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Sample records for acute angle relative

  1. Bilateral acute angle-closure glaucoma after dexfenfluramine treatment.

    PubMed

    Denis, P; Charpentier, D; Berros, P; Touameur, S

    1995-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with narrow angles who had an attack of bilateral acute angle-closure glaucoma precipitated by dexfenfluramine, a serotoninergic drug developed for appetite suppression. Although the exact mechanism remains uncertain, the pupillary block observed in our case may be the result of the serotoninergic or indirect parasympatholytic properties of the drug on the iris sphincter muscle. Serotonergic psychoactive drugs should be prescribed cautiously in patients with known narrow angles and should be monitored by an ophthalmologist.

  2. [Case with postoperative acute angle-closure glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Mihara, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Motoshige; Nakahira, Junko; Fujitate, Yasutaka; Minami, Toshiaki

    2011-08-01

    A 59-year-old man who had undergone biopsy of cervical lymph node under general anesthesia developed an attack of acute angle-closure glaucoma the night after the surgery. He had had no eye symptoms before. He complained of visual disorder, nausea, eye pain, and dizziness after the surgery. His intraocular pressure in the right eye was high (69 mmHg), and an ophthalmologist diagnosed it as acute angle-closure glaucoma. Dropping lotion in the eyes and the intravenous administration were not effective. His intraocular pressure decreased immediatery after laser iridotomy, and his symptoms improved. When the symptoms of eye pain and visual impairment appeared after the surgery, we should take acute angle-closure glaucoma into consideration and treat it as soon as possible.

  3. Angle parameter changes of phacoemulsification and combined phacotrabeculectomy for acute primary angle closure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shi-Wei; Chen, Yan; Wu, Qiang; Lu, Bin; Wang, Wen-Qing; Fang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the difference in angle parameters and clinical outcome following phacoemulsification and combined phacotrabeculectomy in patients with acute primary angle closure (APAC) using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). METHODS Patients (n=23, 31 eyes) were randomized to receive phacoemulsification or combined phacotrabeculectomy (n=24, 31 eyes). Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), the main complications following surgery, and indentation gonioscopy and angle parameters measured using UBM were documented preoperatively and postoperatively. RESULTS The improvement in BCVA in the phacoemulsification group was significantly greater than in the combined group (P<0.05). IOP in the phacoemulsification group was slightly higher than in the combined group following 1wk of follow-up (P<0.05), whereas there was no significant difference between the two groups at the latter follow-up (P>0.05). Phacoemulsification alone resulted in a slight increase in the trabecular ciliary processes distance compared with the combined surgery (P<0.05), whereas the other angle parameters showed no significant difference between the groups. Complications in combined group were greater than phacoemulsification only group. CONCLUSION Both surgeries effectively opened the drainage angle and deepened the anterior chamber, and IOP was well controlled postoperatively. However, phacoemulsification showed better efficacy in improving visual function and showed reduced complications following surgery. PMID:26309873

  4. Psychophysiological stress, elevated intraocular pressure, and acute closed-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Shily, B G

    1987-11-01

    The literature suggests that stress may play a part in the precipitation of acute closed-angle glaucoma because intraocular pressure (IOP) can be affected by the emotional state of the patient. This study considers this evidence in light of what is known concerning the possible relations between psychophysiological stress and elevated IOP. Two common threads run through these observations. The first is the suggestion that stress is a significant factor in the etiology of acute closed-angle glaucoma. The second is a growing suspicion concerning the role of stress in open-angle glaucoma. There is some evidence that glaucoma induction is associated with psychophysiological stress. The role of psychosomatic factors in precipitating angle closure in eyes with an anatomically narrow angle and in raising the IOP in eyes with open angles has been noted in the literature. The implication is that stress reduction might prevent angle closure and reduce the IOP. Suggested methods for achieving these results include biofeedback, meditation, and relaxation exercises.

  5. Acute Angle Closure Glaucoma with Capilllary Leak Syndrome Following Snake Bite

    PubMed Central

    George, Twinkle Ann; AV, Asha; Ravindran, Risha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Acute angle closure glaucoma is rarely seen as complication of snake bite.We report three cases of bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma with capillary leak syndrome and acute renal failure secondary to hematotoxic snake bites. We are also briefly discussing the association of capillary leak syndrome and angle closure glaucoma in hematotoxic snake bite. This is the first time an association between angle closure and capillary leak syndrome following snake bite is reported. Study type: Descriptive case series. Materials and Methods: Records of all patients admitted to ICU with snake bite were reviewed to identify cases developing acute angle closure glaucoma. These cases with acute angle closure glaucoma are analysed in detail for systemic condition. Diagnosis, management and outcome of cases are described Results: Of the 119 snake bites admitted, 47 patients had confirmed hematotoxic snake bite. Fifteen of these patients underwent hemodialysis for acute renal failure. Seven of them were diagnosed to have capillary leak syndrome and all of them complained of decreased vision. Three of the 7 cases had acute angle closure glaucoma on the second day of bite. One of the patients expired and other two recovered fully, both of them had normal IOP and good vision at one month follow-up. Conclusion: Acute angle closure glaucoma seems to be associated with systemic capillary leak syndrome in hematotoxic snake bite. High suspicion, early recognition, timely and appropriate treatment can prevent visual loss in this rare complication. PMID:25478432

  6. Bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma following a snake bite: Are we missing it?

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, K. V. Praveen; Kumar, S. Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We report a case series of acute angle closure following snake bite, their clinical features, treatment, and the outcomes. Materials and Methods: Ocular examination was done in all the snake bite victims admitted over 1-year period. The systemic status, presenting intraocular pressure (IOP), treatment instituted, and outcomes were recorded for all cases of acute angle closure. Results: Six patients developed angle closure following snake bite. Average IOP was in the range of 32–56 mmHg. Treatment was initiated as for cases of acute angle closure. Two patients succumbed and the other four recovered, had normal IOP at follow-up. Conclusion: Acute angle closure glaucoma is a rare complication of snake bite. Timely detection and management will result in good visual prognosis. Treating physicians should be aware of this rare sight-threatening complication so that a preliminary ophthalmic examination can be sought and the visual morbidity be prevented. PMID:26955216

  7. Optimal relative view angles for an object viewed multiple times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilani, Syed U.; Shende, Apoorva; Nguyen, Bao; Stilwell, Daniel J.

    2015-05-01

    Typically, the detection of an object of interest improves as we view the object from multiple angles. For cases where viewing angle matters, object detection can be improved further by optimally selecting the relative angles of multiple views. This motivates the search for viewing angles that maximize the expected probability of detection. Although our work is motivated by applications in subsea sensing, our fundamental analysis is easily adapted for other classes of applications. The specific challenge that motivates our work is the selection of optimal viewing angles for subsea sensing in which sonar is used for bathymetric imaging.

  8. Do we really need to panic in all acute vision loss in ICU? Acute angle-closure glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Akal, Ali; Kucuk, Ahmet; Yalcin, Funda; Yalcin, Saban

    2014-08-01

    Acute angle closure glaucoma is a sight-threatening situation characterized by a sudden and marked rise in intraocular pressure (IOP) due to obstruction of aqueous humour outflow. Many local (ocular drops, nasal and nebulized agents) and systemic drugs (e.g. atropine, adrenaline, ephedrine, some psychoactive and antiepileptic drugs) that are widely used in intensive care units have the potential to precipitate such an acute attack. In this case report, we describe progressive visual loss due to acute angle-closure glaucoma (AACG) in a 59 year old female patient followed in the ICU due to a massive pulmonary embolism.

  9. Relating lepton mixing angles with lepton mass hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Debasish

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the possibility of relating lepton mixing angles with lepton mass hierarchies in a model-independent way. Guided by the existence of such relations in the quark sector, we first consider all the mixing angles, both in charged lepton and neutrino sectors to be related to the respective mass ratios. This allows us to calculate the leptonic mixing angles observed in neutrino oscillations as functions of the lightest neutrino mass. We show that for both normal and inverted hierarchical neutrino masses, this scenario does not give rise to correct leptonic mixing angles. We then show that correct leptonic mixing angles can be generated with normal hierarchical neutrino masses if the relation between mixing angle and mass ratio is restricted to 1-2 and 1-3 mixing in both charged lepton and neutrino sectors leaving the 2-3 mixing angles as free parameters. We then restrict the lightest neutrino mass as well as the difference between 2-3 mixing angles in charged lepton and neutrino sectors from the requirement of producing correct leptonic mixing angles. We constrain the lightest neutrino mass to be around 0.002 eV and leptonic Dirac CP phase δCP such that sin2δ CP ˜ (0.35-0.50). We also construct the leptonic mass matrices in terms of 2-3 mixing angles and lightest neutrino mass and briefly comment on the possibility of realizing texture zeros in the neutrino mass matrix.

  10. Uncertainty Relation between Angular Momentum and Angle Variable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, C. L.; Sannigrahi, A. B.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses certain pitfalls regarding the uncertainty relation between angular momentum and the angle variable from a pedagogic point of view. Further, an uncertainty relation has been derived for these variables in a simple and consistant manner. (Author/HM)

  11. Moment-angle relations in the initial time of contraction.

    PubMed

    Rousanoglou, E N; Herzog, W; Boudolos, K D

    2010-09-01

    Standard moment-angle relations are typically obtained for values at maximum of contraction. Muscle properties for contraction times, similar to the short times of powerful athletic activities, may be more important than muscle properties that are obtained at maximum (TMAX) of contraction. The research question was whether moment-angle relations obtained during the initial time course of contraction are linearly scaled reflections of moment-angle relations obtained at maximum of contraction. The isometric moment of the knee extensor and the electromyographic activity (EMG) of the knee extensor and flexor muscles were measured at 9 knee angles in 22 elite female track and field jumpers. Absolute moments (Nm), relative moments (%TMAX) and EMG integrals were determined at 30 ms, 50 ms, 150 ms and 200 ms from the onset of contraction and at maximum. For moment-angle relations obtained during the initial time course of contraction, there was a shift of the optimum knee angle to a more extended knee. During the initial time course of the contraction, %TMAX moment was greater near full knee extension. The EMG activity was the same across knee angles. The results may have important practical implications for muscular force evaluation for activities where maximum force production is coupled to a short activation time.

  12. Body composition and phase angle in Russian children in remission from acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseytlin, G. Ja; Khomyakova, I. A.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Konovalova, M. V.; Vashura, A. Yu; Tretyak, A. V.; Godina, E. Z.; Rudnev, S. G.

    2010-04-01

    Elevated degree of body fatness and changes in other body composition parameters are known to be common effects of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children. In order to study peculiarities of somatic growth and development in ALL survivors, we describe the results of BIA body composition analysis of 112 boys and 108 girls aged 5-18 years in remission from ALL (remission time range 1-13 years) compared to data from the same number of age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n=220). Detrimental effect on height in ALL boys was observed, whereas girls experienced additional weight gain compared to healthy subjects. In ALL patients, resistance, body fat, and percent body fat were significantly increased. The reactance, phase angle, absolute and relative values of skeletal muscle and body cell mass were significantly decreased. Principal component analysis revealed an early prevalence of adiposity traits in the somatic growth and development of ALL girls compared to healthy controls.

  13. A review of drug-induced acute angle closure glaucoma for non-ophthalmologists

    PubMed Central

    Ah-kee, Elliott Yann; Egong, Eric; Shafi, Ahad; Lim, Lik Thai; Yim, James Li

    2015-01-01

    Acute angle closure glaucoma is an ophthalmic emergency and can lead to blindness if left untreated. Several types of drugs have the potential to precipitate acute angle closure glaucoma. These include adrenergic, cholinergic and anticholinergic, antidepressants, anticoagulants and sulfa-based agents. This article provides a basic overview of the risk factors and pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in angle closure glaucoma and focuses on drug-induced angle closure glaucoma for the non-ophthalmologist. A PubMed search limited to the English language was conducted to find relevant literature for the purpose of this article. Most attacks occur in subjects unaware that they are at risk due to innately narrow iridocorneal angles. Clinicians should always review medications in patients presenting with symptoms of acute angle closure glaucoma. The aim of this article is to bring this ophthalmic condition to the attention of clinicians, particularly those outside the field of ophthalmology who commonly prescribe these medications or see these patients prior to referring to ophthalmologists. PMID:26535174

  14. A review of drug-induced acute angle closure glaucoma for non-ophthalmologists.

    PubMed

    Ah-Kee, Elliott Yann; Egong, Eric; Shafi, Ahad; Lim, Lik Thai; Yim, James Li

    2015-01-01

    Acute angle closure glaucoma is an ophthalmic emergency and can lead to blindness if left untreated. Several types of drugs have the potential to precipitate acute angle closure glaucoma. These include adrenergic, cholinergic and anticholinergic, antidepressants, anticoagulants and sulfa-based agents. This article provides a basic overview of the risk factors and pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in angle closure glaucoma and focuses on drug-induced angle closure glaucoma for the non-ophthalmologist. A PubMed search limited to the English language was conducted to find relevant literature for the purpose of this article. Most attacks occur in subjects unaware that they are at risk due to innately narrow iridocorneal angles. Clinicians should always review medications in patients presenting with symptoms of acute angle closure glaucoma. The aim of this article is to bring this ophthalmic condition to the attention of clinicians, particularly those outside the field of ophthalmology who commonly prescribe these medications or see these patients prior to referring to ophthalmologists.

  15. Hyperpronation in Dancers Incidence and Relation to Calcaneal Angle.

    PubMed

    Nowacki, Rélana M E; Air, Mary E; Rietveld, A B M

    2012-09-01

    Hyperpronation is a common finding when examining the dancer-patient and is thought to be implicated in several dance-related injuries. Little is known about the incidence of hyperpronation-related symptoms in dancers. Additionally, there is no current easy method for estimating the degree of hyperpronation. This study was designed to investigate the incidence of symptoms related to foot hyperpronation in dancer-patients and to evaluate the potential correlation between the patient's calcaneal angle and severity of hyperpronation. A retrospective study of 2,427 dancers' charts over the past 6 years was undertaken to identify dancers who presented with musculoskeletal complaints or problems related to hyperpronation. Physical exam data and diagnoses were collected. Among 24 new dancer-patients presenting to clinic with hyperpronation-related symptoms, the calcaneal angle was measured and correlated with a clinical grading scale based on the Hübscher maneuver. Per chart review, the incidence of symptomatic hyperpronation resulting in prescription for orthotics was 30% (739 dancers out of 2,427). The most common related diagnosis was retropatellar chondropathy (10%). Clinical severity of hyperpronation was linearly related to the calcaneal angle (95% CI [1.25, 4.14], p = 0.0006; Pearson's r(2) = 0.97). The calcaneal angles among mild, moderate, and severe hyperpronators differed significantly (H = 13.45, p = 0.0012). It was concluded that measuring the calcaneal angle may be a useful adjunct to the Hübscher maneuver for grading the clinical severity of a dancer's hyperpronation. Healthcare providers working with dancers should be aware of the presence of hyperpronation, its relation to compensatory turnout techniques, and association with injuries in the foot, ankle, knee, hip, and low back. A standard, time-efficient method of measuring and grading hyperpronation is still needed.

  16. Bilateral, Simultaneous, Acute Angle Closure Glaucoma in Pseudophakia Induced by Chlorthalidone

    PubMed Central

    Durai, Indra; Mohan Dhavalikar, Mrunali; Anand, Chandran Prem; Ganesh, Venkatraman; Krishnadas, Ramaswami

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report two persons with acute, bilateral, and simultaneous angle closure glaucoma in pseudophakia secondary to uveal effusions induced by administration of chlorthalidone. Methods. Case reports. Results. Bilateral shallow anterior chambers and high intraocular pressure with decline in visual acuity were reported in two patients within days of intake of chlorthalidone for systemic hypertension. Gonioscopy confirmed appositional angle closure while choroidal detachment and ciliochoroidal detachment were revealed on ultrasonographic studies. Discontinuing chlorthalidone and institution of aqueous suppressants to reduce IOP and cycloplegics reversed angle closure and glaucoma. Conclusions. Reports of angle closure glaucoma in pseudophakic eyes induced by idiosyncratic reaction to chlorthalidone confirms that osmotic changes in the crystalline lens has no role in the pathogenesis of drug induced glaucoma and reaffirms that glaucoma is secondary to ciliochoroidal detachment and ciliary body rotation and edema. PMID:27274878

  17. The Relation Between Sacral Angle and Vertical Angle of Sacral Curvature and Lumbar Disc Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Ahmad; Haddadi, Kaveh; Khoshakhlagh, Mohammad; Ganjeh, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to determine the reliability and validity of a goniometric measurement of the vertical angle of the sacrum and sacral angle (SA), and their relationships to lumbar degeneration. A herniated lumbar disc is one of the most frequent medical issues. Investigators in a number of studies have reported associated risk factors for prevalent disc degeneration. Atypical lumbosacral angles and curvature are thought to contribute to the degradation of the spine by many researchers. This study analyzed 360 patients referred to our clinic from 2013 to 2015 due to low back pain. A cross-sectional case–control study was designed in order to compare the sagittal alignment of the lumbosacral area in 3 groups of patients suffering from LBP. A total 120 patients were in a control group with a normal lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 120 patients had lumbar disk herniation (LDH), and 120 patients had spinal stenosis. From the sagittal plan of lumbar MRI, SA and vertical angle of sacral curvature (VASC) were determined and then analyzed. The means of VASC in these groups were: 38.98 (SD: 6.36 ± 0.58), 40.89 (SD: 7.69 ± 0.69), and 40.54 (SD: 7.13 ± 0.92), respectively (P = 0.089). Moreover, studies of SA in 3 groups showed that the means of SA were: 39.30 (SD: 6.69 ± 0.63), 40.52 (SD: 7.47 ± 0.65), and 35.63 (SD: 6.07 ± 0.79), respectively. Relation between SA and spinal stenosis was just statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05). One significant limitation of our study is the lack of standing MRI for increased accuracy of measurement. However, we were reluctant to give patients needless exposure to radiation from conventional X-ray, and instead used MRI scans. We did not find any significant correlation between the VASC and LDH in lumbar MRI. Also, SA is not an independent risk factor for LDH in men and women. We suggested that there are several biomechanical factors involved in LDH. PMID:26871821

  18. From Sponges to Nanotubes: A Change of Nanocrystal Morphology for Acute-Angle Bent-Core Molecules.

    PubMed

    Gorecka, Ewa; Vaupotič, Nataša; Zep, Anna; Pociecha, Damian

    2016-09-26

    The crystalline (B4 ) phase made of acute-angle bent-core molecules (1,7-naphthalene derivatives), which exhibits an unusual, highly porous sponge-like morphology, is presented. However, if grown in the presence of low-weight mesogenic molecules, the same crystal forms nanotubes with a very high aspect ratio. The nanotubes become unstable upon increasing the amount of dopant molecules, and the sponge-like morphology reappears. The phase is optically active, and the optical activity is an order of magnitude smaller than in the B4 phase made of conventional bent-core molecules. The optical activity is related to the spatial inhomogeneity of the layered structure and is reduced due to the low apex angle and low tilt of the molecules. The arrangement of molecules within the layers was deduced from the bathochromic absorption shift in the B4 phase.

  19. From Sponges to Nanotubes: A Change of Nanocrystal Morphology for Acute-Angle Bent-Core Molecules.

    PubMed

    Gorecka, Ewa; Vaupotič, Nataša; Zep, Anna; Pociecha, Damian

    2016-09-26

    The crystalline (B4 ) phase made of acute-angle bent-core molecules (1,7-naphthalene derivatives), which exhibits an unusual, highly porous sponge-like morphology, is presented. However, if grown in the presence of low-weight mesogenic molecules, the same crystal forms nanotubes with a very high aspect ratio. The nanotubes become unstable upon increasing the amount of dopant molecules, and the sponge-like morphology reappears. The phase is optically active, and the optical activity is an order of magnitude smaller than in the B4 phase made of conventional bent-core molecules. The optical activity is related to the spatial inhomogeneity of the layered structure and is reduced due to the low apex angle and low tilt of the molecules. The arrangement of molecules within the layers was deduced from the bathochromic absorption shift in the B4 phase. PMID:27593198

  20. Increased Risk of Acute Angle Closure in Retinitis Pigmentosa: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yu-Chieh; Liu, Chia-Jen; Hwang, De-Kuang; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Liu, Catherine J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and acute angle closure during a 15-year follow-up period. Methods Using the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, we identified 382 RP patients based on the diagnostic code of RP (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) 362.74) made during 1996–2010, excluding subjects under age of 20 years at diagnosis or subjects undergoing lens extraction before the index date. The control group included 3820 randomly selected non-RP subjects matched with the RP patients in age, gender and the index date of diagnosis. The incidence of acute angle closure during the study period was observed based on an ICD-9-CM code of 365.22. Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test was used to determine the odds ratio (OR) of having acute angle closure in RP patients. Results The mean age at the diagnosis of RP was 51.1years (standard deviation [SD] 16.7). Acute angle closure occurred in 5 RP patients (1.3%) and in 15 controls (0.4%). The mean age with the acute angle closure was 53.3 years (SD 8.0) in RP patients and 64.6 years (SD 8.4) in controls (P = 0.015). After adjusting for age, gender and comorbid disorders, RP patients had 3.64-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29–10.25, P<0.001) greater odds of having acute angle closure. After stratification for gender and age, the risk of acute angle closure in RP was higher in patients under age of 60 years (adjusted OR 11.84; 95% CI, 2.84–49.48) and male patients (adjusted OR 19.36; 95% CI, 3.43–109.40)(both P = 0.001). Conclusions RP patients had increased risk of acute angle closure than controls. Contrary to the fact that angle closure disease is more prevalent in elderly females in general population, acute angle closure attack occurred earlier in life and the risk was higher in males among RP patients. PMID:25222486

  1. Characteristics of Ultrasonic Linear Motor that Incorporates Two Transducers at an Acute Angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Tsunoji, Masaki; Tsujino, Jiromaru

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we have developed an ultrasonic linear motor that incorporates two transducers at an acute angle. The two transducers are used to generate the vertical and horizontal vibration components. The complex vibration is excited using two electrical sources with a phase shift. Ultrasonic motors have unique characteristics such as silent motion and absence of magnetic noise. These characteristics are suitable for use in hospitals and so on. Therefore, we focus on developing actuators for use in a medical bed, specifically a bedsore prevention bed. A study of the vibration characteristics of the motor showed that the resonant frequencies of the transducers were appropriate, although the vibration amplitude of one transducer was less than that of the other. A study of the load characteristics showed that a no-load speed of 267 mm/s and a maximum thrust of 40 N were obtained.

  2. A brittle-ductile high- and low-angle fault related to the Kea extensional detachment (W Cyclades., Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockenschaub, M.; Grasemann, B.; Iglseder, C.; Rice, A. H. N.; Schneider, D.; Zamolyi, A.

    2010-05-01

    Roll-back of the African Plate within the Eurasian-African collision zone since the Oligocene/Miocene led to extension in the Cyclades along low-angle normal fault zones and exhumation of rocks from near the brittle-ductile transition zone. On the island of Kea (W Cyclades), which represents such a crustal scale low-angle fault zone with top-to-SSW kinematics, remote sensing analysis of brittle fault lineaments in the Pissis area (W Kea) demonstrates two dominant strike directions: ca. NE-SW and NW-SE. From the north of Pisses southwards, the angle between the two main fault directions changes gradually from a rhombohedral geometry (ca. 50°/130° angle between faults, with the acute angle facing westwards) to an orthogonal geometry. The aim of this study is the development of this fault system. We investigate, if this fault system is related to the Miocene extension or if it is related to a later overprinting event (e.g. the opening of the Corinth) Field observations revealed that the investigated lineaments are high-angle (50-90° dip) brittle/ductile conjugate, faults. Due to the lack of marker layers offsets could only rarely be estimated. Locally centimetre thick marble layers in the greenschists suggest a displacement gradient along the faults with a maximum offset of less than 60 cm. Large displacement gradients are associated with a pronounced ductile fault drag in the host rocks. In some instances, high-angle normal faults were observed to link kinematically with low-angle, top-to-SSW brittle/ductile shear bands. Both the high- and the low-angle faults have a component of ductile shear, which is overprinted by brittle deformation mechanisms. In thin-section, polyphase mode-2 cracks are filled mainly with calcite and quartz (ultra)cataclasites, sometimes followed by further opening with fluid-related iron-rich carbonate (ankeritic) precipitation. CL analysis reveals several generations of cements, indicating multiple phases of cataclastic deformation and

  3. Amphetamine Abuse Related Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, O'Dene; Kumar, Rajan; Yeruva, Sri Lakshmi Hyndavi; Curry, Bryan H.

    2016-01-01

    Amphetamine abuse is a global problem. The cardiotoxic manifestations like acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure, or arrhythmia related to misuse of amphetamine and its synthetic derivatives have been documented but are rather rare. Amphetamine-related AMI is even rarer. We report two cases of men who came to emergency department (ED) with chest pain, palpitation, or seizure and were subsequently found to have myocardial infarction associated with the use of amphetamines. It is crucial that, with increase in amphetamine abuse, clinicians are aware of this potentially dire complication. Patients with low to intermediate risk for coronary artery disease with atypical presentation may benefit from obtaining detailed substance abuse history and urine drug screen if deemed necessary. PMID:26998366

  4. Phaco-endocycloplasty: A novel technique for management of ring iridociliary cyst presenting as acute angle closure

    PubMed Central

    Pathak-Ray, Vanita; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K.

    2016-01-01

    Iridociliary cysts of pigment epithelium are rare, ring cysts being rarer still, and usually benign in their clinical course. Presented here is a case of ring iridociliary cyst that resulted in secondary synechial angle closure with an acutely elevated intraocular pressure, refractory to medical treatment. Primary endocycloplasty and cataract extraction with implant were used successfully to manage the case. PMID:27013833

  5. Static torque-angle relation of human elbow joint estimated with artificial neural network technique.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, T; Bessho, T; Akazawa, K

    1998-06-01

    Static relations between elbow joint angle and torque at constant muscle activity in normal volunteers were investigated with the aid of an artificial neural network technique. A subject sat on a chair and moved his upper- and forearm in a horizontal plane at the height of his shoulder. The subject was instructed to maintain the elbow joint at a pre-determined angle. The wrist was then pulled to extend the elbow joint by the gravitational force of a weight hanging from a pulley. Integrated electromyograms (IEMGs), elbow and shoulder joint angles and elbow joint torque were measured. Then the relation among IEMGs, joint angles and torque was modeled with the aid of the artificial neural network, where IEMGs and joint angles were the inputs and torque was the output. After back propagation learning, we presented various combinations of IEMGs, shoulder and elbow joint angles to the model and estimated the elbow joint torque to obtain the torque-angle relation for constant muscle activation. The elbow joint torque increased and then decreased with extension of the elbow joint. This suggests that if the forearm is displaced from an equilibrium point, the torque angle relation would not act like a simple spring. In a view of the musculoskeletal structure of the elbow joint, the relation between the elbow joint angle and the moment arm of the elbow flexor muscles seems to have a dominant effect on the torque-angle relation. PMID:9755039

  6. Bilateral acute closed angle glaucoma associated with the discontinuation of escitalopram: a case report.

    PubMed

    AlQuorain, Sara; Alfaraj, Sukayna; Alshahrani, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    A 45-year-old woman presented to the Emergency Department complaining of severe headache for 3 hours duration associated with bilateral blurred vision, photophobia, and one attack of vomiting. Her clinical examination revealed normal vital signs and decrease in visual acuity with hazy cornea bilaterally. There were no signs of increased intracranial pressure and no neck rigidity or meningeal signs. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral acute closed angle glaucoma (AACG) with intraocular pressure of 60 mmHg in both eyes. She was using escitalopram for the treatment of depression, which was the only known risk factor for her condition. Standard treatment for AACG was provided. It included topical β-blocker, α agonists, and acetazolamide. This was followed by bilateral peripheral iridotomy. Follow-up intraocular pressure measurement revealed a value of 5 mmHg after 24 hours, indicating complete recovery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case to describe AACG after stopping the medication. It is highly important that clinicians be aware of this risk factor for AACG and have high index of suspicion in such patients with vision-threatening condition even after discontinuing the medication, because the risk persists for some time. PMID:27660499

  7. Bilateral acute closed angle glaucoma associated with the discontinuation of escitalopram: a case report

    PubMed Central

    AlQuorain, Sara; Alfaraj, Sukayna; Alshahrani, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    A 45-year-old woman presented to the Emergency Department complaining of severe headache for 3 hours duration associated with bilateral blurred vision, photophobia, and one attack of vomiting. Her clinical examination revealed normal vital signs and decrease in visual acuity with hazy cornea bilaterally. There were no signs of increased intracranial pressure and no neck rigidity or meningeal signs. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral acute closed angle glaucoma (AACG) with intraocular pressure of 60 mmHg in both eyes. She was using escitalopram for the treatment of depression, which was the only known risk factor for her condition. Standard treatment for AACG was provided. It included topical β-blocker, α agonists, and acetazolamide. This was followed by bilateral peripheral iridotomy. Follow-up intraocular pressure measurement revealed a value of 5 mmHg after 24 hours, indicating complete recovery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case to describe AACG after stopping the medication. It is highly important that clinicians be aware of this risk factor for AACG and have high index of suspicion in such patients with vision-threatening condition even after discontinuing the medication, because the risk persists for some time.

  8. Bilateral acute closed angle glaucoma associated with the discontinuation of escitalopram: a case report

    PubMed Central

    AlQuorain, Sara; Alfaraj, Sukayna; Alshahrani, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    A 45-year-old woman presented to the Emergency Department complaining of severe headache for 3 hours duration associated with bilateral blurred vision, photophobia, and one attack of vomiting. Her clinical examination revealed normal vital signs and decrease in visual acuity with hazy cornea bilaterally. There were no signs of increased intracranial pressure and no neck rigidity or meningeal signs. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral acute closed angle glaucoma (AACG) with intraocular pressure of 60 mmHg in both eyes. She was using escitalopram for the treatment of depression, which was the only known risk factor for her condition. Standard treatment for AACG was provided. It included topical β-blocker, α agonists, and acetazolamide. This was followed by bilateral peripheral iridotomy. Follow-up intraocular pressure measurement revealed a value of 5 mmHg after 24 hours, indicating complete recovery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case to describe AACG after stopping the medication. It is highly important that clinicians be aware of this risk factor for AACG and have high index of suspicion in such patients with vision-threatening condition even after discontinuing the medication, because the risk persists for some time. PMID:27660499

  9. Tibiofemoral angle and its relation to ankle sprain occurrence.

    PubMed

    Pefanis, Nikolaos; Karagounis, Panagiotis; Tsiganos, Georgios; Armenis, Elias; Baltopoulos, Panagiotis

    2009-12-01

    The lack of a normal joint orientation generates translational or shear forces across the joint. These forces can put abnormally high strain on the cartilage and the surrounding capsuloligamentous tissues. Ankle joint structure can affect or be affected by bony malformations of the surrounding areas, including the knee and hip. The aim of the current study is to examine the possible relationship between the tibiofemoral (TFA) angle and other factors (anthropometric characteristics, medical history, and age) on the occurrence of ankle sprains because its value provides useful information for the anatomical alignment of the lower extremity. The study sample consisted of 45 high-level athletes, evenly distributed among 3 sports (basketball, soccer, and volleyball). TFA measurements were made on radiographs. The study lasted 2 years. A logistic regression was used to determine the importance of each factor on the probability in question. A significance level of P = .1 was used. The factors contributing more to an ankle sprain were a previous injury of the same type followed by body mass index (BMI) and age. On the contrary, TFA was proven to be statistically nonsignificant. When the BMI variable was substituted with body inertia propensity, a derived variable, the TFA remained statistically nonsignificant. TFA magnitude does not seem to be a determinant factor that could increase the probability of spraining an ankle.

  10. Microcatheter Looping Facilitates Access to Both the Acutely Angled Parent Artery and Cerebral Aneurysms for Effective Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cong-Hui; Ye, Jian-Ya; Su, Xian-Hui; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Dong-Liang; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Er-Wei; Han, Yong-Feng; Yang, Song-Tao; Gao, Bu-Lang

    2014-01-01

    Summary Aneurysms with an acutely angled parent artery are difficult to access for coiling. This study aimed to investigate the safety and effectiveness of microcatheter looping for embolization of cerebral aneurysms with access difficulty. Ten patients (male:female=5:5) with cerebral aneurysms treated with the microcatheter looping technique were analyzed retrospectively. The parent artery formed an acute angle with the major artery in five aneurysms. The microcatheter was looped into a “α” loop for treatment in the anterior temporal artery aneurysm and a “U” loop in the remaining nine aneurysms. All ten aneurysms were successfully treated with the microcatheter looping technique. The microcatheter tip was successfully navigated into the aneurysm sac and remained stable throughout the embolization process. All aneurysms were occluded with total occlusion in five and near-total occlusion in five, and the parent artery remained patent in all cases. No complications occurred peri-procedurally. The Glasgow Outcome Scale was 5 in all patients before discharge. Follow-up angiography six to 12 months later revealed a good occlusion status of the aneurysms. The microcatheter looping technique is effective when the conventional embolization technique fails to treat cerebral aneurysms with difficult access especially when the parent artery forming an acute angle with the major artery exacerbates difficult access to the aneurysms. PMID:25496676

  11. The Relation Between Sacral Angle and Vertical Angle of Sacral Curvature and Lumbar Disc Degeneration: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Ahmad; Haddadi, Kaveh; Khoshakhlagh, Mohammad; Ganjeh, Hamid Reza

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the reliability and validity of a goniometric measurement of the vertical angle of the sacrum and sacral angle (SA), and their relationships to lumbar degeneration.A herniated lumbar disc is one of the most frequent medical issues. Investigators in a number of studies have reported associated risk factors for prevalent disc degeneration. Atypical lumbosacral angles and curvature are thought to contribute to the degradation of the spine by many researchers. This study analyzed 360 patients referred to our clinic from 2013 to 2015 due to low back pain. A cross-sectional case-control study was designed in order to compare the sagittal alignment of the lumbosacral area in 3 groups of patients suffering from LBP. A total 120 patients were in a control group with a normal lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 120 patients had lumbar disk herniation (LDH), and 120 patients had spinal stenosis. From the sagittal plan of lumbar MRI, SA and vertical angle of sacral curvature (VASC) were determined and then analyzed.The means of VASC in these groups were: 38.98 (SD: 6.36 ± 0.58), 40.89 (SD: 7.69 ± 0.69), and 40.54 (SD: 7.13 ± 0.92), respectively (P = 0.089). Moreover, studies of SA in 3 groups showed that the means of SA were: 39.30 (SD: 6.69 ± 0.63), 40.52 (SD: 7.47 ± 0.65), and 35.63 (SD: 6.07 ± 0.79), respectively. Relation between SA and spinal stenosis was just statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05).One significant limitation of our study is the lack of standing MRI for increased accuracy of measurement. However, we were reluctant to give patients needless exposure to radiation from conventional X-ray, and instead used MRI scans. We did not find any significant correlation between the VASC and LDH in lumbar MRI. Also, SA is not an independent risk factor for LDH in men and women. We suggested that there are several biomechanical factors involved in LDH. PMID:26871821

  12. Acute Improvement of Vertical Jump Performance After Isometric Squats Depends on Knee Angle and Vertical Jumping Ability.

    PubMed

    Tsoukos, Athanasios; Bogdanis, Gregory C; Terzis, Gerasimos; Veligekas, Panagiotis

    2016-08-01

    Tsoukos, A, Bogdanis, GC, Terzis, G, and Veligekas, P. Acute improvement of vertical jump performance after isometric squats depends on knee angle and vertical jumping ability. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2250-2257, 2016-This study examined the acute effects of maximum isometric squats at 2 different knee angles (90 or 140°) on countermovement jump (CMJ) performance in power athletes. Fourteen national-level male track and field power athletes completed 3 main trials (2 experimental and 1 control) in a randomized and counterbalanced order 1 week apart. Countermovement jump performance was evaluated using a force-plate before and 15 seconds, 3, 6, 9, and 12 minutes after 3 sets of 3 seconds maximum isometric contractions with 1-minute rest in between, from a squat position with knee angle set at 90 or 140°. Countermovement jump performance was improved compared with baseline only in the 140° condition by 3.8 ± 1.2% on the 12th minute of recovery (p = 0.027), whereas there was no change in CMJ height in the 90° condition. In the control condition, there was a decrease in CMJ performance over time, reaching -3.6 ± 1.2% (p = 0.049) after 12 minutes of recovery. To determine the possible effects of baseline jump performance on subsequent CMJ performance, subjects were divided into 2 groups ("high jumpers" and "low jumpers"). The baseline CMJ values of "high jumpers" and "low jumpers" differed significantly (CMJ: 45.1 ± 2.2 vs. 37.1 ± 3.9 cm, respectively, p = 0.001). Countermovement jump was increased only in the "high jumpers" group by 5.4 ± 1.4% (p = 0.001) and 7.4 ± 1.2% (p = 0.001) at the knee angles of 90 and 140°, respectively. This improvement was larger at the 140° angle (p = 0.049). Knee angle during isometric squats and vertical jumping ability are important determinants of the acute CMJ performance increase observed after a conditioning activity. PMID:26808841

  13. [Acute myelitis related to hepatitis A after travel to Senegal].

    PubMed

    Ficko, C; Imbert, P; Mechaï, F; Barruet, R; Nicand, E; Rapp, C

    2010-02-01

    Neurological complications are rare following hepatitis A. Acute myelitis is even more uncommon. The purpose of this report is to describe a case of acute myelitis related to hepatitis A virus (HAV) in a 43-year-old-woman returning from Senegal. Diagnosis of myelitis was confirmed by spinal MRI and detection of anti-HAV Ig M antibodies in serum. The patient made a spontaneous clinical recovery in one month. Spinal MRI findings were normal at three months. Hepatitis A should be considered in the diagnostic approach to acute myelitis in returning travelers and patients living in highly endemic countries where prophylactic vaccination is unavailable.

  14. Visual angle is the critical variable mediating gain-related effects in manual control

    PubMed Central

    Haibach, Pamela. S.; Newell, Karl. M.

    2008-01-01

    Theoretically visual gain has been identified as a control variable in models of isometric force. However, visual gain is typically confounded with visual angle and distance, and the relative contribution of visual gain, distance, and angle to the control of force remains unclear. This study manipulated visual gain, distance, and angle in three experiments to examine the visual information properties used to regulate the control of a constant level of isometric force. Young adults performed a flexion motion of the index finger of the dominant hand in 20 s trials under a range of parameter values of the three visual variables. The findings demonstrate that the amount and structure of the force fluctuations were organized around the variable of visual angle, rather than gain or distance. Furthermore, the amount and structure of the force fluctuations changed considerably up to 1°, with little change higher than a 1° visual angle. Visual angle is the critical informational variable for the visuomotor system during the control of isometric force. PMID:16604313

  15. Experimental models of hepatotoxicity related to acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Maes, Michaël; Vinken, Mathieu; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    Acute liver failure can be the consequence of various etiologies, with most cases arising from drug-induced hepatotoxicity in Western countries. Despite advances in this field, the management of acute liver failure continues to be one of the most challenging problems in clinical medicine. The availability of adequate experimental models is of crucial importance to provide a better understanding of this condition and to allow identification of novel drug targets, testing the efficacy of new therapeutic interventions and acting as models for assessing mechanisms of toxicity. Experimental models of hepatotoxicity related to acute liver failure rely on surgical procedures, chemical exposure or viral infection. Each of these models has a number of strengths and weaknesses. This paper specifically reviews commonly used chemical in vivo and in vitro models of hepatotoxicity associated with acute liver failure. PMID:26631581

  16. Experimental models of hepatotoxicity related to acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Michaël; Vinken, Mathieu; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Acute liver failure can be the consequence of various etiologies, with most cases arising from drug-induced hepatotoxicity in Western countries. Despite advances in this field, the management of acute liver failure continues to be one of the most challenging problems in clinical medicine. The availability of adequate experimental models is of crucial importance to provide a better understanding of this condition and to allow identification of novel drug targets, testing the efficacy of new therapeutic interventions and acting as models for assessing mechanisms of toxicity. Experimental models of hepatotoxicity related to acute liver failure rely on surgical procedures, chemical exposure or viral infection. Each of these models has a number of strengths and weaknesses. This paper specifically reviews commonly used chemical in vivo and in vitro models of hepatotoxicity associated with acute liver failure. PMID:26631581

  17. Experimental models of hepatotoxicity related to acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Maes, Michaël; Vinken, Mathieu; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    Acute liver failure can be the consequence of various etiologies, with most cases arising from drug-induced hepatotoxicity in Western countries. Despite advances in this field, the management of acute liver failure continues to be one of the most challenging problems in clinical medicine. The availability of adequate experimental models is of crucial importance to provide a better understanding of this condition and to allow identification of novel drug targets, testing the efficacy of new therapeutic interventions and acting as models for assessing mechanisms of toxicity. Experimental models of hepatotoxicity related to acute liver failure rely on surgical procedures, chemical exposure or viral infection. Each of these models has a number of strengths and weaknesses. This paper specifically reviews commonly used chemical in vivo and in vitro models of hepatotoxicity associated with acute liver failure.

  18. Angles-only relative navigation and closed-loop guidance for spacecraft proximity operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jianjun; Gong, Baichun; Yuan, Jianping; Zhang, Zhaofei

    2016-11-01

    This research investigates angles-only relative navigation and closed-loop guidance algorithm for spacecraft mid-range orbital proximity operations when the orbital maneuver allows for range observability. Emphasis and contribution are on developing angles-only relative navigation and guidance coupling algorithm in the context of Clohessy-Wiltshire and Tschauner-Hempel dynamics. Observability analysis of the relative state is done and the general mathematical expression of the observable condition is obtained. Coupling relationship between the angles-only relative navigation and the multi-pulse sliding guidance is discussed and its analytic expression is derived. A novel closed-loop guidance scheme is designed based on the coupling relationship and unscented kalman filter. Two-body Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to evaluate the validity and test the performance of the closed-loop system. The sensitivities of the navigation and guidance accuracy to the line-of-sight angles accuracy, initial separation and initial state uncertainties, number of pulses, and dynamics are presented and discussed.

  19. Effect of relative humidity on contact angle of inkjet-printed evaporating colloidal drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhasatia, Viral; Joshi, Abhijit; Sun, Ying

    2010-11-01

    The deposition behavior of inkjet-printed aqueous colloidal drops onto glass and polymer (PEN and PET) substrates has been investigated by using fluorescence microscopy, a high-resolution CCD camera, and scanning electron microscopy. Real-time side-view images show that the contact angle of an evaporating colloidal drop is a function of the ambient humidity. The relative humidity also affects the extent to which the drop is able to spread after impacting a substrate, the evaporation rate at the drop surface, and the evaporatively-driven flow inside the drop that drives the suspended particles towards the contact line. The difference between the contact line velocity and liquid velocity at the drop contact line induced by evaporation creates a larger contact angle compared to that of the case without evaporation. This increase in contact angle becomes more significant for a low ambient humidity. Results also show that the particle deposition area and pattern change with the ambient humidity.

  20. Analysis of functional polymorphisms in apoptosis-related genes in primary open angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Glatz, Wilfried; Schwab, Christoph; El-Shabrawi, Yosuf; Mossböck, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Glaucoma is a disease with high heritability in which the degradation of retinal ganglion cells occurs via apoptosis. Therefore, we investigated the role of four functional apoptosis-related gene variants (Akt1 rs1130233, Bax rs4645878, Fas rs223476, and FasL rs763110) in patients with primary open angle glaucoma. Methods 334 patients with primary open angle glaucoma and 334 controls were recruited for this case–control study. The main outcome measures were genotype distribution and allelic frequencies determined with PCR. Results After adjustment for multiple testing, no significant difference in either the genotype distribution or the allelic frequencies of any investigated gene variant was found. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the investigated gene polymorphisms are unlikely to be major risk factors for primary open angle glaucoma in Caucasian patients. PMID:26788026

  1. Measuring Relative-Story Displacement and Local Inclination Angle Using Multiple Position-Sensitive Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Matsuya, Iwao; Katamura, Ryuta; Sato, Maya; Iba, Miroku; Kondo, Hideaki; Kanekawa, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Motoichi; Hatada, Tomohiko; Nitta, Yoshihiro; Tanii, Takashi; Shoji, Shuichi; Nishitani, Akira; Ohdomari, Iwao

    2010-01-01

    We propose a novel sensor system for monitoring the structural health of a building. The system optically measures the relative-story displacement during earthquakes for detecting any deformations of building elements. The sensor unit is composed of three position sensitive detectors (PSDs) and lenses capable of measuring the relative-story displacement precisely, even if the PSD unit was inclined in response to the seismic vibration. For verification, laboratory tests were carried out using an Xθ-stage and a shaking table. The static experiment verified that the sensor could measure the local inclination angle as well as the lateral displacement. The dynamic experiment revealed that the accuracy of the sensor was 150 μm in the relative-displacement measurement and 100 μrad in the inclination angle measurement. These results indicate that the proposed sensor system has sufficient accuracy for the measurement of relative-story displacement in response to the seismic vibration. PMID:22163434

  2. Aspiration-Related Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Acute Stroke Patient

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiang-nan; Liu, Yao; Li, Huai-chen

    2015-01-01

    Background Aspiration of oral or gastric contents into the larynx and lower respiratory tract is a common problem in acute stroke patients, which significantly increases the incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, little is known about the clinical characteristics of aspiration-related ARDS in acute stroke patients. Methods Over 17-month period a retrospective cohort study was done on 1495 consecutive patients with acute stroke. The data including demographic characteristics, clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations, chest imaging, and hospital discharge status were collected to analysis. Results Aspiration-related ARDS was diagnosed in 54 patients (3.6%). The most common presenting symptom was tachypnea (respiratory rate ≥25 breaths/min) in 50 cases. Computed tomography (CT) images usually demonstrated diffuse ground-glass opacities (GGOs) and inhomogeneous patchy consolidations involving the low lobes. Age, NIHSS score, GCS score, dysphagia, dysarthria, hemoglobin concentration, serum aspertate aminotransferase (AST), serum albumin, serum sodium, and admission glucose level were independently associated with aspiration-related ARDS (odds ratio (OR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.04–1.07); OR 2.87, (2.68–3.63); OR 4.21, (3.57–5.09); OR 2.18, (1.23–3.86); OR 1.67, (1.31–2.14); OR 2.31, (1.11–4.84); OR 1.68, (1.01–2.80); OR 2.15, (1.19–3.90); OR 1.92, (1.10–3.36) and OR 1.14, (1.06–1.21) respectively). Conclusions Aspiration-related ARDS frequently occurs in acute stroke patient with impairment consciousness. It is advisable that performing chest CT timely may identify disease early and prompt treatment to rescue patients. PMID:25790377

  3. Modelling of eddy currents related to large angle magnetic suspension test fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, Colin P.; Foster, Lucas E.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary analysis of the mathematical modelling of eddy current effects in a large-gap magnetic suspension system. It is shown that eddy currents can significantly affect the dynamic behavior and control of these systems, but are amenable to measurement and modelling. A theoretical framework is presented, together with a comparison of computed and experimental data related to the Large Angle Magnetic Suspension Test Fixture at NASA Langley Research Center.

  4. Relating Bond Angles of Dihalo- and Tetrahydro--Methanes, -Silanes, and -Germanes to Electronegativities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschenbaum, Louis J.; Ruekberg, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Our previous work correlated bond angles of group V and group VI hydrides (AH[subscript 3]E and AH[subscript 2]E[subscript 2], respectively, where E represents a lone electron pair) to the electronegativities of the atoms using the fraction of s character to relate the two. Here we have extended the correlation to the AH[subscript 2]X[subscript 2]…

  5. Angles-Only Initial Relative Orbit Determination Performance Analysis using Cylindrical Coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, David K.; Lovell, T. Alan

    2016-09-01

    The solution of the initial relative orbit determination problem using angles-only measurements is important for orbital proximity operations, satellite inspection and servicing, and the identification of unknown space objects in similar orbits. In this paper, a preliminary relative orbit determination performance analysis is conducted utilizing the linearized relative orbital equations of motion in cylindrical coordinates. The relative orbital equations of motion in cylindrical coordinates are rigorously derived in several forms included the exact nonlinear two-body differential equations of motion, the linear-time-varying differential equations of motion for an elliptical orbit chief, and the linear-time-invariant differential equations of motion for a circular orbit chief. Using the nonlinear angles-only measurement equation in cylindrical coordinates, evidence of full-relative-state observability is found, contrary to the range observability problem exhibited in Cartesian coordinates. Based on these results, a geometric approach to assess initial relative orbit determination performance is formulated. To facilitate a better understanding of the problem, the focus is on the 2-dimensional initial orbit determination problem. The results clearly show the dependence of the relative orbit determination performance on the geometry of the relative motion and on the time-interval between observations. Analysis is conducted for leader-follower orbits and flyby orbits where the deputy passes directly above or below the chief.

  6. Therapy Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia with t(8;16) Mimicking Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chharchhodawala, Taher; Gajendra, Smeeta; Tiwari, Priya; Gogia, Ajay; Gupta, Ritu

    2016-06-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(8;16)(p11;q13) is a distinct clinical and morphological entity with poor prognosis, which is characterized by a high frequency of extramedullary involvement, most commonly leukemia cutis; association with therapy related AML; frequent coagulopathy and morphologic features overlapping acute promyelocytic leukemia(APL). Herein, we present a case of 47 year-old post-menopausal woman developing secondary AML with t(8;16)(p11;q13) after 1 year of completion of therapy for breast carcinoma. Blasts were granulated with few showing clefted nucleus resembling promyelocytes and immnuophenotyping showed high side scatter with MPO positivity and CD 34 and HLA-DR negativity. In view of promyelocyte like morphology and immunophenotyping of blasts, possibility of APL was considered but, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for PML-RARα fusion transcript came out to be negative. Conventional cytogenetics showed t(8;16)(p11;q13). So, we should keep possibility of t(8;16) (p11;q13) in therapy related acute myeloid leukemia in patient showing clinical and morphological features of acute promyelocytic leukemia. PMID:27408347

  7. Acute effect of constant torque and angle stretching on range of motion, muscle passive properties, and stretch discomfort perception.

    PubMed

    Cabido, Christian E T; Bergamini, Juliana C; Andrade, André G P; Lima, Fernando V; Menzel, Hans J; Chagas, Mauro H

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the acute effects of constant torque (CT) and constant angle (CA) stretching exercises on the maximum range of motion (ROMmax), passive stiffness (PS), and ROM corresponding to the first sensation of tightness in the posterior thigh (FSTROM). Twenty-three sedentary men (age, 19-33 years) went through 1 familiarization session and afterward proceeded randomly to both CA and CT treatment stretching conditions, on separate days. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to analyze hamstring muscles during passive knee extension. The subjects performed 4 stretches of 30 seconds each with a 15-second interval between them. In the CA stretching, the subject reached a certain ROM (95% of ROMmax), and the angle was kept constant. However, in the CT stretching exercise, the volunteer reached a certain resistance torque (corresponding to 95% of ROMmax) and it was kept constant. The results showed an increase in ROMmax for both CA and CT (p < 0.001), but the increase was greater for CT than for CA (CA vs. CT in poststretching, p = 0.002). Although the PS decreased for both CA and CT (p < 0.001), the decrease was greater for CT than for CA (CA vs. CT in poststretching, p = 0.002). The FSTROM increased for both CA and CT, but the increase for CT was greater than that for CA (CA vs. CT in poststretching, p = 0.003). The greater increase in ROMmax for the CT stretch may be explained by greater changes in the biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit and stretch tolerance, as indicated by the results of PS and FSTROM.

  8. Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injured (TRALI): Current Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez, P; Carrasco, R; Romero-Dapueto, C; Castillo, R.L

    2015-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a life-threatening intervention that develops within 6 hours of transfusion of one or more units of blood, and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality resulting from transfusion. It is necessary to dismiss other causes of acute lung injury (ALI), like sepsis, acute cardiogenic edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or bacterial infection. There are two mechanisms that lead to the development of this syndrome: immune-mediated and no immune- mediated TRALI. A common theme among the experimental TRALI models is the central importance of neutrophils in mediating the early immune response, and lung vascular injury. Central clinical symptoms are dyspnea, tachypnea, tachycardia, cyanosis and pulmonary secretions, altogether with other hemodynamic alterations, such as hypotension and fever. Complementary to these clinical findings, long-term validated animal models for TRALI should allow the determination of the cellular targets for TRALI-inducing alloantibodies as well as delineation of the underlying pathogenic molecular mechanisms, and key molecular mediators of the pathology. Diagnostic criteria have been established and preventive measures have been implemented. These actions have contributed to the reduction in the overallnumber of fatalities. However, TRALI still remains a clinical problem. Any complication suspected of TRALI should immediately be reported. PMID:26312100

  9. Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injured (TRALI): Current Concepts.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, P; Carrasco, R; Romero-Dapueto, C; Castillo, R L

    2015-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a life-threatening intervention that develops within 6 hours of transfusion of one or more units of blood, and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality resulting from transfusion. It is necessary to dismiss other causes of acute lung injury (ALI), like sepsis, acute cardiogenic edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or bacterial infection. There are two mechanisms that lead to the development of this syndrome: immune-mediated and no immune- mediated TRALI. A common theme among the experimental TRALI models is the central importance of neutrophils in mediating the early immune response, and lung vascular injury. Central clinical symptoms are dyspnea, tachypnea, tachycardia, cyanosis and pulmonary secretions, altogether with other hemodynamic alterations, such as hypotension and fever. Complementary to these clinical findings, long-term validated animal models for TRALI should allow the determination of the cellular targets for TRALI-inducing alloantibodies as well as delineation of the underlying pathogenic molecular mechanisms, and key molecular mediators of the pathology. Diagnostic criteria have been established and preventive measures have been implemented. These actions have contributed to the reduction in the overallnumber of fatalities. However, TRALI still remains a clinical problem. Any complication suspected of TRALI should immediately be reported.

  10. Acute cytotoxicity of fossil-energy-related comparative research materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, T.W.

    1982-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of five fossil-energy-related comparative research materials have been examined under acute static conditions for toxic effects by use of the Tetrahymena assay system. Cells were exposed to various concentrations of extracts, and cytolysis and population growth impairment were monitored. In addition, chemical class fractionation and major organic elemental analysis were performed. Synthetic fossil fuel materials are more toxic than conventional petroleum crude oils and coal-derived materials are more toxic than crude shale oil. Synthetic fossil-fuel-related materials have a higher nitrogen and oxygen content and a greater aromaticity than do natural crude oils. Acute toxicity appears to be correlated with ether-soluble acid (phenolic) content, mono- and diaromatic hydrocarbon content, and ether-soluble base (primary aromatic amines and azaarenes) content.

  11. Acute cytotoxicity of fossil-energy-related comparative research materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, T.W.

    1982-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of five fossil-energy-related comparative research materials have been examined under acute static conditions for toxic effects by use of the Tetrahymena assay system. Cells were exposed to various concentrations of extracts, and cytolysis and population growth impairment were monitored. In addition, chemical class fractionation and major organic elemental analysis were performed. Synthetic fossil fuel materials are more toxic than conventional petroleum crude oils and coal-derived materials are more toxic than crude shale oil. Synthetic fossil-fuel-related materials have a higher nitrogen and oxygen content and a greater aromaticity than do natural crude oils. Acute toxicity appears to be correlated with ether-soluble acid content, mono- and diaromatic hydrocarbon content, and ether-soluble base. 22 refs.

  12. A review of some Reynolds number effects related to bodies at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polhamus, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    A review of some effects of Reynolds number on selected aerodynamic characteristics of two- and three-dimensional bodies of various cross sections in relation to fuselages at high angles of attack at subsonic and transonic speeds is presented. Emphasis is placed on the Reynolds number ranges above the subcritical and angles of attack where lee side vortex flow or unsteady wake type flows predominate. Lists of references, arranged in subject categories, are presented with emphasis on those which include data over a reasonable Reynolds number range. Selected Reynolds number data representative of various aerodynamic flows around bodies are presented and analyzed and some effects of these flows on fuselage aerodynamic parameters are discussed.

  13. Nonlinear Observability for Relative Orbit Determination with Angles-Only Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Evan; Lovell, T. Alan; Lee, Taeyoung

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents nonlinear observability criteria for the relative orbital dynamics represented by the solutions of the two-body problem. It is assumed that a chief is on a circular orbit with a prescribed orbital radius, and it measures lines-of-sight toward a deputy only. A differential geometric method, based on the Lie derivatives, is used to derive sufficient conditions for observability of the orbital properties of the deputy. It is shown that under certain geometric conditions on the relative configuration between the chief and the deputy, the nonlinear relative motion is observable from angles-only measurements. The second part of this paper presents a quantitative measure of observability for the relative orbits, and it is formulated by generalizing the observability Gramian of linear dynamic systems. An extended Kalman filter is also developed to numerically illustrate the observability of nonlinear relative orbits with angles-only measurements and to show correspondence between the proposed observability measure and filtered solution accuracy.

  14. Further evidence for a supermassive black hole mass-pitch angle relation

    SciTech Connect

    Berrier, Joel C.; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia D.; Hartley, Matthew; Lacy, Claud H. S.; Davis, Benjamin L.; Barrows, Robert Scott; Shields, Doug; Seigar, Marc S.; Bentz, Misty C.

    2013-06-01

    We present new and stronger evidence for a previously reported relationship between galactic spiral arm pitch angle P (a measure of the tightness of spiral structure) and the mass M {sub BH} of a disk galaxy's nuclear supermassive black hole (SMBH). We use an improved method to accurately measure the spiral arm pitch angle in disk galaxies to generate quantitative data on this morphological feature for 34 galaxies with directly measured black hole masses. We find a relation of log (M/M {sub ☉}) = (8.21 ± 0.16) – (0.062 ± 0.009)P. This method is compared with other means of estimating black hole mass to determine its effectiveness and usefulness relative to other existing relations. We argue that such a relationship is predicted by leading theories of spiral structure in disk galaxies, including the density wave theory. We propose this relationship as a tool for estimating SMBH masses in disk galaxies. This tool is potentially superior when compared to other methods for this class of galaxy and has the advantage of being unambiguously measurable from imaging data alone.

  15. A relation between landsat digital numbers, surface reflectance, and the cosine of the solar zenith angle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kowalik, William S.; Marsh, Stuart E.; Lyon, Ronald J. P.

    1982-01-01

    A method for estimating the reflectance of ground sites from satellite radiance data is proposed and tested. The method uses the known ground reflectance from several sites and satellite data gathered over a wide range of solar zenith angles. The method was tested on each of 10 different Landsat images using 10 small sites in the Walker Lake, Nevada area. Plots of raw Landsat digital numbers (DNs) versus the cosine of the solar zenith angle (cos Z) for the the test areas are linear, and the average correlation coefficients of the data for Landsat bands 4, 5, 6, and 7 are 0.94, 0.93, 0.94, and 0.94, respectively. Ground reflectance values for the 10 sites are proportional to the slope of the DN versus cos Z relation at each site. The slope of the DN versus cos Z relation for seven additional sites in Nevada and California were used to estimate the ground reflectances of those sites. The estimates for nearby sites are in error by an average of 1.2% and more distant sites are in error by 5.1%. The method can successfully estimate the reflectance of sites outside the original scene, but extrapolation of the reflectance estimation equations to other areas may violate assumptions of atmospheric homogeneity.

  16. Effects of computer monitor viewing angle and related factors on strain, performance, and preference outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sommerich, C M; Joines, S M; Psihogios, J P

    2001-01-01

    A model of visual and musculoskeletal strain associated with computer monitor placement was developed. The main premise of which is that monitor placement decisions must take into consideration development of both visual and musculoskeletal strains. Certain factors in the model that were thought to affect one or both types of strain. or that were considered important to rule out for effect, were tested in a lab setting. These factors were viewing angle (eye level, midlevel, low level), monitor size (14 in., 19 in.), keyboard familiarity (touch typist, nontouch typist), and task (reading, mousing, typing). Outcomes included indicators of visual and musculoskeletal strain, preference, and performance. Muscle activity was generally greater for the low viewing angle, for the standard monitor (14 in.), and for non-touch typists. Participants preferred the midlevel placement. Task performance was slightly diminished with eye-level placement. Results are interpreted in relation to the model and to several hypotheses that were formed to focus the inquiry. Actual or potential applications of this research include monitor placement decisions in the design or modification of computer workstations.

  17. Relation between contact angles and formation of fog on polymer surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosu, Gabriela; Ross, Guy G.; Abel, Gilles; Andrzejewski, Lukasz

    2004-03-01

    Formation of fog on surfaces is cause of accidents in sports and industries. Formation of fog is not observed on very wetting polymer surfaces such as CR-39 and PC. Using 3 keV Ar ion implantation under an O2 partial pressure, advancing (ACA) and receding (RCA) contact angles as low as 10o and 20o, respectively, have been obtained. Fog is not observed on such wetting surfaces. Unfortunately, both contact angles increase with time. This phenomena, called aging, avoids the use of this technique for commercial application. Also, a correlation between the ACA and RCA and the dimension of fog droplets has been established. The RCA seems to play an important role. Passivation of implanted samples in O2 gas is a little help for the aging control. However, the pre-implantation of He has reduced the increase of both the ACA and, especially, the RCA. A direct consequence is that, up to now, no fog has been observed on the surfaces treated by He and Ar co-implantation. A characterization of surfaces by XPS has been undertaken. The relative concentration of polar molecules could be an explanation. The results will be presented and discussed.

  18. Acute effects of anterior thigh foam rolling on hip angle, knee angle, and rectus femoris length in the modified Thomas test.

    PubMed

    Vigotsky, Andrew D; Lehman, Gregory J; Contreras, Bret; Beardsley, Chris; Chung, Bryan; Feser, Erin H

    2015-01-01

    Background. Foam rolling has been shown to acutely increase range of motion (ROM) during knee flexion and hip flexion with the experimenter applying an external force, yet no study to date has measured hip extensibility as a result of foam rolling with controlled knee flexion and hip extension moments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of foam rolling on hip extension, knee flexion, and rectus femoris length during the modified Thomas test. Methods. Twenty-three healthy participants (male = 7; female = 16; age = 22 ± 3.3 years; height = 170 ± 9.18 cm; mass = 67.7 ± 14.9 kg) performed two, one-minute bouts of foam rolling applied to the anterior thigh. Hip extension and knee flexion were measured via motion capture before and after the foam rolling intervention, from which rectus femoris length was calculated. Results. Although the increase in hip extension (change = +1.86° (+0.11, +3.61); z(22) = 2.08; p = 0.0372; Pearson's r = 0.43 (0.02, 0.72)) was not due to chance alone, it cannot be said that the observed changes in knee flexion (change = -1.39° (-5.53, +2.75); t(22) = -0.70; p = 0.4933; Cohen's d = - 0.15 (-0.58, 0.29)) or rectus femoris length (change = -0.005 (-0.013, +0.003); t(22) = -1.30; p = 0.2070; Cohen's d = - 0.27 (-0.70, 0.16)) were not due to chance alone. Conclusions. Although a small change in hip extension was observed, no changes in knee flexion or rectus femoris length were observed. From these data, it appears unlikely that foam rolling applied to the anterior thigh will improve passive hip extension and knee flexion ROM, especially if performed in combination with a dynamic stretching protocol.

  19. Acute effects of anterior thigh foam rolling on hip angle, knee angle, and rectus femoris length in the modified Thomas test.

    PubMed

    Vigotsky, Andrew D; Lehman, Gregory J; Contreras, Bret; Beardsley, Chris; Chung, Bryan; Feser, Erin H

    2015-01-01

    Background. Foam rolling has been shown to acutely increase range of motion (ROM) during knee flexion and hip flexion with the experimenter applying an external force, yet no study to date has measured hip extensibility as a result of foam rolling with controlled knee flexion and hip extension moments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of foam rolling on hip extension, knee flexion, and rectus femoris length during the modified Thomas test. Methods. Twenty-three healthy participants (male = 7; female = 16; age = 22 ± 3.3 years; height = 170 ± 9.18 cm; mass = 67.7 ± 14.9 kg) performed two, one-minute bouts of foam rolling applied to the anterior thigh. Hip extension and knee flexion were measured via motion capture before and after the foam rolling intervention, from which rectus femoris length was calculated. Results. Although the increase in hip extension (change = +1.86° (+0.11, +3.61); z(22) = 2.08; p = 0.0372; Pearson's r = 0.43 (0.02, 0.72)) was not due to chance alone, it cannot be said that the observed changes in knee flexion (change = -1.39° (-5.53, +2.75); t(22) = -0.70; p = 0.4933; Cohen's d = - 0.15 (-0.58, 0.29)) or rectus femoris length (change = -0.005 (-0.013, +0.003); t(22) = -1.30; p = 0.2070; Cohen's d = - 0.27 (-0.70, 0.16)) were not due to chance alone. Conclusions. Although a small change in hip extension was observed, no changes in knee flexion or rectus femoris length were observed. From these data, it appears unlikely that foam rolling applied to the anterior thigh will improve passive hip extension and knee flexion ROM, especially if performed in combination with a dynamic stretching protocol. PMID:26421244

  20. Adherence to treatment in patients with open-angle glaucoma and its related factors

    PubMed Central

    Movahedinejad, Tayebeh; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lack of adherence to medical treatments typically lead to burdensome consequences such as progressive visual impairment, blindness, and disabilities. This study aimed to determine the adherence to medication in patients with open-angle glaucoma and related factors in patients referred to the Matini Ophthalmology Hospital in Kashan, Iran. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from 23 July 2015 to 20 January 2016 on all patients with open-angle glaucoma referred to the Matini Ophthalmology Hospital in Kashan, Iran. A questionnaire was used to gather data about patients’ demographics and factors affecting adherence to medical treatments. The Morisky Medication Adherence Scale was used to evaluate the adherence to glaucoma medication. Results were analyzed using SPSS version 13. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, and logistic regression analysis were used. Results In total, 130 patients with a mean age of 55.36 ± 15.54 were studied. Only 34.6% of patients completely adhered to glaucoma medications. The chi-square test showed that age (p=0.007), education (p=0.01), life entourage (p=0.04), place of residence (p=0.06), average monthly income (p=0.005), the interval between medical visits (p=0.007), problem in scheduling the medical visits (p<0.001), number of medications (p<0.001), lifelong using and side-effects of medications (p<0.001), answers of the physician to the patient’s questions (p<0.001), financial and traveling problems (p<0.001), lack of skill in using eye drops (p<0.001), lack of awareness of glaucoma complications and symptoms (p<0.001), forgetting, fatigue, impatience, believing in uselessness of medications, and lack of support from family (p<0.001) were associated with patients’ adherence. Logistic regression showed that 89% of variance of patients’ adherence to glaucoma medications can be predicted by seven factors: problems in traveling and scheduling medical visits, the large number and side effects of medications

  1. Aging changes of the optic nerve head in relation to open angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Garway-Heath, D; Wollstein, G; Hitchings, R

    1997-01-01

    AIMS—To determine the age related changes in optic nerve head structure in a group of normal subjects and assess the significance of any changes in relation to those found in open angle glaucoma.
METHODS—A group of 88 white volunteers and friends and spouses of patients with a normal visual field and normal intraocular pressure was studied. Two different imaging and measurement devices were used (computer assisted planimetry and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy), and the results from each were compared. Measurements were made of the optic disc, optic cup, and neuroretinal rim areas, and the vertical optic disc diameter and cup/disc diameter ratio.
RESULTS—Neuroretinal rim area declined at the rate of between 0.28% and 0.39% per year. Vertical optic cup diameter and optic cup area increased with age. The mean cup/disc diameter ratio increased by about 0.1 between the ages of 30 and 70 years.
CONCLUSIONS—Age related changes are significant and measurable, and should be taken into account when assessing the glaucoma suspect, and when estimating the rate of progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy in patients with established disease.

 PMID:9486023

  2. Relatively spared central multifocal electroretinogram responses in acute quinine toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Muhammad Usman; Noonan, Carmel; Hagan, Richard; Brown, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    A 71-year-old man was investigated with electrodiagnostic testing 4 months after a deliberate quinine overdose. Initially he was admitted to intensive care unit with visual acuity (VA) of perception of light in both eyes. VA recovered to 6/6 right eye and 6/12 left eye, though severely constricted fields were noted. Slow stimulus (base period of 83 ms) multifocal electroretinogram (ERG) showed electronegative responses outside the inner 5 degrees, with a reduced but electropositive response seen in this central area. It appears that in this case of bilaterally negative ERGs that the macula/fovea (which has a vascular supply through the choroid) is relatively spared as is seen in bilateral vascular electronegative ERGs. This may indicate that quinine toxicity to the retina may be secondary to effects similar to vascular occlusion or severe ischemia during the acute phase of quinine poisoning. PMID:22693278

  3. Acute effects of anterior thigh foam rolling on hip angle, knee angle, and rectus femoris length in the modified Thomas test

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Gregory J.; Contreras, Bret; Beardsley, Chris; Chung, Bryan; Feser, Erin H.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Foam rolling has been shown to acutely increase range of motion (ROM) during knee flexion and hip flexion with the experimenter applying an external force, yet no study to date has measured hip extensibility as a result of foam rolling with controlled knee flexion and hip extension moments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of foam rolling on hip extension, knee flexion, and rectus femoris length during the modified Thomas test. Methods. Twenty-three healthy participants (male = 7; female = 16; age = 22 ± 3.3 years; height = 170 ± 9.18 cm; mass = 67.7 ± 14.9 kg) performed two, one-minute bouts of foam rolling applied to the anterior thigh. Hip extension and knee flexion were measured via motion capture before and after the foam rolling intervention, from which rectus femoris length was calculated. Results. Although the increase in hip extension (change = +1.86° (+0.11, +3.61); z(22) = 2.08; p = 0.0372; Pearson’s r = 0.43 (0.02, 0.72)) was not due to chance alone, it cannot be said that the observed changes in knee flexion (change = −1.39° (−5.53, +2.75); t(22) = −0.70; p = 0.4933; Cohen’s d = − 0.15 (−0.58, 0.29)) or rectus femoris length (change = −0.005 (−0.013, +0.003); t(22) = −1.30; p = 0.2070; Cohen’s d = − 0.27 (−0.70, 0.16)) were not due to chance alone. Conclusions. Although a small change in hip extension was observed, no changes in knee flexion or rectus femoris length were observed. From these data, it appears unlikely that foam rolling applied to the anterior thigh will improve passive hip extension and knee flexion ROM, especially if performed in combination with a dynamic stretching protocol. PMID:26421244

  4. A GPS based fawn saving system using relative distance and angle determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascher, A.; Eberhardt, M.; Lehner, M.; Biebl, E.

    2016-09-01

    Active UHF RFID systems are often used for identifying, tracking and locating objects. In the present publication a GPS- based localization system for saving fawns during pasture mowing was introduced and tested. Fawns were first found by a UAV before mowing began. They were then tagged with small active RFID transponders, and an appropriate reader was installed on a mowing machine. Conventional direction-of-arrival approaches require a large antenna array with multiple elements and a corresponding coherent receiver, which introduces a large degree of complexity on the reader-side. Instead, our transponders were equipped with a small GPS module, allowing a transponder to determine its own position on request from the reader. A UHF link was used to transmit the location to a machine- mounted reader, where a second GPS receiver was installed. Using information from this second position and a machine- mounted magnetometer for determining the relative north direction of a vehicle, relative distance, and angle between GPS receivers can be calculated. The accuracy and reliability of this novel method were tested under realistic operating conditions, considering critical factors such as the height of grass, the lying position of a fawn, humidity and geographical area.

  5. An investigation of the dose distribution effect related with collimator angle for VMAT method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tas, B.; Bilge, H.; Ozturk, S. Tokdemir

    2016-03-01

    Aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of dose distribution in eleven prostate cancer patients with single VMAT and double VMAT when varying collimator angle. We generated optimum single and double VMAT treatment plans when collimator angle was 0°. We recalculated single VMAT plans at different collimator angles(0°,15°,30°,45°,60°,75°,90°) for double VMAT plans(0°-0°,15°-345°,30°-330°,45°-315°,60°-300°,75°-285°,90°-270°) without changing any optimization parameters. HI, DVH and %95 dose coverage of PTV calculated and analyzed. We determined better dose distribution with some collimator angles. Plans were verified using the 2 dimensional ion chamber array Matrixx® and 3 dimensional Compass® software program. A higher %95 dose coverage of PTV was found for single VMAT in the 15° collimator angle, for double VMAT in the 60°-300° and 75°-285° collimator angles. Because of lower rectum doses, we suggested 75°-285°. When we compared single and double VMAT's dose distribution, we had better % 95 dose coverage of PTV and lower HI with double VMAT. Our result was significant statistically. These finds are informative for choosing 75°-285° collimator angles in double VMAT plans for prostate cancer.

  6. Assessment of polygenic effects links primary open-angle glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Craig, Jamie E.; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Wang, Jie Jin; Vote, Brendan J.; Souzeau, Emmanuelle; McAllister, Ian L.; Isaacs, Timothy; Lake, Stewart; Mackey, David A.; Constable, Ian J.; Mitchell, Paul; Hewitt, Alex W.; MacGregor, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are leading causes of irreversible blindness. Several loci have been mapped using genome-wide association studies. Until very recently, there was no recognized overlap in the genetic contribution to AMD and POAG. At genome-wide significance level, only ABCA1 harbors associations to both diseases. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture of POAG and AMD using genome-wide array data. We estimated the heritability for POAG (h2g = 0.42 ± 0.09) and AMD (h2g = 0.71 ± 0.08). Removing known loci for POAG and AMD decreased the h2g estimates to 0.36 and 0.24, respectively. There was evidence for a positive genetic correlation between POAG and AMD (rg = 0.47 ± 0.25) which remained after removing known loci (rg = 0.64 ± 0.31). We also found that the genetic correlation between sexes for POAG was likely to be less than 1 (rg = 0.33 ± 0.24), suggesting that differences of prevalence among genders may be partly due to heritable factors. PMID:27241461

  7. Using Excel To Study The Relation Between Protein Dihedral Angle Omega And Backbone Length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shew, Christopher; Evans, Samari; Tao, Xiuping

    How to involve the uninitiated undergraduate students in computational biophysics research? We made use of Microsoft Excel to carry out calculations of bond lengths, bond angles and dihedral angles of proteins. Specifically, we studied protein backbone dihedral angle omega by examining how its distribution varies with the length of the backbone length. It turns out Excel is a respectable tool for this task. An ordinary current-day desktop or laptop can handle the calculations for midsized proteins in just seconds. Care has to be taken to enter the formulas for the spreadsheet column after column to minimize the computing load. Supported in part by NSF Grant #1238795.

