Science.gov

Sample records for acute angle relative

  1. Variable angle of strabismus related to timing of opiate ingestion.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jonathan J; Brown, Valerie; Fern, Alasdair I

    2009-04-01

    Heroin (diamorphine) is a highly addictive opiate with potential for misuse. A small number of reports have linked the commencement of heroin misuse to acute exotropia with diplopia and subsequent withdrawal to esotropia in individuals without previous symptoms.(1-5) We describe a young adult who sought strabismus surgery to correct a large-angle exotropia. Detailed patient history and orthoptic measurements at different times of the day revealed a fluctuating angle of divergence relating to the timing of opiate ingestion, rendering surgery inappropriate. We suggest that opiate misuse, which may not willingly be disclosed by patients, should be specifically asked about before acquired-strabismus surgery is undertaken in adults.

  2. The visual evoked potential in acute primary angle closure glaucoma.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, K. W.; Wood, C. M.; Howe, J. W.; Church, W. H.; Smith, G. T.; Spencer, S. R.

    1989-01-01

    Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were elicited from 29 patients who had experienced a previous attack of acute primary angle closure glaucoma. The VEPs were shown to be abnormal in at least one of the measures (latency, amplitude, contrast threshold, or slope) in 72.4% of affected eyes, whereas only 41.4% indicated obvious optic nerve damage. It is notable that 48.1% of fellow eyes with no (known) history of acute pressure rise also showed some form of VEP abnormality. The possible pathophysiological mechanisms operating in both affected and fellow eyes are discussed. It is concluded that, despite the presence of possible artefactual influences, the results probably reflect the presence of primary angle closure glaucoma. PMID:2751978

  3. Angle parameter changes of phacoemulsification and combined phacotrabeculectomy for acute primary angle closure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shi-Wei; Chen, Yan; Wu, Qiang; Lu, Bin; Wang, Wen-Qing; Fang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the difference in angle parameters and clinical outcome following phacoemulsification and combined phacotrabeculectomy in patients with acute primary angle closure (APAC) using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). METHODS Patients (n=23, 31 eyes) were randomized to receive phacoemulsification or combined phacotrabeculectomy (n=24, 31 eyes). Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), the main complications following surgery, and indentation gonioscopy and angle parameters measured using UBM were documented preoperatively and postoperatively. RESULTS The improvement in BCVA in the phacoemulsification group was significantly greater than in the combined group (P<0.05). IOP in the phacoemulsification group was slightly higher than in the combined group following 1wk of follow-up (P<0.05), whereas there was no significant difference between the two groups at the latter follow-up (P>0.05). Phacoemulsification alone resulted in a slight increase in the trabecular ciliary processes distance compared with the combined surgery (P<0.05), whereas the other angle parameters showed no significant difference between the groups. Complications in combined group were greater than phacoemulsification only group. CONCLUSION Both surgeries effectively opened the drainage angle and deepened the anterior chamber, and IOP was well controlled postoperatively. However, phacoemulsification showed better efficacy in improving visual function and showed reduced complications following surgery. PMID:26309873

  4. Circumscribed Ciliochoroidal Effusion Presenting as an Acute Angle Closure Attack

    PubMed Central

    Lipa, Roslyn Kathryn Manrique; Sánchez, María Eugenia González; Ordovas, Carlos Antonio Hijar; Aragües, Abel Rojo; Borque, Carmen Garcia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To report a case of choroidal effusion probably caused by angiotensin receptor II blocker. Case Report: A 52-year-old man with aplastic anemia and high blood pressure who developed unilateral acute angle closure glaucoma after receiving oral cyclosporine and angiotensin II receptor blocker (losartan). Ophthalmic examination revealed visual acuity of 20/30 in the left eye, mild mydriasis, iris bombe, no anterior chamber reaction, mild conjunctival hyperemia, and the intraocular pressure of 30 mmHg. After laser YAG iridotomy, funduscopy was performed showing a choroidal circumscribed lesion at the inferotemporal quadrant. Diagnostic tests ruled out any inflammatory or malignancy process, and the choroidal lesion spontaneously disappeared. After 20 months of follow-up, patient's ocular remained stable. Conclusion: This is the third case of choroidal effusion associated with angiotensin II receptor blockers. Since idiosyncratic ciliochoroidal effusion is a diagnosis of exclusion, it is mandatory to rule out more frequent causes, such as inflammatory or malignant processes. PMID:28299016

  5. Acute Angle Closure Glaucoma with Capilllary Leak Syndrome Following Snake Bite

    PubMed Central

    George, Twinkle Ann; AV, Asha; Ravindran, Risha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Acute angle closure glaucoma is rarely seen as complication of snake bite.We report three cases of bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma with capillary leak syndrome and acute renal failure secondary to hematotoxic snake bites. We are also briefly discussing the association of capillary leak syndrome and angle closure glaucoma in hematotoxic snake bite. This is the first time an association between angle closure and capillary leak syndrome following snake bite is reported. Study type: Descriptive case series. Materials and Methods: Records of all patients admitted to ICU with snake bite were reviewed to identify cases developing acute angle closure glaucoma. These cases with acute angle closure glaucoma are analysed in detail for systemic condition. Diagnosis, management and outcome of cases are described Results: Of the 119 snake bites admitted, 47 patients had confirmed hematotoxic snake bite. Fifteen of these patients underwent hemodialysis for acute renal failure. Seven of them were diagnosed to have capillary leak syndrome and all of them complained of decreased vision. Three of the 7 cases had acute angle closure glaucoma on the second day of bite. One of the patients expired and other two recovered fully, both of them had normal IOP and good vision at one month follow-up. Conclusion: Acute angle closure glaucoma seems to be associated with systemic capillary leak syndrome in hematotoxic snake bite. High suspicion, early recognition, timely and appropriate treatment can prevent visual loss in this rare complication. PMID:25478432

  6. Bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma following a snake bite: Are we missing it?

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, K. V. Praveen; Kumar, S. Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We report a case series of acute angle closure following snake bite, their clinical features, treatment, and the outcomes. Materials and Methods: Ocular examination was done in all the snake bite victims admitted over 1-year period. The systemic status, presenting intraocular pressure (IOP), treatment instituted, and outcomes were recorded for all cases of acute angle closure. Results: Six patients developed angle closure following snake bite. Average IOP was in the range of 32–56 mmHg. Treatment was initiated as for cases of acute angle closure. Two patients succumbed and the other four recovered, had normal IOP at follow-up. Conclusion: Acute angle closure glaucoma is a rare complication of snake bite. Timely detection and management will result in good visual prognosis. Treating physicians should be aware of this rare sight-threatening complication so that a preliminary ophthalmic examination can be sought and the visual morbidity be prevented. PMID:26955216

  7. Optimal relative view angles for an object viewed multiple times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilani, Syed U.; Shende, Apoorva; Nguyen, Bao; Stilwell, Daniel J.

    2015-05-01

    Typically, the detection of an object of interest improves as we view the object from multiple angles. For cases where viewing angle matters, object detection can be improved further by optimally selecting the relative angles of multiple views. This motivates the search for viewing angles that maximize the expected probability of detection. Although our work is motivated by applications in subsea sensing, our fundamental analysis is easily adapted for other classes of applications. The specific challenge that motivates our work is the selection of optimal viewing angles for subsea sensing in which sonar is used for bathymetric imaging.

  8. Bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma associated with hydrochlorothiazide-induced hyponatraemia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sylvia H; Karanjia, Rustum; Chevrier, Robert L; Marshall, David H

    2014-12-04

    We report a case of a 67-year-old woman presenting with bilateral acute angle closure. On investigation, she was found to have bilateral ciliary effusions and profound hyponatraemia. Her effusions resolved with the cessation of hydrochlorothiazide and normalisation of her blood sodium levels by fluid restriction. This case displays a novel association of hyponatraemia as a possible mechanism for the development of bilateral acute angle closure.

  9. Body composition and phase angle in Russian children in remission from acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseytlin, G. Ja; Khomyakova, I. A.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Konovalova, M. V.; Vashura, A. Yu; Tretyak, A. V.; Godina, E. Z.; Rudnev, S. G.

    2010-04-01

    Elevated degree of body fatness and changes in other body composition parameters are known to be common effects of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children. In order to study peculiarities of somatic growth and development in ALL survivors, we describe the results of BIA body composition analysis of 112 boys and 108 girls aged 5-18 years in remission from ALL (remission time range 1-13 years) compared to data from the same number of age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n=220). Detrimental effect on height in ALL boys was observed, whereas girls experienced additional weight gain compared to healthy subjects. In ALL patients, resistance, body fat, and percent body fat were significantly increased. The reactance, phase angle, absolute and relative values of skeletal muscle and body cell mass were significantly decreased. Principal component analysis revealed an early prevalence of adiposity traits in the somatic growth and development of ALL girls compared to healthy controls.

  10. Acute angle closure glaucoma secondary to polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy – a devastating complication

    PubMed Central

    Baskaran, Prabu; Sindal, Manavi D.; Dhoble, Pankaja; Ramakrishnan, Seema; Rengaraj, Venkatesh; Ramulu, Pradeep

    2017-01-01

    Acute angle closure glaucoma (ACG) in the setting of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is a catastrophic complication that has been documented infrequently in literature. Ours is the second only report that describes hemorrhagic choroidal detachment as an event leading to acute angle closure glaucoma in PCV patients and the first one to describe the use of diode cyclophotocoagulation (CPC) for this condition. The purpose of this article is to familiarize readers with this entity that has an extremely dismal visual prognosis. Ours is a descriptive case report of two patients with PCV complicated by sudden onset hemorrhagic choroidal detachment (CD) and acute ACG. Both patients had severe pain with no perception of light at presentation with an acute angle closure attack. Both underwent diode CPC for pain relief and control of intraocular pressure (IOP). Both our patients did not regain any vision, but their pain was relieved by diode CPC. Both eyes eventually became phthisical. Acute ACG following massive hemorrhagic CD is a rare but grave complication of PCV, not amenable to treatment. Diode CPC is an effective palliative modality of management to achieve pain relief in such cases. PMID:28154791

  11. Bilateral acute angle closure developing due to use of ipratropium bromide and salbutamol.

    PubMed

    Kola, Mehmet; Hacıoğlu, Dilek; Erdöl, Hidayet; Türk, Adem

    2017-02-06

    Acute angle closure can be seen as a side effect of some medications that can be used systemically. In this article, clinical characteristics of 54-year-old female patient who applied to our clinic with bilateral acute angle closure and has been received nebulized form of salbutamol and ipratropium bromide due to asthma for 4 days was evaluated. Right and left eye IOP were measured as 50 and 48 mmHg. IOP was reduced with anti-glaucomatous treatment. and peripheral iridectomy was done, and then the patient was discharged. It is necessary to be careful to prevent contact with the eye of nebulized form of these drugs which may result in angle closure glaucoma when used systemically.

  12. Conventional and emerging treatments in the management of acute primary angle closure

    PubMed Central

    Boey, Pui Yi; Singhal, Shweta; Perera, Shamira A; Aung, Tin

    2012-01-01

    The management of acute primary angle closure is directed at lowering the intraocular pressure and relieving pupil block. Conventional treatment involves the use of medical treatment and laser peripheral iridotomy, respectively, as a means for achieving these aims. Newer therapeutic strategies have been described that are potentially useful adjuncts or alternatives to conventional treatment. Emerging strategies that lower intraocular pressure include anterior chamber paracentesis, as well as laser procedures such as iridoplasty and pupilloplasty. A possible alternative to relieving pupil block is lens extraction, and may be combined with adjunctive measures such as goniosynechiolysis and viscogoniosynechiolysis. Trabeculectomy has a limited role in the acute setting. This review paper reviews the current evidence regarding conventional and newer treatment modalities for acute primary angle closure. PMID:22536030

  13. Balloon-guided navigation technique to perform stenting in an acutely angled anterior cerebral artery.

    PubMed

    Cohen, José E; Gomori, John M; Moscovici, Samuel; Itshayek, Eyal

    2012-03-01

    The complex anatomic features of wide-necked anterior communicating artery aneurysms represent an endovascular challenge. Compliant balloons and microstents are frequently required to achieve aneurysm occlusion. When the angle between the A1 and A2 segments is acute, microcatheter navigation is hazardous, and may be difficult or sometimes impossible with standard techniques. We present our technique using a support balloon to facilitate guidewire engagement and navigation of A2, and to assist with microcatheterization in this unfavorable vascular anatomy.

  14. [Pregnancy-related acute kidney injury].

    PubMed

    Filipowicz, Ewa; Staszków, Monika

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) in obstetrics may be caused by the same disorders that are observed in the general population or may be specific for a pregnancy such as: preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome or acute fatty liver of pregnancy. The renal changes may be only temporary, and resolve within a few weeks postpartum, or may become irreversible leading to a progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In the article the most important pregnancy related syndromes associated with AKI have been shortly reviewed.

  15. Non-destructive microwave evaluation of TBC delamination induced by acute angle laser drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezer, H. K.; Li, Lin; Wu, Z.; Anderson, B.; Williams, P.

    2007-01-01

    Laser drilling has been applied to the production of cooling holes of various size and angles in the modern aerospace gas turbine components such as turbine blades, nozzle guide vanes, combustion chambers and afterburner. These parts are usually made of heat resistant nickel superalloys. The superalloy substrate is coated with yttria-stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) to protect them from reaching excessive temperatures in hot engine environments. Drilling the parts at acute angles to the surface is complicated because (i) multiple layers are being drilled through, (ii) the melt ejection and heat flow patterns around the hole are non-symmetrical and (iii) the drilling distance is greater than when drilling normal to the surface. In a previous investigation by the authors, delamination of TBC was addressed as a main problem of angled drilling and mechanisms involved were discussed. Characterization of delamination cracks was normally performed via metallographic techniques. It involves sectioning the samples using an abrasive cutting machine, grinding with successively finer silicon carbide paper up to the centre of the hole and polishing to allow optical microscopic analysis of the cracks. However, clamping and sectioning process of thermal-spray-coated workpieces can introduce cracks in brittle coatings due to the drag of the cut-off wheels. Hence, it is not possible to decide if the delamination is caused as a result of post-process sectioning or laser drilling. In this paper, a microwave non-destructive testing (NDT) technique is employed to evaluate the integrity of TBC after acute angle laser drilling. An Agilent 8510 XF network analyser operating over the frequency range of 45 MHz to 110 GHz was used to measure the amplitude and phase variations of scattered waves. The results significantly indicated the existence of delamination of 1-1.5 mm long at the TBC/substrate interface on the leading edge part of an acute-angled hole laser drilled

  16. The Relation Between Sacral Angle and Vertical Angle of Sacral Curvature and Lumbar Disc Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Ahmad; Haddadi, Kaveh; Khoshakhlagh, Mohammad; Ganjeh, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to determine the reliability and validity of a goniometric measurement of the vertical angle of the sacrum and sacral angle (SA), and their relationships to lumbar degeneration. A herniated lumbar disc is one of the most frequent medical issues. Investigators in a number of studies have reported associated risk factors for prevalent disc degeneration. Atypical lumbosacral angles and curvature are thought to contribute to the degradation of the spine by many researchers. This study analyzed 360 patients referred to our clinic from 2013 to 2015 due to low back pain. A cross-sectional case–control study was designed in order to compare the sagittal alignment of the lumbosacral area in 3 groups of patients suffering from LBP. A total 120 patients were in a control group with a normal lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 120 patients had lumbar disk herniation (LDH), and 120 patients had spinal stenosis. From the sagittal plan of lumbar MRI, SA and vertical angle of sacral curvature (VASC) were determined and then analyzed. The means of VASC in these groups were: 38.98 (SD: 6.36 ± 0.58), 40.89 (SD: 7.69 ± 0.69), and 40.54 (SD: 7.13 ± 0.92), respectively (P = 0.089). Moreover, studies of SA in 3 groups showed that the means of SA were: 39.30 (SD: 6.69 ± 0.63), 40.52 (SD: 7.47 ± 0.65), and 35.63 (SD: 6.07 ± 0.79), respectively. Relation between SA and spinal stenosis was just statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05). One significant limitation of our study is the lack of standing MRI for increased accuracy of measurement. However, we were reluctant to give patients needless exposure to radiation from conventional X-ray, and instead used MRI scans. We did not find any significant correlation between the VASC and LDH in lumbar MRI. Also, SA is not an independent risk factor for LDH in men and women. We suggested that there are several biomechanical factors involved in LDH. PMID:26871821

  17. On some relations between advancing, receding and Young's contact angles.

    PubMed

    Chibowski, Emil

    2007-05-31

    Problems of experimental determination and theoretical verification of equilibrium contact angles are discussed basing on the literature data. A relationship between the advancing and receding contact angles versus the equilibrium contact angle is described and then verified using the literature contact angles determined on paraffin wax and polypropylene. Using the proposed relationship and experimentally determined equilibrium contact angles, obtained by plotting the advancing and receding contact angles versus the contact angle hysteresis or by applying vibration of the system liquid drop/solid surface, it is found that the same value of the surface free energy for paraffin wax is calculated from the contact angles of water and ethylene glycol. However, in the case of polypropylene some inconsistency appears between the equilibrium contact angles of the probe liquid used and the calculated surface free energy. More experimental data of the equilibrium contact angle are needed to verify further the relationship.

  18. Oseltamivir (Tamiflu)-induced bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma and transient myopia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Woong; Lee, Ji Eun; Choi, Hee Young; Lee, Jong Soo

    2014-01-01

    A 27-year-old woman developed bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma (AACG) and transient myopia after taking oseltamivir for four days. On the fourth day, she received systemic and topical intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering agents, and IOP decreased in both eyes. However, her visual acuity was unchanged. A myopic shift of -5.25 D OD and -5.0 D OS was estimated to have occurred in the acute phase. A-scan ultrasonography and Pentacam showed markedly shallow anterior chambers and increased lens thickness. Ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed an annular ciliochoroidal effusion with forward displacement of the lens-iris diaphragm. Ciliochoroidal effusion and transient myopia were resolved after discontinuation of oseltamivir. PMID:23571265

  19. Primary Phacoemulsification and Intraocular Lens Implantation for Acute Primary Angle-Closure

    PubMed Central

    Su, Wei-Wen; Chen, Phil Yeong-Fung; Hsiao, Ching-Hsi; Chen, Henry Shen-Lih

    2011-01-01

    Background To investigate the effect of primary phacoemulsification on intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with acute primary angle-closure (PAC) and coexisting cataract. Methodology Sixteen eyes of 14 patients with acute PAC received phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation as initial management for medically uncontrolled IOP in a retrospective chart review. The effects on IOP, vision, anterior chamber depth (ACD), and number of antiglaucoma medications were evaluated. Principal Findings The postoperative IOP was reduced in 16 eyes (100%). The mean ± standard deviation preoperative IOP was 48.81±16.83 mm Hg, which decreased postoperatively to 16.46±10.67 mm Hg at 1 day, 9.43±3.03 mm Hg at 1 week, 9.49±2.14 mm Hg at 2 weeks, 10.78±3.56 mm Hg at 1 month, and 10.70±2.80 mm Hg at 3 months (p<0.001). The mean number of antiglaucoma medications decreased from 3.56±1.14 to 0.13±0.34 (p<0.001). The average preoperative ACD was 2.08±0.35 mm, which increased to 3.59±0.33 mm after surgery (p<0.001). Visual acuity (converted into logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR]) improved from 1.14±0.71 to 0.73±0.53 (p = 0.001). Conclusions Primary phacoemulsification plus intraocular lens implantation lowered IOP, reduced the use of antiglaucoma medications, and improved vision in patients with acute PAC. This is a safe and effective method of IOP control and can be considered a first treatment option in managing patients with acute PAC and coexisting cataract. PMID:21629644

  20. Characteristics of Ultrasonic Linear Motor that Incorporates Two Transducers at an Acute Angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Tsunoji, Masaki; Tsujino, Jiromaru

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we have developed an ultrasonic linear motor that incorporates two transducers at an acute angle. The two transducers are used to generate the vertical and horizontal vibration components. The complex vibration is excited using two electrical sources with a phase shift. Ultrasonic motors have unique characteristics such as silent motion and absence of magnetic noise. These characteristics are suitable for use in hospitals and so on. Therefore, we focus on developing actuators for use in a medical bed, specifically a bedsore prevention bed. A study of the vibration characteristics of the motor showed that the resonant frequencies of the transducers were appropriate, although the vibration amplitude of one transducer was less than that of the other. A study of the load characteristics showed that a no-load speed of 267 mm/s and a maximum thrust of 40 N were obtained.

  1. [Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI)].

    PubMed

    Schweisfurth, H; Sopivnik, I; Moog, R

    2014-09-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is primarily caused by transfusion of fresh frozen plasma or platelet concentrates and occurs by definition within 6 hours after transfusion with acute shortness of breath, hypoxemia and radiographically detectable bilateral infiltrates of the lung. Mostly leucocyte antibodies in the plasma of the blood donor (immunogenic TRALI) are responsible. Apart from antibodies, other substances such as biologically active lipids, mainly arising from the storage of platelet and red blood cell concentrates, can activate neutrophilic granulocytes and trigger a non-immunogenic TRALI. Pathophysiologically, granulocytes in the capillaries of the lung vessels release oxygen radicals and enzymes which damage the endothelial cells and cause pulmonary edema. Therapeutically, nasal oxygen administration may be sufficient. In severe cases, mechanical ventilation, invasive hemodynamic monitoring and fluid intake are required. Diuretics should be avoided. The administration of glucocorticoids is controversial. Antibody-related TRALI reactions occurred mainly after transfusion of fresh frozen plasma, which had been obtained from womenimmunized during pregnancy against leukocyte antigens. Therefore, in Germany, since 2009 only plasma from female donors without a history of prior or current pregnancy or negative testing for antibodies against HLA I, II or HNA has been used with the result that since then no TRALI-related death has been registered.

  2. A 30 year old man with an acute presentation of a cerebellopontine angle lesion.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Nancy; Berthelet, France; Bojanowski, Michel W

    2013-03-01

    Schwannomas are slow-growing tumors with symptoms manifesting progressively. We report the case of a patient who manifested a sudden loss of consciousness as clinical presentation of an intracranial schwannoma with no acute hemorrhage or hydrocephalus. A 30-year-old male presented comatose and posturing. Cerebral CT revealed an extra-axial lesion with a heterogeneous enhancement and a cystic component located on the right cerebellopontine angle (CPA), displacing the brain stem. No acute hemorrhage or hydrocephalus was documented. Through a retrosigmoid suboccipital craniotomy, an extended subtotal tumor resection was performed. The patient experienced no functional hearing impairment and resumed his daily-life activities 3 months after surgery. Histopathological examination was compatible with a benign schwannoma. An exuberant lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate was found in many areas, signing the presence of an unusual inflammatory reaction with adjacent important intratumoral edema. We propose that the exuberant inflammatory infiltrate and the associated intratumoral edema acted as determining elements in the increase of mass effect and sudden clinical deterioration.

  3. Uveal effusion following acute primary angle-closure: a retrospective case series

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian-Gang; Li, Jian-Jun; Tian, Hua; Li, Yan-Hong; Gong, Yu-Jing; Su, An-Le; He, Na

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the morphological changes in anterior segment in Chinese patients with uveal effusion (UE) after the attack of acute primary angle-closure (APAC) using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), and to assess the clinical course and prognosis of the disease. METHODS In a retrospective case series, 26 eyes in 26 consecutive patients diagnosed with UE after the treatment of intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering medication for the attack of APAC were enrolled. The unaffected fellow eyes served as controls. The morphological changes were observed by ultrasonography, slit lamp microscopy and gonioscopy. UBM was used to assess the degree and extent of effusion based on the analysis of parameters associated with UE. RESULTS The mean IOP was 9.2 (SD 2.1) mm Hg at the diagnosis of UE after IOP-lowering medication, while 14.1 (SD, 2.6) mm Hg in the fellow eyes (P=0.000). The anterior chamber depth (ACD) (P=0.000), angle opening distance at 500 µm (AOD500) (P<0.01) and anterior chamber angle (ACA) (P<0.05) were decreased significantly, while ciliary body thickness (CBT) (P<0.05) increased significantly in UE eyes. UE grade analysis showed 7 eyes in grade 1, 9 eyes in grade 2, and 10 eyes in grade 3. Quadrant scores were performed of 4 eyes in 1 quadrant, 3 eyes in 3 quadrants, and 19 eyes in 4 quadrants. There was the positive correlation between grade and quadrant score (r=0.644, P=0.000). The effusion on all eyes were recovered after medication, which mean IOP was 13.9 (SD, 2.8) mm Hg. CONCLUSION UE is a frequent complication in Chinese patients after the attack of APAC, partially associated with hypotony. The severity of UE is correlation with height of effusion, extent of detachment, and shallower ACD. PMID:28393032

  4. Amphetamine Abuse Related Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, O'Dene; Kumar, Rajan; Yeruva, Sri Lakshmi Hyndavi; Curry, Bryan H.

    2016-01-01

    Amphetamine abuse is a global problem. The cardiotoxic manifestations like acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure, or arrhythmia related to misuse of amphetamine and its synthetic derivatives have been documented but are rather rare. Amphetamine-related AMI is even rarer. We report two cases of men who came to emergency department (ED) with chest pain, palpitation, or seizure and were subsequently found to have myocardial infarction associated with the use of amphetamines. It is crucial that, with increase in amphetamine abuse, clinicians are aware of this potentially dire complication. Patients with low to intermediate risk for coronary artery disease with atypical presentation may benefit from obtaining detailed substance abuse history and urine drug screen if deemed necessary. PMID:26998366

  5. Amphetamine Abuse Related Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Archana; Lewis, O'Dene; Kumar, Rajan; Yeruva, Sri Lakshmi Hyndavi; Curry, Bryan H

    2016-01-01

    Amphetamine abuse is a global problem. The cardiotoxic manifestations like acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure, or arrhythmia related to misuse of amphetamine and its synthetic derivatives have been documented but are rather rare. Amphetamine-related AMI is even rarer. We report two cases of men who came to emergency department (ED) with chest pain, palpitation, or seizure and were subsequently found to have myocardial infarction associated with the use of amphetamines. It is crucial that, with increase in amphetamine abuse, clinicians are aware of this potentially dire complication. Patients with low to intermediate risk for coronary artery disease with atypical presentation may benefit from obtaining detailed substance abuse history and urine drug screen if deemed necessary.

  6. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI).

    PubMed

    Roberts, George H

    2004-01-01

    Transfusion is an inevitable event in the life of many individuals. Transfusion medicine personnel attempt to provide blood products that will result in a safe and harmless transfusion. However, this is not always possible since no laboratory test gives totally accurate and reliable results all the time and testing in routine transfusion services is devoted primarily to the identification of red blood cell problems. Thus, when patients are transfused, several possible adverse effects may occur in the transfused patient even though quality testing indicates no potential problem. These adverse events include infectious complications, hemolytic reactions, anaphylaxis, urticaria, circulatory overload, transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease, chills and fever, immunomodulation, and transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI).

  7. Transfusion-related acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Federico, Anne

    2009-02-01

    Approximately one person in 5,000 will experience an episode of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) in conjunction with the transfusion of whole blood or blood components. Its hallmarks include hypoxemia, dyspnea, fever, hypotension, and bilateral pulmonary edema (noncardiogenic). The mortality for reported cases is 16.3%. The incidence and mortality may be even higher than estimated because of under-recognition and under-reporting. Although TRALI was identified as a clinical entity in the 1980s, a lack of consensus regarding a definition was present until 2004. An exact cause has yet to be identified; however, there are two theories regarding the etiology: the "antibody" and the "two-hit" theories. These theories involve both donor and recipient factors. Further education and research are needed to assist in the development of strategies for the prevention and treatment of TRALI.

  8. Bilateral acute closed angle glaucoma associated with the discontinuation of escitalopram: a case report

    PubMed Central

    AlQuorain, Sara; Alfaraj, Sukayna; Alshahrani, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    A 45-year-old woman presented to the Emergency Department complaining of severe headache for 3 hours duration associated with bilateral blurred vision, photophobia, and one attack of vomiting. Her clinical examination revealed normal vital signs and decrease in visual acuity with hazy cornea bilaterally. There were no signs of increased intracranial pressure and no neck rigidity or meningeal signs. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral acute closed angle glaucoma (AACG) with intraocular pressure of 60 mmHg in both eyes. She was using escitalopram for the treatment of depression, which was the only known risk factor for her condition. Standard treatment for AACG was provided. It included topical β-blocker, α agonists, and acetazolamide. This was followed by bilateral peripheral iridotomy. Follow-up intraocular pressure measurement revealed a value of 5 mmHg after 24 hours, indicating complete recovery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case to describe AACG after stopping the medication. It is highly important that clinicians be aware of this risk factor for AACG and have high index of suspicion in such patients with vision-threatening condition even after discontinuing the medication, because the risk persists for some time. PMID:27660499

  9. Acute epididymitis: a work-related injury?

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, E. K.; Anderson, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    Occupational medicine physicians frequently are presented with requests by employers to determine the work-relatedness of medical illnesses or injuries. Occasionally, this involves a sudden onset of acute epididymitis in the male employee after strenuous activity in the workplace. Because the vast majority of acute epididymitis cases have an underlying sexually transmitted disease component, this poses a real dilemma for the consulting physician. This article discusses the etiology and pathogenesis of acute epididymitis along with its epidemiologic significance and reviews workers' compensation and its possible legal interpretation when acute epididymitis occurs at the worksite. PMID:8691501

  10. Focused-ion-beam-fabricated homogeneous acute-angled Au nanorods for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivashanmugan, Kundan; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Haochih Liu, Bernard

    2015-05-01

    Well-ordered acute-angled Au nanorod (NR) arrays were fabricated using a focused ion beam (FIB) (fibAu_NR). The angle between the NRs and the substrate was tilted at 30-90°. A fibAu_NR with an angle of less than 90° significantly increased the effect of surface-enhanced Raman scattering, which was evaluated using low-concentration rose bengal (<10-5 M) as the molecular test probe. The results show that an angled NR surface produces a strong local electromagnetic effect owing to a large number of Raman active sites. In addition, an optimized fibAu_NR was found to distinguish cyanuric acid in milk solution with good reproducibility.

  11. Combined Acute Haemolytic and Secondary Angle Closure Glaucoma following Spontaneous Intraocular Haemorrhages in a Patient on Warfarin

    PubMed Central

    Andreatta, Walter; Boukouvala, Stavroula; Bansal, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Background To report the first described case of combined haemolytic and acute angle closure glaucoma secondary to spontaneous intraocular haemorrhages in a patient on excessive anticoagulation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reported in the literature presenting with raised intraocular pressure due to both mechanisms. Case Description A 90-year-old woman presented with acute pain and reduction in vision in the left eye. Her intraocular pressure (IOP) was 55 mm Hg. There were red tinted blood cells in the anterior chamber giving it a reddish hue. The patient was known to have advanced wet macular degeneration. She was taking oral warfarin for atrial fibrillation. Her international normalised ratio (INR) was 7.7. B-scan ultrasound of posterior segment showed vitreous and suprachoroidal haemorrhages. An ultrabiomicroscopic examination confirmed open angles. A diagnosis of haemolytic glaucoma secondary to intraocular haemorrhages was made. The IOP was controlled medically. Warfarin was withdrawn and oral vitamin K therapy was initiated leading to a rapid INR reduction. Three days later, her anterior chamber became progressively shallower causing a secondary acute angle closure which was managed medically. After 2 months, the left IOP was well-controlled without any medications and the eye was not inflamed. Her vision in that eye remained perception of light. Conclusion Patients with suprachoroidal haemorrhages should be closely monitored as they might subsequently develop acute angle closure despite an initially open angle and well-controlled INR and IOP. Excessive anticoagulation needs to be prevented to minimise the risk of sight-threatening complications. PMID:27990116

  12. Transfusion related acute lung injury presenting with acute dyspnoea: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Haji, Altaf Gauhar; Sharma, Shekhar; Vijaykumar, DK; Paul, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Transfusion-related acute lung injury is emerging as a common cause of transfusion-related adverse events. However, awareness about this entity in the medical fraternity is low and it, consequently, remains a very under-reported and often an under-diagnosed complication of transfusion therapy. Case presentation We report a case of a 46-year old woman who developed acute respiratory and hemodynamic instability following a single unit blood transfusion in the postoperative period. Investigation results were non-specific and a diagnosis of transfusion-related acute lung injury was made after excluding other possible causes of acute lung injury. She responded to symptomatic management with ventilatory and vasopressor support and recovered completely over the next 72 hours. Conclusion The diagnosis of transfusion-related acute lung injury relies on excluding other causes of acute pulmonary edema following transfusion, such as sepsis, volume overload, and cardiogenic pulmonary edema. All plasma containing blood products have been implicated in transfusion-related acute lung injury, with the majority being linked to whole blood, packed red blood cells, platelets, and fresh-frozen plasma. The pathogenesis of transfusion-related acute lung injury may be explained by a "two-hit" hypothesis, involving priming of the inflammatory machinery and then activation of this primed mechanism. Treatment is supportive, with prognosis being substantially better than for most other causes of acute lung injury. PMID:18957111

  13. Severe hypertriglyceridemia-related acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Stefanutti, Claudia; Labbadia, Giancarlo; Morozzi, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a potentially life-threatening complication of severe hypertriglyceridemia. In some cases, inborn errors of metabolism such as lipoprotein lipase deficiency, apoprotein C-II deficiency, and familial hypertriglyceridemia have been reported as causes of severe hypertriglyceridemia. More often, severe hypertriglyceridemia describes various clinical conditions characterized by high plasma levels of triglycerides (>1000 mg/dL), chylomicron remnants, or intermediate density lipoprotein like particles, and/or chylomicrons. International guidelines on the management of acute pancreatitis are currently available. Standard therapeutic measures are based on the use of lipid-lowering agents (fenofibrate, gemfibrozil, niacin, Ω-3 fatty acids), low molecular weight heparin, and insulin in diabetic patients. However, when standard medical therapies have failed, non-pharmacological approaches based upon the removal of triglycerides with therapeutic plasma exchange can also provide benefit to patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis. Plasma exchange could be very helpful in reducing triglycerides levels during the acute phase of hyperlipidemic pancreatitis, and in the prevention of recurrence. The current evidence on management of acute pancreatitis and severe hypertriglyceridemia, focusing on symptoms, treatment and potential complications is reviewed herein.

  14. Usefulness of the QRS-T angle to improve long-term risk stratification of patients with acute myocardial infarction and depressed left ventricular ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Raposeiras-Roubín, Sergio; Virgós-Lamela, Alejandro; Bouzas-Cruz, Noelia; López-López, Andrea; Castiñeira-Busto, María; Fernández-Garda, Rita; García-Castelo, Alberto; Rodríguez-Mañero, Moisés; García-Acuña, José María; Abu-Assi, Emad; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2014-04-15

    In light of the low cost, the widespread availability of the electrocardiogram, and the increasing economic burden of the health-related problems, we aimed to analyze the prognostic value of automatic frontal QRS-T angle to predict mortality in patients with left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). About 467 consecutive patients discharged with diagnosis of AMI and with LV ejection fraction ≤40% were followed during 3.9 years (2.1 to 5.9). From them, 217 patients (47.5%) died. The frontal QRS-T angle was higher in patients who died (116.6±52.8 vs 77.9±55.1, respectively, p<0.001). The QRS-T angle value of 90° was the most accurate to predict all-cause cardiac death. After multivariate analysis, frontal QRS-T angle remained as an excellent predictor of all-cause and cardiac deaths, increasing the mortality 6% per each 10°. For the global mortality, the hazard ratio for a QRS-T angle>90° was 2.180 (1.558 to 3.050), and for the combined end point of cardiac death and appropriate implantable cardioverter defribrillator therapy, it was 2.385 (1.570 to 3.623). This independent predictive value was maintained even after adjusting by bundle brunch block, ST-elevation AMI, and its localization. In conclusion, a wide automatic frontal QRS-T angle (>90°) is a good discriminator of long-term mortality in patients with LV systolic dysfunction after an AMI. The ability to easily measure it from a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram together with its prognostic value makes the frontal QRS-T angle an attractive tool to help clinicians to improve risk stratification of those patients.

  15. A rare cause of acute abdomen in adults: Parasitic infection-related acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Küpeli, Aydın Hakan; Özdemir, Murat; Topuz, Sezgin; Sözütek, Alper; Paksoy, Tuğba

    2015-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a common parasitic disease all over the world, especially in less developed countries. Acute appendicitis related to parasitic infection is a rare condition. Parasitic infections should be kept in mind in patients who are admitted to the emergency department with acute abdomen, especially in endemic areas.

  16. Acute Improvement of Vertical Jump Performance After Isometric Squats Depends on Knee Angle and Vertical Jumping Ability.

    PubMed

    Tsoukos, Athanasios; Bogdanis, Gregory C; Terzis, Gerasimos; Veligekas, Panagiotis

    2016-08-01

    Tsoukos, A, Bogdanis, GC, Terzis, G, and Veligekas, P. Acute improvement of vertical jump performance after isometric squats depends on knee angle and vertical jumping ability. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2250-2257, 2016-This study examined the acute effects of maximum isometric squats at 2 different knee angles (90 or 140°) on countermovement jump (CMJ) performance in power athletes. Fourteen national-level male track and field power athletes completed 3 main trials (2 experimental and 1 control) in a randomized and counterbalanced order 1 week apart. Countermovement jump performance was evaluated using a force-plate before and 15 seconds, 3, 6, 9, and 12 minutes after 3 sets of 3 seconds maximum isometric contractions with 1-minute rest in between, from a squat position with knee angle set at 90 or 140°. Countermovement jump performance was improved compared with baseline only in the 140° condition by 3.8 ± 1.2% on the 12th minute of recovery (p = 0.027), whereas there was no change in CMJ height in the 90° condition. In the control condition, there was a decrease in CMJ performance over time, reaching -3.6 ± 1.2% (p = 0.049) after 12 minutes of recovery. To determine the possible effects of baseline jump performance on subsequent CMJ performance, subjects were divided into 2 groups ("high jumpers" and "low jumpers"). The baseline CMJ values of "high jumpers" and "low jumpers" differed significantly (CMJ: 45.1 ± 2.2 vs. 37.1 ± 3.9 cm, respectively, p = 0.001). Countermovement jump was increased only in the "high jumpers" group by 5.4 ± 1.4% (p = 0.001) and 7.4 ± 1.2% (p = 0.001) at the knee angles of 90 and 140°, respectively. This improvement was larger at the 140° angle (p = 0.049). Knee angle during isometric squats and vertical jumping ability are important determinants of the acute CMJ performance increase observed after a conditioning activity.

  17. Relative contributions of optic flow, bearing, and splay angle information to lane keeping.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Chen, Jing

    2010-09-22

    Heading from optic flow, bearing, and splay angle information can all be used for lane keeping on a straight path. Here we investigated the relative contributions of these three visual cues to accurate lane-keeping control in a novel way. The displays simulated observers steering a vehicle down a straight path defined by a pair of posts (providing bearing angles only) or a segment of lane edges (providing bearing and splay angles) at a fixed viewing distance, and the ground contained no flow, sparse flow, or dense flow. Observers used a joystick to control the vehicle's lateral movement to stay in the center of the lane while facing random perturbations to both the vehicle's lateral position and orientation. The lateral position perturbation affected the use of both splay and bearing angle cues, but the vehicle orientation perturbation only affected the use of bearing angles. We found that performance improved as more flow information was added to the scene regardless of the availability of bearing or splay angle information. In the presence of splay angles, observers would ignore bearing and rely mainly on splay angles for lane keeping.

  18. A field calibration method to eliminate the error caused by relative tilt on roll angle measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jingya; Wang, Zhao; Huang, Junhui; Yu, Bao; Gao, Jianmin

    2016-11-01

    The roll angle measurement method based on a heterodyne interferometer is an efficient technique for its high precision and environmental noise immunity. The optical layout bases on a polarization-assisted conversion of the roll angle into an optical phase shift, read by a beam passing through the objective plate actuated by the roll rotation. The measurement sensitivity or the gain coefficient G is calibrated before. However, a relative tilt between the laser and objective plate always exist due to the tilt of the laser and the roll of the guide in the field long rail measurement. The relative tilt affect the value of G, thus result in the roll angle measurement error. In this paper, a method for field calibration of G is presented to eliminate the measurement error above. The field calibration layout turns the roll angle into an optical path change (OPC) by a rotary table. Thus, the roll angle can be obtained from the OPC read by a two-frequency interferometer. Together with the phase shift, an accurate G in field measurement can be obtained and the measurement error can be corrected. The optical system of the field calibration method is set up and the experiment results are given. Contrasted with the Renishaw XL-80 for calibration, the proposed field calibration method can obtain the accurate G in the field rail roll angle measurement.

  19. [Acute myelitis related to hepatitis A after travel to Senegal].

    PubMed

    Ficko, C; Imbert, P; Mechaï, F; Barruet, R; Nicand, E; Rapp, C

    2010-02-01

    Neurological complications are rare following hepatitis A. Acute myelitis is even more uncommon. The purpose of this report is to describe a case of acute myelitis related to hepatitis A virus (HAV) in a 43-year-old-woman returning from Senegal. Diagnosis of myelitis was confirmed by spinal MRI and detection of anti-HAV Ig M antibodies in serum. The patient made a spontaneous clinical recovery in one month. Spinal MRI findings were normal at three months. Hepatitis A should be considered in the diagnostic approach to acute myelitis in returning travelers and patients living in highly endemic countries where prophylactic vaccination is unavailable.

  20. Visual angle is the critical variable mediating gain-related effects in manual control

    PubMed Central

    Haibach, Pamela. S.; Newell, Karl. M.

    2008-01-01

    Theoretically visual gain has been identified as a control variable in models of isometric force. However, visual gain is typically confounded with visual angle and distance, and the relative contribution of visual gain, distance, and angle to the control of force remains unclear. This study manipulated visual gain, distance, and angle in three experiments to examine the visual information properties used to regulate the control of a constant level of isometric force. Young adults performed a flexion motion of the index finger of the dominant hand in 20 s trials under a range of parameter values of the three visual variables. The findings demonstrate that the amount and structure of the force fluctuations were organized around the variable of visual angle, rather than gain or distance. Furthermore, the amount and structure of the force fluctuations changed considerably up to 1°, with little change higher than a 1° visual angle. Visual angle is the critical informational variable for the visuomotor system during the control of isometric force. PMID:16604313

  1. Experimental models of hepatotoxicity related to acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Michaël; Vinken, Mathieu; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Acute liver failure can be the consequence of various etiologies, with most cases arising from drug-induced hepatotoxicity in Western countries. Despite advances in this field, the management of acute liver failure continues to be one of the most challenging problems in clinical medicine. The availability of adequate experimental models is of crucial importance to provide a better understanding of this condition and to allow identification of novel drug targets, testing the efficacy of new therapeutic interventions and acting as models for assessing mechanisms of toxicity. Experimental models of hepatotoxicity related to acute liver failure rely on surgical procedures, chemical exposure or viral infection. Each of these models has a number of strengths and weaknesses. This paper specifically reviews commonly used chemical in vivo and in vitro models of hepatotoxicity associated with acute liver failure. PMID:26631581

  2. Unusual Presentation of Spasm of Near Reflex Mimicking Large-Angle Acute Acquired Comitant Esotropia

    PubMed Central

    Shanker, Varshini; Nigam, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We report the case of an 11-year-old boy who presented with sudden esotropia, binocular diplopia, and blurred vision. The patient was neurologically normal. He had a large, constant, comitant, alternating esotropia associated with minimal accommodative spasm. Ocular motility and pupillary reactions were normal. He was diagnosed to have spasm of the near reflex presenting as acute onset of esotropia. The esotropia was persistent despite treatment and eventually resolved with prolonged cycloplegic therapy. This unusual case illustrates that spasm of the near reflex can have unique and variable presentations. Spasm of the near reflex needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of every case of acute, acquired, comitant esotropia. This is the first case of spasm of the near reflex where persistent esotropia is reported in the absence of any neurological disorder. PMID:27928354

  3. Angles-only relative navigation and closed-loop guidance for spacecraft proximity operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jianjun; Gong, Baichun; Yuan, Jianping; Zhang, Zhaofei

    2016-11-01

    This research investigates angles-only relative navigation and closed-loop guidance algorithm for spacecraft mid-range orbital proximity operations when the orbital maneuver allows for range observability. Emphasis and contribution are on developing angles-only relative navigation and guidance coupling algorithm in the context of Clohessy-Wiltshire and Tschauner-Hempel dynamics. Observability analysis of the relative state is done and the general mathematical expression of the observable condition is obtained. Coupling relationship between the angles-only relative navigation and the multi-pulse sliding guidance is discussed and its analytic expression is derived. A novel closed-loop guidance scheme is designed based on the coupling relationship and unscented kalman filter. Two-body Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to evaluate the validity and test the performance of the closed-loop system. The sensitivities of the navigation and guidance accuracy to the line-of-sight angles accuracy, initial separation and initial state uncertainties, number of pulses, and dynamics are presented and discussed.

  4. Age-related changes in muscle strength and spinal kyphosis angles in an elderly Japanese population

    PubMed Central

    Kasukawa, Yuji; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Hongo, Michio; Ishikawa, Yoshinori; Kudo, Daisuke; Suzuki, Masazumi; Mizutani, Takashi; Kimura, Ryouta; Ono, Yuichi; Shimada, Yoichi

    2017-01-01

    Lumbar kyphosis and the decreased mobility of the lumbar spine increase the risk of falls and impair both the quality of life and the ability to perform activities of daily living. However, in the elderly Japanese population, little is known about the age-related changes and sex-related differences in muscle strength, including of the upper and lower extremities and back extensors. An adequate kyphotic or lordotic angle has also not been determined. In this study, we evaluated the age-related changes in muscle strength and spinal kyphosis in 252 males and 320 females ≥50 years of age. Grip, back extensor, hip flexor, and knee extensor strength; thoracic and lumbar kyphosis; and spinal inclination in the neutral standing position were assessed, together with the range of motion of the thoracic and lumbar spine and spinal inclination. Grip strength, back extensor strength, and the strength of the hip flexors and knee extensors decreased significantly with aging, both in males (P<0.0001) and in females (P=0.0015 to P<0.0001). The lumbar but not the thoracic kyphosis angle decreased significantly with aging, only in females (P<0.0001). Spinal inclination increased significantly with aging in both males (P=0.002) and females (P<0.0001). Back extensor strength and the thoracic kyphosis angle were significant variables influencing the lumbar kyphosis angle in both sexes. Spinal inclination correlated significantly with both the lumbar kyphosis angle and hip flexor strength in males, as well as with the lumbar kyphosis angle in females. PMID:28260870

  5. Age-related changes in muscle strength and spinal kyphosis angles in an elderly Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Kasukawa, Yuji; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Hongo, Michio; Ishikawa, Yoshinori; Kudo, Daisuke; Suzuki, Masazumi; Mizutani, Takashi; Kimura, Ryouta; Ono, Yuichi; Shimada, Yoichi

    2017-01-01

    Lumbar kyphosis and the decreased mobility of the lumbar spine increase the risk of falls and impair both the quality of life and the ability to perform activities of daily living. However, in the elderly Japanese population, little is known about the age-related changes and sex-related differences in muscle strength, including of the upper and lower extremities and back extensors. An adequate kyphotic or lordotic angle has also not been determined. In this study, we evaluated the age-related changes in muscle strength and spinal kyphosis in 252 males and 320 females ≥50 years of age. Grip, back extensor, hip flexor, and knee extensor strength; thoracic and lumbar kyphosis; and spinal inclination in the neutral standing position were assessed, together with the range of motion of the thoracic and lumbar spine and spinal inclination. Grip strength, back extensor strength, and the strength of the hip flexors and knee extensors decreased significantly with aging, both in males (P<0.0001) and in females (P=0.0015 to P<0.0001). The lumbar but not the thoracic kyphosis angle decreased significantly with aging, only in females (P<0.0001). Spinal inclination increased significantly with aging in both males (P=0.002) and females (P<0.0001). Back extensor strength and the thoracic kyphosis angle were significant variables influencing the lumbar kyphosis angle in both sexes. Spinal inclination correlated significantly with both the lumbar kyphosis angle and hip flexor strength in males, as well as with the lumbar kyphosis angle in females.

  6. Measurement errors related to contact angle analysis of hydrogel and silicone hydrogel contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Read, Michael L; Morgan, Philip B; Maldonado-Codina, Carole

    2009-11-01

    This work sought to undertake a comprehensive investigation of the measurement errors associated with contact angle assessment of curved hydrogel contact lens surfaces. The contact angle coefficient of repeatability (COR) associated with three measurement conditions (image analysis COR, intralens COR, and interlens COR) was determined by measuring the contact angles (using both sessile drop and captive bubble methods) for three silicone hydrogel lenses (senofilcon A, balafilcon A, lotrafilcon A) and one conventional hydrogel lens (etafilcon A). Image analysis COR values were about 2 degrees , whereas intralens COR values (95% confidence intervals) ranged from 4.0 degrees (3.3 degrees , 4.7 degrees ) (lotrafilcon A, captive bubble) to 10.2 degrees (8.4 degrees , 12.1 degrees ) (senofilcon A, sessile drop). Interlens COR values ranged from 4.5 degrees (3.7 degrees , 5.2 degrees ) (lotrafilcon A, captive bubble) to 16.5 degrees (13.6 degrees , 19.4 degrees ) (senofilcon A, sessile drop). Measurement error associated with image analysis was shown to be small as an absolute measure, although proportionally more significant for lenses with low contact angle. Sessile drop contact angles were typically less repeatable than captive bubble contact angles. For sessile drop measures, repeatability was poorer with the silicone hydrogel lenses when compared with the conventional hydrogel lens; this phenomenon was not observed for the captive bubble method, suggesting that methodological factors related to the sessile drop technique (such as surface dehydration and blotting) may play a role in the increased variability of contact angle measurements observed with silicone hydrogel contact lenses.

  7. Effect of relative humidity on contact angle of inkjet-printed evaporating colloidal drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhasatia, Viral; Joshi, Abhijit; Sun, Ying

    2010-11-01

    The deposition behavior of inkjet-printed aqueous colloidal drops onto glass and polymer (PEN and PET) substrates has been investigated by using fluorescence microscopy, a high-resolution CCD camera, and scanning electron microscopy. Real-time side-view images show that the contact angle of an evaporating colloidal drop is a function of the ambient humidity. The relative humidity also affects the extent to which the drop is able to spread after impacting a substrate, the evaporation rate at the drop surface, and the evaporatively-driven flow inside the drop that drives the suspended particles towards the contact line. The difference between the contact line velocity and liquid velocity at the drop contact line induced by evaporation creates a larger contact angle compared to that of the case without evaporation. This increase in contact angle becomes more significant for a low ambient humidity. Results also show that the particle deposition area and pattern change with the ambient humidity.

  8. The Black Hole Mass - Pitch Angle Relation of Type I AGN In Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Amanda; Jones, Logan; Hughes, John A.; Barrows, R. Scott; Kennefick, Julia D.

    2017-01-01

    A relationship between the mass of supermassive black holes, M, at the center of galaxies and the pitch angle, P, a measure of tightness of spiral arms, was recently reported by Berrier, et al. (2013 ApJ 769, 132) for late type galaxies. The relationship, established for a local sample, shows that spiral galaxies with tighter pitch angles host higher mass black holes. In this work, we explore the M-P relation for a sample of 50 low to moderate redshift (0.04relations to estimate black-hole mass. Pitch angles were measured using a 2DFFT technique (Davis, et al., 2012 ApJS 199, 33). We find that the M-P relation for the higher redshift, AGN sample differs from that of the local sample and discuss the possibility of AGN feedback by looking at a proposed Fundamental Plane for late-type galaxies - a correlation between bulge mass, disk mass, and spiral-arm pitch angle (Davis, et al. 2015, ApJ 802, L13).

  9. Acute myocardial infarction as a finding of acute promyelocytic leukemia-related coagulation disorder.

    PubMed

    Özkurt, Zübeyde N; Aypar, Eda; Sarifakiogullari, Serpil; Taçoy, Gülten; Özdag, Murat; Kahraman, Seda; Çengel, Atiye

    2015-12-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has one of the most favorable prognoses among other leukemia subtypes. However, the major cause of mortality in APL is disseminated intravascular coagulation at the presentation. We present a case of acute myocardial infarction (MI) at the time of APL diagnosis before treatment. The patient suffered from chest pain, sweating and giddiness. He was hypoxic, hypotensive and bradycardic. ECG showed inferior MI. Unfractioned heparin infusion (850 U/h) was started and 5 min after the previous ECG showed total ST resolution. We suggest that in this case, MI was not related to atherosclerotic plaque rupture but related to DIC manifestation.

  10. Relating Bond Angles of Dihalo- and Tetrahydro--Methanes, -Silanes, and -Germanes to Electronegativities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschenbaum, Louis J.; Ruekberg, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Our previous work correlated bond angles of group V and group VI hydrides (AH[subscript 3]E and AH[subscript 2]E[subscript 2], respectively, where E represents a lone electron pair) to the electronegativities of the atoms using the fraction of s character to relate the two. Here we have extended the correlation to the AH[subscript 2]X[subscript 2]…

  11. Angles-Only Initial Relative Orbit Determination Performance Analysis using Cylindrical Coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, David K.; Lovell, T. Alan

    2017-03-01

    The solution of the initial relative orbit determination problem using angles-only measurements is important for orbital proximity operations, satellite inspection and servicing, and the identification of unknown space objects in similar orbits. In this paper, a preliminary relative orbit determination performance analysis is conducted utilizing the linearized relative orbital equations of motion in cylindrical coordinates. The relative orbital equations of motion in cylindrical coordinates are rigorously derived in several forms included the exact nonlinear two-body differential equations of motion, the linear-time-varying differential equations of motion for an elliptical orbit chief, and the linear-time-invariant differential equations of motion for a circular orbit chief. Using the nonlinear angles-only measurement equation in cylindrical coordinates, evidence of full-relative-state observability is found, contrary to the range observability problem exhibited in Cartesian coordinates. Based on these results, a geometric approach to assess initial relative orbit determination performance is formulated. To facilitate a better understanding of the problem, the focus is on the 2-dimensional initial orbit determination problem. The results clearly show the dependence of the relative orbit determination performance on the geometry of the relative motion and on the time-interval between observations. Analysis is conducted for leader-follower orbits and flyby orbits where the deputy passes directly above or below the chief.

  12. Morphometric study of the lumbosacral spine and some of its related angles in Lebanese adult females.

    PubMed

    Atta-Alla, El Sayed S; Saab, Ibtissam M; El Shishtawy, Mohamed; Hassan, Khodor Haidar

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the morphometric characteristics of lumbar vertebrae, lumbar intervertebral discs and some important related angles in Lebanese adult females. The subjects of this study were thirty Lebanese adult females aged between 18-22 years. The subjects were selected among students of the faculty of health sciences, Beirut Arab University. Two plain radiographic views for the lumbosacral spine were taken for each subject, an anteroposterior view and a lateral view. Measurements were made directly on the X-ray films using Vernier calliper and were recorded to the nearest tenth of a millimetre. The following measurements were taken for each lumbar vertebra: the anterior height of the body, the posterior height of the body, the horizontal diameter of the pedicle, the vertical diameter of the pedicle, the interpedicular distance, the width (transverse diameter) of the body. Also the anterior height, the posterior height and the anteroposterior diameter (disc depth) of the intervertebral disc were measured. In addition, the following angles were measured: the angle of lumbar lordosis, the lumbosacral angle and the angle of sacral inclination. The mean and standard deviation were calculated and recorded. The results offer a base line reference for normal Lebanese adult females and a guidance to clinicians for the evaluation and management of subjects complaining of low back pain, in order to propose specific preventive or rehabilitation protocols to prevent low back pain as a function of spinal alignment. Moreover, these normal figures could also be of forensic importance because of the observed racial, ethnic and regional variations.

  13. The Relation of Q Angle and Anthropometric Measures with Ankle Sprain; a Case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Zamani Moghadam, Hamid; Hoseini, Seyed Taha; Hashemian, Amir Masoud; Sharifi, Mohammad Davood

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Since most studies on ankle sprain are medical and sports-related and not much epidemiologic and etiologic data from the general population exist in this field, the present study evaluates the relationship between Q angle and anthropometric measures with ankle sprain in the general population. Methods: In the present case-control study, all of the patients over 18 years age presenting to emergency departments (ED) of two educational Hospitals, complaining from ankle sprain, were evaluated during more than 1 year. A checklist consisting of demographic data, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and history of ankle sprain, as well as degree of Q angle was filled for all participants. The correlation of mentioned variables with incidence of ankle sprain was calculated using SPSS 22. Results: 300 patients with ankle sprain were evaluated (53.5% male). Mean age of the patients was 37.03 ± 14.20 years. Mean weight, height, and BMI were 71.71 ± 11.26 (43 – 114), 168.74 ± 8.63 (143 – 190) and 25.14 ± 3.19 (18.41 – 38.95), respectively. Mean Q angle of the patients was 12.78 ± 3.19 degrees (5 – 23). There was a significant correlation between weight (p < 0.001), BMI (p = 0.001), history of sprain (r: 0.26, p < 0.001) and Q angle (p = 0.002) with incidence of ankle sprain. In addition, there was a significant statistical correlation between weight (p = 0.031), BMI (p = 0.020) and Q angle (p = 0.004) with history of ankle sprain. In patients with a history of ankle sprain, Q angle was wider by about 2 degrees. Conclusion: It seems that the prevalence of ankle sprain directly correlates with high weight, BMI, and Q angle and is more prevalent in those with a history of sprain. Although the findings of the present study show a statistically significant correlation between these factors and ankle sprain, the correlation is not clinically significant. PMID:28286816

  14. The Supermassive Black Hole Mass - Pitch Angle Relation in Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennefick, Daniel; Berrier, J. C.; Kennefick, J. D.; Seigar, M.; Davis, B. L.; Barrows, R. S.; Shields, D.; Lacy, C. H.

    2013-01-01

    We present new and improved evidence for a strong correlation, with low scatter, between supermassive black hole mass and spiral arm pitch angle in disk galaxies. Such a correlation could be a useful tool for developing a SMBH mass function for both local and distant galaxies, because other host galaxy features which correlate with black hole mass either require expensive spectroscopy (as in the M-sigma relation) or work less well for spiral than for other galaxies because of the need to disentangle the bulge component from the disk and bar components (Bulge luminosity or Sersic index). A late-type SMBH mass function derived from pitch angle measurements could complement nicely early-type mass functions derived from these other measurements, especially because the late-type mass function has so far received less attention than the early-type mass function.

  15. A review of some Reynolds number effects related to bodies at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polhamus, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    A review of some effects of Reynolds number on selected aerodynamic characteristics of two- and three-dimensional bodies of various cross sections in relation to fuselages at high angles of attack at subsonic and transonic speeds is presented. Emphasis is placed on the Reynolds number ranges above the subcritical and angles of attack where lee side vortex flow or unsteady wake type flows predominate. Lists of references, arranged in subject categories, are presented with emphasis on those which include data over a reasonable Reynolds number range. Selected Reynolds number data representative of various aerodynamic flows around bodies are presented and analyzed and some effects of these flows on fuselage aerodynamic parameters are discussed.

  16. Exploration of a SMBH Mass-Pitch Angle Relation at Intermediate Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Logan H.; Schilling, Amanda; Davis, Benjamin L.; Barrows, Robert S.; Kennefick, Julia D.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have established a correlation between central black hole mass M and spiral arm pitch angle P in disk galaxies. The mathematical form of this relation was developed for local objects (z < 0.04; Berrier, J. C. et al, 2013, ApJ, 769, 2), but the form at higher redshifts is currently unknown. Here we aim to develop an extended M-P relation in a sample of spiral galaxies with type 1 AGN, using spectroscopic techniques to estimate black hole masses and image analysis to measure pitch angle of the host galaxy. The sample was chosen from a list of 545 X-ray selected objects previously identified as type 1 AGN (Lusso, E. et al., 2010, A&A, 512, A34) and limited to those that had available spectral data (327 of 545) and visible spiral structure (14 of 327). The final sample consisted of thirteen objects with 0.196 < z < 1.34.Black hole masses were measured using optical or UV spectroscopic information from a number of emission lines, including [OIII] l5007, the broad-line component of Hβ, MgII, and CIV. Each spectrum was extinction corrected and fitted with an FeII template, an underlying power law curve, and Gaussian curves for the emission line(s) under consideration. Relationships developed by Vestergaard & Peterson (Vestergaard, M. & Peterson, B., 2006, ApJ, 641, 2) and Salviander & Shields (Salviander, S. & Shields, G. A., 2013, ApJ, 764, 82) use information from these fits to estimate log(MBH).Measurement of pitch angles was accomplished using a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform technique, 2DFFT (Davis, B. et al. 2012, ApJS, 199, 2). HST images were formatted for and processed by the 2DFFT program; output was analyzed for ranges of stable P for an appropriate number of spiral arms. Average pitch angle over these ranges were calculated using an extension of 2DFFT.

  17. Experimental Models of Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI)

    PubMed Central

    Gilliss, Brian M.; Looney, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is defined clinically as acute lung injury occurring within six hours of the transfusion of any blood product. It is the leading cause of transfusion-related death in the United States, but under-recognition and diagnostic uncertainty have limited clinical research to smaller case control studies. In this review we will discuss the contribution of experimental models to the understanding of TRALI pathophysiology and potential therapeutic approaches. Experimental models suggest that TRALI occurs when a host, with a primed immune system, is exposed to an activating agent such as anti-leukocyte antibody or a biologic response modifier such as lysophosphatidylcholines. Recent work has suggested a critical role for platelets in antibody-based experimental models and identified potential therapeutic strategies for TRALI. PMID:21134622

  18. Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injured (TRALI): Current Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez, P; Carrasco, R; Romero-Dapueto, C; Castillo, R.L

    2015-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a life-threatening intervention that develops within 6 hours of transfusion of one or more units of blood, and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality resulting from transfusion. It is necessary to dismiss other causes of acute lung injury (ALI), like sepsis, acute cardiogenic edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or bacterial infection. There are two mechanisms that lead to the development of this syndrome: immune-mediated and no immune- mediated TRALI. A common theme among the experimental TRALI models is the central importance of neutrophils in mediating the early immune response, and lung vascular injury. Central clinical symptoms are dyspnea, tachypnea, tachycardia, cyanosis and pulmonary secretions, altogether with other hemodynamic alterations, such as hypotension and fever. Complementary to these clinical findings, long-term validated animal models for TRALI should allow the determination of the cellular targets for TRALI-inducing alloantibodies as well as delineation of the underlying pathogenic molecular mechanisms, and key molecular mediators of the pathology. Diagnostic criteria have been established and preventive measures have been implemented. These actions have contributed to the reduction in the overallnumber of fatalities. However, TRALI still remains a clinical problem. Any complication suspected of TRALI should immediately be reported. PMID:26312100

  19. Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injured (TRALI): Current Concepts.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, P; Carrasco, R; Romero-Dapueto, C; Castillo, R L

    2015-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a life-threatening intervention that develops within 6 hours of transfusion of one or more units of blood, and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality resulting from transfusion. It is necessary to dismiss other causes of acute lung injury (ALI), like sepsis, acute cardiogenic edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or bacterial infection. There are two mechanisms that lead to the development of this syndrome: immune-mediated and no immune- mediated TRALI. A common theme among the experimental TRALI models is the central importance of neutrophils in mediating the early immune response, and lung vascular injury. Central clinical symptoms are dyspnea, tachypnea, tachycardia, cyanosis and pulmonary secretions, altogether with other hemodynamic alterations, such as hypotension and fever. Complementary to these clinical findings, long-term validated animal models for TRALI should allow the determination of the cellular targets for TRALI-inducing alloantibodies as well as delineation of the underlying pathogenic molecular mechanisms, and key molecular mediators of the pathology. Diagnostic criteria have been established and preventive measures have been implemented. These actions have contributed to the reduction in the overallnumber of fatalities. However, TRALI still remains a clinical problem. Any complication suspected of TRALI should immediately be reported.

  20. Transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI): a review.

    PubMed

    Menitove, Jay E

    2007-01-01

    Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury, or TRALI, denotes the most frequently reported fatal complication of blood transfusion. TRALI accounted for 34% of transfusion associated mortalities reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2005. TRALI caused more deaths than those attributed to hemolytic reactions following incorrect blood administration or sepsis resulting from bacterial contamination of platelet and red cell components. (Holness, Leslie. Food and Drug Administration. Personal Communication, 2006) This paper reviews TRALI for the clinical physician.

  1. On HPM approximation for the perihelion precession angle in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchigolev, Victor; Bezbatko, Dmitrii

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) is applied for calculating the perihelion precession angle of planetary orbits in General Relativity. The HPM is quite efficient and is practically well suited for use in many astrophysical and cosmological problems. For our purpose, we applied HPM to the approximate solutions for the orbits in order to calculate the perihelion shift. On the basis of the main idea of HPM, we construct the appropriate homotopy that leads to the problem of solving the set of linear algebraic equations. As a result, we obtain a simple formula for the angle of precession avoiding any restrictions on the smallness of physical parameters. First of all, we consider the simple examples of the Schwarzschild metric and the Reissner - Nordström spacetime of a charged star for which the approximate geodesics solutions are known. Furthermore, the implementation of HPM has allowed us to readily obtain the precession angle for the orbits in the gravitational field of Kiselev black hole.

  2. Effect of relative humidity on contact angle and particle deposition morphology of an evaporating colloidal drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhasatia, Viral H.; Joshi, Abhijit S.; Sun, Ying

    2010-12-01

    The deposition behavior of inkjet-printed aqueous colloidal drops on a glass substrate has been investigated by using fluorescence microscopy and a high resolution goniometer. Real-time side-view images of a pinned colloidal drop show that the contact angle during evaporation is a function of the relative humidity (RH). The RH also affects the extent to which the drop is able to spread after impacting a substrate, the evaporation rate at the drop surface, and the evaporatively driven flow inside the drop that drives the suspended particles toward the contact line. Results show that the particle deposition area and pattern change significantly with the RH.

  3. Further Evidence for a Supermassive Black Hole Mass-Pitch Angle Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrier, Joel C.; Davis, Benjamin L.; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia D.; Seigar, Marc S.; Barrows, Robert Scott; Hartley, Matthew; Shields, Doug; Bentz, Misty C.; Lacy, Claud H. S.

    2013-06-01

    We present new and stronger evidence for a previously reported relationship between galactic spiral arm pitch angle P (a measure of the tightness of spiral structure) and the mass M BH of a disk galaxy's nuclear supermassive black hole (SMBH). We use an improved method to accurately measure the spiral arm pitch angle in disk galaxies to generate quantitative data on this morphological feature for 34 galaxies with directly measured black hole masses. We find a relation of log (M/M ⊙) = (8.21 ± 0.16) - (0.062 ± 0.009)P. This method is compared with other means of estimating black hole mass to determine its effectiveness and usefulness relative to other existing relations. We argue that such a relationship is predicted by leading theories of spiral structure in disk galaxies, including the density wave theory. We propose this relationship as a tool for estimating SMBH masses in disk galaxies. This tool is potentially superior when compared to other methods for this class of galaxy and has the advantage of being unambiguously measurable from imaging data alone.

  4. Further evidence for a supermassive black hole mass-pitch angle relation

    SciTech Connect

    Berrier, Joel C.; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia D.; Hartley, Matthew; Lacy, Claud H. S.; Davis, Benjamin L.; Barrows, Robert Scott; Shields, Doug; Seigar, Marc S.; Bentz, Misty C.

    2013-06-01

    We present new and stronger evidence for a previously reported relationship between galactic spiral arm pitch angle P (a measure of the tightness of spiral structure) and the mass M {sub BH} of a disk galaxy's nuclear supermassive black hole (SMBH). We use an improved method to accurately measure the spiral arm pitch angle in disk galaxies to generate quantitative data on this morphological feature for 34 galaxies with directly measured black hole masses. We find a relation of log (M/M {sub ☉}) = (8.21 ± 0.16) – (0.062 ± 0.009)P. This method is compared with other means of estimating black hole mass to determine its effectiveness and usefulness relative to other existing relations. We argue that such a relationship is predicted by leading theories of spiral structure in disk galaxies, including the density wave theory. We propose this relationship as a tool for estimating SMBH masses in disk galaxies. This tool is potentially superior when compared to other methods for this class of galaxy and has the advantage of being unambiguously measurable from imaging data alone.

  5. A relation between landsat digital numbers, surface reflectance, and the cosine of the solar zenith angle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kowalik, William S.; Marsh, Stuart E.; Lyon, Ronald J. P.

    1982-01-01

    A method for estimating the reflectance of ground sites from satellite radiance data is proposed and tested. The method uses the known ground reflectance from several sites and satellite data gathered over a wide range of solar zenith angles. The method was tested on each of 10 different Landsat images using 10 small sites in the Walker Lake, Nevada area. Plots of raw Landsat digital numbers (DNs) versus the cosine of the solar zenith angle (cos Z) for the the test areas are linear, and the average correlation coefficients of the data for Landsat bands 4, 5, 6, and 7 are 0.94, 0.93, 0.94, and 0.94, respectively. Ground reflectance values for the 10 sites are proportional to the slope of the DN versus cos Z relation at each site. The slope of the DN versus cos Z relation for seven additional sites in Nevada and California were used to estimate the ground reflectances of those sites. The estimates for nearby sites are in error by an average of 1.2% and more distant sites are in error by 5.1%. The method can successfully estimate the reflectance of sites outside the original scene, but extrapolation of the reflectance estimation equations to other areas may violate assumptions of atmospheric homogeneity.

  6. Typical and atypical neurovascular relations of the trigeminal nerve in the cerebellopontine angle: an anatomical study.

    PubMed

    Rusu, M C; Ivaşcu, R V; Cergan, R; Păduraru, D; Podoleanu, L

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to anatomically evaluate in adults the neurovascular trigeminal relations in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA), from a morphological and topographical perspective and thus to improve, detail and debate the pre-existing information, with educational and surgical implications. For the present anatomical study we performed bilateral dissections on 20 human adult skull bases, in formalin-fixed cadavers, at the level of the cerebellopontine angle, using the anatomical superior approach; we also studied 20 additional drawn specimens-cerebellum and brainstems, from autopsied cadavers, in order to better document the vasculature at the trigeminal root entry zone (REZ). The most constant but not exclusive neurovascular relations of the trigeminal nerves were those with the superior cerebellar artery (SCA) and the superior petrosal vein (the petrosal vein of Dandy). The regular possibility for the SCA to appear divided into a medial and a lateral branch and these to represent individual trigeminal relations at the level of the pontine cistern or REZ must not be neglected. The petrosal vein tributaries can also represent superior, inferior, or interradicular trigeminal relations. Arterioles emerging from the SCA or the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) represented trigeminal relations either at the REZ or were coursing between the trigeminal roots. A dissected specimen presented a radicular trigeminal artery emerging from the basilar artery and entering the trigeminal cavum inferior to the nerve. Another specimen presented two bony lamellae superior to the trigeminal nerve at the entrance in the trigeminal cavum-these lamellae were embedded within the lateral border of tentorium cerebelli and the posterior petroclinoid ligament. So we bring here an evidence-based support extremely useful not only for specialists dealing with this area but also for educational purposes. It appears important not only to consider the typical anatomy at

  7. Transfusion-related acute lung injury: a review.

    PubMed

    Looney, Mark R; Gropper, Michael A; Matthay, Michael A

    2004-07-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is an underreported complication of transfusion therapy, and it is the third most common cause of transfusion-associated death. TRALI is defined as noncardiogenic pulmonary edema temporally related to transfusion therapy. The diagnosis of TRALI relies on excluding other diagnoses such as sepsis, volume overload, and cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Supportive diagnostic evidence includes identifying neutrophil or human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies in the donor or recipient plasma. All plasma-containing blood products have been implicated in TRALI, with the majority of cases linked to whole blood, packed RBCs, platelets, and fresh-frozen plasma. The pathogenesis of TRALI may be explained by a "two-hit" hypothesis, with the first "hit" being a predisposing inflammatory condition commonly present in the operating room or ICU. The second hit may involve the passive transfer of neutrophil or HLA antibodies from the donor or the transfusion of biologically active lipids from older, cellular blood products. Treatment is supportive, with a prognosis substantially better than most causes of clinical acute lung injury.

