the effects of soy oligopeptides (SOP) in ultraviolet B- (UVB-) induced acute photodamage of human skin in vivo and foreskin ex vivo. Methods. We irradiated the forearm with 1.5 minimal erythemal dose (MED) of UVB for 3 consecutive days, establishing acute photodamage of skin, and topically applied SOP. Erythema index (EI), melanin index, stratum corneum hydration, and transepidermal water loss were measured by using Multiprobe Adapter 9 device. We irradiated foreskin ex vivo with the same dose of UVB (180 mJ/cm2) for 3 consecutive days and topically applied SOP. Sunburn cells were detected by using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Apoptotic cells were detected by using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), p53 protein, Bax protein, and Bcl-2 protein were detected by using immunohistochemical staining. Results. Compared with UVB group, UVB-irradiated skin with topically applied SOP showed significantly decreased EI. Compared with UVB group, topical SOP significantly increased Bcl-2 protein expression and decreased CPDs-positive cells, sunburn cells, apoptotic cells, p53 protein expression, and Bax protein expressions in the epidermis of UVB-irradiated foreskin. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that topical SOP can protect human skin against UVB-induced photodamage. PMID:27478534

  14. Protective Effects of Soy Oligopeptides in Ultraviolet B-Induced Acute Photodamage of Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bing-Rong; Ma, Li-Wen; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Jia-An; Xu, Yang; Wu, Di; Permatasari, Felicia; Luo, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Aim. We explored the effects of soy oligopeptides (SOP) in ultraviolet B- (UVB-) induced acute photodamage of human skin in vivo and foreskin ex vivo. Methods. We irradiated the forearm with 1.5 minimal erythemal dose (MED) of UVB for 3 consecutive days, establishing acute photodamage of skin, and topically applied SOP. Erythema index (EI), melanin index, stratum corneum hydration, and transepidermal water loss were measured by using Multiprobe Adapter 9 device. We irradiated foreskin ex vivo with the same dose of UVB (180 mJ/cm(2)) for 3 consecutive days and topically applied SOP. Sunburn cells were detected by using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Apoptotic cells were detected by using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), p53 protein, Bax protein, and Bcl-2 protein were detected by using immunohistochemical staining. Results. Compared with UVB group, UVB-irradiated skin with topically applied SOP showed significantly decreased EI. Compared with UVB group, topical SOP significantly increased Bcl-2 protein expression and decreased CPDs-positive cells, sunburn cells, apoptotic cells, p53 protein expression, and Bax protein expressions in the epidermis of UVB-irradiated foreskin. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that topical SOP can protect human skin against UVB-induced photodamage. PMID:27478534

  15. A Qualitative Analysis of Acute Skin Toxicity among Breast Cancer Radiotherapy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schnur, Julie B.; Ouellette, Suzanne C.; DiLorenzo, Terry A.; Green, Sheryl; Montgomery, Guy H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives One of the most common acute side effects of breast cancer radiotherapy is treatment induced skin changes, referred to as skin toxicity. Yet no research to date has focused expressly on skin toxicity-related quality of life in breast cancer radiotherapy patients. Therefore, our aim was to use qualitative approaches to better understand the impact of skin toxicity on quality of life. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 women (Stage 0-III breast cancer), during their last week of external beam radiotherapy. Each interview was transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis was performed. Results Three themes were identified based on the interview responses: First, skin changes affect multiple dimensions of quality of life. They cause physical discomfort, body image disturbance, emotional distress, and impair both day-to-day functioning and satisfaction with radiation treatment. Second, individual differences affect women’s experiences. Generally African-American women, younger women, women who are not currently in a relationship, women who are being treated during the summer, and women who are more invested in their appearance are more distressed by skin toxicity. Third, women use a variety of symptom management strategies including self-medication, complementary/alternative medicine approaches, and psychological strategies. Conclusions Implications of results are: 1) Skin toxicity affects numerous dimensions of quality of life, and assessment approaches and psychosocial interventions should address this; 2) individual differences may affect the experience of skin toxicity, and should be considered in treatment and education approaches; and 3) participants’ own creativity and problem-solving should be used to improve the treatment experience. PMID:20238306

  16. [Allergic dermatitis caused by pyrogenic silica (aerosol)].

    PubMed

    Liashenko, I N; Lutsiuk, N B; Otkalenko, A K; Odnorogov, Iu V

    1989-01-01

    A case of allergic dermatitis developing after a contact exposure of the skin to aerosil is described. The authors suppose that violated intactness of the skin integument is largely responsible for the allergic reaction. The C-reactive protein, Hoigne's, and leucocyte migration inhibition tests have been all markedly positive. It is recommended that types of aerosil other than powder-forming be utilized and that means protecting the skin and the upper respiratory tract be used. PMID:2543155

  17. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis To Estimate Antibacterial Treatment Effect in Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infection.

    PubMed

    Cates, Jordan E; Mitrani-Gold, Fanny S; Li, Gang; Mundy, Linda M

    2015-08-01

    A systematic literature review and meta-analysis were conducted to estimate the antibacterial treatment effect for linezolid and ceftaroline to inform on the design of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection (ABSSSI) noninferiority trials. The primary endpoints included an early clinical treatment response (ECTR) defined as cessation of lesion spread at 48 to 72 h postrandomization and the test-of-cure (TOC) response defined as total resolution of the infection at 7 to 14 days posttreatment. The systematic review identified no placebo-controlled trials in ABSSSI, 4 placebo-controlled trials in uncomplicated skin and soft tissue infection as a proxy for placebo in ABSSSI, 12 linezolid trials in ABSSSI, 3 ceftaroline trials in ABSSSI, and 2 trials for nonantibacterial treatment. The ECTR rates at 48 to 72 h and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were 78.7% (95% CI, 61.1 to 96.3%) for linezolid, 74.0% (95% CI, 69.7 to 78.3%) for ceftaroline, and 59.0% (95% CI, 52.8 to 65.3%) for nonantibacterial treatment. The early clinical treatment effect could not be estimated, given no available placebo or proxy for placebo data for this endpoint. Clinical, methodological, and statistical heterogeneity influenced the selection of trials for the meta-analysis of the TOC treatment effect estimation. The pooled estimates of the TOC treatment response were 31.0% (95% CI, 6.2 to 55.9%) for the proxy for placebo, 88.1% (95% CI, 81.0 to 95.1%) for linezolid, and 86.1% (95% CI, 83.7 to 88.6%) for ceftaroline. The TOC clinical treatment effect estimation was 25.1% for linezolid and 27.8% for ceftaroline. The antibacterial treatment effect estimation at TOC will inform on the design and analysis of future noninferiority ABSSSI clinical trials. PMID:25987628

  18. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis To Estimate Antibacterial Treatment Effect in Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cates, Jordan E.; Li, Gang; Mundy, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic literature review and meta-analysis were conducted to estimate the antibacterial treatment effect for linezolid and ceftaroline to inform on the design of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection (ABSSSI) noninferiority trials. The primary endpoints included an early clinical treatment response (ECTR) defined as cessation of lesion spread at 48 to 72 h postrandomization and the test-of-cure (TOC) response defined as total resolution of the infection at 7 to 14 days posttreatment. The systematic review identified no placebo-controlled trials in ABSSSI, 4 placebo-controlled trials in uncomplicated skin and soft tissue infection as a proxy for placebo in ABSSSI, 12 linezolid trials in ABSSSI, 3 ceftaroline trials in ABSSSI, and 2 trials for nonantibacterial treatment. The ECTR rates at 48 to 72 h and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were 78.7% (95% CI, 61.1 to 96.3%) for linezolid, 74.0% (95% CI, 69.7 to 78.3%) for ceftaroline, and 59.0% (95% CI, 52.8 to 65.3%) for nonantibacterial treatment. The early clinical treatment effect could not be estimated, given no available placebo or proxy for placebo data for this endpoint. Clinical, methodological, and statistical heterogeneity influenced the selection of trials for the meta-analysis of the TOC treatment effect estimation. The pooled estimates of the TOC treatment response were 31.0% (95% CI, 6.2 to 55.9%) for the proxy for placebo, 88.1% (95% CI, 81.0 to 95.1%) for linezolid, and 86.1% (95% CI, 83.7 to 88.6%) for ceftaroline. The TOC clinical treatment effect estimation was 25.1% for linezolid and 27.8% for ceftaroline. The antibacterial treatment effect estimation at TOC will inform on the design and analysis of future noninferiority ABSSSI clinical trials. PMID:25987628

  19. Safety, Tolerability, and Efficacy of GSK1322322 in the Treatment of Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections

    PubMed Central

    Corey, Ralph; O'Riordan, William D.; Dumont, Etienne; Jones, Lori S.; Kurtinecz, Milena; Zhu, John Z.

    2014-01-01

    GSK1322322 represents a new class of antibiotics that targets an essential bacterial enzyme required for protein maturation, peptide deformylase. This multicenter, randomized, phase IIa study compared the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of GSK1322322 at 1,500 mg twice daily (b.i.d.) with that of linezolid at 600 mg b.i.d. in patients suspected of having Gram-positive acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs). The primary endpoint was assessment of the safety of GSK1322322, and a key secondary endpoint was the number of subjects with a ≥20% decrease in lesion area from the baseline at 48 and 72 h after treatment initiation. GSK1322322 administration was associated with mild-to-moderate drug-related adverse events, most commonly, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and headache. Adverse events (86% versus 74%) and withdrawals (28% versus 11%) were more frequent in the GSK1322322-treated group. Treatment with GSK1322322 and linezolid was associated with ≥20% decreases from the baseline in the lesion area in 73% (36/49) and 92% (24/26) of the patients, respectively, at the 48-h assessment and in 96% (44/46) and 100% (25/25) of the patients, respectively, at the 72-h assessment. Reductions in exudate/pus, pain, and skin infection scores were comparable between the GSK1322322 and linezolid treatments. The clinical success rates within the intent-to-treat population and the per-protocol population that completed this study were 67 and 91%, respectively, in the GSK1322322-treated group and 89 and 100%, respectively, in the linezolid-treated group. These results will be used to guide dose selection in future studies with GSK1322322 to optimize its tolerability and efficacy in patients with ABSSSIs. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01209078 and at http://www.gsk-clinicalstudyregister.com [PDF113414].) PMID:25136015

  20. Beryllium metal I. experimental results on acute oral toxicity, local skin and eye effects, and genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Strupp, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of soluble metal compounds is often different from that of the parent metal. Since no reliable data on acute toxicity, local effects, and mutagenicity of beryllium metal have ever been generated, beryllium metal powder was tested according to the respective Organisation for Economical Co-Operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. Acute oral toxicity of beryllium metal was investigated in rats and local effects on skin and eye in rabbits. Skin-sensitizing properties were investigated in guinea pigs (maximization method). Basic knowledge about systemic bioavailability is important for the design of genotoxicity tests on poorly soluble substances. Therefore, it was necessary to experimentally compare the capacities of beryllium chloride and beryllium metal to form ions under simulated human lung conditions. Solubility of beryllium metal in artificial lung fluid was low, while solubility in artificial lysosomal fluid was moderate. Beryllium chloride dissolution kinetics were largely different, and thus, metal extracts were used in the in vitro genotoxicity tests. Genotoxicity was investigated in vitro in a bacterial reverse mutagenicity assay, a mammalian cell gene mutation assay, a mammalian cell chromosome aberration assay, and an unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay. In addition, cell transformation was tested in a Syrian hamster embryo cell assay, and potential inhibition of DNA repair was tested by modification of the UDS assay. Beryllium metal was found not to be mutagenic or clastogenic based on the experimental in vitro results. Furthermore, treatment with beryllium metal extracts did not induce DNA repair synthesis, indicative of no DNA-damaging potential of beryllium metal. A cell-transforming potential and a tendency to inhibit DNA repair when the cell is severely damaged by an external stimulus were observed. Beryllium metal was also found not to be a skin or eye irritant, not to be a skin sensitizer, and not to have relevant acute oral

  1. Beryllium Metal I. Experimental Results on Acute Oral Toxicity, Local Skin and Eye Effects, and Genotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Strupp, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of soluble metal compounds is often different from that of the parent metal. Since no reliable data on acute toxicity, local effects, and mutagenicity of beryllium metal have ever been generated, beryllium metal powder was tested according to the respective Organisation for Economical Co-Operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. Acute oral toxicity of beryllium metal was investigated in rats and local effects on skin and eye in rabbits. Skin-sensitizing properties were investigated in guinea pigs (maximization method). Basic knowledge about systemic bioavailability is important for the design of genotoxicity tests on poorly soluble substances. Therefore, it was necessary to experimentally compare the capacities of beryllium chloride and beryllium metal to form ions under simulated human lung conditions. Solubility of beryllium metal in artificial lung fluid was low, while solubility in artificial lysosomal fluid was moderate. Beryllium chloride dissolution kinetics were largely different, and thus, metal extracts were used in the in vitro genotoxicity tests. Genotoxicity was investigated in vitro in a bacterial reverse mutagenicity assay, a mammalian cell gene mutation assay, a mammalian cell chromosome aberration assay, and an unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay. In addition, cell transformation was tested in a Syrian hamster embryo cell assay, and potential inhibition of DNA repair was tested by modification of the UDS assay. Beryllium metal was found not to be mutagenic or clastogenic based on the experimental in vitro results. Furthermore, treatment with beryllium metal extracts did not induce DNA repair synthesis, indicative of no DNA-damaging potential of beryllium metal. A cell-transforming potential and a tendency to inhibit DNA repair when the cell is severely damaged by an external stimulus were observed. Beryllium metal was also found not to be a skin or eye irritant, not to be a skin sensitizer, and not to have relevant acute oral

  2. Potential role of tedizolid phosphate in the treatment of acute bacterial skin infections

    PubMed Central

    Urbina, Olatz; Ferrández, Olivia; Espona, Mercè; Salas, Esther; Ferrández, Irene; Grau, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Tedizolid phosphate (TR-701), a prodrug of tedizolid (TR-700), is a next-generation oxazolidinone that has shown favorable results in the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections in its first Phase III clinical trial. Tedizolid has high bioavailability, penetration, and tissue distribution when administered orally or intravenously. The activity of tedizolid was greater than linezolid against strains of Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Enterococcus spp. in vitro studies, including strains resistant to linezolid and those not susceptible to vancomycin or daptomycin. Its pharmacokinetic characteristics allow for a once-daily administration that leads to a more predictable efficacy and safety profile than those of linezolid. No hematological adverse effects have been reported associated with tedizolid when used at the therapeutic dose of 200 mg in Phase I, II, or III clinical trials of up to 3 weeks of tedizolid administration. Given that the clinical and microbiological efficacy are similar for the 200, 300, and 400 mg doses, the lowest effective dose of 200 mg once daily for 6 days was selected for Phase III studies in acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections, providing a safe dosing regimen with low potential for development of myelosuppression. Unlike linezolid, tedizolid does not inhibit monoamine oxidase in vivo, therefore interactions with adrenergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic drugs are not to be expected. In conclusion, tedizolid is a novel antibiotic with potent activity against Gram-positive microorganisms responsible for skin and soft tissue infections, including strains resistant to vancomycin, linezolid, and daptomycin, thus answers a growing therapeutic need. PMID:23589680

  3. Acute UV irradiation increases heparan sulfate proteoglycan levels in human skin.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji-Yong; Oh, Jang-Hee; Kim, Yeon Kyung; Shin, Mi Hee; Lee, Dayae; Chung, Jin Ho

    2012-03-01

    Glycosaminoglycans are important structural components in the skin and exist as various proteoglycan forms, except hyaluronic acid. Heparan sulfate (HS), one of the glycosaminoglycans, is composed of repeated disaccharide units, which are glucuronic acids linked to an N-acetyl-glucosamine or its sulfated forms. To investigate acute ultraviolet (UV)-induced changes of HS and HS proteoglycans (HSPGs), changes in levels of HS and several HSPGs in male human buttock skin were examined by immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) after 2 minimal erythema doses (MED) of UV irradiation (each n = 4-7). HS staining revealed that 2 MED of UV irradiation increased its expression, and staining for perlecan, syndecan-1, syndecan-4, CD44v3, and CD44 showed that UV irradiation increased their protein levels. However, analysis by real-time qPCR showed that UV irradiation did not change mRNA levels of CD44 and agrin, and decreased perlecan and syndecan-4 mRNA levels, while increased syndecan-1 mRNA level. As HS-synthesizing or -degrading enzymes, exostosin-1 and heparanase mRNA levels were increased, but exostosin-2 was decreased by UV irradiation. UV-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression was confirmed for proper experimental conditions. Acute UV irradiation increases HS and HSPG levels in human skin, but their increase may not be mediated through their transcriptional regulation. PMID:22379342

  4. The S1P/S1PR2 axis regulates early airway T cell infiltration in murine mast cell-dependent acute allergic responses

    PubMed Central

    Oskeritzian, Carole A.; Hait, Nitai C.; Wedman, Piper; Chumanevich, Alena; Kolawole, Elizabeth M.; Price, Megan M.; Falanga, Yves T.; Harikumar, Kuzhuvelil B.; Ryan, John J.; Milstien, Sheldon; Sabbadini, Roger; Spiegel, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Background Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid produced by mast cells (MC) upon cross-linking of their high affinity receptors for IgE by antigen (Ag) that can amplify MC responses by binding to its S1P receptors. Acute MC-dependent allergic reaction can lead to systemic shock but the early events of its development in lung tissues have not been investigated, and S1P functions in the onset of allergic processes remain to be examined. Objective We used a highly specific neutralizing anti-S1P antibody (mAb) and an S1P receptor 2 (S1PR2) antagonist, JTE-013, to study S1P and S1PR2 signaling contributions to MC- and IgE-dependent airway allergic responses in mice within minutes after Ag challenge. Methods Allergic reaction was triggered by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of Ag in sensitized mice pre-treated i.p. with anti-S1P or isotype control mAb, or JTE-013 or vehicle prior to Ag challenge. Results Kinetics experiments revealed early pulmonary infiltration of mostly T cells around blood vessels of sensitized mice 20 minutes post-Ag exposure. Pre-treatment with anti-S1P mAb inhibited in vitro MC activation, as well as in vivo development of airway infiltration and MC activation, reducing serum levels of histamine, cytokines and the chemokines MCP-1/CCL2, MIP-1α/CCL3 and RANTES/CCL5. S1PR2 antagonism or deficiency, or MC deficiency recapitulated these results. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated MC S1PR2 dependency for chemokine release and the necessity for signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) activation. Conclusion Activation of S1PR2 by S1P and downstream Stat3 signaling in MC regulate early T cell recruitment to antigen-challenged lungs by chemokine production. PMID:25512083

  5. Allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Mygind, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a very frequent disease with a prevalence of 15-20%. Symptoms are most pronounced in young people while, for some unknown reason, the elderly become clinically hyposensitized. Pollen is the cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis, and house dust mite and animals are the main causes of perennial allergic rhinitis. Histamine is the main cause of sneezing and hypersecretion, while other mediators probably also play a role in nasal blockage. In polyposis, a local denervation is an important cause of vascular leakage, edema and polyp formation. Antihistamines have a positive effect on sneezing and hypersecretion, but not on blockage. As they have a quick onset of action they are useful in patients with mild and occasional symptoms. A nasal steroid is preferable in patients with persistent symptoms, since it is more effective on all nasal symptoms. Short-term use of a systemic steroid can be a valuable adjunct to topical treatment, especially in nasal polyposis, when there is a temporary failure of topical treatment in a blocked nose. A nasal vasoconstrictor can be added for short-term treatment, and an ipratropium spray can be beneficial in perennial non-allergic rhinitis, when watery secretion is the dominant symptom. Immunotherapy can be added in allergic rhinitis, when pharmacotherapy is insufficient. This chapter is based on the author's personal experience with allergic rhinitis, as a patient, a doctor and a researcher. Therefore, it is not a balanced review and the references will be highly selected as they largely consist of the author's own publications. As the text is mainly based on personal research, steroids are described in detail, while, with regard to immunotherapy, the reader is referred to another chapter. In addition to allergic rhinitis, nasal polyposis will be described. It was formerly believed to be an allergic disease, but we now know that it is not. However, with regard to histopathology and drug responsiveness this disease is

  6. Reduction of acute photodamage in skin by topical application of a novel PARP inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Beatrix; Magyarlaki, Marta; Csete, Bela; Nemeth, Jozsef; Rabloczky, Gyorgy; Bernath, Sandor; Literáti Nagy, Peter; Sümegi, Balazs

    2002-03-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) components of sunlight induce damage to the DNA in skin cells, which is considered to be the initiating step in the harmful biological effects of UV radiation. Repair of DNA damage results in the formation of single-strand DNA breaks, which activate the nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Overactivation of PARP worsens the oxidative cell damage and impairs the energy metabolism, raising the possibility that moderation of PARP activation following DNA damage may protect skin cells from UV radiation. The topical effects of the novel PARP inhibitor O-(3-pyperidino-2-hydroxy-1-propyl) pyridine-3-carboxylic acid amidoxime monohydrochloride (BGP-15M) were investigated on UV-induced skin damage in a hairless mouse model. For evaluation of the UV-induced acute photodamage to the skin and the potential protective effect of BGP-15M, DNA injury was detected by measuring the formation of single-strand DNA breaks and counting the resulting sunburn (apoptotic) cells. The ADP-ribosylation of PARP was assessed by Western blot analysis and then quantified. In addition, the UV-induced immunosuppression was investigated by the immunostaining of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-10 expressions in epidermal cells. The signs of inflammation were examined clinically and histochemically. Besides its primary effect in decreasing the activity of nuclear PARP, topically applied BGP-15M proved to be protective against solar and artificial UV radiation-induced acute skin damage. The DNA injury was decreased (P<0.01). An inhibition of immunosuppression was observed by down-regulation of the epidermal production of cytokines IL-10 and TNFalpha. In the mouse skin, clinical or histological signs of UV-induced inflammation could not be observed. These data suggest that BGP-15M directly interferes with UV-induced cellular processes and modifies the activity of PARP. The effects provided by topical application of the new PARP-regulator BGP-15M indicate that it

  7. The preventive effect of linalool on acute and chronic UVB-mediated skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Gunaseelan, Srithar; Balupillai, Agilan; Govindasamy, Kanimozhi; Muthusamy, Ganesan; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Shanmugam, Mohana; Prasad, N Rajendra

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the role of linalool in acute ultraviolet-B (UVB; 280-320 nm) radiation-induced inflammation and chronic UVB-mediated photocarcinogenesis in mouse skin. Acute UVB-irradiation (180 mJ cm(-2)) causes hyperplasia, edema formation, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant depletion, and overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in mouse skin. Topical or intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment of linalool prevented acute UVB-induced hyperplasia, edema formation, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant depletion in mouse skin. Further, linalool treatment prevented UVB-induced overexpression of COX-2 and ODC in mouse skin. In the chronic study, mice were subjected to UVB-exposure thrice weekly for 30 weeks. Chronic UVB-exposure induced tumor incidence and expression of proliferative markers such as NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-6, COX-2, VEGF, TGF-β1, Bcl-2 and mutated p53 in mouse skin. Treatment with linalool before each UVB-exposure significantly prevented the expression of these proliferative markers and subsequently decreased the tumor incidence in mice skin. Histopathological studies confirmed the development of dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the chronic UVB-exposed mouse skin; and this was prevented by both topical and i.p. linalool treatment. Therefore, linalool may be considered as a photochemopreventive agent against UVB radiation induced skin carcinogenesis. PMID:27251985

  8. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Analysis for Efficacy of Ceftaroline Fosamil in Patients with Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections

    PubMed Central

    Hammel, Jeffrey P.; Van Wart, Scott A.; Rubino, Christopher M.; Reynolds, Daniel K.; Forrest, Alan; Drusano, George L.; Khariton, Tatiana; Friedland, H. David; Riccobene, Todd A.; Ambrose, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    Ceftaroline is a cephalosporin with broad-spectrum in vitro activity against pathogens commonly associated with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI), including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Ceftaroline fosamil, the prodrug of ceftaroline, is approved for the treatment of patients with ABSSSI. Using data from the microbiologically evaluable population from two phase 2 and two phase 3 randomized, multicenter, double-blind studies of patients with ABSSSI, an analysis examining the relationship between drug exposure, as measured by the percentage of time during the dosing interval that free-drug steady-state concentrations remain above the MIC (f%T>MIC), and clinical and microbiological responses was undertaken. The analysis population included 526 patients, of whom 423 had infections associated with S. aureus. Clinical and microbiological success percentages were 94.7 and 94.5%, respectively, among all of the patients and 95.3 and 95.7%, respectively, among those with S. aureus infections. Univariable analysis based on data from all of the patients and those with S. aureus infections demonstrated significant relationships between f%T>MIC and microbiological response (P < 0.001 and P = 0.026, respectively). Multivariable logistic regression analyses demonstrated other patient factors in addition to f%T>MIC to be significant predictors of microbiological response, including age and infection type for all of the patients evaluated and age, infection type, and the presence of diabetes mellitus for patients with S. aureus infections. Results of these analyses confirm that a ceftaroline fosamil dosing regimen of 600 mg every 12 h provides exposures associated with the upper plateau of the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship for efficacy. PMID:25367904

  9. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis for efficacy of ceftaroline fosamil in patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections.

    PubMed

    Bhavnani, Sujata M; Hammel, Jeffrey P; Van Wart, Scott A; Rubino, Christopher M; Reynolds, Daniel K; Forrest, Alan; Drusano, George L; Khariton, Tatiana; Friedland, H David; Riccobene, Todd A; Ambrose, Paul G

    2015-01-01

    Ceftaroline is a cephalosporin with broad-spectrum in vitro activity against pathogens commonly associated with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI), including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Ceftaroline fosamil, the prodrug of ceftaroline, is approved for the treatment of patients with ABSSSI. Using data from the microbiologically evaluable population from two phase 2 and two phase 3 randomized, multicenter, double-blind studies of patients with ABSSSI, an analysis examining the relationship between drug exposure, as measured by the percentage of time during the dosing interval that free-drug steady-state concentrations remain above the MIC (f%T>MIC), and clinical and microbiological responses was undertaken. The analysis population included 526 patients, of whom 423 had infections associated with S. aureus. Clinical and microbiological success percentages were 94.7 and 94.5%, respectively, among all of the patients and 95.3 and 95.7%, respectively, among those with S. aureus infections. Univariable analysis based on data from all of the patients and those with S. aureus infections demonstrated significant relationships between f%T>MIC and microbiological response (P < 0.001 and P = 0.026, respectively). Multivariable logistic regression analyses demonstrated other patient factors in addition to f%T>MIC to be significant predictors of microbiological response, including age and infection type for all of the patients evaluated and age, infection type, and the presence of diabetes mellitus for patients with S. aureus infections. Results of these analyses confirm that a ceftaroline fosamil dosing regimen of 600 mg every 12 h provides exposures associated with the upper plateau of the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship for efficacy. PMID:25367904

  10. Profile of tedizolid phosphate and its potential in the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Ronald G; Michaels, Heidi N

    2015-01-01

    Tedizolid phosphate is the first once-daily oxazolidinone approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). It is more potent in vitro than linezolid against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other gram-positive pathogens causing ABSSSI, even retaining activity against some linezolid-resistant strains. Tedizolid is approximately 90% protein bound, leading to lower free-drug concentrations than linezolid. The impact of the effect of food, renal or hepatic insufficiency, or hemodialysis on tedizolid’s pharmacokinetic have been evaluated, and no dosage adjustment is needed in these populations. In animal and clinical studies, tedizolid’s effect on bacterial killing is optimized by the free-drug area under the curve to minimum inhibitory concentration ratio (fAUC/MIC). The 200 mg once-daily dose is able to achieve the target fAUC/MIC ratio in 98% of simulated patients. Two Phase III clinical trials have demonstrated the noninferiority of tedizolid 200 mg once daily for 6 days to linezolid 600 mg twice daily for 10 days. In vitro, animal, and clinical studies have failed to demonstrate that tedizolid inhibits monoamine oxidase to a clinically relevant extent. Tedizolid has several key advantages over linezolid including once daily dosing, decreased treatment duration, minimal interaction with serotonergic agents, possibly associated with less adverse events associated with the impairment of mitochondrial protein synthesis (eg, myelosuppression, lactic acidosis, and peripheral/optic neuropathies), and retains in vitro activity against linezolid-resistant gram-positive bacteria. Economic analyses with tedizolid are needed to describe the cost-effectiveness of this agent compared with other options used for ABSSSI, particularly treatment options active against MRSA. PMID:25960671

  11. Allergic Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... immune system identifies pollen as an invader or allergen. Your immune system overreacts by producing antibodies called ... IgE has specific "radar" for each type of allergen. That's why some people are only allergic to ...

  12. Fatality due to acute systemic fluoride poisoning following a hydrofluoric acid skin burn.

    PubMed

    Tepperman, P B

    1980-10-01

    Reports indicate that death due to hydrofluoric acid exposure is usually the result of inhalation of vapor causing pulmonary edema and fluoride poisoning. Absorption via the skin route of fluoride ion sufficient to cause serious systemic problems and even death has rarely been reported. A fatality resulting from a severe facial burn, which produced acute systemic fluoride poisoning with profound hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia, is presented. The importance of proper personal protective equipment as well as the immediate initiation of first aid and appropriate medical measures, including the monitoring and replacement of serum calcium and magnesium, are emphasized. PMID:7431138

  13. Effect of Dangguibohyul-Tang, a Mixed Extract of Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica sinensis, on Allergic and Inflammatory Skin Reaction Compared with Single Extracts of Astragalus membranaceus or Angelica sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, You Yeon; Kim, Mi Hye; Hong, Jongki

    2016-01-01

    Dangguibohyul-tang (DBT), herbal formula composed of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Angelica sinensis (AS) at a ratio of 5 : 1, has been used for the treatment of various skin diseases in traditional medicine. We investigated the effect of DBT on allergic and inflammatory skin reaction in atopic dermatitis-like model compared to the single extract of AM or AS. DBT treatment showed the remission of clinical symptoms, including decreased skin thickness and scratching behavior, the total serum IgE level, and the number of mast cells compared to DNCB group as well as the single extract of AM- or AS-treated group. Levels of cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-1β) and inflammatory mediators (NF-κB, phospho-IκBα, and phospho-MAPKs) were significantly decreased in AM, AS, and DBT groups. These results demonstrated that AM, AS, and DBT may have the therapeutic property on atopic dermatitis by inhibition of allergic and inflammatory mediators and DBT formula; a mixed extract of AM and AS based on the herb pairs theory especially might be more effective on antiallergic reaction as compared with the single extract of AM or AS. PMID:27051450

  14. Cardiac autonomic imbalance in children with allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Tascilar, Emre; Yokusoglu, Mehmet; Dundaroz, Rusen; Baysan, Oben; Ozturk, Sami; Yozgat, Yilmaz; Kilic, Ayhan

    2009-11-01

    The involvement of autonomic imbalance has been reported in the pathogenesis of hypersensitivity reactions. Allergic diseases are more frequent in children and some of predisposing factors may be changed according to the increasing age, but the involvement of autonomic imbalance has not been investigated in pediatric population. In this cross-sectional, case-control study, we evaluated the autonomic system by measuring heart rate variability (HRV) in pediatric patients with allergic rhinitis. Thirty-five pediatric patients with allergic rhinitis and 36 healthy children (mean age 11 +/- 2.7, and 12 +/- 3 years, respectively) were enrolled in the study. Age and gender were not different between the groups. The diagnosis of allergic rhinitis was based on the history, symptoms, and skin prick tests. Participants with acute infection, nasal polyposis, bronchial asthma, and any other medical problems, assessed by history, physical examination and routine laboratory tests, were excluded. Twenty-four hour ambulatory electrocardiographic recordings were obtained, and the time domain and frequency domain indices of HRV were analyzed. We found significant increase in calculated HRV variables in children with allergic rhinitis compared to controls, which reflect parasympathetic tones, such as number of R-R intervals exceeding 50 ms, root mean square of successive differences between normal sinus R-R intervals, the percentage of difference between adjacent normal R-R intervals, and high frequency. These results indicate that HRV is increased, which implies sympathetic withdrawal and parasympathetic predominance. We propose that autonomic imbalance may be involved in the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis in pediatric patients. PMID:19851046

  15. Cbl-b Deficiency in Mice Results in Exacerbation of Acute and Chronic Stages of Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Carson, William F.; Guernsey, Linda A.; Singh, Anurag; Secor, Eric R.; Wohlfert, Elizabeth A.; Clark, Robert B.; Schramm, Craig M.; Kunkel, Steven L.; Thrall, Roger S.

    2015-01-01

    Mice sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) develop allergic airway disease (AAD) with short-term daily OVA aerosol challenge; inflammation resolves with long-term OVA aerosol exposure, resulting in local inhalational tolerance (LIT). Cbl-b is an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved with CD28 signaling; Cbl-b−/− effector T cells are resistant to regulatory T cell-mediated suppression in vitro and in vivo. The present study utilized Cbl-b−/− mice to investigate the role of Cbl-b in the development of AAD and LIT. Cbl-b−/− mice exhibited increased airway inflammation during AAD, which failed to resolve with long-term OVA aerosol exposure. Exacerbation of inflammation in Cbl-b−/− mice correlated with increased proinflammatory cytokine levels and expansion of effector T cells in the BAL during AAD, but did not result in either a modulation of lymphocyte subsets in systemic tissues or in OVA-specific IgE in serum. These results implicate a role for Cbl-b in the resolution of allergic airway inflammation. PMID:26635806

  16. Functional relevance of NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated interleukin (IL)-1β during acute allergic airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, M; Straubinger, K; Schmidt, S; Busch, D H; Hagner, S; Garn, H; Prazeres da Costa, C; Layland, L E

    2014-01-01

    Overall asthmatic symptoms can be controlled with diverse therapeutic agents. However, certain symptomatic individuals remain at risk for serious morbidity and mortality, which prompts the identification of novel therapeutic targets and treatment strategies. Thus, using an adjuvant-free T helper type 2 (Th2) murine model, we have deciphered the role of interleukin (IL)-1 signalling during allergic airway inflammation (AAI). Because functional IL-1β depends on inflammasome activation we first studied asthmatic manifestations in specific inflammasome-deficient [NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3−/−) and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC−/−)] and IL-1 receptor type 1−/− (IL-1R1−/−) mice on the BALB/c background. To verify the onset of disease we assessed cellular infiltration in the bronchial regions, lung pathology, airway hyperresponsiveness and ovalbumin (OVA)-specific immune responses. In the absence of NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β release all symptoms of AAI were reduced, except OVA-specific immunoglobulin levels. To address whether manipulating IL-1 signalling reduced asthmatic development, we administered the IL-1R antagonist anakinra (Kineret®) during critical immunological time-points: sensitization or challenge. Amelioration of asthmatic symptoms was only observed when anakinra was administered during OVA challenge. Our findings indicate that blocking IL-1 signalling could be a potential complementary therapy for allergic airway inflammation. PMID:24943899

  17. In Vivo Assessment of Acute UVB Responses in Normal and Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP-C) Skin-Humanized Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    García, Marta; Llames, Sara; García, Eva; Meana, Alvaro; Cuadrado, Natividad; Recasens, Mar; Puig, Susana; Nagore, Eduardo; Illera, Nuria; Jorcano, José Luis; Del Rio, Marcela; Larcher, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    In vivo studies of UVB effects on human skin are precluded by ethical and technical arguments on volunteers and inconceivable in cancer-prone patients such as those affected with Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP). Establishing reliable models to address mechanistic and therapeutic matters thus remains a challenge. Here we have used the skin-humanized mouse system that circumvents most current model constraints. We assessed the UVB radiation effects including the sequential changes after acute exposure with respect to timing, dosage, and the relationship between dose and degree-sort of epidermal alteration. On Caucasian-derived regenerated skins, UVB irradiation (800 J/m2) induced DNA damage (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers) and p53 expression in exposed keratinocytes. Epidermal disorganization was observed at higher doses. In contrast, in African descent–derived regenerated skins, physiological hyperpigmentation prevented tissue alterations and DNA photolesions. The acute UVB effects seen in Caucasian-derived engrafted skins were also blocked by a physical sunscreen, demonstrating the suitability of the system for photoprotection studies. We also report the establishment of a photosensitive model through the transplantation of XP-C patient cells as part of a bioengineered skin. The inability of XP-C engrafted skin to remove DNA damaged cells was confirmed in vivo. Both the normal and XP-C versions of the skin-humanized mice proved proficient models to assess UVB-mediated DNA repair responses and provide a strong platform to test novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:20558577

  18. Acute and chronic effects of sulfur mustard on the skin: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Ghanei, Mostafa; Poursaleh, Zohreh; Harandi, Ali Amini; Emadi, Seyed Emad; Emadi, Seyed Naser

    2010-12-01

    Sulfur mustard (2,2-dichlorodiethyl sulfide, SM) is one of the vesicant classes of chemical warfare agents that causes blistering in the skin and mucous membranes, where it can have lingering long-term effects for up to ten years (1). SM was employed extensively by the Iraqi army against not only Iranian soldiers but also civilians between 1983 and 1988, resulting in over 100,000 chemical casualties. Approximately 45,000 victims are still suffering from long-term effects of exposure (2,3). More than 90% of the patients exposed to SM exhibit various cutaneous lesions in the affected area. The human skin can absorb approximately 20% of the SM through exposure. Up to 70% of the chemical is concentrated in the epidermis and the remainder in the basement membrane and in the dermis (4).Sulfur mustard exists in different physical states. The liquid form of SM evaporates slowly in cold weather and can penetrate through the clothing, thereby increasing exposure. However, the gas form readily diffuses in the air and it can be inhaled, leading to systemic absorption. In addition, warm temperatures are ideal conditions that liquid SM present in the clothing of the exposed individual could be converted to gas form. SM-induced clinical cutaneous symptoms include itching and burning. Other clinical findings include erythema or painless sunburn, bulla, hypo- and hyper pigmentation in both exposed and unexposed areas (5,6) The mechanism and biochemical cascade of SM-induced cutaneous manifestations are not completely understood but several published pathways support many of the know facts. Our current understanding fails to explain the time interval between the acute chemical exposure and the late-onset and delayed tissue damage (7,8). The aim of this article is to review the acute and long-term cutaneous findings resulting from SM exposure. Also, cellular and molecular mechanism involved in SM-induced skin pathology have been discussed. PMID:20868209

  19. [Empirical therapeutic approach to infection by resistant gram positive (acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and health care pneumonia). Value of risk factors].

    PubMed

    González-DelCastillo, J; Núñez-Orantos, M J; Candel, F J; Martín-Sánchez, F J

    2016-09-01

    Antibiotic treatment inadequacy is common in these sites of infection and may have implications for the patient's prognosis. In acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, the document states that for the establishment of an adequate treatment it must be assessed the severity, the patient comorbidity and the risk factors for multidrug-resistant microorganism. The concept of health care-associated pneumonia is discussed and leads to errors in the etiologic diagnosis and therefore in the selection of antibiotic treatment. This paper discusses how to perform this approach to the possible etiology to guide empirical treatment. PMID:27608306

  20. Evaluation of allergic response using dynamic thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokita, E.; Rok, T.; Tatoń, G.

    2015-03-01

    Skin dynamic termography supplemented by a mathematical model is presented as an objective and sensitive indicator of the skin prick test result. Termographic measurements were performed simultaneously with routine skin prick tests. The IR images were acquired every 70 s up to 910 s after skin prick. In the model histamine is treated as the principal mediator of the allergic reaction. Histamine produces vasolidation and the engorged vessels are responsible for an increase in skin temperature. The model parameters were determined by fitting the analytical solutions to the spatio-temporal distributions of the differences between measured and baseline temperatures. The model reproduces experimental data very well (coefficient of determination = 0.805÷0.995). The method offers a set of parameters to describe separately skin allergic reaction and skin reactivity. The release of histamine after allergen injection is the best indicator of allergic response. The diagnostic parameter better correlates with the standard evaluation of a skin prick test (correlation coefficient = 0.98) than the result of the thermographic planimetric method based on temperature and heated area determination (0.81). The high sensitivity of the method allows for determination of the allergic response in patients with the reduced skin reactivity.

  1. The allergic emergency--management of severe allergic reactions.

    PubMed

    Werner-Busse, Alexandra; Zuberbier, Torsten; Worm, Margitta

    2014-05-01

    Anaphylaxis is characterized by the sudden onset of acute allergic symptoms involving two or more organ systems. An acute allergic emergency is a challenge for physicians due to its life-threatening potential. The incidence of anaphylactic reactions has increased in recent years. Most frequent elicitors of mast cell and primarily histamine dependent anaphylactic reactions are food, insect venom or drugs. Allergic -reactions are graded into four groups according to the classification by Ring and Messmer; grade I is defined by the onset of cutaneous symptoms only whereas grade IV is characterized by cardiovascular shock as well as cardiac and/or respiratory arrest. The treatment of allergic reactions should be guided by the severity of the reaction. Initially an intramuscular epinephrine injection into the lateral thigh should be given if cutaneous, mucosal and cardiovascular/respiratory symptoms occur. Additionally, the patient should receive intravenous antihistamines and corticosteroids. For self-treatment in the case of an allergic emergency, oral antihistamines and corticosteroids should be prescribed to the patient. PMID:24673732

  2. Modified skin window technique for the extended characterisation of acute inflammation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Marks, D. J. B.; Radulovic, M.; McCartney, S.; Bloom, S.; Segal, A. W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To modify the skin window technique for extended analysis of acute inflammatory responses in humans, and demonstrate its applicability for investigating disease. Subjects 15 healthy subjects and 5 Crohn’s patients. Treatment Skin windows, created by dermal abrasion, were overlaid for various durations with filter papers saturated in saline, 100 ng/ml muramyl dipeptide (MDP) or 10 μg/ml interleukin-8 (IL-8). Methods Exuded leukocytes were analyzed by microscopy, immunoblot, DNA-bound transcription factor arrays and RT-PCR. Inflammatory mediators were quantified by ELISA. Results Infiltrating leukocytes were predominantly neutrophils. Numerous secreted mediators were detectable. MDP and IL-8 enhanced responses. Many signalling proteins were phosphorylated with differential patterns in Crohn’s patients, notably PKC α/β hyperphosphorylation (11.3 ± 3.1 vs 1.2 ± 0.9 units, P < 0.02). Activities of 44 transcription factors were detectable, and sufficient RNA isolated for expression analysis of over 400 genes. Conclusions The modifications enable broad characterisation of inflammatory responses and administration of exogenous immunomodulators. PMID:17522815

  3. TRPA1 controls inflammation and pruritogen responses in allergic contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Boyi; Escalera, Jasmine; Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Fan, Lu; Caceres, Ana I.; Robinson, Eve; Sui, Aiwei; McKay, M. Craig; McAlexander, M. Allen; Herrick, Christina A.; Jordt, Sven E.

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common skin disease associated with inflammation and persistent pruritus. Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels in skin-innervating sensory neurons mediate acute inflammatory and pruritic responses following exogenous stimulation and may contribute to allergic responses. Genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPA1, but not TRPV1, inhibited skin edema, keratinocyte hyperplasia, nerve growth, leukocyte infiltration, and antihistamine-resistant scratching behavior in mice exposed to the haptens, oxazolone and urushiol, the contact allergen of poison ivy. Hapten-challenged skin of TRPA1-deficient mice contained diminished levels of inflammatory cytokines, nerve growth factor, and endogenous pruritogens, such as substance P (SP) and serotonin. TRPA1-deficient sensory neurons were defective in SP signaling, and SP-induced scratching behavior was abolished in Trpa1−/− mice. SP receptor antagonists, such as aprepitant inhibited both hapten-induced cutaneous inflammation and scratching behavior. These findings support a central role for TRPA1 and SP in the integration of immune and neuronal mechanisms leading to chronic inflammatory responses and pruritus associated with contact dermatitis.—Liu, B., Escalera, J., Balakrishna, S., Fan, L., Caceres, A. I., Robinson, E., Sui, A., McKay, M. C., McAlexander, M. A., Herrick, C. A., Jordt, S. E. TRPA1 controls inflammation and pruritogen responses in allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:23722916

  4. In vivo analysis of THz wave irradiation induced acute inflammatory response in skin by laser-scanning confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yoonha; Ahn, Jinhyo; Mun, Jungho; Bae, Sangyoon; Jeong, Young Uk; Vinokurov, Nikolay A; Kim, Pilhan

    2014-05-19

    The recent development of THz sources in a wide range of THz frequencies and power levels has led to greatly increased interest in potential biomedical applications such as cancer and burn wound diagnosis. However, despite its importance in realizing THz wave based applications, our knowledge of how THz wave irradiation can affect a live tissue at the cellular level is very limited. In this study, an acute inflammatory response caused by pulsed THz wave irradiation on the skin of a live mouse was analyzed at the cellular level using intravital laser-scanning confocal microscopy. Pulsed THz wave (2.7 THz, 4 μs pulsewidth, 61.4 μJ per pulse, 3Hz repetition), generated using compact FEL, was used to irradiate an anesthetized mouse's ear skin with an average power of 260 mW/cm(2) for 30 minutes using a high-precision focused THz wave irradiation setup. In contrast to in vitro analysis using cultured cells at similar power levels of CW THz wave irradiation, no temperature change at the surface of the ear skin was observed when skin was examined with an IR camera. To monitor any potential inflammatory response, resident neutrophils in the same area of ear skin were repeatedly visualized before and after THz wave irradiation using a custom-built laser-scanning confocal microscopy system optimized for in vivo visualization. While non-irradiated control skin area showed no changes in the number of resident neutrophils, a massive recruitment of newly infiltrated neutrophils was observed in the THz wave irradiated skin area after 6 hours, which suggests an induction of acute inflammatory response by the pulsed THz wave irradiation on the skin via a non-thermal process. PMID:24921268

  5. Telavancin for Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections, a Post Hoc Analysis of the Phase 3 ATLAS Trials in Light of the 2013 FDA Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Pushkin, Richard; Barriere, Steven L.; Corey, G. Ralph; Stryjewski, Martin E.

    2015-01-01

    Two phase 3 ATLAS trials demonstrated noninferiority of telavancin compared with vancomycin for complicated skin and skin structure infections. Data from these trials were retrospectively evaluated according to 2013 U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance on acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. This post hoc analysis included patients with lesion sizes of ≥75 cm2 and excluded patients with ulcers or burns (updated all-treated population; n = 1,127). Updated day 3 (early) clinical response was defined as a ≥20% reduction in lesion size from baseline and no rescue antibiotic. Updated test-of-cure (TOC) clinical response was defined as a ≥90% reduction in lesion size, no increase in lesion size since day 3, and no requirement for additional antibiotics or significant surgical procedures. Day 3 (early) clinical responses were achieved in 62.6% and 61.0% of patients receiving telavancin and vancomycin, respectively (difference, 1.7%, with a 95% confidence interval [CI] of −4.0% to 7.4%). Updated TOC visit cure rates were similar for telavancin (68.0%) and vancomycin (63.3%), with a difference of 4.8% (95% CI, −0.7% to 10.3%). Adopting current FDA guidance, this analysis corroborates previous noninferiority findings of the ATLAS trials of telavancin compared with vancomycin. PMID:26248356

  6. Immediate skin grafting of sub-acute and chronic wounds debrided by hydrosurgery.

    PubMed

    Vanwijck, R; Kaba, L; Boland, S; Gonzales y Azero, M; Delange, A; Tourbach, S

    2010-03-01

    A wound bed may be prepared by various non-surgical debridements using autolytic, biological or enzymatic techniques. These are all effective in selective wounds but tend to be time consuming. Surgical debridement is not selective since healthy collateral tissue is also removed. Physical debridement uses whirlpool therapy to slough off necrotic tissues - the saline which comes out of the hand piece if vapourized over the wound - and therefore disseminates contaminated droplets. Hydrosurgery combines physical and surgical debridement but does not have their drawbacks. Water dissection works by using a high-pressure jet of sterile saline that travels parallel to the wound and creates a Venturi effect, thus enabling the selective removal of necrotic tissues without dissemination of contaminants. In this study, the authors report on 167 sub-acute and chronic wounds from 155 patients treated under general anaesthesia by hydrosurgery (Versajet). Of these, 95% of the debrided wounds were immediately covered with an autologous meshed graft. Compared to other debridement techniques, hydrosurgery has two main advantages: namely its tissue selectivity and its high percentage of successful engraftment after immediate skin grafting. PMID:19196559

  7. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell implantation for the treatment of radioactivity‑induced acute skin damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kai; Wu, Weizhen; Yang, Shunliang; Huang, Lianghu; Chen, Jin; Gong, Chungui; Fu, Zhichao; Zhang, Linlin; Tan, Jianming

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed to observe the role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the repair of acute skin damage caused by radiation. Rat bone marrow MSCs (BMSCs) were isolated and cultured in vitro. A rat model of radiation‑induced acute skin damage was established by irradiation of the hind legs of Sprague-Dawley rats using a linear accelerator (45 Gy). After irradiation, rats were randomly divided into two groups: BMSC group and control group. Rats in the BMSC group were treated with a tail vein injection of 2x106 BMSCs (1 ml) immediately after irradiation and a local multipoint injection of 2x106 BMSCs at the injured area two weeks later. Then the wound healing of each rat was observed. The expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)‑β1, stromal cell‑derived factor-1 (SDF‑1) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the wounded tissues was determined by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated that skin damage was milder in the BMSC group than in the control group. Moreover, the speed of healing in the BMSC group was better than that in the control group. In addition, the wound score, it was significantly lower in the BMSC group than in the control group (P<0.05). The expression of PGE2 and TGF‑β1 in the BMSC group was also significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05), whereas the SDF‑1 expression was significantly higher in the BMSC group than that in the control group (P<0.05). BMSCs can effectively reduce inflammation and fibrosis in the wounded skin and promote the repair of acute radioactive skin injury. Thus, may be developed as a novel treatment for wound healing. PMID:26323987

  8. Allergy testing - skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... if you are allergic to bee venom or penicillin. Or it may be used if the skin ... sore, or swollen after contact with the substance Penicillin allergy Venom allergy Allergies to penicillin and closely ...