  8. Narrowed Aortoseptal Angle Is Related to Increased Central Blood Pressure and Aortic Pressure Wave Reflection.

    PubMed

    Olafiranye, Oladipupo; Ibrahim, Mediha; Kamran, Haroon; Venner-Jones, Kinda; McFarlane, Samy I; Salciccioli, Louis; Lazar, Jason M

    2012-08-01

    The left ventricular (LV) aortoseptal angle (ASA) decreases with age, and is associated with basal septal hypertrophy (septal bulge). Enhanced arterial pressure wave reflection is known to impact LV hypertrophy. We assessed whether ASA is related to central blood pressure (BP) and augmentation index (AI), a measure of the reflected pressure wave. We studied 75 subjects (age 62 ± 16 years; 66% female) who were referred for transthoracic echocardiography and had radial artery applanation tonometry within 24 h. Peripheral systolic BP (P-SBP), peripheral diastolic BP (P-DBP), and peripheral pulse pressure (P-PP) were obtained by sphygmomanometry. Central BPs (C-SBP, C-DBP, C-PP) and AI were derived from applanation tonometry. AI was corrected for heart rate (AI75). The basal septal wall thickness (SWT), mid SWT and ASA were measured using the parasternal long axis echocardiographic view. Mean ASA and AI75 were 117 ± 11° and 22 ± 11%, respectively. ASA correlated with AI75 (r = -0.31, p ≤ 0.01), C-SBP (r = -0.24, p = 0.04), C-PP (r = -0.29, p = 0.01), but only showed a trend towards significance with P-SBP (r = -0.2, p = 0.09) and P-PP (r = -0.21, p = 0.08). Interestingly, C-PP was correlated with basal SWT (r = 0.27, p = 0.02) but not with mid SWT (r = 0.19, p = 0.11). On multivariate linear regression analysis, adjusted for age, gender, weight, and mean arterial pressure, AI75 was an independent predictor of ASA (p = 0.02). Our results suggest that a narrowed ASA is related to increased pressure wave reflection and higher central BP. Further studies are needed to determine whether narrowed LV ASA is a cause or consequence of enhanced wave reflection and whether other factors are involved.

  9. Sleep-related breathing disorders in acute lacunar stroke.

    PubMed

    Bonnin-Vilaplana, Marc; Arboix, Adrià; Parra, Olga; García-Eroles, Luis; Montserrat, Josep M; Massons, Joan

    2009-12-01

    The purpose was to examine the occurrence of sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD) and variables related to SRBD in patients with acute lacunar stroke. In 68 consecutive patients with radiologically proven lacunes, respiratory polygraphy within the first 48 h of stroke onset was performed. SRBDs were classified according to mutually exclusive cutoff values of the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) as mild (AHI ≥ 10), moderate (AHI ≥ 20), and severe (AHI ≥ 30). Variables independently associated with SRBDs were assessed by logistic regression analysis. The mean (standard deviation) AHI was 21.9 (17.4). A total of 69.1% of patients showed AHI ≥ 10, 44.1% AHI ≥ 20, and 25% AHI ≥ 30. Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) was present in 20.6% of patients. Smoking (>20 cigarettes/day) or location of lacunes in the internal capsule or the pons was significantly more frequent in the AHI ≥ 10 group than in the remaining AHI groups (80.9% vs. 57.1%, P = 0.041). AHI ≥ 20 and AHI ≥ 30 occurred more frequently in smokers or in capsular or pontine lacunes than in the remaining patients (20% vs. 2.6%, P = 0.053; 29.4% vs. 3.9%, P = 0.01, respectively). In the multivariate analysis, smoking or capsular or pontine topographies were associated with AHI ≥ 10 [odds ratio (OR) = 3.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–9.79; P = 0.045]. Lacunes in the internal capsule or the pons in smokers were associated with AHI ≥ 20 (OR = 9.25, 95% CI 1.05–81.70; P = 0.045). Smoking (OR = 19.64, 95% CI 1.68–229.85; P = 0.010) and body mass index (OR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.13–2.50; P = 0.010) were associated with AHI ≥ 30. Smoker patients with capsular or pontine acute lacunar stroke should be screened for SRDB.

  10. Drainage density, slope angle, and relative basin position in Japanese bare lands from high-resolution DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhou; Oguchi, Takashi

    2004-12-01

    Relationships between drainage density and slope angle for three bare lands in Japan were analyzed with special attention to channels at early erosion stages and channels in a badland-type terrain. Two of the bare lands were caused by volcanic eruptions 1 or 30-40 years ago, and the other one is a landslide scar formed more than 100 years ago. Raster digital elevation models (DEMs) with a 1-m resolution and ortho aerial photos were generated using digital photogrammetry to enable detailed stream-net extraction and topographic analyses. Data for drainage density, slope angle, and relative height for 88 subwatersheds were obtained from the DEMs and derived stream-nets. The relationship between drainage density and slope angle for each subwatershed can be divided into two types: downward sloping and convex upward. Although previous studies suggested that drainage density positively correlates with slope angle if overland flow is dominant, this correlation seldom occurs in the study areas. The two types of drainage density-slope angle relationships correspond to differing channelization stages that reflect the extension and integration of existing channels, as well as the formation of new low-order streams in response to base-level lowering. The location of subwatersheds within each study area seems to play a major role in determining the stages of channel development and, in turn, the types of drainage density-slope angle relationships.

  11. Poor survival of treatment-related acute nonlymphocytic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Neugut, A.I. Nieves, J.; Murray, T.; Tsai, Weiyann ); Robinson, E. )

    1990-08-29

    Population-based data on more than 1 million patients registered in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results Program of the National Cancer Institute, 1973-1984, were analyzed to determine the survival of patients with de novo acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) and following a first primary tumor treated (with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy) or untreated. Cases that occurred within 12 months of the first malignant neoplasm were excluded. Survival was estimated using Cox proportional-hazards modeling, with age, sex, and specific type of ANLL as covariates. The 6,271 patients with de novo ANLL had an estimated 12-month survival of 30%, while the 107 patients with treatment-related ANLL had an estimated 12-month survival of 10%. The authors conclude that ANLL that occurs after chemotherapy or radiation therapy is biologically more aggressive and/or resistant to therapy than spontaneous ANLL. This provides a rationale for current studies on treatment-induced cellular changes and on more aggressive therapy for these patients.

  12. Looking at eye dominance from a different angle: is sighting strength related to hand preference?

    PubMed

    Carey, David P; Hutchinson, Claire V

    2013-10-01

    Sighting dominance (the behavioural preference for one eye over the other under monocular viewing conditions) has traditionally been thought of as a robust individual trait. However, Khan and Crawford (2001) have shown that, under certain viewing conditions, eye preference reverses as a function of horizontal gaze angle. Remarkably, the reversal of sighting from one eye to the other depends on which hand is used to reach out and grasp the target. Their procedure provides an ideal way to measure the strength of monocular preference for sighting, which may be related to other indicators of hemispheric specialisation for speech, language and motor function. Therefore, we hypothesised that individuals with consistent side preferences (e.g., right hand, right eye) should have more robust sighting dominance than those with crossed lateral preferences. To test this idea, we compared strength of eye dominance in individuals who are consistently right or left sided for hand and foot preference with those who are not. We also modified their procedure in order to minimise a potential image size confound, suggested by Banks et al. (2004) as an explanation of Khan and Crawford's results. We found that the sighting dominance switch occurred at similar eccentricities when we controlled for effects of hand occlusion and target size differences. We also found that sighting dominance thresholds change predictably with the hand used. However, we found no evidence for relationships between strength of hand preference as assessed by questionnaire or by pegboard performance and strength of sighting dominance. Similarly, participants with consistent hand and foot preferences did not show stronger eye preference as assessed using the Khan and Crawford procedure. These data are discussed in terms of indirect relationships between sighting dominance, hand preference and cerebral specialisation for language and motor control.

  13. Modal propagation angles in a cylindrical duct with flow and their relation to sound radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, E. J.; Heidmann, M. F.; Sofrin, T. G.

    1979-01-01

    The angles of propagation for the wave front making up a duct mode are presented with the Mach number in the duct. Approximate equations are derived to provide simple utilitarian expressions. These expressions are valid only near the outer wall which is the most important region since the bulk of the acoustic intensity is located there. Exact solutions using Hankel functions are given in an appendix. These data corroborate the approximate solution accuracy near the outer wall. The axial propagation angle is used to infer information about the far-field radiation pattern. The resultant axial angle of propagation in the duct is shown to agree exactly with the peak of the principal lobe to far-field radiation obtained from formal radiation calculations when the Mach number is uniform everywhere. The obtained solution is extended to cover the case of different Mach numbers inside and outside the duct for which exact calculations have not been available for engine inlet configurations.

  14. Are the knee and ankle angles at contact related to the tendon properties of lower limbs in long distance runners?

    PubMed

    Kubo, Keitaro; Miyazaki, Daisuke; Yamada, Kenji; Shimoju, Shozo; Tsunoda, Naoya

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the knee and ankle angles at contact during running were related to the elastic properties of tendon structures in knee extensors and plantar flexors and performance in trained long distance runners. Thirty-two highly trained male long distance runners participated in this study. Elongation of tendon structures in knee extensors and plantar flexors were measured using ultrasonography while subjects performed ramp isometric contractions up to the voluntary maximum. The relationship between estimated muscle force and tendon elongation was fit to a linear regression, the slope of which was defined as the stiffness of tendon structures. Knee and ankle angles at contact during running were determined at a speed of 18 km/h on a treadmill. Knee and ankle angles at contact were not correlated to the stiffness of tendon structures in knee extensors and plantar flexors. In addition, the best official record in a 5000-m race was not significantly correlated to knee and ankle joint angles at contact. In conclusion, knee and ankle angles at contact were not related to the elastic properties of tendon structures in knee extensors and plantar flexor and the performance of long distance running.

  15. SIMPLE FIT OF DATA RELATING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE MASS TO GALAXY PITCH ANGLE

    SciTech Connect

    Ringermacher, Harry I.; Mead, Lawrence R.

    2009-06-15

    Seigar et al. have recently demonstrated a new, tight correlation between galactic central supermassive black hole (BH) mass and the pitch angle of the spiral arm in disk galaxies which they attribute to other indirect correlations. They fit a double power law, governed by five parameters, to the BH mass as a function of pitch. Noting the features of their fitted curve, we show that a simple linear proportion of the BH mass to the cotangent of the pitch angle can obtain the same fit, within error. Such a direct, elegant fit may help shed light on the nature of the correlation.

  16. Patient-Reported Vision-Related Quality-of-Life Differences between Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chao-Yu; Chen, Yu-Jing; Chen, Mei-Ju; Ko, Yu-Chieh; Huang, Nicole; Liu, Catherine Jui-ling

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the different impacts on patient-reported vision-related quality of life (pVRQOL) outcomes in patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma(PACG) and primary open-angle glaucoma(POAG). Methods Prospective cross-sectional study. PACG and POAG patients who had a best-corrected visual acuity(BCVA) in the better eye equal to or better than 20/60, intraocular pressure controlled at or below 25 mmHg and reliable visual field test were invited to participate. The control group included patients with BCVA in the better eye equal to or better than 20/60 and who did not have major eye disease. A validated Taiwanese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25(T)) was performed to assess pVRQOL. The association between each domain of NEI VFQ-25(T) among 3 groups was determined using multivariable linear regression analysis. Results A total of 106 PACG, 186 POAG, and 95 controls were enrolled. In multivariable regression analysis of all three groups(PACG/POAG/controls), compared to POAG, PACG showed a weakly positive association with social functioning (R2 = 0.13, β = 0.22, P = 0.04). PACG showed no significantly negative impact on pVRQOL compared to controls. Taking only glaucoma patients into consideration, PACG patients had a higher score on social functioning compared to POAG (R2 = 0.16, β = 0.27, P = 0.01). The results of other domains of NEI VFQ-25(T) between the two groups did not differ significantly(p>0.05). Conclusions In patients with controlled disease, the impact of PACG and POAG on most domains of NEI VFQ-25(T) were similar, except for better social functioning in PACG compared to POAG. PMID:27690232

  17. Environmental Challenges Related to the Acquisition of the Trans Carpathian Wide Angle Reflection and Refraction Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragut, Dorina-Alina; Schultz, Gehrig; Mocanu, Victor; Stephenson, Randell; Janik, Tomasz; Starostenko, Vitaly

    2015-04-01

    Complex structures like the Carpathian Orogen and its neighbouring platforms and related inter-orogenic basin system can be understood only by complex integration of complementary investigative tools. Most of regional geoscientific investigations in Romania have targeted the very intricate, high intermediate-depth seismicity, clustered Carpathian Bend Zone: Vrancea. Despite huge geological and geophysical efforts, the area remains a matter of robust debate, at least from the point of view of geodynamic driving mechanisms. However, other areas outside Vrancea remained somehow "orphaned". However, a large wide angle refraction and reflection (WARR) survey was carried out in the summer of 2014 by a large international partnership in order to study the transition from the East European Platform to the northern part of the Romanian Eastern Carpathians, Transylvanian Basin and the Apuseni Mountains. The main scientific objectives of the WARR project relate to three main investigation domains: crustal architecture; affinity of crystalline basement and sedimentary basins architecture. The profile is about 700 km in total, in Ukraine and Romania. Recorders were placed at 1.75 - 2.0 km intervals along an alignment forming the Romanian segment. Recorders used were stand-alone DSS Cubes from the Helmholz Center of GFZ Potsdam and from the Institute of Geophysics of the Polish Academy of Sciences. The seismic sources were explosives ("Riogel" and "Riodet" by Maxam), with shotpoints spaced at 20 - 65 km with a total of 800 - 1200 kg explosives/site in clusters of drill-holes loaded with 50 kg explosive/hole, average depth of 25 m. Very complicated and legally-challenging environmental permitting requirements represented a real issue for successful implementation of the project. The main concern of local and central authorities related to potential pollution of sensitive components. Here, we present the strategy, actions and results concluded in order to reach the scientific and

  18. Relative osteopenia after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Warner, J T; Evans, W D; Webb, D K; Bell, W; Gregory, J W

    1999-04-01

    Osteoporosis in adult life is associated with a significant morbidity and may be predisposed to by osteopenia and failure to reach peak bone mass in childhood. Children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) may be at risk of osteopenia as a result of previous therapy or as a consequence of the disease process itself. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements of bone mineral content (BMC) for the whole body and at the lumbar spine and hip were taken in 35 (14 male) long-term survivors of ALL and compared with results in 20 (10 male) survivors of other malignancies and 31 (17 male) healthy sibling controls. The measured BMC was expressed as a percentage of a predicted value derived from the control group and based on the variables that had influence upon it. BMC (%) was reduced at the spine in the ALL group compared with controls [92.4 (8.0)% versus 100.4 (9.7)%, respectively; p < 0.005] and at the hip compared with both other malignancies and controls [89.0 (11.5)% versus 96.1 (11.7)% and 100.4 (9.2)%, respectively; p < 0.0005]. Increasing length of time off therapy was associated with a significant increase in %BMC at both the spine and the hip. For the spine, this association was significantly different between the ALL group and other malignancies, suggesting that any gain in %BMC after therapy was slower in children treated for ALL. Both exercise capacity and levels of physical activity were correlated with %BMC at the hip (r = 0.44, p < 0.001 and r = 0.29, p < 0.01, respectively). Previous exposure to methotrexate, ifosfamide, and bleomycin was associated with a reduction in %BMC at the spine. Exposure to 6-mercaptopurine and cisplatin was associated with a reduction at the hip. In conclusion, children treated for ALL are osteopenic. The mechanism is probably multifactorial but is partially related to previous chemotherapy, limited exercise capacity, and relative physical inactivity.

  19. How cosmic microwave background correlations at large angles relate to mass autocorrelations in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenthal, George R.; Johnston, Kathryn V.

    1994-01-01

    The Sachs-Wolfe effect is known to produce large angular scale fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) due to gravitational potential fluctuations. We show how the angular correlation function of the CMBR can be expressed explicitly in terms of the mass autocorrelation function xi(r) in the universe. We derive analytic expressions for the angular correlation function and its multipole moments in terms of integrals over xi(r) or its second moment, J(sub 3)(r), which does not need to satisfy the sort of integral constraint that xi(r) must. We derive similar expressions for bulk flow velocity in terms of xi and J(sub 3). One interesting result that emerges directly from this analysis is that, for all angles theta, there is a substantial contribution to the correlation function from a wide range of distance r and that radial shape of this contribution does not vary greatly with angle.

  20. AN "INJURY-TIME INTEGRAL" MODEL FOR RELATING ACUTE TO CHRONIC INJURY TO PHOSGENE

    EPA Science Inventory


    ABSTRACT
    The present study compares acute and subchronic episodic exposures to phosgene to test the applicability of the "concentration x time" (C x T) product as a measure of exposure dose, and to relate acute toxicity and adaptive responses to chronic toxicity. Rats (m...

  1. Event-related brain potentials during the visuomotor mental rotation task: The contingent negative variation scales to angle of rotation.

    PubMed

    Heath, M; Hassall, C D; MacLean, S; Krigolson, O E

    2015-12-17

    Perceptual judgments about the angular disparity of a character from its standard upright (i.e., mental rotation task) result in a concurrent increase in reaction time (RT) and modulation of the amplitude of the P300 event-related brain potential (ERP). It has therefore been proposed that the P300 represents the neural processes associated with a visual rotation. In turn, the visuomotor mental rotation (VMR) task requires reaching to a location that deviates from a target by a predetermined angle. Although the VMR task exhibits a linear increase in RT with increasing oblique angles of rotation, work has not examined whether the task is supported via a visual rotation analogous to its mental rotation task counterpart. This represents a notable issue because seminal work involving non-human primates has ascribed VMR performance to the motor-related rotation of directionally tuned neurons in the primary motor cortex. Here we examined the concurrent behavioral and ERP characteristics of a standard reaching task and VMR tasks of 35°, 70°, and 105° of rotation. Results showed that the P300 amplitude was larger for the standard compared to each VMR task--an effect independent of the angle of rotation. In turn, the amplitude of the contingent negative variation (CNV)--an ERP related to cognitive and visuomotor integration for movement preparation--was systematically modulated with angle of rotation. Thus, we propose that the CNV represents an ERP correlate related to the cognitive and/or visuomotor transformation demands of increasing the angular separation between a stimulus and a movement goal.

  2. Pelvis Morphology, Trunk Posture and Standing Imbalance and Their Relations to the Cobb Angle in Moderate and Severe Untreated AIS

    PubMed Central

    Dalleau, Georges; Leroyer, Pierre; Beaulieu, Marlène; Verkindt, Chantal; Rivard, Charles-Hilaire; Allard, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common form of scoliosis and usually affects young girls. Studies mostly describe the differences between scoliotic and non-scoliotic girls and focus primarily on a single set of parameters derived from spinal and pelvis morphology, posture or standing imbalance. No study addressed all these three biomechanical aspects simultaneously in pre-braced AIS girls of different scoliosis severity but with similar curve type and their interaction with scoliosis progression. The first objective of this study was to test if there are differences in these parameters between pre-braced AIS girls with a right thoracic scoliosis of moderate (less than 27°) and severe (more than 27°) deformity. The second objective was to identify which of these parameters are related to the Cobb angle progression either individually or in combination of thereof. Forty-five scoliotic girls, randomly selected by an orthopedic surgeon from the hospital scoliosis clinic, participated in this study. Parameters related to pelvis morphology, pelvis orientation, trunk posture and quiet standing balance were measured. Generally moderate pre-brace idiopathic scoliosis patients displayed lower values than the severe group characterized by a Cobb angle greater than 27°. Only pelvis morphology and trunk posture were statistically different between the groups while pelvis orientation and standing imbalance were similar in both groups. Statistically significant Pearson coefficients of correlation between individual parameters and Cobb angle ranged between 0.32 and 0.53. Collectively trunk posture, pelvis morphology and standing balance parameters are correlated with Cobb angle at 0.82. The results suggest that spinal deformity progression is not only a question of trunk morphology distortion by itself but is also related to pelvis asymmetrical bone growth and standing neuromuscular imbalance. PMID:22792155

  3. Research on the relation between the contact angle and the interface curvature radius of electrowetting liquid zoom lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Cunhua; Liang, Huiqin; Cui, Dongqing; Hong, Xinhua; Wei, Daling; Gao, Changliu

    2011-08-01

    In the ultralight or ultrathin applied domain of zoom lens, the traditional glass / plastic lens is limited for manufacture technology or cost. Therefore, a liquid lens was put forward to solve the problems. The liquid zoom lens has the merits of lower cost, smaller volume, quicker response, lower energy consumption, continuous zoom and higher accuracy. In liquid zoom lens the precise focal length is obtained by the contact angle changing to affect the curvature radius of interface. In our works, the relations of the exerted voltage, the contact angle, the curvature radius and the focal length were researched and accurately calculated. The calculation of the focal length provides an important theoretical basis for instructing the design of liquid zoom lens.

  4. Hepatitis A related acute liver failure by consumption of contaminated food.

    PubMed

    Chi, Heng; Haagsma, Elizabeth B; Riezebos-Brilman, Annelies; van den Berg, Arie P; Metselaar, Herold J; de Knegt, Robert J

    2014-11-01

    We present a patient with no medical history admitted for jaundice and dark coloured urine. Further investigations revealed hepatitis A related acute liver failure while the patient had no travel history, nor contact with infected individuals. After admission, the patient deteriorated fulfilling the King's College criteria for acute liver failure. Two days after admission, he underwent liver transplantation and recovered. Careful investigation identified imported semi-dried tomatoes as the source of the hepatitis A infection. This patient was part of a foodborne hepatitis A outbreak in the Netherlands in 2010 affecting 13 patients. Virus sequence analysis of our patient's virus showed a strain commonly found in Turkey. Hepatitis A related acute liver failure is rare, but is associated with a poor prognosis. In developed countries, the incidence of hepatitis A is low, but foodborne outbreaks are emerging. Further, we review the literature on recent foodborne hepatitis A outbreaks in developed countries, hepatitis A related acute liver failure, and hepatitis A vaccine.

  5. Structure-related antibacterial activity of a titanium nanostructured surface fabricated by glancing angle sputter deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengstock, Christina; Lopian, Michael; Motemani, Yahya; Borgmann, Anna; Khare, Chinmay; Buenconsejo, Pio John S.; Schildhauer, Thomas A.; Ludwig, Alfred; Köller, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to reproduce the physico-mechanical antibacterial effect of the nanocolumnar cicada wing surface for metallic biomaterials by fabrication of titanium (Ti) nanocolumnar surfaces using glancing angle sputter deposition (GLAD). Nanocolumnar Ti thin films were fabricated by GLAD on silicon substrates. S. aureus as well as E. coli were incubated with nanostructured or reference dense Ti thin film test samples for one or three hours at 37 °C. Bacterial adherence, morphology, and viability were analyzed by fluorescence staining and scanning electron microscopy and compared to human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Bacterial adherence was not significantly different after short (1 h) incubation on the dense or the nanostructured Ti surface. In contrast to S. aureus the viability of E. coli was significantly decreased after 3 h on the nanostructured film compared to the dense film and was accompanied by an irregular morphology and a cell wall deformation. Cell adherence, spreading and viability of hMSCs were not altered on the nanostructured surface. The results show that the selective antibacterial effect of the cicada wing could be transferred to a nanostructured metallic biomaterial by mimicking the natural nanocolumnar topography.

  6. Acute dissociation and cardiac reactivity to script-driven imagery in trauma-related disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sack, Martin; Cillien, Melanie; Hopper, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Potential acute protective functions of dissociation include modulation of stress-induced psychophysiological arousal. This study was designed to explore whether acute dissociative reactions during a stress experiment would override the effects of reexperiencing. Methods Psychophysiological reactions during exposure to script-driven trauma imagery were studied in relation to acute responses of reexperiencing and dissociative symptoms in 61 patients with histories of exposure to a variety of traumas. Acute symptomatic responses were assessed with the Responses to Script-Driven Imagery Scale (RSDI), and participants were divided into four groups by median splits of RSDI reexperiencing and dissociation subscale scores. Results In a comparison of the high RSDI reexperiencing groups with low versus high acute dissociative symptoms, the high dissociators exhibited significantly lower heart rate (HR) during trauma script and a significantly smaller script-induced decrease in parasympathetic cardiac activity. HR reactivity to the trauma script was negatively correlated with acute dissociative symptom severity. Conclusions Acute dissociative reactions are a potential moderator of response to experimental paradigms investigating psychologically traumatized populations. We therefore suggest that future research on psychophysiological stress reactions in traumatized samples should routinely assess for acute dissociative symptoms. PMID:23198029

  7. Unilateral Acute Closed-Angle Glaucoma After Elective Lumbar Surgery Reveals Multiple Intracranial Aneurysms. A Case Report and Discussion on Workup of Differential Diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Storey, Christopher; Menger, Richard; Hefner, Matthew; Keating, Patrick; Ahmed, Osama; Guthikonda, Bharat

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of our paper is to present a case of a rare complication of posterior lumbar surgery. Our patient presented for elective lumbar decompression, which was complicated by durotomy. She then developed sudden headache and right eye pain once upright on postoperative day 2. Then on postoperative day 3, she developed a dilated nonreactive pupil with extraocular movements intact. A computed tomography scan of the head was negative for subarachnoid hemorrhage. Magnetic resonance angiography showed a possible right posterior communicating artery aneurysm. She was transferred to a tertiary center with a severe headache and a nonreactive pupil, raising concern for evolving third nerve palsy due to aneurysm. A cerebral angiogram was performed and showed multiple aneurysms. Aneurysm location did not explain the patient's symptoms, and ophthalmology was consulted. Elevated intraocular pressure was noted, and the patient was diagnosed with acute angle-closure glaucoma (AACG). Our patient was medically treated and subsequently underwent laser peripheral iridotomy. She has had improved vision and pupillary function at 1 month follow-up. The diagnosis is complicated by a durotomy, which led to cascade in the differential diagnosis to rule out intracranial pathology. Her age and home medications, which had sympathomimetic effects, placed her at increased risk, but lying prone in the dark under the drapes was likely the lead causative factor. In conclusion, a postoperative posterior spine patient with eye pain and changes in vision and pupils should be evaluated with AACG in mind due to the devastating consequences if left untreated or treatment is delayed.

  8. Solid-state 13C NMR study of banana liquid crystals - 3: Alkyl-tail-group packing environments of an acute-angle bent-core molecule in the hexagonal columnar and cubic phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosu, Hiromichi; Endo, Yumi; Kimura, Saori; Hashimoto, Tomoko; Harada, Motoi; Lee, Eun-Woo; Sone, Masato; Watanabe, Junji; Kang, Sungmin

    2016-02-01

    Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements were performed on the hexagonal columnar and cubic phases of an acute-angle banana-shaped molecule, N(1,7)-S30. In the hexagonal columnar phase, three peaks appear at the NMR chemical shifts assigned to the internal methylene carbons of alkyl tails, indicating that the two alkyl tails have different packing structures, and one of the tails has two different conformations within a single molecule. Combined cross-polarization/magic-angle spinning and pulse saturation transfer/magic-angle spinning measurements show that one of the alkyl chains is located inside and the other is located outside the columnar structure. In the cubic phase, pulse saturation transfer/magic-angle spinning measurement shows that only one peak appears at the NMR chemical shifts assigned to the internal methylene carbons of alkyl tails, indicating that both of the alkyl chains are located outside the cubic structure.

  9. Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV) Related Acute Liver Failure: A Case Series from the US Acute Liver Failure Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Mellinger, Jessica L.; Rossaro, Lorenzo; Naugler, Willscott E.; Nadig, Satish N.; Appelman, Henry; Lee, William M.; Fontana, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rare clinical syndrome associated with a high case fatality rate. Asymptomatic primary infection with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is common in the general population while acute hepatitis and jaundice are much less common and ALF has been rarely reported. We reviewed the presenting features as well as clinical outcomes amongst consecutive adults with EBV-related ALF. Methods Amongst the 1,887 adult ALF patients enrolled into the US ALF Study Group from January 1998 to February 2012, there were four patients (0.21 %) with EBV-related ALF. Diagnostic criteria for acute EBV infection included compatible serologies and/or the detection of EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) in liver tissue. Results Median patient age was 30 years (range 18–44); 75 % were male, and only 25 % were immunosuppressed. The median presenting ALT was 504 IU/mL (range 156–4,920), median Alk P was 431 (range 136–1,009), and median bilirubin was 17 mg/dL (range 13–22.1). Liver biopsy findings ranged from cholestasis to submassive necrosis with EBER + staining in two of the three samples tested. Although all of the patients were treated with an antiviral agent, two died of ALF, one underwent liver transplantation (LT) and one survived with supportive care and is well at 5 years. A review of the literature identified four additional LT recipients with favorable long-term outcomes. Conclusion Primary EBV infection accounts for <1 % of consecutive adult ALF cases but is associated with a high case fatality rate. LT is associated with favorable short- and long-term outcomes. PMID:24464209

  10. Relative performance of antisymmetric angle-ply laminated stiffened hypar shell roofs with cutout in terms of static behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Puja B.; Mitra, Anirban; Sahoo, Sarmila

    2016-01-01

    A review of literature reveals that bending analysis of laminated composite stiffened hypar shells with cutout have not received due attention. Being a doubly ruled surface, a skewed hypar shell fulfils aesthetic as well as ease of casting requirements. Further, this shell allows entry of north light making it suitable as civil engineering roofing units. Hypar shell with cutout subjected to uniformly distributed load exhibits improved performances with stiffeners. Hence relative performances of antisymmetric angle-ply laminated composite stiffened hypar shells in terms of displacements and stress resultants are studied in this paper under static loading. A curved quadratic isoparametric eight noded element and three noded beam elements are used to model the shell surface and the stiffeners respectively. Results obtained from the present study are compared with established ones to check the correctness of the present approach. A number of additional problems of antisymmetric angle-ply laminated composite stiffened hypar shells are solved for various fibre orientations, number of layers and boundary conditions. Results are interpreted from practical application standpoints and findings important for a designer to decide on the shell combination among a number of possible options are highlighted.

  11. Analysis of gonial angle in relation to age, gender, and dentition status by radiological and anthropometric methods

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Ram Ballabh; Upadhyay, Juhi; Agrawal, Pankaj; Rao, Nirmala N

    2012-01-01

    Background: With development and function, the mandibular angle has shown changes in size and shape. A variation in mandibular angle with age, gender, and even the dental status has been observed, which is supported by radiographic and anthropometric studies. Aims: The aim of this study were to evaluate relationship between complete loss of teeth and changes in the gonial angle; the study further intends to evaluate any variation in gonial angle with age and gender. The study intends to assess the reliability and accuracy of age and gender determination using gonial angle as a parameter. Materials and Methods: A total of 185 subjects (91 males; 89 females) were included in the study and were divided into five groups on the basis of the chronological age. Physico-forensic anthropometry and lateral cephalometric methods were used to record the gonial angle. Results: The present study shows a definite decrease in the gonial angle with advancing age, but the intergroup analysis does not follow a significant pattern. The study showed no correlation of gonial angle with gender. However, the study observed a 6° increase in gonial angle for edentulous subjects. Conclusion: Gonial angle has been used as an adjuvant forensic parameter, but its reliability is questionable, as the mandible does not follow one characteristic pattern. Gonial angle does show changes with dentition status, which may be attributed to physiologic function of the mandible. However, when evidence is scanty, it can be used to direct the investigation. PMID:23087579

  12. Novel Therapeutics for Therapy-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia: 2014.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Eric J

    2015-06-01

    Effective treatment options for adults with therapy-related AML continues to be an area of unmet need. Genetic and molecular changes within these leukemias confer resistance to standard chemotherapy regimens. Emerging developmental therapeutics in this area has focused on several approaches. These include; novel delivery of chemotherapy as well as newer DNA-damaging agents delivered through antibody-drug conjugates, increased use of hypomethylating agents, and molecularly-directed small molecules against specific mutations commonly occurring in secondary AML. Results of this efforts are encouraging, but to date, no clear improvements have been demonstrated in this most difficult to treat population.

  13. Acute occupational disinfectant-related illness among youth, 1993-1998.

    PubMed Central

    Brevard, Theresa A; Calvert, Geoffrey M; Blondell, Jerome M; Mehler, Louise N

    2003-01-01

    Working youths face many safety and health risks. Among these risks are those posed by disinfectant exposures. In this study we describe acute occupational disinfectant-related illness among youth. Data on U.S. children younger than 18 years with acute occupational disinfectant-related illnesses between 1993 and 1998 were collected from the Toxic Exposure Surveillance System and from the California Department of Pesticide Regulation. We analyzed data from persons with exposures who met the case definition for acute occupational disinfectant-related illness. The case definition required onset of new adverse health effects that were both temporally related to a disinfectant exposure and consistent with the known toxicology of the disinfectant. We calculated incidence rates of acute occupational disinfectant-related illness among youths 15-17 years old and incidence rate ratios to compare these rates with those of adults 25-44 years old. We found 307 children with disinfectant-related illnesses. The average annual incidence rate was 16.8/billion hours worked with a relative risk compared with adults of 4.14 (95% confidence interval, 3.66-4.68). Most illnesses were of mild severity (78%). There were no fatalities. Hypochlorites (e.g., bleach) were responsible for 45% of the illnesses. Among the 206 cases where the responsible disinfectant's U.S. Environmental Protection Agency toxicity category was known, 80% were in category I (highest toxicity level). These findings suggest the need for greater efforts to prevent adolescent acute occupational disinfectant-related illness. This may require strengthening regulations and enforcement as well as increased educational efforts directed at employers, youths, parents, school officials, and physicians. Better mechanisms for reporting and tracking chemical illnesses among working adolescents are also needed. PMID:14527846

  14. Acute sports-related traumatic brain injury and repetitive concussion.

    PubMed

    Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Broglio, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    Concussions are described as functional, not structural injuries, and therefore cannot be easily detected through standard diagnostic imaging. The vast differences between individual athletes makes identifying and evaluating sport-related concussion one of the most complex and perplexing injuries faced by medical personnel. The literature, as well as most consensus statements, supports the use of a multifaceted approach to concussion evaluation on the sideline of the athletic field. Using a standardized clinical examination that is supported by objective measures of concussion-related symptoms, cognitive function, and balance provides clinicians with the ability to track recovery in an objective manner. When used in combination, these tests allow for more informed diagnosis and treatment plan, which should involve a graduated return to play progression. Establishing a comprehensive emergency action plan that can guide the on-field management of a more serious and potentially catastrophic brain injury is also essential. This review will address these management issues, as well as the recent concerns about the risk of long-term neurologic conditions believed to be associated with repetitive concussion.

  15. Retraction-Related Acute Liver Failure after Urological Laparoscopic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Tetsuo; Kato, Tomonori; Komiya, Akira; Fuse, Hideki

    2014-10-01

    Liver retraction is necessary for optimal exposure during laparoscopic right renal surgery. We described a patient who developed fulminant liver failure as a result of liver retractor-induced excessive ischemic changes in the right lobe of the liver. A 37-year-old male underwent a right side laparoscopic pyeloplasty for ureteropelvic junction obstruction. At the beginning of the operation, a small snake retractor was placed through a 5-mm port under direct vision. The liver was lifted in the appropriate direction to optimize exposure by using the laparoscope holder. The operation was prolonged. However, we achieved significant improvements in the efficiency of liver retraction using the holder. On the first postoperative day, the patient's serum levels of GOT, GPT and LDH had remarkably increased. A computerized tomogram confirmed the presence of excessive ischemic changes of the right lobe of the liver. Our method which used a laparoscope holder device for liver retraction maintained a better surgical field. However, neglecting to make minor adjustments to the positioning of the retractor can cause significant pressure on the liver parenchyma in a single area. As surgical procedures increase in complexity, the surgeon should keep these potential side effects in mind and shift the retraction point at regular intervals. In this report, we discussed various types of retractor-related liver injuries and their management, and highlighted the importance of intermittent release of retraction during prolonged surgery.

  16. Age-related differences in acute neurotoxicity produced by mevinphos, monocrotophos, dicrotophos, and phosphamidon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Age-related differences in the acute neurotoxicity of cholinesterase (ChE)-inhibiting pesticides have been well-studied for a few organophosphates, but not for many others. In this study, we directly compared dose-responses using brain and red blood cell (RBC) ChE measurements, a...

  17. Methylprednisolone exacerbates acute critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency associated with traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Zhang, Bin; Chai, Yan; Dong, Bo; Lei, Ping; Jiang, Rongcai; Zhang, Jianning

    2011-03-25

    Emerging evidence demonstrates that severe illness could induce critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) and cause poor prognosis. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that methylprednisolone (MP), a synthetic glucocorticoid, promotes post-traumatic apoptosis in both the hypothalamus and pituitary, resulting in acute CIRCI and increased mortality in the acute phase of traumatic brain injury (TBI). We tested this hypothesis by measuring acute CIRCI in rats subjected to fluid percussion injury (FPI) and treated with MP (5-30mg/kg). The corticosteroid response to TBI was evaluated using the corticosterone increase index (CII), where values less than 2.5 were considered indicative of acute CIRCI. The CII of MP treated rats was comparable to that of saline treated control rats before injury but was significantly decreased in injured rats receiving high-dose MP on post-injury day 7. Similarly, the incidence of acute CIRCI was significantly higher in the high-dose MP group on post-injury day 7. Furthermore, the CII of rats that did not survive post-injury was significantly lower compared to that of survival and was indicative of acute CIRCI. We also examined apoptosis in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus and the adenohypophysis of the pituitary, using a TUNEL assay and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The number of TUNEL-positive cells was significantly higher in injured rats treated with high-dose MP. No TUNEL-positive cells were detected in the adenohypophysis across experimental groups at either 7 or 14days after TBI. However, autopsies performed on rats that did not survive post-injury revealed obvious apoptotic cells in the adenohypophysis. Moreover, TEM revealed morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis in both the PVN and adenohypophysis of high-dose MP treated rats. These data suggest that MP therapy for TBI could increase neuronal apoptosis in both the hypothalamus and pituitary and

  18. [Two cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome related to zinc fumes and zinc dust inhalation].

    PubMed

    Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Oda, Keishi; Kawanami, Toshinori; Soda, Hiroshi; Kohno, Shigeru; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Two cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome related to zinc fume inhalation and zinc powder inhalation are presented. Case 1 demonstrated acute respiratory symptoms during the work of distortion correction of iron boards, coated with a rust preventative including rich zinc using an acetylene gas burner. Case 2 occurred after the work of applying a rust preventative that included zinc powder, mainly using an airless compressor. Since both were working in a boathouse, without using protective equipment, the possible causes of Case 1 and 2 were inhalation exposure to zinc fumes and zinc powder, respectively. The two patients showed similar clinical courses, including favorable treatment outcomes, mimicking acute respiratory failure complicated by a metal fume fever. PMID:24930880

  19. [Two cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome related to zinc fumes and zinc dust inhalation].

    PubMed

    Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Oda, Keishi; Kawanami, Toshinori; Soda, Hiroshi; Kohno, Shigeru; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Two cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome related to zinc fume inhalation and zinc powder inhalation are presented. Case 1 demonstrated acute respiratory symptoms during the work of distortion correction of iron boards, coated with a rust preventative including rich zinc using an acetylene gas burner. Case 2 occurred after the work of applying a rust preventative that included zinc powder, mainly using an airless compressor. Since both were working in a boathouse, without using protective equipment, the possible causes of Case 1 and 2 were inhalation exposure to zinc fumes and zinc powder, respectively. The two patients showed similar clinical courses, including favorable treatment outcomes, mimicking acute respiratory failure complicated by a metal fume fever.

  20. NO ASSOCIATION BETWEEN Q-ANGLE AND FOOT POSTURE WITH RUNNING-RELATED INJURIES: A 10 WEEK PROSPECTIVE FOLLOW-UP STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, M.L.; Obling, K.; Nielsen, R.O.; Parner, E.T.; Rasmussen, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Purpose: There is a paucity of knowledge on the association between different foot posture quantified by Foot Posture Index (FPI) and Quadriceps angle (Q-angle) with development of running-related injuries. Earlier studies investigating these associations did not include an objective measure of the amount of running performed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate if kilometers to running-related injury (RRI) differ among novice runners with different foot postures and Q-angles when running in a neutral running shoe. Methods: A 10 week study was conducted including healthy, novice runners. At baseline foot posture was evaluated using the foot posture index (FPI) and the Q-angle was measured. Based on the FPI and Q-angle, right and left feet / knees of the runners were categorized into exposure groups. All participants received a Global Positioning System watch to allow them to quantify running volume and were instructed to run a minimum of two times per week in a conventional, neutral running shoe. The outcome was RRI. Results: Fifty nine novice runners of mixed gender were included. Of these, 13 sustained a running-related injury. No significant difference in cumulative relative risk between persons with pronated feet and neutral feet was found after 125 km of running (Cumulative relative risk = 1.65 [0.65; 4.17], p = 0.29). Similarly, no difference was found between low and neutral Q-angle (Cumulative relative risk = 1.25 [0.49; 3.23], p = 0.63). Conclusion: Static foot posture as quantified by FPI and knee alignment as quantified by Q-angle do not seem to affect the risk of injury among novice runners taking up a running regimen wearing a conventional neutral running shoe. These results should be interpreted with caution due to a small sample size. Level of Evidence: 2a PMID:24175127

  1. Comparative follow-up of patients with acute and obtuse infundibulum-pelvic angle submitted to extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for lower caliceal stones: preliminary report and proposed study design.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, F J; D'Anunciação, A L; Silva, E C

    1997-06-01

    Nowadays, there is a consensus that the poor success rate of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) is in the treatment of lower caliceal stones. The gravity-dependent position of the lower-pole calices is postulated to be the main factor hindering the spontaneous passage of stone debris that results from SWL. Nevertheless, we proposed that there are some particular features of the inferior-pole collecting system anatomy that could contribute to fragment retention. We studied the influence of the lower infundibulum-pelvic angle on fragment retention, considering 74 patients submitted to SWL for the treatment of lower-pole nephrolithiasis in a Lithostar Plus machine. At a mean follow-up of 9 months, 75% of the patients presenting an angle of greater than 90 degrees between the lower infundibulum where the stone was located and the renal pelvis became stone-free within 3 months. On the other hand, only 23% of the patients presenting an angle smaller than 90 degrees between the lower infundibulum where the stone was located and the renal pelvis became stone-free during the follow-up. Determination of the angle between the renal pelvis and the infundibulum of the inferior pole calix where the stone is located is very important, because the angle will differ in the same kidney, depending on stone location. Although preliminary and based on a small series of patients, our data suggest that an acute pelvic-lower pole infundibular angle hinders the spontaneous discharge of fragments after SWL. Also, use of the proposed technique of pelvic-lower pole infundibular angle measurement will be important for unifying angle evaluation by other investigators.

  2. Coexistence of Acute Crescent Glomerulonephritis and IgG4-Related Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zeyuan; Yin, Jianyong; Bao, Hongda; Jiao, Qiong; Wu, Huijuan; Wu, Rui; Xue, Qin; Wang, Niansong; Zhang, Zhigang; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a fibroinflammatory disorder that may involve almost each organ or system. IgG4-related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD) refers to renal lesions associated with IgG4-RD. The most frequent morphological type of renal lesions is IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis (IgG4-TIN) which is associated with increased IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration and interstitial fibrosis. Case Report Herein, we present a rare case with coexisting IgG4-RKD and acute crescent glomerulonephritis with concomitant severe tubulointerstitial lesions instead of classic IgG4-TIN. Conclusion IgG4-RKD and acute crescent glomerulonephritis can occur in the same patient. This case may give us a clearer viewpoint of the disease. PMID:27504450

  3. A quantitative analysis of the relation between the clavicular tilt angle and subclavian central venous catheter misplacement

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hoe-Hwan; Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Oh, Sungho; Won, Je Hwan; Min, Young-Gi; Gravenstein, Nikolaus; Choi, Sang-Cheon

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between shoulder position and subclavian central venous (SCV) catheter misplacement. The shoulder position was estimated using clavicular tilt angle (CTA) values observed on anteroposterior chest X-ray images. Methods A retrospective case-control study was conducted on all adult patients who underwent SCV catheterization in the emergency department during a 12-month period. Collected data included patient age, sex, diagnosis, catheterization side, catheter misplacement, and physician’s level of experience in catheterization. The CTA and other radiological variables such as the ipsilateral transverse length of the thorax and thickness of the clavicle were investigated. Results Among all central venous catheterizations (n=1,599), the subclavian route was used 981 times (61.4%). There were 51 misplacements of SCV catheters (5.2%) during the study period. There were no differences in the sex, age, blood pressure, and diagnosis between the two groups. The CTA values were 28.5°±7.3° and 22.6°±6.3° in the misplacement group and control group, respectively (95% confidence interval, 3.6 to 8.1; P<0.001). Conclusion In this study, the CTA was found to be 5.9° larger in the misplacement group than in the control group. Assuming that CTA indicates the shoulder position, our findings suggest that the chance of SCV catheter misplacement may be reduced by avoiding the shoulder elevated.

  4. Effect of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function: an event-related cortical desynchronization study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Chu, Chien-Heng; Wang, Chun-Chih; Song, Tai-Fen; Wei, Gao-Xia

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effects of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function using the Stroop test and event-related desynchronization (ERD) in an aged population. Old adults (63.10 ± 2.89 years) were first assigned to either a high-fitness or a low-fitness group, and they were then subjected to an acute exercise treatment and a reading control treatment in a counterbalanced order. Alpha ERD was recorded during the Stroop test, which was administered after both treatments. Acute exercise improved cognitive performance regardless of the level of cognition, and old adults with higher fitness levels received greater benefits from acute exercise. Additionally, acute exercise, rather than overall fitness, elicited greater lower and upper alpha ERDs relative to the control condition. These findings indirectly suggest that the beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance may result from exercise-induced attentional control observed during frontal neural excitation. PMID:25308605

  5. Femoral neck-shaft angle in humans: variation relating to climate, clothing, lifestyle, sex, age and side.

    PubMed

    Gilligan, Ian; Chandraphak, Supichya; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2013-08-01

    The femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA) varies among modern humans but measurement problems and sampling limitations have precluded the identification of factors contributing to its variation at the population level. Potential sources of variation include sex, age, side (left or right), regional differences in body shape due to climatic adaptation, and the effects of habitual activity patterns (e.g. mobile and sedentary lifestyles and foraging, agricultural, and urban economies). In this study we addressed these issues, using consistent methods to assemble a global NSA database comprising over 8000 femora representing 100 human groups. Results from the analyses show an average NSA for modern humans of 127° (markedly lower than the accepted value of 135°); there is no sex difference, no age-related change in adults, but possibly a small lateral difference which could be due to right leg dominance. Climatic trends consistent with principles based on Bergmann's rule are evident at the global and continental levels, with the NSA varying in relation to other body shape indices: median NSA, for instance, is higher in warmer regions, notably in the Pacific (130°), whereas lower values (associated with a more stocky body build) are found in regions where ancestral populations were exposed to colder conditions, in Europe (126°) and the Americas (125°). There is a modest trend towards increasing NSA with the economic transitions from forager to agricultural and urban lifestyles and, to a lesser extent, from a mobile to a sedentary existence. However, the main trend associated with these transitions is a progressive narrowing in the range of variation in the NSA, which may be attributable to thermal insulation provided by improved cultural buffering from climate, particularly clothing.

  6. Femoral neck-shaft angle in humans: variation relating to climate, clothing, lifestyle, sex, age and side

    PubMed Central

    Gilligan, Ian; Chandraphak, Supichya; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2013-01-01

    The femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA) varies among modern humans but measurement problems and sampling limitations have precluded the identification of factors contributing to its variation at the population level. Potential sources of variation include sex, age, side (left or right), regional differences in body shape due to climatic adaptation, and the effects of habitual activity patterns (e.g. mobile and sedentary lifestyles and foraging, agricultural, and urban economies). In this study we addressed these issues, using consistent methods to assemble a global NSA database comprising over 8000 femora representing 100 human groups. Results from the analyses show an average NSA for modern humans of 127° (markedly lower than the accepted value of 135°); there is no sex difference, no age-related change in adults, but possibly a small lateral difference which could be due to right leg dominance. Climatic trends consistent with principles based on Bergmann's rule are evident at the global and continental levels, with the NSA varying in relation to other body shape indices: median NSA, for instance, is higher in warmer regions, notably in the Pacific (130°), whereas lower values (associated with a more stocky body build) are found in regions where ancestral populations were exposed to colder conditions, in Europe (126°) and the Americas (125°). There is a modest trend towards increasing NSA with the economic transitions from forager to agricultural and urban lifestyles and, to a lesser extent, from a mobile to a sedentary existence. However, the main trend associated with these transitions is a progressive narrowing in the range of variation in the NSA, which may be attributable to thermal insulation provided by improved cultural buffering from climate, particularly clothing. PMID:23781912

  7. The first case of atrial fibrillation-related graft kidney infarction following acute pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shang-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Native renal infarction is uncommon in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF)-related thromboembolism. Graft infarction is also rare, with such cases mostly occurring in the main graft artery postoperatively. To date, there have been no studies of AF-related graft kidney infarction. We herein describe the first case of AF-related graft kidney infarction. The clinical manifestations of this condition mimic and follow those of acute pyelonephritis; therefore, these diseases should be differentially diagnosed as early as possible using lactic dehydrogenase testing and computed tomography. Aggressive treatment with intravascular thrombolysis should be administered, even when the diagnosis is delayed, in order to restore a viable renal function.

  8. Assembly force and taper angle difference influence the relative motion at the stem-neck interface of bi-modular hip prostheses.

    PubMed

    Haschke, Henning; Jauch-Matt, Sabrina Y; Sellenschloh, Kay; Huber, Gerd; Morlock, Michael M

    2016-07-01

    Bi-modular hip arthroplasty prostheses allow adaptation to the individual patient anatomy and the combination of different materials but introduce an additional interface, which was related lately to current clinical issues. Relative motion at the additional taper interface might increase the overall risk of fretting, corrosion, metallic debris and early failure. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the assembly force influences the relative motion and seating behaviour at the stem-neck interface of a bi-modular hip prosthesis (Metha(®); Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany) and whether this relation is influenced by the taper angle difference between male and female taper angles. Neck adapters made of titanium (Ti6Al4V) and CoCr (CoCr29Mo) were assembled with a titanium stem using varying assembly forces and mechanically loaded. A contactless eddy current measurement system was used to record the relative motion between prosthesis stem and neck adapter. Higher relative motion was observed for Ti neck adapters compared to the CoCr ones (p < 0.001). Higher assembly forces caused increased seating distances (p < 0.001) and led to significantly reduced relative motion (p = 0.019). Independent of neck material type, prostheses with larger taper angle difference between male and female taper angles exhibited decreased relative motion (p < 0.001). Surgeons should carefully use assembly forces above 4 kN to decrease the amount of relative motion within the taper interface. Maximum assembly forces, however, should be limited to prevent periprosthetic fractures. Manufacturers should optimize taper angle differences to increase the resistance against relative motion. PMID:27170535

  9. Heart rate responses to standardized trauma-related pictures in acute posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Anke; Suendermann, Oliver; Boellinghaus, Inga; Vossbeck-Elsebusch, Anna; Gamer, Matthias; Briddon, Emma; Martin, Melanie Walwyn; Glucksman, Edward

    2010-10-01

    Physiological responses to trauma reminders are one of the core symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Nevertheless, screening measures for PTSD largely rely on symptom self-reports. It has been suggested that psychophysiological assessments may be useful in identifying trauma survivors with PTSD (Orr and Roth, 2000). This study investigated whether heart rate (HR) responses to standardized trauma-related pictures distinguish between trauma survivors with and without acute PTSD. Survivors of motor vehicle accidents or physical assaults (N=162) watched standardized trauma-related, generally threatening and neutral pictures at 1 month post-trauma while their ECG was recorded. At 1 and 6 months, structured clinical interviews assessed PTSD diagnoses. Participants completed self-report measures of PTSD severity and depression, peritraumatic responses, coping behaviors and appraisals. Trauma survivors with acute PTSD showed greater HR responses to trauma-related pictures than those without PTSD, as indicated by a less pronounced mean deceleration, greater peak responses, and a greater proportion showing HR acceleration of greater than 1 beat per minute. There were no group differences in HR responses to generally threatening or neutral pictures. HR responses to trauma-related pictures contributed to the prediction of PTSD diagnosis over and above what could be predicted from self-reports of PTSD and depression. HR responses to trauma-related pictures were related to fear and data-driven processing during the trauma, safety behaviors, suppression of trauma memories, and overgeneralized appraisals of danger. The results suggest that HR responses to standardized trauma-related pictures may help identify a subgroup of patients with acute PTSD who show generalized fear responses to trauma reminders. The early generalization of triggers of reexperiencing symptoms observed in this study is consistent with associative learning and cognitive models of PTSD.

  10. Heart rate responses to standardized trauma-related pictures in acute posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Anke; Suendermann, Oliver; Boellinghaus, Inga; Vossbeck-Elsebusch, Anna; Gamer, Matthias; Briddon, Emma; Martin, Melanie Walwyn; Glucksman, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Physiological responses to trauma reminders are one of the core symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Nevertheless, screening measures for PTSD largely rely on symptom self-reports. It has been suggested that psychophysiological assessments may be useful in identifying trauma survivors with PTSD (Orr and Roth, 2000). This study investigated whether heart rate (HR) responses to standardized trauma-related pictures distinguish between trauma survivors with and without acute PTSD. Survivors of motor vehicle accidents or physical assaults (N = 162) watched standardized trauma-related, generally threatening and neutral pictures at 1 month post-trauma while their ECG was recorded. At 1 and 6 months, structured clinical interviews assessed PTSD diagnoses. Participants completed self-report measures of PTSD severity and depression, peritraumatic responses, coping behaviors and appraisals. Trauma survivors with acute PTSD showed greater HR responses to trauma-related pictures than those without PTSD, as indicated by a less pronounced mean deceleration, greater peak responses, and a greater proportion showing HR acceleration of greater than 1 beat per minute. There were no group differences in HR responses to generally threatening or neutral pictures. HR responses to trauma-related pictures contributed to the prediction of PTSD diagnosis over and above what could be predicted from self-reports of PTSD and depression. HR responses to trauma-related pictures were related to fear and data-driven processing during the trauma, safety behaviors, suppression of trauma memories, and overgeneralized appraisals of danger. The results suggest that HR responses to standardized trauma-related pictures may help identify a subgroup of patients with acute PTSD who show generalized fear responses to trauma reminders. The early generalization of triggers of reexperiencing symptoms observed in this study is consistent with associative learning and cognitive models of PTSD. PMID

  11. Sources of work-related acute fatigue in United States hospital nurses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Daraiseh, Nancy M; Davis, Kermit G; Pan, Wei

    2014-03-01

    This study identified the nursing work activities that could be the primary sources of work-related acute fatigue in US hospital nurses. Continuous recording of working heart rate and random observations of nursing activities were applied to collect data from eight nurses during two consecutive 12 h day shifts. Using descriptive statistics and random-effect analysis of variance, the contributions of individual nursing work activities to acute fatigue were compared based on the activity frequencies and nurses' corresponding heart rate elevations. Of 860 observed nursing-related work activities, manual patient-handling, bedside-care, care-coordinating, and walking/standing activities accounted for 5%, 16%, 38%, and 41%, respectively. After controlling for the differences of participant and shift, the percentage of working heart rate to maximal heart rate of manual patient-handling (64.3%), bedside-care (59.7%), and walking/standing (57.4%) activities were significantly higher than that of care-coordinating activities (52.3%, F[3, 38.0]  = 7.5, P < 0.001). These findings suggest that bedside care and walking/standing, other than manual patient handling, contributed most to the level of acute fatigue.

  12. Effect of therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia on the outcome of patients with acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    ESPíRITO SANTO, ANA ESPÍRITO; CHACIM, SÉRGIO; FERREIRA, ISABEL; LEITE, LUÍS; MOREIRA, CLAUDIA; PEREIRA, DULCINEIA; DANTAS BRITO, MARGARIDA DANTAS; NUNES, MARTA; DOMINGUES, NELSON; OLIVEIRA, ISABEL; MOREIRA, ILÍDIA; MARTINS, ANGELO; VITERBO, LUÍSA; MARIZ, JOSÉ MÁRIO; MEDEIROS, RUI

    2016-01-01

    Therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) is a rare and almost always fatal late side effect of antineoplastic treatment involving chemotherapy, radiotherapy or the two combined. The present retrospective study intended to characterize t-AML patients that were diagnosed and treated in a single referral to an oncological institution in North Portugal. Over the past 10 years, 231 cases of AML were diagnosed and treated at the Portuguese Institute of Oncology of Porto, of which 38 t-AML cases were identified. Data regarding the patient demographics, primary diagnosis and treatment, age at onset of therapy-related myeloid neoplasm, latency time of the neoplasm, cytogenetic characteristics, AML therapy and outcome were collected from medical records. A previous diagnosis with solid tumors was present in 28 patients, and 10 patients possessed a history of hematological conditions, all a lymphoproliferative disorder. Breast cancer was the most frequent solid tumor identified (39.5% of all solid tumors diagnosed). The mean latency time was 3 years. In the present study, t-AML patients were older (P<0.001) and more frequently carried cytogenetic abnormalities (P=0.009) compared with de novo AML patients. The overall survival time was observed to be significantly poorer among individuals with t-AML (P<0.001). However, in younger patients (age, <50 years) there was no difference between the overall survival time of patients with t-AML and those with de novo AML (P=0.983). Additionally, patients with promyelocytic leukemia possess a good prognosis, even when AML occurs as a secondary event (P=0.98). To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to evaluate t-AML in Portugal and the results are consistent with the data published previously in other populations. The present study concludes that although t-AML demonstrates a poor prognosis, this is not observed among younger patients or promyelocytic leukemia patients. PMID:27347135

  13. Acute marijuana effects on response-reinforcer relations under multiple variable-interval schedules.

    PubMed

    Lane, S D; Cherek, D R; Pietras, C J; Tcheremissine, O V

    2004-07-01

    Acute marijuana administration may alter response-reinforcer relationships via a change in reinforcer efficacy, but may also impair coordination and motor function. One approach to evaluating drug effects on both motor function and reinforcer efficacy involves fitting the matching law equation to data obtained under multiple variable interval (VI) schedules. The present report describes an experiment that examined the effects of acute marijuana on response properties using this approach. Six human subjects responded under a multiple VI schedule for monetary reinforcers after smoking placebo and two active doses of marijuana. The low marijuana dose produced unsystematic changes in responding. As measured by the matching law equation parameters (k and rB), at the high dose five subjects showed a decrease-motor-related properties of response rate and four subjects' responding indicated a decrease in reinforcer efficacy. These data raise the possibility that, at high doses, marijuana administration alters both motor function and reinforcer efficacy.

  14. Marchiafava-Bignami and Alcohol Related Acute Polyneuropathy: The Cooccurrence of Two Rare Entities

    PubMed Central

    Boloursaz, Samine; Nekooei, Sirous; Seilanian Toosi, Farrokh; Rezaei-Dalouei, Hossein; Davachi, Behrooz; Kazemi, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this article is to represent the first reported case with cooccurrence of two rare alcohol related complications. Case Report. We report a 38-year-old man with chronic alcoholism who presented with both cranial and peripheral nerve palsy. On MRI examination characteristic findings of Marchiafava-Bignami disease were recognized. Discussion. Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) is a rare complication of long-term, heavy alcohol abuse that has characteristic MRI findings. Acute alcohol related polyneuropathy (AARP) is another rare and not-well-understood complication of chronic alcohol abuse. We could not find any previous report of the cooccurrence of these two complications in the literature.

  15. An investigation of the dose distribution effect related with collimator angle in volumetric arc therapy of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tas, Bora; Bilge, Hatice; Ozturk, Sibel Tokdemir

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the dose-volume variations of planning target volume (PTV) and organ at risks (OARs) in eleven prostate cancer patients planned with single and double arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) when varying collimator angle. Single and double arc VMAT treatment plans were created using Monaco5.0® with collimator angle set to 0°. All plans were normalized 7600 cGy dose to the 95% of clinical target volume (CTV) volume. The single arc VMAT plans were reoptimized with different collimator angles (0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90°), and for double arc VMAT plans (0–0°, 15°–345, 30–330°, 45–315°, 60–300°, 75–285°, 90–270°) using the same optimization parameters. For the comparison the parameters of heterogeneity index (HI), dose-volume histogram and minimum dose to the 95% of PTV volume (D95 PTV) calculated and analyzed. The best plans were verified using 2 dimensional ion chamber array IBA Matrixx® and three-dimensional IBA Compass® program. The comparison between calculation and measurement were made by the γ-index (3%/3 mm) analysis. A higher D95 (PTV) were found for single arc VMAT with 15° collimator angle. For double arc, VMAT with 60–300° and 75–285° collimator angles. However, lower rectum doses obtained for 75–285° collimator angles. There was no significant dose difference, based on other OARs which are bladder and femur head. When we compared single and double arc VMAT's D95 (PTV), we determined 2.44% high coverage and lower HI with double arc VMAT. All plans passed the γ-index (3%/3 mm) analysis with more than 97% of the points and we had an average γ-index for CTV 0.36, for PTV 0.32 with double arc VMAT. These results were significant by Wilcoxon signed rank test statistically. The results show that dose coverage of target and OAR's doses also depend significantly on the collimator angles due to the geometry of target and OARs. Based on the results we have decided to plan prostate cancer

  16. An investigation of the dose distribution effect related with collimator angle in volumetric arc therapy of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Tas, Bora; Bilge, Hatice; Ozturk, Sibel Tokdemir

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the dose-volume variations of planning target volume (PTV) and organ at risks (OARs) in eleven prostate cancer patients planned with single and double arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) when varying collimator angle. Single and double arc VMAT treatment plans were created using Monaco5.0(®) with collimator angle set to 0°. All plans were normalized 7600 cGy dose to the 95% of clinical target volume (CTV) volume. The single arc VMAT plans were reoptimized with different collimator angles (0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90°), and for double arc VMAT plans (0-0°, 15°-345, 30-330°, 45-315°, 60-300°, 75-285°, 90-270°) using the same optimization parameters. For the comparison the parameters of heterogeneity index (HI), dose-volume histogram and minimum dose to the 95% of PTV volume (D95 PTV) calculated and analyzed. The best plans were verified using 2 dimensional ion chamber array IBA Matrixx(®) and three-dimensional IBA Compass(®) program. The comparison between calculation and measurement were made by the γ-index (3%/3 mm) analysis. A higher D95 (PTV) were found for single arc VMAT with 15° collimator angle. For double arc, VMAT with 60-300° and 75-285° collimator angles. However, lower rectum doses obtained for 75-285° collimator angles. There was no significant dose difference, based on other OARs which are bladder and femur head. When we compared single and double arc VMAT's D95 (PTV), we determined 2.44% high coverage and lower HI with double arc VMAT. All plans passed the γ-index (3%/3 mm) analysis with more than 97% of the points and we had an average γ-index for CTV 0.36, for PTV 0.32 with double arc VMAT. These results were significant by Wilcoxon signed rank test statistically. The results show that dose coverage of target and OAR's doses also depend significantly on the collimator angles due to the geometry of target and OARs. Based on the results we have decided to plan prostate cancer patients in our

  17. Beyond the plane-parallel and Newtonian approach: wide-angle redshift distortions and convergence in general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Bertacca, Daniele; Maartens, Roy; Raccanelli, Alvise; Clarkson, Chris E-mail: Roy.Maartens@port.ac.uk E-mail: Clarkson@maths.uct.ac.za

    2012-10-01

    We extend previous analyses of wide-angle correlations in the galaxy power spectrum in redshift space to include all general relativistic effects. These general relativistic corrections to the standard approach become important on large scales and at high redshifts, and they lead to new terms in the wide-angle correlations. We show that in principle the new terms can produce corrections of nearly 10% on Gpc scales over the usual Newtonian approximation. General relativistic corrections will be important for future large-volume surveys such as SKA and Euclid, although the problem of cosmic variance will present a challenge in observing this.

  18. An investigation of the dose distribution effect related with collimator angle in volumetric arc therapy of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Tas, Bora; Bilge, Hatice; Ozturk, Sibel Tokdemir

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the dose-volume variations of planning target volume (PTV) and organ at risks (OARs) in eleven prostate cancer patients planned with single and double arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) when varying collimator angle. Single and double arc VMAT treatment plans were created using Monaco5.0(®) with collimator angle set to 0°. All plans were normalized 7600 cGy dose to the 95% of clinical target volume (CTV) volume. The single arc VMAT plans were reoptimized with different collimator angles (0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90°), and for double arc VMAT plans (0-0°, 15°-345, 30-330°, 45-315°, 60-300°, 75-285°, 90-270°) using the same optimization parameters. For the comparison the parameters of heterogeneity index (HI), dose-volume histogram and minimum dose to the 95% of PTV volume (D95 PTV) calculated and analyzed. The best plans were verified using 2 dimensional ion chamber array IBA Matrixx(®) and three-dimensional IBA Compass(®) program. The comparison between calculation and measurement were made by the γ-index (3%/3 mm) analysis. A higher D95 (PTV) were found for single arc VMAT with 15° collimator angle. For double arc, VMAT with 60-300° and 75-285° collimator angles. However, lower rectum doses obtained for 75-285° collimator angles. There was no significant dose difference, based on other OARs which are bladder and femur head. When we compared single and double arc VMAT's D95 (PTV), we determined 2.44% high coverage and lower HI with double arc VMAT. All plans passed the γ-index (3%/3 mm) analysis with more than 97% of the points and we had an average γ-index for CTV 0.36, for PTV 0.32 with double arc VMAT. These results were significant by Wilcoxon signed rank test statistically. The results show that dose coverage of target and OAR's doses also depend significantly on the collimator angles due to the geometry of target and OARs. Based on the results we have decided to plan prostate cancer patients in our

  19. Accurate measurement of relative tilt and azimuth angles in electron tomography: A comparison of fiducial marker method with electron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashida, Misa; Malac, Marek; Bergen, Michael; Egerton, Ray F.; Li, Peng

    2014-08-01

    Electron tomography is a method whereby a three-dimensional reconstruction of a nanoscale object is obtained from a series of projected images measured in a transmission electron microscope. We developed an electron-diffraction method to measure the tilt and azimuth angles, with Kikuchi lines used to align a series of diffraction patterns obtained with each image of the tilt series. Since it is based on electron diffraction, the method is not affected by sample drift and is not sensitive to sample thickness, whereas tilt angle measurement and alignment using fiducial-marker methods are affected by both sample drift and thickness. The accuracy of the diffraction method benefits reconstructions with a large number of voxels, where both high spatial resolution and a large field of view are desired. The diffraction method allows both the tilt and azimuth angle to be measured, while fiducial marker methods typically treat the tilt and azimuth angle as an unknown parameter. The diffraction method can be also used to estimate the accuracy of the fiducial marker method, and the sample-stage accuracy. A nano-dot fiducial marker measurement differs from a diffraction measurement by no more than ±1°.

  20. Accurate measurement of relative tilt and azimuth angles in electron tomography: A comparison of fiducial marker method with electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashida, Misa; Malac, Marek; Egerton, Ray F.; Bergen, Michael; Li, Peng

    2014-08-15

    Electron tomography is a method whereby a three-dimensional reconstruction of a nanoscale object is obtained from a series of projected images measured in a transmission electron microscope. We developed an electron-diffraction method to measure the tilt and azimuth angles, with Kikuchi lines used to align a series of diffraction patterns obtained with each image of the tilt series. Since it is based on electron diffraction, the method is not affected by sample drift and is not sensitive to sample thickness, whereas tilt angle measurement and alignment using fiducial-marker methods are affected by both sample drift and thickness. The accuracy of the diffraction method benefits reconstructions with a large number of voxels, where both high spatial resolution and a large field of view are desired. The diffraction method allows both the tilt and azimuth angle to be measured, while fiducial marker methods typically treat the tilt and azimuth angle as an unknown parameter. The diffraction method can be also used to estimate the accuracy of the fiducial marker method, and the sample-stage accuracy. A nano-dot fiducial marker measurement differs from a diffraction measurement by no more than ±1°.

  1. Using Conjoined Rigid Body/Torsion Angle Simulated Annealing to Determine the Relative Orientation of Covalently Linked Protein Domains from Dipolar Couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clore, G. Marius; Bewley, Carole A.

    2002-02-01

    A simple and robust method for determining the relative orientations of covalently linked protein domains using conjoined rigid body/torsion angle dynamics simulated annealing on the basis of residual dipolar couplings is presented. In this approach each domain is treated as a rigid body and the relevant degrees of conformational freedom are restricted to the backbone torsion angles (φ, ψ) of the linker between the domains. By this means translational information afforded by the presence of an intact linker is preserved. We illustrate this approach using the domain-swapped dimer of the HIV-inactivating protein cyanovirin-N as an example.

  2. Psychological distress related to smoking cessation in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Moreira-Santos, Thyego Mychell; Godoy, Irma; de Godoy, Ilda

    2016-01-01

    Among all causes of preventable deaths, smoking is responsible for the greatest number of deaths worldwide and predisposes to fatal, noncommunicable diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. Lifestyle changes are effective in the treatment of patients with smoking-related diseases and assist in the prevention of premature mortality. Our objective was to investigate the available scientific evidence regarding the psychological distress related to smoking cessation in patients who have had acute myocardial infarction. To that end, we conducted an integrative review of the literature in order to summarize relevant studies on this topic. The selected databases were Scopus, PubMed Central, Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science (Core Collection), ScienceDirect, EMBASE, SciELO, LILACS e PsycINFO. On the basis of the inclusion and exclusion criteria adopted for this study, 14 articles were selected for analysis. Those studies showed that the prevalence of psychological distress is higher among smokers than among nonsmokers, and distress-related symptoms are much more common in smokers with acute myocardial infarction than in those without. Smoking cessation depends on the active participation of the smoker, whose major motivation is the underlying disease. Most studies have shown that there is a need to create treatment subgroups as a means of improving the treatment provided. This review article expands the knowledge regarding smoking cessation and shows the need to invest in future research that investigates subgroups of smokers diagnosed with the major smoking-related comorbidities, such as acute myocardial infarction, in order to develop specific interventions and psychological support strategies. PMID:26982043

  3. Reading Angles in Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections…

  4. [Angle-closure chronic glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Lachkar, Y

    2003-10-01

    The incidence of chronic angle closure glaucoma is considerably greater than the incidence of the acute type. This type of glaucoma may mimic primary open angle glaucoma with visual field deterioration, optic nerve alteration and intraocular pressure elevation with a quiet painless eye. Its diagnosis is based on indentation gonioscopy showing peripheral anterior synechiae. The mechanisms of angle closure are the pupillary block, the plateau iris configuration and the creeping form. The treatment of chronic angle closure glaucoma is based on laser peripheral iridotomy. PMID:14646832

  5. Increased systolic blood pressure reactivity to acute stress is related with better self-reported health

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Bradley J.; O'Brien, Shaun; Hazi, Agnes; Kent, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The stress reactivity hypothesis posits that the magnitude of cardiovascular reactions to acute stress tasks is related with future blood pressure status, heart hypertrophy, and atherosclerosis. We assessed the stress reactivity hypothesis and aimed to identify which physiological indices (blood pressure, heart-rate, cortisol, salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA)) related to self-reported mental and physical health. We also assessed if physiological reactions elicited by an acute stressor were more related than basal assessments. Participants provided physiological samples, self-reported stress and health-data before and after an assessed 5–7 minute academic oral presentation. In hierarchical regression models, increased systolic and reduced sIgA reactivity was associated with better perceptions of mental health. Reactivity data were more related to self-reported data than basal data. In line with the only 2 studies to assess the reactivity hypothesis with self-perceived health, increased systolic reactivity was best associated with better perceived physical and mental health. The findings suggest that increased SBP reactivity may also be associated with positive health outcomes. Further research is required to determine if increased or decreased sIgA reactivity is most predictive of future morbidity. PMID:25391460

  6. Acute cognitive effects of high doses of dextromethorphan relative to triazolam in humans

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Reissig, Chad J.; Johnson, Matthew W.; Klinedinst, Margaret A.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although concerns surrounding high-dose dextromethorphan (DXM) abuse have recently increased, few studies have examined the acute cognitive effects of high doses of DXM. The aim of this study was to compare the cognitive effects of DXM with those of triazolam and placebo. METHODS Single, acute, oral doses of DXM (100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 mg/70 kg), triazolam (0.25, 0.5 mg /70 kg), and placebo were administered p.o. to twelve healthy volunteers with histories of hallucinogen use, under double-blind conditions, using an ascending dose run-up design. Effects on cognitive performance were examined at baseline and after drug administration for up to 6 hours. RESULTS Both triazolam and DXM produced acute impairments in attention, working memory, episodic memory, and metacognition. Impairments observed following doses of 100-300 mg/70 kg DXM were generally smaller in magnitude than those observed after 0.5 mg/70 kg triazolam. Doses of DXM that impaired performance to the same extent as triazolam were in excess of 10-30 times the therapeutic dose of DXM. CONCLUSION The magnitude of the doses required for these effects and the absence of effects on some tasks within the 100-300 mg/70 kg dose range of DXM, speak to the relatively broad therapeutic window of over-the-counter DXM preparations when used appropriately. However, the administration of supratherapeutic doses of DXM resulted in acute cognitive impairments on all tasks that were examined. These findings are likely relevant to cases of high-dose DXM abuse. PMID:22989498

  7. An evaluation of relation between the relative parallelism of occlusal plane to ala-tragal line and variation in the angulation of Po-Na-ANS angle in dentulous subjects: A cephalometric study

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Sanath; Shenoy, K. Kamalakanth; Ninan, Justin; Mahaseth, Pranay

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim was to evaluate if any correlation exists between variation in angulation of Po-Na-ANS angle and relative parallelism of the occlusal plane to the different tragal levels of the ear in dentulous subjects. Methodology: A total of 200 subjects were selected for the study. A custom made occlusal plane analyzer was used to determine the posterior point of the ala-tragal line. The lateral cephalogram was shot for each of the subjects. The points Porion, Nasion, and Anterior Nasal Spine were located and the angle formed between these points was measured. Statistical Analysis Used: Fischer's exact test was used to find the correlation between Po-Na-ANS angle and relative parallelism of the occlusal plane to the ala-tragal line at different tragal levels. Results: Statistical analysis showed no significant correlation between Po-Na-ANS angle and relative parallelism of an occlusal plane at different tragal levels, and an inferior point on the tragus was the most common. Conclusion: Irrespective of variations in the Po-Na-ANS angle, no correlation exists between the variation in the angulations of Po-Na-ANS angle and the relative parallelism of occlusal plane to the ala-tragal line at different tragal levels. Furthermore, in a large number of subjects (54%), the occlusal plane was found parallel to a line joining the inferior border of the ala of the nose and the inferior part of the tragus. PMID:26929506

  8. Impairment of inhibitory control processing related to acute psychotomimetic effects of cannabis.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Atakan, Z; Martin-Santos, R; Crippa, J A; Kambeitz, J; Malhi, S; Giampietro, V; Williams, S; Brammer, M; Rubia, K; Collier, D A; McGuire, P K

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis use can induce acute psychotic symptoms and increase the risk of schizophrenia. Impairments in inhibitory control and processing are known to occur both under the influence of cannabis and in schizophrenia. Whether cannabis-induced impairment in inhibitory processing is related to the acute induction of psychotic symptoms under its influence is unclear. We investigated the effects of acute oral administration of 10mg of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC), the main psychoactive ingredient of cannabis, on inhibitory control and regional brain activation during inhibitory processing in humans and examined whether these effects are related to the induction of psychotic symptoms under its influence using a repeated-measures, placebo-controlled, double-blind, within-subject design. We studied thirty-six healthy, English-speaking, right-handed men with minimal previous exposure to cannabis and other illicit drugs twice using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while they performed a response inhibition (Go/No-Go) task. Relative to placebo, delta-9-THC caused transient psychotic symptoms, anxiety, intoxication and sedation, inhibition errors and impaired inhibition efficiency. Severity of psychotic symptoms was directly correlated with inhibition error frequency and inversely with inhibition efficiency under the influence of delta-9-THC. Delta-9-THC attenuated left inferior frontal activation which was inversely correlated with the frequency of inhibition errors and severity of psychotic symptoms and positively with inhibition efficiency under its influence. These results provide experimental evidence that impairments in cognitive processes involved in the inhibitory control of thoughts and actions and inferior frontal function under the influence of cannabis may have a role in the emergence of transient psychotic symptoms under its influence.