  8. The pathogenesis of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI).

    PubMed

    Bux, Jürgen; Sachs, Ulrich J H

    2007-03-01

    In recent years, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) has developed from an almost unknown transfusion reaction to the most common cause of transfusion-related major morbidities and fatalities. A clinical definition of TRALI was established in 2004, based on acute respiratory distress, non-cardiogenic lung oedema temporal association with transfusion and hypoxaemia. Histological findings reveal lung oedema, capillary leucostasis and neutrophil extravasation. However, the pathogenesis of TRALI remains controversial. Leucocyte antibodies, present in fresh frozen plasma and platelet concentrates from multiparous donors, and neutrophil priming agents released in stored cellular blood components have been considered to be causative. As neutrophils and endothelial cells are pivotal in the pathogenesis of TRALI, a threshold model was established to try to unify the various reported findings on pathogenesis. This model comprises the priming of neutrophils and/or endothelium by the patient's co-morbidity, neutrophil and/or endothelial cell activation by the transfused blood component, and the severity of the TRALI reaction.

  9. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of metabolic syndrome-related genes in primary open angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Gang; Liu, Bin

    2010-01-01

    AIM To analyze single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of primary open angle glaucoma- and metabolic syndrome-related genes in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), in order to elucidate the roles of metabolic syndrome as a risk factor in POAG progress. METHODS SNP genotypes and alleles of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2), beta-fibrinogen (FGB), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ2 (PPARG), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), E-selectin (E-Sel), apolipoprotein A-5 (APOA5), C-reactive protein (CRP), ectonueleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1), hepatic lipase (LIPC), adiponectin (ADIPOQ), paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and serine protease inhibitor E (SERPINE1) genes in POAG (n=37) and normal control (n=100) groups were measured with ABI Prism 7900HT Fluorescence Quantitative PCR and TaqMan SNP Genotyping fluorescence probe kit. RESULTS Genotypes and allele frequencies of IL-6R, IL-6, FGB, CRP, ENPP1, LIPC, ADIPOQ, PON1, and SERPINE1 in total POAG group were significantly different compared to the control group. CONCLUSION Metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for POAG may be associated with genotypes and allele frequencies of the related genes. The corresponding gene expression and function can affect POAG progress, including roles of SERPINE1 in extracellular matrix, ENPP1 in insulin inhibition, IL-6 in endogenous neuroprotection, IL-6, IL-6R and E-Sel in autoimmune response, LIPC and FGB in blood hyperviscosity syndrome, ADIPOQ in NOS/NO production, PON1 in vascular endothelial protection. PMID:22553514

  10. Aging changes of the optic nerve head in relation to open angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Garway-Heath, D; Wollstein, G; Hitchings, R

    1997-01-01

    AIMS—To determine the age related changes in optic nerve head structure in a group of normal subjects and assess the significance of any changes in relation to those found in open angle glaucoma.
METHODS—A group of 88 white volunteers and friends and spouses of patients with a normal visual field and normal intraocular pressure was studied. Two different imaging and measurement devices were used (computer assisted planimetry and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy), and the results from each were compared. Measurements were made of the optic disc, optic cup, and neuroretinal rim areas, and the vertical optic disc diameter and cup/disc diameter ratio.
RESULTS—Neuroretinal rim area declined at the rate of between 0.28% and 0.39% per year. Vertical optic cup diameter and optic cup area increased with age. The mean cup/disc diameter ratio increased by about 0.1 between the ages of 30 and 70 years.
CONCLUSIONS—Age related changes are significant and measurable, and should be taken into account when assessing the glaucoma suspect, and when estimating the rate of progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy in patients with established disease.

 PMID:9486023

  11. Adherence to treatment in patients with open-angle glaucoma and its related factors

    PubMed Central

    Movahedinejad, Tayebeh; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lack of adherence to medical treatments typically lead to burdensome consequences such as progressive visual impairment, blindness, and disabilities. This study aimed to determine the adherence to medication in patients with open-angle glaucoma and related factors in patients referred to the Matini Ophthalmology Hospital in Kashan, Iran. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from 23 July 2015 to 20 January 2016 on all patients with open-angle glaucoma referred to the Matini Ophthalmology Hospital in Kashan, Iran. A questionnaire was used to gather data about patients’ demographics and factors affecting adherence to medical treatments. The Morisky Medication Adherence Scale was used to evaluate the adherence to glaucoma medication. Results were analyzed using SPSS version 13. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, and logistic regression analysis were used. Results In total, 130 patients with a mean age of 55.36 ± 15.54 were studied. Only 34.6% of patients completely adhered to glaucoma medications. The chi-square test showed that age (p=0.007), education (p=0.01), life entourage (p=0.04), place of residence (p=0.06), average monthly income (p=0.005), the interval between medical visits (p=0.007), problem in scheduling the medical visits (p<0.001), number of medications (p<0.001), lifelong using and side-effects of medications (p<0.001), answers of the physician to the patient’s questions (p<0.001), financial and traveling problems (p<0.001), lack of skill in using eye drops (p<0.001), lack of awareness of glaucoma complications and symptoms (p<0.001), forgetting, fatigue, impatience, believing in uselessness of medications, and lack of support from family (p<0.001) were associated with patients’ adherence. Logistic regression showed that 89% of variance of patients’ adherence to glaucoma medications can be predicted by seven factors: problems in traveling and scheduling medical visits, the large number and side effects of medications

  12. Cross-sectional study of the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness at 7 years after an acute episode of unilateral primary acute angle closure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jacky W Y; Woo, Tiffany T Y; Yau, Gordon S K; Yip, Stan; Yick, Doris W F; Wong, Jasper; Wong, Raymond L M; Wong, Ian Y H

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the long-term retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) status and determinants of RNFL thinning after an episode of unilateral primary acute angle closure (AAC). This cross-sectional study analyzed the medical records of consecutive patients with a single episode of unilateral AAC from 1999 to 2009 in Hong Kong. The peripapillary RNFL thickness was correlated with age, gender, presenting intraocular pressure (IOP), time to laser iridotomy, time to cataract extraction, follow-up duration, as well as the last IOP, vertical cup-to-disc ratio (CDR), and vision. The fellow uninvolved eye was used as a proxy comparison of RNFL loss in the attack eye. In 40 eligible patients, the mean age was 68.3 ± 8.7 years with a male-to-female ratio of 1:7. The mean presenting IOP was 49.2 ± 14.0 mm Hg and the time from presentation to laser iridotomy was 6.7 ± 6.9 days. Forty percent of subjects received a cataract extraction at 3.2 ± 2.9 years after the attack. The last IOP, CDR, and LogMAR vision were 16.0 ± 3.8 mm Hg, 0.6 ± 0.2, and 0.6 ± 0.6 LogMAR units, respectively, at 7.9 ± 2.4 years. The RNFL thickness in the attack eye (69.2 ± 19.1 μm) was 25.2 ± 17.9% thinner than the fellow eye (93.0 ± 17.8 μm) at 7.5 ± 2.9 years post-AAC. Using univariate analysis, the last vertical CDR (odds ratio [OR] = 17.2, P = 0.049) and LogMAR visual acuity (VA) (OR = 6.6, P = 0.03) were the only significant predictors for RNFL thinning whereas none of the other covariates showed significant associations (P > 0.1). At 7.5 years following unilateral AAC, the RNFL thickness was 25% thinner than the fellow eye. CDR enlargement and poor VA were the only significant predictors for RNFL loss.

  13. Factors Associated with the Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Loss after Acute Primary Angle Closure: A Prospective EDI-OCT Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Seung Hyen; Kim, Hyunjoong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine the factors associated with retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) loss in eyes with acute primary angle-closure (APAC), particularly focusing on the influence of the change in the anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth (LCD). Methods After the initial presentation, 30 eyes with unilateral APAC were followed up at the following specific time points over a 12-month period: 1 week, 1~2 months, 2~3 months, 5~6 months, and 11~12 months. These follow-ups involved intraocular pressure measurements, enhanced depth-imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scanning of the optic disc, and measurements of the circumpapillary RNFL thickness. The prelaminar tissue thickness (PLT) and LCD were determined in the SD-OCT images obtained at each follow-up visit. Results Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed a significant pattern of decrease in the global RNFL thickness, PLT, and LCD (all p<0.001). The global RNFL thickness decreased continuously throughout the follow-up period, while the PLT decreased until 5~6 months and did not change thereafter. The LCD reduced until 2~3 months and then also remained steady. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that symptoms with a longer duration before receiving laser peripheral iridotomy (LI) (p = 0.049) and a larger LCD reduction (p = 0.034) were significant factors associated with the conversion to an abnormal RNFL thickness defined using OCT normative data. Conclusion Early short-term decreases in the PLT and LCD and overall long-term decrease in the peripapillary RNFL were observed during a 12-month follow-up after an APAC episode. A longer duration of symptoms before receiving LI treatment and larger LCD reduction during follow-up were associated with the progressive RNFL loss. The LCD reduction may indicate a prior presence of significant pressure-induced stress that had been imposed on the optic nerve head at the time of APAC episode. Glaucomatous progression should be suspected in

  14. Acute effects of anterior thigh foam rolling on hip angle, knee angle, and rectus femoris length in the modified Thomas test.

    PubMed

    Vigotsky, Andrew D; Lehman, Gregory J; Contreras, Bret; Beardsley, Chris; Chung, Bryan; Feser, Erin H

    2015-01-01

    Background. Foam rolling has been shown to acutely increase range of motion (ROM) during knee flexion and hip flexion with the experimenter applying an external force, yet no study to date has measured hip extensibility as a result of foam rolling with controlled knee flexion and hip extension moments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of foam rolling on hip extension, knee flexion, and rectus femoris length during the modified Thomas test. Methods. Twenty-three healthy participants (male = 7; female = 16; age = 22 ± 3.3 years; height = 170 ± 9.18 cm; mass = 67.7 ± 14.9 kg) performed two, one-minute bouts of foam rolling applied to the anterior thigh. Hip extension and knee flexion were measured via motion capture before and after the foam rolling intervention, from which rectus femoris length was calculated. Results. Although the increase in hip extension (change = +1.86° (+0.11, +3.61); z(22) = 2.08; p = 0.0372; Pearson's r = 0.43 (0.02, 0.72)) was not due to chance alone, it cannot be said that the observed changes in knee flexion (change = -1.39° (-5.53, +2.75); t(22) = -0.70; p = 0.4933; Cohen's d = - 0.15 (-0.58, 0.29)) or rectus femoris length (change = -0.005 (-0.013, +0.003); t(22) = -1.30; p = 0.2070; Cohen's d = - 0.27 (-0.70, 0.16)) were not due to chance alone. Conclusions. Although a small change in hip extension was observed, no changes in knee flexion or rectus femoris length were observed. From these data, it appears unlikely that foam rolling applied to the anterior thigh will improve passive hip extension and knee flexion ROM, especially if performed in combination with a dynamic stretching protocol.

  15. Warfarin related acute kidney injury: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Mendonca, S.; Gupta, D.; Valsan, A.; Tewari, R.

    2017-01-01

    Warfarin is an oral anticoagulant used extensively in clinical practice; However, its side-effect of causing renal damage has been recently detected. The mechanism leading to renal damage is glomerular hemorrhage and red blood cell tubular casts prothrombin time. Recently, it was found that warfarin causes renal damage in patients with chronic kidney disease and is also associated with progression of renal disease. Warfarin causing acute kidney injury in patients with normal renal function is a rare manifestation. It is important to be aware of this condition as its innocuous presence can lead to chronic kidney disease if not corrected in time. Further studies have also found that novel oral anticoagulants such as dabigatran also cause a similar syndrome and hence a new term called anticoagulant-related nephropathy is now in vogue. PMID:28182051

  16. A GPS based fawn saving system using relative distance and angle determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascher, A.; Eberhardt, M.; Lehner, M.; Biebl, E.

    2016-09-01

    Active UHF RFID systems are often used for identifying, tracking and locating objects. In the present publication a GPS- based localization system for saving fawns during pasture mowing was introduced and tested. Fawns were first found by a UAV before mowing began. They were then tagged with small active RFID transponders, and an appropriate reader was installed on a mowing machine. Conventional direction-of-arrival approaches require a large antenna array with multiple elements and a corresponding coherent receiver, which introduces a large degree of complexity on the reader-side. Instead, our transponders were equipped with a small GPS module, allowing a transponder to determine its own position on request from the reader. A UHF link was used to transmit the location to a machine- mounted reader, where a second GPS receiver was installed. Using information from this second position and a machine- mounted magnetometer for determining the relative north direction of a vehicle, relative distance, and angle between GPS receivers can be calculated. The accuracy and reliability of this novel method were tested under realistic operating conditions, considering critical factors such as the height of grass, the lying position of a fawn, humidity and geographical area.

  17. Age-related differences in pulmonary effects of acute and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ozone (O3) is known to induce adverse pulmonary and systemic health effects. Importantly, children and older persons are considered at-risk populations for O3-induced dysfunction, yet the mechanisms accounting for the age-related pulmonary responses to O3 are uncertain. In this study, we examined age-related susceptibility to O3 using 1 mo (adolescent), 4 mo (young adult), 12 mo (adult) and 24 mo (senescent) male Brown Norway rats exposed to filtered air or O3 (0.25and 1.00 ppm), 6 h/day, two days/week for 1 week (acute) or 13 weeks (subchronic). Ventilatory function, assessed by whole-body plethysmography, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) biomarkers of injury and inflammation were used to examine O3-induced pulmonary effects.Relaxation time declined in all ages following the weekly exposures; however, this effect persisted only in the 24 mo rats following a five days recovery, demonstrating an inability to induce adaptation commonly seen with repeated O3 exposures. PenH was increased in all groups with an augmented response in the 4 mo rats following the subchronic O3 exposures. O3 led to increased breathing frequency and minute volume in the 1 and 4 mo animals. Markers ofpulmonary permeability were increased in all age groups. Elevations in BALF γ-glutamyl transferase activity and lung inflammation following an acute O3 exposure were noted in only the 1 and 4 mo rats, which likely received an increased effective O3 dose. These data demonstrate that ado

  18. [Transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI): an unrecognised pathology].

    PubMed

    Moalic, V; Vaillant, C; Ferec, C

    2005-03-01

    Transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a rare but potentially severe complication of blood transfusion, manifested by pulmonary oedema, fever and hypotension. The signs and symptoms are often attributed to other clinical aspects of a patient's condition, and therefore, TRALI may go unrecognised. It has been estimated to be the third cause of transfusion related mortality, so it should be better diagnosed. Cases are related to multiple blood units, such as white blood cells, red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, platelets or intravenous immunoglobulins. Physiopathology of TRALI is poorly understood, and still controversial. It is often due to an immunological conflict between transfused plasma antibodies and recipients' blood cells. These antibodies are either HLA (class I or II) or granulocyte-specific. They appear to act as mediators, which result in granulocytes aggregation, activation and micro vascular pulmonary injury. Lipids or cytokines in blood units are also involved as TRALI priming agents. Diagnosis is based on antibody screening in blood components and on specific-antigen detection in the recipient. The screening of anti-HLA or anti-granulocytes is recommended as part of prevention for female donors who had been pregnant. Preventative measures should also include leucoreduction and measures to decrease the amount of priming agents in blood components. In this article, we summarise what is known about TRALI, and we focus attention on unanswered questions and controversial issues related to TRALI.

  19. Acute effects of anterior thigh foam rolling on hip angle, knee angle, and rectus femoris length in the modified Thomas test

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Gregory J.; Contreras, Bret; Beardsley, Chris; Chung, Bryan; Feser, Erin H.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Foam rolling has been shown to acutely increase range of motion (ROM) during knee flexion and hip flexion with the experimenter applying an external force, yet no study to date has measured hip extensibility as a result of foam rolling with controlled knee flexion and hip extension moments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of foam rolling on hip extension, knee flexion, and rectus femoris length during the modified Thomas test. Methods. Twenty-three healthy participants (male = 7; female = 16; age = 22 ± 3.3 years; height = 170 ± 9.18 cm; mass = 67.7 ± 14.9 kg) performed two, one-minute bouts of foam rolling applied to the anterior thigh. Hip extension and knee flexion were measured via motion capture before and after the foam rolling intervention, from which rectus femoris length was calculated. Results. Although the increase in hip extension (change = +1.86° (+0.11, +3.61); z(22) = 2.08; p = 0.0372; Pearson’s r = 0.43 (0.02, 0.72)) was not due to chance alone, it cannot be said that the observed changes in knee flexion (change = −1.39° (−5.53, +2.75); t(22) = −0.70; p = 0.4933; Cohen’s d = − 0.15 (−0.58, 0.29)) or rectus femoris length (change = −0.005 (−0.013, +0.003); t(22) = −1.30; p = 0.2070; Cohen’s d = − 0.27 (−0.70, 0.16)) were not due to chance alone. Conclusions. Although a small change in hip extension was observed, no changes in knee flexion or rectus femoris length were observed. From these data, it appears unlikely that foam rolling applied to the anterior thigh will improve passive hip extension and knee flexion ROM, especially if performed in combination with a dynamic stretching protocol. PMID:26421244

  20. Association of frontal QRS-T angle--age risk score on admission electrocardiogram with mortality in patients admitted with an acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lown, Mark T; Munyombwe, Theresa; Harrison, Wendy; West, Robert M; Hall, Christiana A; Morrell, Christine; Jackson, Beryl M; Sapsford, Robert J; Kilcullen, Niamh; Pepper, Christopher B; Batin, Phil D; Hall, Alistair S; Gale, Chris P

    2012-02-01

    Risk assessment is central to the management of acute coronary syndromes. Often, however, assessment is not complete until the troponin concentration is available. Using 2 multicenter prospective observational studies (Evaluation of Methods and Management of Acute Coronary Events [EMMACE] 2, test cohort, 1,843 patients; and EMMACE-1, validation cohort, 550 patients) of unselected patients with acute coronary syndromes, a point-of-admission risk stratification tool using frontal QRS-T angle derived from automated measurements and age for the prediction of 30-day and 2-year mortality was evaluated. Two-year mortality was lowest in patients with frontal QRS-T angles <38° and highest in patients with frontal QRS-T angles >104° (44.7% vs 14.8%, p <0.001). Increasing frontal QRS-T angle-age risk (FAAR) scores were associated with increasing 30-day and 2-year mortality (for 2-year mortality, score 0 = 3.7%, score 4 = 57%; p <0.001). The FAAR score was a good discriminator of mortality (C statistics 0.74 [95% confidence interval 0.71 to 0.78] at 30 days and 0.77 [95% confidence interval 0.75 to 0.79] at 2 years), maintained its performance in the EMMACE-1 cohort at 30 days (C statistics 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.71 to 0.8] at 30 days and 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.75 to 0.83] at 2 years), in men and women, in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, and compared favorably with the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score. The integrated discrimination improvement (age to FAAR score at 30 days and at 2 years in EMMACE-1 and EMMACE-2) was p <0.001. In conclusion, the FAAR score is a point-of-admission risk tool that predicts 30-day and 2-year mortality from 2 variables across a spectrum of patients with acute coronary syndromes. It does not require the results of biomarker assays or rely on the subjective interpretation of electrocardiograms.

  1. Assessment of polygenic effects links primary open-angle glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Craig, Jamie E; Burdon, Kathryn P; Wang, Jie Jin; Vote, Brendan J; Souzeau, Emmanuelle; McAllister, Ian L; Isaacs, Timothy; Lake, Stewart; Mackey, David A; Constable, Ian J; Mitchell, Paul; Hewitt, Alex W; MacGregor, Stuart

    2016-05-31

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are leading causes of irreversible blindness. Several loci have been mapped using genome-wide association studies. Until very recently, there was no recognized overlap in the genetic contribution to AMD and POAG. At genome-wide significance level, only ABCA1 harbors associations to both diseases. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture of POAG and AMD using genome-wide array data. We estimated the heritability for POAG (h(2)g = 0.42 ± 0.09) and AMD (h(2)g = 0.71 ± 0.08). Removing known loci for POAG and AMD decreased the h(2)g estimates to 0.36 and 0.24, respectively. There was evidence for a positive genetic correlation between POAG and AMD (rg = 0.47 ± 0.25) which remained after removing known loci (rg = 0.64 ± 0.31). We also found that the genetic correlation between sexes for POAG was likely to be less than 1 (rg = 0.33 ± 0.24), suggesting that differences of prevalence among genders may be partly due to heritable factors.

  2. Assessment of polygenic effects links primary open-angle glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Craig, Jamie E.; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Wang, Jie Jin; Vote, Brendan J.; Souzeau, Emmanuelle; McAllister, Ian L.; Isaacs, Timothy; Lake, Stewart; Mackey, David A.; Constable, Ian J.; Mitchell, Paul; Hewitt, Alex W.; MacGregor, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are leading causes of irreversible blindness. Several loci have been mapped using genome-wide association studies. Until very recently, there was no recognized overlap in the genetic contribution to AMD and POAG. At genome-wide significance level, only ABCA1 harbors associations to both diseases. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture of POAG and AMD using genome-wide array data. We estimated the heritability for POAG (h2g = 0.42 ± 0.09) and AMD (h2g = 0.71 ± 0.08). Removing known loci for POAG and AMD decreased the h2g estimates to 0.36 and 0.24, respectively. There was evidence for a positive genetic correlation between POAG and AMD (rg = 0.47 ± 0.25) which remained after removing known loci (rg = 0.64 ± 0.31). We also found that the genetic correlation between sexes for POAG was likely to be less than 1 (rg = 0.33 ± 0.24), suggesting that differences of prevalence among genders may be partly due to heritable factors. PMID:27241461

  3. Using Excel To Study The Relation Between Protein Dihedral Angle Omega And Backbone Length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shew, Christopher; Evans, Samari; Tao, Xiuping

    How to involve the uninitiated undergraduate students in computational biophysics research? We made use of Microsoft Excel to carry out calculations of bond lengths, bond angles and dihedral angles of proteins. Specifically, we studied protein backbone dihedral angle omega by examining how its distribution varies with the length of the backbone length. It turns out Excel is a respectable tool for this task. An ordinary current-day desktop or laptop can handle the calculations for midsized proteins in just seconds. Care has to be taken to enter the formulas for the spreadsheet column after column to minimize the computing load. Supported in part by NSF Grant #1238795.

  4. Narrowed Aortoseptal Angle Is Related to Increased Central Blood Pressure and Aortic Pressure Wave Reflection

    PubMed Central

    Olafiranye, Oladipupo; Ibrahim, Mediha; Kamran, Haroon; Venner-Jones, Kinda; McFarlane, Samy I.; Salciccioli, Louis; Lazar, Jason M.

    2012-01-01

    The left ventricular (LV) aortoseptal angle (ASA) decreases with age, and is associated with basal septal hypertrophy (septal bulge). Enhanced arterial pressure wave reflection is known to impact LV hypertrophy. We assessed whether ASA is related to central blood pressure (BP) and augmentation index (AI), a measure of the reflected pressure wave. We studied 75 subjects (age 62 ± 16 years; 66% female) who were referred for transthoracic echocardiography and had radial artery applanation tonometry within 24 h. Peripheral systolic BP (P-SBP), peripheral diastolic BP (P-DBP), and peripheral pulse pressure (P-PP) were obtained by sphygmomanometry. Central BPs (C-SBP, C-DBP, C-PP) and AI were derived from applanation tonometry. AI was corrected for heart rate (AI75). The basal septal wall thickness (SWT), mid SWT and ASA were measured using the parasternal long axis echocardiographic view. Mean ASA and AI75 were 117 ± 11° and 22 ± 11%, respectively. ASA correlated with AI75 (r = −0.31, p ≤ 0.01), C-SBP (r = −0.24, p = 0.04), C-PP (r = −0.29, p = 0.01), but only showed a trend towards significance with P-SBP (r = −0.2, p = 0.09) and P-PP (r = −0.21, p = 0.08). Interestingly, C-PP was correlated with basal SWT (r = 0.27, p = 0.02) but not with mid SWT (r = 0.19, p = 0.11). On multivariate linear regression analysis, adjusted for age, gender, weight, and mean arterial pressure, AI75 was an independent predictor of ASA (p = 0.02). Our results suggest that a narrowed ASA is related to increased pressure wave reflection and higher central BP. Further studies are needed to determine whether narrowed LV ASA is a cause or consequence of enhanced wave reflection and whether other factors are involved. PMID:22969773

  5. Relation between elongation factor and angle of friction from various outcrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins-Campina, B.; Lebourg, T.; Riss, J.; Benabderrazik, A.; Fabre, R.

    2003-04-01

    The study of granular materials, and more particularly their mechanical behaviour, has made it possible to highlight, the influence of the grains shape on their mechanical behaviour. Recently when being concerned with till formations (glacial deposits) that cover mountain slopes and govern natural hazards, Lebourg (2000) has shown that there exists a simple linear regression of the internal angle of friction (phi) on a shape parameter (elongation factor IA ) based on the analysis of six tills formations coming from a paleoglacial valley (Vallée d Aspe, Pyrénées Occidentales : IGN map 1547 OT, 1/25 000 ; geological map URDOS 1/80 000). These results are in agreement with previous works where relation between shape and mechanical properties is assumed. Till-forming materials look like a heap of unsorted very heterogeneous material characterised by rock debris of all sizes from angular blocks of metric size to very fine rock. In addition to the block sizes, lithology, petrography and the spatial distribution of the blocks are also heterogeneous. Then it is hard, if not impossible, to collect a large sample of mechanical and physical data from the till in order to execute good simulations while running numerical programs. The validation of such a relation would be very interesting for other till formations and in any case of natural hazards such as landslides. So we propose new results based on the analysis of a set of samples collected on the site of La Clapière, a rocky landslide. The landslide at La Clapière, in south-eastern France, is located on the east side of the steep La Tinée river valley upstream of the village of Saint Etienne de Tinée. On the one hand, triaxial compression (test with simultaneous compression of a cylindrical sample and application of axisymetric confining pressure) has been performed on four sets of samples collected at La Clapière, then mechanical properties (E : Young modulus, phi: angle of internal friction, C : cohesion) were

  6. Looking at eye dominance from a different angle: is sighting strength related to hand preference?

    PubMed

    Carey, David P; Hutchinson, Claire V

    2013-10-01

    Sighting dominance (the behavioural preference for one eye over the other under monocular viewing conditions) has traditionally been thought of as a robust individual trait. However, Khan and Crawford (2001) have shown that, under certain viewing conditions, eye preference reverses as a function of horizontal gaze angle. Remarkably, the reversal of sighting from one eye to the other depends on which hand is used to reach out and grasp the target. Their procedure provides an ideal way to measure the strength of monocular preference for sighting, which may be related to other indicators of hemispheric specialisation for speech, language and motor function. Therefore, we hypothesised that individuals with consistent side preferences (e.g., right hand, right eye) should have more robust sighting dominance than those with crossed lateral preferences. To test this idea, we compared strength of eye dominance in individuals who are consistently right or left sided for hand and foot preference with those who are not. We also modified their procedure in order to minimise a potential image size confound, suggested by Banks et al. (2004) as an explanation of Khan and Crawford's results. We found that the sighting dominance switch occurred at similar eccentricities when we controlled for effects of hand occlusion and target size differences. We also found that sighting dominance thresholds change predictably with the hand used. However, we found no evidence for relationships between strength of hand preference as assessed by questionnaire or by pegboard performance and strength of sighting dominance. Similarly, participants with consistent hand and foot preferences did not show stronger eye preference as assessed using the Khan and Crawford procedure. These data are discussed in terms of indirect relationships between sighting dominance, hand preference and cerebral specialisation for language and motor control.

  7. On the measurements of the moon's infrared temperature and its relation to the phase angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghrabi, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Radiometric measurements of the thermal radiation originating from the moon's surface were obtained using an infrared detector operating at wavelengths between 8 and 14 μm. The measurements cover a full moon cycle. The variation of the moon's temperature with the lunar phase angle was established. The lunar temperatures were 391 ± 2.0 K for the full moon, 240 ± 3.5 K for the first quarter, and 236 ± 3 K for the last quarter. For the rest of the phase angles, the lunar temperature varied between 170 and 380 K. Our results are comparable with those obtained previously at these phase angles. For the new moon phase, the obtained temperature was between 120 and 133 K. With the exception of the new moon phase, our measurements at all the phase angles were consistent with those obtained using Earth-based data and those obtained by the Diviner experiment and the Clementine spacecraft. At the new phase, our measurements were comparable with those obtained from the ground but were significantly higher than those obtained by the Diviner and Clementine data. We attribute this inconsistency to either the calibration curve of our detector, which does not perform well at very low temperatures, or to infrared emission from the atmosphere. A simple linear model to predict the lunar temperature as a function of the phase angle was proposed. The experimental errors that affect the measured temperatures are discussed.

  8. Pathology consultation on transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Amy E; Adamski, Jill

    2012-10-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a serious condition characterized by respiratory distress, hypoxia, and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, which occur within 6 hours of transfusion. Several theories have been proposed to explain the underlying pathologic mechanisms of TRALI. Immune-mediated TRALI accounts for over 80% of reported cases and is mediated by donor antibodies to HLAs and/or human neutrophil antigens (HNA). Immune-mediated TRALI is most commonly associated with donor plasma transfusion or other blood products from multiparous women, which has led many countries to reduce or exclude women from donating high-volume plasma products. This policy change has resulted in a decrease in the incidence of TRALI and highlighted the importance of nonimmune-mediated TRALI, which is thought to be caused by bioreactive lipids and other biologic response modifiers that accumulate during storage of blood products. When TRALI is suspected, clinical consultation with a transfusion medicine specialist helps differentiate it from other transfusion reactions with similar characteristics.

  9. Decompositions of the polyhedral product functor with applications to moment-angle complexes and related spaces

    PubMed Central

    Bahri, A.; Bendersky, M.; Cohen, F. R.; Gitler, S.

    2009-01-01

    This article gives a natural decomposition of the suspension of a generalized moment-angle complex or partial product space which arises as the polyhedral product functor described below. The introduction and application of the smash product moment-angle complex provides a precise identification of the stable homotopy type of the values of the polyhedral product functor. One direct consequence is an analysis of the associated cohomology. For the special case of the complements of certain subspace arrangements, the geometrical decomposition implies the homological decomposition in earlier work of others as described below. Because the splitting is geometric, an analogous homological decomposition for a generalized moment-angle complex applies for any homology theory. Implied, therefore, is a decomposition for the Stanley–Reisner ring of a finite simplicial complex, and natural generalizations. PMID:19620727

  10. Patient-Reported Vision-Related Quality-of-Life Differences between Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chao-Yu; Chen, Yu-Jing; Chen, Mei-Ju; Ko, Yu-Chieh; Huang, Nicole; Liu, Catherine Jui-ling

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the different impacts on patient-reported vision-related quality of life (pVRQOL) outcomes in patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma(PACG) and primary open-angle glaucoma(POAG). Methods Prospective cross-sectional study. PACG and POAG patients who had a best-corrected visual acuity(BCVA) in the better eye equal to or better than 20/60, intraocular pressure controlled at or below 25 mmHg and reliable visual field test were invited to participate. The control group included patients with BCVA in the better eye equal to or better than 20/60 and who did not have major eye disease. A validated Taiwanese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25(T)) was performed to assess pVRQOL. The association between each domain of NEI VFQ-25(T) among 3 groups was determined using multivariable linear regression analysis. Results A total of 106 PACG, 186 POAG, and 95 controls were enrolled. In multivariable regression analysis of all three groups(PACG/POAG/controls), compared to POAG, PACG showed a weakly positive association with social functioning (R2 = 0.13, β = 0.22, P = 0.04). PACG showed no significantly negative impact on pVRQOL compared to controls. Taking only glaucoma patients into consideration, PACG patients had a higher score on social functioning compared to POAG (R2 = 0.16, β = 0.27, P = 0.01). The results of other domains of NEI VFQ-25(T) between the two groups did not differ significantly(p>0.05). Conclusions In patients with controlled disease, the impact of PACG and POAG on most domains of NEI VFQ-25(T) were similar, except for better social functioning in PACG compared to POAG. PMID:27690232

  11. Contact angle assessment of hydrophobic silica nanoparticles related to the mechanisms of dry water formation.

    PubMed

    Forny, Laurent; Saleh, Khashayar; Denoyel, Renaud; Pezron, Isabelle

    2010-02-16

    Dry water is a very convenient way of encapsulating a high amount of aqueous solutions in a powder form made of hydrophobic silica nanoparticles. It was demonstrated in previous studies that both solid and liquid interfacial properties influence the quality of the final product resulting occasionally in mousse formation. To explain this behavior, contact angles of silica nanoparticles have been measured for water and water/ethanol solution by means of liquid intrusion experiments. It was found that the quality of the final product correlates with the contact angle, i.e., contact angle close to 105 degrees leads to mousse formation whereas a slightly higher value of approximately 118 degrees allows dry water formation. The proposed explanation was based on the energy of immersion and adhesion defined as the energy needed for a spherical particle to respectively penetrate into the liquid or attach at the liquid/air interface. Significantly lower energy of immersion calculated for lower contact angle might account for particle penetration into the liquid phase during processing, leading to continuous network aggregation, air entrapment, and finally mousse formation.

  12. High accuracy of Karplus equations for relating three-bond J couplings to protein backbone torsion angles.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Lee, Jung Ho; Grishaev, Alexander; Ying, Jinfa; Bax, Ad

    2015-02-23

    (3) JC'C' and (3) JHNHα couplings are related to the intervening backbone torsion angle ${\\varphi }$ by standard Karplus equations. Although these couplings are known to be affected by parameters other than ${\\varphi }$, including H-bonding, valence angles and residue type, experimental results and quantum calculations indicate that the impact of these latter parameters is typically very small. The solution NMR structure of protein GB3, newly refined by using extensive sets of residual dipolar couplings, yields 50-60 % better Karplus equation agreement between ${\\varphi }$ angles and experimental (3) JC'C' and (3) JHNHα values than does the high-resolution X-ray structure. In intrinsically disordered proteins, (3) JC'C' and (3) JHNHα couplings can be measured at even higher accuracy, and the impact of factors other than the intervening torsion angle on (3) J will be smaller than in folded proteins, making these couplings exceptionally valuable reporters on the ensemble of ${\\varphi }$ angles sampled by each residue.

  13. Environmental Challenges Related to the Acquisition of the Trans Carpathian Wide Angle Reflection and Refraction Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragut, Dorina-Alina; Schultz, Gehrig; Mocanu, Victor; Stephenson, Randell; Janik, Tomasz; Starostenko, Vitaly

    2015-04-01

    Complex structures like the Carpathian Orogen and its neighbouring platforms and related inter-orogenic basin system can be understood only by complex integration of complementary investigative tools. Most of regional geoscientific investigations in Romania have targeted the very intricate, high intermediate-depth seismicity, clustered Carpathian Bend Zone: Vrancea. Despite huge geological and geophysical efforts, the area remains a matter of robust debate, at least from the point of view of geodynamic driving mechanisms. However, other areas outside Vrancea remained somehow "orphaned". However, a large wide angle refraction and reflection (WARR) survey was carried out in the summer of 2014 by a large international partnership in order to study the transition from the East European Platform to the northern part of the Romanian Eastern Carpathians, Transylvanian Basin and the Apuseni Mountains. The main scientific objectives of the WARR project relate to three main investigation domains: crustal architecture; affinity of crystalline basement and sedimentary basins architecture. The profile is about 700 km in total, in Ukraine and Romania. Recorders were placed at 1.75 - 2.0 km intervals along an alignment forming the Romanian segment. Recorders used were stand-alone DSS Cubes from the Helmholz Center of GFZ Potsdam and from the Institute of Geophysics of the Polish Academy of Sciences. The seismic sources were explosives ("Riogel" and "Riodet" by Maxam), with shotpoints spaced at 20 - 65 km with a total of 800 - 1200 kg explosives/site in clusters of drill-holes loaded with 50 kg explosive/hole, average depth of 25 m. Very complicated and legally-challenging environmental permitting requirements represented a real issue for successful implementation of the project. The main concern of local and central authorities related to potential pollution of sensitive components. Here, we present the strategy, actions and results concluded in order to reach the scientific and

  14. Obstructive acute renal failure related to amantadine intoxication.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Kentaro; Takeda, Kazuhito; Kimura, Hiroshi; Miura, Shuhei; Maeda, Atsuhiro

    2009-03-01

    We report the case of a 69-year-old woman with seizures and acute renal failure with hyperkalemia. She presented with bladder turgescence and hydronephrosis on admission and was diagnosed as obstructive acute renal failure. Urethral catheterization was performed after a single-session hemodialysis. It resulted in immediate improvement of renal function and consciousness, and subsequent disappearance of seizures. Improvement of serum creatinine level to 0.7 from 10.6 mg/dL was associated with a fall in blood level of amantadine hydrochloride from 4.40 to 0.47 microg/mL. Physicians should be aware of urinary retention in patients treated with amantadine as a first sign of intoxication that could lead if untreated to obstructive acute renal failure. And we recommend to check the overdose symptoms, even those with normal renal function, treated with amantadine.

  15. Hyperperfusion on Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Chemotherapy-Related Leukoencephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    El-Hakam, Lisa Michael; Ramocki, Melissa Beth; Riviello, James John; Illner, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Acute chemotherapy-related leukoencephalopathy can present similar to acute stroke with symptoms including aphasia, dysarthria, and hemiplegia. Differentiation based on clinical appearance is challenging, and physicians must distinguish between the 2 conditions rapidly to institute appropriate therapies. An 8-year-old male with acute lymphoblastic leukemia receiving chemotherapy, including intrathecal methotrexate, presented to our emergency center with 2 hours of expressive aphasia and flaccid right hemiplegia. Emergent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was obtained, demonstrating diffusion restriction within bilateral corona radiata and centrum semiovale. Magnetic resonance perfusion revealed mildly increased perfusion, a finding inconsistent with ischemic stroke and previously unreported in acute chemotherapy-related leukoencephalopathy without necrosis. This increased perfusion conclusively eliminated stroke from the clinical differential. Magnetic resonance perfusion imaging proved valuable to rapidly distinguish acute chemotherapy-related leukoencephalopathy from ischemia, and the evaluation of perfusion alterations in this disorder may provide further insight into the pathophysiology of this entity. PMID:20363963

  16. AN "INJURY-TIME INTEGRAL" MODEL FOR RELATING ACUTE TO CHRONIC INJURY TO PHOSGENE

    EPA Science Inventory


    ABSTRACT
    The present study compares acute and subchronic episodic exposures to phosgene to test the applicability of the "concentration x time" (C x T) product as a measure of exposure dose, and to relate acute toxicity and adaptive responses to chronic toxicity. Rats (m...

  17. Triimidosulfonates as Acute Bite-Angle Chelates: Slow Relaxation of the Magnetization in Zero Field and Hysteresis Loop of a Co(II) Complex.

    PubMed

    Carl, Elena; Demeshko, Serhiy; Meyer, Franc; Stalke, Dietmar

    2015-07-06

    Starting from a polyimido sulfonate the four-coordinate, N,N'-chelated Co(II) complex [Co{(NtBu)3 SMe}2 ] (1) was synthesized, and its molecular structure was elucidated by single-crystal X-ray structural analysis. The acute N-Co-N bite angle imposed by the N,N'-chelating ligand (NtBu)3 SMe(-) leads to pronounced C2v distortion of the tetrahedral coordination environment and thus to high anisotropy of the Co(II) ion (D≈-58 cm(-1) ), favorable for single-molecule-magnet (SMM) properties. Magnetic measurements revealed a high barrier to spin reversal (Ueff =75 cm(-1) ) that gives rise to the observation of slow relaxation of the magnetization in zero field and a hysteresis loop at 2 K for this unique complex.

  18. [Current concept of TRALI (transfusion-related acute lung injury)].

    PubMed

    Iijima, Takehiko; Okazai, Hitoshi

    2007-11-01

    It is only 20 years since TRALI was clinically recognized. As it is gradually recognized among Japanese medical community, the number of cases reported is increasing gradually. In the past nine years (1997-2005), Japanese Red Cross confirmed 118 TRALI cases and 38 possible TRALI cases in Japan. Twelve TRALI cases among them occurred during or after anesthesia on the day of operation. Since acute lung injury is caused by multiple pathological factors, it is difficult to identify its main cause as transfusion. Therefore, TRALI has been underdiagnosed and underreported. Several mechanisms have been proposed. Although anti-HLA antibody, anti-HNA antibody, or other immunoreactive substances appear to be involved in developing TRALI, underlying conditions like systemic inflammation may be required for igniting TRALI Although TRALI developed in the operating theater seems to be a small fraction of whole TRALI cases, anesthesiologists should be aware of TRALI, and remember it as one of the causes of acute lung injury.

  19. Research on the relation between the contact angle and the interface curvature radius of electrowetting liquid zoom lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Cunhua; Liang, Huiqin; Cui, Dongqing; Hong, Xinhua; Wei, Daling; Gao, Changliu

    2011-08-01

    In the ultralight or ultrathin applied domain of zoom lens, the traditional glass / plastic lens is limited for manufacture technology or cost. Therefore, a liquid lens was put forward to solve the problems. The liquid zoom lens has the merits of lower cost, smaller volume, quicker response, lower energy consumption, continuous zoom and higher accuracy. In liquid zoom lens the precise focal length is obtained by the contact angle changing to affect the curvature radius of interface. In our works, the relations of the exerted voltage, the contact angle, the curvature radius and the focal length were researched and accurately calculated. The calculation of the focal length provides an important theoretical basis for instructing the design of liquid zoom lens.

  20. [Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) - review].

    PubMed

    Cermáková, Z; Simetka, O; Kořístka, M

    2013-04-01

    TRALI is a major cause of serious morbidity and mortality associated with a blood transfusion. It is clinically manifested by acute respiratory distress within 6 hours of completion of transfusion. Neutrophils have the key role in the pathogenesis. They are activated mostly with leukocyte antibodies (HLA and granulocyte) that are present mainly in plasma containing blood products. TRALI is a clinical diagnosis based on hypoxemia and positive finding on lung X-ray examination. The treatment is only supportive and the mortality is about 5% to 10%. The major preventive measure is transfusing blood products from donors without leukocyte antibodies.

  1. Delineation of QRS offset by instantaneous changes in ECG vector angle can improve detection of acute inferior myocardial infarctions.

    PubMed

    Starc, Vito; Schlegel, Todd T

    2016-01-01

    We developed an automated new method for determining QRS offset, based on angular velocity (AV) changes around the QRS loop, and compared the method's performance to that of manual and more established automated methods for determining QRS offset in both healthy subjects and patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Specifically, using Frank leads reconstructed from standard 12-lead ECGs, we determined AV in the direction of change raised to the 4th power, d(t). We found that the d(t)-determined AV transition (ΔAV) nearly coincided with manually determined QRS offset in healthy subjects, and in 27 patients with anterior AMI. However, in 31 patients with inferior AMI, ΔAV typically preceded that of QRS offset determined by the established automated methods, and by more than 10ms in 32% of cases. While this "ΔAV precedence" coincided with diagnostic ST elevation in only a minority of patients with recent inferior AMI, the use of ΔAV precedence as a complement to traditional determination of ST elevation increased the sensitivity for detecting inferior AMIs from 23 to 42%.

  2. Chronic and Acute Relational Risk Factors for Dating Aggression in Adolescence and Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Collibee, Charlene; Furman, Wyndol

    2016-04-01

    Dating aggression is a prevalent and costly public health concern. Using a relational risk framework, this study examined acute and chronic relational risk factors (negative interactions, jealousy, support, and relationship satisfaction) and their effects on physical and psychological dating aggression. The study also examined the interaction between chronic and acute risk, allowing us to assess how changes in acute risk have differing effects depending on whether the individual is typically at higher chronic risk. A sample of 200 youth (100 female) completed seven waves of data, which spanned 9 years from middle adolescence to young adulthood (M age at Wave 1 = 15.83). Using hierarchical linear modeling, analyses revealed both acute (within-person) and chronic (between-person) levels in jealousy, negative interactions, and relationship satisfaction, were associated with physical and psychological dating aggression. Significant interactions between chronic and acute risk emerged in predicting physical aggression for negative interactions, jealousy, and relationship satisfaction such that those with higher levels of chronic risk are more vulnerable to increases in acute risk. These interactions between chronic and acute risk indicate that risk is not static, and dating aggression is particularly likely to occur at certain times for youth at high risk for dating aggression. Such periods of increased risk may provide opportunities for interventions to be particularly effective in preventing dating aggression or its consequences. Taken together, these findings provide support for the role of relational risk factors for dating aggression. They also underscore the importance of considering risk dynamically.

  3. Structure-related antibacterial activity of a titanium nanostructured surface fabricated by glancing angle sputter deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengstock, Christina; Lopian, Michael; Motemani, Yahya; Borgmann, Anna; Khare, Chinmay; Buenconsejo, Pio John S.; Schildhauer, Thomas A.; Ludwig, Alfred; Köller, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to reproduce the physico-mechanical antibacterial effect of the nanocolumnar cicada wing surface for metallic biomaterials by fabrication of titanium (Ti) nanocolumnar surfaces using glancing angle sputter deposition (GLAD). Nanocolumnar Ti thin films were fabricated by GLAD on silicon substrates. S. aureus as well as E. coli were incubated with nanostructured or reference dense Ti thin film test samples for one or three hours at 37 °C. Bacterial adherence, morphology, and viability were analyzed by fluorescence staining and scanning electron microscopy and compared to human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Bacterial adherence was not significantly different after short (1 h) incubation on the dense or the nanostructured Ti surface. In contrast to S. aureus the viability of E. coli was significantly decreased after 3 h on the nanostructured film compared to the dense film and was accompanied by an irregular morphology and a cell wall deformation. Cell adherence, spreading and viability of hMSCs were not altered on the nanostructured surface. The results show that the selective antibacterial effect of the cicada wing could be transferred to a nanostructured metallic biomaterial by mimicking the natural nanocolumnar topography.

  4. Structure-related antibacterial activity of a titanium nanostructured surface fabricated by glancing angle sputter deposition.

    PubMed

    Sengstock, Christina; Lopian, Michael; Motemani, Yahya; Borgmann, Anna; Khare, Chinmay; Buenconsejo, Pio John S; Schildhauer, Thomas A; Ludwig, Alfred; Köller, Manfred

    2014-05-16

    The aim of this study was to reproduce the physico-mechanical antibacterial effect of the nanocolumnar cicada wing surface for metallic biomaterials by fabrication of titanium (Ti) nanocolumnar surfaces using glancing angle sputter deposition (GLAD). Nanocolumnar Ti thin films were fabricated by GLAD on silicon substrates. S. aureus as well as E. coli were incubated with nanostructured or reference dense Ti thin film test samples for one or three hours at 37 °C. Bacterial adherence, morphology, and viability were analyzed by fluorescence staining and scanning electron microscopy and compared to human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs).Bacterial adherence was not significantly different after short (1 h) incubation on the dense or the nanostructured Ti surface. In contrast to S. aureus the viability of E. coli was significantly decreased after 3 h on the nanostructured film compared to the dense film and was accompanied by an irregular morphology and a cell wall deformation. Cell adherence, spreading and viability of hMSCs were not altered on the nanostructured surface. The results show that the selective antibacterial effect of the cicada wing could be transferred to a nanostructured metallic biomaterial by mimicking the natural nanocolumnar topography.

  5. Hepatitis A related acute liver failure by consumption of contaminated food.

    PubMed

    Chi, Heng; Haagsma, Elizabeth B; Riezebos-Brilman, Annelies; van den Berg, Arie P; Metselaar, Herold J; de Knegt, Robert J

    2014-11-01

    We present a patient with no medical history admitted for jaundice and dark coloured urine. Further investigations revealed hepatitis A related acute liver failure while the patient had no travel history, nor contact with infected individuals. After admission, the patient deteriorated fulfilling the King's College criteria for acute liver failure. Two days after admission, he underwent liver transplantation and recovered. Careful investigation identified imported semi-dried tomatoes as the source of the hepatitis A infection. This patient was part of a foodborne hepatitis A outbreak in the Netherlands in 2010 affecting 13 patients. Virus sequence analysis of our patient's virus showed a strain commonly found in Turkey. Hepatitis A related acute liver failure is rare, but is associated with a poor prognosis. In developed countries, the incidence of hepatitis A is low, but foodborne outbreaks are emerging. Further, we review the literature on recent foodborne hepatitis A outbreaks in developed countries, hepatitis A related acute liver failure, and hepatitis A vaccine.

  6. SU-E-T-494: Influence of Proton Track-Cell Nucleus Incidence Angle On Relative Biological Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Pater, P; Backstrom, G; Enger, S; Seuntjens, J; El Naqa, I; Villegas, F; Ahnesjo, A

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To explain a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation artifact whereby differences in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in the induction of initial double strand breaks are observed as a function of the proton track incidence angles in a geometric cell nucleus model. Secondly, to offer an alternative isotropic irradiation procedure to mitigate this effect. Methods: MC tracks of 1 MeV protons were generated in an event-by-event mode. They were overlaid on a cylindrical model of a cell nucleus containing 6×109 nucleotide base pairs. The tracks incidence angle θ with respect to the cell nucleus’s axis was varied in 10 degrees intervals, each time generating one hundred fractions of ∼2 Gy. Strand breaks were scored in the modeled DNA sugar-phosphate groups and further sub-classified into single or double strand breaks (ssbs or dsbs). For each angle, an RBE for the induction of initial dsbs with reference to Co-60 was calculated. Results: Our results show significant angular dependencies of RBE, with maximum values for incidence angles parallel to the nucleus central axis. Further examination shows that the higher cross-sections for the creation of dsbs is due to the preferential alignment of tracks with geometrical sub-parts of the cell nucleus model, especially the nucleosomes containing the sugar-phosphate groups. To alleviate the impact of this simulation artifact, an average RBE was calculated with a procedure based on a weighted sampling of the angular data. Conclusion: This work demonstrates a possible numerical artifact in estimated RBE if the influence of the particle incidence angle is not correctly taken into account. A correction procedure is presented to better conform the simulations to real-life experimental conditions. We would like to acknowledge support from the Fonds de recherche du Quebec Sante (FRQS), from the CREATE Medical Physics Research Training Network grant (number 432290) of NSERC, support from NSERC under grants RGPIN 397711-11 and

  7. Chronic pancreatitis: relation to acute pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Uomo, G; Rabitti, P G

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between chronic pancreatitis (CP) and other pancreatic diseases, such as acute pancreatitis (AP) and pancreatic cancer (PK), remains a fairly debated question. The progression from alcoholic AP to CP is controversial, and some long-term epidemiological studies suggest that alcoholic CP might be the result of recurrent alcoholic AP (necrosis-fibrosis sequence) and a subgroup of alcoholics may present recurrent AP without progression to CP. Other predisposing factors (genetic, nutritional, environmental) seems to be important in inducing different outcomes of pancreatic damage due to alcohol. However, recurrent episodes of AP are clearly involved in pathophysiology of CP in patients with hereditary pancreatitis. A relationship between CP and subsequent PK development has long been suspected, but we actually don't know whether this association is direct or is the result of confounding factors, such as alcohol intake or cigarette smoking. Many issues should be considered as indicators of a causal association, and several of them are not fulfilled. Nonetheless, epidemiological studies (case-control or cohort studies) showed that the risk of PK is increased in patients with CP; the risk is significantly higher in tropical calcifying CP and hereditary pancreatitis. Studies on growth factors, oncogenes, tumor-suppressor genes, and angiogenesis suggest that the sequence PC-KP is plausible from the biological standpoint.

  8. Age-related radiological imaging in children with acute pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Ilyas, Mohammad; Mastin, Suzanne T; Richard, George A

    2002-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis (APN) using clinical and laboratory parameters is often difficult in children. The aims of this retrospective study were twofold. Firstly, to correlate the clinical and laboratory manifestations of APN with the results of the dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scan in different age groups. Secondly, to compare the DMSA renal scan, renal ultrasonography (RUS), and voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) in patients with clinical APN. The DMSA renal scan was utilized as the gold standard for renal involvement. We determined the sensitivity of these tests in febrile urinary tract infections (UTI) in three age groups: group I less than 2 years; group II 2-8 years; group III older than 8 years. During the period January 1992 through December 1998, 222 children presented with a febrile UTI. All patients had a DMSA renal scan, 208 had contrast VCUG, and 163 had RUS. The clinical and laboratory manifestation of pyelonephritis correlated better with a positive DMSA renal scan in the older children than in the younger children; 85% of the DMSA renal scans were positive in group III; 69% in group II; 48% in group I (P<0.001). Vesicoureteral reflux detected by contrast VCUG was more prevalent in the younger age groups. Although high grades of reflux (grade IV-V) correlated better with a positive DMSA renal scan, it did not reach a level of statistical significance (P>0.05). RUS did not correlate with a positive DMSA renal scan in any age group.

  9. The Local Black Hole Mass Function Derived from the MBH-Pitch Angle and the MBH-Sersic Index Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutlu Pakdil, Burcin; Seigar, Marc S.; Davis, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    We determined the local supermassive black hole mass function (BHMF) for all galaxy types with complementing the local BHMF for spiral galaxies derived by Davis et al. (2014). We used the empirical relation between supermassive black hole mass and the Sersic index for early type (E/S0) galaxies from the same parent sample with Davis et al. (2014), which is selected from galaxies in the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey (CGS) which is a very complete sample of the nearby galaxies.The observational simplicity of our approach and direct measurements from the statistically tightest correlations with black hole mass, which are the Sersic index for E/S0 galaxies and pitch angle for spiral galaxies, make it straightforward to estimate an accurate local BHMF. Integrating over the best-fitting mass function, the local mass density of SMBHs from early- and late-type galaxies combined is ρ=3.61+3.80-1.75 x105 M⊙ Mpc-3. The errors are estimated from Monte Carlo simulations which include uncertainities in the emprical relations and measurement errors in both Sersic index and Pitch angle. Assuming supermassive black holes form via baryonic accretion, we find that 0.013+0.013-0.006 per cent of baryons are contained in SMBHs at the centers of galaxies in the local universe.

  10. Rigid motions: Action-angles, relative cohomology and polynomials with roots on the unit circle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Françoise, J.-P.; Garrido, P. L.; Gallavotti, G.

    2013-03-01

    Revisiting canonical integration of the classical solid near a hyperbolic or elliptic uniform rotation, normal canonical coordinates p, q are constructed so that the Hamiltonian becomes a function ("normal form") of x+ = pq or of x- = p2 + q2: the two cases are treated simultaneously distinguishing them, respectively, by a label a = ±, in terms of various power series with coefficients which are shown to be polynomials in a variable r^2_a depending on the inertia moments. The normal forms are derived via the analysis of a relative cohomology problem and shown to be obtainable without reference to the construction of the normal coordinates via elliptic integrals (unlike the derivation of the normal coordinates p, q). Results and conjectures also emerge about the properties of the above polynomials and the location of their roots. In particular a class of polynomials with all roots on the unit circle arises.

  11. Solid-state 13C NMR study of banana liquid crystals - 3: Alkyl-tail-group packing environments of an acute-angle bent-core molecule in the hexagonal columnar and cubic phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosu, Hiromichi; Endo, Yumi; Kimura, Saori; Hashimoto, Tomoko; Harada, Motoi; Lee, Eun-Woo; Sone, Masato; Watanabe, Junji; Kang, Sungmin

    2016-02-01

    Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements were performed on the hexagonal columnar and cubic phases of an acute-angle banana-shaped molecule, N(1,7)-S30. In the hexagonal columnar phase, three peaks appear at the NMR chemical shifts assigned to the internal methylene carbons of alkyl tails, indicating that the two alkyl tails have different packing structures, and one of the tails has two different conformations within a single molecule. Combined cross-polarization/magic-angle spinning and pulse saturation transfer/magic-angle spinning measurements show that one of the alkyl chains is located inside and the other is located outside the columnar structure. In the cubic phase, pulse saturation transfer/magic-angle spinning measurement shows that only one peak appears at the NMR chemical shifts assigned to the internal methylene carbons of alkyl tails, indicating that both of the alkyl chains are located outside the cubic structure.

  12. Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV) Related Acute Liver Failure: A Case Series from the US Acute Liver Failure Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Mellinger, Jessica L.; Rossaro, Lorenzo; Naugler, Willscott E.; Nadig, Satish N.; Appelman, Henry; Lee, William M.; Fontana, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rare clinical syndrome associated with a high case fatality rate. Asymptomatic primary infection with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is common in the general population while acute hepatitis and jaundice are much less common and ALF has been rarely reported. We reviewed the presenting features as well as clinical outcomes amongst consecutive adults with EBV-related ALF. Methods Amongst the 1,887 adult ALF patients enrolled into the US ALF Study Group from January 1998 to February 2012, there were four patients (0.21 %) with EBV-related ALF. Diagnostic criteria for acute EBV infection included compatible serologies and/or the detection of EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) in liver tissue. Results Median patient age was 30 years (range 18–44); 75 % were male, and only 25 % were immunosuppressed. The median presenting ALT was 504 IU/mL (range 156–4,920), median Alk P was 431 (range 136–1,009), and median bilirubin was 17 mg/dL (range 13–22.1). Liver biopsy findings ranged from cholestasis to submassive necrosis with EBER + staining in two of the three samples tested. Although all of the patients were treated with an antiviral agent, two died of ALF, one underwent liver transplantation (LT) and one survived with supportive care and is well at 5 years. A review of the literature identified four additional LT recipients with favorable long-term outcomes. Conclusion Primary EBV infection accounts for <1 % of consecutive adult ALF cases but is associated with a high case fatality rate. LT is associated with favorable short- and long-term outcomes. PMID:24464209

  13. The Course of Neurocognitive Changes in Acute Psychosis: Relation to Symptomatic Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Brønnick, Kolbjørn S.; Johnsen, Erik; Kroken, Rune A.; Jørgensen, Hugo; Løberg, Else-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cognitive impairment is a core aspect of psychosis, but the course of cognitive functioning during acute psychosis remains poorly understood, as does the association between symptom change and neurocognitive change. Some studies have found cognitive improvement to be related to improvement in negative symptoms, but few have examined cognitive changes in the early acute phase, when clinical improvement mainly happens. This study’s aim was to investigate the relation between cognitive and symptomatic change in clinically heterogeneous patients during the early acute phase of psychosis. Method Participants (n = 84), including both first-episode and previously ill patients, were recruited from consecutive admissions to the acute psychiatric emergency ward of Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway, as part of the Bergen Psychosis Project (BPP). The RBANS neurocognitive test battery was administered on admission and again at discharge from the acute ward (mean time 4.1 weeks, SD 1.86 weeks). Symptomatic change was measured by PANSS. Results The proportion of subjects with cognitive impairment (t < 35) was 28.6% in the acute phase and 13.1% at follow-up. A sequential multiple linear regression model with RBANS change as the dependent variable found PANSS negative symptoms change to significantly predict total RBANS performance improvement (beta = -.307, p = .016). There was no significant difference between subjects with schizophrenia and those with other psychotic disorders in terms of cognitive change. Conclusion The proportion of subjects with mild to moderate impairment in cognitive test performance is reduced across the acute phase of psychosis, with improvement related to amelioration of negative symptoms. PMID:27977720

  14. Identification of acute self-limited hepatitis B among patients presenting with hepatitis B virus-related acute hepatitis: a hospital-based epidemiological and clinical study.

    PubMed

    Han, Y-N

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to identify acute self-limited hepatitis B (ASL-HB) among patients presenting with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related acute hepatitis. Data were available for 220 patients diagnosed with HBV-related acute hepatitis, of whom 164 had acute hepatitis B (AHB). Of these, 160 were confirmed as ASL-HB: three (1.9%) evolved to chronic hepatitis B and one (0.6%) developed fulminant hepatitis and died. Comparisons were also made between AHB and acute infections with hepatitis A (HA) and hepatitis E (HE) viruses. During the study period, the number of patients with AHB exceeded the sum of those with acute HA and acute HE infections. There was no distinct seasonal peak for AHB infection, whereas both acute HA and acute HE infections occurred more frequently in the spring. Clinical symptoms and physical signs were similar for all three types of hepatitis, but significant differences were seen in some biochemical parameters. In conclusion, this study suggests that symptomatic AHB is not rare in China but it seldom evolves to chronic hepatitis B.

  15. Analysis of gonial angle in relation to age, gender, and dentition status by radiological and anthropometric methods

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Ram Ballabh; Upadhyay, Juhi; Agrawal, Pankaj; Rao, Nirmala N

    2012-01-01

    Background: With development and function, the mandibular angle has shown changes in size and shape. A variation in mandibular angle with age, gender, and even the dental status has been observed, which is supported by radiographic and anthropometric studies. Aims: The aim of this study were to evaluate relationship between complete loss of teeth and changes in the gonial angle; the study further intends to evaluate any variation in gonial angle with age and gender. The study intends to assess the reliability and accuracy of age and gender determination using gonial angle as a parameter. Materials and Methods: A total of 185 subjects (91 males; 89 females) were included in the study and were divided into five groups on the basis of the chronological age. Physico-forensic anthropometry and lateral cephalometric methods were used to record the gonial angle. Results: The present study shows a definite decrease in the gonial angle with advancing age, but the intergroup analysis does not follow a significant pattern. The study showed no correlation of gonial angle with gender. However, the study observed a 6° increase in gonial angle for edentulous subjects. Conclusion: Gonial angle has been used as an adjuvant forensic parameter, but its reliability is questionable, as the mandible does not follow one characteristic pattern. Gonial angle does show changes with dentition status, which may be attributed to physiologic function of the mandible. However, when evidence is scanty, it can be used to direct the investigation. PMID:23087579

  16. Acute cervical spinal subdural hematoma not related to head injury.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Yul; Ju, Chang Il; Kim, Seok Won

    2010-06-01

    We report an extremely rare case of traumatic cervical spinal subdural hematoma not related to intracranial injury. There has been no report on traumatic cervical spinal subdrual hematoma not related to intracranial injury. A 27-year-old female patient was admitted to our emergency room due to severe neck pain and right arm motor weakness after car collision. On admission, she presented with complete monoplegia and hypoesthesia of right arm. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed subdural hematoma compressing spinal cord. Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed 210,000 red blood cells/mm(3). She was managed conservatively by administrations of steroid pulse therapy and CSF drainage. Her muscle power of right arm improved to a Grade III 16 days after admission. Follow-up MRI taken 16th days after admission revealed almost complete resolution of the hematoma. Here, the authors report a traumatic cervical spinal SDH not associated with intracranial injury.

  17. Acute mountain sickness is related to nocturnal hypoxemia but not to hypoventilation.

    PubMed

    Erba, P; Anastasi, S; Senn, O; Maggiorirni, M; Bloch, K E

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate determinants of acute mountain sickness after rapid ascent to high altitude. A total of 21 climbers were studied ascending from <1,200 m to Capanna Regina Margherita, a hut in the Alps at 4,559 m, within <24 h. During their overnight stay at 4,559 m, breathing patterns and ventilation were recorded by calibrated respiratory inductive plethysmography along with pulse oximetry. In the following morning, acute mountain sickness was assessed. Altogether, 11 mountaineers developed pronounced symptoms of acute mountain sickness (Lake Louise score > or =5) and 10 did not (controls). Compared to controls, subjects with acute mountain sickness had lower nocturnal oxygen saturation (mean+/-SD 59+/-13% versus 73+/-6%), higher minute ventilation (7.94+/-2.35 versus 6.06+/-1.34 L x min(-1)), and greater mean inspiratory flow, a measure of respiratory centre drive (0.29+/-0.09 versus 0.22+/-0.05 L x s(-1)). Periodic respiration was prevalent but not significantly different among the two groups (apnoea/hypopnea index 60.1+/-34.6 versus 47.1+/-42.6 events per h). The data suggest that pronounced nocturnal hypoxemia, which was not related to hypoventilation, may have promoted acute mountain sickness. Periodic breathing seems not to play a predominant role in the pathogenesis of acute mountain sickness.

  18. Novel Therapeutics for Therapy-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia: 2014.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Eric J

    2015-06-01

    Effective treatment options for adults with therapy-related AML continues to be an area of unmet need. Genetic and molecular changes within these leukemias confer resistance to standard chemotherapy regimens. Emerging developmental therapeutics in this area has focused on several approaches. These include; novel delivery of chemotherapy as well as newer DNA-damaging agents delivered through antibody-drug conjugates, increased use of hypomethylating agents, and molecularly-directed small molecules against specific mutations commonly occurring in secondary AML. Results of this efforts are encouraging, but to date, no clear improvements have been demonstrated in this most difficult to treat population.

  19. Evaluation of the reproducibility of two techniques used to determine and record centric relation in angle's class I patients.

    PubMed

    Paixão, Fernanda; Silva, Wilkens Aurélio Buarque e; Silva, Frederico Andrade e; Ramos, Guilherme da Gama; Cruz, Mônica Vieira de Jesus

    2007-08-01

    The centric relation is a mandibular position that determines a balance relation among the temporomandibular joints, the chew muscles and the occlusion. This position makes possible to the dentist to plan and to execute oral rehabilitation respecting the physiological principles of the stomatognathic system. The aim of this study was to investigate the reproducibility of centric relation records obtained using two techniques: Dawson's Bilateral Manipulation and Gysi's Gothic Arch Tracing. Twenty volunteers (14 females and 6 males) with no dental loss, presenting occlusal contacts according to those described in Angle's I classification and without signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders were selected. All volunteers were submitted five times with a 1-week interval, always in the same schedule, to the Dawson's Bilateral Manipulation and to the Gysi's Gothic Arch Tracing with aid of an intraoral apparatus. The average standard error of each technique was calculated (Bilateral Manipulation 0.94 and Gothic Arch Tracing 0.27). Shapiro-Wilk test was applied and the results allowed application of Student's t-test (sampling error of 5%). The techniques showed different degrees of variability. The Gysi's Gothic Arch Tracing was found to be more accurate than the Bilateral Manipulation in reproducing the centric relation records.

  20. Acute sports-related traumatic brain injury and repetitive concussion.

    PubMed

    Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Broglio, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    Concussions are described as functional, not structural injuries, and therefore cannot be easily detected through standard diagnostic imaging. The vast differences between individual athletes makes identifying and evaluating sport-related concussion one of the most complex and perplexing injuries faced by medical personnel. The literature, as well as most consensus statements, supports the use of a multifaceted approach to concussion evaluation on the sideline of the athletic field. Using a standardized clinical examination that is supported by objective measures of concussion-related symptoms, cognitive function, and balance provides clinicians with the ability to track recovery in an objective manner. When used in combination, these tests allow for more informed diagnosis and treatment plan, which should involve a graduated return to play progression. Establishing a comprehensive emergency action plan that can guide the on-field management of a more serious and potentially catastrophic brain injury is also essential. This review will address these management issues, as well as the recent concerns about the risk of long-term neurologic conditions believed to be associated with repetitive concussion.

  1. Pregnancy related acute kidney injury: A single center experience from the Kashmir Valley.

    PubMed

    Najar, M Saleem; Shah, A Rashid; Wani, I A; Reshi, A Rashid; Banday, K A; Bhat, M Ashraf; Saldanha, C L

    2008-10-01

    All patients admitted with pregnancy related acute renal failure (PRAKI) from June 2005 to May 2007 were studied with respect to etiology, clinical features, and outcome of PRAKI. Of 569 cases of acute kidney injury (AKI), 40 (7.02%) cases were related to gestational problems; the age of the patients ranged from 15 to 45 years. Septic abortion was the most common cause of PRAKI, accounting for 20 (50%) cases of which 15 (75%) cases occurred in the first and five (25%) in the second trimester. Other causes were antepartum hemorrhage: six cases (15%), toxemia of pregnancy: six cases (15%), acute gastroenteritis: three cases (7.5%), postpartum hemorrhage: two cases (5%), acute pyelonephritis: two cases (5%), and postpartum, acute kidney injury: one case (2.5%). Dialysis was needed in 60% of the cases and mortality was observed in 20% of the cases. PRAKI continues to be a major concern in our society, causing a high maternal mortality. Septic abortion which has virtually disappeared from developed countries, continues to be a major cause of PRAKI in our society. Hence, there is a need to halt the practice of illegal abortions and improve antenatal care.

  2. Acute sports-related spinal cord injury: contemporary management principles.

    PubMed

    Kim, David H; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Berta, Scott C

    2003-07-01

    Improvements in helmet and equipment design have led to significant decreases in overall injury incidence, but no available helmet can prevent catastrophic injury to the neck and cervical spine. The most effective strategy for preventing this type of injury appears to be careful instruction, training, and regulations designed to eliminate head-first contact. The incidence of football-related quadriplegia has decreased from a peak of 13 cases per one million players between 1976 and 1980 to 3 per million from 1991 to 1993, mostly as a result of systematic research and an organized effort to eliminate high-risk behavior. An episode of transient quadriparesis does not appear to be a risk factor for catastrophic spinal cord injury. Torg reported that 0 of 117 quadriplegics in the National Football Head and Neck Injuries Registry recalled a prior episode of transient quadriparesis, and 0 of the 45 patients originally studied in his transient quadriparesis cohort have subsequently suffered quadriplegia. The significance of developmental spinal stenosis is unclear. Plain radiographic identification of a narrow spinal canal in a player sustaining cervical cord neurapraxia warrants further evaluation by MRI to rule out functional stenosis. The presence of actual cord deformation or compression on MRI should preclude participation in high-risk contact or collision sports.

  3. Age-related differences in acute neurotoxicity produced by mevinphos, monocrotophos, dicrotophos, and phosphamidon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Age-related differences in the acute neurotoxicity of cholinesterase (ChE)-inhibiting pesticides have been well-studied for a few organophosphates, but not for many others. In this study, we directly compared dose-responses using brain and red blood cell (RBC) ChE measurements, a...