  9. Measurement and comparison of skin dose using OneDose MOSFET and Mobile MOSFET for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Mattar, Essam H.; Hammad, Lina F.; Al-Mohammed, Huda I.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Total body irradiation is a protocol used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia in patients prior to bone marrow transplant. It is involved in the treatment of the whole body using a large radiation field with extended source-skin distance. Therefore measuring and monitoring the skin dose during the treatment is important. Two kinds of metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (OneDose MOSFET and mobile MOSEFT) dosimeter are used during the treatment delivery to measure the skin dose to specific points and compare it with the target prescribed dose. The objective of this study was to compare the variation of skin dose in patients with acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) treated with total body irradiation (TBI) using OneDose MOSFET detectors and Mobile MOSFET, and then compare both results with the target prescribed dose. Material/Methods The measurements involved 32 patient’s (16 males, 16 females), aged between 14–30 years, with an average age of 22.41 years. One-Dose MOSFET and Mobile MOSFET dosimetry were performed at 10 different anatomical sites on every patient. Results The results showed there was no variation between skin dose measured with OneDose MOSFET and Mobile MOSFET in all patients. Furthermore, the results showed for every anatomical site selected there was no significant difference in the dose delivered using either OneDose MOSFET detector or Mobile MOSFET as compared to the prescribed dose. Conclusions The study concludes that One-Dose MOSFET detectors and Mobile MOSFET both give a direct read-out immediately after the treatment; therefore both detectors are suitable options when measuring skin dose for total body irradiation treatment. PMID:21709641

  10. Comprehensive Evaluation of Personal, Clinical, and Radiation Dosimetric Parameters for Acute Skin Reaction during Whole Breast Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dae Sik; Lee, Jung Ae; Lee, Nam Kwon; Park, Young Je; Lee, Suk; Kim, Chul Yong; Son, Gil Soo

    2016-01-01

    Skin reaction is major problem during whole breast radiotherapy. To identify factors related to skin reactions during whole breast radiotherapy, various personal, clinical, and radiation dosimetric parameters were evaluated. From January 2012 to December 2013, a total of 125 patients who underwent breast conserving surgery and adjuvant whole breast irradiation were retrospectively reviewed. All patients had both whole breast irradiation and boost to the tumour bed. Skin reaction was measured on the first day of boost therapy based on photography of the radiation field and medical records. For each area of axilla and inferior fold, the intensity score of erythema (score 1 to 5) and extent (score 0 to 1) were summed. The relationship of various parameters to skin reaction was evaluated using chi-square and linear regression tests. The V100 (volume receiving 100% of prescribed radiation dose, p < 0.001, both axilla and inferior fold) and age (p = 0.039 for axilla and 0.026 for inferior fold) were significant parameters in multivariate analyses. The calculated axilla dose (p = 0.003) and breast separation (p = 0.036) were also risk factors for axilla and inferior fold, respectively. Young age and large V100 are significant factors for acute skin reaction that can be simply and cost-effectively measured. PMID:27579310

  11. Comprehensive Evaluation of Personal, Clinical, and Radiation Dosimetric Parameters for Acute Skin Reaction during Whole Breast Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dae Sik; Lee, Jung Ae; Yoon, Won Sup; Lee, Nam Kwon; Park, Young Je; Lee, Suk; Kim, Chul Yong; Son, Gil Soo

    2016-01-01

    Skin reaction is major problem during whole breast radiotherapy. To identify factors related to skin reactions during whole breast radiotherapy, various personal, clinical, and radiation dosimetric parameters were evaluated. From January 2012 to December 2013, a total of 125 patients who underwent breast conserving surgery and adjuvant whole breast irradiation were retrospectively reviewed. All patients had both whole breast irradiation and boost to the tumour bed. Skin reaction was measured on the first day of boost therapy based on photography of the radiation field and medical records. For each area of axilla and inferior fold, the intensity score of erythema (score 1 to 5) and extent (score 0 to 1) were summed. The relationship of various parameters to skin reaction was evaluated using chi-square and linear regression tests. The V 100 (volume receiving 100% of prescribed radiation dose, p < 0.001, both axilla and inferior fold) and age (p = 0.039 for axilla and 0.026 for inferior fold) were significant parameters in multivariate analyses. The calculated axilla dose (p = 0.003) and breast separation (p = 0.036) were also risk factors for axilla and inferior fold, respectively. Young age and large V 100 are significant factors for acute skin reaction that can be simply and cost-effectively measured. PMID:27579310

  12. Use of Axillary Deodorant and Effect on Acute Skin Toxicity During Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: A Prospective Randomized Noninferiority Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Theberge, Valerie; Harel, Francois; Dagnault, Anne

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To prospectively determine the effect of deodorant use on acute skin toxicity and quality of life during breast radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Before breast RT, 84 patients were randomly assigned to the deodorant group (n = 40) or the no-deodorant group (n = 44). The patients were stratified by axillary RT and previous chemotherapy. Toxicity evaluations were always performed by the principal investigator, who was unaware of the group assignment, at the end of RT and 2 weeks after completion using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group acute skin toxicity criteria. Symptoms of acute skin toxicity (i.e., discomfort, pain, pruritus, sweating) and quality of life were self-evaluated. For each criterion, the point estimate of rate difference with the 95% one-sided upper confidence limit was computed. To claim noninferiority owing to deodorant use, the 95% one-sided upper confidence limit had to be lower than the noninferiority margin, fixed to 12.8%. Results: In the deodorant vs. no-deodorant groups, Grade 2 axillary radiodermatitis occurred in 23% vs. 30%, respectively, satisfying the statistical criteria for noninferiority (p = .019). Grade 2 breast radiodermatitis occurred in 30% vs. 34% of the deodorant vs. no-deodorant groups, respectively, also satisfying the statistical criteria for noninferiority (p = .049). Similar results were observed for the self-reported evaluations. The deodorant group reported less sweating (18% vs. 39%, p = .032). No Grade 3 or 4 radiodermatitis was observed. Conclusion: According to our noninferiority margin definition, the occurrence of skin toxicity and its related symptoms were statistically equivalent in both groups. No evidence was found to prohibit deodorant use (notwithstanding the use of an antiperspirant with aluminum) during RT for breast cancer.

  13. Management of Rhinitis: Allergic and Non-Allergic

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Nguyen P; Vickery, John

    2011-01-01

    Rhinitis is a global problem and is defined as the presence of at least one of the following: congestion, rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal itching, and nasal obstruction. The two major classifications are allergic and nonallergic rhinitis (NAR). Allergic rhinitis occurs when an allergen is the trigger for the nasal symptoms. NAR is when obstruction and rhinorrhea occurs in relation to nonallergic, noninfectious triggers such as change in the weather, exposure to caustic odors or cigarette smoke, barometric pressure differences, etc. There is a lack of concomitant allergic disease, determined by negative skin prick test for relevant allergens and/or negative allergen-specific antibody tests. Both are highly prevalent diseases that have a significant economic burden on society and negative impact on patient quality of life. Treatment of allergic rhinitis includes allergen avoidance, antihistamines (oral and intranasal), intranasal corticosteroids, intranasal cromones, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and immunotherapy. Occasional systemic corticosteroids and decongestants (oral and topical) are also used. NAR has 8 major subtypes which includes nonallergic rhinopathy (previously known as vasomotor rhinitis), nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophilia, atrophic rhinitis, senile rhinitis, gustatory rhinitis, drug-induced rhinitis, hormonal-induced rhinitis, and cerebral spinal fluid leak. The mainstay of treatment for NAR are intranasal corticosteroids. Topical antihistamines have also been found to be efficacious. Topical anticholinergics such as ipratropium bromide (0.03%) nasal spray are effective in treating rhinorrhea symptoms. Adjunct therapy includes decongestants and nasal saline. Investigational therapies in the treatment of NAR discussed include capsaicin, silver nitrate, and acupuncture. PMID:21738880

  14. SKIN SENSITIZATION AND ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS (BASIC COURSE): THE GLOBAL REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT - CONTINUING EDUCATION COURSE; 1 OF 4 SPEAKERS FOR AN SOT BASIC COURSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    New regulations have emerged in recent years giving guidance on how best to conduct skin sensitization testing on new chemical entities. For example, recently The Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) in the U.S. and the European Ce...

  15. Rising United States Hospital Admissions for Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Recent Trends and Economic Impact

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Keith S.; Patel, Dipen A.; Stephens, Jennifer M.; Khachatryan, Alexandra; Patel, Ayush; Johnson, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Background The number of ambulatory patients seeking treatment for skin and skin structure infections (SSSI) are increasing. The objective of this study is to determine recent trends in hospital admissions and healthcare resource utilization and identify covariates associated with hospital costs and mortality for hospitalized adult patients with a primary SSSI diagnosis in the United States. Methods We performed a retrospective cross-sectional analysis (years 2005–2011) of data from the US Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample. Recent trends, patient characteristics, and healthcare resource utilization for patients hospitalized with a primary SSSI diagnosis were evaluated. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were conducted to assess patient and hospital characteristics. Results A total of 1.8% of hospital admissions for the years 2005 through 2011 were for adult patients with a SSSI primary diagnosis. SSSI-related hospital admissions significantly changed during the study period (P < .001 for trend) ranging from 1.6% (in 2005) to 2.0% (in 2011). Mean hospital length of stay (LOS) decreased from 5.4 days in the year 2005 to 5.0 days in the year 2011 (overall change, P < .001) with no change in hospital costs. Patients with postoperative wound infections had the longest hospital stays (adjusted mean, 5.81 days; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.80–5.83) and highest total costs (adjusted mean, $9388; 95% CI, $9366-$9410). Year of hospital admission was strongly associated with mortality; infection type, all patient refined diagnosis related group severity of illness level, and LOS were strongly associated with hospital costs. Conclusions Hospital admissions for adult patients in the United States with a SSSI primary diagnosis continue to increase. Decreasing hospital inpatient LOS and mortality rate may be due to improved early treatment. Future research should focus on identifying alternative treatment processes for patients with SSSI

  16. Allergic reaction to suxamethonium during emergency caesarean section and pseudocholinesterase deficiency in the same patient.

    PubMed

    Brozović, Gordana; Mazul Sunko, Branka; Hafner, Tomislav; Bekavac, Ivanka

    2014-07-01

    An allergic reaction during the caesarean section can be harmful for mother and foetus. Our patient has undergone an urgent caesarean section due to the imminent threat of foetal hypoxia. After operation, we applied prolonged mechanical ventilation. The anaesthesia was induced with thiopental and suxamethonium. Suxamethonium is associated with the highest incidence of allergic reactions but it is a neuromuscular blocking agent of choice for an emergency operation. During the operation, about 10 min. after induction, the systolic blood pressure dropped suddenly to 67 mmHg, the heart rate increased to 145 beats per minute and the oxygen saturation dropped to 60 %. A small degree of bronchospasm developed but there wasn't any kind of skin reaction. We thought of an allergic reaction, the obstetrical pulmonary embolism and an acute cardiac failure. The baby was delivered promptly in good condition. Within 10 min. all vital signs normalized. The operation continued without problems. Unexpectedly, during waking up from anaesthesia the patient became dyspnoeic, laryngospasm appeared, the oxygen saturation dropped again, strong facial and tongue oedema appeared and an urgent reintubation had to be performed. The laboratory results pointed out elevated mast cell tryptase level and significant pseudocholinesterase deficiency. About 2 months later, immunologist excluded thiopental and latex, and suggested that suxamethonium was the "trigger" factor. In our case the respiratory insufficiency was caused by two different and unrelated pathological mechanisms: biphasic allergic reaction and prolonged neuromuscular block caused by pseudocholinesterase deficiency. PMID:24958651

  17. Allergic rhinitis - what to ask your doctor - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... How do I find out when smog or pollution is worse in our area? What does my ... More Allergen Allergic rhinitis Allergies - overview Allergy testing - skin Asthma and allergy - resources Common cold Sneezing Patient ...

  18. Allergic rhinitis - what to ask your doctor - adult

    MedlinePlus

    ... How do I find out when smog or pollution is worse in my area? Am I taking ... More Allergen Allergic rhinitis Allergies - overview Allergy testing - skin Asthma and allergy - resources Common cold Sneezing Patient ...

  19. Standard or hypofractionated radiotherapy in the postoperative treatment of breast cancer: a retrospective analysis of acute skin toxicity and dose inhomogeneities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To identify predictive factors of radiation-induced skin toxicity in breast cancer patients by the analysis of dosimetric and clinical factors. Methods 339 patients treated between January 2007 and December 2010 are included in the present analysis. Whole breast irradiation was delivered with Conventional Fractionation (CF) (50Gy, 2.0/day, 25 fractions) and moderate Hypofractionated Schedule (HS) (44Gy, 2.75Gy/day, 16 fractions) followed by tumour bed boost. The impact of patient clinical features, systemic treatments and, in particular, dose inhomogeneities on the occurrence of different levels of skin reaction has been retrospectively evaluated. Results G2 and G3 acute skin toxicity were 42% and 13% in CF patients and 30% and 7.5% in HS patients respectively. The retrieval and revaluation of 200 treatment plans showed a strong correlation between areas close to the skin surface, with inhomogeneities >107% of the prescribed dose, and the desquamation areas as described in the clinical records. Conclusions In our experience dose inhomogeneity underneath G2 – G3 skin reactions seems to be the most important predictor for acute skin damage and in these patients more complex treatment techniques should be considered to avoid skin damage. Genetic polymorphisms too have to be investigated as possible promising candidates for predicting acute skin reactions. PMID:23651532

  20. Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy for the Quantitative Assessment of Acute Ionizing Radiation Induced Skin Toxicity Using a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Lee; Korpela, Elina; Kim, Anthony; Yohan, Darren; Niu, Carolyn; Wilson, Brian C.; Liu, Stanley K.

    2016-01-01

    Acute skin toxicities from ionizing radiation (IR) are a common side effect from therapeutic courses of external beam radiation therapy (RT) and negatively impact patient quality of life and long term survival. Advances in the understanding of the biological pathways associated with normal tissue toxicities have allowed for the development of interventional drugs, however, current response studies are limited by a lack of quantitative metrics for assessing the severity of skin reactions. Here we present a diffuse optical spectroscopic (DOS) approach that provides quantitative optical biomarkers of skin response to radiation. We describe the instrumentation design of the DOS system as well as the inversion algorithm for extracting the optical parameters. Finally, to demonstrate clinical utility, we present representative data from a pre-clinical mouse model of radiation induced erythema and compare the results with a commonly employed visual scoring. The described DOS method offers an objective, high through-put evaluation of skin toxicity via functional response that is translatable to the clinical setting. PMID:27284926

  1. Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy for the Quantitative Assessment of Acute Ionizing Radiation Induced Skin Toxicity Using a Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Chin, Lee; Korpela, Elina; Kim, Anthony; Yohan, Darren; Niu, Carolyn; Wilson, Brian C; Liu, Stanley K

    2016-01-01

    Acute skin toxicities from ionizing radiation (IR) are a common side effect from therapeutic courses of external beam radiation therapy (RT) and negatively impact patient quality of life and long term survival. Advances in the understanding of the biological pathways associated with normal tissue toxicities have allowed for the development of interventional drugs, however, current response studies are limited by a lack of quantitative metrics for assessing the severity of skin reactions. Here we present a diffuse optical spectroscopic (DOS) approach that provides quantitative optical biomarkers of skin response to radiation. We describe the instrumentation design of the DOS system as well as the inversion algorithm for extracting the optical parameters. Finally, to demonstrate clinical utility, we present representative data from a pre-clinical mouse model of radiation induced erythema and compare the results with a commonly employed visual scoring. The described DOS method offers an objective, high through-put evaluation of skin toxicity via functional response that is translatable to the clinical setting. PMID:27284926

  2. TRPA1 controls inflammation and pruritogen responses in allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Boyi; Escalera, Jasmine; Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Fan, Lu; Caceres, Ana I; Robinson, Eve; Sui, Aiwei; McKay, M Craig; McAlexander, M Allen; Herrick, Christina A; Jordt, Sven E

    2013-09-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common skin disease associated with inflammation and persistent pruritus. Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels in skin-innervating sensory neurons mediate acute inflammatory and pruritic responses following exogenous stimulation and may contribute to allergic responses. Genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPA1, but not TRPV1, inhibited skin edema, keratinocyte hyperplasia, nerve growth, leukocyte infiltration, and antihistamine-resistant scratching behavior in mice exposed to the haptens, oxazolone and urushiol, the contact allergen of poison ivy. Hapten-challenged skin of TRPA1-deficient mice contained diminished levels of inflammatory cytokines, nerve growth factor, and endogenous pruritogens, such as substance P (SP) and serotonin. TRPA1-deficient sensory neurons were defective in SP signaling, and SP-induced scratching behavior was abolished in Trpa1(-/-) mice. SP receptor antagonists, such as aprepitant inhibited both hapten-induced cutaneous inflammation and scratching behavior. These findings support a central role for TRPA1 and SP in the integration of immune and neuronal mechanisms leading to chronic inflammatory responses and pruritus associated with contact dermatitis. PMID:23722916

  3. Focus on JNJ-Q2, a novel fluoroquinolone, for the management of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Travis M; Johnson, Steven W; DiMondi, V Paul; Wilson, Dustin T

    2016-01-01

    JNJ-Q2 is a novel, fifth-generation fluoroquinolone that has excellent in vitro and in vivo activity against a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. In vitro studies indicate that JNJ-Q2 has potent activity against pathogens responsible for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP), such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. JNJ-Q2 also has been shown to have a higher barrier to resistance compared to other agents in the class and it remains highly active against drug-resistant organisms, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus, ciprofloxacin-resistant methicillin-resistant S. aureus, and drug-resistant S. pneumoniae. In two Phase II studies, the efficacy of JNJ-Q2 was comparable to linezolid for ABSSSI and moxifloxacin for CABP. Furthermore, JNJ-Q2 was well tolerated, with adverse event rates similar to or less than other fluoroquinolones. With an expanded spectrum of activity and low potential for resistance, JNJ-Q2 shows promise as an effective treatment option for ABSSSI and CABP. Considering its early stage of development, the definitive role of JNJ-Q2 against these infections and its safety profile will be determined in future Phase III studies. PMID:27354817

  4. Ceftaroline fosamil as first-line versus second-line treatment for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) or community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP).

    PubMed

    Guervil, David J; Kaye, Keith S; Hassoun, Ali; Cole, Phillip; Huang, Xing-Yue; Friedland, H David

    2016-06-01

    The Clinical Assessment Program and Teflaro(®) Utilization Registry (CAPTURE) is a multicenter registry study of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection (ABSSSI) and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) patients treated with ceftaroline fosamil in the US. Data for this analysis were collected between August 2011 and February 2013 at US study centres by randomly ordered chart review. Clinical success rates among ABSSSI patients were >81% when ceftaroline fosamil was used as first- or second-line therapy, including monotherapy and concurrent therapy. Among CABP patients, clinical success rates were >77% among first-line and second-line patients and patients who received first-line concurrent therapy or second line monotherapy or concurrent therapy. For CABP patients treated with ceftaroline fosamil as first-line monotherapy, the clinical success rate was 70%. Ceftaroline fosamil is an effective treatment option for patients with ABSSSI or CABP with similar clinical success rates when used as first-line or second-line treatment. PMID:25817579

  5. Focus on JNJ-Q2, a novel fluoroquinolone, for the management of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections.

    PubMed

    Jones, Travis M; Johnson, Steven W; DiMondi, V Paul; Wilson, Dustin T

    2016-01-01

    JNJ-Q2 is a novel, fifth-generation fluoroquinolone that has excellent in vitro and in vivo activity against a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. In vitro studies indicate that JNJ-Q2 has potent activity against pathogens responsible for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP), such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. JNJ-Q2 also has been shown to have a higher barrier to resistance compared to other agents in the class and it remains highly active against drug-resistant organisms, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus, ciprofloxacin-resistant methicillin-resistant S. aureus, and drug-resistant S. pneumoniae. In two Phase II studies, the efficacy of JNJ-Q2 was comparable to linezolid for ABSSSI and moxifloxacin for CABP. Furthermore, JNJ-Q2 was well tolerated, with adverse event rates similar to or less than other fluoroquinolones. With an expanded spectrum of activity and low potential for resistance, JNJ-Q2 shows promise as an effective treatment option for ABSSSI and CABP. Considering its early stage of development, the definitive role of JNJ-Q2 against these infections and its safety profile will be determined in future Phase III studies. PMID:27354817

  6. Antimicrobial Activity of the Investigational Pleuromutilin Compound BC-3781 Tested against Gram-Positive Organisms Commonly Associated with Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections

    PubMed Central

    Biedenbach, Douglas J.; Paukner, Susanne; Ivezic-Schoenfeld, Zrinka; Jones, Ronald N.

    2012-01-01

    BC-3781 is a novel semisynthetic pleuromutilin antimicrobial agent developed as an intravenous and oral therapy for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) and respiratory tract infections (RTI). BC-3781 and comparator agents were tested by the broth microdilution method against 1,893 clinical Gram-positive organisms predominantly causing ABSSSI. BC-3781 exhibited potent activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC50/90, 0.12/0.25 μg/ml), coagulase-negative staphylococci (MIC50/90, 0.06/0.12 μg/ml), β-hemolytic streptococci (MIC50/90, 0.03/0.06 μg/ml), viridans group streptococci (MIC50/90, 0.12/0.5 μg/ml), and Enterococcus faecium (including vancomycin-nonsusceptible strains) (MIC50/90, 0.12/2 μg/ml). Compared with other antibiotics in use for the treatment of ABSSSI, BC-3781 displayed the lowest MICs and only a minimal potential for cross-resistance with other antimicrobial classes. PMID:22232289

  7. [Infectious-allergic bronchopulmonary paecilomycosis].

    PubMed

    Akhunova, A M

    1991-01-01

    Primary or secondary infection of the lungs with fungi of the Paecilomyces family (P. variotii and P. viridis) gives rise to the development of infectious allergic bronchopulmonary paecilomycosis characterized by the presence of chronic allergic interstitial pneumonia and obstructive bronchitis, bronchial asthma, total and pulmonary eosinophilia, the presence of the tissue parasitic form of the fungus in sputum, blood, pulmonary tissue, the presence of allergen-specific IgE and/or IgG antibodies in patients' sera, immediate or double (20 min and 6 h) reaction of the skin to administration of allergen of Paecilomyces, by not infrequent combination of lung damage and impairment of other organs as well as by chronic relapses. PMID:1805416

  8. Acute skin lesions following psoralen plus ultraviolet A radiation investigated by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. M.; Zhong, H. Q.; Zhai, J.; Wang, C. X.; Xiong, H. L.; Guo, Z. Y.

    2013-08-01

    Psoralen plus ultraviolet A radiation (PUVA) therapy is a very important clinical treatment of skin diseases such as vitiligo and psoriasis, but associated with an increased risk of skin photodamage, especially photoaging. In this work, optical coherence tomography (OCT), a novel non-invasive imaging technology, was introduced to investigate in vivo the photodamage induced by PUVA qualitatively and quantitatively. Balb/c mouse dorsal skin was treated with 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), and then exposed to UVA radiation. OCT images of the tissues were obtained by an OCT system with a 1310 nm central wavelength. Skin thickness and the attenuation coefficient were extracted from the OCT images to analyze the degree of injury to mouse skin. The results demonstrated that PUVA-treated skin showed an increase in skin thickness, and a reduction of attenuation coefficient in the OCT signal compared with the control groups. The data also showed good correlation with the results observed in histological sections using hematoxylin and eosin staining. In conclusion, OCT is a promising tool for photobiological studies aimed at assessing the effect of PUVA therapy in vivo.

  9. Oleanolic acid acetate inhibits atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a murine model

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Soyoung; Park, Jin-Woo; Khang, Dongwoo; Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, Woo Song; Rho, Mun-Chual; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2013-05-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are common allergic and inflammatory skin diseases caused by a combination of eczema, scratching, pruritus, and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. This paper examines whether oleanolic acid acetate (OAA) modulates AD and ACD symptoms by using an existing AD model based on the repeated local exposure of mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene to the ears of BALB/c mice. In addition, the paper uses a 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-sensitized local lymph node assay (LLNA) for the ACD model. The oral administration of OAA over a four-week period attenuated AD symptoms in terms of decreased skin lesions, epidermal thickness, the infiltration of immune cells (CD4{sup +} cells, eosinophils, and mast cells), and serum IgE, IgG2a, and histamine levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th22 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the lymph node and ear tissue, and the LLNA verified that OAA suppressed ACD. The oral administration of OAA over a three-day period attenuated ACD symptoms in terms of ear thickness, lymphocyte proliferation, and serum IgG2a levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the thymus and ear tissue. Finally, to define the underlying mechanism, this paper uses a TNF-α/IFN-γ-activated human keratinocyte (HaCaT) model. OAA inhibited the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the downregulation of NF-κB and MAPKs in HaCaT cells. Taken together, the results indicate that OAA inhibited AD and ACD symptoms, suggesting that OAA may be effective in treating allergic skin disorders. - Highlights: • OAA reduced both acute and chronic AD symptoms. • OAA had a controlling effect on the immune reaction for ACD. • The effect of OAA on allergic skin disorders was comparable to the cyclosporine A. • OAA might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin disorders.

  10. Beta-escin has potent anti-allergic efficacy and reduces allergic airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Type I hypersensitivity is characterized by the overreaction of the immune system against otherwise innocuous substances. It manifests as allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, allergic asthma or atopic dermatitis if mast cells are activated in the respective organs. In case of systemic mast cell activation, life-threatening anaphylaxis may occur. Currently, type I hypersensitivities are treated either with glucocorticoids, anti-histamines, or mast cell stabilizers. Although these drugs exert a strong anti-allergic effect, their long-term use may be problematic due to their side-effects. Results In the course of a routine in vitro screening process, we identified beta-escin as a potentially anti-allergic compound. Here we tested beta-escin in two mouse models to confirm this anti-allergic effect in vivo. In a model of the early phase of allergic reactions, the murine passive cutaneous anaphylaxis model, beta-escin inhibited the effects of mast cell activation and degranulation in the skin and dose-dependently prevented the extravasation of fluids into the tissue. Beta-escin also significantly inhibited the late response after antigen challenge in a lung allergy model with ovalbumin-sensitized mice. Allergic airway inflammation was suppressed, which was exemplified by the reduction of leucocytes, eosinophils, IL-5 and IL-13 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Histopathological examinations further confirmed the reduced inflammation of the lung tissue. In both models, the inhibitory effect of beta-escin was comparable to the benchmark dexamethasone. Conclusions We demonstrated in two independent murine models of type I hypersensitivity that beta-escin has potent anti-allergic properties. These results and the excellent safety profile of beta-escin suggest a therapeutic potential of this compound for a novel treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:20487574

  11. A multicentre study of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections in China: susceptibility to ceftaroline and molecular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; O'Sullivan, Matthew V N; Mao, Lei-Li; Zhao, Hao-Ran; Zhao, Ying; Wang, He; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2015-04-01

    Ceftaroline is a novel cephalosporin with activity against Gram-positive organisms, including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The objective of this study was to investigate the susceptibility to ceftaroline of hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) isolates causing acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections (ABSSSIs) in China and to examine their relationship by genotyping. A total of 251 HA-MRSA isolates causing ABSSSIs were collected from a multicentre study involving 56 hospitals in 38 large cities across 26 provinces in mainland China. All isolates were characterised by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, spa typing and detection of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin locus (lukS-PV and lukF-PV). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 14 antimicrobial agents, including ceftaroline, were determined by broth microdilution and were interpreted using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoints. The ceftaroline MIC50 and MIC90 values (MICs that inhibit 50% and 90% of the isolates, respectively) were 1 μg/mL and 2 μg/mL, respectively; 33.5% (n=84) of the isolates studied were ceftaroline-non-susceptible, with MICs of 2 μg/mL, but no isolate exhibited ceftaroline resistance (MIC>2 μg/mL). All of the ceftaroline-non-susceptible isolates belonged to the predominant HA-MRSA clones: 95.2% (n=80) from MLST clonal complex 8 (CC8), with the remaining 4.8% (n=4) from CC5. The high rate of non-susceptibility to ceftaroline amongst HA-MRSA causing ABSSSIs in China is concerning. PMID:25649348

  12. Examination of hospital length of stay in Canada among patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Potashman, Michele H; Stokes, Michael; Liu, Jieruo; Lawrence, Robin; Harris, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Skin infections, particularly those caused by resistant pathogens, represent a clinical burden. Hospitalization associated with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major contributor to the economic burden of the disease. This study was conducted to provide current, real-world data on hospitalization patterns for patients with ABSSSI caused by MRSA across multiple geographic regions in Canada. Patients and methods This retrospective cohort study evaluated length of stay (LOS) for hospitalized patients with ABSSSI due to MRSA diagnosis across four Canadian geographic regions using the Discharge Abstract Database. Patients with ICD-10-CA diagnosis consistent with ABSSSI caused by MRSA between January 2008 and December 2014 were selected and assigned a primary or secondary diagnosis based on a prespecified ICD-10-CA code algorithm. Results Among 6,719 patients, 3,273 (48.7%) and 3,446 (51.3%) had a primary and secondary diagnosis, respectively. Among patients with a primary or secondary diagnosis, the cellulitis/erysipelas subtype was most common. The majority of patients presented with 0 or 1 comorbid condition; the most common comorbidity was diabetes. The mean LOS over the study period varied by geographic region and year; in 2014 (the most recent year analyzed), LOS ranged from 7.7 days in Ontario to 13.4 days in the Canadian Prairie for a primary diagnosis and from 18.2 days in Ontario to 25.2 days in Atlantic Canada for a secondary diagnosis. A secondary diagnosis was associated with higher rates of continuing care compared with a primary diagnosis (10.6%–24.2% vs 4.6%–12.1%). Conclusion This study demonstrated that the mean LOS associated with ABSSSI due to MRSA in Canada was minimally 7 days. Clinical management strategies, including medication management, which might facilitate hospital discharge, have the potential to reduce hospital LOS and related economic

  13. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells inhibit Th2-mediated allergic airways inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Meagan; Sueblinvong, Viranuj; Eisenhauer, Philip; Ziats, Nicholas P; LeClair, Laurie; Poynter, Matthew E; Steele, Chad; Rincon, Mercedes; Weiss, Daniel J

    2011-07-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) mitigate inflammation in mouse models of acute lung injury. However, specific mechanisms of BMSC actions on CD4 T lymphocyte-mediated inflammation in vivo remain poorly understood. Limited data suggests promotion of Th2 phenotype in models of Th1-mediated diseases. However, whether this might alleviate or worsen Th2-mediated diseases such as allergic asthma is unknown. To ascertain the effects of systemic administration of BMSCs in a mouse model of Th2-mediated allergic airways inflammation, ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airways inflammation was induced in wild-type C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice as well as in interferon-γ (IFNγ) receptor null mice. Effects of systemic administration during antigen sensitization of either syngeneic or allogeneic BMSC on airways hyperreactivity, lung inflammation, antigen-specific CD4 T lymphocytes, and serum immunoglobulins were assessed. Both syngeneic and allogeneic BMSCs inhibited airways hyperreactivity and lung inflammation through a mechanism partly dependent on IFNγ. However, contrary to existing data, BMSCs did not affect antigen-specific CD4 T lymphocyte proliferation but rather promoted Th1 phenotype in vivo as assessed by both OVA-specific CD4 T lymphocyte cytokine production and OVA-specific circulating immunoglobulins. BMSCs treated to prevent release of soluble mediators and a control cell population of primary dermal skin fibroblasts only partly mimicked the BMSC effects and in some cases worsened inflammation. In conclusion, BMSCs inhibit Th2-mediated allergic airways inflammation by influencing antigen-specific CD4 T lymphocyte differentiation. Promotion of a Th1 phenotype in antigen-specific CD4 T lymphocytes by BMSCs is sufficient to inhibit Th2-mediated allergic airways inflammation through an IFNγ-dependent process. PMID:21544902

  14. Acute leukemia after radiotherapy in a patient with Turcot's syndrome. Impaired colony formation in skin fibroblast cultures after irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, F.P.; Little, J.B.; Bech-Hansen, N.T.; Paterson, M.C.; Arlett, C.; Garnick, M.B.; Mayer, R.J.

    1983-02-01

    Colonic polyposis and carcinoma developed in a woman with Turcot's syndrome at the age of 31 years; astrocytoma developed when she was 37. Her brother and sister had died of astrocytoma at the ages of 18 and 33 years, respectively. Progressive neutropenia developed in the patient three months after radiotherapy for her brain tumor and acute myelomonocytic leukemia 19 months after treatment. Three laboratories independently evaluated cultures of her skin fibroblasts for in vitro sensitivity to cell killing (loss of colony-forming ability) by x-rays. Survival assays consistently revealed slight but significant radiosensitivity in an early-passage (six to 10 doublings) fibroblast subculture. A later subculture (21 to 29 doublings) showed no abnormality, a possible effect of selective in vitro loss of radiosensitive cells.

  15. TLD skin dose measurements and acute and late effects after lumpectomy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy only for early breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Perera, Francisco . E-mail: francisco.perera@lrcc.on.ca; Chisela, Frank; Stitt, Larry; Engel, Jay; Venkatesan, Varagur

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: This report examines the relationships between measured skin doses and the acute and late skin and soft tissue changes in a pilot study of lumpectomy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy only for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Thirty-seven of 39 women enrolled in this pilot study of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (37.2 Gy in 10 fractions b.i.d.) each had thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) at 5 points on the skin of the breast overlying the implant volume. Skin changes at TLD dose points and fibrosis at the lumpectomy site were documented every 6 to 12 months posttreatment using a standardized physician-rated cosmesis questionnaire. The relationships between TLD dose and acute skin reaction, pigmentation, or telangiectasia at 5 years were analyzed using the GEE algorithm and the GENMOD procedure in the SAS statistical package. Fisher's exact test was used to determine whether there were any significant associations between acute skin reaction and late pigmentation or telangiectasia or between the volumes encompassed by various isodoses and fibrosis or fat necrosis. Results: The median TLD dose per fraction (185 dose points) multiplied by 10 was 9.2 Gy. In all 37 patients, acute skin reaction Grade 1 or higher was observed at 5.9% (6 of 102) of dose points receiving 10 Gy or less vs. 44.6% (37 of 83) of dose points receiving more than 10 Gy (p < 0.0001). In 25 patients at 60 months, 1.5% telangiectasia was seen at dose points receiving 10 Gy or less (1 of 69) vs. 18% (10 of 56) telangiectasia at dose points receiving more than 10 Gy (p 0.004). Grade 1 or more pigmentation developed at 1.5% (1 of 69) of dose points receiving less than 10 Gy vs. 25% (14 of 56) of dose points receiving more than 10 Gy (p < 0.001). A Grade 1 or more acute skin reaction was also significantly associated with development of Grade 1 or more pigmentation or telangiectasia at 60 months. This association was most significant for acute reaction and telangiectasia directly over the

  16. Transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (nitroglycerin) in healthy persons: acute effects on skin temperature and hemodynamic orthostatic response.

    PubMed

    Haebisch, E M

    1995-01-01

    In order to find an explanation for individual reactions to transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) we studied the skin temperature and hemodynamic reactions in 63 healthy persons. The data were obtained before and after the application of GTN and Glycerin (GL) placebo patches, during one hour. The skin temperature was measured on both forearms, the local (left sided) and systemic (right sided) reaction on GTN was related to the skin fold and the calculated body fat content. The bilateral rise of skin temperature and its duration was higher and longer in obese than in lean persons mainly in obese women. The UV induced thermo and the later photothermoreaction (Erythema) was reduced on the left forearm after the application of GTN and GL patches. The observed hemodynamic GTN effect confirmed known postural reactions, such as decreased arterial pressure (delta mAP = -2.9%), increased heart rate (delta HR = +7.4%) and QTc prolongation (delta QTc = +4.9%) in upright position. An adverse drug effect with increased mean blood pressure (delta mAP = +12%) and increased heart rate (delta HR = +10.4%) mainly in supine position was observed in 11% of the participants, but only in men. Such a reaction was already described by Murell, 1879. Individual GTN effects were analyzed and related to habits and family history. In male smokers and in persons with hypertensive and diabetic close relatives, the hypotensive GTN effect was accentuated in supine position. In the upright position the group with hypertensives in the family presented a moderate hypotensive reaction without secondary tachycardia and the smokers presented only a slightly increased heart rate. Our observations suggest that individual reactions to transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) with its active component nitric oxide (NO) depends on physiological conditions, related to endogenous vasoactive substances, mainly the interaction with EDRF (the endogenous NO) and the activity of the Renin-Angiotensin System. PMID

  17. Dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent impaired social behaviour and normalize brain dopamine levels in food allergic mice.

    PubMed

    de Theije, Caroline G M; van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Milosevic, Vanja; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Broersen, Laus M; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2015-03-01

    Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) on food allergy-induced impaired social behaviour and associated deficits in prefrontal dopamine (DA) in mice. Mice were fed either control or n-3 LCPUFA-enriched diet before and during sensitization with whey. Social behaviour, acute allergic skin response and serum immunoglobulins were assessed. Monoamine levels were measured in brain and intestine and fatty acid content in brain. N-3 LCPUFA prevented impaired social behaviour of allergic mice. Moreover, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporation into the brain and restored reduced levels of prefrontal DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid in allergic mice. In addition to these brain effects, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation reduced the allergic skin response and restored decreased intestinal levels of serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in allergic mice. N-3 LCPUFA may have beneficial effects on food allergy-induced deficits in social behaviour, either indirectly by reducing the allergic response and restoring intestinal 5-HT signalling, or directly by DHA incorporation into neuronal membranes, affecting the DA system. Therefore, it is of interest to further investigate the relevance of food allergy-enhanced impairments in social behaviour in humans and the potential benefits of dietary n-3 LCPUFA supplementation. PMID:25445491

  18. Acute Activation of Oxidative Pentose Phosphate Pathway as First-Line Response to Oxidative Stress in Human Skin Cells.

    PubMed

    Kuehne, Andreas; Emmert, Hila; Soehle, Joern; Winnefeld, Marc; Fischer, Frank; Wenck, Horst; Gallinat, Stefan; Terstegen, Lara; Lucius, Ralph; Hildebrand, Janosch; Zamboni, Nicola

    2015-08-01

    Integrity of human skin is endangered by exposure to UV irradiation and chemical stressors, which can provoke a toxic production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative damage. Since oxidation of proteins and metabolites occurs virtually instantaneously, immediate cellular countermeasures are pivotal to mitigate the negative implications of acute oxidative stress. We investigated the short-term metabolic response in human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes to H2O2 and UV exposure. In time-resolved metabolomics experiments, we observed that within seconds after stress induction, glucose catabolism is routed to the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and nucleotide synthesis independent of previously postulated blocks in glycolysis (i.e., of GAPDH or PKM2). Through ultra-short (13)C labeling experiments, we provide evidence for multiple cycling of carbon backbones in the oxidative PPP, potentially maximizing NADPH reduction. The identified metabolic rerouting in oxidative and non-oxidative PPP has important physiological roles in stabilization of the redox balance and ROS clearance. PMID:26190262

  19. Specificity of T cells invading the skin during acute graft-vs.-host disease after semiallogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Gaschet, J; Mahé, B; Milpied, N; Devilder, M C; Dréno, B; Bignon, J D; Davodeau, F; Hallet, M M; Bonneville, M; Vié, H

    1993-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for skin lesions during acute graft-vs.-host disease (aGVHD) after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are poorly understood. The exact role of various effector cell populations and "major" (particularly HLA-DP) or "minor" antigens as target molecules is not known. To investigate the nature of cells responsible for tissue injury, we cultured T cells from skin biopsy first with interleukin 2 (IL-2) alone and then in polyclonal activation conditions to avoid in vitro antigenic sensitization before specificity testing. We applied this method to two biopsies performed during aGVHD after semiallogeneic BMT and obtained cytotoxic T cells against four graft mismatches: CD8+ T cells against HLA-A2.2 and HLA-B27 and CD4+ T cells against HLA-DP101 and HLA-DP401. This demonstrates that T cells with documented specificity can be obtained from an aGVHD lesion without antigenic selection. Moreover, these data directly implicate DP as a potential target antigen for aGVHD. Images PMID:8423212

  20. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Single-Dose Versus Weekly Dalbavancin for Treatment of Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, Michael W.; Puttagunta, Sailaja; Giordano, Philip; Krievins, Dainis; Zelasky, Michael; Baldassarre, James

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) are a cause of significant morbidity and therapy can be a burden to the healthcare system. New antibiotics that simplify treatment and avoid hospitalization are needed. This study compared the safety and efficacy of a single intravenous infusion of 1500 mg of dalbavancin to the 2-dose regimen. Methods. This study was a randomized, double-blind trial in patients aged >18 years with ABSSSIs. Patients were randomized to dalbavancin 1500 mg either as a single intravenous (IV) infusion or 1000 mg IV on day 1 followed 1 week later by 500 mg IV. The primary endpoint was a ≥20% reduction in the area of erythema at 48–72 hours in the intent-to-treat population. Noninferiority was to be declared if the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) on the difference in the outcomes was greater than −10%. Clinical outcome was also assessed at days 14 and 28. Results. Six hundred ninety-eight patients were randomized. Demographic characteristics were similar on each regimen, although there were more patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at baseline on the 2-dose regimen (36/210 [17.1%] vs 61/220 [27.7%]). Dalbavancin delivered as a single dose was noninferior to a 2-dose regimen (81.4% vs 84.2%; difference, −2.9% [95% CI, −8.5% to 2.8%]). Clinical outcomes were also similar at day 14 (84.0% vs 84.8%), day 28 (84.5% vs 85.1%), and day 14 in clinically evaluable patients with MRSA in a baseline culture (92.9% vs 95.3%) in the single- and 2-dose regimens, respectively. Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 20.1% of the single-dose patients and 19.9% on the 2-dose regimen. Conclusions. A single 1500-mg infusion of dalbavancin is noninferior to a 2-dose regimen, has a similar safety profile, and removes logistical constraints related to delivery of the second dose. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT02127970. PMID:26611777

  1. Characterization of acute and long-term pathologies of superficial and deep dermal sulfur mustard skin lesions in the hairless guinea pig model.

    PubMed

    Dachir, Shlomit; Cohen, Maayan; Kamus-Elimeleh, Dikla; Fishbine, Eliezer; Sahar, Rita; Gez, Rellie; Brandeis, Rachel; Horwitz, Vered; Kadar, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur mustard induces severe acute and prolonged damage to the skin and only partially effective treatments are available. We have previously validated the use of hairless guinea pigs as an experimental model for skin lesions. The present study aimed to characterize a model of a deep dermal lesion and to compare it with the previously described superficial lesion. Clinical evaluation of the lesions was conducted using reflectance colorimetry, trans-epidermal water loss and wound area measurements. Prostaglandin E(2) content, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9 activity, and histopathology were conducted up to 4 weeks post-exposure. Sulfur mustard skin injury, including erythema and edema, impairment of skin barrier and wounds developed in a dose-dependent manner. Prostaglandin E(2) content and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9 activities were elevated during the wound development and the healing process. Histological evaluation revealed severe damage to the epidermis and deep dermis and vesications. At 4 weeks postexposure, healing was not completed: significantly impaired stratum corneum, absence of hair follicles, and epidermal hyperplasia were observed. These results confirm the use of the superficial and deep dermal skin injuries in the hairless guinea pigs as suitable models that can be utilized for the investigation of the pathological processes of acute as well as long-term injuries. These models will be further used to develop treatments to improve the healing process and prevent skin damage and long-term effects. PMID:23082902

  2. Allergic sensitization to ornamental plants in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ömür; Erkekol, Ferda Öner; Misirloigil, Zeynep; Demirel, Yavuz Selim; Mungan, Dilşad

    2014-01-01

    Ornamental plants (OPs) can lead to immediate-type sensitization and even asthma and rhinitis symptoms in some cases. This study aimed to evaluate sensitization to OPs in patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and to determine the factors affecting the rate of sensitization to OPs. A total of 150 patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Demographics and disease characteristics were recorded. Skin-prick tests were performed with a standardized inhalant allergen panel. Skin tests by "prick-to-prick" method with the leaves of 15 Ops, which are known to lead to allergenic sensitization, were performed. Skin tests with OPs were positive in 80 patients (47.1%). There was no significant difference between OP sensitized and nonsensitized patients in terms of gender, age, number of exposed OPs, and duration of exposure. Skin test positivity rate for OPs was significantly high in atopic subjects, patients with allergic rhinitis, food sensitivity, and indoor OP exposure, but not in patients with pollen and latex allergy. Most sensitizing OPs were Yucca elephantipes (52.5%), Dieffenbachia picta (50.8%), and Euphorbia pulcherrima (47.5%). There was significant correlation between having Saintpaulia ionantha, Croton, Pelargonium, Y. elephantipes, and positive skin test to these plants. Sensitivity to OPs was significantly higher in atopic subjects and patients with allergic rhinitis, food allergy, and indoor OP exposure. Furthermore, atopy and food sensitivity were found as risk factors for developing sensitization to indoor plants. Additional trials on the relationship between sensitization to OPs and allergic symptoms are needed. PMID:24717779

  3. Novel delivery systems for anti-allergic agents: allergic disease and innovative treatments.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Carla M; Coelho, Pedro B; Oliveira, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Anti-allergic agents are used to treat a great variety of diseases which usually involve an inflammation reaction. These compounds act by inhibiting the release and the effects of inflammatory mediators (e.g. histamine) in the target tissue. The purpose of anti-allergy therapy is to deliver the drug to its local of action in a therapeutic concentration, minimizing the undesired side effects. In order to solve some of the anti-allergic agents' physicochemical drawbacks and the limitations associated to conventional pharmaceutical formulations (e.g. poor solubility and absorption, skin permeation, stability), novel drug delivery systems, such as cyclodextrins, liposomes, micelles, microemulsions, nano and microparticles, have been developed. Depending on the allergic condition, several administration routes are used to deliver anti-allergic agents, each with its own disadvantages to overcome. In the literature, there are a vast number of papers concerning novel delivery systems for anti-allergic agents, making it difficult to evaluate the information and the promising outcomes. The aim of the present review article is to compile the recent (i.e. in the new millennium) improvements of novel drug delivery technology focusing on the achievement of anti-allergic therapeutic delivery. The potential intrinsic benefits of these systems will reflect an increased therapeutic adherence and better patients' life quality. A critical prospect of future clinical trial directions will also be discussed. PMID:25895551

  4. Halting the allergic march.

    PubMed

    Van Bever, Hugo P; Samuel, Sudesh T; Lee, Bee Wah

    2008-04-01

    The prevalence of childhood allergic diseases, such as allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis, has increased exponentially. In Singapore, the prevalence of asthma at all ages exceeds 20%, and around 50% of Singaporean children show features of an underlying allergy. The exact environmental causes for the increase of allergic diseases have not yet been identified, but most researchers agree that a decreased bacterial load in young children may be one of the reasons for the increase. However, the causes of allergy are multiple, and the development of an allergic disease is the result of complex interactions between genetic constitution and environmental factors. In this review article, different aspects of allergic sensitization are covered, including prenatal and postnatal sensitization. The phenomenon of the "allergic march" (switching from one clinical expression of allergy to another) and its underlying mechanisms are discussed. The last part of this review article is on prevention and treatment of allergic diseases, including the role of bacterial products (probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics) and the role of immunotherapy, including sublingual immunotherapy. PMID:23283392

  5. Evidence-based practice: sublingual immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Wise, Sarah K; Schlosser, Rodney J

    2012-10-01

    In this article, the authors review the current evidence regarding the public health and economic impact of allergic rhinitis. Diagnostic methods for allergic disease are discussed as well as certain nuances of allergy skin testing protocols. In addition, the evidence supporting sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for allergic rhinitis is reviewed, with subsequent attention to certain subgroups, such as adults and children, seasonal versus perennial allergens, and SLIT efficacy for individual antigens. The authors consider the evidence supporting appropriate SLIT dosing as well as the existing data on SLIT safety. PMID:22980684

  6. Epigenomics and allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    Lockett, Gabrielle A; Patil, Veeresh K; Soto-Ramírez, Nelís; Ziyab, Ali H; Holloway, John W; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Allergic disease development is affected by both genes and the environment, and epigenetic mechanisms are hypothesized to mediate these environmental effects. In this article, we discuss the link between the environment, DNA methylation and allergic disease, as well as questions of causality inherent to analyses of DNA methylation. From the practical side, we describe characteristics of allergic phenotypes and contrast different epidemiologic study designs used in epigenetic research. We examine methodological considerations, how best to conduct preprocessing and analysis of DNA methylation data sets, and the latest methods, technologies and discoveries in this rapidly advancing field. DNA methylation and other epigenetic marks are firmly entwined with allergic disease, a link that may hold the basis for future allergic disease diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24283882

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis due to a herbicide (barban).