  9. Impairment of inhibitory control processing related to acute psychotomimetic effects of cannabis.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Atakan, Z; Martin-Santos, R; Crippa, J A; Kambeitz, J; Malhi, S; Giampietro, V; Williams, S; Brammer, M; Rubia, K; Collier, D A; McGuire, P K

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis use can induce acute psychotic symptoms and increase the risk of schizophrenia. Impairments in inhibitory control and processing are known to occur both under the influence of cannabis and in schizophrenia. Whether cannabis-induced impairment in inhibitory processing is related to the acute induction of psychotic symptoms under its influence is unclear. We investigated the effects of acute oral administration of 10mg of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC), the main psychoactive ingredient of cannabis, on inhibitory control and regional brain activation during inhibitory processing in humans and examined whether these effects are related to the induction of psychotic symptoms under its influence using a repeated-measures, placebo-controlled, double-blind, within-subject design. We studied thirty-six healthy, English-speaking, right-handed men with minimal previous exposure to cannabis and other illicit drugs twice using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while they performed a response inhibition (Go/No-Go) task. Relative to placebo, delta-9-THC caused transient psychotic symptoms, anxiety, intoxication and sedation, inhibition errors and impaired inhibition efficiency. Severity of psychotic symptoms was directly correlated with inhibition error frequency and inversely with inhibition efficiency under the influence of delta-9-THC. Delta-9-THC attenuated left inferior frontal activation which was inversely correlated with the frequency of inhibition errors and severity of psychotic symptoms and positively with inhibition efficiency under its influence. These results provide experimental evidence that impairments in cognitive processes involved in the inhibitory control of thoughts and actions and inferior frontal function under the influence of cannabis may have a role in the emergence of transient psychotic symptoms under its influence. PMID:25532865

  10. Sex-related differences in access to care among patients with premature acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Roxanne; Humphries, Karin H.; Shimony, Avi; Bacon, Simon L.; Lavoie, Kim L.; Rabi, Doreen; Karp, Igor; Tsadok, Meytal Avgil; Pilote, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Background: Access to care may be implicated in disparities between men and women in death after acute coronary syndrome, especially among younger adults. We aimed to assess sex-related differences in access to care among patients with premature acute coronary syndrome and to identify clinical and gender-related determinants of access to care. Methods: We studied 1123 patients (18–55 yr) admitted to hospital for acute coronary syndrome and enrolled in the GENESIS-PRAXY cohort study. Outcome measures were door-to-electrocardiography, door-to-needle and door-to-balloon times, as well as proportions of patients undergoing cardiac catheterization, reperfusion or nonprimary percutaneous coronary intervention. We performed univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses to identify clinical and gender-related determinants of timely procedures and use of invasive procedures. Results: Women were less likely than men to receive care within benchmark times for electrocardiography (≤ 10 min: 29% v. 38%, p = 0.02) or fibrinolysis (≤ 30 min: 32% v. 57%, p = 0.01). Women with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI) were less likely than men to undergo reperfusion therapy (primary percutaneous coronary intervention or fibrinolysis) (83% v. 91%, p = 0.01), and women with non–ST-segment elevation MI or unstable angina were less likely to undergo nonprimary percutaneous coronary intervention (48% v. 66%, p < 0.001). Clinical determinants of poorer access to care included anxiety, increased number of risk factors and absence of chest pain. Gender-related determinants included feminine traits of personality and responsibility for housework. Interpretation: Among younger adults with acute coronary syndrome, women and men had different access to care. Moreover, fewer than half of men and women with ST-segment elevation MI received timely primary coronary intervention. Our results also highlight that men and women with no chest pain and those with anxiety

  11. Treatment-related deaths in second complete remission in childhood acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Molgaard-Hansen, Lene; Möttönen, Merja; Glosli, Heidi; Jónmundsson, Guðmundur K; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Hasle, Henrik

    2011-03-01

    The frequency and causes of treatment-related deaths (TRD) in second complete remission (CR2) in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) were investigated in a historical, prospective cohort study of 429 children included in the Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (NOPHO)-AML-88 and -93 trials. Relapse occurred in 158 children (39%). Seventeen (18%) of the 96 patients entering CR2 suffered TRD. The main causes were infection (59%) and complications from graft-versus-host disease (22%). Fourteen (82%) of 17 TRDs occurred in children undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCT). Optimal supportive care after HSCT is essential, and studies on risk factors for TRD are needed.

  12. Morphological study of the relation between accidental hypothermia and acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Foulis, A K

    1982-01-01

    There is a recognised but poorly understood association between hypothermia and acute pancreatitis. A histological study of the pancreas was made in eight patients with accidental hypothermia who had evidence of pancreatitis at necropsy. From an analysis of the patterns of parenchymal necrosis in the pancreas it was thought that there were at least three possible mechanisms for the relation between hypothermia and pancreatitis. Firstly, that ischaemic pancreatitis may result from the "microcirculatory shock" of hypothermia. Secondly, that both hypothermia and pancreatitis may be secondary to alcohol abuse: and finally, that severe pancreatitis may be the primary disease and that hypothermia results from the patients' social circumstances. Images PMID:7142433

  13. Transfusion-related acute lung injury in an era of TRALI risk mitigation.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, John C; Grant, Michelle L; Karp, Julie K

    2015-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a rare complication of transfusion, for which the true incidence remains obscure, since there are a number of factors that may lead to misdiagnosis. Despite this, it continues to be the leading cause of transfusion-associated mortality. Here we present a historical case of TRALI in an elderly female who received group AB plasma and discuss how current mitigation strategies would likely have prevented its occurrence. It is important to remember that both immune and non-immune factors play a role in TRALI pathogenesis, and although current preventative strategies may decrease TRALI's incidence, they likely will not eliminate it.

  14. Gentle Massage Improves Disease- and Treatment-Related Symptoms in Patients with Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Ann Gill; Snyder, Audrey E; Anderson, Joel G; Brown, Cynthia J; Densmore, John J; Bourguignon, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cancer treatment is reported to be stressful, and patients diagnosed with hematologic cancers often exhibit higher levels of anxiety and emotional distress than individuals with other malignancies. Management of these symptoms in patients with hematologic cancer presents significant challenges, as many of them are in and out of the hospital while undergoing high dose chemotherapy. Oncology patients use complementary modalities such as therapeutic massage in an attempt to alleviate disease and treatment-related symptoms, including anxiety and emotional distress. In the current study, the feasibility of a novel massage intervention delivered over the continuum of care, as well as assessment of the immediate and cumulative effects of massage, was examined in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia. Methods A mixed-methods, unmasked, prospective, randomized study was conducted with two groups: a usual care alone control group and a massage therapy intervention plus usual care group. Results Significant improvements in levels of stress and health-related quality of life were observed in the massage therapy group versus the usual care alone group, after adjusting for anxiety level, including both immediate and cumulative effects of massage. Conclusions While the findings of the current study regarding acceptability, feasibility, and potential efficacy of therapeutic massage as a complementary health-enhancing intervention in patients diagnosed with acute myelogenous leukemia are very promising, the relatively small size of the study sample limits generalizability. PMID:25530922

  15. Intragenic ERG Deletions Do Not Explain the Biology of ERG-Related Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Potuckova, Eliska; Zuna, Jan; Hovorkova, Lenka; Starkova, Julia; Stary, Jan; Trka, Jan; Zaliova, Marketa

    2016-01-01

    Intragenic ERG deletions occur in 3–5% of B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, specifically in B-other subtype lacking the classifying genetic lesions. They represent the only genetic lesion described so far present in the majority of cases clustering into a subgroup of B-other subtype characterized by a unique gene expression profile, probably sharing a common, however, not yet fully described, biological background. We aimed to elucidate whether ERG deletions could drive the specific biology of this ERG-related leukemia subgroup through expression of aberrant or decreased expression of wild type ERG isoforms. We showed that leukemic cells with endogenous ERG deletion express an aberrant transcript translated into two proteins in transfected cell lines and that one of these proteins colocalizes with wild type ERG. However, we did not confirm expression of the proteins in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases with endogenous ERG deletion. ERG deletions resulted in significantly lower expression of wild type ERG transcripts compared to B-other cases without ERG deletion. However, cases with subclonal ERG deletion, clustering to the same ERG deletion associated subgroup, presented similar levels of wild type ERG as cases without ERG deletion. In conclusion, our data suggest that neither the expression of aberrant proteins from internally deleted allele nor the reduced expression of wild type ERG seem to provide a plausible explanation of the specific biology of ERG -related leukemia subgroup. PMID:27494621

  16. Cyclosporine and methotrexate-related pharmacogenomic predictors of acute graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Laverdière, Isabelle; Guillemette, Chantal; Tamouza, Ryad; Loiseau, Pascale; Peffault de Latour, Regis; Robin, Marie; Couture, Félix; Filion, Alain; Lalancette, Marc; Tourancheau, Alan; Charron, Dominique; Socié, Gérard; Lévesque, Éric

    2015-02-01

    Effective immunosuppression is mandatory to prevent graft-versus-host disease and to achieve a successful clinical outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Here we tested whether germline single nucleotide polymorphisms in 20 candidate genes related to methotrexate and cyclosporine metabolism and activity influence the incidence of graft-versus-host disease in patients who undergo stem cell transplantation for hematologic disorders. Recipient genetic status of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette sub-family C1 and adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette sub-family C2 transporters, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/ inosine monophosphate cyclohydrolase within the methotrexate pathway, and nuclear factor of activated T cells (cytoplasmic 1) loci exhibit a remarkable influence on severe acute graft-versus-host disease prevalence. Indeed, an increased risk of acute graft-versus-host disease was observed in association with single nucleotide polymorphisms located in 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/inosine monophosphate cyclohydrolase (hazard ratio=3.04; P=0.002), nuclear factor of activated T cells (cytoplasmic 1) (hazard ratio=2.69; P=0.004), adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette sub-family C2 (hazard ratio=3.53; P=0.0018) and adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette sub-family C1 (hazard ratio=3.67; P=0.0005). While donor single nucleotide polymorphisms of dihydrofolate reductase and solute carrier family 19 (member 1) genes are associated with a reduced risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (hazard ratio=0.32-0.41; P=0.0009-0.008), those of nuclear factor of activated T cells (cytoplasmic 2) are found to increase such risk (hazard ratio=3.85; P=0.0004). None of the tested single nucleotide polymorphisms was associated with the occurrence of chronic graft-versus-host disease. In conclusion, by targeting drug-related biologically relevant genes, this work emphasizes the potential role of

  17. Marchiafava-Bignami and Alcohol Related Acute Polyneuropathy: The Cooccurrence of Two Rare Entities

    PubMed Central

    Boloursaz, Samine; Nekooei, Sirous; Seilanian Toosi, Farrokh; Rezaei-Dalouei, Hossein; Davachi, Behrooz; Kazemi, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this article is to represent the first reported case with cooccurrence of two rare alcohol related complications. Case Report. We report a 38-year-old man with chronic alcoholism who presented with both cranial and peripheral nerve palsy. On MRI examination characteristic findings of Marchiafava-Bignami disease were recognized. Discussion. Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) is a rare complication of long-term, heavy alcohol abuse that has characteristic MRI findings. Acute alcohol related polyneuropathy (AARP) is another rare and not-well-understood complication of chronic alcohol abuse. We could not find any previous report of the cooccurrence of these two complications in the literature. PMID:27668107

  18. Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury after Cesarean Section in a Patient with HELLP Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moon, Kyoung Min; Han, Min Soo; Rim, Ch'ang Bum; Kim, So Ri; Shin, Sang Ho; Kang, Min Seok; Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Jihye; Kim, Sang Il

    2016-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a serious adverse reaction of transfusion, and presents as hypoxemia and non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema within 6 hours of transfusion. A 14-year-old primigravida woman at 34 weeks of gestation presented with upper abdominal pain without dyspnea. Because she showed the syndrome of HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count), an emergency cesarean section delivery was performed, and blood was transfused. In the case of such patients, clinicians should closely observe the patient's condition at least during the 6 hours while the patient receives blood transfusion, and should suspect TRALI if the patient complains of respiratory symptoms such as dyspnea. Furthermore, echocardiography should be performed to distinguish between the different types of transfusion-related adverse reactions.

  19. Marchiafava-Bignami and Alcohol Related Acute Polyneuropathy: The Cooccurrence of Two Rare Entities.

    PubMed

    Boloursaz, Samine; Nekooei, Sirous; Seilanian Toosi, Farrokh; Rezaei-Dalouei, Hossein; Davachi, Behrooz; Kazemi, Sahar; Abbasi, Bita

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this article is to represent the first reported case with cooccurrence of two rare alcohol related complications. Case Report. We report a 38-year-old man with chronic alcoholism who presented with both cranial and peripheral nerve palsy. On MRI examination characteristic findings of Marchiafava-Bignami disease were recognized. Discussion. Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) is a rare complication of long-term, heavy alcohol abuse that has characteristic MRI findings. Acute alcohol related polyneuropathy (AARP) is another rare and not-well-understood complication of chronic alcohol abuse. We could not find any previous report of the cooccurrence of these two complications in the literature. PMID:27668107

  20. Infection related renal impairment: a major cause of acute allograft dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Nampoory, Mangalathillam R N; Johny, Kaivilayil V; Costandy, Jamal N; Nair, Madhavan P; Said, Tarek; Homoud, Hani; Al-Muzairai, Ibrahim; Samhan, Mohmoud; Al-Moussawi, Mustafa

    2003-06-01

    We prospectively analyzed the impact of post-transplant infections on the renal function in 532 stable renal transplant recipients (M=340; F=192) over a period of 5 years. Their age ranged from 3-75 years (40+14 years). During the follow-up period, 52 patients expired and 64 lost on followup. We defined renal impairment (RI) as a persistent rise in serum creatinine above 20% from baseline value. 495 episodes of RI occurred in 269 recipients. This included 180-36% episodes of acute rejection, 53-10.7% Cyclosporine toxicity, 236-47.7% infection related renal impairment [IRRI] and 26-5.3% others. The severity of renal failure is less in IRRI (100+90.2) than that of acute rejection (166+127.1), but was more than that in cyclosporine toxicity (50+42.2). Sites of infection in IRRI were urinary (33%), respiratory (26.3%), septicemia (15.7%) and others (25.4%). Episode of IRRI occurred more frequently in LURD (159-67.4%) compared to LRD-RTR (50-21.2%). Occurrence of IRRI is more significantly higher in patients on triple drug immunosuppression (IS) (34.3%) than those on two drug IS (13.2%) (P=or<0.01). Ecoli (23.1%), Pseudomonas (11.1%), Salmonella (8.8%), Klebsiella (8.8%) and Staphylococai (8.3%) were the major organisms producing IRRI. IRRI is frequent (27.8%) during the first six months. Present study denotes that IRRI is a major cause of acute failure in RTR. PMID:15859909

  1. Acute and chronic effects of ethanol on learning-related synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Zorumski, Charles F; Mennerick, Steven; Izumi, Yukitoshi

    2014-02-01

    Alcoholism is associated with acute and long-term cognitive dysfunction including memory impairment, resulting in substantial disability and cost to society. Thus, understanding how ethanol impairs cognition is essential for developing treatment strategies to dampen its adverse impact. Memory processing is thought to involve persistent, use-dependent changes in synaptic transmission, and ethanol alters the activity of multiple signaling molecules involved in synaptic processing, including modulation of the glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transmitter systems that mediate most fast excitatory and inhibitory transmission in the brain. Effects on glutamate and GABA receptors contribute to ethanol-induced changes in long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), forms of synaptic plasticity thought to underlie memory acquisition. In this paper, we review the effects of ethanol on learning-related forms of synaptic plasticity with emphasis on changes observed in the hippocampus, a brain region that is critical for encoding contextual and episodic memories. We also include studies in other brain regions as they pertain to altered cognitive and mental function. Comparison of effects in the hippocampus to other brain regions is instructive for understanding the complexities of ethanol's acute and long-term pharmacological consequences.

  2. IgG4-related disease manifesting as an acute gastric-pericardial fistula.

    PubMed

    Frydman, James; Grunner, Shahar; Kluger, Yoram

    2014-11-28

    IgG4-related disease is a recently recognized entity linked initially to autoimmune pancreatitis and has been subsequently described in nearly every organ system. Men over the age of 50 represent the most affected demographic group and a comprehensive set of diagnostic criteria has been developed to aid treating clinicians. Though elevated levels of IgG4 in the serum are suggestive of the disease, definitive diagnosis is made on histopathology. Treatment is tailored to the clinical presentation with corticosteroid therapy known to have proven efficacy. Gastric manifestations of the IgG4-related disease primarily come in two varieties, notably chronic ulceration or pseudotumor formation. Autoimmune pancreatitis conveys increased risk for IgG4-related disease of the stomach, which is independent of Helicobacter pylori status. In this case report, we present an acute gastric-pericardial fistula secondary to IgG4-related disease that required urgent operative management. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the medical literature describing this complication of IgG4-related disease. PMID:25469052

  3. IgG4-related disease manifesting as an acute gastric-pericardial fistula

    PubMed Central

    Frydman, James; Grunner, Shahar; Kluger, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    IgG4-related disease is a recently recognized entity linked initially to autoimmune pancreatitis and has been subsequently described in nearly every organ system. Men over the age of 50 represent the most affected demographic group and a comprehensive set of diagnostic criteria has been developed to aid treating clinicians. Though elevated levels of IgG4 in the serum are suggestive of the disease, definitive diagnosis is made on histopathology. Treatment is tailored to the clinical presentation with corticosteroid therapy known to have proven efficacy. Gastric manifestations of the IgG4-related disease primarily come in two varieties, notably chronic ulceration or pseudotumor formation. Autoimmune pancreatitis conveys increased risk for IgG4-related disease of the stomach, which is independent of Helicobacter pylori status. In this case report, we present an acute gastric-pericardial fistula secondary to IgG4-related disease that required urgent operative management. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the medical literature describing this complication of IgG4-related disease. PMID:25469052

  4. Routine removal of the plate after surgical treatment for mandibular angle fracture with a third molar in relation to the fracture line

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Matsusue, Yumiko; Horita, Satoshi; Murakami, Kazuhiro; Sugiura, Tsutomu; Kirita, Tadaaki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to analyze the clinical course of surgically treated mandibular angle fractures from the viewpoint of routine removal of the plate because these fractures are associated with high rates of complications and plate removal. Subjects and Methods: The subjects were 40 patients with unilateral mandibular angle fracture, which was intraorally reduced and principally fixed with a single miniplate on the external oblique ridge. The third molar in relation to the fracture line was extracted in seven patients during the surgery. Clinical course was evaluated in terms of removal of the plate, preservation of the third molar and complications. Results: One patient showed a wound infection postoperatively, and two patients developed pericoronitis during the follow-up. These were managed with medication and local irrigation. One patient with a preserved third molar did not make a required visit and was lost from the follow-up. Removal of the plates was performed in 39 patients after confirmation of good fracture healing, mostly within a year. Twenty-four of 32 preserved third molars were simultaneously extracted. These procedures were generally performed under local anesthesia on an outpatient basis, and they did not cause any complications. Conclusions: Routine removal of the plate after surgical treatment for mandibular angle fractures, simultaneously with extraction of the third molar if indicated, may be beneficial to avoid complications related to the plate and the third molar later in life. PMID:26389039

  5. Angle detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parra, G. T. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An angle detector for determining a transducer's angular disposition to a capacitive pickup element is described. The transducer comprises a pendulum mounted inductive element moving past the capacitive pickup element. The capacitive pickup element divides the inductive element into two parts L sub 1 and L sub 2 which form the arms of one side of an a-c bridge. Two networks R sub 1 and R sub 2 having a plurality of binary weighted resistors and an equal number of digitally controlled switches for removing resistors from the networks form the arms of the other side of the a-c bridge. A binary counter, controlled by a phase detector, balances the bridge by adjusting the resistance of R sub 1 and R sub 2. The binary output of the counter is representative of the angle.

  6. Transfusion-related acute lung injury: transfusion, platelets and biological response modifiers.

    PubMed

    Tariket, Sofiane; Sut, Caroline; Hamzeh-Cognasse, Hind; Laradi, Sandrine; Pozzetto, Bruno; Garraud, Olivier; Cognasse, Fabrice

    2016-05-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) may be induced by plasma, platelet concentrates and red blood cell concentrates. The mechanism leading to TRALI is thought to involve two steps. The priming step consists of previous inflammatory pathological conditions or external factors attracting leukocytes to lung vessels and creating conditions favorable for the second step, in which anti-HLA or anti-HNA antibodies or biologically active lipids, usually in transfused blood products, stress leukocytes and inflame lung epithelia. Platelets may be involved in the pathogenesis of TRALI because of their secretory potential and capacity to interact with other immune cells. There is no drug based-prophylaxis, but transfusion strategies are used to mitigate the risk of TRALI. PMID:26855042

  7. [Italian Program for Surveillance of Acute Pesticide-Related Illnesses: cases identified in 2005].

    PubMed

    Settimi, L; Davanzo, F; Travaglia, A; Locatelli, C; Cilento, I; Volpe, C; Russo, A; Miceli, G; Fracassi, A; Maiozzi, P; Marcello, I; Sesan, F; Urbani, E

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the Italian System for Surveillance of Acute Pesticide-Related Illnesses (SIAF) identified 625 cases, among which 520 unintentionally exposed. The majority of these subjects were men (75%) and aged 26-65 years (65%). About 63% of all exposures occurred at work. Severity for these illnesses was low for 94% and moderate for 5%. Four cases were classified as illnesses of high severity. Some 70% of all the reported exposures occurred between May and September. The active ingredients responsible for the largest number of cases were: glyphosate (n. 56), copper sulphate (n. 55), methomyl (n. = 52), metam-sodium (n. 24). Three episodes of collective environmental exposure to soil fumigants involving 23 subjects were also detected.

  8. Quantitative assessment of relative roles of drivers of acute respiratory diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Prashant; Baruah, Jurismita

    2014-10-01

    Several thousands of people, including children, suffer from acute respiratory disease (ARD) every year worldwide. Pro-active planning and mitigation for these diseases require identification of the major drivers in a location-specific manner. While the importance of air pollutants in ARD has been extensively studied and emphasized, the role of weather variables has been less explored. With Delhi with its large population and pollution as a test case, we examine the relative roles of air pollution and weather (cold days) in ARD. It is shown that both the number of cold days and air pollution play important roles in ARD load; however, the number of cold days emerges as the major driver. These conclusions are consistent with analyses for several other states in India. The robust association between ARD load and cold days provides basis for estimating and predicting ARD load through dynamical model, as well as impact of climate change.

  9. Acute toxicity of vegetable oil factory effluent to some freshwater teleosts in relation to size.

    PubMed

    Kondal, J K; Gupta, S; Saxena, P K

    1984-05-01

    Specimens of Cirrhina mrigala (Ham.), Labeo rohita (Ham.) and Channa punctatus (Bl.) falling in the size (total length) range of 5.5 +/- 1.0 cm to 27.0 +/- 2.0 cm were exposed to different concentrations of the vegetable oil factory effluent for evaluating the influence of size on the acute toxicity of the factory effluent. The results suggest that relative toxicity of the effluent decreased with increase in the size of the fish. However, for specimens exceeding 20.0 +/- 1.6 cm in size, the toxicity of the effluent increased with an increase in size of the fish. The results also indicate that C. mrigala was most susceptible, while C. punctatus was least susceptible to the effluent.

  10. Anthracycline-Related Cardiotoxicity in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Down Syndrome: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Hefti, Erik; Blanco, Javier G

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric patients with Down syndrome (DS) are at an increased risk of developing certain cancers. Specifically, patients with DS have a reported 10-20-fold increased risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Anthracycline-based treatment regimens achieve good results in patients with DS and AML. It has been proposed that DS status constitutes a risk factor for the cardiotoxicity associated with the use of anthracyclines in the pediatric setting. However, published evidence pointing toward an increased risk of cardiotoxicity in patients with DS is relatively scarce and conflictive. This concise review compiles literature relating to the incidence of anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity in pediatric patients with DS. In general, reports from trials using anthracyclines at the maximum recommended dose showed increases in the incidence of anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity in patients with DS in comparison with trials that used anthracyclines at reduced doses. Evidence from the literature suggests that patients with DS can achieve favorable therapeutic outcomes after receiving treatment with reduced doses of anthracyclines to minimize the potential for cardiotoxicity. Further prospective trials, along with the available evidence, would assist the design of treatment protocols for patients with pediatric leukemias and DS.

  11. Health-related QOL in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Doll, Helen; Miravitlles, Marc

    2005-01-01

    There is a lack of emphasis on health-related QOL (HR-QOL) changes associated with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (CB) or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this review is to examine the use of HR-QOL instruments to evaluate acute exacerbation of CB or COPD, so as to form recommendations for future research.A literature search of papers published between 1966 and July 2003 identified more than 300 articles that used acute exacerbation of CB or COPD as the search term. However, only 21 of these studies employed HR-QOL measures as predictors of outcome or in the assessment of the impact, evolution or treatment of acute exacerbations of COPD or CB. A variety of HR-QOL measures were used, both generic and disease specific. The disease-specific St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), devised for patients with stable CB and with a recall period of 1-12 months, was the most widely used measure, with the Chronic Respiratory disease Questionnaire (CRQ) and the Baseline and Transitional Dyspnoea Index (BDI, TDI) being the only other disease-specific measures used. Most measures, both generic and disease specific, performed adequately when used during acute exacerbation of CB or COPD and indicated poor HR-QOL during acute exacerbation, which improved on resolution of the exacerbation. Relationships were evident between HR-QOL during an acute exacerbation and various outcomes, including post-exacerbation functional status, hospital re- admission for acute exacerbation or COPD, and mortality. There is a need for studies of treatments for acute exacerbation of CB or COPD to include an appropriate HR-QOL instrument to aid in the stratification of patients so as to target the right treatment to the right patient group. While a new instrument could be developed to measure HR-QOL during acute exacerbation of CB or COPD, currently available disease-specific measures such as the CRQ and the SGRQ appear to be acceptable to patients during acute

  12. Lateral acetabular labral length is inversely related to acetabular coverage as measured by lateral center edge angle of Wiberg

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Brian D.; Wolf, Bryan; Lambert, Jeffrey R.; Clayton, Carolyn W.; Glueck, Deborah H.; Jesse, Mary Kristen; Mei-Dan, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip often have compensatory labral hypertrophy, which presumably lends stability to an unstable joint. Conversely, patients with acetabular overcoverage may have small or ossified labra. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction of labral length with the degree of acetabular hip coverage. A retrospective cohort of patients with hip pain presenting to a hip preservation center, who had undergone hip magnetic resonance imaging and AP pelvis radiographs were studied. General linear multivariate models were used to assess the association between three measures of labral length (lateral, anterior and anterior inferior locations along the acetabular rim) and the X-ray derived lateral center edge angle (LCEA) of Wiberg. Of the three acetabular labral locations measured, only the lateral labrum was associated with LCEA Wiberg (P = 0.0008). Lateral labral length increases as LCEA of Wiberg decreases. The anterior and anterior inferior labral locations did not show a predictable increase in labral length as LCEA Wiberg decreased. PMID:27583157

  13. Lateral acetabular labral length is inversely related to acetabular coverage as measured by lateral center edge angle of Wiberg.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Brian D; Wolf, Bryan; Lambert, Jeffrey R; Clayton, Carolyn W; Glueck, Deborah H; Jesse, Mary Kristen; Mei-Dan, Omer

    2016-08-01

    Patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip often have compensatory labral hypertrophy, which presumably lends stability to an unstable joint. Conversely, patients with acetabular overcoverage may have small or ossified labra. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction of labral length with the degree of acetabular hip coverage. A retrospective cohort of patients with hip pain presenting to a hip preservation center, who had undergone hip magnetic resonance imaging and AP pelvis radiographs were studied. General linear multivariate models were used to assess the association between three measures of labral length (lateral, anterior and anterior inferior locations along the acetabular rim) and the X-ray derived lateral center edge angle (LCEA) of Wiberg. Of the three acetabular labral locations measured, only the lateral labrum was associated with LCEA Wiberg (P = 0.0008). Lateral labral length increases as LCEA of Wiberg decreases. The anterior and anterior inferior labral locations did not show a predictable increase in labral length as LCEA Wiberg decreased. PMID:27583157

  14. Prognostic Value of TNF-Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients

    PubMed Central

    Osmancik, Pavel; Teringova, Elena; Tousek, Petr; Paulu, Petra; Widimsky, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Background Apoptosis plays an important role in the development of heart failure. The aim of the prospectively designed study was to assess whether the concentration of apoptotic markers apoptosis-stimulating fragment (Fas, CD95/APO-1) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) can predict prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Methods The concentrations of soluble Fas and TRAIL were determined in 295 patients with acute coronary syndromes. The status of all patients was evaluated at 6 months. The primary goal was a composite end-point of death and hospitalization for heart failure. The secondary end-points were re-MI, death alone and stroke alone. Results During the median follow-up of 6 months, 26 patients experienced the composite end-point. Using multivariate logistic regression, the concentration of TRAIL was the strongest significant and independent predictor of composite end-point (OR 0.11 (95% CI 0.03–0.45), p = 0.002). Low concentration was associated with poor prognosis of patients. Other significant predictors of composite end-point were serum creatinine (OR 7.7 (95% CI 1.1–54.5, p = 0.041) and complete revascularization (OR 0.19 (95% CI 0.05–0.78, p = 0.02). Independent significant predictors of death in the multivariate analysis were the concentration of TRAIL (OR 0.053 (95% CI 0.004–0.744), p = 0.029), older age (OR 1.20 (95% CI 1.02–1.41, p = 0.026) and serum creatinine (OR 15.1 (95% CI 1.56–145.2), p = 0.0193). Re-MI or stroke could not be predicted by any combination of obtained parameters. Conclusions Low concentrations of soluble TRAIL represent a strong predictor of a poor prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome. The predictive value of TRAIL concentration is independent of age, ejection fraction, index peak troponin level, concentration of BNP or serum creatinine. PMID:23441146

  15. Characteristic on the thermal stresses near apex in dissimilar materials (Relation between the intensity of stress field and the bonded wedge angle)

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, T.; Koguchi, H.

    1995-11-01

    The characteristic of thermal stresses near the apex in dissimilar materials under a uniform temperature change is theoretically and numerically investigated. The materials are composed of two isotropic homogeneous wedges with arbitrary angles. The dominant factor of thermal stresses near the apex is represented by Kr{sup p{minus}1}, where p{minus}1 is the order of the stress singularity and K indicates the intensity of the stress field. For the bonded structures of Cu/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, the relationship between the wedge angle {var_phi}{sub 1} of material 1 and the total angle {var_phi}{sub 1} + {var_phi}{sub 2} of the bonded wedge, in which K becomes zero, is clarified theoretically. Also, it is shown that the distribution of the intensity K for each root p is divided into two forms. Finally, a relation between the distribution of the thermal stresses near apex and characteristic length of the bonded structure is examined by FEM.

  16. Muscle Activation During Exercise in Severe Acute Hypoxia: Role of Absolute and Relative Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Losa-Reyna, José; González-Izal, Miriam; Perez-Suarez, Ismael; Calle-Herrero, Jaime; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Torres-Peralta, Rafael, José Losa-Reyna, Miriam González-Izal, Ismael Perez-Suarez, Jaime Calle-Herrero, Mikel Izquierdo, and José A.L. Calbet. Muscle activation during exercise in severe acute hypoxia: Role of absolute and relative intensity. High Alt Med Biol 15:472–482, 2014.—The aim of this study was to determine the influence of severe acute hypoxia on muscle activation during whole body dynamic exercise. Eleven young men performed four incremental cycle ergometer tests to exhaustion breathing normoxic (FIo2=0.21, two tests) or hypoxic gas (FIo2=0.108, two tests). Surface electromyography (EMG) activities of rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VL), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris (BF) were recorded. The two normoxic and the two hypoxic tests were averaged to reduce EMG variability. Peak Vo2 was 34% lower in hypoxia than in normoxia (p<0.05). The EMG root mean square (RMS) increased with exercise intensity in all muscles (p<0.05), with greater effect in hypoxia than in normoxia in the RF and VM (p<0.05), and a similar trend in VL (p=0.10). At the same relative intensity, the RMS was greater in normoxia than in hypoxia in RF, VL, and BF (p<0.05), with a similar trend in VM (p=0.08). Median frequency increased with exercise intensity (p<0.05), and was higher in hypoxia than in normoxia in VL (p<0.05). Muscle contraction burst duration increased with exercise intensity in VM and VL (p<0.05), without clear effects of FIo2. No significant FIo2 effects on frequency domain indices were observed when compared at the same relative intensity. In conclusion, muscle activation during whole body exercise increases almost linearly with exercise intensity, following a muscle-specific pattern, which is adjusted depending on the FIo2 and the relative intensity of exercise. Both VL and VM are increasingly involved in power output generation with the increase of intensity and the reduction in FIo2. PMID:25225839

  17. SMALL-ANGLE NEUTRON SCATTERING CHARACTERIZATION OF THE STRUCTURE OF NANOPOROUS CARBONS FOR ENERGY-RELATED APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    He, Lilin; Mavila Chathoth, Suresh; Melnichenko, Yuri B; Presser, Volker; Mcdonough, John; Gogotsi, Yury G.

    2011-01-01

    We used small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and neutron contrast variation to study the structure of four nanoporouscarbons prepared by thermo-chemical etching of titanium carbide TiC in chlorine at 300, 400, 600, and 800 C with pore diameters ranging between -4 and -11 {angstrom}. SANS patterns were obtained from dry samples and samples saturated with deuterium oxide (D{sub 2}O) in order to delineate origin of the power law scattering in the low Q domain as well as to evaluate pore accessibility for D{sub 2}O molecules. SANS cross section of all samples was fitted to Debye-Anderson-Brumberger (DAB), DAB-Kirste-Porod models as well as to the Guinier and modified Guinier formulae for cylindrical objects, which allowed for evaluating the radii of gyration as well as the radii and lengths of the pores under cylindrical shape approximation. SANS data from D{sub 2}O-saturated samples indicate that strong upturn in the low Q limit usually observed in the scattering patterns from microporous carbon powders is due to the scattering from outer surface of the powder particles. Micropores are only partially filled with D{sub 2}O molecules due to geometrical constraints and or partial hydrophobicity of the carbon matrix. Structural parameters of the dry carbons obtained using SANS are compared with the results of the gas sorption measurements and the values agree for carbide-derived carbons (CDCs) obtained at high chlorination temperatures (>600 C). For lower chlorination temperatures, pore radii obtained from gas sorption overestimate the actual pore size as calculated from SANS for two reasons: inaccessible small pores are present and the model-dependent fitting based on density functional theory models assumes non-spherical pores, whereas SANS clearly indicates that the pore shape in microporous CDC obtained at low chlorination temperatures is nearly spherical.

  18. [Therapy-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia Following Etoposide Based Chemotherapy in Germ Cell Tumor].

    PubMed

    Okumura, Yoshinaga; Oae, Masashi; Shiraishi, Yusuke; Soda, Takeshi; Kanamaru, Hiroshi; Arima, Nobuyoshi

    2016-05-01

    A 27-year-old man visited our hospital with painless swelling of the left scrotum. Hematologic studies showed the following levels of lactate dehydrogenase, 3,171 IU/l ; alpha-fetoprotein, 2.2 ng/ml ; and β- human chorionic gonadotropin, 0.4 ng/ml, and abdominal computed tomography revealed a mass of 10×8 ×4 cm in the left testis, and that of 3.5×3.0×5.0 cm in the left renal hilar lymph node, without any other metastasis. Left high inguinal orchiectomy was performed, and histopathological examination revealed mixed form with seminoma and teratoma. He was diagnosed to have a left germ cell tumor with left renal hilar lymph node metastases, pT1, N3, M0, stage II C, indicating poor prognosis with IGCCC. The patient received four cycles of chemotherapy, COMPE regimen (CDDP, VCR, MTX, PEP, VP-16 [etoposide]). After lactate dehydrogenase, alpha-fetoprotein, and β -human chorionic gonadotropin all normalized, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection was performed. Histopathological examination revealed only a mature teratoma. Two and half years later, hematologic studies showed blast transformation. Bone marrow biopsy revealed acute myeloblastic lymphoma (M2). The patient received one cycle of AraC and daunorubicin, one cycle of high dose AraC, and three cycles of AraC and mitoxantrone. After chemotherapy, he has maintained a disease-free status for 11 years. In this case, etoposide, a topoisomerase II inhibitor, was the presumed cause of therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia. After administering chemotherapeutic agents especially etoposide, it is important to check blood count periodically for a long time. PMID:27320120

  19. Drug-Related Hyponatremic Encephalopathy: Rapid Clinical Response Averts Life-Threatening Acute Cerebral Edema

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Arthur J.; Forte, Sophie S.; Bhatti, Nasir A.; Gelda, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 63 Final Diagnosis: Drug-induced hyponatremic encephalopathy Symptoms: Seizures • coma Medication: Hypertonic 3% saline infusion Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Internal Medicine Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Drug-induced hyponatremia characteristically presents with subtle psychomotor symptoms due to its slow onset, which permits compensatory volume adjustment to hypo-osmolality in the central nervous system. Due mainly to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), this condition readily resolves following discontinuation of the responsible pharmacological agent. Here, we present an unusual case of life-threatening encephalopathy due to adverse drug-related effects, in which a rapid clinical response facilitated emergent treatment to avert life-threatening acute cerebral edema. Case Report: A 63-year-old woman with refractory depression was admitted for inpatient psychiatric care with a normal physical examination and laboratory values, including a serum sodium [Na+] of 144 mEq/L. She had a grand mal seizure and became unresponsive on the fourth day of treatment with the dual serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor [SNRI] duloxetine while being continued on a thiazide-containing diuretic for a hypertensive disorder. Emergent infusion of intravenous hypertonic (3%) saline was initiated after determination of a serum sodium [Na+] of 103 mEq/L with a urine osmolality of 314 mOsm/kg H20 and urine [Na+] of 12 mEq/L. Correction of hyposmolality in accordance with current guidelines resulted in progressive improvement over several days, and she returned to her baseline mental status. Conclusions: Seizures with life-threatening hyponatremic encephalopathy in this case likely resulted from co-occurring SIADH and sodium depletion due to duloxetine and hydrochlorothiazide, respectively. A rapid clinical response expedited diagnosis and emergent treatment to reverse life-threatening acute cerebral edema

  20. Hospital mortality in acute coronary syndrome: differences related to gender and use of percutaneous coronary procedures

    PubMed Central

    Aguado-Romeo, María J; Márquez-Calderón, Soledad; Buzón-Barrera, María L

    2007-01-01

    Background To identify differences among men and women with acute coronary syndrome in terms of in-hospital mortality, and to assess whether these differences are related to the use of percutaneous cardiovascular procedures. Methods Observational study based on the Minimum Basic Data Set. This encompassed all episodes of emergency hospital admissions (46,007 cases, including 16,391 women and 29,616 men) with a main diagnosis of either myocardial infarction or unstable angina at 32 hospitals within the Andalusian Public Health System over a four-year period (2000–2003). The relationship between gender and mortality was examined for the population as a whole and for stratified groups depending on the type of procedures used (diagnostic coronary catheterisation and/or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty). These combinations were then adjusted for age group, main diagnosis and co-morbidityharlson score). Results During hospitalisation, mortality was 9.6% (4,401 cases out of 46,007), with 11.8% for women and 8.3% for men. There were more deaths among older patients with acute myocardial infarction and greater co-morbidity. Lower mortality was shown in patients undergoing diagnostic catheterisation and/or PTCA. After adjusting for age, diagnosis and co-morbidity, mortality affected women more than men in the overall population (OR 1.14, 95% CI: 1.06–1.22) and in the subgroup of patients where no procedure was performed (OR 1.16, 95% CI: 1.07–1.24). Gender was not an explanatory variable in the subgroups of patients who underwent some kind of procedure. Conclusion Gender has not been associated to in-hospital mortality in patients who undergo some kind of percutaneous cardiovascular procedure. However, in the group of patients without either diagnostic catheterisation or angioplasty, mortality was higher in women than in men. PMID:17631037

  1. Reading angles in maps.

    PubMed

    Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2014-01-01

    Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections appeared without any relevant length or distance information. Children were able to read these map fragments and compare two-dimensional to three-dimensional angles. However, this ability appeared both variable and fragile among the youngest children of the sample. These findings suggest that 4-year-old children begin to form an abstract concept of angle that applies both to two-dimensional and three-dimensional displays and that serves to interpret novel spatial symbols. PMID:23647223

  2. [Antibodies, human leukocyte antigens, and biomodulators in transfusion-related acute adverse effects].

    PubMed

    Martínez Álvarez, Julio César

    2013-01-01

    With the onset of the AIDS epidemic, major changes occurred in blood banking and transfusion medicine. These changes occurred mainly in donor selection and screening tests for infectious diseases, blood centers modified their organizational philosophy regarding quality. Transfusion of blood products are procedures that allow us to correct the haematology deficiencies for which was indicated. But today, despite the strict controls that precede transfusion,recipients may have undesirable effects, which are known as adverse effects or adverse reactions to transfusion. Antibodies and antigens of the HLA system plays a role in a series of events related to transfusion, such as immunological platelet refractoriness, febrile non-haemolytic transfusion reactions, transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease. The determination of anti-HLA antibodies is evidence that in most developed countries is used on a daily basis in the regular assessment of patients multitransfused or waiting lists for organs from deceased donors. The biomodulators are able to modify biological responses which act in sequence to lead to the differentiation of T lymphocytes. These agents may subcategorizes those which facilitate a normal immune response, those stimulates the immune response, those are capable of inducing immunosuppression not cytotoxic, and those enhancing the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic treatment (transfusion or transplant).

  3. Relation between magnetization and Faraday angles produced by ultrafast spin-flip processes within the three-level Λ-type system

    SciTech Connect

    Hinschberger, Y.; Lavoine, J. P.

    2015-08-07

    Ultrafast magneto-optical (MO) experiments constitute a powerful tool to explore the magnetization dynamics of diverse materials. Over the last decade, there have been many theoretical and experimental developments on this subject. However, the relation between the magnetization dynamics and the transient MO response still remains unclear. In this work, we calculate the magnetization of a material, as well as the magneto-optical rotation and ellipticity angles measured in a single-beam experiment. Then, we compare the magnetization to the MO response. The magnetic material is modeled by a three-level Λ-type system, which represents a simple model to describe MO effects induced by an ultrafast laser pulse. Our calculations use the density matrix formalism, while the dynamics of the system is obtained by solving the Lindblad equation taking into account population relaxation and dephasing processes. Furthermore, we consider the Faraday rotation of the optical waves that simultaneously causes spin-flip. We show that the Faraday angles remain proportional to the magnetization only if the system has reached the equilibrium-state, and that this proportionality is directly related to the population and coherence decay rates. For the non-equilibrium situation, the previous proportionality relation is no longer valid. We show that our model is able to interpret some recent experimental results obtained in a single-pulse experiment. We further show that, after a critical pulse duration, the decrease of the ellipticity as a function of the absorbed energy is a characteristic of the system.

  4. Establishing Age-Adjusted Reference Ranges for Iris-Related Parameters in Open Angle Eyes with Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Jeffrey R.; Blieden, Lauren S.; Chuang, Alice Z.; Baker, Laura A.; Rigi, Mohammed; Feldman, Robert M.; Bell, Nicholas P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Define criteria for iris-related parameters in an adult open angle population as measured with swept source Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT). Methods Ninety-eight eyes of 98 participants with open angles were included and stratified into 5 age groups (18–35, 36–45, 46–55, 56–65, and 66–79 years). ASOCT scans with 3D mode angle analysis were taken with the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey Corporation, Nagoya, Japan) and analyzed using the Anterior Chamber Analysis and Interpretation software. Anterior iris surface length (AISL), length of scleral spur landmark (SSL) to pupillary margin (SSL-to-PM), iris contour ratio (ICR = AISL/SSL-to-PM), pupil radius, radius of iris centroid (RICe), and iris volume were measured. Outcome variables were summarized for all eyes and age groups, and mean values among age groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Stepwise regression analysis was used to investigate demographic and ocular characteristic factors that affected each iris-related parameter. Results Mean (±SD) values were 2.24 mm (±0.46), 4.06 mm (±0.27), 3.65 mm (±0.48), 4.16 mm (±0.47), 1.14 (±0.04), 1.51 mm2 (±0.23), and 38.42 μL (±4.91) for pupillary radius, RICe, SSL-to-PM, AISL, ICR, iris cross-sectional area, and iris volume, respectively. Both pupillary radius (P = 0.002) and RICe (P = 0.027) decreased with age, while SSL-to-PM (P = 0.002) and AISL increased with age (P = 0.001). ICR (P = 0.54) and iris volume (P = 0.49) were not affected by age. Conclusion This study establishes reference values for iris-related parameters in an adult open angle population, which will be useful for future studies examining the role of iris changes in pathologic states. PMID:26815917

  5. Relative motion between the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon and paratenon in zone V increases with wrist flexion angle.

    PubMed

    Kociolek, Aaron M; Keir, Peter J

    2016-07-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is characterized by non-inflammatory fibrosis of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT), a paratenon-like structure inside the carpal tunnel. This pathology suggests repetitive and/or excessive shear forces are involved in injury development. We assessed relative motion between the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) tendon and adjacent paratenon in Zone V using colour Doppler imaging as 16 healthy participants completed three long finger movements (metacarpophalangeal joint flexion, proximal and distal interphalangeal joint flexion, full finger flexion) in three wrist postures (30° extension, 0°, 30° flexion). While the type of finger movement did not affect tendon-paratenon relative motion, we found a significant main effect of wrist posture (p < 0.001). Relative displacement between the FDS tendon and paratenon (as a percentage of tendon displacement) increased from 27.2% (95%CI = 24.8-29.5%) in 30° wrist extension to 39.9% (95%CI = 37.3-42.4%) in 30° wrist flexion. Optical motion capture confirmed that wrist posture did not affect metacarpophalangeal joint range of motion (p = 0.265) or proximal interphalangeal joint range of motion (p = 0.582). These results indicate that relative motion increased due to paratenon strain when the wrist was flexed. While our findings agree with previous cadaveric research in wrist flexion, we found that relative displacement decreased in 30° wrist extension (compared to 0°). These results differ from cadaveric research, possibly due to challenges maintaining anatomic fidelity of the viscoelastic paratenon tissue in vitro. Overall, our study suggests a greater susceptibility to shear injury during repetitive finger movements, particularly when the wrist is flexed. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1248-1255, 2016. PMID:26686976

  6. Viruses in non-disinfected drinking water from municipal wells are related to community rates of acute gastrointestinal illness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundwater supplies for drinking water are frequently contaminated with low-levels of human enteric virus genomes, yet evidence for waterborne disease transmission is lacking. We related qPCR-measured enteric viruses in the tap water of 14 non-chlorinating communities in the U.S. to acute gastroint...

  7. A prospective cohort study on the association between coffee drinking and risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Oskarsson, Viktor; Sadr-Azodi, Omid; Orsini, Nicola; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-05-28

    Only one previous study has examined the association between coffee consumption and risk of acute pancreatitis, and it found a reduced risk for alcohol-related episodes among high consumers of coffee. Therefore, we examined (1) the association between coffee consumption and risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis and (2) whether this association was modified by alcohol intake. Data were obtained from two prospective cohorts, the Cohort of Swedish Men and the Swedish Mammography Cohort, including 76 731 men and women (born 1914-1952). Coffee consumption was assessed at baseline with a FFQ, and the cohorts were followed up between 1998 and 2012 via linkage to national health registries. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox models, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. During 1 035 881 person-years of total follow-up, 383 cases (246 in men and 137 in women) of incident non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis were identified. Overall, and irrespective of whether a categorical or a continuous exposure model was used, we observed no association between coffee consumption and risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis (e.g. the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for each 1 cup/d increase in coffee consumption was 0·97; 95 % CI 0·92, 1·03). There was no evidence of effect modification by alcohol intake (P interaction=0·77). In conclusion, coffee consumption was not associated with risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis in this large prospective cohort study. Because of the limited number of epidemiological studies and their conflicting results, further research is needed to elucidate this potential association.

  8. A prospective cohort study on the association between coffee drinking and risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Oskarsson, Viktor; Sadr-Azodi, Omid; Orsini, Nicola; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-05-28

    Only one previous study has examined the association between coffee consumption and risk of acute pancreatitis, and it found a reduced risk for alcohol-related episodes among high consumers of coffee. Therefore, we examined (1) the association between coffee consumption and risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis and (2) whether this association was modified by alcohol intake. Data were obtained from two prospective cohorts, the Cohort of Swedish Men and the Swedish Mammography Cohort, including 76 731 men and women (born 1914-1952). Coffee consumption was assessed at baseline with a FFQ, and the cohorts were followed up between 1998 and 2012 via linkage to national health registries. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox models, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. During 1 035 881 person-years of total follow-up, 383 cases (246 in men and 137 in women) of incident non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis were identified. Overall, and irrespective of whether a categorical or a continuous exposure model was used, we observed no association between coffee consumption and risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis (e.g. the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for each 1 cup/d increase in coffee consumption was 0·97; 95 % CI 0·92, 1·03). There was no evidence of effect modification by alcohol intake (P interaction=0·77). In conclusion, coffee consumption was not associated with risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis in this large prospective cohort study. Because of the limited number of epidemiological studies and their conflicting results, further research is needed to elucidate this potential association. PMID:26987519

  9. Acute stroke with major intracranial vessel occlusion: Characteristics of cardioembolism and atherosclerosis-related in situ stenosis/occlusion.

    PubMed

    Horie, Nobutaka; Tateishi, Yohei; Morikawa, Minoru; Morofuji, Yoichi; Hayashi, Kentaro; Izumo, Tsuyoshi; Tsujino, Akira; Nagata, Izumi; Matsuo, Takayuki

    2016-10-01

    Acute ischemic stroke with major intracranial vessel occlusion is commonly due to cardioembolic or atherosclerosis-related in situ stenosis/occlusion, and immediate identification of these subtypes is important to establish the optimal treatment strategy. The aim of this study was to clarify the differences in clinical presentation, radiological findings, neurological temporal courses, and outcomes between these etiologies, which have not been fully evaluated. Consecutive emergency patients with acute ischemic stroke were retrospectively reviewed. Among them, patients with stroke with major intracranial vessel occlusion were analyzed with a focus on clinical and radiological findings, and a comparison was performed for those with cardioembolic or atherosclerosis-related in situ stenosis/occlusion. Of 1053 patients, 80 had stroke with acute major intracranial vessel occlusion (45 with cardioembolic and 35 with atherosclerosis-related in situ stenosis/occlusion). Interestingly, the susceptibility vessel sign (SVS) on T2-weighted MR angiography was more frequently detected in cardioembolic stroke (80.0%) than in atherosclerosis (in situ stenosis: 5.9%, chronic occlusion: 14.3%). Moreover, the proximal intra-arterial signal (IAS) on arterial spin labeling MRI and the distal IAS on fluid attenuated inversion recovery MRI was less frequently detected in chronic occlusion (27.3% and 50.0%, respectively) than in acute occlusion due to cardioembolic or in situ stenosis. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the SVS was significantly related to cardioembolism (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 21.68, P=0.004). Clinical characteristics of acute stroke with major intracranial vessel occlusion differ depending on the etiology. The SVS and proximal/distal IAS on MRI are useful to distinguish between cardioembolic and atherosclerotic-related in situ stenosis/occlusion. PMID:27506779

  10. [Aids-related toxoplasma-encephalitis presenting with acute psychotic episode].

    PubMed

    Ilniczky, Sándor; Debreczeni, Róbert; Kovács, Tibor; Várkonyi, Viktória; Barsi, Péter; Szirmai, Imre

    2006-07-20

    The most frequent neurological manifestations of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome-(AIDS) are Cerebral Toxoplasmosis, Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma (PCNSL), Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) and AIDS-encephalitis (AIDS-dementia complex, multinucleated giant cell encephalitis, HIV-encephalopathy). Neurological complications usually occur in the advanced stages of the disease, and they are uncommon in the beginning as presenting illness, but may result in life-threatening condition or in death. Rarely the disease presents as a neuropsychiatric illness in an undiagnosed AIDS patient, delaying a proper diagnosis. We present the case of a 34 years old patient treated for AIDS-related Toxoplasma-encephalitis in our department. His illness started as an acute psychosis followed by rapid mental and somatic decline, leading to death in three months. His HIV-seropositivity was not known at his admission, and the extraneural manifestations were slight. The diagnosis was established by serology, imaging methods and histopathological investigation. After presenting the medical history and results of autopsy studies of the patient we discuss the problems of the differential diagnosis, especially regarding the findings of the imaging methods.

  11. The occurrence of acute myocardial infarction in relation to weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Kriszbacher, Ildikó; Bódis, József; Csoboth, Ildikó; Boncz, Imre

    2009-06-12

    The spatial and temporal changes of weather factors depend on geographical location, seasons and the time of the day. Our study examines the relationships of meteorological factors and the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with AMI between 2000 and 2004 in Hungary (n = 81,956 patients) was carried out. Data were collected by the National Health Insurance Fund Administration (OEP) and the National Meteorology Service (OMSZ). A peak period of the occurrence of AMI was found during spring, while minimum number of events were recorded during summer. Significant difference was observed between the number of events each season (F = 34.741; p < 0.001; N = 81,956). A medium level negative correlation was found between the monthly average temperature and the occurrence of AMI (r = -0.404) during the period examined. A positive correlation was shown between front movements and the number of events per season (r = 0.053). Average barometric pressure changes, the number of front movements and the number of AMI events also showed a nearly similar seasonal deviation. Our findings show that certain meteorological factors may be related to the onset of AMI, however other factors also play an important role.

  12. Are the laboratory and field conditions observations of acute mountain sickness related?

    PubMed

    Savourey, G; Guinet, A; Besnard, Y; Garcia, N; Hanniquet, A; Bittel, J

    1997-10-01

    In order to study relationships between acute mountain sickness (AMS) observations done both during a short-term hypoxic exposure in a hypobaric chamber, and in field conditions during a high altitude expedition, nine subjects were submitted to a 9-h hypoxic exposure in a hypobaric chamber. Then, they experienced a high altitude expedition in the Himalayas. The Lake Louise AMS scoring system was used to assess AMS in both conditions, especially the self report questionnaire. During the expedition, the mean self report score of each subject, defined as the ratio between the sum of daily self report scores and the duration of the expedition, appears to be correlated not only to the maximal self report score observed in altitude (r = +0.77, p < 0.05) but also to the self report and self report+clinical assessment scores observed at the end of the hypobaric chamber sojourn (r = +0.81, p < 0.01 and r = +0.75, p < 0.05, respectively). In conclusion, the Lake Louise AMS scoring system, especially the self report questionnaire, is relevant to assess AMS with simplicity and rapidity both in laboratory and in field conditions. Our study also suggests that AMS induced by a short term sojourn in a hypobaric chamber is related to AMS observed in field conditions.

  13. Acute Aortic Dissection Biomarkers Identified Using Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ziya; Xue, Yuan; Yao, Chenling; Gu, Guorong; Zhang, Yaping; Zhang, Jin; Fan, Fan; Luan, Xiao; Deng, Zhi; Tao, Zhengang; Song, Zhen-Ju; Tong, Chaoyang; Wang, Haojun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of potential serum biomarkers for acute aortic dissection (AAD) that were identified by isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) approaches. Serum samples from 20 AAD patients and 20 healthy volunteers were analyzed using iTRAQ technology. Protein validation was performed using samples from 120 patients with chest pain. A total of 355 proteins were identified with the iTRAQ approach; 164 proteins reached the strict quantitative standard, and 125 proteins were increased or decreased more than 1.2-fold (64 and 61 proteins were up- and downregulated, resp.). Lumican, C-reactive protein (CRP), thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), and D-dimer were selected as candidate biomarkers for the validation tests. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves show that Lumican and D-dimer have diagnostic value (area under the curves [AUCs] 0.895 and 0.891, P < 0.05). For Lumican, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 73.33% and 98.33%, while the corresponding values for D-dimer were 93.33% and 68.33%. For Lumican and D-dimer AAD combined diagnosis, the sensitivity and specificity were 88.33% and 95%, respectively. In conclusion, Lumican has good specificity and D-dimer has good sensitivity for the diagnosis of AAD, while the combined detection of D-dimer and Lumican has better diagnostic value. PMID:27403433

  14. Mouse models of human PIK3CA-related brain overgrowth have acutely treatable epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Achira; Skibo, Jonathan; Kalume, Franck; Ni, Jing; Rankin, Sherri; Lu, Yiling; Dobyns, William B; Mills, Gordon B; Zhao, Jean J; Baker, Suzanne J; Millen, Kathleen J

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PIK3CA) and other PI3K-AKT pathway components have been associated with cancer and a wide spectrum of brain and body overgrowth. In the brain, the phenotypic spectrum of PIK3CA-related segmental overgrowth includes bilateral dysplastic megalencephaly, hemimegalencephaly and focal cortical dysplasia, the most common cause of intractable pediatric epilepsy. We generated mouse models expressing the most common activating Pik3ca mutations (H1047R and E545K) in developing neural progenitors. These accurately recapitulate all the key human pathological features including brain enlargement, cortical malformation, hydrocephalus and epilepsy, with phenotypic severity dependent on the mutant allele and its time of activation. Underlying mechanisms include increased proliferation, cell size and altered white matter. Notably, we demonstrate that acute 1 hr-suppression of PI3K signaling despite the ongoing presence of dysplasia has dramatic anti-epileptic benefit. Thus PI3K inhibitors offer a promising new avenue for effective anti-epileptic therapy for intractable pediatric epilepsy patients. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12703.001 PMID:26633882

  15. A sociological exploration of the tensions related to interprofessional collaboration in acute-care discharge planning.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Joanne; Reeves, Scott; Wu, Robert; Silver, Ivan; MacMillan, Kathleen; Kitto, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Patient discharge is a key concern in hospitals, particularly in acute care, given the multifaceted and challenging nature of patients' healthcare needs. Policies on discharge have identified the importance of interprofessional collaboration, yet research has described its limitations in this clinical context. This study aimed to extend our understanding of interprofessional interactions related to discharge in a general internal medicine setting by using sociological theories to illuminate the existence of, and interplay between, structural factors and microlevel practices. An ethnographic approach was employed to obtain an in-depth insight into healthcare providers' perspectives, behaviours, and interactions regarding discharge. Data collection involved observations, interviews, and document analysis. Approximately 65 hours of observations were undertaken, 23 interviews were conducted with healthcare providers, and government and hospital discharge documents were collected. Data were analysed using a directed content approach. The findings indicate the existence of a medically dominated division of healthcare labour in patient discharge with opportunities for some interprofessional negotiations; the role of organizational routines in facilitating and challenging interprofessional negotiations in patient discharge; and tensions in organizational priorities that impact an interprofessional approach to discharge. The findings provide insight into the various levels at which interventions can be targeted to improve interprofessional collaboration in discharge while recognizing the organizational tensions that challenge an interprofessional approach. PMID:26852628

  16. A sociological exploration of the tensions related to interprofessional collaboration in acute-care discharge planning.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Joanne; Reeves, Scott; Wu, Robert; Silver, Ivan; MacMillan, Kathleen; Kitto, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Patient discharge is a key concern in hospitals, particularly in acute care, given the multifaceted and challenging nature of patients' healthcare needs. Policies on discharge have identified the importance of interprofessional collaboration, yet research has described its limitations in this clinical context. This study aimed to extend our understanding of interprofessional interactions related to discharge in a general internal medicine setting by using sociological theories to illuminate the existence of, and interplay between, structural factors and microlevel practices. An ethnographic approach was employed to obtain an in-depth insight into healthcare providers' perspectives, behaviours, and interactions regarding discharge. Data collection involved observations, interviews, and document analysis. Approximately 65 hours of observations were undertaken, 23 interviews were conducted with healthcare providers, and government and hospital discharge documents were collected. Data were analysed using a directed content approach. The findings indicate the existence of a medically dominated division of healthcare labour in patient discharge with opportunities for some interprofessional negotiations; the role of organizational routines in facilitating and challenging interprofessional negotiations in patient discharge; and tensions in organizational priorities that impact an interprofessional approach to discharge. The findings provide insight into the various levels at which interventions can be targeted to improve interprofessional collaboration in discharge while recognizing the organizational tensions that challenge an interprofessional approach.

  17. Effects of acute nicotine on prepulse inhibition of auditory change-related cortical responses.

    PubMed

    Kodaira, Minori; Tsuruhara, Aki; Motomura, Eishi; Tanii, Hisashi; Inui, Koji; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2013-11-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle is a measure of inhibitory function in which a weak leading stimulus suppresses the startle response to an intense stimulus. Usually, startle blink reflexes to an intense sound are used for measuring PPI. A recent magnetoencephalographic study showed that a similar phenomenon is observed for auditory change-related cortical response (Change-N1m) to an abrupt change in sound features. It has been well established that nicotine enhances PPI of startle. Therefore, in the present magnetoencephalographic study, the effects of acute nicotine on PPI of the Change-N1m were studied in 12 healthy subjects (two females and 10 males) under a repeated measures and placebo-controlled design. Nicotine (4 mg) was given as nicotine gum. The test Change-N1m response was elicited with an abrupt increase in sound pressure by 6 dB in a continuous background sound of 65 dB. PPI was produced by an insertion of a prepulse with a 3-dB-louder or 6-dB-weaker sound pressure than the background 75 ms before the test stimulus. Results show that nicotine tended to enhance the test Change-N1m response and significantly enhanced PPI for both prepulses. Therefore, nicotine's enhancing effect on PPI of the Change-N1m was similar to that on PPI of the startle. The present results suggest that the two measures share at least some mechanisms.

  18. Acute Aortic Dissection Biomarkers Identified Using Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ziya; Xue, Yuan; Gu, Guorong; Zhang, Yaping; Zhang, Jin; Fan, Fan; Luan, Xiao; Deng, Zhi; Tao, Zhengang; Song, Zhen-ju; Tong, Chaoyang; Wang, Haojun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of potential serum biomarkers for acute aortic dissection (AAD) that were identified by isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) approaches. Serum samples from 20 AAD patients and 20 healthy volunteers were analyzed using iTRAQ technology. Protein validation was performed using samples from 120 patients with chest pain. A total of 355 proteins were identified with the iTRAQ approach; 164 proteins reached the strict quantitative standard, and 125 proteins were increased or decreased more than 1.2-fold (64 and 61 proteins were up- and downregulated, resp.). Lumican, C-reactive protein (CRP), thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), and D-dimer were selected as candidate biomarkers for the validation tests. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves show that Lumican and D-dimer have diagnostic value (area under the curves [AUCs] 0.895 and 0.891, P < 0.05). For Lumican, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 73.33% and 98.33%, while the corresponding values for D-dimer were 93.33% and 68.33%. For Lumican and D-dimer AAD combined diagnosis, the sensitivity and specificity were 88.33% and 95%, respectively. In conclusion, Lumican has good specificity and D-dimer has good sensitivity for the diagnosis of AAD, while the combined detection of D-dimer and Lumican has better diagnostic value. PMID:27403433

  19. Generation and characterization of bioluminescent xenograft mouse models of MLL-related acute leukemias and in vivo evaluation of luciferase-targeting siRNA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Fazzina, Raffaella; Lombardini, Lorenza; Mezzanotte, Laura; Roda, Aldo; Hrelia, Patrizia; Pession, Andrea; Tonelli, Roberto

    2012-08-01

    Chromosomal translocations involving the MLL gene on 11q23 present frequent abnormalities in pediatric, adult and therapy-related acute leukemias, and are generally associated with aggressive disease and poor prognosis. Here, we report bioluminescent acute leukemia xenograft mouse models of the most frequent and aggressive MLL-related acute leukemias (infant and adult MLL-AF9, MLL-ENL, MLL-AF4). Four acute leukemia cell lines carrying MLL-related translocations were stably transduced with a firefly luciferase transgene and injected intravenously into NOD/SCID mice. Leukemia progression was monitored by in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI). All mice developed MLL-related acute leukemia. The four MLL-related acute leukemia models showed a different course of infant and adult MLL-AF9 acute myeloid leukemia, and a rapid aggressiveness of MLL-ENL acute lymphoblastic leukemia and MLL-AF4 acute biphenotypic leukemia. Tissue analysis and RT-PCR of bone marrow, spleen and liver from the mice confirmed the BL results. To validate BLI for the detection of a therapeutic response, systemic treatment with an anti-luciferase-targeting siRNA (siLuc) complexed with cationic nanoparticles was administered to mice with MLL-AF4 acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The BLI signal showed a reduction following treatment with siLuc compared to the control mice. These mouse models present MLL-related acute leukemia evolution similar to the human counterparts. Moreover, they are non-invasive, rapid and sensitive models, suitable for the in vivo study of MLL-related acute leukemias. Finally, BLI showed in vivo luminescence down modulation obtained by systemic treatment with luciferase-targeting siRNA nanoparticle complexes, confirming that these MLL-related leukemia mouse models are optimal for the evaluation and selection of delivery systems for siRNA and other new biotechnological pharmaceuticals.