  4. Chronic hyperglycemia is related to poor functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Luitse, Merel Ja; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Kappelle, L Jaap; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Biessels, Geert Jan

    2017-02-01

    Background Acute hyperglycemia is associated with poor functional outcome after ischemic stroke, but the association between chronic antecedent hyperglycemia and outcome is unclear. Aim We assessed the association between chronic hyperglycemia, measured by hemoglobin A1c, and functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods We included 812 patients with acute ischemic stroke (mean age 66 ± 14 years; 61.5% male). Patients were categorized per hemoglobin A1c level: no (<39 mmol/mol), moderate (39-42 mmol/mol), or severe chronic hyperglycemia (>42 mmol/mol). Poor functional outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale score > 2 after 3 months. The relation between chronic hyperglycemia and functional outcome was assessed with a Poisson regression analysis and expressed as risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals with no chronic hyperglycemia as the reference. Results Moderate chronic hyperglycemia was present in 234 (28.8%) patients and severe chronic hyperglycemia in 183 (22.5%) patients. Acute hyperglycemia on admission was present in 338 (41.6%) patients. Severe chronic hyperglycemia was associated with poor outcome (risk ratios 1.40; 95% confidence interval 1.09-1.79). After adjustment for age, sex, stroke severity, vascular risk factors, and acute hyperglycemia on admission the risk ratios was 1.35 (95% confidence interval 1.04-1.76). Moderate chronic hyperglycemia was not associated with poor outcome (risk ratios 1.12; 95% confidence interval 0.87-1.44). Conclusion Severe chronic hyperglycemia is associated with poor functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. This association is independent of hyperglycemia in the acute stage of stroke and of an unfavorable vascular risk factor profile.

  5. The online estimation of relative alignments for multiple heads star tracker based on the invariability of inter-star angle principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Ya-zhou; Wu, Yan-peng; Cheng, Hui-yan; Liu, Da

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a real-time calibration method for relative alignments between multiple heads star tracker (MHST) heads based on the invariability of inter-star angle principle is presented. Firstly, the ill effects of relative misalignments on accuracy of MHST attitude based on star-fusion are analyzed. Then, the invariability of inter-star angle principle and the changing feature of relative alignments are applied to build a kalman filtering model to estimate the errors. Finally, a simulation is used to illustrate that the method meets well the real-time requirement of accurate relative alignments of MHST.

  6. Coexistence of Acute Crescent Glomerulonephritis and IgG4-Related Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zeyuan; Yin, Jianyong; Bao, Hongda; Jiao, Qiong; Wu, Huijuan; Wu, Rui; Xue, Qin; Wang, Niansong; Zhang, Zhigang; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a fibroinflammatory disorder that may involve almost each organ or system. IgG4-related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD) refers to renal lesions associated with IgG4-RD. The most frequent morphological type of renal lesions is IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis (IgG4-TIN) which is associated with increased IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration and interstitial fibrosis. Case Report Herein, we present a rare case with coexisting IgG4-RKD and acute crescent glomerulonephritis with concomitant severe tubulointerstitial lesions instead of classic IgG4-TIN. Conclusion IgG4-RKD and acute crescent glomerulonephritis can occur in the same patient. This case may give us a clearer viewpoint of the disease. PMID:27504450

  7. Femoral neck-shaft angle in humans: variation relating to climate, clothing, lifestyle, sex, age and side.

    PubMed

    Gilligan, Ian; Chandraphak, Supichya; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2013-08-01

    The femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA) varies among modern humans but measurement problems and sampling limitations have precluded the identification of factors contributing to its variation at the population level. Potential sources of variation include sex, age, side (left or right), regional differences in body shape due to climatic adaptation, and the effects of habitual activity patterns (e.g. mobile and sedentary lifestyles and foraging, agricultural, and urban economies). In this study we addressed these issues, using consistent methods to assemble a global NSA database comprising over 8000 femora representing 100 human groups. Results from the analyses show an average NSA for modern humans of 127° (markedly lower than the accepted value of 135°); there is no sex difference, no age-related change in adults, but possibly a small lateral difference which could be due to right leg dominance. Climatic trends consistent with principles based on Bergmann's rule are evident at the global and continental levels, with the NSA varying in relation to other body shape indices: median NSA, for instance, is higher in warmer regions, notably in the Pacific (130°), whereas lower values (associated with a more stocky body build) are found in regions where ancestral populations were exposed to colder conditions, in Europe (126°) and the Americas (125°). There is a modest trend towards increasing NSA with the economic transitions from forager to agricultural and urban lifestyles and, to a lesser extent, from a mobile to a sedentary existence. However, the main trend associated with these transitions is a progressive narrowing in the range of variation in the NSA, which may be attributable to thermal insulation provided by improved cultural buffering from climate, particularly clothing.

  8. Femoral neck-shaft angle in humans: variation relating to climate, clothing, lifestyle, sex, age and side

    PubMed Central

    Gilligan, Ian; Chandraphak, Supichya; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2013-01-01

    The femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA) varies among modern humans but measurement problems and sampling limitations have precluded the identification of factors contributing to its variation at the population level. Potential sources of variation include sex, age, side (left or right), regional differences in body shape due to climatic adaptation, and the effects of habitual activity patterns (e.g. mobile and sedentary lifestyles and foraging, agricultural, and urban economies). In this study we addressed these issues, using consistent methods to assemble a global NSA database comprising over 8000 femora representing 100 human groups. Results from the analyses show an average NSA for modern humans of 127° (markedly lower than the accepted value of 135°); there is no sex difference, no age-related change in adults, but possibly a small lateral difference which could be due to right leg dominance. Climatic trends consistent with principles based on Bergmann's rule are evident at the global and continental levels, with the NSA varying in relation to other body shape indices: median NSA, for instance, is higher in warmer regions, notably in the Pacific (130°), whereas lower values (associated with a more stocky body build) are found in regions where ancestral populations were exposed to colder conditions, in Europe (126°) and the Americas (125°). There is a modest trend towards increasing NSA with the economic transitions from forager to agricultural and urban lifestyles and, to a lesser extent, from a mobile to a sedentary existence. However, the main trend associated with these transitions is a progressive narrowing in the range of variation in the NSA, which may be attributable to thermal insulation provided by improved cultural buffering from climate, particularly clothing. PMID:23781912

  9. Assembly force and taper angle difference influence the relative motion at the stem-neck interface of bi-modular hip prostheses.

    PubMed

    Haschke, Henning; Jauch-Matt, Sabrina Y; Sellenschloh, Kay; Huber, Gerd; Morlock, Michael M

    2016-07-01

    Bi-modular hip arthroplasty prostheses allow adaptation to the individual patient anatomy and the combination of different materials but introduce an additional interface, which was related lately to current clinical issues. Relative motion at the additional taper interface might increase the overall risk of fretting, corrosion, metallic debris and early failure. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the assembly force influences the relative motion and seating behaviour at the stem-neck interface of a bi-modular hip prosthesis (Metha(®); Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany) and whether this relation is influenced by the taper angle difference between male and female taper angles. Neck adapters made of titanium (Ti6Al4V) and CoCr (CoCr29Mo) were assembled with a titanium stem using varying assembly forces and mechanically loaded. A contactless eddy current measurement system was used to record the relative motion between prosthesis stem and neck adapter. Higher relative motion was observed for Ti neck adapters compared to the CoCr ones (p < 0.001). Higher assembly forces caused increased seating distances (p < 0.001) and led to significantly reduced relative motion (p = 0.019). Independent of neck material type, prostheses with larger taper angle difference between male and female taper angles exhibited decreased relative motion (p < 0.001). Surgeons should carefully use assembly forces above 4 kN to decrease the amount of relative motion within the taper interface. Maximum assembly forces, however, should be limited to prevent periprosthetic fractures. Manufacturers should optimize taper angle differences to increase the resistance against relative motion.

  10. Acute effects of nicotine administration during prospective memory, an event related fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Rusted, Jennifer; Ruest, Torsten; Gray, Marcus A

    2011-07-01

    We previously demonstrated that stimulating neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors modulates prospective memory (PM), the ability to remember and implement a prior intention. Here we used fMRI to explore the neuronal correlates of acute nicotinic (1mg) modulation during PM, employing a double blind, valence-matched placebo-controlled design, and a solely event-related analysis. Eight healthy adults completed on two occasions (1 week washout) a simple attentional task containing infrequent PM trials. PM activated bilateral parietal, prefrontal (BA10) and anterior cingulate, and deactivated genual cingulate and medial prefrontal regions. Further, acute nicotine administration decreased activity within a largely overlapping right parietal region. This data validates a purely event-related approach to exploring PM, and suggests procholinergic modulation of PM by parietal rather than BA10/frontal regions.

  11. Expansion of CD14+CD16+ monocytes is related to acute leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xin-Quan; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Hong-Ai; Yuan, Ning; Hou, Pei-Qiang; Zhang, Rong-Qiang; Wu, Tuo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Objective: Aim to investigate the proportion of CD14+CD16+ monocytes and understand the pathogenesis of this monocyte subset in acute leukemia. Methods: Flow cytometry was utilized to study the phenotype expression of CD14+CD16+ monocytes and CD3+ T lymphocytes in peripheral blood derived from patients with acute leukemia. All the data were analyzed by SPSS 13.0 software. Results: The proportion of CD14+CD16+ monocytes including both intermediate and non-classical monocytes, increased significantly in patients with acute leukemia and changed negatively or positively according to the disease process. Meanwhile, the proportion of CD14+CD16+ monocytes was inversely correlated with absolute number of CD4+ T lymphocytes, ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T cells, and positively correlated with the proportion of neutrophil granulocytes. Conclusions: The proportion of CD14+CD16+ monocytes (especially the intermediate subpopulation) is related to the progression of acute leukemia, and the expansion of this monocyte subset could indicate the severity of the disease. PMID:26550139

  12. Acute buspirone dosing enhances abuse-related subjective effects of oral methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Pike, Erika; Stoops, William W; Rush, Craig R

    There is not an approved pharmacotherapy for treating methamphetamine use disorder. This study sought to determine the effects of acute buspirone treatment on the subjective and cardiovascular effects of oral methamphetamine in order to provide an initial assessment of the utility, safety, and tolerability of buspirone for managing methamphetamine use disorder. We predicted that acute buspirone administration would reduce the subjective effects of methamphetamine. We also predicted that the combination of buspirone and methamphetamine would be safe and well tolerated. Ten subjects completed the protocol, which tested three methamphetamine doses (0, 15, and 30mg) in combination with two buspirone doses (0 and 30mg) across 6 experimental sessions. Subjective effects and physiological measures were collected at regular intervals prior to and after dose administration. Methamphetamine produced prototypical subjective and cardiovascular effects. Acute buspirone administration increased some of the abuse-related subjective effects of methamphetamine and also attenuated some cardiovascular effects. The combination of oral methamphetamine and buspirone was safe and well tolerated. Acute buspirone administration may increase the abuse liability of oral methamphetamine. Chronic buspirone dosing studies remain to be conducted, but given preclinical findings and the outcomes of this work, the utility of buspirone for treating methamphetamine use disorder appears limited.

  13. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI): current clinical and pathophysiologic considerations.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Kelly; Dwyre, Denis M; Krochmal, Jessica; Raife, Thomas J

    2006-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a rare transfusion reaction presenting as respiratory distress during or after transfusion of blood products. TRALI varies in severity, and mortality is not uncommon. TRALI reactions have equal gender distributions and can occur in all age groups. All blood products, except albumin, have been implicated in TRALI reactions. TRALI presents as acute respiratory compromise occurring in temporal proximity to a transfusion of a blood product. Other causes of acute lung injury should be excluded in order to definitively diagnose TRALI. Clinically and pathologically, TRALI mimics acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), with neutrophil-derived inflammatory chemokines and cytokines believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of both entities. Anti-HLA and anti-neutrophil antibodies have been implicated in some cases of TRALI. Treatment for TRALI is supportive; prevention is important. It is suspected that TRALI is both underdiagnosed and underreported. One of the difficulties in the evaluation of potential TRALI reactions is, until recently, the lack of diagnostic criteria. A group of transfusion medicine experts, the American-European Consensus Conference (AECC), recently met and developed diagnostic criteria of TRALI, as well as recommendations for management of donors to prevent future TRALI reactions. In light of the AECC consensus recommendations, we report an incident of TRALI in an oncology patient as an example of the potential severity of the lung disease and the clinical and laboratory evaluation of the patient. We also review the literature on this important complication of blood transfusion that internists may encounter.

  14. Bacillus cereus catheter related bloodstream infection in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Gurler, N; Oksuz, L; Muftuoglu, M; Sargin, Fd; Besisik, Sk

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus cereus infection is rarely associated with actual infection and for this reason single positive blood culture is usually regarded as contamination . However it may cause a number of infections, such catheter-related bloodstream infections. Significant catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) caused by Bacillus spp. are mainly due to B. cereus and have been predominantly reported in immunocompromised hosts. Catheter removal is generally advised for management of infection. In this report, catheter-related bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a patient with acute lymphoblast c leukemia (ALL) in Istanbul Medical Faculty was presented.

  15. The first case of atrial fibrillation-related graft kidney infarction following acute pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shang-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Native renal infarction is uncommon in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF)-related thromboembolism. Graft infarction is also rare, with such cases mostly occurring in the main graft artery postoperatively. To date, there have been no studies of AF-related graft kidney infarction. We herein describe the first case of AF-related graft kidney infarction. The clinical manifestations of this condition mimic and follow those of acute pyelonephritis; therefore, these diseases should be differentially diagnosed as early as possible using lactic dehydrogenase testing and computed tomography. Aggressive treatment with intravascular thrombolysis should be administered, even when the diagnosis is delayed, in order to restore a viable renal function.

  16. Heart rate responses to standardized trauma-related pictures in acute posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Anke; Suendermann, Oliver; Boellinghaus, Inga; Vossbeck-Elsebusch, Anna; Gamer, Matthias; Briddon, Emma; Martin, Melanie Walwyn; Glucksman, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Physiological responses to trauma reminders are one of the core symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Nevertheless, screening measures for PTSD largely rely on symptom self-reports. It has been suggested that psychophysiological assessments may be useful in identifying trauma survivors with PTSD (Orr and Roth, 2000). This study investigated whether heart rate (HR) responses to standardized trauma-related pictures distinguish between trauma survivors with and without acute PTSD. Survivors of motor vehicle accidents or physical assaults (N = 162) watched standardized trauma-related, generally threatening and neutral pictures at 1 month post-trauma while their ECG was recorded. At 1 and 6 months, structured clinical interviews assessed PTSD diagnoses. Participants completed self-report measures of PTSD severity and depression, peritraumatic responses, coping behaviors and appraisals. Trauma survivors with acute PTSD showed greater HR responses to trauma-related pictures than those without PTSD, as indicated by a less pronounced mean deceleration, greater peak responses, and a greater proportion showing HR acceleration of greater than 1 beat per minute. There were no group differences in HR responses to generally threatening or neutral pictures. HR responses to trauma-related pictures contributed to the prediction of PTSD diagnosis over and above what could be predicted from self-reports of PTSD and depression. HR responses to trauma-related pictures were related to fear and data-driven processing during the trauma, safety behaviors, suppression of trauma memories, and overgeneralized appraisals of danger. The results suggest that HR responses to standardized trauma-related pictures may help identify a subgroup of patients with acute PTSD who show generalized fear responses to trauma reminders. The early generalization of triggers of reexperiencing symptoms observed in this study is consistent with associative learning and cognitive models of PTSD. PMID

  17. Fluid Intake Related to Brain Edema in Acute Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction.

    PubMed

    Dharmasaroja, Pornpatr A

    2016-02-01

    Evidence of the appropriate amount of fluid intake during the first few days after acute stroke was scarce. Concerns were raised in patients with acute malignant middle cerebral infarction, who tended to have malignant brain edema later. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of fluid intake on the occurrence of malignant brain edema in patients with acute middle cerebral artery infarction. Patients with acute middle cerebral artery infarction who had National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of at least 15 were included. Baseline characteristics and amount of fluid intake during the first few days were compared in patients with and without malignant brain edema. One hundred ninety-three patients were studied. Mean NIHSS score was 20. Malignant brain edema occurred in 69 patients (36%). Higher amount of fluid intake (>1650 ml or >28 ml/kg/day or >93% of daily maintenance fluid) showed a significant association with malignant brain edema (OR = 13.86, 95% CI 5.11-37.60, p value <0.001). Decompressive surgery was performed in 35 patients (18%). With mean follow-up of 12 months, 49 patients (49/184, 27%) had favorable outcomes (modified Rankin scale (mRS) 0-2) at final follow-up. Seventy-nine patients (79/184, 43%) died. In the subgroup of patients with malignant brain edema, 39 patients (39/65, 60%) died and only 11% (7/65 patients) had favorable outcome. High amount of fluid intake in the first few days of acute middle cerebral infarction was related to the occurrence of malignant brain edema.

  18. Comparison of vision-related quality of life in primary open-angle glaucoma and dry-type age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Karadeniz Ugurlu, S; Kocakaya Altundal, A E; Altin Ekin, M

    2017-03-01

    PurposeTo compare quality of life (QoL) in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and dry-type age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with similar best-corrected visual acuity.MethodsAge-, sex-, and visual acuity-matched POAG and dry AMD patients were included in the study. Each patient performed 24-2 and 10-2 SITA standard visual field tests. Contrast sensitivity was evaluated with CSV-1000 HGT instrument. The 25 item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25) was used to analyze QoL. Overall and subscale scores were converted to scores between 0 and 100, the higher scores indicating better vision-related QoL.ResultsOverall NEI-VFQ-25 scores were 86.44 and 84.66 in glaucoma and AMD groups, respectively (P=0.244). The highest scores were obtained in 'vision-related dependency' subgroup in glaucoma and 'color and peripheral vision' in AMD group, whereas the lowest scores were noted 'in peripheral vision' in both glaucoma and AMD patients. Glaucoma patients had significantly lower scores in ocular pain, color vision, and peripheral vision subgroups compared with the AMD group, whereas AMD patients had lower scores in near and distance vision activities, vision-related social activity, and dependency subgroups. Contrast sensitivity results and mean defect values showed correlation with NEI-VFQ-25 scores in both groups.ConclusionsGlaucoma and AMD patients with similar visual acuity experienced similar overall impairment in QoL. However, glaucoma patients described more difficulty with peripheral vision and ocular pain, whereas AMD patients complained more about near and distance vision and dependency items.

  19. Elevation of C-reactive protein levels in patients with transfusion-related acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, Rick; Kim, Michael; Rondina, Matthew T.; Porcelijn, Leendert; Semple, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the leading cause of transfusion-related fatalities and is characterized by the onset of acute respiratory distress within six hours following blood transfusion. In most cases, donor antibodies are suggested to be involved, however, the pathogenesis is poorly understood. A two-hit model is generally assumed to underlie TRALI pathogenesis where the first hit consists of a patient predisposing factor such as inflammation and the second hit is due to donor antibodies present in the transfused blood. We recently demonstrated that the acute phase protein C-reactive protein (CRP) could enhance murine anti-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-mediated TRALI. Whether CRP is increased in human TRALI patients which would support its role as a risk factor for human TRALI, is currently unknown. For that purpose, we measured CRP levels in the plasma of human TRALI patients and found CRP levels to be significantly elevated compared to transfused control patients. These data support the notion that CRP may be a novel first hit risk factor in human TRALI and that modulation of CRP levels could be an effective therapeutic strategy for this serious adverse event of transfusion. PMID:27793007

  20. All patient refined-diagnostic related group and case mix index in acute care palliative medicine.

    PubMed

    Lagman, Ruth L; Walsh, Declan; Davis, Mellar P; Young, Brett

    2007-03-01

    The All Patient Refined-Diagnostic Related Group (APR-DRG) is a modification of the traditional DRG that adds four classes of illness severity and four classes of mortality risk. The APR-DRG is a more accurate assessment of the complexity of care. When individuals with advanced illness are admitted to an acute inpatient palliative medicine unit, there may be a perception that they receive less intense acute care. Most of these patients, however, are multisymptomatic, have several comorbidities, and are older. For all patients admitted to the unit, a guide was followed by staff physicians to document clinical information that included the site(s) of malignancy, site(s) of metastases, disease complications, disease-related symptoms, and comorbidities. We then prospectively compared DRGs, APR-DRGs, and case mix index (CMI) from January 1-June 30, 2003, and February 1-July 31,2004, before and after the use of the guide. The overall mean severity of illness (ASOI) increased by 25% (P < 0.05). The mean CMI increased by 12% (P < 0.05). The average length of stay over the same period increased slightly from 8.97 to 9.56 days. Systematic documentation of clinical findings using a specific tool for patients admitted to an acute inpatient palliative medicine unit based on APR-DRG classifications captured a higher severity of illness and may better reflect resource utilization.

  1. [Anesthetic management of a patient with transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI)].

    PubMed

    Sakata, Yuko; Wada, Hiroki; Oshima, Takashi; Aramaki, Yoshihiko; Kikuta, Yoshinori; Iwasaki, Yasuji

    2008-08-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is characterized by pulmonary edema and hypoxemia within 6 hours of transfusion in the absence of other causes of acute lung injury or circulatory overload and is now considered the leading cause of transfusion-related death. We report a female patient who showed hypoxemia after transfusion without any other causes of acute lung injury. The patient is a 43-year-old woman, who received emergency transurethral hemostasis for bladder hemorrhage with hematuria and low hemoglobin concentration (3.2 g x dl(-1)). General anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane, remifentanil, and vecuronium. Two units of RBC were transfused during operation. Since she showed high blood pressure, tachycardia, and a painful expression after operation, we extubated her. Although we gave her O2 6 l x min(-1) after extubation, she showed low oxygen saturation (90%), thus we started bag-mask ventilation. However, she complained of dyspnea and the chest X-ray revealed bilateral diffuse pulmonary edema following hypoxemia (80%). Thus we inserted endotracheal tube and started positive pressure assist ventilation. The next day, hypoxemia was improved under PEEP therapy. The anti-HLA antibody in the transfused plasma was positive. We conclude that the early recognition and management of TRALI is essential during and after operation.

  2. An investigation of the dose distribution effect related with collimator angle in volumetric arc therapy of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tas, Bora; Bilge, Hatice; Ozturk, Sibel Tokdemir

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the dose-volume variations of planning target volume (PTV) and organ at risks (OARs) in eleven prostate cancer patients planned with single and double arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) when varying collimator angle. Single and double arc VMAT treatment plans were created using Monaco5.0® with collimator angle set to 0°. All plans were normalized 7600 cGy dose to the 95% of clinical target volume (CTV) volume. The single arc VMAT plans were reoptimized with different collimator angles (0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90°), and for double arc VMAT plans (0–0°, 15°–345, 30–330°, 45–315°, 60–300°, 75–285°, 90–270°) using the same optimization parameters. For the comparison the parameters of heterogeneity index (HI), dose-volume histogram and minimum dose to the 95% of PTV volume (D95 PTV) calculated and analyzed. The best plans were verified using 2 dimensional ion chamber array IBA Matrixx® and three-dimensional IBA Compass® program. The comparison between calculation and measurement were made by the γ-index (3%/3 mm) analysis. A higher D95 (PTV) were found for single arc VMAT with 15° collimator angle. For double arc, VMAT with 60–300° and 75–285° collimator angles. However, lower rectum doses obtained for 75–285° collimator angles. There was no significant dose difference, based on other OARs which are bladder and femur head. When we compared single and double arc VMAT's D95 (PTV), we determined 2.44% high coverage and lower HI with double arc VMAT. All plans passed the γ-index (3%/3 mm) analysis with more than 97% of the points and we had an average γ-index for CTV 0.36, for PTV 0.32 with double arc VMAT. These results were significant by Wilcoxon signed rank test statistically. The results show that dose coverage of target and OAR's doses also depend significantly on the collimator angles due to the geometry of target and OARs. Based on the results we have decided to plan prostate cancer

  3. Beyond the plane-parallel and Newtonian approach: wide-angle redshift distortions and convergence in general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Bertacca, Daniele; Maartens, Roy; Raccanelli, Alvise; Clarkson, Chris E-mail: Roy.Maartens@port.ac.uk E-mail: Clarkson@maths.uct.ac.za

    2012-10-01

    We extend previous analyses of wide-angle correlations in the galaxy power spectrum in redshift space to include all general relativistic effects. These general relativistic corrections to the standard approach become important on large scales and at high redshifts, and they lead to new terms in the wide-angle correlations. We show that in principle the new terms can produce corrections of nearly 10% on Gpc scales over the usual Newtonian approximation. General relativistic corrections will be important for future large-volume surveys such as SKA and Euclid, although the problem of cosmic variance will present a challenge in observing this.

  4. Fatal transfusion related acute lung injury following coronary artery by-pass surgery: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bawany, Fauzia Ahmad; Sharif, Hasanat

    2008-01-01

    Background Transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a potentially fatal Acute Lung Injury following transfusion of blood components. Hypotheses implicate donor-derived anti-human leukocyte antigen or granulocyte antibodies reacting with recipients' leukocytes, releasing inflammatory mediators. Lack of agreement on underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms renders improving transfusion safety difficult and expensive. Case Presentation Literature search has not revealed any case of TRALI from Pakistan. We report the case of fatal TRALI in a 68 year old male who received blood products after coronary artery by-pass surgery. Conclusion This article aims to create awareness about this complication and suggests that post transfusion cardiopulmonary instability should alert to the possibility of TRALI. PMID:19055759

  5. Carfilzomib-related acute kidney injury may be prevented by N-acetyl-L-cysteine.

    PubMed

    Wanchoo, Rimda; Khan, Seyyar; Kolitz, Jonathan E; Jhaveri, Kenar D

    2015-08-01

    Carfilzomib is a second-generation epoxyketone proteasome inhibitor that is approved for treatment of relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma. Phase 2 trials have reported that 25% of treated patients have renal adverse effects. Pre-renal/vasoconstriction-related insult from this chemotherapy agent has been documented. We describe a case of a 78-year-old man with refractory multiple myeloma with acute kidney injury associated with carfilzomib treatment. We show that use of N-acetyl-l-cysteine in our patient partially mitigated the renal injury upon re-challenge. This case report hypothesizes that acute renal injury from carfilzomib is caused by vasoconstriction of the renal vessels, which may be prevented by N-acetyl-l-cysteine.

  6. Absolute and Relative Contraindications to IV rt-PA for Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Rabinstein, Alejandro A.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the contraindications to the administration of intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) originated as exclusion criteria in major stroke trials. These were derived from expert consensus for the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) trial. Despite the fact that the safety and efficacy of IV rtPA has been repeatedly confirmed in large international observational studies over the past 20 years, most patients with acute ischemic stroke disappointingly still do not receive thrombolytic treatment. Some of the original exclusion criteria have proven to be unnecessarily restrictive in real-world clinical practice. It has been suggested that application of relaxed exclusion criteria might increase the IV thrombolysis rate up to 20% with comparable outcomes to thrombolysis with more conventional criteria. We review the absolute and relative contraindications to IV rtPA for acute ischemic stroke, discussing the underlying rationale and evidence supporting these exclusion criteria. PMID:26288669

  7. Effect of therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia on the outcome of patients with acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    ESPíRITO SANTO, ANA ESPÍRITO; CHACIM, SÉRGIO; FERREIRA, ISABEL; LEITE, LUÍS; MOREIRA, CLAUDIA; PEREIRA, DULCINEIA; DANTAS BRITO, MARGARIDA DANTAS; NUNES, MARTA; DOMINGUES, NELSON; OLIVEIRA, ISABEL; MOREIRA, ILÍDIA; MARTINS, ANGELO; VITERBO, LUÍSA; MARIZ, JOSÉ MÁRIO; MEDEIROS, RUI

    2016-01-01

    Therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) is a rare and almost always fatal late side effect of antineoplastic treatment involving chemotherapy, radiotherapy or the two combined. The present retrospective study intended to characterize t-AML patients that were diagnosed and treated in a single referral to an oncological institution in North Portugal. Over the past 10 years, 231 cases of AML were diagnosed and treated at the Portuguese Institute of Oncology of Porto, of which 38 t-AML cases were identified. Data regarding the patient demographics, primary diagnosis and treatment, age at onset of therapy-related myeloid neoplasm, latency time of the neoplasm, cytogenetic characteristics, AML therapy and outcome were collected from medical records. A previous diagnosis with solid tumors was present in 28 patients, and 10 patients possessed a history of hematological conditions, all a lymphoproliferative disorder. Breast cancer was the most frequent solid tumor identified (39.5% of all solid tumors diagnosed). The mean latency time was 3 years. In the present study, t-AML patients were older (P<0.001) and more frequently carried cytogenetic abnormalities (P=0.009) compared with de novo AML patients. The overall survival time was observed to be significantly poorer among individuals with t-AML (P<0.001). However, in younger patients (age, <50 years) there was no difference between the overall survival time of patients with t-AML and those with de novo AML (P=0.983). Additionally, patients with promyelocytic leukemia possess a good prognosis, even when AML occurs as a secondary event (P=0.98). To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to evaluate t-AML in Portugal and the results are consistent with the data published previously in other populations. The present study concludes that although t-AML demonstrates a poor prognosis, this is not observed among younger patients or promyelocytic leukemia patients. PMID:27347135

  8. Effect of therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia on the outcome of patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    ESPíRITO Santo, Ana Espírito; Chacim, Sérgio; Ferreira, Isabel; Leite, Luís; Moreira, Claudia; Pereira, Dulcineia; Dantas Brito, Margarida Dantas; Nunes, Marta; Domingues, Nelson; Oliveira, Isabel; Moreira, Ilídia; Martins, Angelo; Viterbo, Luísa; Mariz, José Mário; Medeiros, Rui

    2016-07-01

    Therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) is a rare and almost always fatal late side effect of antineoplastic treatment involving chemotherapy, radiotherapy or the two combined. The present retrospective study intended to characterize t-AML patients that were diagnosed and treated in a single referral to an oncological institution in North Portugal. Over the past 10 years, 231 cases of AML were diagnosed and treated at the Portuguese Institute of Oncology of Porto, of which 38 t-AML cases were identified. Data regarding the patient demographics, primary diagnosis and treatment, age at onset of therapy-related myeloid neoplasm, latency time of the neoplasm, cytogenetic characteristics, AML therapy and outcome were collected from medical records. A previous diagnosis with solid tumors was present in 28 patients, and 10 patients possessed a history of hematological conditions, all a lymphoproliferative disorder. Breast cancer was the most frequent solid tumor identified (39.5% of all solid tumors diagnosed). The mean latency time was 3 years. In the present study, t-AML patients were older (P<0.001) and more frequently carried cytogenetic abnormalities (P=0.009) compared with de novo AML patients. The overall survival time was observed to be significantly poorer among individuals with t-AML (P<0.001). However, in younger patients (age, <50 years) there was no difference between the overall survival time of patients with t-AML and those with de novo AML (P=0.983). Additionally, patients with promyelocytic leukemia possess a good prognosis, even when AML occurs as a secondary event (P=0.98). To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to evaluate t-AML in Portugal and the results are consistent with the data published previously in other populations. The present study concludes that although t-AML demonstrates a poor prognosis, this is not observed among younger patients or promyelocytic leukemia patients.

  9. Variation in light-intercepting area and photosynthetic rate of sun and shade shoots of two Picea species in relation to the angle of incoming light.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hiroaki; Hamada, Yoko; Utsugi, Hajime

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the effects of sun- and shade-shoot architecture on the photosynthetic rates of two Picea species by applying light from various angles in the laboratory. Compared with sun shoots, shade shoots were characterized by lower mass allocation per light-intercepting area, less leaf mass per shoot mass, less mutual shading among leaves and more efficient allocation of chlorophyll to photosynthesis. The shoot silhouette to total leaf area ratio (STAR(ϕ)) decreased with increasing shoot inclination angle (ϕ, the shoot axis angle relative to the projection plane) and was consistently higher for the shade shoots. Morphological and physiological characteristics of the shade shoots resulted in maximum rates of net photosynthesis at ϕ = 0° (P(max,0)) similar to that of the sun shoots when expressed on a leaf mass, total leaf area and chlorophyll basis. When the angle of incoming light was varied, P(max,ϕ) per total leaf area (P(max,ϕ )/A(T)) of the shade shoots increased linearly with increasing STAR(ϕ), while P(max,ϕ) per shoot silhouette area did not change. In contrast, the response of the sun shoots was non-linear, and an optimum angle of incoming light was determined. Our results suggest that shade-shoot morphology is adaptive for utilizing diffuse light incoming from various angles, while sun-shoot morphology is adaptive for avoiding the negative effects of strong direct radiation and for enhancing light diffusion into the canopy. We propose that the angle of incoming light should be taken into account when estimating photosynthetic rates of sun shoots of conifer trees in the field.

  10. Accurate measurement of relative tilt and azimuth angles in electron tomography: A comparison of fiducial marker method with electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashida, Misa; Malac, Marek; Egerton, Ray F.; Bergen, Michael; Li, Peng

    2014-08-15

    Electron tomography is a method whereby a three-dimensional reconstruction of a nanoscale object is obtained from a series of projected images measured in a transmission electron microscope. We developed an electron-diffraction method to measure the tilt and azimuth angles, with Kikuchi lines used to align a series of diffraction patterns obtained with each image of the tilt series. Since it is based on electron diffraction, the method is not affected by sample drift and is not sensitive to sample thickness, whereas tilt angle measurement and alignment using fiducial-marker methods are affected by both sample drift and thickness. The accuracy of the diffraction method benefits reconstructions with a large number of voxels, where both high spatial resolution and a large field of view are desired. The diffraction method allows both the tilt and azimuth angle to be measured, while fiducial marker methods typically treat the tilt and azimuth angle as an unknown parameter. The diffraction method can be also used to estimate the accuracy of the fiducial marker method, and the sample-stage accuracy. A nano-dot fiducial marker measurement differs from a diffraction measurement by no more than ±1°.

  11. Accurate measurement of relative tilt and azimuth angles in electron tomography: a comparison of fiducial marker method with electron diffraction.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Misa; Malac, Marek; Bergen, Michael; Egerton, Ray F; Li, Peng

    2014-08-01

    Electron tomography is a method whereby a three-dimensional reconstruction of a nanoscale object is obtained from a series of projected images measured in a transmission electron microscope. We developed an electron-diffraction method to measure the tilt and azimuth angles, with Kikuchi lines used to align a series of diffraction patterns obtained with each image of the tilt series. Since it is based on electron diffraction, the method is not affected by sample drift and is not sensitive to sample thickness, whereas tilt angle measurement and alignment using fiducial-marker methods are affected by both sample drift and thickness. The accuracy of the diffraction method benefits reconstructions with a large number of voxels, where both high spatial resolution and a large field of view are desired. The diffraction method allows both the tilt and azimuth angle to be measured, while fiducial marker methods typically treat the tilt and azimuth angle as an unknown parameter. The diffraction method can be also used to estimate the accuracy of the fiducial marker method, and the sample-stage accuracy. A nano-dot fiducial marker measurement differs from a diffraction measurement by no more than ±1°.

  12. Reading Angles in Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections…

  13. Psychological distress related to smoking cessation in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Moreira-Santos, Thyego Mychell; Godoy, Irma; de Godoy, Ilda

    2016-01-01

    Among all causes of preventable deaths, smoking is responsible for the greatest number of deaths worldwide and predisposes to fatal, noncommunicable diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. Lifestyle changes are effective in the treatment of patients with smoking-related diseases and assist in the prevention of premature mortality. Our objective was to investigate the available scientific evidence regarding the psychological distress related to smoking cessation in patients who have had acute myocardial infarction. To that end, we conducted an integrative review of the literature in order to summarize relevant studies on this topic. The selected databases were Scopus, PubMed Central, Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science (Core Collection), ScienceDirect, EMBASE, SciELO, LILACS e PsycINFO. On the basis of the inclusion and exclusion criteria adopted for this study, 14 articles were selected for analysis. Those studies showed that the prevalence of psychological distress is higher among smokers than among nonsmokers, and distress-related symptoms are much more common in smokers with acute myocardial infarction than in those without. Smoking cessation depends on the active participation of the smoker, whose major motivation is the underlying disease. Most studies have shown that there is a need to create treatment subgroups as a means of improving the treatment provided. This review article expands the knowledge regarding smoking cessation and shows the need to invest in future research that investigates subgroups of smokers diagnosed with the major smoking-related comorbidities, such as acute myocardial infarction, in order to develop specific interventions and psychological support strategies. PMID:26982043

  14. Calcitonin gene-related peptide inhibits local acute inflammation and protects mice against lethal endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Rachel Novaes; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo C; Bozza, Patricia T; Soares, Milena B P; Shoemaker, Charles B; David, John R; Bozza, Marcelo T

    2005-12-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a potent vasodilatory peptide present in central and peripheral neurons, is released at inflammatory sites and inhibits several macrophage, dendritic cell, and lymphocyte functions. In the present study, we investigated the role of CGRP in models of local and systemic acute inflammation and on macrophage activation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Intraperitoneal pretreatment with synthetic CGRP reduces in approximately 50% the number of neutrophils in the blood and into the peritoneal cavity 4 h after LPS injection. CGRP failed to inhibit neutrophil recruitment induced by the direct chemoattractant platelet-activating factor, whereas it significantly inhibited LPS-induced KC generation, suggesting that the effect of CGRP on neutrophil recruitment is indirect, acting on chemokine production by resident cells. Pretreatment of mice with 1 mug of CGRP protects against a lethal dose of LPS. The CGRP-induced protection is receptor mediated because it is completely reverted by the CGRP receptor antagonist, CGRP 8-37. The protective effect of CGRP correlates with an inhibition of TNF-alpha and an induction of IL-6 and IL-10 in mice sera 90 min after LPS challenge. Finally, CGRP significantly inhibits LPS-induced TNF-alpha released from mouse peritoneal macrophages. These results suggest that activation of the CGRP receptor on macrophages during acute inflammation could be part of the negative feedback mechanism controlling the extension of acute inflammatory responses.

  15. Relative oral efficacy and acute toxicity of hydroxypyridin-4-one iron chelators in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, J.B.; Morgan, J.; Hoyes, K.P.; Burke, L.C.; Huehns, E.R.; Hider, R.C. )

    1990-12-01

    The relationship between the oral efficacy and the acute toxicity of hydroxypyridin-4-one iron chelators has been investigated to clarify structure-function relationships of these compounds in vivo and to identify compounds with the maximum therapeutic safety margin. By comparing 59Fe excretion following oral or intraperitoneal administration of increasing doses of each chelator to iron-overloaded mice, the most effective compounds have been identified. These have partition coefficients (Kpart) above 0.3 in the iron-free form with a trend of increasing oral efficacy with increasing Kpart values (r = .6). However, this is achieved at a cost of increasing acute toxicity, as shown by a linear correlation between 59Fe excretion increase per unit dose and 1/LD50 (r = .83). A sharp increase in the LD50 values is observed for compounds with Kpart values above 1.0, suggesting that such compounds are unlikely to possess a sufficient therapeutic safety margin. Below a Kpart of 1.0, acute toxicity is relatively independent of lipid solubility. All the compounds are less toxic by the oral route than by the intraperitoneal route, although iron excretion is not significantly different by these two routes. At least five compounds (CP51, CP94, CP93, CP96, and CP21) are more effective orally than the same dose of intraperitoneal desferrioxamine (DFO) (P less than or equal to .02) or orally administered L1(CP20) (P less than or equal to .02).

  16. Transfusion related acute lung injury--TRALI: an under diagnosed entity.

    PubMed

    Moiz, Bushra; Sharif, Hasanat; Bawany, Fauzia Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a life-threatening complication of transfusion of blood and its components resembling acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or acute lung injury (ALI). TRALI is a particular form of ARDS that follows blood transfusion and is caused by donor-derived antibodies present in the transfused products, reacting with the recipients' blood cells, inducing release of inflammatory mediators thus compromising lung functions. Anti-HLA antibodies are the most frequently indicted inducers in this category. Literature search has not revealed any documented case of TRALI from Pakistan. This in no way implies that TRALI is non existent in this part of the world but rather indicates that many clinicians may be unaware of the condition or may not recognize transfusion as the cause and like in other parts of the world, is almost certainly under-diagnosed. The lack of agreement on the definite cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the development of TRALI renders the task of improving the safety of blood transfusion far more complex and potentially quite expensive. This review discusses the modern concepts of pathogenesis of TRALI along with its clinicopathological manifestations and management with the aim to improve awareness of our clinicians towards this dreadful and potentially fatal condition.

  17. Increased systolic blood pressure reactivity to acute stress is related with better self-reported health.

    PubMed

    Wright, Bradley J; O'Brien, Shaun; Hazi, Agnes; Kent, Stephen

    2014-11-13

    The stress reactivity hypothesis posits that the magnitude of cardiovascular reactions to acute stress tasks is related with future blood pressure status, heart hypertrophy, and atherosclerosis. We assessed the stress reactivity hypothesis and aimed to identify which physiological indices (blood pressure, heart-rate, cortisol, salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA)) related to self-reported mental and physical health. We also assessed if physiological reactions elicited by an acute stressor were more related than basal assessments. Participants provided physiological samples, self-reported stress and health-data before and after an assessed 5-7 minute academic oral presentation. In hierarchical regression models, increased systolic and reduced sIgA reactivity was associated with better perceptions of mental health. Reactivity data were more related to self-reported data than basal data. In line with the only 2 studies to assess the reactivity hypothesis with self-perceived health, increased systolic reactivity was best associated with better perceived physical and mental health. The findings suggest that increased SBP reactivity may also be associated with positive health outcomes. Further research is required to determine if increased or decreased sIgA reactivity is most predictive of future morbidity.

  18. Energetic metabolism during acute stretch-related atrial fibrillation Shortened title: atrial fibrillation and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kalifa, J; Maixent, JM; Chalvidan, T; Dalmasso, C; Colin, D; Cozma, D; Laurent, P; Deharo, JC; Djiane, P; Cozzone, P; Bernard, M

    2010-01-01

    Background and methods Perturbations in energetic metabolism and impaired atrial contractility may play an important role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). Besides, atrial stretch is commonly associated with AF. However, the atrial energetics of stretch-related AF are poorly understood. Here, we measured indicators of energy metabolism during acute-stretch related AF. PCr, adenine nucleotides and derivatives concentrations as well as the activity of the F0F1-ATPase and Na,K-ATPase were obtained after one hour of stretch and/or AF in isolated rabbit hearts and compared to control hearts without stretch and AF. Results After one hour of stretch-related AF, the total adenine nucleotides pool was significantly lower (42.2±2.6 versus 63.7±8.3 µmol/g protein in control group, p<0.05) and the PCr/ATP ratio significantly higher (2.3±0.3 vs 1.1± 0.1 in control group p<0.05), because of ATP, ADP and AMP decrease and PCr increase. The sum of high energy phosphate compounds did not change. There were no significant differences in F0F1-ATPase nor Na,K-ATPase activity between the groups. Conclusions Results show that in this experimental model, acute-stretch related AF induces specific modifications of atrial myocytes energetics that may play a pivotal role in the perpetuation of the arrhythmia. PMID:18553177

  19. State of the art management of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI).

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Andrew D; Kor, Daryl J

    2012-01-01

    Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI) is the leading cause of transfusion-related mortality in most developed countries. Despite this fact, well-designed investigations on specific management strategies for TRALI are lacking. Indeed, current recommendations are primarily based on data extrapolated from trials of the histo-pathologically similar Acute Lung Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndromes. The cornerstone of TRALI management is supportive care with oxygen supplementation and ventilatory assistance when needed. When mechanical ventilation is required, attenuating additional ventilator-induced lung injury through the avoidance of high tidal volumes and elevated airway pressures, with additional measures such as positive end-expiratory pressure to prevent low-volume shear stress injury, are recommended. The literature is not currently sufficient to support either corticosteroids or statins as effective therapies in TRALI. Conservative fluid practices are desirable, provided care is taken to avoid hypotension. Preventative strategies have shown the most promise in mitigating this transfusion-related pulmonary complication. Specifically, conservative transfusion practices and deferral of high-plasma component donors who have, or at high risk of having, anti-human leukocyte antigen and/or anti-human neutrophil antigen antibodies have meaningfully impacted the incidence of TRALI. Future considerations for patients who are at increased risk for developing TRALI may include therapies such as anti-platelet agents and alternatives to traditional blood components such as prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC). However, these potential TRALI prevention strategies are insufficiently studied, have unclear risk/benefit profiles and cannot be currently recommended.

  20. Morphological study of the relation between accidental hypothermia and acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Foulis, A K

    1982-01-01

    There is a recognised but poorly understood association between hypothermia and acute pancreatitis. A histological study of the pancreas was made in eight patients with accidental hypothermia who had evidence of pancreatitis at necropsy. From an analysis of the patterns of parenchymal necrosis in the pancreas it was thought that there were at least three possible mechanisms for the relation between hypothermia and pancreatitis. Firstly, that ischaemic pancreatitis may result from the "microcirculatory shock" of hypothermia. Secondly, that both hypothermia and pancreatitis may be secondary to alcohol abuse: and finally, that severe pancreatitis may be the primary disease and that hypothermia results from the patients' social circumstances. Images PMID:7142433

  1. Transfusion-related acute lung injury in an era of TRALI risk mitigation.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, John C; Grant, Michelle L; Karp, Julie K

    2015-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a rare complication of transfusion, for which the true incidence remains obscure, since there are a number of factors that may lead to misdiagnosis. Despite this, it continues to be the leading cause of transfusion-associated mortality. Here we present a historical case of TRALI in an elderly female who received group AB plasma and discuss how current mitigation strategies would likely have prevented its occurrence. It is important to remember that both immune and non-immune factors play a role in TRALI pathogenesis, and although current preventative strategies may decrease TRALI's incidence, they likely will not eliminate it.

  2. Estimations of relative effort during sit-to-stand increase when accounting for variations in maximum voluntary torque with joint angle and angular velocity.

    PubMed

    Bieryla, Kathleen A; Anderson, Dennis E; Madigan, Michael L

    2009-02-01

    The main purpose of this study was to compare three methods of determining relative effort during sit-to-stand (STS). Fourteen young (mean 19.6+/-SD 1.2 years old) and 17 older (61.7+/-5.5 years old) adults completed six STS trials at three speeds: slow, normal, and fast. Sagittal plane joint torques at the hip, knee, and ankle were calculated through inverse dynamics. Isometric and isokinetic maximum voluntary contractions (MVC) for the hip, knee, and ankle were collected and used for model parameters to predict the participant-specific maximum voluntary joint torque. Three different measures of relative effort were determined by normalizing STS joint torques to three different estimates of maximum voluntary torque. Relative effort at the hip, knee, and ankle were higher when accounting for variations in maximum voluntary torque with joint angle and angular velocity (hip=26.3+/-13.5%, knee=78.4+/-32.2%, ankle=27.9+/-14.1%) compared to methods which do not account for these variations (hip=23.5+/-11.7%, knee=51.7+/-15.0%, ankle=20.7+/-10.4%). At higher velocities, the difference in calculating relative effort with respect to isometric MVC or incorporating joint angle and angular velocity became more evident. Estimates of relative effort that account for the variations in maximum voluntary torque with joint angle and angular velocity may provide higher levels of accuracy compared to methods based on measurements of maximal isometric torques.

  3. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI): a clinical review with emphasis on the critically ill.

    PubMed

    Benson, Alexander B; Moss, Marc; Silliman, Christopher C

    2009-11-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the leading cause of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality world-wide. Although first described in 1983, it took two decades to develop consensus definitions, which remain controversial. The pathogenesis of TRALI is related to the infusion of donor antibodies that recognize leucocyte antigens in the transfused host or the infusion of lipids and other biological response modifiers that accumulate during the storage or processing of blood components. TRALI appears to be the result of at least two sequential events and treatment is supportive. This review demonstrates that critically ill patients are more susceptible to TRALI and require special attention by critical care specialists, haematologists and transfusion medicine experts. Further research is required into TRALI and its pathogenesis so that transfusions are safer and administered appropriately. Avoidance including male-only transfusion practises, the use of leucoreduced components, fresher blood/blood components and solvent detergent plasma are also discussed.

  4. A Fatal Case of Acute Myeloid Leukaemia-Methotrexate Related or Primary Autoimmune Disease Related: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Saurabh; Kaeley, Nidhi; Gupta, Priyanka; Gupta, Vibha; Bhatia, Rohan

    2016-03-01

    Methotrexate is being used for many years in the treatment of chronic medical disorders e.g. rheumatoid arthritis since 1951. It has been associated with various systemic toxicities and complications including bone marrow suppression and lymphomas. The development of leukaemia in a patient of chronic rheumatoid arthritis is either related with the primary disease or due to the drugs which are used in the treatment like cyclophosphamide. In our present case, a 70-year-old female who was a known case of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and was on methotrexate once a week orally for the past 20 years presented with complaints of loss of appetite, loss of weight and anaemia since 2 months. After thorough examination and investigation, she was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML-M4) with bilateral chest consolidation.

  5. The relative contribution of magnetic resonance imaging to the assessment and differential diagnosis of cerebellopontine angle mass lesions.

    PubMed

    Worthington, B S; Mawhinney, R R; Holland, I M; Lowe, J; Punt, J; Bydder, G; Young, I R

    1986-01-01

    Forty-nine patients with a space occupying lesion in the cerebellopontine angle cistern were examined by computed tomography (CT), magnetic imaging (MRI) and, where appropriate, conventional neuroradiologic techniques. The presence of an intracanalicular extension and a high signal on T2 weighted sequences were typical of acoustic neuroma and allowed separation from meningioma. Contrast enhancement with gadolinium DTPA was particularly valuable in recurrent acoustic neuroma. Typically epidermoids had long T1 and T2 values. Sequences which highlight flow allow vascular lesions to be identified without the use of contrast media. In separating the several pathologies MRI was superior to CT and also gave information on tissue composition in acoustic neuroma.

  6. The relation of age to the acute effects of ethanol on acetanilide disposition.

    PubMed

    Wynne, H A; Mutch, E; Williams, F M; James, O F; Rawlins, M D; Woodhouse, K W

    1989-03-01

    The activity of the major drug-metabolizing enzymes, the mono-oxygenases, can be inhibited by an acute dose of ethanol. We set out to determine whether age has any relation to the degree of inhibition produced by ethanol, using acetanilide as a model substrate. Eight healthy young subjects (mean age 26 years) and eight healthy elderly subjects (mean age 72 years) were studied on two occasions, once receiving acetanilide alone and once acetanilide with 75 ml vodka (30 g ethanol). The clearance of acetanilide was significantly lower (p less than 0.05) in the elderly subjects at 27 +/- 3 l/h compared to 38 +/- 2 l/h in young subjects. No age-related differences in peak blood ethanol concentrations or ethanol elimination rates were noted. After ethanol, acetanilide clearance fell 18% to 31 +/- 3 l/h in young subjects (p = 0.05) and by 15% to 23 +/- 2 l/h in elderly subjects (p = 0.08). This suggests that the elderly do not suffer greater impairment of drug oxidation after acute ethanol ingestion than do the young.

  7. Intragenic ERG Deletions Do Not Explain the Biology of ERG-Related Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Potuckova, Eliska; Zuna, Jan; Hovorkova, Lenka; Starkova, Julia; Stary, Jan; Trka, Jan; Zaliova, Marketa

    2016-01-01

    Intragenic ERG deletions occur in 3–5% of B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, specifically in B-other subtype lacking the classifying genetic lesions. They represent the only genetic lesion described so far present in the majority of cases clustering into a subgroup of B-other subtype characterized by a unique gene expression profile, probably sharing a common, however, not yet fully described, biological background. We aimed to elucidate whether ERG deletions could drive the specific biology of this ERG-related leukemia subgroup through expression of aberrant or decreased expression of wild type ERG isoforms. We showed that leukemic cells with endogenous ERG deletion express an aberrant transcript translated into two proteins in transfected cell lines and that one of these proteins colocalizes with wild type ERG. However, we did not confirm expression of the proteins in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases with endogenous ERG deletion. ERG deletions resulted in significantly lower expression of wild type ERG transcripts compared to B-other cases without ERG deletion. However, cases with subclonal ERG deletion, clustering to the same ERG deletion associated subgroup, presented similar levels of wild type ERG as cases without ERG deletion. In conclusion, our data suggest that neither the expression of aberrant proteins from internally deleted allele nor the reduced expression of wild type ERG seem to provide a plausible explanation of the specific biology of ERG -related leukemia subgroup. PMID:27494621

  8. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI): a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Donelan, Kent J; Anderson, Keith A

    2011-03-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), a previously ill-defined transfusion reaction, has emerged as the leading cause of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A 3-year-old male with a history of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) developed TRALI after receiving three units of platelets and a partial unit of packed red cells. He recovered after 24 hours in the pediatric intensive care unit. Laboratory investigation revealed that two of the four blood donors, from which the platelets and packed red cells had derived, had positive human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibody screens. Further testing of these two donors revealed that one had a specific HLA antibody matching an antigen of the patient. This donor was implicated in the TRALI reaction. TRALI is often mistaken for other transfusion reactions, most notably pulmonary edema caused by circulatory overload or congestive heart failure. It is difficult to gauge which transfusion recipients are at risk for TRALI. Good judgment and transfusion practices when ordering blood products and recognition of the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of TRALI is critical.

  9. Kallistatin protects against sepsis-related acute lung injury via inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Chieh; Chen, Chang-Wen; Huang, Yu-Wen; Chao, Lee; Chao, Julie; Lin, Yee-Shin; Lin, Chiou-Feng

    2015-07-22

    Kallistatin, an endogenous plasma protein, exhibits pleiotropic properties in inhibiting inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis, as evidenced in various animal models and cultured cells. Here, we demonstrate that kallistatin levels were positively correlated with the concentration of total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) from patients with sepsis-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), indicating a compensatory mechanism. Lower ratio of kallistatin to total protein in BALF showed a significant trend toward elevated neutrophil counts (P = 0.002) in BALF and increased mortality (P = 0.046). In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice, expression of human kallistatin in lung by gene transfer with human kallistatin-encoding plasmid ameliorated acute lung injury (ALI) and reduced cytokine/chemokine levels in BALF. These mice exhibited attenuated lung epithelial apoptosis and decreased Fas/FasL expression compared to the control mice. Mouse survival was improved by kallistatin gene transfer or recombinant human kallistatin treatment after LPS challenge. In LPS-stimulated A549 human lung epithelial cells, kallistatin attenuated apoptosis, down-regulated Fas/FasL signaling, suppressed intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibited ROS-mediated NF-κB activation and inflammation. Furthermore, LPS-induced apoptosis was blocked by antioxidant N-acetylcysteine or NF-κB inhibitor via down-regulating Fas expression. These findings suggest the therapeutic potential of kallistatin for sepsis-related ALI/ARDS.

  10. Detecting impairment: sensitive cognitive measures of dose-related acute alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Cash, Catherine; Peacock, Amy; Barrington, Helen; Sinnett, Nicholas; Bruno, Raimondo

    2015-04-01

    The cognitive impairment that results from acute alcohol intoxication is associated with considerable safety risks. Other psychoactive substances, such as medications, pose a similar risk to road and workplace safety. However, there is currently no legal limit for operating vehicles or working while experiencing drug-related impairment. The current study sought to identify a brief cognitive task sensitive to a meaningful degree of impairment from acute alcohol intoxication to potentially stand as a reference from which to quantify impairment from other similar substances. A placebo-controlled single-blind crossover design was employed to determine the relative sensitivity of four commonly-administered cognitive tasks (Compensatory Tracking Task, Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Brief Stop Signal Task and Inspection Time Task) to alcohol-related impairment in male social drinkers at ~0.05% ascending breath alcohol concentration (BrAC), ~0.08% peak BrAC and 0.05% descending BrAC. The Inspection Time Task was identified as the most sensitive task, detecting a medium to large magnitude increase in impairment (g ≈ 0.60) at 0.05% ascending and descending BrAC, and a large magnitude effect size (g = 0.80) at 0.08% peak BrAC. The remaining tasks failed to demonstrate sensitivity to dose-dependent and limb-dependent changes in alcohol-induced impairment. The Inspection Time Task was deemed the most sensitive task for screening alcohol-related impairment based on the present results. Confirmation of equivalence with other drug-related impairment and sensitivity to alcohol-induced impairment in real-world settings should be established in future research.

  11. The Variable Angle Hip Fracture Nail Relative to the Gamma 3: A Finite Element Analysis Illustrating the Same Stiffness and Fatigue Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Matityahu, Amir; Schmidt, Andrew H.; Grantz, Alan; Clawson, Ben; Marmor, Meir; McClellan, R. Trigg

    2013-01-01

    Ten percent of the 250,000 proximal femur fractures that occur in the United States each year are malreduced into a varus position after treatment. Currently, there is no cephalomedullary nail available that allows the physician to dynamically change the lag-screw-to-nail angle. The Variable Angle Nail (VAN) was designed to allow movement of the lag screw relative to the shaft of the nail. This study compared the characteristics of the VAN to the Gamma 3 nail via finite element analysis (FEA) in stiffness and fatigue. The results of the FEA model with the same loading parameters showed the Gamma 3 and the VAN with lag-screw-to-nail angle of 120° to have essentially the same stiffness values ranging from 350 to 382 N/mm. The VAN with lag-screw-to-nail angles of 120°, 130°, and 140° should be able to withstand more than 1,000,000 cycles from 1,400 N to 1,500 N loading of the tip of the lag screw. The Gamma 3 should be able to last more than 1,000,000 cycles at 1,400 N. In summary, the VAN is superior or equivalent in stiffness and fatigue when compared to the Gamma 3 using FEA. PMID:23585970

  12. Cyclosporine and methotrexate-related pharmacogenomic predictors of acute graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Laverdière, Isabelle; Guillemette, Chantal; Tamouza, Ryad; Loiseau, Pascale; de Latour, Regis Peffault; Robin, Marie; Couture, Félix; Filion, Alain; Lalancette, Marc; Tourancheau, Alan; Charron, Dominique; Socié, Gérard; Lévesque, Éric

    2015-01-01

    Effective immunosuppression is mandatory to prevent graft-versus-host disease and to achieve a successful clinical outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Here we tested whether germline single nucleotide polymorphisms in 20 candidate genes related to methotrexate and cyclosporine metabolism and activity influence the incidence of graft-versus-host disease in patients who undergo stem cell transplantation for hematologic disorders. Recipient genetic status of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette sub-family C1 and adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette sub-family C2 transporters, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/ inosine monophosphate cyclohydrolase within the methotrexate pathway, and nuclear factor of activated T cells (cytoplasmic 1) loci exhibit a remarkable influence on severe acute graft-versus-host disease prevalence. Indeed, an increased risk of acute graft-versus-host disease was observed in association with single nucleotide polymorphisms located in 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/inosine monophosphate cyclohydrolase (hazard ratio=3.04; P=0.002), nuclear factor of activated T cells (cytoplasmic 1) (hazard ratio=2.69; P=0.004), adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette sub-family C2 (hazard ratio=3.53; P=0.0018) and adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette sub-family C1 (hazard ratio=3.67; P=0.0005). While donor single nucleotide polymorphisms of dihydrofolate reductase and solute carrier family 19 (member 1) genes are associated with a reduced risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (hazard ratio=0.32–0.41; P=0.0009–0.008), those of nuclear factor of activated T cells (cytoplasmic 2) are found to increase such risk (hazard ratio=3.85; P=0.0004). None of the tested single nucleotide polymorphisms was associated with the occurrence of chronic graft-versus-host disease. In conclusion, by targeting drug-related biologically relevant genes, this work emphasizes the potential

  13. Foot contact angle variability during a prolonged run with relation to injury history and habitual foot strike pattern.

    PubMed

    Paquette, M R; Milner, C E; Melcher, D A

    2017-02-01

    Foot strike pattern and movement variability have each been associated with running injuries. Foot contact angle (FCA) is a common measure of strike pattern. Thus, variability in FCA could be an important running injury risk factor. The purposes of this study were to compare (a) foot contact angle (FCA) and its variability between runners with and without injury history and, (b) FCA variability between habitual rearfoot strike (RFS) and non-RFS runners during a prolonged run. Twenty-three runners with and 21 without injury history participated. Motion capture was used to collect kinematic data during a 40 min treadmill run. Average FCA and its variability were compared between injury groups and among four time points. FCA and its variability were not different between runners with and without injury history or among time points during the run. FCA variability was lower in non-RFS compared to RFS runners (P < 0.001). Lower FCA variability in non-RFS runners may have implications for higher injury risks due to repeated localized tissue loading. Prospective analyses on the effects of lower FCA variability on injury risk are needed.

  14. Marchiafava-Bignami and Alcohol Related Acute Polyneuropathy: The Cooccurrence of Two Rare Entities

    PubMed Central

    Boloursaz, Samine; Nekooei, Sirous; Seilanian Toosi, Farrokh; Rezaei-Dalouei, Hossein; Davachi, Behrooz; Kazemi, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this article is to represent the first reported case with cooccurrence of two rare alcohol related complications. Case Report. We report a 38-year-old man with chronic alcoholism who presented with both cranial and peripheral nerve palsy. On MRI examination characteristic findings of Marchiafava-Bignami disease were recognized. Discussion. Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) is a rare complication of long-term, heavy alcohol abuse that has characteristic MRI findings. Acute alcohol related polyneuropathy (AARP) is another rare and not-well-understood complication of chronic alcohol abuse. We could not find any previous report of the cooccurrence of these two complications in the literature. PMID:27668107

  15. The prevalence of pregnancy-related acute renal failure in Asia: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Zynab; Malekmakan, Leila; Farshadi, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is a major complication during pregnancy and is associated with high mortality rate in developing countries. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of pregnancy-related ARF in Asia. This study is a systematic review Google Scholar, PubMed, and Medline databases were searched for all papers in English on pregnancy related ARF (PR-ARF) in Asian countries that were published between 2010 and 2015 were reviewed. Of all the articles published in that period, 19 were selected - 17 were original articles and two were cases reports. We gathered information on the prevalence of PR-ARF, parity, duration of pregnancy when PR-ARF developed, etiology of PR-ARF, common clinical symptoms, and laboratory findings in PR-ARF.

  16. [The immunological conflict in the transfusion-related acute lung injury or TRALI].

    PubMed

    Drouet, C; Khoy, K; Masson, D; Bardy, B; Giannoli, C; Dubois, V

    2011-04-01

    Despite its underrated incidence, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the leading cause of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. The pulmonary edema in TRALI occurs in the course of the transfusion of apheresis products or erythrocyte concentrates. Its pathogenesis is attributed to the infusion of donor antibodies that recognize leucocyte antigens in the transfused host, with subsequent sequestration of leucocytes in the pulmonary vessels. It is also associated with the passive transfer of lipids and other biological response modifiers that accumulate during the storage or processing of blood components. The innate immunity and inflammatory kinins are key components. The knowledge of its etiopathogenesis must come into play for improving prevention and diagnosis and for application of adapted care of the patient.

  17. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI): current concepts and misconceptions.

    PubMed

    Silliman, Christopher C; Fung, Yoke Lin; Ball, J Bradley; Khan, Samina Y

    2009-11-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the most common cause of serious morbidity and mortality due to hemotherapy. Although the pathogenesis has been related to the infusion of donor antibodies into the recipient, antibody negative TRALI has been reported. Changes in transfusion practices, especially the use of male-only plasma, have decreased the number of antibody-mediated cases and deaths; however, TRALI still occurs. The neutrophil appears to be the effector cell in TRALI and the pathophysiology is centered on neutrophil-mediated endothelial cell cytotoxicity resulting in capillary leak and ALI. This review will detail the pathophysiology of TRALI including recent pre-clinical data, provide insight into newer areas of research, and critically assess current practices to decrease it prevalence and to make transfusion safer.

  18. Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury after Cesarean Section in a Patient with HELLP Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Kyoung Min; Rim, Ch'ang Bum; Kim, So Ri; Shin, Sang Ho; Kang, Min Seok; Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Jihye; Kim, Sang Il

    2016-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a serious adverse reaction of transfusion, and presents as hypoxemia and non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema within 6 hours of transfusion. A 14-year-old primigravida woman at 34 weeks of gestation presented with upper abdominal pain without dyspnea. Because she showed the syndrome of HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count), an emergency cesarean section delivery was performed, and blood was transfused. In the case of such patients, clinicians should closely observe the patient's condition at least during the 6 hours while the patient receives blood transfusion, and should suspect TRALI if the patient complains of respiratory symptoms such as dyspnea. Furthermore, echocardiography should be performed to distinguish between the different types of transfusion-related adverse reactions. PMID:26885326

  19. Effects of acute stressors on itch- and pain-related behaviors in rats

    PubMed Central

    Spradley, Jessica Marie; Davoodi, Auva; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Carstens, E.

    2012-01-01

    Many acute stressors reduce pain, a phenomenon called stress-induced antinociception (SIA). Stress also is associated with increased scratching in chronic itch conditions. We investigated effects of acute stressors on facial itch and pain using a recently-introduced rat model. Under baseline (no-swim) conditions, intradermal (id) cheek microinjection of the pruritogen serotonin (5-HT) selectively elicited hindlimb scratch bouts, while the algogen mustard oil (allyl isothiocyanate= AITC) selectively elicited ipsilateral forepaw swipes, directed to the cheek injection site. To test effects of swim stress, rats received id cheek microinjection of 5-HT (1%), AITC (10%), or vehicle, and were then subjected to one of the following swim conditions: (1) weak SIA (W-SIA), (2) naltrexone-sensitive SIA (intermediate or I-SIA), or (3) naltrexone-insensitive SIA (strong or S-SIA). After the swim, we recorded the number of hindlimb scratch bouts and forelimb swipes directed to the cheek injection site, as well as facial grooming by both forepaws. Under S-SIA, AITC-evoked swiping and 5-HT-evoked scratching were both reduced. I-SIA reduced AITC-evoked swiping with no effect on 5-HT-evoked scratching. Facial grooming immediately post-swim was suppressed by S-SIA, but not I- or W-SIA. W-SIA tended to equalize scratching and swiping elicited by 5-HT and AITC compared to no-swim controls, suggesting altered itch and pain processing. Exercise (wheel-running), novelty, cold exposure and fear (shaker table), key components of swim stress, differentially affected tailflick latencies and 5-HT-evoked swiping and scratching behavior. Thus, itch and pain can be simultaneously suppressed by a combination of acute stress-related factors via an opioid-independent mechanism. PMID:22770638

  20. Cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide modulates the severity of acute pancreatitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    DENG, YUAN-YUAN; SHAMOON, MUHAMMAD; HE, YUE; BHATIA, MADHAV; SUN, JIA

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of mouse cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) on experimental acute pancreatitis (AP). AP is a common clinical condition characterized by acute abdominal inflammation. Innate immune cells and mediators are intrinsically linked to the pathogenesis of AP. Cathelicidins are innate immunity-derived antimicrobial peptides that exert immunomodulatory effects on various host cells. However, how cathelicidins are involved and modulate the severity and inflammatory responses of AP remains unclear. In the present study, the mouse CRAMP gene-deficient cnlp−/− mice and their wild-type C57BL/6J littermates were induced with AP by multiple hourly injections of supramaximal doses of caerulein. Serum amylase levels, pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity and histological examination were performed in order to determine the disease severity and the levels of inflammatory cytokines. Disease severity and inflammatory markers were subsequently evaluated in the control mice, cnlp−/− C57BL/6J mice with AP, and wild-type C57BL/6J mice with AP. The results demonstrated that cnlp−/− mice exhibited a more severe phenotype and inflammatory response following AP induction compared with the wild-type mice, as evidenced by increased serum amylase levels, pancreatic myeloperoxidase release, and early inflammatory mediator tumor necrosis factor-α production. Histological examination confirmed that CRAMP deficiency worsened the pancreatic inflammatory condition. These results indicate that CRAMP may be considered a novel modulatory mediator in mouse experimental AP. PMID:27035328

  1. ETS-related gene is a novel prognostic factor in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hai-Zhao; Jia, Ming; Luo, Ze-Bin; Xu, Xiao-Jun; Li, Si-Si; Zhang, Jing-Ying; Guo, Xiao-Ping; Tang, Yong-Min

    2017-01-01

    The ETS-related gene (ERG) has been demonstrated to be associated with overall survival in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia and acute T cell-lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) in adult patients. However, there are no data available regarding the impact of ERG expression on childhood ALL. In the present study, ERG expression levels were analyzed in bone marrow samples from 119 ALL pediatric patients. ALL patients demonstrated higher ERG expression compared with the controls (P<0.0001). In addition, low ERG expression identified a group of patients with higher white blood cell counts (P=0.011), higher percentages of T-ALL immunophenotype (P=0.027), and higher relapse rates (P=0.009). Survival analyses demonstrated that low ERG expression was associated with inferior relapse-free survival (RFS) in childhood ALL (P=0.036) and was an independent prognostic factor in multivariable analyses for RFS. In conclusion, low ERG expression is associated with poor outcomes and may be used to serve as a molecular prognostic marker to identify patients with a high risk of relapse in childhood ALL.

  2. Behavioral phenotypes of impulsivity related to the ANKK1 gene are independent of an acute stressor

    PubMed Central

    White, Melanie J; Morris, C Phillip; Lawford, Bruce R; Young, Ross McD

    2008-01-01

    Background The A1 allele of the ANKK1 TaqIA polymorphism (previously reported as located in the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) gene) is associated with reduced DRD2 density in the striatum and with clinical disorders, particularly addiction. It was hypothesized that impulsivity represents an endophenotype underlying these associations with the TaqIA and that environmental stress would moderate the strength of the gene-behavior relationship. Methods TaqIA genotyping was conducted on 72 healthy young adults who were randomly allocated to either an acute psychosocial stress or relaxation induction condition. Behavioral phenotypes of impulsivity were measured using a card-sorting index of reinforcement sensitivity and computerized response inhibition and delay discounting tasks. Results Separate analyses of variance revealed associations between the A1 allele and two laboratory measures of impulsivity. The presence of the TaqIA allele (A1+) was associated with slower card-sorting in the presence of small financial reinforcers, but was overcome in a second administration after either a five-minute rest or psychosocial stress induction. A1+ participants also demonstrated significantly poorer response inhibition and faster response times on a computerized stop inhibition task, independent of acute stress exposure. Conclusion These findings indicate the A1 allele is associated with an endophenotype comprising both a "rash impulsive" behavioral style and reinforcement-related learning deficits. These effects are independent of stress. PMID:19025655

  3. Acute and Chronic Effects of Ethanol on Learning-Related Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Zorumski, Charles F.; Mennerick, Steven; Izumi, Yukitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism is associated with acute and long-term cognitive dysfunction including memory impairment, resulting in substantial disability and cost to society. Thus, understanding how ethanol impairs cognition is essential for developing treatment strategies to dampen its adverse impact. Memory processing is thought to involve persistent, use-dependent changes in synaptic transmission, and ethanol alters the activity of multiple signaling molecules involved in synaptic processing, including modulation of the glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transmitter systems that mediate most fast excitatory and inhibitory transmission in the brain. Effects on glutamate and GABA receptors contribute to ethanol-induced changes in long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), forms of synaptic plasticity thought to underlie memory acquisition. In this paper, we review the effects of ethanol on learning-related forms of synaptic plasticity with emphasis on changes observed in the hippocampus, a brain region that is critical for encoding contextual and episodic memories. We also include studies in other brain regions as they pertain to altered cognitive and mental function. Comparison of effects in the hippocampus to other brain regions is instructive for understanding the complexities of ethanol’s acute and long-term pharmacological consequences. PMID:24447472

  4. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI): clinical presentation, treatment, and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Moore, S Breanndan

    2006-05-01

    The term transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) was coined in 1983 to describe a constellation of clinical and laboratory features seen within 6 hrs of the transfusion of plasma-containing blood products. These products contain antibodies directed to human leukocyte antigens (and subsequently described to nonhuman leukocyte antigens) found on white blood cells. In the intervening 2 decades, other cases not associated with antibodies have been reported as TRALI and an association with passive infusion of lipids accumulated in stored cellular blood products has been made in those cases. This has led to confusion as to what should be considered to constitute TRALI. Therefore, the true incidence of this pulmonary reaction to blood products is currently conjectural at best. Recent consensus development conferences have been held to develop and standardize definitions of TRALI so that epidemiologic and research aspects of this condition can be explored in a scientific manner. These conferences have set out criteria by which TRALI is distinguished from other causes of acute lung injury. This review outlines the widely accepted clinical (mainly pulmonary) features of TRALI, the treatment options, and the excellent long-term prognosis for patients who survive the initial pulmonary insult.

