Science.gov

Sample records for acute animal experiments

  1. Blood soluble drag-reducing polymers prevent lethality from hemorrhagic shock in acute animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Kameneva, Marina V; Wu, Zhongjun J; Uraysh, Arkady; Repko, Brandon; Litwak, Kenneth N; Billiar, Timothy R; Fink, Mitchell P; Simmons, Richard L; Griffith, Bartley P; Borovetz, Harvey S

    2004-01-01

    Over the past several decades, blood-soluble drag reducing polymers (DRPs) have been shown to significantly enhance hemodynamics in various animal models when added to blood at nanomolar concentrations. In the present study, the effects of the DRPs on blood circulation were tested in anesthetized rats exposed to acute hemorrhagic shock. The animals were acutely resuscitated either with a 2.5% dextran solution (Control) or using the same solution containing 0.0005% or 5 parts per million (ppm) concentration of one of two blood soluble DRPs: high molecular weight (MW=3500 kDa) polyethylene glycol (PEG-3500) or a DRP extracted from Aloe vera (AVP). An additional group of animals was resuscitated with 0.0075% (75 ppm) polyethylene glycol of molecular weight of 200 kDa (PEG-200), which possesses no drag-reducing ability. All of the animals were observed for two hours following the initiation of fluid resuscitation or until they expired. We found that infusion of the DRP solutions significantly improved tissue perfusion, tissue oxygenation, and two-hour survival rate, the latter from 19% (Control) and 14% (PEG-200) to 100% (AVP) and 100% (PEG-3500). Furthermore, the Control and PEG-200 animals that survived required three times more fluid to maintain their blood pressure than the AVP and PEG-3500 animals. Several hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying these observed beneficial hemodynamic effects of DRPs are discussed. Our findings suggest that the drag-reducing polymers warrant further investigation as a potential clinical treatment for hemorrhagic shock and possibly other microcirculatory disorders.

  2. Microgravity Experiments On Animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, B. P.; Leon, H.; Hogan, R.; Clarke, B.; Tollinger, D.

    1991-01-01

    Paper describes experiments on animal subjects planned for Spacelab Life Sciences 1 mission. Laboratory equipment evaluated, and physiological experiments performed. Represents first step in establishing technology for maintaining and manipulating rodents, nonhuman primates, amphibians, and plants during space flight without jeopardizing crew's environment. In addition, experiments focus on effects of microgravity on cardiopulmonary, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal systems; on regulation of volume of blood and production of red blood cells; and on calcium metabolism and gravity receptors.

  3. Animal experiments: conference report.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Jane

    1986-06-21

    Researchers who use animal subjects and representatives from the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals and moderate antivivisection groups held a press seminar in London in June 1986. Their intention was to correct what is seen by scientists as the misinforming of the public by the press, which tends to highlight confrontations between researchers and animal rights advocates. Dawson summarizes the major issues discussed, which included a proposal that local review committees be established, criticism of researchers for not justifying their work more completely to the public and to the press, and disagreement over the need to use animals in research with human applications. Scientists and antivivisectionists also aired their differences over the problem of pain in animal experimentation and over the usefulness of animal behavior studies.

  4. Experiments in Animal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polt, James M.

    1971-01-01

    Describes experiments in conditioning, sensory processes, social behavior, imprinting, innate preferences for color and form, and discrimination learning suitable for secondary school students. Mealworms, crickets, and chicks are used as subjects. (AL)

  5. Animal habitats for space experiments.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Keiji; Shimazu, Toru

    2004-11-01

    There has been little opportunity for flight experiments using small animals, due to delay of construction of the International Space Station. Therefore, proposals using small animals have been unfortunately excepted from International Space Life Sciences Experiment application opportunity since 2001. Moreover, NASA has changed their development plan of animal habitats for space experiments according to changes of the U.S. space policy and the outlook is not so bright. However, international researchers have been strongly requesting the opportunity for space experiments using small animals. It will be also important for Japanese researchers to make a request for the opportunity. At the same time, researchers have to make an advance in ground based studies toward space experiments and to respond future application opportunities immediately. In this symposium, we explain the AEM (Animal Enclosure Module), the RAHF (Research Animal Holding Facility), and the AAH (Advanced Animal Habitat). It will be helpful for investigators to have wide knowledge of what space experiment is technically possible. In addition, the sample share program will be introduced into our communities. The program will provide many researchers with the organs and tissues from space-flown animals. We will explain the technical aspect of sample share program.

  6. Animal models of acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amrit Pal; Junemann, Anselm; Muthuraman, Arunachalam; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh; Singh, Nirmal; Grover, Kuldeep; Dhawan, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    The animal models are pivotal for understanding the characteristics of acute renal failure (ARF) and development of effective therapy for its optimal management. Since the etiology for induction of renal failure is multifold, therefore, a large number of animal models have been developed to mimic the clinical conditions of renal failure. Glycerol-induced renal failure closely mimics the rhabdomyolysis; ischemia-reperfusion-induced ARF simulate the hemodynamic changes-induced changes in renal functioning; drug-induced such as gentamicin, cisplatin, NSAID, ifosfamide-induced ARF mimics the renal failure due to clinical administration of respective drugs; uranium, potassium dichromate-induced ARF mimics the occupational hazard; S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine-induced ARF simulate contaminated water-induced renal dysfunction; sepsis-induced ARF mimics the infection-induced renal failure and radiocontrast-induced ARF mimics renal failure in patients during use of radiocontrast media at the time of cardiac catheterization. Since each animal model has been created with specific methodology, therefore, it is essential to describe the model in detail and consequently interpret the results in the context of a specific model.

  7. Non-animal Replacements for Acute Toxicity Testing.

    PubMed

    Barker-Treasure, Carol; Coll, Kevin; Belot, Nathalie; Longmore, Chris; Bygrave, Karl; Avey, Suzanne; Clothier, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Current approaches to predicting adverse effects in humans from acute toxic exposure to cosmetic ingredients still heavily necessitate the use of animals under EU legislation, particularly in the context of the REACH system, when cosmetic ingredients are also destined for use in other industries. These include the LD50 test, the Up-and-Down Procedure and the Fixed Dose Procedure, which are regarded as having notable scientific deficiencies and low transferability to humans. By expanding on previous in vitro tests, such as the animal cell-based 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) assay, this project aims to develop a truly animal-free predictive test for the acute toxicity of cosmetic ingredients in humans, by using human-derived cells and a prediction model that does not rely on animal data. The project, funded by Innovate UK, will incorporate the NRU assay with human dermal fibroblasts in animal product-free culture, to generate an in vitro protocol that can be validated as an accepted replacement for the currently available in vivo tests. To date, the project has successfully completed an assessment of the robustness and reproducibility of the method, by using sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) as a positive control, and displaying analogous results to those of the original studies with mouse 3T3 cells. Currently, the testing of five known ingredients from key groups (a surfactant, a preservative, a fragrance, a colour and an emulsifier) is under way. The testing consists of initial range-finding runs followed by three valid runs of a main experiment with the appropriate concentration ranges, to generate IC50 values. Expanded blind trials of 20 ingredients will follow. Early results indicate that this human cell-based test holds the potential to replace aspects of in vivo animal acute toxicity testing, particularly with reference to cosmetic ingredients.

  8. Refining animal experiments: the first Brazilian regulation on animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    de A e Tréz, Thales

    2010-06-01

    The very first law on animal experimentation has been approved recently in Brazil, and now is part of a set of the legal instruments that profile the Brazilian government's attitude toward the use of animals in experiments. Law 11794/08 establishes a new legal instrument that will guide new methods of conduct for ethics committees, researchers and representatives of animal protection societies. This comment aims to analyse critically the implications that this law brings to Brazilian reality. The link between it and the Russell and Burch's Three Rs concept is defined, and certain problems are identified. The conclusion is that the body of the law emphasises the refinement of animal experiments, but gives little importance to the principles of reduction and replacement.

  9. HMX: Acute Toxicity Tests in Laboratory Animals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-30

    Nutrition expanded Rat and Mouse Maintenance Diet No. 1 (Appendix 1) but were deprived of food for a 16 h period prior to dosing. Water was available...humidity was 57% (extremes of 52%-74%). The animals were fed on BP Nutrition expanded Rat and Mouse Maintenance Diet No. 1 but were deprived of food for a... Nutrition expanded Rat and Mouse Maintenance Diet No. 1. Food and water were avail- able ad libitum throughout the study. c) Method The application site

  10. Color experience and the human animal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardin, Clyde L.

    2002-06-01

    It is one thing to understand what advantages an animal such as ourselves gains by being able to exploit spectral information in its environment, but quite another to understand how the animal benefits by having conscious color experiences. Since experiences are private, how could they confer a selective advantage? Could they do so by enabling voluntary action of a sort forever beyond the resources of the most ingeniously designed wavelength-processing robot? Or is there an ancient biological link between color experience and the emotions that colors evoke in us?

  11. Acute spinal cord injury: tetraplegia and paraplegia in small animals.

    PubMed

    Granger, Nicolas; Carwardine, Darren

    2014-11-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a common problem in animals for which definitive treatment is lacking, and information gained from its study has benefit for both companion animals and humans in developing new therapeutic approaches. This review provides an overview of the main concepts that are useful for clinicians in assessing companion animals with severe acute SCI. Current available advanced ancillary tests and those in development are reviewed. In addition, the current standard of care for companion animals following SCI and recent advances in the development of new therapies are presented, and new predictors of recovery discussed.

  12. A review of animal flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandler, H.

    1977-01-01

    Extensive experience with biologic systems was obtained with a variety of vertebrate species over the past 18 years. Subhuman primates were precursors to man in the American space flight program; dogs and mice were animals of choice for the Soviet program. Recent attempts to use heavily instrumented animals for observations of long-term physiological effects indicate problems which must be corrected in future experiments for monitoring the effects of environmental stresses over the longer periods required for accomplishing meaningful habitation in near-Earth orbit or for travel to nearby planets.

  13. [Serotonin and impulsivity (experiments on animals)].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ian, G A

    2011-01-01

    In the current paper a role of the serotinergic system in organization of impulsive behaviour in animals was considered. The results of influence of antagonists and agonists of the different types and subtypes of 5-HT receptors (1A, B; 2A, B, C; 7) and the effects of the dorsal raphe nuclei lesions on characteristics of impulsivity related with a motor control, mechanisms of attention, reinforcement and decision making were summarized. The data on knock-out animals and the experiments with microdialysis have been also considered. There was emphasized the important role of interaction of 5-HT-, dopamine- and glutamatergic systems in mediation of impulsive behaviour.

  14. Chronic and acute effects of stress on energy balance: are there appropriate animal models?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Stress activates multiple neural and endocrine systems to allow an animal to respond to and survive in a threatening environment. The corticotropin-releasing factor system is a primary initiator of this integrated response, which includes activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The energetic response to acute stress is determined by the nature and severity of the stressor, but a typical response to an acute stressor is inhibition of food intake, increased heat production, and increased activity with sustained changes in body weight, behavior, and HPA reactivity. The effect of chronic psychological stress is more variable. In humans, chronic stress may cause weight gain in restrained eaters who show increased HPA reactivity to acute stress. This phenotype is difficult to replicate in rodent models where chronic psychological stress is more likely to cause weight loss than weight gain. An exception may be hamsters subjected to repeated bouts of social defeat or foot shock, but the data are limited. Recent reports on the food intake and body composition of subordinate members of group-housed female monkeys indicate that these animals have a similar phenotype to human stress-induced eaters, but there are a limited number of investigators with access to the model. Few stress experiments focus on energy balance, but more information on the phenotype of both humans and animal models during and after exposure to acute or chronic stress may provide novel insight into mechanisms that normally control body weight. PMID:25519732

  15. Attitudes toward the use of animals in chronic versus acute pain research: results of a web-based forum.

    PubMed

    Ormandy, Elisabeth H; Griffin, Gilly

    2016-09-01

    When asked about the use of animals in biomedical research, people often state that the research is only acceptable if pain and distress are minimised. However, pain is caused when the aim is to study pain itself, resulting in unalleviated pain for many of the animals involved. Consequently, the use of animals in pain research is often considered contentious. To date, no research has explored people's views toward different types of animal-based pain research (e.g. chronic or acute pain). This study used a web-based survey to explore people's willingness to support the use of mice in chronic versus acute pain research. The majority of the participants opposed the use of mice for either chronic (68.3%) or acute (63.1%) pain research. There was no difference in the levels of support or opposition for chronic versus acute pain research. Unsupportive participants justified their opposition by focusing on the perceived lack of scientific merit, or the existence of non-animal alternatives. Supporters emphasised the potential benefits that could arise, with some stating that the benefits outweigh the costs. The majority of the participants were opposed to pain research involving mice, regardless of the nature and duration of the pain inflicted, or the perceived benefit of the research. A better understanding of public views toward animal use in pain research may provide a stronger foundation for the development of policy governing the use of animals in research where animals are likely to experience unalleviated pain.

  16. Nucleus accumbens neuronal activity correlates to the animal's behavioral response to acute and chronic methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Claussen, Catherine M; Chong, Samuel L; Dafny, Nachum

    2014-04-22

    Acute and chronic methylphenidate (MPD) exposure was recorded simultaneously for the rat's locomotor activity and the nucleus accumbens (NAc) neuronal activity. The evaluation of the neuronal events was based on the animal's behavior response to chronic MPD administration: 1) Animals exhibiting behavioral sensitization, 2) Animals exhibiting behavioral tolerance. The experiment lasted for 10days with four groups of animals; saline, 0.6, 2.5, and 10.0mg/kg MPD. For the main behavioral findings, about half of the animals exhibited behavioral sensitization or behavioral tolerance to 0.6, 2.5, and/or 10mg/kg MPD respectively. Three hundred and forty one NAc neuronal units were evaluated. Approximately 80% of NAc units responded to 0.6, 2.5, and 10.0mg/kg MPD. When the neuronal activity was analyzed based on the animals' behavioral response to chronic MPD exposure, significant differences were seen between the neuronal population responses recorded from animals that expressed behavioral sensitization when compared to the NAc neuronal responses recorded from animals exhibiting behavioral tolerance. Three types of neurophysiological sensitization and neurophysiological tolerance can be recognized following chronic MPD administration to the neuronal populations. Collectively, these findings show that the same dose of chronic MPD can elicit either behavioral tolerance or behavioral sensitization. Differential statistical analyses were used to verify our hypothesis that the neuronal activity recorded from animals exhibiting behavioral sensitization will respond differently to MPD compared to those animals exhibiting behavioral tolerance, thus, suggesting that it is essential to record the animal's behavior concomitantly with neuronal recordings.

  17. [Question the animal experiment in a new way].

    PubMed

    Brenner, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    When asking what the subject of an animal experiment is, you are inclined to answer that the animal is the subject of the animal experiment. However in answering this, you need to analyse the term "animal". This paper attempts to define the term "animal" by using the impression of "body" (German: "Leib"). Starting from the human body the paper shows the body's perceptive ability which entails self-perception in the sense of self-awareness as well as perception of the surroundings. Animals, which are also bodily beings, are like humans capable of self-perception in the sense of self-awareness. So the term "body" makes a connection between humans and animals. In the result of this it becomes clear that, of course, animals are the subject of animal experiments as are humans.

  18. [Reduction of animal experiments in experimental drug testing].

    PubMed

    Behrensdorf-Nicol, H; Krämer, B

    2014-10-01

    In order to ensure the quality of biomedical products, an experimental test for every single manufactured batch is required for many products. Especially in vaccine testing, animal experiments are traditionally used for this purpose. For example, efficacy is often determined via challenge experiments in laboratory animals. Safety tests of vaccine batches are also mostly performed using laboratory animals. However, many animal experiments have clear inherent disadvantages (low accuracy, questionable transferability to humans, unclear significance). Furthermore, for ethical reasons and animal welfare aspects animal experiments are also seen very critical by the public. Therefore, there is a strong trend towards replacing animal experiments with methods in which no animals are used ("replacement"). If a replacement is not possible, the required animal experiments should be improved in order to minimize the number of animals necessary ("reduction") and to reduce pain and suffering caused by the experiment to a minimum ("refinement"). This "3R concept" is meanwhile firmly established in legislature. In recent years many mandatory animal experiments have been replaced by alternative in vitro methods or improved according to the 3R principles; numerous alternative methods are currently under development. Nevertheless, the process from the development of a new method to its legal implementation takes a long time. Therefore, supplementary regulatory measures to facilitate validation and acceptance of new alternative methods could contribute to a faster and more consequent implementation of the 3R concept in the testing of biomedical products.

  19. [Justification of repeated animal experiments and determination of the required number of animals according to the German Animal Protection Act].

    PubMed

    Schneider, Berthold

    2009-01-01

    The repetition of animal experiments requires justification according to the German Animal Protection Act (Tierschutzgesetz). On the other hand, repetition of experiments is considered necessary for the improvement of the precision and reliability of the results. In this paper it is shown that such improvement is not achieved by a repetition of the experiment but by repeated inclusion of animals into the experiment. The more animals are included, the more precisely and reliably the results can be generalized to further situations. The number of animals necessary for a proposed precision can be determined with statistical methods. The basic ideas are explained in the paper and demonstrated with two examples. In long term experiments the precision can be improved, if all experimental conditions are applied within temporally homogenous blocks to few animals and the blocks are repeated till the necessary number of animals is reached (block experiments). By sequential interim analyses, where at each analysis on the basis of all available data a decision on continuation or conclusion of the experiment is drawn, a further reduction of the number of animals can be achieved. These methods are discussed in the paper. Repetitions of total animal experiments are justified, if there exist legitimate doubts on the soundness of the published results or if in so called ring-experiments the variability of the results between different laboratories should be investigated.

  20. Noise effects on reproduction— animal experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takigawa, H.; Sakamoto, H.; Murata, M.; Matsumura, Y.

    1988-12-01

    Noise effects on fetal development were observed in animals. While the copulatory function was not affected, birth rate decreased when the animals were exposed to noise. An increased number of stunted fetuses was observed when the animals were intermittently exposed. However, malformations in the fetuses increased with exposure to both intermittent and continuous noise. Two phases of hormonal change were observed in connection with noise exposure. One is the initial response phase, characterized by the increment of 11-OHCS in the adrenal gland. The other is the end phenomena phase, characterized by a disorder in central control. It is discussed that the disturbance of fetal development by exposure to noise is related to these changes in the hormonal condition.

  1. Science Experience Unit: Plant and Animal Adaptations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.

    GRADES OR AGES: No mention. Appears to be upper elementary. SUBJECT MATTER: Science units--plants and animals. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into 35 activities. It is mimeographed and staple-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: No objectives are mentioned. The activities suggested aim to recreate common…

  2. [Inspection of laboratory animal breeding and husbandry/experiments on animals, examples].

    PubMed

    Ratsch, H

    2008-04-01

    In Berlin, the authorization and inspection of experiments on animals and of facilities for laboratory animal breeding and husbandry are carried out by the same authority. According to Section 16 (1) sentence one no. 3 Tierschutzgesetz (German animal protection act), there are presently 1200 procedures registered and 68 facilities approved to breed and keep vertebrates for experiments (according to Section 11 (1) sentence one no. 1 Tierschutzgesetz). In 2006, the use of 300,903 vertebrates was reported. There are 38 animal welfare officers in the twenty major scientific facilities who are in charge of in-house supervision. The authority visits the facilities where experiments take place at regular intervals to observe and supervise their operations. On request, the facilities must send the records from the experiments to the authority for examination (according to Section 9 a Tierschutzgesetz). With the annual laboratory animal report, the authority can verify the number of authorised laboratory animals. By checking the scientific publications the authority can compare them with the authorised animal experiments. Facilities for laboratory animal breeding and husbandry are continuously supervised. Offences against the animal protection act are prosecuted. When there are deficiencies in animal welfare, the authority sets a deadline to correct the defects. If the deficiency still exists after the expiry of the term, the authority imposes a penalty payment or initiates legal proceedings. The important role of the animal welfare officers (Section 8 a Tierschutzgesetz) is apparent. The majority of supervisions show that there are deficiencies. This indicates that more emphasis must be put on prevention. The facilities must provide better support and resources for the animal welfare officers. Furthermore, the scientists must be more receptive to the animal welfare officers in their role as advisers. Continuous and adequate training is imperative to the goal of maintaining

  3. NASDA aquatic animal experiment facilities for Space Shuttle.

    PubMed

    Sakimura, T; Suzuki, T; Matsubara, S; Uchida, S; Kato, M; Tanemura, R; Honda, S

    1999-12-01

    National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has been developed aquatic animal experiment facilities for space experiments using NASA Space Shuttle. Vestibular Function Experiment Unit (VFEU) has been firstly designed and developed for Spacelab-J mission (STS-47), and 8 days space experiment with carp has been performed. Following, the VFEU, Aquatic Animal Experiment Unit (AAEU) has been developed to accommodate small aquatic animals second International Microgravity Laboratory mission (IML-2, STS-65). Four kinds of space experiments with goldfish, medaka, newt, and newt eggs have been performed for 15 days mission duration. Then, VFEU has been improved to accommodate marine fish under low temperature condition for Neurolab (STS-90) and STS-95 missions. 17 days (STS-90) and 9 days (STS-95) experiments with oyster toadfish have been performed by using the VFEU. This report summarizes the outline of these aquatic animal experiment facilities.