  20. Acute Supramaximal Exercise Increases the Brain Oxygenation in Relation to Cognitive Workload

    PubMed Central

    Bediz, Cem Seref; Oniz, Adile; Guducu, Cagdas; Ural Demirci, Enise; Ogut, Hilmi; Gunay, Erkan; Cetinkaya, Caner; Ozgoren, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Single bout of exercise can improve the performance on cognitive tasks. However, cognitive responses may be controversial due to different type, intensity, and duration of exercise. In addition, the mechanism of the effect of acute exercise on brain is still unclear. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of supramaximal exercise on cognitive tasks by means of brain oxygenation monitoring. The brain oxygenation of Prefrontal cortex (PFC) was measured on 35 healthy male volunteers via functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) system. Subjects performed 2-Back test before and after the supramaximal exercise wingate anerobic test (WAnT) lasting 30-s on cycle ergometer. The PFC oxygenation change evaluation revealed that PFC oxygenation rise during post-exercise 2-Back task was considerably higher than those in pre-exercise 2-Back task. In order to describe the relationship between oxygenation change and exercise performance, subjects were divided into two groups as high performers (HP) and low performers (LP) according to their peak power values (PP) obtained from the supramaximal test. The oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) values were compared between pre- and post-exercise conditions within subjects and also between subjects according to peak power. When performers were compared, in the HP group, the oxy-Hb values in post-exercise 2-Back test were significantly higher than those in pre-exercise 2-Back test. HP had significantly higher post-exercise oxy-Hb change (Δ) than those of LP. In addition, PP of the total group were significantly correlated with Δoxy-Hb.The key findings of the present study revealed that acute supramaximal exercise has an impact on the brain oxygenation during a cognitive task. Also, the higher the anerobic PP describes the larger the oxy-Hb response in post-exercise cognitive task. The current study also demonstrated a significant correlation between peak power (exercise load) and post-exercise hemodynamic responses (oxy-, deoxy- and

  1. Morning pentraxin3 levels reflect obstructive sleep apnea–related acute inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kobukai, Yusuke; Koyama, Takashi; Ito, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated morning levels of pentraxin3 (PTX3) as a sensitive biomarker for acute inflammation in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A total of 61 consecutive patients with OSA were divided into two groups: non-to-mild (n = 20) and moderate-to-severe (n = 41) OSA based on their apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) score. Those patients with moderate-to-severe OSA were further divided into continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treated (n = 21) and non-CPAP-treated (n = 20) groups. Morning and evening serum PTX3 and high-sensitivity (hs) C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured before and after 3 mo of CPAP therapy. The baseline hs-CRP and PTX3 levels were higher in patients with moderate-to-severe OSA than in those with non-to-mild OSA. Moreover, the serum PTX3 levels, but not the hs-CRP levels, were significantly higher after than before sleep in the moderate-to-severe OSA group (morning PTX3, 1.96 ± 0.52; evening PTX3, 1.71 ± 0.44 ng/ml). OSA severity as judged using the AHI was significantly correlated with serum PTX3 levels but not hs-CRP levels. The highest level of correlation was found between the AHI and morning PTX3 levels (r = 0.563, P < 0.001). CPAP therapy reduced evening and morning serum hs-CRP and PTX3 levels in patients with moderate-to-severe OSA; however, the reduction in PTX3 levels in the morning was greater than that in the evening (morning −29.8 ± 16.7% vs. evening −12.6 ± 26.8%, P = 0.029). Improvement in the AHI score following CPAP therapy was strongly correlated with reduced morning PTX3 levels(r = 0.727, P < 0.001). Based on these results, morning PTX3 levels reflect OSA-related acute inflammation and are a useful marker for improvement in OSA following CPAP therapy. PMID:25237185

  2. Acute Supramaximal Exercise Increases the Brain Oxygenation in Relation to Cognitive Workload.

    PubMed

    Bediz, Cem Seref; Oniz, Adile; Guducu, Cagdas; Ural Demirci, Enise; Ogut, Hilmi; Gunay, Erkan; Cetinkaya, Caner; Ozgoren, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Single bout of exercise can improve the performance on cognitive tasks. However, cognitive responses may be controversial due to different type, intensity, and duration of exercise. In addition, the mechanism of the effect of acute exercise on brain is still unclear. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of supramaximal exercise on cognitive tasks by means of brain oxygenation monitoring. The brain oxygenation of Prefrontal cortex (PFC) was measured on 35 healthy male volunteers via functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) system. Subjects performed 2-Back test before and after the supramaximal exercise wingate anerobic test (WAnT) lasting 30-s on cycle ergometer. The PFC oxygenation change evaluation revealed that PFC oxygenation rise during post-exercise 2-Back task was considerably higher than those in pre-exercise 2-Back task. In order to describe the relationship between oxygenation change and exercise performance, subjects were divided into two groups as high performers (HP) and low performers (LP) according to their peak power values (PP) obtained from the supramaximal test. The oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) values were compared between pre- and post-exercise conditions within subjects and also between subjects according to peak power. When performers were compared, in the HP group, the oxy-Hb values in post-exercise 2-Back test were significantly higher than those in pre-exercise 2-Back test. HP had significantly higher post-exercise oxy-Hb change (Δ) than those of LP. In addition, PP of the total group were significantly correlated with Δoxy-Hb.The key findings of the present study revealed that acute supramaximal exercise has an impact on the brain oxygenation during a cognitive task. Also, the higher the anerobic PP describes the larger the oxy-Hb response in post-exercise cognitive task. The current study also demonstrated a significant correlation between peak power (exercise load) and post-exercise hemodynamic responses (oxy-, deoxy- and

  3. Differential Effects of Acute Alcohol on Prepulse Inhibition and Event-Related Potentials in Adolescent and Adult Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pian, Jerry P.; Criado, Jose R.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated that adolescent and adult rats show differential sensitivity to many of the acute effects of alcohol. We recently reported evidence of developmental differences in the effects of acute alcohol on the cortical electroencephalogram (EEG). However, it is unclear whether developmental differences are also observed in other neurophysiological and neurobehavioral measurements known to be sensitive to alcohol exposure. The present study determined the age-related effects of acute alcohol on behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) responses to acoustic startle (AS) and prepulse inhibition (PPI). Methods Male adolescent and adult Wistar rats were implanted with cortical recording electrodes. The effects of acute alcohol (0.0, 0.75, and 1.5 g/kg) on behavioral and ERP responses to AS and PPI were assessed. Results Acute alcohol (0.75 and 1.5 g/kg) significantly reduced the behavioral and electrophysiological response to AS in adolescent and adult rats. Both 0.75 and 1.5 g/kg alcohol significantly enhanced the behavioral response to PPI in adolescent, but not in adult rats. During prepulse+pulse trials, 1.5 g/kg alcohol significantly increased the N10 pulse response in the adolescent frontal cortex. Acute alcohol (0.75 and 1.5 g/kg) also increased the N1 ERP pulse response to prepulse stimuli in frontal and parietal cortices in adult rats, but not in adolescent rats. Conclusions These data suggest that alcohol’s effect on behavioral and electrophysiological indices of AS do not differ between adults and adolescents whereas developmental stage does appear to significantly modify alcohol influenced response to PPI. PMID:18828807

  4. Broccoli sprout extract induces detoxification-related gene expression and attenuates acute liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kazutaka; Ushida, Yusuke; Ishijima, Tomoko; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Inakuma, Takahiro; Yajima, Nobuhiro; Abe, Keiko; Nakai, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of broccoli sprout extract (BSEx) on liver gene expression and acute liver injury in the rat. METHODS: First, the effects of BSEx on liver gene expression were examined. Male rats were divided into two groups. The Control group was fed the AIN-76 diet, and the BSEx group was fed the AIN-76 diet containing BSEx. After a 10-d feeding period, rats were sacrificed and their livers were used for DNA microarray and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses. Next, the effects of BSEx on acute liver injury were examined. In experiments using acute liver injury models, 1000 mg/kg acetaminophen (APAP) or 350 mg/kg D-galactosamine (D-GalN) was used to induce injury. These male rats were divided into four groups: Control, BSEx, Inducer (APAP or D-GalN), and Inducer+BSEx. The feeding regimens were identical for the two analyses. Twenty-four hours following APAP administration via p.o. or D-GalN administration via i.p., rats were sacrificed to determine serum aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels, hepatic glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances accumulation and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity. RESULTS: Microarray and real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed that BSEx upregulated the expression of genes related to detoxification and glutathione synthesis in normal rat liver. The levels of AST (70.91 ± 15.74 IU/mL vs 5614.41 ± 1997.83 IU/mL, P < 0.05) and ALT (11.78 ± 2.08 IU/mL vs 1297.71 ± 447.33 IU/mL, P < 0.05) were significantly suppressed in the APAP + BSEx group compared with the APAP group. The level of GSH (2.61 ± 0.75 nmol/g tissue vs 1.66 ± 0.59 nmol/g tissue, P < 0.05) and liver GST activity (93.19 ± 16.55 U/g tissue vs 51.90 ± 16.85 U/g tissue, P < 0.05) were significantly increased in the APAP + BSEx group compared with the APAP group. AST (4820.05 ± 3094.93 IU/mL vs 12465.63 ± 3223.97 IU/mL, P < 0.05) and ALT (1808.95 ± 1014.04 IU/mL vs

  5. Sex-Related Differences Between Patients With Symptomatic Acute Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Maitusong, Buamina; Sun, Hui-Ping; Xielifu, Dilidaer; Mahemuti, Maisumu; Ma, Xiang; Liu, Fen; Xie, Xiang; Azhati, Adila; Zhou, Xin-Rong; Ma, Yi-Tong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We designed a retrospective cohort study to assess sex-related differences in clinical manifestations, incidence, and outcomes of patients with symptomatic acute aortic dissection (AAD). We collected clinical data from 2010 to 2015 of 400 patients with AAD. Patients’ clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes were analyzed as a function of sex. Among 400 patients with AAD, the ratio of men to women was 3.18:1; the incidence of atherosclerosis was higher in women (P = 0.02). Dysphoria (P = 0.01), focal neurological deficits (P = 0.04), and pulse deficits (P = 0.03) were more frequent in men. Imaging findings revealed that pleural effusion (P < 0.01), celiac trunk involvement (P < 0.01), and superior mesenteric artery involvement (P = 0.02) were more frequent in men. Dissection-related pneumonia (P = 0.02), pulmonary atelectasis (P = 0.01), aortic intramural hematoma (P < 0.01), ischemic electrocardiographic changes (P = 0.03), and in-hospital complications such as myocardial ischemia (P = 0.03), hypoxemia (P < 0.01), cardiac tamponade (P = 0.01) occurred more frequently in women. Women with type A dissection had higher in-hospital mortality than men (P < 0.01). The presentation of AAD varies with a patient's sex. Women with AAD had clinical features different from men as follows: higher age of onset, more frequent inpatient complications, and higher in-hospital mortality. These findings may lead to a better understanding of aortic dissection in women that will improve their outcomes. PMID:26986151

  6. Theoretical Analysis of the Relative Impact of Obesity on Hemodynamic Stability During Acute Hemorrhagic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Sarah A.; Jones, Alan E.; Coleman, Thomas G.; Summers, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that morbid obesity may be an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes in patients with traumatic injuries. Objectives: In this study, a theoretic analysis using a derivation of the Guyton model of cardiovascular physiology examines the expected impact of obesity on hemodynamic changes in Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) and Cardiac Output (CO) during Hemorrhagic Shock (HS). Patients and Methods: Computer simulation studies were used to predict the relative impact of increasing Body Mass Index (BMI) on global hemodynamic parameters during HS. The analytic procedure involved recreating physiologic conditions associated with changing BMI for a virtual subject in an In Silico environment. The model was validated for the known effect of a BMI of 30 on iliofemoral venous pressures. Then, the relative effect of changing BMI on the outcome of target cardiovascular parameters was examined during simulated acute loss of blood volume in class II hemorrhage. The percent changes in these parameters were compared between the virtual nonobese and obese subjects. Model parameter values are derived from known population distributions, producing simulation outputs that can be used in a deductive systems analysis assessment rather than traditional frequentist statistical methodologies. Results: In hemorrhage simulation, moderate increases in BMI were found to produce greater decreases in MAP and CO compared to the normal subject. During HS, the virtual obese subject had 42% and 44% greater falls in CO and MAP, respectively, compared to the nonobese subject. Systems analysis of the model revealed that an increase in resistance to venous return due to changes in intra-abdominal pressure resulting from obesity was the critical mechanism responsible for the differences. Conclusions: This study suggests that obese patients in HS may have a higher risk of hemodynamic instability compared to their nonobese counterparts primarily due to obesity

  7. Comparing apples to apples: the relative financial performance of Manitoba's acute care hospitals.

    PubMed

    Watson, Diane; Finlayson, Greg; Jacobs, Philip

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents comparative financial ratios that can be adopted by health system administrators and policy analysts to begin to evaluate the performance of acute care hospitals. We combined financial, statistical and clinical information for 73 acute care hospitals in Manitoba for fiscal 1997/98 to calculate 15 indicators of financial performance. Our findings suggest that there is variability between hospital types in their average costs per weighted case, cost structure and financial performance.

  8. Ratios between acute aquatic toxicity and effects on population growth rates in relation to toxicant mode of action

    SciTech Connect

    Roex, E.W.M.; Gestel, C.A.M. Van; Wezel, A.P. Van; Straalen, N.M. Van

    2000-03-01

    Environmental risk assessment of chemicals is mostly based on the results of standardized toxicity tests. To obtain environmental quality criteria, extrapolation factors are used that depend on the amount and quality of available data. These extrapolation factors do not, however, take into account the mode of action of the compound tested or the life history of the test organism. In this study, the authors analyzed the variability in acute-to-chronic ratios (ACRs) for various chemicals in relation to their mode of action. Chemicals were classified as nonpolar narcotics, polar narcotics, specifically acting compounds, and heavy metals. As an acute endpoint, the LC50 was used; as a chronic endpoint, the lowest test concentration at which the natural rate of population increase (r) is affected, or LOEC(r), was used. Data were derived from the on-line literature. Nonpolar narcotic chemicals demonstrate the smallest variation in ACRs, and acute tests can be used to derive chronic endpoints for this class. For the other classes, the variation in ACRs is larger. Fish species especially show a relatively large ACR. For heavy metals, differences in the mode of action may play an important role in explaining differences in ACRs. For the other three classes, however, it is less reliable to predict chronic toxicity using the results of acute tests. In general, differences in species sensitivity rather than in mode of action for the chemical seem to determine differences in ACRs.

  9. A refined risk score for acute GVHD that predicts response to initial therapy, survival and transplant-related mortality

    PubMed Central

    MacMillan, Margaret L.; Robin, Marie; Harris, Andrew C.; DeFor, Todd E.; Martin, Paul J.; Alousi, Amin; Ho, Vincent T.; Bolaños-Meade, Javier; Ferrara, James L.M.; Jones, Richard; Arora, Mukta; Blazar, Bruce R.; Holtan, Shernan G.; Jacobsohn, David; Pasquini, Marcelo; Socie, Gerard; Antin, Joseph H.; Levine, John E.; Weisdorf, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    To develop a novel acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) Risk Score, we examined the GVHD clinical stage and grade of 1723 patients at the onset of treatment with systemic steroids. Using clinical grouping, descriptive statistics and recursive partitioning, we identified poorly responsive, high-risk (HR) acute GVHD by the number of involved organs and severity of GVHD at onset. The overall response [(complete response/partial response (CR/PR)] rate 28 days after initiation of steroid therapy for acute GVHD was lower in the 269 patients with HR-GVHD than in the 1454 patients with standard risk (SR)-GVHD [44% (95% CI 38–50%) vs. 68% (95% CI 66–70%), p<0.001. Patients with HR-GVHD were less likely to respond at day 28 [odds ratio (OR), 0.3, 95% CI 0.2–0.4, p<0.001], and had higher risks of mortality [relative risk (RR) 2.1, 95% CI 1.7–2.6, P<0.001] and transplant-related mortality (RR 2.5, 95% CI 2.0–3.2%, p<0.001) compared to patients with SR-GVHD. This refined definition of acute GVHD risk is a better predictor of response, survival and transplant-related mortality than other published acute GVHD risk scores. Patients with HR-GVHD are candidates for studies investigating new treatment approaches. Likewise, patients with SR-GVHD are candidates for studies investigating less toxic therapy. PMID:25585275

  10. Identification of gene variants related to the nitric oxide pathway in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Umman, B; Cakmakoglu, B; Cincin, Z B; Kocaaga, M; Emet, S; Tamer, S; Gokkusu, C

    2015-12-10

    Dysfunction of vascular endothelium is known to have an essential role in the atherosclerotic process by releasing mediators including nitric oxide (NO). Nitric oxide maintains endothelial balance by controlling cellular processes of vascular smooth muscle cells. Evidence suggests that variations in the NO pathway could include atherosclerotic events. The objective of this study was to determine the possible effects of genes on the nitric oxide pathway in the development of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The blood samples of 100 patients with ACS and 100 controls were collected at Istanbul University, Department of Cardiology. DNA samples were genotyped by using Illumina Cyto-SNP-12 BeadChip. The additive model and Correlation/Trend Test were selected for association analysis. Afterwards, a Q-Q graphic was drawn to compare expected and obtained values. A Manhattan plot was produced to display p-values that were generated by -log10(P) function for each SNP. The p-values under 1×10(-4) were selected as statistically significant SNPs while p-values under 5×10(-2) were considered as suspicious biomarker candidates. Nitric oxide pathway analysis was then used to find the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to ACS. As a result, death-associated protein kinase 3 (DAPK) (rs10426955) was found to be most statistically significant SNP. The most suspicious biomarker candidates associated with the nitric oxide pathway analysis were vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA), nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1), and GTP cyclohydrolase I (GCH-1). Further studies with large sample groups are necessary to clarify the exact role of nitric oxide in the development of disease.

  11. Comparison of laparoscopy and open surgery in treating severe acute pancreatitis and its relative aftercare.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Jiang, M X; Zheng, Y; Shu, M; Sun, S B

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects and compare laparoscopic intervention and open surgery in treating severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and its relative aftercare, to improve the overall treatment of SAP. Ninety patients with SAP were enrolled from the 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University from 2008 to 2014 and divided into a laparoscopic intervention group (25 cases) and an open surgery group (65 cases). Patients were asked for clinical symptoms, general hospital information, laboratory inspection, imageological examination, local and systemic complications, treatment and outcome. SAP patients’ relevant clinical indicators were compared between the two groups before and after the operation. Results revealed that there was no statistical significance in lesion range and main scoring indexes for reflecting the severity of the disease. For both groups statistical significance was found in blood loss (285.3±79.8 mL vs 362±91.6 mL), intensive care unit (ICU) monitoring time (9.04±6.35 d vs 12.48±8.34 d) and service time of breathing machine (9.47±6.24 d vs 12.98±8.25 d), and the laparoscopic operation group was superior to the open surgery group (p < 0.05). Besides, the laparoscopic operation group was also superior to the open surgery group in demand for main analgesics one week after the operation, as well as for recovery rate and incidence of complications (p < 0.05). Thus, it can be concluded that patients undergoing laparoscopic intervention are less likely to develop pulmonary infection and more likely to be cured in comparison with patients who receive open surgery. In addition, laparoscopic intervention results in less damage, lighter pain and fewer complications compared with open surgery. PMID:27049091

  12. Hepatic alteration of tryptophan metabolism in an acute porphyria model Its relation with gluconeogenic blockage.

    PubMed

    Lelli, Sandra M; Mazzetti, Marta B; San Martín de Viale, Leonor C

    2008-02-01

    This study focuses on the alterations suffered by the serotoninergic and kinurenergic routes of tryptophan (TRP) metabolism in liver, and their relation with gluconeogenic phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxykinase (PEPCK) blockage in experimental acute porphyria. This porphyria was induced in rats by a combined treatment of 2-allyl-2-isopropylacetamide (100, 250, 500 mg/kg bw) and 3,5-dietoxicarbonil 1,4-dihydrocollidine (constant 50 mg/kg bw dose). Results showed a marked dose-dependent increase of all TRP pyrrolase (TRPp) forms, active (holo, total) and inactive (apo), and a decrease in the degree of enzyme saturation by heme. Increases for holo, total, and apo-TRPp were 90, 150, and 230%, respectively, at the highest dose assayed (H). The treatment also impaired the serotoninergic route of TRP metabolism in liver, causing a decrease in serotonin level (H, 38%), and a concomitant enhancement in TRP content (H, 23%). The porphyrinogenic treatment promoted a blockage in PEPCK activity (H, 30%). This occurred in correlation to the development of porphyria, to TRPp alterations and to the production of hepatic microsomal thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Porphyria was estimated through increases in 5-aminolevulinic acid-synthase (ALA-S) activity, ALA and porphobilinogen contents, and a decrease in ferrochelatase activity. Thus, the TRP kynurenine route was augmented whereas the serotoninergic route was reduced. PEPCK blockage could be partly attributed to quinolinate generated from TRP by the increase of TRPp activity, which would be due to the effect of porphyrinogenic drugs on TRP. The contribution of ROS to PEPCK blockage is analyzed. Likewise, the implication of these results in the control of porphyrias by glucose is discussed.

  13. Energy intake and appetite-related hormones following acute aerobic and resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Balaguera-Cortes, Liliana; Wallman, Karen E; Fairchild, Timothy J; Guelfi, Kym J

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has shown that resistance and aerobic exercise have differing effects on perceived hunger and circulating levels of appetite-related hormones. However, the effect of resistance and aerobic exercise on actual energy intake has never been compared. This study investigated the effect of an acute bout of resistance exercise, compared with aerobic exercise, on subsequent energy intake and appetite-regulating hormones. Ten active men completed 3 trials in a counterbalanced design: 45 min of resistance exercise (RES; free and machine weights), aerobic exercise (AER; running), or a resting control trial (CON). Following exercise or CON, participants had access to a buffet-style array of breakfast foods and drinks to consume ad libitum. Plasma concentrations of a range of appetite-regulating hormones were measured throughout each trial. Despite significantly higher energy expenditure with AER compared with RES (p < 0.05), there was no difference in total energy intake from the postexercise meal between trials (p = 0.779). Pancreatic polypeptide was significantly higher prior to the meal after both RES and AER compared with CON. In contrast, active ghrelin was lower following RES compared with both CON and AER (p ≤ 0.05), while insulin was higher following RES compared with CON (p = 0.013). In summary, the differential response of appetite-regulating hormones to AER and RES does not appear to influence energy intake in the postexercise meal. However, given the greater energy expenditure associated with AER compared with RES, AER modes of exercise may be preferable for achieving short-term negative energy balance. PMID:22111518

  14. Hamstring muscle forces prior to and immediately following an acute sprinting-related muscle strain injury.

    PubMed

    Schache, Anthony G; Kim, Hyung-Joo; Morgan, David L; Pandy, Marcus G

    2010-05-01

    A thorough understanding of the biomechanics of the hamstrings during sprinting is required to optimise injury rehabilitation and prevention strategies. The main aims of this study were to compare hamstrings load across different modes of locomotion as well as before and after an acute sprinting-related muscle strain injury. Bilateral kinematic and ground reaction force data were captured from a single subject whilst walking, jogging and sprinting prior to and immediately following a significant injury involving the right semitendinosis and biceps femoris long head muscles. Experimental data were input into a three-dimensional musculoskeletal model of the body and used, together with optimisation theory, to determine lower-limb muscle forces for each locomotor task. Hamstrings load was found to be greatest during terminal swing for sprinting. The hamstrings contributed the majority of the terminal swing hip extension and knee flexion torques, whilst gluteus maximus contributed most of the stance phase hip extension torque. Gastrocnemius contributed little to the terminal swing knee flexion torque. Peak hamstrings force was also substantially greater during terminal swing compared to stance for sprinting, but not for walking and jogging. Immediately following the muscle strain injury, the hamstrings demonstrated an intolerance to perform an eccentric-type contraction. Whilst peak hamstrings force during terminal swing did not decrease post-injury, both peak hamstrings length and negative work during terminal swing were considerably reduced. These results lend support to the paradigm that the hamstrings are most susceptible to muscle strain injury during the terminal swing phase of sprinting when they are contracting eccentrically.

  15. Mechanisms of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI): anti-leukocyte antibodies.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Brian R; McFarland, Janice G

    2006-05-01

    There is abundant evidence that leukocyte antibodies in blood donor products are somehow involved in transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I, HLA class II, and neutrophil-specific antibodies in the plasma of both blood donors and recipients have been implicated in the pathogenesis of TRALI. The case for a relationship between leukocyte antibodies and TRALI is more compelling if concordance between the antigen specificity of the leukocyte antibodies in the donor plasma and the corresponding antigen on the cells of the affected recipient is demonstrated. Such antibody-antigen concordance can be investigated by typing the recipient for the cognate leukocyte antigens or by cross-matching the donor plasma against the recipient's leukocytes. Two proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms for TRALI have received the most attention: the antibody hypothesis and the two-event hypothesis. The final common pathway in all of the proposed pathogenic mechanisms of TRALI is increased pulmonary capillary permeability, which results in movement of plasma into the alveolar space causing pulmonary edema. A typical TRALI serologic workup consists of tests for HLA class I and II and neutrophil-specific antibodies. The use of flow cytometry and HLA-coated microbeads is recommended for detection of HLA antibodies in plasma of implicated blood donors and a combination of the granulocyte agglutination test and granulocyte immunofluorescence test for detection of neutrophil-specific antibodies. Genotyping for class I and II HLA and for a limited number of neutrophil antigens may also be helpful in establishing antibody-antigen concordance. PMID:16617255

  16. Identification of gene variants related to the nitric oxide pathway in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Umman, B; Cakmakoglu, B; Cincin, Z B; Kocaaga, M; Emet, S; Tamer, S; Gokkusu, C

    2015-12-10

    Dysfunction of vascular endothelium is known to have an essential role in the atherosclerotic process by releasing mediators including nitric oxide (NO). Nitric oxide maintains endothelial balance by controlling cellular processes of vascular smooth muscle cells. Evidence suggests that variations in the NO pathway could include atherosclerotic events. The objective of this study was to determine the possible effects of genes on the nitric oxide pathway in the development of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The blood samples of 100 patients with ACS and 100 controls were collected at Istanbul University, Department of Cardiology. DNA samples were genotyped by using Illumina Cyto-SNP-12 BeadChip. The additive model and Correlation/Trend Test were selected for association analysis. Afterwards, a Q-Q graphic was drawn to compare expected and obtained values. A Manhattan plot was produced to display p-values that were generated by -log10(P) function for each SNP. The p-values under 1×10(-4) were selected as statistically significant SNPs while p-values under 5×10(-2) were considered as suspicious biomarker candidates. Nitric oxide pathway analysis was then used to find the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to ACS. As a result, death-associated protein kinase 3 (DAPK) (rs10426955) was found to be most statistically significant SNP. The most suspicious biomarker candidates associated with the nitric oxide pathway analysis were vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA), nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1), and GTP cyclohydrolase I (GCH-1). Further studies with large sample groups are necessary to clarify the exact role of nitric oxide in the development of disease. PMID:26232608

  17. Restricted feeding entrains rhythms of inflammation-related factors without promoting an acute-phase response.

    PubMed

    Luna-Moreno, Dalia; Aguilar-Roblero, Raúl; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio

    2009-10-01

    A restricted schedule of food access promotes numerous metabolic and physiological adaptations to optimize the biochemical handling of nutrients. The restricted feeding activates responses in hypothalamic and midbrain areas, as well as in peripheral organs involved in energy metabolism. A restricted feeding schedule (RFS) is associated with marked behavioral arousal coincident with the food anticipatory activity (FAA) and extreme hyperphagia during food access. Food restriction is also accompanied by changes in an array of stress-related parameters, such as increase in corticosterone, slower rate in body weight gain, and reduction in retroperitoneal and epididymal adipose tissue. During RFS, the liver shows a diversity of biochemical and physiologically adaptations that are advantageous for food ingestion and processing, as well as for adequate nutrient distribution to other tissues. Taking into account the probable relationship between stressful conditions and the metabolic adaptations in the liver, we addressed whether an acute-phase response (APR), or a pro-inflammatory state, occurred after three weeks of 2 h food restriction. First, we compared the circulating levels of inflammation markers (interleukin-1alpha, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha), and APR proteins (C-reactive protein and fibrinogen) in rats under food restriction to those in rats treated with lipopolysacharide, a strong inducer of the APR. Second, the influence of RFS on the daily rhythms of systemic cytokines and APR proteins was characterized. Third, we tested if the feeding condition (22 h fasting and 2 h refeeding) influences these parameters. Finally, we assessed if a local stressed state was established in the liver associated with the restricted feeding by measuring the activation of the transcriptional factor NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells). The results showed that the following occurred during RFS: no APR was implemented; food

  18. Red eye in chickenpox: varicella-related acute anterior uveitis in a child.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Nicholas Robert

    2010-09-17

    Varicella-zoster virus is a common viral infection of childhood. This report concerns an 8-year-old girl who presented with a 5-day history of a typical varicella rash. She then developed red left eye 'conjunctivitis'. She had no discharge, mild pain and intense photophobia. She was referred to the acute eye clinic after 1 day and she was noted to have acute anterior uveitis. She was treated with gutt atropine 1% for 2 weeks until the inflammation resolved. She had no sequalae.

  19. Successful outcome of Langerhans cell histiocytosis complicated by therapy-related myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukemia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Al-Anazi, Khalid A; Alshehri, Abdulrahman; Al-Zahrani, Hazza A; Al-Mohareb, Fahad I; Maghfoor, Irfan; Ajarim, Dahish

    2008-01-01

    Background Various therapeutic options are available for the management of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. However, treatment administered to control this disease may be complicated by acute leukemia. Case presentation A 34 years old male was diagnosed to have Langerhans cell histiocytosis in March 1999. Unfortunately, the cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiotherapy given to control the repeated relapses and exacerbations of the primary disease predisposed him to therapy-induced myelodysplastic syndrome which transformed into acute myeloid leukemia. After achieving complete remission of his leukemia, the patient received an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The allograft was complicated by chronic graft versus host disease that was controlled by various immunosuppressive agents and extracorporal photophoresis. Conclusion Management of complicated cases of histiocytosis requires various therapeutic modalities and a multidisciplinary approach. Having complications of therapy eg myelodysplasia or acute leukemia make the outcome more dismal and the management options limited to aggressive forms of treatment. High dose chemotherapy followed by an allograft may be a curative option not only for therapy-related myelodysplasia/acute leukemia, but also for frequently relapsing and poorly controlled Langerhans cell histiocytosis. PMID:18710527

  20. The relative role of refractoriness and source-sink relationship in reentry generation during simulated acute ischemia.

    PubMed

    Romero, Lucía; Trénor, Beatriz; Alonso, José M; Tobón, Catalina; Saiz, Javier; Ferrero, José M

    2009-08-01

    During acute myocardial ischemia, reentrant episodes may lead to ventricular fibrillation (VF), giving rise to potentially mortal arrhythmias. VF has been traditionally related to dispersion of refractoriness and more recently to the source-sink relationship. Our goal is to theoretically investigate the relative role of dispersion of refractoriness and source-sink mismatch in vulnerability to reentry in the specific situation of regional myocardial acute ischemia. The electrical activity of a regionally ischemic tissue was simulated using a modified version of the Luo-Rudy dynamic model. Ischemic conditions were varied to simulate the time-course of acute ischemia. Our results showed that dispersion of refractoriness increased with the severity of ischemia. However, no correlation between dispersion of refractoriness and the width of the vulnerable window was found. Additionally, in approximately 50% of the reentries, unidirectional block (UDB) took place in cells completely recovered from refractoriness. We examined patterns of activation after premature stimulation and they were intimately related to the source-sink relationship, quantified by the safety factor (SF). Moreover, the isoline where the SF dropped below unity matched the area where propagation failed. It was concluded that the mismatch of the source-sink relationship, rather than solely refractoriness, was the ultimate cause of the UDB leading to reentry. The SF represents a very powerful tool to study the mechanisms responsible for reentry.

  1. Aspects of cerebral plasticity related to clinical features in acute vestibular neuritis: a "starting point" review from neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Micarelli, A; Chiaravalloti, A; Schillaci, O; Ottaviani, F; Alessandrini, M

    2016-04-01

    Vestibular neuritis (VN) is one of the most common causes of vertigo and is characterised by a sudden unilateral vestibular failure (UVF). Many neuroimaging studies in the last 10 years have focused on brain changes related to sudden vestibular deafferentation as in VN. However, most of these studies, also due to different possibilities across diverse centres, were based on different times of first acquisition from the onset of VN symptoms, neuroimaging techniques, statistical analysis and correlation with otoneurological and psychological findings. In the present review, the authors aim to merge together the similarities and discrepancies across various investigations that have employed neuroimaging techniques and group analysis with the purpose of better understanding about how the brain changes and what characteristic clinical features may relate to each other in the acute phase of VN. Six studies that strictly met inclusion criteria were analysed to assess cortical-subcortical correlates of acute clinical features related to VN. The present review clearly reveals that sudden UVF may induce a wide variety of cortical and subcortical responses - with changes in different sensory modules - as a result of acute plasticity in the central nervous system. PMID:27196070

  2. AGE-RELATED TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental exposures is poorly understood. To investigate-the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of an acute exposure to the volatile organic compound, toluene (0.0 or 1.0 g/kg), i...

  3. Phase-based metamorphosis of diffusion lesion in relation to perfusion values in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Rekik, Islem; Allassonnière, Stéphanie; Luby, Marie; Carpenter, Trevor K; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2015-01-01

    Examining the dynamics of stroke ischemia is limited by the standard use of 2D-volume or voxel-based analysis techniques. Recently developed spatiotemporal models such as the 4D metamorphosis model showed promise for capturing ischemia dynamics. We used a 4D metamorphosis model to evaluate acute ischemic stroke lesion morphology from the acute diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to final T2-weighted imaging (T2-w). In 20 representative patients, we metamorphosed the acute lesion to subacute lesion to final infarct. From the DWI lesion deformation maps we identified dynamic lesion areas and examined their association with perfusion values inside and around the lesion edges, blinded to reperfusion status. We then tested the model in ten independent patients from the STroke Imaging Repository (STIR). Perfusion values varied widely between and within patients, and were similar in contracting and expanding DWI areas in many patients in both datasets. In 25% of patients, the perfusion values were higher in DWI-contracting than DWI-expanding areas. A similar wide range of perfusion values and ongoing expansion and contraction of the DWI lesion were seen subacutely. There was more DWI contraction and less expansion in patients who received thrombolysis, although with widely ranging perfusion values that did not differ. 4D metamorphosis modeling shows promise as a method to improve use of multimodal imaging to understand the evolution of acute ischemic tissue towards its fate. PMID:26288755

  4. High Homocysteine and Blood Pressure Related to Poor Outcome of Acute Ischemia Stroke in Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changjiang; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Mo; Sun, Wenjie; Xu, Tan; Tong, Weijun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between plasma homocysteine (Hcy), blood pressure (BP) and poor outcome at hospital discharge among acute ischemic stroke patients, and if high Hcy increases the risk of poor outcome based on high BP status in a northern Chinese population. Methods Between June 1, 2009 and May 31, 2013, a total of 3695 acute ischemic stroke patients were recruited from three hospitals in northern Chinese cities. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, medical history, and other clinical characteristics were recorded for all subjects. Poor outcome was defined as a discharge modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score ≥3 or death. The association between homocysteine concentration, admission blood pressure, and risk of poor outcome following acute ischemic stroke was analyzed by using multivariate non-conditional logistic regression models. Results Compared with those in the lowest quartile of Hcy concentration in a multivariate-adjusted model, those in the highest quartile of Hcy concentration had increased risk of poor outcome after acute ischemic stroke, (OR = 1.33, P<0.05). The dose-response relationship between Hcy concentration and risk of poor outcome was statistically significant (p-value for trend  = 0.027). High BP was significantly associated with poor outcome following acute ischemic stroke (adjusted OR = 1.44, 95%CI, 1.19–1.74). Compared with non-high BP with nhHcy, in a multivariate-adjusted model, the ORs (95% CI) of non-high BP with hHcy, high BP with nhHcy, and high BP with hHcy to poor outcome were 1.14 (0.85–1.53), 1.37 (1.03–1.84) and 1.70 (1.29–2.34), respectively. Conclusion The present study suggested that high plasma Hcy and blood pressure were independent risk factors for prognosis of acute ischemic stroke, and hHcy may further increase the risk of poor outcome among patients with high blood pressure. Additionally, the results indicate that high Hcy with high BP may cause increased susceptibility

  5. Evaluation of Absorbable Mesh Fixation Devices at Various Deployment Angles

    PubMed Central

    Zihni, Ahmed M.; Cavallo, Jaime A.; Thompson, Dominic M.; Chowdhury, Nabeel H.; Frisella, Margaret M.; Matthews, Brent D.; Deeken, Corey R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hernia repair failure may occur due to suboptimal mesh fixation by mechanical constructs before mesh integration. Construct design and acute penetration angle may alter mesh-tissue fixation strength. We compared acute fixation strengths of absorbable fixation devices at various deployment angles, directions of loading, and construct orientations. METHODS Porcine abdominal walls were sectioned. Constructs were deployed at 30, 45, 60, and 90 degree angles to fix mesh to the tissue specimens. Lap-shear testing was performed in upward, downward, and lateral directions in relation to the abdominal wall cranial-caudal axis to evaluate fixation. Absorbatack™ (AT), SorbaFix™ (SF), and SecureStrap™ in vertical (SSV) and horizontal (SSH) orientations in relation to the abdominal wall cranial-caudal axis were tested. Ten tests were performed for each combination of device, angle, and loading direction. Failure types and strength data were recorded. ANOVA with Tukey-Kramer adjustments for multiple comparisons and chi-square tests were performed as appropriate (p<0.05 considered significant). RESULTS At 30 degrees, SSH and SSV had greater fixation strengths (12.95 N, 12.98 N, respectively) than SF (5.70 N; p=0.0057, p=0.0053, respectively). At 45 degrees, mean fixation strength of SSH was significantly greater than SF (18.14 N, 11.40 N; p=0.0002). No differences in strength were identified at 60 or 90 degrees. No differences in strength were noted between SSV and SSH with different directions of loading. No differences were noted between SS and AT at any angle. Immediate failure was associated with SF (p<0.0001) and the 30 degree tacking angle (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS Mesh-tissue fixation was stronger at acute deployment angles with SS compared to SF constructs. The 30 degree angle and the SF device were associated with increased immediate failures. Varying construct and loading direction did not generate statistically significant differences in the fixation

  6. The relative safety of MRI contrast agent in acute necrotizing pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Werner, J; Schmidt, J; Warshaw, A L; Gebhard, M M; Herfarth, C; Klar, E

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the safety of gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (GD-DTPA) by measuring its effect on pancreatic capillary perfusion and acinar injury in acute pancreatitis. BACKGROUND: Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) is proposed as a gold standard for early evaluation of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. However, iodinated contrast media used for CECT have been shown in these circumstances to reduce pancreatic capillary flow and increase necrosis and mortality. Recent reports suggest that post-GD MRI provides images comparable to CECT in the assessment of severe acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Necrotizing pancreatitis was induced in 14 Wistar rats by intraductal glycodeoxycholic acid (10 mM/L) and intravenous caerulein (5 microg/kg/h) over 6 hours. Intravital microscopic quantitation of pancreatic capillary blood flow was performed using fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled erythrocytes after induction of pancreatitis and 30 and 60 minutes after an intravenous bolus of either Ringer's solution or GD-DTPA (0.2 mL/kg). RESULTS: The two study groups were comparable with regard to mean arterial pressure, heart rate, arterial blood gases, hematocrit, amylase, lipase, and trypsinogen activation peptide production throughout the experiment. GD-DTPA did not reduce capillary flow (1.93 +/- 0.05 nL/capillary/min) compared to animals infused with Ringer's solution (1.90 +/- 0.06 nL/capillary/min). CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous injection of GD-DTPA does not further impair pancreatic microcirculation or increase acinar injury in acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Because of this advantage over CT contrast medium, further development of MRI as a staging tool in acute pancreatitis seems desirable. PMID:9445117

  7. Acute cocaine-related health problems in patients presenting to an urban emergency department in Switzerland: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Emergency departments may be a useful information source to describe the demographics and clinical characteristics of patients with acute cocaine-related medical problems. We therefore conducted a retrospective analysis of 165 acute, laboratory-confirmed cocaine intoxications admitted to an urban emergency department in Switzerland between January 2007 and March 2011. Results A total of 165 patients with a mean age of 32 years were included. Most patients were male (73%) and unemployed (65%). Only a minority (16%) had abused cocaine alone while 84% of the patients had used at least one additional substance, most commonly ethanol (41%), opioids (38%), or cannabis (36%) as confirmed by their detection in blood samples. The most frequently reported symptoms were chest pain (21%), palpitations (19%), anxiety (36%) and restlessness (36%). Psychiatric symptoms were present in 64%. Hypertension and tachycardia were observed in 53% and 44% of the patients, respectively. Severe poisonings only occurred in patients with multiple substance intoxication (15%). Severe intoxications were non-significantly more frequent with injected drug use compared to nasal, oral, or inhalational drug use. Severe complications included acute myocardial infarction (2 cases), stroke (one case), and seizures (3 cases). Most patients (75%) were discharged home within 24 h after admission. A psychiatric evaluation in the ED was performed in 24% of the patients and 19% were referred to a psychiatric clinic. Conclusions Patients with acute cocaine intoxication often used cocaine together with ethanol and opioids and presented with sympathomimetic toxicity and/or psychiatric disorders. Severe acute toxicity was more frequent with multiple substance use. Toxicity was typically short-lasting but psychiatric evaluation and referral was often needed. PMID:24666782

  8. Measuring Angles in Physical Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeley, Nansee; Offerman, Theresa Reardon

    1997-01-01

    Features articles about physical therapy and its history as related to geometry through measurement of body angles. Includes open-ended worksheets for mathematics activities that introduce students to angle measurement, data analysis, and mathematical tools. Activities include: (1) Making Your Own Goniometer; (2) Range of Motion; (3) Active versus…

  9. A case study comparing the relative benefit of optimizing beam weights, wedge angles, beam orientations and tomotherapy in stereotactic radiotherapy of the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, M.; Khoo, V. S.; Rowbottom, C. G.; Bedford, J. L.; Webb, S.

    1998-08-01

    A treatment-planning case study has been performed on a patient with a medium-sized, convex brain tumour. The study involved the application of advanced treatment-plan optimization techniques to improve on the dose distribution of the `standard plan' used to treat the patient. The standard plan was created according to conventional protocol at the Royal Marsden NHS Trust, and consisted of a three-field (one open and two wedged) non-coplanar arrangement, with field shaping to the beam's-eye view of the planning target volume (PTV). Three optimized treatment plans were created corresponding to (i) the optimization of the beam weights and wedge angles of the standard plan, (ii) the optimization of the beam orientations, beam weights and wedge angles of the standard plan, and (iii) a full fluence tomotherapy optimization of 1 cm wide (at isocentre), arcs. (i) and (ii) were created on the VOXELPLAN research 3D treatment-planning system, using in-house developed optimization algorithms, and (iii) was created on the PEACOCK tomotherapy planning system. The downhill-simplex optimization algorithm is used, in conjuction with `threshold-dose' cost-function terms enabling the algorithm to optimize specific regions of the dose-volume histogram (DVH) curve. The `beam-cost plot' tool is presented as a visual aid to the selection of beneficial beam directions. The methods and pitfalls in the transfer of plans and patient data between the two planning systems are discussed. Each optimization approach was evaluated, relative to the standard plan, on the basis of DVH and dose statistics in the PTV and organs at risk (OARs). All three optimization approaches were able to improve on the dose distribution of the standard plan. The magnitude of the improvement was greater for the optimized beam-orientation and tomotherapy plans (up to 15% and 30% for the maximum and mean OAR doses). A smaller improvement

  10. Limbus- versus fornix-based trabeculectomy for open-angle glaucoma eyes with prior ocular surgery: the Collaborative Bleb-Related Infection Incidence and Treatment Study.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Satoshi; Takihara, Yuji; Inatani, Masaru

    2015-03-19

    We compared the surgical successes of limbus- and fornix-based trabeculectomies in open-angle glaucoma (OAG) eyes that had prior ocular surgery in the Collaborative Bleb-Related Infection Incidence and Treatment Study (CBIITS), Japan. From the 1,098 glaucoma eyes in 34 clinical centers in CBIITS, 195 OAG eyes that had undergone previous trabeculectomy and/or lens extraction were included. Limbus- or fornix-based trabeculectomy with mitomycin C were performed. Surgical failure (IOP ≥ 21, 18, or 15 mmHg for criterion A, B or C, respectively; <20% decrease from baseline; reoperation for glaucoma; or loss of light perception vision) was counted. There were 106 and 89 eyes treated with limbus- and fornix-based trabeculectomies, respectively. At 3 years, IOP (mean ± SD) was 12.5 ± 5.9 and 14.1 ± 6.4 mmHg and the cumulative probabilities of failure during 3 years were 30.2% and 50.5% for criterion A, 40.3% and 57.4% for criterion B, and 57.9% and 65.8% for criterion C in the limbus- and the fornix-based group, respectively. Fornix-based incisions were associated with surgical failure in Cox-proportional multivariable analysis for criterion A [relative risk (RR) = 1.96], and B [RR = 1.60]. Limbus-based trabeculectomy had a higher probability of success in OAG eyes with prior ocular surgery.

  11. Direct Growth of Single- and Few-Layer MoS2 on h-BN with Preferred Relative Rotation Angles.

    PubMed

    Yan, Aiming; Velasco, Jairo; Kahn, Salman; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Wang, Feng; Crommie, Michael F; Zettl, Alex

    2015-10-14

    Monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a promising two-dimensional direct-bandgap semiconductor with potential applications in atomically thin and flexible electronics. An attractive insulating substrate or mate for MoS2 (and related materials such as graphene) is hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). Stacked heterostructures of MoS2 and h-BN have been produced by manual transfer methods, but a more efficient and scalable assembly method is needed. Here we demonstrate the direct growth of single- and few-layer MoS2 on h-BN by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, which is scalable with suitably structured substrates. The growth mechanisms for single-layer and few-layer samples are found to be distinct, and for single-layer samples low relative rotation angles (<5°) between the MoS2 and h-BN lattices prevail. Moreover, MoS2 directly grown on h-BN maintains its intrinsic 1.89 eV bandgap. Our CVD synthesis method presents an important advancement toward controllable and scalable MoS2-based electronic devices.

  12. Constrained Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Relative Abundances of Protein Conformation in a Heterogeneous Mixture from Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Intensity Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Onuk, A. Emre; Akcakaya, Murat; Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; Erdogmus, Deniz; Brooks, Dana H.; Makowski, Lee

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a model for maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) of the relative abundances of different conformations of a protein in a heterogeneous mixture from small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) intensities. To consider cases where the solution includes intermediate or unknown conformations, we develop a subset selection method based on k-means clustering and the Cramér-Rao bound on the mixture coefficient estimation error to find a sparse basis set that represents the space spanned by the measured SAXS intensities of the known conformations of a protein. Then, using the selected basis set and the assumptions on the model for the intensity measurements, we show that the MLE model can be expressed as a constrained convex optimization problem. Employing the adenylate kinase (ADK) protein and its known conformations as an example, and using Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate the performance of the proposed estimation scheme. Here, although we use 45 crystallographically determined experimental structures and we could generate many more using, for instance, molecular dynamics calculations, the clustering technique indicates that the data cannot support the determination of relative abundances for more than 5 conformations. The estimation of this maximum number of conformations is intrinsic to the methodology we have used here. PMID:26924916

  13. Child Anxiety Symptoms Related to Longitudinal Cortisol Trajectories and Acute Stress Responses: Evidence of Developmental Stress Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Gilliam, Kathryn S.; Wright, Dorianne B.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional research suggests that individuals at risk for internalizing disorders show differential activation levels and/or dynamics of stress-sensitive physiological systems, possibly reflecting a process of stress sensitization. However, there is little longitudinal research to clarify how the development of these systems over time relates to activation during acute stress, and how aspects of such activation map onto internalizing symptoms. We investigated children’s (n=107) diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity via salivary cortisol (morning and evening levels) across 29 assessments spanning 6+ years, and related longitudinal patterns to acute stress responses at the end of this period (age 9–10). Associations with child psychiatric symptoms at age 10 were also examined to determine internalizing risk profiles. Increasing morning cortisol levels across assessments predicted less of a cortisol decline following interpersonal stress at age 9, and higher cortisol levels during performance stress at age 10. These same profiles of high and/or sustained cortisol elevation during psychosocial stress were associated with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest developmental sensitization to stress—reflected in rising morning cortisol and eventual hyperactivation during acute stress exposure—may distinguish children at risk for internalizing disorders. PMID:25688433

  14. Acute fatal coronary artery dissection following exercise-related blunt chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Barbesier, Marie; Boval, Catherine; Desfeux, Jacques; Lebreton, Catherine; Léonetti, Georges; Piercecchi, Marie-Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery injury such as acute coronary dissection is an uncommon and potentially life-threatening complication after blunt chest trauma. The authors report an unusual autopsy case of a 43-year-old healthy man who suddenly collapsed after receiving a punch to the chest during the practice of kung fu. The occurrence of the punch was supported by the presence of one recent contusion on the left lateral chest area at the external examination and by areas of hemorrhage next to the left lateral intercostal spaces at the internal examination. The histological examination revealed the presence of an acute dissection of the proximal segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Only few cases of coronary artery dissection have been reported due to trauma during sports activities such as rugby and soccer games, but never during the practice of martial arts, sports usually considered as safe and responsible for only minor trauma.

  15. An Unexpected Result of Obesity Treatment: Orlistat-Related Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kose, Murat; Emet, Samim; Akpinar, Timur Selcuk; Ilhan, Mehmet; Gok, Ali Fuat Kaan; Dadashov, Mubariz; Tukek, Tufan

    2015-01-01

    Orlistat is a pancreatic lipase inhibitor which is used to treat obesity. Due to the increasing prevalence of obesity, orlistat use is thought to rise progressively. We report an interesting case caused by orlistat use caught in the early stages of acute pancreatitis through imaging; in addition, the case had significantly elevated serum amylase levels. A 54-year-old male who had a history of orlistat treatment started 7 days before was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting lasting for 24 h. Abdominal computed tomography revealed peripancreatic fat tissue edema and a heterogeneous appearance of the pancreas. Based on these findings, it was concluded that edematous pancreatitis was in its initial stage. Orlistat is a drug that is increasingly widespread use due to obesity. More attention must be paid when planning to prescribe orlistat to patients if there are risk factors for acute pancreatitis (alcohol use, height, serum calcium and lipid levels). PMID:26078734

  16. Acute hepatitis C virus infection related to capillary blood glucose meter

    PubMed Central

    Inayat, Faisal; Rai, Aitzaz BinSultan

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects an estimated 130-150 million people worldwide, becoming the major cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver transplantation. There are various preventable modes of transmission of HCV infection, including needlestick and sharps injuries. However, HCV infection secondary to needlestick injury by a capillary blood glucose meter (CBGM) lancet has not been previously well reported. We describe an unusual case of a 25-year-old male medical student, acquiring acute HCV infection with a lancing device of CBGM. The source patient was a 54-year-old diabetic male with positive anti-HCV test results. In our patient, after 3 months of initial exposure, a standard set of investigations confirmed the diagnosis of acute HCV infection with the same genotype (3a) as the source. The CBGM, as in our case, may have a role in the transmission of HCV infection warranting radical advancements in diabetes screening and monitoring technology. PMID:26739982

  17. Differential Effects of Opioid-Related Ligands and NSAIDs in Nonhuman Primate Models of Acute and Inflammatory Pain

    PubMed Central

    Sukhtankar, Devki D.; Lee, Heeseung; Rice, Kenner C.; Ko, Mei-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia is a widely used pain model in rodents. However, characteristics of carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia and effects of analgesic drugs under these conditions are unknown in nonhuman primates. Objective The aims of this study were to develop carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia in rhesus monkeys and determine the efficacy and potency of agonists selective for the four opioid receptor subtypes in this model versus acute pain, as compared to NSAIDs. Results Tail-injection of carrageenan produced long-lasting thermal hyperalgesia in monkeys. Systemically administered agonists selective for opioid receptor subtypes i.e. fentanyl (mu/MOP), U-50488H (kappa/KOP), SNC80 (delta/DOP) and Ro 64-6198 (nociceptin/orphanin FQ/NOP) dose-dependently attenuated carrageenan-induced thermal hyperalgesia with different potencies. In absence of carrageenan, these agonists, except SNC80, blocked acute thermal nociception. Opioid-related ligands, especially Ro 64-6198, were much more potent for their antihyperalgesic than antinociceptive effects. Both effects were mediated by the corresponding receptor mechanisms. Only fentanyl produced scratching at antihyperalgesic and antinociceptive doses consistent with its pruritic effects in humans, illustrating a translational profile of MOP agonists in nonhuman primates. Similar to SNC80, systemically administered NSAIDs ketorolac and naproxen dose-dependently attenuated carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia but not acute nociception. Conclusion Using two different pain modalities in nonhuman primates, effectiveness of clinically available analgesics like fentanyl, ketorolac and naproxen was distinguished and their efficacies and potencies were compared with the selective KOP, DOP, and NOP agonists. The opioid-related ligands displayed differential pharmacological properties in regulating hyperalgesia and acute nociception in the same subjects. Such preclinical primate models can be used to investigate novel

  18. Acute and developmental behavioral effects of flame retardants and related chemicals in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Jarema, Kimberly A.; Hunter, Deborah L.; Shaffer, Rachel M.; Behl, Mamta; Padilla, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    As polybrominated diphenyl ethers are phased out, numerous compounds are emerging as potential replacement flame retardants for use in consumer and electronic products. Little is known, however, about the neurobehavioral toxicity of these replacements. This study evaluated the neurobehavioral effects of acute or developmental exposure to t-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (BPDP), 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDP), isodecyl diphenyl phosphate (IDDP), isopropylated phenyl phosphate (IPP), tricresyl phosphate (TMPP; also abbreviated TCP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP; also abbreviated TPP), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris (1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP; also abbreviated TDCPP), tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP), and 2,2-,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. Larvae (n ≈ 24 per dose per compound) were exposed to test compounds (0.4–120 µM) at sub-teratogenic concentrations either developmentally or acutely, and locomotor activity was assessed at 6 days post fertilization. When given developmentally, all chemicals except BPDP, IDDP and TBBPA produced behavioral effects. When given acutely, all chemicals produced behavioral effects, with TPHP, TBBPA, EHDP, IPP, and BPDP eliciting the most effects at the most concentrations. The results indicate that these replacement flame retardants may have developmental or pharmacological effects on the vertebrate nervous system. PMID:26348672

  19. Acute and developmental behavioral effects of flame retardants and related chemicals in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Jarema, Kimberly A; Hunter, Deborah L; Shaffer, Rachel M; Behl, Mamta; Padilla, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    As polybrominated diphenyl ethers are phased out, numerous compounds are emerging as potential replacement flame retardants for use in consumer and electronic products. Little is known, however, about the neurobehavioral toxicity of these replacements. This study evaluated the neurobehavioral effects of acute or developmental exposure to t-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (BPDP), 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDP), isodecyl diphenyl phosphate (IDDP), isopropylated phenyl phosphate (IPP), tricresyl phosphate (TMPP; also abbreviated TCP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP; also abbreviated TPP), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris (1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP; also abbreviated TDCPP), tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP), and 2,2-,4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. Larvae (n≈24 per dose per compound) were exposed to test compounds (0.4-120 μM) at sub-teratogenic concentrations either developmentally or acutely, and locomotor activity was assessed at 6 days post fertilization. When given developmentally, all chemicals except BPDP, IDDP and TBBPA produced behavioral effects. When given acutely, all chemicals produced behavioral effects, with TPHP, TBBPA, EHDP, IPP, and BPDP eliciting the most effects at the most concentrations. The results indicate that these replacement flame retardants may have developmental or pharmacological effects on the vertebrate nervous system.

  20. Acute and developmental behavioral effects of flame retardants and related chemicals in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Jarema, Kimberly A; Hunter, Deborah L; Shaffer, Rachel M; Behl, Mamta; Padilla, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    As polybrominated diphenyl ethers are phased out, numerous compounds are emerging as potential replacement flame retardants for use in consumer and electronic products. Little is known, however, about the neurobehavioral toxicity of these replacements. This study evaluated the neurobehavioral effects of acute or developmental exposure to t-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (BPDP), 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDP), isodecyl diphenyl phosphate (IDDP), isopropylated phenyl phosphate (IPP), tricresyl phosphate (TMPP; also abbreviated TCP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP; also abbreviated TPP), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris (1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP; also abbreviated TDCPP), tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP), and 2,2-,4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. Larvae (n≈24 per dose per compound) were exposed to test compounds (0.4-120 μM) at sub-teratogenic concentrations either developmentally or acutely, and locomotor activity was assessed at 6 days post fertilization. When given developmentally, all chemicals except BPDP, IDDP and TBBPA produced behavioral effects. When given acutely, all chemicals produced behavioral effects, with TPHP, TBBPA, EHDP, IPP, and BPDP eliciting the most effects at the most concentrations. The results indicate that these replacement flame retardants may have developmental or pharmacological effects on the vertebrate nervous system. PMID:26348672

  1. Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with AIDS: a relatively uncommon condition associated with reduced survival.

    PubMed Central

    Parente, F; Cernuschi, M; Valsecchi, L; Rizzardini, G; Musicco, M; Lazzarin, A; Bianchi Porro, G

    1991-01-01

    To determine the cumulative incidence of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding and its effect upon survival in patients with AIDS, 453 consecutive AIDS patients diagnosed in our hospital between June 1985 and March 1989 were followed for a median period of six months (maximum 42 months). The cumulative probability of acute gastrointestinal bleeding was 3% at six months and 6% at 14 months. This event was associated with significantly reduced survival. Independent risk factors for bleeding were: severe thrombocytopenia at the time of diagnosis and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma as the first clinical manifestation of AIDS. The potential causes of bleeding were investigated in all cases by emergency endoscopy or by necropsy examination in those patients whose clinical condition precluded the procedure. In nine of 15 patients, bleeding was due to lesions specifically associated with AIDS, but in the remainder the source of bleeding was not a direct consequence of HIV infection. We conclude that acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding rarely complicates the course of AIDS, but its occurrence is associated with decreased survival. As many of the causes are potentially treatable, a complete diagnostic approach is indicated in these patients, except those who are terminally ill. PMID:1916503

  2. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) treatment of sports-related severe acute hamstring injuries

    PubMed Central

    Guillodo, Yannick; Madouas, Gwénaelle; Simon, Thomas; Le Dauphin, Hermine; Saraux, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Summary Purpose hamstring injury is the most common musculoskeletal disorder and one of the main causes of missed sporting events. Shortening the time to return to play (TTRTP) is a priority for athletes and sports medicine practitioners. Hypothesis platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection at the site of severe acute hamstring injury increases the healing rate and shortens the TTRTP. Study design Cohort study. Methods all patients with ultrasonography and MRI evidence of severe acute hamstring injury between January 2012 and March 2014 were offered PRP treatment. Those who accepted received a single intramuscular PRP injection within 8 days post-injury; the other patients served as controls. The same standardized rehabilitation program was used in both groups. A physical examination and ultrasonography were performed 10 and 30 days post-injury, then a phone interview 120 days post-injury, to determine the TTRTP at the pre-injury level. Results of 34 patients, 15 received PRP and 19 did not. Mean TTRTP at the pre-injury level was 50.9±10.7 days in the PRP group and 52.8±15.7 days in the control group. The difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion a single intramuscular PRP injection did not shorten the TTRTP in sports people with severe acute hamstring injuries. PMID:26958537

  3. Application of ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering / X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy to relate equilibrium or non-equilibrium dynamics to microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Andrew; Zhang, Fan; Levine, Lyle; Ilavsky, Jan

    2013-03-01

    Ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) can probe microstructures over the nanometer-to-micrometer scale range. Through use of a small instrument entrance slit, X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) exploits the partial coherence of an X-ray synchrotron undulator beam to provide unprecedented sensitivity to the dynamics of microstructural change. In USAXS/XPCS studies, the dynamics of local structures in a scale range of 100 nm to 1000 nm can be related to an overall hierarchical microstructure extending from 1 nm to more than 1000 nm. Using a point-detection scintillator mode, the equilibrium dynamics at ambient temperature of small particles (which move more slowly than nanoparticles) in aqueous suspension have been quantified directly for the first time. Using a USAXS-XPCS scanning mode for non-equilibrium dynamics incipient processes within dental composites have been elucidated, prior to effects becoming detectable using any other technique. Use of the Advanced Photon Source, an Office of Science User Facility operated for the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory, was supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  4. Positive effect of acute mild exercise on executive function via arousal-related prefrontal activations: an fNIRS study.

    PubMed

    Byun, Kyeongho; Hyodo, Kazuki; Suwabe, Kazuya; Ochi, Genta; Sakairi, Yosuke; Kato, Morimasa; Dan, Ippeita; Soya, Hideaki

    2014-09-01

    Despite the practical implication of mild exercise, little is known about its influence on executive function and its neural substrates. To address these issues, the present study examined the effect of an acute bout of mild exercise on executive function and attempted to identify potential neural substrates using non-invasive functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Twenty-five young individuals performed a color-word matching Stroop task (CWST) and a two-dimensional scale to measure changes of psychological mood states both before and after a 10-minute exercise session on a cycle ergometer at light intensity (30% v(·)o2peak) and, for the control session, without exercise. Cortical hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal area were monitored with fNIRS during the CWST in both sessions. The acute bout of mild exercise led to improved Stroop performance, which was positively correlated with increased arousal levels. It also evoked cortical activations regarding Stroop interference on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and frontopolar area. These activations significantly corresponded with both improved cognitive performance and increased arousal levels. Concurrently, this study provides empirical evidence that an acute bout of mild exercise improves executive function mediated by the exercise-induced arousal system, which intensifies cortical activation in task-related prefrontal sub-regions. PMID:24799137

  5. Positive effect of acute mild exercise on executive function via arousal-related prefrontal activations: an fNIRS study.

    PubMed

    Byun, Kyeongho; Hyodo, Kazuki; Suwabe, Kazuya; Ochi, Genta; Sakairi, Yosuke; Kato, Morimasa; Dan, Ippeita; Soya, Hideaki

    2014-09-01

    Despite the practical implication of mild exercise, little is known about its influence on executive function and its neural substrates. To address these issues, the present study examined the effect of an acute bout of mild exercise on executive function and attempted to identify potential neural substrates using non-invasive functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Twenty-five young individuals performed a color-word matching Stroop task (CWST) and a two-dimensional scale to measure changes of psychological mood states both before and after a 10-minute exercise session on a cycle ergometer at light intensity (30% v(·)o2peak) and, for the control session, without exercise. Cortical hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal area were monitored with fNIRS during the CWST in both sessions. The acute bout of mild exercise led to improved Stroop performance, which was positively correlated with increased arousal levels. It also evoked cortical activations regarding Stroop interference on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and frontopolar area. These activations significantly corresponded with both improved cognitive performance and increased arousal levels. Concurrently, this study provides empirical evidence that an acute bout of mild exercise improves executive function mediated by the exercise-induced arousal system, which intensifies cortical activation in task-related prefrontal sub-regions.

  6. No Relation between Body Temperature and Arterial Recanalization at Three Days in Patients with Acute Ischaemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Geurts, Marjolein; van der Worp, H. Bart; Horsch, Alexander D.; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Biessels, Geert J.; Velthuis, Birgitta K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recanalization of an occluded intracranial artery is influenced by temperature-dependent enzymes, including alteplase. We assessed the relation between body temperature on admission and recanalization. Methods We included 278 patients with acute ischaemic stroke within nine hours after symptom onset, who had an intracranial arterial occlusion on admission CT angiography, in 13 participating centres. We calculated the relation per every 0.1°Celsius increase in admission body temperature and recanalization at three days. Results Recanalization occurred in 80% of occluded arteries. There was no relation between body temperature and recanalization at three days after adjustments for age, NIHSS score on admission and treatment with alteplase (adjusted odds ratio per 0.1°Celsius, 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.94–1.05; p = 0.70). Results for patients treated or not treated with alteplase were essentially the same. Conclusions Our findings suggest that in patients with acute ischaemic stroke there is no relation between body temperature on admission and recanalization of an occluded intracranial artery three days later, irrespective of treatment with alteplase. PMID:26473959

  7. Acute stress-related changes in eating in the absence of hunger.

    PubMed

    Rutters, Femke; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Born, Jurriaan M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2009-01-01

    Obesity results from chronic deregulation of energy balance, which may in part be caused by stress. Our objective was to investigate the effect of acute and psychological stress on food intake, using the eating in the absence of hunger paradigm, in normal and overweight men and women (while taking dietary restraint and disinhibition into account). In 129 subjects (BMI = 24.5 +/- 3.4 kg/m(2) and age = 27.6 +/- 8.8 years), scores were determined on the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (dietary restraint = 7.2 +/- 4.4; disinhibition = 4.5 +/- 2.6; feeling of hunger = 3.9 +/- 2.6) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (trait score = 31.7 +/- 24.2). In a randomized crossover design, the "eating in absence of hunger" protocol was measured as a function of acute stress vs. a control task and of state anxiety scores. Energy intake from sweet foods (708.1 kJ vs. 599.4 kJ, P < 0.03) and total energy intake (965.2 kJ vs. 793.8 kJ, P < 0.01) were significantly higher in the stress condition compared to the control condition. Differences in energy intake between the stress and control condition were a function of increase in state anxiety scores during the stress task (Delta state anxiety scores) (R(2) = 0.05, P < 0.01). This positive relationship was stronger in subjects with high disinhibition scores (R(2) = 0.12, P < 0.05). Differences in state anxiety scores were a function of trait anxiety scores (R(2) = 0.07, P < 0.05). We conclude that acute psychological stress is associated with eating in the absence of hunger, especially in vulnerable individuals characterized by disinhibited eating behavior and sensitivity to chronic stress. PMID:18997672

  8. Acute work-related poisoning by pesticides in The Netherlands; a one year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Meulenbelt, J; de Vries, I

    1997-01-01

    The National Poisons Control Centre of the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment in the Netherlands conducted a prospective study on acute poisoning arising from exposure to pesticides in agricultural workers. The study was performed to determine the extent and severity of acute pesticide poisoning in the Netherlands and the working conditions that lead to these poisonings. All cases of potential acute occupational intoxication by pesticides in which the Poisons Control Centre was consulted in 1991 were thoroughly studied by an occupational hygienist and a specialist in internal medicine. With the consent of the patients and their physicians, the patients' medical condition and the working conditions leading to exposure were investigated on the spot. After the exclusion of 73 patients (27 non-occupational exposures, 7 occupational exposures in non-agricultural workers, 1 accident occurred abroad, 32 patients with illnesses unrelated to pesticides and 6 who could not be traced for follow-up), 54 cases of possible acute work-related pesticide poisoning remained for study. In 37 of the 54 events there was a direct relation between exposure to pesticides and acute health problems. In one patient doubt remained about the origin of the complaints and in 16 of the 54 cases pesticide poisoning was highly unlikely and the complaints could be attributed to other diseases. In the 37 remaining cases symptoms consisted of skin and/or eye lesions (23 cases) and systemic health effects (14 cases). Exposure to the soil disinfectant 1,3-dichloropropene resulted in severe skin damage. Direct contact of pesticides with the eyes invariability resulted in local irritation. Severe systemic poisonings occurred after exposure to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides and the soil disinfectant methyl bromide. Investigations at the site of the exposure revealed 43 cases of clear exposure to pesticides, in which, except for two cases, 1 worker per incident was involved

  9. [Nature of the relation of acute appendicitis morbidity to meteorological and heliogeophysical factors].

    PubMed

    Khaavel', A A; Birkenfeldt, R R

    1978-04-01

    The authors analyzed 2009 appendicitis case records for the period from 1964 to 1973. In a sea climate region an evident season distribution of the apendicitis morbidity was found, with the rise of the incidence rate in January, March and April. The rise of the appendicitis incidence rate during the periods of vast fluctuations of air temperature, increase of air humidity and decrease of actual duration of sun radiance was established. The rise of the incidence of acute appendicitis was also noted during the months of a great and extremely great magnetic storms.

  10. Serum and salivary cardiac analytes in acute myocardial infarction related to oral health status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Campbell, Charles; Kinane, Denis F.; McDevitt, John T.; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Floriano, Pierre N.; Miller, Craig S.

    2014-06-01

    With the advent of an increased emphasis on the potential to utilize biomarkers in saliva for systemic diseases, the issue of existing oral disease is an important consideration that could adversely affect the interpretation of diagnostic results obtained from saliva. We addressed the question does a patient's oral inflammation status confound biomarker levels used in diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The results demonstrated that multiple serum biomarkers and a few salivary biomarkers reflected the cardiac event. Importantly, oral health of the individual had minimal impact on the validity of the serum or salivary biomarker effectiveness.

  11. Walking, cycling, or gardening, with or without seasonal interruption, in relation to acute coronary events.

    PubMed

    Magnus, K; Matroos, A; Strackee, J

    1979-12-01

    The case-referent study reported here investigates the relationship between acute coronary events (ACE) and sustained light physical exercise, mainly leisure-time walking, cycling, or gardening (WCG). These activities are classified as habitual WCG (greater than 8 months/year), seasonal WCG (4--8 months), or occasional WCG (less than 4 months), each category being further subdivided according to the number of hours a week: less than 4 hours, 4--7 hours, or greater than 7 hours. A significant negative association is found between ACE and habitual WCG. No such relationship is evident between ACE and seasonal WCG, however, seasonal WCG being equally frequent (27%) in both cases and referents. These observations may indicate that any effect on the incidence of acute coronary events that is caused by walking, cycling, or gardening is neutralized if these activities are interrupted for several months of the year. The negative association between habitual WCG and ACE does not depend on the number of hours a week devoted to SCG and is not enhanced by more vigorous additional exercise. The fatality of ACE (death rate within 4 weeks) is significantly higher in the least active group (WCG less than 4 months/year).

  12. Angiographic and Clinical Factors Related with Good Functional Outcome after Mechanical Thrombectomy in Acute Cerebral Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Hyuk; Han, Young Min; Jang, Kyeong Sool; Yoon, Wan Soo; Jang, Dong Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to investigate good prognostic factors for an acute occlusion of a major cerebral artery using mechanical thrombectomy. Methods Between January 2013 to December 2014, 37 consecutive patients with acute occlusion of a major cerebral artery treated by mechanical thrombectomy with stent retrievers were conducted. We analyzed clinical and angiographic factors retrospectively. The collateral flow and the result of recanalization were sorted by grading systems. Outcome was assessed by National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 90 days. We compared the various parameters between good and poor angiographic and clinical results. Results Twenty seven patients demonstrated good recanalization [Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) 2b or 3] after thrombectomy. At the 90-day follow up, 19 patients had good (mRS, 0-2), 14 had moderate (3-4) and four had poor outcomes (5-6). The mRS of older patients (≥75 years) were poor than younger patients. Early recanalization, high Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction risk score, and low baseline NIHSS were closely related to 90-day mRS, whereas high TICI was related to both mRS and the decrease in the NIHSS. Conclusion NIHSS decreased markedly only when recanalization was successful. A good mRS was related to low initial NIHSS, good collateral, and early successful recanalization. PMID:26539260

  13. Acute Physiological Stress Down-Regulates mRNA Expressions of Growth-Related Genes in Coho Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Toshiki; Afonso, Luis O. B.; Beckman, Brian R.; Iwama, George K.; Devlin, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Growth and development in fish are regulated to a major extent by growth-related factors, such as liver-derived insulin-like growth factor (IGF) -1 in response to pituitary-secreted growth hormone (GH) binding to the GH receptor (GHR). Here, we report on the changes in the expressions of gh, ghr, and igf1 genes and the circulating levels of GH and IGF-1 proteins in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in response to handling as an acute physiological stressor. Plasma GH levels were not significantly different between stressed fish and prestressed control. Plasma IGF-1 concentrations in stressed fish 1.5 h post-stress were the same as in control fish, but levels in stressed fish decreased significantly 16 h post-stress. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that ghr mRNA levels in pituitary, liver, and muscle decreased gradually in response to the stressor. After exposure to stress, hepatic igf1 expression transiently increased, whereas levels decreased 16 h post-stress. On the other hand, the pituitary gh mRNA level did not change in response to the stressor. These observations indicate that expression of gh, ghr, and igf1 responded differently to stress. Our results show that acute physiological stress can mainly down-regulate the expressions of growth-related genes in coho salmon in vivo. This study also suggests that a relationship between the neuroendocrine stress response and growth-related factors exists in fish. PMID:23990952

  14. Spinning angle optical calibration apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Stephen K.; Pratt, II, Harold R.

    1991-01-01

    An optical calibration apparatus is provided for calibrating and reproducing spinning angles in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. An illuminated magnifying apparatus enables optical setting an accurate reproducing of spinning "magic angles" in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments. A reference mark scribed on an edge of a spinning angle test sample holder is illuminated by a light source and viewed through a magnifying scope. When the "magic angle" of a sample material used as a standard is attained by varying the angular position of the sample holder, the coordinate position of the reference mark relative to a graduation or graduations on a reticle in the magnifying scope is noted. Thereafter, the spinning "magic angle" of a test material having similar nuclear properties to the standard is attained by returning the sample holder back to the originally noted coordinate position.

  15. Spinning angle optical calibration apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, S.K.; Pratt, H.R. II.

    1989-09-12

    An optical calibration apparatus is provided for calibrating and reproducing spinning angles in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. An illuminated magnifying apparatus enables optical setting and accurate reproducing of spinning magic angles in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments. A reference mark scribed on an edge of a spinning angle test sample holder is illuminated by a light source and viewed through a magnifying scope. When the magic angle of a sample material used as a standard is attained by varying the angular position of the sample holder, the coordinate position of the reference mark relative to a graduation or graduations on a reticle in the magnifying scope is noted. Thereafter, the spinning magic angle of a test material having similar nuclear properties to the standard is attained by returning the sample holder back to the originally noted coordinate position. 2 figs.

  16. Amphetamine and morphine may produce acute-withdrawal related hypoactivity by initially activating a common dopamine pathway.

    PubMed

    White, Wesley; White, Ilsun M

    2016-10-15

    uses dopamine as a neurotransmitter. Different signs of acute withdrawal (hypoactivity and hypophagia) may involve the short-term activation of the same common pathway. Low withdrawal rats may have a different vulnerability to amphetamine and may show differences in drug assessment outcomes relative to animals that manifest distinct signs of acute withdrawal.

  17. Are MRI high-signal changes of alar and transverse ligaments in acute whiplash injury related to outcome?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Upper neck ligament high-signal changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been found in patients with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) but also in non-injured controls. The clinical relevance of such changes is controversial. Their prognostic role has never been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to examine if alar and transverse ligament high-signal changes on MRI immediately following the car accident are related to outcome after 12 months for patients with acute WAD grades 1-2. Methods Within 13 days after a car accident, 114 consecutive acute WAD1-2 patients without prior neck injury or prior neck problems underwent upper neck high-resolution proton-weighted MRI. High-signal changes of the alar and transverse ligaments were graded 0-3. A questionnaire including the impact of event scale for measuring posttraumatic stress response and questions on patients' expectations of recovery provided clinical data at injury. At 12 months follow-up, 111 (97.4%) patients completed the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS-11) on last week neck pain intensity. Factors potentially related to these outcomes were assessed using multiple logistic regression analyses. Results Among the 111 responders (median age 29.8 years; 63 women), 38 (34.2%) had grades 2-3 alar ligament changes and 25 (22.5%) had grades 2-3 transverse ligament changes at injury. At 12 months follow-up, 49 (44.1%) reported disability (NDI > 8) and 23 (20.7%) neck pain (NRS-11 > 4). Grades 2-3 ligament changes in the acute phase were not related to disability or neck pain at 12 months. More severe posttraumatic stress response increased the odds for disability (odds ratio 1.46 per 10 points on the impact of event scale, p = 0.007) and so did low expectations of recovery (odds ratio 4.66, p = 0.005). Conclusions High-signal changes of the alar and transverse ligaments close after injury did not affect outcome for acute WAD1-2 patients without previous

  18. Perceived Chronic Stress Exposure Modulates Reward-Related Medial Prefrontal Cortex Responses to Acute Stress in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Poornima; Slavich, George M.; Berghorst, Lisa H.; Treadway, Michael T.; Brooks, Nancy H.; Dutra, Sunny J.; Greve, Douglas N.; O'Donovan, Aoife; Bleil, Maria E.; Maninger, Nicole; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often precipitated by life stress and growing evidence suggests that stress-induced alterations in reward processing may contribute to such risk. However, no human imaging studies have examined how recent life stress exposure modulates the neural systems that underlie reward processing in depressed and healthy individuals. Methods In this proof-of-concept study, 12 MDD and 10 psychiatrically healthy individuals were interviewed using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS) to assess their perceived levels of recent acute and chronic life stress exposure. Additionally, each participant performed a monetary incentive delay task under baseline (no-stress) and stress (social-evaluative) conditions during functional MRI. Results Across groups, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activation to reward feedback was greater during acute stress versus no-stress conditions in individuals with greater perceived stressor severity. Under acute stress, depressed individuals showed a positive correlation between perceived stressor severity levels and reward-related mPFC activation (r = 0.79, p = 0.004), whereas no effect was found in healthy controls. Moreover, for depressed (but not healthy) individuals, the correlations between the stress (r = 0.79) and no-stress (r = −0.48) conditions were significantly different. Finally, relative to controls, depressed participants showed significantly reduced mPFC grey matter, but functional findings remained when accounting for structural differences. Limitation Small sample size, which warrants replication. Conclusion Depressed individuals experiencing greater recent life stress recruited the mPFC more under stress when processing rewards. Our results represent an initial step toward elucidating mechanisms underlying stress sensitization and recurrence in depression. PMID:25898329

  19. Health‐Related Quality of Life in Premature Acute Coronary Syndrome: Does Patient Sex or Gender Really Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Leung Yinko, Sylvie S. L.; Pelletier, Roxanne; Behlouli, Hassan; Norris, Colleen M.; Humphries, Karin H.; Pilote, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Background Limited data exist as to the relative contribution of sex and gender on health‐related quality of life (HRQL) among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This study aims to evaluate the effect of sex and gender‐related variables on long‐term HRQL among young adults with ACS. Methods and Results GENESIS‐PRAXY (GENdEr and Sex determInantS of cardiovascular disease: from bench to beyond‐Premature Acute Coronary SYndrome) is a multicenter, prospective cohort study (January 2009 to August 2013) of adults aged 18 to 55 years, hospitalized with ACS. HRQL was measured at baseline, 1, 6, and 12 months using the Short Form‐12 and Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ) among 1213 patients. Median age was 49 years. Women reported worse HRQL than men over time post‐ACS, both in terms of physical and mental functioning. Gender‐related factors were more likely to be predictors of HRQL than sex. Femininity score, social support, and housework responsibility were the most common gender‐related predictors of HRQL at 12 months. We observed an interaction between female sex and social support (β=0.44 [95% confidence interval, 0.01, 0.88]; P=0.047) for the physical limitation subscale of the SAQ. Conclusions Young women with ACS report significantly poorer HRQL than young men. Gender appears to be more important than sex in predicting long‐term HRQL post‐ACS. Specific gender‐related factors, such as social support, may be amenable to interventions and could improve the HRQL of patients with premature ACS. PMID:25074696

  20. Exploration of Temporal ICD Coding Bias Related to Acute Diabetic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    McKillop, Mollie; Polubriaginof, Fernanda; Weng, Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    Electronic Health Records (EHRs) hold great promise for secondary data reuse but have been reported to contain severe biases. The temporal characteristics of coding biases remain unclear. This study used a survival analysis approach to reveal temporal bias trends for coding acute diabetic conditions among 268 diabetes patients. For glucose-controlled ketoacidosis patients we found it took an average of 7.5 months for the incorrect code to be removed, while for glucose-controlled hypoglycemic patients it took an average of 9 months. We also examined blood glucose lab values and performed a case review to confirm the validity of our findings. We discuss the implications of our findings and propose future work. PMID:26958300

  1. Factors Related to Successful Transition to Practice for Acute Care Nurse Practitioners.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Deborah L; Dolansky, Mary A; Casey, Kathy; Kelley, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The transition from student to acute care nurse practitioner (ACNP) has been recognized as a time of stress. The purpose of this descriptive, correlational-comparative design pilot study was to examine: (1) the relationships among personal resources, community resources, successful transition, and job retention; (2) the difference between ACNPs with 0 to 4 years and ACNPs with more than 4 years of prior experience as a registered nurse in an intensive care unit or emergency department; and (3) the skills/procedures that ACNPs found difficult to perform independently. Thirty-four participants were recruited from a social media site for nurse practitioners. Organizational support, communication, and leadership were the most important elements of successful transition into the ACNP role. This information can help ACNP faculty and hospital orientation/fellowship program educators to help ACNPs transition into their first position after graduation.