  5. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) in graft by blood donor antibodies against host leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Jodi; Tinckam, Kathryn; denHollander, Neal; Haroon, Ayesha; Keshavjee, Shaf; Cserti-Gazdewich, Christine M

    2010-09-01

    It is unknown the extent to which transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) contributes to primary graft dysfunction (PGD), the leading cause of death after lung transplantation. In this case of suspected transfusion-associated acute bilateral graft injury in a 61-year-old idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patient, recipient sera from before and after transplantation/transfusion, as well as the sera of 22 of the 24 implicated blood donors, were individually screened by Luminex bead assay for the presence of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies, with recipient and lung donor HLA typing to explore for cognate relationships. A red-cell-unit donor-source anti-Cw6 antibody, cognate with the HLA type of the recipient, was identified. This is the second reported case of TRALI in the setting of lung transplantation, and the first to show an associated interaction between donor antibodies (in a low-plasma volume product) with recipient leukocytes (rather than graft antigens); therefore, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of PGD.

  6. [Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO)].

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Hitoshi

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to respiratory complications of transfusion. Transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) is defined as an acute lung injury that is temporally associated with blood transfusion. TRALI is one of the leading causes of mortality. Although the etiology of TRALI is not fully understood, one of its main causes is thought to be anti-leukocyte antibodies, such as HLA antibody or HNA antibody. A precautionary male-predominant plasma strategy has been implemented in many developed countries, which has resulted in considerable achievements in reducing the incidence of TRALI. Meanwhile, transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) has emerged as a major differential diagnosis of TRALI. TACO is a well-known complication of transfusion, which has been considered not as a side effect of transfusion but a result of erroneous medical practice. It has long been an under-reported complication of transfusion and has not been investigated scientifically. Recent data on transfusion mortality from the Food and Drug Administration revealed that TACO was the second highest cause of death in the United States. Our data also suggested a steep increase in the reported cases of TACO in Japan. Precautionary measures should also be implemented for this emerging complication.

  7. An instrumented tissue tester for measuring soft tissue property under the metatarsal heads in relation to metatarsophalangeal joint angle.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Ming; Phyau-Wui Shim, Victor; Park, Seung-Bum; Lee, Taeyong

    2011-06-03

    Identification of the localized mechanical response of the plantar soft tissue pads underneath the metatarsal heads (i.e., sub-MTH pad) to external loading is key to understand and predict how it functions in a gait cycle. The mechanical response depends on various parameters, such as the external load (direction and rate), the sub-MTH tissue properties (anisotropy and viscoelasticity), and the configuration of the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint overlying the tissue. In this study, an instrument-driven tissue tester that incorporates a portable motorized indentor within a special foot positioning apparatus was developed for realistic in vivo mechanical characterization (i.e. tissue stiffness and force relaxation behavior) of the local sub-MTH pad with the MTP joint configured at various dorsiflexion angles associated with gait. The tester yields consistent results for tests on the 2nd sub-MTH pad. Measurement errors for the initial stiffness (for indentation depths ≤ 1 mm), end-point stiffness, and percentage force relaxation were less than 0.084 N/mm, 0.133 N/mm, and 0.127%, respectively, across all test configurations. The end-point tissue stiffness, which increased by 104.2% due to a 50° MTP joint dorsiflexion, also agreed with a previous investigation. In vivo tissue's force relaxation was shown to be pronounced (avg. = 8.1%), even for a short holding-time interval. The proposed technique to facilitate study of the dependence of the local sub-MTH pad and tissue response on the MTP joint angle might be preferable to methods that focus solely on measurement of tissue property because under physiologic conditions the sub-MTH pad elasticity may vary in gait, to adapt to drastically changing mechanical demands in the sub-MTH region of the terminal stance-phase, where MTP joint dorsiflexion occurs.

  8. Herbal and dietary supplements related to diarrhea and acute kidney injury: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wanitsriphinyo, Suphamat; Tangkiatkumjai, Mayuree

    2017-03-01

    Background There is very little evidence relating to the association of herbal medicine with diarrhea and the development of acute kidney injury (AKI). This study reports a case of diarrhea-induced AKI, possibly related to an individual ingesting copious amounts of homemade mixed fruit and herb puree. Case presentation A 45-year-old Thai man with diabetes had diarrhea for 2 days, as a result of taking high amounts of a puree made up of eight mixed fruits and herbs over a 3-day period. He developed dehydration and stage 2 AKI, with a doubling of his serum creatinine. He had been receiving enalapril, as a prescribed medication, over one year. After he stopped taking both the puree and enalapril, and received fluid replacement therapy, within a week his serum creatinine had gradually decreased. The combination of puree, enalapril and AKI may also have induced hyperkalemia in this patient. Furthermore, the patient developed hyperphosphatemia due to his worsening kidney function, exacerbated by regularly taking some dietary supplements containing high levels of phosphate. His serum levels of potassium and phosphate returned to normal within a week, once the patient stopped both the puree and all dietary supplements, and had begun receiving treatment for hyperkalemia. Results The mixed fruit and herb puree taken by this man may have led to his diarrhea due to its effect; particularly if the patient was taking a high concentration of such a drink. Both the puree and enalapril are likely to attenuate the progression of kidney function. The causal relationship between the puree and AKI was probable (5 scores) assessed by the modified Naranjo algorithm. This is the first case report, as far as the authors are aware, relating the drinking of a mixed fruit and herbal puree to diarrhea and AKI in a patient with diabetes. Conclusions This case can alert health care providers to the possibility that herbal medicine could induce diarrhea and develop acute kidney injury.

  9. Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI): A Single Institution Experience of 15 Years.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramesh; Sedky, Mohammed Jaber; Varghese, Sunny Joseph; Sharawy, Osama Ebrahim

    2016-09-01

    Transfusion related acute Lung injury (TRALI) though a serious blood transfusion reaction with a fatality rate of 5-25 % presents with acute respiratory distress with hypoxaemia and noncardiac pulmonary oedema within 6 h of transfusion. In non fatal cases, it may resolve within 72 h or earlier. Although reported with an incidence of 1:5000, its true occurrence is rather unknown. Pathogenesis is believed to be related to sequestration and adhesion of neutrophils to the pulmonary capillary endothelium and its activation leading to its destruction and leaks. The patient's underlying condition, anti-neutrophil antibody in the transfused donor plasma and certain lipids that accumulate in routinely stores blood and components are important in its aetiopathogenesis. Patient's predisposing conditions include haematological malignancy, major surgery (especially cardiac), trauma and infections. The more commonly incriminated products include fresh frozen plasma (FFP), platelets (whole blood derived and apheresis), whole blood and Packed RBC. Occasional cases involving cryoprecipitate and Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVig) have also been reported. We present a 15 year single institution experience of TRALI, during which we observed 9 cases among 170,871 transfusions, giving an incidence of 1:19,000. We did not encounter cases of haematological malignancy or cardiac surgery in our TRALI patients. Among the blood products, that could be related to TRALI in our patients included solitary cases receiving cryoprecipitate, IVIg, and recombinant Factor VII apart from platelets and FFP. All patients were treated with oxygen support. Six patients required mechanical ventilation. Off label hydrocortisone was given to all patients. There were no cases of fatality among our patients.

  10. IgG4-related disease manifesting as an acute gastric-pericardial fistula.

    PubMed

    Frydman, James; Grunner, Shahar; Kluger, Yoram

    2014-11-28

    IgG4-related disease is a recently recognized entity linked initially to autoimmune pancreatitis and has been subsequently described in nearly every organ system. Men over the age of 50 represent the most affected demographic group and a comprehensive set of diagnostic criteria has been developed to aid treating clinicians. Though elevated levels of IgG4 in the serum are suggestive of the disease, definitive diagnosis is made on histopathology. Treatment is tailored to the clinical presentation with corticosteroid therapy known to have proven efficacy. Gastric manifestations of the IgG4-related disease primarily come in two varieties, notably chronic ulceration or pseudotumor formation. Autoimmune pancreatitis conveys increased risk for IgG4-related disease of the stomach, which is independent of Helicobacter pylori status. In this case report, we present an acute gastric-pericardial fistula secondary to IgG4-related disease that required urgent operative management. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the medical literature describing this complication of IgG4-related disease.

  11. Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia after treatment with temozolomide in a patient with glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sue Jung; Park, Tae Sung; Lee, Seung Tae; Song, Jaewoo; Suh, Borum; Kim, Se Hoon; Jang, Seon Jung; Lee, Chang Hoon; Choi, Jong Rak

    2009-01-01

    Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome and acute leukemia after treatment with temozolomide have rarely been described in the literature. Only 10 cases in association with temozolomide have been documented. The cases included anaplastic astrocytoma (4 cases), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (2 cases), low grade astrocytoma (2 cases), low grade oligodendroglioma (1 case), and one case of secondary Philadelphia-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a patient with glioblastoma multiforme. Here we report a novel case of therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia associated with der(1;7)(q10;p10) in a glioblastoma multiforme patient treated with temozolomide. Results of bone marrow morphology, chromosome, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses, as well as the clinical history, strongly suggest a treatment-related etiology in our case. In past reports, karyotypes in cases of therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia mostly demonstrated abnormalities in chromosomes 5 and 7. However, we report a case of temozolomide-related myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia with der(1;7)(q10;p10), possibly the first reported case, to the authors' knowledge.

  12. Molecular weight-gyration radius relation of globular proteins: a comparison of light scattering, small-angle X-ray scattering and structure-based data.

    PubMed

    Smilgies, Detlef-M; Folta-Stogniew, Ewa

    2015-10-01

    The molecular weight-gyration radius relation for a number of globular proteins based on experimental light scattering data is compared with small-angle X-ray scattering data recently published by Mylonas & Svergun [J. Appl. Cryst. (2007 ▸), 40, s245-s249]. In addition, other recent experimental data and theoretical calculations are reviewed. It is found that the MW-Rg relation for the globular proteins is well represented by a power law with an exponent of 0.37 (2).

  13. The acute psychobiological impact of the intensive care experience on relatives

    PubMed Central

    Turner-Cobb, J.M.; Smith, P.C.; Ramchandani, P.; Begen, F.M.; Padkin, A.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing awareness amongst critical care practitioners that the impact of intensive care medicine extends beyond the patient to include the psychological impact on close family members. Several studies have addressed the needs of relatives within the intensive care context but the psychobiological impact of the experience has largely been ignored. Such impact is important in respect to health and well-being of the relative, with potential to influence patient recovery. The current feasibility study aimed to examine the acute psychobiological impact of the intensive care experience on relatives. Using a mixed methods approach, quantitative and qualitative data were collected simultaneously. Six relatives of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of a District General Hospital, were assessed within 48 h of admission. Qualitative data were provided from semi-structured interviews analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Quantitative data were collected using a range of standardised self-report questionnaires measuring coping responses, emotion, trauma symptoms and social support, and through sampling of diurnal salivary cortisol as a biomarker of stress. Four themes were identified from interview: the ICU environment, emotional responses, family relationships and support. Questionnaires identified high levels of anxiety, depression and trauma symptoms; the most commonly utilised coping techniques were acceptance, seeking support through advice and information, and substance use. Social support emerged as a key factor with focused inner circle support relating to family and ICU staff. Depressed mood and avoidance were linked to greater mean cortisol levels across the day. Greater social network and coping via self-distraction were related to lower evening cortisol, indicating them as protective factors in the ICU context. The experience of ICU has a psychological and physiological impact on relatives, suggesting the importance of

  14. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI): A Canadian blood services research and development symposium.

    PubMed

    Saidenberg, Elianna; Petraszko, Tanya; Semple, Elisabeth; Branch, Donald R

    2010-10-01

    Since the first description of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) more than 2 decades ago, we have only recently begun to learn how this disorder may occur and how to prevent it. Scientists from around the world have made great strides in identifying the possible causes of this condition. Blood banks and transfusion services have risen to the challenges of prevention. Recent introduction of restricting most plasma products to those obtained from male donors only has greatly reduced the incidence of TRALI worldwide. Scientists have recently identified the gene and protein for the human neutrophil antigen-3a associated with most mortality due to TRALI, and this presents an opportunity for a screening assay to prevent future TRALI-associated deaths. Finally, animal models of TRALI have provided insight into the possible mechanisms of this disorder and can be used to explore potential treatment modalities.

  15. Acute Nonoccupational Pesticide-Related Illness and Injury - United States, 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Namulanda, Gonza; Monti, Michele M; Mulay, Prakash; Higgins, Sheila; Lackovic, Michelle; Schwartz, Abby; Prado, Joanne Bonnar; Waltz, Justin; Mitchell, Yvette; Calvert, Geoffrey M

    2016-10-14

    CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) collects data on acute pesticide-related illness and injury reported by 12 states (California, Florida, Iowa, Louisiana, Michigan, North Carolina, Nebraska, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, Texas, and Washington). This report summarizes the data on illnesses and injuries arising from nonoccupational exposure to conventional pesticides that were reported during 2007-2011. Conventional pesticides include insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and fumigants. They exclude disinfectants (e.g., chlorine and hypochlorites) and biological pesticides (1). This report is a part of the Summary of Notifiable Noninfectious Conditions and Disease Outbreaks - United States, which encompasses various surveillance years but is being published in 2016 (2). The Summary of Notifiable Noninfectious Conditions and Disease Outbreaks appears in the same volume of MMWR as the annual Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases (3). In a separate report, data on illnesses and injuries from occupational exposure to conventional pesticides during 2007-2011 are summarized (4).

  16. Angle detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parra, G. T. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An angle detector for determining a transducer's angular disposition to a capacitive pickup element is described. The transducer comprises a pendulum mounted inductive element moving past the capacitive pickup element. The capacitive pickup element divides the inductive element into two parts L sub 1 and L sub 2 which form the arms of one side of an a-c bridge. Two networks R sub 1 and R sub 2 having a plurality of binary weighted resistors and an equal number of digitally controlled switches for removing resistors from the networks form the arms of the other side of the a-c bridge. A binary counter, controlled by a phase detector, balances the bridge by adjusting the resistance of R sub 1 and R sub 2. The binary output of the counter is representative of the angle.

  17. Estimated Prestroke Peak VO2 Is Related to Circulating IGF-1 Levels During Acute Stroke.

    PubMed

    Mattlage, Anna E; Rippee, Michael A; Abraham, Michael G; Sandt, Janice; Billinger, Sandra A

    2017-01-01

    Background Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is neuroprotective after stroke and is regulated by insulin-like binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). In healthy individuals, exercise and improved aerobic fitness (peak oxygen uptake; peak VO2) increases IGF-1 in circulation. Understanding the relationship between estimated prestroke aerobic fitness and IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 after stroke may provide insight into the benefits of exercise and aerobic fitness on stroke recovery. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 to estimated prestroke peak VO2 in individuals with acute stroke. We hypothesized that (1) estimated prestroke peak VO2 would be related to IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and (2) individuals with higher than median IGF-1 levels will have higher estimated prestroke peak VO2 compared to those with lower than median levels. Methods Fifteen individuals with acute stroke had blood sampled within 72 hours of hospital admission. Prestroke peak VO2 was estimated using a nonexercise prediction equation. IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were quantified using enzyme-linked immunoassay. Results Estimated prestroke peak VO2 was significantly related to circulating IGF-1 levels (r = .60; P = .02) but not IGFBP-3. Individuals with higher than median IGF-1 (117.9 ng/mL) had significantly better estimated aerobic fitness (32.4 ± 6.9 mL kg(-1) min(-1)) than those with lower than median IGF-1 (20.7 ± 7.8 mL kg(-1) min(-1); P = .03). Conclusions Improving aerobic fitness prior to stroke may be beneficial by increasing baseline IGF-1 levels. These results set the groundwork for future clinical trials to determine whether high IGF-1 and aerobic fitness are beneficial to stroke recovery by providing neuroprotection and improving function.

  18. Age-related differences in acute neurotoxicity produced by mevinphos, monocrotophos, dicrotophos, and phosphamidon.

    PubMed

    Moser, Virginia C

    2011-01-01

    Age-related differences in the acute neurotoxicity of cholinesterase (ChE)-inhibiting pesticides have been well-studied for a few organophosphates, but not for many others. In this study, we directly compared dose-responses using brain and red blood cell (RBC) ChE measurements, along with motor activity, for mevinphos, monocrotophos, dicrotophos, and phosphamidon. Long-Evans hooded male rats were tested as adults and at postnatal day (PND) 17; PND11 pups were also tested with dicrotophos only. All chemicals were administered via oral gavage and tests were conducted at times intended to span peak behavioral and ChE effects. All OPs tested produced a rapid onset and recovery from the behavioral effects. There were age-related differences in the inhibition of brain, but not necessarily RBC, ChE. Mevinphos was clearly more toxic, up to 4-fold, to the young rat. On the other hand, monocrotophos, dicrotophos, and phosphamidon were somewhat more toxic to the young rat, but the magnitude of the differences was < 2-fold lower. Motor activity was consistently decreased in adults for all chemicals tested; however, there was more variability with the pups and clear age-related differences were only observed for mevinphos. These data show that three of these four OPs were only moderately more toxic in young rats, and further support findings that age-related differences in pesticide toxicity are chemical-specific.

  19. Lateral acetabular labral length is inversely related to acetabular coverage as measured by lateral center edge angle of Wiberg

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Brian D.; Wolf, Bryan; Lambert, Jeffrey R.; Clayton, Carolyn W.; Glueck, Deborah H.; Jesse, Mary Kristen; Mei-Dan, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip often have compensatory labral hypertrophy, which presumably lends stability to an unstable joint. Conversely, patients with acetabular overcoverage may have small or ossified labra. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction of labral length with the degree of acetabular hip coverage. A retrospective cohort of patients with hip pain presenting to a hip preservation center, who had undergone hip magnetic resonance imaging and AP pelvis radiographs were studied. General linear multivariate models were used to assess the association between three measures of labral length (lateral, anterior and anterior inferior locations along the acetabular rim) and the X-ray derived lateral center edge angle (LCEA) of Wiberg. Of the three acetabular labral locations measured, only the lateral labrum was associated with LCEA Wiberg (P = 0.0008). Lateral labral length increases as LCEA of Wiberg decreases. The anterior and anterior inferior labral locations did not show a predictable increase in labral length as LCEA Wiberg decreased. PMID:27583157

  20. Characterization of biomaterials polar interactions in physiological conditions using liquid-liquid contact angle measurements: relation to fibronectin adsorption.

    PubMed

    Velzenberger, Elodie; El Kirat, Karim; Legeay, Gilbert; Nagel, Marie-Danielle; Pezron, Isabelle

    2009-02-01

    Wettability of biomaterials surfaces and protein-coated substrates is generally characterized with the sessile drop technique using polar and apolar liquids. This procedure is often performed in air, which does not reflect the physiological conditions. In this study, liquid/liquid contact angle measurements were carried out to be closer to cell culture conditions. This technique allowed us to evaluate the polar contribution to the work of adhesion between an aqueous medium and four selected biomaterials widely used in tissue culture applications: bacteriological grade polystyrene (PS), tissue culture polystyrene (tPS), poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) film (PolyHEMA), and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose-carboxymethylcellulose bi-layered Petri dish (CEL). The contributions of polar interactions were also estimated on the same biomaterials after fibronectin (Fn) adsorption. The quantity of Fn adsorbed on PS, tPS, PolyHEMA and CEL surfaces was evaluated by using the fluorescein-labeled protein. PolyHEMA and CEL were found to be hydrophilic, tPS was moderately hydrophilic and PS was highly hydrophobic. After Fn adsorption on PS and tPS, a significant increase of the surface polar interaction was observed. On PolyHEMA and CEL, no significant adsorption of Fn was detected and the polar interactions remained unchanged. Finally, an inverse correlation between the polarity of the surfaces and the quantity of adsorbed Fn was established.

  1. Health-related QOL in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Doll, Helen; Miravitlles, Marc

    2005-01-01

    There is a lack of emphasis on health-related QOL (HR-QOL) changes associated with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (CB) or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this review is to examine the use of HR-QOL instruments to evaluate acute exacerbation of CB or COPD, so as to form recommendations for future research.A literature search of papers published between 1966 and July 2003 identified more than 300 articles that used acute exacerbation of CB or COPD as the search term. However, only 21 of these studies employed HR-QOL measures as predictors of outcome or in the assessment of the impact, evolution or treatment of acute exacerbations of COPD or CB. A variety of HR-QOL measures were used, both generic and disease specific. The disease-specific St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), devised for patients with stable CB and with a recall period of 1-12 months, was the most widely used measure, with the Chronic Respiratory disease Questionnaire (CRQ) and the Baseline and Transitional Dyspnoea Index (BDI, TDI) being the only other disease-specific measures used. Most measures, both generic and disease specific, performed adequately when used during acute exacerbation of CB or COPD and indicated poor HR-QOL during acute exacerbation, which improved on resolution of the exacerbation. Relationships were evident between HR-QOL during an acute exacerbation and various outcomes, including post-exacerbation functional status, hospital re- admission for acute exacerbation or COPD, and mortality. There is a need for studies of treatments for acute exacerbation of CB or COPD to include an appropriate HR-QOL instrument to aid in the stratification of patients so as to target the right treatment to the right patient group. While a new instrument could be developed to measure HR-QOL during acute exacerbation of CB or COPD, currently available disease-specific measures such as the CRQ and the SGRQ appear to be acceptable to patients during acute

  2. Early-Age-Related Changes in Proteostasis Augment Immunopathogenesis of Sepsis and Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bodas, Manish; Min, Taehong; Vij, Neeraj

    2010-01-01

    Background The decline of proteasomal activity is known to be associated with the age-related disorders but the early events involved in this process are not apparent. To address this, we investigated the early-age-related (pediatric vs. adult) mechanisms that augment immunopathogenesis of sepsis and acute lung injury. Methodology/Principal Findings The 3-weeks (pediatric) and 6-months (adult) old C57BL/6 mice were selected as the study groups. Mice were subjected to 1×20 cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) mediated sepsis or intratracheal Psuedomonas aeruginosa (Pa)-LPS induced acute lung injury (ALI).We observed a significant increase in basal levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-6 and neutrophil activity marker, myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the adult mice compared to the pediatric indicating the age-related constitutive increase in inflammatory response. Next, we found that age-related decrease in PSMB6 (proteasomal subunit) expression in adult mice results in accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins that triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR). We identified that Pa-LPS induced activation of UPR modifier, p97/VCP (valosin-containing protein) in the adult mice lungs correlates with increase in Pa-LPS induced NFκB levels. Moreover, we observed a constitutive increase in p-eIF2α indicating a protective ER stress response to accumulation of ubiquitinated-proteins. We used MG-132 treatment of HBE cells as an in vitro model to standardize the efficacy of salubrinal (inhibitor of eIF2α de-phosphorylation) in controlling the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and the NFκB levels. Finally, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of salubrinal to correct proteostasis-imbalance in the adult mice based on its ability to control CLP induced IL-6 secretion or recruitment of pro-inflammatory cells. Conclusions/Significance Our data demonstrate the critical role of early-age-related proteostasis-imbalance as a novel mechanism that augments the NFκB mediated

  3. Characteristic on the thermal stresses near apex in dissimilar materials (Relation between the intensity of stress field and the bonded wedge angle)

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, T.; Koguchi, H.

    1995-11-01

    The characteristic of thermal stresses near the apex in dissimilar materials under a uniform temperature change is theoretically and numerically investigated. The materials are composed of two isotropic homogeneous wedges with arbitrary angles. The dominant factor of thermal stresses near the apex is represented by Kr{sup p{minus}1}, where p{minus}1 is the order of the stress singularity and K indicates the intensity of the stress field. For the bonded structures of Cu/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, the relationship between the wedge angle {var_phi}{sub 1} of material 1 and the total angle {var_phi}{sub 1} + {var_phi}{sub 2} of the bonded wedge, in which K becomes zero, is clarified theoretically. Also, it is shown that the distribution of the intensity K for each root p is divided into two forms. Finally, a relation between the distribution of the thermal stresses near apex and characteristic length of the bonded structure is examined by FEM.

  4. SMALL-ANGLE NEUTRON SCATTERING CHARACTERIZATION OF THE STRUCTURE OF NANOPOROUS CARBONS FOR ENERGY-RELATED APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    He, Lilin; Mavila Chathoth, Suresh; Melnichenko, Yuri B; Presser, Volker; Mcdonough, John; Gogotsi, Yury G.

    2011-01-01

    We used small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and neutron contrast variation to study the structure of four nanoporouscarbons prepared by thermo-chemical etching of titanium carbide TiC in chlorine at 300, 400, 600, and 800 C with pore diameters ranging between -4 and -11 {angstrom}. SANS patterns were obtained from dry samples and samples saturated with deuterium oxide (D{sub 2}O) in order to delineate origin of the power law scattering in the low Q domain as well as to evaluate pore accessibility for D{sub 2}O molecules. SANS cross section of all samples was fitted to Debye-Anderson-Brumberger (DAB), DAB-Kirste-Porod models as well as to the Guinier and modified Guinier formulae for cylindrical objects, which allowed for evaluating the radii of gyration as well as the radii and lengths of the pores under cylindrical shape approximation. SANS data from D{sub 2}O-saturated samples indicate that strong upturn in the low Q limit usually observed in the scattering patterns from microporous carbon powders is due to the scattering from outer surface of the powder particles. Micropores are only partially filled with D{sub 2}O molecules due to geometrical constraints and or partial hydrophobicity of the carbon matrix. Structural parameters of the dry carbons obtained using SANS are compared with the results of the gas sorption measurements and the values agree for carbide-derived carbons (CDCs) obtained at high chlorination temperatures (>600 C). For lower chlorination temperatures, pore radii obtained from gas sorption overestimate the actual pore size as calculated from SANS for two reasons: inaccessible small pores are present and the model-dependent fitting based on density functional theory models assumes non-spherical pores, whereas SANS clearly indicates that the pore shape in microporous CDC obtained at low chlorination temperatures is nearly spherical.

  5. Relations among acute and chronic nicotine administration, short-term memory, and tactics of data analysis.

    PubMed

    Kangas, Brian D; Branch, Marc N

    2012-09-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that nicotine may enhance short-term memory. Some of this evidence comes from nonhuman primate research using a procedure called delayed matching-to-sample, wherein the monkey is trained to select a comparison stimulus that matches some physical property of a previously presented sample stimulus. Delays between sample stimulus offset and comparison stimuli onset are manipulated and accuracy is measured. The present research attempted to systematically replicate these enhancement effects with pigeons. In addition, the effects of nicotine were assessed under another, more dynamic, memory task called titrating-delay matching-to-sample. In this procedure, the delay between sample offset and comparison onset adjusts as a function of the subject's performance. Correct matches increase the delay, mismatches decrease the delay, and titrated delay values serve as the primary dependent measure. Both studies examined nicotine's effects under acute and chronic administration. Neither provided clear or compelling evidence of memory enhancement following nicotine administration despite reliable and systematic dose-related changes in response latency measures. A modest dose-related effect on accuracy was found, but the magnitude of the effect appears to be directly related to tactics of data analysis involving best-dose analyses of a very circumscribed subset of trial types.

  6. Working memory-related frontal theta activity is decreased under acute stress.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Matti; Rohde-Liebenau, Lea; Grimm, Simone; Bajbouj, Malek

    2014-05-01

    Acute stress impairs prefrontal cortex (PFC) function and has detrimental effects on working memory (WM) performance. Converging evidence from electrophysiological studies suggests a close link between WM processes and frontal theta (FT) activity (4-8 Hz). However, the effect of stress on WM-related FT activity has not been investigated yet. To shed light on this topic we acquired EEG data from 31 healthy male subjects who underwent a stressful and a neutral control condition. In both conditions, they performed an n-back WM task at two different difficulty levels. Our results showed that WM-related FT activity was decreased under stress. Behaviorally, we found performance impairments under stress in the difficult task condition that were related to FT decreases. Increased cortisol levels indicated a successful moderate stress induction. These findings indicate that FT is a potential neurobiological marker for intact PFC functioning during WM and further supports the recently made assumption that FT acts in the PFC to optimize performance.

  7. HLA-DR antibodies in transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI): a case report.

    PubMed

    Muro, Manuel; Rivera, Jose; Botella, Carmen; Campillo, Jose A; Ferrer, Francisca; Alvarez-López, María R

    2008-06-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a serious adverse consequence of blood product transfusion. Cases of TRALI have gone unrecognized or misdiagnosed, since the symptoms can be confused with other transfusion-related events or with non-transfusion related comorbidities. Suspected cases of TRALI may be insufficiently investigated, and mild or moderate cases may not be investigated or reported at all. We report here the case of a 73-year man who developed TRALI following a transfusion of packed red blood cells (pRBCs) mediated by HLA class II antibodies (HLA-DR) detected by luminex technology. A very few cases of TRALI have been described being caused by HLA class II antibodies without the simultaneous presence of anti-HLA class I antibodies. Technology for antibody detection has increased the power and the specificity, especially with the use of flow cytometry with a better definition of the antigen/antibody pairs that have resulted in TRALI episodes. In this sense, HLA class II antibodies can exactly be detected with these methods and have surely been underestimated until now.

  8. Muscle Activation During Exercise in Severe Acute Hypoxia: Role of Absolute and Relative Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Losa-Reyna, José; González-Izal, Miriam; Perez-Suarez, Ismael; Calle-Herrero, Jaime; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Torres-Peralta, Rafael, José Losa-Reyna, Miriam González-Izal, Ismael Perez-Suarez, Jaime Calle-Herrero, Mikel Izquierdo, and José A.L. Calbet. Muscle activation during exercise in severe acute hypoxia: Role of absolute and relative intensity. High Alt Med Biol 15:472–482, 2014.—The aim of this study was to determine the influence of severe acute hypoxia on muscle activation during whole body dynamic exercise. Eleven young men performed four incremental cycle ergometer tests to exhaustion breathing normoxic (FIo2=0.21, two tests) or hypoxic gas (FIo2=0.108, two tests). Surface electromyography (EMG) activities of rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VL), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris (BF) were recorded. The two normoxic and the two hypoxic tests were averaged to reduce EMG variability. Peak Vo2 was 34% lower in hypoxia than in normoxia (p<0.05). The EMG root mean square (RMS) increased with exercise intensity in all muscles (p<0.05), with greater effect in hypoxia than in normoxia in the RF and VM (p<0.05), and a similar trend in VL (p=0.10). At the same relative intensity, the RMS was greater in normoxia than in hypoxia in RF, VL, and BF (p<0.05), with a similar trend in VM (p=0.08). Median frequency increased with exercise intensity (p<0.05), and was higher in hypoxia than in normoxia in VL (p<0.05). Muscle contraction burst duration increased with exercise intensity in VM and VL (p<0.05), without clear effects of FIo2. No significant FIo2 effects on frequency domain indices were observed when compared at the same relative intensity. In conclusion, muscle activation during whole body exercise increases almost linearly with exercise intensity, following a muscle-specific pattern, which is adjusted depending on the FIo2 and the relative intensity of exercise. Both VL and VM are increasingly involved in power output generation with the increase of intensity and the reduction in FIo2. PMID:25225839

  9. Viewing angle changeable display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Jinbi; Huang, Ziqiang; Yang, Wenjun; Chen, Xiaoxi

    2010-10-01

    Viewing angle changeable display can change the display viewing angle as needed: In the public place the display could have a narrow viewing angle for privacy, while in the private place the displays could have a wide viewing angle for the convenience of the operation and better viewing experience. This article propose a novel adjustable optical transmission device to realize the viewing angle changes for LCD by using the principle of guest- host effect of liquid crystal. The major technology is to insert a special equipment between the backlight and the LCD, through which the backlight will display either parallel or scattered features to get an either narrow or wide viewing angle. The equipment is an adjustable transmission cell (ATC) which is actually a black G-H LC cell. This ATC is the main focus of our invention. The ATC consists of a polarizer sheet and a special guest-host liquid crystal device filled with the two-phase dye (called as GH-LC in this report), to achieve the viewing angle change in the LCD. When an electrical field charges to the ATC, only the so-called near-axis lights can pass through the ATC within a relatively small angle, while the other scattered lights are absorbed sequentially by GH-LC and the polarizer sheet. On the other hand, when there is no electrical charge to the ATC, the cell behaves like a normal polarizer; and the scattered light can pass through the cell and polarizer in a normal way. This paper describes the principle and structure of the device, applies the electric field on the sample to observe the electro-optical properties, combine the theoretical and experimental research, getting the viewing angle effects of the display.

  10. Pregnancy-related acute kidney injury: An analysis of 165 cases

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, E.; Puri, S.; Varma, V.; Madhyastha, P. R.; Bande, S.; Gurudev, K. C.

    2017-01-01

    Pregnancy-related acute kidney injury (PRAKI) contributes to 3–7% of overall acute kidney injury (AKI) cases in Indian subcontinent. The aim of this study was to determine the outcomes of PRAKI and risk factors associated with renal injury and maternal mortality. One hundred and sixty-five patients with PRAKI, seen at M. S. Ramaiah Medical College between 2005 and 2014, were included in this, observational study. AKI was analyzed in terms of maximal stage of renal injury attained as per Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of function, and End-stage renal disease (RIFLE) criteria. Outcomes included requirement for renal replacement therapy (RRT), maternal, and fetal mortality. Incidence of PRAKI was 1.56%, and the mean age of the study population was 25 years. Fifty percent of the patients were diagnosed with PRAKI during their first pregnancy. PRAKI was observed most commonly in the postpartum period (60%), followed by third trimester (32%); as per RIFLE criteria, failure was seen in 36% and injury in 34%. Thirty percent of cases required RRT. Sepsis (59%), pre-eclampsia, and eclampsia (56%) were the leading causes of PRAKI, while sepsis was the leading cause of maternal mortality. Maternal and fetal mortality were 20% and 22%, respectively. In univariate analysis, shock, hemorrhage requiring transfusion of >5 units packed red blood cells, oliguria, and “Loss” category of RIFLE were significantly associated with mortality. Majority of the patients (57%) required Intensive Care Unit care with a mean duration of admission at 7.3 days, and 75% was diagnosed with AKI at the time of admission. We report the lowest incidence of PRAKI in contemporary Indian literature. PRAKI was associated with high maternal and fetal mortality, with sepsis being the leading cause. No association was noted between mortality and initial stages of RIFLE criteria. PMID:28356662

  11. The Association of Lesion Location and Sleep Related Breathing Disorder in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Teuber, Anja; Wersching, Heike; Young, Peter; Dittrich, Ralf; Ritter, Martin; Dziewas, Rainer; Minnerup, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Sleep related breathing disorders (SRBD) are common in patients with ischemic stroke and are associated with poor outcome. SRBD after stroke were assumed to be a direct consequence of injury of specific central nervous system structures. However, whether specific locations of ischemic infarcts cause SRBD is yet unknown. We therefore investigated the association of ischemic lesion location with SRBD. Methods Patients with acute ischemic stroke treated on our stroke unit were included in a prospective observational study. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and polygraphy in the acute phase after stroke. SRBD was defined by an apnea—hypopnea index (AHI) ≥10. MRI were evaluated using standardized maps to depict voxel-wise probability distribution of infarction for patients with and without SRBD. Groups were compared using logistic regression analysis. Results Of 142 patients included, 86 (59%) had a SRBD. Age, body mass index and prevalence of arterial hypertension were significantly higher in patients with SRBD. There was no statistically significant association between any lesion location and SRBD. Conclusion We found no association of lesion location and SRBD in stroke patients, whereas established risk factors for SRBD, known from general population, were significantly associated with SRBD. Given the high prevalence of SRBD in stroke patients, these findings suggest that cerebral ischemia facilitates the occurrence of SRBD in patients with pre-existing risk factors rather than causing it by damaging specific central nervous system structures. Our findings can be used to identify stroke patients who might benefit from polygraphy screening. PMID:28135315

  12. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) during remission induction course of acute myeloid leukemia: a possible role for all-transretinoic-acid (ATRA)?

    PubMed

    Jeddi, R; Mansouri, R; Kacem, K; Gouider, E; Abid, H B; Belhadjali, Z; Meddeb, B

    2009-09-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a clinical syndrome characterized by sudden onset of respiratory distress due to pulmonary edema during or following transfusion. Two proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms for TRALI were proposed: the antibody hypothesis and the two-event hypothesis. The two-event hypothesis postulates that a pathway to neutrophil activation and aggregation can occur without leukocyte antibodies. We report a case of TRALI occurring during remission induction course of acute myeloid leukemia in a 27-year-old woman who received All-transretinoic-acid (ATRA). We postulate that ATRA may have played a role in this life-threatening complication by priming neutrophil and enhancing their adherence and their activation in the pulmonary endothelium. TRALI improved with non-invasive ventilation support and use of high dose corticosteroids.

  13. Relation between magnetization and Faraday angles produced by ultrafast spin-flip processes within the three-level Λ-type system

    SciTech Connect

    Hinschberger, Y.; Lavoine, J. P.

    2015-08-07

    Ultrafast magneto-optical (MO) experiments constitute a powerful tool to explore the magnetization dynamics of diverse materials. Over the last decade, there have been many theoretical and experimental developments on this subject. However, the relation between the magnetization dynamics and the transient MO response still remains unclear. In this work, we calculate the magnetization of a material, as well as the magneto-optical rotation and ellipticity angles measured in a single-beam experiment. Then, we compare the magnetization to the MO response. The magnetic material is modeled by a three-level Λ-type system, which represents a simple model to describe MO effects induced by an ultrafast laser pulse. Our calculations use the density matrix formalism, while the dynamics of the system is obtained by solving the Lindblad equation taking into account population relaxation and dephasing processes. Furthermore, we consider the Faraday rotation of the optical waves that simultaneously causes spin-flip. We show that the Faraday angles remain proportional to the magnetization only if the system has reached the equilibrium-state, and that this proportionality is directly related to the population and coherence decay rates. For the non-equilibrium situation, the previous proportionality relation is no longer valid. We show that our model is able to interpret some recent experimental results obtained in a single-pulse experiment. We further show that, after a critical pulse duration, the decrease of the ellipticity as a function of the absorbed energy is a characteristic of the system.

  14. Interaction between DRD2 C957T polymorphism and an acute psychosocial stressor on reward-related behavioral impulsivity.

    PubMed

    White, Melanie J; Lawford, Bruce R; Morris, C Phillip; Young, Ross McD

    2009-05-01

    The dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) C957T polymorphism CC genotype is associated with decreased striatal binding of DRD2 and executive function and working memory impairments in healthy adults. We investigated the relationships between C957T and acute stress with behavioral phenotypes of impulsivity in 72 young adults randomly allocated to either an acute psychosocial stress or relaxation induction condition. Homozygotes for 957C showed increased reward responsiveness after stress induction. They were also quicker when making immediate choices on the delay discounting task when stressed, compared with homozygotes who were not stressed. No effects were found for response inhibition, a dimension of impulsivity not related to extrinsic rewards. These data suggest that C957T is associated with a reward-related impulsivity endophenotype in response to acute psychosocial stress. Future studies should examine whether the greater sensitivity of 957C homozygotes to the effects of stress is mediated through dopamine release.

  15. Microbiologically documented infections and infection-related mortality in children with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Sung, Lillian; Lange, Beverly J; Gerbing, Robert B; Alonzo, Todd A; Feusner, James

    2007-11-15

    The primary objective was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of microbiologically defined infections and infection-related mortality (IRM) in 492 children with acute myeloid leukemia enrolled on CCG 2961. Secondary objectives were to determine the relationship between demographic, disease-related, and therapeutic variables, and infections and IRM. Institutions documented infections prospectively. Age, ethnicity, body mass index, leukemia karyotype, treatment, and institutional size were examined for association with infection outcomes. More than 60% of children experienced such infections in each of 3 phases of chemotherapy. There were 58 infectious deaths; cumulative incidence of IRM was 11% plus or minus 2%. Thirty-one percent of infectious deaths were associated with Aspergillus, 25.9% with Candida, and 15.5% with alpha hemolytic streptococci. Age older than 16 years (hazard ratio [HR], 3.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.87-5.89; P < .001), nonwhite ethnicity (HR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.10-3.09; P = .02), and underweight status (HR, 3.06; 95% CI, 1.51-6.22; P = .002) were associated with IRM, while size of the treating institution was not. Thus, age, ethnicity, and BMI were important contributors to IRM. Fungi and Gram-positive cocci were the most common organisms associated with IRM and, in particular, Aspergillus species was the largest contributor to infectious deaths.

  16. The acute symptoms of sport-related concussion: diagnosis and on-field management.

    PubMed

    Putukian, Margot

    2011-01-01

    Sport-related concussion is a common injury that occurs in a variety of sports. In recent years, more attention has been focused on the importance of this injury as well as the long-term complications of unrecognized, repetitive, and/or severe injury. The acute presentation of concussion as well as the diagnosis of concussion is often straightforward and obvious, but it can also be subtle and difficult to discern. Most injuries are short lived with complete recovery within a couple of weeks, with a small minority taking several months to resolve. Unfortunately, it is difficult to predict which injuries will linger. This article discusses the on-field presentation, diagnosis, and management of sport-related concussion. It is important to have a concussion protocol for high-risk sports, including a preseason and postinjury assessment, and an individualized yet comprehensive approach that includes evaluating symptoms, and a neurologic examination that includes cognitive function and balance testing. A multifaceted approach to the evaluation and diagnosis of concussion is endorsed for the optimal management of this injury.

  17. Trauma-Related Context Increases Sleep Disturbances in People with Acute Stress Disorder Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Ephraim S; Hoffman, Yaakov S G; Shrira, Amit

    2016-04-06

    In this study, we addressed how sleep is related to acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms, and how the presence of a trauma related-context moderates this relationship. This study (N = 140) was carried out during the 2014 Israel-Gaza conflict, during which 70% of Israelis were exposed to missile attacks. Findings show that participants with clinical ASD symptom levels reported more sleep disturbances than participants without clinical ASD symptom levels. More critically, this effect was only evident among respondents who had a reinforced security room in their houses. While reinforced security rooms offer protection against indirect missile damage, their relevance is salient in negative traumatic situations, which individuals with a clinical level of ASD are more sensitive to. Conversely, in houses without a reinforced security room, there was no difference in subjective sleep reports between individuals with or without clinical levels of ASD symptoms. Results are discussed in reference to trauma being activated by context and the ensuing effects on sleep. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. PET imaging of cerebral perfusion and oxygen consumption in acute ischemic stroke: Relation to outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Marchal, G.; Serrati, C.; Rioux, P.; Petit-Taboue, M.C.; Viader, F.; Sayette, V. de la; Doze, F. le; Lonchon, P; Derlon, J.M.; Orgogozo, J.M.; Baron, J.C.

    1993-04-10

    The authors used positron emission tomography (PET) to assess the relation between combined imaging of cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption 5-18 h after first middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke and neurological outcome at 2 months. All 18 patients could be classified into three visually defined PET patterns of perfusion and oxygen consumption changes. Pattern 1 suggested extensive irreversible damage and was consistently associated with poor outcome. Pattern 2 suggested continuing ischemia and was associated with variable outcome. Pattern 3 with hyperperfusion and little or no metabolic alteration, was associated with excellent recovery, which suggests that early reperfusion is beneficial. This relation between PET and outcome was highly significant. The results suggest that within 5-18 h of stroke onset, PET is a good predictor of outcome in patterns 1 and 3, for which therapy seems limited. The absence of predictive value for pattern 2 suggests that it is due to a reversible ischemic state that is possibly amenable to therapy. These findings may have important implications for acute MCA stroke management and for patients' selection for therapeutic trials.

  19. The approach taken to reducing the risk of transfusion related acute lung injury in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Growe, G. H.; Petraszko, T. R.; Bigham, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) has become a major reported cause of severe transfusion reactions and mortality. Over the past four years significant changes have been taken in Canada in order both to improve the recognition of the risk and to decrease its incidence. An international meeting was held in April of 2004 entitled “Towards an Understanding of TRALI". As a result of the analysis and recommendations from this meeting, the Canadian Blood Services established an ongoing review committee and established a laboratory diagnostic facility to identify at risk donors and recipients. A system has been developed to identify implicated donors and exclude them from the blood donor pool. Other steps have been taken to exclude potentially high risk donors, such as previously pregnant females, from the plasma and platelet donor pool. A considerable amount of education also has been offered to clinical services in the country. This paper summarizes the definitions, categorizations of implicated donors, and the ongoing precautionary activities related to plasma products. Noted within the article are the methods used for locating and selecting data. These were primarily based on the international TRALI conference in 2004, and from ongoing discussions and information provided by the Canadian Blood Services TRALI Review Committee. No ethics referral or approval was requested, and a summary is included in the article. PMID:20041083

  20. [Antibodies, human leukocyte antigens, and biomodulators in transfusion-related acute adverse effects].

    PubMed

    Martínez Álvarez, Julio César

    2013-01-01

    With the onset of the AIDS epidemic, major changes occurred in blood banking and transfusion medicine. These changes occurred mainly in donor selection and screening tests for infectious diseases, blood centers modified their organizational philosophy regarding quality. Transfusion of blood products are procedures that allow us to correct the haematology deficiencies for which was indicated. But today, despite the strict controls that precede transfusion,recipients may have undesirable effects, which are known as adverse effects or adverse reactions to transfusion. Antibodies and antigens of the HLA system plays a role in a series of events related to transfusion, such as immunological platelet refractoriness, febrile non-haemolytic transfusion reactions, transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease. The determination of anti-HLA antibodies is evidence that in most developed countries is used on a daily basis in the regular assessment of patients multitransfused or waiting lists for organs from deceased donors. The biomodulators are able to modify biological responses which act in sequence to lead to the differentiation of T lymphocytes. These agents may subcategorizes those which facilitate a normal immune response, those stimulates the immune response, those are capable of inducing immunosuppression not cytotoxic, and those enhancing the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic treatment (transfusion or transplant).

  1. Peripheral blood monocyte-derived chemokine blockade prevents murine transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI).

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Christopher G J; Kim, Michael; Singh, Tarandeep K; Milev, Youli; Freedman, John; Semple, John W

    2014-05-29

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the leading cause of transfusion-related mortality and can occur with any type of transfusion. TRALI is thought to be primarily mediated by donor antibodies activating recipient neutrophils resulting in pulmonary endothelial damage. Nonetheless, details regarding the interactions between donor antibodies and recipient factors are unknown. A murine antibody-mediated TRALI model was used to elucidate the roles of the F(ab')2 and Fc regions of a TRALI-inducing immunoglobulin G anti-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antibody (34.1.2s). Compared with intact antibody, F(ab')2 fragments significantly increased serum levels of the neutrophil chemoattractant macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2); however, pulmonary neutrophil levels were only moderately increased, and no pulmonary edema or mortality occurred. Fc fragments did not modulate any of these parameters. TRALI induction by intact antibody was completely abrogated by in vivo peripheral blood monocyte depletion by gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) or chemokine blockade with a MIP-2 receptor antagonist but was restored upon repletion with purified monocytes. The results suggest a two-step process for antibody-mediated TRALI induction: the first step involves antibody binding its cognate antigen on blood monocytes, which generates MIP-2 chemokine production that is correlated with pulmonary neutrophil recruitment; the second step occurs when antibody-coated monocytes increase Fc-dependent lung damage.

  2. Fracture tolerance of the small female elbow joint in compression: the effect of load angle relative to the long axis of the forearm.

    PubMed

    Duma, Stefan M; Boggess, Brian M; Crandall, Jeff R; Mac Mahon, Conor B

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a fracture tolerance for the elbow joint, or proximal ends of the ulna and radius, relative to the fracture risk under side-impact airbag loading. Forty experiments were performed on the elbow joints of small female cadavers. The energy source, a pneumatic impactor, was configured to apply compressive loads that match the onset rate, peak force, and momentum transfer of previously conducted side-impact airbag tests with small female subjects. Three initial orientations of the impact load angle relative to the longitudinal axis of the forearm were selected based on analysis of side-impact airbag tests with the instrumented dummy upper extremity. These included loading directions that are 0 degrees , 20 degrees , and 30 degrees superior of the longitudinal axis of the forearm. Post-test necropsy revealed that 11 of the 40 tests resulted in chondral, osteochondral, or comminuted fractures of the proximal radial head or the distal trochlear notch. Using the fracture outcome as the binary variable, a generalized estimating equations statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between elbow load angle (p < 0.01) and risk of fracture, as well as peak elbow force (p = 0.04) and risk of fracture. Using data that were mass scaled to the 5(th) percentile female, the analysis produced a multivariate fracture risk function that predicts a 50% risk of elbow fracture at a compressive elbow load of 1780 N and load angle of 30 degrees superior to the longitudinal axis of the forearm (p < 0.01). It is anticipated that this tolerance will be used to reduce the risk of elbow fractures from side airbag deployment.

  3. Acute peripheral neuropathy in adults. Guillain-Barré syndrome and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Pascuzzi, R M; Fleck, J D

    1997-08-01

    Acute paralysis in adults has an extensive assortment of etiologies. Guillian-Barré syndrome is the most common cause of acute neuropathy in adults. This review emphasizes pathophysiology, clinical features, differential diagnosis, and a practical approach to the laboratory work-up for patients with suspected Guillian-Barré syndrome. The current status of immunotherapy is reviewed.

  4. Viruses in non-disinfected drinking water from municipal wells are related to community rates of acute gastrointestinal illness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundwater supplies for drinking water are frequently contaminated with low-levels of human enteric virus genomes, yet evidence for waterborne disease transmission is lacking. We related qPCR-measured enteric viruses in the tap water of 14 non-chlorinating communities in the U.S. to acute gastroint...

  5. Similarities and Differences Between Therapy-Related and Elderly Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    D’Alò, Francesco; Fianchi, Luana; Fabiani, Emiliano; Criscuolo, Marianna; Greco, Mariangela; Guidi, Francesco; Pagano, Livio; Leone, Giuseppe; Voso, Maria Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a clonal disorder of the hematopoietic stem cell, typical of the elderly, with a median age of over 60 years at diagnosis. In AML, older age is one of the strongest independent adverse prognostic factor, associated with decreased complete response rate, worse disease-free and overall survival, with highest rates of treatment related mortality, resistant disease and relapse, compared to younger patients. Outcomes are compromised in older patients not only by increased comorbidities and susceptibility to toxicity from therapy, but it is now recognized that elderly AML has peculiar biologic characteristics with a negative impact on treatment response. In older individuals prolonged exposure to environmental carcinogens may be the basis for similarities to therapy-related myeloid malignancies (t-MN), which result from toxic effects of previous cytotoxic treatments on hematopoietic stem cells. Age is itself a risk factor for t-MN, which are more frequent in elderly patients, where also a shorter latency between treatment of primary tumor and t-MN has been reported. t-MN following chemotherapy with alkylating agents and elderly AML frequently present MDS-related cytogenetic abnormalities, including complex or monosomal karyotype, and a myelodysplastic phase preceding the diagnosis of overt leukemia. Similarly, t-MN and elderly-AML share common molecular abnormalities, such as reduced frequency of NPM1, FLT3 and CEBPA mutations and increased MDR1 expression. Given the unfavorable prognosis of elderly and t-MN and the similar clinical and molecular aspects, this is a promising field for implementation of new treatment protocols including alternative biological drugs. PMID:22220249

  6. Hemodialysis among pregnancy related acute kidney injury patients: A single center experience in North-Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Makusidi, A M; Liman, H M; Yakubu, A; Hassan, M; Isah, M D; Chijioke, A

    2016-09-01

    Pregnancy related acute kidney injury (PRAKI) patients that underwent hemodialysis (HD) between May 2007 and April 2015 were studied with specific reference to clinical features, laboratory values, duration of pregnancy at the diagnosis of acute kidney injury and outcome. It involved 38 patients aged between 15 and 30 years. The main clinical features were fever, edema and oliguria. The leading etiological factors included ante/postpartum hemorrhage, septic abortion, and toxemia of pregnancy. The majority of cases occurred during the third trimester. PRAKI is a dreaded complication of pregnancy with high morbidity and mortality. HD improved patient survival in our study.

  7. A prospective cohort study on the association between coffee drinking and risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Oskarsson, Viktor; Sadr-Azodi, Omid; Orsini, Nicola; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-05-28

    Only one previous study has examined the association between coffee consumption and risk of acute pancreatitis, and it found a reduced risk for alcohol-related episodes among high consumers of coffee. Therefore, we examined (1) the association between coffee consumption and risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis and (2) whether this association was modified by alcohol intake. Data were obtained from two prospective cohorts, the Cohort of Swedish Men and the Swedish Mammography Cohort, including 76 731 men and women (born 1914-1952). Coffee consumption was assessed at baseline with a FFQ, and the cohorts were followed up between 1998 and 2012 via linkage to national health registries. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox models, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. During 1 035 881 person-years of total follow-up, 383 cases (246 in men and 137 in women) of incident non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis were identified. Overall, and irrespective of whether a categorical or a continuous exposure model was used, we observed no association between coffee consumption and risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis (e.g. the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for each 1 cup/d increase in coffee consumption was 0·97; 95 % CI 0·92, 1·03). There was no evidence of effect modification by alcohol intake (P interaction=0·77). In conclusion, coffee consumption was not associated with risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis in this large prospective cohort study. Because of the limited number of epidemiological studies and their conflicting results, further research is needed to elucidate this potential association.

  8. The occurrence of acute myocardial infarction in relation to weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Kriszbacher, Ildikó; Bódis, József; Csoboth, Ildikó; Boncz, Imre

    2009-06-12

    The spatial and temporal changes of weather factors depend on geographical location, seasons and the time of the day. Our study examines the relationships of meteorological factors and the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with AMI between 2000 and 2004 in Hungary (n = 81,956 patients) was carried out. Data were collected by the National Health Insurance Fund Administration (OEP) and the National Meteorology Service (OMSZ). A peak period of the occurrence of AMI was found during spring, while minimum number of events were recorded during summer. Significant difference was observed between the number of events each season (F = 34.741; p < 0.001; N = 81,956). A medium level negative correlation was found between the monthly average temperature and the occurrence of AMI (r = -0.404) during the period examined. A positive correlation was shown between front movements and the number of events per season (r = 0.053). Average barometric pressure changes, the number of front movements and the number of AMI events also showed a nearly similar seasonal deviation. Our findings show that certain meteorological factors may be related to the onset of AMI, however other factors also play an important role.

  9. Acute effects of bergamot oil on anxiety-related behaviour and corticosterone level in rats.

    PubMed

    Saiyudthong, Somrudee; Marsden, Charles A

    2011-06-01

    Bergamot essential oil (BEO), Citrus aurantium subsp. bergamia (Risso) Wright & Arn. (Rutaceae), is used widely in aromatherapy to reduce stress and anxiety despite limited scientific evidence. A previous study showed that BEO significantly increased gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in rat hippocampus, suggesting potential anxiolytic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BEO (1.0%, 2.5% and 5.0% w/w) administered to rats on both anxiety-related behaviours (the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and hole-board tests) and stress-induced levels of plasma corticosterone in comparison with the effects of diazepam. Inhalation of BEO (1% and 2.5%) and injection of diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased the percentage of open arm entries on the EPM. The percentage time spent in the open arms was also significantly enhanced following administration of either BEO (2.5% and 5%) or diazepam. Total arm entries were significantly increased with the highest dose (5%), suggesting an increase in locomotor activity. In the hole-board test, 2.5% BEO and diazepam significantly increased the number of head dips. 2.5% BEO and diazepam attenuated the corticosterone response to acute stress caused by exposure to the EPM. In conclusion, both BEO and diazepam exhibited anxiolytic-like behaviours and attenuated HPA axis activity by reducing the corticosterone response to stress.

  10. Acute pain in an emergency clinic: latency of onset and descriptor patterns related to different injuries.

    PubMed

    Melzack, R; Wall, P D; Ty, T C

    1982-09-01

    Features of acute pain were examined in patients at an emergency clinic. Patients who had severe, life-threatening injuries or who were agitated, drunk, or 'in shock' were excluded from the study. Of 138 patients who were alert, rational and coherent, 51 (37%) stated that they did not feel pain at the time of injury. The majority of these patients reported onset of pain within an hour of injury, although the delays were as long as 9 h or more in some patients. The predominant emotions of the patients were embarrassment at appearing careless or worry about loss of wages. None expressed any pleasure or indicated any prospect of gain as a result of the injury. The occurrence of delays in pain onset was related to the nature of the injury. Of 46 patients whose injuries were limited to skin (lacerations, cuts, abrasions, burns), 53% had a pain-free period. Of 86 patients with deep-tissue injuries (fractures, sprains, bruises, amputation of a finger, stabs and crushes), only 28% had a pain-free period. The McGill Pain Questionnaire was administered to patients who felt pain immediately after injury or after a delay, and revealed a normal distribution of sensory scores but very low affective scores compared to patients with chronic pain. The results indicate that the relationship between injury and pain is highly variable and complex.

  11. Mouse models of human PIK3CA-related brain overgrowth have acutely treatable epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Achira; Skibo, Jonathan; Kalume, Franck; Ni, Jing; Rankin, Sherri; Lu, Yiling; Dobyns, William B; Mills, Gordon B; Zhao, Jean J; Baker, Suzanne J; Millen, Kathleen J

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PIK3CA) and other PI3K-AKT pathway components have been associated with cancer and a wide spectrum of brain and body overgrowth. In the brain, the phenotypic spectrum of PIK3CA-related segmental overgrowth includes bilateral dysplastic megalencephaly, hemimegalencephaly and focal cortical dysplasia, the most common cause of intractable pediatric epilepsy. We generated mouse models expressing the most common activating Pik3ca mutations (H1047R and E545K) in developing neural progenitors. These accurately recapitulate all the key human pathological features including brain enlargement, cortical malformation, hydrocephalus and epilepsy, with phenotypic severity dependent on the mutant allele and its time of activation. Underlying mechanisms include increased proliferation, cell size and altered white matter. Notably, we demonstrate that acute 1 hr-suppression of PI3K signaling despite the ongoing presence of dysplasia has dramatic anti-epileptic benefit. Thus PI3K inhibitors offer a promising new avenue for effective anti-epileptic therapy for intractable pediatric epilepsy patients. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12703.001 PMID:26633882

  12. Acute Aortic Dissection Biomarkers Identified Using Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ziya; Xue, Yuan; Gu, Guorong; Zhang, Yaping; Zhang, Jin; Fan, Fan; Luan, Xiao; Deng, Zhi; Tao, Zhengang; Song, Zhen-ju; Tong, Chaoyang; Wang, Haojun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of potential serum biomarkers for acute aortic dissection (AAD) that were identified by isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) approaches. Serum samples from 20 AAD patients and 20 healthy volunteers were analyzed using iTRAQ technology. Protein validation was performed using samples from 120 patients with chest pain. A total of 355 proteins were identified with the iTRAQ approach; 164 proteins reached the strict quantitative standard, and 125 proteins were increased or decreased more than 1.2-fold (64 and 61 proteins were up- and downregulated, resp.). Lumican, C-reactive protein (CRP), thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), and D-dimer were selected as candidate biomarkers for the validation tests. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves show that Lumican and D-dimer have diagnostic value (area under the curves [AUCs] 0.895 and 0.891, P < 0.05). For Lumican, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 73.33% and 98.33%, while the corresponding values for D-dimer were 93.33% and 68.33%. For Lumican and D-dimer AAD combined diagnosis, the sensitivity and specificity were 88.33% and 95%, respectively. In conclusion, Lumican has good specificity and D-dimer has good sensitivity for the diagnosis of AAD, while the combined detection of D-dimer and Lumican has better diagnostic value. PMID:27403433

  13. Acute-phase proteins in relation to neuropsychiatric symptoms and use of psychotropic medication in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Bouwens, J A; Hubers, A A M; van Duijn, E; Cobbaert, C M; Roos, R A C; van der Mast, R C; Giltay, E J

    2014-08-01

    Activation of the innate immune system has been postulated in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease (HD). We studied serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and low albumin as positive and negative acute-phase proteins in HD. Multivariate linear and logistic regression was used to study the association between acute-phase protein levels in relation to clinical, neuropsychiatric, cognitive, and psychotropic use characteristics in a cohort consisting of 122 HD mutation carriers and 42 controls at first biomarker measurement, and 85 HD mutation carriers and 32 controls at second biomarker measurement. Significant associations were found between acute-phase protein levels and Total Functioning Capacity (TFC) score, severity of apathy, cognitive impairment, and the use of antipsychotics. Interestingly, all significant results with neuropsychiatric symptoms disappeared after additional adjusting for antipsychotic use. High sensitivity CRP levels were highest and albumin levels were lowest in mutation carriers who continuously used antipsychotics during follow-up versus those that had never used antipsychotics (mean difference for CRP 1.4 SE mg/L; P=0.04; mean difference for albumin 3 SE g/L; P<0.001). The associations found between acute-phase proteins and TFC score, apathy, and cognitive impairment could mainly be attributed to the use of antipsychotics. This study provides evidence that HD mutation carriers who use antipsychotics are prone to develop an acute-phase response.

  14. Physical fitness, but not acute exercise modulates event-related potential indices for executive control in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stroth, Sanna; Kubesch, Sabine; Dieterle, Katrin; Ruchsow, Martin; Heim, Rüdiger; Kiefer, Markus

    2009-05-07

    Physical activity and aerobic exercise in particular, promotes health and effective cognitive functioning. To elucidate mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of physical fitness and acute exercise, behavioral and electrophysiological indices of task preparation and response inhibition as a part of executive functions were assessed in a modified version of an Eriksen flanker task subsequent to an acute bout of aerobic exercise and a period of rest, respectively. 35 higher- and lower-fit adolescents between 13 and 14 years of age participated in a controlled cross-over study design. Results indicate that higher-fit individuals show significantly greater CNV amplitudes, reflecting enhanced task preparation processes, as well as decreased amplitudes in N2, indexing more efficient executive control processes. P3 amplitudes associated with the allocation of attentional and memory control neither showed influences of physical fitness nor the acute bout of exercise. Furthermore, acute aerobic exercise was not related to any of the dependent measures. The current findings suggest that physical fitness, but not an acute bout of aerobic exercise enhances cognitive processing by increasing attentional allocation to stimulus encoding during task preparation.

  15. Acute Supramaximal Exercise Increases the Brain Oxygenation in Relation to Cognitive Workload

    PubMed Central

    Bediz, Cem Seref; Oniz, Adile; Guducu, Cagdas; Ural Demirci, Enise; Ogut, Hilmi; Gunay, Erkan; Cetinkaya, Caner; Ozgoren, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Single bout of exercise can improve the performance on cognitive tasks. However, cognitive responses may be controversial due to different type, intensity, and duration of exercise. In addition, the mechanism of the effect of acute exercise on brain is still unclear. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of supramaximal exercise on cognitive tasks by means of brain oxygenation monitoring. The brain oxygenation of Prefrontal cortex (PFC) was measured on 35 healthy male volunteers via functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) system. Subjects performed 2-Back test before and after the supramaximal exercise wingate anerobic test (WAnT) lasting 30-s on cycle ergometer. The PFC oxygenation change evaluation revealed that PFC oxygenation rise during post-exercise 2-Back task was considerably higher than those in pre-exercise 2-Back task. In order to describe the relationship between oxygenation change and exercise performance, subjects were divided into two groups as high performers (HP) and low performers (LP) according to their peak power values (PP) obtained from the supramaximal test. The oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) values were compared between pre- and post-exercise conditions within subjects and also between subjects according to peak power. When performers were compared, in the HP group, the oxy-Hb values in post-exercise 2-Back test were significantly higher than those in pre-exercise 2-Back test. HP had significantly higher post-exercise oxy-Hb change (Δ) than those of LP. In addition, PP of the total group were significantly correlated with Δoxy-Hb.The key findings of the present study revealed that acute supramaximal exercise has an impact on the brain oxygenation during a cognitive task. Also, the higher the anerobic PP describes the larger the oxy-Hb response in post-exercise cognitive task. The current study also demonstrated a significant correlation between peak power (exercise load) and post-exercise hemodynamic responses (oxy-, deoxy- and

  16. Therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia following treatment of lymphoid malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Bertoli, Sarah; Sterin, Arthur; Tavitian, Suzanne; Oberic, Lucie; Ysebaert, Loïc; Bouabdallah, Reda; Vergez, François; Sarry, Audrey; Bérard, Emilie; Huguet, Françoise; Laurent, Guy; Prébet, Thomas; Vey, Norbert; Récher, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) is a heterogeneous entity most frequently related to breast cancer or lymphoproliferative diseases (LD). Population-based studies have reported an increased risk of t-AML after treatment of lymphomas. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics and outcome of 80 consecutive cases of t-AML following treatment of LD. t-AML accounted for 2.3% of all AML cases, occurred 60 months after LD diagnosis, and were characterized by a high frequency of FAB M6 AML and poor-risk cytogenetic abnormalities. Time to t-AML diagnosis was influenced by patient age, type of LD, and treatment. Among the 48 t-AML patients treated with intensive chemotherapy, median overall survival (OS) was 7.7 months compared to 26.1 months in de novo, 4.2 months in post-myeloproliferative neoplasm, 9.4 months in post-myelodysplastic syndrome, 8.6 months in post-chronic myelomonocytic leukemia AML, 13.4 months in t-AML secondary to the treatment of solid cancer, and 14.7 months in breast cancer only. OS of post-LD t-AML patients was significantly influenced by age, performance status, myelodysplastic syndrome prior to LD/t-AML, and treatment regimen for LD. Thus, t-AML following lymphoid malignancies treatment should be considered as very high-risk secondary AML. New treatment strategies in patients with LD/t-AML are needed urgently. PMID:27852053

  17. Theoretical Analysis of the Relative Impact of Obesity on Hemodynamic Stability During Acute Hemorrhagic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Sarah A.; Jones, Alan E.; Coleman, Thomas G.; Summers, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that morbid obesity may be an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes in patients with traumatic injuries. Objectives: In this study, a theoretic analysis using a derivation of the Guyton model of cardiovascular physiology examines the expected impact of obesity on hemodynamic changes in Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) and Cardiac Output (CO) during Hemorrhagic Shock (HS). Patients and Methods: Computer simulation studies were used to predict the relative impact of increasing Body Mass Index (BMI) on global hemodynamic parameters during HS. The analytic procedure involved recreating physiologic conditions associated with changing BMI for a virtual subject in an In Silico environment. The model was validated for the known effect of a BMI of 30 on iliofemoral venous pressures. Then, the relative effect of changing BMI on the outcome of target cardiovascular parameters was examined during simulated acute loss of blood volume in class II hemorrhage. The percent changes in these parameters were compared between the virtual nonobese and obese subjects. Model parameter values are derived from known population distributions, producing simulation outputs that can be used in a deductive systems analysis assessment rather than traditional frequentist statistical methodologies. Results: In hemorrhage simulation, moderate increases in BMI were found to produce greater decreases in MAP and CO compared to the normal subject. During HS, the virtual obese subject had 42% and 44% greater falls in CO and MAP, respectively, compared to the nonobese subject. Systems analysis of the model revealed that an increase in resistance to venous return due to changes in intra-abdominal pressure resulting from obesity was the critical mechanism responsible for the differences. Conclusions: This study suggests that obese patients in HS may have a higher risk of hemodynamic instability compared to their nonobese counterparts primarily due to obesity

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF ACUTE RFC METHODOLOGY; CONSIDERATIONS IN PROCEDURES RELATING TO DOSIMETRY UNDER CHRONIC VERSUS ACUTE EXPOSURE SCENARIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project considers and examines in detail relationships between critical variables such as exposure time to steady-state as well as physiological determinants related to exposure to predict the nature of the dosimetric adjustment. Overall, this project advances the science t...

  19. Ratios between acute aquatic toxicity and effects on population growth rates in relation to toxicant mode of action

    SciTech Connect

    Roex, E.W.M.; Gestel, C.A.M. Van; Wezel, A.P. Van; Straalen, N.M. Van

    2000-03-01

    Environmental risk assessment of chemicals is mostly based on the results of standardized toxicity tests. To obtain environmental quality criteria, extrapolation factors are used that depend on the amount and quality of available data. These extrapolation factors do not, however, take into account the mode of action of the compound tested or the life history of the test organism. In this study, the authors analyzed the variability in acute-to-chronic ratios (ACRs) for various chemicals in relation to their mode of action. Chemicals were classified as nonpolar narcotics, polar narcotics, specifically acting compounds, and heavy metals. As an acute endpoint, the LC50 was used; as a chronic endpoint, the lowest test concentration at which the natural rate of population increase (r) is affected, or LOEC(r), was used. Data were derived from the on-line literature. Nonpolar narcotic chemicals demonstrate the smallest variation in ACRs, and acute tests can be used to derive chronic endpoints for this class. For the other classes, the variation in ACRs is larger. Fish species especially show a relatively large ACR. For heavy metals, differences in the mode of action may play an important role in explaining differences in ACRs. For the other three classes, however, it is less reliable to predict chronic toxicity using the results of acute tests. In general, differences in species sensitivity rather than in mode of action for the chemical seem to determine differences in ACRs.

  20. Sports-related acute and chronic avulsion injuries in children and adolescents with special emphasis on tennis.

    PubMed

    Vandervliet, Everhard J M; Vanhoenacker, Filip M; Snoeckx, Annemie; Gielen, Jan L; Van Dyck, Pieter; Parizel, Paul M

    2007-11-01

    Acute and chronic sports-related muscle and tendon injuries are not infrequent in youngsters. In particular, the physis is prone to trauma as it constitutes the weakest part of the immature skeleton. The type of sports activity determines the location of the lesion. Most commonly, apophyses of the hip and pelvis are subject to avulsion. The purpose of this paper is to give a short overview of the pathogenesis, location, prevalence and imaging characteristics of acute and chronic avulsion injuries in the immature skeleton, with special emphasis on tennis-related injuries. Tennis-related injuries particularly involve apophyses of the ischial tuberosity, the anterior inferior or superior iliac spine and the iliac crest.