  4. Preclinical animal acute toxicity studies of new developed MRI contrast agent based on gadolinium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, I. F.; Zhuk, V. V.

    2015-04-01

    Acute toxicity test of new developed MRI contrast agent based on disodium salt of gadopentetic acid complex were carried out on Mus musculus and Sprague Dawley rats according to guidelines of preclinical studies [1]. Groups of six animals each were selected for experiment. Death and clinical symptoms of animals were recorded during 14 days. As a result the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for female mice is 2.8 mM/kg of body weight, male mice - 1.4 mM/kg, female rats - 2.8 mM/kg, male rats - 5.6 mM/kg of body weight. No Observed Adverse Effect Dose (NOAEL) for female mice is 1.4 mM/kg, male mice - 0.7 mM/kg, male and female rats - 0.7 mM/kg. According to experimental data new developed MRI contrast agent based on Gd-DTPA complex is low-toxic.

  5. NASDA aquatic animal experiment facilities for space shuttle and ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Satoko; Masukawa, Mitsuyo; Kamigaichi, Shigeki

    National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has developed aquatic animal experiment facilities for NASA Space Shuttle use. Vestibular Function Experiment Unit (VFEU) was firstly designed and developed for physiological research using carp in Spacelab-J (SL-J, STS-47) mission. It was modified as Aquatic Animal Experiment Unit (AAEU) to accommodate small aquatic animals, such as medaka and newt, for second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2, STS-65) mission. Then, VFEU was improved to accommodate marine fish and to perform neurobiological experiment for Neurolab (STS-90) and STS-95 missions. We have also developed and used water purification system which was adapted to each facility. Based on these experiences of Space Shuttle missions, we are studying to develop advanced aquatic animal experiment facility for both Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS).

  6. NASDA aquatic animal experiment facilities for Space Shuttle and ISS.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Satoko; Masukawa, Mitsuyo; Kamigaichi, Shigeki

    2002-01-01

    National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has developed aquatic animal experiment facilities for NASA Space Shuttle use. Vestibular Function Experiment Unit (VFEU) was firstly designed and developed for physiological research using carp in Spacelab-J (SL-J, STS-47) mission. It was modified as Aquatic Animal Experiment Unit (AAEU) to accommodate small aquatic animals, such as medaka and newt, for second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2, STS-65) mission. Then, VFEU was improved to accommodate marine fish and to perform neurobiological experiment for Neurolab (STS-90) and STS-95 missions. We have also developed and used water purification system which was adapted to each facility. Based on these experiences of Space Shuttle missions, we are studying to develop advanced aquatic animal experiment facility for both Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS).

  7. Simulation of physiology experiments--an alternative to animal use.

    PubMed

    Nageswari, K Sri; Devi, M Syamala; Sharma, Rajeev

    2007-01-01

    Amphibian experiments on nerve-muscle preparation and heart are essential as per first year MBBS practical syllabus, for learning basic concepts in Physiology. Need was felt to design and develop computer based simulation software as an alternative to animal use, due to growing concern and stringent laws imposed by animal ethical bodies. Computer algorithms were developed for 13 amphibian experiments, by manually tracing the graphs obtained through mechanical experimentation and storing the X, Y coordinates for the end points of each line segment as data base tables. By retrieving the data base tables, one for each experiment, the computer simulated graphs were drawn using Visual Basic 6 with timer control and Macromedia Flash for animation effects. A CD-ROM consisting of the software for computer simulation of all the amphibian experiments, as an alternative to the conventional animal experiments, has been developed for the benefit of medical students across the country, as a useful active learning tool.

  8. Computer simulation models are implementable as replacements for animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Badyal, Dinesh K; Modgill, Vikas; Kaur, Jasleen

    2009-04-01

    It has become increasingly difficult to perform animal experiments, because of issues related to the procurement of animals, and strict regulations and ethical issues related to their use. As a result, it is felt that the teaching of pharmacology should be more clinically oriented and that unnecessary animal experimentation should be avoided. Although a number of computer simulation models (CSMs) are available, they are not being widely used. Interactive demonstrations were conducted to encourage the departmental faculty to use CSMs. Four different animal experiments were selected, that dealt with actions of autonomic drugs. The students observed demonstrations of animal experiments involving conventional methods and the use of CSMs. This was followed by hands-on experience of the same experiment, but using CSMs in small groups, instead of hands-on experience with the animal procedures. Test scores and feedback showed that there was better understanding of the mechanisms of action of the drugs, gained in a shorter time. The majority of the students found the teaching programme used to be good to excellent. CSMs can be used repeatedly and independently by students, and this avoids unnecessary experimentation and also causing pain and trauma to animals. The CSM programme can be implemented in existing teaching schedules for pharmacology undergraduate teaching with basic infrastructure support, and is readily adaptable for use by other institutes.

  9. Algorithmic Animation in Education--Review of Academic Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esponda-Arguero, Margarita

    2008-01-01

    This article is a review of the pedagogical experience obtained with systems for algorithmic animation. Algorithms consist of a sequence of operations whose effect on data structures can be visualized using a computer. Students learn algorithms by stepping the animation through the different individual operations, possibly reversing their effect.…

  10. Canada's Experience with Student Use of Living Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowsell, H. C.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the importance of children developing personal associations with animals, and suggests that it is the responsibility of schools to teach students how to properly care for pets. With particular reference to Canadian experiences, criticizes the widespread neglect of pets and misuse of animals in school laboratories and science fairs. (JR)

  11. Animal Navigation in the Classroom: Lessons from a Pilot Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanini, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    In response to a direct request from science teachers, researchers initiated a pilot experience on animal orientation and navigation, which was delivered to 61 13-year-old students in Florence, Italy. The aim was to explain the approach to ethology and to link animal navigation with geography, focusing on species crossing the Italian territory.…

  12. Status of Animal Experiments on International Space Station, and Animal Care Activities in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Ryutaro; Ishioka, Noriaki; Yumoto, Akane; Ito, Isao; Shirakawa, Masaki

    We would like to introduce animal experiments status on International Space Station (ISS) of Japan. Aquatic Habitat (AQH) was launched at 2012 July, by H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV, ‘Kounotori’) from Tanegashima island in Japan, which could house small fish (Medaka, or Zebrafish) at most three months. First experiment using AQH was carried out for two months from Oct. 26, 2012, and second experiment would start from February, 2014. Mice housing hardware is now under development. For animal care activities, current topic in Japan is self-estimation for animal experiment status by each institute, and to open the result for public. JAXA conducted self-estimation of fiscal year 2011 (from 2011 April until 2012 March) for the first time, and would continue every fiscal year. JAXA already have its own animal care regulation, under animal care law and policy in Japan, and also referred COSPAR animal care guideline. And this year, JAXA made handbook for animal experiments in space (only Japanese).

  13. Experiments on Analysing Voice Production: Excised (Human, Animal) and In Vivo (Animal) Approaches.

    PubMed

    Döllinger, Michael; Kobler, James; Berry, David A; Mehta, Daryush D; Luegmair, Georg; Bohr, Christopher

    Experiments on human and on animal excised specimens as well as in vivo animal preparations are so far the most realistic approaches to simulate the in vivo process of human phonation. These experiments do not have the disadvantage of limited space within the neck and enable studies of the actual organ necessary for phonation, i.e., the larynx. The studies additionally allow the analysis of flow, vocal fold dynamics, and resulting acoustics in relation to well-defined laryngeal alterations.

  14. Development of an Animal Model of Thoracolumbar Burst Fracture Induced Acute Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0013 TITLE: DEVELOPMENT OF AN ANIMAL MODEL OF THORACOLUMBAR BURST FRACTURE - INDUCED ACUTE SPINAL CORD INJURY...2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER DEVELOPMENT OF AN ANIMAL MODEL OF THORACOLUMBAR BURST FRACTURE -INDUCED ACUTE SPINAL CORD INJURY 5b...leads to permanent disability following traumatic spine injury. A dramatic increase in blast related spinal burst fracture has been observed in

  15. Animal and non-animal experiments in nanotechnology - the results of a critical literature survey.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Ursula G

    2009-01-01

    A literature survey funded by the Foundation Animalfree Research was performed to obtain an overview on animal experiments in nanotechnology. Scientific articles from Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Italy, the Netherlands and Switzerland published between 2004 and 2007 were collected. A total of 164 articles was retrieved covering in vivo nanotechnological research. The majority of animal experiments were conducted in "nanomedicine", i.e. nanotechnology in the health care area, to study targeted drug, vaccine or gene delivery. Further areas of research relate to nanotechnology-based imaging technologies, the toxicity of nanomaterials, tissue engineering for regenerative treatments, and magnetic tumour thermotherapy. Many experiments were classified as moderately and even severely distressful to the animals. Due to the significance of the scientific topics pursued, the possible scientific benefit of the research depicted in the articles is also assigned to be moderate to high. Nevertheless, it has to be asked whether such animal experiments are truly the only means to answer the scientific questions addressed in nanotechnology. An overview on non-animal test methods used in nanotechnological research revealed a broad spectrum of methodologies applied in a broad spectrum of scientific areas, including those for which animal experiments are being performed. Explicit incentives to avoid animal experiments in nanotechnology currently can only be found in the area of nanotoxicology, but not in the area of nanomedicine. From the point of view of animal welfare, not least because of the new technologies that arise due to nanotechnology, it is time for a paradigm change both in fundamental and applied biomedical research to found research strategies on non-animal test methods.

  16. Guidelines for reporting experiments involving animals: the ARRIVE guidelines.

    PubMed

    McGrath, J C; Drummond, G B; McLachlan, E M; Kilkenny, C; Wainwright, C L

    2010-08-01

    British Journal of Pharmacology (BJP) is pleased to publish a new set of guidelines for reporting research involving animals, simultaneously with several other journals; the 'ARRIVE' guidelines (Animals in Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments). This editorial summarizes the background to the guidelines, gives our view of their significance, considers aspects of specific relevance to pharmacology, re-states BJP's guidelines for authors on animal experiments and indicates our commitment to carrying on discussion of this important topic. We also invite feedback via the British Pharmacological Society website.

  17. An Insufferable Business: Ethics, Nonhuman Animals and Biomedical Experiments.

    PubMed

    Peggs, Kay

    2015-07-22

    Each year millions of nonhuman animals suffer in biomedical experiments for human health benefits. Clinical ethics demand that nonhuman animals are used in the development of pharmaceuticals and vaccines. Nonhuman animals are also used for fundamental biomedical research. Biomedical research that uses nonhuman animals is big business but the financial gains are generally occluded. This paper explores how such research generates profits and gains for those associated with the industry. Research establishments, scientists, laboratories, companies that sell nonhuman animal subjects, that supply equipment for the research, and corporations that market the resulting products are among those that benefit financially. Given the complex articulation of ethical codes, enormous corporate profits that are secured and personal returns that are made, the accepted moral legitimacy of such experiments is compromised. In order to address this, within the confines of the moral orthodoxy, more could to be done to ensure transparency and to extricate the vested financial interests from the human health benefits. But such a determination would not address the fundamental issues that should be at the heart of human actions in respect of the nonhuman animals who are used in experiments. The paper concludes with such an address by calling for an end to the denigration of nonhuman animals as experimental subjects who can be used as commodities for profit-maximisation and as tools in experiments for human health benefits, and the implementation of a more inclusive ethic that is informed by universal concern about the suffering of and compassion for all oppressed beings.

  18. COMPARING BEHAVIORAL DOSE-EFFECT CURVES FOR HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS ACUTELY EXPOSED TO TOLUENE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The utility of laboratory animal data in toxicology depends upon the ability to generalize the results quantitatively to humans. To compare the acute behavioral effects of inhaled toluene in humans to those in animals, dose-effect curves were fitted by meta-analysis of published...

  19. [Experimental estimation of thermogenic levels of acute microwave exposure for different animal species].

    PubMed

    Kolganova, O I; Drozd, A I; Zhavoronkov, L P; Baranov, V D; Glushakova, V S; Panferova, T A

    2000-01-01

    In experiments on laboratory animals it was found the different patterns of reactions in response to acute thermogenic 7 GHz CW microwave exposures. The effects were related specifically to the intensity of the field. SAR equal 0.5-0.7 power of basal metabolism of different species did not result in increase of body temperature. At SARs over intensity of basal metabolism (up to 1.5-2.0 basal metabolism for the mice and for the rats and up to 1.5 for the rabbits) the "stepped" pattern of body heating with periods of rectal temperature stabilization was observed. This results may have implications for prognostic estimation of dose-temporal limits of endurable intensities of microwaves.

  20. Hybrid pairwise likelihood analysis of animal behavior experiments.

    PubMed

    Cattelan, Manuela; Varin, Cristiano

    2013-12-01

    The study of the determinants of fights between animals is an important issue in understanding animal behavior. For this purpose, tournament experiments among a set of animals are often used by zoologists. The results of these tournament experiments are naturally analyzed by paired comparison models. Proper statistical analysis of these models is complicated by the presence of dependence between the outcomes of fights because the same animal is involved in different contests. This paper discusses two different model specifications to account for between-fights dependence. Models are fitted through the hybrid pairwise likelihood method that iterates between optimal estimating equations for the regression parameters and pairwise likelihood inference for the association parameters. This approach requires the specification of means and covariances only. For this reason, the method can be applied also when the computation of the joint distribution is difficult or inconvenient. The proposed methodology is investigated by simulation studies and applied to real data about adult male Cape Dwarf Chameleons.

  1. [About animal experiments for a face without wrinkles].

    PubMed

    Ruhdel, Irmela

    2004-01-01

    Botulinum toxin, a nervous poison produced by bacteria, is increasingly being used - besides its medical application - as a beauty product for smoothing facial wrinkles. It is unknown in public that each batch of the toxin has to undergo a quality control before marketing. The test used is a LD50 test using mice that is very animal consuming and causes extreme suffering. Although several alternative methods exist, none of these are have yet been adopted by the European pharmacopoeia. Consumers in the EU do not accept animal experiments for cosmetic purposes. However, Botulinum toxin does not fall under the definition of a "cosmetic product" and therefore the bans on animal experiments laid down in the EU Cosmetic Directive do not apply. Therefore on a short term scale, only the voluntarily renouncement of the use of this toxin as an anti-wrinkling agent can prevent the suffering and death of animals for a beauty product.

  2. An Insufferable Business: Ethics, Nonhuman Animals and Biomedical Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Peggs, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary This paper explores the ways in which biomedical research that uses nonhuman animal subjects generates financial profits and gains for humans who are associated with the industry. Research establishments, scientists, regulators and persons that inspect laboratories for compliance, those associated with granting licences, companies that sell nonhuman animal subjects and that supply equipment for the research, and corporations that market the resulting products are among those that benefit financially. These profits are rarely discussed—they seem to be camouflaged by the focus of the moral convention that assumes that human health-related needs prevail over those of the nonhuman animals who are so used. The paper concludes by calling for an end to the denigration of nonhuman animals as experimental subjects who can be used as commodities for profit-maximisation and as tools in experiments for human health benefits. Abstract Each year millions of nonhuman animals suffer in biomedical experiments for human health benefits. Clinical ethics demand that nonhuman animals are used in the development of pharmaceuticals and vaccines. Nonhuman animals are also used for fundamental biomedical research. Biomedical research that uses nonhuman animals is big business but the financial gains are generally occluded. This paper explores how such research generates profits and gains for those associated with the industry. Research establishments, scientists, laboratories, companies that sell nonhuman animal subjects, that supply equipment for the research, and corporations that market the resulting products are among those that benefit financially. Given the complex articulation of ethical codes, enormous corporate profits that are secured and personal returns that are made, the accepted moral legitimacy of such experiments is compromised. In order to address this, within the confines of the moral orthodoxy, more could to be done to ensure transparency and to

  3. Pathology of Acute Henipavirus Infection in Humans and Animals

    PubMed Central

    Wong, K. T.; Ong, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Zoonoses as causes of human infections have been increasingly reported, and many of these are viruses that cause central nervous system infections. This paper focuses on the henipaviruses (family Paramyxoviridae, genus henipavirus) that have recently emerged to cause severe encephalitis and systemic infection in humans and animals in the Asia-Pacific region. The pathological features in the human infections comprise vasculopathy (vasculitis, endothelial multinucleated syncytia, thrombosis, etc.) and parenchymal cell infection in the central nervous system, lung, kidney, and other major organs. Most animals naturally or experimentally infected show more or less similar features confirming the dual pathogenetic mechanism of vasculopathy-associated microinfarction and direct extravascular parenchymal cell infection as causes of tissue injury. The most promising animal models include the hamster, ferret, squirrel monkey, and African green monkey. With increasing evidence of infection in the natural hosts, the pteropid bats and, hence, probable future outbreaks in many more countries, a greater awareness of henipavirus infection in both humans and animals is imperative. PMID:21961078

  4. Pathology of acute henipavirus infection in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Wong, K T; Ong, K C

    2011-01-01

    Zoonoses as causes of human infections have been increasingly reported, and many of these are viruses that cause central nervous system infections. This paper focuses on the henipaviruses (family Paramyxoviridae, genus henipavirus) that have recently emerged to cause severe encephalitis and systemic infection in humans and animals in the Asia-Pacific region. The pathological features in the human infections comprise vasculopathy (vasculitis, endothelial multinucleated syncytia, thrombosis, etc.) and parenchymal cell infection in the central nervous system, lung, kidney, and other major organs. Most animals naturally or experimentally infected show more or less similar features confirming the dual pathogenetic mechanism of vasculopathy-associated microinfarction and direct extravascular parenchymal cell infection as causes of tissue injury. The most promising animal models include the hamster, ferret, squirrel monkey, and African green monkey. With increasing evidence of infection in the natural hosts, the pteropid bats and, hence, probable future outbreaks in many more countries, a greater awareness of henipavirus infection in both humans and animals is imperative.

  5. Cynomolgus Macaque as an Animal Model for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Cynomolgus Macaque as an Animal Model for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome James V. Lawler 1¤a , Timothy P. Endy 2¤b , Lisa E. Hensley 2 , Aura...model for severe acute respiratory syndrome . PLoS Med 3(5): e149. Received: July 5, 2005 Accepted: January 10, 2006 Published: April 18, 2006 DOI...United States of America A B S T R A C T Background The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002 and 2003 affected global health and

  6. Why scientists perform animal experiments, scientific or personal aim?

    PubMed Central

    Mayir, Burhan; Doğan, Uğur; Bilecik, Tuna; Yardımcı, Erdem Can; Çakır, Tuğrul; Aslaner, Arif; Mayir, Yeliz Akpınar; Oruç, Mehmet Tahir

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although all animal studies are conducted in line with a specific purpose, we think that not all animal studies are performed for a scientific purpose but for personal curiosity or to fulfill a requirement. The aim of the present study is to reveal the purposes of experimental studies conducted on animals. Matherial and Methods We searched for experimental studies performed on rats in general surgery clinics via PubMed, and obtained the e-mail addresses of the corresponding authors for each study. Afterwards, we sent a 7-item questionnaire to the authors and awaited their responses. Results Seventy-three (22.2%) of 329 authors responded to the questionnaire. Within these studies, 31 (42.5%) were conducted as part of a dissertation, while the remaining 19 (26.0%) were conducted to meet the academic promotion criteria. Only 23 (31.5%) were conducted for scientific purposes. The cost of 41% of those studies was higher than 2500 $. Conclusion As shown in this study, the main objective of carrying out animal studies in Turkey is usually to prepare a dissertation or to be entitled to academic promotion. Animal experiments must be planned and performed as scientific studies to support related clinical studies. Additionally, animal studies must have well-defined objectives and be carried out in line with scientific purposes that may lead to useful developments in medicine, rather than personal interests. PMID:28149122

  7. [EU-Cosmetics: timetables for the replacement of animal experiments].