  2. Factors Related to Successful Transition to Practice for Acute Care Nurse Practitioners.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Deborah L; Dolansky, Mary A; Casey, Kathy; Kelley, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The transition from student to acute care nurse practitioner (ACNP) has been recognized as a time of stress. The purpose of this descriptive, correlational-comparative design pilot study was to examine: (1) the relationships among personal resources, community resources, successful transition, and job retention; (2) the difference between ACNPs with 0 to 4 years and ACNPs with more than 4 years of prior experience as a registered nurse in an intensive care unit or emergency department; and (3) the skills/procedures that ACNPs found difficult to perform independently. Thirty-four participants were recruited from a social media site for nurse practitioners. Organizational support, communication, and leadership were the most important elements of successful transition into the ACNP role. This information can help ACNP faculty and hospital orientation/fellowship program educators to help ACNPs transition into their first position after graduation. PMID:27153306

  3. Acute Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Feelings of Energy in Relation to Age and Sex.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Fabien D; Bertucci, William M; Hudson, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    A crossover experiment was performed to determine whether age and sex, or their interaction, affect the impact of acute aerobic exercise on vigor-activity (VA). We also tested whether changes in VA mediated exercise effects on performance on various cognitive tasks. Sixty-eight physically inactive volunteers participated in exercise and TV-watching control conditions. They completed the VA subscale of the Profile of Mood States immediately before and 2 min after the intervention in each condition. They also performed the Trail Making Test 3 min after the intervention in each condition. Statistical analyses produced a condition . age . sex interaction characterized by a higher mean VA gain value in the exercise condition (compared with the VA gain value in the TV-watching condition) for young female participants only. In addition, the mediational analyses revealed that changes in VA fully mediated the effects of exercise on TMT-Part A performance.

  4. Elevated Homocysteine Level Related to Poor Outcome After Thrombolysis in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Yao, En-Sheng; Tang, Yan; Xie, Min-Jie; Wang, Ming-Huan; Wang, Hong; Luo, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is a well-known risk factor for ischemic stroke. However, whether HHcy can influence the treatment outcome of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients has yet to be fully determined. In this study, we investigated the relationship between serum homocysteine (Hcy) level and prognosis in AIS patients who received tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS Patients were recruited according to the research criteria and grouped by their serum Hcy levels. Neurological outcome was evaluated by National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score system before and 1 week after treatment, and functional outcome was evaluated by modified Rankin Scale (MRS) score system after 3 months. All patients took CT/MRI examination to detect cerebral hemorrhage in 24 hours after tPA treatment. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was employed to assess if serum homocysteine level can be used as an index to predict the outcome after tPA treatment. RESULTS The mean (±SD) serum Hcy level of 194 patients was 22.62±21.23 μmol/L. After 1-week tPA treatment, the NIHSS scores of high Hcy level group were significantly higher than those of low level group (p<0.05), meantime the high Hcy group showed obvious symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage risk after 24 hours (p<0.05). Poor outcome was presented in mRS score results after 3 months in high Hcy level group, which compared with low Hcy level group (p<0.01). The ROC showed that Hcy level was a moderately sensitive and specific index to predict the prognosis with an optimal cut-off value at 19.95 µmol/L (sensitivity [58.2%], specificity [80.3%]). CONCLUSIONS High serum homocysteine level could potentially predict poor prognosis in acute ischemic stroke patients after tPA treatment. PMID:27629768

  5. Elevated Homocysteine Level Related to Poor Outcome After Thrombolysis in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Yao, En-Sheng; Tang, Yan; Xie, Min-Jie; Wang, Ming-Huan; Wang, Hong; Luo, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Background Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is a well-known risk factor for ischemic stroke. However, whether HHcy can influence the treatment outcome of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients has yet to be fully determined. In this study, we investigated the relationship between serum homocysteine (Hcy) level and prognosis in AIS patients who received tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) treatment. Material/Methods Patients were recruited according to the research criteria and grouped by their serum Hcy levels. Neurological outcome was evaluated by National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score system before and 1 week after treatment, and functional outcome was evaluated by modified Rankin Scale (MRS) score system after 3 months. All patients took CT/MRI examination to detect cerebral hemorrhage in 24 hours after tPA treatment. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was employed to assess if serum homocysteine level can be used as an index to predict the outcome after tPA treatment. Results The mean (±SD) serum Hcy level of 194 patients was 22.62±21.23 μmol/L. After 1-week tPA treatment, the NIHSS scores of high Hcy level group were significantly higher than those of low level group (p<0.05), meantime the high Hcy group showed obvious symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage risk after 24 hours (p<0.05). Poor outcome was presented in mRS score results after 3 months in high Hcy level group, which compared with low Hcy level group (p<0.01). The ROC showed that Hcy level was a moderately sensitive and specific index to predict the prognosis with an optimal cut-off value at 19.95 μmol/L (sensitivity [58.2%], specificity [80.3%]). Conclusions High serum homocysteine level could potentially predict poor prognosis in acute ischemic stroke patients after tPA treatment. PMID:27629768

  6. Acute changes in pulse pressure in relation to constituents of particulate air pollution in elderly persons

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Lotte; Buczynska, Anna; Walgraeve, Christophe; Delcloo, Andy; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Van Grieken, Rene; Demeestere, Kristof; Dewulf, Jo; Van Langenhove, Herman; De Backer, Hugo; Nemery, Benoit; Nawrot, Tim S.

    2012-08-15

    An increased pulse pressure (difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure) suggests aortic stiffening. The objective of this study was to examine the acute effects of both particulate matter (PM) mass and composition on blood pressure, among elderly persons. We carried out a panel study in persons living in elderly homes in Antwerp, Belgium. We recruited 88 non-smoking persons, 70% women with a mean age of 83 years (standard deviation: 5.2). Blood pressure was measured and a blood sample was collected on two time points, which were chosen so that there was an exposure contrast in ambient PM exposure. The elemental content of the collected indoor and outdoor PM{sub 2.5} (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 {mu}m) mass concentration was measured. Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) on outdoor PM{sub 10} (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 {mu}m) were measured. Each interquartile range increase of 20.8 {mu}g/m Superscript-Three in 24-h mean outdoor PM{sub 2.5} was associated with an increase in pulse pressure of 4.0 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 1.8-6.2), in persons taking antihypertensive medication (n=57), but not in persons not using antihypertensive medication (n=31) (p for interaction: 0.02). Vanadium, iron and nickel contents of PM{sub 2.5} were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, among persons on antihypertensive medication. Similar results were found for indoor concentrations. Of the oxy-PAHs, chrysene-5,6-dione and benzo[a]pyrene-3,6-dione were significantly associated with increases in systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. In elderly, pulse pressure was positively associated with acute increases in outdoor and indoor air pollution, among persons taking antihypertensive medication. These results might form a mechanistic pathway linking air pollution as a trigger of cardiovascular events.

  7. Acute changes in pulse pressure in relation to constituents of particulate air pollution in elderly persons.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Lotte; Buczynska, Anna; Walgraeve, Christophe; Delcloo, Andy; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Van Grieken, René; Demeestere, Kristof; Dewulf, Jo; Van Langenhove, Herman; De Backer, Hugo; Nemery, Benoit; Nawrot, Tim S

    2012-08-01

    An increased pulse pressure (difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure) suggests aortic stiffening. The objective of this study was to examine the acute effects of both particulate matter (PM) mass and composition on blood pressure, among elderly persons. We carried out a panel study in persons living in elderly homes in Antwerp, Belgium. We recruited 88 non-smoking persons, 70% women with a mean age of 83 years (standard deviation: 5.2). Blood pressure was measured and a blood sample was collected on two time points, which were chosen so that there was an exposure contrast in ambient PM exposure. The elemental content of the collected indoor and outdoor PM(2.5) (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm) mass concentration was measured. Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) on outdoor PM(10) (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm) were measured. Each interquartile range increase of 20.8 μg/m³ in 24-h mean outdoor PM(2.5) was associated with an increase in pulse pressure of 4.0 mm Hg (95% confidence interval: 1.8-6.2), in persons taking antihypertensive medication (n=57), but not in persons not using antihypertensive medication (n=31) (p for interaction: 0.02). Vanadium, iron and nickel contents of PM(2.5) were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, among persons on antihypertensive medication. Similar results were found for indoor concentrations. Of the oxy-PAHs, chrysene-5,6-dione and benzo[a]pyrene-3,6-dione were significantly associated with increases in systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. In elderly, pulse pressure was positively associated with acute increases in outdoor and indoor air pollution, among persons taking antihypertensive medication. These results might form a mechanistic pathway linking air pollution as a trigger of cardiovascular events.

  8. Protective effect of calpain inhibitor N-acetyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-norleucinal on acute alcohol consumption related cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kartkaya, Kazim; Kanbak, Güngör; Oğlakçı, Ayşegül; Burukoğlu, Dilek; Ozer, Mehmet Caner

    2014-10-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption and alcoholism cause medical problems with high mortality and morbidity rates. In this study we aimed to decrease the alcohol related tissue damage by inhibiting calpain activation which plays an important role in apoptosis and necrosis, in rats with cardiomyopathy induced by acute alcohol consumption. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into four groups (control, vehicle, alcohol and alcohol + inhibitor) with 10 rats in each. Control group received isocaloric maltose while vehicle group received isocaloric maltose with DMSO, and alcohol group received 8 g/kg absolute ethanol by gavage. Inhibitor group received 20 mg/kg calpain inhibitor 1 intraperitonally prior to alcohol administration. Calpain activities, cathepsin L levels and cytochrome c release rates were significantly increased in alcohol group compared to control group (p < 0.05). Serum CK MB and BNP levels of alcohol group were excessively increased compared to control group (respectively p < 0.001 and p < 0.01). Serum BNP levels of alcohol + inhibitor group were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased compared to alcohol group. In addition to these, histological evaluation of light microscope images and the results of DNA fragmentation and immunohistochemical caspase-3 activity results showed significant improvement of these parameters in alcohol + inhibitor group compared to alcohol group. Results of our biochemical and histological evaluation results revealed that the calpain inhibitor N-acetyl-leu-leu-norleucinal may have an ameliorating effect on acute alcohol consumption related cardiac tissue damage due to its effects on cell death pathways. PMID:24996291

  9. Probability of Treatment Following Acute Drop in Lung Function in Children with Cystic Fibrosis is related to baseline pulmonary function

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Wayne J.; Wagener, Jeffrey S.; Yegin, Ashley; Pasta, David J.; Millar, Stefanie J.; Konstan, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To hypothesize whether the association between high forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and increased rate of decline in FEV1 in children with cystic fibrosis could be due to less frequent intervention after acute drops (sudden decline events) in FEV1. Study design Patients with CF aged 6-17 years enrolled in ESCF were assessed for a sudden decline event, defined as a 10% relative drop in FEV1 % predicted from an average of 3 consecutive stable baseline spirometries. The likelihood of therapeutic intervention within 14 days before and 56 days after this event was then related to their baseline FEV1 % predicted age-specific decile using a logistic regression adjusting for age group (6-12y, 13-17y) and presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on respiratory culture. Results 10,888 patients had at least one sudden decline event in FEV1. Patients in the highest FEV1 decile were significantly less likely than those in the lowest decile to receive intravenous antibiotics (odds ratio [OR], 0.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11-0.18; P<.001) or be hospitalized (OR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.14-0.23; P<.001) following decline. Conclusions Children and adolescents with high baseline lung function are less likely to receive a therapeutic intervention following an acute drop in FEV1, which may explain their greater rate of FEV1 decline. PMID:23810128

  10. Evaluation of the relative contribution of peripheral and focal vision to proprioceptive differentiation of underfoot inversion angles in young elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Witchalls, Jeremy; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger; Blanch, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Different visual conditions during proprioceptive testing have the potential to mask clinically meaningful differences in proprioceptive acuity, and must be understood in order to improve testing accuracy. This study compared the proprioceptive acuity achieved in estimating underfoot surface angles when looking ahead vs looking down during an active stepping task. 40 athletes from national development squads (23 male, 17 female, M age = 16 yr.) judged the inversion angle of a footplate when stepping onto and across it. 19 participants were permitted to briefly look down and see the footplate before stepping onto it, while 21 looked ahead and saw the footplate only in peripheral vision as they walked across. Looking down before stepping contributed to higher proprioceptive acuity scores. These results indicate that during a stepping task, a short opportunity to assess ground angle with focal vision supports the peripheral sensory receptors in proprioceptive acuity to a greater extent than peripheral vision alone.

  11. The location of the inferior angle of the scapula in relation to the spine in the upright position: a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cooperstein, Robert; Haneline, Michael; Young, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    Practitioners in several of the health care professions use anatomical landmarks to identify spinal levels, both in order to enhance diagnostic accuracy and to specifically target the site of intervention. Authoritative sources usually state the upright inferior scapular angle (IAS) aligns with the spinous process (SP) of T7, but some specify the T7-8 interspace or the T8 SP. The primary goals of this study were to systematically review the relevant literature; and conduct a meta-analysis of the pooled data from retrieved studies to increase their statistical power. Electronic searching retrieved primary studies relating the IAS to a spinal level, as determined by an imaging reference standard, using combinations of these search terms: scapula, location, landmark, spinous process, thoracic vertebrae, vertebral level, palpation, and spine. Only primary studies were included; review articles and reliability studies related to scapular position but lacking spinal correlations were excluded. Eight-hundred and eighty (880) articles of interest were identified, 43 abstracts were read, 22 full text articles were inspected, and 5 survived the final cut. Each article (with one exception) was rated for quality using the QUADAS instrument. Pooling data from 5 studies resulted in normal distribution in which the upright IAS on average aligns closely with the T8 SP, range T4-T11. Since on average the IAS most closely identifies the T8 SP in the upright position, it is very likely that health professionals, both manual therapists and others, who have been diagnosing and treating patients based on the IAS = T7 SP rule (the conventional wisdom), have not been as segmentally accurate as they may have supposed. They either addressed non-intended levels, or made numeration errors in their charting. There is evidence that using the IAS is less preferred than using the vertebra prominens, and may be less preferred than using the iliac crest for identifying spinal levels Manual

  12. DOSE-RELATED GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN FOREBRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE, LOW-LEVEL CHLORPYRIFOS EXPOSURE IN NEONATAL RATS

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Anamika; Liu, Jing; Ayoubi, Patricia; Pope, Carey

    2010-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a widely used organophosphorus insecticide (OP) and putative developmental neurotoxicant in humans. The acute toxicity of CPF is elicited by acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. We characterized dose-related (0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg) gene expression profiles and changes in cell signaling pathways 24 hr following acute CPF exposure in seven day-old rats. Microarray experiments indicated that approximately 9% of the 44,000 genes were differentially expressed following either one of the four CPF dosages studied (546, 505, 522, and 3,066 genes with 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg CPF). Genes were grouped according to dose-related expression patterns using K-means clustering while gene networks and canonical pathways were evaluated using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis®. Twenty clusters were identified and differential expression of selected genes was verified by RT-PCR. The four largest clusters (each containing from 276–905 genes) constituted over 50% of all differentially expressed genes and exhibited up-regulation following exposure to the highest dosage (2 mg/kg CPF). The total number of gene networks affected by CPF also rose sharply with the highest dosage of CPF (18, 16, 18 and 50 with 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg CPF). Forebrain cholinesterase (ChE) activity was significantly reduced (26%) only in the highest dosage group. Based on magnitude of dose-related changes in differentially expressed genes, relative numbers of gene clusters and signaling networks affected, and forebrain ChE inhibition only at 2 mg/kg CPF, we focused subsequent analyses on this treatment group. Six canonical pathways were identified that were significantly affected by 2 mg/kg CPF (MAPK, oxidative stress, NFKB, mitochondrial dysfunction, arylhydrocarbon receptor and adrenergic receptor signaling). Evaluation of different cellular functions of the differentially expressed genes suggested changes related to olfactory receptors, cell adhesion/migration, synapse

  13. Dose-related gene expression changes in forebrain following acute, low-level chlorpyrifos exposure in neonatal rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Anamika; Liu Jing; Ayoubi, Patricia; Pope, Carey

    2010-10-15

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a widely used organophosphorus insecticide (OP) and putative developmental neurotoxicant in humans. The acute toxicity of CPF is elicited by acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. We characterized dose-related (0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg) gene expression profiles and changes in cell signaling pathways 24 h following acute CPF exposure in 7-day-old rats. Microarray experiments indicated that approximately 9% of the 44,000 genes were differentially expressed following either one of the four CPF dosages studied (546, 505, 522, and 3,066 genes with 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg CPF). Genes were grouped according to dose-related expression patterns using K-means clustering while gene networks and canonical pathways were evaluated using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (registered) . Twenty clusters were identified and differential expression of selected genes was verified by RT-PCR. The four largest clusters (each containing from 276 to 905 genes) constituted over 50% of all differentially expressed genes and exhibited up-regulation following exposure to the highest dosage (2 mg/kg CPF). The total number of gene networks affected by CPF also rose sharply with the highest dosage of CPF (18, 16, 18 and 50 with 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg CPF). Forebrain cholinesterase (ChE) activity was significantly reduced (26%) only in the highest dosage group. Based on magnitude of dose-related changes in differentially expressed genes, relative numbers of gene clusters and signaling networks affected, and forebrain ChE inhibition only at 2 mg/kg CPF, we focused subsequent analyses on this treatment group. Six canonical pathways were identified that were significantly affected by 2 mg/kg CPF (MAPK, oxidative stress, NF{Kappa}B, mitochondrial dysfunction, arylhydrocarbon receptor and adrenergic receptor signaling). Evaluation of different cellular functions of the differentially expressed genes suggested changes related to olfactory receptors, cell adhesion/migration, synapse

  14. Episode of Familial Mediterranean Fever-Related Peritonitis in the Second Trimester of Pregnancy Followed by Acute Cholecystitis: Dilemmas and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Kosmidis, Christophoros; Anthimidis, Georgios; Varsamis, Nikolaos; Makedou, Fotini; Georgakoudi, Eleni; Efthimiadis, Christophoros

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 33 Final Diagnosis: Acute cholecystitis after Familial Mediterranean Fever-related peritonitis Symptoms: Acute abdomen • fever Medication: Colchicine Clinical Procedure: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and adhesiolysis in the second trimester of pregnancy Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in pregnant patients is one of the greatest challenges for the clinician. Occurrence of Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) paroxysm of peritonitis and acute cholecystitis during pregnancy is a unique clinical entity that leads to serious diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. Case Report: We present the case of a 33-year-old Armenian patient at 16 weeks’ gestational age with a history of FMF, who was admitted twice within 1 month with acute abdomen. The first episode was attributed to FMF and successfully treated conservatively with colchicine. The second episode was diagnosed as acute cholecystitis and led to emergent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and lysis of peritoneal adhesions from previous FMF attacks. The patient presented an uneventful postoperative clinical course and had a normal delivery of a healthy infant at the 39th week of gestation. Conclusions: Pregnant patients with acute abdomen should be evaluated with open mind. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published report of the coexistence of 2 different causes of acute abdomen during pregnancy. Meticulous history and thorough physical, laboratory, and radiologic examination are the keys to reach a correct diagnosis. Treatment of pregnant patients with acute abdomen should be individualized. Administration of colchicine should be continued during conception, pregnancy, and lactation in patients with FMF history. Laparoscopic intervention in pregnant patients with surgical abdomen such as acute cholecystitis is the optimal method of treatment. PMID:26907752

  15. Dose-related reversal of acute lung rejection by aerosolized cyclosporine.

    PubMed

    Iacono, A T; Smaldone, G C; Keenan, R J; Diot, P; Dauber, J H; Zeevi, A; Burckart, G J; Griffith, B P

    1997-05-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of aerosolized cyclosporine as rescue therapy for refractory acute rejection in lung-transplant patients that is unresponsive to conventional therapy. Over 2 yr, nine allograft recipients with histologic evidence of persistent acute rejection and worsening pulmonary function were enrolled. Twenty-two patients with similar degrees of unremitting rejection served as historical controls. Aerosolization of cyclosporin A (300 mg in 4.8 ml propylene glycol) using an AeroTech II jet nebulizer was instituted daily for 12 consecutive days followed by a maintenance regimen of 3 d/wk. Cyclosporine and tacrolimus blood and plasma levels were maintained within therapeutic ranges throughout this trial. Efficacy was assessed by histologic grade of rejection, interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA expression by graft bronchoalveolar lavage cells, and pulmonary function testing before and during cyclosporine therapy. In seven patients, results were correlated to deposition of cyclosporine aerosol in the allograft(s) as measured by radioisotopic techniques. At a mean of 37 d after initiation of aerosolized cyclosporine, graft histology improved in eight of the nine patients. Cellular IL-6 mRNA expression decreased significantly in seven patients (mean IL-6/actin +/- SD, 40.96 +/- 118 versus 0.33 +/- 0.57 [p = 0.038]). Pulmonary function (FEV1), which had decreased posttransplant (over a mean of 347 d of observation) from a best value of 1.98 +/- 0.8 L to 1.59 +/- 0.6 L (p = 0.0077), improved over time (152 d) to a posttransplant value of 1.90 +/- 0.8 (p = 0.025). In the control subjects, FEV1 inexorably declined over a comparable period of observation (best posttransplant value 2.36 +/- 0.86 to 1.32 +/- 0.53, p < 0.0001). There was a strong correlation between cyclosporine deposition in the allograft and improvement in FEV1 (r = 0.900, p < 0.01). Fewer cycles of pulsed corticosteroids (1.4 +/- 0.9 versus 0.2 +/- 0.4, p = 0.011) and anti-thymocyte globulin 0

  16. Amifostine ameliorates recognition memory defect in acute radiation syndrome caused by relatively low-dose of gamma radiation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hae-June; Kim, Joong-Sun; Song, Myoung-Sub; Seo, Heung-Sik; Yang, Miyoung; Kim, Jong Choon; Jo, Sung-Kee; Shin, Taekyun

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether amifostine (WR-2721) could attenuate memory impairment and suppress hippocampal neurogenesis in adult mice with the relatively low-dose exposure of acute radiation syndrome (ARS). These were assessed using object recognition memory test, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay, and immunohistochemical markers of neurogenesis [Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX)]. Amifostine treatment (214 mg/kg, i.p.) prior to irradiation significantly attenuated the recognition memory defect in ARS, and markedly blocked the apoptotic death and decrease of Ki-67- and DCX-positive cells in ARS. Therefore, amifostine may attenuate recognition memory defect in a relatively low-dose exposure of ARS in adult mice, possibly by inhibiting a detrimental effect of irradiation on hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:20195069

  17. Change in Neuroplasticity-Related Proteins in Response to Acute Activity-Based Therapy in Persons With Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Astorino, Todd A.; Knoblach, Susan M.; Feather, Jillenne

    2014-01-01

    Background: Activity-based therapy (ABT) focuses on regaining motor and sensory function below the level of the lesion in persons with a spinal cord injury (SCI). This is accomplished through repetitive training of specific motor tasks. Research has shown that ABT may increase neuroplasticity in the rat and human spinal cord. Objective: The primary aim of this study was to examine acute alterations in neuroplasticity-related proteins during ABT in persons with SCI. Methods: Volunteers were current participants in an ABT program and consisted of 12 men and 3 women (age, 31.8 ± 10.9 years) with chronic SCI (injury duration, 63.9 ± 54.4 months). A single 2-hour bout of ABT consisted of standing load bearing, body weight-supported treadmill training, whole body vibration, and functional electrical stimulation. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and immediately after completion of each modality to determine serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), prolactin, and cortisol. Results: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures was used to examine differences in proteins over time. Results revealed baseline levels of BDNF (2.37 ± 1.41 ng/mL) that were lower than previous research has demonstrated in persons with SCI. No change in BDNF or cortisol was found, although prolactin was significantly reduced in response to ABT. Conclusion: Despite the length of the bout, acute changes in BDNF were not observed. Whether different intensities or modalities of ABT may promote acute increases in serum BDNF in individuals with SCI remains to be determined and further study is merited. PMID:25477737

  18. The role of non-invasive biomarkers in detecting acute respiratory effects of traffic-related air pollution.

    PubMed

    Scarpa, M C; Kulkarni, N; Maestrelli, P

    2014-09-01

    The role of non-invasive methods in the investigation of acute effects of traffic-related air pollution is not clearly established. We evaluated the usefulness of non-invasive biomarkers in detecting acute air pollution effects according to the age of participants, the disease status, their sensitivity compared with lung function tests and their specificity for a type of pollutant. Search terms lead to 535 titles, among them 128 had potentially relevant abstracts. Sixtynine full papers were reviewed, while 59 articles were excluded as they did not meet the selection criteria. Methods used to assess short-term effects of air pollution included analysis of nasal lavage (NAL) for the upper airways, and induced sputum (IS), exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) for central and lower airways. There is strong evidence that FeNO evaluation is useful independently from subject age, while IS analysis is suitable almost for adults. Biomarker changes are generally observed upon pollutant exposure irrespective of the disease status of the participants. None of the biomarkers identified are specific for a type of pollutant exposure. Based on experimental exposure studies, there is moderate evidence that IS analysis is more sensitive than lung function tests, whereas this is not the case for biomarkers obtained by NAL or EBC. Cells and some cytokines (IL-6, IL-8 and myeloperoxidase) have been measured both in the upper respiratory tract (NAL) and in the lower airways (IS). Overall, the response to traffic exposure seems different in the two compartments. In conclusion, this survey of current literature displays the complexity of this research field, highlights the significance of short-term studies on traffic pollution and gives important tips when planning studies to detect acute respiratory effects of air pollution in a non-invasive way.

  19. Acute Inflammatory Response to Low-, Moderate-, and High-Load Resistance Exercise in Women With Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Cormie, Prue; Singh, Benjamin; Hayes, Sandi; Peake, Jonathan M; Galvão, Daniel A; Taaffe, Dennis R; Spry, Nigel; Nosaka, Kazunori; Cornish, Bruce; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Newton, Robert U

    2016-09-01

    Background Resistance exercise is emerging as a potential adjunct therapy to aid in the management of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). However, the mechanisms underlying the relationships between the acute and long-term benefits of resistance exercise on BCRL are not well understood. Purpose To examine the acute inflammatory response to upper-body resistance exercise in women with BCRL and to compare these effects between resistance exercises involving low, moderate, and high loads. The impact on lymphedema status and associated symptoms was also compared. Methods A total of 21 women, 62 ± 10 years old, with BCRL participated in the study. Participants completed low-load (15-20 repetition maximum [RM]), moderate-load (10-12 RM), and high-load (6-8 RM) exercise sessions consisting of 3 sets of 6 upper-body resistance exercises. Sessions were completed in a randomized order separated by a 7- to 10-day wash-out period. Venous blood samples were obtained to assess markers of exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammation. Lymphedema status was assessed using bioimpedance spectroscopy and arm circumferences, and associated symptoms were assessed using Visual Analogue Scales for pain, heaviness, and tightness. Measurements were conducted before and 24 hours after the exercise sessions. Results No significant changes in creatine kinase, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were observed following the 3 resistance exercise sessions. There were no significant changes in arm swelling or symptom severity scores across the 3 resistance exercise conditions. Conclusions The magnitude of acute exercise-induced inflammation following upper-body resistance exercise in women with BCRL does not vary between resistance exercise loads.

  20. Heart rate in Palaemon northropi (Rankin) in relation to acute changes in thermal environment

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, C.J.; Wingard, C.; Kitakis, F. )

    1991-03-15

    The Glass Shrimp (Palaemon northropi), common to shallow water/tide pool environs of Atlantic waters, was examined in a series of experiments whereby the temperature-dependence of steady-state heart rate was assessed after acute, controlled changed in their thermal environment. Collection site, tide pool variations averaged 17.2-31.6C/24 hr. period. Accordingly, steady-state heart rates were determined at 5, 15, 25, and 30C by using both timed, optical recording and impedance methods. Mean values obtained were 88bpm (5C), 181 bpm(15C), 236bpm(25C), and 52bpm(30C). Calculated Q{sub 10} determinations ranged from the limits of 1.3 to 2.1 excluding the highest temperature state used. Specimens used averaged 0.62gm wet body weight, and no significant difference between males and gravid females was found. Additionally, the impedance method employed allowed for more precise rate determinations at high heart rates: at the lower heart rates, there was no difference between optically-timed vs. impedance method. Measurement at 30C characteristically showed a severe depression of heart rate, and high mortality after determinations. It is concluded that in situ field survival of Palaemon northropi may involve a time-dependence and/or other mechanisms whereby upper environmental temperatures may be abated.

  1. Single monosomy as a relatively better survival factor in acute myeloid leukemia patients with monosomal karyotype

    PubMed Central

    Jang, J E; Min, Y H; Yoon, J; Kim, I; Lee, J-H; Jung, C W; Shin, H-J; Lee, W S; Lee, J H; Hong, D-S; Kim, H-J; Kim, H-J; Park, S; Lee, K-H; Jang, J H; Chung, J S; Lee, S M; Park, J; Park, S K; Ahn, J-S; Min, W-S; Cheong, J-W

    2015-01-01

    Monosomal karyotype (MK) defined by either ⩾2 autosomal monosomies or single monosomy with at least one additional structural chromosomal abnormality is associated with a dismal prognosis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It was detected in 174 of 3041 AML patients in South Korean Registry. A total of 119 patients who had received induction therapy were finally analyzed to evaluate the predictive factors for a positive prognosis. On multivariate analysis, single monosomy, the absence of abn(17p), ⩾10% of cells with normal metaphase and the achievement of a complete remission (CR) after induction therapy were significant factors for more favorable outcomes. Especially, single monosomy remained as a significantly independent prognostic factor for superior survival in both patients who received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in CR and who did not. Allo-HSCT in CR improved overall survival significantly only in patients with a single monosomy. Our results suggest that MK-AML may be biologically different according to the karyotypic subtype and that allo-HSCT in CR should be strongly recommended to patients with a single monosomy. For other patients, more prudent treatment strategies should be examined. Furthermore, the biological mechanism by which a single monosomy influences survival should be investigated. PMID:26473530

  2. Toxic Megacolon and Acute Ischemia of the Colon due to Sigmoid Stenosis Related to Diverticulitis

    PubMed Central

    Antonopoulos, P.; Almyroudi, M.; Kolonia, V.; Kouris, S.; Troumpoukis, N.; Economou, N.

    2013-01-01

    We present a rare case of toxic megacolon accompanied by necrosis of the colon due to chronic dilation caused by stenosis of the sigmoid colon as a complication of diverticulitis. The patient presented at the emergency department with diffuse abdominal pain, fever (38.8°C) and tachycardia (120 beats/min). Physical examination revealed distension and tenderness on deep palpation on the left lower quadrant without peritoneal signs. Abdominal computed tomography showed located stenosis in the sigmoid colon and marked dilation of the descending (12 cm diameter) and transverse (7.5 cm diameter) colon. A few hours later, the patient developed severe septic shock with electrolyte abnormalities. He had a history of two prior admissions to our hospital due to crises of acute diverticulitis. Based on Jalan's criteria the diagnosis was compatible with toxic megacolon. The patient's condition deteriorated suddenly and an emergency colectomy was performed. The operative findings revealed a necrotic colon. Histology examination confirmed the diagnosis of ischemia of the colon. To our knowledge this is the first published report in the literature which refers to a rare complication of diverticulitis, namely chronic stenosis which complicated to colonic ischemia and toxic megacolon. PMID:24163654

  3. Relation between acute and long-term cognitive decline after surgery: Influence of metabolic syndrome☆

    PubMed Central

    Gambús, P.L; Trocóniz, I.F.; Feng, X.; Gimenez-Milá, M.; Mellado, R.; Degos, V.; Vacas, S.; Maze, M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The relationship between persistent postoperative cognitive decline and the more common acute variety remains unknown; using data acquired in preclinical studies of postoperative cognitive decline we attempted to characterize this relationship. Methods Low capacity runner (LCR) rats, which have all the features of the metabolic syndrome, were compared postoperatively with high capacity runner (HCR) rats for memory, assessed by trace fear conditioning (TFC) on the 7th postoperative day, and learning and memory (probe trial [PT]) assessed by the Morris water-maze (MWM) at three months postoperatively. Rate of learning (AL) data from the MWM test, were estimated by non-linear mixed effects modeling. The individual rat's TFC result at postoperative day (POD) 7 was correlated with its AL and PT from the MWM data sets at postoperative day POD 90. Results A single exponential decay model best described AL in the MWM with LCR and surgery (LCR–SURG) being the only significant covariates; first order AL rate constant was 0.07 s−1 in LCR–SURG and 0.16 s−1 in the remaining groups (p<0.05). TFC was significantly correlated with both AL (R = 0.74; p < 0.0001) and PT (R = 0.49; p < 0.01). Conclusion Severity of memory decline at 1 week after surgery presaged long-lasting deteriorations in learning and memory. PMID:26164200

  4. Epigenomics of Total Acute Sleep Deprivation in Relation to Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiles and RNA Expression.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Emil K; Boström, Adrian E; Mwinyi, Jessica; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2016-06-01

    Despite an established link between sleep deprivation and epigenetic processes in humans, it remains unclear to what extent sleep deprivation modulates DNA methylation. We performed a within-subject randomized blinded study with 16 healthy subjects to examine the effect of one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) on the genome-wide methylation profile in blood compared with that in normal sleep. Genome-wide differences in methylation between both conditions were assessed by applying a paired regression model that corrected for monocyte subpopulations. In addition, the correlations between the methylation of genes detected to be modulated by TSD and gene expression were examined in a separate, publicly available cohort of 10 healthy male donors (E-GEOD-49065). Sleep deprivation significantly affected the DNA methylation profile both independently and in dependency of shifts in monocyte composition. Our study detected differential methylation of 269 probes. Notably, one CpG site was located 69 bp upstream of ING5, which has been shown to be differentially expressed after sleep deprivation. Gene set enrichment analysis detected the Notch and Wnt signaling pathways to be enriched among the differentially methylated genes. These results provide evidence that total acute sleep deprivation alters the methylation profile in healthy human subjects. This is, to our knowledge, the first study that systematically investigated the impact of total acute sleep deprivation on genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in blood and related the epigenomic findings to the expression data. PMID:27310475

  5. Relative prognostic value of rest thallium-201 imaging, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring after acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Hakki, A.H.; Nestico, P.F.; Heo, J.; Unwala, A.A.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1987-07-01

    Rest thallium-201 scintigraphy, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour Holter monitoring are acceptable methods to assess myocardial necrosis, performance and electrical instability. This study examined the relative value of the three tests, when obtained a mean of 7 days after acute myocardial infarction, in predicting 1 year mortality in 93 patients. Planar thallium-201 images were obtained in three projections and were scored on a scale of 0 to 4 in 15 segments (normal score = 60). Patients were classified as having high risk test results as follows: thallium score less than or equal to 45 (33 patients), left ventricular ejection fraction less than or equal to 40% (51 patients) and complex ventricular arrhythmias on Holter monitoring (36 patients). During the follow-up of 6.4 +/- 3.4 months (mean +/- SD), 15 patients died of cardiac causes. All three tests were important predictors of survival by univariate Cox survival analysis; the thallium score, however, was the only important predictor by multivariate analysis. The predictive power of the thallium score was comparable with that of combined ejection fraction and Holter monitoring (chi-square = 21 versus chi-square = 22). Thus, rest thallium-201 imaging performed before hospital discharge provides important prognostic information in survivors of acute myocardial infarction which is comparable with that provided by left ventricular ejection fraction and Holter monitoring. Patients with a lower thallium score (large perfusion defects) are at high risk of cardiac death during the first year after infarction.

  6. Epigenomics of Total Acute Sleep Deprivation in Relation to Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiles and RNA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Boström, Adrian E.; Mwinyi, Jessica; Schiöth, Helgi B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite an established link between sleep deprivation and epigenetic processes in humans, it remains unclear to what extent sleep deprivation modulates DNA methylation. We performed a within-subject randomized blinded study with 16 healthy subjects to examine the effect of one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) on the genome-wide methylation profile in blood compared with that in normal sleep. Genome-wide differences in methylation between both conditions were assessed by applying a paired regression model that corrected for monocyte subpopulations. In addition, the correlations between the methylation of genes detected to be modulated by TSD and gene expression were examined in a separate, publicly available cohort of 10 healthy male donors (E-GEOD-49065). Sleep deprivation significantly affected the DNA methylation profile both independently and in dependency of shifts in monocyte composition. Our study detected differential methylation of 269 probes. Notably, one CpG site was located 69 bp upstream of ING5, which has been shown to be differentially expressed after sleep deprivation. Gene set enrichment analysis detected the Notch and Wnt signaling pathways to be enriched among the differentially methylated genes. These results provide evidence that total acute sleep deprivation alters the methylation profile in healthy human subjects. This is, to our knowledge, the first study that systematically investigated the impact of total acute sleep deprivation on genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in blood and related the epigenomic findings to the expression data. PMID:27310475

  7. Effect of acute anemia on endurance capacity, glucose and lactate kinetics, and the relative distribution of blood flow in rodents

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanisms investigated include lactate and glucose kinetics and alterations in the relative distribution of blood flow during submaximal exercise. Acute plasma transfusions were performed to lower the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. Vo{sub 2max} decreased 18% in both sedentary and endurance trained animals. The sedentary anemic animals suffered a 78% decrease in distance when run to exhaustion whereas the trained anemic animals suffered only a 39% decrease in endurance distance, compared to the respective controls. Continuous infusions of (6-{sup 3}H)glucose and (U-{sup 14}C)lactate were performed. At rest there were no differences in the glucose of lactate turnover rates between anemic and control animals. There was an increase in the rates of glucose turnover in anemic animals compared to control animals, as well as elevated lactate turnover rates during exercise compared to control animals. Acute anemia resulted in an increase in sympathetic stimulation during exercise. Furthermore, epinephrine levels were significantly correlated to rate of lactate turnover.

  8. The Role of Inspiratory Muscle Training in Sickle Cell Anemia Related Pulmonary Damage due to Recurrent Acute Chest Syndrome Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Camcıoğlu, Burcu; Boşnak-Güçlü, Meral; Karadallı, Müşerrefe Nur; Akı, Şahika Zeynep; Türköz-Sucak, Gülsan

    2015-01-01

    Background. The sickling of red blood cells causes a constellation of musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and pulmonary manifestations. A 32-year-old gentleman with sickle cell anemia (SCA) had been suffering from recurrent acute chest syndrome (ACS). Aim. To examine the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on pulmonary functions, respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, and quality of life in this patient with SCA. Methods. Functional exercise capacity was evaluated using six-minute walk test, respiratory muscle strength using mouth pressure device, hand grip strength using hand-held dynamometer, pain using Visual Analogue Scale, fatigue using Fatigue Severity Scale, dyspnea using Modified Medical Research Council Scale, and health related quality of life using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QOL measurement. Results. A significant improvement has been demonstrated in respiratory muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, pain, fatigue, dyspnea, and quality of life. There was no admission to emergency department due to acute chest syndrome in the following 12 months after commencing regular erythrocytapheresis. Conclusion. This is the first report demonstrating the beneficial effects of inspiratory muscle training on functional exercise capacity, respiratory muscle strength, pain, fatigue, dyspnea, and quality of life in a patient with recurrent ACS. PMID:26060589

  9. The Role of Inspiratory Muscle Training in Sickle Cell Anemia Related Pulmonary Damage due to Recurrent Acute Chest Syndrome Attacks.

    PubMed

    Camcıoğlu, Burcu; Boşnak-Güçlü, Meral; Karadallı, Müşerrefe Nur; Akı, Şahika Zeynep; Türköz-Sucak, Gülsan

    2015-01-01

    Background. The sickling of red blood cells causes a constellation of musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and pulmonary manifestations. A 32-year-old gentleman with sickle cell anemia (SCA) had been suffering from recurrent acute chest syndrome (ACS). Aim. To examine the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on pulmonary functions, respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, and quality of life in this patient with SCA. Methods. Functional exercise capacity was evaluated using six-minute walk test, respiratory muscle strength using mouth pressure device, hand grip strength using hand-held dynamometer, pain using Visual Analogue Scale, fatigue using Fatigue Severity Scale, dyspnea using Modified Medical Research Council Scale, and health related quality of life using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QOL measurement. Results. A significant improvement has been demonstrated in respiratory muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, pain, fatigue, dyspnea, and quality of life. There was no admission to emergency department due to acute chest syndrome in the following 12 months after commencing regular erythrocytapheresis. Conclusion. This is the first report demonstrating the beneficial effects of inspiratory muscle training on functional exercise capacity, respiratory muscle strength, pain, fatigue, dyspnea, and quality of life in a patient with recurrent ACS. PMID:26060589

  10. Lower extremity extension force and electromyography properties as a function of knee angle and their relation to joint torques: implications for strength diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether and how isometric multijoint leg extension strength can be used to assess athletes' muscular capability within the scope of strength diagnosis. External reaction forces (Fext) and kinematics were measured (n = 18) during maximal isometric contractions in a seated leg press at 8 distinct joint angle configurations ranging from 30 to 100° knee flexion. In addition, muscle activation of rectus femoris, vastus medialis, biceps femoris c.l., gastrocnemius medialis, and tibialis anterior was obtained using surface electromyography (EMG). Joint torques for hip, knee, and ankle joints were computed by inverse dynamics. The results showed that unilateral Fext decreased significantly from 3,369 ± 575 N at 30° knee flexion to 1,015 ± 152 N at 100° knee flexion. Despite maximum voluntary effort, excitation of all muscles as measured by EMG root mean square changed with knee flexion angles. Moreover, correlations showed that above-average Fext at low knee flexion is not necessarily associated with above-average Fext at great knee flexion and vice versa. Similarly, it is not possible to deduce high joint torques from high Fext just as above-average joint torques in 1 joint do not signify above-average torques in another joint. From these findings, it is concluded that an evaluation of muscular capability by means of Fext as measured for multijoint leg extension is strongly limited. As practical recommendation, we suggest analyzing multijoint leg extension strength at 3 distinct knee flexion angles or at discipline-specific joint angles. In addition, a careful evaluation of muscular capacity based on measured Fext can be done for knee flexion angles ≥ 80°. For further and detailed analysis of single muscle groups, the use of inverse dynamic modeling is recommended.

  11. Acute and chronic cadmium toxicity to a saltwater cladoceran Moina monogolica Daday and its relative importance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zaosheng; Yan, Changzhou; Zhang, Xian

    2009-01-01

    Acute and chronic toxicity tests of a saltwater cladoceran Moina monogolica Daday exposed to cadmium were conducted according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) guidelines. The 24- and 48-h LC50s and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated as 9.59 (8.91-10.26) and 1.87 (1.46-2.32) mg Cd/l, respectively, based on measured cadmium concentrations. When compared with different phyla or classes of saltwater animals, M. monogolica had moderate sensitivity and was suitable to be used as an indicator organism. Eight end points used to evaluate chronic effects were affected at chronic cadmium concentrations. Test organisms ceased to reproduce when exposed to equal to or greater than 308.10 microg Cd/l. Comparisons of chronic effects showed that mechanisms of metal accumulation patterns M. monogolica exposed to cadmium are different from those of dissolved copper exposure. The point estimates using linear regression equations of net reproductive rate generated the maximum-acceptable-toxicant concentration of 1.78 microg Cd/l, the lowest-observed-effect concentration of 3.01 microg Cd/l and the no-observed-effect concentration of 1.11 microg Cd/l. Comparisons among thresholds, cadmium concentrations in natural aquatic systems and water quality criteria showed that aquatic organisms were possibly negatively affected at some sites of higher cadmium concentrations. Further research is needed to focus on risk assessment of cadmium on saltwater aquatic organisms and water quality criteria development of China. PMID:18719993

  12. Parameters of immunity acute phase reaction in men in relation to exposure duration to mercury vapours.

    PubMed

    Moszczynski, P; Moszczynski, P; Słowinski, S; Bem, S; Bartus, R

    1991-01-01

    The study was carried out in 89 men aged 21 to 57 years with a history of exposure to mercury vapour from 2 to 26 years during occupational work involving chlorine production by the method of mercury electrolysis. The workers were divided into three groups depending on the duration of occupational exposure: 1) 32 workers with a short history of exposure 2-10 years, 2) 37 workers with medium-long exposure - 11-20 years, and 3) 20 workers with a history of long exposure - 21-26 years. The urinary concentrations of mercury in these individuals was 73 +/- 60 microliters x 1(-1), and in blood this concentration was not exceeding 50 microliters x 1(-1). The control group comprised 40 men aged 17 to 52 years. They had not had any occupational exposure to chemicals, or harmful physical factors. On the basis of clinical, haematological and biochemical studies 89 workers with occupational exposure to mercury vapour were regarded as clinically healthy. None of them had any symptoms and signs of the complete neurasthenic syndrome or organic brain injury. Increased nervous excitability was the complaint of 24 workers, 9 had headaches, sleep disturbances were reported by 5, and a feeling of tiredness and apathy was mentioned by 5 men. EEG recording demonstrated 81 normal tracings, and moderately pathological records in 8 men. The parameters of immunity and proteins acute phase reaction were determined, measuring the concentration of immunoglobulins, lysozyme, C3c, C4, alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin in serum. A lower level of IgA, IgG and lysozyme was only noted in individuals with occupational exposure exceeding 20 years.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1725175

  13. The Related Risk Factors Analysis of Snake-Bite Induced Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Chen, Fang; Wu, Shukun

    2016-01-01

    Background The pathogenic mechanism of snake-bite induced acute kidney injury (AKI) remains unclear. Analyzing the risk factors for snake-bite induced AKI may provide the guidance needed for AKI prevention and early treatment. Material/Methods This retrospective study included 119 snake-bite patients who were hospitalized at the emergency department of Sichuan Provincial People’s Hospital from January 2011 to September 2013. The patients were divided into AKI and non-AKI groups according to the 2012 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guideline. Gender, age, and clinical examination data of the patients were recorded. The Mann-Whitney U test and Fisher exact test were performed to analyze the collected data; preliminary analysis of independent risk factors was performed with multivariate logistic regression. Results Among the snake-bite patients, 98.3% were farmers. The mean age of patients was 46±12 years. Of the 119 patients (13.4%), 16 suffered from AKI. There were statistically significant differences between the AKI and non-AKI groups with respect to age, time interval from snake bite to antivenin therapy, creatine kinase, blood myoglobin, advanced age, regional lymphadenopathy, incision drainage, and hemoglobin. Preliminary analysis with multivariate logistic regression showed that advanced age and increased time interval from snake bite to antivenin therapy might be independent risk factors for snake-bite induced AKI. Conclusions Age, time interval from snake bite to antivenin therapy, creatine kinase, blood myoglobin, advanced age, regional lymphadenopathy, incision drainage, and hemoglobin were risk factors for snake-bite induced AKI. Advanced age and delayed antivenin therapy might be independent risk factors for snake-bite induced AKI. PMID:27377078

  14. Work-related acute injuries from mandatory fitness training in the Swedish Police Force.

    PubMed

    de Loës, M; Jansson, B

    2002-04-01

    Acute injuries in the Swedish Police Force from on-duty fitness training were selected retrospectively from the Information System of Occupational Injuries (ISA) at the National Board of Occupational Safety and Health and, if having caused a sick-leave exceeding 2 weeks, to the Labour Market Insurance (AMF Insurance). The latter included injuries from 1995 only. During the seven-year period 1992 to 1998, 920 injuries (80 % in males) from fitness training involving police officers were reported to the ISA-register. The total incidence was 1.6 for policemen per 10 000 hours of exposure and 2.2 for policewomen, which is 1.4 times higher than in men. Around 50 % of the injuries occurred in team and contact sports, with a slightly higher percentage for males, 54 % versus 49 % in females. The percentage of injuries from self-defense training was twice as high as in women than in men, 29 % versus 15 %. In 1995, 42 of the 72 injuries in males and 6 of the 21 injuries in females caused more than 14 days of sick-leave and were announced to the Occupational No Fault Liability Insurance. The major part, 32 of 48 injuries, came from team or contact sports (mainly floorball and soccer). Six policemen incurred injuries that were classified with a degree of disability ranging from 2 to 5 %. The total cost for medical treatment and production loss for the 48 injuries was Euro 248 448 and 99 336, respectively. Team and contact sports accounted for 89 % of the costs and 77 % of the production loss through sick-leave.

  15. Perspectives of patients on factors relating to adherence to post-acute coronary syndrome medical regimens

    PubMed Central

    Lambert-Kerzner, Anne; Havranek, Edward P; Plomondon, Mary E; Fagan, Katherine M; McCreight, Marina S; Fehling, Kelty B; Williams, David J; Hamilton, Alison B; Albright, Karen; Blatchford, Patrick J; Mihalko-Corbitt, Renee; Bryson, Chris L; Bosworth, Hayden B; Kirshner, Miriam A; Giacco, Eric J Del; Ho, P Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Poor adherence to cardioprotective medications after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) hospitalization is associated with increased risk of rehospitalization and mortality. Clinical trials of multifaceted interventions have improved medication adherence with varying results. Patients’ perspectives on interventions could help researchers interpret inconsistent outcomes. Identifying factors that patients believe would improve adherence might inform the design of future interventions and make them more parsimonious and sustainable. The objective of this study was to obtain patients’ perspectives on adherence to medical regimens after experiencing an ACS event and their participation in a medication adherence randomized control trial following their hospitalization. Patients and methods Sixty-four in-depth interviews were conducted with ACS patients who participated in an efficacious, multifaceted, medication adherence randomized control trial. Interview transcripts were analyzed using the constant comparative approach. Results Participants described their post-ACS event experiences and how they affected their adherence behaviors. Patients reported that adherence decisions were facilitated by mutually respectful and collaborative provider–patient treatment planning. Frequent interactions with providers and medication refill reminder calls supported improved adherence. Additional facilitators included having social support, adherence routines, and positive attitudes toward an ACS event. The majority of patients expressed that being active participants in health care decision-making contributed to their health. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that respectful collaborative communication can contribute to medication adherence after ACS hospitalization. These results suggest a potential role for training health-care providers, including pharmacists, social workers, registered nurses, etc, to elicit and acknowledge the patients’ views regarding medication

  16. Effects of Acute Cortisol Administration on Perceptual Priming of Trauma-Related Material

    PubMed Central

    Streb, Markus; Pfaltz, Monique; Michael, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Intrusive memories are a hallmark symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). They reflect excessive and uncontrolled retrieval of the traumatic memory. Acute elevations of cortisol are known to impair the retrieval of already stored memory information. Thus, continuous cortisol administration might help in reducing intrusive memories in PTSD. Strong perceptual priming for neutral stimuli associated with a “traumatic” context has been shown to be one important learning mechanism that leads to intrusive memories. However, the memory modulating effects of cortisol have only been shown for explicit declarative memory processes. Thus, in our double blind, placebo controlled study we aimed to investigate whether cortisol influences perceptual priming of neutral stimuli that appeared in a “traumatic” context. Two groups of healthy volunteers (N = 160) watched either neutral or “traumatic” picture stories on a computer screen. Neutral objects were presented in between the pictures. Memory for these neutral objects was tested after 24 hours with a perceptual priming task and an explicit memory task. Prior to memory testing half of the participants in each group received 25 mg of cortisol, the other half received placebo. In the placebo group participants in the “traumatic” stories condition showed more perceptual priming for the neutral objects than participants in the neutral stories condition, indicating a strong perceptual priming effect for neutral stimuli presented in a “traumatic” context. In the cortisol group this effect was not present: Participants in the neutral stories and participants in the “traumatic” stories condition in the cortisol group showed comparable priming effects for the neutral objects. Our findings show that cortisol inhibits perceptual priming for neutral stimuli that appeared in a “traumatic” context. These findings indicate that cortisol influences PTSD-relevant memory processes and thus further support

  17. Parameters of immunity acute phase reaction in men in relation to exposure duration to mercury vapours.

    PubMed

    Moszczynski, P; Moszczynski, P; Słowinski, S; Bem, S; Bartus, R

    1991-01-01

    The study was carried out in 89 men aged 21 to 57 years with a history of exposure to mercury vapour from 2 to 26 years during occupational work involving chlorine production by the method of mercury electrolysis. The workers were divided into three groups depending on the duration of occupational exposure: 1) 32 workers with a short history of exposure 2-10 years, 2) 37 workers with medium-long exposure - 11-20 years, and 3) 20 workers with a history of long exposure - 21-26 years. The urinary concentrations of mercury in these individuals was 73 +/- 60 microliters x 1(-1), and in blood this concentration was not exceeding 50 microliters x 1(-1). The control group comprised 40 men aged 17 to 52 years. They had not had any occupational exposure to chemicals, or harmful physical factors. On the basis of clinical, haematological and biochemical studies 89 workers with occupational exposure to mercury vapour were regarded as clinically healthy. None of them had any symptoms and signs of the complete neurasthenic syndrome or organic brain injury. Increased nervous excitability was the complaint of 24 workers, 9 had headaches, sleep disturbances were reported by 5, and a feeling of tiredness and apathy was mentioned by 5 men. EEG recording demonstrated 81 normal tracings, and moderately pathological records in 8 men. The parameters of immunity and proteins acute phase reaction were determined, measuring the concentration of immunoglobulins, lysozyme, C3c, C4, alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin in serum. A lower level of IgA, IgG and lysozyme was only noted in individuals with occupational exposure exceeding 20 years.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. The difference between temperate and tropical saltwater species' acute sensitivity to chemicals is relatively small.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Kwok, Kevin W H; Lui, Gilbert C S; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Lee, Jae-Seong; Lam, Michael H W; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-06-01

    Due to a lack of saltwater toxicity data in tropical regions, toxicity data generated from temperate or cold water species endemic to North America and Europe are often adopted to derive water quality guidelines (WQG) for protecting tropical saltwater species. If chemical toxicity to most saltwater organisms increases with water temperature, the use of temperate species data and associated WQG may result in under-protection to tropical species. Given the differences in species composition and environmental attributes between tropical and temperate saltwater ecosystems, there are conceivable uncertainties in such 'temperate-to-tropic' extrapolations. This study aims to compare temperate and tropical saltwater species' acute sensitivity to 11 chemicals through a comprehensive meta-analysis, by comparing species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) between the two groups. A 10 percentile hazardous concentration (HC10) is derived from each SSD, and then a temperate-to-tropic HC10 ratio is computed for each chemical. Our results demonstrate that temperate and tropical saltwater species display significantly different sensitivity towards all test chemicals except cadmium, although such differences are small with the HC10 ratios ranging from 0.094 (un-ionised ammonia) to 2.190 (pentachlorophenol) only. Temperate species are more sensitive to un-ionised ammonia, chromium, lead, nickel and tributyltin, whereas tropical species are more sensitive to copper, mercury, zinc, phenol and pentachlorophenol. Through comparison of a limited number of taxon-specific SSDs, we observe that there is a general decline in chemical sensitivity from algae to crustaceans, molluscs and then fishes. Following a statistical analysis of the results, we recommend an extrapolation factor of two for deriving tropical WQG from temperate information.

  19. Perception of Perspective Angles.

    PubMed

    Erkelens, Casper J

    2015-06-01

    We perceive perspective angles, that is, angles that have an orientation in depth, differently from what they are in physical space. Extreme examples are angles between rails of a railway line or between lane dividers of a long and straight road. In this study, subjects judged perspective angles between bars lying on the floor of the laboratory. Perspective angles were also estimated from pictures taken from the same point of view. Converging and diverging angles were judged to test three models of visual space. Four subjects evaluated the perspective angles by matching them to nonperspective angles, that is, angles between the legs of a compass oriented in the frontal plane. All subjects judged both converging and diverging angles larger than the physical angle and smaller than the angles in the proximal stimuli. A model of shallow visual space describes the results. According to the model, lines parallel to visual lines, vanishing at infinity in physical space, converge to visual lines in visual space. The perceived shape of perspective angles is incompatible with the perceived length and width of the bars. The results have significance for models of visual perception and practical implications for driving and flying in poor visibility conditions. PMID:27433312

  20. Spinning angle optical calibration apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, S.K.; Pratt, H.R.

    1991-02-26

    This patent describes an optical calibration apparatus provided for calibrating and reproducing spinning angles in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. An illuminated magnifying apparatus enables optical setting an accurate reproducing of spinning magic angles in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments. A reference mark scribed on an edge of a spinning angle test sample holder is illuminated by a light source and viewed through a magnifying scope. When the magic angle of a sample material used as a standard is attained by varying the angular position of the sample holder, the coordinate position of the reference mark relative to a graduation or graduations on a reticle in the magnifying scope is noted.

  1. Use of heliox delivered via high-flow nasal cannula to treat an infant with coronavirus-related respiratory infection and severe acute air-flow obstruction.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Sherwin E; Vukin, Kirissa; Mosakowski, Steve; Solano, Patti; Stanton, Lolita; Lester, Lucille; Lavani, Romeen; Hall, Jesse B; Tung, Avery

    2014-11-01

    Heliox, a helium-oxygen gas mixture, has been used for many decades to treat obstructive pulmonary disease. The lower density and higher viscosity of heliox relative to nitrogen-oxygen mixtures can significantly reduce airway resistance when an anatomic upper air-flow obstruction is present and gas flow is turbulent. Clinically, heliox can decrease airway resistance in acute asthma in adults and children and in COPD. Heliox may also enhance the bronchodilating effects of β-agonist administration for acute asthma. Respiratory syndromes caused by coronavirus infections in humans range in severity from the common cold to severe acute respiratory syndrome associated with human coronavirus OC43 and other viral strains. In infants, coronavirus infection can cause bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia in variable combinations and can produce enough air-flow obstruction to cause respiratory failure. We describe a case of coronavirus OC43 infection in an infant with severe acute respiratory distress treated with heliox inhalation to avoid intubation.

  2. Pulmonary artery relative area change is inversely related to ex vivo measured arterial elastic modulus in the canine model of acute pulmonary embolization.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lian; Kellihan, Heidi B; Henningsen, Joseph; Bellofiore, Alessandro; Forouzan, Omid; Roldán-Alzate, Alejandro; Consigny, Daniel W; Gunderson, McLean; Dailey, Seth H; Francois, Christopher J; Chesler, Naomi C

    2014-09-22

    A low relative area change (RAC) of the proximal pulmonary artery (PA) over the cardiac cycle is a good predictor of mortality from right ventricular failure in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). The relationship between RAC and local mechanical properties of arteries, which are known to stiffen in acute and chronic PH, is not clear, however. In this study, we estimated elastic moduli of three PAs (MPA, LPA and RPA: main, left and right PAs) at the physiological state using mechanical testing data and correlated these estimated elastic moduli to RAC measured in vivo with both phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) and M-mode echocardiography (on RPA only). We did so using data from a canine model of acute PH due to embolization to assess the sensitivity of RAC to changes in elastic modulus in the absence of chronic PH-induced arterial remodeling. We found that elastic modulus increased with embolization-induced PH, presumably a consequence of increased collagen engagement, which corresponds well to decreased RAC. Furthermore, RAC was inversely related to elastic modulus. Finally, we found MRI and echocardiography yielded comparable estimates of RAC. We conclude that RAC of proximal PAs can be obtained from either MRI or echocardiography and a change in RAC indicates a change in elastic modulus of proximal PAs detectable even in the absence of chronic PH-induced arterial remodeling. The correlation between RAC and elastic modulus of proximal PAs may be useful for prognoses and to monitor the effects of therapeutic interventions in patients with PH. PMID:25128393

  3. Altered cognition-related brain activity and interactions with acute pain in migraine

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Vani A.; Khan, Shariq A.; Keaser, Michael L.; Hubbard, Catherine S.; Goyal, Madhav; Seminowicz, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of migraine on neural cognitive networks. However, cognitive dysfunction is increasingly being recognized as a comorbidity of chronic pain. Pain appears to affect cognitive ability and the function of cognitive networks over time, and decrements in cognitive function can exacerbate affective and sensory components of pain. We investigated differences in cognitive processing and pain–cognition interactions between 14 migraine patients and 14 matched healthy controls using an fMRI block-design with two levels of task difficulty and concurrent heat (painful and not painful) stimuli. Across groups, cognitive networks were recruited in response to a difficult cognitive task, and a pain–task interaction was found in the right (contralateral to pain stimulus) posterior insula (pINS), such that activity was modulated by decreasing the thermal pain stimulus or by engaging the difficult cognitive task. Migraine patients had less task-related deactivation within the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left dorsal anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC) compared to controls. These regions have been reported to have decreased cortical thickness and cognitive-related deactivation within other pain populations, and are also associated with pain regulation, suggesting that the current findings may reflect altered cognitive function and top-down regulation of pain. During pain conditions, patients had decreased task-related activity, but more widespread task-related reductions in pain-related activity, compared to controls, suggesting cognitive resources may be diverted from task-related to pain-reduction-related processes in migraine. Overall, these findings suggest that migraine is associated with altered cognitive-related neural activity, which may reflect altered pain regulatory processes as well as broader functional restructuring. PMID:25610798

  4. Acute physiological responses to castration-related pain in piglets: the effect of two local anesthetics with or without meloxicam.

    PubMed

    Bonastre, C; Mitjana, O; Tejedor, M T; Calavia, M; Yuste, A G; Úbeda, J L; Falceto, M V

    2016-09-01

    Methods to reduce castration-related pain in piglets are still issues of concern and interest for authorities and producers. Our objectives were to estimate the effectiveness of two protocols of local anesthesia (lidocaine and the combination of lidocaine+bupivacaine) as well as the use of meloxicam as a postoperative analgesic in alleviating castration-related pain, measured by acute physiological responses. Eight groups (15 piglets/group) were included in the study: (1) castration without anesthesia or analgesia, without meloxicam (TRAD WITHOUT), (2) castration without anesthesia or analgesia, but with meloxicam (TRAD WITH), (3) handling without meloxicam (SHAM WITHOUT), (4) handling with meloxicam (SHAM WITH), (5) castration after local anesthesia with lidocaine but without meloxicam (LIDO WITHOUT), (6) castration after local anesthesia with lidocaine and meloxicam (LIDO WITH), (7) castration after local anesthesia with lidocaine+bupivacaine without meloxicam (LIDO+BUPI WITHOUT), (8) castration after local anesthesia with lidocaine+bupivacaine and meloxicam (LIDO+BUPI WITH). Acute physiological responses measured included skin surface temperature and serum glucose and cortisol concentrations. On days 4 and 11 post-castration BW was recorded and average daily gain was calculated over this period. Furthermore, piglet mortality was recorded over the 11-day post-castration period. Administration of local anesthetic or meloxicam did not prevent the decrease in skin surface temperature associated with castration. Lidocaine reduced the increase in glucose concentration associated with castration. For castrated pigs, the joint use of lidocaine and meloxicam caused a significant decrease in cortisol concentration; the combination of intratesticular lidocaine and bupivacaine did not seem to be more effective than lidocaine alone. No effect of treatments on mortality and growth were detected. PMID:27080170

  5. Early and treatment-related deaths in childhood acute myeloid leukaemia in the Nordic countries: 1984-2003.

    PubMed

    Molgaard-Hansen, Lene; Möttönen, Merja; Glosli, Heidi; Jónmundsson, Guðmundur K; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Hasle, Henrik

    2010-12-01

    Despite major improvements in the cure rate of childhood acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), 5-15% of patients still die from treatment-related complications. In a historical prospective cohort study, we analysed the frequency, clinical features and risk factors for early deaths (ED) and treatment-related deaths (TRD) in 525 children included in the Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (NOPHO)-AML-84, -88 and -93 trials. Seventy patients (13%) died before starting treatment or from treatment-related complications. The death rate rose from 11% in NOPHO-AML-84 to 29% in -88, but then fell to 8% in -93. Sixteen patients (3%) died within the first 2 weeks, mainly from bleeding or leucostasis. Hyperleucocytosis, age <2 or ≥10 years were risk factors. After day 15, 10% of patients died from treatment-related complications with infection as the main cause of death. Risk factors were age <2 or ≥10 years and treatment according to the NOPHO-AML-88 protocol. The number of EDs and TRDs in AML is high. Therefore optimal antifungal prophylaxis is essential, and studies on the benefit of antibacterial prophylaxis and individual risk factors for ED and TRD are needed.

  6. Kinematics analyses related to stretch-shortening cycle during soccer instep kicking after different acute stretching.

    PubMed

    Amiri-Khorasani, Mohammadtaghi; Mohammadkazemi, Reza; Sarafrazi, Soodeh; Riyahi-Malayeri, Shahin; Sotoodeh, Vahid

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of static and dynamic stretching within a preexercise warm-up on angular velocity of knee joint, deepest knee flexion (DKF), and duration of eccentric and concentric contractions, which are relative to the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) during instep kicking in professional soccer players. The kicking motions of dominant legs were captured from 18 Olympic professional male soccer players (height: 180.38 ± 7.34 cm; weight: 69.77 ± 9.73 kg; age: 19.22 ± 1.83 years) using 4 digital video cameras at 50 Hz. There was a significant difference in the DKF after the dynamic stretching (-3.22 ± 3.10°) vs. static stretching (-0.18 ± 3.19°) relative to the no-stretching method with p < 0.001. Moreover, there was significant difference in eccentric duration after the dynamic stretching (0.006 ± 0.01 seconds) vs. static stretching (-0.003 ± 0.01 seconds) relative to the no-stretching method with p < 0.015. There was a significant difference in the concentric duration after the dynamic stretching (-0.007 ± 0.01 seconds) vs. static stretching (0.002 ± 0.01 seconds) relative to the no-stretching method with p < 0.001. There was also a significant difference in knee angular velocity after the dynamic stretching (4.08 ± 3.81 rad·s) vs. static stretching (-5.34 ± 4.40 rad·s) relative to the no-stretching method with p < 0.001. We concluded that dynamic stretching during warm-ups, as compared with static stretching, is probably the most effective way as preparation for the kinematics characteristics of soccer instep kick, which are relative to the SSC.

  7. RELATIVE POTENCIES FOR ACUTE EFFECTS OF PYRETHROIDS ON MOTOR FUNCTION IN RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A manuscript reports data from initial studies on the cumulative risk of pyrethroid insecticides. The objective of this work was to characterize individual dose-response curves for in vivo motor function and calculate relative potencies, for eleven commonly used pyrethroids. Acu...

  8. Effects of acute versus repeated cocaine exposure on the expression of endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins in the mouse cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Palomino, Ana; Pavón, Francisco-Javier; Blanco-Calvo, Eduardo; Serrano, Antonia; Arrabal, Sergio; Rivera, Patricia; Alén, Francisco; Vargas, Antonio; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Rubio, Leticia; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Growing awareness of cerebellar involvement in addiction is based on the cerebellum's intermediary position between motor and reward, potentially acting as an interface between motivational and cognitive functions. Here, we examined the impact of acute and repeated cocaine exposure on the two main signaling systems in the mouse cerebellum: the endocannabinoid (eCB) and glutamate systems. To this end, we investigated whether eCB signaling-related gene and protein expression {cannabinoid receptor type 1 receptors and enzymes that produce [diacylglycerol lipase alpha/beta (DAGLα/β) and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD)] and degrade [monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and fatty acid amino hydrolase (FAAH)] eCB} were altered. In addition, we analyzed the gene expression of relevant components of the glutamate signaling system [glutamate synthesizing enzymes liver-type glutaminase isoform (LGA) and kidney-type glutaminase isoform (KGA), metabotropic glutamatergic receptor (mGluR3/5), NMDA-ionotropic glutamatergic receptor (NR1/2A/2B/2C) and AMPA-ionotropic receptor subunits (GluR1/2/3/4)] and the gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, because noradrenergic terminals innervate the cerebellar cortex. Results indicated that acute cocaine exposure decreased DAGLα expression, suggesting a down-regulation of 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) production, as well as gene expression of TH, KGA, mGluR3 and all ionotropic receptor subunits analyzed in the cerebellum. The acquisition of conditioned locomotion and sensitization after repeated cocaine exposure were associated with an increased NAPE-PLD/FAAH ratio, suggesting enhanced anandamide production, and a decreased DAGLβ/MAGL ratio, suggesting decreased 2-AG generation. Repeated cocaine also increased LGA gene expression but had no effect on glutamate receptors. These findings indicate that acute cocaine modulates the expression of the eCB and

  9. Effects of acute versus repeated cocaine exposure on the expression of endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins in the mouse cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Palomino, Ana; Pavón, Francisco-Javier; Blanco-Calvo, Eduardo; Serrano, Antonia; Arrabal, Sergio; Rivera, Patricia; Alén, Francisco; Vargas, Antonio; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Rubio, Leticia; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Growing awareness of cerebellar involvement in addiction is based on the cerebellum's intermediary position between motor and reward, potentially acting as an interface between motivational and cognitive functions. Here, we examined the impact of acute and repeated cocaine exposure on the two main signaling systems in the mouse cerebellum: the endocannabinoid (eCB) and glutamate systems. To this end, we investigated whether eCB signaling-related gene and protein expression {cannabinoid receptor type 1 receptors and enzymes that produce [diacylglycerol lipase alpha/beta (DAGLα/β) and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD)] and degrade [monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and fatty acid amino hydrolase (FAAH)] eCB} were altered. In addition, we analyzed the gene expression of relevant components of the glutamate signaling system [glutamate synthesizing enzymes liver-type glutaminase isoform (LGA) and kidney-type glutaminase isoform (KGA), metabotropic glutamatergic receptor (mGluR3/5), NMDA-ionotropic glutamatergic receptor (NR1/2A/2B/2C) and AMPA-ionotropic receptor subunits (GluR1/2/3/4)] and the gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, because noradrenergic terminals innervate the cerebellar cortex. Results indicated that acute cocaine exposure decreased DAGLα expression, suggesting a down-regulation of 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) production, as well as gene expression of TH, KGA, mGluR3 and all ionotropic receptor subunits analyzed in the cerebellum. The acquisition of conditioned locomotion and sensitization after repeated cocaine exposure were associated with an increased NAPE-PLD/FAAH ratio, suggesting enhanced anandamide production, and a decreased DAGLβ/MAGL ratio, suggesting decreased 2-AG generation. Repeated cocaine also increased LGA gene expression but had no effect on glutamate receptors. These findings indicate that acute cocaine modulates the expression of the eCB and

  10. Effects of acute versus repeated cocaine exposure on the expression of endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins in the mouse cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Palomino, Ana; Pavón, Francisco-Javier; Blanco-Calvo, Eduardo; Serrano, Antonia; Arrabal, Sergio; Rivera, Patricia; Alén, Francisco; Vargas, Antonio; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Rubio, Leticia; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Growing awareness of cerebellar involvement in addiction is based on the cerebellum’s intermediary position between motor and reward, potentially acting as an interface between motivational and cognitive functions. Here, we examined the impact of acute and repeated cocaine exposure on the two main signaling systems in the mouse cerebellum: the endocannabinoid (eCB) and glutamate systems. To this end, we investigated whether eCB signaling-related gene and protein expression {cannabinoid receptor type 1 receptors and enzymes that produce [diacylglycerol lipase alpha/beta (DAGLα/β) and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD)] and degrade [monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and fatty acid amino hydrolase (FAAH)] eCB} were altered. In addition, we analyzed the gene expression of relevant components of the glutamate signaling system [glutamate synthesizing enzymes liver-type glutaminase isoform (LGA) and kidney-type glutaminase isoform (KGA), metabotropic glutamatergic receptor (mGluR3/5), NMDA-ionotropic glutamatergic receptor (NR1/2A/2B/2C) and AMPA-ionotropic receptor subunits (GluR1/2/3/4)] and the gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, because noradrenergic terminals innervate the cerebellar cortex. Results indicated that acute cocaine exposure decreased DAGLα expression, suggesting a down-regulation of 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) production, as well as gene expression of TH, KGA, mGluR3 and all ionotropic receptor subunits analyzed in the cerebellum. The acquisition of conditioned locomotion and sensitization after repeated cocaine exposure were associated with an increased NAPE-PLD/FAAH ratio, suggesting enhanced anandamide production, and a decreased DAGLβ/MAGL ratio, suggesting decreased 2-AG generation. Repeated cocaine also increased LGA gene expression but had no effect on glutamate receptors. These findings indicate that acute cocaine modulates the expression of the eCB and

  11. Real-time ultrasound perfusion imaging in acute stroke: assessment of cerebral perfusion deficits related to arterial recanalization.