  1. Work-related risk factors by severity for acute pesticide poisoning among male farmers in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Jaeyoung; Cha, Eun Shil; Ko, Yousun; Kim, Doo Hwan; Lee, Won Jin

    2013-03-14

    The objective of this study was to explore work-related risk factors of acute occupational pesticide poisoning among male farmers according to the severity of the poisoning. A nationwide sampling survey of male farmers was conducted in South Korea in 2011. A total of 1,958 male farmers were interviewed. Severity of occupational pesticide poisoning in 2010 was evaluated according to symptoms, types of treatment, and number of pesticide poisoning incidents per individual. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals for risk factors of acute occupational pesticide poisoning. We found that the risk of acute occupational pesticide poisoning increased with lifetime days of pesticide application (OR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.32-2.29), working a farm of three or more acres in size (OR = 1.49), not wearing personal protective equipment such as gloves (OR = 1.29) or masks (OR = 1.39). Those who engaged in inappropriate work behaviors such as not following pesticide label instructions (OR = 1.61), applying the pesticide in full sun (OR = 1.48), and applying the pesticide upwind (OR = 1.54) had a significantly increased risk of pesticide poisoning. There was no significant risk difference by type of farming. In addition, the magnitude of these risk factors did not differ significantly by severity of acute pesticide poisoning. In fact, our findings suggest that work-related risk factors contributed to the development of acute occupational pesticide poisoning without relation to its severity. Therefore, prevention strategies for reducing occupational pesticide poisoning, regardless of severity, should be recommended to all types of farming and the level of poisoning severity.

  2. Transfusion-related acute lung injury: current concepts for the clinician.

    PubMed

    Triulzi, Darrell J

    2009-03-01

    The leading cause of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality in the United States is transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). Diagnostic criteria for TRALI have recently been developed and primarily consist of hypoxia and bilateral pulmonary edema occurring during or within 6 h of a transfusion in the absence of cardiac failure or intravascular volume overload. The primary differential diagnosis is transfusion-associated circulatory overload and differentiation can be difficult. Treatment is supportive with oxygen and mechanical ventilation. Diuresis is not indicated and the role of steroids is unproven. Patients typically recover within a few days. All types of blood products have been associated with TRALI, however, the plasma-rich components, such as fresh frozen plasma and apheresis platelets, have been most frequently implicated. The pathogenesis of TRALI is not completely understood. Leukocyte antibodies in donor plasma have been implicated in most cases with antibodies directed at human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I, HLA class II or neutrophil-specific antigens, particularly HNA-3a. Activation of pulmonary endothelium is important in the development of TRALI and may account for most cases being observed in surgical or intensive care unit patients. Transfused leukoagglutinating antibodies bind to recipients' neutrophils localized to pulmonary endothelium resulting in activation and release of oxidases and other damaging biologic response modifiers that cause capillary leak. In a minority of TRALI cases, no antibodies are identified and it is postulated that neutrophil priming factors in the transfused component can mediate TRALI in a patient with pulmonary endothelial activation, the so called "two hit" mechanism. Recognition of the role of anti-leukocyte antibodies has led to new strategies to reduce the risk of TRALI. Female blood donors with a previous pregnancy frequently have HLA antibodies with an overall prevalence of 24% and increasing

  3. Therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome after hematopoietic cell transplantation for lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, S; Suzuki, R; Hatano, K; Fukushima, K; Iida, H; Morishima, S; Suehiro, Y; Fukuda, T; Uchida, N; Uchiyama, H; Ikeda, H; Yokota, A; Tsukasaki, K; Yamaguchi, H; Kuroda, J; Nakamae, H; Adachi, Y; Matsuoka, K-I; Nakamura, Y; Atsuta, Y; Suzumiya, J

    2017-04-03

    Therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome (t-AML/MDS) represent severe late effects in patients receiving hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for lymphoma. The choice between high-dose therapy with autologous HCT and allogeneic HCT with reduced-intensity conditioning remains controversial in patients with relapsed lymphoma. We retrospectively analyzed incidence and risk factors for the development of t-AML/MDS in lymphoma patients treated with autologous or allogeneic HCT. A total of 13 810 lymphoma patients who received autologous (n=9963) or allogeneic (n=3847) HCT between 1985 and 2012 were considered. At a median overall survival (OS) of 52 and 46 months in autologous and allogeneic HCT groups, respectively, lymphoma patients receiving autologous HCT (1.38% at 3 years after autologous HCT) had a significant risk for developing t-AML/MDS compared to allogeneic HCT (0.37% at 3 years after allogeneic HCT, P<0.001). Significant risk factors for the development of t-AML/MDS after autologous and allogeneic HCT were high-stage risk at HCT (P=0.04) or secondary malignancies (P<0.001) and receiving cord blood stem cell (P=0.03) or involved field radiotherapy (P=0.002), respectively. Strategies that carefully select lymphoma patients for autologous HCT, by excluding lymphoma patients with high-stage risk at HCT, may allow the identification of individual lymphoma patients at particular high risk for t-AML/MDS.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 3 April 2017; doi:10.1038/bmt.2017.52.

  4. Platelet Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor is a Potential Mediator of Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, James P; Ambruso, Daniel R; Voelkel, Norbert F; Silliman, Christopher C

    2015-01-01

    Objective The occurrence of non-hemolytic transfusion reactions is highest with platelet and plasma administration. Some of these reactions are characterized by endothelial leak, especially transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI). Elevated concentrations of inflammatory mediators secreted by contaminating leukocytes during blood product storage may contribute to such reactions, but platelet-secreted mediators may also contribute. We hypothesized that platelet storage leads to accumulation of the endothelial permeability mediator vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and that intravascular administration of exogenous VEGF leads to extensive binding to its lung receptors. Methods Single donor, leukocyte-reduced apheresis platelet units were sampled over 5 days of storage. VEGF protein content of the centrifuged supernatant was determined by ELISA, and the potential contribution of VEGF from contaminating leukocytes was quantified. Isolated-perfused rat lungs were used to study the uptake of radiolabeled VEGF administered intravascularly, and the effect of unlabeled VEGF on lung leak. Results There was a time-dependent release of VEGF into the plasma fraction of the platelet concentrates (62 ± 9 pg/ml on day one, 149 ± 23 pg/ml on day 5; mean ± SEM, p<0.01, n=8) and a contribution by contaminating leukocytes was excluded. Exogenous 125I-VEGF bound avidly and specifically to the lung vasculature, and unlabeled VEGF in the lung perfusate caused vascular leak. Conclusion Rising concentrations of VEGF occur during storage of single donor platelet concentrates due to platelet secretion or disintegration, but not due to leukocyte contamination. Exogenous VEGF at these concentrations rapidly binds to its receptors in the lung vessels. At higher VEGF concentrations, VEGF causes vascular leak in uninjured lungs. These data provide further evidence that VEGF may contribute to the increased lung permeability seen in TRALI associated with platelet products. PMID

  5. [Clinical picture of acute pulmonary embolism. Relations to the degree of vascular obstruction].

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T T; Lund, O; Hedegaard, M; Hansen, H H; Albrechtsen, O

    1992-07-13

    In 132 consecutive patients treated for pulmonary embolism, duration of symptoms, number of embolic episodes before the diagnosis, circulatory affection (stable circulation (n = 61), reversible shock (n = 60), circulatory collapse (n = 11), electrocardiographic findings and systolic pulmonary pressure (n = 60) were analysed in relation to 1) underlying diseases (orthopedic surgical patients (n = 43), gynecological-abdominal surgical patients (n = 22), preembolic healthy patients (n = 42), miscellaneous medical patients (n = 25)), and 2) the obstruction of the pulmonary vascular bed quantified by a scintigraphic or angiographic score. While embolic score did not differ between the groups of underlying diseases, preembolic healthy patients with deep vein trombosis (n = 30) had longer mean duration of symptoms (14 days), more embolic episodes, (1.7 episode) and higher pulmonary pressure (72 mmHg) than the material on an average with values of 7 days, 0.9 episodes and 57 mmHg, respectively (p less than 0.001). Among patients with reversible shock or circulatory collapse, half had at least one previous embolic episode, one fifth from two to four. Embolic score correlated well with the circulatory affection (p less than 0.001). A high pulmonary pressure correlated with long duration of symptoms and a high number of embolic episodes (p less than 0.002). Sinus tachycardia and electrocardiographic signs of acute right ventricular strain (complete and incomplete right bundle branch block, SIQIIITIII-pattern and inverted T-waves in V2-4) correlated positively to the circulatory affection and inversely to duration of symptoms and number of embolic episodes (p less than 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Hepatic alteration of tryptophan metabolism in an acute porphyria model Its relation with gluconeogenic blockage.

    PubMed

    Lelli, Sandra M; Mazzetti, Marta B; San Martín de Viale, Leonor C

    2008-02-01

    This study focuses on the alterations suffered by the serotoninergic and kinurenergic routes of tryptophan (TRP) metabolism in liver, and their relation with gluconeogenic phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxykinase (PEPCK) blockage in experimental acute porphyria. This porphyria was induced in rats by a combined treatment of 2-allyl-2-isopropylacetamide (100, 250, 500 mg/kg bw) and 3,5-dietoxicarbonil 1,4-dihydrocollidine (constant 50 mg/kg bw dose). Results showed a marked dose-dependent increase of all TRP pyrrolase (TRPp) forms, active (holo, total) and inactive (apo), and a decrease in the degree of enzyme saturation by heme. Increases for holo, total, and apo-TRPp were 90, 150, and 230%, respectively, at the highest dose assayed (H). The treatment also impaired the serotoninergic route of TRP metabolism in liver, causing a decrease in serotonin level (H, 38%), and a concomitant enhancement in TRP content (H, 23%). The porphyrinogenic treatment promoted a blockage in PEPCK activity (H, 30%). This occurred in correlation to the development of porphyria, to TRPp alterations and to the production of hepatic microsomal thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Porphyria was estimated through increases in 5-aminolevulinic acid-synthase (ALA-S) activity, ALA and porphobilinogen contents, and a decrease in ferrochelatase activity. Thus, the TRP kynurenine route was augmented whereas the serotoninergic route was reduced. PEPCK blockage could be partly attributed to quinolinate generated from TRP by the increase of TRPp activity, which would be due to the effect of porphyrinogenic drugs on TRP. The contribution of ROS to PEPCK blockage is analyzed. Likewise, the implication of these results in the control of porphyrias by glucose is discussed.

  7. Identification of gene variants related to the nitric oxide pathway in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Umman, B; Cakmakoglu, B; Cincin, Z B; Kocaaga, M; Emet, S; Tamer, S; Gokkusu, C

    2015-12-10

    Dysfunction of vascular endothelium is known to have an essential role in the atherosclerotic process by releasing mediators including nitric oxide (NO). Nitric oxide maintains endothelial balance by controlling cellular processes of vascular smooth muscle cells. Evidence suggests that variations in the NO pathway could include atherosclerotic events. The objective of this study was to determine the possible effects of genes on the nitric oxide pathway in the development of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The blood samples of 100 patients with ACS and 100 controls were collected at Istanbul University, Department of Cardiology. DNA samples were genotyped by using Illumina Cyto-SNP-12 BeadChip. The additive model and Correlation/Trend Test were selected for association analysis. Afterwards, a Q-Q graphic was drawn to compare expected and obtained values. A Manhattan plot was produced to display p-values that were generated by -log10(P) function for each SNP. The p-values under 1×10(-4) were selected as statistically significant SNPs while p-values under 5×10(-2) were considered as suspicious biomarker candidates. Nitric oxide pathway analysis was then used to find the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to ACS. As a result, death-associated protein kinase 3 (DAPK) (rs10426955) was found to be most statistically significant SNP. The most suspicious biomarker candidates associated with the nitric oxide pathway analysis were vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA), nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1), and GTP cyclohydrolase I (GCH-1). Further studies with large sample groups are necessary to clarify the exact role of nitric oxide in the development of disease.

  8. Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia following fludarabine combination chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Carney, D A; Westerman, D A; Tam, C S; Milner, A; Prince, H M; Kenealy, M; Wolf, M; Januszewicz, E H; Ritchie, D; Came, N; Seymour, J F

    2010-12-01

    Fludarabine combination chemotherapy achieves high response rates in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and indolent lymphoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and characteristics of treatment-related myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukemia (t-MDS/AML) after treatment with fludarabine in combination for lymphoproliferative disorders and identify risk factors for its development. In all, 176 patients treated with fludarabine combination were followed for a median of 41 months (range 6-125 months). In all, 19 cases of t-MDS/AML have been identified for an overall rate of 10.8%. Median overall survival post-t-MDS/AML diagnosis was 11 months. Patients developing t-MDS/AML included 11/54 with follicular lymphoma (FL) (crude rate 20.4%), 5/82 with CLL (6.1%) and 3/24 with Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia or marginal zone lymphoma (12.5%). Most patients had other cytotoxic treatments (median 4, range 0-7) but three with FL had fludarabine combination as their only line of treatment. Of the eleven patients (6.3%) who received mitoxantrone with their first fludarabine combination, four (36.4%) developed t-MDS/AML (P=0.007). There was a trend toward prior cytotoxic therapy increasing the risk for t-MDS/AML (P=0.067). Fludarabine combination chemotherapy is associated with a moderate risk of t-MDS/AML particularly when combined with mitoxantrone. This complication should be considered when evaluating the potential benefit of this treatment in lymphoproliferative disorders.

  9. Mechanisms of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI): anti-leukocyte antibodies.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Brian R; McFarland, Janice G

    2006-05-01

    There is abundant evidence that leukocyte antibodies in blood donor products are somehow involved in transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I, HLA class II, and neutrophil-specific antibodies in the plasma of both blood donors and recipients have been implicated in the pathogenesis of TRALI. The case for a relationship between leukocyte antibodies and TRALI is more compelling if concordance between the antigen specificity of the leukocyte antibodies in the donor plasma and the corresponding antigen on the cells of the affected recipient is demonstrated. Such antibody-antigen concordance can be investigated by typing the recipient for the cognate leukocyte antigens or by cross-matching the donor plasma against the recipient's leukocytes. Two proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms for TRALI have received the most attention: the antibody hypothesis and the two-event hypothesis. The final common pathway in all of the proposed pathogenic mechanisms of TRALI is increased pulmonary capillary permeability, which results in movement of plasma into the alveolar space causing pulmonary edema. A typical TRALI serologic workup consists of tests for HLA class I and II and neutrophil-specific antibodies. The use of flow cytometry and HLA-coated microbeads is recommended for detection of HLA antibodies in plasma of implicated blood donors and a combination of the granulocyte agglutination test and granulocyte immunofluorescence test for detection of neutrophil-specific antibodies. Genotyping for class I and II HLA and for a limited number of neutrophil antigens may also be helpful in establishing antibody-antigen concordance.

  10. Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis with severe renal impairment associated with multisystem IgG4-related disease.

    PubMed

    Beltrame, Rafael Coimbra Ferreira; Friderichs, Maurício; Fior, Bárbara Rayanne; Schaefer, Pedro Guilherme; Thomé, Gustavo Gomes; Silva, Dirceu Reis da; Barros, Elvino José Guardão; Seligman, Renato; Veronese, Francisco Veríssimo

    2016-01-01

    The IgG4-related disease has a wide clinical spectrum where multiple organs can be affected, and the diagnosis depends on typical histopathological findings and an elevated IgG4 expression in plasma cells in the affected tissue. We describe the clinical presentation and evolution of a patient with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, severe kidney failure and systemic manifestations such as lymphadenomegaly and chronic pancreatitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by the clinical picture and kidney and lymph node histopathology, in which immunohistochemistry of the lymphoid tissue showed policlonality and increased expression of IgG4, with a IgG4/total IgG ratio > 80%. The patient was treated with prednisone at a dose of 60 mg/day, followed by mycophenolate mofetil, and showed clinical and renal function improvement at 6 months of follow-up. The high index of suspicion of IgG4-related disease with multisystem involvement and the early treatment of this condition are essential to improve the prognosis of affected patients. Resumo A doença relacionada à IgG4 tem um espectro clínico amplo em que múltiplos órgãos podem ser afetados, e o diagnóstico depende de achados histopatológicos típicos e elevada expressão de IgG4 em plasmócitos no tecido afetado. Descrevemos o quadro clínico e a evolução de um paciente com nefrite túbulo-intersticial aguda, insuficiência renal grave e manifestações sistêmicas como linfoadenomegalias e pancreatite crônica. O diagnóstico foi confirmado pelas características clínicas e pela histopatologia renal e de linfonodo, na qual a imunohistoquímica mostrou tecido linfoide com policlonalidade e expressão aumentada de IgG4, com uma relação IgG4/IgG total > 80%. O paciente foi tratado com prednisona na dose de 60 mg/dia, seguido de micofenolato mofetil, e apresentou melhora clínica e da função renal depois de 6 meses de tratamento. O alto índice de suspeição da doença relacionada ao IgG4 com comprometimento multissist

  11. Acute dopamine depletion with branched chain amino acids decreases auditory top-down event-related potentials in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Andres H; Goldberg, Terry E; Hassoun, Youssef; Bates, John A; Nassauer, Katharine W; Sevy, Serge; Opgen-Rhein, Carolin; Malhotra, Anil K

    2009-06-01

    Cerebral dopamine homeostasis has been implicated in a wide range of cognitive processes and is of great pathophysiological importance in schizophrenia. A novel approach to study cognitive effects of dopamine is to deplete its cerebral levels with branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) that acutely lower dopamine precursor amino acid availability. Here, we studied the effects of acute dopamine depletion on early and late attentive cortical processing. Auditory event-related potential (ERP) components N2 and P3 were investigated using high-density electroencephalography in 22 healthy male subjects after receiving BCAAs or placebo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. Total free serum prolactin was also determined as a surrogate marker of cerebral dopamine depletion. Acute dopamine depletion increased free plasma prolactin and significantly reduced prefrontal ERP components N2 and P3. Subcomponent analysis of N2 revealed a significant attenuation of early attentive N2b over prefrontal scalp sites. As a proof of concept, these results strongly suggest that BCAAs are acting on basic information processing. Dopaminergic neurotransmission seems to be involved in auditory top-down processing as indexed by prefrontal N2 and P3 reductions during dopamine depletion. In healthy subjects, intact early cortical top-down processing can be acutely dysregulated by ingestion of BCAAs. We discuss the potential impact of these findings on schizophrenia research.

  12. Acute dopamine depletion with branched chain amino acids decreases auditory top-down event-related potentials in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Neuhaus, Andres H.; Goldberg, Terry E.; Hassoun, Youssef; Bates, John A.; Nassauer, Katharine W.; Sevy, Serge; Opgen-Rhein, Carolin; Malhotra, Anil K.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral dopamine homeostasis has been implicated in a wide range of cognitive processes and is of great pathophysiological importance in schizophrenia. A novel approach to study cognitive effects of dopamine is to deplete its cerebral levels with branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) that acutely lower dopamine precursor amino acid availability. Here, we studied the effects of acute dopamine depletion on early and late attentive cortical processing. Auditory event-related potential (ERP) components N2 and P3 were investigated using high-density electroencephalography in 22 healthy male subjects after receiving BCAAs or placebo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. Total free serum prolactin was also determined as a surrogate marker of cerebral dopamine depletion. Acute dopamine depletion increased free plasma prolactin and significantly reduced prefrontal ERP components N2 and P3. Subcomponent analysis of N2 revealed a significant attenuation of early attentive N2b over prefrontal scalp sites. As a proof of concept, these results strongly suggest that BCAAs are acting on basic information processing. Dopaminergic neurotransmission seems to be involved in auditory top-down processing as indexed by prefrontal N2 and P3 reductions during dopamine depletion. In healthy subjects, intact early cortical top-down processing can be acutely dysregulated by ingestion of BCAAs. We discuss the potential impact of these findings on schizophrenia research. PMID:19356906

  13. Aspects of cerebral plasticity related to clinical features in acute vestibular neuritis: a "starting point" review from neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Micarelli, A; Chiaravalloti, A; Schillaci, O; Ottaviani, F; Alessandrini, M

    2016-04-01

    Vestibular neuritis (VN) is one of the most common causes of vertigo and is characterised by a sudden unilateral vestibular failure (UVF). Many neuroimaging studies in the last 10 years have focused on brain changes related to sudden vestibular deafferentation as in VN. However, most of these studies, also due to different possibilities across diverse centres, were based on different times of first acquisition from the onset of VN symptoms, neuroimaging techniques, statistical analysis and correlation with otoneurological and psychological findings. In the present review, the authors aim to merge together the similarities and discrepancies across various investigations that have employed neuroimaging techniques and group analysis with the purpose of better understanding about how the brain changes and what characteristic clinical features may relate to each other in the acute phase of VN. Six studies that strictly met inclusion criteria were analysed to assess cortical-subcortical correlates of acute clinical features related to VN. The present review clearly reveals that sudden UVF may induce a wide variety of cortical and subcortical responses - with changes in different sensory modules - as a result of acute plasticity in the central nervous system.

  14. The relative role of refractoriness and source-sink relationship in reentry generation during simulated acute ischemia.

    PubMed

    Romero, Lucía; Trénor, Beatriz; Alonso, José M; Tobón, Catalina; Saiz, Javier; Ferrero, José M

    2009-08-01

    During acute myocardial ischemia, reentrant episodes may lead to ventricular fibrillation (VF), giving rise to potentially mortal arrhythmias. VF has been traditionally related to dispersion of refractoriness and more recently to the source-sink relationship. Our goal is to theoretically investigate the relative role of dispersion of refractoriness and source-sink mismatch in vulnerability to reentry in the specific situation of regional myocardial acute ischemia. The electrical activity of a regionally ischemic tissue was simulated using a modified version of the Luo-Rudy dynamic model. Ischemic conditions were varied to simulate the time-course of acute ischemia. Our results showed that dispersion of refractoriness increased with the severity of ischemia. However, no correlation between dispersion of refractoriness and the width of the vulnerable window was found. Additionally, in approximately 50% of the reentries, unidirectional block (UDB) took place in cells completely recovered from refractoriness. We examined patterns of activation after premature stimulation and they were intimately related to the source-sink relationship, quantified by the safety factor (SF). Moreover, the isoline where the SF dropped below unity matched the area where propagation failed. It was concluded that the mismatch of the source-sink relationship, rather than solely refractoriness, was the ultimate cause of the UDB leading to reentry. The SF represents a very powerful tool to study the mechanisms responsible for reentry.

  15. Auditory Word Comprehension Impairment in Acute Stroke: Relative Contribution of Phonemic versus Semantic Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogalsky, Corianne; Pitz, Eleanor; Hillis, Argye E.; Hickok, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Auditory word comprehension was assessed in a series of 289 acute left hemisphere stroke patients. Participants decided whether an auditorily presented word matched a picture. On different trials, words were presented with a matching picture, a semantic foil, or a phonemic foil. Participants had significantly more trouble with semantic foils…

  16. AGE-RELATED TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental exposures is poorly understood. To investigate-the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of an acute exposure to the volatile organic compound, toluene (0.0 or 1.0 g/kg), i...

  17. Acute and Chronic Dissociation and Somatized Anxiety as Related to Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynes, Lynn C.; Feinauer, Leslie L.

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationship between effects of four sexual abuse variables (identity of perpetrator, frequency of abuse, duration of abuse experiences, and severity of sexual abuse) and survivor symptomatology of acute dissociation, chronic dissociation, and somatized anxiety. Data from 226 respondents showed that severity of sexual abuse experience was…

  18. Generalization of the Euler Angles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor); Shuster, Malcolm D.; Markley, F. Landis

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the Euler angles can be generalized to axes other than members of an orthonormal triad. As first shown by Davenport, the three generalized Euler axes, hereafter: Davenport axes, must still satisfy the constraint that the first two and the last two axes be mutually perpendicular if these axes are to define a universal set of attitude parameters. Expressions are given which relate the generalized Euler angles, hereafter: Davenport angles, to the 3-1-3 Euler angles of an associated direction-cosine matrix. The computation of the Davenport angles from the attitude matrix and their kinematic equation are presented. The present work offers a more direct development of the Davenport angles than Davenport's original publication and offers additional results.

  19. Genome-Wide Expression Analysis Reveals Diverse Effects of Acute Nicotine Exposure on Neuronal Function-Related Genes and Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ju; Cui, Wenyan; Wei, Jinxue; Sun, Dongxiao; Gutala, Ramana; Gu, Jun; Li, Ming D.

    2011-01-01

    Previous human and animal studies demonstrate that acute nicotine exposure has complicated influences on the function of the nervous system, which may lead to long-lasting effects on the behavior and physiology of the subject. To determine the genes and pathways that might account for long-term changes after acute nicotine exposure, a pathway-focused oligoarray specifically designed for drug addiction research was used to assess acute nicotine effect on gene expression in the neuron-like SH-SY5Y cells. Our results showed that 295 genes involved in various biological functions were differentially regulated by 1 h of nicotine treatment. Among these genes, the expression changes of 221 were blocked by mecamylamine, indicating that the majority of nicotine-modulated genes were altered through the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs)-mediated signaling process. We further identified 14 biochemical pathways enriched among the nicotine-modulated genes, among which were those involved in neural development/synaptic plasticity, neuronal survival/death, immune response, or cellular metabolism. In the genes significantly regulated by nicotine but blocked by mecamylamine, 13 enriched pathways were detected. Nine of these pathways were shared with those enriched in the genes regulated by nicotine, including neuronal function-related pathways such as glucocorticoid receptor signaling, p38 MAPK signaling, PI3K/AKT signaling, and PTEN signaling, implying that nAChRs play important roles in the regulation of these biological processes. Together, our results not only provide insights into the mechanism underlying the acute response of neuronal cells to nicotine but also provide clues to how acute nicotine exposure exerts long-term effects on the nervous system. PMID:21556275

  20. A case study comparing the relative benefit of optimizing beam weights, wedge angles, beam orientations and tomotherapy in stereotactic radiotherapy of the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, M.; Khoo, V. S.; Rowbottom, C. G.; Bedford, J. L.; Webb, S.

    1998-08-01

    A treatment-planning case study has been performed on a patient with a medium-sized, convex brain tumour. The study involved the application of advanced treatment-plan optimization techniques to improve on the dose distribution of the `standard plan' used to treat the patient. The standard plan was created according to conventional protocol at the Royal Marsden NHS Trust, and consisted of a three-field (one open and two wedged) non-coplanar arrangement, with field shaping to the beam's-eye view of the planning target volume (PTV). Three optimized treatment plans were created corresponding to (i) the optimization of the beam weights and wedge angles of the standard plan, (ii) the optimization of the beam orientations, beam weights and wedge angles of the standard plan, and (iii) a full fluence tomotherapy optimization of 1 cm wide (at isocentre), arcs. (i) and (ii) were created on the VOXELPLAN research 3D treatment-planning system, using in-house developed optimization algorithms, and (iii) was created on the PEACOCK tomotherapy planning system. The downhill-simplex optimization algorithm is used, in conjuction with `threshold-dose' cost-function terms enabling the algorithm to optimize specific regions of the dose-volume histogram (DVH) curve. The `beam-cost plot' tool is presented as a visual aid to the selection of beneficial beam directions. The methods and pitfalls in the transfer of plans and patient data between the two planning systems are discussed. Each optimization approach was evaluated, relative to the standard plan, on the basis of DVH and dose statistics in the PTV and organs at risk (OARs). All three optimization approaches were able to improve on the dose distribution of the standard plan. The magnitude of the improvement was greater for the optimized beam-orientation and tomotherapy plans (up to 15% and 30% for the maximum and mean OAR doses). A smaller improvement

  1. Raised-angle discrimination under passive finger movement.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinglong; Yang, Jiajia; Ogasa, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    The characteristics of raised-line drawing discrimination can be defined as the sum of the discriminability of the length, curvature, and angles of the edges. The size of the angle between two edges constitutes an important feature of these tactile stimuli. In the first experiment, five standard angles (30 degrees, 60 degrees, 90 degrees, 120 degrees, and 150 degrees) and twenty comparison angles for each standard angle were used to investigate the human capacity for tactile discrimination of raised angles by passive finger movement. The subjects in this study were asked to identify the larger angle of each pair by passive finger movement. We found that the threshold doubled when the standard angle was increased from 30 degrees to 90 degrees; however, the threshold remained unchanged when the standard angle was greater than 90 degrees. In the second experiment, to investigate the influence of the endpoints on angle discriminability, we used one standard angle (60 degrees) and seven comparison angles that changed in four bisector orientations. The results indicate that cutaneous feedback from the local apex and endpoints of the angle contributed to the discrimination of acute angles. Taken together, these results suggest that, when an acute angle is presented, both local apex and endpoint informations are used, while cutaneous mechanoreceptors rely more on apex information to discriminate the angle size when an obtuse angle is presented.

  2. Fish Oil Diet Associated with Acute Reperfusion Related Hemorrhage, and with Reduced Stroke-Related Sickness Behaviors and Motor Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Pascoe, Michaela C.; Howells, David W.; Crewther, David P.; Constantinou, Nicki; Carey, Leeanne M.; Rewell, Sarah S.; Turchini, Giovanni M.; Kaur, Gunveen; Crewther, Sheila G.

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is associated with motor impairment and increased incidence of affective disorders such as anxiety/clinical depression. In non-stroke populations, successful management of such disorders and symptoms has been reported following diet supplementation with long chain omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids (PUFAs). However, the potential protective effects of PUFA supplementation on affective behaviors after experimentally induced stroke and sham surgery have not been examined previously. This study investigated the behavioral effects of PUFA supplementation over a 6-week period following either middle cerebral artery occlusion or sham surgery in the hooded-Wistar rat. The PUFA diet supplied during the acclimation period prior to surgery was found to be associated with an increased risk of acute hemorrhage following the reperfusion component of the surgery. In surviving animals, PUFA supplementation did not influence infarct size as determined 6 weeks after surgery, but did decrease omega-6-fatty-acid levels, moderate sickness behaviors, acute motor impairment, and longer-term locomotor hyperactivity and depression/anxiety-like behavior. PMID:24567728

  3. Fish oil diet associated with acute reperfusion related hemorrhage, and with reduced stroke-related sickness behaviors and motor impairment.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Michaela C; Howells, David W; Crewther, David P; Constantinou, Nicki; Carey, Leeanne M; Rewell, Sarah S; Turchini, Giovanni M; Kaur, Gunveen; Crewther, Sheila G

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is associated with motor impairment and increased incidence of affective disorders such as anxiety/clinical depression. In non-stroke populations, successful management of such disorders and symptoms has been reported following diet supplementation with long chain omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids (PUFAs). However, the potential protective effects of PUFA supplementation on affective behaviors after experimentally induced stroke and sham surgery have not been examined previously. This study investigated the behavioral effects of PUFA supplementation over a 6-week period following either middle cerebral artery occlusion or sham surgery in the hooded-Wistar rat. The PUFA diet supplied during the acclimation period prior to surgery was found to be associated with an increased risk of acute hemorrhage following the reperfusion component of the surgery. In surviving animals, PUFA supplementation did not influence infarct size as determined 6 weeks after surgery, but did decrease omega-6-fatty-acid levels, moderate sickness behaviors, acute motor impairment, and longer-term locomotor hyperactivity and depression/anxiety-like behavior.

  4. Child anxiety symptoms related to longitudinal cortisol trajectories and acute stress responses: evidence of developmental stress sensitization.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Gilliam, Kathryn S; Wright, Dorianne B; Fisher, Philip A

    2015-02-01

    Cross-sectional research suggests that individuals at risk for internalizing disorders show differential activation levels and/or dynamics of stress-sensitive physiological systems, possibly reflecting a process of stress sensitization. However, there is little longitudinal research to clarify how the development of these systems over time relates to activation during acute stress, and how aspects of such activation map onto internalizing symptoms. We investigated children's (n = 107) diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity via salivary cortisol (morning and evening levels) across 29 assessments spanning 6+ years, and related longitudinal patterns to acute stress responses at the end of this period (age 9-10). Associations with child psychiatric symptoms at age 10 were also examined to determine internalizing risk profiles. Increasing morning cortisol levels across assessments predicted less of a cortisol decline following interpersonal stress at age 9, and higher cortisol levels during performance stress at age 10. These same profiles of high and/or sustained cortisol elevation during psychosocial stress were associated with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest developmental sensitization to stress-reflected in rising morning cortisol and eventual hyperactivation during acute stress exposure-may distinguish children at risk for internalizing disorders.

  5. Child Anxiety Symptoms Related to Longitudinal Cortisol Trajectories and Acute Stress Responses: Evidence of Developmental Stress Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Gilliam, Kathryn S.; Wright, Dorianne B.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional research suggests that individuals at risk for internalizing disorders show differential activation levels and/or dynamics of stress-sensitive physiological systems, possibly reflecting a process of stress sensitization. However, there is little longitudinal research to clarify how the development of these systems over time relates to activation during acute stress, and how aspects of such activation map onto internalizing symptoms. We investigated children’s (n=107) diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity via salivary cortisol (morning and evening levels) across 29 assessments spanning 6+ years, and related longitudinal patterns to acute stress responses at the end of this period (age 9–10). Associations with child psychiatric symptoms at age 10 were also examined to determine internalizing risk profiles. Increasing morning cortisol levels across assessments predicted less of a cortisol decline following interpersonal stress at age 9, and higher cortisol levels during performance stress at age 10. These same profiles of high and/or sustained cortisol elevation during psychosocial stress were associated with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest developmental sensitization to stress—reflected in rising morning cortisol and eventual hyperactivation during acute stress exposure—may distinguish children at risk for internalizing disorders. PMID:25688433

  6. A potentially novel overlapping gene in the genomes of Israeli acute paralysis virus and its relatives

    PubMed Central

    Sabath, Niv; Price, Nicholas; Graur, Dan

    2009-01-01

    The Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) is a honeybee-infecting virus that was found to be associated with colony collapse disorder. The IAPV genome contains two genes encoding a structural and a nonstructural polyprotein. We applied a recently developed method for the estimation of selection in overlapping genes to detect purifying selection and, hence, functionality. We provide evolutionary evidence for the existence of a functional overlapping gene, which is translated in the +1 reading frame of the structural polyprotein gene. Conserved orthologs of this putative gene, which we provisionally call pog (predicted overlapping gene), were also found in the genomes of a monophyletic clade of dicistroviruses that includes IAPV, acute bee paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, and Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant) virus 1. PMID:19761605

  7. Necrotizing acute pancreatitis following therapeutic plasmapheresis in HCV-related cryoglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Desideri, F; Van Vlierberghe, H

    2011-06-01

    Mixed cryoglobulinemia and hepatitis C virus infection are strongly connected and the therapeutic approach is standardized according to the severity of the symptoms. We report the difficult management of 59 year old female HCV patient presenting cutaneous lesions and arthralgia due to mixed cryoglobulinemia. No therapy was able to achieve a complete remission and during the six years of active disease we observed several clinical recurrences. The intensive plasmapheresis regimen led to a complete remission of the symptoms but it was associated with severe complications. In this case report we describe an episode of acute necrotizing pancreatitis due to intravascular haemolysis following therapeutic plasmapheresis. To the best of our knowledge the association between plasmapheresis and acute pancreatitis has not been previously described.

  8. Acute Myocardial Infarct Size Is Related to Periodontitis Extent and Severity

    PubMed Central

    Marfil-Álvarez, R.; Mesa, F.; Arrebola-Moreno, A.; Ramírez-Hernández, J.A.; Magán-Fernández, A.; O’Valle, F.; Galindo-Moreno, P.; Catena, A.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease has been associated with 40% of deaths in high-income countries and 28% in lower-income countries. The relationship between periodontitis and acute myocardial infarction is well documented, but it has not been established whether the extent and severity of periodontitis influence the infarct size. This cross-sectional and analytic study was designed to investigate the association of chronic periodontitis extent and severity with acute myocardial infarct size as indicated by serum cardiac troponin I and myoglobin levels. Sociodemographic, periodontal, cardiologic, and hematologic variables were gathered in 112 consecutive patients with myocardial infarction. The extent (Arbes Index) and severity (Periodontal Inflammatory Severity Index) of the chronic periodontitis were significantly associated with troponin I levels after controlling for sociodemographic and clinical confounders (change in R2 = .041, p < .02, and R2 = .031, p = .04). However, only the extent index accounted for levels of myoglobin (change in R2 = .030, p < .05), total leukocytes (change in R2 = .041 p < .02), and neutrophils (change in R2 = .059, p < .01). Mediated regression analysis showed that leukocytes and neutrophils may underlie these observed relationships of chronic periodontitis with troponin I and myoglobin. To our knowledge, this study contributes the first research data demonstrating that the extent and severity of periodontitis is positively associated with acute myocardial infarct size as measured by serum troponin I and myoglobin levels. PMID:25139359

  9. Acute and developmental behavioral effects of flame retardants and related chemicals in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Jarema, Kimberly A.; Hunter, Deborah L.; Shaffer, Rachel M.; Behl, Mamta; Padilla, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    As polybrominated diphenyl ethers are phased out, numerous compounds are emerging as potential replacement flame retardants for use in consumer and electronic products. Little is known, however, about the neurobehavioral toxicity of these replacements. This study evaluated the neurobehavioral effects of acute or developmental exposure to t-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (BPDP), 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDP), isodecyl diphenyl phosphate (IDDP), isopropylated phenyl phosphate (IPP), tricresyl phosphate (TMPP; also abbreviated TCP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP; also abbreviated TPP), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris (1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP; also abbreviated TDCPP), tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP), and 2,2-,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. Larvae (n ≈ 24 per dose per compound) were exposed to test compounds (0.4–120 µM) at sub-teratogenic concentrations either developmentally or acutely, and locomotor activity was assessed at 6 days post fertilization. When given developmentally, all chemicals except BPDP, IDDP and TBBPA produced behavioral effects. When given acutely, all chemicals produced behavioral effects, with TPHP, TBBPA, EHDP, IPP, and BPDP eliciting the most effects at the most concentrations. The results indicate that these replacement flame retardants may have developmental or pharmacological effects on the vertebrate nervous system. PMID:26348672

  10. Outcome assessment of pregnancy-related acute kidney injury in Morocco: A national prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kabbali, Nadia; Tachfouti, Nabil; Arrayhani, Mohammed; Harandou, Mustapha; Tagnaouti, Mounia; Bentata, Yassamine; Laouad, Inass; Ramdani, Benyounes; Bayahia, Rabia; Oualim, Zouhair; Houssaini, Tarik Sqalli

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a rare but life-threatening complication of pregnancy. The aim of this paper is to study the characteristics of acute AKI in pregnancy and to emphasize on its management modalities in Moroccan hospitals. This is a national prospective study performed over six months from July 1 to December 31 2010 on AKI developing in pregnant patients, both preand post-partum period. Patients with pre-existing kidney disease were excluded from the study. Outcome was considered unfavorable when complete recovery of renal function was not achieved and/or maternal death occurred. Forty-four patients were included in this study. They were 29.6 ± 6 years old and mostly illiterate (70.6%). Most AKI occurred in the post-partum period, with 66% of the cases occurring in those who did not receive antenatal care. The main etiologies were pre-eclampsia (28 cases), hemorrhagic shock (six cases) and septic events (five cases). We noted three cases of acute fatty liver, one case of obstructive kidney injury and one case of lupus nephritis. Hemodialysis was necessary in 17 (38.6%) cases. The outcome was favorable in 29 patients. The maternal mortality rate was 11.4%. Two poor prognostic factors were identified: Age over 38 years and sepsis. AKI is a severe complication of pregnancy in developing countries. Its prevention necessitates the improvement of the sanitary infrastructure and the establishment of the obligatory antenatal care.

  11. Traumatic Life Events Prior to Alcohol-Related Admission of Injured Acute Care Inpatients: A Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Roselyn; Russo, Joan; Darnell, Doyanne; Wang, Jin; Ingraham, Leah; Zatzick, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Objective Approximately 30 million Americans present to acute care medical settings annually after incurring traumatic injuries. Posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms are endemic among injury survivors. Our paper is a replication and extension of a previous report documenting a pattern of multiple traumatic life events across patients admitted to Level I trauma centers for an alcohol-related injury. Method This study is a secondary analysis of a nationwide 20-site randomized trial of an alcohol brief intervention with 660 traumatically injured inpatients. Pre-injury trauma history was assessed using the National Comorbidity Survey trauma history screen at the 6 month time point. Results Most common traumatic events experienced by our population of alcohol positive trauma survivors were having had someone close unexpectedly die, followed by having seen someone badly beaten or injured. Of particular note, there is high reported prevalence of rape/sexual assault, and childhood abuse and neglect among physically injured trauma survivors. Additional trauma histories are increasingly common among alcohol-positive patients admitted for a traumatic injury. Conclusions Due to the high rate of experienced multiple traumatic events among acutely injured inpatients, the trauma history screen could be productively integrated into screening and brief intervention procedures developed for acute care settings. PMID:26745689

  12. Effects of acute alcohol consumption and processing of emotion in faces: Implications for understanding alcohol-related aggression.

    PubMed

    Attwood, Angela S; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-08-01

    The negative consequences of chronic alcohol abuse are well known, but heavy episodic consumption ("binge drinking") is also associated with significant personal and societal harms. Aggressive tendencies are increased after alcohol but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. While effects on behavioural control are likely to be important, other effects may be involved given the widespread action of alcohol. Altered processing of social signals is associated with changes in social behaviours, including aggression, but until recently there has been little research investigating the effects of acute alcohol consumption on these outcomes. Recent work investigating the effects of acute alcohol on emotional face processing has suggested reduced sensitivity to submissive signals (sad faces) and increased perceptual bias towards provocative signals (angry faces) after alcohol consumption, which may play a role in alcohol-related aggression. Here we discuss a putative mechanism that may explain how alcohol consumption influences emotional processing and subsequent aggressive responding, via disruption of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)-amygdala connectivity. While the importance of emotional processing on social behaviours is well established, research into acute alcohol consumption and emotional processing is still in its infancy. Further research is needed and we outline a research agenda to address gaps in the literature.

  13. Positive effect of acute mild exercise on executive function via arousal-related prefrontal activations: an fNIRS study.

    PubMed

    Byun, Kyeongho; Hyodo, Kazuki; Suwabe, Kazuya; Ochi, Genta; Sakairi, Yosuke; Kato, Morimasa; Dan, Ippeita; Soya, Hideaki

    2014-09-01

    Despite the practical implication of mild exercise, little is known about its influence on executive function and its neural substrates. To address these issues, the present study examined the effect of an acute bout of mild exercise on executive function and attempted to identify potential neural substrates using non-invasive functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Twenty-five young individuals performed a color-word matching Stroop task (CWST) and a two-dimensional scale to measure changes of psychological mood states both before and after a 10-minute exercise session on a cycle ergometer at light intensity (30% v(·)o2peak) and, for the control session, without exercise. Cortical hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal area were monitored with fNIRS during the CWST in both sessions. The acute bout of mild exercise led to improved Stroop performance, which was positively correlated with increased arousal levels. It also evoked cortical activations regarding Stroop interference on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and frontopolar area. These activations significantly corresponded with both improved cognitive performance and increased arousal levels. Concurrently, this study provides empirical evidence that an acute bout of mild exercise improves executive function mediated by the exercise-induced arousal system, which intensifies cortical activation in task-related prefrontal sub-regions.

  14. No Relation between Body Temperature and Arterial Recanalization at Three Days in Patients with Acute Ischaemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Geurts, Marjolein; van der Worp, H. Bart; Horsch, Alexander D.; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Biessels, Geert J.; Velthuis, Birgitta K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recanalization of an occluded intracranial artery is influenced by temperature-dependent enzymes, including alteplase. We assessed the relation between body temperature on admission and recanalization. Methods We included 278 patients with acute ischaemic stroke within nine hours after symptom onset, who had an intracranial arterial occlusion on admission CT angiography, in 13 participating centres. We calculated the relation per every 0.1°Celsius increase in admission body temperature and recanalization at three days. Results Recanalization occurred in 80% of occluded arteries. There was no relation between body temperature and recanalization at three days after adjustments for age, NIHSS score on admission and treatment with alteplase (adjusted odds ratio per 0.1°Celsius, 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.94–1.05; p = 0.70). Results for patients treated or not treated with alteplase were essentially the same. Conclusions Our findings suggest that in patients with acute ischaemic stroke there is no relation between body temperature on admission and recanalization of an occluded intracranial artery three days later, irrespective of treatment with alteplase. PMID:26473959

  15. Sepsis-related acute respiratory distress syndrome in children with cancer: the respiratory dynamics of a devastating condition

    PubMed Central

    Arduini, Rodrigo Genaro; de Araujo, Orlei Ribeiro; da Silva, Dafne Cardoso Bourguignon; Senerchia, Andreza Almeida; Petrilli, Antonio Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical course and respiratory parameters of mechanically ventilated children with cancer suffering from sepsis-related acute respiratory distress syndrome. Methods This 2-year prospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study enrolled 29 children and adolescents. Clinical data, measurements of blood gases and ventilation parameters were collected at four different time points. Fluctuations between measurements as well as differences in estimated means were analyzed by linear mixed models in which death within 28 days from the onset of acute respiratory distress syndrome was the primary endpoint. Results There were 17 deaths within 28 days of acute respiratory distress syndrome onset and another 7 between 29 - 60 days. Only 5 patients survived for more than 60 days. Nine (31%) patients died as a direct consequence of refractory hypoxemia, and the others died of multiple organ failure and catecholamine-refractory shock. In 66% of the measurements, the tidal volume required to obtain oxygen saturation equal to or above 90% was greater than 7mL/kg. The estimated means of dynamic compliance were low and were similar for survivors and non-survivors but with a negative slope between the first and final measurements, accompanied by a negative slope of the tidal volume for non-survivors. Non-survivors were significantly more hypoxemic, with PaO2/FiO2 ratios showing lower estimated means and a negative slope along the four measurements. Peak, expiratory and mean airway pressures showed positive slopes in the non-survivors, who also had more metabolic acidosis. Conclusions In most of our children with cancer, sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome progressed with deteriorating ventilation indexes and escalating organic dysfunction, making this triad nearly fatal in children. PMID:28099641

  16. Gene polymorphisms in folate metabolizing enzymes in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia: effects on methotrexate-related toxicity and survival

    PubMed Central

    Ongaro, Alessia; De Mattei, Monica; Della Porta, Matteo Giovanni; Rigolin, GianMatteo; Ambrosio, Cristina; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Pellati, Agnese; Masieri, Federica Francesca; Caruso, Angelo; Catozzi, Linda; Gemmati, Donato

    2009-01-01

    Background The antifolate agent methotrexate is an important component of maintenance therapy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, although methotrexate-related toxicity is often a reason for interruption of chemotherapy. Prediction of toxicity is difficult because of inter-individual variability susceptibility to antileukemic agents. Methotrexate interferes with folate metabolism leading to depletion of reduced folates. Design and Methods The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of polymorphisms for folate metabolizing enzymes with respect to toxicity and survival in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with methotrexate maintenance therapy. To this purpose, we evaluated possible associations between genotype and hematologic and non-hematologic toxicity and effects on survival at 2 years of follow-up in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Results Polymorphisms in the genes encoding for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677C>T) and in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR 19 bp deletion) significantly increased the risk of hepatotoxicity in single (odds ratio 5.23, 95% confidence interval 1.13–21.95 and odds ratio 4.57, 95% confidence interval 1.01–20.77, respectively) and in combined analysis (odds ratio 6.82, 95% confidence interval 1.38–33.59). MTHFR 677C>T also increased the risk of leukopenia and gastrointestinal toxicity, whilst thymidylate synthase 28 bp repeat polymorphism increased the risk of anemia (odds ratio 8.48, 95% confidence interval 2.00–36.09). Finally, patients with MTHFR 677TT had a decreased overall survival rate (hazard ratio 2.37, 95% confidence interval 1.46–8.45). Conclusions Genotyping of folate polymorphisms might be useful in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia to optimize methotrexate therapy, reducing the associated toxicity with possible effects on survival. PMID:19648163

  17. Acute stress-related changes in eating in the absence of hunger.

    PubMed

    Rutters, Femke; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Born, Jurriaan M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2009-01-01

    Obesity results from chronic deregulation of energy balance, which may in part be caused by stress. Our objective was to investigate the effect of acute and psychological stress on food intake, using the eating in the absence of hunger paradigm, in normal and overweight men and women (while taking dietary restraint and disinhibition into account). In 129 subjects (BMI = 24.5 +/- 3.4 kg/m(2) and age = 27.6 +/- 8.8 years), scores were determined on the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (dietary restraint = 7.2 +/- 4.4; disinhibition = 4.5 +/- 2.6; feeling of hunger = 3.9 +/- 2.6) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (trait score = 31.7 +/- 24.2). In a randomized crossover design, the "eating in absence of hunger" protocol was measured as a function of acute stress vs. a control task and of state anxiety scores. Energy intake from sweet foods (708.1 kJ vs. 599.4 kJ, P < 0.03) and total energy intake (965.2 kJ vs. 793.8 kJ, P < 0.01) were significantly higher in the stress condition compared to the control condition. Differences in energy intake between the stress and control condition were a function of increase in state anxiety scores during the stress task (Delta state anxiety scores) (R(2) = 0.05, P < 0.01). This positive relationship was stronger in subjects with high disinhibition scores (R(2) = 0.12, P < 0.05). Differences in state anxiety scores were a function of trait anxiety scores (R(2) = 0.07, P < 0.05). We conclude that acute psychological stress is associated with eating in the absence of hunger, especially in vulnerable individuals characterized by disinhibited eating behavior and sensitivity to chronic stress.

  18. [Nature of the relation of acute appendicitis morbidity to meteorological and heliogeophysical factors].

    PubMed

    Khaavel', A A; Birkenfeldt, R R

    1978-04-01

    The authors analyzed 2009 appendicitis case records for the period from 1964 to 1973. In a sea climate region an evident season distribution of the apendicitis morbidity was found, with the rise of the incidence rate in January, March and April. The rise of the appendicitis incidence rate during the periods of vast fluctuations of air temperature, increase of air humidity and decrease of actual duration of sun radiance was established. The rise of the incidence of acute appendicitis was also noted during the months of a great and extremely great magnetic storms.

  19. Serum and salivary cardiac analytes in acute myocardial infarction related to oral health status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Campbell, Charles; Kinane, Denis F.; McDevitt, John T.; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Floriano, Pierre N.; Miller, Craig S.

    2014-06-01

    With the advent of an increased emphasis on the potential to utilize biomarkers in saliva for systemic diseases, the issue of existing oral disease is an important consideration that could adversely affect the interpretation of diagnostic results obtained from saliva. We addressed the question does a patient's oral inflammation status confound biomarker levels used in diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The results demonstrated that multiple serum biomarkers and a few salivary biomarkers reflected the cardiac event. Importantly, oral health of the individual had minimal impact on the validity of the serum or salivary biomarker effectiveness.

  20. Age at natural menopause genetic risk score in relation to age at natural menopause and primary open-angle glaucoma in a US-based sample

    PubMed Central

    Pasquale, Louis R.; Aschard, Hugues; Kang, Jae H.; Bailey, Jessica N. Cooke; Lindström, Sara; Chasman, Daniel I.; Christen, William G.; Allingham, R. Rand; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Lee, Richard K.; Moroi, Sayoko E.; Brilliant, Murray H.; Wollstein, Gadi; Schuman, Joel S.; Fingert, John; Budenz, Donald L.; Realini, Tony; Gaasterland, Terry; Gaasterland, Douglas; Scott, William K.; Singh, Kuldev; Sit, Arthur J.; Igo, Robert P.; Song, Yeunjoo E.; Hark, Lisa; Ritch, Robert; Rhee, Douglas J.; Gulati, Vikas; Havens, Shane; Vollrath, Douglas; Zack, Donald J.; Medeiros, Felipe; Weinreb, Robert N.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Liu, Yutao; Kraft, Peter; Richards, Julia E.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Hauser, Michael A.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Wiggs, Janey L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Several attributes of female reproductive history, including age at natural menopause (ANM), have been related to primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). We assembled 18 previously reported common genetic variants that predict ANM to determine their association with ANM or POAG. Methods: Using data from the Nurses’ Health Study (7,143 women), we validated the ANM weighted genetic risk score in relation to self-reported ANM. Subsequently, to assess the relation with POAG, we used data from 2,160 female POAG cases and 29,110 controls in the National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration Heritable Overall Operational Database (NEIGHBORHOOD), which consists of 8 datasets with imputed genotypes to 5.6+ million markers. Associations with POAG were assessed in each dataset, and site-specific results were meta-analyzed using the inverse weighted variance method. Results: The genetic risk score was associated with self-reported ANM (P = 2.2 × 10–77) and predicted 4.8% of the variance in ANM. The ANM genetic risk score was not associated with POAG (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.002; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.998, 1.007; P = 0.28). No single genetic variant in the panel achieved nominal association with POAG (P ≥0.20). Compared to the middle 80 percent, there was also no association with the lowest 10th percentile or highest 90th percentile of genetic risk score with POAG (OR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.47, 1.21; P = 0.23 and OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.69; P = 0.65, respectively). Conclusions: A genetic risk score predicting 4.8% of ANM variation was not related to POAG; thus, genetic determinants of ANM are unlikely to explain the previously reported association between the two phenotypes. PMID:27760082

  1. Spinning angle optical calibration apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Stephen K.; Pratt, II, Harold R.

    1991-01-01

    An optical calibration apparatus is provided for calibrating and reproducing spinning angles in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. An illuminated magnifying apparatus enables optical setting an accurate reproducing of spinning "magic angles" in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments. A reference mark scribed on an edge of a spinning angle test sample holder is illuminated by a light source and viewed through a magnifying scope. When the "magic angle" of a sample material used as a standard is attained by varying the angular position of the sample holder, the coordinate position of the reference mark relative to a graduation or graduations on a reticle in the magnifying scope is noted. Thereafter, the spinning "magic angle" of a test material having similar nuclear properties to the standard is attained by returning the sample holder back to the originally noted coordinate position.

  2. Study relating residential formaldehyde concentrations and acute health symptoms in adult women

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, T.; Godish, T.

    1986-09-01

    This study consisted of a survey of 180 families who requested formaldehyde sampling of their homes through the local health or state health departments in Indiana in 1980-1985. At the time that the air sample was collected, the residents of the house were interviewed regarding the presence and severity of 22 acute health symptoms suspected to be associated with formaldehyde exposure. Surveyed individuals did not know the concentration of formaldehyde in their home at the time of the interview. For the purpose of this report, analysis was limited to the oldest (typically the only) adult woman in the household who was interviewed on the day that the air sample was taken (n = 163). The level of formaldehyde in the samples ranged from less than 0.010 ppm to 0.750 ppm. Comparisons of the formaldehyde concentrations with the health symptoms indicate that formaldehyde levels above 0.050 ppm did not increase the likelihood of the women to report the presence of any of the acute health symptoms studied. However, formaldehyde levels above 0.100 ppm significantly increased the likelihood of the women to report eye and sinus irritation, difficulty in breathing and sleeping, runny nose, and chest pain.

  3. Acute physiological stress down-regulates mRNA expressions of growth-related genes in coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Toshiki; Afonso, Luis O B; Beckman, Brian R; Iwama, George K; Devlin, Robert H

    2013-01-01

    Growth and development in fish are regulated to a major extent by growth-related factors, such as liver-derived insulin-like growth factor (IGF) -1 in response to pituitary-secreted growth hormone (GH) binding to the GH receptor (GHR). Here, we report on the changes in the expressions of gh, ghr, and igf1 genes and the circulating levels of GH and IGF-1 proteins in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in response to handling as an acute physiological stressor. Plasma GH levels were not significantly different between stressed fish and prestressed control. Plasma IGF-1 concentrations in stressed fish 1.5 h post-stress were the same as in control fish, but levels in stressed fish decreased significantly 16 h post-stress. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that ghr mRNA levels in pituitary, liver, and muscle decreased gradually in response to the stressor. After exposure to stress, hepatic igf1 expression transiently increased, whereas levels decreased 16 h post-stress. On the other hand, the pituitary gh mRNA level did not change in response to the stressor. These observations indicate that expression of gh, ghr, and igf1 responded differently to stress. Our results show that acute physiological stress can mainly down-regulate the expressions of growth-related genes in coho salmon in vivo. This study also suggests that a relationship between the neuroendocrine stress response and growth-related factors exists in fish.

  4. Acute Physiological Stress Down-Regulates mRNA Expressions of Growth-Related Genes in Coho Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Toshiki; Afonso, Luis O. B.; Beckman, Brian R.; Iwama, George K.; Devlin, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Growth and development in fish are regulated to a major extent by growth-related factors, such as liver-derived insulin-like growth factor (IGF) -1 in response to pituitary-secreted growth hormone (GH) binding to the GH receptor (GHR). Here, we report on the changes in the expressions of gh, ghr, and igf1 genes and the circulating levels of GH and IGF-1 proteins in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in response to handling as an acute physiological stressor. Plasma GH levels were not significantly different between stressed fish and prestressed control. Plasma IGF-1 concentrations in stressed fish 1.5 h post-stress were the same as in control fish, but levels in stressed fish decreased significantly 16 h post-stress. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that ghr mRNA levels in pituitary, liver, and muscle decreased gradually in response to the stressor. After exposure to stress, hepatic igf1 expression transiently increased, whereas levels decreased 16 h post-stress. On the other hand, the pituitary gh mRNA level did not change in response to the stressor. These observations indicate that expression of gh, ghr, and igf1 responded differently to stress. Our results show that acute physiological stress can mainly down-regulate the expressions of growth-related genes in coho salmon in vivo. This study also suggests that a relationship between the neuroendocrine stress response and growth-related factors exists in fish. PMID:23990952

  5. Discrimination of geometric angles by adult humans.

    PubMed

    Reichert, James F; Kelly, Debbie M

    2012-03-01

    Men and women learned to discriminate between two different size angles presented to them as objects within a real-world task. During Experiment 1, participants in group 50 were trained to choose a 50° angle and participants in group 75 were trained to choose a 75° angle. During testing, both groups were provided with a choice between their training angle and one of a set of test angles that was either smaller or larger than the training angle. Results showed a generalized pattern of responding, with group 50 showing increased responding to test angles smaller than 50° and group 75 showing increased responding to test angles larger than 75°. Further analysis of the response patterns revealed that participants in group 50 showed evidence of absolute learning, whereas participants in group 75 showed evidence of relational learning. During Experiment 2, a third group of participants (group 25) trained to choose a smaller angle (25°) was included in addition to group 50 and group 75. Participants were trained with three angles present and tested with just two, one being their training angle and the other being one of a set of novel test angles. Similar to the participants from Experiment 1, group 75 showed evidence of relational learning. Group 50, for which no relational rule could be applied during training, showed an absolute learning pattern with no response shift to test angles smaller or larger than their training angle. Group 25 showed evidence of absolute responding that was more pronounced than that found for the smallest training angle during Experiment 1. These findings suggest differential learning of geometric angles based on amplitude with smaller angles perceived as more distinct and thus more resistant to broader generalization than larger angles. Implications of these results are that certain geometric properties may be subject to different learning processes based on the specific magnitude of that property.

  6. Are MRI high-signal changes of alar and transverse ligaments in acute whiplash injury related to outcome?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Upper neck ligament high-signal changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been found in patients with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) but also in non-injured controls. The clinical relevance of such changes is controversial. Their prognostic role has never been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to examine if alar and transverse ligament high-signal changes on MRI immediately following the car accident are related to outcome after 12 months for patients with acute WAD grades 1-2. Methods Within 13 days after a car accident, 114 consecutive acute WAD1-2 patients without prior neck injury or prior neck problems underwent upper neck high-resolution proton-weighted MRI. High-signal changes of the alar and transverse ligaments were graded 0-3. A questionnaire including the impact of event scale for measuring posttraumatic stress response and questions on patients' expectations of recovery provided clinical data at injury. At 12 months follow-up, 111 (97.4%) patients completed the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS-11) on last week neck pain intensity. Factors potentially related to these outcomes were assessed using multiple logistic regression analyses. Results Among the 111 responders (median age 29.8 years; 63 women), 38 (34.2%) had grades 2-3 alar ligament changes and 25 (22.5%) had grades 2-3 transverse ligament changes at injury. At 12 months follow-up, 49 (44.1%) reported disability (NDI > 8) and 23 (20.7%) neck pain (NRS-11 > 4). Grades 2-3 ligament changes in the acute phase were not related to disability or neck pain at 12 months. More severe posttraumatic stress response increased the odds for disability (odds ratio 1.46 per 10 points on the impact of event scale, p = 0.007) and so did low expectations of recovery (odds ratio 4.66, p = 0.005). Conclusions High-signal changes of the alar and transverse ligaments close after injury did not affect outcome for acute WAD1-2 patients without previous

  7. The hypomorphic TERT A1062T variant is associated with increased treatment-related toxicity in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Both, Anna; Krauter, Jürgen; Damm, Frederik; Thol, Felicitas; Göhring, Gudrun; Heuser, Michael; Ottmann, Oliver; Lübbert, Michael; Wattad, Mohammed; Kanz, Lothar; Schlimok, Günter; Raghavachar, Aruna; Fiedler, Walter; Kirchner, Hartmut; Brugger, Wolfram; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Heil, Gerhard; Ganser, Arnold; Wagner, Katharina

    2017-03-22

    Hypomorphic germline variants in TERT, the gene encoding the reverse transcriptase component of the human telomerase complex, occur with a frequency of 3-5% in acute myeloid leukemia. We analyzed the clinical and prognostic impact of the most common TERT A1062T variant in younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia intensively treated within two prospective multicenter trials. Four hundred and twenty patients (age 17-60 years) were analyzed for the TERT A1062T variant by direct sequencing. Fifteen patients (3.6%) carried the TERT A1062T variant. Patients with the TERT A1062T variant had a trend towards less favorable and more intermediate 2/adverse karyotypes/genotypes according to the European Leukemia Net classification. In univariate and multivariate analysis, patients with the TERT A1062T variant had a significantly inferior overall survival compared to wild-type patients (6-year overall survival 20 vs. 41%, p = 0.005). Patients with the TERT A1062T variant showed a high rate of treatment-related mortality: 5/15 (33%) died during induction therapy or in complete remission as compared to 62/405 (15%) of the wild-type patients. In patients with the TERT variant, 14/15 (93%) suffered from non-hematological/non-infectious grade 3/4 adverse events (mostly hepatic and/or mucosal) as compared to 216/405 (53%) wild-type patients (p = 0.006). In multivariate analysis, the TERT A1062T variant was an independent risk factor predicting for adverse events during induction chemotherapy. In conclusion, the TERT A1062T variant is an independent negative prognostic factor in younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia and seems to predispose those patients to treatment-related toxicity.

  8. Angle closure in younger patients.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Brian M; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Ritch, Robert

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: Angle-closure glaucoma is rare in children and young adults. Only scattered cases associated with specific clinical entities have been reported. We evaluated the findings in patients in our database aged 40 or younger with angle closure. METHODS: Our database was searched for patients with angle closure who were 40 years old or younger. Data recorded included age at initial consultation; age at the time of diagnosis; gender; results of slit-lamp examination, gonioscopy, and ultrasound biomicroscopy (from 1993 onward); clinical diagnosis; and therapy. Patients with previous incisional surgery were excluded, as were patients with anterior chamber proliferative mechanisms leading to angle closure. RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients (49 females, 18 males) met entry criteria. Mean age (+/- SD) at the time of consultation was 34.4 +/- 9.4 years (range, 3-68 years). Diagnoses included plateau iris syndrome (35 patients), iridociliary cysts (8 patients), retinopathy of prematurity (7 patients), uveitis (5 patients), isolated nanophthalmos (3 patients), relative pupillary block (2 patients), Weill-Marchesani syndrome (3 patients), and 1 patient each with Marfan syndrome, miotic-induced angle closure, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, and idiopathic lens subluxation. CONCLUSION: The etiology of angle closure in young persons is different from that in the older population and is typically associated with structural or developmental ocular anomalies rather than relative pupillary block. Following laser iridotomy, these eyes should be monitored for recurrent angle closure and the need for additional laser or incisional surgical intervention. PMID:12545694

  9. Brain CT-scan in acute stroke patients: silent infarcts and relation to outcome.

    PubMed

    Corea, Francesco; Tambasco, Nicola; Luccioli, Roberto; Ciorba, Ettore; Parnetti, Lucilla; Gallai, Virgilio

    2002-01-01

    Silent infarcts (SIs) are common findings in stroke patients, but their clinical significance remains controversial. Aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of SI in consecutive stroke patients, characteristics, associated factors, and influence on in-hospital mortality. The population consisted of 191 patients, consecutively admitted for an acute stroke. Of 191 patients, 74 had SI on CT-scan. Silent infarcts were often multiple, right sided, lacunar. We found SI more frequently in older patients, smokers, with an ischemic stroke having small vessel disease as presumed cause. In our study SI were associated with ageing, smoke habit and lacunar stroke. Silent infarcts size influenced the rate of in-hospital mortality.

  10. Exploration of Temporal ICD Coding Bias Related to Acute Diabetic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    McKillop, Mollie; Polubriaginof, Fernanda; Weng, Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    Electronic Health Records (EHRs) hold great promise for secondary data reuse but have been reported to contain severe biases. The temporal characteristics of coding biases remain unclear. This study used a survival analysis approach to reveal temporal bias trends for coding acute diabetic conditions among 268 diabetes patients. For glucose-controlled ketoacidosis patients we found it took an average of 7.5 months for the incorrect code to be removed, while for glucose-controlled hypoglycemic patients it took an average of 9 months. We also examined blood glucose lab values and performed a case review to confirm the validity of our findings. We discuss the implications of our findings and propose future work. PMID:26958300

  11. Ethnic disparities relative to disease features and outcomes in children with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Gramatges, M Monica; Deshpande, Aditya; Lupo, Philip J; Rau, Rachel E; Redell, Michele L; Horton, Terzah M; Scheurer, Michael E; Rabin, Karen R

    2017-03-07

    Hispanics with acute leukemias have poorer outcomes than non-Hispanic whites (NHWs), despite an increased likelihood of favorable prognostic features. We reviewed medical records from 167 children ages 0-18 years diagnosed with de novo AML over an 18-year period at Texas Children's Cancer Center, among whom 129 self-identified as Hispanic or NHW. Although Hispanics were significantly more likely to have the favorable prognostic cytogenetic feature t(8;21) (P = 0.04), the expected survival benefit was not observed. This lack of survival benefit was primarily due to significantly poorer event-free and overall survival among Hispanics treated with upfront stem cell transplantation after achieving first clinical remission (P = 0.008).

  12. Acute changes in pulse pressure in relation to constituents of particulate air pollution in elderly persons

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Lotte; Buczynska, Anna; Walgraeve, Christophe; Delcloo, Andy; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Van Grieken, Rene; Demeestere, Kristof; Dewulf, Jo; Van Langenhove, Herman; De Backer, Hugo; Nemery, Benoit; Nawrot, Tim S.

    2012-08-15

    An increased pulse pressure (difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure) suggests aortic stiffening. The objective of this study was to examine the acute effects of both particulate matter (PM) mass and composition on blood pressure, among elderly persons. We carried out a panel study in persons living in elderly homes in Antwerp, Belgium. We recruited 88 non-smoking persons, 70% women with a mean age of 83 years (standard deviation: 5.2). Blood pressure was measured and a blood sample was collected on two time points, which were chosen so that there was an exposure contrast in ambient PM exposure. The elemental content of the collected indoor and outdoor PM{sub 2.5} (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 {mu}m) mass concentration was measured. Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) on outdoor PM{sub 10} (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 {mu}m) were measured. Each interquartile range increase of 20.8 {mu}g/m Superscript-Three in 24-h mean outdoor PM{sub 2.5} was associated with an increase in pulse pressure of 4.0 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 1.8-6.2), in persons taking antihypertensive medication (n=57), but not in persons not using antihypertensive medication (n=31) (p for interaction: 0.02). Vanadium, iron and nickel contents of PM{sub 2.5} were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, among persons on antihypertensive medication. Similar results were found for indoor concentrations. Of the oxy-PAHs, chrysene-5,6-dione and benzo[a]pyrene-3,6-dione were significantly associated with increases in systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. In elderly, pulse pressure was positively associated with acute increases in outdoor and indoor air pollution, among persons taking antihypertensive medication. These results might form a mechanistic pathway linking air pollution as a trigger of cardiovascular events.

  13. Treatment-related toxicities in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia predisposition syndromes.

    PubMed

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2016-12-01

    Although most children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) do not harbor germline mutations that strongly predispose them to development of this malignancy, large syndrome registries and detailed mapping of exomes or whole genomes of familial leukaemia kindreds have revealed that 3-5% of all childhood ALL cases are due to such germline mutations, but the figure may be higher. Most of these syndromes are primarily characterized by their non-malignant phenotype, whereas ALL may be the dominating or even only striking manifestation of the syndrome in some families. Identification of such ALL patients is important in order to adjust therapy and offer genetic counseling and cancer surveillance to mutation carriers in the family. In the coming years large genomic screening projects are expected to reveal further hitherto unrecognised familial ALL syndromes. The treatment of ALL cases harboring cancer predisposing mutations can be challenging for both the physician and the patient due to their preexisting symptoms, their reduced tolerance to radio- and/or chemotherapy with enhanced risk of life-threatening organ toxicities, and the paucity of data from ALL patients with the same or similar syndromes being treated by contemporary protocols. Recent studies clearly indicate that many of these patients stand a good chance of cure, and that they should be offered chemotherapy with the intention to cure. Some of these syndromes are characterized by reduced tolerance to radiotherapy and/or specific anticancer agents, while others are not. This review summarises our current knowledge on the risk of acute toxicities for these ALL patients and provides guidance for treatment adjustments.

  14. The importance of patency of the infarct-related artery in treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, N.; Zijlstra, F.; de Boer, M.J.; Dambrink, J.H.E.; Gosselink, A.T.M.; Henriques, J.P.S.; van 't Hof, A.W.J.; Hoorntje, J.C.A.; van der Horst, J.C.C.; Suryapranata, H.