    PubMed

    Ruhdel, Irmela Wiltrud

    2005-01-01

    According to the 7(th) Amendment of the Cosmetics Directive the European Commission had to establish timetables for the phasing out of the various animal tests for the safety evaluation of ingredients used in cosmetics. However, the published timetables do not reflect the objectives of the 7(th) Amendment but contain longer deadlines for the ban on animal experiments of several endpoints. The European Commission also had to draw up a Directive for establishing an Annex IX that should list validated alternative methods which are not already listed in Annex V of the Dangerous Substances Directive. Although various alternative methods could have been listed in this Annex IX, the Commission published an empty table. From the point of view of the German Animal Welfare Federation amendments of the timetables and the Directive establishing Annex IX are urgently required. Additionally, the Commission has to provide optimal conditions for the replacement of alternative methods.

  8. Zoo experiences: conversations, connections, and concern for animals.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Susan; Fraser, John; Saunders, Carol D

    2009-09-01

    One way in which zoos attempt to fulfill their goal of conservation is by educating visitors about the importance of protecting wildlife. Research has only begun to examine the effectiveness of zoos in place-based learning, and there has been much debate about how such informal learning is defined and measured. Free-choice learning research has demonstrated that educational outcomes are often indirect, constructed by the visitor as much as they are influenced by the zoo's educational staff. This constructivist definition of education includes emotional dimensions and personal meaning-making that occur in the social context of visiting, as well as any structured interpretive material provided on signs and through live presentations. This paper presents an examination of how the zoo is experienced by the visitor, through surveys and through observations of how visitors watch animals and incorporate those viewings into their social experience. Results from surveys of 206 zoo visitors show that support for protecting both individual animals and species is associated with learning, with wanting to know more, and with a feeling of connection to the animal. An analysis of 1,900 overheard visitor conversations suggests that zoo animals are used to facilitate topical interaction among social groups and to explore the connections that people share with nonhuman animals. The authors propose that these perceived positive connections may be related to support for conservation initiatives, and conclude that a visit to the zoo appears to be a positive emotional experience that leaves visitors interested in learning more about animals, irrespective of their reading the exhibit labels.

  9. The regulation of experiments on animals in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Rankin, J D

    1986-01-01

    In Britain animals being subjected to experiments which are likely to cause them pain have been protected by statute for more than 100 years. The relevant statute is the Cruelty to Animals Act, which was passed by Parliament in 1876. Today, the substance of the Act is exactly the same as it was 100 years ago and it is still an effective instrument for exercising a tight and detailed control over animal experiments in the United Kingdom. The paper describes the essential features of the Act and the methods by which Her Majesty's Government ensures that the provisions of the Act are complied with: these methods include a system of inspection which is also described. Differences between the United Kingdom's method of control and methods used in other countries are referred to where appropriate. Discussions and consultations have been taking place in preparation for the replacement of the Cruelty to Animals Act, 1976 by a new Act which will recognise and reflect the changes in techniques and in attitudes which have occurred during the past 100 years. Her Majesty's Government has indicated the changes it would like to see introduced.

  10. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals#

    EPA Science Inventory

    Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animalsWhitney S. Krueger1,2, Elizabeth D. Hilborn2, Timothy J. Wade21Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA2Environmental Public Health Division, Office of Research and Development, U...

  11. Minimum information about animal experiments: supplier is also important.

    PubMed

    Lonjon, Nicolas; Prieto, Monica; Haton, Henri; Brøchner, Christian B; Bauchet, Luc; Costalat, Vincent; Privat, Alain; Gaviria, Manuel; Perrin, Florence E

    2009-02-01

    It has now been established that functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) depends on several parameters, including animal strain. Here we demonstrate that rats from the same strain (Wistar) but from two independent commercial suppliers present different motor, sensory, and autonomic outcomes after a standard model of SCI, the so-called compression model. Recovery is correlated with the extension of the lesion, and we show that the vertebral canal diameter varies between the two suppliers. To substantiate this point, we carried out another set of experiments, with the so-called contusion model, which requires bone ablation and thus whose extension is not related to vertebral canal diameter. We show that there is no difference between the two suppliers. The purpose of our communication is to alert researchers on how crucial it is to control experimental parameters as closely as possible and to establish a standard for animal experiment in order to avoid unexpected biases.

  12. Animal experiments with the microelectronics neural bridge IC.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenyuan; Pei, Fei; Wang, Zhigong; Lü, Xiaoying

    2012-01-01

    The combination of the neural science and the microelectronics science offers a new way to restore the function of central nervous system. A neural regeneration module is used to be implanted into body to bridge the damaged nerve. A microelectronics neural bridge IC designed in CSMC 0.5□m CMOS process which can detect the neural signal and stimulate the nerve is presented. The neural regeneration module is composed of the microelectronics neural bridge IC and some discrete devices. An animal experiment has been done to check whether the neural signal can be transmitted with the chip normally or not. The animal experiment results suggest that the neural regeneration module can make the neural signal transmit normally.

  13. Oral Administration of Escin Inhibits Acute Inflammation and Reduces Intestinal Mucosal Injury in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Li, Minmin; Lu, Chengwen; Zhang, Leiming; Zhang, Jianqiao; Du, Yuan; Duan, Sijin; Wang, Tian; Fu, Fenghua

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of oral administration of escin on acute inflammation and intestinal mucosal injury in animal models. The effects of escin on carrageenan-induced paw edema in a rat model of acute inflammation, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) induced intestinal mucosal injury in a mouse model, were observed. It was shown that oral administration of escin inhibits carrageenan-induced paw edema and decreases the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2. In CLP model, low dose of escin ameliorates endotoxin induced liver injury and intestinal mucosal injury and increases the expression of tight junction protein claudin-5 in mice. These findings suggest that escin effectively inhibits acute inflammation and reduces intestinal mucosal injury in animal models. PMID:26199634

  14. The clinical experience of acute cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Yen, D; Tsai, J; Wang, L M; Kao, W F; Hu, S C; Lee, C H; Deng, J F

    1995-09-01

    The authors reviewed the clinical manifestations, complications, and the prognosis affected by Lilly Cyanide Antidote in 21 victims of acute cyanide poisoning over a 10-year period. The clinical signs and symptoms in cyanide poisoning are variable. Among 21 cases, loss of consciousness (15), metabolic acidosis (14), and cardiopulmonary failure (9) were the three leading manifestations of cyanide intoxication. Anoxic encephalopathy (6) was not uncommon in the severely intoxicated victims. Diabetes insipidus (1) or clinical signs and symptoms mimicking diabetes insipidus (3) may be an ominous sign to encephalopathy victims. The major cause of fatal cyanide poisoning is the intentional ingestion of cyanide compounds as part of a suicide attempt. Decrease of arteriovenous difference of O2 partial pressure may be a clue for the suspicion of cyanide intoxication. Although the authors cannot show a statistically significant difference (P = .47) for the Lilly cyanide antidote kit in terms of improving the survival rate for victims of cyanide poisoning, the antidote kit was always mandatory in our study in the cases of severely intoxicated victims who survived. Early diagnosis, prompt, intensive therapy with antidote, and supportive care are still the golden rules for the treatment of acute cyanide poisoning, whether in the ED or on the scene.

  15. Experiments on Analysing Voice Production: Excised (Human, Animal) and In Vivo (Animal) Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Döllinger, Michael; Kobler, James; Berry, David A.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Luegmair, Georg; Bohr, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Experiments on human and on animal excised specimens as well as in vivo animal preparations are so far the most realistic approaches to simulate the in vivo process of human phonation. These experiments do not have the disadvantage of limited space within the neck and enable studies of the actual organ necessary for phonation, i.e., the larynx. The studies additionally allow the analysis of flow, vocal fold dynamics, and resulting acoustics in relation to well-defined laryngeal alterations. Purpose of Review This paper provides an overview of the applications and usefulness of excised (human/animal) specimen and in vivo animal experiments in voice research. These experiments have enabled visualization and analysis of dehydration effects, vocal fold scarring, bifurcation and chaotic vibrations, three-dimensional vibrations, aerodynamic effects, and mucosal wave propagation along the medial surface. Quantitative data will be shown to give an overview of measured laryngeal parameter values. As yet, a full understanding of all existing interactions in voice production has not been achieved, and thus, where possible, we try to indicate areas needing further study. Recent Findings A further motivation behind this review is to highlight recent findings and technologies related to the study of vocal fold dynamics and its applications. For example, studies of interactions between vocal tract airflow and generation of acoustics have recently shown that airflow superior to the glottis is governed by not only vocal fold dynamics but also by subglottal and supraglottal structures. In addition, promising new methods to investigate kinematics and dynamics have been reported recently, including dynamic optical coherence tomography, X-ray stroboscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction with laser projection systems. Finally, we touch on the relevance of vocal fold dynamics to clinical laryngology and to clinically-oriented research. PMID:26581597

  16. [Cariogenic properties of various snacks in animal experiments].

    PubMed

    Karle, E J; Gehring, F; Trautner, K

    1977-09-01

    In a conventional animal experiment with rats, the cariogenic properties of different snacks were studied and compared. Bananas caused the highest caries incidence, apples the lowest. In between ranged the caries values of two other tested sweets, wafers and gum drops. The differences in caries incidence were due to specific chemo-physical properties (stickiness, fat content). In addition to the evaluation of caries incidence, microbiological plaque examinations and sugar analyses of the tested substances were carried out.

  17. Relevance of experimental animal studies to the human experience

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Animal experiments are being used to examine a number of physical and biological factors that influence risk estimations though not usually in coordination with epidemiologists. It is clear that the different mechanisms involved in different types of tumors are reflected in the diversity of dose-response relationships. The forms of the dose-response relationships are influenced by both the initial events and their expression. Evidence is accumulating that many initiated cells do not get expressed as overt cancers and host factors may play a major role in the expression of potential tumor cells. There is a need for information about the relationship of the natural incidence and susceptibility to radiation induction for more tumor types. Such experiments will help answer the question of which risk estimate models are appropriate for different tumor types and can be carried out on animals. Perhaps because of the importance of host factors risk estimates as a percentage of the natural incidence appear to be similar for human beings and mice for a small number of tumor types. The elucidation of the mechanisms involved in different tissues while a slow business remains an important role of animal experiments.

  18. Russia: update on animal experiments and alternatives in education.

    PubMed

    Jukes, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Progress continues in Russia with growing awareness and implementation of alternatives in education. Further outreach visits and negotiations for replacement have been made by InterNICHE campaigners. Russian language information resources have been complemented by the distribution of translated freeware physiology and pharmacology alternatives; and the InterNICHE Alternatives Loan Systems continue to provide valuable hands-on access to a range of learning tools. Donations of computers and alternatives have established exemplary multimedia laboratories, with software having directly replaced the annual use of several thousand animals. New agreements have been made with institutes to abandon animal experiments for teaching purposes. Work to consolidate the successes is being done, and Russian teachers have begun to present at conferences to share their experiences of implementation. Further development and implementation of alternatives is being achieved through grant funding from the InterNICHE Humane Education Award. Using a different approach, cases of determined conscientious objection have included a campaign against the use of stolen companion animals for surgery practice in the Russian Far East, and a continuing legal challenge to experiments at Moscow State University. This multi-pronged, decentralised and culturally appropriate campaigning strategy has proved to be an effective approach to achieving sustainable change in Russia.

  19. From spectral information to animal colour vision: experiments and concepts

    PubMed Central

    Kelber, Almut; Osorio, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Many animals use the spectral distribution of light to guide behaviour, but whether they have colour vision has been debated for over a century. Our strong subjective experience of colour and the fact that human vision is the paradigm for colour science inevitably raises the question of how we compare with other species. This article outlines four grades of ‘colour vision’ that can be related to the behavioural uses of spectral information, and perhaps to the underlying mechanisms. In the first, even without an (image-forming) eye, simple organisms can compare photoreceptor signals to locate a desired light environment. At the next grade, chromatic mechanisms along with spatial vision guide innate preferences for objects such as food or mates; this is sometimes described as wavelength-specific behaviour. Here, we compare the capabilities of di- and trichromatic vision, and ask why some animals have more than three spectral types of receptors. Behaviours guided by innate preferences are then distinguished from a grade that allows learning, in part because the ability to learn an arbitrary colour is evidence for a neural representation of colour. The fourth grade concerns colour appearance rather than colour difference: for instance, the distinction between hue and saturation, and colour categorization. These higher-level phenomena are essential to human colour perception but poorly known in animals, and we suggest how they can be studied. Finally, we observe that awareness of colour and colour qualia cannot be easily tested in animals. PMID:20164101

  20. Zebrafish embryos as an alternative to animal experiments--a commentary on the definition of the onset of protected life stages in animal welfare regulations.

    PubMed

    Strähle, Uwe; Scholz, Stefan; Geisler, Robert; Greiner, Petra; Hollert, Henner; Rastegar, Sepand; Schumacher, Axel; Selderslaghs, Ingrid; Weiss, Carsten; Witters, Hilda; Braunbeck, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Worldwide, the zebrafish has become a popular model for biomedical research and (eco)toxicology. Particularly the use of embryos is receiving increasing attention, since they are considered as replacement method for animal experiments. Zebrafish embryos allow the analysis of multiple endpoints ranging from acute and developmental toxicity determination to complex functional genetic and physiological analysis. Particularly the more complex endpoints require the use of post-hatched eleutheroembryo stages. According to the new EU Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes, the earliest life-stages of animals are not defined as protected and, therefore, do not fall into the regulatory frameworks dealing with animal experimentation. Independent feeding is considered as the stage from which free-living larvae are subject to regulations for animal experimentation. However, despite this seemingly clear definition, large variations exist in the interpretation of this criterion by national and regional authorities. Since some assays require the use of post-hatched stages up to 120 h post fertilization, the literature and available data are reviewed in order to evaluate if this stage could still be considered as non-protected according to the regulatory criterion of independent feeding. Based on our analysis and by including criteria such as yolk consumption, feeding and swimming behavior, we conclude that zebrafish larvae can indeed be regarded as independently feeding from 120 h after fertilization. Experiments with zebrafish should thus be subject to regulations for animal experiments from 120 h after fertilization onwards.

  1. Ranking of simultaneously presented choice options in animal preference experiments.

    PubMed

    Halekoh, Ulrich; Jørgensen, Erik; Bak Jensen, Margit; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Studnitz, Merete; Højsgaard, Søren

    2007-08-01

    We considered experiments where animals chose one of all possible simultaneously presented options. The animals might be observed at repeated occasions. In the ethological literature the analysis is often focused on testing the global hypothesis of no difference in preferences by non-parametric methods. This fails to address the estimation of a ranking. Often this approach cannot adequately reflect the experimental setting and the repeated measurement structure. Therefore, we propose to model the choice probabilities for the options with a multinomial logistic model. The correlation induced by repeated measurements is incorporated by animal specific random intercepts. The ranking of the options is taken as the order of the choice probabilities. Adopting a Bayesian approach samples from the posterior distribution of the choice probabilities provide directly samples from the posterior of the rankings. Based on this an estimate of the ranking and description of its variability can be derived. The computation was performed via Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling and was implemented using WinBUGS. We illustrate our approach with an experiment to determine the preference of pigs for three different rooting materials. The proposed method allowed deriving an overall ranking for different combinations of the materials and the spatial positioning.

  2. Caudate neuronal recording in freely behaving animals following acute and chronic dose response methylphenidate exposure.

    PubMed

    Claussen, Catherine M; Dafny, Nachum

    2015-09-01

    The misuse and abuse of the psychostimulant, methylphenidate (MPD) the drug of choice in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has seen a sharp uprising in recent years among both youth and adults for its cognitive enhancing effects and for recreational purposes. This uprise in illicit use has lead to many questions concerning the long-term consequences of MPD exposure. The objective of this study was to record animal behavior concomitantly with the caudate nucleus (CN) neuronal activity following acute and repetitive (chronic) dose response exposure to methylphenidate (MPD). A saline control and three MPD dose (0.6, 2.5, and 10.0mg/kg) groups were used. Behaviorally, the same MPD dose in some animals following chronic MPD exposure elicited behavioral sensitization and other animals elicited behavioral tolerance. Based on this finding, the CN neuronal population recorded from animals expressing behavioral sensitization was also evaluated separately from CN neurons recorded from animals expressing behavioral tolerance to chronic MPD exposure, respectively. Significant differences in CN neuronal population responses between the behaviorally sensitized and the behaviorally tolerant animals were observed for the 2.5 and 10.0mg/kg MPD exposed groups. For 2.5mg/kg MPD, behaviorally sensitized animals responded by decreasing their firing rates while behaviorally tolerant animals showed mainly an increase in their firing rates. The CN neuronal responses recorded from the behaviorally sensitized animals following 10.0mg/kg MPD responded by increasing their firing rates whereas the CN neuronal recordings from the behaviorally tolerant animals showed that approximately half decreased their firing rates in response to 10.0mg/kg MPD exposure. The comparison of percentage change in neuronal firing rates showed that the behaviorally tolerant animals trended to exhibit increases in their neuronal firing rates at ED1 following initial MPD exposure and

  3. Acute renal failure in pregnancy: our experience.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Rohina S; Mishra, Vineet V; Jasani, Anil F; Gumber, Manoj

    2014-03-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is a serious medical complication during pregnancy, and, in the post-partum period, is associated with significant maternal morbidity and mortality as well as fetal loss. The objective of our study is to find the etiology and maternal outcome of ARF during pregnancy. The study was conducted at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Institute of Kidney Disease and Research Center, Ahmedabad, India from January 2009 to January 2011. Fifty previously healthy patients who developed ARF, diagnosed on oliguria and serum creatinine >2 mg%, were included in the study. Patients with a known history of renal disease, diabetes and hypertension were excluded from the study. All patients were followed-up for a period of six months. Patient re-cords, demographic data, urine output on admission and preceding history of antepartum hemorrhage (APH), post-partum hemorrhage (PPH), septicemia, operative interventions and retained product of conception were noted and need for dialysis was considered. Patients were thoroughly examined and baseline biochemical investigations and renal and obstetrical ultrasound were performed on each patient and bacterial culture sensitivity on blood, urine or vaginal swabs were performed in selected patients. The age range was 19-38 years (mean 26 ± 3.8). The first trimester, second trimester and puerperal groups comprised of four (8%), 25 (50%) and 21 patients (42%), respectively. Hemorrhage was the etiology for ARF in 15 (30%), APH in ten (20%) and PPH in five (10%) patients. Eleven (22%) patients had lower segment cesarian section (LSCS) while 36 (78%) patients had normal vaginal delivery. In 20 (40%) patients, puerperal sepsis was the etiological factor, while pre-eclampsia, eclampsia and HELLP syndrome accounted for 18 (36%) patients. Two (4%) patients had disseminated intravascular coagulation on presentation while one (2%) patient was diagnosed with hemolytic uremic syndrome. Maternal mortality was 12% (n = 6

  4. Treatment of acute cerebral ischemia using animal models: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng-Fei; Zhou, Yu; Fang, Huang; Lin, Sen; Wang, Yan-Chun; Liu, Yong; Xia, Jun; Eslick, Guy D.; Yang, Qing-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Background There are numerous potential treatments assessed for acute cerebral ischemia using animal models. This study aimed to assess the effect of these treatments in terms of infarct size and neurobehavioral change. This meta-analysis was conducted to determine if any of these treatments provide a superior benefit so that they might be used on humans. Methods A systematic search was conducted using several electronic databases for controlled animal studies using only nonsurgical interventions for acute cerebral ischemia. A random-effects model was used. Results After an extensive literature search, 145 studies were included in the analysis. These studies included 1408 treated animals and 1362 control animals. Treatments that had the most significant effect on neurobehavioral scales included insulin, various antagonists, including N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ACEA1021, calmodulin antagonist DY-9760e, and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist YM872, and antiviral agents. Treatments providing the greatest effect on infarct size included statins, sphingosine-1-phosphate agonist (fingolimod), alcohol, angiotensin, and leukotrienes. Treatments offering the greatest reduction in brain water content included various agonists, including sphingosine-1-phosphate agonist fingolimod, statins, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ). Treatment groups with more than one study all had high heterogeneity (I2 > 80%), however, using meta-regression we determined several sources of heterogeneity including sample size of the treatment and control groups, the occlusion time, but not the year when the study was conducted. Conclusions Some treatments stand out when compared to others for acute cerebral ischemia in animals. Greater replication of treatment studies is required before any treatments are selected for future human trials. PMID:28123790

  5. Management of laryngeal radionecrosis: Animal and clinical experience

    SciTech Connect

    Oppenheimer, R.W.; Krespi, Y.P.; Einhorn, R.K.