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, D J; Lane, P R

    1985-01-01

    Canadian farmers are using increasing amounts of herbicides. Often they do not use adequate skin protection. Two cases of severe allergic contact dermatitis due to the herbicide barban are described. Patch testing with various substances, including barban, confirmed the diagnosis. Sensitization studies in guinea pigs and in one of the authors showed that barban is a potent sensitizer. It is recommended that if skin contact with barban occurs the skin be washed immediately with soap and water. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3971254

  8. Dermoscopic Follow-Up of the Skin towards Acute Graft-versus-Host-Disease in Patients after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kaminska-Winciorek, Grazyna; Czerw, Tomasz; Kruzel, Tomasz; Giebel, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) involving skin is one of the most frequent complications of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT), usually diagnosed based on clinical manifestations. So far, skin biopsy with histopathological evaluation is the only method to confirm the diagnosis. Objective. In this prospective study we monitored alloHSCT recipients by dermoscopy in order to assess its utility as an alternative noninvasive tool to early diagnose acute GVHD. Methods. Thirteen consecutive patients who received alloHSCT were examined clinically and dermoscopically towards aGVHD [days 28 (±7), 56 (±7), and 100 (±7)], as well as in each patient who developed cutaneous aGVHD diagnosed according to clinical criteria (Glucksberg scale). Results. Six patients (46%) developed symptoms of cutaneous acute GVHD (grade 1, n = 3; grade 2, n = 3). Dermoscopic evaluation revealed pinkish or reddish background and well-visible, multiple thin telangiectasias. Conclusion. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of dermoscopy to evaluate skin involvement in the course of acute GVHD suggesting its role as a diagnostic tool in follow-up of GVHD, which can be also used before clinical symptoms occur. PMID:27446950

  9. Distinct roles of prostaglandin D2 receptors in chronic skin inflammation.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Yuki; Satoh, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Masataka; Yokozeki, Hiroo

    2011-10-01

    Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) is a prostanoid implicated in allergic inflammation. However, the roles of PGD2 in immune and allergic responses remain controversial. PGD2 exerts its effect through the CRTH2 and DP receptors. To elucidate functional differences of PGD2 and its receptors in chronic skin inflammation, chronic contact hypersensitivity (chronic CHS) and IgE-mediated chronic allergic skin inflammation (IgE-CAI) were induced in mice deficient in the CRTH2 and/or DP genes. DP (-/-) mice and CRTH2 (-/-)/DP (-/-) mice showed exacerbated chronic CHS, and conversely, CRTH2 (-/-) mice exhibited diminished skin responses. Skin responses correlated with local levels of IL-13, CCL11, and CCL22. These phenotypic changes in chronic CHS of mutant mice were similar to those in acute CHS despite the differences in the cytokine milieus; chronic CHS and acute CHS were mediated by Th2 and Th1/Th17 immunity, respectively. However, in IgE-CAI, DP (-/-) mice showed comparable skin responses to wild-type mice. Alleviation of IgE-CAI was observed in CRTH2 (-/-) mice, and as a consequence, CRTH2 (-/-)/DP (-/-) mice exhibited diminished IgE-CAI compared with wild-type mice. IgE-CAI in mutant mice correlated with local IL-4 and CCL22 production. Consistent with these results, a CRTH2-specific antagonist exerted inhibitory effects in both chronic CHS and IgE-CAI. The present study demonstrates that functional roles of PGD2 and its receptors appear to depend on the nature of the inflammation. Nevertheless, tools targeted against PGD2-CRTH2 signals could offer therapeutic potential for both types of chronic skin inflammation. PMID:21943706

  10. Epidermal RAF prevents allergic skin disease

    PubMed Central

    Raguz, Josipa; Jeric, Ines; Niault, Theodora; Nowacka, Joanna Daniela; Kuzet, Sanya Eduarda; Rupp, Christian; Fischer, Irmgard; Biggi, Silvia; Borsello, Tiziana; Baccarini, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    The RAS pathway is central to epidermal homeostasis, and its activation in tumors or in Rasopathies correlates with hyperproliferation. Downstream of RAS, RAF kinases are actionable targets regulating keratinocyte turnover; however, chemical RAF inhibitors paradoxically activate the pathway, promoting epidermal proliferation. We generated mice with compound epidermis-restricted BRAF/RAF1 ablation. In these animals, transient barrier defects and production of chemokines and Th2-type cytokines by keratinocytes cause a disease akin to human atopic dermatitis, characterized by IgE responses and local and systemic inflammation. Mechanistically, BRAF and RAF1 operate independently to balance MAPK signaling: BRAF promotes ERK activation, while RAF1 dims stress kinase activation. In vivo, JNK inhibition prevents disease onset, while MEK/ERK inhibition in mice lacking epidermal RAF1 phenocopies it. These results support a primary role of keratinocytes in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis, and the animals lacking BRAF and RAF1 in the epidermis represent a useful model for this disease. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14012.001 PMID:27431613

  11. Disseminated Mycobacterium abscessus Complex Infection Manifesting as Multiple Areas of Lymphadenitis and Skin Abscess in the Preclinical Stage of Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Masahiro; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Yamasaki, Kei; Orihashi, Takeshi; Hirosawa, Makoto; Ogoshi, Takaaki; Noguchi, Shingo; Nishida, Chinatsu; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Yonezawa, Akihito; Tsukada, Junichi; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman was admitted to a hospital due to a prolonged fever and a rash on her legs. She had systemic lymphadenitis and a skin abscess on her left leg. Pathological findings of a left leg skin biopsy revealed abscess formation with granulomatous dermatitis, Mycobacterium abscessus complex was cultured from the resected left supraclavicular lymph node, and disseminated M. abscessus complex infection was diagnosed. She was treated with combination treatment with antimicrobials and percutaneous drainage, and her clinical findings improved. Four months later, she developed acute lymphocytic leukemia. Leukemia is a risk factor for disseminated M. abscessus complex infection, even before developing leukemia. PMID:27374685

  12. Evaluation of alcaftadine 0.25% ophthalmic solution in acute allergic conjunctivitis at 15 minutes and 16 hours after instillation versus placebo and olopatadine 0.1%

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Jack V; Edwards-Swanson, Kimberly; Ingerman, Avner

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effectiveness of alcaftadine 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.25% ophthalmic solutions in treating the signs and symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis when compared with olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% and placebo using the conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC) model. Methods One hundred and seventy subjects were randomized and 164 subjects completed all visits. CAC was performed to determine and confirm subjects’ eligibility at visits 1 and 2, respectively. The CAC was repeated at visit 3 (day 0 ± 3), 16 hours after study medication instillation, and at visit 4 (day 14 ± 3), 15 minutes after instillation. Ocular itching and conjunctival redness were evaluated after an allergen challenge, along with several secondary endpoints. Results Alcaftadine 0.25% and olopatadine 0.1% treatments exhibited significantly lower mean scores compared with placebo for ocular itching and conjunctival redness at visits 3 and 4. Most adverse events were self-limiting and mild in severity. No serious treatment-related adverse events occurred. Conclusion Treatment with alcaftadine 0.25% ophthalmic solution resulted in mean differences of >1 unit (ocular itching) and approximately >1 unit (conjunctival redness), which was significant (P < 0.001) compared with placebo treatment. All doses of alcaftadine were safe and well tolerated in the population studied. PMID:21339800

  13. Respiratory Allergic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Woloski, Jason Raymond; Heston, Skye; Escobedo Calderon, Sheyla Pamela

    2016-09-01

    Allergic asthma refers to a chronic reversible bronchoconstriction influenced by an allergic trigger, leading to symptoms of cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a complex hypersensitivity reaction, often in patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis, occurring when bronchi become colonized by Aspergillus species. The clinical picture is dominated by asthma complicated by recurrent episodes of bronchial obstruction, fever, malaise, mucus production, and peripheral blood eosinophilia. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a syndrome associated with lung inflammation from the inhalation of airborne antigens, such as molds and dust. PMID:27545731

  14. Allergic host defences.

    PubMed

    Palm, Noah W; Rosenstein, Rachel K; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2012-04-26

    Allergies are generally thought to be a detrimental outcome of a mistargeted immune response that evolved to provide immunity to macroparasites. Here we present arguments to suggest that allergic immunity has an important role in host defence against noxious environmental substances, including venoms, haematophagous fluids, environmental xenobiotics and irritants. We argue that appropriately targeted allergic reactions are beneficial, although they can become detrimental when excessive. Furthermore, we suggest that allergic hypersensitivity evolved to elicit anticipatory responses and to promote avoidance of suboptimal environments. PMID:22538607

  15. [Housing conditions and allergic sensitization in children].

    PubMed

    Heinrich, J; Hölscher, B; Wjst, M

    1998-09-01

    Genetic predisposition and indoor exposure to allergens-especially during the very early childhood years are major factors for the development of allergic diseases later in life. The present study analyzed the association between allergic sensitization in children aged 5 to 14 years and residing since birth in homes of different building types. A cross-sectional study of 811 children aged 5 to 14 years who resided in the same home since birth investigated indoor factors using a questionnaire and allergic sensitization assessed by skin prick test. The prevalence of allergic sensitization was compared between children who lived since birth in five different building types. After adjustment for age, gender, parental education and study area the odds of allergic sensitization were higher among children who lived in prefabricated concrete slab buildings built after 1970 (OR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.02-2.38) and among children who lived in new brick buildings (OR 1.75, 95% CI: 0.88-3.47) than among children who lived in old brick buildings. Moreover, the odds of pollen sensitization was higher among children who lived in the new building types (prefabricated slab buildings: OR 1.68, 95% CI: 1.04-2.72; new brick buildings: OR 1.48, 95% CI: 0.64-3.42) while living in timber-framed houses was associated with a higher odds of sensitization against mites (OR 1.63, 95% CI: 0.77-3.44). The step by step inclusion of single indoor factors like type of heating, numbers of building storeys, number of persons per room, environmental tobacco smoke, use of gas for cooking purposes, dampness of the home or visible moulds in the logistic regression model only marginally changed the odds ratios. Modern living conditions are associated with a higher odds of allergic sensitization. PMID:9789357

  16. Response of swine skin microvasculature to acute single exposures of x-rays: quantification of endothelial changes

    SciTech Connect

    Archambeau, J.O.; Ines, A.; Fajardo, L.F.

    1984-04-01

    An acute single X-ray exposure of 2300 R produces in swine skin a moist reaction (ulceration) that appears at 17 days, heals by 32 days, and may break down again between 42 and 70 days. Initial studies quantified the epidermal population density changes during this 70-day period. This study was designed to quantify the density changes occuring in the endothelial cell population of the dermal microvasculature. While the basal population decreases to a nadir of 10% control by 24 days, the endothelial population remains at control levels. Beyond 24 days, the endothelial cell density decreases abruptly to 50% as the epidermal cell density returns to control levels and overshoots by 20% at 32 days. Subsequently, both populations decrease to zero by 57 days. Endothelial cell loss parallels a similar decrease in vascular lumen density. These finding indicate that the initial moist reaction results from a radiation-induced loss of epidermal cells, while the second reaction results from the loss of dermal microvasculature.

  17. [Allergic and irritative textile dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Elsner, P

    1994-01-22

    Textile dermatitis is only one example of adverse health effects due to clothing. It may present with a wide spectrum of clinical features, but the main mechanisms are irritant dermatitis, often observed in atopics intolerant to wool and synthetic fibers, and allergic contact dermatitis, usually caused by textile finishes and dyes. The newer azo dyes Disperse Blue 106 and 124 in particular are potent sensitizers that have caused significant problems, most recently in the form of "leggins dermatitis". Although severe textile dermatitis appears to be a rare event, more systematic population-based research is needed since many oligosymptomatic cases are probably overlooked. Criteria for healthy textiles are an optimum combination of efficacy (regulation of skin temperature and humidity and protection from environmental damage) and safety (lack of carcinogenicity, toxicity and allergenicity). If potentially allergenic substances are used in textiles, they should be declared as in the case of cosmetics. PMID:8115841

  18. A newly synthesized macakurzin C-derivative attenuates acute and chronic skin inflammation: The Nrf2/heme oxygenase signaling as a potential target.

    PubMed

    Akram, Muhammad; Shin, Iljin; Kim, Kyeong-A; Noh, Dabi; Baek, Seung-Hoon; Chang, Sun-Young; Kim, Hyoungsu; Bae, Ok-Nam

    2016-09-15

    Impaired immune responses in skin play a pivotal role in the development and progression of chemical-associated inflammatory skin disorders. In this study, we synthesized new flavonoid derivatives from macakurzin C, and identified in vitro and in vivo efficacy of a potent anti-inflammatory flavonoid, Compound 14 (CPD 14), with its underlying mechanisms. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophages and IFN-γ/TNF-α-stimulated human keratinocytes, CPD 14 significantly inhibited the release of inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandins, and cytokines (IC50 for NO inhibition in macrophages: 4.61μM). Attenuated NF-κB signaling and activated Nrf2/HO-1 pathway were responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of CPD 14. The in vivo relevance was examined in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA)-induced acute skin inflammation and oxazolone-induced atopic dermatitis models. Topically applied CPD 14 significantly protected both irritation- and sensitization-associated skin inflammation by suppressing the expression of inflammatory mediators. In summary, we demonstrated that a newly synthesized flavonoid, CPD 14, has potent inhibitory effects on skin inflammation, suggesting it is a potential therapeutic candidate to treat skin disorders associated with excessive inflammation. PMID:27450019

  19. Management of Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Sausen, Verra O.; Marks, Katherine E.; Sausen, Kenneth P.; Self, Timothy H.

    2005-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the most common chronic childhood disease. Reduced quality of life is frequently caused by this IgE-mediated disease, including sleep disturbance with subsequent decreased school performance. Asthma and exercise-induced bronchospasm are commonly seen concurrently with allergic rhinitis, and poorly controlled allergic rhinitis negatively affects asthma outcomes. Nonsedating antihistamines or intranasal azelastine are effective agents to manage allergic rhinitis, often in combination with oral decongestants. For moderate to severe persistent disease, intranasal corticosteroids are the most effiective agents. Some patients require concomitant intranasal corticosteroids and nonsedating antihistamines for optimal management. Other available agents include leukotriene receptor antagonists, intranasal cromolyn, intranasal ipratropium, specific immunotherapy, and anti-IgE therapy. PMID:23118635

  20. Allergic Rhinitis Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic conjunctivitis (eye allergy). Is it true that mold spores can trigger eye allergy symptoms? True False ... allergy) are seasonal allergens such as pollen and mold spores. Indoor allergens such as dust mites and ...

  1. Allergic rhinitis during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    During pregnancy, the first-choice drugs for allergic rhinitis are nasal or oral "non-sedating" antihistamines without antimuscarinic activity, in particular cetirizine, or loratadine after the first trimester. PMID:27186624

  2. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes of allergic contact dermatitis include nickel, chromates, rubber chemicals, and topical antibiotic ointments and creams. Frequent ... construction workers who are in contact with cement. Rubber chemicals are found in gloves, balloons, elastic in ...

  3. Allergic Rhinitis: Antihistamines

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Allergic Rhinitis | Antihistamines What are antihistamines? Antihistamines are medicines that help stop allergy symptoms, such as itchy eyes, sneezing and a runny nose. Sometimes, an antihistamine ...

  4. Risk of allergic reactions to wine, in milk, egg and fish-allergic patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background European legislators and wine producers still debate on the requirement for labeling of wines fined with potentially allergenic food proteins (casein, egg white or fish-derived isinglass). We investigated whether wines fined with known concentrations of these proteins have the potential to provoke clinical allergic reactions in relevant patients. Methods In-house wines were produced for the study, fined with different concentrations of casein (n = 7), egg albumin (n = 1) and isinglass (n = 3). ELISA and PCR kits specific for the respective proteins were used to identify the fining agents. Skin prick tests and basophil activation tests were performed in patients with confirmed IgE-mediated relevant food allergies (n = 24). A wine consumption questionnaire and detailed history on possible reactions to wine was obtained in a multinational cohort of milk, egg or fish allergic patients (n = 53) and patients allergic to irrelevant foods as controls (n = 13). Results Fining agents were not detectable in wines with the available laboratory methods. Nevertheless, positive skin prick test reactions and basophil activation to the relevant wines were observed in the majority of patients with allergy to milk, egg or fish, correlating with the concentration of the fining agent. Among patients consuming wine, reported reactions were few and mild and similar with the ones reported from the control group. Conclusion Casein, isinglass or egg, remaining in traces in wine after fining, present a very low risk for the respective food allergic consumers. Physician and patient awareness campaigns may be more suitable than generalized labeling to address this issue, as the latter may have negative impact on both non-allergic and allergic consumers. PMID:22409883

  5. [Therapy of allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Klimek, Ludger; Sperl, Annette

    2016-03-01

    If the avoidance of the provoking allergen is insufficient or not possible, medical treatment can be tried. Therapeutics of the first choice for the treatment of the seasonal and persistent allergic rhinitis are antihistamines and topical glucocorticoids. Chromones are less effective so they should only be used for adults with a special indication, for example during pregnancy. Beside the avoidance of the allergen the immunotherapy is the only causal treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:27120870

  6. Brief Report: "Allergic Symptoms" in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. More than Meets the Eye?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelidou, Asimenia; Alysandratos, Konstantinos-Dionysios; Asadi, Shahrzad; Zhang, Bodi; Francis, Konstantinos; Vasiadi, Magdalini; Kalogeromitros, Dimitrios; Theoharides, Theoharis C.

    2011-01-01

    Many children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have either family and/or personal history of "allergic symptomatology", often in the absence of positive skin or RAST tests. These symptoms may suggest mast cell activation by non-allergic triggers. Moreover, children with mastocytosis or mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS), a spectrum of rare…

  7. Bone marrow aplasia and severe skin rash after a single low dose of methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Copur, S; Dahut, W; Chu, E; Allegra, C J

    1995-02-01

    A 64 year old man with recurrent metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck developed severe skin rash and bone marrow aplasia 4 and 7 days, respectively, following a single dose of 40 mg/m2 methotrexate (MTX). Skin rash involved regions of the face, lower abdomen, back, buttocks and both upper thighs. Biopsy of the skin rash demonstrated superficial perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate and was consistent with a drug reaction. Peripheral blood count revealed pancytopenia and a bone marrow biopsy was consistent with aplasia. Blood counts returned to normal 6 days after institution of granulocyte colony stimulating factor therapy. In the absence of mucositis or diarrhea, severe dermatologic toxicity following a single low dose of the drug suggests an 'allergic' or acute hypersensitivity reaction to MTX in this patient. Development of an extensive skin rash following a single dose of MTX may be an early warning sign for life-threatening bone marrow aplasia. PMID:7538828

  8. Genetics of Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Romina A.; Barnes, Kathleen C.

    2015-01-01

    The allergic diseases are complex phenotypes for which a strong genetic basis has been firmly established. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has been widely employed in the field of allergic disease, and to date significant associations have been published for nearly 100 asthma genes/loci, in addition to multiple genes/loci for AD, AR and IgE levels, for which the overwhelming number of candidates are novel and have given a new appreciation for the role of innate as well as adaptive immune-response genes in allergic disease. A major outcome of GWAS in allergic disease has been the formation of national and international collaborations leading to consortia meta-analyses, and an appreciation for the specificity of genetic associations to sub-phenotypes of allergic disease. Molecular genetics has undergone a technological revolution, leading to next generation sequencing (NGS) strategies that are increasingly employed to hone in on the causal variants associated with allergic diseases. Unmet needs in the field include the inclusion of ethnically and racially diverse cohorts, and strategies for managing ‘big data’ that is an outcome of technological advances such as sequencing. PMID:25459575

  9. Acute skin toxicity management in head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy or EGFR inhibitors: Literature review and consensus.

    PubMed

    Russi, Elvio G; Moretto, Francesco; Rampino, Monica; Benasso, Marco; Bacigalupo, Almalina; De Sanctis, Vitaliana; Numico, Gianmauro; Bossi, Paolo; Buglione, Michela; Lombardo, Antonino; Airoldi, Mario; Merlano, Marco C; Licitra, Lisa; Denaro, Nerina; Pergolizzi, Stefano; Pinto, Carmine; Bensadoun, Renè-Jean; Girolomoni, Giampiero; Langendijk, Johannes A

    2015-10-01

    The adverse effects of radiation therapy, often integrated with chemotherapy and/or targeted therapies, on the skin include severe acute and chronic dermatitis associated with pain, discomfort, itching, and burning, and may heavily affect patients' quality of life. The management of these skin adverse effects in head and neck cancer patients (HNCPs) are very heterogeneous due to the lack of shared rigorous classification systems and evidence based treatments. A multidisciplinary group of head and neck cancer specialists from Italy met with the aim of reaching a consensus on a clinical definition and management of dermatitis in HNCPs treated with radiotherapy with or without systemic therapies in order to improve skin toxicity management. The Delphi Appropriateness Method was used. External expert reviewers then evaluated the conclusions carefully according to their area of expertise. This paper offers contains seven clusters of statements about the management of dermatitis in HNCPs and a review of recent literature on these topics. PMID:26187236

  10. Recent Patents and Emerging Therapeutics in the Treatment of Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Gyan P.; Tamboli, Viral; Jwala, Jwala; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2011-01-01

    Ocular allergy is an inflammatory response of the conjunctival mucosa that also affects the cornea and eyelids. Allergic conjunctivitis includes seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC), perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC), vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) and giant papillary conjunctivitis (GPC). In general, allergic conditions involve mast cell degranulation that leads to release of inflammatory mediators and activation of enzymatic cascades generating pro-inflammatory mediators. In chronic ocular inflammatory disorders associated with mast cell activation such as VKC and AKC constant inflammatory response is observed due to predominance of inflammatory mediators such as eosinophils and Th2-generated cytokines. Antihistamines, mast-cell stabilizers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, corticosteroids and immunomodulatory agents are commonly indicated for the treatment of acute and chronic allergic conjunctivitis. In recent years newer drug molecules have been introduced in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. This article reviews recent patents and emerging therapeutics in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:21171952

  11. Comparison of acute skin reaction following morning versus late afternoon radiotherapy in patients with breast cancer who have undergone curative surgical resection

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jae Myoung; Choi, Doo Ho; Park, Hyojung; Huh, Seung Jae; Park, Won; Seol, Seung Won; Jeong, Bae Kwon; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kil, Won-Ho

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between the time of radiotherapy (RT) and treatment outcomes in breast cancer. Patients with pathologic T1–2N0–1 breast cancer who received adjuvant RT in the morning (before 10:00 AM) or late afternoon (after 3:00 PM) were eligible for inclusion in this study. We retrospectively compared the clinicopathologic characteristics, acute skin reaction, and survival outcomes according to the time of RT. The median follow-up duration was 83 months (range, 10–131 months). From the 395 eligible patients, 190 (48.1%) and 205 (51.9%) patients were classified into the morning RT group and the afternoon RT group, respectively. The clinicopathologic characteristics were relatively well balanced between the treatment groups, except for pathologic N-stage (P = 0.0409). Grade 2 or higher acute skin reaction according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria was observed in 39 (9.9%) patients, with a higher frequency in the afternoon RT group than the morning RT group (13.7% vs 5.8%, respectively; P = 0.0088). There was no difference in the failure patterns or survival outcomes between the treatment groups. RT in late afternoon was associated with increased Grade 2 or more skin reaction after RT for breast cancer patients, but treatment outcomes did not differ according to the time of RT. Individualized considerations for treatment should be taken into account to reduce the risk of skin reactions. PMID:24385471

  12. Noninvasive device readouts validated by immunohistochemical analysis enable objective quantitative assessment of acute wound healing in human skin.

    PubMed

    Ud-Din, Sara; Greaves, Nicholas S; Sebastian, Anil; Baguneid, Mohamed; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2015-01-01

    Objective evaluation of cutaneous wounds through use of noninvasive devices has important implications for diagnosis, monitoring treatment efficacy, progression and may lead to development of improved theranostic treatment strategies. However, there is a lack of validation in the use of certain devices in wound repair, where objective measurements taken by noninvasive devices have been corroborated by immunohistochemical analysis. Thus, data from three acute wound-healing studies in healthy volunteers using three noninvasive objective devices were further evaluated by immunohistochemistry. One hundred ten participants had 5-mm diameter skin biopsies to their arms. Spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis (SIAscopy), full-field laser perfusion imaging, and three-dimensional imaging provided quantitative measurements of melanin, hemoglobin, collagen, blood flow, and wound size; all of which were validated by immunohistochemistry. Full-field laser perfusion imaging showed blood flow increased to D7 and decreased by 40% to D14. SIAscopy showed that hemoglobin increased to D7 and reduced to D14. CD31 analysis corroborated this by showing a 76% increase in blood vessel density to D7 and a reduction by 14% to D14. Three-dimensional imaging showed that wound surface area reduced by 50% from day 7 to day 14. Alpha-smooth muscle Actin (Alpha-SMA) staining supported these trends by showing increased levels by 72% from D0 to D14 (corresponding to wound contraction). Collagen, measured by SIAscopy, decreased to D7 and increased to D14, which was validated by collagen III analysis. Additionally, collagen I increased by 14% from D0 to D14. SIAscopy measurements for melanin showed an increase at D7 and a slight reduction to D14, while melanogenesis increased by 46.7% from D0 to D14. These findings show the utility of noninvasive objective devices in the quantitative evaluation of wound-healing parameters in human skin as corroborated by immunohistochemistry. This may contribute

  13. Influence of Double-Strand Break Repair on Radiation Therapy-Induced Acute Skin Reactions in Breast Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Mumbrekar, Kamalesh Dattaram; Fernandes, Donald Jerard; Goutham, Hassan Venkatesh; Sharan, Krishna; Vadhiraja, Bejadi Manjunath; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Bola Sadashiva, Satish Rao

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Curative radiation therapy (RT)-induced toxicity poses strong limitations for efficient RT and worsens the quality of life. The parameter that explains when and to what extent normal tissue toxicity in RT evolves would be of clinical relevance because of its predictive value and may provide an opportunity for personalized treatment approach. Methods and Materials: DNA double-strand breaks and repair were analyzed by microscopic γ-H2AX foci analysis in peripheral lymphocytes from 38 healthy donors and 80 breast cancer patients before RT, a 2 Gy challenge dose of x-ray exposed in vitro. Results: The actual damage (AD) at 0.25, 3, and 6 hours and percentage residual damage (PRD) at 3 and 6 hours were used as parameters to measure cellular radiosensitivity and correlated with RT-induced acute skin reactions in patients stratified as non-overresponders (NOR) (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] grade <2) and overresponders (OR) (RTOG grade ≥2). The results indicated that the basal and induced (at 0.25 and 3 hours) γ-H2AX foci numbers were nonsignificant (P>.05) between healthy control donors and the NOR and OR groups, whereas it was significant between ORs and healthy donors at 6 hours (P<.001). There was a significantly higher PRD in OR versus NOR (P<.05), OR versus healthy donors (P<.001) and NOR versus healthy donors (P<.01), supported further by the trend analysis (r=.2392; P=.0326 at 6 hours). Conclusions: Our findings strongly suggest that the measurement of PRD by performing γ-H2AX foci analysis has the potential to be developed into a clinically useful predictive assay.

  14. Prevalence of Acute Symptoms among Workers in Printing Factories

    PubMed Central

    Decharat, Somsiri

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify socioeconomic situation factors and behavioral factors associated with the prevalence of acute symptoms among 150 printing workers in 16 printing factories in Southern Thailand. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted by interviewing 150 printing workers in 16 printing factories in Southern Thailand. Results. Acute symptoms comprised dizziness, drowsiness, eye irritation, light-headedness, rhinitis, shortness of breath, cough, chest tightness, nausea/vomiting, exacerbation of asthma, allergic skin reaction, and visual disorder. The prevalence of symptoms was consistently higher among workers in the printing process than among other workers. Smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol were not associated with an increased prevalence of acute symptoms among these printing-factory workers. Conclusion. The significant associations were found between personal protective equipment and personal hygiene and prevalence of acute symptoms in printing workers. PMID:25386365

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis is accompanied by severe abnormal changes in antioxidativity of blood.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Maigi; Kaur, Sirje; Rehema, Aune; Kullisaar, Tiiu; Vihalemm, Tiiu; Zilmer, Kersti; Kairane, Ceslava; Zilmer, Mihkel

    2004-05-01

    We investigated whether the oxidative stress (OS) caused by skin inflammation could reflect in the blood, in a 21-year-old female student sensitized to nickel, colophony and abitole with often relapsing allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). As glutathione redox ratio was increased in the blood not only during the relapse but also in the beginning of remission phase, we prescribed natural medical preparations of d-alpha-tocopherol (in the first week 100 mg three times a day followed by 100 mg/day) and ascorbic acid (200 mg/day) for 25 days to her. After using antioxidants in the remission period, one of the principal OS markers-the glutathione redox ratio reached the normal physiological level. In this report, we showed that during acute extensive ACD OS is expressed in the blood and simultaneous supplementation of d-alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid might reduce systemic OS. PMID:15183853

  16. Allergic rhinitis - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... in something you are allergic to, such as dust mites, animal dander, or pollen. Allergic rhinitis is ... your or your child's exposure to them. Reduce dust and dust mites in the home. Control molds ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: allergic asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions allergic asthma allergic asthma Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Asthma is a breathing disorder characterized by inflammation of ...

  18. Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Alice E W; Borish, Larry; Gurrola, José; Payne, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the history of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and the clinical, pathologic, and radiographic criteria necessary to establish its diagnosis and differentiate this disease from other types of chronic rhinosinusitis. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis is a noninvasive fungal form of sinus inflammation characterized by an often times unilateral, expansile process in which the typical allergic "peanut-butter-like" mucin contributes to the formation of nasal polyps, hyposmia/anosmia, and structural changes of the face. IgE sensitization to fungi is a necessary, but not sufficient, pathophysiologic component of the disease process that is also defined by microscopic visualization of mucin-containing fungus and characteristic radiological imaging. This article expounds on these details and others including the key clinical and scientific distinctions of this diagnosis, the pathophysiologic mechanisms beyond IgE-mediated hypersensitivity that must be at play, and areas of current and future research. PMID:27393774

  19. Local Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Campo, Paloma; Salas, María; Blanca-López, Natalia; Rondón, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    This review focuses on local allergic rhinitis, a new phenotype of allergic rhinitis, commonly misdiagnosed as nonallergic rhinitis. It has gained attention over last decade and can affect patients from all countries, ethnic groups and ages, impairing their quality of life, and is frequently associated with conjunctivitis and asthma. Diagnosis is based on clinical history, the demonstration of a positive response to nasal allergen provocation test and/or the detection of nasal sIgE. A positive basophil activation test may support the diagnosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that allergen immunotherapy is an effective immune-modifying treatment, highlighting the importance of early diagnosis. PMID:27083105

  20. Factors of influence on acute skin toxicity of breast cancer patients treated with standard three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) after breast conserving surgery (BCS)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives Standard 3D-CRT after BCS may cause skin toxicity with a wide range of intensity including acute effects like erythema or late effects. In order to reduce these side effects it is mandatory to identify potential factors of influence in breast cancer patients undergoing standard three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) of the breast and modern systemic therapy. Materials/Methods Between 2006 and 2010 a total of 211 breast cancer patients (median age 52,4 years, range 24–77) after BCS consecutively treated in our institution with 3D-CRT (50 Gy whole breast photon radiotherapy followed by 16 Gy electron boost to the tumorbed) were evaluated with special focus on documented skin toxicity at the end of the 50 Gy-course. Standardized photodocumentation of the treated breast was done in each patient lying on the linac table with arms elevated. Skin toxicity was documented according to the common toxicity criteria (CTC)-score. Potential influencing factors were classified in three groups: patient-specific (smoking, age, breast size, body mass index = BMI, allergies), tumor-specific (tumorsize) and treatment-specific factors (antihormonal therapy with tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors, chemotherapy). Uni- and multivariate statistical analyses were done using IBM SPSS version 19. Results After 50 Gy 3D-CRT to the whole breast 28.9% of all 211 patients had no erythema, 62.2% showed erythema grade 1 (G1) and 8.5% erythema grade 2. None of the patients had grade 3/4 (G3/4) erythema. In univariate analyses a significant influence or trend on the development of acute skin toxicities (erythema G0 versus G1 versus G2) was observed for larger breast volumes (p=0,004), smoking during radiation therapy (p=0,064) and absence of allergies (p=0,014) as well as larger tumorsize (p=0,009) and antihormonal therapy (p=0.005). Neither patient age, BMI nor choice of chemotherapy showed any significant effect on higher grade toxicity. In the multivariate

  1. Preventing the acute skin side effects in patients treated with radiotherapy for breast cancer: the use of corneometry in order to evaluate the protective effect of moisturizing creams

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose The purpose of this study was to add, to the objective evaluation, an instrumental assessment of the skin damage induced by radiation therapy. Materials and methods A group of 100 patients affected by breast cancer was recruited in the study over one year. Patients were divided into five groups of 20 patients. For each group it was prescribed a different topical treatment. The following products were used: Betaglucan, sodium hyaluronate (Neoviderm®), Vitis vinifera A. s-I-M.t-O.dij (Ixoderm®), Alga Atlantica plus Ethylbisiminomethylguaicolo and Manganese Cloruro (Radioskin1®) and Metal Esculetina plus Ginko Biloba and Aloe vera (Radioskin 2®); Natural triglycerides-fitosterols (Xderit®); Selectiose plus thermal water of Avene (Trixera+®). All hydrating creams were applied twice a day starting 15 days before and one month after treatment with radiations. Before and during treatment patients underwent weekly skin assessments and corneometry to evaluate the symptoms related to skin toxicity and state of hydration. Evaluation of acute cutaneous toxicity was defined according to the RTOG scale. Results All patients completed radiotherapy; 72% of patients presented a G1 cutaneous toxicity, 18% developed a G2 cutaneous toxicity, 10% developed a G3 toxicity, no one presented G4 toxicity. The corneometry study confirmed the protective role of effective creams used in radiation therapy of breast cancer and showed its usefulness to identify radiation-induced dermatitis in a very early stage. Conclusions The preventive use of topic products reduces the incidence of skin side effects in patients treated with radiotherapy for breast cancer. An instrumental evaluation of skin hydration can help the radiation oncologist to use strategies that prevent the onset of toxicity of high degree. All moisturizing creams used in this study were equally valid in the treatment of skin damage induced by radiotherapy. PMID:23497676

  2. Diesel Exhaust Exposure and Nasal Response to Attenuated Influenza in Normal and Allergic Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Diesel exhaust enhances allergic inflammation, and pollutants are associated with heightened susceptibility to viral respiratory infections. The effects of combined diesel and virus exposure in humans are unknown. Objective: Test whether acute exposure to diesel modif...

  3. [Genetic study of allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Luo

    2012-09-01

    Allergic diseases mentioned in this review is regarding to I type allergic inflammation induced by an IgE-mediated reaction, including asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis and food allergy. It is convinced that allergic diseases belong to multiple genes diseases and are controlled by both genetic and environmental factors. Meanwhile there exists gene-gene as well as gene-environment interactions during the development of the disease. The aim of this review is to summarize the toolkit, advance, inherent difficulties and future clinical application prospect in genetic studies of allergic disease. PMID:23214325

  4. Diagnosing Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Scadding, Glenis K; Scadding, Guy W

    2016-05-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common immunologic disease in industrialized societies and has a significant impact on quality of life. Most asthmatics also have rhinitis. AR may present with comorbidities, including chronic otitis media with effusion, cough, and pollen-food cross-reactivity. AR may occur in isolation or be part of a mixed rhinitis. PMID:27083100

  5. Religious Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Alina; Matiz, Catalina; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2015-01-01

    Henna, derived from a combination of natural leaves and coloring additives, is a common decorative dye traditionally used in many Islamic religious celebrations. Para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a major component of black henna tattoo, is a strong sensitizer and common allergen. We report a case of severe connubial allergic contact dermatitis after black henna heterotransfer in a girl. PMID:25968562

  6. Allergic alveolitis among agricultural workers in eastern Poland: a study of twenty cases.

    PubMed

    Milanowski, J; Dutkiewicz, J; Potoczna, H; Kuś, L; Urbanowicz, B

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the specific agents which caused extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) in the selected group of 20 agricultural workers from eastern Poland. The microbiological analysis of the samples of plant materials or dusts reported by the patients as causing symptoms has been carried out, followed by allergological tests (inhalation challenge, agar-gel precipitation test, inhibition of leukocyte migration, skin test) with extrinsic microbial antigens. It was found that the causative agents of allergic alveolitis in the examined group of patients were mesophilic, non-branching bacteria associated with grain dust, mostly Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Erwinia herbicola, Enterobacter agglomerans) and Arthrobacter globiformis (each in eight cases). The remaining agents were Alcaligenes faecalis (in two cases), and Brevibacterium linens and Staphylococcus epidermidis (in one case each). On the basis of the clinical picture, the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and allergological tests, the diagnosis of the chronic form of the disease was stated in 14 patients and an acute form - in 6 patients. EAA patients demonstrated in the BAL fluid a typical lymphocytic alveolitis both in terms of percentage and absolute number of lymphocytes. Also, the numbers of eosinophils and neutrophils were significantly higher in EAA patients. PMID:9852490

  7. The neuroimmune connection interferes with tissue regeneration and chronic inflammatory disease in the skin.

    PubMed

    Peters, Eva M J; Liezmann, Christiane; Klapp, Burghard F; Kruse, Johannes

    2012-07-01

    Research over the past decades has revealed close interactions between the nervous and immune systems that regulate peripheral inflammation and link psychosocial stress with chronic somatic disease. Besides activation of the sympathetic and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, stress leads to increased neurotrophin and neuropeptide production in organs at the self-environment interface. The scope of this short review is to discuss key functions of these stress mediators in the skin, an exemplary stress-targeted and stress-sensitive organ. We will focus on the skin's response to acute and chronic stress in tissue regeneration and pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, psoriasis, and skin cancer to illustrate the impact of local stress-induced neuroimmune interaction on chronic inflammation. PMID:22823443

  8. Allergic rhinitis and asthma in the athlete.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Christopher C

    2006-01-01

    The pathogenesis, epidemiology, presentation, diagnosis, and management of allergic rhinitis and asthma in the recreational and elite athlete are discussed in this study. There is an increased prevalence of allergic rhinitis and asthma in the elite athlete related to the enhanced ventilation with entrainment of inhalants including allergens as well as irritants such as pollutants in the urban athlete, chlorine in the swimmer, and cold air in the hockey player in the training environment. The history as well as objective exercise challenge and skin-prick tests to inhalants or in vitro allergen testing are essential in conjunction with a comprehensive physical exam to diagnosis of allergic rhinitis and/or asthma in the athlete. This is particularly necessary for the elite or competitive athlete who often has poor insight into the symptoms. Management is with appropriate inhaled steroids and/or leukotriene antagonists for the upper (nasal) and lower airways with avoidance of inhaled allergens and/or appropriate immunotherapy where relevant. The optimal management of the athlete results in minimum medication with minimum adverse side effects and optimal outcome. Proper adherence to antidoping regulations and application for use exemption in competitive athletes is recommended. The athlete should be encouraged to pursue the selected sports activity without limitations. PMID:16724626

  9. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin: master switch for allergic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-Jun

    2006-01-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an interleukin (IL) 7–like cytokine that triggers dendritic cell–mediated T helper (Th)2 inflammatory responses. TSLP is highly expressed by keratinocytes in skin lesions of patients with atopic dermatitis and is associated with dendritic cell activation in situ, suggesting that TSLP might be a master switch for allergic inflammation at the epithelial cell–dendritic cell interface. New reports now establish a direct link between TSLP expression and the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis and asthma in vivo, and begin to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying TSLP-induced allergic inflammation. PMID:16432252

  10. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years. PMID:25000234

  11. [Pseudotumoral allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis].

    PubMed

    Otero González, I; Montero Martínez, C; Blanco Aparicio, M; Valiño López, P; Verea Hernando, H

    2000-06-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) develops as the result of a hypersensitivity reaction to fungi of the genus Aspergillus. Clinical and radiological presentation can be atypical, requiring a high degree of suspicion on the part of the physician who treats such patients. We report the cases of two patients with APBA in whom the form of presentation--with few asthma symptoms, images showing lobar atelectasia and hilar adenopathy--led to an initial suspicion of lung cancer. PMID:10932345

  12. Skin turgor

    MedlinePlus

    Doughy skin; Poor skin turgor; Good skin turgor; Decreased skin turgor ... Call your health care provider if: Poor skin turgor occurs with vomiting, diarrhea, or fever. The skin is very slow to return to normal, or the skin "tents" up ...

  13. Basophils and allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Siracusa, Mark C; Kim, Brian S; Spergel, Jonathan M; Artis, David

    2013-10-01

    Basophils were discovered by Paul Ehrlich in 1879 and represent the least abundant granulocyte population in mammals. The relative rarity of basophils and their phenotypic similarities with mast cells resulted in this cell lineage being historically overlooked, both clinically and experimentally. However, recent studies in human subjects and murine systems have shown that basophils perform nonredundant effector functions and significantly contribute to the development and progression of TH2 cytokine-mediated inflammation. Although the potential functions of murine and human basophils have provoked some controversy, recent genetic approaches indicate that basophils can migrate into lymphoid tissues and, in some circumstances, cooperate with other immune cells to promote optimal TH2 cytokine responses in vivo. This article provides a brief historical perspective on basophil-related research and discusses recent studies that have identified previously unappreciated molecules and pathways that regulate basophil development, activation, and function in the context of allergic inflammation. Furthermore, we highlight the unique effector functions of basophils and discuss their contributions to the development and pathogenesis of allergic inflammation in human disease. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of targeting basophils in preventing or alleviating the development and progression of allergic inflammation. PMID:24075190

  14. Allergic inflammation--innately homeostatic.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Laurence E; Locksley, Richard M

    2015-03-01

    Allergic inflammation is associated closely with parasite infection but also asthma and other common allergic diseases. Despite the engagement of similar immunologic pathways, parasitized individuals often show no outward manifestations of allergic disease. In this perspective, we present the thesis that allergic inflammatory responses play a primary role in regulating circadian and environmental inputs involved with tissue homeostasis and metabolic needs. Parasites feed into these pathways and thus engage allergic inflammation to sustain aspects of the parasitic life cycle. In response to parasite infection, an adaptive and regulated immune response is layered on the host effector response, but in the setting of allergy, the effector response remains unregulated, thus leading to the cardinal features of disease. Further understanding of the homeostatic pressures driving allergic inflammation holds promise to further our understanding of human health and the treatment of these common afflictions. PMID:25414367

  15. Key Mediators in the Immunopathogenesis of Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sannette; Agrawal, Devendra K.

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is described as a chronic inflammatory disorder of the conducting airways. It is characterized by reversible airway obstruction, eosinophil and Th2 infiltration, airway hyper-responsiveness and airway remodeling. Our findings to date have largely been dependent on work done using animal models, which have been instrumental in broadening our understanding of the mechanism of the disease. However, using animals to model a uniquely human disease is not without its drawbacks. This review aims to examine some of the key mediators and cells of allergic asthma learned from animal models and shed some light on emerging mediators in the pathogenesis allergic airway inflammation in acute and chronic asthma. PMID:24933589

  16. Food and Natural Materials Target Mechanisms to Effectively Regulate Allergic Responses.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    An immune hypersensitivity disorder called allergy is caused by diverse allergens entering the body via skin contact, injection, ingestion, and/or inhalation. These allergic responses may develop into allergic disorders, including inflammations such as atopic dermatitis, asthma, anaphylaxis, food allergies, and allergic rhinitis. Several drugs have been developed to treat these allergic disorders; however, long-term intake of these drugs could have adverse effects. As an alternative to these medicines, food and natural materials that ameliorate allergic disorder symptoms without producing any side effects can be consumed. Food and natural materials can effectively regulate successive allergic responses in an allergic chain-reaction mechanism in the following ways: [1] Inhibition of allergen permeation via paracellular diffusion into epithelial cells, [2] suppression of type 2 T-helper (Th) cell-related cytokine production by regulating Th1/Th2 balance, [3] inhibition of pathogenic effector CD4(+) T cell differentiation by inducing regulatory T cells (Treg), and [4] inhibition of degranulation in mast cells. The immunomodulatory effects of food and natural materials on each target mechanism were scientifically verified and shown to alleviate allergic disorder symptoms. Furthermore, consumption of certain food and natural materials such as fenugreek, skullcap, chitin/chitosan, and cheonggukjang as anti-allergics have merits such as safety (no adverse side effects), multiple suppressive effects (as a mixture would contain various components that are active against allergic responses), and ease of consumption when required. These merits and anti-allergic properties of food and natural materials help control various allergic disorders. PMID:26598817

  17. Skin pathology induced by snake venom metalloproteinase: acute damage, revascularization, and re-epithelization in a mouse ear model.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Natalia; Escalante, Teresa; Gutiérrez, José María; Rucavado, Alexandra

    2008-10-01

    Viperid snakebite envenomation induces blistering and dermonecrosis. The pathological alterations induced by a snake venom metalloproteinase in the skin were investigated in a mouse ear model. Metalloproteinase BaP1, from Bothrops asper, induced rapid edema, hemorrhage, and blistering; the latter two effects were abrogated by preincubation with the metalloproteinase inhibitor batimastat. Neutrophils did not play a role in the pathology, as depletion of these cells resulted in a similar histological picture. Blisters are likely to result from the direct proteolytic activity of BaP1 of proteins at the dermal-epidermal junction, probably at the lamina lucida, as revealed by immunostaining for type IV collagen and laminin. Widespread apoptosis of keratinocytes was detected by the TUNEL assay, whereas no apoptosis of capillary endothelial cells was observed. BaP1 induced a drastic reduction in the microvessel density, revealed by immunostaining for the endothelial marker vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2. This was followed by a rapid angiogenic response, leading to a partial revascularization. Skin damage was followed by inflammation and granulation tissue formation. Then, a successful re-epithelization process occurred, and the skin of the ear regained its normal structure by 2 weeks. Venom metalloproteinase-induced skin damage reproduces the pathological changes described in snakebitten patients. PMID:18449209

  18. Acute and long-term transcriptional responses in sulfur mustard-exposed SKH-1 hairless mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Vallet, V; Poyot, T; Cléry-Barraud, C; Coulon, D; Sentenac, C; Peinnequin, A; Boudry, I

    2012-03-01

    Sulfur mustard (HD) ranks among the alkylating chemical warfare agents. Skin contact with HD produces an inflammatory response that evolves into separation at the epidermal-dermal junction conducting to blistering and epidermis necrosis. Up to now, current treatment strategies of HD burns have solely consisted in symptomatic management of skin damage. Therapeutic efficacy studies are still being conducted; classically using appropriate animal skin toxicity models. In order to substantiate the use of SKH-1 hairless mouse as an appropriate model for HD-induced skin lesions, we investigate the time-dependent quantitative gene expression of various selected transcripts associated to the dorsal skin exposure to HD saturated vapors. Using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), the expression of interleukins (IL-1β and IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, macrophage inflammatory proteins (MIP)-2α (also called Cxcl2) and MIP-1αR (also called Ccr1), matrix metalloproteases (MMP-9 and MMP-2), laminin γ2 monomer (Lamc2) and keratin (K)1 was determined up to 21 days after HD challenge in order to allow enough time for wound repair to begin. Specific transcript RT-qPCR analysis demonstrated that IL-6, IL-1β, Ccr1, Cxcl2 mRNA levels increased as early as 6 h in HD-exposed skins and remained up-regulated over a 14-day period. Topical application of HD also significantly up-regulated MMP-9, TNF-α, and Lamc2 expression at specific time points. In contrast, MMP-2 mRNA levels remained unaffected by HD over the time-period considered, whereas that long-term study revealed that K1 mRNA level significantly increased only 21 days after HD challenge. Our study hereby provides first-hand evidence to substantiate a long period variation expression in the inflammatory cytokine, MMPs and structural components following cutaneous HD exposure in hairless mouse SKH-1. Our data credit the use of SKH-1 for investigating mechanisms of HD-induced skin toxicity and for

  19. Acute toxicity of selected crude and refined shale oil derived and petroleum-derived substances

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.H.; Haschek, W.M.; Witschi, H.

    1980-01-01

    General information was obtained on the toxicity of selected samples of crude Paraho shale oil and some of its derivatives, some crude petroleums, and 3 refined petroleum products. Five tests were used to determine the acute toxicity of these substances: acute lethality in mice following oral or intraperitoneal administration of a single dose; acute dermal toxicity of a single dose in rats; delayed-type allergic contact hypersensitivity in guinea pigs; primary eye irritation and primary skin irritation of a single dose in rabbits. Histopathologic changes induced in mice following intraperitoneal injection of a single large dose of crude shale oil and two of its hydrotreated derivatives were examined. Studies also have been initiated to examine the tumor inducing potential of selected samples. The test system used was the mouse lung adenoma bioassay. The present report describes our findings and shows that all compounds tested have very low or no acute toxic effects in laboratory animals.

  20. Skin Dictionary

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ...

  1. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    Skin transplant; Skin autografting; FTSG; STSG; Split thickness skin graft; Full thickness skin graft ... site. Most people who are having a skin graft have a split-thickness skin graft. This takes ...

  2. Allergic inhalant dermatitis attributable to marijuana exposure in a dog.

    PubMed

    Evans, A G

    1989-12-01

    Exposure to marijuana was believed to be responsible for clinical signs consistent with allergic inhalant dermatitis in a dog. The dog had facial and pedal pruritus associated with bilateral ocular discharge. Clinical signs resolved when the dog was kenneled, but returned when the dog was returned to its home. The results of intradermal skin testing, using a standard tray of 51 inhalant extracts, did not adequately account for the dog's clinical signs. Later, the owners indicated that previous residents of the owners' home had cultivated marijuana intensively inside and outside of the home. Intradermal skin testing with a source of marijuana pollen extract was performed, yielding a positive reaction in the dog and a negative reaction in another dog without clinical or historical evidence of allergic inhalant dermatitis. The affected dog was treated successfully and exclusively by hyposensitization with marijuana pollen extract. PMID:2599943

  3. [Advice for allergic travellers].

    PubMed

    Sonneville, A

    1999-09-01

    Business and tourist journeys by air contribute to exposure of the body to multiple environments. The allergic patient, considered rightly to be a sentry of the environment, has many reasons to care about his journeys and to take precautions that are adapted to his case under the impetus of advice and information from his physician and his specialist. Some advice falls within a simple logic that is enough to remember when planning the journey while the others measures must follow a correct preventative strategy for allergy risks as much as those that concern the modalities before leaving as a drive taken on the ground. It is important therefore to know how to give advice and information on the different risks linked to the allergic condition and to the field of allergy and help the patient to orientate his choice of place of the journey, the methods of lodging, of transport and the programme of the journey. The advice should also include the preventative measures as a function of the known pathology under the form of medical equipment before, during the stay and on return. Finally some advice relative to medical equipment for prevention and cure would appear to be judicious. PMID:10524269

  4. Medium dose ultraviolet A1 phototherapy and mRNA expression of interleukin 8, interferon γ, and chemokine receptor 4 in acute skin lesions in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Malinowska, Karolina; Sysa-Jedrzejowska, Anna; Wozniacka, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mechanisms responsible for UVA1 efficacy in atopic dermatitis (AD) are not fully elucidated. Aim To investigate IL-8, CCR-4, and IFN-γ mRNA expression in AD before and after UVA1, to identify correlations among them, and to determine whether and to what degree mRNA expression is influenced by UVA1. Material and methods Twenty-five patients with AD underwent medium dose UVA1-phototherapy at daily dosages of 10, 20, 30, 45, and then continuing 45 J/cm2 up to 20 days, from Monday to Friday for 4 weeks. Before and after UVA1, biopsies from acute skin lesions were studied using reverse-transcription and RT-PCR. Results The levels of CCR-4 mRNA correlated with those of IFN-γ, both before and after UVA1 phototherapy (p < 0.05). A significant correlation was found after UVA1 between mRNA levels of IL-8 and IFN-γ (p < 0.05). After UVA1 an increase in IL-8 mRNA expression in comparison to the baseline assessment (p = 0.02) was found, while no significant difference was revealed in the expression of CCR-4 and IFN-γ mRNA. UVA1 improved both SCORAD and severity of AD (p < 0.001). SCORAD and the severity of AD did not correlate with the degree of expression of measured cytokine mRNA, neither before nor after UVA1. Conclusions CCR-4 is expressed in parallel with IFN-γ in acute skin lesions of patients with AD both before and after UVA1 phototherapy. UVA1 significantly improves SCORAD index, lessens the severity of AD and increases the expression of IL-8, with no direct effects on other studied molecules. PMID:27512350

  5. The skin sensitization potential of four alkylalkanolamines.

    PubMed

    Leung, H W; Blaszcak, D L

    1998-04-01

    The skin sensitization potential of 4 alkylalkanolamines (N-methylethanolamine, N,N-dimethylethanolamine, N-methyldiethanolamine and N,N-diethylethanolamine), was evaluated in a guinea pig maximation procedure by the method of Magnusson and Kligman. While all 4 alkylalkanolamines tested were irritating to the guinea pig skin, only N-methylethanolamine showed potential to induce allergic contact dermatitis. None of the remaining 3 alkylalkanolamines exhibited clear skin responses suggestive of sensitization. PMID:9554055

  6. Selective Exposure of the Fetal Lung and Skin/Amnion (but Not Gastro-Intestinal Tract) to LPS Elicits Acute Systemic Inflammation in Fetal Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Masatoshi; Newnham, John P.; Cox, Tom; Jobe, Alan H.; Kramer, Boris W.; Kallapur, Suhas G.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation of the uterine environment (commonly as a result of microbial colonisation of the fetal membranes, amniotic fluid and fetus) is strongly associated with preterm labour and birth. Both preterm birth and fetal inflammation are independently associated with elevated risks of subsequent short- and long-term respiratory, gastro-intestinal and neurological complications. Despite numerous clinical and experimental studies to investigate localised and systemic fetal inflammation following exposure to microbial agonists, there is minimal data to describe which fetal organ(s) drive systemic fetal inflammation. We used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E.coli in an instrumented ovine model of fetal inflammation and conducted a series of experiments to assess the systemic pro-inflammatory capacity of the three major fetal surfaces exposed to inflammatory mediators in pregnancy (the lung, gastro-intestinal tract and skin/amnion). Exposure of the fetal lung and fetal skin/amnion (but not gastro-intestinal tract) caused a significant acute systemic inflammatory response characterised by altered leucocytosis, neutrophilia, elevated plasma MCP-1 levels and inflammation of the fetal liver and spleen. These novel findings reveal differential fetal organ responses to pro-inflammatory stimulation and shed light on the pathogenesis of fetal systemic inflammation after exposure to chorioamnionitis. PMID:23691033

  7. Serious Allergic Reactions (Anaphylaxis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... more of these body systems: skin digestive system respiratory system cardiovascular system For example, someone may feel tightness or closing in the throat (respiratory system) together with a fast heartbeat (cardiovascular system). Here ...