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the impact of patency of the infarct-related artery on the coronary angiogram, both before and after primary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction, on 30-day mortality. Method Data of 1702 consecutive patients treated with primary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction were collected prospectively from 1994 to 2000. Results Patients with a (partially) patent infarct artery before primary angioplasty had less damage to the myocardium and a lower 30-day mortality (1.6% versus 3.4%, p=0.04) compared with patients with an occluded artery. Patients with pre-hospital treatment with aspirin and heparin more often presented with a patent artery before angioplasty (31% versus 20%, p<0.001). After primary angioplasty, 95% of patients had a patent artery with a 30-day mortality of 2.2%. The 5% of patients with failed angioplasty had extensive myocardial damage and a 30-day mortality rate of 17%. Conclusion Patency of the infarct-related artery on the coronary angiogram, both before and after primary angioplasty, has a major impact on 30-day mortality. PMID:25696139

  15. Probability of Treatment Following Acute Drop in Lung Function in Children with Cystic Fibrosis is related to baseline pulmonary function

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Wayne J.; Wagener, Jeffrey S.; Yegin, Ashley; Pasta, David J.; Millar, Stefanie J.; Konstan, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To hypothesize whether the association between high forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and increased rate of decline in FEV1 in children with cystic fibrosis could be due to less frequent intervention after acute drops (sudden decline events) in FEV1. Study design Patients with CF aged 6-17 years enrolled in ESCF were assessed for a sudden decline event, defined as a 10% relative drop in FEV1 % predicted from an average of 3 consecutive stable baseline spirometries. The likelihood of therapeutic intervention within 14 days before and 56 days after this event was then related to their baseline FEV1 % predicted age-specific decile using a logistic regression adjusting for age group (6-12y, 13-17y) and presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on respiratory culture. Results 10,888 patients had at least one sudden decline event in FEV1. Patients in the highest FEV1 decile were significantly less likely than those in the lowest decile to receive intravenous antibiotics (odds ratio [OR], 0.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11-0.18; P<.001) or be hospitalized (OR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.14-0.23; P<.001) following decline. Conclusions Children and adolescents with high baseline lung function are less likely to receive a therapeutic intervention following an acute drop in FEV1, which may explain their greater rate of FEV1 decline. PMID:23810128

  16. Does lateral vertebral translation correspond to Cobb angle and relate in the same way to axial vertebral rotation and rib hump index? A radiographic analysis on idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Easwar, T R; Hong, Jae-Young; Yang, Jae Hyuk; Suh, Seung Woo; Modi, Hitesh N

    2011-07-01

    The deformity in idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is three dimensional in nature and effective correction involves all three planes. Even though the vertebral translation (VT) is an accepted element in the deformity along with vertebral rotation(VR) as reported by Asher and Cook (Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 20(12):1386-1391, 1995), Kotwicki et al. (Study Health Technol Inf 123:164-168, 2006) and Kotwicki and Napiontek (Pediatr Orthop 28(2):225-229, 2008), rib hump (rib hump index (RI)) and Cobb angle as reported by Aaro and Dahlborn (Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 6(6):567-572, 1981), it was assumed that VT was represented by adequately by Cobb angle and it was not analysed individually. We hypothesized that the Cobb angle and the VT measured in axial plane on CT scan and may not represent the same measurement and factors like coronal plane vertebral tilt,VR and vertebral deformation might affect them in different ways. Hence, VT should be considered as a separate variable and its relationship with VR, RI and Cobb angle should be investigated. Since the newer implants depend on curve translation and derotation for correction studying the role of VT and the relationships is important. VT, VR and RI were measured in CT scans of 75 patients with IS and correlated with Cobb angle. Regression analysis was used to identify the influence of the variables on each other. All the variables significantly correlated with one another but the correlation of Cobb and VT is not perfectly linear and it cannot be used to represent VT. VT influences RI much more than Cobb angle or VR. VT, therefore, merits further study treating it as an independent variable.

  17. Dose-related gene expression changes in forebrain following acute, low-level chlorpyrifos exposure in neonatal rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Anamika; Liu Jing; Ayoubi, Patricia; Pope, Carey

    2010-10-15

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a widely used organophosphorus insecticide (OP) and putative developmental neurotoxicant in humans. The acute toxicity of CPF is elicited by acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. We characterized dose-related (0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg) gene expression profiles and changes in cell signaling pathways 24 h following acute CPF exposure in 7-day-old rats. Microarray experiments indicated that approximately 9% of the 44,000 genes were differentially expressed following either one of the four CPF dosages studied (546, 505, 522, and 3,066 genes with 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg CPF). Genes were grouped according to dose-related expression patterns using K-means clustering while gene networks and canonical pathways were evaluated using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (registered) . Twenty clusters were identified and differential expression of selected genes was verified by RT-PCR. The four largest clusters (each containing from 276 to 905 genes) constituted over 50% of all differentially expressed genes and exhibited up-regulation following exposure to the highest dosage (2 mg/kg CPF). The total number of gene networks affected by CPF also rose sharply with the highest dosage of CPF (18, 16, 18 and 50 with 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg CPF). Forebrain cholinesterase (ChE) activity was significantly reduced (26%) only in the highest dosage group. Based on magnitude of dose-related changes in differentially expressed genes, relative numbers of gene clusters and signaling networks affected, and forebrain ChE inhibition only at 2 mg/kg CPF, we focused subsequent analyses on this treatment group. Six canonical pathways were identified that were significantly affected by 2 mg/kg CPF (MAPK, oxidative stress, NF{Kappa}B, mitochondrial dysfunction, arylhydrocarbon receptor and adrenergic receptor signaling). Evaluation of different cellular functions of the differentially expressed genes suggested changes related to olfactory receptors, cell adhesion/migration, synapse

  18. Preliminary experience with use of recombinant activated factor VII to control postpartum hemorrhage in acute fatty liver of pregnancy and other pregnancy-related liver disorders.

    PubMed

    Goel, Ashish; Nair, Sukesh Chandran; Viswabandya, Auro; Masilamani, Vinodh P; Rao, Shoma V; George, Alice; Regi, Annie; Jose, Ruby; Zachariah, Uday; Subramani, Kandasamy; Eapen, C E; Chandy, George

    2013-07-01

    Control of postpartum hemorrhage is difficult in patients with coagulopathy due to acute liver failure. Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) can help in control of bleed; however, it has short duration of action (2-4 h). The study aimed to report the use of rFVIIa in this setting. We retrospectively analyzed all patients with acute liver failure secondary to pregnancy-related liver disorders who received rFVIIa for control of postpartum hemorrhage (six patients, all six met diagnostic criteria for acute fatty liver of pregnancy). One dose of rFVIIa achieved adequate control of bleeding in five patients, while one patient needed a second dose. rFVIIa administration corrected coagulopathy and significantly reduced requirement of packed red cells and other blood products. No patient had thrombotic complications. In conclusion, rFVIIa was a useful adjunct to standard management in postpartum hemorrhage secondary to acute liver failure of pregnancy-related liver disorders.

  19. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor AT7519 accelerates neutrophil apoptosis in sepsis-related acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Felton, Jennifer M; Robb, Calum T; Craven, Thomas; Kipari, Tiina; Walsh, Timothy S; Haslett, Christopher; Kefala, Kallirroi; Rossi, Adriano G; Lucas, Christopher D

    2017-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a neutrophil-dominant disorder with no effective pharmacological therapies. While the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor AT7519 induces neutrophil apoptosis to promote inflammation resolution in preclinical models of lung inflammation, its potential efficacy in ARDS has not been examined. Untreated peripheral blood sepsis-related ARDS neutrophils demonstrated prolonged survival after 20 hours in vitro culture. AT7519 was able to override this phenotype to induce apoptosis in ARDS neutrophils with reduced expression of the pro-survival protein Mcl-1. We demonstrate the first pharmacological compound to induce neutrophil apoptosis in sepsis-related ARDS, highlighting cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors as potential novel therapeutic agents. PMID:27965411

  20. Amifostine ameliorates recognition memory defect in acute radiation syndrome caused by relatively low-dose of gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-June; Kim, Joong-Sun; Song, Myoung-Sub; Seo, Heung-Sik; Yang, Miyoung; Kim, Jong Choon; Jo, Sung-Kee; Shin, Taekyun; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Sung-Ho

    2010-03-01

    This study examined whether amifostine (WR-2721) could attenuate memory impairment and suppress hippocampal neurogenesis in adult mice with the relatively low-dose exposure of acute radiation syndrome (ARS). These were assessed using object recognition memory test, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay, and immunohistochemical markers of neurogenesis [Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX)]. Amifostine treatment (214 mg/kg, i.p.) prior to irradiation significantly attenuated the recognition memory defect in ARS, and markedly blocked the apoptotic death and decrease of Ki-67- and DCX-positive cells in ARS. Therefore, amifostine may attenuate recognition memory defect in a relatively low-dose exposure of ARS in adult mice, possibly by inhibiting a detrimental effect of irradiation on hippocampal neurogenesis.

  1. Acute kidney injury due to menstruation-related disseminated intravascular coagulation in an adenomyosis patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Son, Jungmin; Lee, Dong Won; Seong, Eun Young; Song, Sang Heon; Lee, Soo Bong; Kang, Jin; Yang, Byeong Yun; Lee, Su Jin; Choi, Jong-Ryeol; Lee, Kyu-Sup; Kwak, Ihm Soo

    2010-09-01

    The authors report a case of acute kidney injury (AKI) resulting from menstruation-related disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in an adenomyosis patient. A 40-yr-old woman who had received gonadotropin for ovulation induction therapy presented with anuria and an elevated serum creatinine level. Her medical history showed primary infertility with diffuse adenomyosis. On admission, her pregnancy test was negative and her menstrual cycle had started 1 day previously. Laboratory data were consistent with DIC, and it was believed to be related to myometrial injury resulting from heavy intramyometrial menstrual flow. Gonadotropin is considered to play an important role in the development of fulminant DIC. This rare case suggests that physicians should be aware that gonadotropin may provoke fulminant DIC in women with adenomyosis.

  2. Change in Neuroplasticity-Related Proteins in Response to Acute Activity-Based Therapy in Persons With Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Astorino, Todd A.; Knoblach, Susan M.; Feather, Jillenne

    2014-01-01

    Background: Activity-based therapy (ABT) focuses on regaining motor and sensory function below the level of the lesion in persons with a spinal cord injury (SCI). This is accomplished through repetitive training of specific motor tasks. Research has shown that ABT may increase neuroplasticity in the rat and human spinal cord. Objective: The primary aim of this study was to examine acute alterations in neuroplasticity-related proteins during ABT in persons with SCI. Methods: Volunteers were current participants in an ABT program and consisted of 12 men and 3 women (age, 31.8 ± 10.9 years) with chronic SCI (injury duration, 63.9 ± 54.4 months). A single 2-hour bout of ABT consisted of standing load bearing, body weight-supported treadmill training, whole body vibration, and functional electrical stimulation. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and immediately after completion of each modality to determine serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), prolactin, and cortisol. Results: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures was used to examine differences in proteins over time. Results revealed baseline levels of BDNF (2.37 ± 1.41 ng/mL) that were lower than previous research has demonstrated in persons with SCI. No change in BDNF or cortisol was found, although prolactin was significantly reduced in response to ABT. Conclusion: Despite the length of the bout, acute changes in BDNF were not observed. Whether different intensities or modalities of ABT may promote acute increases in serum BDNF in individuals with SCI remains to be determined and further study is merited. PMID:25477737

  3. Acute tolerance to alcohol impairment of behavioral and cognitive mechanisms related to driving: drinking and driving on the descending limb

    PubMed Central

    Weafer, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Alcohol effects on behavioral and cognitive mechanisms influence impaired driving performance and decisions to drive after drinking (Barry 1973; Moskowitz and Robinson 1987). To date, research has focused on the ascending limb of the blood alcohol curve, and there is little understanding of how acute tolerance to impairment of these mechanisms might influence driving behavior on the descending limb. Objectives To provide an integrated examination of the degree to which alcohol impairment of motor coordination and inhibitory control contributes to driving impairment and decisions to drive on the ascending and descending limbs of the blood alcohol curve. Methods Social-drinking adults (N=20) performed a testing battery that measured simulated driving performance and willingness to drive, as well as mechanisms related to driving: motor coordination (grooved pegboard), inhibitory control (cued go/no-go task), and subjective intoxication. Performance was tested in response to placebo and a moderate dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) twice at comparable blood alcohol concentrations: once on the ascending limb and again on the descending limb. Results Impaired motor coordination and subjective intoxication showed acute tolerance, whereas driving performance and inhibitory control showed no recovery from impairment. Greater motor impairment was associated with poorer driving performance under alcohol, and poorer inhibitory control was associated with more willingness to drive. Conclusions Findings suggest that acute tolerance to impairment of motor coordination is insufficient to promote recovery of driving performance and that the persistence of alcohol-induced disinhibition might contribute to risky decisions to drive on the descending limb. PMID:21960182

  4. [Lip angle and the position of the maxillary lateral incisor--post orthodontics retention considerations].

    PubMed

    Coval, M; Wasserstein, A; Brezniak, N

    2013-01-01

    The relations between the soft tissues draping, the dentoskeletal structure and teeth position have been thoroughly investigated. Nevertheless, it is still unclear to point on the primary underlying cause for pathology if exists, is it the frame or the content, the chicken or the egg. Those relations are of an utmost importance in the process of determining the retention procedure and length in post orthodontic treatment patients. This paper discusses the issue which, as far as we know, has never been examined - the upper lip angle, (the angle created by 3 points - the two intersections between the lip cupid arch and the lip philtrum columns and the lip commissural point in either side), as it related to the maxillary lateral incisors position. Long term clinical observations were behind our hypothesis that lips with acute angles go along with palatally positioned maxillary lateral incisors, one or two. The lips angel of both the study group (37 orthodontic patients ages 15.7+/-6.8, with at least one maxillary lateral incisor in palatal position), and the control group (37 orthodontic patients ages 16.5+/-8.7 with no mal-aligned maxillary teeth) were measured and compared. It was found that the lip angle of the control group was 152.256+/-5.52 degrees while for the study group it was 149.23+6.68. This result is with statistical difference (p=0.001). It was further found that the more acute the lip angle; the more the lateral maxillary tooth or teeth are palatally positioned. The results of this study and the clinical observations suggest long term fixed retention of the maxillary incisors, following orthodontic treatment especially in patients with acute lip angle.

  5. Goal-related outcome after acute alcohol-pancreatitis -- a two-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Lappalainen-Lehto, Riitta; Koistinen, Noora; Aalto, Mauri; Huhtala, Heini; Sand, Juhani; Nordback, Isto; Seppä, Kaija

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to find out if an acute pancreatitis leads the patients to reduce their alcohol consumption and if there are factors predicting the outcome. We also observed which factors affected the choice of patient's personal drinking goal, e.g., abstinence or moderate drinking, how this goal changed during the follow-up and how the goal affected the change in drinking habits. In 2001-2005, 120 patients treated in Tampere University Hospital for their first alcohol-related acute pancreatitis were interviewed before discharge from the hospital and at the two-year follow-up. All patients had at least one intervention session for their alcohol use. Of the patients 87 (72.5%) completed the study. The alcohol consumption level and its changes, personal drinking goal of the patients, the factors affecting the choice and the changes of the goal were observed. Most (96.4%) of the patients were willing to reduce their drinking. At follow-up, 34 (40.5%) patients succeeded in reducing their alcohol consumption under the pre-set moderate drinking level. The only factor predicting alcohol use was the number of hospitalization days due to the acute alcohol-related pancreatitis (p=0.015). Those who chose abstinence seemed to succeed more often in stopping drinking or reducing their drinking below risk levels as compared to those with moderation goal (47.9% vs. 28.6%, p=0.075). The only abstinence-goal predicting factor was the concern of the relatives, friends or doctors (p=0.001). All 6 patients who needed intensive care chose abstinence-goal. During the follow-up period the goal changed. At baseline, the majority chose abstinence but two years after pancreatitis, the majority was striving for moderate drinking. A serious illness seems to be a good opportunity to change and to motivate patients. Even if abstinence is recommended to patients with alcohol-related pancreatitis, communication of individual goals is important in the motivation process of the patients.

  6. Relation between Acute GVHD and NK Cell Subset Reconstitution Following Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, Evelyn; Salzmann-Manrique, Emilia; Bakhtiar, Shahrzad; Bremm, Melanie; Gerstner, Stephanie; Herrmann, Eva; Bader, Peter; Hoffmann, Petra; Holler, Ernst; Edinger, Matthias; Wolff, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    One of the major challenges of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is to reduce the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) while boosting the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect. The reconstitution of natural killer (NK) cells following allo-SCT is of notable interest due to their known capability to induce GVL without GVHD. Here, in this study, we investigate the association between the incidence and severity of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) and the early reconstitution of NK cell subsets following allo-SCT. We analyzed 342 samples from 107 patients using flow cytometry, with a focus on immature CD56high and mature cytotoxic CD56dim NK cells. Longitudinal analysis of immune reconstitution after allo-SCT showed that the incidence of aGVHD was associated with a delayed expansion of the entire NK cell population, in particular the CD56high subset. Notably, the disturbed reconstitution of the CD56high NK cells also correlated with the severity of aGVHD. PMID:28066411

  7. Relation between Acute GVHD and NK Cell Subset Reconstitution Following Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Evelyn; Salzmann-Manrique, Emilia; Bakhtiar, Shahrzad; Bremm, Melanie; Gerstner, Stephanie; Herrmann, Eva; Bader, Peter; Hoffmann, Petra; Holler, Ernst; Edinger, Matthias; Wolff, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    One of the major challenges of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is to reduce the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) while boosting the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect. The reconstitution of natural killer (NK) cells following allo-SCT is of notable interest due to their known capability to induce GVL without GVHD. Here, in this study, we investigate the association between the incidence and severity of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) and the early reconstitution of NK cell subsets following allo-SCT. We analyzed 342 samples from 107 patients using flow cytometry, with a focus on immature CD56(high) and mature cytotoxic CD56(dim) NK cells. Longitudinal analysis of immune reconstitution after allo-SCT showed that the incidence of aGVHD was associated with a delayed expansion of the entire NK cell population, in particular the CD56(high) subset. Notably, the disturbed reconstitution of the CD56(high) NK cells also correlated with the severity of aGVHD.

  8. Relative sensitivity of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to acute copper toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James A; Lipton, Josh; Welsh, Paul G

    2002-03-01

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) were recently listed as threatened in the United States under the federal Endangered Species Act. Past and present habitat for this species includes waterways contaminated with heavy metals released from mining activities. Because the sensitivity of this species to copper was previously unknown, we conducted acute copper toxicity tests with bull and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in side-by-side comparison tests. Bioassays were conducted using water at two temperatures (8 degrees C and 16 degrees C) and two hardness levels (100 and 220 mg/L as CaCO3). At a water hardness of 100 mg/L, both species were less sensitive to copper when tested at 16 degrees C compared to 8 degrees C. The two species had similar sensitivity to copper in 100-mg/ L hardness water, but bull trout were 2.5 to 4 times less sensitive than rainbow trout in 220-mg/L hardness water. However, when our results were viewed in the context of the broader literature on rainbow trout sensitivity to copper, the sensitivities of the two species appeared similar. This suggests that adoption of toxicity thresholds that are protective of rainbow trout would be protective of bull trout; however, an additional safety factor may be warranted because of the additional level of protection necessary for this federally threatened species.

  9. Relation between acute and long-term cognitive decline after surgery: Influence of metabolic syndrome☆

    PubMed Central

    Gambús, P.L; Trocóniz, I.F.; Feng, X.; Gimenez-Milá, M.; Mellado, R.; Degos, V.; Vacas, S.; Maze, M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The relationship between persistent postoperative cognitive decline and the more common acute variety remains unknown; using data acquired in preclinical studies of postoperative cognitive decline we attempted to characterize this relationship. Methods Low capacity runner (LCR) rats, which have all the features of the metabolic syndrome, were compared postoperatively with high capacity runner (HCR) rats for memory, assessed by trace fear conditioning (TFC) on the 7th postoperative day, and learning and memory (probe trial [PT]) assessed by the Morris water-maze (MWM) at three months postoperatively. Rate of learning (AL) data from the MWM test, were estimated by non-linear mixed effects modeling. The individual rat's TFC result at postoperative day (POD) 7 was correlated with its AL and PT from the MWM data sets at postoperative day POD 90. Results A single exponential decay model best described AL in the MWM with LCR and surgery (LCR–SURG) being the only significant covariates; first order AL rate constant was 0.07 s−1 in LCR–SURG and 0.16 s−1 in the remaining groups (p<0.05). TFC was significantly correlated with both AL (R = 0.74; p < 0.0001) and PT (R = 0.49; p < 0.01). Conclusion Severity of memory decline at 1 week after surgery presaged long-lasting deteriorations in learning and memory. PMID:26164200

  10. Heart rate in Palaemon northropi (Rankin) in relation to acute changes in thermal environment

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, C.J.; Wingard, C.; Kitakis, F. )

    1991-03-15

    The Glass Shrimp (Palaemon northropi), common to shallow water/tide pool environs of Atlantic waters, was examined in a series of experiments whereby the temperature-dependence of steady-state heart rate was assessed after acute, controlled changed in their thermal environment. Collection site, tide pool variations averaged 17.2-31.6C/24 hr. period. Accordingly, steady-state heart rates were determined at 5, 15, 25, and 30C by using both timed, optical recording and impedance methods. Mean values obtained were 88bpm (5C), 181 bpm(15C), 236bpm(25C), and 52bpm(30C). Calculated Q{sub 10} determinations ranged from the limits of 1.3 to 2.1 excluding the highest temperature state used. Specimens used averaged 0.62gm wet body weight, and no significant difference between males and gravid females was found. Additionally, the impedance method employed allowed for more precise rate determinations at high heart rates: at the lower heart rates, there was no difference between optically-timed vs. impedance method. Measurement at 30C characteristically showed a severe depression of heart rate, and high mortality after determinations. It is concluded that in situ field survival of Palaemon northropi may involve a time-dependence and/or other mechanisms whereby upper environmental temperatures may be abated.

  11. Mood and performance effects of caffeine in relation to acute and chronic caffeine deprivation.

    PubMed

    Richardson, N J; Rogers, P J; Elliman, N A; O'Dell, R J

    1995-10-01

    The mood and performance effects of caffeine deprivation (either 90 min, overnight, or at least 7 days) and ingestion (70 and 250 mg) were compared in young adults who were normally either moderate consumers (n = 49) or nonconsumers of caffeine (n = 18). Overnight caffeine deprivation produced dysphoric symptoms characteristic of caffeine withdrawal that were reduced, but still present, after longer-term abstinence. Acute caffeine intake affected the withdrawn consumers, nonwithdrawn consumers, and nonconsumers similarly. It increased jitteriness and decrease tiredness and headache. Furthermore, hand steadiness decreased as caffeine dose increased, whereas 70 mg, but not 250 mg, of caffeine was found to enhance performance on a simple reaction time task. These findings support the view that the negative effects experienced after overnight and longer-term caffeine deprivation play a significant role in influencing consumption of caffeine-containing drinks. Therefore, it would appear that to avoid the dysphoric symptoms resulting from both under- and overconsumption, regular caffeine consumers would have to regulate their caffeine intake fairly precisely.

  12. Toxic Megacolon and Acute Ischemia of the Colon due to Sigmoid Stenosis Related to Diverticulitis

    PubMed Central

    Antonopoulos, P.; Almyroudi, M.; Kolonia, V.; Kouris, S.; Troumpoukis, N.; Economou, N.

    2013-01-01

    We present a rare case of toxic megacolon accompanied by necrosis of the colon due to chronic dilation caused by stenosis of the sigmoid colon as a complication of diverticulitis. The patient presented at the emergency department with diffuse abdominal pain, fever (38.8°C) and tachycardia (120 beats/min). Physical examination revealed distension and tenderness on deep palpation on the left lower quadrant without peritoneal signs. Abdominal computed tomography showed located stenosis in the sigmoid colon and marked dilation of the descending (12 cm diameter) and transverse (7.5 cm diameter) colon. A few hours later, the patient developed severe septic shock with electrolyte abnormalities. He had a history of two prior admissions to our hospital due to crises of acute diverticulitis. Based on Jalan's criteria the diagnosis was compatible with toxic megacolon. The patient's condition deteriorated suddenly and an emergency colectomy was performed. The operative findings revealed a necrotic colon. Histology examination confirmed the diagnosis of ischemia of the colon. To our knowledge this is the first published report in the literature which refers to a rare complication of diverticulitis, namely chronic stenosis which complicated to colonic ischemia and toxic megacolon. PMID:24163654

  13. Exploring psychotic symptoms: a comparison of motor related neuronal activation during and after acute psychosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Delusions and hallucinations are classic positive symptoms of schizophrenia. A contemporary cognitive theory called the ‘forward output model’ suggests that the misattribution of self-generated actions may underlie some of these types of symptoms, such as delusions of control – the experience of self-generated action being controlled by an external agency. In order to examine the validity of this suggestion, we performed a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study examining neuronal activation associated with motor movement during acute psychosis. Methods We studied brain activation using fMRI during a motor task in 11 patients with schizophrenia and 9 healthy controls. The patient group was tested at two time points separated by 6–8 weeks. Results At initial testing, the patient group had a mean Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score of 56.3, and showed significantly increased activation within the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL) compared to controls. Patients reported significantly decreased positive symptoms at 6–8 week followup and IPL activation had returned to normal. Our results demonstrate that first-rank positive symptoms are associated with hyperactivation in the secondary somatosensory cortex (IPL). Conclusions These findings lend further credence to the theory that a dysfunction in the sensory feedback system located in the IPL, and which is thought to underlie our sense of agency, may contribute to the aetiology of delusions of control. PMID:22871335

  14. Effect of acute anemia on endurance capacity, glucose and lactate kinetics, and the relative distribution of blood flow in rodents

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanisms investigated include lactate and glucose kinetics and alterations in the relative distribution of blood flow during submaximal exercise. Acute plasma transfusions were performed to lower the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. Vo{sub 2max} decreased 18% in both sedentary and endurance trained animals. The sedentary anemic animals suffered a 78% decrease in distance when run to exhaustion whereas the trained anemic animals suffered only a 39% decrease in endurance distance, compared to the respective controls. Continuous infusions of (6-{sup 3}H)glucose and (U-{sup 14}C)lactate were performed. At rest there were no differences in the glucose of lactate turnover rates between anemic and control animals. There was an increase in the rates of glucose turnover in anemic animals compared to control animals, as well as elevated lactate turnover rates during exercise compared to control animals. Acute anemia resulted in an increase in sympathetic stimulation during exercise. Furthermore, epinephrine levels were significantly correlated to rate of lactate turnover.

  15. Epigenomics of Total Acute Sleep Deprivation in Relation to Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiles and RNA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Boström, Adrian E.; Mwinyi, Jessica; Schiöth, Helgi B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite an established link between sleep deprivation and epigenetic processes in humans, it remains unclear to what extent sleep deprivation modulates DNA methylation. We performed a within-subject randomized blinded study with 16 healthy subjects to examine the effect of one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) on the genome-wide methylation profile in blood compared with that in normal sleep. Genome-wide differences in methylation between both conditions were assessed by applying a paired regression model that corrected for monocyte subpopulations. In addition, the correlations between the methylation of genes detected to be modulated by TSD and gene expression were examined in a separate, publicly available cohort of 10 healthy male donors (E-GEOD-49065). Sleep deprivation significantly affected the DNA methylation profile both independently and in dependency of shifts in monocyte composition. Our study detected differential methylation of 269 probes. Notably, one CpG site was located 69 bp upstream of ING5, which has been shown to be differentially expressed after sleep deprivation. Gene set enrichment analysis detected the Notch and Wnt signaling pathways to be enriched among the differentially methylated genes. These results provide evidence that total acute sleep deprivation alters the methylation profile in healthy human subjects. This is, to our knowledge, the first study that systematically investigated the impact of total acute sleep deprivation on genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in blood and related the epigenomic findings to the expression data. PMID:27310475

  16. Short women with severe sepsis-related acute lung injury receive lung protective ventilation less frequently: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Lung protective ventilation (LPV) has been shown to improve survival and the duration of mechanical ventilation in acute lung injury (ALI) patients. Mortality of ALI may vary by gender, which could result from treatment variability. Whether gender is associated with the use of LPV is not known. Methods A total of 421 severe sepsis-related ALI subjects in the Consortium to Evaluate Lung Edema Genetics from seven teaching hospitals between 2002 and 2008 were included in our study. We evaluated patients' tidal volume, plateau pressure and arterial pH to determine whether patients received LPV during the first two days after developing ALI. The odds ratio of receiving LPV was estimated by a logistic regression model with robust and cluster options. Results Women had similar characteristics as men with the exception of lower height and higher illness severity, as measured by Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score. 225 (53%) of the subjects received LPV during the first two days after ALI onset; women received LPV less frequently than men (46% versus 59%, P < 0.001). However, after adjustment for height and severity of illness (APACHE II), there was no difference in exposure to LPV between men and women (P = 0.262). Conclusions Short people are less likely to receive LPV, which seems to explain the tendency of clinicians to adhere to LPV less strictly in women. Strategies to standardize application of LPV, independent of differences in height and severity of illness, are necessary. PMID:22044724

  17. Relative prognostic value of rest thallium-201 imaging, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring after acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Hakki, A.H.; Nestico, P.F.; Heo, J.; Unwala, A.A.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1987-07-01

    Rest thallium-201 scintigraphy, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour Holter monitoring are acceptable methods to assess myocardial necrosis, performance and electrical instability. This study examined the relative value of the three tests, when obtained a mean of 7 days after acute myocardial infarction, in predicting 1 year mortality in 93 patients. Planar thallium-201 images were obtained in three projections and were scored on a scale of 0 to 4 in 15 segments (normal score = 60). Patients were classified as having high risk test results as follows: thallium score less than or equal to 45 (33 patients), left ventricular ejection fraction less than or equal to 40% (51 patients) and complex ventricular arrhythmias on Holter monitoring (36 patients). During the follow-up of 6.4 +/- 3.4 months (mean +/- SD), 15 patients died of cardiac causes. All three tests were important predictors of survival by univariate Cox survival analysis; the thallium score, however, was the only important predictor by multivariate analysis. The predictive power of the thallium score was comparable with that of combined ejection fraction and Holter monitoring (chi-square = 21 versus chi-square = 22). Thus, rest thallium-201 imaging performed before hospital discharge provides important prognostic information in survivors of acute myocardial infarction which is comparable with that provided by left ventricular ejection fraction and Holter monitoring. Patients with a lower thallium score (large perfusion defects) are at high risk of cardiac death during the first year after infarction.

  18. The Role of Inspiratory Muscle Training in Sickle Cell Anemia Related Pulmonary Damage due to Recurrent Acute Chest Syndrome Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Camcıoğlu, Burcu; Boşnak-Güçlü, Meral; Karadallı, Müşerrefe Nur; Akı, Şahika Zeynep; Türköz-Sucak, Gülsan

    2015-01-01

    Background. The sickling of red blood cells causes a constellation of musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and pulmonary manifestations. A 32-year-old gentleman with sickle cell anemia (SCA) had been suffering from recurrent acute chest syndrome (ACS). Aim. To examine the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on pulmonary functions, respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, and quality of life in this patient with SCA. Methods. Functional exercise capacity was evaluated using six-minute walk test, respiratory muscle strength using mouth pressure device, hand grip strength using hand-held dynamometer, pain using Visual Analogue Scale, fatigue using Fatigue Severity Scale, dyspnea using Modified Medical Research Council Scale, and health related quality of life using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QOL measurement. Results. A significant improvement has been demonstrated in respiratory muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, pain, fatigue, dyspnea, and quality of life. There was no admission to emergency department due to acute chest syndrome in the following 12 months after commencing regular erythrocytapheresis. Conclusion. This is the first report demonstrating the beneficial effects of inspiratory muscle training on functional exercise capacity, respiratory muscle strength, pain, fatigue, dyspnea, and quality of life in a patient with recurrent ACS. PMID:26060589

  19. Perspectives of patients on factors relating to adherence to post-acute coronary syndrome medical regimens

    PubMed Central

    Lambert-Kerzner, Anne; Havranek, Edward P; Plomondon, Mary E; Fagan, Katherine M; McCreight, Marina S; Fehling, Kelty B; Williams, David J; Hamilton, Alison B; Albright, Karen; Blatchford, Patrick J; Mihalko-Corbitt, Renee; Bryson, Chris L; Bosworth, Hayden B; Kirshner, Miriam A; Giacco, Eric J Del; Ho, P Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Poor adherence to cardioprotective medications after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) hospitalization is associated with increased risk of rehospitalization and mortality. Clinical trials of multifaceted interventions have improved medication adherence with varying results. Patients’ perspectives on interventions could help researchers interpret inconsistent outcomes. Identifying factors that patients believe would improve adherence might inform the design of future interventions and make them more parsimonious and sustainable. The objective of this study was to obtain patients’ perspectives on adherence to medical regimens after experiencing an ACS event and their participation in a medication adherence randomized control trial following their hospitalization. Patients and methods Sixty-four in-depth interviews were conducted with ACS patients who participated in an efficacious, multifaceted, medication adherence randomized control trial. Interview transcripts were analyzed using the constant comparative approach. Results Participants described their post-ACS event experiences and how they affected their adherence behaviors. Patients reported that adherence decisions were facilitated by mutually respectful and collaborative provider–patient treatment planning. Frequent interactions with providers and medication refill reminder calls supported improved adherence. Additional facilitators included having social support, adherence routines, and positive attitudes toward an ACS event. The majority of patients expressed that being active participants in health care decision-making contributed to their health. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that respectful collaborative communication can contribute to medication adherence after ACS hospitalization. These results suggest a potential role for training health-care providers, including pharmacists, social workers, registered nurses, etc, to elicit and acknowledge the patients’ views regarding medication

  20. Acute symptoms related to air pollution in urban areas: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Yunesian, Masud; Asghari, Fariba; Vash, Javad Homayoun; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein; Farhud, Dariush

    2006-01-01

    Background The harmful effects of urban air pollution on general population in terms of annoying symptoms are not adequately evaluated. This is in contrast to the hospital admissions and short term mortality. The present study protocol is designed to assess the association between the level of exposure to certain ambient air pollutants and a wide range of relevant symptoms. Awareness of the impact of pollution on the population at large will make our estimates of the pertinent covert burden imposed on the society more accurate. Methods/design A cross sectional study with spatial analysis for the addresses of the participants was conducted. Data were collected via telephone interviews administered to a representative sample of civilians over age four in the city. Households were selected using random digit dialling procedures and randomization within each household was also performed to select the person to be interviewed. Levels of exposure are quantified by extrapolating the addresses of the study population over the air pollution matrix of the city at the time of the interview and also for different lag times. This information system uses the data from multiple air pollution monitoring stations in conjunction with meteorological data. General linear models are applied for statistical analysis. Discussion The important limitations of cross-sectional studies on acute effects of air pollution are personal confounders and measurement error for exposure. A wide range of confounders in this study are controlled for in the statistical analysis. Exposure error may be minimised by employing a validated geographical information system that provides accurate estimates and getting detailed information on locations of individual participants during the day. The widespread operation of open air conditioning systems in the target urban area which brings about excellent mixing of the outdoor and indoor air increases the validity of outdoor pollutants levels that are taken as

  1. Effects of acute cortisol administration on perceptual priming of trauma-related material.

    PubMed

    Holz, Elena; Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Streb, Markus; Pfaltz, Monique; Michael, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Intrusive memories are a hallmark symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). They reflect excessive and uncontrolled retrieval of the traumatic memory. Acute elevations of cortisol are known to impair the retrieval of already stored memory information. Thus, continuous cortisol administration might help in reducing intrusive memories in PTSD. Strong perceptual priming for neutral stimuli associated with a "traumatic" context has been shown to be one important learning mechanism that leads to intrusive memories. However, the memory modulating effects of cortisol have only been shown for explicit declarative memory processes. Thus, in our double blind, placebo controlled study we aimed to investigate whether cortisol influences perceptual priming of neutral stimuli that appeared in a "traumatic" context. Two groups of healthy volunteers (N = 160) watched either neutral or "traumatic" picture stories on a computer screen. Neutral objects were presented in between the pictures. Memory for these neutral objects was tested after 24 hours with a perceptual priming task and an explicit memory task. Prior to memory testing half of the participants in each group received 25 mg of cortisol, the other half received placebo. In the placebo group participants in the "traumatic" stories condition showed more perceptual priming for the neutral objects than participants in the neutral stories condition, indicating a strong perceptual priming effect for neutral stimuli presented in a "traumatic" context. In the cortisol group this effect was not present: Participants in the neutral stories and participants in the "traumatic" stories condition in the cortisol group showed comparable priming effects for the neutral objects. Our findings show that cortisol inhibits perceptual priming for neutral stimuli that appeared in a "traumatic" context. These findings indicate that cortisol influences PTSD-relevant memory processes and thus further support the idea that administration

  2. The Related Risk Factors Analysis of Snake-Bite Induced Acute Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Chen, Fang; Wu, Shukun

    2016-07-05

    BACKGROUND The pathogenic mechanism of snake-bite induced acute kidney injury (AKI) remains unclear. Analyzing the risk factors for snake-bite induced AKI may provide the guidance needed for AKI prevention and early treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS This retrospective study included 119 snake-bite patients who were hospitalized at the emergency department of Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital from January 2011 to September 2013. The patients were divided into AKI and non-AKI groups according to the 2012 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guideline. Gender, age, and clinical examination data of the patients were recorded. The Mann-Whitney U test and Fisher exact test were performed to analyze the collected data; preliminary analysis of independent risk factors was performed with multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS Among the snake-bite patients, 98.3% were farmers. The mean age of patients was 46±12 years. Of the 119 patients (13.4%), 16 suffered from AKI. There were statistically significant differences between the AKI and non-AKI groups with respect to age, time interval from snake bite to antivenin therapy, creatine kinase, blood myoglobin, advanced age, regional lymphadenopathy, incision drainage, and hemoglobin. Preliminary analysis with multivariate logistic regression showed that advanced age and increased time interval from snake bite to antivenin therapy might be independent risk factors for snake-bite induced AKI. CONCLUSIONS Age, time interval from snake bite to antivenin therapy, creatine kinase, blood myoglobin, advanced age, regional lymphadenopathy, incision drainage, and hemoglobin were risk factors for snake-bite induced AKI. Advanced age and delayed antivenin therapy might be independent risk factors for snake-bite induced AKI.

  3. The Related Risk Factors Analysis of Snake-Bite Induced Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Chen, Fang; Wu, Shukun

    2016-01-01

    Background The pathogenic mechanism of snake-bite induced acute kidney injury (AKI) remains unclear. Analyzing the risk factors for snake-bite induced AKI may provide the guidance needed for AKI prevention and early treatment. Material/Methods This retrospective study included 119 snake-bite patients who were hospitalized at the emergency department of Sichuan Provincial People’s Hospital from January 2011 to September 2013. The patients were divided into AKI and non-AKI groups according to the 2012 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guideline. Gender, age, and clinical examination data of the patients were recorded. The Mann-Whitney U test and Fisher exact test were performed to analyze the collected data; preliminary analysis of independent risk factors was performed with multivariate logistic regression. Results Among the snake-bite patients, 98.3% were farmers. The mean age of patients was 46±12 years. Of the 119 patients (13.4%), 16 suffered from AKI. There were statistically significant differences between the AKI and non-AKI groups with respect to age, time interval from snake bite to antivenin therapy, creatine kinase, blood myoglobin, advanced age, regional lymphadenopathy, incision drainage, and hemoglobin. Preliminary analysis with multivariate logistic regression showed that advanced age and increased time interval from snake bite to antivenin therapy might be independent risk factors for snake-bite induced AKI. Conclusions Age, time interval from snake bite to antivenin therapy, creatine kinase, blood myoglobin, advanced age, regional lymphadenopathy, incision drainage, and hemoglobin were risk factors for snake-bite induced AKI. Advanced age and delayed antivenin therapy might be independent risk factors for snake-bite induced AKI. PMID:27377078

  4. Secondary acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is constitutional and probably not related to prior therapy.

    PubMed

    Ganzel, Chezi; Devlin, Sean; Douer, Dan; Rowe, Jacob M; Stein, Eytan M; Tallman, Martin S

    2015-07-01

    Very little is known about secondary acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (s-ALL). This retrospective analysis studied a cohort of s-ALL patients treated at a single centre between 1994 and 2013, while comparing therapy-associated ALL (t-ALL) and antecedent malignancy ALL (am-ALL) patients. Thirty-two patients with s-ALL were identified. The overall incidence was 9.4% among ALL adults while T-cell s-ALL was rare (12% of s-ALLs). The median time interval between two malignant diagnoses was 5.3 years (range: 0.1-28). In contrast to previous reports, most of the s-ALLs were CD10 + and without KMT2A (MLL) abnormalities. The overall survival (OS) rates of the entire cohort at 12 and 24 months from ALL diagnosis was 49% and 25%, respectively. Most patients (n = 23, 72%) received prior chemo-/radio-therapy for their first malignancy (t-ALL) and only 9 (28%) did not (am-ALL). No significant difference was found in the incidence of B-/T- lineage ALL, extramedullary disease, blood count, and the rate of Philadelphia-positive ALL, nor in the rates of complete remission (P = 0.55) and OS (P = 0.97). This similarity, together with high incidence of family malignancy in both groups, raise the possibility that s-ALL patients may have an inherent predisposition to malignancies and a history of previous therapy may be of lesser importance in the pathogenesis of s-ALL.

  5. Pregnancy-related acute aortic dissection in Marfan syndrome: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine; Gros, Bernard

    2017-04-02

    A well-established association exists between acute aortic dissection and pregnancy, particularly in women with Marfan syndrome. However, there is debate regarding appropriate management guidelines. In particular, there are differing opinions regarding when prophylactic aortic root repair should be recommended as well as the efficacy of beta blockers in this clinical scenario. The current study evaluated 10 years of published literature (2005-2015) in the PubMed/Medline database. Fifty articles, describing 72 cases of women who presented with aortic dissection in the antepartum or postpartum period were identified. Comparisons on demographic variables and clinical outcomes between cases of women with Marfan syndrome (n = 36) and without Marfan syndrome (n = 36) were conducted. There were no significant differences in demographics (age, gravidity, parity) between the Marfan and non-Marfan cases. Marfan patients presented with antepartum dissections significantly earlier in pregnancy than those without Marfan syndrome (P = .002). However, there were no significant difference between the 2 groups in maternal mortality, fetal mortality, or obstetric outcomes (mode of delivery and gestational age at delivery). Eight cases described events in Marfan women with an aortic root diameter ≤40 mm. Six events occurred in Marfan women who were managed with beta blockers. Current guidelines rely on aortic root diameter for stratification of Marfan women into risk categories, but we identified several cases that would be missed by these guidelines. Specifically, the existing literature suggest that women with Marfan syndrome should take precautions throughout pregnancy, rather than the third trimester.

  6. Acute physiological responses to castration-related pain in piglets: the effect of two local anesthetics with or without meloxicam.

    PubMed

    Bonastre, C; Mitjana, O; Tejedor, M T; Calavia, M; Yuste, A G; Úbeda, J L; Falceto, M V

    2016-09-01

    Methods to reduce castration-related pain in piglets are still issues of concern and interest for authorities and producers. Our objectives were to estimate the effectiveness of two protocols of local anesthesia (lidocaine and the combination of lidocaine+bupivacaine) as well as the use of meloxicam as a postoperative analgesic in alleviating castration-related pain, measured by acute physiological responses. Eight groups (15 piglets/group) were included in the study: (1) castration without anesthesia or analgesia, without meloxicam (TRAD WITHOUT), (2) castration without anesthesia or analgesia, but with meloxicam (TRAD WITH), (3) handling without meloxicam (SHAM WITHOUT), (4) handling with meloxicam (SHAM WITH), (5) castration after local anesthesia with lidocaine but without meloxicam (LIDO WITHOUT), (6) castration after local anesthesia with lidocaine and meloxicam (LIDO WITH), (7) castration after local anesthesia with lidocaine+bupivacaine without meloxicam (LIDO+BUPI WITHOUT), (8) castration after local anesthesia with lidocaine+bupivacaine and meloxicam (LIDO+BUPI WITH). Acute physiological responses measured included skin surface temperature and serum glucose and cortisol concentrations. On days 4 and 11 post-castration BW was recorded and average daily gain was calculated over this period. Furthermore, piglet mortality was recorded over the 11-day post-castration period. Administration of local anesthetic or meloxicam did not prevent the decrease in skin surface temperature associated with castration. Lidocaine reduced the increase in glucose concentration associated with castration. For castrated pigs, the joint use of lidocaine and meloxicam caused a significant decrease in cortisol concentration; the combination of intratesticular lidocaine and bupivacaine did not seem to be more effective than lidocaine alone. No effect of treatments on mortality and growth were detected.

  7. Infection-related mortality in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: an analysis of infectious deaths on UKALL2003.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, David; Bate, Jessica; Wade, Rachel; Clack, Rachel; Dhir, Sunita; Hough, Rachael; Vora, Ajay; Goulden, Nick; Samarasinghe, Sujith

    2014-08-14

    Although infection is the major cause of treatment-related mortality (TRM) in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, factors associated with infection-related mortality (IRM) are poorly understood. To address this, we report an analysis of all 75 cases of IRM in the United Kingdom Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Randomised Trial 2003 (UKALL 2003). The 5-year cumulative incidence of IRM was 2.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9%-3.0%), accounting for 75 (30%) of 249 trial deaths and 75 (64%) of 117 TRM deaths. Risk for IRM as a proportion of TRM was greater in induction than other phases (77% vs 56%; P = .02). Sixty-eight percent of cases were associated with bacterial infection (64% Gram-negative) and 20% with fungal infection. Down syndrome was the most significant risk factor for IRM (odds ratio [OR], 12.08; 95% CI, 6.54-22.32; P < .0001). In addition, there was a trend toward increased IRM in girls (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.02-2.61; P = .04), as well as increasing treatment intensity (regimen B vs A: OR, 2.11 [95% CI, 1.24-3.60]; regimen C vs A: OR, 1.41 [95% CI, 0.76-2.62]; P = .02). Importantly, patients with Down syndrome were at significantly higher risk for IRM during maintenance (P = .048). Our results confirm Down syndrome as a major risk factor for IRM. Enhanced supportive care and prophylactic antibiotics should be considered in high-risk patient groups and during periods of increased risk. This study was registered at http://www.controlled-trials.com/ as #ISRCTN07355119.

  8. The Nature and Evolution of Fluid-Related Weakening Mechanisms Along a Continental Low-Angle Normal Fault: the Zuccale Fault, Elba Island, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. A.; Holdsworth, R. E.; Collettini, C.; MacPherson, C. G.; Pearce, M. A.; Faulkner, D.

    2008-12-01

    Despite extensive research concerning the mechanical significance and geometric evolution of low-angle normal faults, few studies have focussed on the importance of the fault rock material which is generated during prolonged slip and exhumation. The Zuccale fault on the Island of Elba is closely associated with syn- tectonic igneous intrusions, and it possesses a complex fault rock 'stratigraphy' which records the interaction between multiple deformation mechanisms and fluids derived from distinct crustal reservoirs. Optical- and scanning-electron microscopy, combined with XRD and stable isotope analyses, reveal systematic changes in fault rock chemistry and texture: 1) Cataclasis and dissolution-precipitation creep were the dominant deformation mechanisms during the early stages of fault activity. Cataclasis facilitated the influx of chemically active fluids, leading to widespread syn-tectonic growth of weak phyllosilicate minerals, including talc and chlorite. Crystal-plasticity was important within calcite-rich fault rocks which initially deformed at depths of ~6-8km. Calcite grains (~10μm in diameter) possess a strong C-axis preferred orientation, suggesting that they experienced dynamic recrystallisation by dislocation creep. These calcite-mylonites were crosscut by vein material which was progressively sheared and recrystallised, indicating cyclic brittle-ductile deformation. During the later stages of fault activity, granular flow became an important deformation mechanism. Rolling and sliding of grains past one another was accommodated along clay-lined grain boundaries; 2) During exhumation, dolomite was superseded by calcite as the dominant syn- tectonic fault cement. Dolomite veins within the fault core record transiently high fluid pressures followed by mineral sealing and fault strengthening. The δ13CV-PDB signature of such vein dolomite is strongly clustered around a mean value of -5.7‰, whilst δ18OV-SMOW varies between 10‰ to14‰. These values

  9. Kinematics analyses related to stretch-shortening cycle during soccer instep kicking after different acute stretching.

    PubMed

    Amiri-Khorasani, Mohammadtaghi; Mohammadkazemi, Reza; Sarafrazi, Soodeh; Riyahi-Malayeri, Shahin; Sotoodeh, Vahid

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of static and dynamic stretching within a preexercise warm-up on angular velocity of knee joint, deepest knee flexion (DKF), and duration of eccentric and concentric contractions, which are relative to the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) during instep kicking in professional soccer players. The kicking motions of dominant legs were captured from 18 Olympic professional male soccer players (height: 180.38 ± 7.34 cm; weight: 69.77 ± 9.73 kg; age: 19.22 ± 1.83 years) using 4 digital video cameras at 50 Hz. There was a significant difference in the DKF after the dynamic stretching (-3.22 ± 3.10°) vs. static stretching (-0.18 ± 3.19°) relative to the no-stretching method with p < 0.001. Moreover, there was significant difference in eccentric duration after the dynamic stretching (0.006 ± 0.01 seconds) vs. static stretching (-0.003 ± 0.01 seconds) relative to the no-stretching method with p < 0.015. There was a significant difference in the concentric duration after the dynamic stretching (-0.007 ± 0.01 seconds) vs. static stretching (0.002 ± 0.01 seconds) relative to the no-stretching method with p < 0.001. There was also a significant difference in knee angular velocity after the dynamic stretching (4.08 ± 3.81 rad·s) vs. static stretching (-5.34 ± 4.40 rad·s) relative to the no-stretching method with p < 0.001. We concluded that dynamic stretching during warm-ups, as compared with static stretching, is probably the most effective way as preparation for the kinematics characteristics of soccer instep kick, which are relative to the SSC.

  10. Acute Stress and Event-Related Potential Correlates of Attention to Alcohol Images in Social Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Natalie A.; Giuliano, Ryan J.; Wicha, Nicole Y.Y.; Graham, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The use of alcohol to cope with stress is a major health concern, yet the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of stress on alcohol-related cognition are not well understood. This study examined changes in event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by alcohol-related images before and after a stressor compared with a control condition. Method: Social drinkers (N = 75; 38 male) were assigned to one of two target subgroups for completion of an oddball task: (a) to detect alcohol targets while ignoring household object distracters and frequently presented nonsense shapes or (b) to detect object targets while ignoring alcohol distracters and nonsense shapes. ERPs were recorded before and after one of two conditions: a stressor or a nonstressful control task. Results: N200 latency and amplitude changes were modulated by stress. Similarly, stress reduced P300 latencies beyond practice effects. For P300 amplitude, the target subgroup interacted with the condition such that the standard “oddball” effect was observed in the control condition but was absent in the stress condition, suggesting that stress may have interfered with the participants’ cognitive efficiency, or the ability to ignore task-irrelevant stimuli. Conclusions: These findings suggest that stress influences the early stages of alcohol-related processing, an effect that may be particularly apparent in ERP latencies. These findings have implications for understanding the neural mechanisms involved with stress and alcohol cue reactivity. PMID:22846240

  11. Toxoplasma GRA7 effector increases turnover of immunity-related GTPases and contributes to acute virulence in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Alaganan, Aditi; Fentress, Sarah J; Tang, Keliang; Wang, Qiuling; Sibley, L David

    2014-01-21

    The intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii enjoys a wide host range and is adept at surviving in both naive and activated macrophages. Previous studies have emphasized the importance of the active serine-threonine protein kinase rhoptry protein 18 (ROP18), which targets immunity-related GTPases (IRGs), in mediating macrophage survival and acute virulence of T. gondii in mice. Here, we demonstrate that ROP18 exists in a complex with the pseudokinases rhoptry proteins 8 and 2 (ROP8/2) and dense granule protein 7 (GRA7). Individual deletion mutant gra7 or rop18 was partially attenuated for virulence in mice, whereas the combined gra7rop18 mutant was avirulent, suggesting these proteins act together in the same pathway. The virulence defect of the double mutant was mirrored by increased recruitment of IRGs and clearance of the parasite in IFN-γ-activated macrophages in vitro. GRA7 was shown to recognize a conserved feature of IRGs, binding directly to the active dimer of immunity-related GTPase a6 in a GTP-dependent manner. Binding of GRA7 to immunity-related GTPase a6 led to enhanced polymerization, rapid turnover, and eventual disassembly. Collectively, these studies suggest that ROP18 and GRA7 act in a complex to target IRGs by distinct mechanisms that are synergistic.

  12. A low cortisol response to acute stress is related to worse basal memory performance in older people

    PubMed Central

    Almela, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Vanesa; van der Meij, Leander; Pulopulos, Matías M.; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Age-related memory decline has been associated with a faulty regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the magnitude of the stress-induced cortisol increase is related to memory performance when memory is measured in non-stressful conditions. To do so, declarative and working memory performance were measured in 31 men and 35 women between 55 and 77 years of age. On a different day, the magnitude of their cortisol response to acute psychosocial stress was measured. The relationship between the cortisol response and memory performance was U shaped: a low cortisol response to stress was related to poorer declarative and working memory performance, whereas those who did not increase their cortisol levels and those who had the largest cortisol increase had better declarative and working memory capabilities. Sex did not moderate these relationships. These results suggest that a low cortisol response to stress could reflect a defective HPA-axis response to stressors that is accompanied by poorer memory performance. Conversely, a high cortisol response seems to reflect a correct functioning of the HPA-axis and may protect against memory deficits in the later stages of human life. PMID:25076903

  13. Expression of extracellular matrix components and related growth factors in human tendon and muscle after acute exercise.

    PubMed

    Heinemeier, K M; Bjerrum, S S; Schjerling, P; Kjaer, M

    2013-06-01

    Acute kicking exercise induces collagen synthesis in both tendon and muscle in humans, but it is not known if this relates to increased collagen transcription and if other matrix genes are regulated. Young men performed 1 h of one-leg kicking at 67% of max workload. Biopsies were taken from the patellar tendon and vastus lateralis muscle of each leg at 2 (n = 10), 6 (n = 11), or 26 h (n = 10) after exercise. Levels of messenger ribonucleic acid mRNA for collagens, noncollagenous matrix proteins, and growth factors were measured with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In tendon, gene expression was unchanged except for a decrease in insulin-like growth factor-IEa (IGF-IEa; P < 0.05). In muscle, collagen expression was not significantly altered, while levels of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), IGF-IEa, transforming growth factor-β1, -2 (TGF-β), and the TGF-β receptor II mRNA were increased (P < 0.05). Matrix components tenascin-C, fibronectin, and decorin were also induced in loaded muscle (P < 0.05), while fibromodulin was unaffected. In conclusion, the relatively robust changes in matrix components and related growth factors in muscle indicate a stimulation of extracellular matrix even with moderate exercise. However, in tendon tissue, this exercise model does not appear to induce any anabolic response on the transcriptional level.

  14. Toxoplasma GRA7 effector increases turnover of immunity-related GTPases and contributes to acute virulence in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Alaganan, Aditi; Fentress, Sarah J.; Tang, Keliang; Wang, Qiuling; Sibley, L. David

    2014-01-01

    The intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii enjoys a wide host range and is adept at surviving in both naive and activated macrophages. Previous studies have emphasized the importance of the active serine-threonine protein kinase rhoptry protein 18 (ROP18), which targets immunity-related GTPases (IRGs), in mediating macrophage survival and acute virulence of T. gondii in mice. Here, we demonstrate that ROP18 exists in a complex with the pseudokinases rhoptry proteins 8 and 2 (ROP8/2) and dense granule protein 7 (GRA7). Individual deletion mutant ∆gra7 or ∆rop18 was partially attenuated for virulence in mice, whereas the combined ∆gra7∆rop18 mutant was avirulent, suggesting these proteins act together in the same pathway. The virulence defect of the double mutant was mirrored by increased recruitment of IRGs and clearance of the parasite in IFN-γ–activated macrophages in vitro. GRA7 was shown to recognize a conserved feature of IRGs, binding directly to the active dimer of immunity-related GTPase a6 in a GTP-dependent manner. Binding of GRA7 to immunity-related GTPase a6 led to enhanced polymerization, rapid turnover, and eventual disassembly. Collectively, these studies suggest that ROP18 and GRA7 act in a complex to target IRGs by distinct mechanisms that are synergistic. PMID:24390541

  15. Effects of acute versus repeated cocaine exposure on the expression of endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins in the mouse cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Palomino, Ana; Pavón, Francisco-Javier; Blanco-Calvo, Eduardo; Serrano, Antonia; Arrabal, Sergio; Rivera, Patricia; Alén, Francisco; Vargas, Antonio; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Rubio, Leticia; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Growing awareness of cerebellar involvement in addiction is based on the cerebellum’s intermediary position between motor and reward, potentially acting as an interface between motivational and cognitive functions. Here, we examined the impact of acute and repeated cocaine exposure on the two main signaling systems in the mouse cerebellum: the endocannabinoid (eCB) and glutamate systems. To this end, we investigated whether eCB signaling-related gene and protein expression {cannabinoid receptor type 1 receptors and enzymes that produce [diacylglycerol lipase alpha/beta (DAGLα/β) and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD)] and degrade [monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and fatty acid amino hydrolase (FAAH)] eCB} were altered. In addition, we analyzed the gene expression of relevant components of the glutamate signaling system [glutamate synthesizing enzymes liver-type glutaminase isoform (LGA) and kidney-type glutaminase isoform (KGA), metabotropic glutamatergic receptor (mGluR3/5), NMDA-ionotropic glutamatergic receptor (NR1/2A/2B/2C) and AMPA-ionotropic receptor subunits (GluR1/2/3/4)] and the gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, because noradrenergic terminals innervate the cerebellar cortex. Results indicated that acute cocaine exposure decreased DAGLα expression, suggesting a down-regulation of 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) production, as well as gene expression of TH, KGA, mGluR3 and all ionotropic receptor subunits analyzed in the cerebellum. The acquisition of conditioned locomotion and sensitization after repeated cocaine exposure were associated with an increased NAPE-PLD/FAAH ratio, suggesting enhanced anandamide production, and a decreased DAGLβ/MAGL ratio, suggesting decreased 2-AG generation. Repeated cocaine also increased LGA gene expression but had no effect on glutamate receptors. These findings indicate that acute cocaine modulates the expression of the eCB and

  16. Effects of acute versus repeated cocaine exposure on the expression of endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins in the mouse cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Palomino, Ana; Pavón, Francisco-Javier; Blanco-Calvo, Eduardo; Serrano, Antonia; Arrabal, Sergio; Rivera, Patricia; Alén, Francisco; Vargas, Antonio; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Rubio, Leticia; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Growing awareness of cerebellar involvement in addiction is based on the cerebellum's intermediary position between motor and reward, potentially acting as an interface between motivational and cognitive functions. Here, we examined the impact of acute and repeated cocaine exposure on the two main signaling systems in the mouse cerebellum: the endocannabinoid (eCB) and glutamate systems. To this end, we investigated whether eCB signaling-related gene and protein expression {cannabinoid receptor type 1 receptors and enzymes that produce [diacylglycerol lipase alpha/beta (DAGLα/β) and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD)] and degrade [monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and fatty acid amino hydrolase (FAAH)] eCB} were altered. In addition, we analyzed the gene expression of relevant components of the glutamate signaling system [glutamate synthesizing enzymes liver-type glutaminase isoform (LGA) and kidney-type glutaminase isoform (KGA), metabotropic glutamatergic receptor (mGluR3/5), NMDA-ionotropic glutamatergic receptor (NR1/2A/2B/2C) and AMPA-ionotropic receptor subunits (GluR1/2/3/4)] and the gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, because noradrenergic terminals innervate the cerebellar cortex. Results indicated that acute cocaine exposure decreased DAGLα expression, suggesting a down-regulation of 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) production, as well as gene expression of TH, KGA, mGluR3 and all ionotropic receptor subunits analyzed in the cerebellum. The acquisition of conditioned locomotion and sensitization after repeated cocaine exposure were associated with an increased NAPE-PLD/FAAH ratio, suggesting enhanced anandamide production, and a decreased DAGLβ/MAGL ratio, suggesting decreased 2-AG generation. Repeated cocaine also increased LGA gene expression but had no effect on glutamate receptors. These findings indicate that acute cocaine modulates the expression of the eCB and

  17. Acute severe poisoning in Spain: clinical outcome related to the implicated drugs.

    PubMed

    Frati, M E; Marruecos, L; Porta, M; Martín, M L; Laporte, J R

    1983-10-01

    The 91 patients over the age of 10 (57 women and 32 men) with severe self-poisoning admitted to the ICU of a general hospital in Barcelona during the period 1974-1980 have been retrospectively studied. Previous suicidal attempts have been identified among 32 patients; 26 patients presented a history of personality disorders, and 19 had a neurological disease, a chronic physical illness, or a history of alcoholism. Sedative-hypnotic drugs were involved in about half the number of cases, and one fifth of total cases were due to tricyclic antidepressants and phenothiazines. Paracetamol was only involved in 2 cases, and heroin in another 2 cases. Many of the most severe morbidity manifestations were related to overdoses by intermediate-acting barbiturates. Two out of a total of 5 deaths were related to butalbitone overdose. Butalbitone had been ingested as a fixed-dose combination containing butalbitone, propyphenazone, and caffeine, which is freely dispensed as an analgesic in Spain.

  18. Acute plasma tau relates to prolonged return to play after concussion

    PubMed Central

    Merchant-Borna, Kian; Jeromin, Andreas; Livingston, Whitney; Bazarian, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether tau changes after sport-related concussion (SRC) relate to return to play (RTP). Methods: Collegiate athletes underwent preseason plasma sampling and cognitive testing and were followed. After a SRC (n = 46), athletes and controls (n = 37) had sampling at 6 hours, and at 24 hours, 72 hours, and 7 days after SRC. A sample of 21 nonathlete controls were compared at baseline. SRC athletes were grouped by long (>10 days, n = 23) and short (≤10 days, n = 18) RTP. Total tau was measured using an ultrasensitive immunoassay. Results: Both SRC and athlete controls had significantly higher mean tau at baseline compared to nonathlete healthy controls (F101,3 = 19.644, p < 0.01). Compared to SRC athletes with short RTP, those with long RTP had higher tau concentrations overall, after controlling for sex (F39,1 = 3.59, p = 0.022), compared to long RTP athletes, at 6 (p < 0.01), 24 (p < 0.01), and 72 hours (p = 0.02). Receiver operator characteristic analyses showed that higher plasma tau 6 hours post-SRC was a significant predictor of RTP >10 days (area under the curve 0.81; 95% confidence interval 0.62–0.97, p = 0.01). Conclusions: Elevated plasma tau concentration within 6 hours following a SRC was related to having a prolonged RTP, suggesting that tau levels may help inform RTP. PMID:28062722

  19. Central Sleep Apnoea Is Related to the Severity and Short-Term Prognosis of Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-de-la-Torre, Alicia; Sánchez-de-la-Torre, Manuel; Aldomá, Albina; Worner, Fernando; Galera, Estefanía; Seminario, Asunción; Torres, Gerard; Dalmases, Mireia; Montserrat, Josep M.; Garmendia, Onintza; Barbé, Ferran

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relation of central sleep apnoea (CSA) to the severity and short-term prognosis of patients who experience acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods Observational study with cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Patients acutely admitted to participating hospitals because of ACS underwent respiratory polygraphy during the first 24 to 72 h. CSA was defined as an apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) >15 events•h-1 (>50% of central apnoeas). ACS severity (Killip class, ejection fraction, number of diseased vessels and peak plasma troponin) was evaluated at baseline, and short-term prognosis (length of hospitalization, complications and mortality) was evaluated at discharge. Results A total of 68 CSA patients (AHI 31±18 events•h−1, 64±12 years, 87% males) and 92 controls (AHI 7±5 events•h−1, 62±12 years, 84% males) were included in the analyses. After adjusting for age, body mass index, hypertension and smoking status, patients diagnosed with CSA spent more days in the coronary unit compared with controls (3.7±2.9 vs. 1.5±1.7; p<0.001) and had a worse Killip class (Killip I: 16% vs. 96%; p<0.001). No differences were observed in ejection fraction estimates. Conclusions CSA patients exhibited increased ACS severity as indicated by their Killip classification. These patients had a worse prognosis, with longer lengths of stay in the coronary care units. Our results highlight the relevance of CSA in patients suffering ACS episodes and suggest that diagnosing CSA may be a useful strategy to improve the management of certain ACS patients. PMID:27880845

  20. Acute aerobic exercise enhances attentional modulation of somatosensory event-related potentials during a tactile discrimination task.

    PubMed

    Popovich, Christina; Staines, W Richard

    2015-03-15

    Neuroimaging research has shown that acute bouts of moderate intensity aerobic exercise can enhance attention-based neuronal activity in frontal brain regions, namely in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as improve cognitive performance. The circuitry of the PFC is complex with extensive reciprocal corticocortical and thalamocortical connections, yet it remains unclear if aerobic exercise can also assist attentional control over modality-specific sensory cortices. To test this, we used a tactile discrimination task to compare tactile event-related potentials (ERPs) prior to and following an acute bout of moderate intensity aerobic exercise. We hypothesized that exercise preceding performance of the task would result in more efficient sensory gating of irrelevant/non-attended and enhancement of relevant/attended sensory information, respectively. Participants received vibrotactile stimulation to the second and fifth digit on the left hand and reported target stimuli on one digit only. ERP amplitudes for the P50, P100, N140 and long latency positivity (LLP) were quantified for attended and non-attended trials at FC4, C4, CP4 and P4 while P300 amplitudes were quantified in response to attended target stimuli at electrodes FCZ, CZ and CPZ. Results showed no effect of attention on the P50, however, both P100 and LLP amplitudes were significantly greater during attended, task-relevant trials, while the N140 was enhanced for non-attended, task-irrelevant stimuli. Moreover, unattended N140 amplitudes over parietal sites contralateral to stimulation were significantly greater post-exercise versus pre-exercise, while LLP modulation varied with greater unattended amplitudes post-exercise over frontal sites and greater attended amplitudes post-exercise over parietal sites. These results suggest that a single session of moderate intensity aerobic exercise facilitated the sensory gating of task-irrelevant tactile stimuli so that relevant sensory signals could be enhanced at

  1. Relative sensitivity of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to acute exposures of cadmium and zinc.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James A; Welsh, Paul G; Lipton, Josh; Cacela, Dave; Dailey, Anne D

    2002-01-01

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) were recently listed as threatened in the United States under the federal Endangered Species Act. Present and historical habitat of this species includes waterways that have been impacted by metals released from mining and mineral processing activities. We conducted paired bioassays with bull trout and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to examine the relative sensitivity of each species to Cd and Zn independently and as a mixture. A total of 15 pairs of acute toxicity bioassays were completed to evaluate the effects of different water hardness (30 or 90 mg/L as CaCO3), pH (6.5 or 7.5), and temperature (8 or 12 degrees C) on Cd and Zn toxicity. For both species, the acute toxicity of both Cd and Zn was greater than previously observed in laboratory studies. Bull trout were about twice as tolerant of Cd and about 50% more tolerant of Zn than were rainbow trout. Higher hardness and lower pH water produced lower toxicity and slower rates of toxicity in both species. Elevated temperature significantly increased the sensitivity of bull trout to Zn but decreased the sensitivity (not significantly) of rainbow trout to Zn. At a hardness of 30 mg/L, the toxicity values (i.e., median lethal concentration; 120-h LC50) for both species were lower than the current U.S. national water quality criteria for protection of aquatic life, indicating that current national criteria may not be protective of sensitive salmonids--including the threatened bull trout--in low calcium waters.

  2. Relation between the kinetics of thallium-201 in myocardial scintigraphy and myocardial metabolism in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, H; Akioka, K; Takagi, M; Tanaka, A; Takeuchi, K; Yoshikawa, J; Ochi, H

    1998-01-01

    Objective—To investigate the relations between myocardial metabolism and the kinetics of thallium-201 in myocardial scintigraphy.
Methods—46 patients within six weeks after the onset of acute myocardial infarction underwent resting myocardial dual isotope, single acquisition, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using radioiodinated 15-iodophenyl 3-methyl pentadecaenoic acid (BMIPP) and thallium-201, exercise thallium-201 SPECT, and positron emission tomography (PET) using nitrogen-13 ammonia (NH3) and [F18]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) under fasting conditions. The left ventricle was divided into nine segments, and the severity of defects was assessed visually.
Results—In the resting SPECT, less BMIPP uptake than thallium-201 uptake was observed in all of 40 segments with reverse redistribution of thallium-201, and in 21 of 88 segments with a fixed defect of thallium-201 (p < 0.0001); and more FDG uptake than NH3 uptake (NH3-FDG mismatch) was observed in 35 of 40 segments with reverse redistribution and in 38 of 88 segments with fixed defect (p < 0.0001). Less BMIPP uptake in the resting SPECT was observed in 49 of 54 segments with slow stress redistribution in exercise SPECT, and in nine of 17 segments with rapid stress redistribution (p < 0.0005); NH3-FDG mismatch was observed in 42 of 54 segments with slow stress redistribution and in five of 17 segments with rapid stress redistribution (p < 0.0005).
Conclusions—Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy provides information about not only myocardial perfusion and viability but also about myocardial metabolism in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

 Keywords: thallium-201 SPECT;  BMIPP SPECT;  FDG PET;  myocardial infarction;  redistribution PMID:9764055

  3. Impact of Timing of Eptifibatide Administration on Preprocedural Infarct-Related Artery Patency in Acute STEMI Patients Undergoing Primary PCI.

    PubMed

    Dharma, Surya; Firdaus, Isman; Danny, Siska Suridanda; Juzar, Dafsah A; Wardeh, Alexander J; Jukema, J Wouter; van der Laarse, Arnoud

    2014-09-01

    The appropriate timing of eptifibatide initiation for acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains unclear. This study aimed to analyze the impact of timing of eptifibatide administration on infarct-related artery (IRA) patency in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI. Acute STEMI patients who underwent primary PCI (n = 324) were enrolled in this retrospective study; 164 patients received eptifibatide bolus ≤ 30 minutes after emergency department (ED) admission (group A) and 160 patients received eptifibatide bolus > 30 minutes after ED admission (group B). The primary endpoint was preprocedural IRA patency. Most patients in group A (90%) and group B (89%) were late presenters (> 2 hours after symptom onset). The two groups had similar preprocedural thrombolysis in myocardial infarction 2 or 3 flow of the IRA (26 vs. 24%, p = not significant [NS]), similar creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) levels at 8 hours after admission (339 vs. 281 U/L, p = NS), similar left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (52 vs. 50%, p = NS), and similar 30-day mortality (2 vs. 7%, p = NS). Compared with group B, patients in group A had shorter door-to-device time (p < 0.001) and shorter procedural time (p = 0.004), without increased bleeding risk (13 vs. 18%, p = NS). Earlier intravenous administration of eptifibatide before primary PCI did not improve preprocedural IRA patency, CK-MB level at 8 hours after admission, LVEF and 30-day mortality compared with patients who received intravenous eptifibatide that was administered later.

  4. The Impact of Acute Urinary Retention After Iodine-125 Prostate Brachytherapy on Health-Related Quality of Life

    SciTech Connect

    Roeloffzen, Ellen M.A.; Hinnen, Karel A.; Battermann, Jan J.; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; Roermund, Joep G.H. van; Gellekom, Marion van; Frank, Steven J.; Vulpen, Marco van

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of acute urinary retention (AUR) in patients treated with {sup 125}I prostate brachytherapy on short- and long-term health-related quality of life (HRQOL); and to assess whether pretreatment HRQOL has additional value in the prediction of AUR. Methods and Materials: For 127 patients treated with {sup 125}I brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer between December 2000 and June 2003, toxicity and HRQOL data were prospectively collected. Patients received a HRQOL questionnaire at five time points: before and 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, and 6 years after treatment. The questionnaire included the RAND-36 generic health survey, the cancer-specific European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer core questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), the tumor-specific EORTC prostate cancer module (EORTC QLQ-PR25), and the American Urological Association (AUA) symptom index. Results: Of 127 patients, 13 (10.2%) developed AUR. Patients with AUR had a significantly worse urinary QOL at all time points compared with patients without AUR. The mean difference over time (6 years) between both groups for the EORTC QLQ-PR25 urinary symptom score was 13.0 points (p < 0.001) and for the AUA urinary symptom score was 15.7 points (p = 0.001). Global QOL scores (EORTC QLQ-C30) over time for patients who developed AUR were significantly worse compared with patients without AUR (mean difference 6.7 points; p = 0.043). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, pretreatment International Prostate Symptom Score (p = 0.004) and neoadjuvant hormonal treatment (p = 0.034) were predictors of AUR. Quality of life did not have added predictive value. Conclusion: Acute urinary retention after prostate brachytherapy has a significant negative impact on patient's HRQOL up to 6 years after treatment, in terms of both global QOL measures and urinary symptom scores. Furthermore, our results suggest limited value of pretreatment HRQOL measures for the prediction of AUR.