    1989-05-01

    Radiation necrosis of the laryngeal cartilages is an uncommon complication of radiotherapy for laryngeal carcinoma. It is a devastating process for which there is no one acceptable treatment. Medical management offers only temporary, symptomatic relief, which further necessitates surgical treatment. Surgical management may start with a tracheotomy; however, it often ends with a total laryngectomy. Physiologically, the necrotic cartilages are the source of the problem. It is a general surgical principle that nonviable tissue must be excised to promote healing. Therefore, if the affected laryngeal cartilages were removed, the larynx should heal. Total or near total removal of the thyroid and cricoid cartilages with preservation of the endolaryngeal soft tissues has not been reported in the literature. Theoretically, if the entire cartilaginous framework is removed, there would be no structural support for the airway. We have found using animal models, that submucosal resection of the laryngeal cartilages, leaving the perichondrium and endolaryngeal soft tissues intact can result in a competent airway. Animal and clinical experience will be presented.

  6. Acute silver toxicity in aquatic animals is a function of sodium uptake rate.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, Adalto; Grosell, Martin; Gregory, Sean M; Wood, Chris M

    2002-04-15

    On the basis of these facts about freshwater fish and invertebrates: (i) the Na+ turnover is a physiological process associated with the gill membranes; (ii) the key mechanism of acute silver toxicity consists of reduction in Na+ uptake by blockade of gill Na+,K+-ATPase; (iii) the mass-specific surface area of the gills depends on animal body mass; and (iv) the gill surface is also the major site of Na+ loss by diffusion, we hypothesized that whole body Na+ uptake rate (i.e., turnover rate) and secondarily body mass would be good predictors of acute silver toxicity. Results obtained from toxicological (LC50 of AgNO3) and physiological (22Na uptake rate) tests performed on juvenile fish (rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss), early juvenile and adult crayfish (Cambarusdiogenes diogenes), and neonate and adult daphnids (Daphnia magna) in moderately hard water of constant quality support the above hypothesis. Therefore, sensitivity to AgNO3, in terms of either total measured silver or free Ag+, was reliably predicted from the whole body Na+ uptake rate in animals with body mass ranging over 6 orders of magnitude (from micrograms to grams). A positive log-log correlation between acute AgNO3 toxicity and body mass of the same species was also observed. Furthermore, the whole body Na+ uptake rate was inversely related to body mass in unexposed animals. The combination of these last two results explains why the small animals in this study were more sensitive to Ag+ than the larger ones. Taken together, these results clearly point out the possibility of incorporating the Na+ uptake rate into the current version of the Biotic Ligand Model to improve the predictive capacity of this model. In the absence of information on Na+ uptake rate, then body mass may serve as a surrogate.

  7. Development of aquatic animal experiment facility, Aquatic Habitat (AQH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, S.; Kono, Y.; Sakimura, T.; Nishikawa, W.; Fujimoto, N.; Murakami, K.; Nakamura, T.

    We have been performing technical studies to develop aquatic animal experiment facility, Aquatic Habitat (AQH), for both of short-term experiments in the Space Shuttle middeck and long-term experiments in the Space Station including the Centrifuge Accommodation Module (CAM). The AQH will have the capabilities to accommodate three-generations of small freshwater fish (medaka and zebrafish) and egg through metamorphosis of amphibian (African clawed frog). For these purposes, the AQH will have the following brand-new capabilities that the previous facilities have never had; 90days experiment duration, automatic feeding according to specimen types and their developmental stages, separation of generations for fish, specimen sample collection in various developmental stages, air/water interface control for amphibian, continuous monitoring of specimen behavior even in dark condition, and so on. We have already performed preliminary breeding tests for medaka and zebrafish with a breeding system prototype. Their mating behavior was performed successfully in the small closed chamber and the hatched larvae grew and started spawning on the 45-47th day after hatching. These results demonstrated that three generational breeding of medaka and zebrafish within 90days would be possible based on this breeding system prototype. Also, we have developed almost of the above new mechanisms, that is, an automatic feeding system, an egg separation mechanism for fish, an air stabilizer to control air/water interface, and a continuous specimen monitoring system through light/dark cycle. Based on these results, we have manufactured a BBM of AQH water circulation system and performed biological compatibility tests as a next step. For African clawed frog breeding, some problems have been revealed through the preliminary tests with the breeding system prototype. Currently, we are performing the investigations to resolve the problems and preparing to proceed to the next step.

  8. [Christian responsibility and experimental medicine. Experiments with and on humans, experiments on animals].

    PubMed

    Grosse, Heinrich W

    2002-01-01

    The Jewish-Christian convictions that man was created as the image of God founded the "ethics of unavailability" which contrast with the utilitarian "ethics of interests." As man s nature is imperfect according to biblical understanding, those responsible in the field of experimental medicine should counteract all tendencies in society which promote an utopian definition of health and an eugenic mentality (idea of the "perfection of mankind"). Consequently, scientists must reflect their own image of man and the effects of their actions on this image. The goals of experimental medicine must also be examined under the aspect of fairness: do they only benefit a minority in the rich industrial nations? As in research on humans, the ethical evaluation of animal experiments must consider the question of the underlying image of humanity and the responsibility of mankind connected to it. Because of changes in society's values, the validity of traditional anthropocentrism is increasingly questioned. However, this does not affect the view of the special position of man as the bearer of responsibility. Even though there are different biblical statements on the relationship between man and animal, the Christian maxim to minimise violence towards animals can be derived from them. In the case of animal experiments this means: experiments which cause the animals severe suffering must be avoided by waiving the potential gain of knowledge from them. In general: in an ethical discussion on medical experiments using humans or animals, the public must be informed completely and involved effectively. A moratorium must be possible before plans become facts. Thinking about ethical problems in the area of experimental medicine should not be separated from the far-reaching questions about changes in our lifestyle and consumer behaviour.

  9. Molecular Ultrasound Imaging of Tissue Inflammation Using an Animal Model of Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hoyt, Kenneth; Warram, Jason M.; Wang, Dezhi; Ratnayaka, Sithira; Traylor, Amie; Agarwal, Anupam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of molecular ultrasound (US) imaging for monitoring the early inflammatory effects following acute kidney injury. Procedures A population of rats underwent 30 min of renal ischemia (acute kidney injury, N=6) or sham injury (N=4) using established surgical methods. Animals were divided and molecular US imaging was performed during the bolus injection of a targeted microbubble (MB) contrast agent to either P-selectin or vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). Imaging was performed before surgery and 4 and 24 h thereafter. After manual segmentation of renal tissue space, the molecular US signal was calculated as the difference between time-intensity curve data before MB injection and after reaching steady-state US image enhancement. All animals were terminated after the 24 h imaging time point and kidneys excised for immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. Results Renal inflammation was analyzed using molecular US imaging. While results using the P-selectin and VCAM-1 targeted MBs were comparable, it appears that the former was more sensitive to biomarker expression. All molecular US imaging measures had a positive correlation with IHC findings. Conclusions Acute kidney injury is a serious disease in need of improved noninvasive methods to help diagnose the extent of injury and monitor the tissue throughout disease progression. Molecular US imaging appears well suited to address this challenge and more research is warranted. PMID:25905474

  10. Animal Experiments of the Helical Flow Total Artificial Heart.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yusuke; Isoyama, Takashi; Saito, Itsuro; Inoue, Yusuke; Ishii, Kohei; Sato, Masami; Hara, Shintaro; Yurimoto, Terumi; Li, Xinyang; Murakami, Haruka; Ariyoshi, Koki; Kawase, Yukino; Ono, Toshiya; Fukazawa, Kyoko; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2015-08-01

    Severe cardiac failure patients require a total artificial heart (TAH) to save life. To realize a TAH that can fit a body of small stature and has high performance, high durability, good anatomical fitting, good blood compatibility, and physiological control, we have been developing the helical flow TAH (HFTAH) with two helical flow pumps with hydrodynamic levitation impeller. Animal experiments of the HFTAH were conducted to perform in vivo studies. The HFTAH was implanted in 13 adult female goats weighing 45.0-64.0 kg. After surgery, neither anti-coagulant nor anti-platelet medication was given systemically. The HFTAH was usually driven with a quasi-pulsatile mode. The 1/R control or ΔP control was applied to control the circulation. The ΔP control is a new method using simplified equation of the 1/R control. The HFTAH could be implanted in all goats with good anatomical fitting. Two goats survived for a long time (100 and 68 days). Major causes of termination were device failure and surgical complications. In the device failure, trouble with hydrodynamic bearing was conspicuous. In the two long-term survived goats, experiments were terminated with bearing instability that was probably caused by the suction effect. In these goats, hemolysis occurred on postoperative day 88 and 44, which was considered to be relevant to the bearing trouble. Thrombus was found at the broken right bearing of the 100-day survived goat. However, antithrombogenicity of the pump is expected to be good unless bearing trouble occurs. In two long-term survived goats, the 1/R control or ΔP control worked appropriately to prevent the elevation of right atrial pressure. In both goats, hemodynamic parameters changed with the condition of the animals, liver and kidney functions remained almost normal except when recovering from surgery and during hemolysis, and total protein recovered 2 weeks after surgery. Although instability of the hydrodynamic bearing should be improved, performance of

  11. Effect of Pregnancy on Vocal Cord Histology: An Animal Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Köybaşı Şanal, Serap; Biçer, Yusuf Özgür; Kükner, Aysel; Tezcan, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Voice may be affected during the period of pregnancy, especially in the third trimester. However, the exact mechanisms leading to the phonatory changes have not yet uncovered. Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate the possible histological changes in the vocal cords of the pregnant rats in three separate trimesters. Study Design: Animal experiment. Methods: Twenty-five Wistar-Albino female rats were divided into four groups: control group, pregnancy day 7 (Group 1), pregnancy day 14 (Group 2) and pregnancy day 20 (Group 3). The laryngeal specimens were obtained under general anesthesia. Histological assessment was performed using Hematoxylin-eosin and toluidine blue. A stereological analysis of vocal cord tissue was performed using a NIS-Elements D32 Imaging Software. Results: Lamina propria was observed to be edematous, and the lamina propria area was thickened starting from the second trimester. Glycosaminoglycans were observed to increase in the second trimester. Although none was encountered in the control, mast cells were observed in the lamina propria layer of the vocal cord starting in the muscular layer in the first trimester proceed to the subepithelial region as degranulated just before term. The covering epithelium remained unchanged throughout pregnancy. Conclusion: Lamina propria thickening may be attributed to both edema and increased glycosaminoglycans. The presence of mast cells in the cordal tissue may induce edema during pregnancy in rats. PMID:27606142

  12. Introducing ethical evaluation of the use of animals in experiments in the Near East.

    PubMed

    Izmirli, Serdar; Aldavood, S Javid; Yasar, Askin; Phillips, Clive J C

    2010-08-01

    Turkey and Iran are two Near East countries that are developing ethical regulation systems for animal experiments, following significant developments in this field in neighbouring Europe. In Turkey, legislation was passed between 2004 and 2006 to mandate ethical review of experiments which involve the use of laboratory animals. Today, one central and 73 local ethics committees exist, to evaluate the use of animals and the numbers of animals used, and to consider applications for animal experimentation. In Iran, Animal Ethics Committees (AECs) were established in 2004 in approximately 50 medical universities. The objective of the AECs is to preserve animal welfare and ethics, taking into account Islamic principles, and to be cognisant of world trends for the improvement of laboratory animal welfare. The recent establishment of animal ethical review in the Near East could benefit from experiences in Western countries, in their evolution toward high standards of experimental animal ethics.

  13. Is a compromise possible in Russia between animal advocates and researchers who use animals in harmful experiments?

    PubMed

    Loukianov, Anatoly S

    2011-07-01

    The current situation relating to the use of laboratory animals in Russia, which is primarily characterised by the complete absence of legislation for their protection, is examined and discussed. This lack of regulation causes well-founded protests by animal protection organisations and a number of reputable politicians. It also has a negative influence on the quality of medical and biological research results that are obtained through the use of experimental animals in Russia. The opinion is expressed that the Russian scientific community should be able to build upon the experience of other countries - in particular, members of the European Union, where there is an effective system of self-control over the ethical and legislative regulation of animal-based research. It is suggested that, in Russia, the basic animal protection principles of the Three Rs should be introduced, when the decision on whether to finance scientific projects involving the use of animals is being made.

  14. Acute and chronic animal models for the evaluation of anti-diabetic agents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a potentially morbid condition with high prevalence worldwide thus being a major medical concern. Experimental induction of diabetes mellitus in animal models is essential for the advancement of our knowledge and understanding of the various aspects of its pathogenesis and ultimately finding new therapies and cure. Experimental diabetes mellitus is generally induced in laboratory animals by several methods that include: chemical, surgical and genetic (immunological) manipulations. Most of the experiments in diabetes are carried out in rodents, although some studies are still performed in larger animals. The present review highlights the various methods of inducing diabetes in experimental animals in order to test the newer drugs for their anti-diabetic potential. PMID:22257465

  15. Animal Experiments in Biomedical Research: A Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Nuno Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary This article reviews the use of non-human animals in biomedical research from a historical viewpoint, providing an insight into the most relevant social and moral issues on this topic across time, as well as to how the current paradigm for ethically and publically acceptable use of animals in biomedicine has been achieved. Abstract The use of non-human animals in biomedical research has given important contributions to the medical progress achieved in our day, but it has also been a cause of heated public, scientific and philosophical discussion for hundreds of years. This review, with a mainly European outlook, addresses the history of animal use in biomedical research, some of its main protagonists and antagonists, and its effect on society from Antiquity to the present day, while providing a historical context with which to understand how we have arrived at the current paradigm regarding the ethical treatment of animals in research. PMID:26487317

  16. Animal Experiments in Biomedical Research: A Historical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Franco, Nuno Henrique

    2013-03-19

    The use of non-human animals in biomedical research has given important contributions to the medical progress achieved in our day, but it has also been a cause of heated public, scientific and philosophical discussion for hundreds of years. This review, with a mainly European outlook, addresses the history of animal use in biomedical research, some of its main protagonists and antagonists, and its effect on society from Antiquity to the present day, while providing a historical context with which to understand how we have arrived at the current paradigm regarding the ethical treatment of animals in research.

  17. Proposal for the composition of animal experiments committees in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van der Valk, Jan; Swart, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    The Dutch Act on Animal Experimentation (1996) requires that local animal experiments committees (AECs) review animal experiments and balance the scientific and societal benefits of the experiments against the suffering caused to the animals used. Each AEC is composed of at least seven members who provide a balance of expertise in animal experiments, alternatives to laboratory animal experiments, ethics, and animal welfare and protection. This study proposes selection criteria for individuals possessing each of the four AEC required areas of expertise. Criteria were established minding that, on the one hand, sufficient knowledge and expertise can be demonstrated whilst, on the other hand, a sufficient number of people would qualify to participate in the AECs. The results of this study may serve as a starting point for further discussion of selection criteria for members of AECs both in the Netherlands and in other countries where ethical review processes have been or are being implemented.

  18. An overview of animal models for investigating the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies in acute hepatic failure

    PubMed Central

    Tuñón, María Jesús; Alvarez, Marcelino; Culebras, Jesús M; González-Gallego, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Acute hepatic failure (AHF) is a severe liver injury accompanied by hepatic encephalopathy which causes multiorgan failure with an extremely high mortality rate, even if intensive care is provided. Management of severe AHF continues to be one of the most challenging problems in clinical medicine. Liver transplantation has been shown to be the most effective therapy, but the procedure is limited by shortage of donor organs. Although a number of clinical trials testing different liver assist devices are under way, these systems alone have no significant effect on patient survival and are only regarded as a useful approach to bridge patients with AHF to liver transplantation. As a result, reproducible experimental animal models resembling the clinical conditions are still needed. The three main approaches used to create an animal model for AHF are: surgical procedures, toxic liver injury and infective procedures. Most common models are based on surgical techniques (total/partial hepatectomy, complete/transient devascularization) or the use of hepatotoxic drugs (acetaminophen, galactosamine, thioacetamide, and others), and very few satisfactory viral models are available. We have recently developed a viral model of AHF by means of the inoculation of rabbits with the virus of rabbit hemorrhagic disease. This model displays biochemical and histological characteristics, and clinical features that resemble those in human AHF. In the present article an overview is given of the most widely used animal models of AHF, and their main advantages and disadvantages are reviewed. PMID:19575487

  19. Inhalation exposure system used for acute and repeated-dose methyl isocyanate exposures of laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Adkins, B; O'Connor, R W; Dement, J M

    1987-06-01

    Laboratory animals were exposed by inhalation for 2 hr/day (acute) or 6 hr/day (four consecutive days, repeated dose) to methyl isocyanate (MIC). Exposures were conducted in stainless steel and glass inhalation exposure chambers placed in stainless steel, wire mesh cages. MIC was delivered with nitrogen via stainless steel and Teflon supply lines. Chamber concentrations ranged from 0 to 60 ppm and were monitored continuously with infrared spectrophotometers to 1 ppm and at 2-hr intervals to 20 ppb with a high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a fluorescence detector. Other operational parameters monitored on a continuous basis included chamber temperature (20-27 degrees C), relative humidity (31-64%), static (transmural) pressure (-0.3 in.), and flow (300-500 L/min). The computer-assistance system interfaced with the inhalation exposure laboratory is described in detail, including the analytical instrumentation calibration system used throughout this investigation.

  20. Quality of Animal Experiments in Anti-Angiogenic Cancer Drug Development--A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Martić-Kehl, Marianne Isabelle; Wernery, Jannis; Folkers, Gerd; Schubiger, Pius August

    2015-01-01

    Translation from preclinical animal research to clinical bedside has proven to be difficult to impossible in many fields of research (e.g. acute stroke, ALS and HIV vaccination development) with oncology showing particularly low translation rates (5% vs. 20% for cardiovascular diseases). Several investigations on published preclinical animal research have revealed that apart from plain species differences, translational problems can arise from low study quality (e.g. study design) or non-representative experimental conditions (e.g. treatment schedule). This review assessed the published experimental circumstances and quality of anti-angiogenic cancer drug development in 232 in vivo studies. The quality of study design was often insufficient; at least the information published about the experiments was not satisfactory in most cases. There was no quality improvement over time, with the exception of conflict of interest statements. This increase presumably arose mainly because journal guidelines request such statements more often recently. Visual inspection of data and a cluster analysis confirmed a trend described in literature that low study quality tends to overestimate study outcome. It was also found that experimental outcome was more favorable when a potential drug was investigated as the main focus of a study, compared to drugs that were used as comparison interventions. We assume that this effect arises from the frequent neglect of blinding investigators towards treatment arms and refer to it as hypothesis bias. In conclusion, the reporting and presumably also the experimental performance of animal studies in drug development for oncology suffer from similar shortcomings as other fields of research (such as stroke or ALS). We consider it necessary to enforce experimental quality and reporting that corresponds to the level of clinical studies. It seems that only clear journal guidelines or guidelines from licensing authorities, where failure to fulfill

  1. Quality of Animal Experiments in Anti-Angiogenic Cancer Drug Development – A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Martić-Kehl, Marianne Isabelle; Wernery, Jannis; Folkers, Gerd; Schubiger, Pius August

    2015-01-01

    Translation from preclinical animal research to clinical bedside has proven to be difficult to impossible in many fields of research (e.g. acute stroke, ALS and HIV vaccination development) with oncology showing particularly low translation rates (5% vs. 20% for cardiovascular diseases). Several investigations on published preclinical animal research have revealed that apart from plain species differences, translational problems can arise from low study quality (e.g. study design) or non-representative experimental conditions (e.g. treatment schedule). This review assessed the published experimental circumstances and quality of anti-angiogenic cancer drug development in 232 in vivo studies. The quality of study design was often insufficient; at least the information published about the experiments was not satisfactory in most cases. There was no quality improvement over time, with the exception of conflict of interest statements. This increase presumably arose mainly because journal guidelines request such statements more often recently. Visual inspection of data and a cluster analysis confirmed a trend described in literature that low study quality tends to overestimate study outcome. It was also found that experimental outcome was more favorable when a potential drug was investigated as the main focus of a study, compared to drugs that were used as comparison interventions. We assume that this effect arises from the frequent neglect of blinding investigators towards treatment arms and refer to it as hypothesis bias. In conclusion, the reporting and presumably also the experimental performance of animal studies in drug development for oncology suffer from similar shortcomings as other fields of research (such as stroke or ALS). We consider it necessary to enforce experimental quality and reporting that corresponds to the level of clinical studies. It seems that only clear journal guidelines or guidelines from licensing authorities, where failure to fulfill

  2. An animal model of chronic inflammatory pain: pharmacological and temporal differentiation from acute models.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Alex W; Medhurst, Stephen J; Dixon, Claire I; Bontoft, Nick C; Winyard, Lisa A; Brackenborough, Kim T; De Alba, Jorge; Clarke, Christopher J; Gunthorpe, Martin J; Hicks, Gareth A; Bountra, Chas; McQueen, Daniel S; Chessell, Iain P

    2006-08-01

    Clinically, inflammatory pain is far more persistent than that typically modelled pre-clinically, with the majority of animal models focussing on short-term effects of the inflammatory pain response. The large attrition rate of compounds in the clinic which show pre-clinical efficacy suggests the need for novel models of, or approaches to, chronic inflammatory pain if novel mechanisms are to make it to the market. A model in which a more chronic inflammatory hypersensitivity phenotype is profiled may allow for a more clinically predictive tool. The aims of these studies were to characterise and validate a chronic model of inflammatory pain. We have shown that injection of a large volume of adjuvant to the intra-articular space of the rat knee results in a prolonged inflammatory pain response, compared to the response in an acute adjuvant model. Additionally, this model also results in a hypersensitive state in the presence and absence of inflammation. A range of clinically effective analgesics demonstrate activity in this chronic model, including morphine (3mg/kg, t.i.d.), dexamethasone (1mg/kg, b.i.d.), ibuprofen (30mg/kg, t.i.d.), etoricoxib (5mg/kg, b.i.d.) and rofecoxib (0.3-10mg/kg, b.i.d.). A further aim was to exemplify the utility of this chronic model over the more acute intra-plantar adjuvant model using two novel therapeutic approaches; NR2B selective NMDA receptor antagonism and iNOS inhibition. Our data shows that different effects were observed with these therapies when comparing the acute model with the model of chronic inflammatory joint pain. These data suggest that the chronic model may be more relevant to identifying mechanisms for the treatment of chronic inflammatory pain states in the clinic.