  8. Acute-toxicity evaluation of nitroaromatic compounds. Final report, 29 Sep 89-29 Sep 90

    SciTech Connect

    FitzGerald, G.B.; Austin, A.; DiGuilio, N.

    1991-03-01

    The nitroaromatics 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB), 1,2,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) and N-methyl-n,2,4,6-tetranitroaniline (tetryl) have been detected as environmental contaminants of water and soil near production waste sites and at military test grounds. Acute toxicity evaluations were carried out with these compounds to develop environmental and health effects criteria. Dermal and eye irritation tests and acute dermal sensitization (Buehler) tests in guinea pigs were conducted according to EPA standard protocols. The sensitization tests showed that DNB and tetryl are not skin sensitizers while TNB caused a mild allergic reaction. None of these compounds produced skin irritation but positive (DNB) to severe (TNB, tetryl) eye irritation potentials were observed.

  9. Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase II, Multicenter Study Evaluating the Safety/Tolerability and Efficacy of JNJ-Q2, a Novel Fluoroquinolone, Compared with Linezolid for Treatment of Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infection ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Covington, Paul; Davenport, J. Michael; Andrae, David; O'Riordan, William; Liverman, Lisa; McIntyre, Gail; Almenoff, June

    2011-01-01

    JNJ-Q2 is a fluoroquinolone with broad coverage including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A double-blind, multicenter, phase II noninferiority study treated 161 patients for 7 to 14 days, testing the efficacy of JNJ-Q2 (250 mg, twice a day [BID]) versus linezolid (600 mg, BID) in patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). The prespecified criterion for noninferiority was 15%. Primary intent-to-treat analysis was unable to declare noninferiority, as the risk difference lower bound of the 95% confidence interval between treatments was 19% at 36 to 84 h postrandomization for the composite end point of lesion assessment and temperature. Prespecified clinical cure rates 2 to 14 days after completion of therapy were similar (83.1% for JNJ-Q2 versus 82.1% for linezolid). Post hoc analyses revealed that JNJ-Q2 was statistically noninferior to linezolid (61.4% versus 57.7%, respectively; P = 0.024) based on the 2010 FDA guidance, which defines treatment success as lack of lesion spread and afebrile status within 48 to 72 h postrandomization. Despite evidence of systemic disease, <5% of patients presented with fever, suggesting fever is not a compelling surrogate measure of systemic disease resolution for this indication. Nausea and vomiting were the most common adverse events. Of the patients, 86% (104/121) had S. aureus isolated from the infection site; 63% of these were MRSA. The results suggest JNJ-Q2 shows promise as an effective treatment for ABSSSI, demonstrating (i) efficacy for early clinical response (i.e., lack of spread of lesions and absence of fever at 48 to 72 h), and (ii) cure rates for ABSSSI pathogens (especially MRSA) consistent with the historical literature. PMID:21947389

  10. A randomized, double-blind, Phase 2 study to evaluate subjective and objective outcomes in patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections treated with delafloxacin, linezolid or vancomycin

    PubMed Central

    Kingsley, Jeff; Mehra, Purvi; Lawrence, Laura E.; Henry, Eugenia; Duffy, Erin; Cammarata, Sue K.; Pullman, John

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Delafloxacin is an investigational anionic fluoroquinolone being developed to treat infections caused by Gram-positive and -negative organisms. This clinical trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of delafloxacin in the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs). Methods In a double-blind, Phase 2 trial, 256 patients were randomized (1 : 1 : 1) to 300 mg of delafloxacin, 600 mg of linezolid or 15 mg/kg vancomycin (actual body weight), each administered intravenously twice daily for 5–14 days. Randomization was stratified by infection category. The primary endpoint was the investigator's assessment of cure, defined as complete resolution of baseline signs and symptoms at follow-up. Secondary endpoints included reductions in the total areas of erythema and induration and assessments of bacterial eradication. This trial has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration number NCT01283581. Results Cure rates were significantly greater with delafloxacin versus vancomycin (mean difference: −16.3%; 95% CI, −30.3% to −2.3%; P = 0.031); differences were significant for obese patients (BMI ≥30 kg/m2; mean difference: −30.0%; 95% CI, −50.7% to −9.3%; P = 0.009), but not for non-obese patients. Cure rates with delafloxacin and linezolid were similar. Using digital measurement, the percentage decrease in total erythema area was significantly greater with delafloxacin versus vancomycin at follow-up (−96.4% versus −84.5%; P = 0.028). There were no differences in bacterial eradication among the treatment groups. The most frequently reported treatment-emergent adverse events were nausea, diarrhoea and vomiting. Conclusions These data show that delafloxacin is effective in the treatment of ABSSSIs and is well tolerated. PMID:26679243

  11. ALLERGIC REACTIONS TO “KISSING BUG” BITES

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Norman; Green, Thomas W.

    1963-01-01

    In addition to local allergic skin reactions to the bite of the kissing bug, Triatoma protracta, the systemic reactions can vary from a mild urticarial reaction to a severe anaphylactoid reaction consisting of shock, generalized angioneurotic edema and laryngeal edema. The diagnosis can be established by the clinical history, the finding of an engorged kissing bug, the presence of typical local and systemic signs, and finally, a positive reaction to a skin test with an extract of the bug. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:13938346

  12. In vitro and in vivo anti-allergic effects of Arctium lappa L.

    PubMed

    Knipping, Karen; van Esch, Elisabeth C A M; Wijering, Selva C; van der Heide, Sicco; Dubois, Anthony E; Garssen, Johan

    2008-11-01

    The discovery of drugs that can be used for the treatment of allergic disease is important in human health. Arctium lappa Linne (Compositae) (AL) has been used as a traditional medicine in Brazil and throughout Asia and is known to have an anti-inflammatory effect. In this study, the inhibitory effects of AL on degranulation and the release of mediators as well as on inhibition of cys-leukotriene biosynthesis by basophils were investigated. AL was selected out of 10,000 herbal extracts in a set-up for high throughput screening in which the degree of degranulation was monitored by the release of beta-hexosaminidase from rat basophil leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. The AL extract significantly reduced degranulation and biosynthesis of cys-leukotrienes of human basophils in peripheral blood mono-nuclear cells (PBMCs) (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)] = 8.3 and 11.4 microg/ml, respectively). Viability and metabolic activity of the PBMCs were not affected. Although arctiin, the active component of AL that has been described in the literature, was not able to reduce degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells, a single high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fraction from the AL extract inhibited beta-hexosaminidase release (IC(50) = 22.2 microg/ml). Topical administration of an aqueous extract of AL (5 mg/ear) on the ear of whey-sensitized mice 4 hrs before challenge with whey in the ear inhibited acute ear swelling by 50% in an in vivo cow's milk allergic model. The extract had no effect in this model when administered orally. In conclusion, the active component present in the active HPLC fraction of the AL extract was able to significantly reduce the release of inflammatory mediators through inhibition of degranulation and cys-leukotriene release in vitro. In addition, this active component was able to inhibit acute skin response in mice in vivo, indicating that AL is a very promising natural component for use in anti-allergic treatment. PMID:18703753

  13. The activity of recent anti-allergic drugs in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Clement, P; Smitz, J; De Waele, M

    1996-01-01

    Two experiments were performed during the pollen season to study the activity of different antiallergic drugs in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Nasal allergen challenge (NAC) was performed to mimic an acute attack of allergic rhinitis and to objectively evaluate the effect of the drugs on the early-phase reaction during the season. The first study assessed the effect of H1 (Cetirizine 10 mg a day) and of a combination of H1 (Cetirizine 10 mg) plus H2 (Cimetidine 800 mg a day) antagonists on nasal symptoms, mediator release and eosinophil count in a group of 16 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. During the same season a second study compared in a randomized way (2 parallel groups) the effect of Budesonide (Rhinocort Aqua) and Azelastine (Allergodil nasal spray) in a group of 14 patients. Results showed that both antihistamines, applied topically of dosed orally, reduced sneezing even when significant increases of histamine concentration in nasal secretions were evidenced immediately after NAC. When a combination of Cetirizine and Cimetidine was administered, a significant (p < 0.01) reduction of nasal airway resistance and increase of nasal airflow after NAC were demonstrated as well. In addition, topical application of Budesonide showed a strong (p < 0.01) effect on the infiltration and activation of eosinophils during the season, and on tryptase release after NAC. These effects lasted at least for one week after therapy. PMID:8669268

  14. Aesthetic skin branding: a novel form of body art with adverse clinical sequela.

    PubMed

    Karamanoukian, Raffy; Ukatu, Chidi; Lee, Edward; Hyman, Josh; Sundine, Michael; Kobayashi, Mark; Evans, Gregory R D

    2006-01-01

    Branding is a form of body art wherein third-degree burns are inflicted on the skin to produce permanent scars. This method of scarification is a common practice among many indigenous cultures and has become exceedingly common in western societies. As with other forms of body art, branding is not a manifestation of a psychiatric disorder but, rather, a method of self-expression. The process can be performed through the use of electrocautery, laser, chemicals, freezing, and hot metal. Complications arising from the procedure include acute infection, transmission of blood-borne pathogens, allergic reactions, and sequelae arising from third-degree burns. In addition, skin branding has been shown to be associated with substance abuse and high-risk behaviors among adolescents. The purpose of this article is to present the following case report and review to familiarize clinicians with this dangerous method of body art. PMID:16566546

  15. Steroids in allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Webb, D R

    1981-09-01

    From the experience above, it may be concluded that corticosteroid therapy in allergic disease has become more effective than ever before. The expected variations in usage of new important pharmacologic agents is seen with special clarity in the use of corticosteroids. The wide acclaim for the "miracle drug of the 1950's", which followed penicillin of the 1940's, soon gave away to anguish about side-effects that threatened to abolish its use entirely in the late 1950's. The 1960's brought alternate day therapy for chronic usage and recognition that short term usage was relatively safe. The 1970's saw proliferation of topically active steroids similar to those so important to the practice of Dermatology in the previous decade. Results in treating asthma and nasal diseases have been excellent and extensive research for adverse effects has been largely unrevealing. PMID:6793795

  16. [Allergic inflammation in respiratory system].

    PubMed

    An, Lifeng; Wang, Yanshu; Li, Lin

    2015-02-01

    The pathophysiology of allergic disease such as asthma and allergic rhinitis tell the similar story: when the endogenous and exogenous inflammatory mechanisms occur disorder, the body may begin with inflammatory cell activation, namely through the release of cytokine and inflammatory mediator role in the corresponding target cells, activate the sensory nerve fiber, acting on the cell organ specificity effect, clinical symptoms. This article is divided into the following five parts focused on the research progress of allergic inflammatory diseases: (1) inflammatory cells; (2) staphylococcus aureus superantigen; (3) small molecules (cytokines, inflammatory mediators, lipid classes medium); (4) nerve fibers and effect cells; (5) genetic and epigenetic factors. PMID:26012309

  17. Skin disorders at sea.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Ray; Boniface, Keith; Hite, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the types of skin disorders occurring at sea requiring acute treatment. The case logs of a tele-medicine service for US flagged ships at sea were reviewed from March 1, 2006 until March 1, 2009. Of 1844 total cases, 10% (n = 183) were for skin disorders. Sixty-eight percent (n = 125) were infections, 14% (n = 25) were inflammatory, 7% (n = 13) were environmental, and 11% (n = 20) were non-specific rashes. Cutaneous abscesses and cellulitis (n = 84) were the most common acute skin disorders encountered. In some cases (n = 81), still digital photographs aided in the diagnosis. PMID:20496321

  18. Occupational skin disease.

    PubMed

    Peate, W E

    2002-09-15

    Contact dermatitis, the most common occupational skin disease, is characterized by clearly demarcated areas of rash at sites of exposure. The rash improves on removal of the offending agent. In allergic contact dermatitis, even minute exposures to antigenic substances can lead to a skin rash. Common sensitizing agents include nickel and members of the Rhus genus (e.g., poison ivy, poison oak). Severe skin irritants tend to cause immediate red blisters or burns, whereas weaker irritants produce eczematous skin changes over time. An occupational cause should be suspected when rash occurs in areas that are in contact with oil, grease, or other substances. Direct skin testing (patch or scratch) or radioallergosorbent testing may help to identify a specific trigger. Skin cancer can have an occupational link in workers with prolonged exposure to sunlight and certain chemicals, although it can take decades for lesions to develop. In workers with occupational skin disease, workplace changes and protective measures are important to prevent future exposure. PMID:12358214

  19. Sagging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  20. Triclosan Exposure and Allergic Sensitization in Norwegian Children

    PubMed Central

    Bertelsen, Randi J.; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Løvik, Martinus; Calafat, Antonia M.; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; London, Stephanie J.; Carlsen, Karin C. Lødrup

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to the synthetic antimicrobial chemical, triclosan, used in personal care products, has been hypothesized to lead to allergic disease. We investigated whether triclosan exposure was associated with allergic sensitization and symptoms in 10-year old Norwegian children. Methods Urinary concentrations of triclosan were measured in one first morning void from 623 children, collected 2001– 2004. Logistic regression models, controlling for urine specific gravity, parental allergic disease, maternal education, and household income, were fitted for allergic sensitization (either skin prick test positivity or serum specific IgE ≥0.35 kU/L to at least one of 15 evaluated inhalant and food allergens), current rhinitis, and current asthma (questionnaire and exercise challenge test). Results The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for allergic sensitization among those in the fourth quartile of triclosan concentration was 2.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 3.4) compared with the reference group (< the limit of detection) and the aOR per log10 unit increase in triclosan was 1.2 (95% CI: 1.0, 1.4). The aOR for current rhinitis was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.4) for the fourth quartile and 1.2 (95% CI:0.97, 1.4) per log10 unit increase in triclosan. Conclusion Triclosan concentrations were associated with allergic sensitization, especially inhalant and seasonal allergens rather thanfood allergens. Current rhinitis was associated with the highest levels of triclosan, whereas no association was seen for current asthma. These results are consistent with recent findings in other studies and provide additional evidence for an association between triclosan and allergy. PMID:23146048

  1. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the sun. Photo: PhotoDisc Care for conditions from acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin ... other skin conditions. Many skin problems, such as acne, also affect your appearance. Your skin can also ...

  2. Jackfruit anaphylaxis in a latex allergic patient.

    PubMed

    Wongrakpanich, Supakanya; Klaewsongkram, Jettanong; Chantaphakul, Hiroshi; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

    2015-03-01

    Several fruits have been reported to crossreact with latex antigen in latex allergy patients but little is known regarding tropical fruits in particular. Here we report the case of a 34-year old nurse who developed anaphylaxis following the ingestion of dried jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus). The patient had a history of chronic eczema on both hands resulting from a regular wear of latex gloves. She and her family also had a history of atopy (allergic rhinitis and/or atopic dermatitis). The results of skin prick tests were positive for jackfruit, latex glove, kiwi and papaya, but the test was negative for banana. While we are reporting the first case of jackfruit anaphylaxis, further research needs to be conducted to identify the mechanisms underlying it. In particular, in-vitro studies need to be designed to understand if the anaphylaxis we describe is due to a cross reactivity between latex and jackfruit or a coincidence of allergy to these 2 antigens. PMID:25840636

  3. Langerhans cells in allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Tuchinda, P; Gaspari, A A

    2010-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease that has significant socio-economic impact. ACD is mediated by a T-cell mediated inflammatory reaction. Langerhans cells (LCs) are an epidermal DCs subset specialized in antigen presentation. After hapten exposure, LCs play a major role as in induction adaptive immune response against allergens. LCs recognize, take up and process haptens and migrate to the local draining lymph nodes. However, LCs specific functions and the LCs migration to local draining lymph nodes are not yet clearly defined. Recent advance in the knowledge of LCs function has increased in the past decades including the evidence for a tolerogenic function of LCs. The present review will focus on the role for LCs response to contact allergens. PMID:21139551

  4. Allergic diseases and air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Suh-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing rapidly, especially in developing countries. Various adverse health outcomes such as allergic disease can be attributed to rapidly increasing air pollution levels. Rapid urbanization and increased energy consumption worldwide have exposed the human body to not only increased quantities of ambient air pollution, but also a greater variety of pollutants. Many studies clearly demonstrate that air pollutants potently trigger asthma exacerbation. Evidence that transportation-related pollutants contribute to the development of allergies is also emerging. Moreover, exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide contributes to the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. This article focuses on the current understanding of the detrimental effects of air pollutants on allergic disease including exacerbation to the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema as well as epigenetic regulation. PMID:23956961

  5. Allergic Mechanisms in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Wechsler, Joshua B; Bryce, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Paralleling the overall trend in allergic diseases, Eosinophilic Esophagitis is rapidly increasing in incidence. It is associated with food antigen-triggered, eosinophil-predominant inflammation and the pathogenic mechanisms have many similarities to other chronic atopic diseases, such as eczema and allergic asthma. Studies in animal models and from patients over the last 15 years have suggested that allergic sensitization leads to food-specific IgE and T-helper lymphocyte type 2 cells, both of which appear to contribute to the pathogenesis along with basophils, mast cells, and antigen-presenting cells. This review will outline our current understandings of the allergic mechanisms that drive eosinophilic esophagitis, drawing from clinical and translational studies in humans as well as experimental animal models. PMID:24813516

  6. Allergic reactions to medication (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A true allergy to a medication is different than a simple adverse reaction to the drug. The allergic reaction occurs when the immune system, having been exposed to the drug before, creates antibodies to ...

  7. Allergic reactions associated with pegaspargase in adults.

    PubMed

    Chang, Abraham; Kim, Michelle; Seyer, Maggie; Patel, Samit

    2016-07-01

    One of the severe toxicities of pegaspargase (PEG) is the development of allergic reactions. This study retrospectively assessed 311 PEG doses administered to 139 acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients from May 1, 2008 to July 30, 2014 for allergic reactions based on the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.03. Fourteen reactions were recorded in 13 patients (9.4%). The rate of reaction did not differ between patients who received pre-medications and those who did not (p = 0.939). Patients who received only IV PEG doses had a higher rate of reaction compared to only IM PEG (14.0% vs 1.6%; p = 0.010). Six of the seven patients with CTCAE grade 4 reactions received a majority of IV doses, suggesting that severity of reactions may increase with IV administration. Capped doses at 3750 units only had a reaction rate of 2.3%, while uncapped doses over 3750 units were found to have a 6.0% reaction rate (p = 0.194). PMID:26461960

  8. Immune response phenotype of allergic versus clinically tolerant pigs in a neonatal swine model of allergy.

    PubMed

    Schmied, Julie; Rupa, Prithy; Garvie, Sarah; Wilkie, Bruce

    2013-07-15

    The prevalence of childhood food allergy and the duration of these allergies, particularly those considered to be transient, like egg and milk allergy, are increasing. The identification of allergic individuals using minimally invasive, non-anaphylaxis-threatening methods is therefore of increasing importance. In this experiment, correlates were sought of an allergic immune response (IR) phenotype in pigs. Using pigs pre-treated with heat-killed bacteria or bacterial components before allergic sensitization with the egg white protein ovomucoid (Ovm), differences were determined in IR phenotype of pigs in the categories treated-allergic, treated-tolerant, control-allergic (CA) and control-tolerant. Phenotype was established by measuring immunoglobulin (Ig)-associated antibody activity (AbA), cytokine profiles and the proportion of blood T-regulatory cells (T-regs) and observing late-phase allergen-specific skin tests (ST). Although 100% of pigs became sensitized to Ovm, only 33% of pigs had clinical signs of allergy after oral challenge with egg white. Pigs without clinical signs were classified as clinically tolerant. Sixty-seven percent of allergic pigs had a positive, late-phase ST classified as very strong or strong, while 84% of clinically tolerant pigs did not have late-phase ST. Treated-allergic pigs and CA pigs had greater total antibody IgG (H+L), IgE and IgG1 AbA than clinically tolerant pigs. Cytokine profiles of allergic pigs and the proportion of circulating T-regs, did not differ significantly between allergic and clinically tolerant pigs. Therefore, measurement of allergen-specific IgG, IgG1 and/or IgE activity and evaluation of late-phase ID ST may be useful in identifying allergic IR phenotypes in swine models of food allergy, which may be extended toward human use. PMID:23664639

  9. Contact dermatitis and other skin conditions in instrumental musicians

    PubMed Central

    Gambichler, Thilo; Boms, Stefanie; Freitag, Marcus

    2004-01-01

    Background The skin is important in the positioning and playing of a musical instrument. During practicing and performing there is a permanent more or less intense contact between the instrument and the musician's skin. Apart from aggravation of predisposed skin diseases (e.g., atopic eczema or psoriasis) due to music-making, specific dermatologic conditions may develop that are directly caused by playing a musical instrument. Methods To perform a systematic review on instrument-related skin diseases in musicians we searched the PubMed database without time limits. Furthermore we studied the online bibliography "Occupational diseases of performing artist. A performing arts medicine bibliography. October, 2003" and checked references of all selected articles for relevant papers. Results The most prevalent skin disorders of instrumental musicians, in particular string instrumentalists (e.g., violinists, cellists, guitarists), woodwind players (e.g., flautists, clarinetists), and brass instrumentalists (e.g., trumpeters), include a variety of allergic contact sensitizations (e.g., colophony, nickel, and exotic woods) and irritant (physical-chemical noxae) skin conditions whose clinical presentation and localization are usually specific for the instrument used (e.g., "fiddler's neck", "cellist's chest", "guitar nipple", "flautist's chin"). Apart from common callosities and "occupational marks" (e.g., "Garrod's pads") more or less severe skin injuries may occur in musical instrumentalists, in particular acute and chronic wounds including their complications. Skin infections such as herpes labialis seem to be a more common skin problem in woodwind and brass instrumentalists. Conclusions Skin conditions may be a significant problem not only in professional instrumentalists, but also in musicians of all ages and ability. Although not life threatening they may lead to impaired performance and occupational hazard. Unfortunately, epidemiological investigations have

  10. Angiogenesis Is Induced and Wound Size Is Reduced by Electrical Stimulation in an Acute Wound Healing Model in Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Ud-Din, Sara; Sebastian, Anil; Giddings, Pamela; Colthurst, James; Whiteside, Sigrid; Morris, Julie; Nuccitelli, Richard; Pullar, Christine; Baguneid, Mo; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is critical for wound healing. Insufficient angiogenesis can result in impaired wound healing and chronic wound formation. Electrical stimulation (ES) has been shown to enhance angiogenesis. We previously showed that ES enhanced angiogenesis in acute wounds at one time point (day 14). The aim of this study was to further evaluate the role of ES in affecting angiogenesis during the acute phase of cutaneous wound healing over multiple time points. We compared the angiogenic response to wounding in 40 healthy volunteers (divided into two groups and randomised), treated with ES (post-ES) and compared them to secondary intention wound healing (control). Biopsy time points monitored were days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14. Objective non-invasive measures and H&E analysis were performed in addition to immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blotting (WB). Wound volume was significantly reduced on D7, 10 and 14 post-ES (p = 0.003, p = 0.002, p<0.001 respectively), surface area was reduced on days 10 (p = 0.001) and 14 (p<0.001) and wound diameter reduced on days 10 (p = 0.009) and 14 (p = 0.002). Blood flow increased significantly post-ES on D10 (p = 0.002) and 14 (p = 0.001). Angiogenic markers were up-regulated following ES application; protein analysis by IHC showed an increase (p<0.05) in VEGF-A expression by ES treatment on days 7, 10 and 14 (39%, 27% and 35% respectively) and PLGF expression on days 3 and 7 (40% on both days), compared to normal healing. Similarly, WB demonstrated an increase (p<0.05) in PLGF on days 7 and 14 (51% and 35% respectively). WB studies showed a significant increase of 30% (p>0.05) on day 14 in VEGF-A expression post-ES compared to controls. Furthermore, organisation of granulation tissue was improved on day 14 post-ES. This randomised controlled trial has shown that ES enhanced wound healing by reduced wound dimensions and increased VEGF-A and PLGF expression in acute cutaneous wounds, which further substantiates the role of ES in up

  11. Local allergic rhinitis: A critical reappraisal from a paediatric perspective.

    PubMed

    Arasi, Stefania; Pajno, Giovanni Battista; Lau, Susanne; Matricardi, Paolo Maria

    2016-09-01

    The so-called local allergic rhinitis (LAR) has been proposed as a phenotype of rhinitis with Th2-driven prominent local allergic inflammation, nasal synthesis of specific IgE and a positive response to a nasal allergen provocation test, in the absence of 'systemic' atopy (negative skin prick test and serum allergen-specific IgE antibodies). To date, available data on LAR are mostly focused on adults. The purpose of this 'Rostrum' was to critically discuss data and implications of the 'LAR concept' in paediatrics. In the natural history of rhinitis due to IgE-mediated reactions triggered by exposure to allergens, a 'LAR' can be either the initial, transient stage of classical allergic rhinitis or a stable phenotype never evolving to 'systemic' IgE sensitization. Given the present difficulties in performing routinely nasal allergen provocation test in children, the development of sensitive and specific tests to detect IgE in the child's nasal secretions is a research priority. We suggest also the hypothetical role of allergen immunoprophylaxis or immunotherapy in LAR. Last, the term 'local allergic rhinitis' may be inappropriate, as rhinitis is always 'local', while IgE sensitization can be either 'local' or 'systemic'. PMID:27098888

  12. Gender Associated High Body Mass Index in Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lokaj-Berisha, Violeta; Gacaferri-Lumezi, Besa; Minci–Bejtullahu, Ganimete; Latifi-Pupovci, Hatixhe; Karahoda–Gjurgjeala, Natyra; Berisha, Naser; Morina, Teuta

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of allergic diseases and atopy is affected by sex, age and lifestyle factors. Obesity and excess weight are reported to be potential risk factors for atopy and specifically for asthma symptoms in children and adults. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between body mass index (BMI) and allergic diseases in patients of both genders, as well as association of BMI with atopy in healthy subjects. METHODS: BMI (kg/m2), skin-prick test and total serum immunoglobulin E levels were assessed in 139 subjects: 109 were patients with allergic diseases (M to F ratio was 51:58) and 30 were healthy controls (M to F ratio was 6:24). RESULTS: The study population was grouped into asthma, asthmarhinitis, rhinitis, Urticaria oreczema and controls by BMI and sex. Females with the highest BMI were in asthma and urticaria/eczema group. Males with the highest BMI were in asthmarhinitis and urticariaeczema group. High BMI was associated with atopy in both genders of healthy controls. High levels of total IgE were in male allergic patients. CONCLUSION: High BMI was associated with asthma in females, urticaria/eczema in both genders and atopy in both genders of healthy controls. Higher levels of total IgE were concluded in male patients.

  13. Immunoregulation of passively induced allergic encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Willenborg, D O; Sjollema, P; Danta, G

    1986-03-01

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) can be readily induced passively by transfer of lymphocytes from neuroantigen immunized rats to naive recipients. This passively induced disease runs an acute, monophasic, self-limiting course, much the same as is usually seen in actively induced diseases. Here we examine the mechanisms regulating passive EAE. We report that splenectomy, thymectomy, and increasing age of recipients, manipulations which have been reported to influence recovery from actively induced EAE, have no effect on passively induced disease. EAE effector cells are not inactivated when transferred into recipients that have been actively sensitized and are beginning their recovery from clinical signs; this being a time when recovery associated suppressor cells are thought to be present. Finally, in the absence of suppressor T cells in both the recipient and in the transfer cell population, recovery from passive EAE still occurs. We conclude that suppressor T cells play no role in regulating passively induced EAE. PMID:2936807

  14. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jenny L.

    2010-01-01

    Epicutaneous patch testing is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Despite this knowledge, many clinical dermatologists do not offer patch testing in their offices or offer testing with only a limited number of allergens. Introduced in 1995, the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test originally contained 23 allergens and one control. In 2007, five additional allergens were added. This United States Food and Drug Administration-approved patch testing system made patch testing more convenient, and after its introduction, more dermatologists offered patch testing services. However, the number of allergens in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test remains relatively low. Every two years, the North American Contact Dermatitis Group collects and reports the data from patch testing among its members to a standardized series of allergens. In 2005-2006, the Group used a series of 65 allergens. Of the top 30 allergens reported in 2005-2006, 10 were not included in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test. Knowledge of and testing for additional allergens such as these may increase patch testing yield. PMID:20967194

  15. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Greenberger, Paul A.; Bush, Robert K.; Demain, Jeffrey G.; Luong, Amber; Slavin, Raymond G.; Knutsen, Alan P.

    2014-01-01

    There remains lack of agreement on diagnostic criteria and approaches to treatment of patients with Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA). The results of a survey of AAAAI members regarding these 2 issues are presented and compared for concordance with published recommendations. The literature was reviewed for pertinent reports and an electronic survey was conducted of AAAAI members and fellows regarding diagnostic criteria, numbers of patients evaluated for ABPA, and treatment approaches. From 508 respondents to the survey sent to 5155 U. S. physicians in the AAAAI database of members and fellows, 245 (48%) health professionals had treated at least 1 patient with ABPA in the previous year. For the diagnosis of ABPA, there was a difference in the threshold concentration of total serum IgE as 44.9% used ≥ 417 kU/L whereas 42.0% used ≥ 1000 kU/L. These findings suggest that ABPA might be underdiagnosed. Regarding pharmacotherapy, oral steroids were recommended for 97.1% of patients and oral steroids + inhaled corticosteroids + anti-fungal agent were utilized in 41.2% of patients. The armamentarium for treatment of ABPA includes oral corticosteroids as the initial treatment with inhaled corticosteroids used for management of persistent asthma. Azoles remain adjunctive. Published experience with omalizumab has been limited. PMID:25439360

  16. Allergic fungal otomastoiditis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiung-Ming; Chiang, Ching-Wen

    2013-04-01

    Allergic mucin is described as thick, peanut butter-like mucus impacted in the paranasal sinuses of patients with allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. The presence of allergic mucin in the middle ear has never been reported. We encountered a 65-year-old female with allergic mucin found impacted in her left middle ear and mastoid cavity during revised tympanoplasty surgery at our institute. Bilateral endoscopic sinus surgery performed 3 months later showed no evidence of fungal infection or allergic mucin in her paranasal sinuses. We report the case herein and propose the term allergic fungal otomastoiditis for this disease entity. PMID:22825725

  17. [Skin problems in joggers].

    PubMed

    Itin, P; Rufli, T

    1986-08-30

    Reports on skin problems in joggers are rare in medical literature. Jogger dermatoses are caused by repeated trauma, mechanic overuse, thermic effects, allergic-toxic reactions and infectious processes. Most common are bullosis mechanica, piezogenic papules, hyperkeratosis haemorrhagica and subungual haematomas. Contact allergies and infections such as athlete's foot, pitted keratolysis and pyoderma are well-known complications in joggers. Frostbite and actinic damage, abrasions of the nipples, collisions with vehicles and injuries by buzzards are further possible incidents to be reckoned with occasionally. In most cases, prophylaxis is possible by training adaptation and use of adequate footwear. Jogger dermatoses usually clear after a suitable jogging-free interval. PMID:3764389

  18. Advances and highlights in mechanisms of allergic disease in 2015.

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Paulina; Akdis, Cezmi A; Finkelman, Fred D; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2016-06-01

    This review highlights some of the advances in mechanisms of allergic disease, particularly anaphylaxis, including food allergy, drug hypersensitivity, atopic dermatitis (AD), allergic conjunctivitis, and airway diseases. During the last year, a mechanistic advance in food allergy was achieved by focusing on mechanisms of allergen sensitization. Novel biomarkers and treatment for mastocytosis were presented in several studies. Novel therapeutic approaches in the treatment of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis showed that promising supplementation of the infant's diet in the first year of life with immunoactive prebiotics might have a preventive role against early development of AD and that therapeutic approaches to treat AD in children might be best directed to the correction of a TH2/TH1 imbalance. Several studies were published emphasizing the role of the epithelial barrier in patients with allergic diseases. An impaired skin barrier as a cause for sensitization to food allergens in children and its relationship to filaggrin mutations has been an important development. Numerous studies presented new approaches for improvement of epithelial barrier function and novel biologicals used in the treatment of inflammatory skin and eosinophilic diseases. In addition, novel transcription factors and signaling molecules that can develop as new possible therapeutic targets have been reported. PMID:27090934

  19. Environment and the skin.

    PubMed

    Suskind, R R

    1977-10-01

    The skin is an important interface between man and his environment; it is an important portal of entry for hazardous agents and a vulnerable target tissue as well. It is a uniquely accessible model system for detecting hazards and for studying mechanisms of a wide variety of biologic funcitons. Environmental causes of skin reactions comprise a vast array of physical, chemical and biological agents. To appreciate the role of the skin as an interface with man's environment, it is necessary to understand the multiple adaptive mechanisms, and the defenses of the skin against the environmental stresses. The skin is endowed with a versatile group of defenses against penetration, fluid loss from the body, thermal stress, solar radiation, physical trauma and microbial agents. Patterns of adverse response range in quality and intensity from uncomplicated itching to metastatic neoplasia. Environmental problems comprise a large segment of disabling skin disease. Although critical epidemiologic data is limited, cutaneous illnesses comprise a significant segment of occupational disease. This represents a significant loss in productivity and a major cause of disability. The most serious research needs include the development of surveillance systems for identifying skin hazards and determining frequency of environmental skin disease; the development of new models for studying cutaneous penetration; the elucidation of the mechanisms of nonallergic inflammatory reactions (primary irritation) and of the accommodation phenomenon; the development of more sensitive models for predicting adverse responses to marginal irritants; the utilization of modern skills of immunobiology and immunochemistry to elucidate mechanisms of allergic responses; the launching of epidemiologic studies to determine the long term effects of PCBs and associated compounds such as dioxins; and the expansion of research in the mechanisms of skin cancer in relation to susceptibility, genetic and metabolic

  20. Environment and the skin

    PubMed Central

    Suskind, Raymond R.

    1977-01-01

    The skin is an important interface between man and his environment; it is an important portal of entry for hazardous agents and a vulnerable target tissue as well. It is a uniquely accessible model system for detecting hazards and for studying mechanisms of a wide variety of biologic funcitons. Environmental causes of skin reactions comprise a vast array of physical, chemical and biological agents. To appreciate the role of the skin as an interface with man's environment, it is necessary to understand the multiple adaptive mechanisms, and the defenses of the skin against the environmental stresses. The skin is endowed with a versatile group of defenses against penetration, fluid loss from the body, thermal stress, solar radiation, physical trauma and microbial agents. Patterns of adverse response range in quality and intensity from uncomplicated itching to metastatic neoplasia. Environmental problems comprise a large segment of disabling skin disease. Although critical epidemiologic data is limited, cutaneous illnesses comprise a significant segment of occupational disease. This represents a significant loss in productivity and a major cause of disability. The most serious research needs include the development of surveillance systems for identifying skin hazards and determining frequency of environmental skin disease; the development of new models for studying cutaneous penetration; the elucidation of the mechanisms of nonallergic inflammatory reactions (primary irritation) and of the accommodation phenomenon; the development of more sensitive models for predicting adverse responses to marginal irritants; the utilization of modern skills of immunobiology and immunochemistry to elucidate mechanisms of allergic responses; the launching of epidemiologic studies to determine the long term effects of PCBs and associated compounds such as dioxins; and the expansion of research in the mechanisms of skin cancer in relation to susceptibility, genetic and metabolic

  1. Educational clinical case series for pediatric allergy and immunology: allergic proctocolitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and allergic eosinophilic gastroenteritis with protein-losing gastroenteropathy as manifestations of non-IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Jennifer; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna

    2007-06-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy is the most common food allergy in infants and young children. It is estimated that up to 50% of pediatric cow's milk allergy is non-IgE-mediated. Allergic proctocolitis is a benign disorder manifesting with blood-streaked stools in otherwise healthy-appearing infants who are breast- or formula-fed. Symptoms resolve within 48-72 h following elimination of dietary cow's milk protein. Most infants tolerate cow's milk by their first birthday. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome presents in young formula-fed infants with chronic emesis, diarrhea, and failure to thrive. Reintroduction of cow's milk protein following a period of avoidance results in profuse, repetitive emesis within 2-3 h following ingestion; 20% of acute exposures may be associated with hypovolemic shock. Treatment of acute reactions is with vigorous hydration. Most children become tolerant with age; attempts of re-introduction of milk must be done under physician supervision and with secure i.v. access. Allergic eosinophilic gastroenteritis affects infants as well as older children and adolescents. Abdominal pain, emesis, diarrhea, failure to thrive, or weight loss are the most common symptoms. A subset of patients may develop protein-losing enteropathy. Fifty percent of affected children are atopic and have evidence of food-specific IgE antibody but skin prick tests and serum food-IgE levels correlate with response to elimination diet poorly. Elemental diet based on the amino-acid formula leads to resolutions of gastrointestinal eosinophilic inflammation typically within 6 wk. PMID:17584315

  2. New therapies for allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Braido, Fulvio; Sclifò, Francesca; Ferrando, Matteo; Canonica, Giorgio Walter

    2014-04-01

    Because of its burden on patient's lives and its impact on asthma, allergic rhinitis must be treated properly with more effective and safer treatments. According to guidelines by Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA), the classification, pathogenesis, and treatment of allergic rhinitis are well defined. Currently, second-generation antihistamines and inhaled steroids are considered the cornerstone of first-line therapy. However, new formulations of available drugs (e.g., loratadine and rupatadine oral solution, ebastine fast-dissolving tablets, and the combination of intranasal fluticasone propionate and azelastine hydrochloride), recently discovered molecules (e.g., ciclesonide, bilastine, and phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors), immunologic targets (e.g., omalizumab), and unconventional treatments (e.g., homeopathic treatments) are currently under investigation and represent a new frontier in modern medicine and in allergic rhinitis management. The aim of this review is to provide an update on allergic rhinitis treatment, paying particular attention to clinical trials published within the past 20 months that assessed the efficacy and safety of new formulations of available drugs or new molecules. PMID:24504526

  3. microRNA Alterations Driving Acute and Late Stages of Radiation-Induced Fibrosis in a Murine Skin Model

    SciTech Connect

    Simone, Brittany A.; Ly, David; Savage, Jason E.; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Dan, Tu D.; Ylaya, Kris; Shankavaram, Uma; Lim, Meng; Jin, Lianjin; Camphausen, Kevin; Mitchell, James B.; Simone, Nicole L.

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Although ionizing radiation is critical in treating cancer, radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) can have a devastating impact on patients' quality of life. The molecular changes leading to radiation-induced fibrosis must be elucidated so that novel treatments can be designed. Methods and Materials: To determine whether microRNAs (miRs) could be responsible for RIF, the fibrotic process was induced in the right hind legs of 9-week old CH3 mice by a single-fraction dose of irradiation to 35 Gy, and the left leg served as an unirradiated control. Fibrosis was quantified by measurements of leg length compared with control leg length. By 120 days after irradiation, the irradiated legs were 20% (P=.013) shorter on average than were the control legs. Results: Tissue analysis was done on muscle, skin, and subcutaneous tissue from irradiated and control legs. Fibrosis was noted on both gross and histologic examination by use of a pentachrome stain. Microarrays were performed at various times after irradiation, including 7 days, 14 days, 50 days, 90 days, and 120 days after irradiation. miR-15a, miR-21, miR-30a, and miR-34a were the miRs with the most significant alteration by array with miR-34a, proving most significant on confirmation by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, c-Met, a known effector of fibrosis and downstream molecule of miR-34a, was evaluated by use of 2 cell lines: HCT116 and 1522. The cell lines were exposed to various stressors to induce miR changes, specifically ionizing radiation. Additionally, in vitro transfections with pre-miRs and anti-miRs confirmed the relationship of miR-34a and c-Met. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate an inverse relationship with miR-34a and c-Met; the upregulation of miR-34a in RIF causes inhibition of c-Met production. miRs may play a role in RIF; in particular, miR-34a should be investigated as a potential target to prevent or treat this devastating side effect of irradiation.

  4. No Adjuvant Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis-Maize on Allergic Responses in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dekan, Gerhard; Epstein, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) foods are evaluated carefully for their ability to induce allergic disease. However, few studies have tested the capacity of a GM food to act as an adjuvant, i.e. influencing allergic responses to other unrelated allergens at acute onset and in individuals with pre-existing allergy. We sought to evaluate the effect of short-term feeding of GM Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-maize (MON810) on the initiation and relapse of allergic asthma in mice. BALB/c mice were provided a diet containing 33% GM or non-GM maize for up to 34 days either before ovalbumin (OVA)-induced experimental allergic asthma or disease relapse in mice with pre-existing allergy. We observed that GM-maize feeding did not affect OVA-induced eosinophilic airway and lung inflammation, mucus hypersecretion or OVA-specific antibody production at initiation or relapse of allergic asthma. There was no adjuvant effect upon GM-maize consumption on the onset or severity of allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic asthma. PMID:25084284

  5. Current understanding of allergic transfusion reactions: incidence, pathogenesis, laboratory tests, prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Fumiya

    2013-02-01

    Non-haemolytic transfusion reactions are the most common type of transfusion reaction and include transfusion-related acute lung injury, transfusion-associated circulatory overload, allergic reactions, febrile reactions, post-transfusion purpura and graft-versus- host disease. Although life-threatening anaphylaxis occurs rarely, allergic reactions occur most frequently. If possible, even mild transfusion reactions should be avoided because they add to patients' existing suffering. During the last decade, several new discoveries have been made in the field of allergic diseases and transfusion medicine. First, mast cells are not the only cells that are key players in allergic diseases, particularly in the murine immune system. Second, it has been suggested that immunologically active undigested or digested food allergens in a donor's blood may be transferred to a recipient who is allergic to these antigens, causing anaphylaxis. Third, washed platelets have been shown to be effective for preventing allergic transfusion reactions, although substantial numbers of platelets are lost during washing procedures, and platelet recovery after transfusion may not be equivalent to that with unwashed platelets. This review describes allergic transfusion reactions, including the above-mentioned points, and focusses on their incidence, pathogenesis, laboratory tests, prevention and treatment. PMID:23215650

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis in dermatologic surgery: review of common allergens.

    PubMed

    Butler, Lara; Mowad, Christen

    2013-01-01

    With the growing number of dermatologic surgeries performed each year comes an increased potential for patient exposure and sensitization to allergens. Patients are exposed to many well-documented allergens in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative settings during surgery. Postoperative skin complications of allergic contact dermatitis increase health care costs and cause patient suffering. Early recognition, diagnosis, and treatment by dermatologic surgeons are essential to decrease morbidity related to medically necessary and elective cutaneous surgeries. While a specific standard screening panel for cutaneous surgery-related allergens is not well established, we propose several categories of allergens be strongly considered and tested if a patient is suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis in an attempt to reveal pertinent allergens and prevent future exposures. PMID:24030369

  7. When perennial rhinitis worsens: rhinolith mimicking severe allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Heffler, Enrico; Machetta, Giacomo; Magnano, Mauro; Rolla, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is one of the most common causes of nasal obstruction, but other diseases need to be considered particularly when the clinical course is getting worse. We present a patient with known mild persistent allergic rhinitis due to house dust mites who experienced progressive worsening of nasal obstruction with associated hyposmia and mucopurulent discharge. The lack of improvement of the patient’s symptoms prompted the re-evaluation of the case. Skin prick tests for airborne allergens confirmed sensitisation only to house dust mites. Nasal endoscopy and facial CT scan revealed a huge rhinolith occupying almost completely the right nasal cavity. The rhinolith was surgically removed with resolution of symptoms. Rhinoliths are rare and unusual calcified materials which grow around intranasal foreign body; they are often promoted by trauma, surgical operations and dental work. The patient underwent dental work about 30 months before the diagnosis of rhinolith, suggesting a possible aetiology. PMID:24526202

  8. Allergic reaction to mint leads to asthma.

    PubMed

    Szema, Anthony M; Barnett, Tisha

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory and cutaneous adverse reactions to mint can result from several different mechanisms including IgE-mediated hypersensitivity, delayed-type hypersensitivity (contact dermatitis), and nonimmunologic histamine release. Reactions to cross-reacting plants of the Labiatae family, such as oregano and thyme, as well as to the chemical turpentine, may clue the clinician in on the diagnosis of mint allergy. Contact dermatitis can result from menthol in peppermint. Contact allergens have been reported in toothpastes, which often are mint-flavored. Allergic asthma from mint is less well-recognized. A case of a 54-year-old woman with dyspnea on exposure to the scent of peppermint is presented in whom mint exposure, as seemingly innocuous as the breath of others who had consumed Tic Tac candies, exacerbated her underlying asthma. This case highlights the importance of testing with multiple alternative measures of specific IgE to mint, including skin testing with mint extract, and skin testing with fresh mint leaves. Additionally, this cases suggests that asthma can result from inhaling the scent of mint and gives consideration to obtaining confirmatory pre- and postexposure pulmonary function data by both impulse oscillometry and spirometry. PMID:22852115

  9. Update on local allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Altıntoprak, Niyazi; Kar, Murat; Bayar Muluk, Nuray; Oktemer, Tugba; Ipci, Kagan; Birdane, Leman; Aricigil, Mitat; Senturk, Mehmet; Bafaqeeh, Sameer Ali; Cingi, Cemal

    2016-08-01

    We here provide an update on the literature regarding local allergic rhinitis (LAR). In reviewing LAR, we have included an updated definition, classifications, mechanisms, comorbidities, and recommendations for diagnosis and treatment for LAR, as well as the defined research areas for future evidence-based studies. LAR is a localised nasal allergic response in the absence of systemic atopy characterised by local production of specific IgE (sIgE) antibodies, a TH2 pattern of mucosal cell infiltration during natural exposure to aeroallergens, and a positive nasal allergen provocation test response, with the release of inflammatory mediators. The localised allergic response of LAR is an important topic for the study of allergies. This review provides an update on the current knowledge of LAR. PMID:27368453

  10. Complementary Therapies in Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Sayin, Ibrahim; Cingi, Cemal; Baykal, Bahadir

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence of herbal treatment of allergic rhinitis. Methods. In this prospective study, patients who were diagnosed with perennial allergic rhinitis were questioned about their use of natural products/herbal therapies for their symptoms. Results. In total, 230 patients were enrolled. Overall, 37.3% of the patients stated that they had used natural products/herbal therapies at least once. Women were more likely than men to use herbal supplements (38.3% versus 32.4%). Ten different types of herbal supplements were identified, with stinging nettle (Urtica dioicath), black elderberry (Sambucus nigra), and Spirulina being the most common (12.6%, 6.1%, and 5.7%, resp.). Conclusion. This study found a high prevalence of herbal treatment usage for the relief of allergic rhinitis symptoms in Turkey. The herbal products identified in this study and in the literature are discussed. PMID:24324897

  11. Eosinophilic Inflammation in Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Possa, Samantha S.; Leick, Edna A.; Prado, Carla M.; Martins, Mílton A.; Tibério, Iolanda F. L. C.

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophils are circulating granulocytes involved in pathogenesis of asthma. A cascade of processes directed by Th2 cytokine producing T-cells influence the recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs. Furthermore, multiple elements including interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, chemoattractants such as eotaxin, Clara cells, and CC chemokine receptor (CCR)3 are already directly involved in recruiting eosinophils to the lung during allergic inflammation. Once recruited, eosinophils participate in the modulation of immune response, induction of airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling, characteristic features of asthma. Various types of promising treatments for reducing asthmatic response are related to reduction in eosinophil counts both in human and experimental models of pulmonary allergic inflammation, showing that the recruitment of these cells really plays an important role in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases such asthma. PMID:23616768

  12. Analysis of selected allergic reactions among psoriatic patients

    PubMed Central

    Filipowska-Grońska, Agata; Kalemba, Michał; Krajewska, Anna; Grzanka, Alicja; Bożek, Andrzej; Jarząb, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Psoriasis is a chronic and recurrent inflammatory skin disease. The aetiology is still unknown in spite of numerous scientific researches. There is very little evidence which does not provide enough knowledge about allergic reactions in psoriatic patients. Based on the fact that the epidermal barrier damage allows different allergen types to penetrate into deep layers of epidermis and skin, we can assume that it may lead to immunological reactions. Aim To investigate the allergic reaction indicators and hypersensitivity assessment about contact, inhalant and food allergens. The results were analysed with regard to clinical disease indicators and progression stage of dermal lesions. Material and methods Eighty patients with psoriasis were examined. The concentration of total IgE antibodies and allergen specific IgE antibodies (asIgE) were analysed. Standard epidermal tests and atopy patch tests were performed. All the patients were estimated for their dermatological condition based on the PASI scale. The control group consisted of 50 patients without psoriasis and allergic history. Results Significantly higher concentration of total E immunoglobulin has been stated in the patients with psoriasis. Higher concentrations of specific allergic IgE antibodies were more often observed in the examined group but the most frequently observed values were present in 1–3 class. The most common airborne allergens were birch, artemisia, timothy and rye pollens. There have not been any significant statistical differences in the case of positive epidermal test results. Conclusions There is slightly expressed hypersensitivity in psoriatic patients. This hypersensitivity degree correlates with the intensification of symptoms. PMID:26985174

  13. Allergic airway disease in Italian bakers and pastry makers.

    PubMed Central

    De Zotti, R; Larese, F; Bovenzi, M; Negro, C; Molinari, S

    1994-01-01

    A survey was carried out on respiratory symptoms and skin prick test response to common allergens (atopy), storage mites, and occupational allergens among 226 bakers and pastry makers from 105 small businesses in northern Italy. Atopy was present in 54 workers (23.4%); 40 workers (17.7%) were skin positive to at least one storage mite, 27 (11.9%) to wheat flour and 17 (7.5%) to alpha-amylase. Work related asthma was reported by 11 (4.9%) workers and rhinoconjunctivitis by 31 (17.7%); 22 workers (10.2%) complained of chronic bronchitis. The distribution of skin prick test results among bakers and among 119 white collar workers did not indicate (by logistic analysis) an increased risk for bakers to skin sensitisation to common allergens, storage mite, or to a group of five flours. Sensitisation to wheat flour, on the other hand, was present only among exposed workers. Skin sensitisation to occupational allergens was significantly associated with atopy (p < 0.001), smoking habit (p = 0.015), and work seniority (p = 0.027). The risk of work related symptoms was associated with sensitisation to wheat or alpha-amylase, and with atopy, but not with sensitisation to storage mites, work seniority, or smoking habit. The results of the study indicate that there is still a significant risk of allergic respiratory disease among Italian bakers. Not only wheat allergens, but also alpha-amylase must be considered as causative agents, although sensitisation to storage mites is not important in the occupational allergic response. Atopy must be regarded as an important predisposing factor for skin sensitisation to occupational allergens and for the onset of symptoms at work. The data confirm that for effective prevention, greater care should be taken not only in limiting environmental exposure, but also in identifying susceptible people. PMID:7951780

  14. Therapeutic strategies for allergic diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Peter J.

    1999-11-01

    Many drugs are now in development for the treatment of atopic diseases, including asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. These treatments are based on improvements in existing therapies or on a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in atopic diseases. Although most attention has been focused on asthma, treatments that inhibit the atopic disease process would have application to all atopic diseases, as they often coincide. Most of the many new therapies in development are aimed at inhibiting components of the allergic inflammatory response, but in the future there are real possibilities for the development of preventative and even curative treatments.