  5. Heterodyne Interferometer Angle Metrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Inseob; Weilert, Mark A.; Wang, Xu; Goullioud, Renaud

    2010-01-01

    A compact, high-resolution angle measurement instrument has been developed that is based on a heterodyne interferometer. The common-path heterodyne interferometer metrology is used to measure displacements of a reflective target surface. In the interferometer setup, an optical mask is used to sample the measurement laser beam reflecting back from a target surface. Angular rotations, around two orthogonal axes in a plane perpendicular to the measurement- beam propagation direction, are determined simultaneously from the relative displacement measurement of the target surface. The device is used in a tracking telescope system where pitch and yaw measurements of a flat mirror were simultaneously performed with a sensitivity of 0.1 nrad, per second, and a measuring range of 0.15 mrad at a working distance of an order of a meter. The nonlinearity of the device is also measured less than one percent over the measurement range.

  6. Acute kidney injury during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Van Hook, James W

    2014-12-01

    Acute kidney injury complicates the care of a relatively small number of pregnant and postpartum women. Several pregnancy-related disorders such as preeclampsia and thrombotic microangiopathies may produce acute kidney injury. Prerenal azotemia is another common cause of acute kidney injury in pregnancy. This manuscript will review pregnancy-associated acute kidney injury from a renal functional perspective. Pathophysiology of acute kidney injury will be reviewed. Specific conditions causing acute kidney injury and treatments will be compared.

  7. Association between Precipitation Upstream of a Drinking Water Utility and Nurse Advice Calls Relating to Acute Gastrointestinal Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Tornevi, Andreas; Axelsson, Gösta; Forsberg, Bertil

    2013-01-01

    Background The River Göta Älv is a source of fresh-water for the City of Gothenburg (Sweden). We recently identified a clear association between upstream precipitation and indicator bacteria concentrations in the river water outside the intake to the drinking water utility. This study aimed to determine if variation in the incidence of acute gastrointestinal illnesses is associated with upstream precipitation. Methods We acquired data, covering 1494 days, on the daily number of telephone calls to the nurse advice line from citizens in Gothenburg living in areas with Göta Älv as a fresh-water supply. We separated calls relating to gastrointestinal illnesses from other medical concerns, and analyzed their association with precipitation using a distributed lag non-linear Poisson regression model, adjusting for seasonal patterns and covariates. We used a 0–21-day lag period for precipitation to account for drinking water delivery times and incubation periods of waterborne pathogens. Results The study period contained 25,659 nurse advice calls relating to gastrointestinal illnesses. Heavy rainfall was associated with increased calls the same day and around 5–6 days later. Consecutive days of wet weather were also found to be associated with an increase in the daily number of gastrointestinal concerns. No associations were identified between precipitation and nurse advice calls relating to other medical concerns. Conclusion An increase in nurse advice calls relating to gastrointestinal illnesses around 5–6 days after heavy rainfall is consistent with a hypothesis that the cause could be related to drinking water due to insufficient barriers in the drinking water production, suggesting the need for improved drinking water treatment. PMID:23875009

  8. Loss of chromosome Y in acute lymphoblastic leukemia: age related or neoplastic phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anurag; Parihar, Mayur; Remani, Arun S; Mishra, Deepak Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Loss of chromosome Y (LOY) in the bone marrow has long been considered as an age-related phenomenon with an incidence of more than 25% in males beyond the age of 80 years. Though reported as an acquired abnormality in myeloid neoplasms, it has rarely been described in B-lymphoblastic leukemia which primarily is a disease of the young. We describe here in three cases of pediatric B-lymphoblastic leukemia with LOY. Conventional cytogenetic studies and fluorescence in situ hybridization studies using centromeric probes for chromosome X and Y on peripheral blood samples ruled out constitutional LOY in all the three cases favoring it to be a neoplastic phenomenon.

  9. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and acute encephalitis and poliomyelitis-like flaccid paralysis.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Kanae; Kano, Gen; Shibata, Mayumi; Sakamoto, Izumi; Matsui, Hirofumi; Imashuku, Shinsaku

    2011-05-01

    A 3-year-old male presented with Chlamydia pneumoniae infection-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). The patient developed an episode of HLH with severe skin eruption following C. pneumoniae pneumonia. Symptoms responded to steroid/cyclosporine A therapy, but the patient slowly lost consciousness and developed systemic flaccid paralysis. He was diagnosed with encephalitis/myelitis by brain and spinal MRI. Neurological symptoms and signs gradually resolved. We thought that the immune response to C. pneumoniae infection triggered the development of HLH, associated with unusual neurological complications. This report describes a novel case of C. pneumoniae-associated HLH and with poliomyelitis like flaccid paralysis.

  10. Model calculations on vertical common black equilibrium soap films: the relation of contact angle to Fresnel diffraction patterns from the film-border transition

    SciTech Connect

    Agterof, W.G.M.

    1982-04-01

    The surface tension of a thin liquid (soap) film is often different from that of the bulk solution from which the film is made. This is a consequence of the action of long-range interation forces in the film. In general, 2 forces are considered. The first is the electric double-layer repulsion which is a result of the overlap of the double-layer buildup in the central aqueous core of the film by the ionic detergent molecules at the surfaces. The second is the London-Van der Waals attraction due to the fact that a molecule in the film has a smaller number of other molecules in its interaction sphere than a molecule in the bulk solution. Both forces, which are functions of the thickness of the film, compose the disjoining pressure. From the profiles Fresnel diffraction patterns were calculated and the following conclusions were drawn: (1) they are not very sensitive for the details of the transition region, between a film and its meniscus; (2) for contact angles larger than 16 ft, the results of Princen and Frankel coincide within 5%; and (3) this optical method will not result in reliable contact angles when they are smaller than 10 ft. 22 references.

  11. Apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis on liquid infused surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semprebon, Ciro; McHale, Glen; Kusumaatmaja, Halim

    We theoretically investigate the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis of a droplet placed on a liquid infused surface. We show that the apparent contact angle is not uniquely defined by material parameters, but also has a strong dependence on the relative size between the droplet and its surrounding wetting ridge formed by the infusing liquid. We derive a closed form expression for the contact angle in the limit of vanishing wetting ridge, and compute the correction for small but finite ridge, which corresponds to an effective line tension term. We also predict contact angle hysteresis on liquid infused surfaces generated by the pinning of the contact lines by the surface corrugations. Our analytical expressions for both the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis can be interpreted as `weighted sums' between the contact angles of the infusing liquid relative to the droplet and surrounding gas phases, where the weighting coefficients are given by ratios of the fluid surface tensions.

  12. Apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis on liquid infused surfaces.

    PubMed

    Semprebon, Ciro; McHale, Glen; Kusumaatmaja, Halim

    2016-12-21

    We theoretically investigate the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis of a droplet placed on a liquid infused surface. We show that the apparent contact angle is not uniquely defined by material parameters, but also has a dependence on the relative size between the droplet and its surrounding wetting ridge formed by the infusing liquid. We derive a closed form expression for the contact angle in the limit of vanishing wetting ridge, and compute the correction for small but finite ridge, which corresponds to an effective line tension term. We also predict contact angle hysteresis on liquid infused surfaces generated by the pinning of the contact lines by the surface corrugations. Our analytical expressions for both the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis can be interpreted as 'weighted sums' between the contact angles of the infusing liquid relative to the droplet and surrounding gas phases, where the weighting coefficients are given by ratios of the fluid surface tensions.

  13. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) in an obstetric patient.

    PubMed

    Michala, L; Madhavan, B; Win, N; De Lord, C; Brown, R

    2008-01-01

    Transfusion-related lung injury (TRALI) is the leading cause of mortality following transfusion of blood products. Despite increasing awareness, the condition often remains unrecognised and therefore underreported. A 28-year-old with moderate preeclampsia had a post-partum haemorrhage following emergency caesarean section. Shortly after receiving three units of packed red cells she went into respiratory failure, which progressed to cardiac arrest. She was successfully resuscitated and made a slow but full recovery. Investigation through the National Blood Service confirmed the diagnosis of TRALI. TRALI is an increasingly common life-threatening complication of blood transfusion and should be included in the differential diagnosis of collapse in an obstetric patient who has recently received a blood product transfusion.

  14. Prevention of non-immune mediated transfusion-related acute lung injury; from blood bank to patient.

    PubMed

    van Bruggen, Robin; de Korte, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a severe form of pulmonary insufficiency induced by transfusion. TRALI is the leading cause of transfusion-related death, and is caused by the infusion of either anti-leukocyte antibodies in plasma containing blood products or neutrophil priming substances that accumulate during storage of cellular blood products. Among these neutrophil priming substances are bioactive lipids, such as lyso-phosphatidylcholines (lysoPCs) and arachidonic acid, soluble CD40L (sCD40L) and possibly other, as yet unidentified substances. The accumulation of these substances during cellular blood product storage and their role in the induction of "non-immune mediated" TRALI pathogenesis are highly relevant for the current debate of the use of longer vs. shorter stored blood products. In this review, the accumulation of these different substances during storage, as well as their mode of action in inducing TRALI are discussed. In addition, different improvements in current blood banking procedures to prevent TRALI due to these non-immune mediators will be proposed.

  15. Pregnancy-related acute kidney injury: experience of the nephrology unit at the university hospital of fez, morocco.

    PubMed

    Arrayhani, Mohamed; El Youbi, Randa; Sqalli, Tarik

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Acute kidney injury (PRAKI) continues to be common in developing countries. The aim of this paper is to study AKI characteristics in pregnancy and identify the factors related to the unfavorable evolution. Methods. This prospective study was conducted in the University Hospital Hassan II of Fez, Morocco, from February 01, 2011 to January 31, 2012. All patients presenting PRAKI were included. Results. 37 cases of PRAKI were listed. Their ages varied from 20 to 41 years old, with an average of 29.03 ± 6.3 years and an average parity of 1.83. High blood pressure was the most common symptom (55.6%). Thirty-nine percent were oliguric. PRAKI occurred during the 3rd trimester in 66.6% of the cases and 25% of the cases in the postpartum. Hemodialysis was necessary in 16.2% of cases. The main causes were preeclampsia, hemorrhagic shocks, and functional, respectively, in 66.6%, 25%, and 8.3% of the cases. The outcome was favorable, with a complete renal function recovery for 28 patients. Poor prognosis was related to two factors: age over 38 years and advanced stage of AKI according to RIFLE classification. Conclusion. Prevention of PRAKI requires an improvement of the sanitary infrastructures with the implementation of an obligatory prenatal consultation.

  16. Epidemiology and Factors Related to Clinical Severity of Acute Gastroenteritis in Hospitalized Children after the Introduction of Rotavirus Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to investigate epidemiology and host- and pathogen-related factors associated with clinical severity of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children after rotavirus vaccination introduction. Factors assessed included age, co-infection with more than 2 viruses, and virus-toxigenic Clostridium difficile co-detection. Fecal samples and clinical information, including modified Vesikari scores, were collected from hospitalized children with AGE. The presence of enteric viruses and bacteria, including toxigenic C. difficile, was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Among the 415 children included, virus was detected in stool of 282 (68.0%) children. Co-infection with more than 2 viruses and toxigenic C. difficile were found in 24 (8.5%) and 26 (9.2%) children with viral AGE, respectively. Norovirus (n = 130) infection, including norovirus-associated co-infection, was the most frequent infection, especially in children aged < 24 months (P < 0.001). In the severity-related analysis, age < 24 months was associated with greater diarrheal severity (P < 0.001) and modified Vesikari score (P = 0.001), after adjustment for other severity-related factors including rotavirus status. Although the age at infection with rotavirus was higher than that for other viruses (P = 0.001), rotavirus detection was the most significant risk factor for all severity parameters, including modified Vesikari score (P < 0.001). Viral co-infection and toxigenic C. difficile co-detection were not associated with any severity-related parameter. This information will be helpful in the management of childhood AGE in this era of rotavirus vaccination and availability of molecular diagnostic tests, which often lead to the simultaneous detection of multiple pathogens. PMID:28145650

  17. Prospective study of acute health effects in relation to exposure to cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, Benoît; Gervais, Marie-Christine; Chevalier, Pierre; Gauvin, Denis; Anassour-Laouan-Sidi, Elhadji; Gingras, Suzanne; Fortin, Nathalie; Brisson, Geneviève; Greer, Charles; Bird, David

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a study to investigate the relationship between exposure to cyanobacteria and microcystins and the incidence of symptoms in humans living in close proximity to lakes affected by cyanobacteria. The design was a prospective study of residents living around three lakes (Canada), one of which has a water treatment plant supplying potable water to local residents. Participants had to keep a daily journal of symptoms and record contact (full or limited) with the water body. Samples were collected to document cyanobacteria and microcystin concentrations. Symptoms potentially associated with cyanobacteria (gastrointestinal: 2 indices (GI1: diarrhea or abdominal pain or nausea or vomiting; GI2: diarrhea or vomiting or [nausea and fever] or [abdominal cramps and fever]); upper and lower respiratory tract; eye; ear; skin; muscle pain; headaches; mouth ulcers) were examined in relation with exposure to cyanobacteria and microcystin by using Poisson regression. Only gastrointestinal symptoms were associated with recreational contact. Globally, there was a significant increase in adjusted relative risk (RR) with higher cyanobacterial cell counts for GI2 (<20,000 cells/mL: RR=1.52, 95% CI=0.65-3.51; 20,000-100,000 cells/mL: RR=2.71, 95% CI=1.02-7.16; >100,000 cells/mL: RR=3.28, 95% CI=1.69-6.37, p-trend=0.001). In participants who received their drinking water supply from a plant whose source was contaminated by cyanobacteria, an increase in muscle pain (RR=5.16; 95% CI=2.93-9.07) and gastrointestinal (GI1: RR=3.87; 95% CI=1.62-9.21; GI2: RR=2.84; 95% CI=0.82-9.79), skin (RR=2.65; 95% CI=1.09-6.44) and ear symptoms (RR=6.10; 95% CI=2.48-15.03) was observed. The population should be made aware of the risks of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with contact (full or limited) with cyanobacteria. A risk management plan is needed for water treatment plants that draw their water from a source contaminated with cyanobacteria.

  18. A randomized trial of aripiprazole vs blonanserin for the treatment of acute schizophrenia and related disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kishi, Taro; Matsuda, Yuki; Matsunaga, Shinji; Mukai, Tomohiko; Moriwaki, Masatsugu; Tabuse, Hideaki; Fujita, Kiyoshi; Iwata, Nakao

    2016-01-01

    Objective There has been no direct comparison of aripiprazole and blonanserin for schizophrenia treatment. We conducted a 24-week, rater-masked, randomized trial of aripiprazole (6−30 mg/d) vs blonanserin (4−24 mg/d) in schizophrenia patients who were not taking any antipsychotic medication for more than 2 weeks before enrollment (UMIN000011194). Methods The primary outcome measure for efficacy was improvement of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score at week 24. Secondary outcomes were PANSS subscale scores, 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-21) score, response rate, discontinuation rate, and individual adverse events. Results Forty-four patients were recruited. The discontinuation rate was 86.4% in the aripiprazole group and 68.2% in the blonanserin treatment group. There was no significant difference in mean time to discontinuation between the groups. Although both treatment groups showed significant reductions in the PANSS total score, PANSS subscale scores, and HAMD-21 scores at week 24, the magnitudes of the changes did not differ between the groups. There were no significant differences in the incidences of adverse events including somnolence, extrapyramidal symptoms, prolactin-related adverse events, and weight change between the groups. Conclusion Our results suggest similar efficacy and safety profiles of aripiprazole and blonanserin in the patients with schizophrenia. Double-blind controlled studies are needed to further explore the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole and blonanserin in schizophrenia. PMID:27932884

  19. Extracellular Hsp72 concentration relates to a minimum endogenous criteria during acute exercise-heat exposure.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Oliver R; Dennis, Alex; Parfitt, Tony; Taylor, Lee; Watt, Peter W; Maxwell, Neil S

    2014-05-01

    Extracellular heat shock protein 72 (eHsp72) concentration increases during exercise-heat stress when conditions elicit physiological strain. Differences in severity of environmental and exercise stimuli have elicited varied response to stress. The present study aimed to quantify the extent of increased eHsp72 with increased exogenous heat stress, and determine related endogenous markers of strain in an exercise-heat model. Ten males cycled for 90 min at 50 % [Formula: see text] in three conditions (TEMP, 20 °C/63 % RH; HOT, 30.2 °C/51%RH; VHOT, 40.0 °C/37%RH). Plasma was analysed for eHsp72 pre, immediately post and 24-h post each trial utilising a commercially available ELISA. Increased eHsp72 concentration was observed post VHOT trial (+172.4 %) (p < 0.05), but not TEMP (-1.9 %) or HOT (+25.7 %) conditions. eHsp72 returned to baseline values within 24 h in all conditions. Changes were observed in rectal temperature (Trec), rate of Trec increase, area under the curve for Trec of 38.5 and 39.0 °C, duration Trec ≥38.5 and ≥39.0 °C, and change in muscle temperature, between VHOT, and TEMP and HOT, but not between TEMP and HOT. Each condition also elicited significantly increasing physiological strain, described by sweat rate, heart rate, physiological strain index, rating of perceived exertion and thermal sensation. Stepwise multiple regression reported rate of Trec increase and change in Trec to be predictors of increased eHsp72 concentration. Data suggests eHsp72 concentration increases once systemic temperature and sympathetic activity exceeds a minimum endogenous criteria elicited during VHOT conditions and is likely to be modulated by large, rapid changes in core temperature.

  20. Oxidative stress related to chlorpyrifos exposure in rainbow trout: Acute and medium term effects on genetic biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Benedetto, A; Brizio, P; Squadrone, S; Scanzio, T; Righetti, M; Gasco, L; Prearo, M; Abete, M C

    2016-05-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) are derivatives of phosphoric acid widely used in agriculture as pesticides. Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an OP that is extremely toxic to aquatic organisms. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is considered as a sentinel model species for ecotoxicology assessment in freshwater ecosystems. An exposure study was carried out on rainbow trout to investigate genetic responses to CPF-induced oxidative stress by Real-Time PCR, and to determine the accumulation dynamics of CPF and toxic metabolite chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPF-ox) in edible parts, by HPLC-MS/MS. Among the genes considered to be related to oxidative stress, a significant increase in HSP70 mRNA levels was observed in liver samples up to 14 days after CPF exposure (0.05 mg/L). CPF concentrations in muscle samples reach mean values of 285.25 ng/g within 96 hours of exposure, while CPF-ox concentrations were always under the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the applied method. Our findings lead us to consider HSP70 as a suitable genetic marker in rainbow trout for acute and medium-term monitoring of CPF exposure, complementary to analytical determinations.

  1. Health-Related Quality of Life, Depression, Anxiety, and Self-Image in Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Baytan, Birol; Aşut, Çiğdem; Çırpan Kantarcıoğlu, Arzu; Sezgin Evim, Melike; Güneş, Adalet Meral

    2016-01-01

    Objective: With increasing survival rates in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), the long-term side effects of treatment have become important. Our aim was to investigate health-related quality of life, depression, anxiety, and self-image among ALL survivors. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients diagnosed with ALL and their siblings were enrolled. The Kovacs Children’s Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Offer Self-Image Questionnaire, and Pediatric Quality of Life InventoryTM were used for collecting data. ANOVA tests were used to determine if there were any significant differences between groups. Results: ALL survivors had higher depression, more anxiety symptoms, lower quality of life, and more negative self-image when compared to their siblings. Conclusion: Continuous diagnostic and interventional mental health services might be necessary for possible emotional side effects of treatment during and after the treatment. Rehabilitation and follow-up programs should be implemented for children during and after treatment for ALL. PMID:27094799

  2. Acute confusion and unreal experiences in intensive care patients in relation to the ICU syndrome. Part II.

    PubMed

    Granberg, A; Engberg, I B; Lundberg, D

    1999-02-01

    The intensive care unit syndrome (ICU syndrome) is defined as an altered emotional state occurring in a highly stressful environment, which may manifest itself in various forms such as delirium, confusion, crazy dreams or unreal experiences. The purpose of this part of a study of patients' experiences is to describe and illuminate patients' experiences of acute confusion, disorientation, wakefulness, dreams and nightmares during and after their stay in the ICU. The data were obtained from 19 ventilated patients, who were interviewed twice and had stayed at least 36 hours in the ICU, the first interview being about one week after discharge from the ICU, and the second 4-8 weeks later. The hermeneutic approach used when interpreting and analysing the text from the interviews revealed that patients' experiences of unreal experiences were often associated with intense fear. Intense or continuous unbearable fear seems to result in frightening unreal experiences, which further increase the level of fear. Care actions or caring relationships with relatives or nurses can reduce this fear, which can help to prevent the occurrence and/or duration and intensity of the unreal experiences. Trust and confidence in nurses or significant others and feelings of self-control or trust in self-control seemed to reduce the risk of unreal experiences so that adverse stimuli might only trigger a mild confusion.

  3. Decreased ADAMTS-13 level is related to inflammation factors and risk stratification of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chen; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Jingzhong; Xu, Qinzhu; Song, Ying; Wang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract As a kind of metalloprotease of the ADAMTS family, ADAMTS-13 is crucial for maintaining the normal size of von Willebrand factor. Reduced ADAMTS-13 had been reported in patients with both localized and disseminated malignancies. However, the expression and potential role of ADAMTS-13 in hematological malignancies remain unclear. In this research, we measured and compared ADAMTS-13 levels in plasma of 35 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients and 30 healthy controls and found that ALL patients possessed lower level of ADAMTS-13 than controls. Correlations between ADAMTS-13 and inflammation factors were calculated and ADAMTS-13 was negatively correlated with C-reactive protein and interleukin-1β. ALL patients with infections had lower level of ADAMTS-13 than patients without infections. In addition, high-risk ALL patients possessed lower ADAMTS-13 than patients at low risk. To conclude, ADAMTS-13 level is decreased in the plasma of ALL patients and the level of ADAMTS-13 is related to plasma inflammation factors and risk stratification of ALL patients, which could contribute to better understanding of the clinical significance of ADAMTS-13. PMID:28207543

  4. The financial benefits of acute inpatient palliative medicine: an inter-institutional comparative analysis by all patient refined-diagnosis related group and case mix index.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mellar P; Walsh, Declan; LeGrand, Susan B; Lagman, Ruth L; Harrison, Betty; Rybicki, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Financial comparisons of acute care hospital services are possible using the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services case mix index (CMI) and All Patient Refined-Diagnosis Related Group (APR-DRG) data. We compared The Cleveland Clinic's Inpatient Palliative Medicine (CCIPM) acute care unit's CMI and APR-DRG data with national and peer institution data. Total mean charges per admission to the CCIPM unit were 7,800 dollars lower than at other peer institutions despite an equivalent severity of illness and longer length of stay and higher mortality in the CCIPM unit. The lower charges were due primarily to lower laboratory and pharmaceutical charges. We conclude that an acute inpatient palliative medicine unit operating within a comprehensive integrated palliative medicine program is cost-effective in providing specialized care for people with advanced disease.

  5. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Acute Changes in Heart Rate Variability and Respiratory Function in Urban Cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Kulka, Ryan; Dubeau, Aimee; Martin, Christina; Wang, Daniel; Dales, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined the acute health effects of air pollution exposures experienced while cycling in traffic. Objectives: We conducted a crossover study to examine the relationship between traffic pollution and acute changes in heart rate variability. We also collected spirometry and exhaled nitric oxide measures. Methods: Forty-two healthy adults cycled for 1 hr on high- and low-traffic routes as well as indoors. Health measures were collected before cycling and 1–4 hr after the start of cycling. Ultrafine particles (UFPs; ≤ 0.1 μm in aerodynamic diameter), particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), black carbon, and volatile organic compounds were measured along each cycling route, and ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) levels were recorded from a fixed-site monitor. Mixed-effects models were used to estimate associations between air pollutants and changes in health outcome measures relative to precycling baseline values. Results: An interquartile range increase in UFP levels (18,200/cm3) was associated with a significant decrease in high-frequency power 4 hr after the start of cycling [β = –224 msec2; 95% confidence interval (CI), –386 to –63 msec2]. Ambient NO2 levels were inversely associated with the standard deviation of normal-to-normal (NN) intervals (β = –10 msec; 95% CI, –20 to –0.34 msec) and positively associated with the ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power (β = 1.4; 95% CI, 0.35 to 2.5) 2 hr after the start of cycling. We also observed significant inverse associations between ambient O3 levels and the root mean square of successive differences in adjacent NN intervals 3 hr after the start of cycling. Conclusions: Short-term exposures to traffic pollution may contribute to altered autonomic modulation of the heart in the hours immediately after cycling. PMID:21672679

  6. The law relating to air currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1921-01-01

    In the subdivided wing section profile, the diagram of the current is entirely changed and the harmful formation of eddies is avoided through premature deflection. Pressure equalization does not occur between the upper and under sides. This report presents a discussion of the various laws relating to wing design with the conclusion being that lift increases with more acute angles of attack.

  7. The relation between aged blood products and onset of transfusion-related acute lung injury. A review of pre-clinical data.

    PubMed

    Vlaar, A P; Straat, M; Juffermans, N P

    2011-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the leading cause of transfusion related morbidity and mortality. TRALI is suggested to be a "two hit" event. The "first hit" is the underlying condition of the patient which results in sequestration and priming of neutrophils in the pulmonary compartment. The "second hit" is the transfusion of either human leukocyte antibodies or aged blood products which results in activation of the primed neutrophils and finally in pulmonary edema. The present review focuses on pre-clinical studies investigating the role of blood products containing aged cells (red blood cells, RBCs, and platelet concentrates, PLTs) and the onset of TRALI. Several mechanisms are under scrutiny. The first suggested mechanism is that soluble mediators accumulating during storage of RBCs and PLTs may play a role, including bio-active lipids or soluble CD40L. These soluble factors were found to cause lung injury in the presence of a "first hit". Another proposed mechanism involves the aged erythrocyte itself. During storage, the erythrocyte undergoes numerous changes in its biochemical and structural condition and acquires pro-inflammatory properties, sometimes collectively referred to as the "red cell storage lesion". Although it could be speculated that all of these factors may be involved in the onset of TRALI, only one pre-clinical study shows an association between the aged erythrocyte and the onset of TRALI. The suggested mechanism is a decrease in the chemokine scavenging function of the erythrocyte by reduction of the Duffy antigen expression resulting in an increase in lung injury. Further research is needed to elucidate possible mechanisms of onset of TRALI by aged blood products.

  8. Mortality in children with complicated severe acute malnutrition is related to intestinal and systemic inflammation: an observational cohort study12

    PubMed Central

    van Vliet, Sara J; Di Giovanni, Valeria; Zhang, Ling; Richardson, Susan; van Rheenen, Patrick F

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diarrhea affects a large proportion of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). However, its etiology and clinical consequences remain unclear. Objective: We investigated diarrhea, enteropathogens, and systemic and intestinal inflammation for their interrelation and their associations with mortality in children with SAM. Design: Intestinal pathogens (n = 15), cytokines (n = 29), fecal calprotectin, and the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) butyrate and propionate were determined in children aged 6–59 mo (n = 79) hospitalized in Malawi for complicated SAM. The relation between variables, diarrhea, and death was assessed with partial least squares (PLS) path modeling. Results: Fatal subjects (n = 14; 18%) were younger (mean ± SD age: 17 ± 11 compared with 25 ± 11 mo; P = 0.01) with higher prevalence of diarrhea (46% compared with 18%, P = 0.03). Intestinal pathogens Shigella (36%), Giardia (33%), and Campylobacter (30%) predominated, but their presence was not associated with death or diarrhea. Calprotectin was significantly higher in children who died [median (IQR): 1360 mg/kg feces (2443–535 mg/kg feces) compared with 698 mg/kg feces (1438–244 mg/kg feces), P = 0.03]. Butyrate [median (IQR): 31 ng/mL (112–22 ng/mL) compared with 2036 ng/mL (5800–149 ng/mL), P = 0.02] and propionate [median (IQR): 167 ng/mL (831–131 ng/mL) compared with 3174 ng/mL (5819–357 ng/mL), P = 0.04] were lower in those who died. Mortality was directly related to high systemic inflammation (path coefficient = 0.49), whereas diarrhea, high calprotectin, and low SCFA production related to death indirectly via their more direct association with systemic inflammation. Conclusions: Diarrhea, high intestinal inflammation, low concentrations of fecal SCFAs, and high systemic inflammation are significantly related to mortality in SAM. However, these relations were not mediated by the presence of intestinal pathogens. These findings offer an important understanding of

  9. Therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome: a clinical and morphologic study of 65 cases

    SciTech Connect

    Michels, S.D.; McKenna, R.W.; Arthur, D.C.; Brunning, R.D.

    1985-06-01

    This study consists of 65 patients (pts) who developed a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (39 pts) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (26 pts) following chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy; the interval from the onset of therapy to bone marrow abnormality ranged from 11 to 192 months (median, 58). Thirty-three patients had been previously treated for lymphoproliferative diseases, 29 for carcinoma, and three for a nonneoplastic disorder. Approximately 30% of the cases presenting in the MDS phase evolved to AML in one to 12 months (median, 3.5). The AML in 49% of the cases was not readily classified according to French-American-British (FAB) criteria; the primary difficulty in classification related to the involvement of multiple cell lines. Among the cases that could be classified, all FAB types were represented except for M1; M2 was the most frequent type. Clonal chromosome abnormalities were found in marrow specimens from 22 of 24 (92%) patients studied with G banding; 11 had abnormalities of chromosomes 5 and/or 7. The median survival for all patients was four months with no significant difference between those treated and not treated with antileukemic therapy. The median survival was three months for the patients presenting with AML, six months for the patients with AML following an MDS, and four months for the patients with an MDS that did not evolve to AML. The findings in the present study suggest that there are three stages of therapy-related panmyelosis: (1) pancytopenia with associated myelodysplastic changes, (2) a frank MDS, and (3) overt AML. Many patients will present in the stage of overt AML that differs from de novo AML primarily by the high incidence of trilineage involvement, difficulty in classification, frequent cytogenetic abnormalities, and poor response to antileukemic therapy.

  10. Acute low back pain information online: an evaluation of quality, content accuracy and readability of related websites.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, Paul A; Ahmed, Osman H; Bankier, Shane S; Chan, Tze Jieh; Crawford, Sarah A; Ryder, Catherine R; Welsh, Lisa J; Schneiders, Anthony G

    2012-08-01

    The internet is increasingly being used as a source of health information by the general public. Numerous websites exist that provide advice and information on the diagnosis and management of acute low back pain (ALBP), however, the accuracy and utility of this information has yet to be established. The aim of this study was to establish the quality, content and readability of online information relating to the treatment and management of ALBP. The internet was systematically searched using Google search engines from six major English-speaking countries. In addition, relevant national and international low back pain-related professional organisations were also searched. A total of 22 relevant websites was identified. The accuracy of the content of the ALBP information was established using a 13 point guide developed from international guidelines. Website quality was evaluated using the HONcode, and the Flesch-Kincaid Grade level (FKGL) was used to establish readability. The majority of websites lacked accurate information, resulting in an overall mean content accuracy score of 6.3/17. Only 3 websites had a high content accuracy score (>14/17) along with an acceptable readability score (FKGL 6-8) with the majority of websites providing information which exceeded the recommended level for the average person to comprehend. The most accurately reported category was, "Education and reassurance" (98%) while information regarding "manipulation" (50%), "massage" (9%) and "exercise" (0%) were amongst the lowest scoring categories. These results demonstrate the need for more accurate and readable internet-based ALBP information specifically centred on evidence-based guidelines.

  11. Related factors and incidence risk of acute myocardial infarction among the people with disability: A national population-based study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Chiu, Li-Ting; Tsai, Wen-Chen

    2014-11-06

    Cardiovascular disease has always been a leading cause of death worldwide. Because the mobility of people with disability is relatively decreased, their risk of cardiovascular disease is increased. This study investigated the risks and relevant factors of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among people with disability. This is a retrospective cohort study based on secondary data analysis. This study focused on 798,328 people with disability who were aged 35 and above during 2002-2008 and were registered in the National Disability Registration Database; the relevant medical data from 2000 to 2011 were acquired from the National Health Insurance Research Database. A Cox proportional hazards model was adopted for analyzing the relative AMI risks among different disability types and finding latent risk factors. The results indicated that the AMI incidence rate (per 1000 patient-years) among people with disability was 2.48. Men had an AMI incidence rate of 2.68 per 1000 patient-years, which was significantly higher than that of women (2.21; p<.05). The AMI risk for people with mental disabilities was 0.76 times the risk for people with physical disabilities (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.71-0.82). The AMI risk for people with profound disabilities was 2.04 times (95% CI=1.93-2.16) the risk for people with mild disabilities. AMI risk increased with age. People with disability aged 65 and above had an AMI risk that was 5.01-6.03 times the risk for people with disability aged below 45. Disabled indigenous people had a relatively higher AMI risk (HR=1.35, 95% CI=1.19-1.52). The AMI risk for people with disability with a Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) of 4 and above was 5.89 times (95% CI=5.56-6.25) the risk for those with a CCI of 0. Compared with people with physical disabilities, people with visual impairment and people with dysfunctional primary organs had significantly higher AMI risks (HR=1.15; HR=1.66). This study found that people with disability who were male

  12. Relation between blood pH and ionized calcium during acute metabolic alteration of the acid-base balance in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gaiter, A M; Bonfant, G; Manes, M; Belfanti, P; Alloatti, S

    1997-07-01

    We induced metabolic alkalosis and acidosis in 10 healthy volunteers in order to analyse in vivo relation between pH and ionized calcium (cCa2+). In the alkalinization test, 2.7 mol/kg NaHCO3 was injected. In the acidification test, volunteers took 4 mmol/kg NH4Cl. Blood pH and cCa2+ (mmol/l) mean values (SD) baseline, after alkalinization and acidification tests, were: 7.363 (0.018), 7.456 (0.031), 7.244 (0.031), 1.27 (0.03), 1.14 (0.03) and 1.38 (0.04). Mean slope of regression log cCa2+/pH was -0.39 (SD 0.11). Such a slope differs after in vivo or in vitro changes, due to the in vivo rapid restoration of equilibrium between the plasmatic and interstitial compartments following changes in water and electrolyte concentrations. The type of acid-base alteration-respiratory or metabolic-influences pH changes, and consequently the regression slope. The in vivo slope for log cCa2+/pH in normal subjects (-0.21) is much the same as in acute respiratory alterations (-0.17), whereas it differs in acute metabolic alterations (present study). Bicarbonates play different roles: the same changes in pH cause greater changes in cCa2+ after acute metabolic rather than respiratory alterations. Ca2+ homeostasis is maintained in acute respiratory acid-base imbalance, despite wide shifts in pH, whereas in acute metabolic alterations even small pH changes have striking repercussions on cCa2+. The experimental angular coefficient for in vivo acute metabolic acid-base alterations differs from the theoretical one calculated by Thode's differential equation (-0.25).

  13. Photoelectric angle converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podzharenko, Volodymyr A.; Kulakov, Pavlo I.

    2001-06-01

    The photo-electric angle transmitter of rotation is offered, at which the output voltage is linear function of entering magnitude. In a transmitter the linear phototransducer is used on the basis of pair photo diode -- operating amplifier, which output voltage is linear function of the area of an illuminated photosensitive stratum, and modulator of a light stream of the special shape, which ensures a linear dependence of this area from an angle of rotation. The transmitter has good frequent properties and can be used for dynamic measurements of an angular velocity and angle of rotation, in systems of exact drives and systems of autocontrol.

  14. Meteorite incidence angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, D. W.

    1993-06-01

    Think about an asteroid smashing into the surface of the Moon and excavating a crater; or hitting Earth and scattering meteorite fragments over a strewn field. Imagine a fragment of cometary dust burning out in the Earth's atmosphere and producing a meteor. These bodies have paths that are inclined at some angle to the vertical. But what is the predominant value of this angle of incidence, i? How does the number of incident bodies vary as a function of angle i? And how do both these affect the prevalence of non- circular lunar craters and the ellipticity of meteorite strewn fields?

  15. Spectrum of Angle Closure, Uveal Effusion Syndrome, and Nanophthalmos

    PubMed Central

    Neale, Matthew; Johnson, Sandra M

    2016-01-01

    Nanophthalmos, uveal effusion syndrome, and acute angle closure glaucoma (ACG) can present as a continuum in a patient, as is described here. This patient's angle closure was thought to be caused by idiopathic uveal effusion syndrome, and while there are no generally accepted diagnosis criteria for nanophthalmos, our patient fulfilled the criteria as defined by Wu.10 To prevent development of further angle closure, the decision was made to do cataract extraction as opposed to medical management. How to cite this article Areiter E, Neale M, Johnson SM. Spectrum of Angle Closure, Uveal Effusion Syndrome, and Nanophthalmos. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2016;10(3):113-117. PMID:27857491

  16. CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS, OUTCOMES AND RISK FACTORS FOR DEATH AMONG CRITICALLY ILL PATIENTS WITH HIV-RELATED ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY

    PubMed Central

    LUNA, Leonardo Duarte Sobreira; SOARES, Douglas de Sousa; JUNIOR, Geraldo Bezerra da SILVA; CAVALCANTE, Malena Gadelha; MALVEIRA, Lara Raissa Cavalcante; MENESES, Gdayllon Cavalcante; PEREIRA, Eanes Delgado Barros; DAHER, Elizabeth De Francesco

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Background: The aim of this study is to describe clinical characteristics, outcomes and risk factors for death among patients with HIV-related acute kidney injury (AKI) admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: A retrospective study was conducted with HIV-infected AKI patients admitted to the ICU of an infectious diseases hospital in Fortaleza, Brazil. All the patients with confirmed diagnosis of HIV and AKI admitted from January 2004 to December 2011 were included. A comparison between survivors and non-survivors was performed. Risk factors for death were investigated. Results: Among 256 AKI patients admitted to the ICU in the study period, 73 were identified as HIV-infected, with a predominance of male patients (83.6%), and the mean age was 41.2 ± 10.4 years. Non-survivor patients presented higher APACHE II scores (61.4 ± 19 vs. 38.6 ± 18, p = 0.004), used more vasoconstrictors (70.9 vs. 37.5%, p = 0.02) and needed more mechanical ventilation - MV (81.1 vs. 35.3%, p = 0.001). There were 55 deaths (75.3%), most of them (53.4%) due to septic shock. Independent risk factors for mortality were septic shock (OR = 14.2, 95% CI = 2.0-96.9, p = 0.007) and respiratory insufficiency with need of MV (OR = 27.6, 95% CI = 5.0-153.0, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Non-survivor HIV-infected patients with AKI admitted to the ICU presented higher severity APACHE II scores, more respiratory damage and hemodynamic impairment than survivors. Septic shock and respiratory insufficiency were independently associated to death. PMID:27410912

  17. Relative sensitivity of one freshwater and two marine acute toxicity tests as determined by testing 30 offshore E & P chemicals.

    PubMed

    Sverdrup, Line E; Fürst, Charlotte S; Weideborg, Mona; Vik, Eilen A; Stenersen, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Acute toxicity of 30 offshore E & P (Exploration and Production) chemicals was measured using the three standard test organisms Daphnia magna (freshwater cladoceran), Acartia tonsa (marine copepod) and Skeletonema costatum (marine diatom alga). Test chemicals included 20 water-soluble and 10 (partially) non-soluble products. For 22 out of the 30 chemicals, the difference in sensitivity between the three tests varied within one order of magnitude. A very good correlation was found between the two marine tests (r = 0.96, P < 0.01, n = 30), and a correlation coefficient of r = 0.78 (P < 0.01, n = 30) was found between D. magna and both A. tonsa and S. costatum, individually. When the comparison of D. magna and A. tonsa sensitivity was based only on the water-soluble chemicals, a significantly higher correlation was obtained (r = 0.84, n = 20), indicating that the sample preparation method used for the (partially) non-soluble chemicals (the water accommodated fraction (WAF) method) induces additional variation between tests performed with different test media. (Partially) non-soluble chemicals are characterised by phase separation or precipitation at the concentrations used for testing. In a WAF-based test, each test concentration/exposure level is prepared separately, and following mixing and separation, only the water phase is used for testing. Toxicity is related to the amount of substance originally added to the mixing vessels. For 25 of the 30 chemicals, D. magna was found to be less sensitive than the marine copepod by a factor >2. The generally higher sensitivity of the marine toxicity tests compared to the Daphnia test emphasise the importance of using marine data for environmental hazard classification as well as for environmental risk assessment purposes.

  18. Angles, Time, and Proportion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagni, David L.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an investigation making connections between the time on an analog clock and the angle between the minute hand and the hour hand. It was posed by a middle school mathematics teacher. (Contains 8 tables and 6 figures.)

  19. Disseminated fusariosis and endogenous fungal endophthalmitis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia following platelet transfusion possibly due to transfusion-related immunomodulation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To report a case of disseminated fusariosis with endogenous endophthalmitis in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Transfusion-associated immune modulation secondary to platelet transfusion could play an important role in the pathophysiology of this case. Case Presentation A 9 year-old male with acute lymphoblastic leukemia complicated by pancytopenia and disseminated Intravascular coagulation was given platelet transfusion. He developed disseminated fusariosis and was referred to the ophthalmology team for right endogenous endophthalmitis. The infection was controlled with aggressive systemic and intravitreal antifungals. Conclusion Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia are predisposed to endogenous fungal endophthalmitis. Transfusion-associated immune modulation may further increase host susceptibility to such opportunistic infections. PMID:22044440

  20. 'Magic Angle Precession'

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, Bernd

    2008-01-21

    An advanced and exact geometric description of nonlinear precession dynamics modeling very accurately natural and artificial couplings showing Lorentz symmetry is derived. In the linear description it is usually ignored that the geometric phase of relativistic motion couples back to the orbital motion providing for a non-linear recursive precession dynamics. The high coupling strength in the nonlinear case is found to be a gravitomagnetic charge proportional to the precession angle and angular velocity generated by geometric phases, which are induced by high-speed relativistic rotations and are relevant to propulsion technologies but also to basic interactions. In the quantum range some magic precession angles indicating strong coupling in a phase-locked chaotic system are identified, emerging from a discrete time dynamical system known as the cosine map showing bifurcations at special precession angles relevant to heavy nuclei stability. The 'Magic Angle Precession' (MAP) dynamics can be simulated and visualized by cones rolling in or on each other, where the apex and precession angles are indexed by spin, charge or precession quantum numbers, and corresponding magic angles. The most extreme relativistic warping and twisting effect is given by the Dirac spinor half spin constellation with 'Hyperdiamond' MAP, which resembles quark confinement.

  1. A Predictive Model for Assessing Surgery-Related Acute Kidney Injury Risk in Hypertensive Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xing; Ye, Yongkai; Mi, Qi; Huang, Wei; He, Ting; Huang, Pin; Xu, Nana; Wu, Qiaoyu; Wang, Anli; Li, Ying; Yuan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious post-surgery complication; however, few preoperative risk models for AKI have been developed for hypertensive patients undergoing general surgery. Thus, in this study involving a large Chinese cohort, we developed and validated a risk model for surgery-related AKI using preoperative risk factors. Methods and Findings This retrospective cohort study included 24,451 hypertensive patients aged ≥18 years who underwent general surgery between 2007 and 2015. The endpoints for AKI classification utilized by the KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) system were assessed. The most discriminative predictor was selected using Fisher scores and was subsequently used to construct a stepwise multivariate logistic regression model, whose performance was evaluated via comparisons with models used in other published works using the net reclassification index (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) index. Results Surgery-related AKI developed in 1994 hospitalized patients (8.2%). The predictors identified by our Xiang-ya Model were age, gender, eGFR, NLR, pulmonary infection, prothrombin time, thrombin time, hemoglobin, uric acid, serum potassium, serum albumin, total cholesterol, and aspartate amino transferase. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the validation set and cross validation set were 0.87 (95% CI 0.86–0.89) and (0.89; 95% CI 0.88–0.90), respectively, and was therefore similar to the AUC for the training set (0.89; 95% CI 0.88–0.90). The optimal cutoff value was 0.09. Our model outperformed that developed by Kate et al., which exhibited an NRI of 31.38% (95% CI 25.7%-37.1%) and an IDI of 8% (95% CI 5.52%-10.50%) for patients who underwent cardiac surgery (n = 2101). Conclusions/Significance We developed an AKI risk model based on preoperative risk factors and biomarkers that demonstrated good performance when predicting events in a large cohort of

  2. Treatment-related myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS)/acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in children with cancer: A single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Tragiannidis, Athanasios; Gombakis, Nikolaos; Papageorgiou, Maria; Hatzipantelis, Emmanuel; Papageorgiou, Theodotis; Hatzistilianou, Maria

    2016-12-01

    Treatment-related myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS)/acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a devastating early or late complication of treatment for childhood cancer related with a significant morbidity and mortality. We retrospectively studied survivors of childhood cancer. Overall, 287 patients were recorded in the databases and we identified three (1.04%) with t-MDS. The primary cancer diagnoses were Langerhans cell histiocytosis (one patient) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; two patients). The mean age of patients was 12.1 years. All patients had received systemic antifungal treatment for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis successfully treated with voriconazole and liposomal amphotericin B before diagnosis of t-MDS. Two patients (66%) remain alive after a median follow-up period of 3.5 years.

  3. The expression of plasticity-related genes in an acute model of stress is modulated by chronic desipramine in a time-dependent manner within medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Nava, Nicoletta; Treccani, Giulia; Müller, Heidi Kaastrup; Popoli, Maurizio; Wegener, Gregers; Elfving, Betina

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases. Stress-induced alteration of synaptic plasticity has been hypothesized to underlie the morphological changes observed by neuroimaging in psychiatric patients in key regions such as hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC). We have recently shown that a single acute stress exposure produces significant short-term alterations of structural plasticity within medial PFC. These alterations were partially prevented by previous treatment with chronic desipramine (DMI). In the present study we evaluated the effects of acute Foot-shock (FS)-stress and pre-treatment with the traditional antidepressant DMI on the gene expression of key regulators of synaptic plasticity and structure. Expression of Homer, Shank, Spinophilin, Densin-180, and the small RhoGTPase related gene Rac1 and downstream target genes, Limk1, Cofilin1 and Rock1 were investigated 1 day (1d), 7 d and 14d after FS-stress exposure. We found that DMI specifically increases the short-term expression of Spinophilin, as well as Homer and Shank family genes, and that both acute stress and DMI exert significant long-term effects on mRNA levels of genes involved in spine plasticity. These findings support the knowledge that acute FS stress and antidepressant treatment induce both rapid and sustained time-dependent alterations in structural components of synaptic plasticity in rodent medial PFC.

  4. Selective increases of extracellular brain concentrations of aromatic and branched-chain amino acids in relation to deterioration of neurological status in acute (ischemic) liver failure.

    PubMed

    Michalak, A; Butterworth, R F

    1997-12-01

    Previous reports based on studies in brain tissue from humans and experimental animals suggest that aromatic amino acids (AAAs) and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA's) accumulate in brain in acute liver failure. In order to assess these changes in relation to the severity of neurological impairment and to the degree of hyperammonemia, AAAs and BCAAs were measured in vivo by cerebral microdialysis in frontal cortex of rats at various stages during the development of hepatic encephalopathy due to acute liver failure resulting from portacaval anastomosis followed by hepatic artery ligation. Extracellular brain concentrations of AAAs and of valine and leucine were elevated 2 to 4-fold following hepatic devascularization and these increases were significantly correlated to arterial ammonia concentration (r= 0.71-0.84, p<0.05). Extracellular concentrations of tyrosine paralleled the deterioration of neurological status in acute liver failure rats. In view of their role as precursors of monoamine neurotransmitters, ammonia-induced alterations of intracellular/extracellular brain concentration ratios for AAAs could account for altered neuronal excitability and contribute to the encephalopathy characteristic of acute liver failure.

  5. Enhancing the population impact of collaborative care interventions: Mixed method development and implementation of stepped care targeting posttraumatic stress disorder and related comorbidities after acute trauma

    PubMed Central

    Zatzick, Douglas; Rivara, Frederick; Jurkovich, Gregory; Russo, Joan; Trusz, Sarah Geiss; Wang, Jin; Wagner, Amy; Stephens, Kari; Dunn, Chris; Uehara, Edwina; Petrie, Megan; Engel, Charles; Davydow, Dimitri; Katon, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop and implement a stepped collaborative care intervention targeting PTSD and related co-morbidities to enhance the population impact of early trauma-focused interventions. Method We describe the design and implementation of the Trauma Survivors Outcomes & Support Study (TSOS II). An interdisciplinary treatment development team was comprised of trauma surgical, clinical psychiatric and mental health services “change agents” who spanned the boundaries between front-line trauma center clinical care and acute care policy. Mixed method clinical epidemiologic and clinical ethnographic studies informed the development of PTSD screening and intervention procedures. Results Two-hundred and seven acutely injured trauma survivors with high early PTSD symptom levels were randomized into the study. The stepped collaborative care model integrated care management (i.e., posttraumatic concern elicitation and amelioration, motivational interviewing, and behavioral activation) with cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy targeting PTSD. The model was feasibly implemented by front-line acute care MSW and ARNP providers. Conclusions Stepped care protocols targeting PTSD may enhance the population impact of early interventions developed for survivors of individual and mass trauma by extending the reach of collaborative care interventions to acute care medical settings and other non-specialty posttraumatic contexts. PMID:21596205

  6. Transient impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in relatively low-dose of acute radiation syndrome is associated with inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong-Sun; Lee, Hae-June; Kim, Jong Choon; Kang, Seong Soo; Bae, Chun-Sik; Shin, Taekyun; Jin, Jae-Kwang; Kim, Sung Ho; Wang, Hongbing; Moon, Changjong

    2008-09-01

    Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, which occurs constitutively, is vulnerable to ionizing radiation. In the relatively low-dose exposure of acute radiation syndrome (ARS), the change in the adult hippocampal function is poorly understood. This study analyzed the changes in apoptotic cell death and neurogenesis in the DGs of hippocampi from adult ICR mice with single whole-body gamma-irradiation using the TUNEL method and immunohistochemical markers of neurogenesis, Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX). In addition, the hippocampus-dependent learning and memory tasks after single whole-body gamma-irradiation were examined in order to evaluate the hippocampus-related behavioral dysfunction in the relatively low-dose exposure of ARS. The number of TUNEL-positive apoptotic nuclei in the dentate gyrus (DG) was increased 6-12 h after acute gamma-irradiation (a single dose of 0.5 to 4 Gy). In contrast, the number of Ki-67- and DCX-positive cells began to decrease significantly 6 h postirradiation, reaching its lowest level 24 h after irradiation. The level of Ki-67 and DCX immunoreactivity decreased in a dose-dependent manner within the range of irradiation applied (0-4 Gy). In passive avoidance and object recognition memory test, the mice trained 1 day after acute irradiation (2 Gy) showed significant memory deficits, compared with the sham controls. In conclusion, the pattern of the hippocampus-dependent memory dysfunction is consistent with the change in neurogenesis after acute irradiation. It is suggested that a relatively low dose of ARS in adult ICR mice is sufficiently detrimental to interrupt the functioning of the hippocampus, including learning and memory, possibly through the inhibition of neurogenesis.

  7. Creation of the π angle standard for the flat angle measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giniotis, V.; Rybokas, M.

    2010-07-01

    Angle measurements are based mainly on multiangle prisms - polygons with autocollimators, rotary encoders fo high accuracy and circular scales as the standards of the flat angle. Traceability of angle measurements is based on the standard of the plane angle - prism (polygon) calibrated at an appropriate accuracy. Some metrological institutions have established their special test benches (comparators) equipped with circular scales or rotary encoders of high accuracy and polygons with autocollimators for angle calibration purposes. Nevertheless, the standard (etalon) of plane angle - polygon has many restrictions for the transfer of angle unit - radian (rad) and other units of angle. It depends on the number of angles formed by the flat sides of the polygon that is restricted by technological and metrological difficulties related to the production and accuracy determination of the polygon. A possibility to create the standard of the angle equal to π rad or half the circle or the full angle is proposed. It can be created by the circular scale with the rotation axis of very high accuracy and two precision reading instruments, usually, photoelectric microscopes (PM), placed on the opposite sides of the circular scale using the special alignment steps. A great variety of angle units and values can be measured and its traceability ensured by applying the third PM on the scale. Calibration of the circular scale itself and other scale or rotary encoder as well is possible using the proposed method with an implementation of π rad as the primary standard angle. The method proposed enables to assure a traceability of angle measurements at every laboratory having appropriate environment and reading instruments of appropriate accuracy together with a rotary table with the rotation axis of high accuracy - rotation trajectory (runout) being in the range of 0.05 μm. Short information about the multipurpose angle measurement test bench developed is presented.

  8. Relative Incidence of Acute Adverse Events with Ferumoxytol Compared to Other Intravenous Iron Compounds: A Matched Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wetmore, James B.; Weinhandl, Eric D.; Zhou, Jincheng; Gilbertson, David T.

    2017-01-01

    Concerns persist about adverse reactions to intravenous (IV) iron. We aimed to determine the relative safety of ferumoxytol compared to other IV iron compounds. This retrospective cohort study with propensity-score matching for patients and drug doses used the Medicare 20% random sample to identify patients (1) without chronic kidney disease (non-CKD) and (2) with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) who received a first dose of IV iron in 2010–2012. Exposures were ferumoxytol, iron sucrose, sodium ferric gluconate, or iron dextran. Outcomes were hypersensitivity symptoms, anaphylaxis, emergency department (ED) encounters, hospitalizations, and death after acute IV iron exposure. In the primary analysis for reactions on the day of or following exposure, there was no difference in hypersensitivity symptoms (hazard ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 0.94–1.16) or hypotension (0.83, 0.52–1.34) between 4289 non-CKD ferumoxytol users and an equal number of users of other compounds; results were similar for 7358 NDD-CKD patients and an equal number of controls. All-cause ED encounters or hospitalizations were less common in both the non-CKD (0.56, 0.45–0.70) and NDD-CKD ferumoxytol-treated patients (0.83, 0.71–0.95). Fewer than 10 deaths occurred in both the non-CKD and NDD-CKD ferumoxytol users and in matched controls; the hazard for death did not differ significantly between ferumoxytol users and controls in the non-CKD patients (2.00, 0.33–11.97) or in the NDD-CKD patients (0.25, 0.04–1.52). Multiple sensitivity analyses showed similar results. Ferumoxytol did not appear to be associated with more adverse reactions than other compounds for the treatment of iron-deficiency anemia in both non-CKD and NDD-CKD patients. PMID:28135334

  9. Assessment and management of patients with acute red eye.

    PubMed

    Watkinson, Sue

    2013-06-01

    This article provides an overview of the role of the nurse in the assessment and management of five ocular conditions that give rise to an acute red eye in older people. The conditions discussed are acute closed angle glaucoma, acute iritis, acute conjunctivitis, herpes zoster ophthalmicus and bacterial corneal ulcer.

  10. Does matching relation exist between the length and the tilting angle of terminal implants in the all-on-four protocol? stress distributions by 3D finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaomei; Cao, Zhizhong; Qiu, Xiaoqian; Tang, Zhen; Gong, Lulu

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To explore whether there is matching relation between the length and the tilting angle of terminal implants in the All-on-Four protocol by studying the effects of different implant configurations on stress distributions of implant, bone, and framework. MATERIALS AND METHODS Four implants were employed to support a full-arch fixed prosthesis and five three-dimensional finite element models were established with CT images, based on the length (S and L) and distal tilt angle (0°, 30° and 45°) of terminal implants for an edentulous mandible, which named: Tilt0-S, Tilt30-S, Tilt30-L, Tilt45-S and Tilt45-L. An oblique 240 N was loaded at second molar. The von Mises Stresses were analyzed. The implants were consecutively named #1 to #4 from the loading point. RESULTS 1) Tilt0-S had the greatest stress on the implants, with the other groups exhibiting variable reductions; the four implants of Tilt45-L demonstrated the greatest reduction in stress. 2) Tilt0-S had the greatest stress at bone around #1 implant neck, and Tilt45-L exhibited the least stress, which was a 36.3% reduction compared to Tilt0-S. 3) The greatest stress in the framework was found on the cantilevers distal to #1 implant. Tilt45-S exhibited the least stress. CONCLUSION Matching different length and tilting angle of the terminal implants led to variable stress reductions on implants, bone and the superstructure. By optimizing implant configuration, the reduction of stress on implants and surrounding bone could be maximized. Under the present condition, Tilt45-L was the preferred configuration. Further clinical testings are required. PMID:26140176

  11. Acute bacterial parotitis following acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Lee, V K; Kimbrough, D J; Jarquin-Valdivia, A A

    2009-06-01

    Acute bacterial parotitis (ABP) is a relatively uncommon condition that tends to occur in debilitated older patients. We report a case of an older woman that presented with an acute intracerebral hemorrhage who developed ABP. This morbidity led to endotracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation, tracheostomy and gastrostomy, all of which were not initially needed. We discuss the proposed physiopathology and etiopathogenesis of ABP in adults.

  12. LVAD Outflow Graft Angle and Thrombosis Risk.

    PubMed

    Aliseda, Alberto; Chivukula, Venkat Keshav; Mcgah, Patrick; Prisco, Anthony R; Beckman, Jennifer A; Garcia, Guilherme J M; Mokadam, Nahush A; Mahr, Claudius

    This study quantifies thrombogenic potential (TP) of a wide range of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) outflow graft anastomosis angles through state-of-the-art techniques: 3D imaged-based patient-specific models created via virtual surgery and unsteady computational fluid dynamics with Lagrangian particle tracking. This study aims at clarifying the influence of a single parameter (outflow graft angle) on the thrombogenesis associated with flow patterns in the aortic root after LVAD implantation. This is an important and poorly-understood aspect of LVAD therapy, because several studies have shown strong inter and intrapatient thrombogenic variability and current LVAD implantation strategies do not incorporate outflow graft angle optimization. Accurate platelet-level investigation, enabled by statistical treatment of outliers in Lagrangian particle tracking, demonstrates a strong influence of outflow graft anastomoses angle on thrombogenicity (platelet residence times and activation state characterized by shear stress accumulation) with significantly reduced TP for acutely-angled anastomosed outflow grafts. The methodology presented in this study provides a device-neutral platform for conducting comprehensive thrombogenicity evaluation of LVAD surgical configurations, empowering optimal patient-focused surgical strategies for long-term treatment and care for advanced heart failure patients.

  13. Brain responses to symptom provocation and trauma-related short-term memory recall in coal mining accident survivors with acute severe PTSD.

    PubMed

    Hou, Cailan; Liu, Jun; Wang, Kun; Li, Lingjiang; Liang, Meng; He, Zhong; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Yan; Li, Weihui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2007-05-04

    Functional neuroimaging studies have largely been performed in patients with longstanding chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Additionally, memory function of PTSD patients has been proved to be impaired. We sought to characterize the brain responses of patients with acute PTSD and implemented a trauma-related short-term memory recall paradigm. Individuals with acute severe PTSD (n=10) resulting from a mining accident and 7 men exposed to the mining accident without PTSD underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing the symptom provocation and trauma-related short-term memory recall paradigms. During symptom provocation paradigm, PTSD subjects showed diminished responses in right anterior cingulate gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral middle frontal gyrus and enhanced left parahippocampal gyrus response compared with controls. During the short-term memory recall paradigm, PTSD group showed diminished responses in right inferior frontal gyrus, right middle frontal and left middle occipital gyrus in comparison with controls. PTSD group exhibited diminished right parahippocampal gyrus response during the memory recall task as compared to the symptom provocation task. Our findings suggest that neurophysiological alterations and memory performance deficit have developed in acute severe PTSD.

  14. Case report of isochromosome 17q in acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes after treatment with a hypomethylating agent.

    PubMed

    Sousa, J C; Germano, R T; Castro, C C M; Magalhaes, S M M; Pinheiro, R F

    2012-08-06

    Isochromosome 17q is a relatively common karyotypic abnormality in medulloblastoma, gastric, bladder, and breast cancers. In myeloid disorders, it is observed during disease progression and evolution to acute myeloid leukemia in Philadelphia-positive chronic myeloid leukemia. It has been reported in rare cases of myelodysplastic syndrome, with an incidence of 0.4-1.57%. Two new agents have been approved for treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome/chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. These are the hypomethylating agents, 5-azacytidine and decitabine, recommended by consensus guidelines for high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome patients not eligible for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We present a case of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia with normal cytogenetics at diagnosis treated with decitabine (with good response); however, the patient evolved to acute myeloid leukemia with i(17q) shortly after suspending treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes with i(17q) after the use of a hypomethylating agent.

  15. Vosaroxin and Infusional Cytarabine in Treating Patients With Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-05

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia; Myeloid Sarcoma; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Therapy-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Therapy-Related Myelodysplastic Syndrome

  16. Source water assessment and nonpoint sources of acutely toxic contaminants: A review of research related to survival and transport of Cryptosporidium parvum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Mark J.; Montemagno, Carlo D.; Jenkins, Michael B.

    1998-12-01

    Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (PL-930123) in 1996 required that public water supply managers identify potential sources of contamination within contributing areas. Nonpoint sources of acutely toxic microbial contaminants, such as Cryptosporidium parvum, challenge current approaches to source identification and management as a first step toward developing management plans for public water supply protection. Little may be known about survival and transport in the field environment, prescribed practices may not be designed to manage such substances, and infective stages may be present in vast numbers and may resist water treatment and disinfection processes. This review summarizes research related to survival and transport of C. parvum oocysts, as an example of an acutely toxic contaminant with nonpoint sources in animal agriculture. It discusses ∥1) significance of infected domesticated animals as potential sources of C. parvum, (2) laboratory and field studies of survival and transport, and (3) approaches to source control in the context of public health protection.

  17. Contact angle hysteresis on fluoropolymer surfaces.

    PubMed

    Tavana, H; Jehnichen, D; Grundke, K; Hair, M L; Neumann, A W

    2007-10-31

    Contact angle hysteresis of liquids with different molecular and geometrical properties on high quality films of four fluoropolymers was studied. A number of different causes are identified for hysteresis. With n-alkanes as probe liquids, contact angle hysteresis is found to be strongly related to the configuration of polymer chains. The largest hysteresis is obtained with amorphous polymers whereas the smallest hysteresis occurs for polymers with ordered molecular chains. This is explained in terms of sorption of liquid by the solid and penetration of liquid into the polymer film. Correlation of contact angle hysteresis with the size of n-alkane molecules supports this conclusion. On the films of two amorphous fluoropolymers with different molecular configurations, contact angle hysteresis of one and the same liquid with "bulky" molecules is shown to be quite different. On the surfaces of Teflon AF 1600, with stiff molecular chains, the receding angles of the probe liquids are independent of contact time between solid and liquid and similar hysteresis is obtained for all the liquids. Retention of liquid molecules on the solid surface is proposed as the most likely cause of hysteresis in these systems. On the other hand, with EGC-1700 films that consist of flexible chains, the receding angles are strongly time-dependent and the hysteresis is large. Contact angle hysteresis increases even further when liquids with strong dipolar intermolecular forces are used. In this case, major reorganization of EGC-1700 chains due to contact with the test liquids is suggested as the cause. The effect of rate of motion of the three-phase line on the advancing and receding contact angles, and therefore contact angle hysteresis, is investigated. For low viscous liquids, contact angles are independent of the drop front velocity up to approximately 10 mm/min. This agrees with the results of an earlier study that showed that the rate-dependence of the contact angles is an issue only

  18. Acute necrosis after Gamma Knife surgery in vestibular schwannoma leading to multiple cranial nerve palsies.

    PubMed

    Kapitza, Sandra; Pangalu, Athina; Horstmann, Gerhard A; van Eck, Albert T; Regli, Luca; Tarnutzer, Alexander A

    2016-08-01

    We discuss a rare acute complication after Gamma Knife therapy (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) in a single patient. A 52-year-old woman presented with vertigo, facial weakness and hearing loss emerging 48hours following Gamma Knife radiosurgery for a right-sided vestibular schwannoma. Neurological examination 6days after symptom onset showed right-sided facial palsy, spontaneous left-beating nystagmus and pathologic head-impulse testing to the right. Pure-tone audiogram revealed right-sided sensorineural hearing loss. A diagnosis of acute vestibulocochlear and facial neuropathy was made. Brain MRI demonstrated focal contrast sparing within the schwannoma, likely related to acute radiation necrosis. Acute multiple cranial neuropathies of the cerebellopontine angle after Gamma Knife treatment should raise suspicion of acute tissue damage within the schwannoma and should result in urgent MRI. Treatment with steroids may be considered based on accompanying swelling and edema.

  19. World Trade Center Health Program; Addition of New-Onset Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and WTC-Related Acute Traumatic Injury to the List of WTC-Related Health Conditions. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-07-05

    The World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program conducted a review of published, peer-reviewed epidemiologic studies regarding potential evidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and acute traumatic injury among individuals who were responders to or survivors of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. The Administrator of the WTC Health Program (Administrator) found that these studies provide substantial evidence to support a causal association between each of these health conditions and 9/11 exposures. As a result, the Administrator is publishing a final rule to add both new-onset COPD and WTC-related acute traumatic injury to the List of WTC-Related Health Conditions eligible for treatment coverage in the WTC Health Program.

  20. Relation of left ventricular free wall rupture and/or aneurysm with acute myocardial infarction in patients with aortic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Irtiza N.

    2017-01-01

    This minireview describes 6 previously reported patients with left ventricular free wall rupture and/or aneurysm complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with aortic stenosis. The findings suggest that left ventricular rupture and/or aneurysm is more frequent in patients with AMI associated with aortic stenosis than in patients with AMI unassociated with aortic stenosis, presumably because of retained elevation of the left ventricular peak systolic pressure after the appearance of the AMI.

  1. The effect of moderate acute psychological stress on working memory-related neural activity is modulated by a genetic variation in catecholaminergic function in humans.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shaozheng; Cousijn, Helena; Rijpkema, Mark; Luo, Jing; Franke, Barbara; Hermans, Erno J; Fernández, Guillén

    2012-01-01

    Acute stress has an important impact on higher-order cognitive functions supported by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) such as working memory (WM). In rodents, such effects are mediated by stress-induced alterations in catecholaminergic signaling, but human data in support of this notion is lacking. A common variation in the gene encoding Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is known to affect basal catecholaminergic availability and PFC functions. Here, we investigated whether this genetic variation (Val158Met) modulates effects of stress on WM-related neural activity in humans. In a counterbalanced crossover design, 41 healthy young men underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing a numerical N-back WM task embedded in a stressful or neutral context. Moderate psychological stress was induced by a well-controlled procedure involving viewing strongly aversive (versus emotionally neutral) movie material in combination with a self-referencing instruction. Acute stress resulted in genotype-dependent effects on WM performance and WM-related activation in the dorsolateral PFC, with a relatively negative impact of stress in COMT Met-homozygotes as opposed to a relatively positive effect in Val-carriers. A parallel interaction was found for WM-related deactivation in the anterior medial temporal lobe (MTL). Our findings suggest that individuals with higher baseline catecholaminergic availability (COMT Met-homozygotes) appear to reach a supraoptimal state under moderate levels of stress. In contrast, individuals with lower baselines (Val-carriers) may reach an optimal state. Thus, our data show that effects of acute stress on higher-order cognitive functions vary depending on catecholaminergic availability at baseline, and thereby corroborate animal models of catecholaminergic signaling that propose a non-linear relationship between catecholaminergic activity and prefrontal functions.

  2. Casting and Angling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julian W.

    As part of a series of books and pamphlets on outdoor education, this manual consists of easy-to-follow instructions for fishing activities dealing with casting and angling. The manual may be used as a part of the regular physical education program in schools and colleges or as a club activity for the accomplished weekend fisherman or the…

  3. Casting and Angling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Mildred J.; Bunting, Camille

    The self-contained packet contains background information, lesson plans, 15 transparency and student handout masters, drills and games, 2 objective examinations, and references for teaching a 15-day unit on casting and angling to junior high and senior high school students, either as part of a regular physical education program or as a club…

  4. Relationships Between Lower Extremity Alignment and the Quadriceps Angle

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Boling, Michelle C.; Levine, Beverly; Shultz, Sandra J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the extent to which select lower extremity alignment characteristics of the pelvis, hip, knee, and foot are related to the Q angle. Design Descriptive cohort study design. Setting Applied Neuromechanics Research Laboratory. Participants Two hundred eighteen participants (102 males, 116 females). Assessment of Risk Factors Eight clinical measures of static alignment of the left lower extremity were measured by a single examiner to determine the impact of lower extremity alignment on the magnitude of Q angle. Main Outcome Measures Q angle, pelvic angle, hip anteversion, tibiofemoral angle, genu recurvatum, tibial torsion, navicular drop, and femur and tibia length. Results Once all alignment variables were accounted for, greater tibiofemoral angle and femoral anteversion were significant predictors of greater Q angle in both males and females. Pelvic angle, genu recurvatum, tibial torsion, navicular drop, and femur to tibia length ratio were not significant independent predictors of Q angle in males or females. Conclusions Greater femoral anteversion and tibiofemoral angle result in greater Q angle, with changes in tibiofemoral angle having a substantially greater impact on the magnitude of the Q angle compared with femoral anteversion. As such, the Q angle seems to largely represent a frontal plane alignment measure. As many knee injuries seem to result from a combination of both frontal and transverse plane motions and forces, this may in part explain why Q angle has been found to be a poor independent predictor of lower extremity injury risk. PMID:19423972

  5. Quantifying alcohol-related emergency admissions in a UK tertiary referral hospital: a cross-sectional study of chronic alcohol dependency and acute alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Vardy, J; Keliher, T; Fisher, J; Ritchie, F; Bell, C; Chekroud, M; Clarey, F; Blackwood, L; Barry, L; Paton, E; Clark, A; Connelly, R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Alcohol is responsible for a proportion of emergency admissions to hospital, with acute alcohol intoxication and chronic alcohol dependency (CAD) implicated. This study aims to quantify the proportion of hospital admissions through our emergency department (ED) which were thought by the admitting doctor to be (largely or partially) a result of alcohol consumption. Setting ED of a UK tertiary referral hospital. Participants All ED admissions occurring over 14 weeks from 1 September to 8 December 2012. Data obtained for 5497 of 5746 admissions (95.67%). Primary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions related to alcohol as defined by the admitting ED clinician. Secondary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions due to alcohol diagnosed with acute alcohol intoxication or CAD according to ICD-10 criteria. Results 1152 (21.0%, 95% CI 19.9% to 22.0%) of emergency admissions were thought to be due to alcohol. 74.6% of patients admitted due to alcohol had CAD, and significantly greater than the 26.4% with ‘Severe’ or ‘Very Severe’ acute alcohol intoxication (p<0.001). Admissions due to alcohol differed to admissions not due to alcohol being on average younger (45 vs 56 years, p<0.001) more often male (73.4% vs 45.1% males, p<0.001) and more likely to have a diagnosis synonymous with alcohol or related to recreational drug use, pancreatitis, deliberate self-harm, head injury, gastritis, suicidal ideation, upper gastrointestinal bleeds or seizures (p<0.001). An increase in admissions due to alcohol on Saturdays reflects a surge in admissions with acute alcohol intoxication above the weekly average (p=0.003). Conclusions Alcohol was thought to be implicated in 21% of emergency admissions in this cohort. CAD is responsible for a significantly greater proportion of admissions due to alcohol than acute intoxication. Interventions designed to reduce alcohol-related admissions must incorporate measures to tackle CAD. PMID:27324707

  6. Gaia basic angle monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gielesen, W.; de Bruijn, D.; van den Dool, T.; Kamphues, F.; Mekking, J.; Calvel, B.; Laborie, A.; Coatantiec, C.; Touzeau, S.; Erdmann, M.; Gare, P.; Monteiro, D.