  3. Large-Animal Neutron-Gamma Irradiation Experiment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1958-05-01

    Eighty-eight burros were exposed to prompt neutron and gamma radiation from a nuclear detonation. Shielded from heat and missiles the animals were...determine the median lethality response of the burro to the radiation described; (2) normalize the effect in the burro to that in the monkey; (3) compare

  4. Taking into account circadian rhythm when conducting experiments on animals.

    PubMed

    Gumz, Michelle L

    2016-03-15

    Do your kidneys know what time it is? Mounting evidence from human studies and animal models strongly suggests that the answer to this question is yes. The time has come to start reporting the time of day at which renal physiology studies are performed.

  5. Sildenafil citrate for prophylaxis of nephropathy in an animal model of contrast-induced acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Lauver, D Adam; Carey, E Grant; Bergin, Ingrid L; Lucchesi, Benedict R; Gurm, Hitinder S

    2014-01-01

    Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI) is one of the commonest complications associated with contrast media (CM). Although the exact etiology of CIAKI remains unclear, one hypothesis involves vasoconstriction of afferent arterioles resulting in renal ischemia. Increased renal blood flow, therefore, might represent an attractive target for the treatment of CIAKI. In this study we evaluated the protective effects of the phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, sildenafil citrate, in a rabbit model of CIAKI. New Zealand white rabbits were used due to their susceptibility to CIAKI. To evaluate the effects of sildenafil, the drug was administered before CM infusion and repeatedly throughout the remainder of the experiment (6 mg/kg, p.o.). Animals were sacrificed after 48 hours and kidneys were prepared for histological evaluation. Intravenous administration of CM produced marked kidney injury. Serum creatinine concentrations were elevated within two hours of the infusion and remained elevated for the duration of the experiment. Histological evaluation of the kidneys revealed significant tubular necrosis. The effects of the CM were dose dependent. Treatment with sildenafil was associated with lesser degree of histological injury, attenuation in markers of acute kidney injury (48 hour creatinine 1.54±0.21 versus 4.42±1.31 mg/dl, p<0.05) and reduction in electrolyte derangement (percent change in serum K+ at 48 hours 2.55±3.80% versus 15.53±4.47%, p<0.05; serum Na+ at 48 hours -0.14±0.26% versus -1.97±1.29%, p = 0.20). The results suggest a possible role for PDE5 inhibitors in the treatment of CIAKI and warrant further evaluation to determine the exact mechanism of protection.

  6. [The experiments with laboratory animals from a bioethical point of view--history, modern time, perspectives].

    PubMed

    Kopaladze, R A

    2004-01-01

    The origin of laboratory animal science was called forth by violent development of experimental biology and medicine in the XIX century on the one hand, and on the other hand by the necessity to have standard healthy animals for experiments with strictly definite biological characteristics. With this aim in view management technology and animal use in experiments have been constantly improved. "Laboratory animal" notion has been formed by the end of the XIX century. At the beginning of laboratory animal science development ethical problems were not as urgent as they are now. It is established that the three Rs bioethical conception of W.M.S. Russel and R.L. Burch (1959) has influence on modern state and perspectives of the development of animal experimental methods. It is shown that the existence of laboratory animal protection laws and the reflection in them of compulsory ethical review of scientific project and statistics of used laboratory animals is absolutely necessary.

  7. 21 CFR 510.301 - Records and reports concerning experience with animal feeds bearing or containing new animal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... application is in effect. 510.301 Section 510.301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... containing new animal drugs for which an approved medicated feed mill license application is in effect... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records and reports concerning experience...

  8. 21 CFR 510.301 - Records and reports concerning experience with animal feeds bearing or containing new animal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... application is in effect. 510.301 Section 510.301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... containing new animal drugs for which an approved medicated feed mill license application is in effect... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Records and reports concerning experience...

  9. 21 CFR 510.301 - Records and reports concerning experience with animal feeds bearing or containing new animal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... application is in effect. 510.301 Section 510.301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... containing new animal drugs for which an approved medicated feed mill license application is in effect... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records and reports concerning experience...

  10. 21 CFR 510.301 - Records and reports concerning experience with animal feeds bearing or containing new animal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... application is in effect. 510.301 Section 510.301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... containing new animal drugs for which an approved medicated feed mill license application is in effect... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Records and reports concerning experience...

  11. 21 CFR 510.301 - Records and reports concerning experience with animal feeds bearing or containing new animal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... application is in effect. 510.301 Section 510.301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... containing new animal drugs for which an approved medicated feed mill license application is in effect... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Records and reports concerning experience...

  12. FDA Experience with Medical Countermeasures under the Animal Rule

    PubMed Central

    Aebersold, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration issued a final rule in May 2002 to permit the Agency to approve drugs or license biological products on the basis of animal efficacy studies for use in ameliorating or preventing serious or life-threatening conditions caused by exposure to lethal or permanently disabling toxic biological, chemical, radiological, or nuclear substances. Only two drugs were approved in the first nine years of the “Animal Rule” despite massive investment by the federal government since 2001 to stimulate development of medical countermeasures to biological threats. This article therefore examines the Food and Drug Administration reviews made public after approval of those two drugs and the public discussion at the Agency's Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee of one biological product under development under the Animal Rule. Despite the paucity of approved drugs or licensed biological products as medical countermeasures, several investigational drugs have been placed in the National Strategic Stockpile for use as medical countermeasures, if needed. PMID:21991452

  13. If It's an Animal It Has Axons: Experience and Culture in Preschool Children's Reasoning about Animates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarlowski, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    To claim that young children's biological thought is anthropocentric or that their induction depends on similarity rather than categories is to overlook the role of experience in reasoning. We tested four groups of 4-year-olds differing in two aspects of exposure to biological information: (a) their direct experience with nature (urban versus…

  14. Fidelity in Animal Modeling: Prerequisite for a Mechanistic Research Front Relevant to the Inflammatory Incompetence of Acute Pediatric Malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Bill

    2016-04-11

    Inflammatory incompetence is characteristic of acute pediatric protein-energy malnutrition, but its underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Perhaps substantially because the research front lacks the driving force of a scholarly unifying hypothesis, it is adrift and research activity is declining. A body of animal-based research points to a unifying paradigm, the Tolerance Model, with some potential to offer coherence and a mechanistic impetus to the field. However, reasonable skepticism prevails regarding the relevance of animal models of acute pediatric malnutrition; consequently, the fundamental contributions of the animal-based component of this research front are largely overlooked. Design-related modifications to improve the relevance of animal modeling in this research front include, most notably, prioritizing essential features of pediatric malnutrition pathology rather than dietary minutiae specific to infants and children, selecting windows of experimental animal development that correspond to targeted stages of pediatric immunological ontogeny, and controlling for ontogeny-related confounders. In addition, important opportunities are presented by newer tools including the immunologically humanized mouse and outbred stocks exhibiting a magnitude of genetic heterogeneity comparable to that of human populations. Sound animal modeling is within our grasp to stimulate and support a mechanistic research front relevant to the immunological problems that accompany acute pediatric malnutrition.

  15. Fidelity in Animal Modeling: Prerequisite for a Mechanistic Research Front Relevant to the Inflammatory Incompetence of Acute Pediatric Malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory incompetence is characteristic of acute pediatric protein-energy malnutrition, but its underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Perhaps substantially because the research front lacks the driving force of a scholarly unifying hypothesis, it is adrift and research activity is declining. A body of animal-based research points to a unifying paradigm, the Tolerance Model, with some potential to offer coherence and a mechanistic impetus to the field. However, reasonable skepticism prevails regarding the relevance of animal models of acute pediatric malnutrition; consequently, the fundamental contributions of the animal-based component of this research front are largely overlooked. Design-related modifications to improve the relevance of animal modeling in this research front include, most notably, prioritizing essential features of pediatric malnutrition pathology rather than dietary minutiae specific to infants and children, selecting windows of experimental animal development that correspond to targeted stages of pediatric immunological ontogeny, and controlling for ontogeny-related confounders. In addition, important opportunities are presented by newer tools including the immunologically humanized mouse and outbred stocks exhibiting a magnitude of genetic heterogeneity comparable to that of human populations. Sound animal modeling is within our grasp to stimulate and support a mechanistic research front relevant to the immunological problems that accompany acute pediatric malnutrition. PMID:27077845

  16. Animal Research on Effects of Experience on Brain and Behavior: Implications for Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenzweig, Mark R.

    2002-01-01

    This article first considers how plasticity of the brain in response to differential experience was discovered in research with laboratory rats around 1960. Animal research soon followed on effects of enriched experience as therapy for brain dysfunction. Relations between animal research and some human therapies are considered. (Contains…

  17. Regulations and ethical considerations in animal experiments: international laws and islamic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Naderi, Mohammad Mehdi; Sarvari, Ali; Milanifar, Alireza; Boroujeni, Sara Borjian; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2012-07-01

    Growing usage of animals in the research projects has drawn more attention to their welfare and ethics surrounding this practice. Dissemination of information about the existing ethical consideration and alternatives in animal experiments has two important functions; first, it increases the researcher's awareness of the possible methods of using animals in the experiment, and second, to ensure that potential users are aware of the established alternatives. For example, legislations enacted in many countries during the 1980s state that laboratory animal applications should be reduced, refined and replaced wherever possible according to principles of the 3Rs. Thus, scientists around the world tried to apply the 3Rs in their biomedical researches regarding welfare of the laboratory animals. However, the Qur'an, the holy book of Muslims, and also Hadiths contain the obligatory ways to keep and treat animals since their revelations. According to Islamic viewpoint, animals represent Allah's ability and wisdom, and humans must pay attention to their health and living conditions. Several Islamic manuscripts state that animals have their own position in the creation hierarchy and humans are responsible for supplying minimal facilities and their welfare. This paper has tried to review ethical consideration in animal experiments and regarding Islamic resources in this case to encourage providing comprehensive ethical regulations in animal experiments which its establishment could be beneficial for animal ethics committees or research institutes.

  18. Regulations and Ethical Considerations in Animal Experiments: International Laws and Islamic Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Naderi, Mohammad Mehdi; Sarvari, Ali; Milanifar, Alireza; Boroujeni, Sara Borjian; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Growing usage of animals in the research projects has drawn more attention to their welfare and ethics surrounding this practice. Dissemination of information about the existing ethical consideration and alternatives in animal experiments has two important functions; first, it increases the researcher's awareness of the possible methods of using animals in the experiment, and second, to ensure that potential users are aware of the established alternatives. For example, legislations enacted in many countries during the 1980s state that laboratory animal applications should be reduced, refined and replaced wherever possible according to principles of the 3Rs. Thus, scientists around the world tried to apply the 3Rs in their biomedical researches regarding welfare of the laboratory animals. However, the Qur'an, the holy book of Muslims, and also Hadiths contain the obligatory ways to keep and treat animals since their revelations. According to Islamic viewpoint, animals represent Allah's ability and wisdom, and humans must pay attention to their health and living conditions. Several Islamic manuscripts state that animals have their own position in the creation hierarchy and humans are responsible for supplying minimal facilities and their welfare. This paper has tried to review ethical consideration in animal experiments and regarding Islamic resources in this case to encourage providing comprehensive ethical regulations in animal experiments which its establishment could be beneficial for animal ethics committees or research institutes. PMID:23407588

  19. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  20. The usefulness of systematic reviews of animal experiments for the design of preclinical and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Rob B M; Wever, Kimberley E; Avey, Marc T; Stephens, Martin L; Sena, Emily S; Leenaars, Marlies

    2014-01-01

    The question of how animal studies should be designed, conducted, and analyzed remains underexposed in societal debates on animal experimentation. This is not only a scientific but also a moral question. After all, if animal experiments are not appropriately designed, conducted, and analyzed, the results produced are unlikely to be reliable and the animals have in effect been wasted. In this article, we focus on one particular method to address this moral question, namely systematic reviews of previously performed animal experiments. We discuss how the design, conduct, and analysis of future (animal and human) experiments may be optimized through such systematic reviews. In particular, we illustrate how these reviews can help improve the methodological quality of animal experiments, make the choice of an animal model and the translation of animal data to the clinic more evidence-based, and implement the 3Rs. Moreover, we discuss which measures are being taken and which need to be taken in the future to ensure that systematic reviews will actually contribute to optimizing experimental design and thereby to meeting a necessary condition for making the use of animals in these experiments justified.

  1. Lab and field experiments: are they the same animal?

    PubMed

    Calisi, Rebecca M; Bentley, George E

    2009-06-01

    To advance our understanding of biological processes we often plan our experiments based on published data. This can be confusing though, as data from experiments performed in a laboratory environment are sometimes different from, or completely opposite to, findings from similar experiments performed in the "real world". In this mini-review, we discuss instances where results from laboratory experiments differ as a result of laboratory housing conditions, and where they differ from results gathered in the field environment. Experiments involving endocrinology and behavior appear to be particularly susceptible to influence from the environment in which they are performed. As such, we have attempted to promote discussion of the influence of housing environment on the reproductive axis, circadian biology and behavior, immune function, stress biology, neuroplasticity and photoperiodism. For example, why should a rodent species be diurnal in one housing environment yet nocturnal in another? Are data that are gathered from experiments in the laboratory applicable to the field environment, and vice-versa? We hope not only to highlight the need for experiments in both lab and field when looking at complex biological systems, but also to promote frank discussion of discordant data. Perhaps, just as study of individual variation has been gaining momentum in recent years, data from variation between experimental arenas can provide us with novel lines of research.

  2. Review of harmful gastrointestinal effects of carrageenan in animal experiments.

    PubMed Central

    Tobacman, J K

    2001-01-01

    In this article I review the association between exposure to carrageenan and the occurrence of colonic ulcerations and gastrointestinal neoplasms in animal models. Although the International Agency for Research on Cancer in 1982 identified sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of degraded carrageenan in animals to regard it as posing a carcinogenic risk to humans, carrageenan is still used widely as a thickener, stabilizer, and texturizer in a variety of processed foods prevalent in the Western diet. I reviewed experimental data pertaining to carrageenan's effects with particular attention to the occurrence of ulcerations and neoplasms in association with exposure to carrageenan. In addition, I reviewed from established sources mechanisms for production of degraded carrageenan from undegraded or native carrageenan and data with regard to carrageenan intake. Review of these data demonstrated that exposure to undegraded as well as to degraded carrageenan was associated with the occurrence of intestinal ulcerations and neoplasms. This association may be attributed to contamination of undegraded carrageenan by components of low molecular weight, spontaneous metabolism of undegraded carrageenan by acid hydrolysis under conditions of normal digestion, or the interactions with intestinal bacteria. Although in 1972, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration considered restricting dietary carrageenan to an average molecular weight > 100,000, this resolution did not prevail, and no subsequent regulation has restricted use. Because of the acknowledged carcinogenic properties of degraded carrageenan in animal models and the cancer-promoting effects of undegraded carrageenan in experimental models, the widespread use of carrageenan in the Western diet should be reconsidered. PMID:11675262

  3. Evidence of Echocardiography Validity in Model Experiments on Small Animals.

    PubMed

    Kryzhanovskii, S A; Kolik, L G; Tsorin, I B; Ionova, E O; Stolyaruk, V N; Sorokina, A V; Vititnova, M B; Miroshkina, I A

    2016-07-01

    Dynamic echocardiographic monitoring in rats subjected to forced alcoholization showed the formation of disorders in intracardiac hemodynamics characteristic of ethanol cardiomyopathy formed by the end of 24-week continuous ethanol consumption. The results of echocardiographic monitoring were confirmed by histological and morphometric studies demonstrating fatty infiltration of the myocardium pathognomonic for this condition and bifocal dilatation of cardiac ventricles. These results persuasively demonstrate that echocardiographic studies on small animals are valid and can be used for search for cardiotropic drugs and studies of the mechanisms of their activities.

  4. Goal-Directed Resuscitation Aiming Cardiac Index Masks Residual Hypovolemia: An Animal Experiment.

    PubMed

    Tánczos, Krisztián; Németh, Márton; Trásy, Domonkos; László, Ildikó; Palágyi, Péter; Szabó, Zsolt; Varga, Gabriella; Kaszaki, József

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare stroke volume (SVI) to cardiac index (CI) guided resuscitation in a bleeding-resuscitation experiment. Twenty six pigs were randomized and bled in both groups till baseline SVI (T bsl) dropped by 50% (T 0), followed by resuscitation with crystalloid solution until initial SVI or CI was reached (T 4). Similar amount of blood was shed but animals received significantly less fluid in the CI-group as in the SVI-group: median = 900 (interquartile range: 850-1780) versus 1965 (1584-2165) mL, p = 0.02, respectively. In the SVI-group all variables returned to their baseline values, but in the CI-group animals remained underresuscitated as indicated by SVI, heart rate (HR) and stroke volume variation (SVV), and central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) at T 4 as compared to T bsl: SVI = 23.8 ± 5.9 versus 31.4 ± 4.7 mL, HR: 117 ± 35 versus 89 ± 11/min SVV: 17.4 ± 7.6 versus 11.5 ± 5.3%, and ScvO2: 64.1 ± 11.6 versus 79.2 ± 8.1%, p < 0.05, respectively. Our results indicate that CI-based goal-directed resuscitation may result in residual hypovolaemia, as bleeding caused stress induced tachycardia "normalizes" CI, without restoring adequate SVI. As the SVI-guided approach normalized most hemodynamic variables, we recommend using SVI instead of CI as the primary goal of resuscitation during acute bleeding.

  5. Comparative efficacy and the window of radioprotection for adrenergic and serotoninergic agents and aminothiols in experiments with small and large animals

    PubMed Central

    Vasin, Mikhail V.; Ushakov, Igor B.

    2015-01-01

    This review gives a comparative evaluation of the radioprotective properties and the therapeutic index (TI) of radioprotectors from various pharmacological group in experiments on both small and large animals. It presents a hypothesis explaining the decrease in the TI of cystamine and 5-methoxytryptamine (mexamine), and the retention of that of α1-adrenomimetic indralin, and also compares the effects on large and small animals. The considerable differences in the therapeutic indices of catecholamines, serotonin and cystamine are a consequence of specific features of their mechanisms of radioprotective action. Radioprotectors acting via receptor mediation tend to provide a more expanded window of protection. The reduction in the TI of cystamine in larger animals, such as dogs, may be caused by the greater increase in toxicity of aminothiols in relation to the decrease in their optimal doses for radioprotective effect in going from mice to dogs, which is a consequence of the slower metabolic processes in larger animals. The somatogenic phase of intoxication by cystamine is significantly longer than the duration of its radioprotective effect, and increases with irradiation. The decrease in the radioprotective effect and the TI of mexamine in experiments with dogs may be caused by their lower sensitivity to the acute hypoxia induced by the mexamine. This is because of lower gradient in oxygen tension between tissue cells and blood capillaries under acute hypoxia that is determined by lower initial oxygen consumption in a large animal as compared with a small animal. Indralin likely provides optimal radioprotective effects and a higher TI for large animals via the increased specificity of its adrenergic effect on tissue respiration, which supports the development of acute hypoxia in the radiosensitive tissues of large animals. The stimulatory effect of indralin on early post-irradiation haematopoietic recovery cannot provide a high level of radioprotective action for

  6. Comparative efficacy and the window of radioprotection for adrenergic and serotoninergic agents and aminothiols in experiments with small and large animals.