  15. Skin Sensitizing Potency of Halogenated Platinum Salts.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between occupational exposure to halogenated platinum (Pt) salts and Pt-specific allergic sensitization is well-established. Although human case reports and clinical studies demonstrate that Pt salts are potent skin sensitizers, no studies have been published tha...

  16. Allergic Contact Dermatitis: A Model of Inflammatory Itch and Pain in Human and Mouse.

    PubMed

    LaMotte, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    This chapter is an overview of published observations from our laboratory on the psychophysics and neurobiology of the persistent itch and pain of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). ACD is a clinically significant problem with many features characteristic of other pruritic disorders. Our approach was to produce ACD experimentally in humans and in the mouse. The goal was to use the mouse as an animal model for investigating the peripheral neural mechanisms of itch and pain of ACD in humans. Humans and mice were each sensitized by cutaneous topical application of squaric acid dibutyl ester, a hapten not encountered in the environment. Subsequent challenge at another cutaneous site produced local inflammation ("ACD") with humans reporting persistent itch (lasting up to a week) and mice exhibiting persistent itch- and pain-like behaviors directed toward the ACD site. Enhanced mechanically evoked itch and pain in surrounding skin in humans were reversibly blocked by numbing the ACD site with cold, suggesting dependence on ongoing activity from the site. In mice, in vivo recordings revealed spontaneous activity in a subset of pruriceptive, mechanoheat-sensitive nociceptors with unmyelinated axons innervating the ACD site. These and a larger subpopulation of acutely dissociated small-diameter neurons innervating the ACD site exhibited an upregulation of the receptor CXCR3 and excitatory responses to one of its ligands, the chemokine CXCL10 (IP-10) that contributes to the pathogenesis of ACD. Preliminary findings point to possible therapeutic targets that could be investigated in inflammatory itch disorders in humans. PMID:26900060

  17. ALLERGIC POTENTIAL OF INDOOR MOLDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many fungi have been associated with allergic lung disease, but few are well studied and even fewer allergens of fungal origin are well characterized. Exposure to damp moldy environments has been associated with the exacerbation of asthma, but the role of molds in the induction o...

  18. Asthma and Respiratory Allergic Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases such as allergy is complex and poorly understood. The causes of chronic allergic diseases including asthma involve to a large extent, immunomodulation of the adaptive and particularly the innate immune systems and are markedly influen...

  19. Severe allergic reaction to Dermabond.

    PubMed

    Perry, Arthur W; Sosin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The use of 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (Dermabond; Ethicon, Somerville, NJ) for wound closure is increasingly popular. Problems with Dermabond are generally related to application techniques and rarely relate to the chemical nature of the adhesive. This article describes a severe allergic reaction to Dermabond following breast augmentation/mastopexy. PMID:19717065

  20. INDOOR MOLDS AND ALLERGIC POTENTIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Damp/moldy environments have been associated with asthma exacerbation, but mold¿s role in allergic asthma induction is less clear. Recently, 5 molds were statistically associated with water-damaged asthmatic homes in the Cleveland area. The asthma exacerbation...

  1. Skin Keratins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A.

    2016-01-01

    Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin. PMID:26795476

  2. Mometasone Furoate Effect on Acute Skin Toxicity in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Radiotherapy: A Phase III Double-Blind, Randomized Trial From the North Central Cancer Treatment Group N06C4

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Robert C.; Schwartz, David J.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Griffin, Patricia C.; Deming, Richard L.; Anders, Jon C.; Stoffel, Thomas J.; Haselow, Robert E.; Schaefer, Paul L.; Bearden, James D.; Atherton, Pamela J.; Loprinzi, Charles L.; Martenson, James A.

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: A two-arm, double-blind, randomized trial was performed to evaluate the effect of 0.1% mometasone furoate (MMF) on acute skin-related toxicity in patients undergoing breast or chest wall radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Patients with ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive breast carcinoma who were undergoing external beam radiotherapy to the breast or chest wall were randomly assigned to apply 0.1% MMF or placebo cream daily. The primary study endpoint was the provider-assessed maximal grade of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, radiation dermatitis. The secondary endpoints included provider-assessed Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Grade 3 or greater radiation dermatitis and adverse event monitoring. The patient-reported outcome measures included the Skindex-16, the Skin Toxicity Assessment Tool, a Symptom Experience Diary, and a quality-of-life self-assessment. An assessment was performed at baseline, weekly during radiotherapy, and for 2 weeks after radiotherapy. Results: A total of 176 patients were enrolled between September 21, 2007, and December 7, 2007. The provider-assessed primary endpoint showed no difference in the mean maximum grade of radiation dermatitis by treatment arm (1.2 for MMF vs. 1.3 for placebo; p = .18). Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events toxicity was greater in the placebo group (p = .04), primarily from pruritus. For the patient-reported outcome measures, the maximum Skindex-16 score for the MMF group showed less itching (p = .008), less irritation (p = .01), less symptom persistence or recurrence (p = .02), and less annoyance with skin problems (p = .04). The group's maximal Skin Toxicity Assessment Tool score showed less burning sensation (p = .02) and less itching (p = .002). Conclusion: Patients receiving daily MMF during radiotherapy might experience reduced acute skin toxicity compared with patients receiving placebo.

  3. Mometasone Furoate Effect on Acute Skin Toxicity in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Radiotherapy: A Phase 3 Double-Blind, Randomized Trial from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group N06C4

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Robert C.; Schwartz, David J.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Griffin, Patricia C.; Deming, Richard L.; Anders, Jon C.; Stoffel, Thomas J.; Haselow, Robert E.; Schaefer, Paul L.; Bearden, James D.; Atherton, Pamela J.; Loprinzi, Charles L.; Martenson, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose A 2-arm, double-blinded, randomized trial to evaluate the effect of 0.1% mometasone furoate (MMF) on acute skin-related toxicity in patients undergoing breast or chest wall radiotherapy. Methods and Materials Patients with ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive breast carcinoma receiving external beam radiotherapy to breast or chest wall were randomly assigned to daily apply 0.1% MMF or placebo cream. Primary study end point was provider-assessed maximum grade of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 3.0 radiation dermatitis. Secondary end points included provider-assessed CTCAE grade 3 or greater radiation dermatitis and adverse-event monitoring. Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures included the Skindex-16, the Skin Toxicity Assessment Tool, a Symptom Experience Diary, and quality of life self-assessment. Assessment was performed at baseline, weekly during radiotherapy, and for 2 weeks after radiotherapy. Results In total, 176 patients were enrolled from September 21, 2007 through December 7, 2007. The provider-assessed primary end point showed no difference in mean maximum grade of radiation dermatitis by treatment arm (1.2 for MMF vs 1.3 for placebo; P=.18). CTCAE toxicity was greater in placebo group (P=.04), primarily from pruritus. For PRO measures, the maximum Skindex-16 score for MMF group showed less itching (P=.008), less irritation (P=.01), less symptom persistence or recurrence (P=.02), and less annoyance with skin problems (P=.04); the group's maximum Skin Toxicity Assessment Tool score showed less burning sensation (P=.02) and less itching (P=.002). Conclusion Patients receiving daily MMF during radiotherapy may experience reduced acute skin toxicity in comparison to placebo. PMID:20800381

  4. Latex Hypersensitivity among Allergic Egyptian Children: Relation to Parental/Self Reports

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Zeinab A.; El-Sayed, Shereen S.; Zaki, Rehab M.; Salama, Mervat A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Latex allergy is one of the major health concerns and allergic reactions to latex may be serious and fatal. Purpose. In this study, we sought to determine the frequency of latex hypersensitivity in a group of allergic Egyptian infants and children and its relation to the history provided by the patients or caregivers. Methods. We consecutively enrolled 400 patients with physician diagnosed allergic diseases. The study measurements included clinical evaluation for the site and duration of allergy, history suggestive of latex allergy, family history of allergy, and skin prick testing (SPT) using a commercial latex extract. Results. The study revealed that 16/400 (4%) patients had positive SPT; 11 of them only had positive history of sensitivity to latex. Positive latex SPT was reported in 3.4% (11/326) of patients with bronchial asthma, 5.9% (7/118) of patients with skin allergy, and 4.5% (2/44) of patients with allergic rhinitis. SPT was positive in 7.4% (4/54) of patients with concomitant respiratory and skin allergy. Latex SPT was more specific than sensitive (97.69% and 77.77%, resp.) with a negative predictive value of 99.47%. Conclusion. Although underrecognized, latex is an important allergen in the pediatric age group with a sensitization frequency of 4% among allergic children. It was observed to be especially associated with multiple allergic diseases coexisting in the same patient. Pediatric allergologists should educate their patients on latex allergy and encourage the use of latex-free products. PMID:25505988

  5. An Extraordinary Case Associated with an Allergic Reaction to Clopidogrel: Coronary Artery Spasm or Kounis Syndrome?

    PubMed

    Liping, Zhang; Bin, Hui; Qiming, Feng

    2015-11-01

    Kounis syndrome is the concurrence of acute coronary syndrome with allergic reactions, such as anaphylaxis or anaphylactoid reactions. Here, we describe a unique case: CASs (coronary artery spasms) with both non-hypersensitivity and hypersensitivity aetiology (associated with clopidogrel hypersensitivity) were observed in a 61 year-old patient. Herein, the mechanism and clinical implications of this association are discussed. PMID:26138623

  6. Effect of inhaled dust mite allergen on regional particle deposition and mucociliary clearance in allergic asthmatics**

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Acute exacerbations in allergic asthmatics may lead to impaired ability to clear mucus from the airways, a key factor in asthma morbidity. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inhaled house dust mite challenge on the regional deposition of...

  7. Tattoo-Associated Skin Reaction: The Importance of an Early Diagnosis and Proper Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bassi, Andrea; Campolmi, Piero; Cannarozzo, Giovanni; Conti, Rossana; Bruscino, Nicola; Gola, Massimo; Ermini, Stefano; Massi, Daniela; Moretti, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Tattoo is going to be a very common practice especially among young people and we are witnessing a gradual increase of numerous potential complications to tattoo placement which are often seen by physicians, but generally unknown to the public. The most common skin reactions to tattoo include a transient acute inflammatory reaction due to trauma of the skin with needles and medical complications such as superficial and deep local infections, systemic infections, allergic contact dermatitis, photodermatitis, granulomatous and lichenoid reactions, and skin diseases localized on tattooed area (eczema, psoriasis, lichen, and morphea). Next to these inflammatory skin reactions we have to consider also the possibility of the development of cutaneous conditions such as pseudolymphomatous reactions and pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia. The aim of this study is to underline the importance of an early diagnosis by performing a histological examination especially when we are in front of suspected papulonodular lesions arising from a tattoo, followed by a proper treatment, since cutaneous neoplastic evolution is known to be a rare but possible complication. PMID:25147796

  8. PULMONARY MYCOTIC INFECTIONS—Allergic and Immunologic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Keeney, Edmund L.

    1954-01-01

    The mechanisms of immunity and allergy, at play in every infectious disease, must be comprehended before the pathogenesis of an infection can be appreciated. Immunity, allergy and serology are concerned with specific antigen-antibody reactions. In immunity the principal concern is with the final disposition of antigen (agglutination, lysis, and phagocytosis). In allergy attention is focused upon tissue damage resulting from antigen-antibody union. In serology interest is devoted to the presence of antibody as evaluated by certain visible in vitro reactions—precipitin, agglutination, opsonization and complement fixation tests. There are two types of allergic reaction—the immediate or anaphylactic type and the delayed type or the allergic disease of infection. Neither kind takes part in the mechanism of immunity. At this time the allergic antibody and the immune antibody must be considered as two different and distinct antibodies. Skin and serologic tests are important diagnostic aids in certain pulmonary mycotic infections—for example, coccidioidomycosis, blastomycosis, histoplasmosis and moniliasis. Clinical expressions of allergy may appear in coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis and moniliasis. Pulmonary mycoses are divided into three groups, that is, the endogenous mycoses (actinomycosis, moniliasis, geotrichosis), the endogenous-exogenous mycoses (cryptococcosis, aspergillosis, mucormycosis) and the exogenous mycoses (nocardiosis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, North American blastomycosis). The diagnosis and treatment of the important mycotic infections that invade lung tissue are discussed. PMID:13209369

  9. Role of Predatory Mites in Persistent Nonoccupational Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Poza Guedes, Paloma; Sánchez Machín, Inmaculada; Matheu, Víctor; Iraola, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    Mites can sensitize and induce atopic disease in predisposed individuals and are an important deteriorating factor in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis. Although Pyroglyphidae mites have been extensively studied, very scarce reports are available on Cheyletidae spp. especially regarding human respiratory pathology. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the clinical role of this predator mite (Cheyletus eruditus) as a respiratory antigen in a selected sensitized human population. Fifty-two adult patients were recruited from the outpatient allergy clinic to assess their eligibility for the study. The thirty-seven subjects with persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR) who fulfilled the ARIA criteria had a positive IgE response confirmed by skin prick test (SPT) to C. eruditus. Only those individuals (37/47) with a positive SPT to C. eruditus showed a positive nasal provocation test (NPT), while 10 patients with nonallergic mild-to-moderate persistent rhinitis, control group, had a negative NPT with C. eruditus. The present paper describes a new role for the predator mite Cheyletus eruditus as a respiratory allergen in a selected subset of patients in a subtropical environment afflicted with persistent nonoccupational allergic rhinitis. PMID:27445552

  10. Occupational Exposure to Urban Air Pollution and Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Vimercati, Luigi; Gatti, Maria Franca; Baldassarre, Antonio; Nettis, Eustachio; Favia, Nicola; Palma, Marco; Martina, Gabriella Lucia Maria; Di Leo, Elisabetta; Musti, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with increased morbidity from cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer, respiratory and allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate allergic diseases in 111 traffic wardens compared to a control group of 101 administrative employees. All participating subjects underwent a physical examination, in which a complete medical history was taken and a dedicated allergological questionnaire administered. Spirometry, Specific IgE dosage (RAST) and skin prick tests (SPT) were done. Diagnostic investigations such as the nasal cytology, a specific nasal provocation test and rhinomanometry were also performed. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA version 11. The percentage of subjects with a diagnosis of allergy was higher in the exposed workers than in the controls. As regards the clinical tests, the positivity was higher for the group of exposed subjects. Among the exposed workers, those who worked on foot or motorcycle had a higher positivity in clinical trials compared to the traffic wardens who used the car. Our study showed a higher percentage of allergic subjects in the group of workers exposed to outdoor pollutants than in the controls. These results suggest that allergological tests should be included in the health surveillance protocols for workers exposed to outdoor pollutants. PMID:26501303

  11. Occupational Exposure to Urban Air Pollution and Allergic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Vimercati, Luigi; Gatti, Maria Franca; Baldassarre, Antonio; Nettis, Eustachio; Favia, Nicola; Palma, Marco; Martina, Gabriella Lucia Maria; Di Leo, Elisabetta; Musti, Marina

    2015-10-01

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with increased morbidity from cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer, respiratory and allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate allergic diseases in 111 traffic wardens compared to a control group of 101 administrative employees. All participating subjects underwent a physical examination, in which a complete medical history was taken and a dedicated allergological questionnaire administered. Spirometry, Specific IgE dosage (RAST) and skin prick tests (SPT) were done. Diagnostic investigations such as the nasal cytology, a specific nasal provocation test and rhinomanometry were also performed. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA version 11. The percentage of subjects with a diagnosis of allergy was higher in the exposed workers than in the controls. As regards the clinical tests, the positivity was higher for the group of exposed subjects. Among the exposed workers, those who worked on foot or motorcycle had a higher positivity in clinical trials compared to the traffic wardens who used the car. Our study showed a higher percentage of allergic subjects in the group of workers exposed to outdoor pollutants than in the controls. These results suggest that allergological tests should be included in the health surveillance protocols for workers exposed to outdoor pollutants. PMID:26501303

  12. High prevalence of rhinitis symptoms without allergic sensitization in Estonia and Finland

    PubMed Central

    Pallasaho, Paula; Kainu, Annette; Juusela, Maria; Meren, Mari; Sovijärvi, Anssi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Allergic rhinitis and atopy are more common in urban than rural environments. Non-allergic rhinitis has not been studied to a great extent. We aimed to assess the relationship of rhinitis symptoms with different profiles of allergic sensitization, comparing this in rural and urban environments. Methods The study population consisted of population-based cohorts of adults aged 26–60 from Helsinki, Finland, and rural Saaremaa and urban Tallinn, Estonia. We compared the results of a structured interview and skin prick tests and assessed the risk factors for rhinitis. Results The prevalence of rhinitis symptoms with atopy was 32.7% in Helsinki, 20.8% in Tallinn, and 12.5% in Saaremaa (p<0.001). Rhinitis symptoms without atopy were found in 26.4%, 29.8%, and 29.3% (p=n.s.), respectively. In Helsinki, 87.3% of participants with atopy identified symptoms as allergic, compared to 57.0% in Tallinn and 47.5% in Saaremaa. Childhood in the countryside (OR 0.63), family history of allergic rhinitis (OR 1.89), and polysensitization (OR 15.99) were significantly associated with rhinitis symptoms with atopy in a multivariate logistic regression model. The most common sensitizers were pollens and animals in Helsinki and mites in Estonia. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (OR 1.50) and family history of allergic rhinitis (OR 1.70) were associated with rhinitis symptoms without atopy. Conclusion Rhinitis symptoms without allergic sensitization were common in both Finland and Estonia and were associated with environmental tobacco smoke. Family history of allergic rhinitis predisposed to rhinitis symptoms irrespective of atopy status. PMID:26557256

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis mimicking angioedema due to paraphenylendiamine hypersensitivity: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tukenmez Demirci, Gulsen; Kivanc Altunay, Ilknur; Atis, Guldehan; Kucukunal, Asli

    2012-09-01

    Active sensitization to paraphenylendiamine (PPD) and related compounds from temporary black henna tattoos has become an epidemic in the recent years. Hair dyes also include PPD like black henna tatoos which cause allergic contact dermatitis. Skin lesions of allergic contact dermatitis from PPD are mostly seen as an exudative erythema, an erythema multiforme-like eruption or a bullous contact dermatitis. We, herein, report a 27 year-old woman with an angioedema-like reaction occurring after the first exposure to hair dye who was unaware of being previously sensitized to PPD from black henna tattoo. PMID:22181557

  14. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are specialized skin cells that produce pigment called melanin. The melanin pigment produced by melanocytes gives skin its color. ... absorbing and scattering the energy. People with more melanin have darker skin and better protection from UV ...

  15. Skin Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  16. A Case with Repeated Recurrent Acute Coronary Syndrome due to Pseudoephedrine Use: Kounis Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Çeliker, Metin; Tuncer, Mustafa; Şekeralmaz, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Allergic reaction-associated acute coronary syndrome picture is defined as Kounis syndrome. Although drug use is the most common cause of allergic reaction, foods and environmental factors may also play a role in the etiology. Herein, a case with acute coronary syndrome that developed two times at 8-month interval due to pseudoephedrine use for upper respiratory tract infection is presented. PMID:25435880

  17. Allergic Aspergillus sinusitis and its association with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Panjabi, Chandramani

    2011-01-01

    Allergic Aspergillus sinusitis (AAS) is a three decade old clinicopathologic entity in which mucoid impaction akin to that of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) occurs in the paranasal sinuses. Features such as radiographic evidence of pansinusitis, passage of nasal plugs and recurrent nasal polyposis in patients with an atopic background is suggestive of AAS. Histopathlogic confirmation from the inspissated mucus is a sine qua non for the diagnosis. Heterogeneous densities on computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses are caused by the 'allergic mucin' in the sinuses. Many patients give a history of having undergone multiple surgical procedures for symptomatic relief. The current approach to treatment appears to include an initial surgical debridement followed by postoperative oral corticosteroids for long durations. Although both ABPA and AAS are classified as Aspergillus-related hypersensitivity respiratory disorders, their co-occurrence appears to be an infrequently recognised phenomenon. This could perhaps be attributed to the fact that these two diseases are often treated by two different specialties. A high index of suspicion is required to establish the diagnoses of ABPA and AAS. All patients with asthma and/or rhinosinusitis along with sensitisation to Aspergillus antigens are at an increased risk of developing ABPA and/or AAS. ABPA must be excluded in all patients with AAS and vice versa. Early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate therapy could plausibly alter the course of the disease processes and prevent the possible development of long term sequelae. PMID:22053309

  18. Cryotherapy - skin

    MedlinePlus

    Cryosurgery - skin; Warts - freezing; Warts - cryotherapy ... Cryotherapy or cryosurgery may be used to: Remove warts Destroy precancerous skin lesions (actinic keratoses or solar keratoses) In rare cases, ...

  19. Integrated innate mechanisms involved in airway allergic inflammation to the serine protease subtilisin.

    PubMed

    Florsheim, Esther; Yu, Shuang; Bragatto, Ivan; Faustino, Lucas; Gomes, Eliane; Ramos, Rodrigo N; Barbuto, José Alexandre M; Medzhitov, Ruslan; Russo, Momtchilo

    2015-05-15

    Proteases are recognized environmental allergens, but little is known about the mechanisms responsible for sensing enzyme activity and initiating the development of allergic inflammation. Because usage of the serine protease subtilisin in the detergent industry resulted in an outbreak of occupational asthma in workers, we sought to develop an experimental model of allergic lung inflammation to subtilisin and to determine the immunological mechanisms involved in type 2 responses. By using a mouse model of allergic airway disease, we have defined in this study that s.c. or intranasal sensitization followed by airway challenge to subtilisin induces prototypic allergic lung inflammation, characterized by airway eosinophilia, type 2 cytokine release, mucus production, high levels of serum IgE, and airway reactivity. These allergic responses were dependent on subtilisin protease activity, protease-activated receptor-2, IL-33R ST2, and MyD88 signaling. Also, subtilisin stimulated the expression of the proallergic cytokines IL-1α, IL-33, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, and the growth factor amphiregulin in a human bronchial epithelial cell line. Notably, acute administration of subtilisin into the airways increased lung IL-5-producing type 2 innate lymphoid cells, which required protease-activated receptor-2 expression. Finally, subtilisin activity acted as a Th2 adjuvant to an unrelated airborne Ag-promoting allergic inflammation to inhaled OVA. Therefore, we established a murine model of occupational asthma to a serine protease and characterized the main molecular pathways involved in allergic sensitization to subtilisin that potentially contribute to initiate allergic airway disease. PMID:25876764

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria.

    PubMed

    Marks, J G

    1988-06-01

    Two female florists developed dermatitis of the fingertips. Patch testing revealed allergic contact dermatitis to the flower, Alstroemeria, used in floral arrangements. They had positive patch tests to portions of Alstroemeria, and to tuliposide A, the allergen in this plant. Vinyl gloves were not helpful since tuliposide A readily penetrates through these gloves. Nitrile gloves may be protective since they prevented positive patch test to tuliposide A. PMID:2967676

  1. Immunologic principles of allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Averbeck, Marco; Gebhardt, Carl; Emmrich, Frank; Treudler, Regina; Simon, Jan C

    2007-11-01

    Allergy either results from a pathological excessive immune reaction, or from the defective induction of tolerance to otherwise harmless antigens. Allergic reactions are mounted by mechanisms of innate and adaptive immunity. The development of an allergic response can be divided in sensitization and elicitation phases. Immediate type allergic reactions (e.g. anaphylaxis, urticaria, rhinoconjunctivitis allergica, allergic asthma) are mediated by IgE antibodies which are produced by B cells stimulated by allergen-specific Th2 cells. Crosslinking of allergen-specific IgE on membrane surfaces of mast cells and basophilic granulocytes leads to release of soluble mediators which may cause systemic symptoms within minutes to hours. The following infiltration of eosinophilic granulocytes and Th2 cells directs chronic inflammation. Humoral cytotoxic immune reactions (e.g. drug induced cytopenia) are mediated by IgG and IgM antibodies which are directed against membrane associated antigens. IgG and IgM antibodies directed against soluble antigens elicit immune complex mediated cytotoxicity (e.g.drug induced vasculitis). Delayed type immune reactions (e.g.contact dermatitis) are based on the activation of antigen specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and need 24 h to 48 h to develop. Upon recurrent contact with identical antigens, recruitment of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells cause inflammation and cytotoxic induced apoptosis in target cells as well as cytokine mediated leukocyte infiltration. Subsequent immigration of CD4(+) Th2 cells provides anti-inflammatory mechanisms leading to resolution of the inflammatory response and tissue repair. PMID:17976144

  2. [Recent advances in allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Liang, Meijun; Xu, Rui; Xu, Geng

    2015-02-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) clinically expressed by sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal itching and congestion is an allergen-driven mucosal inflammatory disease which is modulated by immunoglobulin E. Epidemiological studies have indicated that prevalence of AR continues to increase, and it has been a worldwide health problem that places a significant healthcare burden on individuals and society. Given the evolving understanding of the process by which an allergen is recognized and the roles of mediators which account for AR progress, the pathogenesis of AR has become clearer. Current studies have demonstrated local allergic rhinitis (LAR) that patients with both sug- gestive symptoms of AR and a negative diagnostic test for atopy may have local allergic inflammation is a prevalent entity in patients evaluated with rhinitis, but further research remains needed. Management of AR includes aller- gen avoidance, pharmacological treatment and allergen-specific immunotherapy. Recently montelukast has exhibited previously undocumented anti-inflammatory properties, leukotriene receptor antagonists therefore may serve a more important role in the treatment of AR. Not only has immunotherapy proved its efficacy, but also been able to alter disease course and thereby mitigate progression to asthma. Thus immunotherapy can be initiated while receiving pharmacotherapy, especially in children with AR. As clinical guidelines, the ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma) provides basic principles of effective treatment of AR. Besides, choosing an appropriate treatment strategy should be based on the severity and chronicity of patient's symptom. The aim of this review was to provide an update mainly on the pathophysiology, epidemiology, and management of AR. PMID:26012287

  3. Tryptophan Metabolism in Allergic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gostner, Johanna M; Becker, Katrin; Kofler, Heinz; Strasser, Barbara; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis, as well the early phase of atopic dermatitis, are characterized by a Th2-skewed immune environment. Th2-type cytokines are upregulated in allergic inflammation, whereas there is downregulation of the Th1-type immune response and related cytokines, such as interferon-x03B3; (IFN-x03B3;). The latter is a strong inducer of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1), which degrades the essential amino acid tryptophan, as part of an antiproliferative strategy of immunocompetent cells to halt the growth of infected and malignant cells, and also of T cells - an immunoregulatory intervention to avoid overactivation of the immune system. Raised serum tryptophan concentrations have been reported in patients with pollen allergy compared to healthy blood donors. Moreover, higher baseline tryptophan concentrations have been associated with a poor response to specific immunotherapy. It has been shown that the increase in tryptophan concentrations in patients with pollen allergy only exists outside the pollen season, and not during the season. Interestingly, there is only a minor alteration of the kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (Kyn/Trp, an index of tryptophan breakdown). The reason for the higher tryptophan concentrations in patients with pollen allergy outside the season remains a matter of discussion. To this regard, the specific interaction of nitric oxide (NO∙) with the tryptophan-degrading enzyme IDO-1 could be important, because an enhanced formation of NO∙ has been reported in patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis. Importantly, NO∙ suppresses the activity of the heme enzyme IDO-1, which could explain the higher tryptophan levels. Thus, inhibitors of inducible NO∙ synthase should be reconsidered as candidates for antiallergic therapy out of season that may abrogate the arrest of IDO-1 by decreasing the production of NO∙. Considering its association with the pathophysiology of atopic disease, tryptophan metabolism may

  4. Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis due to Alternaria: Case report and review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhagteshwar; Denning, David W

    2012-01-01

    While allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and mycosis are well recognised, no cases have been described related to Alternaria spp. Alternaria is a common sensitising fungus in asthmatics and related to thunderstorm asthma. We report a case of an asthmatic who presented with worsening asthma control, mild eosinophilia on high dose inhaled corticosteroids (800 μg/day), a total IgE of 3800 KIU/L, an Alternaria-specific IgE of 21.3 KUa/L and positive skin prick test, negative specific IgE and skin prick test to Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium spp., Cladosporium spp., Trichophyton spp. and a normal CT scan of the thorax. He responded well to a short course of oral prednisolone and then oral itraconazole, given over 17 months but relapsed 1 month after stopping it. PMID:24371728

  5. Fexofenadine hydrochloride in the treatment of allergic disease: a review

    PubMed Central

    Axelrod, David; Bielory, Leonard

    2008-01-01

    Fexofenadine is a selective, non-sedating H1 receptor antagonist, marketed in the United States since 2000. The FDA approved an oral suspension in 2006, for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria in children. The tablet, capsule, and oral suspension are bioequivalent. Although fexofenadine does not use P450 CYP 3A4 it does interact with a number of drugs at P-glycoprotein and organic anion transporter polypeptides. The risk of toxicity from other drugs may increase with the administration of fexofenadine. Orange and grapefruit juices reduce the bioavailability of fexofenadine. Fexofenadine has been shown to have an impact on inflammatory mediators, other than histamine, such as decreasing the production of LTC4, LTD4, LTE4, PGE2, and PGF2α; inhibiting cyclo-oxygenase 2, thromboxane; limiting iNOS generation of NO; decreasing cytokine levels (ICAM-1, ELAM-1, VCAM-1, RANTES, I-TAC, MDC, TARC, MMP-2, MMP-9, tryptase); and diminishing eosinophil adherence, chemotaxis, and opsonization of particles. These effects may provide benefit to some of the inflammatory responses of an acute allergic reaction and provide a basis for future development of H1 antagonists with stronger anti-inflammatory effects. These studies also support the contention that fexofenadine is effective for the treatment of allergic rhinits and chronic idiopathic urticaria. PMID:21436982

  6. Management of allergic Olympic athletes.

    PubMed

    Fitch, K D

    1984-05-01

    Twenty percent of the recent Australian Olympic athletes have had an allergic disorder. Because of the ban on all sympathomimetic drugs except some beta 2-agonists. Olympic team physicians have a major responsibility to ensure that no competitor is disqualified for infringing on the antidoping rules of the Medical Commission of the International Olympic Committee. Inadvertent contravention of these regulations may occur because numerous banned sympathomimetics are available to athletes and their coaches without medical prescription and are frequently contained in combination preparations. The unbroken 24 yr in which asthmatics have won Olympic medals have been both before and after the introduction of drug tests. Currently a comprehensive range of preventive and therapeutic medications are available for asthmatics to compete with minimal respiratory disadvantage. It was, however, during a period of unnecessary restriction that an American swimmer forfeited his gold medal because of prerace ingestion of a banned sympathomimetic agent. Should adverse air quality be encountered during the Los Angeles Olympics, allergic competitors will be among the most inconvenienced . Athletes with allergic rhinitis and sinusitis will be the most disadvantaged because sympathomimetic vasoconstrictors remain banned. It is strongly recommended that the Medical Commission of the International Olympic Committee meet with an appropriate body of experts (i.e., the American Academy of Allergy and Immunology) to review this ban on vasoconstrictor agents. PMID:6715736

  7. Investigational drugs for allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Passalacqua, Giovanni; Compalati, Enrico; Canonica, Giorgio Walter

    2010-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a high-prevalence disease, triggered by an IgE-mediated reaction, and sustained by a complex inflammatory network of cells, mediators, and cytokines. When the exposure to allergens persists, the inflammatory process becomes chronic. The current therapeutic strategy is based on allergen avoidance when possible, drugs and allergen immunotherapy. The main drugs are oral and topical antihistamines and nasal steroids. They are overall effective in controlling symptoms, but do not modify the immune background that leads to allergic inflammation. In addition, safety concerns may be present, especially for prolonged treatments. Thus, efforts are currently made to improve the existing molecules and to develop new drugs, in order to achieve greater clinical efficacy with a better tolerability. Also, attempts are made to selectively block relevant signal pathways of the allergic reaction by means of specific anti-mediators. Specific immunotherapy, in addition to the clinical effect, is capable of modifying the Th2-biased immune response. Thus, an intense research activity is presently ongoing with the aim of improving the characteristics and modes of action of this treatment. PMID:20001557

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by dorzolamide eyedrops.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Kim, Moosang

    2015-01-01

    The side effects of topical dorzolamide hydrochloride, such as conjunctivitis, eyelid edema, and eye lid irritation, are well known. However, allergic contact dermatitis due to dorzolamide is rare, although the product has been commonly used worldwide in patients with glaucoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of allergic contact dermatitis caused by topical dorzolamide hydrochloride in Korea. Herein we report a case of allergic contact dermatitis due to topical dorzolamide eyedrops. PMID:25897195

  9. Hymenopterid bites, stings, allergic reactions, and the impact of hurricanes on hymenopterid-inflicted injuries.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2007-01-01

    Hymenopterid stings and subsequent allergic reactions are a common indication for emergency department visits worldwide. Unrecognized anaphylactic reactions to hymenopterid stings by apids, or bees, and vespids, or wasps, are a significant cause of sudden and unanticipated deaths outdoors in young people, with and without atopic histories. Insect bites and stings, often complicated by allergic reactions or skin infections, by community-acquired pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, are common sources of morbidity following hurricanes, tropical storms, and prolonged flooding. This article will review and critically analyze the descriptive epidemiology and outcomes of hymenopterid bites, stings, and allergic reactions, especially following hurricanes and prolonged flooding disasters; stratify the immunologic reactions to hymenopterid stings by clinical severity and outcomes; and present current recommendations for management, prophylaxis, and prevention of hymenopterid stings and reactions. PMID:17694935

  10. A bug's view of allergic airways disease.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Peter S; Campbell, Dianne E

    2016-06-01

    The increase in allergic airways disease has been linked to modern urbanization and lifestyle. Recent evidence suggests that the associated reduction in microbial exposure, reduction in dietary fibre intake and increased antibiotic use may cause early dysbiosis in infancy, which predisposes to immune dysregulation and allergic airways disease later in life. This implies that there may be a window of opportunity for primary prevention strategies aimed to protect or restore the microbiome early in life and thereby decrease the risk of developing allergic airways disease. Alternatively, strategies that correct dysbiosis may aid in the treatment of established allergic airways disease. PMID:27012478

  11. Skin Biomes.

    PubMed

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders. PMID:27056560

  12. [A case of allergic granulomatosis and angiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome) in a 15-year-old girl].

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kazue; Yamato, Kenji; Kurihara, Takeyuki; Osaki, Kohichi; Ohba, Hideo; Nakamura, Junichi; Okimoto, Niro

    2004-09-01

    A 15-year-old girl with a 6-month history of bronchial asthma was admitted to our hospital because of fever, dyspnea, weight loss, dysesthesia, muscle weakness, gait disturbance and purpuric rash. In addition, leukocytosis, hypereosinophilia and elevation of CRP were observed. Chest radiograph and computed tomography on admission showed non-segmental patchy air-space consolidation in both lung fields. Skin biopsy was performed and the pathologic diagnosis was necrotizing arteritis with eosinophilic infiltration. Transbronchial lung biopsy revealed eosinophilic pneumonia. From the clinical course, laboratory data and pathologic findings, the diagnosis of allergic granulomatosis and angiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome) was made. Following the skin and lung biopsies, intravenous pulse corticosteroid and oral prednisolone treatment was started and her clinical findings improved. Angiitis with allergic granulomatosis is a vasculitis that is found in adults. This is an extremely rare and interesting case of angiitis with allergic granulomatosis in childhood. PMID:15500154

  13. Natural Course of Allergic and Nonallergic Rhinitis After 2 Years in Korean Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Choi, Ji Ho; Suh, Jeffrey D.; Chung, Sochung; Hong, Seok-Chan; Kim, Jin Kook; Cho, Jae Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Allergic and nonallergic rhinitis are very common disease for children, however, little is known about their natural courses in the general population. The purpose is to evaluate the natural course of allergic and nonallergic rhinitis in children. Methods. We analyzed data from Snoring Child Cohort of 178 children (107 boys and 71 girls). All children entered the study at the age of 7 years (range, 6.5 to 7.4 years). Questionnaires regarding chronic rhinitis, a skin prick test (SPT) for 5 inhalent allergens, and specific IgE for 2 dust mites were administered. Children were classified into 4 groups: allergic rhinitis (rhinitis, positive SPT), nonallergic rhinitis (rhinitis, negative SPT), sensitization only (no rhinitis, positive SPT), and control (no rhinitis, negative SPT). We repeated follow them annually, and analyzed the data of first and third year for this study. Results. Finally, the data of 122 children were analyzed. Among 18 children with allergic rhinitis at 7 year, 13 (72%) became sensitization only after 2 years and 5 (28%) were remained having allergic rhinitis. Five out of 19 children (26%) with nonallergic rhinitis developed into allergic rhinitis and 7 (37%) into control at 9 years. Twenty-four out of 28 children (86%) with sensitization only at 7 years remained the same at 9 years. Among 57 control children at 7 year, 2 (4%) developed into allergic rhinitis, 7 (12%) with nonallergic rhinitis, and 16 (28%) with sensitization only at 9 years. Conclusion. The status of chronic rhinitis and allergen sensitization is ever-changing in children. PMID:27095517

  14. Pattern of occupational allergic dermatitis in the Dermatology Clinic, Hospital Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Rohna, R; Ganesapillai, T; Salbiah, D; Zaiton, I

    1999-03-01

    A two years retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed as contact allergic dermatitis with positive patch test attending the Dermatology clinic was performed. Of the 346 patients with a positive patch test, 14% had occupational dermatitis. This condition affected mainly young and inexperienced workers. An inverse relationship was seen between age and prevalence of occupational allergic dermatitis. Allergic hand dermatitis was the commonest presentation in occupational allergic dermatitis. This was followed by dermatitis of the exposed skin (face, neck, hands and forearms). The common sensitising agents identified were rubber chemicals and nickel. The two main groups at risk were factory workers and medical personnel. The common allergens found in factory workers were epoxy resin, pewter, nickel and rubber chemicals. Exposure dermatitis occurred in patients working in the pewter industry. Two thirds of medical personnel with hand dermatitis were allergic to rubber gloves. One year follow up after patch testing showed that 19% of patients still suffered from chronic dermatitis. Dermatitis improved in 34% of patients. Forty-seven percent were cured and stopped attending the clinic after patch testing and adequate counselling. PMID:10972018

  15. Netherton syndrome: defective kallikrein inhibition in the skin leads to skin inflammation and allergy.

    PubMed

    Furio, Laetitia; Hovnanian, Alain

    2014-09-01

    Netherton syndrome (NS) is an orphan genetic skin disease with a profound skin barrier defect and severe allergic manifestations. NS is caused by loss of function mutations in SPINK5 encoding lympho-epithelial Kazal-type inhibitor (LEKTI), a secreted multi-domain serine protease inhibitor expressed in stratified epithelia. Studies in mouse models and in NS patients have established that unopposed kallikrein 5 activity triggers stratum corneum detachment and activates PAR-2 signaling, leading to the autonomous production of pro-allergic and pro-inflammatory mediators. This emerging knowledge on NS pathogenesis has highlighted a central role for protease regulation in skin homeostasis but also in the complexity of the disease, and holds the promise of new specific treatments. PMID:25153381

  16. Allergic Rhinitis: Mechanisms and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, David I; Schwartz, Gene; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) has been estimated at 10% to 40%, and its economic burden is substantial. AR patients develop specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody responses to indoor and outdoor environmental allergens with exposure over time. These specific IgE antibodies bind to high-affinity IgE receptors on mast cells and basophils. Key outcome measures of therapeutic interventions include rhinitis symptom control, rescue medication requirements, and quality-of-life measures. A comprehensive multiple modality treatment plan customized to the individual patient can optimize outcomes. PMID:27083101

  17. Skin - clammy

    MedlinePlus

    ... wide infection) Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) Severe pain Shock (low blood pressure) Home Care Home care depends on what is causing the ... Possible drug abuse Shortness of breath Signs of shock (such as confusion, lower level of ... The health care provider will perform a physical exam and ask ...

  18. Environmental Changes, Microbiota, and Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byoung-Ju; Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Lee, Eun

    2014-01-01

    During the last few decades, the prevalence of allergic disease has increased dramatically. The development of allergic diseases has been attributed to complex interactions between environmental factors and genetic factors. Of the many possible environmental factors, most research has focused on the most commonly encountered environmental factors, such as air pollution and environmental microbiota in combination with climate change. There is increasing evidence that such environmental factors play a critical role in the regulation of the immune response that is associated with allergic diseases, especially in genetically susceptible individuals. This review deals with not only these environmental factors and genetic factors but also their interactions in the development of allergic diseases. It will also emphasize the need for early interventions that can prevent the development of allergic diseases in susceptible populations and how these interventions can be identified. PMID:25228995

  19. Epithelial Cell Regulation of Allergic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Gour, Naina; Lajoie, Stephane

    2016-09-01

    Allergic diseases, which have escalated in prevalence in recent years, arise as a result of maladaptive immune responses to ubiquitous environmental stimuli. Why only certain individuals mount inappropriate type 2 immune responses to these otherwise harmless allergens has remained an unanswered question. Mounting evidence suggests that the epithelium, by sensing its environment, is the central regulator of allergic diseases. Once considered to be a passive barrier to allergens, epithelial cells at mucosal surfaces are now considered to be the cornerstone of the allergic diathesis. Beyond their function as maintaining barrier at mucosal surfaces, mucosal epithelial cells through the secretion of mediators like IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP control the fate of downstream allergic immune responses. In this review, we will discuss the advances in recent years regarding the process of allergen recognition and secretion of soluble mediators by epithelial cells that shape the development of the allergic response. PMID:27534656

  20. Environmental protection from allergic diseases: From humans to mice and back.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Bianca; Vercelli, Donata

    2015-10-01

    Allergic diseases have a strong environmental component, illustrated by the rapid rise of their prevalence in the Western world. Environmental exposures have been consistently shown to either promote or protect against allergic disease. Here we focus on protective exposures and the pathways they regulate. Traditional farming, natural environments with high biodiversity, and pets in the home (particularly dogs) have the most potent and consistent allergy-protective effects and are actively investigated to identify the environmental and host-based factors that confer allergy protection. Recent work emphasizes the critical protective role of microbial diversity and its interactions with the gut/lung and skin/lung axes-a cross-talk through which microbial exposure in the gut or skin powerfully influences immune responses in the lung. PMID:26210896

  1. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  2. Skin Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs that can help clear up this condition. Day-to-Day Skin Care See our tips for daily skin ... Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your ...

  3. Skin lumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... and contains fluid or semisolid material Benign skin growths such as seborrheic keratoses or neurofibromas Boils , painful, red bumps usually involving an infected hair follicle Corn or callus, caused by skin thickening in response ...

  4. Skin Pigment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Version Pigment Disorders Overview of Skin Pigment Albinism Vitiligo Hyperpigmentation Melasma Melanin is the brown pigment ... dark-skinned people produce the most. People with albinism have little or no melanin and thus their ...

  5. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused a large amount of skin loss Burns Cosmetic reasons or reconstructive surgeries where there has been skin damage or skin ... anesthesia are: Reactions to medicines Problems with breathing Risks for this surgery are: Bleeding Chronic pain (rarely) Infection Loss of ...

  6. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  7. Toxoplasma gondii infection modulate systemic allergic immune response in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Fenoy, Ignacio M; Sánchez, Vanesa R; Soto, Ariadna S; Picchio, Mariano S; Martin, Valentina; Goldman, Alejandra

    2015-07-01

    The increased prevalence of allergies in developed countries has been attributed to a reduced exposure to some microbes. In agreement with epidemiological studies, we previously showed that Toxoplasma gondii infection prevents allergic airway inflammation. The mechanisms would be related to the strong Th1 response induced by the parasite and to regulatory cell induction. Herein we further characterized whether T. gondii allergy modulation extents to a systemic level or if it is limited to the lung. Parasite infection before allergic sensitization resulted in a diminished Th2 cytokine response and, when sensitized during acute infection, an increased in TGF-β production was detected. Allergen specific T cell proliferation was also reduced. Sensitization during both acute and chronic phases of infection resulted in a decreased anaphylaxis reaction. Our results extend earlier work and show that, in addition to lung airway inflammation, T. gondii infection can suppress allergic responses at systemic level. These results open the possibility that this protozoan infection could modulate other allergic disorders such as atopic dermatitis or oral allergies. Understanding the mechanisms by which different microorganisms regulate inflammation may potentially lead to the development of strategies aimed to control atopic diseases. PMID:25888245

  8. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by wood dusts.

    PubMed

    Estlander, T; Jolanki, R; Alanko, K; Kanerva, L

    2001-04-01

    Exposure to wood dusts may cause various skin and mucosal symptoms. Allergic dermatoses, caused by wood dusts, diagnosed at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health during 1976-1999 are reported here. 16 had allergic contact dermatitis and, 2 had contact urticaria. 9 men (3 cabinet makers, 3 joiners, 1 carpenter, 1 knifemaker and 1 machinist) were mainly exposed to tropical hardwoods. 1 man had dermatitis caused by western red cedar. 5 patients, 3 men and 2 women, were exposed to Finnish pine or spruce dusts, and 1 man to aspen. 7 also had rhinitis, 4 asthma or dyspnoea and 3 conjunctivitis. On patch testing, 10 men reacted to 9 different wood dusts, including teak (5), palisander (3), jacaranda (2), mahogany (2), walnut (2) and obeche (1). Reactions to wood allergens, including lapachol (2), deoxylapachol (1), (R)-3,4-dimethoxydahlbergione (2), 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (1), mansonone A (2) and salicyl alcohol (1), were noted in 4 cases. All but 1 of 5 patients exposed to pine or spruce dusts reacted to the sawdusts, all 5 to colophonium, 3 to abietic acid, 2 to tall oil resin, 3 to wood tar mix and 4 to other wood gum resins. Of the 2 CU patients, 1 was prick and RAST positive to obeche, 1 reacted with urticarial dermatitis to punah wood dust on chamber exposure. Occupational allergic dermatoses are mainly caused by the dusts of hardwoods, mostly due to Type IV allergy, but may also be caused by softwood dusts. Patch tests can be done with wood dusts, but should be confirmed by patch testing with wood allergens if possible. PMID:11260236

  9. Specific IgE in the identification of allergens in allergic rhinitis Malaysian patients.

    PubMed

    Choon-Kook, S; Teck-Soong, S L

    1995-06-01

    The specific serum IgE levels to 20 allergens were determined by enzyme immunoassay in 90 Malaysian patients with allergic rhinitis. Ninety-two percent of patients had elevated IgE to at least 1 of the allergens. The housedust mites D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae were the major allergens, elevated IgE to either allergen being present in 86% of the patients. Prick skin tests were carried out in some of the patients, housedust mites, cat fur, dog hair and shrimp were the allergens used. Close correspondence was found between IgE and prick skin tests to the mites. PMID:7488340

  10. Acute toxicity of 2-butyne-1,4-diol in laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Jedrychowski, R A; Czajkowska, T; Stetkiewicz, J; Stetkiewicz, I

    1992-04-01

    Acute toxicity of 2-butyne-1,4-diol (BYD) was evaluated in laboratory animals. The evaluation involved acute oral and dermal toxicity in rats, dermal and ocular irritation in rabbits and skin sensitization in guinea pigs. The oral LD50 values for BYD were 132 mg kg-1 in male rats and 176 mg kg-1 in female rats. Post-mortem histology showed severe damage in lungs, liver and kidneys. In surviving rats, moderate to severe degenerative changes were observed in the liver but only mild lesions in the kidneys. In acute dermal toxicity studies the test chemical was applied either as a solid substance or as 40% aqueous solution at a dose of 5 g kg-1 for 24 h. Within 48 h of application of the diluted test material, half of the rats died. Liver and kidneys were the primary targets and different stages of degeneration, including necrosis, were observed. No deaths occurred after application of the solid substance. In rabbits, BYD was slightly irritant to skin and eyes. No allergic contact dermatitis was observed in guinea pigs. PMID:1556377

  11. FEF(25-75) might be a predictive factor for bronchial inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity in adolescents with allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Ciprandi, G; Tosca, M A; Castellazzi, A M; Cairello, F; Salpietro, C; Arrigo, T; Miraglia Del Giudice, M

    2011-10-01

    Allergic rhinitis and asthma are closely associated. Bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) is a pathophysiological characteristic of asthma. Allergic inflammation is characterized by eosinophilic infiltrate and may by indirectly assessed by exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). Forced expiratory flow between 25 percent and 75 percent of vital capacity (FEF25-75) may predict BHR in adult patients with allergic rhinitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of BHR in a large group of adolescents with allergic rhinitis and whether FEF25-75 might be related with BHR and FeNO. Methods 150 adolescents with allergic rhinitis were enrolled. Clinical examination, skin prick test, spirometry, methacholine challenge, and FeNO were performed in all patients. Results Severe BHR is quite frequent in allergic adolescents. Impaired FEF25-75 values (such as less than 65 percent of predicted) constitute a relevant predictive factor for severe BHR (OR 4.4). FeNO levels were significantly related with BHR. Conclusion This study provides evidence that impaired FEF25-75 values might predict severe BHR and BHR is related with FeNO in adolescents. Therefore, BHR should be suspected in adolescents with low FEF25-75 values. PMID:22032781

  12. Sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Misery, L; Loser, K; Ständer, S

    2016-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical condition defined by the self-reported facial presence of different sensory perceptions, including tightness, stinging, burning, tingling, pain and pruritus. Sensitive skin may occur in individuals with normal skin, with skin barrier disturbance, or as a part of the symptoms associated with facial dermatoses such as rosacea, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although experimental studies are still pending, the symptoms of sensitive skin suggest the involvement of cutaneous nerve fibres and neuronal, as well as epidermal, thermochannels. Many individuals with sensitive skin report worsening symptoms due to environmental factors. It is thought that this might be attributed to the thermochannel TRPV1, as it typically responds to exogenous, endogenous, physical and chemical stimuli. Barrier disruptions and immune mechanisms may also be involved. This review summarizes current knowledge on the epidemiology, potential mechanisms, clinics and therapy of sensitive skin. PMID:26805416

  13. Epidermal skin grafting.

    PubMed

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Hughes, Olivia B; Macquhae, Flor; Rakosi, Adele; Kirsner, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Autologous skin grafts, such as full- and split-thickness, have long been part of the reconstructive ladder as an option to close skin defects. Although they are effective in providing coverage, they require the need for a trained surgeon, use of anaesthesia and operating room and creation of a wound at the donor site. These drawbacks can be overcome with the use of epidermal skin grafts (ESGs), which can be harvested without the use of anaesthesia in an office setting and with minimal to no scarring at the donor site. ESGs consist only of the epidermal layer and have emerged as an appealing alternative to other autologous grafts for the treatment of acute and chronic wounds. In this article, we provide an overview of epidermal grafting and its role in wound management. PMID:27547964

  14. [Definition and clinic of the allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Spielhaupter, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    The allergic rhinitis is the most common immune disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 24% and one of the most common chronic diseases at all--with tendency to rise. It occurs in childhood and influences the patients' social life, school performance and labour productivity. Furthermore the allergic rhinitis is accompanied by a lot of comorbidities, including conjunctivitis, asthma bronchiale, food allergy, neurodermatitis and sinusitis. For example the risk for asthma is 3.2-fold higher for adults with allergic rhinitis than for healthy people. PMID:27120868

  15. Maternal Influences over Offspring Allergic Responses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Asthma occurs as a result of complex interactions of environmental and genetic factors. Clinical studies and animal models of asthma indicate offspring of allergic mothers have increased risk of development of allergies. Environmental factors including stress-induced corticosterone and vitamin E isoforms during pregnancy regulate the risk for offspring development of allergy. In this review, we discuss mechanisms for the development of allergic disease early in life, environmental factors that may impact the development of risk for allergic disease early in life, and how the variation in global prevalence of asthma may be explained, at least in part, by some environmental components. PMID:25612797

  16. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and allergic proctocolitis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Non-IgE-mediated food allergic disorders account for up to 40% of milk protein allergy in infants and young children. We aim to review the recent literature and to provide an update on diagnosis and management of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) and food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis (FPIAP). The peer-reviewed articles indexed in PubMed have been reviewed. FPIES manifests in infants as profuse, repetitive vomiting and lethargy, often with diarrhea, leading to acute dehydration, or weight loss and failure to thrive, in chronic form. FPIES is caused most commonly by cow's milk (CM) and soy proteins; rice, oat, and other solid foods may also trigger FPIES. FPIES rarely occurs in the exclusively breastfed infants. FPIES is underrecognized; children are often mismanaged as having acute viral gastrointestinal illness, sepsis, or surgical disease, delaying diagnosis of FPIES for many months. Approximately 25% of children with FPIES develop food-specific IgE antibodies and some transition to immediate food allergy; IgE positivity is associated with a more protracted course. FPIES is a self-limiting condition, with most cases resolving by age three to five years. Ondansetron may be helpful in managing acute FPIES. FPIAP is a benign condition of bloody stools in a well-appearing infant, with usual onset between one and four weeks of age. Up to 60% of cases occur in exclusively breastfed infants and resolve with maternal elimination of CM and soy proteins. The majority of cases resolve by age 12 months. FPIES may transition to IgE-mediated food allergy in some patients; IgE positivity to the FPIES food is a marker of a more persistent disease. FPIAP is benign and resolves by age 12 months in most patients. PMID:25976434

  17. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and allergic proctocolitis.