    2013-09-01

    The Gaia mission1 will create an extraordinarily precise three-dimensional map of more than one billion stars in our Galaxy. The Gaia spacecraft2, built by EADS Astrium, is part of ESA's Cosmic Vision programme and scheduled for launch in 2013. Gaia measures the position, distance and motion of stars with an accuracy of 24 micro-arcsec using two telescopes at a fixed mutual angle of 106.5°, named the `Basic Angle', at an operational temperature of 100 K. This accuracy requires ultra-high stability at cryogenic conditions, which can only be achieved by using Silicon Carbide for both the optical bench and the telescopes. TNO has developed, built and space qualified the Silicon carbide Basic Angle Monitoring (BAM) on-board metrology system3 for this mission, measuring the relative motion of Gaia's telescopes with accuracies in the range of 0.5 micro-arcsec. This is achieved by a system of two laser interferometers able to detect Optical Path Differences (OPD) as small as 1.5 picometer rms. Following a general introduction on Gaia and the use of Silicon Carbide as base material this paper addresses the specific challenges towards the cryogenic application of the Gaia BAM including design, integration and verification/qualification by testing.

  7. OPENING ANGLES OF COLLAPSAR JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuta, Akira; Ioka, Kunihito

    2013-11-10

    We investigate the jet propagation and breakout from the stellar progenitor for gamma-ray burst (GRB) collapsars by performing two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic simulations and analytical modeling. We find that the jet opening angle is given by θ{sub j} ∼ 1/5Γ{sub 0} and infer the initial Lorentz factor of the jet at the central engine, Γ{sub 0}, is a few for existing observations of θ{sub j}. The jet keeps the Lorentz factor low inside the star by converging cylindrically via collimation shocks under the cocoon pressure and accelerates at jet breakout before the free expansion to a hollow-cone structure. In this new picture, the GRB duration is determined by the sound crossing time of the cocoon, after which the opening angle widens, reducing the apparent luminosity. Some bursts violating the maximum opening angle θ{sub j,{sub max}} ∼ 1/5 ∼ 12° imply the existence of a baryon-rich sheath or a long-acting jet. We can explain the slopes in both Amati and Yonetoku spectral relations using an off-centered photosphere model, if we make only one assumption that the total jet luminosity is proportional to the initial Lorentz factor of the jet. We also numerically calibrate the pre-breakout model (Bromberg et al.) for later use.

  8. Asteroid photometry: Phase-angle effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belskaya, I.; Shevchenko, V.

    2014-07-01

    We review available observational data on magnitude phase-angle dependencies of asteroids. The number of asteroids, for which good quality phase curves were measured, increases very slowly. At present, the data-set on magnitude-phase dependencies with a good phase-angle coverage and small scatter includes less than one hundred asteroids. Most part of these data is related to the ground-based observations of main-belt asteroids and covered the phase-angle range from 0.3--0.5 deg to 20--25 deg. The phase curves in the wider phase-angle range up to 120--140 deg were measured for ten asteroids observed by space missions and for several near-Earth asteroids. Ground-based and space-based observations are generally mutually consistent. For most of the observed phase-angle ranges, asteroid magnitude phase curves are found to be linear with a noticeable deviation at phase angles smaller than 5--7 deg due to the opposition effect and at phase angles larger than 70-80 deg due to the influence of large-scale surface features. The differences in the phase curves at large phase angles and their influence on the phase integral have not yet been thoroughly investigated. The measured linear phase coefficients of asteroids are in the range of 0.02--0.05 mag/deg. The opposition-effect amplitudes determined relatively to the extrapolation of the linear part of the phase curve do not exceeds 0.4 mag. Relatively small variations of asteroid phase curve parameters require accurate photometric observations and thorough account for lightcurve amplitude to distinguish phase-angle effects. The measured magnitude phase dependencies revealed essential differences in magnitude phase-angle behavior for asteroids of different surface composition both in the linear part and in the opposition effect range (Harris et al. 1989, Belskaya and Shevchenko 2000, Shevchenko et al. 2012). Maximal amplitude of the opposition effect occurs for moderate-albedo S- and M-type asteroids. Low-albedo asteroids

  9. ZNF384-related fusion genes define a subgroup of childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia with a characteristic immunotype

    PubMed Central

    Hirabayashi, Shinsuke; Ohki, Kentaro; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Ichikawa, Hitoshi; Momozawa, Yukihide; Okamura, Kohji; Yaguchi, Akinori; Terada, Kazuki; Saito, Yuya; Yoshimi, Ai; Ogata-Kawata, Hiroko; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Kato, Motohiro; Fujimura, Junya; Hino, Moeko; Kinoshita, Akitoshi; Kakuda, Harumi; Kurosawa, Hidemitsu; Kato, Keisuke; Kajiwara, Ryosuke; Moriwaki, Koichi; Morimoto, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Kozue; Noguchi, Yasushi; Osumi, Tomoo; Sakashita, Kazuo; Takita, Junko; Yuza, Yuki; Matsuda, Koich; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Matsumoto, Kenji; Hata, Kenichiro; Kubo, Michiaki; Matsubara, Yoichi; Fukushima, Takashi; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Manabe, Atsushi; Ohara, Akira; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka

    2017-01-01

    Fusion genes involving ZNF384 have recently been identified in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and 7 fusion partners have been reported. We further characterized this type of fusion gene by whole transcriptome sequencing and/or polymerase chain reaction. In addition to previously reported genes, we identified BMP2K as a novel fusion partner for ZNF384. Including the EP300-ZNF384 that we reported recently, the total frequency of ZNF384-related fusion genes was 4.1% in 291 B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients enrolled in a single clinical trial, and TCF3-ZNF384 was the most recurrent, with a frequency of 2.4%. The characteristic immunophenotype of weak CD10 and aberrant CD13 and/or CD33 expression was revealed to be a common feature of the leukemic cells harboring ZNF384-related fusion genes. The signature gene expression profile in TCF3-ZNF384-positive patients was enriched in hematopoietic stem cell features and related to that of EP300-ZNF384-positive patients, but was significantly distinct from that of TCF3-PBX1-positive and ZNF384-fusion-negative patients. However, clinical features of TCF3-ZNF384-positive patients are markedly different from those of EP300-ZNF384-positive patients, exhibiting higher cell counts and a younger age at presentation. TCF3-ZNF384-positive patients revealed a significantly poorer steroid response and a higher frequency of relapse, and the additional activating mutations in RAS signaling pathway genes were detected by whole exome analysis in some of the cases. Our observations indicate that ZNF384-related fusion genes consist of a distinct subgroup of B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia with a characteristic immunophenotype, while the clinical features depend on the functional properties of individual fusion partners. PMID:27634205

  10. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute cystitis; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... cause. Menopause also increases the risk for a urinary tract infection. The following also increase your chances of having ...

  11. Ophthalmic and Glaucoma Treatment Characteristics Associated with Changes in Health-Related Quality of Life Before and After Newly Diagnosed Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in Nurses Health Study Participants

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Lucy A.; Okereke, Olivia I.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Cioffi, George A.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Kang, Jae H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To identify attributes related to glaucoma diagnosis or early glaucoma treatment patterns that are associated with changes in health-related quality of life among those with newly diagnosed primary open-angle glaucoma. Methods Among Nurses’ Health Study participants with incident medical record-confirmed primary open-angle glaucoma diagnosed in 1992–2000, we included 317 women who completed the Short-Form 36 Health Survey pre- and post-diagnosis. The two primary outcomes were 4-year changes (1992–1996 or 1996–2000) in the physical and mental component summary scores. Multiple regression models were used to estimate differences in score changes by early treatment pattern history and characteristics as of diagnosis (i.e., number of eyes affected, history of cataract, macular degeneration, cup-to-disc ratio, intraocular pressure, visual field loss type). Results In multivariable models, no ophthalmologic characteristics were associated with physical component score change. However, compared to treatment with eye drops or pills only, laser trabeculoplasty treatment (concomitant with history of treatment with eye drops or pills in 84%) was associated with a worse mental component score change over four years (-2.5 units; 95% confidence interval: −4.6, −0.3); this association was stronger with a family history of glaucoma (p-interaction=0.04) or with bilateral disease (p-interaction=0.001). Conclusions Among patients with incident glaucoma, no major factors were associated with change in physical well-being. However, compared to medical treatment only, a history of laser trabeculoplasty, which was commonly accompanied with a history of medical treatment and likely represented the need for a second line of treatment, was associated with a worse decline in mental well-being. PMID:26125994

  12. Anxiety sensitivity and panic reactivity to bodily sensations: relation to quit-day (acute) nicotine withdrawal symptom severity among daily smokers making a self-guided quit attempt.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Erin C; Johnson, Kirsten; Bergman, Jenna; Gibson, Laura E; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2009-10-01

    The current investigation explored the main and interactive effects of panic attacks in response to laboratory-induced bodily sensations and anxiety sensitivity in predicting acute nicotine withdrawal symptoms among daily smokers making a self-guided quit attempt. Participants were 99 daily smokers (58% women; M(age) = 28.4 years, SD = 11.7) who completed a battery of questionnaires, a voluntary hyperventilation challenge, and a measure of nicotine withdrawal symptoms 12 hr after making a self-guided quit attempt. Results indicated that the interaction of anxiety sensitivity and panic responsivity to the challenge predicted quit-day nicotine withdrawal symptom severity above and beyond the main effects (p < .05). The form of the interaction indicated that the relationship between postchallenge panic attack status and acute nicotine withdrawal was more robust among individuals who were low in anxiety sensitivity. Individuals who did not experience a panic attack posthyperventilation who were also low in anxiety sensitivity reported the lowest levels of nicotine withdrawal. Results suggest that anxiety sensitivity may be less relevant with regard to acute nicotine withdrawal severity among individuals with panic-related problems.

  13. Angle amplifier based on multiplexed volume holographic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Liangcai; Zhao, Yifei; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2008-03-01

    Angle amplifier of laser beam scanner is a widely used device in optical systems. Volume holographic optical elements can be applied in the angle amplifier. Compared with the traditional angle amplifier, it has the advantages of high angle resolution, high diffraction efficiency, small size, and high angle magnification and flexible design. Bragg anglewavelength- compensating recording method is introduced. Because of the Bragg compensatory relation between angle and wavelength, this device could be recorded at another wavelength. The design of the angle amplifier recording at the wavelength of 514.2nm for the working wavelength of 632.8nm is described. An optical setup for recording the angle amplifier device is designed and discussed. Experimental results in the photorefractive crystal Fe:LiNbO 3 demonstrate the feasibility of the angle amplifier scheme.

  14. A Different Angle on Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frantz, Marc

    2012-01-01

    When a plane figure is photographed from different viewpoints, lengths and angles appear distorted. Hence it is often assumed that lengths, angles, protractors, and compasses have no place in projective geometry. Here we describe a sense in which certain angles are preserved by projective transformations. These angles can be constructed with…

  15. Wide-angle vision for road views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, F.; Fehrs, K.-K.; Hartmann, G.; Klette, R.

    2013-03-01

    The field-of-view of a wide-angle image is greater than (say) 90 degrees, and so contains more information than available in a standard image. A wide field-of-view is more advantageous than standard input for understanding the geometry of 3D scenes, and for estimating the poses of panoramic sensors within such scenes. Thus, wide-angle imaging sensors and methodologies are commonly used in various road-safety, street surveillance, street virtual touring, or street 3D modelling applications. The paper reviews related wide-angle vision technologies by focusing on mathematical issues rather than on hardware.

  16. Health-Related Quality of Life Dynamics of HIV-positive South African Women up to ART Initiation: Evidence from the CAPRISA 002 Acute Infection Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Andrew; Garrett, Nigel; Werner, Lise; Burns, Jonathan K.; Mpanza, Lindiwe; Mlisana, Koleka; van Loggerenberg, Francois; Karim, Salim S. Abdool

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the long-term dynamics in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among HIV-positive persons from acute infection. From 2004, 160 women were enrolled into the CAPRISA 002 Acute Infection study at two sites in the province of KwaZulu-Natal and underwent 3–6 monthly HRQoL assessments using the functional assessment of HIV infection (FAHI) instrument. Overall and 5 sub-scale FAHI scores [physical well-being (PWB), emotional well-being (EWB), functional and global well-being (FGWB), social well-being (SWB) and cognitive functioning (CF)] were calculated up to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and scores at enrollment were compared to the acute, early and established infection phases. Mixed-effects regression models adjusting for behavioral and clinical factors were applied to assess HRQoL trends and the proportion of women meeting minimally important differences was calculated. Our analyses revealed that overall/sub-scale scores improved over time, except from PWB and CF. A higher educational status, contraceptive use and a higher BMI were the strongest predictors of higher overall/sub-scale FAHI scores. CD4 count and HIV viral load were strongly associated with PWB and CF, but not overall FAHI and other sub-scales. Women newly diagnosed with acute HIV infection face profound HRQoL challenges. While early ART delivery may be important for PWB and CF, factors such as education, contraception provision and good nutritional status should be promoted to maximize HRQoL in HIV positive individuals. PMID:24368630

  17. Health-related quality of life dynamics of HIV-positive South African women up to ART initiation: evidence from the CAPRISA 002 acute infection cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Andrew; Garrett, Nigel; Werner, Lise; Burns, Jonathan K; Mpanza, Lindiwe; Mlisana, Koleka; van Loggerenberg, Francois; Abdool Karim, Salim S

    2014-06-01

    Few studies have investigated the long-term dynamics in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among HIV-positive persons from acute infection. From 2004, 160 women were enrolled into the CAPRISA 002 Acute Infection study at two sites in the province of KwaZulu-Natal and underwent 3-6 monthly HRQoL assessments using the functional assessment of HIV infection (FAHI) instrument. Overall and 5 sub-scale FAHI scores [physical well-being (PWB), emotional well-being (EWB), functional and global well-being (FGWB), social well-being (SWB) and cognitive functioning (CF)] were calculated up to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and scores at enrollment were compared to the acute, early and established infection phases. Mixed-effects regression models adjusting for behavioral and clinical factors were applied to assess HRQoL trends and the proportion of women meeting minimally important differences was calculated. Our analyses revealed that overall/sub-scale scores improved over time, except from PWB and CF. A higher educational status, contraceptive use and a higher BMI were the strongest predictors of higher overall/sub-scale FAHI scores. CD4 count and HIV viral load were strongly associated with PWB and CF, but not overall FAHI and other sub-scales. Women newly diagnosed with acute HIV infection face profound HRQoL challenges. While early ART delivery may be important for PWB and CF, factors such as education, contraception provision and good nutritional status should be promoted to maximize HRQoL in HIV positive individuals.

  18. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Cell Death in Spinal Networks in Relation to Locomotor Activity After Acute Injury in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kuzhandaivel, Anujaianthi; Nistri, Andrea; Mazzone, Graciela L.; Mladinic, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the pathophysiological changes triggered by an acute spinal cord injury is a primary goal to prevent and treat chronic disability with a mechanism-based approach. After the primary phase of rapid cell death at the injury site, secondary damage occurs via autodestruction of unscathed tissue through complex cell-death mechanisms that comprise caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways. To devise novel neuroprotective strategies to restore locomotion, it is, therefore, necessary to focus on the death mechanisms of neurons and glia within spinal locomotor networks. To this end, the availability of in vitro preparations of the rodent spinal cord capable of expressing locomotor-like oscillatory patterns recorded electrophysiologically from motoneuron pools offers the novel opportunity to correlate locomotor network function with molecular and histological changes long after an acute experimental lesion. Distinct forms of damage to the in vitro spinal cord, namely excitotoxic stimulation or severe metabolic perturbation (with oxidative stress, hypoxia/aglycemia), can be applied with differential outcome in terms of cell types and functional loss. In either case, cell death is a delayed phenomenon developing over several hours. Neurons are more vulnerable to excitotoxicity and more resistant to metabolic perturbation, while the opposite holds true for glia. Neurons mainly die because of hyperactivation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) with subsequent DNA damage and mitochondrial energy collapse. Conversely, glial cells die predominantly by apoptosis. It is likely that early neuroprotection against acute spinal injury may require tailor-made drugs targeted to specific cell-death processes of certain cell types within the locomotor circuitry. Furthermore, comparison of network size and function before and after graded injury provides an estimate of the minimal network membership to express the locomotor program. PMID:21734866

  19. Contact angle hysteresis of microbead suspensions.

    PubMed

    Waghmare, Prashant R; Mitra, Sushanta K

    2010-11-16

    Microbead suspensions are often used in microfluidic devices for transporting biomolecules. An experimental investigation on the wettability of microbead suspension is presented in this study. The variation in the surface tension and the equilibrium contact angle with the change in the volume fraction of the microbead is presented here. The surface tension of the microbead suspension is measured with the pendant drop technique, whereas the dynamic contact angle measurements, i.e., advancing and receding contact angles, are measured with the sessile drop technique. An equilibrium contact angle of a suspension with particular volume fraction is determined by computing an average over the measured advancing and receding contact angles. It is observed that the surface tension and the equilibrium contact angle determined from advancing and receding contact angles vary with the magnitude of the microbeads volume fraction in the suspension. A decrease in the surface tension with an increase in the volume fraction of the microbead suspension is observed. The advancement and the recession in contact line for dynamic contact angle measurements are achieved with the motorized dosing mechanism. For microbead suspensions, the advancement of the contact line is faster as compared to the recession of the contact line for the same flow rate. The presence of microbeads assists in the advancement and the recession of the contact line of the suspension. A decrease in the equilibrium contact angles with an increase in the microbead suspension volume fraction is observed. Inclusion of microbeads in the suspension increases the wetting capability for the considered combination of the microbead suspension and substrate. Finally, empirical correlations for the surface tension and the contact angle of the suspension as a function of microbead volume fraction are proposed. Such correlations can readily be used to develop mechanistic models for the capillary transport of microbead

  20. [Acute pancreatitis due to lupus].

    PubMed

    Hani, Mohamed Aziz; Guesmi, Fethi; Ben Achour, Jamel; Zribi, Riadh; Bouasker, Ibtissem; Zoghlami, Ayoub; Najah, Nabil

    2004-02-01

    Among digestive clinical presentations of systemic lupus erythematosus, acute pancreatitis remains a serious affection with very poor prognosis. To date, pathogenesis is still unclear. We report two cases of fatal acute pancreatitis related to systemic lupus erythematosus.

  1. Outcomes of patients with acute leukaemia who relapsed after reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation from HLA-identical or one antigen-mismatched related donors.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kazuhiko; Kami, Masahiro; Murashige, Naoko; Kusumi, Eiji; Kishi, Yukiko; Hamaki, Tamae; Hori, Akiko; Matsumura, Tomoko; Yuji, Koichiro; Masuo, Shigeru; Mori, Shinichiro; Miyakoshi, Shigesaburo; Tanosaki, Ryuji; Mitamura, Tadayuki; Takaue, Yoichi; Taniguchi, Shuichi

    2005-06-01

    The characteristics of relapse following reduced-intensity stem-cell transplantation (RIST) remain to be clarified. We reviewed the medical records of 19 patients with acute leukaemia [acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), 16; acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), 3] who relapsed after RIST from related donors using purine-analogue-based regimens. Their median age was 55 years (range, 29-65 years). Median interval between RIST and relapse was 4.9 months (range, 1.8-24.9 months). Three chose not to receive interventions. The remaining 16 patients received withdrawal of immunosuppression (n = 3), chemotherapy (n = 2), donor lymphocyte infusion (n = 10) and second transplantation (n = 7), alone (n = 9) or in combination (n = 7). Four are alive with a median follow-up of 27.6 months (range, 16.0-28.9 months); three in remission and one in relapse. The 2-year overall survival after relapse was 28.9%. Causes of death in 15 patients included progressive disease (n = 7), graft-versus-host disease (n = 5) and infections (n = 3). Cumulative incidences of relapse-related and non-relapse-related deaths at 2 years after relapse were 37% and 32% respectively. Two prognostic factors were identified on univariate analysis: age [P = 0.017; hazard ratio (HR), 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.32], and ALL as underlying disease (P = 0.011; HR, 10.4; 95% CI, 1.73-62.4). Some AML patients who relapse after RIST achieve durable remission with allogeneic immunotherapy-based interventions; however they carry a significant risk of non-relapse mortality.

  2. Angles in the Sky?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behr, Bradford

    2005-09-01

    Tycho Brahe lived and worked in the late 1500s before the telescope was invented. He made highly accurate observations of the positions of planets, stars, and comets using large angle-measuring devices of his own design. You can use his techniques to observe the sky as well. For example, the degree, a common unit of measurement in astronomy, can be measured by holding your fist at arm's length up to the sky. Open your fist and observe the distance across the sky covered by the width of your pinky fingernail. That is, roughly, a degree! After some practice, and knowing that one degree equals four minutes, you can measure elapsed time by measuring the angle of the distance that the Moon appears to have moved and multiplying that number by four. You can also figure distances and sizes of things. These are not precise measurements, but rough estimates that can give you a "close-enough" answer.

  3. Contact angle hysteresis explained.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lichao; McCarthy, Thomas J

    2006-07-04

    A view of contact angle hysteresis from the perspectives of the three-phase contact line and of the kinetics of contact line motion is given. Arguments are made that advancing and receding are discrete events that have different activation energies. That hysteresis can be quantified as an activation energy by the changes in interfacial area is argued. That this is an appropriate way of viewing hysteresis is demonstrated with examples.

  4. Laser angle sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pond, C. R.; Texeira, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    A laser angle measurement system was designed and fabricated for NASA Langley Research Center. The instrument is a fringe counting interferometer that monitors the pitch attitude of a model in a wind tunnel. A laser source and detector are mounted above the model. Interference fringes are generated by a small passive element on the model. The fringe count is accumulated and displayed by a processor in the wind tunnel control room. This report includes optical and electrical schematics, system maintenance and operation procedures.

  5. Mapping of four distinct BCR-related loci to chromosome region 22q11: order of BCR loci relative to chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia breakpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Croce, C.M.; Huebner, K.; Isobe, M.; Fainstain, E.; Lifshitz, B.; Shtivelman, E.; Canaani, E.

    1987-10-01

    A probe derived from the 3' region of the BCR gene (breakpoint cluster region gene) detects four distinct loci in the human genome. One of the loci corresponds to the complete BCR gene, whereas the other contain a 3' segment of the gene. After HindIII cleavage of human DNA, these four loci are detected as 23-, 19-, 13-, and 9-kikobase-pair fragments, designated BCR4, BCR3, BCR2, and BCR1, respectively, with BCR1 deriving from the original complete BCR gene. All four BCR loci segregate 100% concordantly with human chromosome 22 in a rodent-human somatic cell hybrid panel and are located at chromosome region 22q11.2 by chromosomal in situ hybridization. The BCR2 and BCR4 loci are amplified in leukemia cell line K562 cells, indicating that they fall within the amplification unit that includes immunoglobulin lambda light chain locus (IGL) and ABL locus on the K562 Philadelphia chromosome (Ph/sup 1/). Similarly, in mouse-human hybrids retaining a Ph/sup 1/ chromosome derived from an acute lymphoblastic leukemia-in the absence of the 9q/sup +/ and 22, only BCR2 and BCR4 loci are retained. Thus, the order of loci on chromosome 22 is centromere ..-->.. BCR2, BCR4, and IGL ..-->.. BCR1 ..-->.. BCR3 ..-->.. SIS, possibly eliminating BCR2 and BCR4 loci as candidate targets for juxtaposition to the ABL gene in the acute lymphoblastic leukemia Ph/sup 1/ chromosome.

  6. Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, Volker S

    2012-01-01

    Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) probes structural details at the nanometer scale in a non-destructive way. This article gives an introduction to scientists who have no prior small-angle scattering knowledge, but who seek a technique that allows elucidating structural information in challenging situations that thwart approaches by other methods. SANS is applicable to a wide variety of materials including metals and alloys, ceramics, concrete, glasses, polymers, composites and biological materials. Isotope and magnetic interactions provide unique methods for labeling and contrast variation to highlight specific structural features of interest. In situ studies of a material s responses to temperature, pressure, shear, magnetic and electric fields, etc., are feasible as a result of the high penetrating power of neutrons. SANS provides statistical information on significant structural features averaged over the probed sample volume, and one can use SANS to quantify with high precision the structural details that are observed, for example, in electron microscopy. Neutron scattering is non-destructive; there is no need to cut specimens into thin sections, and neutrons penetrate deeply, providing information on the bulk material, free from surface effects. The basic principles of a SANS experiment are fairly simple, but the measurement, analysis and interpretation of small angle scattering data involves theoretical concepts that are unique to the technique and that are not widely known. This article includes a concise description of the basics, as well as practical know-how that is essential for a successful SANS experiment.

  7. Acute leukemias of different lineages have similar MLL gene fusions encoding related chimeric proteins resulting from chromosomal translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Corral, J.; Forster, A.; Thompson, S.; Rabbitts, T.H. ); Lampert, F. ); Kaneko, Y. ); Slater, R.; Kroes, W.G. ); Van Der Schoot, C.E. ); Ludwig, W.D. ); Karpas, A. ); Pocock, C.; Cotter, F. )

    1993-09-15

    The MLL gene, on human chromosome 11q23, undergoes chromosomal translocation in acute leukemias, resulting in gene fusion with AF4 (chromosome 4) and ENL (chromosome 19). The authors report here translocation of MLL with nine different chromosomes and two paracentric chromosome 11 deletions in early B cell, B- or T-cell lineage, or nonlymphocytic acute leukemias. The mRNA translocation junction from 22t(4;11) patients, including six adult leukemias, and nine t(11;19) tumors reveals a remarkable conservation of breakpoints within MLL, AF4, or ENL genes, irrespective of tumor phenotype. Typically, the breakpoints are upstream of the zinc-finger region of MLL, and deletion of this region can accompany translocation, supporting the der(11) chromosome as the important component in leukemogenesis. Partial sequence of a fusion between MLL and the AFX1 gene from chromosome X shows the latter to be rich in Ser/Pro codons, like the ENL mRNA. These data suggest that the heterogeneous 11q23 abnormalities might cause attachment of Ser/Pro-rich segments to the NH[sub 2] terminus of MLL, lacking the zinc-finger region, and that translocation occurs in early hematopoietic cells, before commitment to distinct lineages. 36 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Prognostic relations between inflammatory markers and mortality in diabetic patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, P L; Morinigo, J L; Pabon, P; Martin, F; Piedra, I; Palacios, I F; Martin-Luengo, C

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the differences in the inflammatory status between diabetic and non-diabetic patients and to evaluate the usefulness of C reactive protein, fibrinogen, and leucocyte count as predictors of death in diabetic patients with unstable coronary disease. Design: Nested case-control comparisons of the inflammatory status between diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Prospective cohort analysis of C reactive protein concentration, fibrinogen concentration, and leucocyte count as predictors of cardiovascular death in diabetic patients. Setting: Coronary care unit in Spain. Participants: 83 diabetic patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome and 83 sex and aged matched patients selected from 361 non-diabetic patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome. Main outcome measures: Plasma concentrations of C reactive protein and fibrinogen, and leucocyte count. Investigators contacted patients to assess clinical events. Results: Concentrations of C reactive protein and fibrinogen, and leucocyte count on admission were higher in diabetic than in non-diabetic patients (7 mg/l v 5 mg/l, p  =  0.020; 3.34 g/l v 2.90 g/l, p  =  0.013; and 8.8 × 109/l v 7.8 × 109/l, p  =  0.040). Among diabetic patients, these values were also higher in those who died during the 22 month follow up (13 mg/l v 6 mg/l, p  =  0.001; 3.95 g/l v 3.05 g/l, p < 0.001; and 11.4 × 109/l v 8.4 × 109/l, p  =  0.005). After adjustment for confounding factors, diabetic patients in the highest tertile of C reactive protein had a hazard ratio for cardiovascular death of 4.51 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.62 to 12.55). Similar hazard ratios were for fibrinogen 3.74 (95% CI 1.32 to 10.62) and for leucocyte count 3.64 (95% CI 1.37 to 9.68). Conclusions: Inflammation appears more evident in diabetic than in non-diabetic patients with acute coronary syndrome. C reactive protein concentration, fibrinogen concentration, and leucocyte count constitute

  9. Immune reconstitution during maintenance therapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, relation to co-existing infection.

    PubMed

    El-Chennawi, Farha A; Al-Tonbary, Youssef A; Mossad, Youssef M; Ahmed, Mona A

    2008-08-01

    Immunosuppression is a major side effect of cancer chemotherapy. The process of immune reconstitution can be dissimilar according to the nature of the disease, type and doses of drugs, and age of the patients. Recently, several studies have examined immune reconstitution in children and young adults after intensive chemotherapy for solid tumours or stem cell transplantation. The aim of the present study is to evaluate immune reconstitution (cellular and humoral) in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia during the maintenance phase of therapy and to correlate between the complicating infections and the abnormalities in immune system during reconstitution. To achieve this goal, 36 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (24 females and 12 males) in the maintenance phase of therapy with 12 healthy children of matched age and sex served as a control group were recruited in this study. The patients were taken consecutively from the Hematology/Oncology Outpatient Clinic of Mansoura University Children's Hospital (MUCH). They were subjected to thorough history taking, clinical examination and laboratory investigations in the form of: complete blood count, serum creatinine, liver function tests and evaluation of the immune system by estimation of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19 and CD56 (cellular immunity) by flow cytometry and immunoglobulins A, M and G (humoral immunity) at the first and the third month of maintenance therapy. The results of the study documented presence and persistence of leucopenia and lymphopenia during maintenance therapy with decreased medians of CD3, CD4 and CD8 from the first to the third month of therapy and in comparison to the control group. The other markers CD19, CD56, IgA, IgM, IgG and CD4/CD8 ratio showed increasing median from the first to the third month of therapy. Also we detect a significant correlation between infection and CD19 and serum IgM at the first month and between infection and CD19, IgM and CD4/CD8 ratio at the third month of

  10. Anti-NMDA (a-NMDAR) receptor encephalitis related to acute consumption of metamphetamine: Relevance of differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Iriondo, O; Zaldibar-Gerrikagoitia, J; Rodríguez, T; García, J M; Aguilera, L

    2017-03-01

    A 19-year-old male came to the Emergency Room of our hospital due to an episode of dystonic movements and disorientation 4 days after consuming methamphetamine, which evolved to a catatonic frank syndrome and eventually to status epilepticus. Definitive diagnosis was anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, an acute inflammation of the limbic area of autoimmune origin in which early diagnosis and treatment are key elements for the final outcome. In this case, initial normal tests and previous methamphetamine poisoning delayed diagnosis, because inhaled-methamphetamine poisoning causes similar clinical symptoms to anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. Methamphetamine poisoning may have caused an immune response in the patient, bringing on the progress of the pathology.

  11. Primary Cytomegalovirus-Related Eosinophilic Pneumonia in a Three-year-old Child with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Reesi, Mohammed Al; Al-Maani, Amal; Paul, George; Al-Arimi, Sumaiah

    2014-01-01

    A diagnosis of eosinophilic pneumonia (EP) is rare in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). We report a case of EP in association with a primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in a three-year-old Omani child with ALL. The patient presented with fever while undergoing maintenance chemotherapy. He was admitted to the Child Health Department of Royal Hospital, in Muscat, Oman, in November 2011. He was initially thought to have sepsis but failed to respond to antibiotics. Chest computed tomography showed diffuse ground glass lung opacification. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytology was consistent with the diagnosis of EP. Polymerase chain reaction tests for CMV were performed on the BAL and blood samples and were both markedly elevated. The patient made a full recovery after treatment with prednisolone and ganciclovir. The association between CMV infection and EP as well as the management of this combination in immunocompromised patients has never been reported in the English literature. PMID:25364562

  12. Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome/acute leukemia after multiple myeloma in the era of novel agents.

    PubMed

    Gertz, Morie A; Terpos, Evangelos; Dispenzieri, Angela; Kumar, Shaji; Shah, Rupin A; Orlowski, Robert; Kastritis, Efstathios; Dimopoulos, Meletios A; Shah, Jatin

    2015-06-01

    Survival for patients with multiple myeloma has increased. Both melphalan and lenalidomide are associated with subsequent development of myelodysplasia. We reviewed the cases of all patients with multiple myeloma who had subsequent development of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia (ANLL) during a 12-year period in three centers. Of 55 patients identified, two received only lenalidomide before myelodysplasia developed. The median time between the diagnoses of multiple myeloma and MDS/ANLL was 52.7 months. Median survival after the diagnosis of MDS or ANLL was 6.7 months. Treatment of MDS comprised allogeneic stem cell transplant in eight patients (median survival, 219 days; one patient alive at 624 days) and a hypomethylating agent in 21 patients (response of stable or better in five patients). Myelodysplasia remains a devastating complication of therapy for multiple myeloma, with short survival and poor response rates to available modalities.

  13. Initiation of ART during Early Acute HIV Infection Preserves Mucosal Th17 Function and Reverses HIV-Related Immune Activation

    PubMed Central

    Schuetz, Alexandra; Deleage, Claire; Sereti, Irini; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Phuang-Ngern, Yuwadee; Estes, Jacob D.; Sandler, Netanya G.; Sukhumvittaya, Suchada; Marovich, Mary; Jongrakthaitae, Surat; Akapirat, Siriwat; Fletscher, James L. K.; Kroon, Eugene; Dewar, Robin; Trichavaroj, Rapee; Chomchey, Nitiya; Douek, Daniel C.; O′Connell, Robert J.; Ngauy, Viseth; Robb, Merlin L.; Phanuphak, Praphan; Michael, Nelson L.; Excler, Jean-Louis; Kim, Jerome H.; de Souza, Mark S.; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal Th17 cells play an important role in maintaining gut epithelium integrity and thus prevent microbial translocation. Chronic HIV infection is characterized by mucosal Th17 cell depletion, microbial translocation and subsequent immune-activation, which remain elevated despite antiretroviral therapy (ART) correlating with increased mortality. However, when Th17 depletion occurs following HIV infection is unknown. We analyzed mucosal Th17 cells in 42 acute HIV infection (AHI) subjects (Fiebig (F) stage I-V) with a median duration of infection of 16 days and the short-term impact of early initiation of ART. Th17 cells were defined as IL-17+ CD4+ T cells and their function was assessed by the co-expression of IL-22, IL-2 and IFNγ. While intact during FI/II, depletion of mucosal Th17 cell numbers and function was observed during FIII correlating with local and systemic markers of immune-activation. ART initiated at FI/II prevented loss of Th17 cell numbers and function, while initiation at FIII restored Th17 cell numbers but not their polyfunctionality. Furthermore, early initiation of ART in FI/II fully reversed the initially observed mucosal and systemic immune-activation. In contrast, patients treated later during AHI maintained elevated mucosal and systemic CD8+ T-cell activation post initiation of ART. These data support a loss of Th17 cells at early stages of acute HIV infection, and highlight that studies of ART initiation during early AHI should be further explored to assess the underlying mechanism of mucosal Th17 function preservation. PMID:25503054

  14. Loss of neuromuscular control related to motion in the acutely ACL-injured knee: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Bonsfills, N; Gómez-Barrena, E; Raygoza, J J; Núñez, A

    2008-10-01

    Ligamentomuscular and muscular stretch reflexes are known to contribute to knee joint stability. After anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, a more intense and adjusted muscular response is required to maintain joint stability, but this neuromuscular control of the knee has not been clearly proved. The aim of the study is to record electromyography (EMG) signal and muscular fibre length variations in quadriceps and hamstrings of the knee with and without ACL, and to analyze and integrate the ligament strain and the muscular reaction to forced anterior tibial translation (ATT). In 17 knees from 12 cats, EMG electrodes and ultrasonomicrometry crystals were inserted into four main periarticular muscles, with strain gauges on periarticular ligament insertions. Their output signal was compared before and after ACL surgical section in series of ATT (at 90 degrees and 30 degrees knee flexion), and also during knee flexion and extension. Linear regression analysis was performed between the EMG signal and muscular fibre length variations, and between the EMG signal and the strain on ligament insertions, in the search of this reflex neuromuscular response. In the ACL deficient knees, the studied muscles showed a poor adjustment to motion of EMG firing, inversely to controls. The muscle stretch reflexes showed poorer correlation with post-peak EMG activity than the ligaments. ATT control depended mainly on hamstrings activity in control knees, whereas in unstable knees, quadriceps activity was associated with more tibial translation. Acute ACL-deficient knees showed poor neuromuscular control with weak ligamentomuscular reflexes and no muscular stretch reflexes, suggesting the ineffectiveness of acute muscular reaction to provide early mechanical knee stabilization after injury.

  15. Acute stress-related psychological impact in children following devastating natural disaster, the Sikkim earthquake (2011), India

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Rakesh; Sarkar, Sumantra; Banerjee, Indira; Hazra, Avijit; Majumder, Debabrata; Sabui, Tapas; Dutta, Sudip; Saren, Abhisek; Pan, Partha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Psychological stress following natural disaster is common. Despite several earthquakes in India, data on evaluation of acute stress among the child victims in the early postdisaster period is scarce. Immediately following a devastating earthquake (6.9 Richter) at Sikkim on September, 18 2011, many children attended North Bengal Medical College, the nearest government tertiary care institution, with unusual stress symptoms. Objective: Evaluation of acute stress symptoms in children in the immediate postearthquake period. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done over 4 weeks and includes all the children from 1 to 12 years presenting with unusual physical or behavioral symptoms. Those with major injuries requiring admission were excluded. They were divided into two age groups. For older children (8-12 years) the 8-item Children Impact of Event Scale (CIES) was used for screening of stress. Unusual symptoms were recorded in younger children (1-8 years) as CIES is not validated < 8 years. Result: A total of 84 children (2.66%) out of 3154 had stress symptoms. Maximum attendance was noted in first 3 days (65.47%) and declined gradually. In children ≥ 8 years, 48.78% had psychological stress, which was statistically significant on CIES scores without any gender predilection. Static posturing (41.86%), sleeplessness (32.55%), anorexia (9.30%), recurrent vomiting (13.95%), excessive crying (13.95%), or night-awakenings (4.65%) were found in younger children (n = 43) and three required admission. Conclusion: This study represent the first Indian data showing statistically significant psychological impact in older children (8-12 years) and various forms of physical stress symptoms in young children (1-8 years) following earthquake. PMID:24174793

  16. Wide Angle Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This brief movie illustrates the passage of the Moon through the Saturn-bound Cassini spacecraft's wide-angle camera field of view as the spacecraft passed by the Moon on the way to its closest approach with Earth on August 17, 1999. From beginning to end of the sequence, 25 wide-angle images (with a spatial image scale of about 14 miles per pixel (about 23 kilometers)were taken over the course of 7 and 1/2 minutes through a series of narrow and broadband spectral filters and polarizers, ranging from the violet to the near-infrared regions of the spectrum, to calibrate the spectral response of the wide-angle camera. The exposure times range from 5 milliseconds to 1.5 seconds. Two of the exposures were smeared and have been discarded and replaced with nearby images to make a smooth movie sequence. All images were scaled so that the brightness of Crisium basin, the dark circular region in the upper right, is approximately the same in every image. The imaging data were processed and released by the Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for Operations (CICLOPS)at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Tucson, AZ.

    Photo Credit: NASA/JPL/Cassini Imaging Team/University of Arizona

    Cassini, launched in 1997, is a joint mission of NASA, the European Space Agency and Italian Space Agency. The mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  17. AltitudeOmics: cerebral autoregulation during ascent, acclimatization, and re-exposure to high altitude and its relation with acute mountain sickness.

    PubMed

    Subudhi, Andrew W; Fan, Jui-Lin; Evero, Oghenero; Bourdillon, Nicolas; Kayser, Bengt; Julian, Colleen G; Lovering, Andrew T; Panerai, Ronney B; Roach, Robert C

    2014-04-01

    Cerebral autoregulation (CA) acts to maintain brain blood flow despite fluctuations in perfusion pressure. Acute hypoxia is thought to impair CA, but it is unclear if CA is affected by acclimatization or related to the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS). We assessed changes in CA using transfer function analysis of spontaneous fluctuations in radial artery blood pressure (indwelling catheter) and resulting changes in middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (transcranial Doppler) in 21 active individuals at sea level upon arrival at 5,260 m (ALT1), after 16 days of acclimatization (ALT16), and upon re-exposure to 5,260 m after 7 days at 1,525 m (POST7). The Lake Louise Questionnaire was used to evaluate AMS symptom severity. CA was impaired upon arrival at ALT1 (P < 0.001) and did not change with acclimatization at ALT16 or upon re-exposure at POST7. CA was not associated with AMS symptoms (all R < 0.50, P > 0.05). These findings suggest that alterations in CA are an intrinsic consequence of hypoxia and are not directly related to the occurrence or severity of AMS.

  18. Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia with del(7)(q22) in a patient with de novo AML.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yang Gyun; Cho, Sun Young; Park, Tae Sung; Oh, Seung Hwan; Yoon, Hwi-Joong

    2011-01-01

    A 55-year-old Korean woman was initially diagnosed with acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML). After induction chemotherapy was performed using cytarabine, idarubicin, and G-CSF, complete remission (CR) was subsequently achieved following reinduction chemotherapy using the same chemotherapeutic agents. Thirty-six months after the initial CR, an increase in immature cells (up to 12.0%) was observed in the patient's bone marrow. Because chromosome analysis revealed a karyotype of 46,XX,del(7)(q22) in all of the analyzed cells, the patient was diagnosed with therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS). Although the patient subsequently received chemotherapy and G-CSF for neutropenia, t-MDS rapidly progressed after 3 months to therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML). Although very rare, de novo AML can progress to a secondary MDS/AML with del(7q) after chemotherapy with cytarabine, idarubicin, and G-CSF. Further investigation into the role of genes located in 7q22 may provide more information about the mechanisms of leukemogenesis.

  19. Laser angle measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pond, C. R.; Texeira, P. D.; Wilbert, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The design and fabrication of a laser angle measurement system is described. The instrument is a fringe counting interferometer that monitors the pitch attitude of a model in a wind tunnel. A laser source and detector are mounted above the mode. Interference fringes are generated by a small passive element on the model. The fringe count is accumulated and displayed by a processor in the wind tunnel control room. Optical and electrical schematics, system maintenance and operation procedures are included, and the results of a demonstration test are given.

  20. Optimum take-off angle in the long jump.

    PubMed

    Linthorne, Nicholas P; Guzman, Maurice S; Bridgett, Lisa A

    2005-07-01

    In this study, we found that the optimum take-off angle for a long jumper may be predicted by combining the equation for the range of a projectile in free flight with the measured relations between take-off speed, take-off height and take-off angle for the athlete. The prediction method was evaluated using video measurements of three experienced male long jumpers who performed maximum-effort jumps over a wide range of take-off angles. To produce low take-off angles the athletes used a long and fast run-up, whereas higher take-off angles were produced using a progressively shorter and slower run-up. For all three athletes, the take-off speed decreased and the take-off height increased as the athlete jumped with a higher take-off angle. The calculated optimum take-off angles were in good agreement with the athletes' competition take-off angles.

  1. Variable angle correlation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Young Kyo

    1994-05-01

    In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with 13C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system.

  2. Can a surgeon drill accurately at a specified angle?

    PubMed Central

    Brioschi, Valentina; Cook, Jodie; Arthurs, Gareth I

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether a surgeon can drill accurately a specified angle and whether surgeon experience, task repetition, drill bit size and perceived difficulty influence drilling angle accuracy. Methods The sample population consisted of final-year students (n=25), non-specialist veterinarians (n=22) and board-certified orthopaedic surgeons (n=8). Each participant drilled a hole twice in a horizontal oak plank at 30°, 45°, 60°, 80°, 85° and 90° angles with either a 2.5  or a 3.5 mm drill bit. Participants then rated the perceived difficulty to drill each angle. The true angle of each hole was measured using a digital goniometer. Results Greater drilling accuracy was achieved at angles closer to 90°. An error of ≤±4° was achieved by 84.5 per cent of participants drilling a 90° angle compared with approximately 20 per cent of participants drilling a 30–45° angle. There was no effect of surgeon experience, task repetition or drill bit size on the mean error for intended versus achieved angle. Increased perception of difficulty was associated with the more acute angles and decreased accuracy, but not experience level. Clinical significance This study shows that surgeon ability to drill accurately (within ±4° error) is limited, particularly at angles ≤60°. In situations where drill angle is critical, use of computer-assisted navigation or custom-made drill guides may be preferable. PMID:27547423

  3. A Note on Angle Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Richard L.

    1978-01-01

    The author investigates the construction of angles (using Euclidean tools) through a numerical approach. He calls attention to the surprising impossibility of constructing the conventional units of angle measure--the degree, minute, second, radian, and mil. (MN)

  4. Spontaneous Rectus Sheath Hematoma in Pregnancy Complicated by the Development of Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Jennifer; Bridges, Firas; Trivedi, Kiran; Vullo, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) represents a rare, but serious cause of abdominal pain. Case Here we discuss the case of a healthy multigravida female who presented at 28 weeks gestation with spontaneous RSH. Conservative management with multiple blood transfusions led to the development of transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) and intensive care unit admission. She was managed with noninvasive ventilatory support, gradually improved, and was weaned of ventilation. After hospital discharge, she progressed to full term and delivered a viable male infant vaginally at 37 weeks gestation. Conclusion Review of the literature demonstrates 13 cases of RSH in pregnancy, including our own. No other cases were complicated by transfusion related morbidity. RSH and TRALI are rare, but life threatening entities that can complicate pregnancy. PMID:27651980

  5. Impact of traditional practices on food safety: a case of acute toxoplasmosis related to the consumption of contaminated raw pork sausage in Italy.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Maria; Tumino, Giovanni; Partanna, Samanta; La Chiusa, Stella; Mancuso, Giorgio; Giglia, Maria La; Presti, Vincenzo Di Marco Lo

    2014-04-01

    A case of acute toxoplasmosis in an adolescent girl, almost certainly related to the consumption of raw sausage, is described. The girl suffered of fever and weakness and presented a swollen lymph node in the submandibular region. Serology analysis was positive for Toxoplasma gondii and excluded other infections. Further analysis, with avidity test and immunoblot, confirmed the acute toxoplasmosis. She reported that about a month before the appearance of the symptoms, she had eaten a piece of raw sausage while it was being prepared by her father. We analyzed sausage samples prepared from this same batch that had been frozen for later consumption, and they demonstrated evidence of T. gondii DNA when using a specific nested PCR assay. The sausage was prepared from the meat of a pig that had been backyard raised and slaughtered at home, a traditional practice in rural communities in many countries. The tasting of fresh prepared raw sausage is a common practice throughout Italy, and it could be a major cause for toxoplasmosis as suggested by the results of a questionnaire administered in the province of Palermo, Sicily. Contact with cats and, to a lesser extent, raw salad consumption were also referred to as presumptive causes for the symptomatic cases. Two additional cases of acute toxoplasmosis reported during questionnaire administration were alleged to have been caused by the consumption of fresh sausage made with the meat of a pig raised in the yard. Traditional practices in animal farming, and the processing of meat from animals raised in the backyard or meat from wild game animals, might have a big impact on food safety.

  6. The prolactin response to an acute stressor in relation to parental care and corticosterone in a short-lived bird, the Eurasian hoopoe.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Baptiste; Chastel, Olivier; Jenni, Lukas

    2011-10-01

    Prolactin plays an important role in mediating parental care in birds, but little is known about changes in prolactin levels when animals disrupt their reproductive behaviour during emergency life-history stages. We investigated the variation of prolactin levels with breeding stage, sex, body condition and as a response to a standardized acute stressor in a small short-lived bird, the Eurasian hoopoe Upupa epops under natural field conditions. We found higher baseline levels of prolactin in females during the brooding phase than in their mates which feed them and their chicks at this stage. Moreover, this is the first report of a differential prolactin stress-response between sexes with contrasting parental care within a breeding phase. Capture, handling and restraint induced a clear decrease of prolactin levels which was less pronounced in females at the very early stage of brooding compared to females in later stages. In contrast, the prolactin stress response in males remained nearly constant over the breeding stages and was stronger than in females. Baseline levels of prolactin, but not handling-induced levels, were positively correlated with body condition. We found a weak relationship between the decrease in prolactin due to acute handling stress and handling-induced levels of corticosterone. Taken together, both baseline and stress response levels of prolactin were related to the amount of parental care, although we found no relationship with reproductive success. It appears that the response to an acute stressor in prolactin levels is finely tuned to parental duties and investment. Hence, prolactin appears to be involved in mediating the trade-off between current reproduction versus self-maintenance and future reproduction.

  7. Characterization of acute graft-versus-host disease following reduced-intensity stem-cell transplantation from an HLA-identical related donor.

    PubMed

    Murashige, Naoko; Kami, Masahiro; Mori, Shin-ichiro; Katayama, Yuta; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko; Onishi, Yasushi; Hori, Akiko; Kishi, Yukiko; Hamaki, Tamae; Tajima, Kinuko; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Tanosaki, Ryuji; Takaue, Yoichi

    2008-08-01

    To investigate clinical features of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) following reduced intensity stem-cell transplantation (RIST), we retrospectively investigated medical records of 65 patients with hematologic malignancies who underwent RIST from a matched related donor. Preparative regimen comprised fludarabine 30 mg/m(2) (n = 53) or cladribine 0.11 mg/kg (n = 12) for 6 days plus busulfan 4 mg/kg for 2 days. Twelve patients received rabbit antithymocyte globulin 2.5 mg/kg/day for 2-4 consecutive days. Grade II to IV acute GVHD was diagnosed in 36 patients (55%). Its median onset was day 58 (range, 17-109), while it was bimodal, peaking day 15-29 (early-onset GVHD, n = 18) and day 75-89 days (late-onset GVHD, n = 18). Variables that were more common in early-onset GVHD than late-onset GVHD included skin rash (89% vs. 61%) and noninfectious fevers (33% vs. 11%). Desaturation, pulmonary infiltrates and hyperbilirubinemia (>2.0 mg/dL) were more common in late-onset GVHD (6% vs. 22%, 0% vs. 17%, and 6% vs. 33%, respectively). All of the patients with early-onset GVHD given corticosteroid responded to it, while 5 of the 18 patients with late-onset GVHD failed to respond it. Patients with either early-onset or late-onset GVHD tended to have better progression-free survival (PFS) than those without it; however, there was no significant difference in PFS between patients with early-onset GVHD and those with late-onset GVHD. This study suggests that several etiologies might have contributed to the development of acute GVHD following RIST.

  8. Angle performance on optima MDxt

    SciTech Connect

    David, Jonathan; Kamenitsa, Dennis

    2012-11-06

    Angle control on medium current implanters is important due to the high angle-sensitivity of typical medium current implants, such as halo implants. On the Optima MDxt, beam-to-wafer angles are controlled in both the horizontal and vertical directions. In the horizontal direction, the beam angle is measured through six narrow slits, and any angle adjustment is made by electrostatically steering the beam, while cross-wafer beam parallelism is adjusted by changing the focus of the electrostatic parallelizing lens (P-lens). In the vertical direction, the beam angle is measured through a high aspect ratio mask, and any angle adjustment is made by slightly tilting the wafer platen prior to implant. A variety of tests were run to measure the accuracy and repeatability of Optima MDxt's angle control. SIMS profiles of a high energy, channeling sensitive condition show both the cross-wafer angle uniformity, along with the small-angle resolution of the system. Angle repeatability was quantified by running a channeling sensitive implant as a regular monitor over a seven month period and measuring the sheet resistance-to-angle sensitivity. Even though crystal cut error was not controlled for in this case, when attributing all Rs variation to angle changes, the overall angle repeatability was measured as 0.16 Degree-Sign (1{sigma}). A separate angle repeatability test involved running a series of V-curves tests over a four month period using low crystal cut wafers selected from the same boule. The results of this test showed the angle repeatability to be <0.1 Degree-Sign (1{sigma}).

  9. Deformation of the Calabrian accretionary wedge and relative kinematics of the Calabrian and Peloritan backstops: Insights from multibeam bathymetry, high-resolution reflection and wide-angle seismics and analog modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellong, David; Gutscher, Marc-Andre; Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Graindorge, David; Kopp, Heidrun; Moretti, Milena; Marsset, Bruno; Mercier de Lepinay, Bernard; Dominguez, Stephane; Malavieille, Jacques

    2016-04-01

    Recently acquired swath bathymetric data in the Ionian Sea document in unprecedented detail the morphostructure and dynamics of the Calabrian accretionary wedge. A boundary zone between the eastern and western lobes of the accretionary wedge is examined here. Relative displacement between the Calabrian and Peloritan backstops is expected to cause dextral strike-slip deformation between the lobes. A wide-angle seismic profile was acquired in Oct. 2014 with the R/V Meteor (DIONYSUS survey) recorded by 25 Ocean-bottom seismometers (Geomar and Ifremer instruments) and 3 land-stations (INGV stations). Inversion and forward modeling of these seismic data reveal a 5-10 km deep asymmetric rift zone between the Malta Escarpment and the SW tip of Calabria. Analog modeling was performed to test if the origin of this rift could be related to the relative kinematics of the Calabrian and Peloritan backstops. Modeling, using two independently moving backstops, produces a zone of dextral transtension and subsidence in the accretionary wedge between two lobes. This corresponds well to the asymmetric rift observed in the southward prolongation of the straits of Messina faults. Paradoxically however, this dextral displacement does not appear to traverse the external Calabrian accretionary wedge, where prominent curved lineaments observed indicate a sinistral sense of motion. One possible explanation is that the dextral kinematic motion is transferred into a region of crisscrossing faults in the internal portion of the Eastern lobe. The bathymetry and high-resolution reflection seismic images indicate ongoing compression at the deformation front of both the western and eastern lobes. Together with the analog modeling results, these observations unambiguously demonstrate that the western lobe remains tectonically active.

  10. Gaia basic angle monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gielesen, W.; de Bruijn, D.; van den Dool, T.; Kamphues, F.; Meijer, E.; Calvel, B.; Laborie, A.; Monteiro, D.; Coatantiec, C.; Touzeau, S.; Erdmann, M.; Gare, P.

    2012-09-01

    The Gaia mission will create an extraordinarily precise three-dimensional map of more than one billion stars in our Galaxy. The Gaia spacecraft, built by EADS Astrium, is part of ESA's Cosmic Vision programme and scheduled for launch in 2013. Gaia measures the position, distance and motion of stars with an accuracy of 24 micro-arcsec using two telescopes at a fixed mutual angle of 106.5°, named the ‘Basic Angle’. This accuracy requires ultra-high stability, which can only be achieved by using Silicon Carbide for both the optical bench and the telescopes. TNO has developed, built and space qualified the Silicon carbide Basic Angle Monitoring (BAM) on-board metrology system for this mission. The BAM measures the relative motion of Gaia’s telescopes with accuracies in the range of 0.5 micro-arcsec. This is achieved by a system of two laser interferometers able to measure Optical Path Differences (OPD) as small as 1.5 picometer rms. Following a general introduction to the Gaia mission, the Payload Module (PLM) and the use of Silicon Carbide as base material, this presentation will address an overview of the challenges towards the key requirements, design, integration and testing (including space-level qualification) of the Gaia BAM.

  11. Dormant Masculinity: Moderating Effects of Acute Alcohol Intoxication on the Relation Between Male Role Norms and Antigay Aggression.

    PubMed

    Leone, Ruschelle M; Parrott, Dominic J

    2014-04-21

    Acute alcohol intoxication was examined as a moderator of the association between men's adherence to traditional gender norms and aggression towards a gay male. Participants were 164 heterosexual drinking men between the ages of 21-30. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires that included a measure of adherence to male role norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), were randomly assigned to consume an alcohol or no-alcohol control beverage, and completed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm in which electric shocks were administered to, and received from, a fictitious gay or heterosexual male opponent. Results indicated a greater adherence to both the toughness (β = .50, p = .002) and antifeminine (β = .37, p = .023) norms predicted high levels of aggression towards a gay man only among participants who were intoxicated. This interaction effect was not detected for the status norm. Consistent with previous research, findings suggest that adherence to the toughness norm does not increase sober men's risk of aggression toward gay men. However, this is the first study to demonstrate that alcohol intoxication may activate concepts of toughness, and thus influence men to act in line with this facet of the masculine concept. Importantly, these data support the view that men's adherence to various dimensions of masculinity may be dormant in some contexts, only to be activated, and subsequently demonstrated, in other contexts.

  12. A fluid response: Alpha-amylase reactions to acute laboratory stress are related to sample timing and saliva flow rate.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Tamás; van Lien, René; Willemsen, Gonneke; Proctor, Gordon; Efting, Marieke; Fülöp, Márta; Bárdos, György; Veerman, Enno C I; Bosch, Jos A

    2015-07-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) is used as a sympathetic (SNS) stress marker, though its release is likely co-determined by SNS and parasympathetic (PNS) activation. The SNS and PNS show asynchronous changes during acute stressors, and sAA responses may thus vary with sample timing. Thirty-four participants underwent an eight-minute memory task (MT) and cold pressor task (CPT). Cardiovascular SNS (pre-ejection period, blood pressure) and PNS (heart rate variability) activity were monitored continuously. Unstimulated saliva was collected repeatedly during and after each laboratory stressor, and sAA concentration (U/ml) and secretion (U/minute) determined. Both stressors increased anxiety. The MT caused an immediate and continued cardiac SNS activation, but sAA concentration increased at task cessation only (+54%); i.e., when there was SNS-PNS co-activation. During the MT sAA secretion even decreased (-35%) in conjunction with flow rate and vagal tone. The CPT robustly increased blood pressure but not sAA. In summary, sAA fluctuations did not parallel changes in cardiac SNS activity or anxiety. sAA responses seem contingent on sample timing and flow rate, likely involving both SNS and PNS influences. Verification using other stressors and contexts seems warranted.

  13. Serum leptin and cortisol, related to acutely perceived academic examination stress and performance in female university students.

    PubMed

    Haleem, Darakhshan J; Inam, Qurrat-Ul-Aen; Haider, Saida; Perveen, Tahira; Haleem, Muhammad Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Leptin, identified as an antiobesity hormone, also has important role in responses to stress and processing of memory. This study was designed to determine effects of academic examination stress-induced changes in serum leptin and its impact on academic performance. Eighty five healthy female students (age 19-21 years; BMI 21.9 ± 1.6) were recruited for the study. Serum leptin and cortisol were monitored at base line (beginning of academic session) and on the day of examination; using a standardized ELISA kit. Acute perception of academic examination stress was determined with the help of a questionnaire derived from Hamilton Anxiety Scale and self report of stress perception. Academic performance was evaluated by the percentage of marks obtained in the examination. Serum cortisol levels were positively correlated (p < 0.01) with the subjective perception of examination stress but not with academic performance. There was an inverted U-shape relationship between level of stress and academic performance. Leptin increased in all stress groups and correlated (p < 0.01) positively with academic performance. There was an inverted U-shape relationship between level of stress and circulating leptin. The findings suggest the peptide hormone, leptin, is a biomarker of stress perception and a mediator of facilitating effects of stress on cognition.

  14. Acute toxicity of crude oil water accommodated fraction on marine copepods: the relative importance of acclimatization temperature and body size.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhibing; Huang, Yijun; Chen, Quanzhen; Zeng, Jiangning; Xu, Xiaoqun

    2012-10-01

    Recent oil spillage accidents around the world greatly increase harmful risks to marine ecology. This study evaluated the influences of petroleum water accommodated fraction (WAF) on 15 typical species of marine copepods collected from a subtropical bay in East China Sea at different seasons. Copepods showed impaired swimming ability, restlessness, loss of balance, anoxic coma, and even death when they were acutely exposed to the crude oil WAF under laboratory conditions. The LC(50) values (expressed in total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration) indicated that the tolerances of copepods to WAF decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with increased exposure duration and natural water temperatures (acclimatization temperature). The sensitivity of the copepods was species-specific (P < 0.01), and there was a significant (P < 0.05) positive correlation between the 48-h LC(50) and body size. Therefore, the small copepod species confront more survival challenges under oil contamination stress, especially in the warm months or regions.

  15. Specificity of an anti-capsid antibody associated with Hepatitis B Virus-related acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weimin; Chen, Zhaochun; Cheng, Naiqian; Watts, Norman R; Stahl, Stephen J; Farci, Patrizia; Purcell, Robert H; Wingfield, Paul T; Steven, Alasdair C

    2013-01-01

    Previously, the livers of patients suffering from acute liver failure (ALF), a potentially fatal syndrome arising from infection by Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), were found to contain massive amounts of an antibody specific for the core antigen (HBcAg) capsid. We have used cryo-electron microscopy and molecular modeling to define its epitope. HBV capsids are icosahedral shells with 25Å-long dimeric spikes, each a 4-helix bundle, protruding from the contiguous "floor". Of the anti-HBcAg antibodies previously characterized, most bind around the spike tip while one binds to the floor. The ALF-associated antibody binds tangentially to a novel site on the side of the spike. This epitope is conformational. The Fab binds with high affinity to its principal determinants but has lower affinities for quasi-equivalent variants. The highest occupancy site is on one side of a spike, with no detectable binding to the corresponding site on the other side. Binding of one Fab per dimer was also observed by analytical ultracentrifugation. The Fab did not bind to the e-antigen dimer, a non-assembling variant of capsid protein. These findings support the propositions that antibodies with particular specificities may correlate with different clinical expressions of HBV infection and that antibodies directed to particular HBcAg epitopes may be involved in ALF pathogenesis.

  16. The Relation between the Fear-Avoidance Model and Constructs from the Social Cognitive Theory in Acute WAD

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Ann-Christin

    2016-01-01

    In the fear-avoidance (FA) model social cognitive constructs could add to explaining the disabling process in whiplash associated disorder (WAD). The aim was to exemplify the possible input from Social Cognitive Theory on the FA model. Specifically the role of functional self-efficacy and perceived responses from a spouse/intimate partner was studied. A cross-sectional and correlational design was used. Data from 64 patients with acute WAD were used. Measures were pain intensity measured with a numerical rating scale, the Pain Disability Index, support, punishing responses, solicitous responses, and distracting responses subscales from the Multidimensional Pain Inventory, the Catastrophizing subscale from the Coping Strategies Questionnaire, the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, and the Self-Efficacy Scale. Bivariate correlational, simple linear regression, and multiple regression analyses were used. In the statistical prediction models high pain intensity indicated high punishing responses, which indicated high catastrophizing. High catastrophizing indicated high fear of movement, which indicated low self-efficacy. Low self-efficacy indicated high disability, which indicated high pain intensity. All independent variables together explained 66.4% of the variance in pain disability, p < 0.001. Results suggest a possible link between one aspect of the social environment, perceived punishing responses from a spouse/intimate partner, pain intensity, and catastrophizing. Further, results support a mediating role of self-efficacy between fear of movement and disability in WAD. PMID:27999473

  17. Two cases of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis related to oral terbinafine and an analysis of the clinical reaction pattern.

    PubMed

    Eyler, Jennifer T; Squires, Stephen; Fraga, Garth R; Liu, Deede; Kestenbaum, Thelda

    2012-11-15

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a clinical reaction pattern characterized by the rapid appearance of widespread sterile, nonfollicular pustules arising within edematous erythematous skin. This aseptic pustular eruption is commonly accompanied by leukocytosis and fever and usually follows recent administration of oral or parenteral drugs. We report two cases of terbinafine-induced AGEP in male patients. Both patients developed a generalized erythroderma with scaling and pruritic pustules 7 and 14 days following initiation of oral terbinafine. With immediate discontinuation of terbinafine and various treatment protocols, both patients demonstrated recovery followed by skin desquamation during the subsequent weeks. Terbinafine is the most frequently used systemic antimycotic and antifungal medication, reflecting its superior efficacy for dermatophyte infections. Despite the appealing drug profile, an awareness of terbinafine-induced AGEP is important given the 5 percent mortality associated with AGEP. Additionally, distinguishing the characteristics of AGEP from those associated with toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and generalized pustular psoriasis allows for prompt dermatologic evaluation, accurate diagnosis, and appropriate treatment.

  18. The relation between apoptosis of acinar cells and nitric oxide during acute rejection of pancreas transplantation in rats.

    PubMed

    Xiaoguang, Ni; Zhong, Liu; Hailong, Chen; Ping, Zhao; Xiaofeng, Bai; Fenglin, Guan

    2003-01-01

    Apoptosis is an important mechanism of immune-mediated graft damage. Nitric oxide (NO) generated by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis. This study investigated whether apoptosis occurs during pancreas allograft rejection and examined the relationship of apoptosis of acinar cells and NO. The rats were divided into three groups: untreated isograft group, untreated allograft group and aminoguanidine (AG)-treated group. The pancreatic grafts were harvested on the post-transplantation day 3, 5 and 7 and were used to detect the histopathological rejection grade, the expression of iNOS and the apoptotic index (AI) of the graft. iNOS presented faint positive in the acinar cells of untreated isografts and did not change greatly after transplantation (P>0.05), the level of iNOS in the untreated allografts increased progressively (P<0.01) and at the same time point was significantly higher than that of untreated isograft group and AG-treated group (P<0.01). The transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling showed that the apoptotic cells were mainly acinar cells. A significant correlation between AI and iNOS was noted (P<0.01, r=0.611). Therefore, NO-mediated apoptosis of acinar cells plays an important role in acute rejection of pancreas transplantation, AG can mitigate the damage of pancreas allografts.

  19. Dormant Masculinity: Moderating Effects of Acute Alcohol Intoxication on the Relation Between Male Role Norms and Antigay Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Ruschelle M.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication was examined as a moderator of the association between men’s adherence to traditional gender norms and aggression towards a gay male. Participants were 164 heterosexual drinking men between the ages of 21–30. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires that included a measure of adherence to male role norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), were randomly assigned to consume an alcohol or no-alcohol control beverage, and completed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm in which electric shocks were administered to, and received from, a fictitious gay or heterosexual male opponent. Results indicated a greater adherence to both the toughness (β = .50, p = .002) and antifeminine (β = .37, p = .023) norms predicted high levels of aggression towards a gay man only among participants who were intoxicated. This interaction effect was not detected for the status norm. Consistent with previous research, findings suggest that adherence to the toughness norm does not increase sober men’s risk of aggression toward gay men. However, this is the first study to demonstrate that alcohol intoxication may activate concepts of toughness, and thus influence men to act in line with this facet of the masculine concept. Importantly, these data support the view that men’s adherence to various dimensions of masculinity may be dormant in some contexts, only to be activated, and subsequently demonstrated, in other contexts. PMID:25750591

  20. Pro-inflammatory-Related Loss of CXCL12 Niche Promotes Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemic Progression at the Expense of Normal Lymphopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Balandrán, Juan Carlos; Purizaca, Jessica; Enciso, Jennifer; Dozal, David; Sandoval, Antonio; Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Alemán-Lazarini, Leticia; Perez-Koldenkova, Vadim; Quintela-Núñez Del Prado, Henry; Rios de Los Ríos, Jussara; Mayani, Héctor; Ortiz-Navarrete, Vianney; Guzman, Monica L; Pelayo, Rosana

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric oncology, notably childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), is currently one of the health-leading concerns worldwide and a biomedical priority. Decreasing overall leukemia mortality in children requires a comprehensive understanding of its pathobiology. It is becoming clear that malignant cell-to-niche intercommunication and microenvironmental signals that control early cell fate decisions are critical for tumor progression. We show here that the mesenchymal stromal cell component of ALL bone marrow (BM) differ from its normal counterpart in a number of functional properties and may have a key role during leukemic development. A decreased proliferation potential, contrasting with the strong ability of producing pro-inflammatory cytokines and an aberrantly loss of CXCL12 and SCF, suggest that leukemic lymphoid niches in ALL BM are unique and may exclude normal hematopoiesis. Cell competence ex vivo assays within tridimensional coculture structures indicated a growth advantage of leukemic precursor cells and their niche remodeling ability by CXCL12 reduction, resulting in leukemic cell progression at the expense of normal niche-associated lymphopoiesis.

  1. Pro-inflammatory-Related Loss of CXCL12 Niche Promotes Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemic Progression at the Expense of Normal Lymphopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Balandrán, Juan Carlos; Purizaca, Jessica; Enciso, Jennifer; Dozal, David; Sandoval, Antonio; Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Alemán-Lazarini, Leticia; Perez-Koldenkova, Vadim; Quintela-Núñez del Prado, Henry; Rios de los Ríos, Jussara; Mayani, Héctor; Ortiz-Navarrete, Vianney; Guzman, Monica L.; Pelayo, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric oncology, notably childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), is currently one of the health-leading concerns worldwide and a biomedical priority. Decreasing overall leukemia mortality in children requires a comprehensive understanding of its pathobiology. It is becoming clear that malignant cell-to-niche intercommunication and microenvironmental signals that control early cell fate decisions are critical for tumor progression. We show here that the mesenchymal stromal cell component of ALL bone marrow (BM) differ from its normal counterpart in a number of functional properties and may have a key role during leukemic development. A decreased proliferation potential, contrasting with the strong ability of producing pro-inflammatory cytokines and an aberrantly loss of CXCL12 and SCF, suggest that leukemic lymphoid niches in ALL BM are unique and may exclude normal hematopoiesis. Cell competence ex vivo assays within tridimensional coculture structures indicated a growth advantage of leukemic precursor cells and their niche remodeling ability by CXCL12 reduction, resulting in leukemic cell progression at the expense of normal niche-associated lymphopoiesis. PMID:28111575

  2. The characteristics of emergency department presentations related to acute herbicide or insecticide poisoning in South Korea between 2011 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jeong Mi; Chun, Byeong Jo; Cho, Yong Soo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine epidemiologic data regarding acute herbicide or insecticide poisoning in adults from 2011 to 2014 at the national level in South Korea. Further, the association between governmental regulations involving pesticides and changes in pesticide poisoning occurrences over time was determined. Data were obtained from the emergency department (ED)-based Injury In-depth Surveillance system conducted by the Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC). Governmental regulations on pesticides were downloaded from the homepage of the Korea Rural Development Administration. Pesticides were classified according to guidelines provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) and by the respective Resistance Action Committee (RAC). Trends in the number of ED presentations and case fatality rate (CFR) due to pesticide poisoning were investigated. The overall CFR due to poisoning from herbicides or insecticides in adults in South Korea was 16.8% duri