    PubMed

    Vasin, Mikhail V; Ushakov, Igor B

    2015-01-01

    This review gives a comparative evaluation of the radioprotective properties and the therapeutic index (TI) of radioprotectors from various pharmacological group in experiments on both small and large animals. It presents a hypothesis explaining the decrease in the TI of cystamine and 5-methoxytryptamine (mexamine), and the retention of that of α1-adrenomimetic indralin, and also compares the effects on large and small animals. The considerable differences in the therapeutic indices of catecholamines, serotonin and cystamine are a consequence of specific features of their mechanisms of radioprotective action. Radioprotectors acting via receptor mediation tend to provide a more expanded window of protection. The reduction in the TI of cystamine in larger animals, such as dogs, may be caused by the greater increase in toxicity of aminothiols in relation to the decrease in their optimal doses for radioprotective effect in going from mice to dogs, which is a consequence of the slower metabolic processes in larger animals. The somatogenic phase of intoxication by cystamine is significantly longer than the duration of its radioprotective effect, and increases with irradiation. The decrease in the radioprotective effect and the TI of mexamine in experiments with dogs may be caused by their lower sensitivity to the acute hypoxia induced by the mexamine. This is because of lower gradient in oxygen tension between tissue cells and blood capillaries under acute hypoxia that is determined by lower initial oxygen consumption in a large animal as compared with a small animal. Indralin likely provides optimal radioprotective effects and a higher TI for large animals via the increased specificity of its adrenergic effect on tissue respiration, which supports the development of acute hypoxia in the radiosensitive tissues of large animals. The stimulatory effect of indralin on early post-irradiation haematopoietic recovery cannot provide a high level of radioprotective action for

  7. Acute toxic effects of single dose dacarbazine: hematological and histological changes in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Milijašević, B; Stefanović, D; Lalić-Popović, M; Tomić, Z; Kolarović, J; Lalošević, D; Mikov, M

    2014-11-01

    Treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcoma usually includes dacarbazine (DTIC), an alkylating agent that methylates DNA and is active during all phases of the cell cycle. Common side effects of DTIC include nausea, vomiting, impaired liver and kidney function, myelosuppression, and pneumonia. There are no accounts, however, of histological and hematological changes caused by DTIC. We investigated acute hematological and morphological changes in different organs and in tumors that were caused by a single dose of DTIC. Adult Syrian golden hamsters were inoculated with a suspension of tumorigenic baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells by subcutaneous injection. On day 14 after inoculation, doses of 1.4, 1.6, 1.8 or 2.0 g/m(2) DTIC were injected intraperitoneally into the hamsters. Hamsters in the control group were injected with physiological saline in the same way. Seven days after drug or saline injection the animals were sacrificed and samples of blood, heart, kidney, liver, lungs, spleen, small intestine and tumor were excised, processed and analyzed. Mitoses were counted using an ocular extension with engraved frame. Anemia, thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis were found in the control group of hamsters with fibrosarcoma, whereas animals with fibrosarcoma treated with DTIC developed anemia, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. Severe pneumonia and moderate hepatitis were detected in all DTIC treated groups. Effects of DTIC on tumor cells included rounding and enlargement of nuclei and rarefaction of chromatin. The number of mitoses was reduced with increasing doses of DTIC. Hepatitis, myelosuppression, pneumonia, and dose-related inhibition of tumor cell proliferation were observed after a single dose of DTIC.

  8. Inclusion of policies on ethical standards in animal experiments in biomedical science journals.

    PubMed

    Rands, Sean A

    2011-11-01

    Most published biomedical research involving animal models is evaluated carefully to ensure that appropriate ethical standards are met. In the current study, 500 journals randomly selected from MedLine were assessed for whether they presented animal research. Of the 138 journals that did, the instructions to authors of 85 (61.6%) included a requirement for author assurance of adherence to ethical standards during experiments involving animals. In comparison to a wider range of biologic journals, biomedical science journals were more likely to have some sort of ethical policy concerning the reporting and presentation of animal experiments.

  9. Hill-type muscle model parameters determined from experiments on single muscles show large animal-to-animal variation.

    PubMed

    Blümel, Marcus; Guschlbauer, Christoph; Daun-Gruhn, Silvia; Hooper, Scott L; Büschges, Ansgar

    2012-11-01

    Models built using mean data can represent only a very small percentage, or none, of the population being modeled, and produce different activity than any member of it. Overcoming this "averaging" pitfall requires measuring, in single individuals in single experiments, all of the system's defining characteristics. We have developed protocols that allow all the parameters in the curves used in typical Hill-type models (passive and active force-length, series elasticity, force-activation, force-velocity) to be determined from experiments on individual stick insect muscles (Blümel et al. 2012a). A requirement for means to not well represent the population is that the population shows large variation in its defining characteristics. We therefore used these protocols to measure extensor muscle defining parameters in multiple animals. Across-animal variability in these parameters can be very large, ranging from 1.3- to 17-fold. This large variation is consistent with earlier data in which extensor muscle responses to identical motor neuron driving showed large animal-to-animal variability (Hooper et al. 2006), and suggests accurate modeling of extensor muscles requires modeling individual-by-individual. These complete characterizations of individual muscles also allowed us to test for parameter correlations. Two parameter pairs significantly co-varied, suggesting that a simpler model could as well reproduce muscle response.

  10. Measuring acute changes in adrenergic nerve activity of the heart in the living animal

    SciTech Connect

    Sisson, J.C.; Bolgos, G.; Johnson, J. )

    1991-04-01

    Changes in the function of the adrenergic neurons of the heart may be important indicators of the adaptations of an animal to physiologic stress and disease. Rates of loss of norepinephrine (NE) from the heart were considered to be proportional to NE secretion and to adrenergic function. In rat hearts, yohimbine induced almost identical increases in rates of loss of {sup 3}H-NE and of {sup 125}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), a functional analog of NE. Clonidine induced decreases in rates of loss of {sup 3}H-NE that were also mimicked by those of {sup 125}I-MIBG. In the dog heart, pharmacologically-induced increases and decreases in rates of loss of {sup 123}I-MIBG could be measured externally; these values were similar to those obtained for {sup 125}I-MIBG in the rat heart. Thus acute changes in the adrenergic neuron activity can be measured in the living heart. The method is applicable to man in determining the capacity of the adrenergic system to respond to provocative challenges.

  11. Systematic reviews of animal experiments demonstrate poor contributions toward human healthcare.

    PubMed

    Knight, Andrew

    2008-05-01

    Widespread reliance on animal models during preclinical research and toxicity testing assumes their reasonable predictivity for human outcomes. However, of 20 published systematic reviews examining human clinical utility, located during a comprehensive literature search, animal models demonstrated significant potential to contribute toward the development of clinical interventions in only two cases, one of which was contentious. Included were experiments expected by ethics committees to lead to medical advances, highly-cited experiments published in major journals, and chimpanzee experiments-the species most generally predictive of human outcomes. Seven additional reviews failed to demonstrate utility in reliably predicting human toxicological outcomes such as carcinogenicity and teratogenicity. Results in animal models were frequently equivocal, or inconsistent with human outcomes. Consequently, animal data may not generally be considered useful for these purposes. Regulatory acceptance of non-animal models is normally conditional on formal scientific validation. In contrast, animal models are simply assumed to be predictive of human outcomes. These results demonstrate the invalidity of such assumptions. The poor human clinical and toxicological utility of animal models, combined with their generally substantial animal welfare and economic costs, necessitate considerably greater rigor within animal studies, and justify a ban on the use of animal models lacking scientific data clearly establishing their human predictivity or utility.

  12. The Influence of Acute Hyperglycemia in an Animal Model of Lacunar Stroke That Is Induced by Artificial Particle Embolization.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Jun; Lin, Ming-Wei; Huang, Yaw-Bin; Kuo, Yu-Min; Tsai, Yi-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Animal and clinical studies have revealed that hyperglycemia during ischemic stroke increases the stroke's severity and the infarct size in clinical and animal studies. However, no conclusive evidence demonstrates that acute hyperglycemia worsens post-stroke outcomes and increases infarct size in lacunar stroke. In this study, we developed a rat model of lacunar stroke that was induced via the injection of artificial embolic particles during full consciousness. We then used this model to compare the acute influence of hyperglycemia in lacunar stroke and diffuse infarction, by evaluating neurologic behavior and the rate, size, and location of the infarction. The time course of the neurologic deficits was clearly recorded from immediately after induction to 24 h post-stroke in both types of stroke. We found that acute hyperglycemia aggravated the neurologic deficit in diffuse infarction at 24 h after stroke, and also aggravated the cerebral infarct. Furthermore, the infarct volumes of the basal ganglion, thalamus, hippocampus, and cerebellum but not the cortex were positively correlated with serum glucose levels. In contrast, acute hyperglycemia reduced the infarct volume and neurologic symptoms in lacunar stroke within 4 min after stroke induction, and this effect persisted for up to 24 h post-stroke. In conclusion, acute hyperglycemia aggravated the neurologic outcomes in diffuse infarction, although it significantly reduced the size of the cerebral infarct and improved the neurologic deficits in lacunar stroke.

  13. [Investigations of the distribution of aripiprazole in the internal organs and biological fluids of the laboratory animals in case of acute intoxication].

    PubMed

    Voronkov, A V; Remezova, I P; Lazaryan, D S; Avramenko, N S; Rybasova, A S

    2015-01-01

    Despite the present-day extensive application of aripiprazole, there are many cases of its overdose and of poisoning with this compound. The objective of the present study was to detect and quantify aripiprazole in the internal organs and biological fluids of the laboratory animals in case of acute intoxication. The experiments were carried out on white mice of both sexes weighing 20.5 and 25.7 g. Aripiprazole was isolated from the liver, kidneys, brain, and heart as described by A.A. Vasil'eva and from the plasma and urine by the newly developed original methods. Aripiprazole was identified and quantitatively determined in the extracts from the aforementioned organs and tissues with the use of HPLC. The data obtained on the completeness of extraction from the liver, kidneys , and brain of the laboratory animals indicate that aripiprazole accumulated in the highest concentrations in the brain and kidneys within 24 hours after acute poisoning. Ist content was significantly lower in the liver while no traces of aripiprazole were found in the heart of the mice. The methods for aripiprazole isolation from the urine and blood plasma are described. The maximum amounts of aripiprazole were detected in blood plasma within 24 hours after acute intoxication. It is concluded that the proposed methods for aripiprazole isolation from the biological fluids (blood plasma and urine) can be included in the scheme of the chemical toxicological analysis of this compound.

  14. Critical periods after stroke study: translating animal stroke recovery experiments into a clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Dromerick, Alexander W.; Edwardson, Matthew A.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Giannetti, Margot L.; Barth, Jessica; Brady, Kathaleen P.; Chan, Evan; Tan, Ming T.; Tamboli, Irfan; Chia, Ruth; Orquiza, Michael; Padilla, Robert M.; Cheema, Amrita K.; Mapstone, Mark E.; Fiandaca, Massimo S.; Federoff, Howard J.; Newport, Elissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Seven hundred ninety-five thousand Americans will have a stroke this year, and half will have a chronic hemiparesis. Substantial animal literature suggests that the mammalian brain has much potential to recover from acute injury using mechanisms of neuroplasticity, and that these mechanisms can be accessed using training paradigms and neurotransmitter manipulation. However, most of these findings have not been tested or confirmed in the rehabilitation setting, in large part because of the challenges in translating a conceptually straightforward laboratory experiment into a meaningful and rigorous clinical trial in humans. Through presentation of methods for a Phase II trial, we discuss these issues and describe our approach. Methods: In rodents there is compelling evidence for timing effects in rehabilitation; motor training delivered at certain times after stroke may be more effective than the same training delivered earlier or later, suggesting that there is a critical or sensitive period for strongest rehabilitation training effects. If analogous critical/sensitive periods can be identified after human stroke, then existing clinical resources can be better utilized to promote recovery. The Critical Periods after Stroke Study (CPASS) is a phase II randomized, controlled trial designed to explore whether such a sensitive period exists. We will randomize 64 persons to receive an additional 20 h of upper extremity therapy either immediately upon rehab admission, 2–3 months after stroke onset, 6 months after onset, or to an observation-only control group. The primary outcome measure will be the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) at 1 year. Blood will be drawn at up to 3 time points for later biomarker studies. Conclusion: CPASS is an example of the translation of rodent motor recovery experiments into the clinical setting; data obtained from this single site randomized controlled trial will be used to finalize the design of a Phase III trial. PMID

  15. D-Galactosamine Intoxication in Experimental Animals: Is it Only an Experimental Model of Acute Liver Failure?

    PubMed Central

    Saracyn, Marek; Zdanowski, Robert; Brytan, Marek; Kade, Grzegorz; Nowak, Zbigniew; Patera, Janusz; Dyrla, Przemysław; Gil, Jerzy; Wańkowicz, Zofia

    2015-01-01

    Background Short-term administration of Galactosamine to experimental animals causes liver damage and acute liver failure (ALF), as well as acute renal failure in some cases. The aim of our study was to describe kidney disorders that developed in the course of galactosamine-induced liver failure. Material/Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: a study group administered galactosamine intraperitoneally and a control group administered saline. Results All the animals in the study group developed liver damage and failure within 48 h, with significant increase of alanine (p<0.001), aspartate aminotransferases (p<0.0001), bilirubin (p<0.004), and ammonia (p<0.005) and decrease of albumin (p<0.001) concentrations. Acute renal failure was observed in all test animals, with a significant increase in creatinine (p<0.001) and urea (p<0.001) concentrations and a decrease in creatinine clearance (p<0.0012). Moreover, osmotic clearance (p<0.001), daily natriuresis (p<0.003), and fractional sodium excretion (p<0.016) decreased significantly in this group of animals. The ratio of urine osmolality to serum osmolality did not change. Histopathology of the liver revealed massive necrosis of hepatocytes, whereas renal histopathology showed no changes. Conclusions Acute renal failure that developed in the course of galactosamine-induced ALF was of a functional nature, with the kidneys retaining the ability to concentrate urine and retain sodium, and there were no renal changes in the histopathological examination. It seems that the experimental model of ALF induced by galactosamine can be viewed as a model of hepatorenal syndrome that occurs in the course of acute damage and liver failure. PMID:26009004

  16. [Animal experiments and the major achievements in the history of biomedicine].

    PubMed

    Kopaladze, R A

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that major achievements in the history of biomedicine, obtained in experiments on animals: the discovery of blood circulation, the achievements of microbiology and development of the concept of immunity, the discovery of reflex and the doctrine of higher nervous activity, achievements of genetics, formation of modeling methods on animals and drug testing. It is stressed that the benefits for science and medicine, obtained through experimentation on animals, does not relieve scientists from responsibility.

  17. The Dawn Hancock Animal Farm. Farming Experiences for Children with Mental Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ronald A.

    The Dawn Hancock Animal Farm, which was developed in 1974 with volunteer labor and over $100,000 in donations, provides farm experiences for the mentally handicapped students of the Helen J. Stewart School in Las Vegas, Nevada. The farm and animals are part of the school's emphasis on vocational training, and every effort is made to help prepare…

  18. Systematic reviews of animal experiments demonstrate poor human clinical and toxicological utility.

    PubMed

    Knight, Andrew

    2007-12-01

    The assumption that animal models are reasonably predictive of human outcomes provides the basis for their widespread use in toxicity testing and in biomedical research aimed at developing cures for human diseases. To investigate the validity of this assumption, the comprehensive Scopus biomedical bibliographic databases were searched for published systematic reviews of the human clinical or toxicological utility of animal experiments. In 20 reviews in which clinical utility was examined, the authors concluded that animal models were either significantly useful in contributing to the development of clinical interventions, or were substantially consistent with clinical outcomes, in only two cases, one of which was contentious. These included reviews of the clinical utility of experiments expected by ethics committees to lead to medical advances, of highly-cited experiments published in major journals, and of chimpanzee experiments--those involving the species considered most likely to be predictive of human outcomes. Seven additional reviews failed to clearly demonstrate utility in predicting human toxicological outcomes, such as carcinogenicity and teratogenicity. Consequently, animal data may not generally be assumed to be substantially useful for these purposes. Possible causes include interspecies differences, the distortion of outcomes arising from experimental environments and protocols, and the poor methodological quality of many animal experiments, which was evident in at least 11 reviews. No reviews existed in which the majority of animal experiments were of good methodological quality. Whilst the effects of some of these problems might be minimised with concerted effort (given their widespread prevalence), the limitations resulting from interspecies differences are likely to be technically and theoretically impossible to overcome. Non-animal models are generally required to pass formal scientific validation prior to their regulatory acceptance. In contrast

  19. Animal experiments scrutinised: systematic reviews demonstrate poor human clinical and toxicological utility.

    PubMed

    Knight, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The assumption that animal models are reasonably predictive of human outcomes provides the basis for their widespread use in toxicity testing and in biomedical research aimed at developing cures for human diseases. To investigate the validity of this assumption, the comprehensive "Scopus" biomedical bibliographic databases were searched for published systematic reviews of the human clinical or toxicological utility of animal experiments. Of 20 reviews examining clinical utility, authors concluded that the animal models were substantially consistent with or useful in advancing clinical outcomes in only two cases, and the conclusion in one case was contentious. Included were reviews of the clinical utility of experiments expected by ethics committees to lead to medical advances, of highly-cited experiments published in major journals, and of chimpanzee experiments - the species most likely to be predictive of human outcomes. Seven additional reviews failed to clearly demonstrate utility in predicting human toxicological outcomes such as carcinogenicity and teratogenicity. Consequently, animal data may not generally be assumed to be substantially useful for these purposes. Possible causes include interspecies differences, the distortion of experimental outcomes arising from experimental environments and protocols, and the poor methodological quality of many animal experiments evident in at least 11 reviews. No reviews existed in which a majority of animal experiments were of good quality. While the latter problems might be minimised with concerted effort, given their widespread nature, the interspecies limitations are likely to be technically and theoretically impossible to overcome. Yet, unlike non-animal models, animal models are not normally subjected to formal scientific validation. Instead of simply assuming they are predictive of human outcomes, the consistent application of formal validation studies to all test models is clearly warranted, regardless of their

  20. A survey concerning the work of ethics committees and licensing authorities for animal experiments in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Roman; Ruhdel, Irmela

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, the German Animal Welfare Federation started its 3rd survey since the establishment of ethics committees for animal experiments according to the German Animal Welfare Act in Germany in 1987. As animal welfare has been included as a "state goal" in the German constitution in 2002, the present survey aimed at an analysis of specific changes within the licensing process. A series of other aspects of the work of ethics committees and licensing authorities was also examined. The survey was based on questionnaires that had been addressed to licensing authorities and members of ethics committees. One of the main results is that the importance of animal welfare within the licensing process, after inclusion of animal welfare into the German constitution, has not changed or changed only to a small extent. It also becomes clear that ethical parameters are still of minor importance when animal experiments are licensed. The findings underline the importance to reform the German authorization system for animal experiments. The pending revision of EU-Directive 86/609 is an opportunity which should not be missed in this context.