    PubMed

    Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Non-IgE-mediated food allergic disorders account for up to 40% of milk protein allergy in infants and young children. We aim to review the recent literature and to provide an update on diagnosis and management of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) and food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis (FPIAP). The peer-reviewed articles indexed in PubMed have been reviewed. FPIES manifests in infants as profuse, repetitive vomiting and lethargy, often with diarrhea, leading to acute dehydration, or weight loss and failure to thrive, in chronic form. FPIES is caused most commonly by cow's milk (CM) and soy proteins; rice, oat, and other solid foods may also trigger FPIES. FPIES rarely occurs in the exclusively breastfed infants. FPIES is underrecognized; children are often mismanaged as having acute viral gastrointestinal illness, sepsis, or surgical disease, delaying diagnosis of FPIES for many months. Approximately 25% of children with FPIES develop food-specific IgE antibodies and some transition to immediate food allergy; IgE positivity is associated with a more protracted course. FPIES is a self-limiting condition, with most cases resolving by age three to five years. Ondansetron may be helpful in managing acute FPIES. FPIAP is a benign condition of bloody stools in a well-appearing infant, with usual onset between one and four weeks of age. Up to 60% of cases occur in exclusively breastfed infants and resolve with maternal elimination of CM and soy proteins. The majority of cases resolve by age 12 months. FPIES may transition to IgE-mediated food allergy in some patients; IgE positivity to the FPIES food is a marker of a more persistent disease. FPIAP is benign and resolves by age 12 months in most patients. PMID:25976434

  18. Skin lesions in returning travellers.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Juszczak, Dariusz; Jerzemowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Skin lesions, apart from diarrhoeas, fever of unknown origin, and respiratory tract infections belong to the most frequent medical problems in travellers returned from tropical and subtropical destinations, accounting more than 10% of reported cases. Most dermatoses have their clinical onset during travel, although some of them can occur after return. Travel-related dermatological problems can have a wide spectrum of clinical picture, from macular, popular or nodular rash, linear and migratory lesions, to plaques, vesicles, bullae, erosions or ulcers. Skin conditions in returning travellers may be of infectious and non-infectious aetiologies. Infectious lesions may be originally tropical (e.g. dengue, chikungunya, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, myiasis, tungiasis, loiasis), although the majority are cosmopolitan (arthropod bites, sunburns, allergic rashes). The evaluation of skin lesions depends on many factors, including immune status of patients, use of medicines, exposure on health hazards (fauna, flora, risky behaviours), as well as the time, duration and location of travel. As the number of travellers to tropical and subtropical destinations has been continuously rising, the number of skin illnesses has also been increasing. This means that specialists in travel medicine need to extend their knowledge of epidemiology, clinical features and diagnosis of travel-related health problems including skin lesions in returning travellers. PMID:26394319

  19. Adverse events in 50 cats with allergic dermatitis receiving ciclosporin.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Nicole A; McKeever, Patrick J; Eisenschenk, Melissa C

    2011-12-01

    Ciclosporin is an immunosuppressive drug that has been used to treat allergies and other immune-mediated diseases in cats, dogs and humans. Information about the adverse effects of ciclosporin in cats has been limited to smaller studies and case reports. Adverse effects in dogs are mainly gastrointestinal in nature, but humans can also experience hypertension and altered renal function. The aim of this retrospective case series study was to document the occurrence and clinical appearance of adverse events in cats receiving ciclosporin to treat allergic skin disease. The medical records of 50 cats with allergic dermatitis treated with oral ciclosporin (1.9-7.3 mg/kg/day) were reviewed. Adverse events occurred in 66% (33 cats). Adverse events likely to be associated with ciclosporin included the following: vomiting or diarrhoea within 1-8 weeks of receiving ciclosporin (24%), weight loss (16%), anorexia and subsequent hepatic lipidosis (2%) and gingival hyperplasia (2%). Other adverse events less likely to be associated with ciclosporin therapy included the following: weight gain (14%), dental tartar and gingivitis (10%), otitis (4%), chronic diarrhoea (4%), inflammatory bowel disease with indolent gastrointestinal lymphoma (2%), urinary tract infection (2%), cataract (2%), elevated liver enzymes (2%), hyperthyroidism and renal failure (2%) and transient inappropriate urination (2%). Some cats experienced multiple adverse events. Case-control studies are needed to prove cause and effect of ciclosporin with regard to these adverse events. PMID:21545660

  20. Skin clips are contraindicated when there is nickel allergy.

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, A M; Ive, F A; Carr, M M

    1987-01-01

    Four patients are described who developed generalized dermatitis following surgical wound closure with disposable skin clips. In 3 of them a vesicular palmar eczema was a prominent feature. They were found to have contact allergy to nickel, a component of the clips. If skin clips are to be used to close a surgical wound, it should be established that the patient is not allergic to nickel. Images Figure 1. PMID:3612662

  1. Innate Immune Responses to Engineered Nanomaterials During Allergic Airway Inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipkowski, Kelly Anne

    The field of nanotechnology is continually advancing, and increasing amounts of consumer goods are being produced using engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). The health risks of occupational and/or consumer exposure to ENMs are not completely understood, although significant research indicates that pulmonary exposure to nanomaterials induces toxic effects in the lungs of exposed animals. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are a specific category of ENMs and consist of sheets of graphene rolled into cylinders that are multiple layers thick in order to strengthen their rigidity. MWCNTs have a fiber-like shape, similar to that of asbestos, which allows for a high aspect ratio and makes them difficult to clear from the lung. Studies with rodent models have demonstrated that pulmonary exposure to ENMs, in particular MWCNTs, results in acute lung inflammation and the subsequent development of chronic fibrosis, suggesting a potential human health risk to individuals involved in the manufacturing of products utilizing these nanomaterials. Induction of IL-1beta secretion via activation of the inflammasome is a prime mechanism of MWCNT-induced inflammation. The inflammasome is a multi-protein scaffold found in a variety of cell types that forms in response to a variety of immune signals, including particulates. Sensitization with allergens, such as house dust mite (HDM), increases levels of the T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 in mice and in humans, and there is particular cause for concern in cases of MWCNT exposure in individuals with pre-existing allergic airway disease, such as asthma. MWCNT exposure exacerbates airway inflammation and fibrosis in animal models of pre-existing allergic asthma, suggesting that individuals suffering from asthma are more susceptible to the toxic pulmonary effects of MWCNT exposure. Asthma is an exceptionally prominent human disease, and therefore the goal of this research was to better understand how pre-existing allergic airway

  2. Exacerbation of allergic contact dermatitis during immunosuppression with cyclosporine A.

    PubMed

    Prignano, F; Bonciolini, V; Bonciani, D; Lotti, T

    2010-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is one of the commonest occupational diseases in industrialized countries, where it comprises 20-70% of all occupational diseases. Recent studies found out the top ten allergens, but there are some differences in their frequency in relation to gender and age of patients: Myroxylon pereirae and Carba mix resulted the most prevalent allergens in men, while in women the most common sensitizers were nickel sulfate, PPD, fragrance mix and cobalt chloride. ACD is an inflammatory skin disease caused by repeated skin exposure to contact allergens, in which the lesions are due to T CD8+ cells in a type IV, delayed or cell-mediated, immune reaction. The typical skin lesions of ACD in general outburst in contact areas with the specific allergens and they are erythematosus-squamous lesions with other little differences in relation to localization, for example edema, vesicular-exuding lesions or onychodystrophy. Different treatment options exist and are applied according to the severity of the lesions. Topical treatments consist of bland emollients, corticosteroids ointments, topical immunomodulators such as tacrolimus and pimecrolimus ointments, coal tar and derivatives and irradiation with ultraviolet lights or X-rays; while azathioprine, methotrexate, cyclosporine A, oral retinoids or oral corticosteroids represent systemic options of therapy. Nevertheless, the control of chronic ACD is often difficult, overall in patients with chronic ACD. PMID:20823796

  3. Weighted Road Density and Allergic Disease in Children at High Risk of Developing Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Hansell, Anna L.; Rose, Nectarios; Cowie, Christine T.; Belousova, Elena G.; Bakolis, Ioannis; Ng, Kitty; Toelle, Brett G.; Marks, Guy B.; Almqvist, plus Catarina; Ampon, Rosario D; Ayer, Julian; Bird, Tessa; Brew, Bronwyn K; Britton, Warwick J; Celermajer, David; Cowell, Christopher T; Crisafulli, Daniele; Criss, Sally; Davis, Stella; Nabil Ezz, Wafaa; Forbes, Samantha; Garden, Frances L; Kemp, Andrew S; Knezevic, Natalia; Krause, William; Leeder, Stephen R; Mellis, Craig M; Mihrshahi, Seema; Neumann, Mark; Peat, Jennifer K; Quinones-Lucio, Andres; Skilton, Michael; Tattam, Anne; Tovey, Euan R; Vanlaar, Carl H.; Vukasin, Nicola; Wainwright, Craig; Webb, Karen L; Weber-Chrysochoou, Christina; Woolcock, Ann J; Zhou, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence for an association between traffic-related air pollution and allergic disease is inconsistent, possibly because the adverse effects may be limited to susceptible subgroups and these have not been identified. This study examined children in the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS), potentially susceptible to air pollution effects because of a family history of asthma. Methods We examined cross-sectional associations at age eight years between road density within 75 m and 50 m of home address weighted by road type (traffic density), as a proxy for traffic-related air pollution, on the following allergic and respiratory outcomes: skin prick tests (SPTs), total and specific serum IgE, pre- and post-bronchodilator lung function, airway hyperresponsiveness, exhaled NO, and reported asthma and rhinitis. Results Weighted road density was positively associated with allergic sensitisation and allergic rhinitis. Adjusted relative risk (RR) for house dust mite (HDM) positive SPT was 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06–1.48), for detectable house dust mite-specific IgE was 1.19 (95% CI: 1.01–1.41) and for allergic rhinitis was 1.30 (95% CI: 1.03–1.63) per 100 m local road or 33.3 m motorway within 50 m of home. Associations were also seen with small decrements of peak and mid-expiratory flows and increased risk of asthma, current wheeze and rhinitis in atopic children. Conclusion Associations between road density and allergic disease were found in a potentially susceptible subgroup of children at high risk of developing atopy and asthma. PMID:24949625

  4. Association of allergic rhinitis with pesticide use among grape farmers in Crete, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Chatzi, Leda; Alegakis, Athanasios; Tzanakis, Nikolaos; Siafakas, Nikolaos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Lionis, Christos

    2007-01-01

    Objective To explore the association of allergic rhinitis with the use of pesticides among grape farmers in Crete. Methods A cross‐sectional study of 120 grape farmers and 100 controls at the Malevisi region in Northern Crete was conducted. The protocol consisted of a questionnaire, skin prick tests for 16 common allergens, measurement of specific IgE antibodies against 8 allergens, and spirometry before and after bronchodilatation. Results Grape farmers who used pesticides had higher prevalence rates of allergic rhinitis symptoms (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.4 to 6.2) compared with grape farmers who reported no current use of pesticides, and control subjects. Logistic regression models controlling for age, sex and smoking status showed that 6 of the 12 predefined groups of major pesticides were significantly related to allergic rhinitis symptoms. The highest risks were observed for paraquat and other bipyridyl herbicides (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.0 to 4.8), dithiocarbamate fungicides (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 5.3) and carbamate insecticides (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.4 to 6.5). A factor analysis of pesticides used identified 3 distinct factors. The most common factor was that of multiple pesticide use that included 9 pesticides and was significantly associated with allergic rhinitis (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0 to 2.3). ORs were higher when allergic rhinitis was defined using both questionnaire data on symptoms and atopy. Conclusions Occupational exposure to multiple agricultural chemicals could be related to allergic rhinitis in grape farmers. PMID:17182637

  5. A Pilot Study on BMI, Serum Testosterone and Estradiol Levels in Allergic Male Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lokaj-Berisha, Violeta; Gacaferri-Lumezi, Besa; Berisha, Naser; Gashi-Hoxha, Sanije

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The dramatic increase in the prevalence of high body mass index (BMI) increases the prevalence of allergic diseases, both in adults and children and obesity is associated with hypogonadism in adult males. AIM: We aimed to evaluate the effect of high body mass index on plasma concentrations of testosterone and estradiol in young pubertal and adult males with allergic diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Morning fasting blood samples were obtained form 51 allergic patients and 6 healthy volunteer males between the ages 11-57 years (Mean 26.9, DS ± 11.9 years). Total testosterone, estradiol, FSH and LH concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. All participants were subjected to skin prick tests with test kit G aeroallergens, and BMI was calculated according to the body weight divided by the square of height (kg/m2). RESULTS: Low levels of testosterone and high levels of estradiol were associated with high BMI only in patients with asthma/rhinitis, but not in asthma patients. Allergic dermatitis/urticaria group along with healthy controls were overweight but within normal ranges for total testosterone and estradiol concentrations. Patients with allergic rhinitis were within normal ranges for BMI, total testosterone and estradiol concentrations. CONCLUSION: High BMI is not always associated with low levels of testosterone and high levels of estradiol in our patients with allergic diseases, but low levels of testosterone are present in patients with asthma and asthma/rhinitis although not among patients with rhinitis only. Our results should be confirmed in a larger group of participants.

  6. Circulating nerve growth factor levels are increased in humans with allergic diseases and asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Bonini, S; Lambiase, A; Bonini, S; Angelucci, F; Magrini, L; Manni, L; Aloe, L

    1996-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) serum levels were measured in 49 patients with asthma and/or rhinoconjunctivitis and/or urticaria-angioedema. Clinical and biochemical parameters, such as bronchial reactivity, total and specific serum IgE levels, and circulating eosinophil cationic protein levels, were evaluated in relation to NGF values in asthma patients. NGF was significantly increased in the 42 allergic (skin-test- or radioallergosorbent-test-positive) subjects (49.7 +/- 28.8 pg/ml) versus the 18 matched controls (3.8 +/- 1.7 pg/ml; P < 0.001). NGF levels in allergic patients with asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and urticaria-angioedema were 132.1 +/- 90.8, 17.6 +/- 6.1, and 7.6 +/- 1.8 pg/ml (P < 0.001, P < 0.002, and P < 0.05 versus controls), respectively. Patients with more than one allergic disease had higher NGF serum values than those with a single disease. When asthma patients were considered as a group, NGF serum values (87.6 +/- 59.8 pg/ml) were still significantly higher than those of control groups (P < 0.001), but allergic asthma patients had elevated NGF serum levels compared with nonallergic asthma patients (132.1 +/- 90.8 versus 4.9 +/- 2.9 pg/ml; P < 0.001). NGF serum levels correlate to total IgE serum values (rho = 0.43; P < 0.02). The highest NGF values were found in patients with severe allergic asthma, a high degree of bronchial hyperreactivity, and high total IgE and eosinophil cationic protein serum levels. This study represents the first observation (that we know of) that NGF is increased in human allergic inflammatory diseases and asthma. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8855290

  7. Possible Immune Regulation of Natural Killer T Cells in a Murine Model of Metal Ion-Induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Kenichi; Horikawa, Tatsuya; Shigematsu, Hiroaki; Matsubara, Ryota; Kitaura, Kazutaka; Eguchi, Takanori; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Nakasone, Yasunari; Sato, Koichiro; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Satsuki; Hamada, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    Metal often causes delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, which are possibly mediated by accumulating T cells in the inflamed skin, called irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. However, accumulating T cells during development of a metal allergy are poorly characterized because a suitable animal model is unavailable. We have previously established novel murine models of metal allergy and found accumulation of both metal-specific T cells and natural killer (NK) T cells in the inflamed skin. In our novel models of metal allergy, skin hypersensitivity responses were induced through repeated sensitizations by administration of metal chloride and lipopolysaccharide into the mouse groin followed by metal chloride challenge in the footpad. These models enabled us to investigate the precise mechanisms of the immune responses of metal allergy in the inflamed skin. In this review, we summarize the immune responses in several murine models of metal allergy and describe which antigen-specific responses occur in the inflamed skin during allergic contact dermatitis in terms of the T cell receptor. In addition, we consider the immune regulation of accumulated NK T cells in metal ion–induced allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:26771600

  8. [Allergic inflamation of the lower airways in patients with allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Stefanović, Lj; Balaban, J; Stosović, R; Mitrović, N; Djurasinović, M; Tanurdzić, S

    1994-01-01

    Reporting two of our cases we wanted to point to a great dilemma related to the final diagnosis. Recently, such cases have been more frewuently seen, since in all patients with allergic rhinitis conditions of the lower airways is examined before the administration of the specific immunotherapy. Therefore, we may see patients who are still free of pulmonary sings, despite of positive specific and/or non specific bronchoprovocative tests. The presented cases with evidenced allergic rhinitis are probably in the phase of development of allergic bronchial asthma, the phase of "allergic inflammation" of the lower airways, not clinically manifested yet. PMID:18173213

  9. Skin aging and dry skin.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Hideo

    2004-08-01

    Skin aging appears to be the result of both scheduled and continuous "wear and tear" processes that damage cellular DNA and proteins. Two types of aging, chronological skin aging and photoaging, have distinct clinical and histological features. Chronological skin aging is a universal and inevitable process characterized primarily by physiologic alterations in skin function. In this case, keratinocytes are unable to properly terminally differentiate to form a functional stratum corneum, and the rate of formation of neutral lipids that contribute to the barrier function slows, causing dry, pale skin with fine wrinkles. In contrast, photoaging results from the UVR of sunlight and the damage thus becomes apparent in sun-exposed skin. Characteristics of this aging type are dry and sallow skin displaying fine wrinkles as well as deep furrows, resulting from the disorganization of epidermal and dermal components associated with elastosis and heliodermatitis. Understanding of the functions of the skin and the basic principles of moisturizer use and application is important for the prevention of skin aging. Successful treatment of dry skin with appropriate skin care products gives the impression of eternal youth. PMID:15492432

  10. Role of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) in Pollen-Induced Allergic Conjunctivitis and Pollen Dermatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Yuka; Yoshihisa, Yoko; Matsunaga, Kenji; Rehman, Mati Ur; Kitaichi, Nobuyuki; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2015-01-01

    Pollen is a clinically important airborne allergen and one of the major causes of allergic conjunctivitis. A subpopulation of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) are also known to have exacerbated skin eruptions on the face, especially around the eyelids, after contact with pollen. This pollen-induced skin reaction is now known as pollen dermatitis. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pluripotent cytokine that plays an essential role in allergic inflammation. Recent findings suggest that MIF is involved in several allergic disorders, including AD. In this study, MIF knockout (KO), MIF transgenic (Tg) and WT littermate mice were immunized with ragweed (RW) pollen or Japanese cedar (JC) pollen and challenged via eye drops. We observed that the numbers of conjunctiva- and eyelid-infiltrating eosinophils were significantly increased in RW and JC pollen-sensitized MIF Tg compared with WT mice or MIF KO mice. The mRNA expression levels of eotaxin, interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 were increased in pollen-sensitized eyelid skin sites of MIF Tg mice. An in vitro analysis revealed that high eotaxin expression was induced in dermal fibroblasts by MIF combined with stimulation of IL-4 or IL-13. This eotaxin expression was inhibited by the treatment with CD74 siRNA in fibroblasts. These findings indicate that MIF can induce eosinophil accumulation in the conjunctiva and eyelid dermis exposed to pollen. Therefore, targeted inhibition of MIF might result as a new option to control pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis and pollen dermatitis. PMID:25647395

  11. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants.

    PubMed

    Lamminpää, A; Estlander, T; Jolanki, R; Kanerva, L

    1996-05-01

    12 cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants were diagnosed in a 14-year period. The patients were middle-aged, and their average exposure time was 13 years. The plant families and plants causing occupational contact dermatitis were Compositae (5 patients; chrysanthemum, elecampane, gerbera, feverfew), Alstroemeriaceae (5 patients, Alstroemeria), Liliaceae (4 patients; tulip, hyacinth), Amaryllidaceae (2 patients; narcissus) and Caryophyllaceae (2 patients; carnation, cauzeflower). The known chemical allergens causing dermatitis were tuliposide-A and sesquiterpene lactones, such as alantolactones and parthenolide, in the Liliaceae and Compositae families. 7 of the 12 patients were able to continue their work; 5 were not because of severe relapses of skin symptoms. The plant allergen and extract series currently available are of great help in the diagnosis. PMID:8807225

  12. The role of Probiotics in allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Michail, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Allergic disorders are very common in the pediatric age group. While the exact etiology is unclear, evidence is mounting to incriminate environmental factors and an aberrant gut microbiota with a shift of the Th1/Th2 balance towards a Th2 response. Probiotics have been shown to modulate the immune system back to a Th1 response. Several in vitro studies suggest a role for probiotics in treating allergic disorders. Human trials demonstrate a limited benefit for the use of probiotics in atopic dermatitis in a preventive as well as a therapeutic capacity. Data supporting their use in allergic rhinitis are less robust. Currently, there is no role for probiotic therapy in the treatment of bronchial asthma. Future studies will be critical in determining the exact role of probiotics in allergic disorders. PMID:19946408

  13. Regulatory T cells in allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Noval Rivas, Magali; Chatila, Talal A

    2016-09-01

    The pathogenesis of allergic diseases entails an ineffective tolerogenic immune response to allergens. Regulatory T (Treg) cells play a key role in sustaining immune tolerance to allergens, yet mechanisms by which Treg cells fail to maintain tolerance in patients with allergic diseases are not well understood. We review current concepts and established mechanisms regarding how Treg cells regulate different components of allergen-triggered immune responses to promote and maintain tolerance. We will also discuss more recent advances that emphasize the "dual" functionality of Treg cells in patients with allergic diseases: how Treg cells are essential in promoting tolerance to allergens but also how a proallergic inflammatory environment can skew Treg cells toward a pathogenic phenotype that aggravates and perpetuates disease. These advances highlight opportunities for novel therapeutic strategies that aim to re-establish tolerance in patients with chronic allergic diseases by promoting Treg cell stability and function. PMID:27596705

  14. Complementary and Alternative Treatment for Allergic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Juan; Grine, Kristen

    2016-09-01

    This article explains the proposed pathophysiology, evidence of efficacy, and adverse effects of several complementary and alternative medicine modalities, for the treatment of allergic conditions, such as traditional Chinese medicine formula, herbal treatments, acupuncture, and homeopathy. PMID:27545740

  15. Parallel intraindividual evaluation of the vasoconstrictory action and the anti-allergic activity of topical corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Seidenari, S; Di Nardo, A; Mantovani, L; Giannetti, A

    1997-04-01

    The human skin blanching assay is a well established method for ranking the efficacy of corticosteroids after epicutaneous application. Vasoconstriction is a pharmacological activity, which correlates well with the clinical efficacy, the intensity of skin blanching after a single application under occlusion corresponding, generally, to the clinical efficacy after repeated application without occlusion. However, in studies dealing with the comparison between the vasoconstriction assay and the evaluation of the clinical effects on inflammatory skin diseases, some exceptions to this correlation have been reported. Therefore, in a pre-clinical phase, it would be useful to combine the blanching assay with at least one anti-inflammatory assay. In the present study the blanching assay and the allergic contact dermatitis inhibition test were performed in parallel, in order to compare the two testing procedures in the same group of subjects, utilizing standardized study designs supported by objective means of evaluation. Three commercial preparations of corticosteroids containing clobetasol propionate (CP), clobetasone butyrate (CB) and hydrocortisone acetate (HA), respectively, were employed both to treat nickel-induced positive patch test responses on the volar forearms, and to perform a vasoconstrictor assay on normal forearm skin in 16 nickel-sensitized healthy volunteers. For evaluating skin blanching, we employed colorimetric measurements, whereas for the quantitative determination of the inhibition of the intensity of allergic patch test reactions, 20 MHz B-scanning supported by image analysis was used. Both colorimetric and echogenicity values enabled us to distinguish between the three corticosteroids (at the 17 h evaluation and the 64 h assessment, respectively). A fair correlation was noted between colorimetric and echogenicity values. Both testing procedures ranked the three corticosteroids in the expected order. Corticosteroid preparations should be compared

  16. Bioactive compounds from natural resources against skin aging.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Pulok K; Maity, Niladri; Nema, Neelesh K; Sarkar, Birendra K

    2011-12-15

    Skin aging involves degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in both the epidermal and dermal layers, it leaves visible signs on the surface of skin and the physical properties of the skin are modified. Chronological aging is due to passage of time, whereas premature aging occurred due to some environmental factors on skin produces visible signs such as irregular dryness, dark/light pigmentation, sallowness, severe atrophy, telangiectases, premalignant lesions, laxity, leathery appearance and deep wrinkling. There are several synthetic skincare cosmetics existing in the market to treat premature aging and the most common adverse reactions of those include allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, phototoxic and photo-allergic reactions. Recent trends in anti-aging research projected the use of natural products derived from ancient era after scientific validation. Ample varieties of phytomolecules such as aloin, ginsenoside, curcumin, epicatechin, asiaticoside, ziyuglycoside I, magnolol, gallic acid, hydroxychavicol, hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, etc. scavenges free radicals from skin cells, prevent trans-epidermal water loss, include a sun protection factor (SPF) of 15 or higher contribute to protect skin from wrinkles, leading to glowing and healthy younger skin. Present era of treating aging skin has become technologically more invasive; but herbal products including botanicals are still relevant and combining them with molecular techniques outlined throughout this review will help to maximize the results and maintain the desired anti-skin aging benefits. PMID:22115797

  17. [Epigenetics in allergic diseases and asthma].

    PubMed

    Castro-Rodríguez, José A; Krause, Bernardo J; Uauy, Ricardo; Casanello, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases and asthma are the result of complex interactions between genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic disease among children. In this article we review some environmental factors like: allergen exposition, tobacco, bacteria, microbial components, diet, obesity and stress, which influences during intrauterine and infancy life in the epigenetic regulation of asthma and allergic diseases. The review has been done in three models: in-vitro, animal and human. PMID:27055949

  18. Nasal hyperreactivity and inflammation in allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Veld, C. de Graaf-in't; Wijk, R. Gerth van; Zijlstra, F. J.

    1996-01-01

    The history of allergic disease goes back to 1819, when Bostock described his own ‘periodical affection of the eyes and chest’, which he called ‘summer catarrh’. Since they thought it was produced by the effluvium of new hay, this condition was also called hay fever. Later, in 1873, Blackley established that pollen played an important role in the causation of hay fever. Nowadays, the definition of allergy is ‘An untoward physiologic event mediated by a variety of different immunologic reactions’. In this review, the term allergy will be restricted to the IgE-dependent reactions. The most important clinical manifestations of IgE-dependent reactions are allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma and atopic dermatitis. However, this review will be restricted to allergic rhinitis. The histopathological features of allergic inflammation involve an increase in blood flow and vascular permeability, leading to plasma exudation and the formation of oedema. In addition, a cascade of events occurs which involves a variety of inflammatory cells. These inflammatory cells migrate under the influence of chemotactic agents to the site of injury and induce the process of repair. Several types of inflammatory cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. After specific or nonspecific stimuli, inflammatory mediators are generated from cells normally found in the nose, such as mast cells, antigen-presenting cells and epithelial cells (primary effector cells) and from cells recruited into the nose, such as basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, platelets and neutrophils (secondary effector cells). This review describes the identification of each of the inflammatory cells and their mediators which play a role in the perennial allergic processes in the nose of rhinitis patients. PMID:18475703

  19. Prevention and treatment of acute radiation-induced skin reactions: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Radiation-induced skin reaction (RISR) is a common side effect that affects the majority of cancer patients receiving radiation treatment. RISR is often characterised by swelling, redness, pigmentation, fibrosis, and ulceration, pain, warmth, burning, and itching of the skin. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effects of interventions which aim to prevent or manage RISR in people with cancer. Methods We searched the following databases up to November 2012: Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (2012, Issue 11), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974), PsycINFO (from 1806), CINAHL (from 1981) and LILACS (from 1982). Randomized controlled trials evaluating interventions for preventing or managing RISR in cancer patients were included. The primary outcomes were development of RISR, and levels of RISR and symptom severity. Secondary outcomes were time taken to develop erythema or dry desquamation; quality of life; time taken to heal, a number of skin reaction and symptom severity measures; cost, participant satisfaction; ease of use and adverse effects. Where appropriate, we pooled results of randomized controlled trials using mean differences (MD) or odd ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Forty-seven studies were included in this review. These evaluated six types of interventions (oral systemic medications; skin care practices; steroidal topical therapies; non-steroidal topical therapies; dressings and other). Findings from two meta-analyses demonstrated significant benefits of oral Wobe-Mugos E for preventing RISR (OR 0.13 (95% CI 0.05 to 0.38)) and limiting the maximal level of RISR (MD -0.92 (95% CI -1.36 to -0.48)). Another meta-analysis reported that wearing deodorant does not influence the development of RISR (OR 0.80 (95% CI 0.47 to 1.37)). Conclusions Despite the high number of trials in this area, there is limited good, comparative research that provides definitive results suggesting the

  20. Exposure, skin protection and occupational skin diseases in the glass-fibre-reinforced plastics industry.

    PubMed

    Tarvainen, K; Jolanki, R; Forsman-Grönholm, L; Estlander, T; Pfäffli, P; Juntunen, J; Kanerva, L

    1993-09-01

    A total of 100 workers, 86 from the glass-fibre-reinforced plastics (GRP) industry, 11 from polystyrene production and 3 from polyester resin coating manufacture, were examined for occupational skin hazards and for evaluation of skin protection. The workers had been exposed to many chemicals. Those working in the GRP industry had also been exposed to glass fibre and to dust produced by finishing work. 94% used protective gloves. 22 workers, all employed in the GRP industry, had contracted occupational skin disorders. 6 had allergic and 12 irritant contact dermatitis. 4 workers had an accidental injury caused by a peroxide catalyst, fire, hot air and constant mechanical friction. Allergic dermatoses were due to natural rubber (latex) (4 cases) in protective gloves, phenol-formaldehyde resin (1 case) and cobalt naphthenate (1 case). Irritant hand dermatoses (5 cases) were caused by the combined hazardous effect of unsaturated polyester or vinyl ester resins, organic solvents, glass fibre and dust from finishing work on the skin. Other cases of irritant dermatoses (7 cases) were due to the dust, promoted by mechanical friction of clothes. Skin disorders in the GRP industry were common (26%) but the symptoms were mild and only 3 patients had been on sick leave because of occupational skin disease. PMID:8222622

  1. Allergic Interstitial Nephritis Manifesting as a Striated Nephrogram

    PubMed Central

    Moinuddin, Irfan; Bracamonte, Erika; Thajudeen, Bijin; Sussman, Amy; Madhrira, Machaiah; Costello, James

    2015-01-01

    Allergic interstitial nephritis (AIN) is an underdiagnosed cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). Guidelines suggest that AIN should be suspected in a patient who presents with an elevated serum creatinine and a urinalysis that shows white cells, white cell casts, or eosinophiluria. Drug-induced AIN is suspected if AKI is temporally related to the initiation of a new drug. However, patients with bland sediment and normal urinalysis can also have AIN. Currently, a definitive diagnosis of AIN is made by renal biopsy which is invasive and fraught with risks such as bleeding, infection, and hematoma. Additionally, it is frequently unclear when a kidney biopsy should be undertaken. We describe a biopsy proven case of allergic interstitial nephritis which manifested on contrast enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as a striated nephrogram. Newer and more stable macrocyclic gadolinium contrast agents have a well-demonstrated safety profile. Additionally, in the presentation of AKI, gadolinium contrast agents are safe to administer in patients who demonstrate good urine output and a downtrending creatinine. We propose that the differential for a striated nephrogram may include AIN. In cases in which the suspicion for AIN is high, this diagnostic consideration may be further characterized by contrast enhanced MRI. PMID:26664405

  2. Asthma and Allergic Diseases in Pregnancy: A Review

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Asthma and allergic disorders can affect the course and outcome of pregnancy. Pregnancy itself may also affect the course of asthma and related diseases. Optimal management of these disorders during pregnancy is vital to ensure the welfare of the mother and the baby. Specific pharmacological agents for treatment of asthma or allergic diseases must be cautiously selected and are discussed here with respect to safety considerations in pregnancy. Although most drugs do not harm the fetus, this knowledge is incomplete. Any drug may carry a small risk that must be balanced against the benefits of keeping the mother and baby healthy. The goals and principles of management for acute and chronic asthma, rhinitis, and dermatologic disorders are the same during pregnancy as those for asthma in the general population. Diagnosis of allergy during pregnancy should mainly consist of the patient's history and in vitro testing. The assured and well-evaluated risk factors revealed for sensitization in mother and child are very limited, to date, and include alcohol consumption, exposure to tobacco smoke, maternal diet and diet of the newborn, drug usage, and insufficient exposure to environmental bacteria. Consequently, the recommendations for primary and secondary preventive measures are also very limited in number and verification. PMID:21151812

  3. Skin optics

    SciTech Connect

    van Gemert, M.J.; Jacques, S.L.; Sterenborg, H.J.; Star, W.M.

    1989-12-01

    Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model representing skin geometry, as well as experimental methods to determine the optical properties of each skin layer. These activities are unified under the name skin optics. This paper first reviews the current status of tissue optics, distinguishing between the cases of: dominant absorption, dominant scattering, and scattering about equal to absorption. Then, previously published data as well as some current unpublished data on (human) stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis, have been collected and/or (re)analyzed in terms of absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and anisotropy factor of scattering. The results are that the individual skin layers show strongly forward scattering (anisotropy factors between 0.7 and 0.9). The absorption and scattering data show that for all wavelengths considered scattering is much more important than absorption. Under such circumstances, solutions to the transport equation for a multilayer skin model and finite beam laser irradiation are currently not yet available. Hence, any quantitative dosimetry for skin treated with (laser) light is currently lacking.

  4. Overview on the pathomechanisms of allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Sachiko; Ozu, Chika; Kimura, Satoko

    2011-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis a chronic inflammatory disease of the upper airways that has a major impact on the quality of life of patients and is a socio-economic burden. Understanding the underlying immune mechanisms is central to developing better and more targeted therapies. The inflammatory response in the nasal mucosa includes an immediate IgE-mediated mast cell response as well as a latephase response characterized by recruitment of eosinophils, basophils, and T cells expressing Th2 cytokines including interleukin (IL)-4, a switch factor for IgE synthesis, and IL-5, an eosinophil growth factor and on-going allergic inflammation. Recent advances have suggested new pathways like local synthesis of IgE, the IgE-IgE receptor mast cell cascade in on-going allergic inflammation and the epithelial expression of cytokines that regulate Th2 cytokine responses (i.e., thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL-25, and IL-33). In this review, we briefly review the conventional pathways in the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis and then elaborate on the recent advances in the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis. An improved understanding of the immune mechanisms of allergic rhinitis can provide a better insight on novel therapeutic targets. PMID:22053313

  5. Current and future biomarkers in allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Zissler, U M; Esser-von Bieren, J; Jakwerth, C A; Chaker, A M; Schmidt-Weber, C B

    2016-04-01

    Diagnosis early in life, sensitization, asthma endotypes, monitoring of disease and treatment progression are key motivations for the exploration of biomarkers for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. The number of genes related to allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma increases steadily; however, prognostic genes have not yet entered clinical application. We hypothesize that the combination of multiple genes may generate biomarkers with prognostic potential. The current review attempts to group more than 161 different potential biomarkers involved in respiratory inflammation to pave the way for future classifiers. The potential biomarkers are categorized into either epithelial or infiltrate-derived or mixed origin, epithelial biomarkers. Furthermore, surface markers were grouped into cell-type-specific categories. The current literature provides multiple biomarkers for potential asthma endotypes that are related to T-cell phenotypes such as Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22 and Tregs and their lead cytokines. Eosinophilic and neutrophilic asthma endotypes are also classified by epithelium-derived CCL-26 and osteopontin, respectively. There are currently about 20 epithelium-derived biomarkers exclusively derived from epithelium, which are likely to innovate biomarker panels as they are easy to sample. This article systematically reviews and categorizes genes and collects current evidence that may promote these biomarkers to become part of allergic rhinitis or allergic asthma classifiers with high prognostic value. PMID:26706728

  6. IL-31-Driven Skin Remodeling Involves Epidermal Cell Proliferation and Thickening That Lead to Impaired Skin-Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Brijendra; Jegga, Anil G.; Shanmukhappa, Kumar S.; Edukulla, Ramakrishna; Khurana, Gurjit H.; Medvedovic, Mario; Dillon, Stacey R.; Madala, Satish K.

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-31 (IL-31) is a type 2 helper T-cell-derived cytokine that has recently been shown to cause severe inflammation and tissue remodeling in multiple chronic diseases of the skin and lungs. IL-31 is upregulated in allergic and inflammatory diseases, including atopic dermatitis, asthma, cutaneous T-cell lymphomas, and allergic rhinitis, as well as autoimmune diseases such as systemic erythematosus. Overexpression of IL-31 in T cells causes severe inflammation, with histological features similar to skin lesions of patients with atopic dermatitis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in IL31-driven pathological remodeling in skin diseases remain largely unknown. Here, we studied the role of IL-31 in skin damage as a result of intradermal administration of recombinant IL-31 into mice. Notably, IL-31 was sufficient to increase epidermal basal-cell proliferation and thickening of the epidermal skin layer. Our findings demonstrate a progressive increase in transepidermal water loss with chronic administration of IL-31 into the skin. Further, analysis of the skin transcriptome indicates a significant increase in the transcripts involved in epidermal-cell proliferation, epidermal thickening, and mechanical integrity. In summary, our findings demonstrate an important role for IL-31 signaling in epidermal cell proliferation and thickening that together may lead to impaired skin-barrier function in pathological remodeling of the skin. PMID:27556734

  7. Increased incidence of latex allergy in children with allergic diseases in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kimata, H

    2005-12-01

    The incidence of latex allergy is increasing in Japanese adults. However, the changing incidence of latex allergy in children with or without allergic diseases has not been reported in detail. After obtaining written informed consent from parents, Japanese children under 14 years of age were studied. In total, 776 non-atopic children, 802 children with allergic rhinitis (AR), 706 children with bronchial asthma (BA) and 844 children with atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome (AEDS) were asked about symptoms of latex allergy, and tested by serum latex-specific IgE, skin prick test to latex allergen and latex-glove-wearing test between 2001 and 2003. All the patients were outpatients at Ujitakeda Hospital, while the non-atopic children were children of the staff of Ujitakeda Hospital or Unitika Ltd. This was a retrospective study. The incidence of latex allergy in 2001/2002/2003 was 1.4/3.1/4.7% in non-atopic children, 3.1/5.1/9.1% in AR patients, 3.6/6.5/10.3% in BA patients and 6.1/11.3/15.9% in AEDS patients, respectively. Moreover, although no cases of anaphylactic shock were noted in allergic patients in 2001, two and eight cases were noted in 2002 and 2003, respectively. These results indicate that the incidence of latex allergy is increasing in paediatric patients with allergic diseases. A latex-reduced environment may be desirable in future. PMID:16084541

  8. Eight Years of Severe Allergic Reactions in Finland: A Register-Based Report

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background No data have been available on severe allergic reactions in Finland. Materials and Methods We summarize the data accumulated from 2000 to 2007 in the national register established at the Skin and Allergy Hospital of the Helsinki University Central Hospital, where physicians voluntarily report on patients with severe allergic reactions. Results During the period, the 530 reported cases of severe allergic reactions represented an annual frequency of 0.001%. Of the patients, 66% were adults and 56% were female, with a median age of 27 years. Food was the causative agent in 53% of the cases, drugs in 26%, allergen preparations in 12%, and insects in 8%. Dermatologic symptoms were reported in 85%, respiratory in 76%, cardiovascular in 50%, gastrointestinal in 33%, and eye/nose symptoms in 18%. The reaction was a life-threatening anaphylactic shock in 26% of the cases, with no deaths reported. Patients were treated with intramuscular adrenaline in 75% of the cases. Not only nuts and seeds, but also fruit and vegetables were the most important allergens for the adults. Nuts were also important allergens for children, along with milk, egg, and wheat. In addition, many "exotic" allergens were identified: patent blue, carmine dye, yeast, buckwheat, and macrogol. Conclusions Severe allergic reactions are underreported, but a register reflects the real-life situation and helps to identify new causative agents. It also contributes to improvements in first aid treatment practice. PMID:23282762

  9. Improved Diagnosis of the Polysensitized Allergic Rhinitis Patients Using Component Resolved Diagnosis Method.

    PubMed

    Mohamad Yadzir, Zailatul Hani; Bakhtiar, Faizal; Misnan, Rosmilah; Abdullah, Noormalin; Leecyous, Brenda; Murad, Shahnaz

    2016-04-01

    Allergy diagnosis needs to be improved in polysensitized patients due to the existence of possible confounding factors in this type of patients. Component resolved diagnosis (CRD) is a new concept in the investigation of polysensitized patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the utilization of ImmunoCAP ISAC improve the diagnosis of the polysensitized allergic rhinitis patients. Skin prick test (SPT) to 58 crude allergen extracts and CRD (ImmunoCAP ISAC) were carried out for 5 polysensitized allergic rhinitis patients. Two patients had a shellfish allergy and avoidance of shellfish was the only way to prevent an allergic reaction. In contrast, although the remaining three patients had low risk for shellfish allergy, but they were the best candidates for immunotherapy using mite extracts. CRD and particularly ImmunoCAP ISAC have proven to be a valuable diagnostic tool in polysensitized patients. ImmunoCAP ISAC helps refine the individual patient's sensitization profile and predict the potential risk of allergic reactions and improve the selection of patients for immunotherapy. PMID:27090369

  10. Effects of Rhinophototherapy on Quality of Life in Persistant Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Korkmaz, Hakan; Sürenoğlu, Ünzile Akpinar; Saylam, Güleser; Özdek, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of rhinophototherapy with medical therapy on quality of life in persistent allergic rhinitis. Methods A prospective, randomized study was being performed between December 2009 and March 2010. The study included 65 patients with persistent allergic rhinitis. The diagnosis was confirmed with positive skin tests. All of the patients had house dust mite allergies. We divided the patients into two groups. First group (n=33) was given topical mometasone furoate 200 mcg/day and levocetirizine 5 mg/day for a month. Rhinophototherapy was applied with the same medical therapy to the second group (n=32), twice a week for three weeks continuously. Rhinophototherapy included visible light, ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B. We evaluated patients before the treatment, at the first month and at the third month after treatment with rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life questionnaire, nasal symptom scores and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores. Results Improvements of all variables of the quality of life questionnaire, nasal symptom scores and VAS were statistically significant in the second group both on the first and the third months when compared with the first group. Conclusion Allergic rhinitis is a social problem and impairs quality of life. Rhinophototherapy with medical therapy improves the quality of life in allergic rhinitis. PMID:23799163

  11. Efficacy of topical phenol decontamination strategies on severity of acute phenol chemical burns and dermal absorption: in vitro and in vivo studies in pig skin.

    PubMed

    Monteiro-Riviere, N A; Inman, A O; Jackson, H; Dunn, B; Dimond, S

    2001-05-01

    Pure phenol is colorless and used in the manufacture of phenolic resins, plastics, explosives, fertilizers, paints, rubber, textiles, adhesives, pharmaceuticals, paper, soap, and wood preservatives. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of several phenol decontamination strategies following dermal exposure using the pig as a model for human exposure, and then assess the effect of the two best treatments on phenol absorption in the isolated perfused porcine skin flap (IPPSF). Six anesthetized Yorkshire pigs were exposed to 89% aqueous phenol for 1 min using Hilltop chambers (10 skin sites/pig; 400 microl/site). Exposure to phenol was followed by one of 10 different decontamination procedures: 1-, 5-, 15-, and 30-min water wash; Ivory soap solution; polyethylene glycol (PEG 400); PEG 400/industrial methylated spirits (IMS); PEG 400/ethanol (EtOH); polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP)/70% isopropanol (IPA); and 70% IPA. For each of the last five strategies, 1-min treatment washes were repeatedly alternated with 1-min water washes for a total of 15 min. Evaluation was based on scoring of erythema, edema, and histological parameters such as intracellular and intercellular epidermal edema, papillary dermal edema, perivascular infiltrates, pyknotic stratum basale cells, and epidermal-dermal separation. It was concluded that PEG 400 and 70% IPA were superior to the other treatments investigated and equally efficacious in the reduction of phenol-induced skin damage. In addition, phenol absorption was assessed utilizing the two most effective in vivo treatments in the IPPSF. The assessment of percutaneous absorption of phenol found the PEG 400, 70% IPA, and 15-min water treatments significantly (P < 0.05) reduced phenol absorption relative to no treatment. PMID:12479505

  12. Neutrophil recruitment by allergens contribute to allergic sensitization and allergic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hosoki, Koa; Boldogh, Istvan; Sur, Sanjiv

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review To discuss the presence and role of neutrophils in asthma and allergic diseases, and outline importance of pollen and cat dander-induced innate neutrophil recruitment in induction of allergic sensitization and allergic inflammation. Recent findings Uncontrolled asthma is associated with elevated numbers of neutrophils, and levels of neutrophil-attracting chemokine IL-8 and IL-17 in BAL fluids. These parameters negatively correlate with lung function. Pollen allergens and cat dander recruit neutrophils to the airways in a TLR4, MD2 and CXCR2-dependent manner. Repeated recruitment of activated neutrophils by these allergens facilitates allergic sensitization and airway inflammation. Inhibition of neutrophil recruitment with CXCR2 inhibitor, disruption of TLR4, or siRNA against MD2 also inhibits allergic inflammation. The molecular mechanisms by which neutrophils shift the inflammatory response of the airways to inhaled allergens to an allergic phenotype is an area of active research. Summary Recent studies have revealed that neutrophil recruitment is important in development of allergic sensitization and inflammation. Inhibition of neutrophils recruitment may be strategy to control allergic inflammation. PMID:26694038

  13. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis in a sawmill worker. A case report.

    PubMed

    Terho, E O; Husman, K; Kotimaa, M; Sjöblom, T

    1980-06-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis, with acute attacks of the disease, developed in a sawmill worker. The diagnosis was based on the history of exposure to moldy wood, on the symptoms and clinical signs, and on physiological and radiographic findings. A microbiological analysis of the ambient air of the patient's work environment showed that the air contained a considerable number of spores, both of fungi and actinomycetes. The most common fungal genus was Aspergillus. Thermoactinomyces vulgaris predominated the actinomycetal flora. The patient's serum contained precipitins to Thermoactinomyces vulgaris and Aspergillus fumigatus. Based on the microbiological and serological data, it was concluded that the causative agent(s) of the disease was either T vulgaris or species of the genus Aspergillus. PMID:7001618

  14. Suppression of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis by 15-deoxyspergualin.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, T; Da-Lin, Y; Satoh, J; Tabira, T

    1987-12-01

    15-Deoxyspergualin (DSG), a novel antitumor antibiotic, was tested for treatment of acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Lewis rats. Clinical and histologic signs of EAE by active sensitization with myelin basic protein were profoundly inhibited by prophylactic administration of DSG in a dose-dependent manner. By the treatment during the inductive phase, the onset of EAE was significantly delayed. Antigen-specific proliferation of lymph node cells and the ability of spleen cells to transfer EAE were suppressed but concanavalin A-induced lymphocyte proliferation was not altered. Passive EAE induced with an encephalitogenic T cell line was also prevented by DSG-treatment, although DSG did not suppress but rather augmented the activation of T cells in vitro. Taken together, DSG is not a non-specific lymphocyte toxin but a unique immunomodulator that can suppress both inductive and effector phases of EAE. PMID:3502003

  15. Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis preceding allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, W; Teo, F S W; Santosa, A; Teng, G G

    2015-11-01

    A 61-year-old Chinese man with long-standing, stable Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (EGPA) and asthma, presented with acute hypoxemia and declining obstructive pulmonary function. Elevated serum IgE levels, positive Aspergillus fumigatus specific IgE and CT findings of central bronchiectasis with small airway mucoid impaction confirmed new development of Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA). The maintenance therapy for EGPA, azathioprine, was discontinued. Prednisolone 0.5 mg/kg/day and Itraconazole improved his symptoms and IgE levels. To our knowledge, ABPA occurring in a patient with EGPA has not been reported. Differentiation of EGPA with asthmatic flare vs ABPA vs asthma with aspergillus hypersensitivity is discussed. Heightened Th2 immunity where eosinophils play a central role may link these conditions. PMID:26549342

  16. A rationally designed CD4 analogue inhibits experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jameson, Bradford A.; McDonnell, James M.; Marini, Joseph C.; Korngold, Robert

    1994-04-01

    EXPERIMENTAL allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an acute inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that can be elicited in rodents and is the major animal model for the study of multiple sclerosis (MS)1,2. The pathogenesis of both EAE and MS directly involves the CD4+ helper T-cell subset3-5. Anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies inhibit the development of EAE in rodents6-9, and are currently being used in human clinical trials for MS. We report here that similar therapeutic effects can be achieved in mice using a small (rationally designed) synthetic analogue of the CD4 protein surface. It greatly inhibits both clinical incidence and severity of EAE with a single injection, but does so without depletion of the CD4+ subset and without the inherent immunogenicity of an antibody. Furthermore, this analogue is capable of exerting its effects on disease even after the onset of symptoms.