    PubMed

    Bolognese, Manuel; Artemis, Dimitrios; Alonso, Angelika; Hennerici, Michael G; Meairs, Stephan; Kern, Rolf

    2013-05-01

    We investigated whether real-time ultrasound perfusion imaging (rt-UPI) is able to detect perfusion changes related to arterial recanalization in the acute phase of middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke. Twenty-four patients with acute territorial MCA stroke were examined with rt-UPI and transcranial color-coded duplex ultrasound (TCCD). Ultrasound studies were consecutively performed within 24 h and 72-96 h after stroke onset. Real-time UPI parameters of bolus kinetics (time to peak, rt-TTP) and of refill kinetics (plateau A and slope β of the exponential replenishment curve) were calculated from regions of interest of ischemic versus normal brain tissue; these parameters were compared between early and follow-up examinations in patients who recanalized. At the early examination, there was a delay of rt-TTP in patients with MCA occlusion (rt-TTP [s]: 13.09 ± 3.21 vs. 10.16 ± 2.6; p = 0.01) and a lower value of the refill parameter β (β [1/s]: 0.62 ± 0.34 vs. 1.09 ± 0.58; p = 0.01) in ischemic compared with normal brain tissue, whereas there were no differences of the parameters A and Axβ. At follow-up, the delay of rt-TTP was reversible once recanalization of an underlying MCA obstruction was demonstrated: rt-TTP [s], 13.09 ± 3.21 at 24 h versus 10.95 ± 1.5 at 72-96 h (p = 0.03). Correspondingly, β showed a higher slope than at the first examination: β [1/s]: 0.55 ± 0.29 at 24 h versus 0.71 ± 0.27 at 72-96 h (p = 0.04). We conclude that real-time UPI can detect hemodynamic impairment in acute MCA occlusion and subsequent improvement following arterial recanalization. This offers the chance for bedside monitoring of the hemodynamic compromise (e.g. during therapeutic interventions such as systemic thrombolysis).

  12. Studying the effects of dietary body weight-adjusted acute tryptophan depletion on punishment-related behavioral inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Gaber, Tilman J.; Dingerkus, Vita L. S.; Crockett, Molly J.; Bubenzer-Busch, Sarah; Helmbold, Katrin; Sánchez, Cristina L.; Dahmen, Brigitte; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Zepf, Florian D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alterations in serotonergic (5-HT) neurotransmission are thought to play a decisive role in affective disorders and impulse control. Objective This study aims to reproduce and extend previous findings on the effects of acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) and subsequently diminished central 5-HT synthesis in a reinforced categorization task using a refined body weight–adjusted depletion protocol. Design Twenty-four young healthy adults (12 females, mean age [SD]=25.3 [2.1] years) were subjected to a double-blind within-subject crossover design. Each subject was administered both an ATD challenge and a balanced amino acid load (BAL) in two separate sessions in randomized order. Punishment-related behavioral inhibition was assessed using a forced choice go/no-go task that incorporated a variable payoff schedule. Results Administration of ATD resulted in significant reductions in TRP measured in peripheral blood samples, indicating reductions of TRP influx across the blood–brain barrier and related brain 5-HT synthesis. Overall accuracy and response time performance were improved after ATD administration. The ability to adjust behavioral responses to aversive outcome magnitudes and behavioral adjustments following error contingent punishment remained intact after decreased brain 5-HT synthesis. A previously observed dissociation effect of ATD on punishment-induced inhibition was not observed. Conclusions Our results suggest that neurodietary challenges with ATD Moja–De have no detrimental effects on task performance and punishment-related inhibition in healthy adults. PMID:26268708

  13. Acute aerobic exercise enhances attentional modulation of somatosensory event-related potentials during a tactile discrimination task.

    PubMed

    Popovich, Christina; Staines, W Richard

    2015-03-15

    Neuroimaging research has shown that acute bouts of moderate intensity aerobic exercise can enhance attention-based neuronal activity in frontal brain regions, namely in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as improve cognitive performance. The circuitry of the PFC is complex with extensive reciprocal corticocortical and thalamocortical connections, yet it remains unclear if aerobic exercise can also assist attentional control over modality-specific sensory cortices. To test this, we used a tactile discrimination task to compare tactile event-related potentials (ERPs) prior to and following an acute bout of moderate intensity aerobic exercise. We hypothesized that exercise preceding performance of the task would result in more efficient sensory gating of irrelevant/non-attended and enhancement of relevant/attended sensory information, respectively. Participants received vibrotactile stimulation to the second and fifth digit on the left hand and reported target stimuli on one digit only. ERP amplitudes for the P50, P100, N140 and long latency positivity (LLP) were quantified for attended and non-attended trials at FC4, C4, CP4 and P4 while P300 amplitudes were quantified in response to attended target stimuli at electrodes FCZ, CZ and CPZ. Results showed no effect of attention on the P50, however, both P100 and LLP amplitudes were significantly greater during attended, task-relevant trials, while the N140 was enhanced for non-attended, task-irrelevant stimuli. Moreover, unattended N140 amplitudes over parietal sites contralateral to stimulation were significantly greater post-exercise versus pre-exercise, while LLP modulation varied with greater unattended amplitudes post-exercise over frontal sites and greater attended amplitudes post-exercise over parietal sites. These results suggest that a single session of moderate intensity aerobic exercise facilitated the sensory gating of task-irrelevant tactile stimuli so that relevant sensory signals could be enhanced at

  14. Relative impact of clinical evidence and over-the-counter prescribing on topical antibiotic use for acute infective conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Helen; Mant, David; Scott, Caroline; Lasserson, Daniel; Rose, Peter W

    2009-01-01

    Background Acute infective conjunctivitis is a common presentation in general practice. In 2005, three placebo-controlled clinical trials showed that use of topical antibiotics had a small effect on time to clinical resolution. In the same year, chloramphenicol eye drops were made available for sale over the counter. Aim To compare the relative impact of clinical trial evidence and a change to over-the-counter availability on community use of topical chloramphenicol. Design of study Observational study using mainly routinely collected data for England. Setting National prescribing data for England and local data from general practices in Oxfordshire, England. Method Data were collated from three sources: GP prescriptions from the Prescription Pricing Authority, wholesale supply to pharmacists from IMS Health, and an audit of delayed prescribing and non-prescribing from electronic consultation records for acute conjunctivitis, in four general practices. Results The number of general practice prescriptions for topical chloramphenicol fell from 2.3 million in 2004 to 1.9 million in 2007, a reduction of 15.5%. In contrast, over-the-counter sales by pharmacists have increased steadily. The net effect of these changes has been a 47.8% increase in total chloramphenicol use during 2005–2007, with 1.1 million additional packs being used in 2007 compared to 2004. Conclusion Making an antibiotic available over the counter increases its use substantially. This is in conflict with the important public health message that antibiotic use needs to be reduced to combat resistance. These findings support the views of the Chief Medical Officer that no more antibiotics should currently be made available over the counter. PMID:20875257

  15. Age- and Gender-related Disparities in Primary Percutaneous Coronary Interventions for Acute ST-segment elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Tal, Kali; Erne, Paul; Radovanovic, Dragana; Windecker, Stephan; Jüni, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous analyses reported age- and gender-related differences in the provision of cardiac care. The objective of the study was to compare circadian disparities in the delivery of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) according to the patient’s age and gender. Methods We investigated patients included into the Acute Myocardial Infarction in Switzerland (AMIS) registry presenting to one of 11 centers in Switzerland providing primary PCI around the clock, and stratified patients according to gender and age. Findings A total of 4723 patients presented with AMI between 2005 and 2010; 1319 (28%) were women and 2172 (54%) were ≥65 years of age. More than 90% of patients <65 years of age underwent primary PCI without differences between gender. Elderly patients and particularly women were at increased risk of being withheld primary PCI (males adj. HR 4.91, 95% CI 3.93–6.13; females adj. HR 9.31, 95% CI 7.37–11.75) as compared to males <65 years of age. An increased risk of a delay in door-to-balloon time >90 minutes was found in elderly males (adj HR 1.66 (95% CI 1.40–1.95), p<0.001) and females (adj HR 1.57 (95% CI 1.27–1.93), p<0.001), as well as in females <65 years (adj HR 1.47 (95% CI 1.13–1.91), p = 0.004) as compared to males <65 years of age, with significant differences in circadian patterns during on- and off-duty hours. Conclusions In a cohort of patients with AMI in Switzerland, we observed discrimination of elderly patients and females in the circadian provision of primary PCI. PMID:26352574

  16. Effect of acute endurance and resistance exercise on endocrine hormones directly related to lipolysis and skeletal muscle protein synthesis in adult individuals with obesity.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Dominique; Meeusen, Romain; Mullens, Annelies; Dendale, Paul

    2012-05-01

    In subjects with obesity, the implementation of long-term exercise intervention increases lean tissue mass and lowers adipose tissue mass. However, data indicate a blunted lipolytic response, and/or skeletal muscle protein synthesis, when subjects with obesity are exposed to acute endurance or resistance exercise, respectively. Therefore, subjects with obesity seem to display a suboptimal physiological response to acute exercise stimuli. It might be hypothesized that hormonal disturbances contribute, at least in part, to these abnormal physiological reactions in the obese. This review discusses the impact of acute endurance and resistance exercise on endocrine hormones directly related to lipolysis and/or skeletal muscle protein synthesis (insulin, [nor]epinephrine, cortisol, growth hormone, testosterone, triiodothyronine, atrial natriuretic peptide, insulin-like growth factor-1), as well as the impact of long-term endurance and resistance exercise intervention on these hormonal responses to acute endurance and resistance exercise. In the obese, some endocrinological disturbances during acute endurance and resistance exercise have been identified: a blunted blood growth hormone, atrial natriuretic peptide and epinephrine release, and greater cortisol and insulin release. These hormonal disturbances might contribute to a suppressed lipolytic response, and/or suppressed skeletal muscle protein synthesis, as a result of acute endurance or resistance exercise, respectively. In subjects with obesity, the impact of acute endurance and resistance exercise on other endocrine hormones (norepinephrine, testosterone, triiodothyronine, insulin-like growth factor-1) remains elusive. Furthermore, whether long-term endurance and resistance exercise intervention might reverse these hormonal disturbances during acute endurance and resistance exercise in these individuals remains unknown.

  17. Decitabine, Cytarabine, and Daunorubicin Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-20

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  18. Heterodyne Interferometer Angle Metrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Inseob; Weilert, Mark A.; Wang, Xu; Goullioud, Renaud

    2010-01-01

    A compact, high-resolution angle measurement instrument has been developed that is based on a heterodyne interferometer. The common-path heterodyne interferometer metrology is used to measure displacements of a reflective target surface. In the interferometer setup, an optical mask is used to sample the measurement laser beam reflecting back from a target surface. Angular rotations, around two orthogonal axes in a plane perpendicular to the measurement- beam propagation direction, are determined simultaneously from the relative displacement measurement of the target surface. The device is used in a tracking telescope system where pitch and yaw measurements of a flat mirror were simultaneously performed with a sensitivity of 0.1 nrad, per second, and a measuring range of 0.15 mrad at a working distance of an order of a meter. The nonlinearity of the device is also measured less than one percent over the measurement range.

  19. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and acute encephalitis and poliomyelitis-like flaccid paralysis.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Kanae; Kano, Gen; Shibata, Mayumi; Sakamoto, Izumi; Matsui, Hirofumi; Imashuku, Shinsaku

    2011-05-01

    A 3-year-old male presented with Chlamydia pneumoniae infection-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). The patient developed an episode of HLH with severe skin eruption following C. pneumoniae pneumonia. Symptoms responded to steroid/cyclosporine A therapy, but the patient slowly lost consciousness and developed systemic flaccid paralysis. He was diagnosed with encephalitis/myelitis by brain and spinal MRI. Neurological symptoms and signs gradually resolved. We thought that the immune response to C. pneumoniae infection triggered the development of HLH, associated with unusual neurological complications. This report describes a novel case of C. pneumoniae-associated HLH and with poliomyelitis like flaccid paralysis. PMID:21370423

  20. Association between Precipitation Upstream of a Drinking Water Utility and Nurse Advice Calls Relating to Acute Gastrointestinal Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Tornevi, Andreas; Axelsson, Gösta; Forsberg, Bertil

    2013-01-01

    Background The River Göta Älv is a source of fresh-water for the City of Gothenburg (Sweden). We recently identified a clear association between upstream precipitation and indicator bacteria concentrations in the river water outside the intake to the drinking water utility. This study aimed to determine if variation in the incidence of acute gastrointestinal illnesses is associated with upstream precipitation. Methods We acquired data, covering 1494 days, on the daily number of telephone calls to the nurse advice line from citizens in Gothenburg living in areas with Göta Älv as a fresh-water supply. We separated calls relating to gastrointestinal illnesses from other medical concerns, and analyzed their association with precipitation using a distributed lag non-linear Poisson regression model, adjusting for seasonal patterns and covariates. We used a 0–21-day lag period for precipitation to account for drinking water delivery times and incubation periods of waterborne pathogens. Results The study period contained 25,659 nurse advice calls relating to gastrointestinal illnesses. Heavy rainfall was associated with increased calls the same day and around 5–6 days later. Consecutive days of wet weather were also found to be associated with an increase in the daily number of gastrointestinal concerns. No associations were identified between precipitation and nurse advice calls relating to other medical concerns. Conclusion An increase in nurse advice calls relating to gastrointestinal illnesses around 5–6 days after heavy rainfall is consistent with a hypothesis that the cause could be related to drinking water due to insufficient barriers in the drinking water production, suggesting the need for improved drinking water treatment. PMID:23875009

  1. Direct Medical Cost of Influenza-Related Hospitalizations among Severe Acute Respiratory Infections Cases in Three Provinces in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoping; Gao, Lidong; Li, Zhong; Feng, Ao; Jin, Hui; Wang, Shiyuan; Su, Qiru; Xu, Zhen; Feng, Zijian

    2013-01-01

    Background Influenza-related hospitalizations impose a considerable economic and social burden. This study aimed to better understand the economic burden of influenza-related hospitalizations among patients in China in different age and risk categories. Methods Laboratory-confirmed influenza-related hospitalizations between December 2009 and June 2011 from three hospitals participating in the Chinese Severe Acute Respiratory Infections (SARI) sentinel surveillance system were included in this study. Hospital billing data were collected from each hospital’s Hospital Information System (HIS) and divided into five cost categories. Demographic and clinical information was collected from medical records. Mean (range) and median (interquartile range [IQR]) costs were calculated and compared among children (≤15 years), adults (16–64 years) and elderly (≥65 years) groups. Factors influencing cost were analyzed. Results A total of 106 laboratory-confirmed influenza-related hospitalizations were identified, 60% of which were children. The mean (range) direct medical cost was $1,797 ($80–$27,545) for all hospitalizations, and the median (IQR) direct medical cost was $231 ($164), $854 ($890), and $2,263 ($7,803) for children, adults, and elderly, respectively. Therapeutics and diagnostics were the two largest components of direct medical cost, comprising 57% and 23%, respectively. Cost of physician services was the lowest at less than 1%. Conclusion Direct medical cost of influenza-related hospitalizations imposes a heavy burden on patients and their families in China. Further study is needed to provide more comprehensive evidence on the economic burden of influenza. Our study highlights the need to increase vaccination rate and develop targeted national preventive strategies. PMID:23717485

  2. Branching angles reflect a trade-off between reducing trail maintenance costs or travel distances in leaf-cutting ants.

    PubMed

    Farji-Brener, Alejandro Gustavo; Chinchilla, Federico; Umaña, María Natalia; Ocasio-Torres, Maríia Elena; Chauta-Mellizo, Alexander; Acosta-Rojas, Diana; Marinaro, Sofía; Curth, Mónica de Torres; Amador-Vargas, Sabrina

    2015-02-01

    The design of transport paths in consuming entities that use routes to access food should be under strong selective pressures to reduce costs and increase benefits. We studied the adaptive nature of branching angles in foraging trail networks of the two most abundant tropical leaf-cutting ant species. We mathematically assessed how these angles should reflect the relative weight of the pressure for reducing either trail maintenance effort or traveling distances. Bifurcation angles of ant foraging trails strongly differed depending on the location of the nests. Ant colonies in open areas showed more acute branching angles, which best shorten travel distances but create longer new trail sections to maintain than a perpendicular branch, suggesting that trail maintenance costs are smaller compared to the benefit of reduced traveling distance. Conversely, ant colonies in forest showed less acute branching angles, indicating that maintenance costs are of larger importance relative to the benefits of shortening travel distances. The trail pattern evident in forests may be attributable to huge amounts of litterfall that .increase trail maintenance costs, and the abundant canopy cover that reduces traveling costs by mitigating direct sunlight and rain. These results suggest that branching angles represent a trade-off between reducing maintenance work and shortening travel distances, illustrating how animal constructions can adjust to diverse environmental conditions. This idea may help to understand diverse networks systems, including urban travel networks. PMID:26240872

  3. Model calculations on vertical common black equilibrium soap films: the relation of contact angle to Fresnel diffraction patterns from the film-border transition

    SciTech Connect

    Agterof, W.G.M.

    1982-04-01

    The surface tension of a thin liquid (soap) film is often different from that of the bulk solution from which the film is made. This is a consequence of the action of long-range interation forces in the film. In general, 2 forces are considered. The first is the electric double-layer repulsion which is a result of the overlap of the double-layer buildup in the central aqueous core of the film by the ionic detergent molecules at the surfaces. The second is the London-Van der Waals attraction due to the fact that a molecule in the film has a smaller number of other molecules in its interaction sphere than a molecule in the bulk solution. Both forces, which are functions of the thickness of the film, compose the disjoining pressure. From the profiles Fresnel diffraction patterns were calculated and the following conclusions were drawn: (1) they are not very sensitive for the details of the transition region, between a film and its meniscus; (2) for contact angles larger than 16 ft, the results of Princen and Frankel coincide within 5%; and (3) this optical method will not result in reliable contact angles when they are smaller than 10 ft. 22 references.

  4. Acute toxicity of organophosphate insecticide, dichlorvos in relation to selected water hardness for the freshwater zooplankters.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ashok Kumar; Verma, Girraj Prasad; Jain, Khyali Lal

    2008-11-01

    Toxicity of organophosphate insecticide, i.e. dichlorvos has been investigated in relation to selected water hardness for the freshwater zooplankters such as Moina, Daphnia, cyclops and nauplii. Results revealed that dichlorvos was highly toxic to the tested zooplankters, as the LC50 values are noticed in ppb. Trend of sensitivity for different zooplankters to dichlorvos was recorded as Moina < Daphnia < nauplii < cyclops. The LC50 were found to change significantly with the change in water hardness. The zooplankters were more susceptible to dichlorvos at water hardness of 275 mgl(-1) as compared to water hardness of 540 mgl(-1) as revealed from low LC50 values. The range of safe dischargeable concentrations (1.063-1.137ppb) were too low as compared to harmless or safe concentrations (43.895-89.194 ppb) for the zooplankters at both the hardness.

  5. Acute toxicity of organophosphate insecticide, dichlorvos in relation to selected water hardness for the freshwater zooplankters.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ashok Kumar; Verma, Girraj Prasad; Jain, Khyali Lal

    2008-11-01

    Toxicity of organophosphate insecticide, i.e. dichlorvos has been investigated in relation to selected water hardness for the freshwater zooplankters such as Moina, Daphnia, cyclops and nauplii. Results revealed that dichlorvos was highly toxic to the tested zooplankters, as the LC50 values are noticed in ppb. Trend of sensitivity for different zooplankters to dichlorvos was recorded as Moina < Daphnia < nauplii < cyclops. The LC50 were found to change significantly with the change in water hardness. The zooplankters were more susceptible to dichlorvos at water hardness of 275 mgl(-1) as compared to water hardness of 540 mgl(-1) as revealed from low LC50 values. The range of safe dischargeable concentrations (1.063-1.137ppb) were too low as compared to harmless or safe concentrations (43.895-89.194 ppb) for the zooplankters at both the hardness. PMID:19297975

  6. Comparable results in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia after related and unrelated stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Dahlke, J; Kröger, N; Zabelina, T; Ayuk, F; Fehse, N; Wolschke, C; Waschke, O; Schieder, H; Renges, H; Krüger, W; Kruell, A; Hinke, A; Erttmann, R; Kabisch, H; Zander, A R

    2006-01-01

    We report the results of 84 patients with ALL after related (n = 46) or unrelated (n = 38) allogeneic SCT. Mean recipient age was 23 years (range: 1-60) and median follow-up was 18 months (range: 1-133). Forty-three patients were transplanted in CR1; 25 in CR2 or CR3; four were primary refractory; four in PR; eight in relapse. The conditioning regimen consisted of TBI/VP16/CY (n = 76), TBI/VP16 (n = 2), TBI/CY (n = 2), Bu/VP16/CY (n = 4). The OS at 3 years was 45% (44% unrelated, 46% related). Univariate analysis showed a significantly better OS for patients <18 years (P=0.03), mismatched sex-combination (P = 0.03), both with a stronger effect on increasing OS after unrelated SCT. Factors decreasing TRM were patient age <18 years (P = 0.004), patient CMV-seronegativity (P = 0.014), female recipient (P = 0.04). There was no significant difference in TRM and the relapse rate was similar in both donor type groups. Multivariate analysis showed that factors for increased OS which remained significant were mismatched sex-combination (RR: 0.70,95% CI: 0.51-0.93, P = 0.015), patient age < 18 years (RR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.47-0.93, P = 0.016). A decreased TRM was found for female patients (RR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.33-0.98, P=0.042), negative CMV status of the patient (RR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.36-0.90, P = 0.015). Unrelated stem cell transplantation for high-risk ALL patients with no HLA-compatible family donor is justifiable.

  7. RNA‐Seq Reveals Acute Manganese Exposure Increases Endoplasmic Reticulum Related and Lipocalin mRNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Rudgalvyte, Martina; Peltonen, Juhani; Lakso, Merja; Nass, Richard

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Manganese (Mn) is an essential nutrient; nonetheless, excessive amounts can accumulate in brain tissues causing manganism, a severe neurological condition. Previous studies have suggested oxidative stress, mitochondria dysfunction, and impaired metabolism pathways as routes for Mn toxicity. Here, we used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to analyze gene expression changes after acute Mn exposure using RNA‐Seq. L1 stage animals were exposed to 50 mM MnCl2 for 30 min and analyzed at L4. We identified 746 up‐ and 1828 downregulated genes (FDR corrected p < 0.05; two‐fold change) that included endoplasmic reticulum related abu and fkb family genes, as well as six of seven lipocalin‐related (lpr) family members. These were also verified by qRT‐PCR. RNA interference of lpr‐5 showed a dramatic increase in whole body vulnerability to Mn exposure. Our studies demonstrate that Mn exposure alters gene transcriptional levels in different cell stress pathways that may ultimately contribute to its toxic effects. PMID:26418576

  8. Acute and Stress-related Injuries of Bone and Cartilage: Pertinent Anatomy, Basic Biomechanics, and Imaging Perspective.

    PubMed

    Pathria, Mini N; Chung, Christine B; Resnick, Donald L

    2016-07-01

    Bone or cartilage, or both, are frequently injured related to either a single episode of trauma or repetitive overuse. The resulting structural damage is varied, governed by the complex macroscopic and microscopic composition of these tissues. Furthermore, the biomechanical properties of both cartilage and bone are not uniform, influenced by the precise age and activity level of the person and the specific anatomic location within the skeleton. Of the various histologic components that are found in cartilage and bone, the collagen fibers and bundles are most influential in transmitting the forces that are applied to them, explaining in large part the location and direction of the resulting internal stresses that develop within these tissues. Therefore, thorough knowledge of the anatomy, physiology, and biomechanics of normal bone and cartilage serves as a prerequisite to a full understanding of both the manner in which these tissues adapt to physiologic stresses and the patterns of tissue failure that develop under abnormal conditions. Such knowledge forms the basis for more accurate assessment of the diverse imaging features that are encountered following acute traumatic and stress-related injuries to the skeleton. (©) RSNA, 2016.

  9. Acute and Stress-related Injuries of Bone and Cartilage: Pertinent Anatomy, Basic Biomechanics, and Imaging Perspective.

    PubMed

    Pathria, Mini N; Chung, Christine B; Resnick, Donald L

    2016-07-01

    Bone or cartilage, or both, are frequently injured related to either a single episode of trauma or repetitive overuse. The resulting structural damage is varied, governed by the complex macroscopic and microscopic composition of these tissues. Furthermore, the biomechanical properties of both cartilage and bone are not uniform, influenced by the precise age and activity level of the person and the specific anatomic location within the skeleton. Of the various histologic components that are found in cartilage and bone, the collagen fibers and bundles are most influential in transmitting the forces that are applied to them, explaining in large part the location and direction of the resulting internal stresses that develop within these tissues. Therefore, thorough knowledge of the anatomy, physiology, and biomechanics of normal bone and cartilage serves as a prerequisite to a full understanding of both the manner in which these tissues adapt to physiologic stresses and the patterns of tissue failure that develop under abnormal conditions. Such knowledge forms the basis for more accurate assessment of the diverse imaging features that are encountered following acute traumatic and stress-related injuries to the skeleton. (©) RSNA, 2016. PMID:27322971

  10. Traffic related air pollution and acute hospital admission for respiratory diseases in Drammen, Norway 1995-2000.

    PubMed

    Oftedal, Bente; Nafstad, Per; Magnus, Per; Bjørkly, Sonja; Skrondal, Anders

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the associations between seven ambient air pollutants [particulate matter (PM10), nitrous dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), benzene, formaldehyde and toluene] and acute hospital admissions for respiratory diseases in Drammen, Norway 1995-2000. Time-series analysis of counts was performed by means of generalized additive models with log link and Poisson distribution. The results showed that benzene was the pollutant having the strongest association with respiratory diseases for the total study period, the relative risk of an interquartile increase of benzene was 1.095 with 95% confidence interval: 1.031-1.163. The corresponding results were 1.049 (0.990-1.112) for formaldehyde, 1.044 (1.000-1.090) for toluene, 1.064 (1.019-1.111) for NO2, 1.043 (1.011-1.075) for SO2, 0.990 (0.936-1.049) for O3 and 1.022 (0.990-1.055) for PM10. Dividing the total study period into two 3-year periods, there was a substantial reduction in the exposure levels of the volatile organic compounds (benzene, formaldehyde and toluene) from the first to the second period. Separate analyses for the second time period showed weaker association between these pollutants and the health outcome. This study provides further evidence for short-term respiratory health effects of traffic related air pollution.

  11. Transplant-related toxicity and mortality: an AIEOP prospective study in 636 pediatric patients transplanted for acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Balduzzi, A; Valsecchi, M G; Silvestri, D; Locatelli, F; Manfredini, L; Busca, A; Iori, A P; Messina, C; Prete, A; Andolina, M; Porta, F; Favre, C; Ceppi, S; Giorgiani, G; Lanino, E; Rovelli, A; Fagioli, F; De Fusco, C; Rondelli, R; Uderzo, C

    2002-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can cure high-risk acute leukemia (AL), but the occurrence of non-leukemic death is still high. The AIEOP conducted a prospective study in order to assess incidence and relationships of early toxicity and transplant-related mortality (TRM) in a pediatric population. Between 1990 and 1997 toxicities reported in eight organs (central nervous system, heart, lungs, liver, gut, kidneys, bladder, mucosa) were classified into three grades (mild, moderate, severe) and prospectively registered for 636 consecutive children who underwent autologous (216) or allogeneic (420) transplantation, either from an HLA compatible related (294), or alternative (126) donor in 13 AIEOP transplant centers. Overall, 47% of the patients are alive in CR (3-year EFS: 45.2%, s.e.: 2.1), 19% died in CR at a median of 60 days (90-day TRM: 14.3%, s.e.: 1.4), 34% relapsed. Toxicity of any organ, but mucosa and gut, was positively correlated with early death; moderate and severe toxicity to heart, lungs, liver and kidneys significantly increased early TRM, with estimated relative risks of 9.1, 5.5, 2.7 and 2.8, respectively, as compared to absent or mild toxicity. Patients with grade III-IV aGVHD experienced more than double (56% vs. 19%) TRM than patients with grade 0-II aGVHD. A higher cumulative toxicity score, estimating the impact of toxicity on TRM, was significantly associated with transplantation from an alternative donor. Quantitative assessment allowed us to describe the extent to which 'grade' of toxicity and 'type' of involved organs were related to mortality and pre-transplant characteristics and yielded a prognostic score potentially useful to compare different conditioning regimens and predict probability of early death.

  12. Prospective study of acute health effects in relation to exposure to cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, Benoît; Gervais, Marie-Christine; Chevalier, Pierre; Gauvin, Denis; Anassour-Laouan-Sidi, Elhadji; Gingras, Suzanne; Fortin, Nathalie; Brisson, Geneviève; Greer, Charles; Bird, David

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a study to investigate the relationship between exposure to cyanobacteria and microcystins and the incidence of symptoms in humans living in close proximity to lakes affected by cyanobacteria. The design was a prospective study of residents living around three lakes (Canada), one of which has a water treatment plant supplying potable water to local residents. Participants had to keep a daily journal of symptoms and record contact (full or limited) with the water body. Samples were collected to document cyanobacteria and microcystin concentrations. Symptoms potentially associated with cyanobacteria (gastrointestinal: 2 indices (GI1: diarrhea or abdominal pain or nausea or vomiting; GI2: diarrhea or vomiting or [nausea and fever] or [abdominal cramps and fever]); upper and lower respiratory tract; eye; ear; skin; muscle pain; headaches; mouth ulcers) were examined in relation with exposure to cyanobacteria and microcystin by using Poisson regression. Only gastrointestinal symptoms were associated with recreational contact. Globally, there was a significant increase in adjusted relative risk (RR) with higher cyanobacterial cell counts for GI2 (<20,000 cells/mL: RR=1.52, 95% CI=0.65-3.51; 20,000-100,000 cells/mL: RR=2.71, 95% CI=1.02-7.16; >100,000 cells/mL: RR=3.28, 95% CI=1.69-6.37, p-trend=0.001). In participants who received their drinking water supply from a plant whose source was contaminated by cyanobacteria, an increase in muscle pain (RR=5.16; 95% CI=2.93-9.07) and gastrointestinal (GI1: RR=3.87; 95% CI=1.62-9.21; GI2: RR=2.84; 95% CI=0.82-9.79), skin (RR=2.65; 95% CI=1.09-6.44) and ear symptoms (RR=6.10; 95% CI=2.48-15.03) was observed. The population should be made aware of the risks of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with contact (full or limited) with cyanobacteria. A risk management plan is needed for water treatment plants that draw their water from a source contaminated with cyanobacteria.

  13. Stability of trauma-related symptoms during acute substance use treatment.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Eva; Odenwald, Michael; Proescholdt, Margit; Haubold, Anja; Bohnacker, Isabelle; Flögel, Marlene; Linde, Andreas; Müller, Sandra; Wiesbeck, Gerhard; Lang, Undine; Walter, Marc; Vogel, Marc

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and reports of traumatic childhood experiences decline during substance withdrawal. A convenience sample of 34 inpatients of the Psychiatric University Clinics in Basel was recruited and general psychopathological and trauma-related symptoms were assessed with the Brief Symptom Checklist, Post-Traumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire in the 1st and 3rd week of substance use treatment. The average age of the sample was 41.9 (SD = 9.1) years, and 26.5% were female. Hyperarousal (Mt1 = 4.51 versus Mt2 = 3.61; z = -2.38, p = .017) and avoidance symptoms (Mt1 = 6.24 versus Mt2 = 4.27; z = -2.59, p = .010) declined significantly, but re-experiencing symptoms (Mt1 = 4.00 versus Mt2 = 3.45; z = -.50, p = .617) did not. Post-traumatic stress disorder assessment, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4th edition criteria, remained constant for 28 of 34 patients. Likewise, self-reported childhood trauma experiences decreased, yet the number of elevated subscale scores remained stable. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms are not adequately treated by substance withdrawal alone. Trauma-specific diagnostics can be initiated with sufficient quality as early as the first week of withdrawal treatment. PMID:26670631

  14. Stability of trauma-related symptoms during acute substance use treatment.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Eva; Odenwald, Michael; Proescholdt, Margit; Haubold, Anja; Bohnacker, Isabelle; Flögel, Marlene; Linde, Andreas; Müller, Sandra; Wiesbeck, Gerhard; Lang, Undine; Walter, Marc; Vogel, Marc

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and reports of traumatic childhood experiences decline during substance withdrawal. A convenience sample of 34 inpatients of the Psychiatric University Clinics in Basel was recruited and general psychopathological and trauma-related symptoms were assessed with the Brief Symptom Checklist, Post-Traumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire in the 1st and 3rd week of substance use treatment. The average age of the sample was 41.9 (SD = 9.1) years, and 26.5% were female. Hyperarousal (Mt1 = 4.51 versus Mt2 = 3.61; z = -2.38, p = .017) and avoidance symptoms (Mt1 = 6.24 versus Mt2 = 4.27; z = -2.59, p = .010) declined significantly, but re-experiencing symptoms (Mt1 = 4.00 versus Mt2 = 3.45; z = -.50, p = .617) did not. Post-traumatic stress disorder assessment, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4th edition criteria, remained constant for 28 of 34 patients. Likewise, self-reported childhood trauma experiences decreased, yet the number of elevated subscale scores remained stable. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms are not adequately treated by substance withdrawal alone. Trauma-specific diagnostics can be initiated with sufficient quality as early as the first week of withdrawal treatment.

  15. Extracellular Hsp72 concentration relates to a minimum endogenous criteria during acute exercise-heat exposure.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Oliver R; Dennis, Alex; Parfitt, Tony; Taylor, Lee; Watt, Peter W; Maxwell, Neil S

    2014-05-01

    Extracellular heat shock protein 72 (eHsp72) concentration increases during exercise-heat stress when conditions elicit physiological strain. Differences in severity of environmental and exercise stimuli have elicited varied response to stress. The present study aimed to quantify the extent of increased eHsp72 with increased exogenous heat stress, and determine related endogenous markers of strain in an exercise-heat model. Ten males cycled for 90 min at 50 % [Formula: see text] in three conditions (TEMP, 20 °C/63 % RH; HOT, 30.2 °C/51%RH; VHOT, 40.0 °C/37%RH). Plasma was analysed for eHsp72 pre, immediately post and 24-h post each trial utilising a commercially available ELISA. Increased eHsp72 concentration was observed post VHOT trial (+172.4 %) (p < 0.05), but not TEMP (-1.9 %) or HOT (+25.7 %) conditions. eHsp72 returned to baseline values within 24 h in all conditions. Changes were observed in rectal temperature (Trec), rate of Trec increase, area under the curve for Trec of 38.5 and 39.0 °C, duration Trec ≥38.5 and ≥39.0 °C, and change in muscle temperature, between VHOT, and TEMP and HOT, but not between TEMP and HOT. Each condition also elicited significantly increasing physiological strain, described by sweat rate, heart rate, physiological strain index, rating of perceived exertion and thermal sensation. Stepwise multiple regression reported rate of Trec increase and change in Trec to be predictors of increased eHsp72 concentration. Data suggests eHsp72 concentration increases once systemic temperature and sympathetic activity exceeds a minimum endogenous criteria elicited during VHOT conditions and is likely to be modulated by large, rapid changes in core temperature.

  16. Does anterior knee pain severity and function relate to the frontal plane projection angle and trunk and hip strength in women with patellofemoral pain?

    PubMed

    Almeida, Gabriel Peixoto Leão; Carvalho E Silva, Ana Paula de Moura Campos; França, Fábio Jorge Renovato; Magalhães, Maurício Oliveira; Burke, Thomaz Nogueira; Marques, Amélia Pasqual

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between knee pain severity and function with the frontal plane projection angle (FPPA) and trunk and hip peak torque (PT) in women with patellofemoral pain (PFPS). Twenty-two women with PFPS were assessed. Knee pain severity (KPS) was assessed with an 11-point visual analog scale and function with an Anterior Knee Pain Scale. The FPPA was recorded with a digital camera. PT of extensors, abductors, and the lateral rotators of hip and lateral core stability were measured with a handheld dynamometer. FPPA was the only predictor for the KPS. Regarding predictors of function, PT of lateral core stability and the extensor and abductor of the hip explained 41.4% of the function. Increase in FPPA was associated with greater KPS, and the lowest PT of lateral core stability, hip abductors, and extensors was associated with lower function in women with PFPS.

  17. Does anterior knee pain severity and function relate to the frontal plane projection angle and trunk and hip strength in women with patellofemoral pain?

    PubMed

    Almeida, Gabriel Peixoto Leão; Carvalho E Silva, Ana Paula de Moura Campos; França, Fábio Jorge Renovato; Magalhães, Maurício Oliveira; Burke, Thomaz Nogueira; Marques, Amélia Pasqual

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between knee pain severity and function with the frontal plane projection angle (FPPA) and trunk and hip peak torque (PT) in women with patellofemoral pain (PFPS). Twenty-two women with PFPS were assessed. Knee pain severity (KPS) was assessed with an 11-point visual analog scale and function with an Anterior Knee Pain Scale. The FPPA was recorded with a digital camera. PT of extensors, abductors, and the lateral rotators of hip and lateral core stability were measured with a handheld dynamometer. FPPA was the only predictor for the KPS. Regarding predictors of function, PT of lateral core stability and the extensor and abductor of the hip explained 41.4% of the function. Increase in FPPA was associated with greater KPS, and the lowest PT of lateral core stability, hip abductors, and extensors was associated with lower function in women with PFPS. PMID:26118529

  18. Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Acute Phase of Bronchiolitis and Its Relation with Episodes of Subsequent Wheezing in Children of Preschool Age

    PubMed Central

    Osona, Borja; Gil-Sanchez, Jose Antonio; Figuerola, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Background Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) levels are increased in children with asthma and in infants with recurrent wheezing, but the role of FENO in the acute phase of bronchiolitis is still not defined. Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate FENO values in the acute phase of bronchiolitis, compare them with healthy infants, and relate those values with the appearance of other wheezing episodes. Methods FENO values were determined in infants between 2 months and 2 years affected with RVS bronchiolitis by offline method. The FENO values collected in the acute phase were related with the respiratory clinical symptoms presented in the 2 years following the episode. Results A total of 30 patients were recruited: 15 in the bronchiolitis group and 15 in the control group. The average of the FENO values in the acute phase was 18.74 ppb (range 2–88) in the bronchiolitis group, and 8.75 ppb (range 2–24) in the control group. However, these results showed no significant statistical differences (p=0.176). Nevertheless, we found a positive correlation between the FENO values and the clinical score (Downes) of the bronchiolitis episode (p=0.023). In infants that presented other wheezing episodes in the 2 years after, the average of FENO in the acute phase of the first episode was 23.1 ppb (average of 10.25 ppb) versus 8.4 ppb (average 5.4 ppb) in the group of patients with no other episodes. The comparison of averages has no statistical significance. Conclusion We found no differences in FENO between infants with bronchiolitis and healthy ones. The FENO values in the acute phase seems to be related to the severity of the disease but do not predict the appearance of wheezing episodes in the following 2 years. PMID:22768386

  19. Randomized controlled trials in industrial low back pain relating to return to work. Part 1. Acute interventions.

    PubMed

    Scheer, S J; Radack, K L; O'Brien, D R

    1995-10-01

    Employers and insurers are interested in being able to use cost-effective interventions for returning injured workers to the workplace. Unfortunately, truly objective information is lacking. The purpose of this and two subsequent review articles was to perform thorough scrutiny and methodologic comparison among all obtainable, published randomized and controlled studies on low back pain (LBP) interventions leading to return to work. The study was confined to English language articles published from 1975 through 1993. Of more than 4,000 LBP citations, more than 500 were chosen for review. Of that number, 35 articles met the selection criteria of randomization, reasonable controls, and work return comparisons. This paper focuses on the 10 articles relating to interventions for acute (less than 4 weeks) LBP, and considers bed rest, exercise, spinal manipulation, back school, and case management. A 26-point quality system was used to compare the methodologic rigor of each article. This literature survey demonstrated the meager scientific foundations on which our industrial rehabilitation programs are based. PMID:7487440

  20. Oxidative stress related to chlorpyrifos exposure in rainbow trout: Acute and medium term effects on genetic biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Benedetto, A; Brizio, P; Squadrone, S; Scanzio, T; Righetti, M; Gasco, L; Prearo, M; Abete, M C

    2016-05-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) are derivatives of phosphoric acid widely used in agriculture as pesticides. Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an OP that is extremely toxic to aquatic organisms. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is considered as a sentinel model species for ecotoxicology assessment in freshwater ecosystems. An exposure study was carried out on rainbow trout to investigate genetic responses to CPF-induced oxidative stress by Real-Time PCR, and to determine the accumulation dynamics of CPF and toxic metabolite chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPF-ox) in edible parts, by HPLC-MS/MS. Among the genes considered to be related to oxidative stress, a significant increase in HSP70 mRNA levels was observed in liver samples up to 14 days after CPF exposure (0.05 mg/L). CPF concentrations in muscle samples reach mean values of 285.25 ng/g within 96 hours of exposure, while CPF-ox concentrations were always under the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the applied method. Our findings lead us to consider HSP70 as a suitable genetic marker in rainbow trout for acute and medium-term monitoring of CPF exposure, complementary to analytical determinations.

  1. All-transretinoic acid (ATRA) treatment-related pancarditis and severe pulmonary edema in a child with acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Işık, Pamir; Çetin, Ilker; Tavil, Betul; Azik, Fatih; Kara, Abdurrahman; Yarali, Nese; Tunc, Bahattin

    2010-11-01

    Use of all-transretinoic acid (ATRA) with other chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has been shown to cause the differentiation of abnormally granulated specific blast cells into mature granulocytes by acting on the t(15; 17) fusion gene product. The complete remission rate is increased and survival time is prolonged in APL patients who receive chemotherapy plus ATRA, whereas ATRA syndrome and other ATRA-related adverse effects including pseudo tumor cerebri, headache, severe bone pain, mucosal and skin dryness, hypercholesterolemia, and cheilitis may be observed especially during induction phase of the treatment. In this paper, we report a 9-year-old girl with APL who developed pancarditis while receiving the APL-93 treatment protocol. In our patient, endocarditis and myocarditis were initially determined after ATRA treatment during the induction part of the protocol. All findings disappeared after ATRA was discontinued. When ATRA was readministered in the maintenance part of the treatment protocol, she developed pancarditis and severe pulmonary edema. As her symptoms decreased dramatically with the discontinuation of ATRA and the initiation of steroid treatment, the clinical picture strongly suggested the ATRA treatment as the causative factor. To the best of our knowledge, this clinical picture of pancarditis secondary to ATRA treatment has not been reported earlier in the English literature. PMID:20881874

  2. Alteration of Thyroid-Related Hormones within Normal Ranges and Early Functional Outcomes in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Yan; Li, Wen-Yu; Hu, Xing-Yue

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the prognostic value of thyroid-related hormones within normal ranges after acute ischemic stroke. This was a retrospective study and we reviewed 1072 ischemic stroke patients consecutively admitted within 72 h after symptom onset. Total triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxine (T4), free T3, free T4, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were assessed to determine their values for predicting functional outcome at the first follow-up clinic visits, which usually occurred 2 to 4 weeks after discharge from the hospital. 722 patients were finally included. On univariate analysis, poor functional outcome was associated with presence of atrial fibrillation as the index event. Furthermore, score of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), total T4, free T4, and C-reactive protein at admission were significantly higher in patients with poor functional outcome, whereas free T3 and total T3 were significantly lower. On multiple logistic regression analysis, lower total T3 concentrations remained independently associated with poor functional outcome [odds ratio (OR), 0.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.01-0.84; P = 0.035]. The only other variables independently associated with poor functional outcome were NIHSS scores. In sum, lower total T3 concentrations that were within the normal ranges were independently associated with poor short-term outcomes. PMID:27375741

  3. A prophylactic fresh frozen plasma transfusion leads to a possible case of transfusion-related acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debasree; Hussain, Rashid; Mazer, Jeffrey; Carino, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    A 39-year-old man with cholangiocarcinoma presented with fever and abdominal pain. He was hypotensive, jaundiced and had right upper quadrant tenderness. Laboratory testing showed a leucocytosis, elevated liver function tests, total bilirubin and International Normalised Ratio (INR). Given the concern for cholangitis, the patient was given antibiotics and three units of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) before biliary drain placement. After drain placement, and within 3 h of receiving blood products, the patient became tachypnoeic and hypoxic with a chest X-ray revealing new bilateral airspace disease. The rapid development of respiratory distress was determined to most likely be transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). He rapidly progressed to intubation and required 100% FiO2, high positive-end expiratory pressure (PEEP) and intermittent-prone ventilation for 48 h but eventually recovered and was extubated. TRALI is an under-recognised aetiology for respiratory distress in the critically ill. Adopting a conservative transfusion strategy may prevent TRALI.

  4. Surveillance for acute insecticide-related illness associated with mosquito-control efforts--nine states, 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    2003-07-11

    Ground and aerial applications of insecticides are used to control populations of adult mosquitoes, which spread such diseases as West Nile virus--related illness, eastern equine encephalitis, and dengue fever. This report summarizes investigations of illnesses associated with exposures to insecticides used during 1999-2002 to control mosquito populations in nine states (Arizona, California, Florida, Louisiana, Michigan, New York, Oregon, Texas, and Washington) (estimated 2000 population: 118 million). The findings indicate that application of certain insecticides posed a low risk for acute, temporary health effects among persons in areas that were sprayed and among workers handling and applying insecticides. To reduce the risk for negative health effects, public health authorities should 1) provide public notice of application times and locations and appropriate advice about preventing exposures, 2) ensure that insecticide handlers and applicators meet state-mandated training and experience requirements to prevent insecticide exposure to themselves and the public, and 3) implement integrated pest management control strategies that emphasize mosquito larval control, reduction of mosquito breeding sites, and judicious use of insecticides to control adult mosquito populations.

  5. Health-Related Quality of Life in Adolescents at the time of Diagnosis with Osteosarcoma or Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Hinds, Pamela S.; Billups, Catherine A.; Cao, Xueyuan; Gattuso, Jami S.; Burghen, Elizabeth; West, Nancy; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E.; Daw, Najat C.

    2014-01-01

    Although measuring health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescents with cancer helps clinicians to personalize care for their patients, no previous studies have included HRQoL measurement at the time of diagnosis of osteosarcoma (OS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of measuring adolescents' HRQoL at the time of their diagnosis of OS or AML, and to compare their ratings with those of their parents and of similarly diagnosed but younger patients aged 8- to 12- years. Participants included 126 patients (79 adolescents) and 130 parents (78 parents of adolescents); most completed the HRQoL instrument/s within 48 hours of the first chemotherapy cycle. Ninety-three percent of adolescents diagnosed with OS and 93% of those diagnosed with AML completed the HRQoL instruments. Agreement between the adolescents and their parents ranged from 0.29 to 0.71 (OS) and 0.44 to 0.62 (AML). In all domains, OS adolescents had significantly lower PedsQL v.4.0 scores than adolescents with AML. Our findings demonstrates the feasibility of measuring HRQoL in adolescents with OS or AML (and their parents) at the time of diagnosis, and thus their HRQoL ratings can be used to inform their cancer care from diagnosis forward. PMID:18926773

  6. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Acute Changes in Heart Rate Variability and Respiratory Function in Urban Cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Kulka, Ryan; Dubeau, Aimee; Martin, Christina; Wang, Daniel; Dales, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined the acute health effects of air pollution exposures experienced while cycling in traffic. Objectives: We conducted a crossover study to examine the relationship between traffic pollution and acute changes in heart rate variability. We also collected spirometry and exhaled nitric oxide measures. Methods: Forty-two healthy adults cycled for 1 hr on high- and low-traffic routes as well as indoors. Health measures were collected before cycling and 1–4 hr after the start of cycling. Ultrafine particles (UFPs; ≤ 0.1 μm in aerodynamic diameter), particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), black carbon, and volatile organic compounds were measured along each cycling route, and ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) levels were recorded from a fixed-site monitor. Mixed-effects models were used to estimate associations between air pollutants and changes in health outcome measures relative to precycling baseline values. Results: An interquartile range increase in UFP levels (18,200/cm3) was associated with a significant decrease in high-frequency power 4 hr after the start of cycling [β = –224 msec2; 95% confidence interval (CI), –386 to –63 msec2]. Ambient NO2 levels were inversely associated with the standard deviation of normal-to-normal (NN) intervals (β = –10 msec; 95% CI, –20 to –0.34 msec) and positively associated with the ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power (β = 1.4; 95% CI, 0.35 to 2.5) 2 hr after the start of cycling. We also observed significant inverse associations between ambient O3 levels and the root mean square of successive differences in adjacent NN intervals 3 hr after the start of cycling. Conclusions: Short-term exposures to traffic pollution may contribute to altered autonomic modulation of the heart in the hours immediately after cycling. PMID:21672679

  7. [Chronic closed-angle glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Valtot, F

    2004-06-01

    Five times more frequent than the acute form, chronic closed-angle glaucoma often goes unrecognized for a long time, resulting in considerable visual field deficiencies, even in loss of the eye. It is sometimes confused with chronic glaucoma and treated as such, which is inadequate to halt the progression of the disease. Only gonioscopy can diagnose it. If doubt persists, UBM (ultrasound biomicroscopy) can detect goniosynechiae, a malposition of the ciliary body or of the lens, or the existence of iridociliary cysts. Nine times out of ten, pupillary block initiates the process and an iridotomy should always be done to remediate it, even if this procedure alone does not always suffice to solve the problem. PMID:15319750

  8. A retrospective analysis of treatment-related hospitalization costs of pediatric, adolescent, and young adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Sapna; Korgenski, Ernest Kent; Ying, Jian; Ng, Christi F; Smits-Seemann, Rochelle R; Nelson, Richard E; Andrews, Seth; Raetz, Elizabeth; Fluchel, Mark; Lemons, Richard; Kirchhoff, Anne C

    2016-02-01

    This retrospective study examined the longitudinal hospital outcomes (costs adjusted for inflation, hospital days, and admissions) associated with the treatment of pediatric, adolescent, and young adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Patients between one and 26 years of age with newly diagnosed ALL, who were treated at Primary Children's Hospital (PCH) in Salt Lake City, Utah were included. Treatment and hospitalization data were retrieved from system-wide cancer registry and enterprise data warehouse. PCH is a member of the Children's Oncology Group (COG) and patients were treated on, or according to, active COG protocols. Treatment-related hospital costs of ALL were examined by computing the average annual growth rates (AAGR). Longitudinal regressions identified patient characteristics associated with costs. A total of 505 patients (46.9% female) were included. The majority of patients had B-cell lineage ALL, 6.7% had T-ALL, and the median age at diagnosis was 4 years. Per-patient, first-year ALL hospitalization costs at PCH rose from $24,197 in 1998 to $37,924 in 2012. The AAGRs were 6.1, 13.0, and 7.6% for total, pharmacy, and room and care costs, respectively. Average days (AAGR = 5.2%) and admissions (AAGR = 3.8%) also demonstrated an increasing trend. High-risk patients had 47% higher costs per 6-month period in the first 5 years from diagnosis than standard-risk patients (P < 0.001). Similarly, relapsed ALL and stem cell transplantations were associated with significantly higher costs than nonrelapsed and no transplantations, respectively (P < 0.001). Increasing treatment-related costs of ALL demonstrate an area for further investigation. Value-based interventions such as identifying low-risk fever and neutropenia patients and managing them in outpatient settings should be evaluated for reducing the hospital burden of ALL.

  9. A retrospective analysis of treatment-related hospitalization costs of pediatric, adolescent, and young adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Sapna; Korgenski, Ernest Kent; Ying, Jian; Ng, Christi F; Smits-Seemann, Rochelle R; Nelson, Richard E; Andrews, Seth; Raetz, Elizabeth; Fluchel, Mark; Lemons, Richard; Kirchhoff, Anne C

    2016-02-01

    This retrospective study examined the longitudinal hospital outcomes (costs adjusted for inflation, hospital days, and admissions) associated with the treatment of pediatric, adolescent, and young adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Patients between one and 26 years of age with newly diagnosed ALL, who were treated at Primary Children's Hospital (PCH) in Salt Lake City, Utah were included. Treatment and hospitalization data were retrieved from system-wide cancer registry and enterprise data warehouse. PCH is a member of the Children's Oncology Group (COG) and patients were treated on, or according to, active COG protocols. Treatment-related hospital costs of ALL were examined by computing the average annual growth rates (AAGR). Longitudinal regressions identified patient characteristics associated with costs. A total of 505 patients (46.9% female) were included. The majority of patients had B-cell lineage ALL, 6.7% had T-ALL, and the median age at diagnosis was 4 years. Per-patient, first-year ALL hospitalization costs at PCH rose from $24,197 in 1998 to $37,924 in 2012. The AAGRs were 6.1, 13.0, and 7.6% for total, pharmacy, and room and care costs, respectively. Average days (AAGR = 5.2%) and admissions (AAGR = 3.8%) also demonstrated an increasing trend. High-risk patients had 47% higher costs per 6-month period in the first 5 years from diagnosis than standard-risk patients (P < 0.001). Similarly, relapsed ALL and stem cell transplantations were associated with significantly higher costs than nonrelapsed and no transplantations, respectively (P < 0.001). Increasing treatment-related costs of ALL demonstrate an area for further investigation. Value-based interventions such as identifying low-risk fever and neutropenia patients and managing them in outpatient settings should be evaluated for reducing the hospital burden of ALL. PMID:26714675

  10. Acute low back pain information online: an evaluation of quality, content accuracy and readability of related websites.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, Paul A; Ahmed, Osman H; Bankier, Shane S; Chan, Tze Jieh; Crawford, Sarah A; Ryder, Catherine R; Welsh, Lisa J; Schneiders, Anthony G

    2012-08-01

    The internet is increasingly being used as a source of health information by the general public. Numerous websites exist that provide advice and information on the diagnosis and management of acute low back pain (ALBP), however, the accuracy and utility of this information has yet to be established. The aim of this study was to establish the quality, content and readability of online information relating to the treatment and management of ALBP. The internet was systematically searched using Google search engines from six major English-speaking countries. In addition, relevant national and international low back pain-related professional organisations were also searched. A total of 22 relevant websites was identified. The accuracy of the content of the ALBP information was established using a 13 point guide developed from international guidelines. Website quality was evaluated using the HONcode, and the Flesch-Kincaid Grade level (FKGL) was used to establish readability. The majority of websites lacked accurate information, resulting in an overall mean content accuracy score of 6.3/17. Only 3 websites had a high content accuracy score (>14/17) along with an acceptable readability score (FKGL 6-8) with the majority of websites providing information which exceeded the recommended level for the average person to comprehend. The most accurately reported category was, "Education and reassurance" (98%) while information regarding "manipulation" (50%), "massage" (9%) and "exercise" (0%) were amongst the lowest scoring categories. These results demonstrate the need for more accurate and readable internet-based ALBP information specifically centred on evidence-based guidelines. PMID:22464886

  11. Effect of Relative Marker Movement on the Calculation of the Foot Torsion Axis Using a Combined Cardan Angle and Helical Axis Approach

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Eveline S.; Wright, Ian C.; Stefanyshyn, Darren J.

    2012-01-01

    The two main movements occurring between the forefoot and rearfoot segment of a human foot are flexion at the metatarsophalangeal joints and torsion in the midfoot. The location of the torsion axis within the foot is currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to develop a method based on Cardan angles and the finite helical axis approach to calculate the torsion axis without the effect of flexion. As the finite helical axis method is susceptible to error due to noise with small helical rotations, a minimal amount of rotation was defined in order to accurately determine the torsion axis location. Using simulation, the location of the axis based on data containing noise was compared to the axis location of data without noise with a one-sample t-test and Fisher's combined probability score. When using only data with helical rotation of seven degrees or more, the location of the torsion axis based on the data with noise was within 0.2 mm of the reference location. Therefore, the proposed method allowed an accurate calculation of the foot torsion axis location. PMID:22666303

  12. Application of moiré technique to the measurement of the atmospheric turbulence parameters related to the angle of arrival fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Rasouli, Saifollah; Tavassoly, M Taghi

    2006-11-15

    There are several methods for measuring ground-level atmospheric turbulence parameters, such as the refractive index profile and its fluctuations, correlations of the fluctuations in space and time, and the atmospheric refractive-index structure constant. These methods are based mainly on the measurement of fluctuations in intensity and location of an image formed by light propagating in the turbulent atmosphere or the fluctuations in impinging points of narrow light beams traversing the ground-level atmosphere. Exploiting the moiré technique, we suggest a high-precision approach for determining fluctuaions in the angle of arrival. When a low-frequency grating (carrier grating) is installed at a suitable distance from a telescope, its image, practically, forms on the focal plane of the telescope objective. Superimposing a physical grating (probe grating) of the same pitch as the image grating on the image forms the moiré pattern. The atmospheric turbulence distorts the image grating. Processing the fluctuations of successive moiré fringes can yield the mentioned parameters across a rather large cross section of the atmosphere with high accuracy, because of the moiré technique's magnifying character and access to a large volume of data, and does so in a comparatively simple and reliable manner.

  13. Targeted Therapy in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-28

    Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Myelodysplasia-Related Changes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  14. Axial Tilt Angles of Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Robert F.

    1996-12-01

    Separate Mount Wilson plage and sunspot group data sets are analyzed in this review to illustrate several interesting aspects of active region axial tilt angles. (1) The distribution of tilt angles differs between plages and sunspot groups in the sense that plages have slightly higher tilt angles, on average, than do spot groups. (2) The distributions of average plage total magnetic flux, or sunspot group area, with tilt angle show a consistent effect: those groups with tilt angles nearest the average values are larger (or have a greater total flux) on average than those farther from the average values. Moreover, the average tilt angles on which these size or flux distributions are centered differ for the two types of objects, and represent closely the actual different average tilt angles for these two features. (3) The polarity separation distances of plages and sunspot groups show a clear relationship to average tilt angles. In the case of each feature, smaller polarity separations are correlated with smaller tilt angles. (4) The dynamics of regions also show a clear relationship with region tilt angles. The spot groups with tilt angles nearest the average value (or perhaps 0-deg tilt angle) have on average a faster rotation rate than those groups with extreme tilt angles. All of these tilt-angle characteristics may be assumed to be related to the physical forces that affect the magnetic flux loop that forms the region. These aspects are discussed in this brief review within the context of our current view of the formation of active region magnetic flux at the solar surface.

  15. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: A 2010 ...

  16. NMR-Based Metabolomic Analysis of the Molecular Pathogenesis of Therapy-Related Myelodysplasia/Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Kristin E.; Li, Liang; Bhatia, Smita; Bhatia, Ravi; Forman, Stephen J.; Chen, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the oldest and successful form of stem cell therapy. High dose therapy (HDT) followed by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation allows physicians to administer increased amounts of chemotherapy and/or radiation while minimizing negative side effects such as damage to blood-producing bone marrow cells. Although HDT is successful in treating a wide range of cancers, it leads to lethal therapy-related myelodysplasia syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia (t-MDS/AML) in 5–10% of patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In this study, we carried out metabolomic analysis of peripheral blood stem cell samples collected in a cohort of patients before hematopoietic cell transplantation in order to gain insights into the molecular and cellular pathogenesis of t-MDS. Nonparametric tests and multivariate analyses were used to compare the metabolite concentrations in samples from patients that developed t-MDS within 5 years of transplantation and the patients that did not. The results suggest that the development of t-MDS is associated with dysfunctions in cellular metabolic pathways. The top canonical pathways suggested by the metabolomic analysis include alanine and aspartate metabolism, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, phenylalanine metabolism, citrate acid cycle, and aminoacyl-t-RNA biosynthesis. Dysfunctions in these pathways indicate mitochondrial dysfunction that would result in decreased ability to detoxify reactive oxygen species generated by chemo and radiation therapy, therefore leading to cancer causing mutations. These observations suggest predisposing factors for the development of t-MDS. PMID:21510650

  17. Icariside II Induces Apoptosis in U937 Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells: Role of Inactivation of STAT3-Related Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Hee; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Jung, Ji Hoon; Koh, Wonil; Kim, Jung Hyo; Kim, Dae Keun; Chen, Chang-Yan; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to determine anti-cancer effect of Icariside II purified from the root of Epimedium koreanum Nakai on human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell line U937. Methodology/Principal Findings Icariside II blocked the growth U937 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In this anti-proliferation process, this herb compound rendered the cells susceptible to apoptosis, manifested by enhanced accumulation of sub-G1 cell population and increased the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells. Icariside II was able to activate caspase-3 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in a time-dependent manner. Concurrently, the anti-apoptotic proteins, such as bcl-xL and survivin in U937 cells, were downregulated by Icariside II. In addition, Icariside II could inhibit STAT3 phosphorylation and function and subsequently suppress the activation of Janus activated kinase 2 (JAK2), the upstream activators of STAT3, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Icariside II also enhanced the expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) SH2 domain-containing phosphatase (SHP)-1, and the addition of sodium pervanadate (a PTP inhibitor) prevented Icariside II-induced apoptosis as well as STAT3 inactivation in STAT3 positive U937 cells. Furthermore, silencing SHP-1 using its specific siRNA significantly blocked STAT3 inactivation and apoptosis induced by Icariside II in U937 cells. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrated that via targeting STAT3-related signaling, Icariside II sensitizes U937 cells to apoptosis and perhaps serves as a potent chemotherapeutic agent for AML. PMID:22493659

  18. Protective Role of Nuclear Factor E2-Related Factor 2 against Acute Oxidative Stress-Induced Pancreatic β -Cell Damage.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jingqi; Zheng, Hongzhi; Wang, Huihui; Yang, Bei; Zhao, Rui; Lu, Chunwei; Liu, Zhiyuan; Hou, Yongyong; Xu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Qiang; Qu, Weidong; Pi, Jingbo

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that occurs in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a master regulator in the cellular adaptive response to oxidative stress. The present study found that MIN6 β-cells with stable knockdown of Nrf2 (Nrf2-KD) and islets isolated from Nrf2-knockout mice expressed substantially reduced levels of antioxidant enzymes in response to a variety of stressors. In scramble MIN6 cells or wild-type islets, acute exposure to oxidative stressors, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, resulted in cell damage as determined by decrease in cell viability, reduced ATP content, morphology changes of islets, and/or alterations of apoptotic biomarkers in a concentration- and/or time-dependent manner. In contrast, silencing of Nrf2 sensitized MIN6 cells or islets to the damage. In addition, pretreatment of MIN6 β-cells with NRF2 activators, including CDDO-Im, dimethyl fumarate (DMF), and tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), protected the cells from high levels of H2O2-induced cell damage. Given that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in regulating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and persistent activation of NRF2 blunts glucose-triggered ROS signaling and GSIS, the present study highlights the distinct roles that NRF2 may play in pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that occurs in different stages of diabetes. PMID:25949772

  19. CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS, OUTCOMES AND RISK FACTORS FOR DEATH AMONG CRITICALLY ILL PATIENTS WITH HIV-RELATED ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY

    PubMed Central

    LUNA, Leonardo Duarte Sobreira; SOARES, Douglas de Sousa; JUNIOR, Geraldo Bezerra da SILVA; CAVALCANTE, Malena Gadelha; MALVEIRA, Lara Raissa Cavalcante; MENESES, Gdayllon Cavalcante; PEREIRA, Eanes Delgado Barros; DAHER, Elizabeth De Francesco

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Background: The aim of this study is to describe clinical characteristics, outcomes and risk factors for death among patients with HIV-related acute kidney injury (AKI) admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: A retrospective study was conducted with HIV-infected AKI patients admitted to the ICU of an infectious diseases hospital in Fortaleza, Brazil. All the patients with confirmed diagnosis of HIV and AKI admitted from January 2004 to December 2011 were included. A comparison between survivors and non-survivors was performed. Risk factors for death were investigated. Results: Among 256 AKI patients admitted to the ICU in the study period, 73 were identified as HIV-infected, with a predominance of male patients (83.6%), and the mean age was 41.2 ± 10.4 years. Non-survivor patients presented higher APACHE II scores (61.4 ± 19 vs. 38.6 ± 18, p = 0.004), used more vasoconstrictors (70.9 vs. 37.5%, p = 0.02) and needed more mechanical ventilation - MV (81.1 vs. 35.3%, p = 0.001). There were 55 deaths (75.3%), most of them (53.4%) due to septic shock. Independent risk factors for mortality were septic shock (OR = 14.2, 95% CI = 2.0-96.9, p = 0.007) and respiratory insufficiency with need of MV (OR = 27.6, 95% CI = 5.0-153.0, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Non-survivor HIV-infected patients with AKI admitted to the ICU presented higher severity APACHE II scores, more respiratory damage and hemodynamic impairment than survivors. Septic shock and respiratory insufficiency were independently associated to death. PMID:27410912

  20. A new multiparameter integrated MELD model for prognosis of HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yue; Xu, Yun; Li, Mingming; Xie, Ya; Gong, Guozhong

    2016-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) is one of the most deadly diseases. Many models have been proposed to evaluate the prognosis of it. However, these models are still controversial. In this study, we aimed to incorporate some characters into model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) to establish a new reliable and feasible model for the prognosis of HBV-ACLF.A total of 530 HBV-ACLF patients who had received antiviral therapy were enrolled into a retrospective study and divided into the training cohort (300) and validation cohort (230). Logistic regression analysis was used to establish a model to predict the 3-month mortality from the patients in the training cohort, and then, the new model was evaluated in the validation cohort.Except for MELD score, 4 other independent factors, namely degree of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), white blood cell (WBC) count, and age, were important for the new model called HBV-ACLF MELD (HAM) model: R = 0.174 × MELD + 1.106 × HE - (0.003 × AFP) + (0.237 × WBC) + (0.103 × Age) - 11.388. The areas under receiver-operating characteristic curve of HAM in the training and validation cohort were 0.894 and 0.868, respectively, which were significantly higher than those of other 7 models. With the best cut-off value of -1.191, HAM achieved higher sensitivity and negative predictive value.We developed a new model that has a great prognostic value of the 3-month mortality of patients with HBV-ACLF. PMID:27559979

  1. Genetic predictors of acute toxicities related to radiation therapy following lumpectomy for breast cancer: a case-series study

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosone, Christine B; Tian, Chunqiao; Ahn, Jiyoung; Kropp, Silke; Helmbold, Irmgard; von Fournier, Dietrich; Haase, Wulf; Sautter-Bihl, Marie Luise; Wenz, Frederik; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2006-01-01

    Introduction The cytotoxic effects of radiation therapy are mediated primarily through increased formation of hydroxyl radicals and reactive oxygen species, which can damage cells, proteins and DNA; the glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) function to protect against oxidative stress. We hypothesized that polymorphisms encoding reduced or absent activity in the GSTs might result in greater risk for radiation-associated toxicity. Methods Women receiving therapy in radiation units in Germany following lumpectomy for breast cancer (1998–2001) provided a blood sample and completed an epidemiological questionnaire (n = 446). Genotypes were determined using Sequonom MALDI-TOF (GSTA1, GSTP1) and Masscode (GSTM1, GSTT1). Biologically effective radiotherapy dose (BED) was calculated, accounting for differences in fractionation and overall treatment time. Side effects considered were grade 2c and above, as classified using the modified Common Toxicity Criteria. Predictors of toxicity were modelled using Cox regression models in relation to BED, with adjustment for treating clinic, photon field, beam energy and boost method, and potential confounding variables. Results Low activity GSTP1 genotypes were associated with a greater than twofold increase in risk for acute skin toxicities (adjusted hazard ratio 2.28, 95% confidence interval 1.04–4.99). No associations were noted for the other GST genotypes. Conclusion These data indicate that GSTP1 plays an important role in protecting normal cells from damage associated with radiation therapy. Studies examining the effects of GSTP1 polymorphisms on toxicity, recurrence and survival will further inform individualized therapeutics based on genotypes. PMID:16848913

  2. The Relation Between GABA and L-Arginine Levels With Some Stroke Risk Factors in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hosinian, Mohsen; Qujeq, Durdi; Ahmadi Ahangar, Alijan

    2016-01-01

    Changes in extra and intracellular neurotransmitter amino acids concentration in the early stage of acute cerebral ischemia have been reported. In this the study, serum level of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and L-Arginine in acute ischemic stroke patients was assessed. 60 patients with acute ischemic stroke and sixthy healthy volunteers as a control group were assessed. Serum GABA was measured with modified enzymatic method and serum L- Arginine was measured by modified Sakaguchi method. Serum GABA level in stroke cases was lower than that of the control group. There was no relationship between GABA level and age or gender. Also, no significant correlation was observed between GABA levels with ischemic stroke risk factors such as smoking, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Serum L- Arginine level in patients was slightly increased in comparison with control group. There was a positive relationship between serum L- Arginine level and acute ischemic stroke risk factors. Serum GABA level was reduced in patients and had no correlation with acute ischemic stroke risk factors. PMID:27478806

  3. Angles, Time, and Proportion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagni, David L.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an investigation making connections between the time on an analog clock and the angle between the minute hand and the hour hand. It was posed by a middle school mathematics teacher. (Contains 8 tables and 6 figures.)

  4. 'Magic Angle Precession'

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, Bernd

    2008-01-21

    An advanced and exact geometric description of nonlinear precession dynamics modeling very accurately natural and artificial couplings showing Lorentz symmetry is derived. In the linear description it is usually ignored that the geometric phase of relativistic motion couples back to the orbital motion providing for a non-linear recursive precession dynamics. The high coupling strength in the nonlinear case is found to be a gravitomagnetic charge proportional to the precession angle and angular velocity generated by geometric phases, which are induced by high-speed relativistic rotations and are relevant to propulsion technologies but also to basic interactions. In the quantum range some magic precession angles indicating strong coupling in a phase-locked chaotic system are identified, emerging from a discrete time dynamical system known as the cosine map showing bifurcations at special precession angles relevant to heavy nuclei stability. The 'Magic Angle Precession' (MAP) dynamics can be simulated and visualized by cones rolling in or on each other, where the apex and precession angles are indexed by spin, charge or precession quantum numbers, and corresponding magic angles. The most extreme relativistic warping and twisting effect is given by the Dirac spinor half spin constellation with 'Hyperdiamond' MAP, which resembles quark confinement.

  5. Age of blood and recipient factors determine the severity of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Critical care patients frequently receive blood transfusions. Some reports show an association between aged or stored blood and increased morbidity and mortality, including the development of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). However, the existence of conflicting data endorses the need for research to either reject this association, or to confirm it and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Methods Twenty-eight sheep were randomised into two groups, receiving saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Sheep were further randomised to also receive transfusion of pooled and heat-inactivated supernatant from fresh (Day 1) or stored (Day 42) non-leucoreduced human packed red blood cells (PRBC) or an infusion of saline. TRALI was defined by hypoxaemia during or within two hours of transfusion and histological evidence of pulmonary oedema. Regression modelling compared physiology between groups, and to a previous study, using stored platelet concentrates (PLT). Samples of the transfused blood products also underwent cytokine array and biochemical analyses, and their neutrophil priming ability was measured in vitro. Results TRALI did not develop in sheep that first received saline-infusion. In contrast, 80% of sheep that first received LPS-infusion developed TRALI following transfusion with "stored PRBC." The decreased mean arterial pressure and cardiac output as well as increased central venous pressure and body temperature were more severe for TRALI induced by "stored PRBC" than by "stored PLT." Storage-related accumulation of several factors was demonstrated in both "stored PRBC" and "stored PLT", and was associated with increased in vitro neutrophil priming. Concentrations of several factors were higher in the "stored PRBC" than in the "stored PLT," however, there was no difference to neutrophil priming in vitro. Conclusions In this in vivo ovine model, both recipient and blood product factors contributed to the development of TRALI. Sick (LPS

  6. The Evolution of the Cluster X-ray Scaling Relations in the Wide Angle ROSAT Pointed Survey Sample at 0.6 < z < 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maughan, B. J.; Jones, L. R.; Ebeling, H.; Scharf, C.

    2006-01-01

    The X-ray properties of a sample of 11 high-redshift (0.6 < z < 1 .O) clusters observed with Chardm and/or XMM-Newton are used to investigate the evolution of the cluster scaling relations. The observed evolution in the normalization of the L-T, M-T, M(sub 2)-T and M-L relations is consistent with simple self-similar predictions, in which the properties of clusters reflect the properties of the Universe at their redshift of observation. Under the assumption that the model of self-similar evolution is correct and that the local systems formed via a single spherical collapse, the high-redshift L-T relation is consistent with the high-z clusters having virialized at a significantly higher redshift than the local systems. The data are also consistent with the more realistic scenario of clusters forming via the continuous accretion of material. The slope of the L-T relation at high redshift (B = 3.32 +/- 0.37) is consistent with the local relation, and significantly steeper than the self-similar prediction of B = 2. This suggests that the same non-gravitational processes are responsible for steepening the local and high-z relations, possibly occurring universally at z is approximately greater than 1 or in the early stages of the cluster formation, prior to their observation. The properties of the intracluster medium at high redshift are found to be similar to those in the local Universe. The mean surface-brightness profile slope for the sample is Beta = 0.66 +/- 0.05, the mean gas mass fractions within R(sub 2500(z)) and R(200(z)) are 0.069 +/- 0.012 and 0.11 +/- 0.02, respectively, and the mean metallicity of the sample is 0.28 +/- 0.11 Z(sub solar).