  1. Laparoscopic necrosectomy in acute necrotizing pancreatitis: Our experience

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Mittu John; Parmar, Amit Kumar; Sahu, Diwakar; Reddy, Prasanna Kumar

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Pancreatic necrosis is a local complication of acute pancreatitis. The development of secondary infection in pancreatic necrosis is associated with increased mortality. Pancreatic necrosectomy is the mainstay of invasive management. AIMS: Surgical approach has significantly changed in the last several years with the advent of enhanced imaging techniques and minimally invasive surgery. However, there have been only a few case series related to laparoscopic approach, reported in literature to date. Herein, we present our experience with laparoscopic management of pancreatic necrosis in 28 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of 28 cases [20 men, 8 women] was carried out in our institution. The medical record of these patients including history, clinical examination, investigations, and operative notes were reviewed. The mean age was 47.8 years [range, 23-70 years]. Twenty-one patients were managed by transgastrocolic, four patients by transgastric, two patients by intra-cavitary, and one patient by transmesocolic approach. RESULTS: The mean operating time was 100.8 min [range, 60-120 min]. The duration of hospital stay after the procedure was 10-18 days. Two cases were converted to open (7.1%) because of extensive dense adhesions. Pancreatic fistula was the most common complication (n = 8; 28.6%) followed by recollection (n = 3; 10.7%) and wound infection (n = 3; 10.7%). One patient [3.6%] died in postoperative period. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic pancreatic necrosectomy is a promising and safe approach with all the benefits of minimally invasive surgery and is found to have reduced incidence of major complications and mortality. PMID:25013328

  2. Acute movement disorders in children: experience from a developing country.

    PubMed

    Goraya, Jatinder Singh

    2015-03-01

    We describe acute movement disorders in 92 children, aged 5 days to 15 years, from an Indian tertiary hospital. Eighty-nine children had hyperkinetic movement disorders, with myoclonus in 25, dystonia in 21, choreoathetosis in 19, tremors in 15, and tics in 2. Tetany and tetanus were seen in 5 and 2 children, respectively. Hypokinetic movement disorders included acute parkinsonism in 3 children. Noninflammatory and inflammatory etiology were present in 60 and 32 children, respectively. Benign neonatal sleep myoclonus in 16 and opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome in 7 accounted for the majority of myoclonus cases. Vitamin B12 deficiency in 13 infants was the most common cause of tremors. Rheumatic fever and encephalitis were the most common causes of acute choreoathetosis. Acute dystonia had metabolic etiology in 6 and encephalitis and drugs in 3 each. Psychogenic movement disorders were seen in 4 cases only, although these patients may be underreported.

  3. ACUTE HEPATIC PORPHYRIA AND PSYCHOSES: (Experience of twelve years)1

    PubMed Central

    Golechha, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    SUMMARY A sample of 805 psychotic patients belonging to different groups was screened for acute hepatic porphyria during 1975 to 1987 by observing urinary colour change on standing to brown red colour and for positive Waston-Schwartz test, indicating increase in urinary porphobilinogen which is diagnostic of acute hepatic porphyria. 27.95% cases had shown positivity which was further confirmed by quantitative estimation using spectrophotometric method of Rimington. However, when these positive cases were subjected to more specific tests viz, additional butanol extraction modification to Watson-Schwartz test and quantitative estimation of porphobilinogen by ion-exchange resin coloumn chromatographic method of Mauzerall & Grannick, only 1.12% could confirm their positivity. These cases were only, diagnosed as acute hepatic porphyria. The positivity to the non specific, yet accepted diagnostic tests for acute porphyria observed in remaining 26.8% psychotics was an amazing unexplained phenomenon. It was suggestive of the presence of a non specific porphyric activity. PMID:21927409

  4. Abdominal Tuberculosis with an Acute Abdomen: Our Clinical Experience

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Ramprasad; Bhattacharya, Ujjwal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Tuberculosis is an important cause of morbidity in India. Abdominal Tuberculosis is a great mimicker and is difficult to diagnose. This prospective observational study is based on those patients who were diagnosed to be suffering from Abdominal Tuberculosis only after they presented with an acute abdomen. This study aims to document the nature of different types of acute presentation in Abdominal Tuberculosis according to involved sites and surgical pathology. The study also discusses the indications and extent of surgical intervention. Materials and Methods: Seventy new cases of Abdominal Tuberculosis (out of 718 cases of acute abdomen) were diagnosed and treated over a period of three years in the surgical ward of Calcutta National Medical College. Macroscopic appearance of abdominal tissues during surgery suggested the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology and tissue culture. All patients were subsequently treated with a full course of antitubercular drugs (ATD). Results: The clinical presentations of acute abdomen included acute intestinal obstruction, perforative peritonitis and acute appendicitis etc. Terminal ileum and ileocaecal region were predominantly involved. The most common pathology was intestinal stricture with or without perforation. Most of the patients (approx 78.5%) required emergency surgery as a therapeutic intervention. A two-stage procedure was preferred in peritonitis and sepsis. Most of the remaining patients (12.8%) required surgery after initial conservative treatment for the first few days. Undiagnosed Abdominal Tuberculosis represents a notable percentage (10%) of patients who present with an acute abdomen as a surgical emergency. Conclusion: Abdominal Tuberculosis is very difficult to diagnose and diagnosis is often delayed till an acute abdomen is presented with. Almost all patients needed surgical intervention. Irrespective of surgery, all patients of abdominal tuberculosis require a

  5. One health: perspectives on ethical issues and evidence from animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Asokan, G V; Fedorowicz, Z; Tharyan, P; Vanitha, A

    2012-11-01

    Zoonoses constitute more than 60% of all known infectious diseases and 75% of emerging infectious diseases. Their impact is not monitored, prevented and treated in an integrated way. The efficacy of therapeutic interventions for zoonotic diseases is deemed to be comparable across species with scientifically valid results originating from a range of animal experiments. Ethical obligations limit the number of animals used in experiments as well as reduce repetition of studies. The evidence based on randomized controlled trails and systematic reviews for the effectiveness of health care interventions is often inconclusive. Subjecting human volunteers to risk in the absence of scientifically valid results from animal experiments is unethical. The One Health concept is a comparative, clinical approach directed towards zoonoses which present challenges to research workers and clinicians. Optimal health for all--One Health--should be underpinned by ethically conducted research in animals or humans and the results should be complementary to both.

  6. 21 CFR 514.80 - Records and reports concerning experience with approved new animal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... approved new animal drugs. The following table outlines the purpose for each paragraph of this section... are the general requirements for submission of periodic drug experience reports, e.g., forms to be... change the date of submission or frequency of submissions? 514.80(b)(4) Periodic drug experience...

  7. An animal model to study toxicity of central nervous system therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Effects on behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Mullenix, P.J.; Kernan, W.J.; Tassinari, M.S.; Schunior, A.; Waber, D.P.; Howes, A.; Tarbell, N.J. )

    1990-10-15

    Central nervous system prophylactic therapy used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia can reduce intelligence quotient scores and impair memory and attention in children. Cranial irradiation, intrathecal methotrexate, and steroids are commonly utilized in acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy. How they induce neurotoxicity is unknown. This study employs an animal model to explore the induction of neurotoxicity. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at 17 and 18 days of age were administered 18 mg/kg prednisolone, 2 mg/kg methotrexate, and 1000 cGy cranial irradiation. Another 18-day-old group was administered 1000 cGy cranial irradiation but no drugs. Matching controls received saline and/or a sham exposure to radiation. All animals at 6 weeks and 4 months of age were tested for alterations in spontaneous behavior. A computer pattern recognition system automatically recorded and classified individual behavioral acts displayed during exploration of a novel environment. Measures of behavioral initiations, total time, and time structure were used to compare treated and control animals. A permanent sex-specific change in the time structure of behavior was induced by the prednisolone, methotrexate, and radiation treatment but not by radiation alone. Unlike hyperactivity, the effect consisted of abnormal clustering and dispersion of acts in a pattern indicative of disrupted development of sexually dimorphic behavior. This study demonstrates the feasibility of an animal model delineating the agent/agents responsible for the neurotoxicity of central nervous system prophylactic therapy.

  8. [Our experiences in the treatment of acute leukemias].

    PubMed

    Jelić, S; Dragović, M; Vidaković, B; Plecas, V

    1976-01-01

    This paper deals with observations concerning treatment of acute leukemia in the Department of haematology of The Clinical hospital of Belgrade during the period from 1970 to 1975, and with results of the treatment itself. During the last five years, 27 patients with different types of acute leukemia were treated. The type of acute leukemia was determined using cytological criteria of Levy and Lortholary and cytochemical criteria as described by Hayhoe. One thrid of the patients died during the first days of hospitalisation, before any effect of cytostatic treatment could be evaluated. The cause of death in those patients was septic shock, intracranial haemorrhage or cardiovascular colapsus; initial signs of those complications of acute leukemia were allready present before diagnosis. Those data point to the fact that diagnosis of acute leukemia is often made too late, when irreversible ocmplications of the disease are allready established. Patients over sixty, often "fragile" to aggresive cytostatic therapy, may enter complete and relatively long lasting remission with induction therapy cosisting of 6-mercaptopurine and methotrexate only. Allthough the number of cases was rather limited, the authors had rather disappointing results with the 06-LA-66 protocole in adult lymphoblastic leukemia. The first with COAP treatment protocole seem encouraging. Adequate cytostatic therapy was in several cases impossible, duo to the lack of adequate substitution therapy; such inadequate cytostatic therapy resulted in partial remissions with a rather poor quality survival. A beeter cooperation is needed between hospital centers and institutions which provide matherial for the substitution theapy.

  9. [Ethical and legal aspects of animal experiments on non-human primates].

    PubMed

    Luy, J

    2007-03-01

    Animal experiments on non-human primates give cause for ethical concerns for three reasons (1) the inclusion of "ethical animal protection" in the German Constitution (Article 20a of the "Grundgesetz" GG, 2002) has led to real consequences for the application process with respect to the use of primates for fundamental research; (2) the legal requirements in Europe to ensure animal welfare are currently being tightened and (3) the global problem of the protection of species, especially with respect to the capturing and subsequent sale of primates is still unsolved. As a result of the way humans interpret the term justice (the principle of equality) it was to be expected that great apes, being the animals that most closely resemble humans, would play a key role in the establishment of animal protection laws. In 1997,Great Britain and Ireland made it illegal to conduct experiments on great apes. In 1999, New Zealand went even further and created a kind of basic rights for great apes. In 2003,The Netherlands forbade animal experiments using great apes as did Sweden, which also included gibbons in this ban (which is in line with current taxonomy, which considers gibbons to belong to the family Hominidae). In 2006 Austria forbade experiments carried out on chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, orang-utans, and gibbons. Only recently, a state commission on ethics in Switzerland demanded that the Swiss government do the same. And the summer of 2006 saw a debate in Spain on the inclusion of the protection of great apes in the primary goals of the state. Due to the principle of equality, a further extension (both geographically and systemically) of the exclusion of great apes from animal experiments is to be expected. Since Article 20a GG on "ethical animal protection" came into effect on August 1,2002, the regulatory authorities in Germany have the right to independently check and control animal experiments as to their ethical tenability (Administrative Court Giessen, confirmed

  10. In Search of Memory Tests Equivalent for Experiments on Animals and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Brodziak, Andrzej; Kołat, Estera; Różyk-Myrta, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    Older people often exhibit memory impairments. Contemporary demographic trends cause aging of the society. In this situation, it is important to conduct clinical trials of drugs and use training methods to improve memory capacity. Development of new memory tests requires experiments on animals and then clinical trials in humans. Therefore, we decided to review the assessment methods and search for tests that evaluate analogous cognitive processes in animals and humans. This review has enabled us to propose 2 pairs of tests of the efficiency of working memory capacity in animals and humans. We propose a basic set of methods for complex clinical trials of drugs and training methods to improve memory, consisting of 2 pairs of tests: 1) the Novel Object Recognition Test – Sternberg Item Recognition Test and 2) the Object-Location Test – Visuospatial Memory Test. We postulate that further investigations of methods that are equivalent in animals experiments and observations performed on humans are necessary. PMID:25524993

  11. In search of memory tests equivalent for experiments on animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Brodziak, Andrzej; Kołat, Estera; Różyk-Myrta, Alicja

    2014-12-19

    Older people often exhibit memory impairments. Contemporary demographic trends cause aging of the society. In this situation, it is important to conduct clinical trials of drugs and use training methods to improve memory capacity. Development of new memory tests requires experiments on animals and then clinical trials in humans. Therefore, we decided to review the assessment methods and search for tests that evaluate analogous cognitive processes in animals and humans. This review has enabled us to propose 2 pairs of tests of the efficiency of working memory capacity in animals and humans. We propose a basic set of methods for complex clinical trials of drugs and training methods to improve memory, consisting of 2 pairs of tests: 1) the Novel Object Recognition Test - Sternberg Item Recognition Test and 2) the Object-Location Test - Visuospatial Memory Test. We postulate that further investigations of methods that are equivalent in animals experiments and observations performed on humans are necessary.

  12. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In order to understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms (e.g. gastrointestinal [GI], respiratory, dermatological), it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar ...

  13. Principles and standards for reporting animal experiments in The Journal of Physiology and Experimental Physiology.

    PubMed

    Grundy, David

    2015-07-01

    The Journal of Physiology and Experimental Physiology have always used UK legislation as the basis of their policy on ethical standards in experiments on non-human animals. However, for international journals with authors, editors and referees from outside the UK the policy can lack transparency and is sometimes cumbersome, requiring the intervention of a Senior Ethics Reviewer or advice from external experts familiar with UK legislation. The journals have therefore decided to set out detailed guidelines for how authors should report experimental procedures that involve animals. As well as helping authors, this new clarity will facilitate the review process and decision making where there are questions regarding animal ethics.

  14. Principles and standards for reporting animal experiments in The Journal of Physiology and Experimental Physiology.

    PubMed

    Grundy, David

    2015-06-15

    The Journal of Physiology and Experimental Physiology have always used UK legislation as the basis of their policy on ethical standards in experiments on non-human animals. However, for international journals with authors, editors and referees from outside the UK the policy can lack transparency and is sometimes cumbersome, requiring the intervention of a Senior Ethics Reviewer or advice from external experts familiar with UK legislation. The journals have therefore decided to set out detailed guidelines for how authors should report experimental procedures that involve animals. As well as helping authors, this new clarity will facilitate the review process and decision making where there are questions regarding animal ethics.

  15. [Importance of research on alternatives to animal experiments in pharmaceutical sciences].

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yasuo

    2008-05-01

    The Japanese animal protection law was amended in 2005 to include the 3Rs principle in animal experiments. According to this new law, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries developed announced several guidelines in 2006. These guidelines indicated responsibility of the president of each research institute conducting animal experiments to meet obligating of the animal experiment committee (AEC) and the education to be provided to scientists. About half a year after this notification, I conducted a survey on how these guidelines were put into practice in the pharmaceutical colleges and universities. I received 29 answers from 24 institutes. It seemed that every institute was following, the guidelines, however, there were many institutes where the details were inadequate. For example, questions on the existence of alternative methods and degree of distress and pain were not asked in some questionnaires sent to the AEC. Education on proper conduct of animal experiments (3Rs, methods to evaluate and decrease distress and pain, and methods of euthanasia) was not conducted in many institutes. Further improvement seems necessary.

  16. The flatworm planaria as a toxicology and behavioral pharmacology animal model in undergraduate research experiences.

    PubMed

    Pagán, Oné R; Coudron, Tamara; Kaneria, Tanvi

    2009-01-01

    In this work we describe a series of simple protocols using planaria as an animal model in toxicology and behavioral pharmacology. These procedures have proven useful to provide significant research experience to undergraduate students, including coauthorship in peer-reviewed publications. The methods described in this work have proven useful to allow students to visualize concepts related to concentration-effect curves for toxicity and behavioral experiments, without the need to consider factors that must be taken into account when working with vertebrate animals.

  17. [Professor WU Xu's clinical experiences on acupuncture for acute upper abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Liang; Lu, Bin; Sun, Jian-Hua; Ai, Bing-Wei; Bao, Chao; Wu, Wen-Zhong; Li, Jian-Bing; Liu, Lan-Ying; Wu, Wen-Yun; Pei, Li-Xia; Zhou, Jun-Ling; Li, Yan-Cai; Qin, Shan

    2014-03-01

    The clinical experiences and proven cases of distinguished doctor of TCM, professor WU Xu, on acupuncture for acute upper abdominal pain is introduced. Professor WU's manipulation characteristics of acupuncture for acute upper abdominal pain, including acute cholecystitis, kidney stone, acute stomach pain, are one-hand shape but both hands in nature, moving like Tai Chi, force on the tip of needle, movement of qi mainly. The main technique posture is one-hand holding needle with middle finger for pressing, the needle is hold by thumb and index finger, and is assisted by middle finger. The special acupuncture experience of emergency is treatment according to syndrome differentiation, combination of acupuncture and moxibustion, selecting acupoint based on experience, blood-letting acupuncture therapy and so on.

  18. Monitoring of small laboratory animal experiments by a designated web-based database.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, T; Grohmann, C; Schumacher, U; Krüll, A

    2015-10-01

    Multiple-parametric small animal experiments require, by their very nature, a sufficient number of animals which may need to be large to obtain statistically significant results.(1) For this reason database-related systems are required to collect the experimental data as well as to support the later (re-) analysis of the information gained during the experiments. In particular, the monitoring of animal welfare is simplified by the inclusion of warning signals (for instance, loss in body weight >20%). Digital patient charts have been developed for human patients but are usually not able to fulfill the specific needs of animal experimentation. To address this problem a unique web-based monitoring system using standard MySQL, PHP, and nginx has been created. PHP was used to create the HTML-based user interface and outputs in a variety of proprietary file formats, namely portable document format (PDF) or spreadsheet files. This article demonstrates its fundamental features and the easy and secure access it offers to the data from any place using a web browser. This information will help other researchers create their own individual databases in a similar way. The use of QR-codes plays an important role for stress-free use of the database. We demonstrate a way to easily identify all animals and samples and data collected during the experiments. Specific ways to record animal irradiations and chemotherapy applications are shown. This new analysis tool allows the effective and detailed analysis of huge amounts of data collected through small animal experiments. It supports proper statistical evaluation of the data and provides excellent retrievable data storage.

  19. Rivaroxaban Rebound Acute Coronary Event: A Post Marketing Experience

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ajay; Patel, Amish; Mufti, Omar; Jbara, Yaser; Jabbar, Ali Abdul

    2013-01-01

    We present a 65-year-old male who received rivaroxaban therapy prior to and after left knee replacement surgery. The patient developed generalized weakness soon after stopping rivaroxaban. An electrocardiogram showed acute infero-lateral ischemia and an echocardiogram reported an akinetic antero-apical wall segment, an apical clot and a reduced systolic function. A subsequent coronary angiogram revealed two-vessel coronary artery thrombosis. The case illustrates a temporal relationship of coronary thrombosis following rivaroxaban cessation.

  20. Randomized block experimental designs can increase the power and reproducibility of laboratory animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Festing, Michael F W

    2014-01-01

    Randomized block experimental designs have been widely used in agricultural and industrial research for many decades. Usually they are more powerful, have higher external validity, are less subject to bias, and produce more reproducible results than the completely randomized designs typically used in research involving laboratory animals. Reproducibility can be further increased by using time as a blocking factor. These benefits can be achieved at no extra cost. A small experiment investigating the effect of an antioxidant on the activity of a liver enzyme in four inbred mouse strains, which had two replications (blocks) separated by a period of two months, illustrates this approach. The widespread failure to use these designs more widely in research involving laboratory animals has probably led to a substantial waste of animals, money, and scientific resources and slowed down the development of new treatments for human and animal diseases.

  1. [Recent developments on the European ban on animal experiments for cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Ruhdel, I W

    2001-01-01

    For the second time the European Commission has postponed the sales ban on cosmetics products that have been developed and tested in animal experiments now until 2002. In the meantime the Commission wants to adopt the Seventh Amendment of the EU Cosmetics Directive. In its draft the Commission proposes to scrap the sales ban and replace it with an animal testing ban. This change would avoid possible conflicts with the WTO, however, from the animal welfare point of view would result in animal testing moving into third countries instead of avoiding them. This is because cosmetics products tested on animals outside the EU could be sold in the EU without any restrictions. As a consequence this measure would take the pressure from authorities and industry to further develop and adopt alternative methods. Other proposed measures are not acceptable from the animal welfare point of view, e.g. because they contradict Directive 86/609 and would result in a delay of the application of validated alternative methods. The Deutscher Tierschutzbund therefore still demands an immediate and complete sales ban in connection with an animal testing ban within the EU.

  2. Social preference experiments in animals: strengthening the case for human preferences.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Keith

    2012-02-01

    Guala appears to take social preferences for granted in his discussion of reciprocity experiments. While he does not overtly claim that social preferences are only by-products that arise in testing environments, he does assert that whatever they are--and how they evolved--they have little value in the real world. Experiments on animals suggest that social preferences may be unique to humans, supporting the idea that they might play a prominent role in our world.

  3. Dose estimation of animal experiments at the THOR BNCT beam by NCTPlan and Xplan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan-Hao; Lee, Pei-Yi; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Chou, Fong-In; Chen, Wei-Lin; Huang, Yu-Shiang; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2014-06-01

    Dose estimation of animal experiments affects many subsequent derived quantities, such as RBE and CBE values. It is important to ensure the trustiness of calculated dose of the irradiated animals. However, the dose estimation was normally calculated using simplified geometries and tissue compositions, which led to rough results. This paper introduces the use of treatment planning systems NCTplan and Xplan for the dose estimation. A mouse was taken as an example and it was brought to hospital for micro-PET/CT scan. It was found that the critical organ doses of an irradiated mouse calculated by simplified model were unreliable in comparison to Xplan voxel model. The difference could reach the extent of several tenths percent. It is recommended that a treatment planning system should be introduced to future animal experiments to upgrade the data quality.