  17. ["NPAs": a new allergic risk?].

    PubMed

    Dutau, G; Rancé, F

    2009-04-01

    In recent years, to the list of classic pet animals (dogs and cats) as allergens we must now add the "new pet animals" (NPAs). This group of animals, referred to by the Anglo-Saxons as "pets", includes both those previously recognized (rabbit, guinea pig, hamster, birds) and the "truly new NPAs"; by general agreement "NPA" will include all animals other than cats and dogs. Some rather rare animals are regularly added to this list. The emergence of "NPAs" can be related to a social phenomenon, in particular, to the fashion and need for the exotic (http://www.aquadesign.be). They are a very diverse group: warm-blooded animals, spiders, batrachia (frogs, toads, salamanders, etc.) and reptiles. Besides the physical risks from their natural aggressive behaviour, the "NPAs" can be an allergic risk factor and this risk has a tendency to increase. Allergists and paediatricians have a role to play in the diagnosis and prevention of these allergies by giving advice on the choice of pet animals. This review concerns allergies to rodents, reptiles, batrachians, spiders, etc. PMID:19195854

  18. The burden of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Although formerly regarded as a nuisance disease, allergic rhinitis (AR) has a considerable effect on quality of life and can have significant consequences if left untreated. The total burden of this disease lies not only in impaired physical and social functioning but also in a financial burden made greater when considering evidence that AR is a possible causal factor in comorbid diseases such as asthma or sinusitis. Compared with matched controls, patients with AR have an approximate twofold increase in medication costs and 1.8-fold the number of visits to health practitioners. Hidden direct costs include the treatment of comorbid asthma, chronic sinusitis, otitis media, upper respiratory infection, and nasal polyposis. Nasal congestion, the most prominent symptom in AR, is associated with sleep-disordered breathing, a condition that can have a profound effect on mental health, including increased psychiatric disorders, depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse. Furthermore, sleep-disordered breathing in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased disorders of learning performance, behavior, and attention. In the United States, AR results in 3.5 million lost workdays and 2 million lost schooldays annually. Patients struggle to alleviate their misery, frequently self-adjusting their treatment regimen of over-the-counter and prescription medications because of lack of efficacy, deterioration of efficacy, lack of 24-hour relief, and bothersome side effects. Ironically, health care providers overestimate patient satisfaction with therapy. Therefore, improvement in patient-practitioner communication may enhance patient adherence with prescribed regimens. PMID:17390749

  19. Surfactant and allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Carla; Hohlfeld, Jens M

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is a complex mixture of unique proteins and lipids that covers the airway lumen. Surfactant prevents alveolar collapse and maintains airway patency by reducing surface tension at the air-liquid interface. Furthermore, it provides a defence against antigen uptake by binding foreign particles and enhancing cellular immune responses. Allergic asthma is associated with chronic airway inflammation and presents with episodes of airway narrowing. The pulmonary inflammation and bronchoconstriction can be triggered by exposure to allergens or pathogens present in the inhaled air. Pulmonary surfactant has the potential to interact with various immune cells which orchestrate allergen- or pathogen-driven episodes of airway inflammation. The complex nature of surfactant allows multiple sites of interaction, but also makes it susceptible to external alterations, which potentially impair its function. This duality of modulating airway physiology and immunology during inflammatory conditions, while at the same time being prone to alterations accompanied by restricted function, has stimulated numerous studies in recent decades, which are reviewed in this article. PMID:23896983

  20. NKp46 regulates allergic responses

    PubMed Central

    Ghadially, Hormas; Horani, Amjad; Glasner, Ariella; Elboim, Moran; Gazit, Roi; Shoseyov, David; Mandelboim, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic cells that are able to rapidly kill viruses, tumor cells, parasites, bacteria, and even cells considered “self”. The activity of NK cells is controlled by a fine balance of inhibitory and activating signals mediated by a complex set of different receptors. However, the function of NK cells is not restricted only to the killing of target cells, NK cells also possess other properties such as the secretion of proangiogenic factors during pregnancy. Here, we demonstrate another unique NK-cell activity, namely the regulation of T-cell mediated allergic responses, which is dependent on the NK-cell specific receptor NKp46 (Ncr1 in mice). Using mice in which the Ncr1 gene has been replaced with a green fluorescent protein, we demonstrate reduced delayed-type hypersensitivity and airway hypersensitivity. Interestingly, we show that this reduction in airway hypersensitivity is due to differences in the stimulation of T cells resulting in an altered cytokine profile. PMID:23878025

  1. NKp46 regulates allergic responses.

    PubMed

    Ghadially, Hormas; Horani, Amjad; Glasner, Ariella; Elboim, Moran; Gazit, Roi; Shoseyov, David; Mandelboim, Ofer

    2013-11-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic cells that are able to rapidly kill viruses, tumor cells, parasites, bacteria, and even cells considered "self". The activity of NK cells is controlled by a fine balance of inhibitory and activating signals mediated by a complex set of different receptors. However, the function of NK cells is not restricted only to the killing of target cells, NK cells also possess other properties such as the secretion of proangiogenic factors during pregnancy. Here, we demonstrate another unique NK-cell activity, namely the regulation of T-cell mediated allergic responses, which is dependent on the NK-cell specific receptor NKp46 (Ncr1 in mice). Using mice in which the Ncr1 gene has been replaced with a green fluorescent protein, we demonstrate reduced delayed-type hypersensitivity and airway hypersensitivity. Interestingly, we show that this reduction in airway hypersensitivity is due to differences in the stimulation of T cells resulting in an altered cytokine profile. PMID:23878025

  2. Allergic mechanisms of Eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    PubMed

    Leung, John; Beukema, Koen Robert; Shen, Alice Hangzhou

    2015-10-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is characterized by oesophageal dysfunction and oesophageal eosinophilia refractory to proton-pump-inhibitor treatment. EoE is a food allergy, as elimination of food trigger(s) abrogates the disease, while trigger reintroduction causes recurrence. The allergic mechanism of EoE involves both IgE and non-IgE processes. There is a break in oral tolerance, the immune mechanism allowing enteric exposure to food and micro-organisms without causing deleterious immune responses. Changes in life-style, alterations in gut flora and use of antibiotics may be increasing disease prevalence. Mouse models of EoE and human studies revealed the role of regulatory T-cells and iNKT-cells in the pathogenesis. Th2-cytokines like IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, and other cytokines like TGFβ and TSLP are involved, but perhaps no one cytokine is critically important for driving the disease. Control of EoE may require a pharmaceutical approach that blocks more than one target in the Th2-inflammatory pathway. PMID:26552770

  3. Optimal management of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Scadding, Glenis K

    2015-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR), the most common chronic disease in childhood is often ignored, misdiagnosed and/or mistreated. Undertreated AR impairs quality of life, exacerbates asthma and is a major factor in asthma development. It can involve the nose itself, as well as the organs connected with the nose manifesting a variety of symptoms. Evidence-based guidelines for AR therapy improve disease control. Recently, paediatric AR guidelines have been published by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and are available online, as are a patient care pathway for children with AR and asthma from the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. Management involves diagnosis, followed by avoidance of relevant allergens, with additional pharmacotherapy needed for most sufferers. This ranges, according to severity, from saline sprays, through non-sedating antihistamines, oral or topical, with minimally bioavailable intranasal corticosteroids for moderate/severe disease, possibly plus additional antihistamine or antileukotriene. The concept of rhinitis control is emerging, but there is no universally accepted definition. Where pharmacotherapy fails, allergen-specific immunotherapy, which is uniquely able to alter long-term disease outcomes, should be considered. The subcutaneous form (subcutaneous immunotherapy) in children has been underused because of concerns regarding safety and acceptability of injections. Sublingual immunotherapy is both efficacious and safe for grass pollen allergy. Further studies on other allergens in children are needed. Patient, carer and practitioner education into AR and its treatment are a vital part of management. PMID:25838332

  4. Skin Substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Nicole; Cohen, George

    2014-01-01

    In a relatively short timespan, a wealth of new skin substitutes made of synthetic and biologically derived materials have arisen for the purpose of wound healing of various etiologies. This review article focuses on providing an overview of skin substitutes including their indications, contraindications, benefits, and limitations. The result of this overview was an appreciation of the vast array of options available for clinicians, many of which did not exist a short time ago. Yet, despite the rapid expansion this field has undergone, no ideal skin substitute is currently available. More research in the field of skin substitutes and wound healing is required not only for the development of new products made of increasingly complex biomolecular material, but also to compare the existing skin substitutes. PMID:25371771

  5. Evaluation of Clinical and Immunological Responses: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study in Children with Allergic Rhinitis due to House Dust Mite

    PubMed Central

    Moed, Heleen; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Hendriks, Rudi W.; van der Wouden, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Allergic rhinitis is a disease with polarization towards Th2 and a defect of regulatory T cells. Immunological changes have been reported after immunotherapy treatment. However, there is not much known about the natural course of allergic rhinitis with respect to clinical manifestation and the relation with immunological responses. Objective. To evaluate clinical symptoms of allergic rhinitis, in relation to in vivo allergen-specific skin responses and in vitro allergen-specific effector and regulatory T cells determined at baseline and after two years. Methods. From a large trial, 59 children were randomly selected. The following variables were compared: clinical symptoms, allergen skin tests, specific IgE, T-cell proliferation, IL-5, IL-13, IFN-gamma, IL-10, TGF-beta, CD4+CD25hi cells, and Foxp3 expression. Results. Allergic symptoms had decreased after two years. Whereas skin test reactions correlated between years 0 and 2, there was no change in the size of the reaction. Also, proinflammatory reactions did not change after two years, with a positive correlation between years 0 and 2. No relevant changes were observed with respect to regulatory cells. Conclusion. Whereas, comparable to immunotherapy, allergic complaints decrease, the immunological changes of specific T-cell activity (both effector cells and regulator cells) which are observed after immunotherapy, do not change. PMID:23737646

  6. Structural elucidation and estimation of the acute toxicity of the major UV-visible photoproduct of fludioxonil - detection in both skin and flesh samples of grape.

    PubMed

    Lassalle, Yannick; Nicol, Édith; Genty, Christophe; Bourcier, Sophie; Bouchonnet, Stéphane

    2015-06-01

    Ultraviolet (UV)-visible irradiation of fludioxonil was investigated with two photoreactors using either a mercury or xenon vapor lamp. In both cases, it led to the formation of only one photoproduct in significant amount: 2-(2,2-difluorobenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-4-yl)-2-(nitrosomethylene)-4-oxobutanenitrile, which has been characterized using Liquid Chromatography - High Resolution - Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-HR-MS/MS) coupling. A photolysis pathway has been proposed to rationalize its formation in degassed water. In vitro bioassays on Vibrio fischeri bacteria showed that UV-vis irradiation of an aqueous solution of fludioxonil significantly increases its toxicity. Because no other by-product was detected in significant amount, the photoproduct mentioned above may be considered mainly responsible for this increase in toxicity. Grape berries treated with a 50 ppm aqueous solution of fludioxonil were submitted to UV-visible irradiation under laboratory conditions. The fungicide and photoproduct were detected in both skin and flesh of berries, even after they have been rinsed with water. The ability of the photoproduct to pass through the fruit skin is comparable with that of fludioxonil. These results are of concern for consumers because they mean that water tap rinsing does not lead to efficient removing of both compounds. PMID:26169141

  7. Multifactorial skin barrier deficiency and atopic dermatitis: Essential topics to prevent the atopic march.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Gyohei; Kabashima, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common inflammatory skin disease in the industrialized world and has multiple causes. Over the past decade, data from both experimental models and patients have highlighted the primary pathogenic role of skin barrier deficiency in patients with AD. Increased access of environmental agents into the skin results in chronic inflammation and contributes to the systemic "atopic (allergic) march." In addition, persistent skin inflammation further attenuates skin barrier function, resulting in a positive feedback loop between the skin epithelium and the immune system that drives pathology. Understanding the mechanisms of skin barrier maintenance is essential for improving management of AD and limiting downstream atopic manifestations. In this article we review the latest developments in our understanding of the pathomechanisms of skin barrier deficiency, with a particular focus on the formation of the stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the skin, which contributes significantly to skin barrier function. PMID:27497277

  8. Raised interleukin-13 levels in cord blood increases the risk of allergic sensitization at 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Uzuner, Nevin; Babayigit Hocaoglu, Arzu; Olmez Erge, Duygu; Asilsoy, Suna; Karaman, Ozkan; Altun, Zekiye; Kumral, Abdullah; Tufekci, Ozlem; Islekel, Huray

    2013-06-01

    The identification of early markers of atopy in cord blood of newborns at delivery may offer prediction of future allergic sensitization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cord blood interleukin-13 (IL-13) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and development of allergic diseases during the first five years of life. Umbilical cord blood samples were collected at the time of delivery from 62 newborns. The families of these newborns were asked to complete a questionnaire about age and education of parents, number of siblings, allergic diseases in family members, cigarette exposure during pregnancy and presence of pets in their house. The same subjects were evaluated when they were five years old. Venous blood samples were drawn and epidermal skin prick tests were performed. IL-13 and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) levels were studied from the blood samples which were taken during birth and five years later. There was no significant relationship between gender, type of delivery, educational levels of parents, exposure to cigarette smoke, atopy in parents, presence of pets in the house and IL-13 and IFN-γ levels in cord blood and at five years. Higher levels of IL-13 in newborns and five years olds, were found significantly related to skin prick test positivity (p=0.004 and p<0.0001, respectively) and presence of allergic diseases (p= 0.008 and p= 0.001, respectively). Levels of IFN-γ, both in cord blood and five years after, were not related with the future of allergic status of children. Higher levels of IL-13 in cord blood may be a predictor of future development of allergic sensitization. PMID:23754348

  9. Engineered silica nanoparticles act as adjuvants to enhance allergic airway disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With the increase in production and use of engineered nanoparticles (NP; ≤ 100 nm), safety concerns have risen about the potential health effects of occupational or environmental NP exposure. Results of animal toxicology studies suggest that inhalation of NP may cause pulmonary injury with subsequent acute or chronic inflammation. People with chronic respiratory diseases like asthma or allergic rhinitis may be even more susceptible to toxic effects of inhaled NP. Few studies, however, have investigated adverse effects of inhaled NP that may enhance the development of allergic airway disease. Methods We investigated the potential of polyethylene glycol coated amorphous silica NP (SNP; 90 nm diameter) to promote allergic airway disease when co-exposed during sensitization with an allergen. BALB/c mice were sensitized by intranasal instillation with 0.02% ovalbumin (OVA; allergen) or saline (control), and co-exposed to 0, 10, 100, or 400 μg of SNP. OVA-sensitized mice were then challenged intranasally with 0.5% OVA 14 and 15 days after sensitization, and all animals were sacrificed a day after the last OVA challenge. Blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected, and pulmonary tissue was processed for histopathology and biochemical and molecular analyses. Results Co-exposure to SNP during OVA sensitization caused a dose-dependent enhancement of allergic airway disease upon challenge with OVA alone. This adjuvant-like effect was manifested by significantly greater OVA-specific serum IgE, airway eosinophil infiltration, mucous cell metaplasia, and Th2 and Th17 cytokine gene and protein expression, as compared to mice that were sensitized to OVA without SNP. In saline controls, SNP exposure did cause a moderate increase in airway neutrophils at the highest doses. Conclusions These results suggest that airway exposure to engineered SNP could enhance allergen sensitization and foster greater manifestation of allergic airway disease upon

  10. Athletic skin injuries: combating pressure and friction.

    PubMed

    Basler, Rodney S W; Hunzeker, Christopher M; Garcia, Michael A

    2004-05-01

    Because the skin is the athlete's first line of defense, it is exposed to friction and pressure in nearly every athletic setting. Whether applied acutely or chronically, friction and pressure often cause skin trauma, such as abrasions, chafing, calluses, blisters, talon noir (black heel), and acne mechanica. Sports medicine clinicians, who regularly see skin injuries, can speed healing by making a timely diagnosis, recommending effective treatment, and discussing prevention strategies. PMID:20086411

  11. Epigenetic regulation of asthma and allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics of asthma and allergic disease is a field that has expanded greatly in the last decade. Previously thought only in terms of cell differentiation, it is now evident the epigenetics regulate many processes. With T cell activation, commitment toward an allergic phenotype is tightly regulated by DNA methylation and histone modifications at the Th2 locus control region. When normal epigenetic control is disturbed, either experimentally or by environmental exposures, Th1/Th2 balance can be affected. Epigenetic marks are not only transferred to daughter cells with cell replication but they can also be inherited through generations. In animal models, with constant environmental pressure, epigenetically determined phenotypes are amplified through generations and can last up to 2 generations after the environment is back to normal. In this review on the epigenetic regulation of asthma and allergic diseases we review basic epigenetic mechanisms and discuss the epigenetic control of Th2 cells. We then cover the transgenerational inheritance model of epigenetic traits and discuss how this could relate the amplification of asthma and allergic disease prevalence and severity through the last decades. Finally, we discuss recent epigenetic association studies for allergic phenotypes and related environmental risk factors as well as potential underlying mechanisms for these associations. PMID:24932182

  12. Allergic and asthmatic reactions to alcoholic drinks.

    PubMed

    Vally, Hassan; Thompson, Philip J

    2003-03-01

    Alcoholic drinks are capable of triggering a wide range of allergic and allergic-like responses, including rhinitis, itching, facial swelling, headache, cough and asthma. Limited epidemiological data suggests that many individuals are affected and that sensitivities occur to a variety of drinks, including wine, beer and spirits. In surveys of asthmatics, over 40% reported the triggering of allergic or allergic-like symptoms following alcoholic drink consumption and 30 - 35% reported worsening of their asthma. Sensitivity to ethanol itself can play a role in triggering adverse responses, particularly in Asians, which is due mainly to a reduced capacity to metabolize acetaldehyde. In Caucasians, specific non-alcohol components are the main cause of sensitivities to alcoholic drinks. Allergic sensitivities to specific components of beer, spirits and distilled liquors have been described. Wine is clearly the most commonly reported trigger for adverse responses. Sensitivities to wine appear to be due mainly to pharmacological intolerances to specific components, such as biogenic amines and the sulphite additives. Histamine in wine has been associated with the triggering of a wide spectrum of adverse symptoms, including sneezing, rhinitis, itching, flushing, headache and asthma. The sulphite additives in wine have been associated with triggering asthmatic responses. Clinical studies have confirmed sensitivities to the sulphites in wine in limited numbers of individuals, but the extent to which the sulphites contribute to wine sensitivity overall is not clear. The aetiology of wine-induced asthmatic responses may be complex and may involve several co-factors. PMID:12745410

  13. Chlorination products: emerging links with allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Bernard, A

    2007-01-01

    Exposure of the human population to chlorination products has considerably increased during the 20(th) century especially after the 1960s with the development of public and leisure pools. The present article summarizes current knowledge regarding the human exposure to chlorination products and reviews studies suggesting that these chemicals might be involved in the development or exacerbation of allergic diseases. Populations regularly in contact with chlorination products such as swimmers, lifeguards or workers using chlorine as cleaning or bleaching agent show increased risks of allergic diseases or of respiratory disorders frequently associated with allergy. Experimental evidence suggests that chlorination products promote allergic sensitization by compromising the permeability or the immunoregulatory function of epithelial barriers. These findings led to the chlorine hypothesis proposing that the rise of allergic diseases could result less from the declining exposure to microbial agents (the hygiene hypothesis) than from the increasing and largely uncontrolled exposure to products of chlorination, the most widely used method to achieve hygiene in the developed world. Giving the increasing popularity of water recreational areas, there is an obvious need to assess the effects of chlorine-based oxidants on human health and their possible implication in the epidemic of allergic diseases. PMID:17627515

  14. Allergic sensitization and the environment: latest update.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Young; Perzanowski, Matthew S

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of asthma and other allergic diseases is still increasing both in developed and developing countries. Allergic sensitization against common inhalant allergens is common and, although not sufficient, a necessary step in the development of allergic diseases. Despite a small number of proteins from certain plants and animals being common allergens in humans, we still do not fully understand who will develop sensitization and to which allergens. Environmental exposure to these allergens is essential for the development of sensitization, but what has emerged clearly in the literature in the recent years is that the adjuvants to which an individual is exposed at the same time as the allergen are probably an equally important determinant of the immune response to the allergen. These adjuvants act on all steps in the development of sensitization from modifying epithelial barriers, to facilitating antigen presentation, to driving T-cell responses, to altering mast cell and basophil hyperreactivity. The adjuvants come from biogenic sources, including microbes and the plants and animals that produce the allergens, and from man-made sources (anthropogenic), including unintended by-products of combustion and chemicals now ubiquitous in modern life. As we better understand how individuals are exposed to these adjuvants and how the exposure influences the likelihood of an allergic response, we may be able to design individual and community-level interventions that will reverse the increase in allergic disease prevalence, but we are not there yet. PMID:25149167

  15. Upper and lower airway pathology in young children with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Chawes, Bo L K

    2011-05-01

    Allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis are very common diseases in childhood in industrialized countries. Although these conditions are widely trivialized by both parents and physicians they induce a major impact on quality of life for the affected children and a substantial drainage of health care resources. Unfortunately, diagnostic specificity is hampered by nonspecific symptom history and lack of reliable diagnostic tests which may explain why the pathology behind such diagnoses is poorly understood. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology of allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis in young children may contribute to the discovery of new mechanisms involved in pathogenesis and help direct future research to develop correctly timed preventive measures as well as adequate monitoring and treatment of children with rhinitis. Asthma is a common comorbidity in subjects with allergic rhinitis and epidemiological surveys have suggested a close connection between upper and lower airway diseases expressed as the "united airways concept". Furthermore, an association between upper and lower airway diseases also seems to exist in non-atopic individuals. Nevertheless, the nature of this association is poorly understood and there is a paucity of data objectivizing this association in young children. The aim of this thesis was to describe pathology in the upper and lower airways in young children from the COPSAC birth cohort with investigator-diagnosed allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis. Nasal congestion is a key symptom in both allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis, and eosinophilic inflammation is a hallmark of the allergic diseases. In paper I, we studied nasal eosinophilia and nasal airway patency assessed by acoustic rhinometry in children with allergic rhinitis, non-allergic rhinitis and healthy controls. Allergic rhinitis was significantly associated with nasal eosinophilia and irreversible nasal airway obstruction suggesting chronic inflammation and structural remodeling

  16. Vitamin D in atopic dermatitis, chronic urticaria and allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Quirk, Shannon K; Rainwater, Ellecia; Shure, Anna K; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin D influences allergen-induced pathways in the innate and adaptive immune system, and its potential immunomodulatory role in allergic skin disorders has been explored. This comprehensive review article provides an overview of the role of vitamin D in three common dermatologic conditions: atopic dermatitis (AD), chronic urticaria, and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Whereas the literature regarding vitamin D and AD has resulted in mixed findings, several studies have described an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and AD severity, and improvement in AD with vitamin D supplementation. Similarly, several studies report an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and severity of chronic urticaria. Although current research in humans remains limited, an increased likelihood of ACD has been demonstrated in vitamin D-deficient mice. Additional well-designed clinical trials will be necessary to determine whether vitamin D supplementation should be recommended for prevention or adjuvant treatment of these common dermatologic conditions. PMID:27014952

  17. [Development of allergic reactivity to Artemesia pollen during combined sensitization to pollen and microbes].

    PubMed

    Ermekova, R K

    1978-08-01

    Some regularities of formation of hypersensitivity of the immediate type to the pollen of Artemisia absinthium were studied under conditions of combined hypersensitivity to pollen and Brucella abortus 19-BA vaccine strain; the latter was administered 3, 12, and 28 days after the pollen. The degree of specific allergic reconstruction to the pollen was studied by passive skin anaphylaxis after Ovary, indirect degranulation of mast cells of healthy rats, and by general anaphylaxis in response to intravenous injection of the Artemisia absinthium pollen water-salt extract. Early formation of allergy to the pollen was observed in the groups of animals with combined hypersensitivity to the pollen and brucellae. The degree of allergic reactivity to the pollen allergen was more expressed in the groups with combined allergy than in those with pure pollen hypersensitivity at all the stages of this experiment. PMID:99195

  18. Noninvasive in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy is effective in differentiating allergic from nonallergic equivocal patch test reactions.

    PubMed

    Slodownik, D; Levi, A; Lapidoth, M; Ingber, A; Horev, L; Enk, C D

    2015-04-01

    Patch testing is the gold standard for the validation of contact dermatitis. It relies on the subjective scoring by an evaluator of the inflammatory reaction induced by an allergen applied to the skin. Equivocal reactions imply faint erythema and could represent allergic, irritant, or negative reactions. They constitute approximately 1 % of the positive reactions encountered in patch test practice. Histological evaluation of the equivocal reaction has proven helpful for the correct interpretation but is however time consuming, and its invasive nature is often unacceptable to the patient. In vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is a novel, noninvasive imaging technique which permits real-time visualization of skin structures and lesions at a resolution close to that obtained by conventional histology. CLSM has been successfully applied for the differentiation between clinically clear-cut allergic and irritant patch test reactions. The objective of this study is to determine the relevance of CLSM in differentiating between allergic, irritant, and negative equivocal patch test reactions. Fifteen patients who underwent patch testing in our clinic were observed as having 20 equivocal reactions. All 20 reactions were evaluated using in vivo CLSM and compared with adjacent normal skin. In vivo CLSM evaluation revealed that 8 of the 20 equivocal reactions (40 %) showed confocal patterns consistent with the patterns encountered in positive allergic reactions. Anamnestic exposure, i.e., detailed assessment of previous related contact with these allergens, confirmed high relevance rates. In vivo CLSM is useful in differentiating between allergic, irritant, and negative equivocal patch test reactions, a differentiation that cannot be made by conventional clinical patch test reading. PMID:25604734

  19. Skin Cancer in Skin of Color

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Porcia T.

    2009-01-01

    Skin cancers in skin of color often present atypically or with advanced stage in comparison to Caucasian patients. Health care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion when examining skin lesions in skin of color. PMID:19691228

  20. Repeat oral food challenges in peanut and tree nut allergic children with a history of mild/moderate reactions

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Rebecca Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background In peanut and tree nut allergic children a history of anaphylaxis is associated with subsequent severe reactions. Objective We aimed to prospectively rechallenge peanut and tree nut allergic children with a history of mild/moderate reactions to assess their allergy over time. Methods In this cohort study peanut and tree nut allergic children with a history of mild/moderate reactions during a controlled oral challenge were invited to have a follow-up oral challenge to the same food at least 1 year later. Results Twenty-six children participated in the study. The mean time interval between the first and second challenge for all participants was 35.5 months. Peanut or tree nut allergy resolved in 38.5% of participants. Those with persistent peanut or tree nut allergy showed a decrease in their reaction threshold and/or increased severity in 81% of cases. There were no demographic features or skin test results that were predictive of changes in severity over time. Conclusion Peanut and tree nut allergic children with a history of mild/moderate reactions who remained allergic demonstrated a high rate of more severe reactions and/or reduced thresholds upon rechallenge over a year later, however, the rate of resolution of allergy in this group may be higher than previously reported. PMID:26240794

  1. Think You're Allergic to Penicillin? Maybe Not

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158759.html Think You're Allergic to Penicillin? Maybe Not Only a severe reaction that comes ... Many people who believe they're allergic to penicillin actually aren't, an allergist says. "Hypersensitivity reactions ...

  2. Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis with Probiotics: An Alternative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gui; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a skewed immune reaction to common antigens in the nasal mucosa; current therapy is not satisfactory and can cause a variety of complications. In recent decades, the incidence of allergic rhinitis is increasing every year. Published studies indicate that probiotics are beneficial in treating allergic rhinitis. This review aims to help in understanding the role of probiotics in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. We referred to the PubMed database as data source. This review focuses on the following aspects: The types of probiotics using in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, approaches of administration, its safety, mechanisms of action, treating results, and the perspectives to improve effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. This review reports the recent findings regarding the role of probiotics in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Probiotics are a useful therapeutic remedy in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, but its underlying mechanisms remain to be further investigated. PMID:24083221

  3. Treatment of allergic rhinitis with probiotics: an alternative approach.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gui; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2013-08-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a skewed immune reaction to common antigens in the nasal mucosa; current therapy is not satisfactory and can cause a variety of complications. In recent decades, the incidence of allergic rhinitis is increasing every year. Published studies indicate that probiotics are beneficial in treating allergic rhinitis. This review aims to help in understanding the role of probiotics in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. We referred to the PubMed database as data source. This review focuses on the following aspects: The types of probiotics using in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, approaches of administration, its safety, mechanisms of action, treating results, and the perspectives to improve effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. This review reports the recent findings regarding the role of probiotics in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Probiotics are a useful therapeutic remedy in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, but its underlying mechanisms remain to be further investigated. PMID:24083221

  4. Specific IgG for cat allergens in patients with allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Miyama, Anri; Mimura, Tatsuya; Noma, Hidetaka; Goto, Mari; Kamei, Yuko; Kondo, Aki; Saito, Yusuke; Okuma, Hiroko; Matsubara, Masao

    2015-08-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies are involved in type II and type III hypersensitivity. We evaluated the relation between perennial allergic conjunctivitis and serum levels of specific IgG for cat allergens. A prospective study was conducted in patients with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (seasonal group, n = 10), patients with perennial allergic conjunctivitis (perennial group, n = 10), and healthy control subjects (control group, n = 10). Serum levels of specific IgE and IgG for cat allergens and total tear IgE were measured, and a skin prick test was also performed. In addition, a severity score associated with allergic conjunctivitis was calculated (0-30). The positive rates and scores of for total tear IgE, serum cat-specific IgE, and serum cat-specific IgG were all higher in the seasonal and perennial groups than in the control group (all p < 0.05). Serum cat-specific IgG levels were higher in the perennial group than in the seasonal group (p = 0.0156), but there was no significant difference in the grade of cat-specific IgE between the two groups (p = 0.3008). On multivariate analysis, the mean wheal diameter for cat allergen was associated with the serum level of cat-specific IgG (not IgE) in all patients [odds ratio (OR) = 31.979, p < 0.0001]. Multivariate analysis revealed that the total objective score was strongly associated with serum cat-specific IgG (OR = 23.015, p < 0.0001). These findings suggest that specific IgG antibodies may be involved in perennial allergic symptoms caused by indoor allergens such as cat allergens. PMID:25189683

  5. Pollen-induced antigen presentation by mesenchymal stem cells and T cells from allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Desai, Mauli B; Gavrilova, Tatyana; Liu, Jianjun; Patel, Shyam A; Kartan, Saritha; Greco, Steven J; Capitle, Eugenio; Rameshwar, Pranela

    2013-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising cellular suppressor of inflammation. This function of MSCs is partly due to their licensing by inflammatory mediators. In cases with reduced inflammation, MSCs could become immune-enhancer cells. MSCs can suppress the inflammatory response of antigen-challenged lymphocytes from allergic asthma. Although allergic rhinitis (AR) is also an inflammatory response, it is unclear if MSCs can exert similar suppression. This study investigated the immune effects (suppressor vs enhancer) of MSCs on allergen-stimulated lymphocytes from AR subjects (grass or weed allergy). In contrast to subjects with allergic asthma, MSCs caused a significant (P<0.05) increase in the proliferation of antigen-challenged lymphocytes from AR subjects. The increase in lymphocyte proliferation was caused by the MSCs presenting the allergens to CD4(+) T cells (antigen-presenting cells (APCs)). This correlated with increased production of inflammatory cytokines from T cells, and increased expressions of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-II and CD86 on MSCs. The specificity of APC function was demonstrated in APC assay using MSCs that were knocked down for the master regulator of MHC-II transcription, CIITA. The difference in the effects of MSCs on allergic asthma and AR could not be explained by the sensitivity to the allergen, based on skin tests. Thus, we deduced that the contrasting immune effects of MSCs for antigen-challenged lymphocytes on AR and allergic asthma could be disease specific. It is possible that the enhanced inflammation from asthma might be required to license the MSCs to become suppressor cells. This study underscores the need for robust preclinical studies to effectively translate MSCs for any inflammatory disorder. PMID:25505949

  6. Hyperelastic skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... is most often seen in people who have Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic skin. ... any member of your family been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome? What other symptoms are present?

  7. Your Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Butterflies? Read This Chloe & Nurb Meet The Brain (Movie) Quiz: Do You Need a Flu Shot? Got ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Movie: Skin Acne Myths Blisters, Calluses, and Corns Fungal ...

  8. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Review. 17 Wu S, Han J, Laden F, Qureshi AA. Long-term ultraviolet flux, other potential risk factors, ... MR, Shive ML, Chren MM, Han J, Qureshi AA, Linos E. Indoor tanning and non-melanoma skin ...

  9. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... nearby What to Do Teach kids not to pop, pick at, or scratch pimples, pus-filled infections, ... Your Skin Abscess Impetigo Ringworm Cellulitis Should I Pop My Pimple? Tips for Taking Care of Your ...

  10. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposure to ultraviolet light, which is found in sunlight and in lights used in tanning salons. What ... the safe-sun guidelines. 1. Avoid the sun. Sunlight damages your skin. The sun is strongest during ...

  11. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... early. If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ... and a type of laser light to kill cancer cells. Biologic therapy boosts your body's own ability to ...

  12. Hyperelastic skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... is most often seen in people who have Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic skin. ... any member of your family been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome? What other symptoms are present? Alternative Names India ...

  13. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis from oxygen cannulas.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, A J

    1980-10-01

    A patient experienced allergic contact dermatitis on two occasions two months apart as a result of wearing the same brand of polyvinyl chloride oxygen cannula. In one instance the cannula was removed and not replaced, as continuing oxygen was unnecessary; on the other occasion the original cannula was replaced by a cannula of another brand. In both cases the dermatitis disappeared after removal of the original cannula. The reaction was probably to a resin remaining in the polyvinyl chloride after the curing process in the manufacture of the plastic from which the cannula was made. Allergic reactions to plastics have been documented in other medical products but have not previously been reported in respiratory therapy plastic appliances. Because of variability in residual resins in different brands and batches of plastics, and because of varying individual sensitivity, therapists and others should be alert to the possibility of allergic contact dermatitis from respiratory therapy devices. PMID:10315103

  15. Role of platelets in allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Idzko, Marco; Pitchford, Simon; Page, Clive

    2015-06-01

    Increasing evidence suggests an important role for platelets and their products (e.g., platelet factor 4, β-thromboglobulin, RANTES, thromboxane, or serotonin) in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. A variety of changes in platelet function have been observed in patients with asthma, such as alterations in platelet secretion, expression of surface molecules, aggregation, and adhesion. Moreover, platelets have been found to actively contribute to most of the characteristic features of asthma, including bronchial hyperresponsiveness, bronchoconstriction, airway inflammation, and airway remodeling. This review brings together the current available data from both experimental and clinical studies that have investigated the role of platelets in allergic airway inflammation and asthma. It is anticipated that a better understanding of the role of platelets in the pathogenesis of asthma might lead to novel promising therapeutic approaches in the treatment of allergic airway diseases. PMID:26051948

  16. Exposure to inhomogeneous static magnetic field beneficially affects allergic inflammation in a murine model

    PubMed Central

    Csillag, Anikó; Kumar, Brahma V.; Szabó, Krisztina; Szilasi, Mária; Papp, Zsuzsa; Szilasi, Magdolna E.; Pázmándi, Kitti; Boldogh, István; Rajnavölgyi, Éva; Bácsi, Attila; László, János F.

    2014-01-01

    Previous observations suggest that static magnetic field (SMF)-exposure acts on living organisms partly through reactive oxygen species (ROS) reactions. In this study, we aimed to define the impact of SMF-exposure on ragweed pollen extract (RWPE)-induced allergic inflammation closely associated with oxidative stress. Inhomogeneous SMF was generated with an apparatus validated previously providing a peak-to-peak magnetic induction of the dominant SMF component 389 mT by 39 T m−1 lateral gradient in the in vivo and in vitro experiments, and 192 mT by 19 T m−1 in the human study at the 3 mm target distance. Effects of SMF-exposure were studied in a murine model of allergic inflammation and also in human provoked skin allergy. We found that even a single 30-min exposure of mice to SMF immediately following intranasal RWPE challenge significantly lowered the increase in the total antioxidant capacity of the airways and decreased allergic inflammation. Repeated (on 3 consecutive days) or prolonged (60 min) exposure to SMF after RWPE challenge decreased the severity of allergic responses more efficiently than a single 30-min treatment. SMF-exposure did not alter ROS production by RWPE under cell-free conditions, while diminished RWPE-induced increase in the ROS levels in A549 epithelial cells. Results of the human skin prick tests indicated that SMF-exposure had no significant direct effect on provoked mast cell degranulation. The observed beneficial effects of SMF are likely owing to the mobilization of cellular ROS-eliminating mechanisms rather than direct modulation of ROS production by pollen NAD(P)H oxidases. PMID:24647908

  17. Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma in Southern Croatia: Impact of Sensitization to Ambrosia elatior

    PubMed Central

    Cvitanović, Slavica; Znaor, Ljubo; Kanceljak-Macan, Božica; Macan, Jelena; Gudelj, Ivan; Grbić, Dragica

    2007-01-01

    Aim To identify pollen types in southern Croatia and investigate the impact of sensitization to Ambrosia elatior (A. elatior) on symptoms and treatment of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis and/or asthma. Methods The study recruited 120 patients from Split-Dalmatian County with seasonal rhinitis and asthma symptoms and positive skin prick test to one or more common inhaled allergens. Patients with positive skin prick test and increased specific IgE to A. elatior (n = 56) were included in the follow-up study during the A. elatior pollen season. Rhinitis and asthma symptoms were scored and drug treatment recorded using standardized questionnaires. Also, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and eosinophil count in peripheral blood were measured. Type and pollen concentration of A. elatior in the air over the nine-week pollen season were determined on the glass slides using the gravimetric method. The results were expressed as the proportion of A. elatior pollen in the total pollen. Results Fifty-six of 120 patients (46.7%) were sensitized to A. elatior. Its proportion in total pollen peaked to 12% in the first week of September. Forty-one patients who completed the follow-up study showed a significantly higher score of symptoms during this peak period than in the beginning of the pollen season for seasonal allergic rhinitis (median±interquartile range, 50 ± 11 vs 7 ± 4; P<0.001) and for seasonal allergic asthma (median±interquartile range, 12 ± 2 vs 0 ± 0; P<0.001). Conclusion A. elatior is an important cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis and asthma and must be included in the routine diagnostic procedures in southern Croatia. PMID:17309141

  18. Biological monitoring and allergic sensitization in traffic police officers exposed to urban air pollution.

    PubMed

    Vimercati, L; Carrus, A; Bisceglia, L; Tatò, I; Bellotta, M R; Russo, A; Martina, G; Daprile, C; Di Leo, E; Nettis, E; Assennato, G

    2006-01-01

    Urban air pollution is associated with an increased incidence of allergic respiratory diseases. The aim of this study is to assess the occupational exposure to urban pollution through biological monitoring of PAHs and CO airborne levels in 122 traffic wardens in Bari, Italy and to investigate sensitization to inhaled allergens in a subgroup of workers. After filling in a questionnaire on lifestyle habits and occupational history, a medical examination, spirometry were carried out and blood samples were taken; the measurement of exhaled CO and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP) was performed and data on the air quality of Bari Municipality were obtained. Specific IgE dosage and skin prick tests were done on 18 workers giving altered values of spirometry or anamnestic allergic symptoms. Urinary 1-HOP showed median levels of 0.1 microMol/Mol(creat) (range 0.02-6.68) and was not influenced by smoking habits, work tasks, area of the city and environmental levels of PM10. Exhaled CO, with median value of 1 ppm (range 0-27), was significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers, while no other variable seemed to play a role in modifying the levels. Specific IgE production versus inhalant allergens was found in 6 cases. Positive skin prick test results were observed in 11 cases. Allergic rhinitis was diagnosed in 6 cases. At least one of the allergometric tests performed was positive in 61 percent of the subjects. In conclusion, our results suggest the importance of introducing allergic status evaluation in this class of workers, exposed to several urban air pollutants. PMID:17291408

  19. Senescent Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kushniruk, William

    1974-01-01

    The cutaneous surface is continually influenced by aging and environmental factors. A longer life span is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of problems associated with aging skin. Although most of these changes and lesions are not life threatening, the premalignant lesions must be recognized and treated. The common aging and actinic skin changes are discussed and appropriate management is described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469067

  20. Schwann cells generated from neonatal skin-derived precursors or neonatal peripheral nerve improve functional recovery after acute transplantation into the partially injured cervical spinal cord of the rat.

    PubMed

    Sparling, Joseph S; Bretzner, Frederic; Biernaskie, Jeff; Assinck, Peggy; Jiang, Yuan; Arisato, Hiroki; Plunet, Ward T; Borisoff, Jaimie; Liu, Jie; Miller, Freda D; Tetzlaff, Wolfram

    2015-04-29

    The transplantation of Schwann cells (SCs) holds considerable promise as a therapy for spinal cord injury, but the optimal source of these cells and the best timing for intervention remains debatable. Previously, we demonstrated that delayed transplantation of SCs generated from neonatal mouse skin-derived precursors (SKP-SCs) promoted repair and functional recovery in rats with thoracic contusions. Here, we conducted two experiments using neonatal rat cells and an incomplete cervical injury model to examine the efficacy of acute SKP-SC transplantation versus media control (Experiment 1) and versus nerve-derived SC or dermal fibroblast (Fibro) transplantation (Experiment 2). Despite limited graft survival, by 10 weeks after injury, rats that received SCs from either source showed improved functional recovery compared with media- or fibroblast-treated animals. Compared with media treatment, SKP-SC-transplanted rats showed enhanced rubrospinal tract (RST) sparing/plasticity in the gray matter (GM) rostral to injury, particularly in the absence of immunosuppression. The functional benefits of SC transplantations over fibroblast treatment correlated with the enhanced preservation of host tissue, reduced RST atrophy, and/or increased RST sparing/plasticity in the GM. In summary, our results indicate that: (1) early transplantation of neonatal SCs generated from skin or nerve promotes repair and functional recovery after incomplete cervical crush injury; (2) either of these cell types is preferable to Fibros for these purposes; and (3) age-matched SCs from these two sources do not differ in terms of their reparative effects or functional efficacy after transplantation into the injured cervical spinal cord. PMID:25926450

  1. The united allergic airway: Connections between allergic rhinitis, asthma, and chronic sinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Michaela D.; Simon, Ronald A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The united allergic airway is a theory that connects allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic rhinosinusitis, and asthma, in which seemingly disparate diseases, instead of being thought of separately, are instead viewed as arising from a common atopic entity. Objective: This article describes patients with such diseases; explores ideas suggesting a unified pathogenesis; elucidates the various treatment modalities available, emphasizing nasal corticosteroids and antihistamines; and provides an update of the literature. Methods: A literature review was conducted. Conclusion: The aggregation of research suggests that AR, asthma, and chronic rhinosinusitis are linked by the united allergic airway, a notion that encompasses commonalities in pathophysiology, epidemiology, and treatment. PMID:22643942

  2. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  3. Micro cell isolation column for allergic diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Koichiro; Sakamoto, Kenji; Yanase, Yuhki; Hide, Michihiro; Miyake, Ryo

    2016-03-01

    We suggest a new micro cell isolation column of basophils for an allergic diagnostic system for detecting human basophils activations. Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) biosensors using human basophils allow allergic diagnosis of less than 1 ml of peripheral blood. However, an isolation of basophils from a small amount of blood is not easy. In this study, we constructed a new micro cell isolation column for basophils with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microflow pass including magnetic particles. Furthermore, we determined whether leukocytes were captured by the micro cell isolation column from a small amount of blood. We can isolate basophils from other leukocytes by using the micro cell isolation column.

  4. Rupatadine in allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Mullol, J; Bousquet, J; Bachert, C; Canonica, W G; Gimenez-Arnau, A; Kowalski, M L; Martí-Guadaño, E; Maurer, M; Picado, C; Scadding, G; Van Cauwenberge, P

    2008-04-01

    Histamine is the primary mediator involved the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria, and this explains the prominent role that histamine H(1)-receptor antagonists have in the treatment of these disorders. However, histamine is clearly not the only mediator involved in the inflammatory cascade. There is an emerging view that drugs which can inhibit a broader range of inflammatory processes may prove to be more effective in providing symptomatic relief in both allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria. This is an important consideration of the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) initiative which provides a scientific basis for defining what are the desirable properties of an 'ideal' antihistamine. In this review of rupatadine, a newer dual inhibitor of histamine H(1)- and PAF-receptors, we evaluate the evidence for a mechanism of action which includes anti-inflammatory effects in addition to a powerful inhibition of H(1)- and PAF-receptors. We assess this in relation to the clinical efficacy (particularly the speed of onset of action) and safety of rupatadine, and importantly its longer term utility in everyday life. In clinical trials, rupatadine has been shown to be an effective and well-tolerated treatment for allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). It has a fast onset of action, producing rapid symptomatic relief, and it also has an extended duration of clinical activity which allows once-daily administration. In comparative clinical trials rupatadine was shown to be at least as effective as drugs such as loratadine, cetirizine, desloratadine and ebastine in reducing allergic symptoms in adult/adolescent patients with seasonal, perennial or persistent allergic rhinitis. Importantly, rupatadine demonstrated no adverse cardiovascular effects in preclinical or extensive clinical testing, nor negative significant effects on cognition or psychomotor performance (including a practical driving study). It improved the

  5. Eosinophilic pleural effusion complicating allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Kirschner, Austin N; Kuhlmann, Erica; Kuzniar, Tomasz J

    2011-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is primarily a disease of patients with cystic fibrosis or asthma, who typically present with bronchial obstruction, fever, malaise, and expectoration of mucus plugs. We report a case of a young man with a history of asthma who presented with cough, left-sided pleuritic chest pain and was found to have lobar atelectasis and an eosinophilic, empyematous pleural effusion. Bronchoscopy and sputum cultures grew Aspergillus fumigatus, and testing confirmed strong allergic response to this mold, all consistent with a diagnosis of ABPA. This novel and unique presentation of ABPA expands on the differential diagnosis of eosinophilic pleural effusions. PMID:21311176

  6. DOSE-DEPENDENT ALLERGIC ASTHMA RESPONSES TO PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    Indoor mold has been associated with development of allergic asthma. Penicillium chrysogenum, a common indoor mold, is known to have several allergens and its viable conidia can induce allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic penicilliosis. The hypothesis o...

  7. Reactivity of allergy skin test in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Supakthanasiri, Phisit; Klaewsongkram, Jettanong; Chantaphakul, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Healthy individuals may be exposed and sensitised to allergens, and have a positive response to a skin prick test despite being asymptomatic. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of atopic sensitisation and identify the reactivity of healthy volunteers to common aeroallergens. METHODS Healthy volunteers with no known allergic symptoms were recruited in this study. All volunteers were scheduled to undergo a skin prick test with 16 common aeroallergens that were previously identified among atopic patients. RESULTS A total of 100 volunteers (mean age 28 years) were enrolled in this study. 42 volunteers had positive skin prick tests for at least one allergen. The median number of sensitised allergen was 2 (range 1–7). Volunteers with positive skin tests (n = 42) were younger than those with negative skin tests (n = 58) (mean age 25.5 vs. 29.2 years; p < 0.05). The group with positive skin tests also had a higher proportion of males (57.1% vs. 31.0%; p < 0.01) and first-degree relatives with a history of atopic diseases (31.0% vs. 10.3%; p < 0.05). The most common sensitised allergens in these healthy asymptomatic volunteers were mite (n = 33), house dust (n = 23) and American cockroach (n = 20). CONCLUSION In this study, up to 42% of healthy volunteers, particularly those with a family history of atopy, were sensitised to allergens. Reactivity of the skin test without allergic symptoms, however, does not indicate allergic disease. Therefore, the skin test should only be indicated in atopic symptomatic individuals. PMID:24452975

  8. Skin care and incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    Incontinence - skin care ... in a wheelchair, regular chair, or bed TAKING CARE OF THE SKIN Using diapers and other products ... skin. Over time, the skin breaks down. Special care must be taken to keep the skin clean ...

  9. Skin characteristics in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    Newborn skin characteristics; Infant skin characteristics ... the first few weeks of the baby's life. Newborn skin will vary, depending on the length of the pregnancy. Premature infants have thin, transparent skin. The skin of a ...