  7. Enhancing the population impact of collaborative care interventions: Mixed method development and implementation of stepped care targeting posttraumatic stress disorder and related comorbidities after acute trauma

    PubMed Central

    Zatzick, Douglas; Rivara, Frederick; Jurkovich, Gregory; Russo, Joan; Trusz, Sarah Geiss; Wang, Jin; Wagner, Amy; Stephens, Kari; Dunn, Chris; Uehara, Edwina; Petrie, Megan; Engel, Charles; Davydow, Dimitri; Katon, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop and implement a stepped collaborative care intervention targeting PTSD and related co-morbidities to enhance the population impact of early trauma-focused interventions. Method We describe the design and implementation of the Trauma Survivors Outcomes & Support Study (TSOS II). An interdisciplinary treatment development team was comprised of trauma surgical, clinical psychiatric and mental health services “change agents” who spanned the boundaries between front-line trauma center clinical care and acute care policy. Mixed method clinical epidemiologic and clinical ethnographic studies informed the development of PTSD screening and intervention procedures. Results Two-hundred and seven acutely injured trauma survivors with high early PTSD symptom levels were randomized into the study. The stepped collaborative care model integrated care management (i.e., posttraumatic concern elicitation and amelioration, motivational interviewing, and behavioral activation) with cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy targeting PTSD. The model was feasibly implemented by front-line acute care MSW and ARNP providers. Conclusions Stepped care protocols targeting PTSD may enhance the population impact of early interventions developed for survivors of individual and mass trauma by extending the reach of collaborative care interventions to acute care medical settings and other non-specialty posttraumatic contexts. PMID:21596205

  8. Use of heliox delivered via high-flow nasal cannula to treat an infant with coronavirus-related respiratory infection and severe acute air-flow obstruction.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Sherwin E; Vukin, Kirissa; Mosakowski, Steve; Solano, Patti; Stanton, Lolita; Lester, Lucille; Lavani, Romeen; Hall, Jesse B; Tung, Avery

    2014-11-01

    Heliox, a helium-oxygen gas mixture, has been used for many decades to treat obstructive pulmonary disease. The lower density and higher viscosity of heliox relative to nitrogen-oxygen mixtures can significantly reduce airway resistance when an anatomic upper air-flow obstruction is present and gas flow is turbulent. Clinically, heliox can decrease airway resistance in acute asthma in adults and children and in COPD. Heliox may also enhance the bronchodilating effects of β-agonist administration for acute asthma. Respiratory syndromes caused by coronavirus infections in humans range in severity from the common cold to severe acute respiratory syndrome associated with human coronavirus OC43 and other viral strains. In infants, coronavirus infection can cause bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia in variable combinations and can produce enough air-flow obstruction to cause respiratory failure. We describe a case of coronavirus OC43 infection in an infant with severe acute respiratory distress treated with heliox inhalation to avoid intubation. PMID:25118308

  9. Treatment and outcomes of patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes in relation to initial diagnostic impressions (insights from the Canadian Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events [GRACE] and Canadian Registry of Acute Coronary Events [CANRACE]).

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Ravi R; Goodman, Shaun G; Yan, Raymond T; Bagnall, Alan J; Gyenes, Gabor; Welsh, Robert C; Eagle, Kim A; Brieger, David; Ramanathan, Krishnan; Grondin, Francois R; Yan, Andrew T

    2013-01-15

    The early diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains challenging, and a considerable proportion of patients are diagnosed with "possible" ACS on admission. The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE/GRACE(2)) and Canadian Registry of Acute Coronary Events (CANRACE) enrolled 16,618 Canadian patients with suspected ACS in 1999 to 2008. We compared the demographic and clinical characteristics, use of cardiac procedures, prognostic accuracy of the GRACE risk score, and in-hospital outcomes between patients given an admission diagnosis of "definite" versus "possible" ACS by the treating physician. Overall, 11,152 and 5,466 patients were given an initial diagnosis of "definite" ACS and "possible" ACS, respectively. Patients with a "possible" ACS had higher GRACE risk score (median 130 vs 125) and less frequently received aspirin, clopidogrel, heparin, or β blockers within the first 24 hours of presentation and assessment of left ventricular function, stress testing, cardiac catheterization, and percutaneous coronary intervention (all p <0.05). Patients with "possible" ACS had greater rates of in-hospital myocardial infarction (9.0% vs 2.0%, p <0.05) and heart failure (12% vs 8.9%, p <0.05). The GRACE risk score demonstrated excellent discrimination for in-hospital mortality in both groups and for the entire study population. In conclusion, compared to patients with "definite" ACS on presentation, those with "possible" ACS had higher baseline GRACE risk scores but less frequently received evidence-based medical therapies within 24 hours of admission or underwent cardiac procedures during hospitalization. The GRACE risk score provided accurate risk assessment, regardless of the initial diagnostic impression.

  10. Intervention of the occlusion relations in the appearance of the modifications in sagittal and transversal plan in the anomalies of the class Ⅲ angle

    PubMed Central

    Simion, I; Stanciu, R; Stanciu, D

    2010-01-01

    During the development of the neuronic and visceral cranium, an important number of factors, not only genetic, but also functional, led to the apparition of some different aspects of growing at the level of each section: the basis of the cranium, the basis of the maxillary, dental alveolus, dental arch. All these ‘aggravating’ or ‘compensatory’ changes are added to the level of the occlusion plan, leading to the establishment of the occlusion relations in the three plans. From now on, the occlusion will directly influence the development at the level of the above-described sections. PMID:20945814

  11. Vosaroxin and Infusional Cytarabine in Treating Patients With Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-10

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia; Myeloid Sarcoma; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Therapy-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Therapy-Related Myelodysplastic Syndrome

  12. Source water assessment and nonpoint sources of acutely toxic contaminants: A review of research related to survival and transport of Cryptosporidium parvum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Mark J.; Montemagno, Carlo D.; Jenkins, Michael B.

    1998-12-01

    Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (PL-930123) in 1996 required that public water supply managers identify potential sources of contamination within contributing areas. Nonpoint sources of acutely toxic microbial contaminants, such as Cryptosporidium parvum, challenge current approaches to source identification and management as a first step toward developing management plans for public water supply protection. Little may be known about survival and transport in the field environment, prescribed practices may not be designed to manage such substances, and infective stages may be present in vast numbers and may resist water treatment and disinfection processes. This review summarizes research related to survival and transport of C. parvum oocysts, as an example of an acutely toxic contaminant with nonpoint sources in animal agriculture. It discusses ∥1) significance of infected domesticated animals as potential sources of C. parvum, (2) laboratory and field studies of survival and transport, and (3) approaches to source control in the context of public health protection.

  13. Acute health problems related to the operation mounted to clean the Hebei Spirit oil spill in Taean, Korea.

    PubMed

    Sim, Min Seob; Jo, Ik Joon; Song, Hyoung Gon

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated acute health problems in people engaged in the operation mounted to clear the Hebei Spirit oil spill which occurred in December 2007 in Taean County, South Korea, and identified the risk factors associated with the development of symptoms. Eight hundred forty-six people engaged in the clean up operation for periods between 7 and 14 days were examined. Demographic information and risk factors were obtained using a questionnaire. Symptoms were classified into six categories: back pain, skin lesions, headache, and eye, neurovestibular, and respiratory symptoms. Residents and volunteers engaged in the Hebei Spirit oil spill clean up operation experienced acute health problems. Risk analyses revealed that more frequent and greater exposure was strongly associated with a higher occurrence of symptoms.

  14. World Trade Center Health Program; Addition of New-Onset Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and WTC-Related Acute Traumatic Injury to the List of WTC-Related Health Conditions. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program conducted a review of published, peer-reviewed epidemiologic studies regarding potential evidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and acute traumatic injury among individuals who were responders to or survivors of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. The Administrator of the WTC Health Program (Administrator) found that these studies provide substantial evidence to support a causal association between each of these health conditions and 9/11 exposures. As a result, the Administrator is publishing a final rule to add both new-onset COPD and WTC-related acute traumatic injury to the List of WTC-Related Health Conditions eligible for treatment coverage in the WTC Health Program.

  15. World Trade Center Health Program; Addition of New-Onset Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and WTC-Related Acute Traumatic Injury to the List of WTC-Related Health Conditions. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program conducted a review of published, peer-reviewed epidemiologic studies regarding potential evidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and acute traumatic injury among individuals who were responders to or survivors of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. The Administrator of the WTC Health Program (Administrator) found that these studies provide substantial evidence to support a causal association between each of these health conditions and 9/11 exposures. As a result, the Administrator is publishing a final rule to add both new-onset COPD and WTC-related acute traumatic injury to the List of WTC-Related Health Conditions eligible for treatment coverage in the WTC Health Program. PMID:27382662

  16. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis get better within several days. But your ... that cause colds and the flu often cause acute bronchitis. These viruses spread through the air when ...

  17. Casting and Angling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julian W.

    As part of a series of books and pamphlets on outdoor education, this manual consists of easy-to-follow instructions for fishing activities dealing with casting and angling. The manual may be used as a part of the regular physical education program in schools and colleges or as a club activity for the accomplished weekend fisherman or the…

  18. An Iterative Angle Trisection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muench, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of angle trisection continues to fascinate people even though it has long been known that it can't be done with straightedge and compass alone. However, for practical purposes, a good iterative procedure can get you as close as you want. In this note, we present such a procedure. Using only straightedge and compass, our procedure…

  19. Interferometric measurement of angles.

    PubMed

    Malacara, D; Harris, O

    1970-07-01

    A new interferometric device for measuring small angles or rotations with high accuracy is described. This instrument works by counting fringes formed by the rotation of a flat-parallel plate of glass illuminated with a collimated beam from a gas laser. Some possible applications are given.

  20. Quantifying alcohol-related emergency admissions in a UK tertiary referral hospital: a cross-sectional study of chronic alcohol dependency and acute alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Vardy, J; Keliher, T; Fisher, J; Ritchie, F; Bell, C; Chekroud, M; Clarey, F; Blackwood, L; Barry, L; Paton, E; Clark, A; Connelly, R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Alcohol is responsible for a proportion of emergency admissions to hospital, with acute alcohol intoxication and chronic alcohol dependency (CAD) implicated. This study aims to quantify the proportion of hospital admissions through our emergency department (ED) which were thought by the admitting doctor to be (largely or partially) a result of alcohol consumption. Setting ED of a UK tertiary referral hospital. Participants All ED admissions occurring over 14 weeks from 1 September to 8 December 2012. Data obtained for 5497 of 5746 admissions (95.67%). Primary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions related to alcohol as defined by the admitting ED clinician. Secondary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions due to alcohol diagnosed with acute alcohol intoxication or CAD according to ICD-10 criteria. Results 1152 (21.0%, 95% CI 19.9% to 22.0%) of emergency admissions were thought to be due to alcohol. 74.6% of patients admitted due to alcohol had CAD, and significantly greater than the 26.4% with ‘Severe’ or ‘Very Severe’ acute alcohol intoxication (p<0.001). Admissions due to alcohol differed to admissions not due to alcohol being on average younger (45 vs 56 years, p<0.001) more often male (73.4% vs 45.1% males, p<0.001) and more likely to have a diagnosis synonymous with alcohol or related to recreational drug use, pancreatitis, deliberate self-harm, head injury, gastritis, suicidal ideation, upper gastrointestinal bleeds or seizures (p<0.001). An increase in admissions due to alcohol on Saturdays reflects a surge in admissions with acute alcohol intoxication above the weekly average (p=0.003). Conclusions Alcohol was thought to be implicated in 21% of emergency admissions in this cohort. CAD is responsible for a significantly greater proportion of admissions due to alcohol than acute intoxication. Interventions designed to reduce alcohol-related admissions must incorporate measures to tackle CAD. PMID:27324707

  1. Gaia basic angle monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gielesen, W.; de Bruijn, D.; van den Dool, T.; Kamphues, F.; Mekking, J.; Calvel, B.; Laborie, A.; Coatantiec, C.; Touzeau, S.; Erdmann, M.; Gare, P.; Monteiro, D.

    2013-09-01

    The Gaia mission1 will create an extraordinarily precise three-dimensional map of more than one billion stars in our Galaxy. The Gaia spacecraft2, built by EADS Astrium, is part of ESA's Cosmic Vision programme and scheduled for launch in 2013. Gaia measures the position, distance and motion of stars with an accuracy of 24 micro-arcsec using two telescopes at a fixed mutual angle of 106.5°, named the `Basic Angle', at an operational temperature of 100 K. This accuracy requires ultra-high stability at cryogenic conditions, which can only be achieved by using Silicon Carbide for both the optical bench and the telescopes. TNO has developed, built and space qualified the Silicon carbide Basic Angle Monitoring (BAM) on-board metrology system3 for this mission, measuring the relative motion of Gaia's telescopes with accuracies in the range of 0.5 micro-arcsec. This is achieved by a system of two laser interferometers able to detect Optical Path Differences (OPD) as small as 1.5 picometer rms. Following a general introduction on Gaia and the use of Silicon Carbide as base material this paper addresses the specific challenges towards the cryogenic application of the Gaia BAM including design, integration and verification/qualification by testing.

  2. OPENING ANGLES OF COLLAPSAR JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuta, Akira; Ioka, Kunihito

    2013-11-10

    We investigate the jet propagation and breakout from the stellar progenitor for gamma-ray burst (GRB) collapsars by performing two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic simulations and analytical modeling. We find that the jet opening angle is given by θ{sub j} ∼ 1/5Γ{sub 0} and infer the initial Lorentz factor of the jet at the central engine, Γ{sub 0}, is a few for existing observations of θ{sub j}. The jet keeps the Lorentz factor low inside the star by converging cylindrically via collimation shocks under the cocoon pressure and accelerates at jet breakout before the free expansion to a hollow-cone structure. In this new picture, the GRB duration is determined by the sound crossing time of the cocoon, after which the opening angle widens, reducing the apparent luminosity. Some bursts violating the maximum opening angle θ{sub j,{sub max}} ∼ 1/5 ∼ 12° imply the existence of a baryon-rich sheath or a long-acting jet. We can explain the slopes in both Amati and Yonetoku spectral relations using an off-centered photosphere model, if we make only one assumption that the total jet luminosity is proportional to the initial Lorentz factor of the jet. We also numerically calibrate the pre-breakout model (Bromberg et al.) for later use.

  3. Toxicity in relation to mode of action for the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans: Acute-to-chronic ratios and quantitative structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Ristau, Kai; Akgül, Yeliz; Bartel, Anna Sophie; Fremming, Jana; Müller, Marie-Theres; Reiher, Luise; Stapela, Frederike; Splett, Jan-Paul; Spann, Nicole

    2015-10-01

    Acute-to-chronic ratios (ACRs) and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) are of particular interest in chemical risk assessment. Previous studies focusing on the relationship between the size or variation of ACRs to substance classes and QSAR models were often based on data for standard test organisms, such as daphnids and fish. In the present study, acute and chronic toxicity tests were performed with the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans for a total of 11 chemicals covering 3 substance classes (nonpolar narcotics: 1-propanol, ethanol, methanol, 2-butoxyethanol; metals: copper, cadmium, zinc; and carbamates: methomyl, oxamyl, aldicarb, dioxacarb). The ACRs were variable, especially for the carbamates and metals, although there was a trend toward small and less variable ACRs for nonpolar narcotic substances. The octanol-water partition coefficient was a good predictor for explaining acute and chronic toxicity of nonpolar narcotic substances to C. elegans, but not for carbamates. Metal toxicity could be related to the covalent index χm2r. Overall, the results support earlier results from ACR and QSAR studies with standard freshwater test animals. As such C. elegans as a representative of small soil/sediment invertebrates would probably be protected by risk assessment strategies already in use. To increase the predictive power of ACRs and QSARs, further research should be expanded to other species and compounds and should also consider the target sites and toxicokinetics of chemicals.

  4. Health-related quality of life dynamics of HIV-positive South African women up to ART initiation: evidence from the CAPRISA 002 acute infection cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Andrew; Garrett, Nigel; Werner, Lise; Burns, Jonathan K; Mpanza, Lindiwe; Mlisana, Koleka; van Loggerenberg, Francois; Abdool Karim, Salim S

    2014-06-01

    Few studies have investigated the long-term dynamics in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among HIV-positive persons from acute infection. From 2004, 160 women were enrolled into the CAPRISA 002 Acute Infection study at two sites in the province of KwaZulu-Natal and underwent 3-6 monthly HRQoL assessments using the functional assessment of HIV infection (FAHI) instrument. Overall and 5 sub-scale FAHI scores [physical well-being (PWB), emotional well-being (EWB), functional and global well-being (FGWB), social well-being (SWB) and cognitive functioning (CF)] were calculated up to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and scores at enrollment were compared to the acute, early and established infection phases. Mixed-effects regression models adjusting for behavioral and clinical factors were applied to assess HRQoL trends and the proportion of women meeting minimally important differences was calculated. Our analyses revealed that overall/sub-scale scores improved over time, except from PWB and CF. A higher educational status, contraceptive use and a higher BMI were the strongest predictors of higher overall/sub-scale FAHI scores. CD4 count and HIV viral load were strongly associated with PWB and CF, but not overall FAHI and other sub-scales. Women newly diagnosed with acute HIV infection face profound HRQoL challenges. While early ART delivery may be important for PWB and CF, factors such as education, contraception provision and good nutritional status should be promoted to maximize HRQoL in HIV positive individuals.

  5. Health-Related Quality of Life Dynamics of HIV-positive South African Women up to ART Initiation: Evidence from the CAPRISA 002 Acute Infection Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Andrew; Garrett, Nigel; Werner, Lise; Burns, Jonathan K.; Mpanza, Lindiwe; Mlisana, Koleka; van Loggerenberg, Francois; Karim, Salim S. Abdool

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the long-term dynamics in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among HIV-positive persons from acute infection. From 2004, 160 women were enrolled into the CAPRISA 002 Acute Infection study at two sites in the province of KwaZulu-Natal and underwent 3–6 monthly HRQoL assessments using the functional assessment of HIV infection (FAHI) instrument. Overall and 5 sub-scale FAHI scores [physical well-being (PWB), emotional well-being (EWB), functional and global well-being (FGWB), social well-being (SWB) and cognitive functioning (CF)] were calculated up to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and scores at enrollment were compared to the acute, early and established infection phases. Mixed-effects regression models adjusting for behavioral and clinical factors were applied to assess HRQoL trends and the proportion of women meeting minimally important differences was calculated. Our analyses revealed that overall/sub-scale scores improved over time, except from PWB and CF. A higher educational status, contraceptive use and a higher BMI were the strongest predictors of higher overall/sub-scale FAHI scores. CD4 count and HIV viral load were strongly associated with PWB and CF, but not overall FAHI and other sub-scales. Women newly diagnosed with acute HIV infection face profound HRQoL challenges. While early ART delivery may be important for PWB and CF, factors such as education, contraception provision and good nutritional status should be promoted to maximize HRQoL in HIV positive individuals. PMID:24368630

  6. The glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor family-related protein (GITR) is critical to the development of acute pancreatitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Galuppo, M; Nocentini, G; Mazzon, E; Ronchetti, S; Esposito, E; Riccardi, L; Sportoletti, P; Di Paola, R; Bruscoli, S; Riccardi, C; Cuzzocrea, S

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Pancreatitis represents a life-threatening inflammatory condition where leucocytes, cytokines and vascular endothelium contribute to the development of the inflammatory disease. The glucocorticoid-induced tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family-related protein (GITR) is a costimulatory molecule for T lymphocytes, modulates innate and adaptive immune system and has been found to participate in a variety of immune responses and inflammatory processes. Our purpose was to verify whether inhibition of GITR triggering results in a better outcome in experimental pancreatitis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH In male GITR knock-out (GITR−/−) and GITR+/+ mice on Sv129 background, acute pancreatitis was induced after i.p. administration of cerulein. Other experimental groups of GITR+/+ mice were also treated with different doses of Fc-GITR fusion protein (up to 6.25 µg·mouse−1), given by implanted mini-osmotic pump. Clinical score and pro-inflammatory parameters were evaluated. KEY RESULTS A less acute pancreatitis was found in GITR−/− mice than in GITR+/+ mice, with marked differences in oedema, neutrophil infiltration, pancreatic dysfunction and injury. Co-treatment of GITR+/+ mice with cerulein and Fc-GITR fusion protein (6.25 µg·mouse−1) decreased the inflammatory response and tissue injury, compared with treatment with cerulein alone. Inhibition of GITR triggering was found to modulate activation of nuclear factor κB as well as the production of TNF-α, interleukin-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitrotyrosine, poly-ADP-ribose, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and P-selectin. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The GITR-GITR ligand system is crucial to the development of acute pancreatitis in mice. Our results also suggest that the Fc-GITR fusion protein could be useful in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. PMID:21091650

  7. A Different Angle on Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frantz, Marc

    2012-01-01

    When a plane figure is photographed from different viewpoints, lengths and angles appear distorted. Hence it is often assumed that lengths, angles, protractors, and compasses have no place in projective geometry. Here we describe a sense in which certain angles are preserved by projective transformations. These angles can be constructed with…

  8. Angle Sense: A Valuable Connector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenstein, Rheta N.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Proposes angle sense as a fundamental connector between mathematical concepts for middle grade students. Introduces the use of pattern blocks and a goniometer, a tool to measure angles, to help students develop angle sense. Discusses connections between angle measurement and the concepts of rational numbers, circles, area, number theory,…

  9. Acute social stress before the planning phase improves memory performance in a complex real life-related prospective memory task.

    PubMed

    Glienke, Katharina; Piefke, Martina

    2016-09-01

    Successful execution of intentions, but also the failure to recall are common phenomena in everyday life. The planning, retention, and realization of intentions are often framed as the scientific concept of prospective memory. The current study aimed to examine the influence of acute stress on key dimensions of complex "real life" prospective memory. To this end, we applied a prospective memory task that involved the planning, retention, and performance of intentions during a fictional holiday week. Forty healthy males participated in the study. Half of the subjects were stressed with the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test (SECPT) before the planning of intentions, and the other half of the participants underwent a control procedure at the same time. Salivary cortisol was used to measure the effectiveness of the SECPT stress induction. Stressed participants did not differ from controls in planning accuracy. However, when we compared stressed participants with controls during prospective memory retrieval, we found statistically significant differences in PM across the performance phase. Participants treated with the SECPT procedure before the planning phase showed improved prospective memory retrieval over time, while performance of controls declined. Particularly, there was a significant difference between the stress and control group for the last two days of the holiday week. Interestingly, control participants showed significantly better performance for early than later learned items, which could be an indicator of a primacy effect. This differential effect of stress on performance was also found in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that acute stress induced before the planning phase may improve prospective memory over the time course of the performance phase in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our data thus indicate that prospective memory can be enhanced by acute stress. PMID:27370532

  10. Acute social stress before the planning phase improves memory performance in a complex real life-related prospective memory task.

    PubMed

    Glienke, Katharina; Piefke, Martina

    2016-09-01

    Successful execution of intentions, but also the failure to recall are common phenomena in everyday life. The planning, retention, and realization of intentions are often framed as the scientific concept of prospective memory. The current study aimed to examine the influence of acute stress on key dimensions of complex "real life" prospective memory. To this end, we applied a prospective memory task that involved the planning, retention, and performance of intentions during a fictional holiday week. Forty healthy males participated in the study. Half of the subjects were stressed with the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test (SECPT) before the planning of intentions, and the other half of the participants underwent a control procedure at the same time. Salivary cortisol was used to measure the effectiveness of the SECPT stress induction. Stressed participants did not differ from controls in planning accuracy. However, when we compared stressed participants with controls during prospective memory retrieval, we found statistically significant differences in PM across the performance phase. Participants treated with the SECPT procedure before the planning phase showed improved prospective memory retrieval over time, while performance of controls declined. Particularly, there was a significant difference between the stress and control group for the last two days of the holiday week. Interestingly, control participants showed significantly better performance for early than later learned items, which could be an indicator of a primacy effect. This differential effect of stress on performance was also found in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that acute stress induced before the planning phase may improve prospective memory over the time course of the performance phase in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our data thus indicate that prospective memory can be enhanced by acute stress.

  11. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Bat Coronavirus Closely Related to the Direct Progenitor of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xing-Lou; Hu, Ben; Wang, Bo; Wang, Mei-Niang; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Li-Jun; Ge, Xing-Yi; Zhang, Yun-Zhi; Daszak, Peter; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2015-01-01

    We report the isolation and characterization of a novel bat coronavirus which is much closer to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in genomic sequence than others previously reported, particularly in its S gene. Cell entry and susceptibility studies indicated that this virus can use ACE2 as a receptor and infect animal and human cell lines. Our results provide further evidence of the bat origin of the SARS-CoV and highlight the likelihood of future bat coronavirus emergence in humans. PMID:26719272

  12. Cerebral Thrombotic Complications Related to l-Asparaginase Treatment for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Retrospective Review of 10 Cases.

    PubMed

    Eden, D; Hipkins, R; Bradbury, C A

    2016-09-01

    l-Asparaginase is a potent antileukemia agent and an essential part of treatment protocols for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, toxicity limits dose escalation, especially in adults. This includes a significant risk of thrombosis, which remains an important source of avoidable morbidity and mortality. Here, we provide a detailed report of 10 cases of cerebral thrombotic complications that occurred over a 5-year period at 4 large tertiary referral hospitals. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this type in the published literature. PMID:25693917

  13. Surgical endodontics of upper molars: relation to the maxillary sinus and operation in acute state of infection.

    PubMed

    Rud, J; Rud, V

    1998-04-01

    Findings in 200 cases of root resection of first maxillary molars showed perforation to the sinus in half of the cases. In 42% of the cases, the first maxillary molar had root resection performed in a subacute or acute state of infection. Only two cases developed postoperative sinusitis. Antibiotic treatment was indicated preoperatively in 3% and postoperatively in 5%. Postoperative symptoms, such as pain and swelling, were usually moderate, possibly because of a nontraumatizing operation technique, a careful removal of infected tissue, and a good drainage by loose suturing. PMID:9641131

  14. [Relations of melatonin level and insufficiency of T and B immune components in children with acute viral neuroinfections].

    PubMed

    Evtushenko, S K; Svechkin, O V; Samsonenko, R A

    1990-01-01

    A study was made of the content of melatonin, cortisol and indicators of cellular (E-rosette formation, 3H-lymphocyte blast transformation) and humoral (E AC-rosette formation, IgA, IgM IgG) immunity in 36 children with acute viral neuroinfections (encephalitis, encephalomyelitis, chorio-ependymitis, polyradiculoneuritis). The children's age ranged from 7 to 14 years. A significant correlation was determined between the levels of melatonin, cortisol, 3H-lymphocyte blast transformation and IgG. Variants of immunomodulating therapy are provided, bearing in mind the disorders revealed.

  15. Wide-angle vision for road views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, F.; Fehrs, K.-K.; Hartmann, G.; Klette, R.

    2013-03-01

    The field-of-view of a wide-angle image is greater than (say) 90 degrees, and so contains more information than available in a standard image. A wide field-of-view is more advantageous than standard input for understanding the geometry of 3D scenes, and for estimating the poses of panoramic sensors within such scenes. Thus, wide-angle imaging sensors and methodologies are commonly used in various road-safety, street surveillance, street virtual touring, or street 3D modelling applications. The paper reviews related wide-angle vision technologies by focusing on mathematical issues rather than on hardware.

  16. Angle amplifier based on multiplexed volume holographic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Liangcai; Zhao, Yifei; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2008-03-01

    Angle amplifier of laser beam scanner is a widely used device in optical systems. Volume holographic optical elements can be applied in the angle amplifier. Compared with the traditional angle amplifier, it has the advantages of high angle resolution, high diffraction efficiency, small size, and high angle magnification and flexible design. Bragg anglewavelength- compensating recording method is introduced. Because of the Bragg compensatory relation between angle and wavelength, this device could be recorded at another wavelength. The design of the angle amplifier recording at the wavelength of 514.2nm for the working wavelength of 632.8nm is described. An optical setup for recording the angle amplifier device is designed and discussed. Experimental results in the photorefractive crystal Fe:LiNbO 3 demonstrate the feasibility of the angle amplifier scheme.

  17. Leaf Angle, Light Interception, and Water Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Alan K.; Smith, Dixie L.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an exercise that demonstrates how plants cope with multiple resource limitations in the field. Stimulates students to think about interactions among multiple limited resources and the challenges plants as immobile organisms face when characteristics that increase the capture of one resource negatively impact the availability of another.…

  18. Angles in the Sky?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behr, Bradford

    2005-09-01

    Tycho Brahe lived and worked in the late 1500s before the telescope was invented. He made highly accurate observations of the positions of planets, stars, and comets using large angle-measuring devices of his own design. You can use his techniques to observe the sky as well. For example, the degree, a common unit of measurement in astronomy, can be measured by holding your fist at arm's length up to the sky. Open your fist and observe the distance across the sky covered by the width of your pinky fingernail. That is, roughly, a degree! After some practice, and knowing that one degree equals four minutes, you can measure elapsed time by measuring the angle of the distance that the Moon appears to have moved and multiplying that number by four. You can also figure distances and sizes of things. These are not precise measurements, but rough estimates that can give you a "close-enough" answer.

  19. Laser angle sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pond, C. R.; Texeira, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    A laser angle measurement system was designed and fabricated for NASA Langley Research Center. The instrument is a fringe counting interferometer that monitors the pitch attitude of a model in a wind tunnel. A laser source and detector are mounted above the model. Interference fringes are generated by a small passive element on the model. The fringe count is accumulated and displayed by a processor in the wind tunnel control room. This report includes optical and electrical schematics, system maintenance and operation procedures.

  20. Acute leukemias of different lineages have similar MLL gene fusions encoding related chimeric proteins resulting from chromosomal translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Corral, J.; Forster, A.; Thompson, S.; Rabbitts, T.H. ); Lampert, F. ); Kaneko, Y. ); Slater, R.; Kroes, W.G. ); Van Der Schoot, C.E. ); Ludwig, W.D. ); Karpas, A. ); Pocock, C.; Cotter, F. )

    1993-09-15

    The MLL gene, on human chromosome 11q23, undergoes chromosomal translocation in acute leukemias, resulting in gene fusion with AF4 (chromosome 4) and ENL (chromosome 19). The authors report here translocation of MLL with nine different chromosomes and two paracentric chromosome 11 deletions in early B cell, B- or T-cell lineage, or nonlymphocytic acute leukemias. The mRNA translocation junction from 22t(4;11) patients, including six adult leukemias, and nine t(11;19) tumors reveals a remarkable conservation of breakpoints within MLL, AF4, or ENL genes, irrespective of tumor phenotype. Typically, the breakpoints are upstream of the zinc-finger region of MLL, and deletion of this region can accompany translocation, supporting the der(11) chromosome as the important component in leukemogenesis. Partial sequence of a fusion between MLL and the AFX1 gene from chromosome X shows the latter to be rich in Ser/Pro codons, like the ENL mRNA. These data suggest that the heterogeneous 11q23 abnormalities might cause attachment of Ser/Pro-rich segments to the NH[sub 2] terminus of MLL, lacking the zinc-finger region, and that translocation occurs in early hematopoietic cells, before commitment to distinct lineages. 36 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Ischemia detection from morphological QRS angle changes.

    PubMed

    Romero, Daniel; Martínez, Juan Pablo; Laguna, Pablo; Pueyo, Esther

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, an ischemia detector is presented based on the analysis of QRS-derived angles. The detector has been developed by modeling ischemic effects on the QRS angles as a gradual change with a certain transition time and assuming a Laplacian additive modeling error contaminating the angle series. Both standard and non-standard leads were used for analysis. Non-standard leads were obtained by applying the PCA technique over specific lead subsets to represent different potential locations of the ischemic zone. The performance of the proposed detector was tested over a population of 79 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in one of the major coronary arteries (LAD (n  =  25), RCA (n  =  16) and LCX (n  =  38)). The best detection performance, obtained for standard ECG leads, was achieved in the LAD group with values of sensitivity and specificity of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], followed by the RCA group with [Formula: see text], Sp  =  94.4 and the LCX group with [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], notably outperforming detection based on the ST series in all cases, with the same detector structure. The timing of the detected ischemic events ranged from 30 s up to 150 s (mean  =  66.8 s) following the start of occlusion. We conclude that changes in the QRS angles can be used to detect acute myocardial ischemia. PMID:27243441

  2. Notes from the field: Acute pesticide-related illness resulting from occupational exposure to acrolein - Washington and California, 1993-2009.

    PubMed

    2013-04-26

    Acrolein is an aquatic herbicide used in the western United States to prevent impaired water flow in irrigation canals. Despite its toxicity, few cases of acrolein-related illness have been reported in the literature. On August 15, 2012, an irrigation district notified the Washington State Department of Labor & Industries (L&I) of acrolein-related illness in one of its pesticide applicators. L&I inspected the site and interviewed the exposed worker, coworkers, and employer. The Washington State Department of Health assisted by obtaining medical records, interviewing the patient and hospital staff, and reviewing information obtained from L&I. To look for additional cases, CDC reviewed data from the SENSOR-Pesticides program* and the California Department of Pesticide Regulation for 1993-2009, the most recent years of data availability, and identified seven additional cases of acute acrolein-related illness.

  3. Association of an inherited genetic variant with vincristine-related peripheral neuropathy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Diouf, Barthelemy; Crews, Kristine R.; Lew, Glen; Pei, Deqing; Cheng, Cheng; Bao, Ju; Zheng, Jie J.; Yang, Wenjian; Fan, Yiping; Wheeler, Heather E.; Wing, Claudia; Delaney, Shannon M.; Komatsu, Masaaki; Paugh, Steven W.; McCorkle, Joseph Robert; Lu, Xiaomin; Winick, Naomi J.; Carroll, William L.; Loh, Mignon L.; Hunger, Stephen P.; Devidas, Meenakshi; Pui, Ching-Hon; Dolan, M. Eileen; Relling, Mary V.; Evans, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Importance With cure rates of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) exceeding 85%, there is compelling need to mitigate treatment toxicities that can compromise quality of life. Peripheral neuropathy is the major dose-limiting toxicity of the microtubule inhibitor vincristine, an anticancer agent given to every child with ALL. Objective Identify genetic germline variants associated with the occurrence or severity of vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy in children with ALL. Design, Setting and Participants All patients had been enrolled in one of two prospective clinical trials for childhood ALL that included treatment with 36–39 doses of vincristine. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis and vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy were assessed in all patients from whom DNA was available (n=321 patients); 222 patients (median age at 6.0 years, range 0.1–18.8 years) enrolled between 1994–1998 on the St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital protocol Total XIIIB (St. Jude cohort) with toxicity followed through January 2001, and 99 patients (median age 11.4 years, range 3.0–23.8 years) enrolled between 2007–2010 on the Children’s Oncology Group protocol AALL0433 (COG cohort) with toxicity followed through May 2011. Human leukemia cells and induced pluripotent stem cell neurons were used to assess the effects of lower CEP72 expression on vincristine sensitivity. Exposures Treatment with vincristine at a dosage of 1.5 or 2.0 mg/m2 as a component of protocol directed chemotherapy for childhood ALL. Main Outcomes and Measures Vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy was assessed at each clinic visit using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events and prospectively graded as mild (grade 1), moderate (grade 2), serious/disabling (grade 3), or life-threatening (grade 4). Results Grade 2–4 vincristine-induced neuropathy during continuation therapy occurred in 28.8% of patients (n=64 of 222) in

  4. Immune reconstitution during maintenance therapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, relation to co-existing infection.

    PubMed

    El-Chennawi, Farha A; Al-Tonbary, Youssef A; Mossad, Youssef M; Ahmed, Mona A

    2008-08-01

    Immunosuppression is a major side effect of cancer chemotherapy. The process of immune reconstitution can be dissimilar according to the nature of the disease, type and doses of drugs, and age of the patients. Recently, several studies have examined immune reconstitution in children and young adults after intensive chemotherapy for solid tumours or stem cell transplantation. The aim of the present study is to evaluate immune reconstitution (cellular and humoral) in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia during the maintenance phase of therapy and to correlate between the complicating infections and the abnormalities in immune system during reconstitution. To achieve this goal, 36 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (24 females and 12 males) in the maintenance phase of therapy with 12 healthy children of matched age and sex served as a control group were recruited in this study. The patients were taken consecutively from the Hematology/Oncology Outpatient Clinic of Mansoura University Children's Hospital (MUCH). They were subjected to thorough history taking, clinical examination and laboratory investigations in the form of: complete blood count, serum creatinine, liver function tests and evaluation of the immune system by estimation of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19 and CD56 (cellular immunity) by flow cytometry and immunoglobulins A, M and G (humoral immunity) at the first and the third month of maintenance therapy. The results of the study documented presence and persistence of leucopenia and lymphopenia during maintenance therapy with decreased medians of CD3, CD4 and CD8 from the first to the third month of therapy and in comparison to the control group. The other markers CD19, CD56, IgA, IgM, IgG and CD4/CD8 ratio showed increasing median from the first to the third month of therapy. Also we detect a significant correlation between infection and CD19 and serum IgM at the first month and between infection and CD19, IgM and CD4/CD8 ratio at the third month of

  5. Acute stress-related psychological impact in children following devastating natural disaster, the Sikkim earthquake (2011), India

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Rakesh; Sarkar, Sumantra; Banerjee, Indira; Hazra, Avijit; Majumder, Debabrata; Sabui, Tapas; Dutta, Sudip; Saren, Abhisek; Pan, Partha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Psychological stress following natural disaster is common. Despite several earthquakes in India, data on evaluation of acute stress among the child victims in the early postdisaster period is scarce. Immediately following a devastating earthquake (6.9 Richter) at Sikkim on September, 18 2011, many children attended North Bengal Medical College, the nearest government tertiary care institution, with unusual stress symptoms. Objective: Evaluation of acute stress symptoms in children in the immediate postearthquake period. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done over 4 weeks and includes all the children from 1 to 12 years presenting with unusual physical or behavioral symptoms. Those with major injuries requiring admission were excluded. They were divided into two age groups. For older children (8-12 years) the 8-item Children Impact of Event Scale (CIES) was used for screening of stress. Unusual symptoms were recorded in younger children (1-8 years) as CIES is not validated < 8 years. Result: A total of 84 children (2.66%) out of 3154 had stress symptoms. Maximum attendance was noted in first 3 days (65.47%) and declined gradually. In children ≥ 8 years, 48.78% had psychological stress, which was statistically significant on CIES scores without any gender predilection. Static posturing (41.86%), sleeplessness (32.55%), anorexia (9.30%), recurrent vomiting (13.95%), excessive crying (13.95%), or night-awakenings (4.65%) were found in younger children (n = 43) and three required admission. Conclusion: This study represent the first Indian data showing statistically significant psychological impact in older children (8-12 years) and various forms of physical stress symptoms in young children (1-8 years) following earthquake. PMID:24174793

  6. Initiation of ART during Early Acute HIV Infection Preserves Mucosal Th17 Function and Reverses HIV-Related Immune Activation

    PubMed Central

    Schuetz, Alexandra; Deleage, Claire; Sereti, Irini; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Phuang-Ngern, Yuwadee; Estes, Jacob D.; Sandler, Netanya G.; Sukhumvittaya, Suchada; Marovich, Mary; Jongrakthaitae, Surat; Akapirat, Siriwat; Fletscher, James L. K.; Kroon, Eugene; Dewar, Robin; Trichavaroj, Rapee; Chomchey, Nitiya; Douek, Daniel C.; O′Connell, Robert J.; Ngauy, Viseth; Robb, Merlin L.; Phanuphak, Praphan; Michael, Nelson L.; Excler, Jean-Louis; Kim, Jerome H.; de Souza, Mark S.; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal Th17 cells play an important role in maintaining gut epithelium integrity and thus prevent microbial translocation. Chronic HIV infection is characterized by mucosal Th17 cell depletion, microbial translocation and subsequent immune-activation, which remain elevated despite antiretroviral therapy (ART) correlating with increased mortality. However, when Th17 depletion occurs following HIV infection is unknown. We analyzed mucosal Th17 cells in 42 acute HIV infection (AHI) subjects (Fiebig (F) stage I-V) with a median duration of infection of 16 days and the short-term impact of early initiation of ART. Th17 cells were defined as IL-17+ CD4+ T cells and their function was assessed by the co-expression of IL-22, IL-2 and IFNγ. While intact during FI/II, depletion of mucosal Th17 cell numbers and function was observed during FIII correlating with local and systemic markers of immune-activation. ART initiated at FI/II prevented loss of Th17 cell numbers and function, while initiation at FIII restored Th17 cell numbers but not their polyfunctionality. Furthermore, early initiation of ART in FI/II fully reversed the initially observed mucosal and systemic immune-activation. In contrast, patients treated later during AHI maintained elevated mucosal and systemic CD8+ T-cell activation post initiation of ART. These data support a loss of Th17 cells at early stages of acute HIV infection, and highlight that studies of ART initiation during early AHI should be further explored to assess the underlying mechanism of mucosal Th17 function preservation. PMID:25503054

  7. Loss of neuromuscular control related to motion in the acutely ACL-injured knee: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Bonsfills, N; Gómez-Barrena, E; Raygoza, J J; Núñez, A

    2008-10-01

    Ligamentomuscular and muscular stretch reflexes are known to contribute to knee joint stability. After anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, a more intense and adjusted muscular response is required to maintain joint stability, but this neuromuscular control of the knee has not been clearly proved. The aim of the study is to record electromyography (EMG) signal and muscular fibre length variations in quadriceps and hamstrings of the knee with and without ACL, and to analyze and integrate the ligament strain and the muscular reaction to forced anterior tibial translation (ATT). In 17 knees from 12 cats, EMG electrodes and ultrasonomicrometry crystals were inserted into four main periarticular muscles, with strain gauges on periarticular ligament insertions. Their output signal was compared before and after ACL surgical section in series of ATT (at 90 degrees and 30 degrees knee flexion), and also during knee flexion and extension. Linear regression analysis was performed between the EMG signal and muscular fibre length variations, and between the EMG signal and the strain on ligament insertions, in the search of this reflex neuromuscular response. In the ACL deficient knees, the studied muscles showed a poor adjustment to motion of EMG firing, inversely to controls. The muscle stretch reflexes showed poorer correlation with post-peak EMG activity than the ligaments. ATT control depended mainly on hamstrings activity in control knees, whereas in unstable knees, quadriceps activity was associated with more tibial translation. Acute ACL-deficient knees showed poor neuromuscular control with weak ligamentomuscular reflexes and no muscular stretch reflexes, suggesting the ineffectiveness of acute muscular reaction to provide early mechanical knee stabilization after injury.

  8. Inflammatory and metabolic markers and short-time outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke in relation to TOAST subtypes.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Marcio Francisco; Kallaur, Ana Paula; Oliveira, Sayonara Rangel; Alfieri, Daniela Frizon; Delongui, Franciele; de Sousa Parreira, Johnathan; de Araújo, Maria Caroline Martins; Rossato, Carolina; de Almeida, Jéssica Tavares; Pelegrino, Larissa Moliterno; Bragato, Erick Frank; Lehmann, Ana Lucia Cruz Fürstenberger; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Lozovoy, Marcell Alysson Batisti; Simão, Andrea Name Colado; Kaimen-Maciel, Damácio Ramon; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between inflammatory and metabolic markers and short-time outcome with acute ischemic stroke subtypes. A total of 121 patients was classified according to TOAST criteria, such as large artery atherosclerosis (LAAS), lacunar infarct (LAC), cardioembolic infarct (CEI), other determined etiology (ODE), and undetermined etiology (UDE). The functional impairment was evaluated within the first eight hours of stroke and the outcome after three-month follow-up using the modified Rankin Scale. Blood samples were obtained up to 24 h of stroke. Compared with 96 controls, patients with LAAS, CEI, and LAC subtypes showed higher levels of white blood cells, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), glucose, and iron (p < 0.05); and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (p < 0.0001); platelets, insulin, insulin resistance, and homocysteine were higher in LAC (p < 0.0001); ferritin was higher in LAAS (p < 0.0001); and total cholesterol (TC) was lower in LAAS and CEI (p < 0.01). When stroke subtypes were compared, insulin was higher in LAAS vs. LAC and in LAC vs. CEI (p < 0.05); and TC was lower in LAAS vs. LAC (p < 0.05). Outcome and rate of mortality after three-month were higher in LAAS vs. LAC (p < 0.001 and p = 0.0391 respectively). The results underscored the important role of the inflammatory response and metabolic changes in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke subtypes that might be considered on the initial evaluation of stroke patients to identify those that could benefit with individualized therapeutic strategies that taken into account these markers after acute ischemic event. PMID:26359121

  9. Wide Angle Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This brief movie illustrates the passage of the Moon through the Saturn-bound Cassini spacecraft's wide-angle camera field of view as the spacecraft passed by the Moon on the way to its closest approach with Earth on August 17, 1999. From beginning to end of the sequence, 25 wide-angle images (with a spatial image scale of about 14 miles per pixel (about 23 kilometers)were taken over the course of 7 and 1/2 minutes through a series of narrow and broadband spectral filters and polarizers, ranging from the violet to the near-infrared regions of the spectrum, to calibrate the spectral response of the wide-angle camera. The exposure times range from 5 milliseconds to 1.5 seconds. Two of the exposures were smeared and have been discarded and replaced with nearby images to make a smooth movie sequence. All images were scaled so that the brightness of Crisium basin, the dark circular region in the upper right, is approximately the same in every image. The imaging data were processed and released by the Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for Operations (CICLOPS)at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Tucson, AZ.

    Photo Credit: NASA/JPL/Cassini Imaging Team/University of Arizona

    Cassini, launched in 1997, is a joint mission of NASA, the European Space Agency and Italian Space Agency. The mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  10. Therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia with eosinophilia, basophilia, t(4;14)(q12;q24) and PDGFRA rearrangement: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun; Papenhausen, Peter; Shao, Haipeng

    2015-01-01

    The myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms with eosinophilia and PDGFRA gene rearrangements usually show a good response to Imatinib and are typically associated with a normal karyotype, occasionally exhibiting a secondary chromosomal abnormality associated with clonal evolution. Five variant translocations involving PDGFRA have been reported. Here, we report a rare case of therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia with PDGFRA rearrangement after chemotherapy for prior B lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). The patient had a history of BCR-ABL negative, hypodiploid B-ALL in complete remission after chemotherapy. However, 15 months later the patient developed acute myeloid leukemia with rapidly increasing eosinophilia, basophilia and a complex karyotype that included a novel t(4;14)(q12;q24). FIP1L1 was not associated with the PDGFRA rearrangement. The patient had a very aggressive clinical course, and died from the disease shortly after diagnosis. This is the first case of a primary therapy-related myeloid neoplasm with secondary PDGFRA rearrangement. The t(4:14)(q12;q24) is joining the growing list of the variant translocations involving PDGFRA. PMID:26191303

  11. AltitudeOmics: cerebral autoregulation during ascent, acclimatization, and re-exposure to high altitude and its relation with acute mountain sickness.

    PubMed

    Subudhi, Andrew W; Fan, Jui-Lin; Evero, Oghenero; Bourdillon, Nicolas; Kayser, Bengt; Julian, Colleen G; Lovering, Andrew T; Panerai, Ronney B; Roach, Robert C

    2014-04-01

    Cerebral autoregulation (CA) acts to maintain brain blood flow despite fluctuations in perfusion pressure. Acute hypoxia is thought to impair CA, but it is unclear if CA is affected by acclimatization or related to the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS). We assessed changes in CA using transfer function analysis of spontaneous fluctuations in radial artery blood pressure (indwelling catheter) and resulting changes in middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (transcranial Doppler) in 21 active individuals at sea level upon arrival at 5,260 m (ALT1), after 16 days of acclimatization (ALT16), and upon re-exposure to 5,260 m after 7 days at 1,525 m (POST7). The Lake Louise Questionnaire was used to evaluate AMS symptom severity. CA was impaired upon arrival at ALT1 (P < 0.001) and did not change with acclimatization at ALT16 or upon re-exposure at POST7. CA was not associated with AMS symptoms (all R < 0.50, P > 0.05). These findings suggest that alterations in CA are an intrinsic consequence of hypoxia and are not directly related to the occurrence or severity of AMS.

  12. Glancing angle RF sheaths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ippolito, D. A.; Myra, J. R.

    2013-10-01

    RF sheaths occur in tokamaks when ICRF waves encounter conducting boundaries. The sheath plays an important role in determining the efficiency of ICRF heating, the impurity influxes from the edge plasma, and the plasma-facing component damage. An important parameter in sheath theory is the angle θ between the equilibrium B field and the wall. Recent work with 1D and 2D sheath models has shown that the rapid variation of θ around a typical limiter can lead to enhanced sheath potentials and localized power deposition (hot spots) when the B field is near glancing incidence. The physics model used to obtain these results does not include some glancing-angle effects, e.g. possible modification of the angular dependence of the Child-Langmuir law and the role of the magnetic pre-sheath. Here, we report on calculations which explore these effects, with the goal of improving the fidelity of the rf sheath BC used in analytical and numerical calculations. Work supported by US DOE grants DE-FC02-05ER54823 and DE-FG02-97ER54392.

  13. Variable angle correlation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y K

    1994-05-01

    In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with {sup 13}C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system.

  14. Spontaneous Rectus Sheath Hematoma in Pregnancy Complicated by the Development of Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Jennifer; Bridges, Firas; Trivedi, Kiran; Vullo, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) represents a rare, but serious cause of abdominal pain. Case Here we discuss the case of a healthy multigravida female who presented at 28 weeks gestation with spontaneous RSH. Conservative management with multiple blood transfusions led to the development of transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) and intensive care unit admission. She was managed with noninvasive ventilatory support, gradually improved, and was weaned of ventilation. After hospital discharge, she progressed to full term and delivered a viable male infant vaginally at 37 weeks gestation. Conclusion Review of the literature demonstrates 13 cases of RSH in pregnancy, including our own. No other cases were complicated by transfusion related morbidity. RSH and TRALI are rare, but life threatening entities that can complicate pregnancy. PMID:27651980

  15. The prolactin response to an acute stressor in relation to parental care and corticosterone in a short-lived bird, the Eurasian hoopoe.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Baptiste; Chastel, Olivier; Jenni, Lukas

    2011-10-01

    Prolactin plays an important role in mediating parental care in birds, but little is known about changes in prolactin levels when animals disrupt their reproductive behaviour during emergency life-history stages. We investigated the variation of prolactin levels with breeding stage, sex, body condition and as a response to a standardized acute stressor in a small short-lived bird, the Eurasian hoopoe Upupa epops under natural field conditions. We found higher baseline levels of prolactin in females during the brooding phase than in their mates which feed them and their chicks at this stage. Moreover, this is the first report of a differential prolactin stress-response between sexes with contrasting parental care within a breeding phase. Capture, handling and restraint induced a clear decrease of prolactin levels which was less pronounced in females at the very early stage of brooding compared to females in later stages. In contrast, the prolactin stress response in males remained nearly constant over the breeding stages and was stronger than in females. Baseline levels of prolactin, but not handling-induced levels, were positively correlated with body condition. We found a weak relationship between the decrease in prolactin due to acute handling stress and handling-induced levels of corticosterone. Taken together, both baseline and stress response levels of prolactin were related to the amount of parental care, although we found no relationship with reproductive success. It appears that the response to an acute stressor in prolactin levels is finely tuned to parental duties and investment. Hence, prolactin appears to be involved in mediating the trade-off between current reproduction versus self-maintenance and future reproduction.

  16. Impact of traditional practices on food safety: a case of acute toxoplasmosis related to the consumption of contaminated raw pork sausage in Italy.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Maria; Tumino, Giovanni; Partanna, Samanta; La Chiusa, Stella; Mancuso, Giorgio; Giglia, Maria La; Presti, Vincenzo Di Marco Lo

    2014-04-01

    A case of acute toxoplasmosis in an adolescent girl, almost certainly related to the consumption of raw sausage, is described. The girl suffered of fever and weakness and presented a swollen lymph node in the submandibular region. Serology analysis was positive for Toxoplasma gondii and excluded other infections. Further analysis, with avidity test and immunoblot, confirmed the acute toxoplasmosis. She reported that about a month before the appearance of the symptoms, she had eaten a piece of raw sausage while it was being prepared by her father. We analyzed sausage samples prepared from this same batch that had been frozen for later consumption, and they demonstrated evidence of T. gondii DNA when using a specific nested PCR assay. The sausage was prepared from the meat of a pig that had been backyard raised and slaughtered at home, a traditional practice in rural communities in many countries. The tasting of fresh prepared raw sausage is a common practice throughout Italy, and it could be a major cause for toxoplasmosis as suggested by the results of a questionnaire administered in the province of Palermo, Sicily. Contact with cats and, to a lesser extent, raw salad consumption were also referred to as presumptive causes for the symptomatic cases. Two additional cases of acute toxoplasmosis reported during questionnaire administration were alleged to have been caused by the consumption of fresh sausage made with the meat of a pig raised in the yard. Traditional practices in animal farming, and the processing of meat from animals raised in the backyard or meat from wild game animals, might have a big impact on food safety.

  17. Increased expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is related to the acute renal lesions induced by gentamicin.

    PubMed

    Volpini, R A; Balbi, A P C; Costa, R S; Coimbra, T M

    2006-06-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) may be involved in the pathogenesis of acute renal failure. This study investigated the expression of p-p38 MAPK and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) in the renal cortex of rats treated with gentamicin. Twenty rats were injected with gentamicin, 40 mg/kg, i.m., twice a day for 9 days, 20 with gentamicin + pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, an NF-kappaB inhibitor), 14 with 0.15 M NaCl, i.m., twice a day for 9 days, and 14 with 0.15 M NaCl , i.m., twice a day for 9 days and PDTC, 50 mg kg(-1) day(-1), i.p., twice a day for 15 days. The animals were killed 5 and 30 days after the last of the injections and the kidneys were removed for histological, immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis and for nitrate determination. The results of the immunohistochemical study were evaluated by counting the p-p38 MAPK-positive cells per area of renal cortex measuring 0.05 mm2. Creatinine was measured by the Jaffé method in blood samples collected 5 and 30 days after the end of the treatments. Gentamicin-treated rats presented a transitory increase in plasma creatinine levels. In addition, animals killed 5 days after the end of gentamicin treatment presented acute tubular necrosis and increased nitrate levels in the renal cortex. Increased expression of p-p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB was also observed in the kidneys from these animals. The animals killed 30 days after gentamicin treatment showed residual areas of interstitial fibrosis in the renal cortex, although the expression of p-p38 MAPK in their kidneys did not differ from control. Treatment with PDTC reduced the functional and structural changes induced by gentamicin as well as the expression of p-p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB. The increased expression of p-p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB observed in these rats suggests that these signaling molecules may be involved in the pathogenesis of tubulointerstitial nephritis induced by gentamicin.

  18. Can a surgeon drill accurately at a specified angle?

    PubMed Central

    Brioschi, Valentina; Cook, Jodie; Arthurs, Gareth I

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether a surgeon can drill accurately a specified angle and whether surgeon experience, task repetition, drill bit size and perceived difficulty influence drilling angle accuracy. Methods The sample population consisted of final-year students (n=25), non-specialist veterinarians (n=22) and board-certified orthopaedic surgeons (n=8). Each participant drilled a hole twice in a horizontal oak plank at 30°, 45°, 60°, 80°, 85° and 90° angles with either a 2.5  or a 3.5 mm drill bit. Participants then rated the perceived difficulty to drill each angle. The true angle of each hole was measured using a digital goniometer. Results Greater drilling accuracy was achieved at angles closer to 90°. An error of ≤±4° was achieved by 84.5 per cent of participants drilling a 90° angle compared with approximately 20 per cent of participants drilling a 30–45° angle. There was no effect of surgeon experience, task repetition or drill bit size on the mean error for intended versus achieved angle. Increased perception of difficulty was associated with the more acute angles and decreased accuracy, but not experience level. Clinical significance This study shows that surgeon ability to drill accurately (within ±4° error) is limited, particularly at angles ≤60°. In situations where drill angle is critical, use of computer-assisted navigation or custom-made drill guides may be preferable. PMID:27547423

  19. Serum leptin and cortisol, related to acutely perceived academic examination stress and performance in female university students.

    PubMed

    Haleem, Darakhshan J; Inam, Qurrat-Ul-Aen; Haider, Saida; Perveen, Tahira; Haleem, Muhammad Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Leptin, identified as an antiobesity hormone, also has important role in responses to stress and processing of memory. This study was designed to determine effects of academic examination stress-induced changes in serum leptin and its impact on academic performance. Eighty five healthy female students (age 19-21 years; BMI 21.9 ± 1.6) were recruited for the study. Serum leptin and cortisol were monitored at base line (beginning of academic session) and on the day of examination; using a standardized ELISA kit. Acute perception of academic examination stress was determined with the help of a questionnaire derived from Hamilton Anxiety Scale and self report of stress perception. Academic performance was evaluated by the percentage of marks obtained in the examination. Serum cortisol levels were positively correlated (p < 0.01) with the subjective perception of examination stress but not with academic performance. There was an inverted U-shape relationship between level of stress and academic performance. Leptin increased in all stress groups and correlated (p < 0.01) positively with academic performance. There was an inverted U-shape relationship between level of stress and circulating leptin. The findings suggest the peptide hormone, leptin, is a biomarker of stress perception and a mediator of facilitating effects of stress on cognition.

  20. Acute toxicity of crude oil water accommodated fraction on marine copepods: the relative importance of acclimatization temperature and body size.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhibing; Huang, Yijun; Chen, Quanzhen; Zeng, Jiangning; Xu, Xiaoqun

    2012-10-01

    Recent oil spillage accidents around the world greatly increase harmful risks to marine ecology. This study evaluated the influences of petroleum water accommodated fraction (WAF) on 15 typical species of marine copepods collected from a subtropical bay in East China Sea at different seasons. Copepods showed impaired swimming ability, restlessness, loss of balance, anoxic coma, and even death when they were acutely exposed to the crude oil WAF under laboratory conditions. The LC(50) values (expressed in total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration) indicated that the tolerances of copepods to WAF decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with increased exposure duration and natural water temperatures (acclimatization temperature). The sensitivity of the copepods was species-specific (P < 0.01), and there was a significant (P < 0.05) positive correlation between the 48-h LC(50) and body size. Therefore, the small copepod species confront more survival challenges under oil contamination stress, especially in the warm months or regions.

  1. Astaxanthin Attenuates Early Acute Kidney Injury Following Severe Burns in Rats by Ameliorating Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial-Related Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Song-Xue; Zhou, Han-Lei; Huang, Chun-Lan; You, Chuan-Gang; Fang, Quan; Wu, Pan; Wang, Xin-Gang; Han, Chun-Mao

    2015-01-01

    Early acute kidney injury (AKI) is a devastating complication in critical burn patients, and it is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. The mechanism of AKI is multifactorial. Astaxanthin (ATX) is a natural compound that is widely distributed in marine organisms; it is a strong antioxidant and exhibits other biological effects that have been well studied in various traumatic injuries and diseases. Hence, we attempted to explore the potential protection of ATX against early post burn AKI and its possible mechanisms of action. The classic severe burn rat model was utilized for the histological and biochemical assessments of the therapeutic value and mechanisms of action of ATX. Upon ATX treatment, renal tubular injury and the levels of serum creatinine and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin were improved. Furthermore, relief of oxidative stress and tubular apoptosis in rat kidneys post burn was also observed. Additionally, ATX administration increased Akt and Bad phosphorylation and further down-regulated the expression of other downstream pro-apoptotic proteins (cytochrome c and caspase-3/9); these effects were reversed by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Moreover, the protective effect of ATX presents a dose-dependent enhancement. The data above suggested that ATX protects against early AKI following severe burns in rats, which was attributed to its ability to ameliorate oxidative stress and inhibit apoptosis by modulating the mitochondrial-apoptotic pathway, regarded as the Akt/Bad/Caspases signalling cascade. PMID:25871290

  2. Dormant Masculinity: Moderating Effects of Acute Alcohol Intoxication on the Relation Between Male Role Norms and Antigay Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Ruschelle M.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication was examined as a moderator of the association between men’s adherence to traditional gender norms and aggression towards a gay male. Participants were 164 heterosexual drinking men between the ages of 21–30. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires that included a measure of adherence to male role norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), were randomly assigned to consume an alcohol or no-alcohol control beverage, and completed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm in which electric shocks were administered to, and received from, a fictitious gay or heterosexual male opponent. Results indicated a greater adherence to both the toughness (β = .50, p = .002) and antifeminine (β = .37, p = .023) norms predicted high levels of aggression towards a gay man only among participants who were intoxicated. This interaction effect was not detected for the status norm. Consistent with previous research, findings suggest that adherence to the toughness norm does not increase sober men’s risk of aggression toward gay men. However, this is the first study to demonstrate that alcohol intoxication may activate concepts of toughness, and thus influence men to act in line with this facet of the masculine concept. Importantly, these data support the view that men’s adherence to various dimensions of masculinity may be dormant in some contexts, only to be activated, and subsequently demonstrated, in other contexts. PMID:25750591

  3. The characteristics of emergency department presentations related to acute herbicide or insecticide poisoning in South Korea between 2011 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jeong Mi; Chun, Byeong Jo; Cho, Yong Soo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine epidemiologic data regarding acute herbicide or insecticide poisoning in adults from 2011 to 2014 at the national level in South Korea. Further, the association between governmental regulations involving pesticides and changes in pesticide poisoning occurrences over time was determined. Data were obtained from the emergency department (ED)-based Injury In-depth Surveillance system conducted by the Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC). Governmental regulations on pesticides were downloaded from the homepage of the Korea Rural Development Administration. Pesticides were classified according to guidelines provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) and by the respective Resistance Action Committee (RAC). Trends in the number of ED presentations and case fatality rate (CFR) due to pesticide poisoning were investigated. The overall CFR due to poisoning from herbicides or insecticides in adults in South Korea was 16.8% during 2011-2014. However, CFR significantly decreased over the 4-year period. The ED presentations of paraquat (PQ) poisoning fell significantly, whereas poisoning due to glyphosate, glufosinate, or combined herbicides increased markedly over the 4 years. Between 2011 and 2013, PQ was the most common pesticide poisoning, whereas glyphosate became the most frequent in 2014. PQ produced the highest rate of fatality followed by endosulfan. Although the frequency of PQ poisoning decreased, which may be attributed to governmental regulations, the CFR and incidence of pesticide poisoning in adults remain a public health concern that needs to be addressed. PMID:27267557

  4. Treatment-related alteration of cortisol predicts change in neuropsychological function during acute treatment of late-life anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lenze, Eric J.; Dixon, David; Mantella, Rose C.; Dore, Peter M.; Andreescu, Carmen; Reynolds, Charles F.; Newcomer, John W.; Butters, Meryl A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Older adults with anxiety disorders are burdened by impairment in neurocognition, which may be mediated by elevated circulating cortisol levels. In a randomized controlled trial of acute serotonin-reuptake inhibitor treatment for late-life anxiety disorder, we examined whether change in salivary cortisol concentrations during treatment predicted improvements in measures of memory and executive function. Methods We examined 60 adults aged 60 and older, who took part in a 12-week trial of escitalopram vs. placebo for Generalized Anxiety Disorder. All subjects had pre- and post-treatment assessments that included monitoring of peak and total daily cortisol and a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation. Results Salivary cortisol changes during treatment showed significant associations with changes in immediate and delayed memory, but no association with executive tasks (measures of working memory and set-shifting). Analyses suggested that a decrease in cortisol due to serotonin-reuptake inhibitor treatment was responsible for the memory changes: memory improvement was seen with cortisol reduction among patients receiving escitalopram, but not among patients receiving placebo. Conclusion Serotonin-reuptake inhibitor-induced alteration in circulating cortisol during treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder predicted changes in immediate and delayed memory. This finding suggests a novel treatment strategy in late-life anxiety disorders: targeting HPA axis dysfunction to improve memory. PMID:21681817

  5. Serum leptin and cortisol, related to acutely perceived academic examination stress and performance in female university students.

    PubMed

    Haleem, Darakhshan J; Inam, Qurrat-Ul-Aen; Haider, Saida; Perveen, Tahira; Haleem, Muhammad Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Leptin, identified as an antiobesity hormone, also has important role in responses to stress and processing of memory. This study was designed to determine effects of academic examination stress-induced changes in serum leptin and its impact on academic performance. Eighty five healthy female students (age 19-21 years; BMI 21.9 ± 1.6) were recruited for the study. Serum leptin and cortisol were monitored at base line (beginning of academic session) and on the day of examination; using a standardized ELISA kit. Acute perception of academic examination stress was determined with the help of a questionnaire derived from Hamilton Anxiety Scale and self report of stress perception. Academic performance was evaluated by the percentage of marks obtained in the examination. Serum cortisol levels were positively correlated (p < 0.01) with the subjective perception of examination stress but not with academic performance. There was an inverted U-shape relationship between level of stress and academic performance. Leptin increased in all stress groups and correlated (p < 0.01) positively with academic performance. There was an inverted U-shape relationship between level of stress and circulating leptin. The findings suggest the peptide hormone, leptin, is a biomarker of stress perception and a mediator of facilitating effects of stress on cognition. PMID:26187200

  6. A fluid response: Alpha-amylase reactions to acute laboratory stress are related to sample timing and saliva flow rate.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Tamás; van Lien, René; Willemsen, Gonneke; Proctor, Gordon; Efting, Marieke; Fülöp, Márta; Bárdos, György; Veerman, Enno C I; Bosch, Jos A

    2015-07-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) is used as a sympathetic (SNS) stress marker, though its release is likely co-determined by SNS and parasympathetic (PNS) activation. The SNS and PNS show asynchronous changes during acute stressors, and sAA responses may thus vary with sample timing. Thirty-four participants underwent an eight-minute memory task (MT) and cold pressor task (CPT). Cardiovascular SNS (pre-ejection period, blood pressure) and PNS (heart rate variability) activity were monitored continuously. Unstimulated saliva was collected repeatedly during and after each laboratory stressor, and sAA concentration (U/ml) and secretion (U/minute) determined. Both stressors increased anxiety. The MT caused an immediate and continued cardiac SNS activation, but sAA concentration increased at task cessation only (+54%); i.e., when there was SNS-PNS co-activation. During the MT sAA secretion even decreased (-35%) in conjunction with flow rate and vagal tone. The CPT robustly increased blood pressure but not sAA. In summary, sAA fluctuations did not parallel changes in cardiac SNS activity or anxiety. sAA responses seem contingent on sample timing and flow rate, likely involving both SNS and PNS influences. Verification using other stressors and contexts seems warranted.

  7. Deformation of the Calabrian accretionary wedge and relative kinematics of the Calabrian and Peloritan backstops: Insights from multibeam bathymetry, high-resolution reflection and wide-angle seismics and analog modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellong, David; Gutscher, Marc-Andre; Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Graindorge, David; Kopp, Heidrun; Moretti, Milena; Marsset, Bruno; Mercier de Lepinay, Bernard; Dominguez, Stephane; Malavieille, Jacques

    2016-04-01

    Recently acquired swath bathymetric data in the Ionian Sea document in unprecedented detail the morphostructure and dynamics of the Calabrian accretionary wedge. A boundary zone between the eastern and western lobes of the accretionary wedge is examined here. Relative displacement between the Calabrian and Peloritan backstops is expected to cause dextral strike-slip deformation between the lobes. A wide-angle seismic profile was acquired in Oct. 2014 with the R/V Meteor (DIONYSUS survey) recorded by 25 Ocean-bottom seismometers (Geomar and Ifremer instruments) and 3 land-stations (INGV stations). Inversion and forward modeling of these seismic data reveal a 5-10 km deep asymmetric rift zone between the Malta Escarpment and the SW tip of Calabria. Analog modeling was performed to test if the origin of this rift could be related to the relative kinematics of the Calabrian and Peloritan backstops. Modeling, using two independently moving backstops, produces a zone of dextral transtension and subsidence in the accretionary wedge between two lobes. This corresponds well to the asymmetric rift observed in the southward prolongation of the straits of Messina faults. Paradoxically however, this dextral displacement does not appear to traverse the external Calabrian accretionary wedge, where prominent curved lineaments observed indicate a sinistral sense of motion. One possible explanation is that the dextral kinematic motion is transferred into a region of crisscrossing faults in the internal portion of the Eastern lobe. The bathymetry and high-resolution reflection seismic images indicate ongoing compression at the deformation front of both the western and eastern lobes. Together with the analog modeling results, these observations unambiguously demonstrate that the western lobe remains tectonically active.

  8. Gaia basic angle monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gielesen, W.; de Bruijn, D.; van den Dool, T.; Kamphues, F.; Meijer, E.; Calvel, B.; Laborie, A.; Monteiro, D.; Coatantiec, C.; Touzeau, S.; Erdmann, M.; Gare, P.

    2012-09-01

    The Gaia mission will create an extraordinarily precise three-dimensional map of more than one billion stars in our Galaxy. The Gaia spacecraft, built by EADS Astrium, is part of ESA's Cosmic Vision programme and scheduled for launch in 2013. Gaia measures the position, distance and motion of stars with an accuracy of 24 micro-arcsec using two telescopes at a fixed mutual angle of 106.5°, named the ‘Basic Angle’. This accuracy requires ultra-high stability, which can only be achieved by using Silicon Carbide for both the optical bench and the telescopes. TNO has developed, built and space qualified the Silicon carbide Basic Angle Monitoring (BAM) on-board metrology system for this mission. The BAM measures the relative motion of Gaia’s telescopes with accuracies in the range of 0.5 micro-arcsec. This is achieved by a system of two laser interferometers able to measure Optical Path Differences (OPD) as small as 1.5 picometer rms. Following a general introduction to the Gaia mission, the Payload Module (PLM) and the use of Silicon Carbide as base material, this presentation will address an overview of the challenges towards the key requirements, design, integration and testing (including space-level qualification) of the Gaia BAM.

  9. Cerebellopontine Angle Lipoma

    PubMed Central

    Schuhmann, Martin U.; Lüdemann, Wolf O.; Schreiber, Hartwig; Samii, Madjid

    1997-01-01

    Intracranial lipomas in an infratentorial and extra-axial location are extremely rare. The presented case of an extensive lipoma of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) represents 0.05% of all CPA tumors operated on in our department from 1978 to 1996. The lipoma constitutes an important differential diagnosis because the clinical management differs significantly from other CPA lesions. The clinical presentation and management of the presented case are analyzed in comparison to all previously described cases of CPA lipomas. The etiology and the radiological features of CPA lipomas are reviewed and discussed. CPA lipomas are maldevelopmental lesions that may cause slowly progressive symptoms. Neuroradiology enables a reliable preoperative diagnosis. Attempts of complete lipoma resection usually result in severe neurological deficits. Therefore, we recommend a conservative approach in managing these patients. Limited surgery is indicated if the patient has an associated vascular compression syndrome or suffers from disabling vertigo. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:17171031

  10. Surgical treatment of acute myocardial ischaemia related to coronary angioplasty with special reference to use of perfusion balloon catheter and long-term outcome.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, L; Virtanen, K; Heikkila, J; Verkkala, K; Salo, J; Jarvinen, A

    1997-04-01

    Twenty of 569 consecutive patients (3.5%) undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty required emergency coronary artery bypass grafting for acute closure of the dilated vessel. In seven patients an intracoronary autoperfusion balloon catheter was inserted to ensure antegrade blood flow across the injured zone of the coronary artery. The time needed for completion of the bypass grafts ranged from 100 to 399 minutes (mean 180 minutes). An average of 1.9 coronary artery bypasses was inserted. In total, 11 of the 20 patients (55%) developed new Q waves and had elevated CK-MB levels. However, the myocardial infarction rate was only 14% in those with a perfusion balloon catheter as against 77% in those without one. The insertion of a ball-out catheter permitted greater utilization of the internal mammary artery as a bypass graft. Angiographic follow-up was conducted after a mean of 28 months (19 patients). The patency rate of the bypass grafts placed in the emergency setting was relatively good (91%). Thallium tomography revealed a scar of variable size in all 17 patients studied and a reversible exercise perfusion defect requiring coronary reangioplasty in three patients. In conclusion, the insertion of a perfusion balloon catheter after abrupt coronary occlusion during coronary angioplasty solved the problems of acute myocardial ischemia and markedly lowered the definite myocardial infarction rate. This technique ensures favourable haemodynamic conditions for emergency myocardial revascularization. PMID:9201117

  11. Indole-3-carbinol protects against cisplatin-induced acute nephrotoxicity: role of calcitonin gene-related peptide and insulin-like growth factor-1

    PubMed Central

    El-Naga, Reem N.; Mahran, Yasmen F.

    2016-01-01

    Nephrotoxicity associated with the clinical use of the anticancer drug cisplatin is a limiting problem. Thus, searching for new protective measures is required. Indole-3-carbinol is a powerful anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor agent. The present study aimed to investigate the potential protective effect of indole-3-carbinol against cisplatin-induced acute nephrotoxicity in rats. Rats were pre-treated with 20 mg/kg indole-3-carbinol orally before giving cisplatin (7 mg/kg). Cisplatin-induced acute nephrotoxicity was demonstrated where relative kidney weight, BUN and serum creatinine were significantly increased. Increased oxidative stress was evident in cisplatin group where GSH and SOD tissue levels were significantly depleted. Also, lipid peroxidation and NOX-1 were increased as compared to the control. Additionally, renal expression of pro-inflammatory mediators was induced by cisplatin. Cisplatin-induced cell death was shown by increased caspase-3 and decreased expression of EGF, IGF-1 and IGF-1 receptor. Nephrotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptotic effects induced by cisplatin were significantly ameliorated by indole-3-carbinol pre-treatment. Besides, the role of CGRP in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity was explored. Furthermore, cisplatin cytotoxic activity was significantly enhanced by indole-3-carbinol pre-treatment in vitro. In conclusion, indole-3-carbinol provides protection against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Also, reduced expression of CGRP may play a role in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced renal injury. PMID:27417335

  12. Acute and neurotoxicity of two structurally related acetylenic compounds: 5,7,11-dodecatriyn-1-ol and 5,7,11,13-octadecatetrayne-1,18-diol.

    PubMed

    Gad, S C; Dunn, B J; Gavigan, F A; Reilly, C; Peckham, J C

    1988-02-01

    Two structurally related acetylenic compounds, 5,7,11-Dodecatriyn-1-ol, (Compound A), and 5,7,11,13-Octadecatetrayne-1,18-Diol (Compound B), were evaluated in a tier I toxicology testing program as part of an ongoing research and development program. This battery of acute tests included acute oral, guinea pig maximization, photosensitization, dermal irritation, Ames and multiple genetic endpoint and a 2 week oral fetotoxicity study. Compound A was found to have an oral LD50 of 0.25 ml/kg, be an extreme dermal sensitizer, a mild dermal irritant (PDII of 1.7), and not mutagenic or fetotoxic in the tests employed. Compound B had an oral LD50 greater than 4 g/kg, was a moderate dermal sensitizer and mild dermal irritant (PDII of 1.4), was not mutagenic in the Ames test but weakly increased the incidence of SCEs and gene mutations in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells, and was not fetotoxic. Neither compound was found to be a photosensitizer, but during the course of the photosensitization study Compound A was found to cause neuromuscular signs (including hind limb paralysis) and a bilateral necrosis of the medulla oblongata in female guinea pigs. A similar lesion was found in female rats receiving a single oral dose of 0.25 ml/kg and in nonpregnant females dosed daily for two weeks at 0.03 ml/kg. Compound B was not found to produce any of these neurologic effects.

  13. Narrow Angle movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This brief three-frame movie of the Moon was made from three Cassini narrow-angle images as the spacecraft passed by the Moon on the way to its closest approach with Earth on August 17, 1999. The purpose of this particular set of images was to calibrate the spectral response of the narrow-angle camera and to test its 'on-chip summing mode' data compression technique in flight. From left to right, they show the Moon in the green, blue and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum in 40, 60 and 80 millisecond exposures, respectively. All three images have been scaled so that the brightness of Crisium basin, the dark circular region in the upper right, is the same in each image. The spatial scale in the blue and ultraviolet images is 1.4 miles per pixel (2.3 kilometers). The original scale in the green image (which was captured in the usual manner and then reduced in size by 2x2 pixel summing within the camera system) was 2.8 miles per pixel (4.6 kilometers). It has been enlarged for display to the same scale as the other two. The imaging data were processed and released by the Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for Operations (CICLOPS) at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Tucson, AZ.

    Photo Credit: NASA/JPL/Cassini Imaging Team/University of Arizona

    Cassini, launched in 1997, is a joint mission of NASA, the European Space Agency and Italian Space Agency. The mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  14. The Effects of Acute Dopamine Precursor Depletion on the Cognitive Control Functions of Performance Monitoring and Conflict Processing: An Event-Related Potential (ERP) Study

    PubMed Central

    Primosch, Mark; Leyton, Marco; Steffensen, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    Studies using medications and psychiatric populations implicate dopamine in cognitive control and performance monitoring processes. However, side effects associated with medication or studying psychiatric groups may confound the relationship between dopamine and cognitive control. To circumvent such possibilities, we utilized a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects design wherein participants were administered a nutritionally-balanced amino acid mixture (BAL) and an amino acid mixture deficient in the dopamine precursors tyrosine (TYR) and phenylalanine (PHE) on two separate occasions. Order of sessions was randomly assigned. Cognitive control and performance monitoring were assessed using response times (RT), error rates, the N450, an event-related potential (ERP) index of conflict monitoring, the conflict slow potential (conflict SP), an ERP index of conflict resolution, and the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe), ERPs associated with performance monitoring. Participants were twelve males who completed a Stroop color-word task while ERPs were collected four hours following acute PHE and TYR depletion (APTD) or balanced (BAL) mixture ingestion in two separate sessions. N450 and conflict SP ERP amplitudes significantly differentiated congruent from incongruent trials, but did not differ as a function of APTD or BAL mixture ingestion. Similarly, ERN and Pe amplitudes showed significant differences between error and correct trials that were not different between APTD and BAL conditions. Findings indicate that acute dopamine precursor depletion does not significantly alter cognitive control and performance monitoring ERPs. Current results do not preclude the role of dopamine in these processes, but suggest that multiple methods for dopamine-related hypothesis testing are needed. PMID:26492082

  15. High Frequency Migraine Is Associated with Lower Acute Pain Sensitivity and Abnormal Insula Activity Related to Migraine Pain Intensity, Attack Frequency, and Pain Catastrophizing

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Vani A.; Moayedi, Massieh; Keaser, Michael L.; Khan, Shariq A.; Hubbard, Catherine S.; Goyal, Madhav; Seminowicz, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Migraine is a pain disorder associated with abnormal brain structure and function, yet the effect of migraine on acute pain processing remains unclear. It also remains unclear whether altered pain-related brain responses and related structural changes are associated with clinical migraine characteristics. Using fMRI and three levels of thermal stimuli (non-painful, mildly painful, and moderately painful), we compared whole-brain activity between 14 migraine patients and 14 matched controls. Although, there were no significant differences in pain thresholds nor in pre-scan pain ratings to mildly painful thermal stimuli, patients did have aberrant suprathreshold nociceptive processing. Brain imaging showed that, compared to controls, patients had reduced activity in pain modulatory regions including left dorsolateral prefrontal, posterior parietal, and middle temporal cortices and, at a lower-threshold, greater activation in the right mid-insula to moderate pain vs. mild pain. We also found that pain-related activity in the insula was associated with clinical variables in patients, including associations between: bilateral anterior insula and pain catastrophizing (PCS); bilateral anterior insula and contralateral posterior insula and migraine pain intensity; and bilateral posterior insula and migraine frequency at a lower-threshold. PCS and migraine pain intensity were also negatively associated with activity in midline regions including posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices. Diffusion tensor imaging revealed a negative correlation between fractional anisotropy (a measure of white matter integrity; FA) and migraine duration in the right mid-insula and a positive correlation between left mid-insula FA and PCS. In sum, while patients showed lower sensitivity to acute noxious stimuli, the neuroimaging findings suggest enhanced nociceptive processing and significantly disrupted modulatory networks, particularly involving the insula, associated with indices

  16. Internal Carotid Artery S-Shaped Curve as a Marker of Fibromuscular Dysplasia in Dissection-Related Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Haussen, Diogo C.; Jadhav, Ashutosh; Rebello, Leticia C.; Belagaje, Samir; Anderson, Aaron; Jovin, Tudor; Aghaebrahim, Amin; Gulati, Deepak; Wells, Bryan; Frankel, Michael; Nogueira, Raul G.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Craniocervical fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is associated with dissections and with S-shaped curves in the internal carotid artery (ICA). We evaluated the occurrence of S-curves in patients presenting with acute strokes due to ICA steno-occlusive dissections. Methods This was a retrospective review of the interventional databases of two academic tertiary-care institutions. The presence of ICA S-shaped curves, C-shaped curves, 360-degree loops, as well as classic FMD and atherosclerotic changes at the ICA bulb and curve/loop was determined. Cases of carotid dissections were compared with a control group (consecutive non-tandem anterior circulation strokes). Results Twenty-four patients with carotid dissections were compared to 92 controls. Baseline characteristics and procedural variables were similar, with the exception of younger age, less frequent history of hypertension, diabetes, atrial fibrillation and stent retriever use in patients with dissections. The rates of mTICI2b-3 reperfusion, parenchymal hematoma, good outcome and mortality were similar amongst groups. The frequency of S-curves (any side without superimposed atherosclerosis) was 29% in the dissection group versus 7% in controls (p < 0.01). S-curves were typically mirror images within the dissection group (85% had bilateral occurrence). The frequency of C-shaped and 360-degree curves was similar between groups. FMD changes within the craniocervical arteries were statistically more common in dissection patients. Ten patients (41%) of the dissection group had S-curves or classic FMD changes. Multivariate analysis indicated that S-curves were independently associated with the presence of dissections. Conclusion S-shaped ICA curves are predictably bilateral, highly associated with carotid dissections in patients with moderate to severe strokes, and may suggest an underlying presence of FMD. PMID:27781048

  17. Preoperative Pain, Symptoms, and Psychological Factors related to Higher Acute Pain Trajectories during Hospitalization for Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Maren Falch; Miaskowski, Christine; Rustøen, Tone; Rosseland, Leiv Arne; Paul, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Unrelieved postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a significant problem. This longitudinal study investigated how preoperative pain intensity, as well as a comprehensive list of preoperative and perioperative factors, influenced the severity of acute average and worst pain after TKA. Methods Prior to surgery, 203 patients completed a demographic questionnaire, Lee Fatigue Scale, Fatigue Severity Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. Brief Pain Inventory was completed prior to surgery as well as through postoperative days (POD) 0 to 4. Clinical data were extracted from medical records. Results Several factors were associated with higher levels of preoperative and postoperative pain. Lower preoperative average and worst pain intensity scores were associated with increases in average and worst postoperative pain from POD1 to POD4. A higher number of comorbidities, higher C-reactive protein values, and higher pain interference with function were associated with higher preoperative levels of average pain. Older age, higher fatigue levels, and higher scores on identity and emotional responses to osteoarthritis (OA) were associated with higher preoperative levels of worst pain. Lower perceived consequences of OA were associated with higher pain from POD1 to POD4. Males and patients with lower preoperative scores for average pain had higher worst pain following surgery. Discussion Patients at higher risk for more severe postoperative pain can be identified through an assessment of pain and other risk factors identified in this study. Future research needs to test the efficacy of interventions that modify patients’ perceptions of living with OA and pain intensity before surgery on short and long term postoperative outcomes. PMID:27583551

  18. A simultaneous multiple species acute toxicity test comparing relative sensitivities of six aquatic organisms to HgCl{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.E.; Heagler, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    In the last few years there has been concern in the scientific community about observed declines in some amphibian species. These population declines could be reflecting a global phenomenon due to a general class sensitivity or may be part of a natural cycle. The suggestion of an overall greater sensitivity of amphibians is not supported. Studies show that amphibians, as a class, are neither more or less susceptible than fish to environmental conditions. Mercury has been found to be one of the most toxic of the heavy metals introduced into amphibian breeding waters. Six aquatic species were simultaneously exposed in a comparative acute toxicity test with mercury chloride: three amphibians, Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog), R. clamitans (green frog), and R. sphenocephala (southern leopard frog, formally classified as R. utricularia); two fish, Gambusia affinis (mosquitofish) and Notemigonus crysoleucas (golden shiner); one aquatic aligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus (aquatic earthworm). The five test concentrations used were 1.4, 3.9, 12.0, 110.0, and 487.0 {micro}g Hg/L respectively. Ten organisms per species were randomly placed into the six test tanks (control and five concentrations), each species in a separate chamber. The resultant LC50-96hr values produced the following rank order: R. sphenocephala, 6.59 {micro}g Hg/L; R. clamitans, 14.7 {micro}g Hg/L; N. crysoleucas, 16.75 {micro}g Hg/L; L. variegatus, 43.72,ug Hg/L; G. affinis, 52.62 {micro}g Hg/L; R. catesbeiana, 63.36 {micro}g Hg/L. No general organism class sensitivity trend, for amphibians, was developed from this data, contrary to the implicit suggestions of some researchers.

  19. Association between Hypoalbuminaemia and Mortality in Patients with Community-Acquired Bacteraemia Is Primarily Related to Acute Disorders.

    PubMed

    Magnussen, Bjarne; Oren Gradel, Kim; Gorm Jensen, Thøger; Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Pedersen, Court; Just Vinholt, Pernille; Touborg Lassen, Annmarie

    2016-01-01

    We sought to investigate whether hypoalbuminaemia was mainly caused by acute or chronic factors in patients with community-acquired bacteraemia. In this population-based study, we considered 1844 adult cases of community-acquired bacteraemia that occurred in Funen, Denmark between 2000 and 2008. We used a stepwise prognostic predisposition-insult-response-organ dysfunction (PIRO) logistic regression model by initially including age and comorbidity, then added bacterial species, and finally sepsis severity. The models were furthermore analysed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Outcomes comprised mortality incidence on days 0-30 and 31-365 after the bacteraemia episode. Each step was performed with and without baseline albumin level measured on the date of bacteraemia. In 422 patients, their latest albumin measurement taken 8-30 days before the date of bacteraemia was also used in the analysis together with the baseline albumin level. For each decrease of 1g/L in plasma albumin level, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of mortality in the period of 0-30 days after bacteraemia were 0.86 (0.84-0.88) in both predisposition (P) and predisposition-insult (PI) models and 0.87 (0.85-0.89) in the full PIRO-model. The AUC values were 0.78 and 0.66 for mortality in the period of 0-30 days in the model comprising only predisposition factors with and without albumin levels added as a factor, respectively. The AUC values in the full PIRO-model were 0.81 and 0.73 with and without consideration of albumin levels, respectively. A higher proportion of patients died within 30 days if there was a decrease in the albumin level between days 8 and 30 before bacteraemia and the actual bacteraemia date. A single plasma albumin measurement on the bacteraemia date was a better prognostic predictor of short-term mortality than the sepsis severity score. PMID:27611431

  20. Effects of acute tryptophan depletion on mood and cortisol release in first-degree relatives of type I and type II bipolar patients and healthy matched controls.

    PubMed

    Sobczak, S; Honig, A; Nicolson, N A; Riedel, W J

    2002-11-01

    Biological vulnerability for bipolar disorders (BD) in relatives of BD patients has not as yet been established. Serotonergic vulnerability was studied, using acute tryptophan depletion (ATD), in healthy first-degree relatives of BD patients and healthy controls. The effects of ATD on mood and cortisol release in 30 healthy adult, lifetime symptom free, unaffected first-degree relatives of BD patients (Family History; FH) were compared with effects in 15 healthy matched controls in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover design. During ATD and placebo, salivary cortisol response was also assessed during a stress-inducing speech task (SIST). First-degree relatives of type II BD patients (FH II) showed an elevation of mood, whereas control subjects and relatives of type I BD patients (FH I) showed a lowering of mood after ATD. ATD was followed by a decrease in cortisol level in both FH subgroups, but not in the controls. The results suggest serotonergic vulnerability that affected mood in FH II subjects and cortisol release in both FH I and FH II subjects.

  1. Equilibrium contact angle or the most-stable contact angle?

    PubMed

    Montes Ruiz-Cabello, F J; Rodríguez-Valverde, M A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A

    2014-04-01

    It is well-established that the equilibrium contact angle in a thermodynamic framework is an "unattainable" contact angle. Instead, the most-stable contact angle obtained from mechanical stimuli of the system is indeed experimentally accessible. Monitoring the susceptibility of a sessile drop to a mechanical stimulus enables to identify the most stable drop configuration within the practical range of contact angle hysteresis. Two different stimuli may be used with sessile drops: mechanical vibration and tilting. The most stable drop against vibration should reveal the changeless contact angle but against the gravity force, it should reveal the highest resistance to slide down. After the corresponding mechanical stimulus, once the excited drop configuration is examined, the focus will be on the contact angle of the initial drop configuration. This methodology needs to map significantly the static drop configurations with different stable contact angles. The most-stable contact angle, together with the advancing and receding contact angles, completes the description of physically realizable configurations of a solid-liquid system. Since the most-stable contact angle is energetically significant, it may be used in the Wenzel, Cassie or Cassie-Baxter equations accordingly or for the surface energy evaluation.

  2. Unusual vanishing interstitial lymphatic "pearls" in a patient presenting with extensive interstitial and mediastinal MDCT features of acute cardiogenic failure related to bradycardia and mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Coulier, Bruno; El Khoury, Elie; Deprez, Fabrice C; Ghaye, Benoît; Van den Broeck, Stephane; Tourmous, Hussein

    2014-12-01

    Thoracic multidetector computed tomography-MDCT-was simultaneously performed during emergency abdominal CT in a patient presenting with abdominal pain and acute cardiogenic edema related to sick sinus syndrome and mitral prolapse with regurgitation. A constellation of severe but completely reversible interstitial and mediastinal features was found comprising pleural effusions, diffuse alveolar ground glass, thickening of the bronchial walls and septal lines, hazy infiltration of the mediastinal fat, and enlarged lymphatic nodes. Multiple atypical hypodense nodular "pearls" were also found. These oval shape or fusiform pearls were distributed along the thickened septal lines and disappeared completely after treatment. The hypothesis of transient lymphatic ectasia or lakes is proposed for these never previously described abnormalities.

  3. Acute up-regulation of the rat brain somatostatin receptor-effector system by leptin is related to activation of insulin signaling and may counteract central leptin actions.

    PubMed

    Perianes-Cachero, A; Burgos-Ramos, E; Puebla-Jiménez, L; Canelles, S; Frago, L M; Hervás-Aguilar, A; de Frutos, S; Toledo-Lobo, M V; Mela, V; Viveros, M P; Argente, J; Chowen, J A; Arilla-Ferreiro, E; Barrios, V

    2013-11-12

    Leptin and somatostatin (SRIF) have opposite effects on food seeking and ingestive behaviors, functions partially regulated by the frontoparietal cortex and hippocampus. Although it is known that the acute suppression of food intake mediated by leptin decreases with time, the counter-regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. Our aims were to analyze the effect of acute central leptin infusion on the SRIF receptor-effector system in these areas and the implication of related intracellular signaling mechanisms in this response. We studied 20 adult male Wister rats including controls and those treated intracerebroventricularly with a single dose of 5 μg of leptin and sacrificed 1 or 6h later. Density of SRIF receptors was unchanged at 1h, whereas leptin increased the density of SRIF receptors at 6h, which was correlated with an elevated capacity of SRIF to inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in both areas. The functional capacity of SRIF receptors was unaltered as cell membrane levels of αi1 and αi2 subunits of G inhibitory proteins were unaffected in both brain areas. The increased density of SRIF receptors was due to enhanced SRIF receptor subtype 2 (sst2) protein levels that correlated with higher mRNA levels for this receptor. These changes in sst2 mRNA levels were concomitant with increased activation of the insulin signaling, c-Jun and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB); however, activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 was reduced in the cortex and unchanged in the hippocampus and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 remained unchanged in these areas. In addition, the leptin antagonist L39A/D40A/F41A blocked the leptin-induced changes in SRIF receptors, leptin signaling and CREB activation. In conclusion, increased activation of insulin signaling after leptin infusion is related to acute up-regulation of the SRIF receptor-effector system that may antagonize short-term leptin actions in the rat brain.

  4. Association between Hypoalbuminaemia and Mortality in Patients with Community-Acquired Bacteraemia Is Primarily Related to Acute Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Magnussen, Bjarne; Oren Gradel, Kim; Gorm Jensen, Thøger; Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Pedersen, Court; Just Vinholt, Pernille; Touborg Lassen, Annmarie

    2016-01-01

    We sought to investigate whether hypoalbuminaemia was mainly caused by acute or chronic factors in patients with community-acquired bacteraemia. In this population-based study, we considered 1844 adult cases of community-acquired bacteraemia that occurred in Funen, Denmark between 2000 and 2008. We used a stepwise prognostic predisposition-insult-response-organ dysfunction (PIRO) logistic regression model by initially including age and comorbidity, then added bacterial species, and finally sepsis severity. The models were furthermore analysed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Outcomes comprised mortality incidence on days 0–30 and 31–365 after the bacteraemia episode. Each step was performed with and without baseline albumin level measured on the date of bacteraemia. In 422 patients, their latest albumin measurement taken 8–30 days before the date of bacteraemia was also used in the analysis together with the baseline albumin level. For each decrease of 1g/L in plasma albumin level, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of mortality in the period of 0–30 days after bacteraemia were 0.86 (0.84–0.88) in both predisposition (P) and predisposition-insult (PI) models and 0.87 (0.85–0.89) in the full PIRO-model. The AUC values were 0.78 and 0.66 for mortality in the period of 0–30 days in the model comprising only predisposition factors with and without albumin levels added as a factor, respectively. The AUC values in the full PIRO-model were 0.81 and 0.73 with and without consideration of albumin levels, respectively. A higher proportion of patients died within 30 days if there was a decrease in the albumin level between days 8 and 30 before bacteraemia and the actual bacteraemia date. A single plasma albumin measurement on the bacteraemia date was a better prognostic predictor of short-term mortality than the sepsis severity score. PMID:27611431

  5. Angiotensin II is related to the acute aortic dissection complicated with lung injury through mediating the release of MMP9 from macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhiyong; Ruan, Yongle; Chang, Jinxing; Li, Bowen; Ren, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute aortic dissection (AAD) patients usually show concurrent lung injury mainly featured by hyoxemia. To date, no effective treatment method has been established for the AAD complicated with acute lung injury (ALI). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), especially MMP2 and MMP9, have been considered to be closely related to the onset of aortic disease including AAD. To investigate the roles of MMP in the pathogenesis of AAD complicated with ALI, we determined the expression of MMP2 and MMP9 in serum and lung tissues of AAD patients. In addition, a new rat model of AAD complicated with ALI was established to investigate the pathogenesis of such complicated conditions. Methods and results: Angiotensin II (Ang II) and MMP9 were up-regulated in the AAD complicated with ALI patients compared to those of the AAD without ALI patients, normal individuals and the patients with non-ruptured aneurysm. Besides, massive macrophages with MMP9 expression was noticed in the lung tissues in the AAD complicated with ALI patients. On this basis, AAD complicated with ALI rat model was established based on BAPN feeding and infusion of Ang II. Obvious lung injury was observed in the BAPN+Ang II group compared to that of the BAPN group, together with macrophage accumulation in lung tissues, as well as over-expression of MMP9 in lung tissues. After interference of MMP antagonist, a large number of macrophages were still accumulated in the lung tissues, but the lung injury was obviously attenuated. After the interference of AT1 receptor, the number of macrophages in the lung tissues was obviously decreased and the lung injury was obviously relieved. Conclusions: Ang II is closely related to the lung injury at the early stage of AAD through mediating the release of MMP9 in the macrophages in the lung tissues. PMID:27186269

  6. A Viewpoint on the Quantity "Plane Angle"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Properties of the quantity "plane angle" are explored under the hypothesis that it is a dimensional quantity. The exploration proceeds especially with respect to the physical concept, its mathematical treatment, vector concepts, measurement theory, units of related quantities, engineering pragmatism, and SI. An attempt is made to bring these different relations into a rational, logical and consistent framework, and thus to justify the hypothesis. Various types of vectorial quantities are recognized, and their properties described with an outline of the necessary algebraic manipulations. The concept of plane angle is amplified, and its interdependence with the circular arc is explored. The resulting units of plane angle form a class of similar scales of measurement. Consequences of the confirmed hypothesis are developed for mathematical expressions involving trigonometric functions, rotational volumes and areas, mathematical limits, differentiation and series expansion. Consequences for mechanical rotational quantities are developed, with proposals for revisions to a number of expressions for derived units within SI. A revised definition for the quantity "plane angle" is stated to take account of the developed insights. There is a clear need to reconsider the status of plane angle and some other quantities within the international framework of SI.

  7. The effect of acute alcohol on motor-related EEG asymmetries during preparation of approach or avoid alcohol responses.

    PubMed

    Korucuoglu, Ozlem; Gladwin, Thomas E; Wiers, Reinout W

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol-approach tendencies have been associated with heavy drinking and play a role in the transition to alcohol abuse. Such cognitive biases might predict future alcohol use better under a low dose of alcohol. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate both the magnitude and the predictive power of alcohol-induced changes on approach-avoidance bias and bias-related cortical asymmetries during response preparation across heavy and light drinking adolescents. In heavy drinking adolescents greater approach-related asymmetry index in the beta-band was observed for soft-drink cues compared to alcohol ones and this increase was associated with increase in difficulty to regulate alcohol intake. Earlier findings demonstrated that young heavy drinkers hold both positive and negative implicit alcohol associations, reflecting an ambiguity towards alcohol. The increase in approach related beta-lateralization for soft-drink cues measured in this study may represent a compensatory effort for the weaker S-R mapping (approaching soft drink). The MRAA findings in this study may highlight a mechanism related to overcompensation due to ambivalent attitudes towards drinking in our heavy drinking sample who had greater problems to limit their alcohol intake compared to light drinkers. Moreover, a relatively strong approach soft-drink and weak approach alcohol reaction-time bias after alcohol predicted decreasing drinking; suggesting that the capacity to control the bias under alcohol could be a protective factor. PMID:26762699

  8. Acute Epididymo-orchitis-Related Global Testicular Infarction: Clinical and Ultrasound Findings With an Emphasis on the Juxta-epididymal String-of-Bead Sign.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Di; Lin, Jui-Wei; Lee, Chen-Chang; Chen, Yen-Ta; Huang, Chung-Cheng; Lee, Yi-Wei; Ng, Shu-Hang; Ko, Sheung-Fat

    2016-09-01

    Acute epididymo-orchitis (AEO)-related global testicular infarction (GTI) is rare. We report herein the clinical and ultrasound findings of 6 patients with AEO-related GTI. Seventeen patients with torsion-related GTI were also reviewed and compared. The echotexture of AEO-related GTI ranged from mildly inhomogeneous to diffuse heteroechoic, depending on the severity of testicular necrotic changes. All of the patients showed a juxta-epididymal string-of-bead pattern on color Doppler ultrasound, which was ascribed to patent arteries (5/6, 87%) and collateral vessels (1/6, 13%) in the tunica albuginea. There were no significant differences in age, laterality, leukocyte count, testicular volume ratio (infarcted/normal), frequencies of heteroechoic testicular parenchyma, scrotal skin thickening, and hydrocele between the 2 groups. However, the left testis was predominantly affected in both groups. Compared with torsion-related GTI, patients with AEO-related GTI had significantly longer duration from scrotal pain onset to surgery (13.5 ± 5.2 vs 2.6 ± 2.0 days, P < 0.001), a higher level of serum C-reactive protein (110.0 ± 82.0 vs 41.2 ± 35.9 mg/dL, P = 0.013), a higher frequency of the juxta-epididymal string-of-bead sign (100% vs 12%, P < 0.001), and a lower frequency of the whirlpool/knot sign (0% vs 88%, P = 0.002). Although the testis in AEO-related GTI may appear variable from mildly to extensively heteroechoic on gray-scale ultrasound, this unusual disease can be characterized by an avascular testis with a juxta-epididymal string-of-bead sign on color Doppler ultrasound.

  9. Acute Epididymo-orchitis-Related Global Testicular Infarction: Clinical and Ultrasound Findings With an Emphasis on the Juxta-epididymal String-of-Bead Sign.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Di; Lin, Jui-Wei; Lee, Chen-Chang; Chen, Yen-Ta; Huang, Chung-Cheng; Lee, Yi-Wei; Ng, Shu-Hang; Ko, Sheung-Fat

    2016-09-01

    Acute epididymo-orchitis (AEO)-related global testicular infarction (GTI) is rare. We report herein the clinical and ultrasound findings of 6 patients with AEO-related GTI. Seventeen patients with torsion-related GTI were also reviewed and compared. The echotexture of AEO-related GTI ranged from mildly inhomogeneous to diffuse heteroechoic, depending on the severity of testicular necrotic changes. All of the patients showed a juxta-epididymal string-of-bead pattern on color Doppler ultrasound, which was ascribed to patent arteries (5/6, 87%) and collateral vessels (1/6, 13%) in the tunica albuginea. There were no significant differences in age, laterality, leukocyte count, testicular volume ratio (infarcted/normal), frequencies of heteroechoic testicular parenchyma, scrotal skin thickening, and hydrocele between the 2 groups. However, the left testis was predominantly affected in both groups. Compared with torsion-related GTI, patients with AEO-related GTI had significantly longer duration from scrotal pain onset to surgery (13.5 ± 5.2 vs 2.6 ± 2.0 days, P < 0.001), a higher level of serum C-reactive protein (110.0 ± 82.0 vs 41.2 ± 35.9 mg/dL, P = 0.013), a higher frequency of the juxta-epididymal string-of-bead sign (100% vs 12%, P < 0.001), and a lower frequency of the whirlpool/knot sign (0% vs 88%, P = 0.002). Although the testis in AEO-related GTI may appear variable from mildly to extensively heteroechoic on gray-scale ultrasound, this unusual disease can be characterized by an avascular testis with a juxta-epididymal string-of-bead sign on color Doppler ultrasound. PMID:27556195

  10. In Emergency Department Patients with Acute Chest Pain, Stress Cardiac MRI Observation Unit Care Reduces 1- year Cardiac-Related Health Care Expenditures: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Chadwick D.; Hwang, Wenke; Case, Doug; Hoekstra, James W.; Lefebvre, Cedric; Blumstein, Howard; Hamilton, Craig A.; Harper, Erin N.; Hundley, W. Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the direct cost of medical care and clinical events during the first year after patients with intermediate risk acute chest pain were randomized to stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) observation unit (OU) testing, versus inpatient care. Background In a recent study, randomization to OU-CMR reduced median index hospitalization cost compared to inpatient care in patients presenting to the emergency department with intermediate risk acute chest pain. Methods Emergency department patients with intermediate risk chest pain were randomized to OU-CMR (OU care, cardiac markers, stress CMR) or inpatient care (admission, care per admitting provider). This analysis reports the direct cost of cardiac-related care and clinical outcomes (MI, revascularization, cardiovascular death) during the first year of follow-up subsequent to discharge. Consistent with health economics literature, provider cost was calculated from work-related relative value units using the Medicare conversion factor; facility charges were converted to cost using departmental specific cost-to-charge ratios. Linear models were used to compare cost accumulation among study groups. Results One-hundred nine (109) randomized subjects were included in this analysis (52 OU-CMR, 57 inpatient care). The median age was 56 years; baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. At 1 year, 6% of OU-CMR and 9% of inpatient care participants experienced a major cardiac event (p=0.72) with 1 patient in each group experiencing a cardiac event after discharge. First-year cardiac-related costs were significantly lower for participants randomized to OU-CMR compared to participants receiving inpatient care (geometric mean = $3101 vs $4742 including the index visit (p = .004) and $29 vs $152 following discharge (p = .012)). During the year following randomization, 6% of OU-CMR and 9% of inpatient care participants experienced a major cardiac event (p=0.72). Conclusions An OU-CMR strategy

  11. Association between Time of Day of Sports-Related Physical Activity and the Onset of Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Long, Qingqing; Ma, Yao; Lian, Xiaoqing; Yang, Yang; Gao, Wei; Chen, Zhong; Wang, Liansheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between the time of day of sports-related physical activity and the onset of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a coronary artery disease (CAD) population in China. Methods Between February 2014 and March 2015, a total of 696 patients from Nanjing, China, who had CAD were studied and divided into two groups (Non-AMI and AMI groups). The work-related activity and sports-related physical activity information were obtained from a self-reporting predesigned patient questionnaire. Results Sports-related physical activity was associated with a lower risk of the onset of AMI, after adjusting the established and potential confounders, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 0.67 (95% CI, 0.47–0.94) compared with those who did not have any sports-related physical activity. A dose–response relationship was observed for intensity, duration, and frequency of sports-related physical activity. Further stratification analysis revealed that the protective effects of sports-related physical activity were significant in the morning and evening groups, and patients who exercised in the evening were at a lower risk of AMI than those doing sports-related physical activity in the morning. The adjusted ORs for doing sports-related physical activity in the morning and evening groups were 0.60(0.36–0.98) and 0.56(0.37–0.87), respectively, compared with inactivity (all P<0.05). On the occurrence of AMI, doing sports-related physical activity in the evening had an adjusted OR of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.54–1.64, P = 0.824) compared with in the morning group. Conclusions Sports-related physical activity is associated with a lower risk of onset of AMI than inactivity in Chinese people. For CAD patients, we suggest they participate in sports-related physical activity of high intensity, long duration, and high frequency. Doing sports-related physical activity in the evening and in the morning have similar benefits on the prevention of the onset of AMI

  12. Decitabine With or Without Bortezomib in Treating Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-14

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  13. Age-related differences in pulmonary effects of acute and subchronic episodic ozone exposures in Brown Norway rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone (O3) is known to induce adverse pulmonary and systemic health effects. Importantly, children and older persons are considered at-risk populations for O3-induced dysfunction, yet the mechanisms accounting for the age-related pulmonary responses to O3 are uncertain. In this s...

  14. Effects of Child Psychopathology on Maternal Depression: The Mediating Role of Child-Related Acute and Chronic Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raposa, Elizabeth B.; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    In light of recent research highlighting the potential effects of children's behavior on mothers' mental health, the current study examined 679 mothers and their adolescent children from a community-based sample to determine the effects of youth psychopathology on maternal depression and levels of child-related stress in mothers' lives. It was…

  15. Solar cell angle of incidence corrections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, Dale R.; Mueller, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    Literature on solar array angle of incidence corrections was found to be sparse and contained no tabular data for support. This lack along with recent data on 27 GaAs/Ge 4 cm by 4 cm cells initiated the analysis presented in this paper. The literature cites seven possible contributors to angle of incidence effects: cosine, optical front surface, edge, shadowing, UV degradation, particulate soiling, and background color. Only the first three are covered in this paper due to lack of sufficient data. The cosine correction is commonly used but is not sufficient when the incident angle is large. Fresnel reflection calculations require knowledge of the index of refraction of the coverglass front surface. The absolute index of refraction for the coverglass front surface was not known nor was it measured due to lack of funds. However, a value for the index of refraction was obtained by examining how the prediction errors varied with different assumed indices and selecting the best fit to the set of measured values. Corrections using front surface Fresnel reflection along with the cosine correction give very good predictive results when compared to measured data, except there is a definite trend away from predicted values at the larger incident angles. This trend could be related to edge effects and is illustrated by a use of a box plot of the errors and by plotting the deviation of the mean against incidence angle. The trend is for larger deviations at larger incidence angles and there may be a fourth order effect involved in the trend. A chi-squared test was used to determine if the measurement errors were normally distributed. At 10 degrees the chi-squared test failed, probably due to the very small numbers involved or a bias from the measurement procedure. All other angles showed a good fit to the normal distribution with increasing goodness-of-fit as the angles increased which reinforces the very small numbers hypothesis. The contributed data only went to 65 degrees

  16. Small angle neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousin, Fabrice

    2015-10-01

    Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ˜ 1 nm up to ˜ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ˜ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area…) through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons) make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer), form factor analysis (I(q→0), Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system), structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates), and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast). It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of spectrometer

  17. Acute and chronic intakes of fallout radionuclides by Marshallese from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak and related internal radiation doses.

    PubMed

    Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Melo, Dunstana; Beck, Harold L; Weinstock, Robert M

    2010-08-01

    Annual internal radiation doses resulting from both acute and chronic intakes of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in fallout from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak from 1946 through 1958 have been estimated for the residents living on all atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. Internal radiation absorbed doses to the tissues most at risk to cancer induction (red bone marrow, thyroid, stomach, and colon) have been estimated for representative persons of all population communities for all birth years from 1929 through 1968, and for all years of exposure from 1948 through 1970. The acute intake estimates rely on a model using, as its basis, historical urine bioassay data, for members of the Rongelap Island and Ailinginae communities as well as for Rongerik residents. The model also utilizes fallout times of arrival and radionuclide deposition densities estimated for all tests and all atolls. Acute intakes of 63 radionuclides were estimated for the populations of the 20 inhabited atolls and for the communities that were relocated during the testing years for reasons of safety and decontamination. The model used for chronic intake estimates is based on reported whole-body, urine, and blood counting data for residents of Utrik and Rongelap. Dose conversion coefficients relating intake to organ absorbed dose were developed using internationally accepted models but specifically tailored for intakes of particulate fallout by consideration of literature-based evidence to choose the most appropriate alimentary tract absorption fraction (f1) values. Dose estimates were much higher for the thyroid gland than for red marrow, stomach wall, or colon. The highest thyroid doses to adults were about 7,600 mGy for the people exposed on Rongelap; thyroid doses to adults were much lower, by a factor of 100 or more, for the people exposed on the populated atolls of Kwajalein and Majuro. The estimates of radionuclide intake and

  18. ACUTE AND CHRONIC INTAKES OF FALLOUT RADIONUCLIDES BY MARSHALLESE FROM NUCLEAR WEAPONS TESTING AT BIKINI AND ENEWETAK AND RELATED INTERNAL RADIATION DOSES

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, André; Melo, Dunstana; Beck, Harold L.; Weinstock, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Annual internal radiation doses resulting from both acute and chronic intakes of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in fallout from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak from 1946 through 1958 have been estimated for the residents living on all atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. Internal radiation absorbed doses to the tissues most at risk to cancer induction (red bone marrow, thyroid, stomach, and colon) have been estimated for representative persons of all population communities for all birth years from 1929 through 1968, and for all years of exposure from 1948 through 1970. The acute intake estimates rely on a model using, as its basis, historical urine bioassay data, for members of the Rongelap Island and Ailinginae communities as well as for Rongerik residents. The model also utilizes fallout times of arrival and radionuclide deposition densities estimated for all tests and all atolls. Acute intakes of 63 radionuclides were estimated for the populations of the 20 inhabited atolls and for the communities that were relocated during the testing years for reasons of safety and decontamination. The model used for chronic intake estimates is based on reported whole-body, urine, and blood counting data for residents of Utrik and Rongelap. Dose conversion coefficients relating intake to organ absorbed dose were developed using internationally accepted models but specifically tailored for intakes of particulate fallout by consideration of literature-based evidence to choose the most appropriate alimentary tract absorption fraction (f1) values. Dose estimates were much higher for the thyroid gland than for red marrow, stomach wall, or colon. The highest thyroid doses to adults were about 7,600 mGy for the people exposed on Rongelap; thyroid doses to adults were much lower, by a factor of 100 or more, for the people exposed on the populated atolls of Kwajalein and Majuro. The estimates of radionuclide intake and

  19. Acute and chronic intakes of fallout radionuclides by Marshallese from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak and related internal radiation doses.

    PubMed

    Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Melo, Dunstana; Beck, Harold L; Weinstock, Robert M

    2010-08-01

    Annual internal radiation doses resulting from both acute and chronic intakes of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in fallout from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak from 1946 through 1958 have been estimated for the residents living on all atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. Internal radiation absorbed doses to the tissues most at risk to cancer induction (red bone marrow, thyroid, stomach, and colon) have been estimated for representative persons of all population communities for all birth years from 1929 through 1968, and for all years of exposure from 1948 through 1970. The acute intake estimates rely on a model using, as its basis, historical urine bioassay data, for members of the Rongelap Island and Ailinginae communities as well as for Rongerik residents. The model also utilizes fallout times of arrival and radionuclide deposition densities estimated for all tests and all atolls. Acute intakes of 63 radionuclides were estimated for the populations of the 20 inhabited atolls and for the communities that were relocated during the testing years for reasons of safety and decontamination. The model used for chronic intake estimates is based on reported whole-body, urine, and blood counting data for residents of Utrik and Rongelap. Dose conversion coefficients relating intake to organ absorbed dose were developed using internationally accepted models but specifically tailored for intakes of particulate fallout by consideration of literature-based evidence to choose the most appropriate alimentary tract absorption fraction (f1) values. Dose estimates were much higher for the thyroid gland than for red marrow, stomach wall, or colon. The highest thyroid doses to adults were about 7,600 mGy for the people exposed on Rongelap; thyroid doses to adults were much lower, by a factor of 100 or more, for the people exposed on the populated atolls of Kwajalein and Majuro. The estimates of radionuclide intake and

  20. Comparison of age-related changes in in vivo and in vitro measures of testicular steroidogenesis after acute cadmium exposure in the sprague-dawley rat

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, P.V.; Laskey, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Previous reports have demonstrated that cadmium- induced testicular necrosis is an age-dependent process. However, little information exists on age-related intestitial cell (IC) damage in the rat after acute exposure to Cd. In-vitro and in-vivo measures of testicular damage were utilized to compare the sensitivity of these measures and to further investigate age-related Cd-induced testicular damage. Testes, epididymides, and seminal-vesicle weights, serum testosterone (sT), hCG-stimulated sT, and basal and stimulated IC testosterone (T) production were compared in rats 21 d following an injection of 2 mg Cd/kg at 9, 37, 67, and 97 d of age. The only Cd-related change noted for immature rats was an 84% reduction in sT. In rats injected when 37 d old, hCG-stimulated sT and epididymides and seminal-vesicle weights, although depressed, were not significantly altered. However, all other measurements were significantly depressed. All measures of testicular damage were significantly depressed in rats injected at 67 and 97 d of age. Overall, in vitro measures were more sensitive indicators of Cd-induced testicular damage than in vivo measures.

  1. A Pilot Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Augmentation of Antibiotic Treatment in Youth with Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome-Related Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Cary; Selles, Robert R.; Wu, Monica S.; King, Morgan A.; Patel, Priyal D.; Hanks, Camille E.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: This study reports an open trial of family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) exhibiting an onset pattern consistent with pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS). Methods: Eleven primarily Caucasian youth with PANS-related OCD (range=4–14 years; 6 boys) who were incomplete responders to antibiotic treatment, received family-based CBT delivered either face-to-face or via web camera. Results: All participants completing treatment (8 of 8) were considered improved at posttreatment, and average obsessive-compulsive symptom severity was reduced by 49%. Significant reductions in obsessive-compulsive symptom severity and in clinician- and parent-rated OCD-related impairment were noted. Reductions in parent- and child-rated anxiety, child-rated OCD-related impairment, and comorbid neuropsychiatric symptoms were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Gains were maintained at follow-up, with 100% (6 of 6) of those assessed remaining improved. Implications for treatment and further research are discussed. PMID:25978743

  2. Transfusion-related acute lung injury due to HLA-A2-specific antibodies in recipient and NB1-specific antibodies in donor blood.

    PubMed

    Bux, J; Becker, F; Seeger, W; Kilpatrick, D; Chapman, J; Waters, A

    1996-06-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a hazardous but little-known complication of blood transfusion, characterized by non-cardiogenic lung oedema after blood transfusion. Leucoagglutinating antibodies in the donor plasma are considered to play a central role in the pathogenesis of TRALI but no recommended procedure currently exists for their detection, and most of them have not yet been well characterized. Serum samples of two patients who have developed TRALI within 30 min of blood transfusion and the sera of the involved blood donors were investigated for leucocyte antibodies by granulocyte immunofluorescence, granulocyte agglutination and lymphocytotoxicity assays using typed test cells. Suspected specificities of the detected antibodies were confirmed by a luminoimmunoblot assay and the antigen capture assay MAIGA. One case was associated with granulocyte agglutinating anti-HLA-A2 antibodies in the recipient's (i.e. patient's) own blood and the other with donor-related non-agglutinating antibodies directed against the granulocyte-specific antigen NB1. Leucocyte incompatibility between donor and recipient was shown in both cases by crossmatching and typing of the incompatible cells for the appropriate antigen. The results show that TRALI is associated not only with donor- but also with recipient-related leucocyte antibodies. In addition to leucoagglutinating antibodies, non-agglutinating granulocyte-specific antibodies can be also involved. For immunodiagnosis, sera from both must be investigated by a combination of granulocyte and lymphocyte (HLA) antibody screening tests and leucocyte incompatibility verified by crossmatching. PMID:8652399

  3. Acute non-ambulatory tetraparesis with absence of the dens in two large breed dogs: case reports with a radiographic study of relatives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-ambulatory tetraparesis with an absence of the dens of C2 (axis) has not previously been reported in large breed dogs. An absence or hypoplasia of the dens has been reported in both small, medium and large breed dogs, but not in closely related animals. Methods Two young large-breed dogs (a German shepherd and a Standard poodle) both with an acute onset of non-ambulatory tetraparesis were subjected to physical, neurological and radiographic examinations. Both dogs were euthanased and submitted for postmortem examination within one week of onset of clinical signs. To investigate possible heritability of dens abnormalities, oblique radiographs of the cranial cervical vertebrae were taken of nine and eighteen dogs related to the German shepherd and the Standard poodle, respectively. Results Absence of the dens, atlantoaxial instability and extensive spinal cord injury was found in both case dogs. Radiographs revealed a normal dens in both parents and in the seven littermates of the German shepherd. An absence or hypoplasia of the dens was diagnosed in six relatives of the Standard poodle. Conclusions Atlantoaxial subluxation with cervical spinal cord injury should be considered as a differential diagnosis in non-ambulatory tetraparetic young large breed dogs. Absence of the dens and no history of external trauma increase the likelihood for this diagnosis. This study provides evidence to suggest that absence or hypoplasia of the dens is inherited in an autosomal way in Standard poodle dogs. PMID:23591104

  4. The Critical Angle Can Override the Brewster Angle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehle, Peter H.

    2009-01-01

    As a culminating activity in their study of optics, my students investigate polarized light and the Brewster angle. In this exercise they encounter a situation in which it is impossible to measure the Brewster angle for light reflecting from a particular surface. This paper describes the activity and explains the students' observations.

  5. How are neuroticism and depression related to the psychophysiological stress response to acute stress in healthy older people?

    PubMed

    Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Pulopulos, Matias M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Salvador, Alicia

    2016-03-15

    Neuroticism and depressive symptomatology have been related to a heightened and diminished physiological stress response, which may partly explain their negative relationship with health and wellbeing. Identifying factors that may increase disease vulnerability is especially relevant in older people, whose physiological systems decline. With this in mind, we investigated the influence of neuroticism and depression on the psychophysiological stress response in healthy older people (from 55 to 76years old). A total of 36 volunteers were exposed to a stressful task (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST), while 35 volunteers performed a control non-stressful task. The physiological stress response was assessed through measures of cortisol, alpha-amylase, heart rate (HR). Our results showed that, neuroticism was not related to physiological stress response. However, depression was related to higher cortisol response and lower HR reactivity in the stress condition. In summary, emotional states such as depressive mood seem to amplify the cortisol stress response and reduce the cardiovascular response, whereas more stable dispositions such as neuroticism did not affect stress response in older people. These findings confirm, in healthy older people, the adverse effects of depression, acting on different subsystems of the stress response. PMID:26780150

  6. How are neuroticism and depression related to the psychophysiological stress response to acute stress in healthy older people?

    PubMed

    Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Pulopulos, Matias M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Salvador, Alicia

    2016-03-15

    Neuroticism and depressive symptomatology have been related to a heightened and diminished physiological stress response, which may partly explain their negative relationship with health and wellbeing. Identifying factors that may increase disease vulnerability is especially relevant in older people, whose physiological systems decline. With this in mind, we investigated the influence of neuroticism and depression on the psychophysiological stress response in healthy older people (from 55 to 76years old). A total of 36 volunteers were exposed to a stressful task (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST), while 35 volunteers performed a control non-stressful task. The physiological stress response was assessed through measures of cortisol, alpha-amylase, heart rate (HR). Our results showed that, neuroticism was not related to physiological stress response. However, depression was related to higher cortisol response and lower HR reactivity in the stress condition. In summary, emotional states such as depressive mood seem to amplify the cortisol stress response and reduce the cardiovascular response, whereas more stable dispositions such as neuroticism did not affect stress response in older people. These findings confirm, in healthy older people, the adverse effects of depression, acting on different subsystems of the stress response.

  7. Role of parathyroid hormone-related protein in the pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic response associated with acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Vandanajay; Kim, Sung O.K.; Aronson, Judith F.; Chao, Celia; Hellmich, Mark R.; Falzon, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatitis is a common and potentially lethal necro-inflammatory disease with both acute and chronic manifestations. Current evidence suggests that the accumulated damage incurred during repeated bouts of acute pancreatitis (AP) can lead to chronic disease, which is associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. While parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) exerts multiple effects in normal physiology and disease states, its function in pancreatitis has not been previously addressed. Here we show that PTHrP levels are transiently elevated in a mouse model of cerulein-induced AP. Treatment with alcohol, a risk factor for both AP and chronic pancreatitis (CP), also increases PTHrP levels. These effects of cerulein and ethanol are evident in isolated primary acinar and stellate cells, as well as in the immortalized acinar and stellate cell lines AR42J and irPSCc3, respectively. Ethanol sensitizes acinar and stellate cells to the PTHrP-modulating effects of cerulein. Treatment of acinar cells with PTHrP (1-36) increases expression of the inflammatory mediators interleukin-6 (IL-6) and intracellular adhesion protein (ICAM-1), suggesting a potential autocrine loop. PTHrP also increases apoptosis in AR42J cells. Stellate cells mediate the fibrogenic response associated with pancreatitis; PTHrP (1-36) increases procollagen I and fibronectin mRNA levels in both primary and immortalized stellate cells. The effects of cerulein and ethanol on levels of IL-6 and procollagen I are suppressed by the PTH1R antagonist, PTHrP (7-34). Together these studies identify PTHrP as a potential mediator of the inflammatory and fibrogenic responses associated with alcoholic pancreatitis. PMID:22280800

  8. Effects of hypoxia-induced neonatal seizures on acute hippocampal injury and later-life seizure susceptibility and anxiety-related behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Alvarez, Natalia; Jimenez-Mateos, Eva M; Dunleavy, Mark; Waddington, John L; Boylan, Geraldine B; Henshall, David C

    2015-11-01

    Seizures are common during the neonatal period, often due to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and may contribute to acute brain injury and the subsequent development of cognitive deficits and childhood epilepsy. Here we explored short- and long-term consequences of neonatal hypoxia-induced seizures in 7 day old C57BL/6J mice. Seizure activity, molecular markers of hypoxia and histological injury were investigated acutely after hypoxia and response to chemoconvulsants and animal behaviour was explored at adulthood. Hypoxia was induced by exposing pups to 5% oxygen for 15 min (global hypoxia). Electrographically defined seizures with behavioral correlates occurred in 95% of these animals and seizures persisted for many minutes after restitution of normoxia. There was minimal morbidity or mortality. Pre- or post-hypoxia injection of phenobarbital (50mg/kg) had limited efficacy at suppressing seizures. The hippocampus from neonatal hypoxia-seizure mice displayed increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and the immediate early gene c-fos, minimal histological evidence of cell injury and activation of caspase-3 in scattered neurons. Behavioral analysis of mice five weeks after hypoxia-induced seizures detected novel anxiety-related and other behaviors, while performance in a spatial memory test was similar to controls. Seizure threshold tests with kainic acid at six weeks revealed that mice previously subject to neonatal hypoxia-induced seizures developed earlier, more frequent and longer-duration seizures. This study defines a set of electro-clinical, molecular, pharmacological and behavioral consequences of hypoxia-induced seizures that indicate short- and long-term deleterious outcomes and may be a useful model to investigate the pathophysiology and treatment of neonatal seizures in humans.

  9. Low relapse without excessive transplant related mortality following myeloablative cord blood transplantation for acute leukemia in complete remission: a matched cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gutman, Jonathan A; Leisenring, Wendy; Appelbaum, Frederick R; Woolfrey, Ann E; Delaney, Colleen

    2009-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the efficacy of cord blood transplantation (CBT), and the number of CBTs is increasing. Numerous studies confirm the presence of a graft-versus-leukemia effect following CBT, and preliminary data suggests that double unit CBT may be associated with a decreased risk of relapse. We have observed a low relapse rate following CBT among patients with acute leukemias in morphologic CR at the time of myeloablative transplant. To further assess this observation we conducted a matched cohort analysis comparing relapse rates and outcomes for patients receiving CBTs versus patients receiving matched unrelated donor (MURD) and mismatched unrelated donor (MMURD) transplants at our center. Thirty-one consecutive CBT patients (ages 0.6–42, median 22) transplanted between April 2006 and June 2008 were compared to matched subjects selected on the basis of disease type and remission number, cytogenetic risk status, minimal residual disease status (MRD), time from diagnosis to first relapse (for patients beyond CR1), use of imatinib for CML and Philadelphia chromosome positive ALL patients, age, and date of transplant. With a median follow-up among surviving CBT patients of 21.1 months (range 6.6–32.6), there has been one relapse among cord patients versus eight relapses among MURD patients (p=0.018) and seven relapses among MMURD patients (p=0.019). Transplant related mortality (TRM) between cohorts is comparable. Though we have observed a high incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) following CBT, the incidence of National Institutes of Health (NIH) consensus criteria chronic GVHD has been low. These data support increased investigation of the use of CBT. PMID:19660726

  10. Effects of hypoxia-induced neonatal seizures on acute hippocampal injury and later-life seizure susceptibility and anxiety-related behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Alvarez, Natalia; Jimenez-Mateos, Eva M; Dunleavy, Mark; Waddington, John L; Boylan, Geraldine B; Henshall, David C

    2015-11-01

    Seizures are common during the neonatal period, often due to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and may contribute to acute brain injury and the subsequent development of cognitive deficits and childhood epilepsy. Here we explored short- and long-term consequences of neonatal hypoxia-induced seizures in 7 day old C57BL/6J mice. Seizure activity, molecular markers of hypoxia and histological injury were investigated acutely after hypoxia and response to chemoconvulsants and animal behaviour was explored at adulthood. Hypoxia was induced by exposing pups to 5% oxygen for 15 min (global hypoxia). Electrographically defined seizures with behavioral correlates occurred in 95% of these animals and seizures persisted for many minutes after restitution of normoxia. There was minimal morbidity or mortality. Pre- or post-hypoxia injection of phenobarbital (50mg/kg) had limited efficacy at suppressing seizures. The hippocampus from neonatal hypoxia-seizure mice displayed increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and the immediate early gene c-fos, minimal histological evidence of cell injury and activation of caspase-3 in scattered neurons. Behavioral analysis of mice five weeks after hypoxia-induced seizures detected novel anxiety-related and other behaviors, while performance in a spatial memory test was similar to controls. Seizure threshold tests with kainic acid at six weeks revealed that mice previously subject to neonatal hypoxia-induced seizures developed earlier, more frequent and longer-duration seizures. This study defines a set of electro-clinical, molecular, pharmacological and behavioral consequences of hypoxia-induced seizures that indicate short- and long-term deleterious outcomes and may be a useful model to investigate the pathophysiology and treatment of neonatal seizures in humans. PMID:26341542

  11. Personal Exposures to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Acute Respiratory Health among Bronx Schoolchildren with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Spira-Cohen, Ariel; Chen, Lung Chi; Kendall, Michaela; Lall, Ramona; Thurston, George D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported relationships between adverse respiratory health outcomes and residential proximity to traffic pollution, but have not shown this at a personal exposure level. Objective We compared, among inner-city children with asthma, the associations of adverse asthma outcome incidences with increased personal exposure to particulate matter mass ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) air pollution versus the diesel-related carbonaceous fraction of PM2.5. Methods Daily 24-hr personal samples of PM2.5, including the elemental carbon (EC) fraction, were collected for 40 fifth-grade children with asthma at four South Bronx schools (10 children per school) during approximately 1 month each. Spirometry and symptom scores were recorded several times daily during weekdays. Results We found elevated same-day relative risks of wheeze [1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–2.04)], shortness of breath (1.41; 95% CI, 1.01–1.99), and total symptoms (1.30; 95% CI, 1.04–1.62) with an increase in personal EC, but not with personal PM2.5 mass. We found increased risk of cough, wheeze, and total symptoms with increased 1-day lag and 2-day average personal and school-site EC. We found no significant associations with school-site PM2.5 mass or sulfur. The EC effect estimate was robust to addition of gaseous pollutants. Conclusion Adverse health associations were strongest with personal measures of EC exposure, suggesting that the diesel “soot” fraction of PM2.5 is most responsible for pollution-related asthma exacerbations among children living near roadways. Studies that rely on exposure to PM mass may underestimate PM health impacts. PMID:21216722

  12. Evolution of Barb Angle and Filament Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, J. T.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, H. Q.; Kurokawa, H.; Yurchyshyn, V.; Shibata, K.; Bao, X. M.; Wang, G. P.; Li, C.

    2005-09-01

    Hα observations of a quiescent U-shaped filament were obtained at Big Bear Solar Observatory and at Hida Observatory with the Flare Monitoring Telescope. The filament was located in the southern hemisphere on 1998 November 4. We study the evolution of the angle of a barb with respect to the axis of the filament and find the evolution can be divided into two phases: a rise from the acute phase to the obtuse phase and a fall. Thus, this indicates that the chirality of this barb changes with time. Moreover, in the process of evolution, we find that interconnection of the part of the filament bearing the barb with the whole filament became either weakened or strengthened. We impute the final eruption of the filament to the chirality evolution of the barb.

  13. Effects of methionine supplementation on the expression of protein deposition-related genes in acute heat stress-exposed broilers.

    PubMed

    Del Vesco, Ana Paula; Gasparino, Eliane; Grieser, Daiane Oliveira; Zancanela, Vittor; Voltolini, Débora Marques; Khatlab, Angélica Souza; Guimarães, Simone Eliza Facioni; Soares, Maria Amélia Menck; Oliveira Neto, Adhemar Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat stress and methionine supplementation on the gene expression of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), growth hormone receptor (GHR), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and regulatory 1 (PI3KR1) in the liver, as well as the expression of the atrogin 1 and cathepsin L2 (CTSL2) genes in the breast muscle of broilers. Broilers from 1-21 and 22-42 days of age were divided into three treatments related to methionine supplementation as follows: without methionine supplementation (MD), recommended level of methionine (DL1), and excess supplementation of methionine (DL2). The animals were either maintained at a thermal comfort temperature or exposed to heat stress (HS) (38°C for 24 hours, starting on day 20 or day 41 for experiments 1 and 2, respectively). The heat stress increased the body temperature at both ages. Starter period: The HS animals presented increased plasma creatinine content (P<0.0001) and the highest CTSL2 gene expression (P<0.0001). The methionine supplementation increased the IGF-I (P = 0.0144) and GHR (P = 0.0011) gene expression and decreased the CTSL2 (P = 0.0004) and atrogin 1 (P = 0.0012) gene expression. Grower period: Significant effects for the interaction between supplementation and environment were observed for GHR (P = 0.0252) and CTSL2 (P = 0.0011) gene expression. The highest GHR expression was observed in animals that remained in thermal comfort on the DL2 diet, and the lowest expression occurred in the HS animals fed the MD diet. For CTSL2, the HS animals fed the MD diet presented the highest CTSL2 gene expression, and the lowest expression was observed in the animals maintained at thermal comfort on DL1 and DL2 diets. Only methionine supplementation had effect on atrogin-1 gene expression (P<0.0001), with higher methionine content in the diet lower atrogin-1 gene expression was observed. Our results suggest that heat stress induces greater protein degradation and that methionine

  14. Severe Acute Cardiopulmonary Failure Related to Gadobutrol Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Reaction: Successful Resuscitation With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Guru, Pramod K; Bohman, J Kyle; Fleming, Chad J; Tan, Hon L; Sanghavi, Devang K; De Moraes, Alice Gallo; Barsness, Gregory W; Wittwer, Erica D; King, Bernard F; Arteaga, Grace M; Flick, Randall; Schears, Gregory J

    2016-03-01

    Nonanaphylactic noncardiogenic pulmonary edema leading to cardiorespiratory arrest related to the magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent gadobutrol has rarely been reported in the literature. Rarer is the association of hypokalemia with acidosis. We report 2 patients who had severe pulmonary edema associated with the use of gadobutrol contrast in the absence of other inciting agents or events. These cases were unique not only for their rare and severe presentations but also because they exemplified the increasing role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in resuscitation. Emergency extracorporeal membrane oxygenation resuscitation can be rapidly initiated and successful in the setting of a well-organized workflow, and it is a viable alternative and helps improve patient outcome in cases refractory to conventional resuscitative measures.

  15. Correlation between single nucleotide polymorphisms in hypoxia-related genes and susceptibility to acute high-altitude pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Wu, A L; Xiong, Y S; Li, Z Q; Liu, Y G; Quan, Q; Wu, L J

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship between genetic changes and high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) susceptibility, and to screen for the key single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci in the HAPE-susceptibility gene, by investigating the SNPs occurring in hypoxia-related genes in HAPE-susceptible and control (non-susceptible) populations. This research was conducted on Han recruits, who travelled to the Lhasa plateau (altitude, 3658 m). Ten loci located on ten genes extracted from the HAPE and healthy populations were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and subsequently sequenced. The investigated genes included those coding for aldosterone synthase 2 (CYP11B2), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), surfactant protein A2 (SP-A2), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), nitric oxide synthetase (NOS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), prolyl hydroxylase (EGLN1), and zinc finger protein A20. The gene distribution of each SNP loci and its correlation with HAPE was analyzed. Statistical analyses of the genotype frequencies of the SNPs revealed significant differences in the ACE (rs4309), EGLN1 (rs480902), SP-A2 (rs1965708), HSP70 (rs1008438), PAI-1 (rs1799889), and NOS (rs199983) expressions between the HAPE and healthy control groups (P < 0.05); therefore, these SNP loci were believed to indicate HAPE susceptibility. HAPE is correlated with multiple- SNP loci. A correlation analysis between genetic polymorphism and HAPE susceptibility revealed that 6 hypoxia-related genes were key sites accounting for HAPE. These findings could help assess the risk of HAPE in populations expressing different genotypes, in order to reduce the occurrence of HAPE. PMID:26436397

  16. Effects of methionine supplementation on the expression of oxidative stress-related genes in acute heat stress-exposed broilers.

    PubMed

    Del Vesco, Ana Paula; Gasparino, Eliane; Grieser, Daiane de Oliveira; Zancanela, Vittor; Soares, Maria Amélia Menck; Neto, Adhemar Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2015-02-28

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of heat stress (HS) and methionine supplementation on the markers of stress and on the gene expression levels of uncoupling proteins (UCP), betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), glutathione synthetase (GSS) and glutathione peroxidase 7 (GPx7). Broilers from 1 to 21 d and from 22 to 42 d of age were divided into three treatment groups related to methionine supplementation: without methionine supplementation (MD); recommended level of methionine supplementation (DL1); excess methionine supplementation (DL2). The broilers were either kept at a comfortable thermal temperature or exposed to HS (38°C for 24 h). During the starter period, we observed the effects of the interaction between diet and environment on the gene expression levels of UCP, BHMT and GSS. Higher gene expression levels of UCP and BHMT were observed in broilers that were maintained at thermal comfort conditions and received the MD diet. HS broilers fed the DL1 and DL2 diets had the highest expression level of GSS. The expression levels of the CBS and GPx7 genes were influenced by both the environment and methionine supplementation. During the grower period, the gene expression levels of BHMT, CBS, GSS and GPx7 were affected by the diet × environment interaction. A higher expression level of BHMT was observed in broilers maintained at thermal comfort conditions and on the MD diet. HS induced higher expression levels of CBS, GSS and GPx7 in broilers that received the DL1 and DL2 diets. The present results suggest that under HS conditions, methionine supplementation could mitigate the effects of stress, since methionine contributed to the increased expression levels of genes related to antioxidant activity.

  17. A comprehensive validation of HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure models to assist decision-making in targeted therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yi; Wang, Xulin; Zhang, Sheng; Qin, Gang; Liu, Yanmei; Lu, Yihua; Liang, Feng; Zhuang, Xun

    2016-01-01

    This research utilized an external longitudinal dataset of hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) to compare and validate various predictive models that support the current recommendations to select the most effective predictive risk models to estimate short- and long-term mortality and facilitate decision-making about preferable therapeutics for HBV-ACLF patients. Twelve ACLF prognostic models were developed after a systematic literature search using the longitudinal data of 232 HBV-ACLF patients on the waiting list for liver transplantation (LT). Four statistical measures, the constant (A) and slope (B) of the fitted line, the area under the curve (C) and the net benefit (D), were calculated to assess and compare the calibration, discrimination and clinical usefulness of the 12 predictive models. According to the model calibration and discrimination, the logistic regression models (LRM2) and the United Kingdom model of end-stage liver disease(UKELD) were selected as the best predictive models for both 3-month and 5-year outcomes. The decision curve summarizes the benefits of intervention relative to the costs of unnecessary treatment. After the comprehensive validation and comparison of the currently used models, LRM2 was confirmed as a markedly effective prognostic model for LT-free HBV-ACLF patients for assisting targeted and standardized therapeutic decisions. PMID:27633520

  18. A comprehensive validation of HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure models to assist decision-making in targeted therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi; Wang, Xulin; Zhang, Sheng; Qin, Gang; Liu, Yanmei; Lu, Yihua; Liang, Feng; Zhuang, Xun

    2016-01-01

    This research utilized an external longitudinal dataset of hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) to compare and validate various predictive models that support the current recommendations to select the most effective predictive risk models to estimate short- and long-term mortality and facilitate decision-making about preferable therapeutics for HBV-ACLF patients. Twelve ACLF prognostic models were developed after a systematic literature search using the longitudinal data of 232 HBV-ACLF patients on the waiting list for liver transplantation (LT). Four statistical measures, the constant (A) and slope (B) of the fitted line, the area under the curve (C) and the net benefit (D), were calculated to assess and compare the calibration, discrimination and clinical usefulness of the 12 predictive models. According to the model calibration and discrimination, the logistic regression models (LRM2) and the United Kingdom model of end-stage liver disease(UKELD) were selected as the best predictive models for both 3-month and 5-year outcomes. The decision curve summarizes the benefits of intervention relative to the costs of unnecessary treatment. After the comprehensive validation and comparison of the currently used models, LRM2 was confirmed as a markedly effective prognostic model for LT-free HBV-ACLF patients for assisting targeted and standardized therapeutic decisions. PMID:27633520

  19. Differential Roles of Ventral and Dorsal Streams for Conceptual and Production-Related Components of Tool Use in Acute Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Martin, Markus; Beume, Lena; Kümmerer, Dorothee; Schmidt, Charlotte S M; Bormann, Tobias; Dressing, Andrea; Ludwig, Vera M; Umarova, Roza M; Mader, Irina; Rijntjes, Michel; Kaller, Christoph P; Weiller, Cornelius

    2016-09-01

    Impaired tool use despite preserved basic motor functions occurs after stroke in the context of apraxia, a cognitive motor disorder. To elucidate the neuroanatomical underpinnings of different tool use deficits, prospective behavioral assessments of 136 acute left-hemisphere stroke patients were combined with lesion delineation on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images for voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Deficits affecting both the selection of the appropriate recipient for a given tool (ToolSelect, e.g., choosing the nail for the hammer), and the performance of the typical tool-associated action (ToolUse, e.g., hammering in the nail) were associated with ventro-dorsal stream lesions, particularly within inferior parietal lobule. However, ToolSelect compared with ToolUse deficits were specifically related to damage within ventral stream regions including anterior temporal lobe. Additional retrospective error dichotomization based on the videotaped performances of ToolUse revealed that spatio-temporal errors (movement errors) were mainly caused by inferior parietal damage adjacent to the intraparietal sulcus while content errors, that is, perplexity, unrecognizable, or semantically incorrect movements, resulted from lesions within supramarginal gyrus and superior temporal lobe. In summary, our results suggest that in the use of tools, conceptual and production-related aspects can be differentiated and are implemented in anatomically distinct streams. PMID:26271112

  20. Behenoyl cytosine arabinoside, daunorubicin, 6-mercaptopurine, and prednisolone combination therapy for acute myelogenous leukemia in adults and prognostic factors related to remission duration and survival length.

    PubMed

    Ohno, R; Kato, Y; Nagura, E; Murase, T; Okumura, M; Yamada, H; Ogura, M; Minami, S; Suzuki, H; Morishima, Y

    1986-12-01

    Fifty-one consecutive previously untreated adult patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) were treated with BHAC-DMP (N4-behenoyl-I-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl-cytosine, daunorubicin, 6-mercaptopurine, and prednisolone) therapy. Forty-two patients (82.4%) achieved complete remission (CR). The Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a probability for remaining in remission of 14% and for survival of 23% at 6 years. Pretreatment factors related to the achievement of CR, such as age, French-American-British (FAB) classification and WBC at the start of treatment, were not identified. Factors related to the CR duration and survival time of the patients who had achieved CR were first analyzed by a univariate analysis with the generalized Wilcoxon test. WBC count at the start of treatment, percent of blasts in the marrow at 1 and 2 weeks after the initiation of therapy, days required until CR, number of courses of induction therapy required until CR, and days required for the disappearance of circulating blasts were identified as statistically significant prognostic factors. When these characteristics were further analyzed by the Cox multivariate regression model, the percent of blasts in the bone marrow at 2 weeks was the most important prognostic factor with a statistical significance, and WBC count at the start of treatment and days required until CR (or number of courses required to achieve CR) were also important factors, with borderline significance. PMID:3465875

  1. Acute caffeine administration impact on working memory-related brain activation and functional connectivity in the elderly: a BOLD and perfusion MRI study.

    PubMed

    Haller, S; Rodriguez, C; Moser, D; Toma, S; Hofmeister, J; Sinanaj, I; Van De Ville, D; Giannakopoulos, P; Lovblad, K-O

    2013-10-10

    In young individuals, caffeine-mediated blockade of adenosine receptors and vasoconstriction has direct repercussions on task-related activations, changes in functional connectivity, as well as global vascular effects. To date, no study has explored the effect of caffeine on brain activation patterns during highly demanding cognitive tasks in the elderly. This prospective, placebo-controlled crossover design comprises 24 healthy elderly individuals (mean age 68.8 ± 4.0 years, 17 females) performing a 2-back working memory (WM) task in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Analyses include complimentary assessment of task-related activations (general linear model, GLM), functional connectivity (tensorial independent component analysis, TICA), and baseline perfusion (arterial spin labeling). Despite a reduction in whole-brain global perfusion (-22.7%), caffeine-enhanced task-related GLM activation in a local and distributed network is most pronounced in the bilateral striatum and to a lesser degree in the right middle and inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral insula, left superior and inferior parietal lobule as well as in the cerebellum bilaterally. TICA was significantly enhanced (+8.2%) in caffeine versus placebo in a distributed and task-relevant network including the pre-frontal cortex, the supplementary motor area, the ventral premotor cortex and the parietal cortex as well as the occipital cortex (visual stimuli) and basal ganglia. The inverse comparison of placebo versus caffeine had no significant difference. Activation strength of the task-relevant-network component correlated with response accuracy for caffeine yet not for placebo, indicating a selective cognitive effect of caffeine. The present findings suggest that acute caffeine intake enhances WM-related brain activation as well as functional connectivity of blood oxygen level-dependent fMRI in elderly individuals.

  2. Determination of detector rotation angle in the experiment based on the total internal reflection using an equilateral right angle prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendro, Viridi, S.; Pratama, Y.

    2015-04-01

    We present a relation between incident angle and rotation angle detector in the Total Internal Reflection (TIR) experiments when using a right angle prism. In the TIR method, the light coming toward the prism will experience reflection and out of the prism at a certain angle direction. Results of analysis of the geometry and Snell's law shows that the angular position of the detector is not only determined by the angle of incidence of light alone but also by the size of the prism and the detector position from the rotation axis of goniometer. The experimental results show relation between the angle of detector and angle of goniometer. When the prism rotated 45 °, position of goniometer detector is 2×45 °. However, when the prism rotated at an angle instead of 45 °, detector position µ is not always equal to twice the rotation angle goniometer ψ, so that this relationship needs to be corrected. This correction is also determined by the value of the refractive index of the prism is used. By knowing the relationship between detector position and the incident angle of light, this formulation can be used to control the position of the sample and the detector in the experiments based on ATR.

  3. C1q/TNF-related protein-1 functions to protect against acute ischemic injury in the heart.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Daisuke; Ohashi, Koji; Shibata, Rei; Mizutani, Naoki; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Kambara, Takahiro; Uemura, Yusuke; Matsuo, Kazuhiro; Kanemura, Noriyoshi; Hayakawa, Satoko; Hiramatsu-Ito, Mizuho; Ito, Masanori; Ogawa, Hayato; Murate, Takashi; Murohara, Toyoaki; Ouchi, Noriyuki

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. C1q/TNF-related protein (CTRP)-1 is a poorly characterized adipokine that is up-regulated in association with ischemic heart disease. We investigated the role of CTRP1 in myocardial ischemia injury. CTRP1-knockout mice showed increased myocardial infarct size, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and proinflammatory gene expression after I/R compared with wild-type (WT) mice. In contrast, systemic delivery of CTRP1 attenuated myocardial damage after I/R in WT mice. Treatment of cardiomyocytes with CTRP1 led to reduction of hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced apoptosis and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines, which was reversed by inhibition of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling. Treatment of cardiomyocytes with CTRP1 also resulted in the increased production of cAMP, which was blocked by suppression of S1P signaling. The antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory actions of CTRP1 were cancelled by inhibition of adenylyl cyclase or knockdown of adiponectin receptor 1. Furthermore, blockade of S1P signaling reversed CTRP1-mediated inhibition of myocardial infarct size, apoptosis, and inflammation after I/R in vivo. These data indicate that CTRP1 protects against myocardial ischemic injury by reducing apoptosis and inflammatory response through activation of the S1P/cAMP signaling pathways in cardiomyocytes, suggesting that CTRP1 plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease.

  4. Hysteresis during contact angles measurement.

    PubMed

    Diaz, M Elena; Fuentes, Javier; Cerro, Ramon L; Savage, Michael D

    2010-03-15

    A theory, based on the presence of an adsorbed film in the vicinity of the triple contact line, provides a molecular interpretation of intrinsic hysteresis during the measurement of static contact angles. Static contact angles are measured by placing a sessile drop on top of a flat solid surface. If the solid surface has not been previously in contact with a vapor phase saturated with the molecules of the liquid phase, the solid surface is free of adsorbed liquid molecules. In the absence of an adsorbed film, molecular forces configure an advancing contact angle larger than the static contact angle. After some time, due to an evaporation/adsorption process, the interface of the drop coexists with an adsorbed film of liquid molecules as part of the equilibrium configuration, denoted as the static contact angle. This equilibrium configuration is metastable because the droplet has a larger vapor pressure than the surrounding flat film. As the drop evaporates, the vapor/liquid interface contracts and the apparent contact line moves towards the center of the drop. During this process, the film left behind is thicker than the adsorbed film and molecular attraction results in a receding contact angle, smaller than the equilibrium contact angle.

  5. The Effect of a Short One-on-One Nursing Intervention on Knowledge, Attitudes and Beliefs Related to Response to Acute Coronary Syndrome in People with Coronary Heart Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    McKinley, Sharon; Dracup, Kathleen; Moser, Debra K; Riegel, Barbara; Doering, Lynn V; Meischke, Hendrika; Aitken, Leanne M; Buckley, Tom; Marshall, Andrea; Pelter, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease and acute coronary syndrome remain significant public health problems. The effect of acute coronary syndrome on mortality and morbidity is largely dependent on the time from symptom onset to the time of reperfusion, but patient delay in presenting for treatment is the main reason timely reperfusion is not received. Objectives We tested the effect of an education and counseling intervention on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about acute coronary syndrome symptoms and the appropriate response to symptoms, and identified patient characteristics associated with changes in knowledge, attitudes and beliefs over time. Methods We conducted a 2-group randomized controlled trial in 3,522 people with coronary heart disease. The intervention group received a 40 minute, one-on-one education and counseling session. The control group received usual care. Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs were measured at baseline, 3 and 12 months using the Acute Coronary Syndrome Response Index and analyzed with repeated measures analysis of variance. Results Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs scores increased significantly from baseline in the intervention group compared to the control group at 3 months, and these differences were sustained at 12 months (p = .0005 for all). Higher perceived control over cardiac illness was associated with more positive attitudes (p<.0005) and higher state anxiety was associated