  10. Investigation of the threshold for allergic reactivity to chromium.

    PubMed

    Basketter, D; Horev, L; Slodovnik, D; Merimes, S; Trattner, A; Ingber, A

    2001-02-01

    Allergy to chromium is relatively common, often in association with exposure to cement or in leather manufacture. However, in certain locations, there appears to be a relatively large cohort of chromium-sensitive individuals whose allergy cannot be explained by these common sources. In particular, this group include Israeli housewives with persistent hand eczema and concomitant patch test positivity to chromium. The causation of their allergy has been linked with relatively high levels of chromium contamination in household products. To provide further information in respect of the definition of safe levels for such products, we examined 17 chromium-allergic individuals to determine their threshold for reaction under closed patch test and repeated open application test (ROAT) conditions. The data derived indicated that, on normal skin, the patch test threshold was 10 ppm chromium; in the presence of an irritant (sodium lauryl sulfate) the threshold was closer to 1 ppm, 2/17 subjects giving 1+ reactions at this concentration. In the more realistic exposure conditions of the ROAT, 8/14 individuals failed to react to 50 ppm, whilst 3/15 reacted to 5 ppm. Interestingly, there was very poor correlation between patch test sensitivity and ROAT sensitivity. To ensure the large majority of chromium-allergic individuals do not suffer elicitation of their allergy, as well as to limit the development of new chromium-sensitive subjects, it is recommended that household products adhere to a previously published standard of a maximum limit of 5 ppm, with an ultimate target of 1 ppm contamination by chromium. PMID:11205406

  11. A Survey of Clinical Features of Allergic Rhinitis in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Frati, Franco; Dell’Albani, Ilaria; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Bonini, Sergio; Rossi, Oliviero; Senna, Gianenrico; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis (AR) has high prevalence and substantial socio-economic burden. Material/Methods The study included 35 Italian Centers recruiting an overall number of 3383 adult patients with rhinitis (48% males, 52% females, mean age 29.1, range 18–45 years). For each patient, the attending physician had to fill in a standardized questionnaire, covering, in particular, some issues such as the ARIA classification of allergic rhinitis (AR), the results of skin prick test (SPT), the kind of treatment, the response to treatment, and the satisfaction with treatment. Results Out of the 3383 patients with rhinitis, 2788 (82.4%) had AR: 311 (11.5%) had a mild intermittent, 229 (8.8%) a mild persistent, 636 (23.5%) a moderate-severe intermittent, and 1518 (56.1%) a moderate-severe persistent form. The most frequently used drugs were oral antihistamines (77.1%) and topical corticosteroids (60.8%). The response to treatment was judged as excellent in 12.2%, good in 41.3%, fair in 31.2%, poor in 14.5%, and very bad in 0.8% of subjects. The rate of treatment dissatisfaction was significantly higher in patients with moderate-to-severe AR than in patients with mild AR (p<0.0001). Indication to allergen immunotherapy (AIT) was significantly more frequent (p<0.01) in patients with severe AR than with mild AR. Conclusions These findings confirm the appropriateness of ARIA guidelines in classifying the AR patients and the association of severe symptoms with unsuccessful drug treatment. The optimal targeting of patients to be treated with AIT needs to be reassessed. PMID:25366169

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis from ketoconazole.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Warshaw, Erin M

    2014-09-01

    Ketoconazole is a widely used imidazole antifungal agent. True contact allergy to topical ketoconazole is rare, and few cases of patients with contact allergy to ketoconazole have been reported. We present the case of a patient with a history of undiagnosed recurrent dermatitis who developed acute facial swelling and pruritus after using ketoconazole cream and shampoo for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. Patch testing revealed true contact allergy to ketoconazole without cross-reactivity to 4 other imidazole antifungals. Review of the patient's medical record suggested that prior incidences of dermatitis might have been due to ketoconazole exposure. When the patient avoided this imidazole agent, the dermatitis resolved. PMID:25279470

  13. Volatile Organic Compounds Enhance Allergic Airway Inflammation in an Experimental Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Bönisch, Ulrike; Böhme, Alexander; Kohajda, Tibor; Mögel, Iljana; Schütze, Nicole; von Bergen, Martin; Simon, Jan C.; Lehmann, Irina; Polte, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies suggest an association between exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and adverse allergic and respiratory symptoms. However, whether VOCs exhibit a causal role as adjuvants in asthma development remains unclear. Methods To investigate the effect of VOC exposure on the development of allergic airway inflammation Balb/c mice were exposed to VOCs emitted by new polyvinylchloride (PVC) flooring, sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and characterized in acute and chronic murine asthma models. Furthermore, prevalent evaporated VOCs were analyzed and mice were exposed to selected single VOCs. Results Exposure of mice to PVC flooring increased eosinophilic lung inflammation and OVA-specific IgE serum levels compared to un-exposed control mice. The increased inflammation was associated with elevated levels of Th2-cytokines. Long-term exposure to PVC flooring exacerbated chronic airway inflammation. VOCs with the highest concentrations emitted by new PVC flooring were N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate (TXIB). Exposure to NMP or TXIB also increased the allergic immune response in OVA-sensitized mice. In vitro or in vivo exposure to NMP or TXIB reduced IL-12 production in maturing dendritic cells (DCs) and enhanced airway inflammation after adoptive DC transfer into Balb/c mice. At higher concentrations both VOCs induced oxidative stress demonstrated by increased isoprostane and glutathione-S-transferase-pi1 protein levels in the lung of non-sensitized mice. Treatment of PVC flooring-exposed mice with N-acetylcysteine prevented the VOC-induced increase of airway inflammation. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that exposure to VOCs may increase the allergic immune response by interfering with DC function and by inducing oxidative stress and has therefore to be considerate as risk factor for the development of allergic diseases. PMID:22802943

  14. Resolution of Allergic Airway Inflammation and Airway Hyperreactivity Is Mediated by IL-17–producing γδT Cells

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, Jenna R.; Lloyd, Clare M.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: γδT lymphocytes are enriched within the epithelial microenvironment, where they are thought to maintain homeostasis and limit immunopathology. γδT cells are postulated to exert a regulatory influence during acute allergic airway disease, but the mechanism is unknown. Although regulation of allergic airway disease has been attributed to IL-17–producing T helper (Th) 17 cells, we have found that γδT cells represent the major source of IL-17 in the allergic lung. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of these IL-17–producing γδT cells to regulation of allergic airway inflammation. Methods: Flow cytometry revealed that IL-17–producing γδT cells are more prevalent than IL-17+αβT cells (Th17) in a murine model of ovalbumin-induced allergic inflammation. Measurements and Main Results: Transfer of γδT cells at the peak of acute allergic responses ameliorated airway hyperresponsiveness with a corresponding acceleration in the resolution of eosinophilic and Th2-driven inflammation. Conversely, functional blockade of γδT cells led to exacerbation of injury. Neither treatment changed pulmonary Th17 cell numbers. Moreover, transfer of Th17 cells had no effect on disease outcome. Importantly, IL-17–deficient γδT cells were unable to promote resolution of injury. These data identify IL-17–producing γδT cells as key regulators of the allergic response in vivo. Conclusions: This unfolds a new perspective for the understanding of γδT cell function with regard to innate regulation of the adaptive immune responses, emphasizing that resolution of responses are important in determining the outcome of acute inflammatory episodes as well as for maintenance of tissue integrity and homeostasis. PMID:20413629

  15. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis: Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Galiatsatos, Panagis; Melia, Michael T.; Silhan, Leann L.

    2016-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) results from a hypersensitivity response to airways colonization with Aspergillus fumigatus, and it occurs most often in individuals with asthma or cystic fibrosis. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is an indolent, but potentially progressive, disease in patients. In patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), ABPA is rare, and its description in the literature is limited to case reports. We describe the occurrence of ABPA in a 37-year-old woman with well controlled HIV infection. This represents the first documented case of ABPA in an HIV-infected patient whose only pulmonary comorbidity included the ramifications of prior acute respiratory distress syndrome due to Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. We also review prior case reports of ABPA in HIV-infected patients and consider risk factors for its development. PMID:27419184

  16. Kalanchoe pinnata inhibits mast cell activation and prevents allergic airway disease.

    PubMed

    Cruz, E A; Reuter, S; Martin, H; Dehzad, N; Muzitano, M F; Costa, S S; Rossi-Bergmann, B; Buhl, R; Stassen, M; Taube, C

    2012-01-15

    Aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata (Kp) have been found effective in models to reduce acute anaphylactic reactions. In the present study, we investigate the effect of Kp and the flavonoid quercetin (QE) and quercitrin (QI) on mast cell activation in vitro and in a model of allergic airway disease in vivo. Treatment with Kp and QE in vitro inhibited degranulation and cytokine production of bone marrow-derived mast cells following IgE/FcɛRI crosslinking, whereas treatment with QI had no effect. Similarly, in vivo treatment with Kp and QE decreased development of airway hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation, goblet cell metaplasia and production of IL-5, IL-13 and TNF. In contrast, treatment with QI had no effect on these parameters. These findings demonstrate that treatment with Kp or QE is effective in treatment of allergic airway disease, providing new insights to the immunomodulatory functions of this plant. PMID:21802918

  17. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Galiatsatos, Panagis; Melia, Michael T; Silhan, Leann L

    2016-04-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) results from a hypersensitivity response to airways colonization with Aspergillus fumigatus, and it occurs most often in individuals with asthma or cystic fibrosis. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is an indolent, but potentially progressive, disease in patients. In patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), ABPA is rare, and its description in the literature is limited to case reports. We describe the occurrence of ABPA in a 37-year-old woman with well controlled HIV infection. This represents the first documented case of ABPA in an HIV-infected patient whose only pulmonary comorbidity included the ramifications of prior acute respiratory distress syndrome due to Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. We also review prior case reports of ABPA in HIV-infected patients and consider risk factors for its development. PMID:27419184

  18. Blunted HPA axis responsiveness to stress in atopic patients is associated with the acuity and severeness of allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Buske-Kirschbaum, A; Ebrecht, M; Hellhammer, D H

    2010-11-01

    Previously we could demonstrate attenuated responsiveness of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to stress in patients with chronic allergic inflammatory disease (i.e., atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma). The present study was designed to investigate HPA axis function in an acute manifestation of allergy. Patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR; n = 20) and non-atopic controls (n = 20) were exposed to a standardized laboratory stressor ('Trier Social Stress Test'; TSST). Cortisol responses to the TSST and cortisol awakening responses (CAR) were measured in SAR subjects while suffering from acute symptoms of SAR (pollen season), and during a non-active state of their disease (pollen-free season). To assess the acuity and severity of SAR, eosinophil and basophil numbers and SAR symptomatology were determined. Non-allergic control subjects were examined at identical times during the year. To control for possible sequence effects, a cross-over design was used. SAR patients showed significantly increased symptom severity (t = 9.4; p<.001) as well as eosinophil (F(1,31) = 9.8; p<.01) and basophil (F(1,38) = 6.4; p<.05) numbers during the pollen season when compared to a pollen-free period. When exposed to the TSST, significantly attenuated cortisol responses were found in SAR subjects during acute manifestation of the disease (pollen season) when compared to the pollen-free season (F(16,456) = 1.65; p<.05). In SAR patients, there was a significant negative correlation between symptom severity and the cortisol response to the stressor (r = .53; p<.05). No significant between-group or between-condition differences with respect to the CAR could be determined (all p>.05). These findings support previous data of attenuated HPA axis responsiveness to stress in atopic conditions and further, suggest that HPA axis hyporesponsiveness in atopy may be linked to the severity of the allergic inflammatory process. PMID:20633637

  19. Rash with DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System Use in Bilateral Reduction Mammoplasty: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Knackstedt, R W; Dixon, J A; O'Neill, P J; Herrera, F A

    2015-01-01

    Background. Bilateral reduction mammoplasty is a common plastic surgery procedure that can be complicated by unfavorable scar formation along incision sites. Surgical adhesives can be utilized as an alternative or as an adjunct to conventional suture closures to help achieve good wound tension and provide an adequate barrier with excellent cosmesis. The recently introduced DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System Skin Closure System combines the skin adhesive 2-octyl cyanoacrylate with a self-adhering polyester-based mesh. Proposed benefits of wound closure with DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System, used with or without sutures, include its watertight seal, easy removal, microbial barrier, even distribution of tension, and reduction in wound closure time. Although allergic reactions to 2-octyl cyanoacrylate have been reported, few allergic reactions to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System have been noted in the literature. This case series describes three patients who experienced an allergic reaction to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System after undergoing elective bilateral reduction mammoplasties at our institution to further explore this topic. Methods. Retrospective chart review of bilateral reduction mammoplasty patients who received DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System dressing at our institution was performed. Results. Three patients were identified as having a rash in reaction to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System after bilateral reduction mammoplasty. All three patients required systemic steroid treatment to resolve the rash. One patient was identified as having a prior adhesive reaction. Conclusions. DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System has demonstrated its efficacy in optimizing scar healing and appearance. However, as we demonstrate these three allergic reactions to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System, caution must be utilized in its usage, namely, in patients with a prior adhesive allergy and in sites where moisture or friction may be apparent. PMID

  20. A dual role for complement in allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Köhl, Jörg; Wills-Karp, Marsha

    2007-06-01

    Complement is an ancient danger-sensor system of innate immunity, providing first-line defence against pathogens. Concordant with its pro-inflammatory properties, complement contributes to airway inflammation, hyperresponsiveness and mucus production during the effector phase of allergic asthma. In contrast to these pro-allergic properties, complement can also protect from the development of the maladaptive Th2-biased immune response that drives airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in allergic asthma. As such, selective targeting of pro-allergic complement pathways appears an attractive therapeutic option in allergic asthma. PMID:17475559

  1. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yun Ho; Jin, Guang Yu; Guo, Hui Shu; Piao, Hong Mei; Li, Liang chang; Li, Guang Zhao; Lin, Zhen Hua; Yan, Guang Hai

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin suppresses NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. Because NF-{kappa}B activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-{kappa}B activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-{kappa}B activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  2. Bilastine: in allergic rhinitis and urticaria.

    PubMed

    Carter, Natalie J

    2012-06-18

    Bilastine is an orally administered, second-generation antihistamine used in the symptomatic treatment of seasonal or perennial allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria. In two well designed phase III trials, 14 days' treatment with bilastine was associated with a significantly lower area under the effect curve (AUEC) for the reflective total symptom score (TSS) than placebo in patients with symptomatic seasonal allergic rhinitis. Additionally, reflective nasal symptom scores were significantly lower in bilastine than placebo recipients in patients with a history of seasonal allergic rhinitis who were challenged with grass pollen allergen in a single-centre, phase II study. Neither bilastine nor cetirizine was effective in the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis with regard to the mean AUEC for reflective TSS in another well designed phase III trial. However, results may have been altered by differences in some baseline characteristics and placebo responses between study countries. In another well designed phase III trial, compared with placebo, bilastine was associated with a significantly greater change from baseline to day 28 in the mean reflective daily urticaria symptom score in patients with chronic urticaria. There were no significant differences in primary endpoint results between bilastine and any of the active comparators used in these trials (i.e. cetirizine, levocetirizine and desloratadine). Bilastine was generally well tolerated, with a tolerability profile that was generally similar to that of the other second-generation antihistamines included in phase III clinical trials. PMID:22686617

  3. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Eye Drops

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Yasmeen Jabeen; Zeerak, Sumaya; Hassan, Iffat

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) occurs due to a milieu of allergens and involves different anatomical sites, including eyelids, and periorbital areas. Topically applied ophthalmic drugs are a potential cause of ACD of the periorbital region. Here we describe the report of a patient who developed ACD to eye drop preparations. PMID:26677304

  4. Impaired basophil histamine release from allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Stahl Skov, P; Norn, S; Weeke, B; Nolte, H

    1987-04-01

    A few patients (6-7%) with a verified type I allergic reaction do not respond with histamine release after challenge of their basophils with specific antigen (non-responding basophils from allergic patients). Sera from these non-responding patients were used for passive sensitization of responding cells from healthy controls. When these sensitized cells were challenged with specific antigen, histamine release was observed indicating that the non-responding allergic patients have circulating antigen-specific IgE capable of binding to Fc-receptors on the basophils. These findings suggest the possibility that non-responding basophils have impaired cell functions. We therefore examined the influence of enhanced IgE receptor stimulation on histamine release in non-responding basophils. This was made by stimulating protein kinase C activity by a phorbol ester (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate). When the non-responding cells were incubated with the phorbol ester and challenged with either anti-IgE or specific antigen, the cells released histamine. These findings support the hypothesis that the unresponsiveness of basophils in some allergic patients is associated with impaired IgE receptor complex activation or subcellular functioning and not with a lack of cell-bound IgE. PMID:2440283

  5. Effect of 6'-acetylpaeoniflorin on dinitrochlorobenzene-induced allergic contact dermatitis in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Yang, Xiaodan; Jia, Xiaoyi; Yu, Jun; Asenso, James; Xiao, Feng; Wang, Chun; Wei, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a classical experimental model of allergic inflammatory skin disease, which is a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction that is mediated by hapten-specific T lymphocytes. The goal of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic profiles of 6'-acetylpaeoniflorin (6-AP) and the effect of 6-AP on the ACD model. 6-AP was synthesized from paeoniflorin (Pae) via acetylation, and the structure was confirmed. There were statistically significant differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters including t 1/2α , t 1/2β , AUC, MRT and C max among the animals that were orally administered Pae and 6-AP. An ACD model was induced using immunization with dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in BALB/c mice. The mice were orally administered 6-AP (35, 70 and 140 mg/kg/d), Pae (70 mg/kg/d) and prednisone (Pre, 5 mg/kg/d) from day 1 to day 7 after immunization. The results indicated that the topical application of DNCB to the skin provoked obvious inflammatory responses. 6-AP significantly inhibited ear swelling and decreased inflammatory cell infiltration and epidermal keratinization. Additionally, 6-AP observably alleviated the hyperplasia of red pulp and germinal center appearance, decreased the spleen index and inhibited splenocyte proliferation in the ACD model compared to that of Pae. Furthermore, the study indicated that 6-AP could increase the IL-10 level, while simultaneously reducing the IL-17 level in splenocytes. In summary, these results suggest that 6-AP has a significantly higher anti-inflammatory effect than Pae and that 6-AP might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin diseases. PMID:26798038

  6. Patch test results in patients with allergic contact dermatitis in the Podlasie region

    PubMed Central

    Bacharewicz, Joanna; Pawłoś, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to provide current data on the incidence of allergy to various contact allergens in patients with allergic contact eczema and the analysis of selected socio-demographic data of the patients. Material and methods The study included 1532 patients (1010 women and 522 men) treated for allergic contact dermatitis at the Department of Dermatology and Venereology and at the Dermatology Outpatient Clinic in Bialystok in 2007–2011. The assessment of selected demographic data and skin lesions was based on the MOAHFLA index, while the results of patch tests were analyzed with modified Baseline European Series consisting of 31 allergens. Results In the group of patients with eczema, 34.1% were men, and 55% of all respondents were people over 40 years of age. The occupational character of skin lesions was found in 22.5%. Most frequently (38.9%) skin lesions were localized on the hands, rarely involved legs (3.98%). Atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 4.5% of patients. The ten most frequent allergens were: nickel sulfate (24%), cobalt chloride (15.3%), fragrance mix (8.25%), potassium dichromate (6.8%), balsam of Peru (5.5%), neomycin (4.42%), paraphenylenediamine (3.85%), Quatermium-15 (2.1%), detreomycin (1.83%) and budesonide (1.44% of tested patients). Conclusions Frequent allergy to detreomycin indicates the need of patch testing for this allergen of all examined patients with allergic contact dermatitis. The increased frequency of the nickel allergy is a worrying problem and indicates the need for education about the risk factors for nickel allergy development and the implementation of appropriate legal regulations. PMID:24493997

  7. Safety of a peanut oral immunotherapy protocol in peanut allergic children

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Alison M.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Jones, Stacie M.; Palmer, Kricia P.; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Steele, Pamela H.; Kamilaris, Janet; Burks, A. Wesley

    2009-01-01

    Background Oral immunotherapy offers a promising therapeutic option for peanut allergy. Given that during oral immunotherapy an allergic patient ingests an allergen that could potentially cause a serious reaction, safety of oral immunotherapy is of particular concern. Objective The purpose of this study is to examine safety during the initial escalation day, build-up phase, and home dosing phase in subjects enrolled in a peanut oral immunotherapy study. Methods Skin, upper respiratory, chest and abdominal symptoms were recorded with initial escalation day and build-up phase dosings. Subjects also maintained daily diaries detailing symptoms after each home dosing. A statistical analysis of this data was performed. Results Twenty of 28 patients completed all phases of the study. During the initial escalation day, upper respiratory (79%) and abdominal (68%) symptoms were the most likely symptoms experienced. The risk of mild wheezing during the initial escalation day was 18%. The probability of having any symptoms after a build-up phase dose was 46%, with a risk of 29% for upper respiratory symptoms and 24% for skin symptoms. The risk of reaction with any home dose was 3.5%. Upper respiratory (1.2%) and skin (1.1%) were the most likely symptoms after home doses. Treatment was given with 0.7% of home doses. Two subjects received epinephrine after one home dose each. Conclusions Subjects were more likely to have significant allergic symptoms during the initial escalation day when they were in a closely monitored setting than during other phases of the study. Allergic reactions with home doses were rare. PMID:19477496

  8. Nickel sensitization and dietary nickel are a substantial cause of symptoms provocation in patients with chronic allergic-like dermatitis syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Soana, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Data in literature seem to show that, in patients with contact allergic dermatitis, dietary nickel might be a cause of systemic dermatitis, but little information exists in literature about the role of nickel sensitization and dietary nickel in patients with allergic-like chronic dermatitis syndromes. The prevalence of nickel sensitization in patients with chronic allergic-like, non-IgE-mediated skin diseases, and the possible impact of dietary nickel on symptom provocation and persistence has been assessed in the present retrospective study on a case series of 1726 patients referred to our allergy unit for chronic allergic-like skin diseases. IgE-mediated pathogenesis and other differential diagnoses excluded, patients were patch tested. Nickel-positive patients underwent an elimination diet and double-blind placebo-controlled nickel challenge (DBPCNC) test. A total of 339 (20%) tested nickel-positive. Fifty-two patients (15%) recovered by avoiding sources of nickel contact and 29 (10%) dropped out. Out of the remaining nickel-sensitized patients, 277 (80%) achieved complete or near complete recovery with low-nickel content diet, and 185 of them (89%) were positive to DBPCNC. We conclude that nickel sensitization and dietary nickel seem to be the chief trigger for provocation and persistence of symptoms in an important part (∼11%) of patients with chronic allergic-like dermatitis syndromes. PMID:25747857

  9. Systemic allergic contact dermatitis to fiberglass in a factory worker of wind turbine blades.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Ana; Morais, Paulo; Cunha, Ana Paula; Azevedo, Filomena

    2011-09-01

    Fiberglass is extensively used due to its properties of thermal, acoustic and electrical insulation, and also to reinforce other materials such as plastics. Irritant contact dermatitis to fiberglass is a well established occupational dermatose and is due to penetration of small fragments in the cornified layer of the skin. On the other hand, allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is rare and is more often triggered by sensitivity to the additives and resins used in the manufacture of fiberglass products. We report a case of ACD to fiberglass in a factory worker of fiberglass reinforced products. PMID:21190399

  10. The importance of TSLP in allergic disease and its role as a potential therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Cianferoni, Antonella; Spergel, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an epithelial-derived cytokine similar to IL- 7, whose gene is located on chromosome 5q22.1 and it exerts its biological function through the TSLP-Receptor (TSLP-R). TSLP is expressed primarily by epithelial cells at barrier surfaces such as the skin, gut and lung in response to danger signals. Since it was cloned in 1994, there has been accumulating evidence that TSLP is crucial for the maturation of antigen presenting cells and hematopoietic cells. TSLP genetic variants and its dysregulated expression have been linked to atopic diseases such as atopic dermatitis, asthma, allergic rhinitis and eosinophilic esophagitis. PMID:25340427

  11. Interaction of gypsum and the rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides plays an important role in anti-allergic effects of byakkokakeishito in mice.

    PubMed

    Makino, Toshiaki; Shiraki, Yusaku; Mizukami, Hajime

    2014-07-01

    Gypsum is a crude mineral drug used in the formulas of Japanese kampo medicine and traditional Chinese medicine. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-allergic effect of byakkokakeishito extract (BKT), which consists of gypsum (natural hydrous calcium sulfate), Anemarrhena Rhizome (rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides), Cinnamon Bark (bark of trunk of Cinnamomum cassia), Oriza Seed (seed of Oryza sativa), and Glycyrrhiza (root and stolon of Glycyrrhiza uralensis), and to clarify the role of gypsum in the formula. We prepared BKT by boiling a mixture of various quantities of gypsum and fixed amounts of the other four crude drugs in water. We evaluated the anti-allergic activity of the formulations using three different murine models of allergy: contact dermatitis induced by painting hapten onto skin; allergic dermatitis-like symptoms induced by cutaneous injection of mite-antigen; and skin passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction using ovalbumin as antigen. The calcium content in the various BKT samples was dose-dependently increased up to 60 g/day of human dosage. BKT significantly suppressed the allergic symptoms in the three different experimental models. The effect of BKT was augmented by increasing the gypsum dosage only in the PCA reaction model. The extract prepared from a mixture of Anemarrhena Rhizome and gypsum exhibited an effect comparable to that of BKT. BKT exhibits an anti-allergic effect in several animal models, which may provide experimental evidence for the clinical use of BKT in allergic diseases. Gypsum may augment the anti-allergic activity of BKT, presumably through increasing intestinal absorption of Anemarrhena Rhizome-derived active constituents. PMID:24554438

  12. OCCUPATIONAL SKIN PROBLEMS IN CONSTRUCTION WORKERS

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Kartik R; Tiwari, Rajnarayan R

    2010-01-01

    Background Construction workers handle cement which has constituents to produce both irritant contact dermatitis and corrosive effects (from alkaline ingredients, such as lime) and sensitization, leading to allergic contact dermatitis (from ingredients, such as chromium). Aim: The present study has been carried out among unorganized construction workers to find the prevalence of skin problems. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in 92 construction workers of Ahmedabad and Vadodara. Results and Discussion: All the workers were subjected to clinical examination after collection of information regarding demographic characteristics, occupational characteristics and clinical history on a predesigned proforma. Of them, 47.8% had morbid skin conditions. Frictional callosities in palm were observed in 18 (19.6%) subjects while 4 (4.3%) subjects had contact dermatitis. Other conditions included dry, fissured and scaly skin, infectious skin lesion, tinea cruris, lesion and ulcers on hands and/or soles. Conclusion The skin conditions were common in the age group of 20–25 years, males, those having ≥1 year exposure and those working for longer hours. Half of the workers not using personal protective equipment had reported skin-related symptoms. PMID:21430887

  13. Early skin testing is effective for diagnosis of hypersensitivity reactions occurring during anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Lafuente, A; Javaloyes, G; Berroa, F; Goikoetxea, M J; Moncada, R; Núñez-Córdoba, J M; Cabrera-Freitag, P; D'Amelio, C; Sanz, M L; Gastaminza, G

    2013-06-01

    Allergic skin tests have to be performed 4-6 weeks after an allergic anesthetic reaction. Patients with allergic reactions during anesthesia were prospectively included (n = 44). Skin tests were performed in two stages: (i) Stage 1 (S1), 0-4 days after the reaction; and (ii) Stage 2 (S2), 4-8 weeks after. Five (11.5%) surgical procedures were suspended due to the reaction. Positive skin tests were obtained in 25/44 patients (57%). Allergic diagnosis was carried out at S1 in 15/25 (60%) and at S2 in 10/25 (40%). Three patients resulted positive only in S1. Overall agreement among S1 and S2 skin tests was 70.45%. The kappa statistic was 0.41 (P-value = 0.002). Odds ratio of obtaining a false negative in S1 (compared with S2) was 3.33. Early allergological study is useful, could minimize false negatives, but should be considered as a complement to late skin tests. PMID:23646901

  14. [Skin and soft tissue infections].

    PubMed

    Piso, R J; Bassetti, S

    2012-03-14

    Skin- and Soft tissue infections are a frequent problem in hospital as well as in ambulatory care. Diagnostic procedures and treatment principles have to include the most frequent pathogens. While the acute forms of skin and soft tissue infections, with, necrotising fasciitis as important exception, rarely cause diagnostic or therapeutic problem, the treatment of patients with recurrent furunculosis, chronic wounds and diabetic feet is often difficult and frustration for patients and physicians. This article gives an overview of the most important problems and treatment strategies. PMID:22419138

  15. Skin cancer and photoaging in ethnic skin.

    PubMed

    Halder, Rebat M; Ara, Collette J

    2003-10-01

    Skin cancer prevalence in ethnic skin is low. Squamous cell carcinoma, hypopigmented mycosis fungoides, and acral lentiginous melanoma are the most serious types of skin cancer noted in the darker-skinned population. Photoaging occurs less frequently and is less severe in ethnic skin. PMID:14717413

  16. Acute renal failure due to ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Allon, M; Lopez, E J; Min, K W

    1990-10-01

    Acute renal failure developed in three patients within a few days of starting ciprofloxacin hydrochloride therapy. An allergic interstitial nephritis was suggested by fever and eosinophiluria in one patient and by erythema multiforme in another. A kidney biopsy specimen confirmed this diagnosis in one patient. Renal function improved shortly after withdrawal of the drug in all three patients. Literature survey revealed an additional three patients with a similar complication. Allergic manifestations, such as fever or rash, were a feature in most reported cases. In view of this potential complication, renal function should be closely monitored in patients receiving ciprofloxacin therapy, especially if other potentially nephrotoxic drugs are prescribed concomitantly. PMID:2222106

  17. PRIMARY NOCTURNAL ENURESIS IN CHILDREN WITH ALLERGIC RHINITIS AND SEVERE ADENOTONSILLAR HYPERTROPHY: A SINGLE CENTER PILOT STUDY.

    PubMed

    Chimenz, R; Manti, S; Fede, C; Stroscio, G; Visalli, C; Nicotera, A; Di Rosa, G; Romeo, A C; Salpietro, V; Cuppari, C

    2015-01-01

    Nocturnal enuresis is defined as intermittent urinary incontinence during sleep that occurs at least twice a week for three consecutive months. There is no unifying etiology for nocturnal enuresis in the pediatric population and the disorder is likely to be multifactorial. We aimed to investigate the relationship between primary nocturnal enuresis, allergic rhinitis, and related complications in a paediatric case series from a single Center. We retrospectively reviewed and prospectively followed-up at our Institution (i) 32 children (14 females, 18 males; mean age 6.31±1.21 yrs) affected by allergic rhinitis with adenoidal hypertrophygrade I-II (group A) and (ii) 27 children (11 females, 16 males; mean age 6.52±1.33 yrs) affected by allergic rhinitis with adenoidal hypertrophy grade III-IV (group B). Allergic rhinitis was diagnosed on the basis of (a) typical nasal symptoms due to atopic sensitization (e.g., rhinorrhea , itching, sneezing fits, and nasal congestion and obstruction) and (b) positive skin prick testing and/or increased level of total serum IgE. We identified discrepancies between group A and group B in terms of risk of primary nocturnal enuresis. In fact, only 1 child of group A (3.12%) reported uncomplicated primary nocturnal enuresis; conversely, 6 children of group B (22.22%) showed a history of uncomplicated primary nocturnal enuresis (p=0.040). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of atopic sensitization and serum total IgE levels (p=0.43). Allergic rhinitis may potentially influence the onset and the natural history of nocturnal enuresis in some children. Children with allergic rhinitis and more severe respiratory manifestations, seem to be more prone to developing primary nocturnal enuresis, likely due to potential multi-factorial causes (e.g., sleep disorders, chronic phlogosis, immune deregulation). PMID:26634591

  18. Eosinophilic Skin Diseases: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Long, Hai; Zhang, Guiying; Wang, Ling; Lu, Qianjin

    2016-04-01

    Eosinophilic skin diseases, commonly termed as eosinophilic dermatoses, refer to a broad spectrum of skin diseases characterized by eosinophil infiltration and/or degranulation in skin lesions, with or without blood eosinophilia. The majority of eosinophilic dermatoses lie in the allergy-related group, including allergic drug eruption, urticaria, allergic contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, and eczema. Parasitic infestations, arthropod bites, and autoimmune blistering skin diseases such as bullous pemphigoid, are also common. Besides these, there are several rare types of eosinophilic dermatoses with unknown origin, in which eosinophil infiltration is a central component and affects specific tissue layers or adnexal structures of the skin, such as the dermis, subcutaneous fat, fascia, follicles, and cutaneous vessels. Some typical examples are eosinophilic cellulitis, granuloma faciale, eosinophilic pustular folliculitis, recurrent cutaneous eosinophilic vasculitis, and eosinophilic fasciitis. Although tissue eosinophilia is a common feature shared by these disorders, their clinical and pathological properties differ dramatically. Among these rare entities, eosinophilic pustular folliculitis may be associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or malignancies, and some other diseases, like eosinophilic fasciitis and eosinophilic cellulitis, may be associated with an underlying hematological disorder, while others are considered idiopathic. However, for most of these rare eosinophilic dermatoses, the causes and the pathogenic mechanisms remain largely unknown, and systemic, high-quality clinical investigations are needed for advances in better strategies for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Here, we present a comprehensive review on the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, and management of these rare entities, with an emphasis on recent advances and current consensus. PMID:25876839

  19. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells: New Players in Human Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, TA; Broide, DH

    2015-01-01

    Allergic diseases are characterized by tissue eosinophilia, mucus secretion, IgE production, and activation of mast cells and TH2 cells. Production of TH2 cytokines including IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13 has mainly been attributed to CD4+ TH2 cells. However, the recent discovery of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in humans and findings from experimental disease models have challenged conventional concepts associated with the contribution of specific cells to type 2 inflammation in allergic diseases. ILC2s produce high levels of TH2 cytokines and have been detected in human lung tissue, peripheral blood, the gastrointestinal tract, skin, and sinonasal tissue, suggesting that ILC2s could contribute to chronic rhinosinusitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and gastrointestinal allergic disease. Moreover, depletion of ILC2s in animal models suggests a role for these cells in atopic dermatitis and asthma. This review will focus on the role of ILC2s in human allergy and asthma and provide a mechanistic insight from animal models. PMID:25898689

  20. Oleanolic Acid Controls Allergic and Inflammatory Responses in Experimental Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-García, Carmen; Martín, Rubén; Gallego-Muñoz, Patricia; Hernández, Marita; Nieto, María L.

    2014-01-01

    Pollen is the most common aeroallergen to cause seasonal conjunctivitis. The result of allergen exposure is a strong Th2-mediated response along with conjunctival mast cell degranulation and eosinophilic infiltration. Oleanolic acid (OA) is natural a triterpene that displays strong anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties being an active anti-allergic molecule on hypersensitivity reaction models. However, its effect on inflammatory ocular disorders including conjunctivits, has not yet been addressed. Hence, using a Ragweed pollen (RWP)-specific allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) mouse model we study here whether OA could modify responses associated to allergic processes. We found that OA treatment restricted mast cell degranulation and infiltration of eosinophils in conjunctival tissue and decreased allergen-specific Igs levels in EAC mice. Th2-type cytokines, secreted phospholipase A2 type-IIA (sPLA2-IIA), and chemokines levels were also significantly diminished in the conjunctiva and serum of OA-treated EAC mice. Moreover, OA treatment also suppressed RWP-specific T-cell proliferation. In vitro studies, on relevant cells of the allergic process, revealed that OA reduced the proliferative and migratory response, as well as the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators on EoL-1 eosinophils and RBL-2H3 mast cells exposed to allergic and/or crucial inflammatory stimuli such as RWP, sPLA2-IIA or eotaxin. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the beneficial activity of OA in ocular allergic processes and may provide a new intervention strategy and potential therapy for allergic diseases. PMID:24699261

  1. Facilitation of Allergic Sensitization and Allergic Airway Inflammation by Pollen-Induced Innate Neutrophil Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Hosoki, Koa; Aguilera-Aguirre, Leopoldo; Brasier, Allan R; Kurosky, Alexander; Boldogh, Istvan; Sur, Sanjiv

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil recruitment is a hallmark of rapid innate immune responses. Exposure of airways of naive mice to pollens rapidly induces neutrophil recruitment. The innate mechanisms that regulate pollen-induced neutrophil recruitment and the contribution of this neutrophilic response to subsequent induction of allergic sensitization and inflammation need to be elucidated. Here we show that ragweed pollen extract (RWPE) challenge in naive mice induces C-X-C motif ligand (CXCL) chemokine synthesis, which stimulates chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2)-dependent recruitment of neutrophils into the airways. Deletion of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) abolishes CXCL chemokine secretion and neutrophil recruitment induced by a single RWPE challenge and inhibits induction of allergic sensitization and airway inflammation after repeated exposures to RWPE. Forced induction of CXCL chemokine secretion and neutrophil recruitment in mice lacking TLR4 also reconstitutes the ability of multiple challenges of RWPE to induce allergic airway inflammation. Blocking RWPE-induced neutrophil recruitment in wild-type mice by administration of a CXCR2 inhibitor inhibits the ability of repeated exposures to RWPE to stimulate allergic sensitization and airway inflammation. Administration of neutrophils derived from naive donor mice into the airways of Tlr4 knockout recipient mice after each repeated RWPE challenge reconstitutes allergic sensitization and inflammation in these mice. Together these observations indicate that pollen-induced recruitment of neutrophils is TLR4 and CXCR2 dependent and that recruitment of neutrophils is a critical rate-limiting event that stimulates induction of allergic sensitization and airway inflammation. Inhibiting pollen-induced recruitment of neutrophils, such as by administration of CXCR2 antagonists, may be a novel strategy to prevent initiation of pollen-induced allergic airway inflammation. PMID:26086549

  2. Acute Urticaria Induced by Oral Methylprednisolone

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Eun Jung; Jin, Hyun Jung; Nam, Young Hee; Kim, Joo Hee; Ye, Young-Min

    2011-01-01

    Although corticosteroids have immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergic effects, allergic reactions are rare. We report a case involving a 52-year-old-female with acute urticaria caused by oral methylprednisolone. The patient had experienced aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) for 13 years with frequent asthma exacerbations. Symptoms of asthma exacerbations improved with short-term treatments of systemic steroids, including methylprednisolone or deflazacort, which had been well tolerated. However, the current admission was prompted by the development of acute generalized urticaria following the oral ingestion of methylprednisolone (8 mg) for relief of symptoms. An oral provocation test with 4 mg oral methylprednisolone led to generalized urticaria 20 minutes later, confirming the causal association. This is the first report of acute urticaria caused by oral methylprednisolone in a patient with AERD. PMID:21966609

  3. Progress and opportunities for tissue-engineered skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacNeil, Sheila

    2007-02-01

    Tissue-engineered skin is now a reality. For patients with extensive full-thickness burns, laboratory expansion of skin cells to achieve barrier function can make the difference between life and death, and it was this acute need that drove the initiation of tissue engineering in the 1980s. A much larger group of patients have ulcers resistant to conventional healing, and treatments using cultured skin cells have been devised to restart the wound-healing process. In the laboratory, the use of tissue-engineered skin provides insight into the behaviour of skin cells in healthy skin and in diseases such as vitiligo, melanoma, psoriasis and blistering disorders.

  4. Review of Allergic and Photoallergic Contact Dermatitis from an Ingredient in a Medicament Vehicle Consisting of a Compress, Poultice, Plaster, and Tape

    PubMed Central

    Oiso, Naoki; Kawada, Akira

    2011-01-01

    The topical application of a medicament vehicle consisting of a compress, poultice, plaster, and tape containing a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug or methyl salicylate is prevalent in Japan. The method is effective for conveying ingredients to the muscles via the skin for the relief of muscular pain. However, an ingredient in the occlusive vehicle can cause allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis. We summarize cases reported over the past decade and discuss the current strategy for diminishing the risk of allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis. PMID:21603165

  5. How to Check Your Skin for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Cancer Types Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Screening Health Professional Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer ...

  6. Innate Immune Responses to Engineered Nanomaterials During Allergic Airway Inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipkowski, Kelly Anne

    The field of nanotechnology is continually advancing, and increasing amounts of consumer goods are being produced using engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). The health risks of occupational and/or consumer exposure to ENMs are not completely understood, although significant research indicates that pulmonary exposure to nanomaterials induces toxic effects in the lungs of exposed animals. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are a specific category of ENMs and consist of sheets of graphene rolled into cylinders that are multiple layers thick in order to strengthen their rigidity. MWCNTs have a fiber-like shape, similar to that of asbestos, which allows for a high aspect ratio and makes them difficult to clear from the lung. Studies with rodent models have demonstrated that pulmonary exposure to ENMs, in particular MWCNTs, results in acute lung inflammation and the subsequent development of chronic fibrosis, suggesting a potential human health risk to individuals involved in the manufacturing of products utilizing these nanomaterials. Induction of IL-1beta secretion via activation of the inflammasome is a prime mechanism of MWCNT-induced inflammation. The inflammasome is a multi-protein scaffold found in a variety of cell types that forms in response to a variety of immune signals, including particulates. Sensitization with allergens, such as house dust mite (HDM), increases levels of the T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 in mice and in humans, and there is particular cause for concern in cases of MWCNT exposure in individuals with pre-existing allergic airway disease, such as asthma. MWCNT exposure exacerbates airway inflammation and fibrosis in animal models of pre-existing allergic asthma, suggesting that individuals suffering from asthma are more susceptible to the toxic pulmonary effects of MWCNT exposure. Asthma is an exceptionally prominent human disease, and therefore the goal of this research was to better understand how pre-existing allergic airway

  7. PPD skin test

    MedlinePlus

    Purified protein derivative standard; TB skin test; Tuberculin skin test; Mantoux test ... Berger BJ. Mantoux skin test (PPD test, purified protein derivative test, Tb test, tuberculin skin test, TST, ...

  8. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  9. Allergy testing - skin

    MedlinePlus

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test ... There are three common methods of allergy skin testing. The skin prick test involves: Placing a small amount of substances that may be causing your symptoms on the skin, ...

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis: Patient diagnosis and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mowad, Christen M; Anderson, Bryan; Scheinman, Pamela; Pootongkam, Suwimon; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce

    2016-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis resulting from exposure to a chemical or chemicals is a common diagnosis in the dermatologist's office. We are exposed to hundreds of potential allergens daily. Patch testing is the criterion standard for diagnosing the causative allergens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. Patch testing beyond standard trays is often needed to fully diagnose patients, but not all dermatology practices have access to this testing procedure or these allergens. In order to adequately evaluate patients, physicians must understand the pathophysiology of the disease process and be well versed in the proper evaluation of patients, indications for patch testing, proper testing procedure, and other diagnostic tools available and be aware of new and emerging allergens. PMID:27185421

  11. Silencing Nociceptor Neurons Reduces Allergic Airway Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Sébastien; Abdulnour, Raja-Elie E; Burkett, Patrick R; Lee, Seungkyu; Cronin, Shane J F; Pascal, Maud A; Laedermann, Cedric; Foster, Simmie L; Tran, Johnathan V; Lai, Nicole; Chiu, Isaac M; Ghasemlou, Nader; DiBiase, Matthew; Roberson, David; Von Hehn, Christian; Agac, Busranour; Haworth, Oliver; Seki, Hiroyuki; Penninger, Josef M; Kuchroo, Vijay K; Bean, Bruce P; Levy, Bruce D; Woolf, Clifford J

    2015-07-15

    Lung nociceptors initiate cough and bronchoconstriction. To elucidate if these fibers also contribute to allergic airway inflammation, we stimulated lung nociceptors with capsaicin and observed increased neuropeptide release and immune cell infiltration. In contrast, ablating Nav1.8(+) sensory neurons or silencing them with QX-314, a charged sodium channel inhibitor that enters via large-pore ion channels to specifically block nociceptors, substantially reduced ovalbumin- or house-dust-mite-induced airway inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. We also discovered that IL-5, a cytokine produced by activated immune cells, acts directly on nociceptors to induce the release of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). VIP then stimulates CD4(+) and resident innate lymphoid type 2 cells, creating an inflammatory signaling loop that promotes allergic inflammation. Our results indicate that nociceptors amplify pathological adaptive immune responses and that silencing these neurons with QX-314 interrupts this neuro-immune interplay, revealing a potential new therapeutic strategy for asthma. PMID:26119026

  12. Neurology of allergic inflammation and rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Canning, Brendan J

    2002-05-01

    Afferent nerves, derived from the trigeminal ganglion, and postganglionic autonomic nerves, derived from sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia expressing many different neurotransmitters, innervate the nose. Reflexes that serve to optimize the air-conditioning function of the nose by altering sinus blood flow, or serve to protect the nasal mucosal surface by mucus secretion, vasodilatation, and sneezing, can be initiated by a variety of stimuli, including allergen, cold air, and chemical irritation. Activation of nasal afferent nerves can also have profound effects on respiration, heart rate, blood pressure, and airway caliber (the diving response). Dysregulation of the nerves in the nose plays an integral role in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. Axon reflexes can precipitate inflammatory responses in the nose, resulting in plasma extravasation and inflammatory cell recruitment, while allergic inflammation can produce neuronal hyper-responsiveness. Targeting the neuronal dysregulation in the nose may be beneficial in treating upper airway disease. PMID:11918862

  13. [Clinical diagnosis and treatment of allergic pharyngitis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinfeng; Yan, Zhanfeng; Zhang, Mingxia

    2015-08-01

    Although the concept of united airway disease has been widely accepted, most scholars emphasize only the effect of rhino-sinusitis while ignoring the pharyngeal factors to the lower airway, especially to the allergic pharyngitis (AP), which still lacks enough awareness. First of all, absence of unified diagnostic standard leads to the lack of epidemiological data, which, results in doctors' personal experience but no guideline in treatments. In addition, it is still not clear that the role of AP in the allergic airway diseases and its relationship with asthma. However, the number of patients with AP has been increasing obviously in daily clinic practice. Combined with the previous observation, this paper does a systematic review about the clinical problems of AP, expecting to give a hand to the clinical diagnosis and treatment of AP. PMID:26685417

  14. [The gene or genes of allergic asthma?].

    PubMed

    Demoly, P; Bousquet, J; Godard, P; Michel, F B

    1993-05-15

    Asthma is a multifactorial disease in which the hereditary component has been demonstrated by familial and identical twin studies. Allergy is important in the aetiology of asthma and is characterized by a hyperreaction to allergens triggering predominantly the immunoglobulines E. The levels of these antibodies are found to be elevated even in non allergic asthmatics. The majority of genetic research in this area is focused on either the genes of the specific immune response or that of the non allergic response. These are the genes of the class II MHC, and the APY gene on chromosome 11q respectively. The modern techniques of molecular genetics and in particular those of inverse genetics have recently contributed to a more comprehensive understanding of this disease. PMID:8316547

  15. Mast Cells in Allergic Diseases and Mastocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Marquardt, Diana L.; Wasserman, Stephen I.

    1982-01-01

    Mast cells with their stores of vasoactive and chemotactic mediators are central to the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. The cross-linking of receptorbound IgE molecules on the surface of mast cells initiates a complex chain of events, including calcium ion influx, phospholipid methylation and turnover and cyclic nucleotide metabolism, ultimately resulting in the release of mediators of immediate hypersensitivity. These mast cell mediators are important in smooth muscle reactivity, in the recruitment of eosinophilic and neutrophilic leukocytes and in the generation of secondary chemical mediators. Histologic evidence of mast cell degranulation, biochemical evidence of mast cell mediators in blood and tissues and clinical evidence of signs and symptoms reproducible by these mediators have strongly supported the crucial role of mast cells in asthma, urticaria, anaphylaxis, rhinitis and mastocytosis. Because of their unique location at host environment interfaces, mast cells may both participate in allergic diseases and promote homeostasis. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:6293204

  16. The effect of combined medical treatment on quality of life in persistent allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Tatar, Emel Çadallı; Sürenoğlu, Unzile Akpınar; Ozdek, Ali; Saylam, Güleser; Korkmaz, Hakan

    2013-08-01

    Allergic rhinitis may significantly affect the patients' quality of life. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of nasal steroids alone, to nasal steroids plus Levocetirizine or Montelukast, on quality of life in persistent allergic rhinitis. This is a prospective, randomized study and included 56 patients with moderate to severe persistent allergic rhinitis. All patients had house dust mite allergy on skin prick test and we divided the patients into three groups. 1 month long medical treatment was; topical Mometasone furoate 200 mcg/day in the first group (n:14), Mometasone furoate 200 mcg/day plus oral Levocetirizine 5 mg/day in the second group (n:21), and Mometasone furoate 200 mcg/day plus oral Montelukast 10 mg/day in the third group (n:21). We evaluated the patients before treatment and at the first month after treatment with mini rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life questionnaire (miniRQLQ) and nasal symptom scores. In the first group nasal symptom and mini RQLQ scores were not improved but in second and third group, both scores were improved significantly (p < 0.05). Nasal obstruction symptom score was better in the third group after treatment (p < 0.01), but other nasal symptom scores (rhinorrhea, sneezing and nasal itching) were better in the second group (For each symptom p < 0.05). Improvement of quality of life scores in the second group were better than the third group (p < 0.05). In persistent allergic rhinitis, combination of levocetirizine or montelukast to nasal steroids was better than the topical mometasone furoate alone in terms of quality of life. PMID:24427672

  17. Booster responses in the study of allergic reactions to beta-lactam antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Serrano, M C; Caballero, M T; Barranco, P; Martinez-Alzamora, F

    1996-01-01

    The observation of negative skin and challenge tests to beta-lactams in some patients with prior histories of reactions to these antibiotics led us to develop a protocol ("booster study") which systematically included the performance of skin and challenge tests to beta-lactams ten to thirty days after the study to confirm the negative results. From a total of 430 patients who came to our outpatient clinic because of a reaction to a beta-lactam or unknown antibiotic, 249 completed the study. Out of the patients who completed the second phase, or "booster study," the results were positive in the first phase, or conventional study in 42 patients, and negative in 207. The booster study was negative in 197 patients (95 percent) and positive in ten patients (5 percent). Skin tests were positive in 5 of them (penicilloyl-polylysine: 5; benzylpenicillin: 3; amoxicillin: 2; minor determinant mixture: 1), and 5 patients developed an allergic reaction after rechallenge (benzylpenicillin: 4; amoxicillin: 1). One patient with both negative skin tests and amoxicillin oral challenge in the booster study developed an immediate generalized urticaria with the oral intake of amoxicillin one month later at home; skin tests became positive at that moment. The negative results in the first phase of the study and the development of positive results in the second phase could be due to the existence of an immunological amnestic reaction or to sensitization after reexposure to beta-lactams in the diagnostic procedures. PMID:8833166

  18. [Effect of allergic damage on plastic metabolism of the myocardium in rabbits].

    PubMed

    Grozdova, M D; Starostina, L K

    1975-12-01

    The plastic metabolism of the myocardium in rabbits was studied after varying periods of allergic damage induced by repeated injections of normal horse serum. An accelerated decompostion of the myofibril proteins was demomstrated to occur during the acute phase. During the reparation phase, an activation of the protein synthesis in the myocardium occurred. The newly synthesized myofibril proteins had a longer turnover in the tissues, than under normal conditions. The turnover time of the mitochondrial proteins did not differ from the normal one. PMID:1223362

  19. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Mroueh, S; Spock, A

    1994-01-01

    In order to determine the incidence of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), we reviewed the records of 236 patients followed up at the Duke CF Center. Sixty patients (25 percent) had colonies of Aspergillus fumigatus. These patients were older and had more severe disease as assessed by lower Shwachman-Kulczycki (S-K) scores than the patients who did not have evidence of A fumigatus. In 15 of the patients with A fumigatus (6.5 percent of the total population), the diagnosis was ABPA. Age and S-K scores were not significantly different from those of the patients with A fumigatus without ABPA. Diagnostic features of the affected patients included wheezing refractory to bronchodilator therapy, persistent pulmonary infiltrates, peripheral eosinophilia, positive skin reactivity to an A fumigatus antigen and elevated total serum IgE levels. Steroid therapy was started for all patients, and clinical improvement was noted within 1 month as evidenced by decreased symptoms and weight gain. Chest x-ray films usually showed improvement. Vital capacity improved in all but two patients. Total IgE did not consistently decrease in response to therapy. Although the diagnosis of ABPA may be difficult to establish, ABPA commonly is associated with CF. Most patients respond to steroid therapy; however, the effect of therapy on the course of the disease is difficult to assess. PMID:8275769

  20. Systemic immediate allergic reactions to arthropod stings and bites.

    PubMed

    Bircher, Andreas J

    2005-01-01

    Most of the encounters with biting and stinging insects result in more or less pronounced localized reactions. Typically, urticarial wheals and papular reactions are observed. Less often local bullous or hemorrhagic or disseminated papular reactions, particularly in children and immunologically naive adults, may be seen. With the exception of bee and wasp venom allergies, immediate-type allergic reactions to arthropod stings and bites are rare. Systemic IgE-mediated hypersensitivity has also been reported from additional hymenoptera species, e.g. hornets, bumble bees and ants. Rare are systemic reactions to mosquitoes, flies or kissing bugs and exceptional from ticks, bed bugs, moths, caterpillars and spiders. A major problem is the often lacking standardization of extracts for skin testing and for the determination of specific IgE. Some of the allergens have been characterized and few of them synthesized using recombinant techniques. Most investigations have been made with whole-body extracts or extracts from salivary glands, while desensitization has rarely been attempted. Currently, primary prevention by avoidance of stings and bites, and adequate instruction of sensitized individuals in the use of emergency drugs are mandatory. PMID:15724094