  4. Report of a meeting to discuss a National Centre for the Replacement of Animals in Experiments.

    PubMed

    Brock, Christine; Langley, Gill; Newman, Carol

    2004-03-01

    Following the publication of their joint proposal for a National Centre for the Replacement of Animals in Experiments in 2002, the Dr Hadwen Trust and the Lord Dowding Fund organised a meeting, held on 18 November 2003 at Portcullis House, Westminster, in London, in order to discuss the concept further. A one-page summary of their proposal is attached as an appendix, and full copies are available from the Lord Dowding Fund and the Dr Hadwen Trust. The meeting aimed to discuss the need to stimulate and promote research to replace animal experiments by means of a National Centre (a coordinating body), and how this should be established and funded. Participants, numbering about 80 in total, included politicians (national and European), government officials, scientists, funding bodies and animal welfare representatives. This report is a summary of the issues raised by speakers and other participants at the meeting.

  5. Characterization of Ions in Urine of Animal Model with Acute Renal Failure using NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Pessoal, Edson A.; Borges, Fernanda T.

    2011-08-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine elements concentrations in urine of rats Wistar (control group) and rats Wistar with Acute Renal Failure (ARF). These data contribute for applications in health area related to biochemical analyses using urine to monitor the dialyze treatment.

  6. Reducing sample size in experiments with animals: historical controls and related strategies.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Matthew; Font, Enrique

    2017-02-01

    Reducing the number of animal subjects used in biomedical experiments is desirable for ethical and practical reasons. Previous reviews of the benefits of reducing sample sizes have focused on improving experimental designs and methods of statistical analysis, but reducing the size of control groups has been considered rarely. We discuss how the number of current control animals can be reduced, without loss of statistical power, by incorporating information from historical controls, i.e. subjects used as controls in similar previous experiments. Using example data from published reports, we describe how to incorporate information from historical controls under a range of assumptions that might be made in biomedical experiments. Assuming more similarities between historical and current controls yields higher savings and allows the use of smaller current control groups. We conducted simulations, based on typical designs and sample sizes, to quantify how different assumptions about historical controls affect the power of statistical tests. We show that, under our simulation conditions, the number of current control subjects can be reduced by more than half by including historical controls in the analyses. In other experimental scenarios, control groups may be unnecessary. Paying attention to both the function and to the statistical requirements of control groups would result in reducing the total number of animals used in experiments, saving time, effort and money, and bringing research with animals within ethically acceptable bounds.

  7. Children’s Experiences of Companion Animal Maltreatment in Households Characterized by Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Shelby Elaine; Collins, Elizabeth A.; Nicotera, Nicole; Hageman, Tina O.; Ascione, Frank R.; Williams, James Herbert; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Cruelty toward companion animals is a well-documented, coercive tactic used by abusive partners to intimidate and control their intimate partners. Experiences of co-occurring violence are common for children living in families with intimate partner violence (IPV) and surveys show that more than half are also exposed to abuse of their pets. Given children’s relationships with their pets, witnessing such abuse may be traumatic for them. Yet little is known about the prevalence and significance of this issue for children. The present study examines the experiences of children in families with co-occurring pet abuse and IPV. Using qualitative methods, 58 children ages 7-12 who were exposed to IPV were asked to describe their experiences of threats to and harm of their companion animals. Following the interviews, template analysis was employed to systematically develop codes and themes. Coding reliability was assessed using Randolph's free-marginal multirater kappa (kfree = .90). Five themes emerged from the qualitative data, the most common being children’s exposure to pet abuse as a power and control tactic against their mother in the context of IPV. Other themes were animal maltreatment to discipline or punish the pet, animal cruelty by a sibling, children intervening to prevent pet abuse, and children intervening to protect the pet during a violent episode. Results indicate that children’s experiences of pet abuse are multifaceted, potentially traumatic, and may involve multiple family members with diverse motives. PMID:26520828

  8. Children's experiences of companion animal maltreatment in households characterized by intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Shelby Elaine; Collins, Elizabeth A; Nicotera, Nicole; Hageman, Tina O; Ascione, Frank R; Williams, James Herbert; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A

    2015-12-01

    Cruelty toward companion animals is a well-documented, coercive tactic used by abusive partners to intimidate and control their intimate partners. Experiences of co-occurring violence are common for children living in families with intimate partner violence (IPV) and surveys show that more than half are also exposed to abuse of their pets. Given children's relationships with their pets, witnessing such abuse may be traumatic for them. Yet little is known about the prevalence and significance of this issue for children. The present study examines the experiences of children in families with co-occurring pet abuse and IPV. Using qualitative methods, 58 children ages 7-12 who were exposed to IPV were asked to describe their experiences of threats to and harm of their companion animals. Following the interviews, template analysis was employed to systematically develop codes and themes. Coding reliability was assessed using Randolph's free-marginal multirater kappa (kfree=.90). Five themes emerged from the qualitative data, the most common being children's exposure to pet abuse as a power and control tactic against their mother in the context of IPV. Other themes were animal maltreatment to discipline or punish the pet, animal cruelty by a sibling, children intervening to prevent pet abuse, and children intervening to protect the pet during a violent episode. Results indicate that children's experiences of pet abuse are multifaceted, potentially traumatic, and may involve multiple family members with diverse motives.

  9. Authorization of Animal Experiments Is Based on Confidence Rather than Evidence of Scientific Rigor.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Lucile; Reichlin, Thomas S; Nathues, Christina; Würbel, Hanno

    2016-12-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates high risk of bias in preclinical animal research, questioning the scientific validity and reproducibility of published research findings. Systematic reviews found low rates of reporting of measures against risks of bias in the published literature (e.g., randomization, blinding, sample size calculation) and a correlation between low reporting rates and inflated treatment effects. That most animal research undergoes peer review or ethical review would offer the possibility to detect risks of bias at an earlier stage, before the research has been conducted. For example, in Switzerland, animal experiments are licensed based on a detailed description of the study protocol and a harm-benefit analysis. We therefore screened applications for animal experiments submitted to Swiss authorities (n = 1,277) for the rates at which the use of seven basic measures against bias (allocation concealment, blinding, randomization, sample size calculation, inclusion/exclusion criteria, primary outcome variable, and statistical analysis plan) were described and compared them with the reporting rates of the same measures in a representative sub-sample of publications (n = 50) resulting from studies described in these applications. Measures against bias were described at very low rates, ranging on average from 2.4% for statistical analysis plan to 19% for primary outcome variable in applications for animal experiments, and from 0.0% for sample size calculation to 34% for statistical analysis plan in publications from these experiments. Calculating an internal validity score (IVS) based on the proportion of the seven measures against bias, we found a weak positive correlation between the IVS of applications and that of publications (Spearman's rho = 0.34, p = 0.014), indicating that the rates of description of these measures in applications partly predict their rates of reporting in publications. These results indicate that the authorities licensing animal

  10. Authorization of Animal Experiments Is Based on Confidence Rather than Evidence of Scientific Rigor

    PubMed Central

    Nathues, Christina; Würbel, Hanno

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates high risk of bias in preclinical animal research, questioning the scientific validity and reproducibility of published research findings. Systematic reviews found low rates of reporting of measures against risks of bias in the published literature (e.g., randomization, blinding, sample size calculation) and a correlation between low reporting rates and inflated treatment effects. That most animal research undergoes peer review or ethical review would offer the possibility to detect risks of bias at an earlier stage, before the research has been conducted. For example, in Switzerland, animal experiments are licensed based on a detailed description of the study protocol and a harm–benefit analysis. We therefore screened applications for animal experiments submitted to Swiss authorities (n = 1,277) for the rates at which the use of seven basic measures against bias (allocation concealment, blinding, randomization, sample size calculation, inclusion/exclusion criteria, primary outcome variable, and statistical analysis plan) were described and compared them with the reporting rates of the same measures in a representative sub-sample of publications (n = 50) resulting from studies described in these applications. Measures against bias were described at very low rates, ranging on average from 2.4% for statistical analysis plan to 19% for primary outcome variable in applications for animal experiments, and from 0.0% for sample size calculation to 34% for statistical analysis plan in publications from these experiments. Calculating an internal validity score (IVS) based on the proportion of the seven measures against bias, we found a weak positive correlation between the IVS of applications and that of publications (Spearman’s rho = 0.34, p = 0.014), indicating that the rates of description of these measures in applications partly predict their rates of reporting in publications. These results indicate that the authorities licensing

  11. [Acute kidney injury and septic shock: experiences in treatment].

    PubMed

    Pozzato, Marco; Ferrari, Fiorenza; Livigni, Sergio; Quarello, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in 5-45% of critically ill patients, and renal replacement therapy (RRT) is required in 4-10% of patients with AKI. AKI has long been considered to be hemodynamic damage from low blood flow resulting in shock, and efforts have been made to prevent and cure it by increasing the renal blood flow and improving the cardiac output and perfusion pressure. In recent years, new experimental studies on patients with septic AKI have shown that the renal blood flow remains unaltered or even increases in septic shock. An important mechanism in the pathophysiology of sepsis and septic shock appears to be apoptosis rather than ischemic necrosis. The type of treatment as well as the dose and timing of initiation of RRT seem to have strategic importance in the recovery of AKI in patients admitted to the ICU. In critically ill (often postsurgical and septic) patients with acute renal failure the use of new anticoagulation strategies has permitted to perform treatments for a sufficient number of hours to achieve the correct level of purification by minimizing the downtime and the bleeding risk. In our center the use of protocols for different methods and different types of anticoagulants has simplified the treatment of all patients with AKI and septic shock admitted to the ICU.

  12. Effects of virtual human animation on emotion contagion in simulated inter-personal experiences.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanxiang; Babu, Sabarish V; Armstrong, Rowan; Bertrand, Jeffrey W; Luo, Jun; Roy, Tania; Daily, Shaundra B; Dukes, Lauren Cairco; Hodges, Larry F; Fasolino, Tracy

    2014-04-01

    We empirically examined the impact of virtual human animation on the emotional responses of participants in a medical virtual reality system for education in the signs and symptoms of patient deterioration. Participants were presented with one of two virtual human conditions in a between-subjects experiment, static (non-animated) and dynamic (animated). Our objective measures included the use of psycho-physical Electro Dermal Activity (EDA) sensors, and subjective measures inspired by social psychology research included the Differential Emotions Survey (DES IV) and Positive and Negative Affect Survey (PANAS). We analyzed the quantitative and qualitative measures associated with participants’ emotional state at four distinct time-steps in the simulated interpersonal experience as the virtual patient’s medical condition deteriorated. Results suggest that participants in the dynamic condition with animations exhibited a higher sense of co-presence and greater emotional response as compared to participants in the static condition, corresponding to the deterioration in the medical condition of the virtual patient. Negative affect of participants in the dynamic condition increased at a higher rate than for participants in the static condition. The virtual human animations elicited a stronger response in negative emotions such as anguish, fear, and anger as the virtual patient’s medical condition worsened.

  13. Experience and distribution of attention: Pet exposure and infants’ scanning of animal images

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Karinna B.; Oakes, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Although infants’ cognitions about the world must be influenced by experience, little research has directly assessed the relation between everyday experience and infants’ visual cognition in the laboratory. Eye-tracking procedures were used to measure 4-month-old infants’ eye-movements as they visually investigated a series of images. Infants with pet experience (N = 27) directed a greater proportion of their looking at the most informative region of animal stimuli—the head—than did infants without such experience (N = 21); the two groups of infants did not differ in their scanning of images of human faces or vehicles. Thus, infants’ visual cognitions are influenced by everyday experience, and theories of cognitive development in infancy must account for the effect of experience on development. PMID:25663827

  14. Living with companion animals after stroke: experiences of older people in community and primary care nursing.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Maria; Ahlström, Gerd; Jönsson, Ann-Cathrin

    2014-12-01

    Older people often have companion animals, and the significance of animals in human lives should be considered by nurses-particularly in relation to older people's health, which can be affected by diseases. The incidence of stroke increases with age and disabilities as a result of stroke are common. This study aimed to explore older people's experiences of living with companion animals after stroke, and their life situation with the animals in relation to the physical, psychological and social aspects of recovery after stroke. The study was performed using individual interviews approximately 2 years after stroke with 17 participants (10 women and 7 men) aged 62-88 years. An overarching theme arising from the content analysis was contribution to a meaningful life. This theme was generated from four categories: motivation for physical and psychosocial recovery after stroke; someone to care for who cares for you; animals as family members; and providers of safety and protection. The main conclusion was that companion animals are experienced as physical and psychosocial contributors to recovery and a meaningful life after stroke.

  15. Acute inhibition of neurosteroid estrogen synthesis suppresses status epilepticus in an animal model

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Satoru M; Woolley, Catherine S

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is a common neurological emergency for which new treatments are needed. In vitro studies suggest a novel approach to controlling seizures in SE: acute inhibition of estrogen synthesis in the brain. Here, we show in rats that systemic administration of an aromatase (estrogen synthase) inhibitor after seizure onset strongly suppresses both electrographic and behavioral seizures induced by kainic acid (KA). We found that KA-induced SE stimulates synthesis of estradiol (E2) in the hippocampus, a brain region commonly involved in seizures and where E2 is known to acutely promote neural activity. Hippocampal E2 levels were higher in rats experiencing more severe seizures. Consistent with a seizure-promoting effect of hippocampal estrogen synthesis, intra-hippocampal aromatase inhibition also suppressed seizures. These results reveal neurosteroid estrogen synthesis as a previously unknown factor in the escalation of seizures and suggest that acute administration of aromatase inhibitors may be an effective treatment for SE. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12917.001 PMID:27083045

  16. Analysis of the pancreatic low molecular weight proteome in an animal model of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Lassout, Olivier; Pastor, Catherine M; Fétaud-Lapierre, Vanessa; Hochstrasser, Denis F; Frossard, Jean-Louis; Lescuyer, Pierre

    2010-09-03

    We used a peptidomic approach for the analysis of the low molecular weight proteome in rat pancreatic tissue extracts. The goal was to develop a method that allows identifying endogenous peptides produced in the pancreas in the course of acute pancreatitis. The workflow combines peptides enrichment by centrifugal ultrafiltration, fractionation by isoelectric focusing, and LC-MS/MS analysis without prior enzymatic digestion. The method was assessed on pancreatic extracts from 3 rats with caerulein-induced pancreatitis and 3 healthy controls. A qualitative analysis of the peptide patterns obtained from the different samples was performed to determine the main biological processes associated to the identified peptides. Comparison of peptidomic and immunoblot data for alpha-tubulin, beta-tubulin and coatomer gamma showed that the correlation between the number of identified peptides and the protein abundance was variable. Nevertheless, peptidomic analysis highlighted inflammatory and stress proteins, which peptide pattern was related to acute pancreatitis pathobiology. For these proteins, the higher number of peptides in pancreatitis samples reflected an increase in protein abundance. Moreover, for murinoglobulin-1 or carboxypeptidase B, peptide pattern could be related to protein function. These data suggest that peptidomic analysis is a complementary approach to proteomics for investigating pathobiological processes involved in acute pancreatitis.

  17. Environmental control and life support systems analysis for a Space Station life sciences animal experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    So, Kenneth T.; Hall, John B., Jr.; Thompson, Clifford D.

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Langley and Goddard facilities have evaluated the effects of animal science experiments on the Space Station's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) by means of computer-aided analysis, assuming an animal colony consisting of 96 rodents and eight squirrel monkeys. Thirteen ECLSS options were established for the reclamation of metabolic oxygen and waste water. Minimum cost and weight impacts on the ECLSS are found to accrue to the system's operation in off-nominal mode, using electrochemical CO2 removal and a static feed electrolyzer for O2 generation.

  18. Resuscitation of warm ischaemia predamaged porcine kidneys by fibrinolytic preflush with streptokinase: reduction of animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Szyrach, M N I; Paschenda, P; Afify, M; Zeng, J; Tolba, R H

    2011-04-01

    In order to reduce the number of animal experiments, the use of non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) from a commercial abattoir has been proposed. Since the use of slaughterhouse organs is legally not defined as animal experiment, this would fulfil international standards as an alternative to animal experiments. The development of intravascular thrombosis after cardiac arrest negatively impacts organ preservation and thus viability during ischaemic storage and reperfusion. A fibrinolytic preflush with streptokinase might overcome these limitations. Therefore, the functional and histomorphological integrity of kidneys preserved immediately with intact circulation (control group A) and kidneys preserved after cardiac arrest with a 30 min period of warm ischaemia (WI) (group B) was compared with kidneys preflushed with 12.5 kU/L (group C) or 50 kU/L streptokinase (group D) after 30 min WI prior to preservation. We could demonstrate that kidneys preflushed with 12.5 kU/L streptokinase (group C) performed better than those without streptokinase pretreatment after WI (group B). Parameters like oxygen consumption, perfusion pressure, laboratory values, lactate dehydrogenase level and lipidperoxidation were closer to that of the control (group A) than in groups B and D. The higher streptokinase concentration of 50 kU/L (group D) resulted histologically in a more pronounced tissue damage and an attenuated renal function, indicating toxic effects. On the basis of our results we believe streptokinase preflushed slaughterhouse kidneys to be an adequate alternative to organs from laboratory animals with the potential to further reduce the number of animal experiments.

  19. Acute pancreatitis in the paediatric age group: a personal experience.

    PubMed

    Cosentini, A; Stranieri, G; Capillo, S; Notarangelo, L; Madonna, L; Iannini, S; Ferro, V; Defilippo, V; Defilippo, R G; Rubino, R

    2005-01-01

    Although relatively rare, acute pancreatitis is the most common disease complex involving the pancreas in the paediatric age group. The etiology of the disease is often unknown, and Italian epidemiological data on the paediatric population and, in particular, on the etiology of the disease are not available (except for studies of prevalence). Within the field of the most frequently encountered pancreatitis in the age range of our interest (i.e. 0-18 years), not only the commonly observed forms whose etiopathogenesis is ascribable to cholelithiasis must be mentioned but also those forms due to proteic-caloric malnutrition that are becoming increasingly common. The presenting clinical symptoms and signs may not be typical and the laboratory tests may not always be sensitive enough. In such age range chronic recurrent pancreatitis plays a very important epidemiologic role. Approximately 40% of children and teenagers admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of pancreatitis report a previous episode of the disease. Irreversible changes in pancreatic parenchyma develop in those patients in whom the disease progresses, leading to pancreatic insufficiency. Such a morbid condition (chronic pancreatitis) is more often observed in adolescents, in whom the disease manifests itself with a vague repetitive dyspeptic symptomatology, after alternating remissions and recrudescences, not always clinically evident. In children, the clinical picture most commonly encountered is represented by recurrent abdominal pains, in view of the fact that the patients are frequently affected by thalassaemia. The pseudocystic evolution of the disease is the most common organic damage resulting from the chronic progression of the pancreatic impairment. A few differences have been found with respect to severity, etiology, and mortality of pancreatitis in the paediatric age group as compared with older age groups. Both the general practitioner with a paediatric practice and the paediatrician

  20. Urat1-Uox double knockout mice are experimental animal models of renal hypouricemia and exercise-induced acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Hosoyamada, Makoto; Tsurumi, Yu; Hirano, Hidenori; Tomioka, Naoko H; Sekine, Yuko; Morisaki, Takayuki; Uchida, Shunya

    2016-12-01

    Renal hypouricemia (RHUC) is a hereditary disease characterized by a low level of plasma urate but with normal urinary urate excretion. RHUC type 1 is caused by mutations of the urate transporter URAT1 gene (SLC22A12). However, the plasma urate levels of URAT1 knockout mice are no different from those of wild-type mice. In the present study, a double knockout mouse, in which the URAT1 and uricase (Uox) genes were deleted (Urat1-Uox-DKO), were used as an experimental animal model of RHUC type 1 to investigate RHUC and excise-induced acute kidney injury (EIAKI). Mice were given a variable content of allopurinol for one week followed by HPLC measurement of urate and creatinine concentrations in spot urine and blood from the tail. The urinary excretion of urate in Urat1-Uox-DKO mice was approximately 25 times higher than those of humans. With allopurinol, the plasma urate levels of Urat1-Uox-DKO mice were lower than those of Uox-KO mice. There were no differences in the urinary urate excretions between Urat1-Uox-DKO and Uox-KO mice administered with 9 mg allopurinol /100 g feed. In the absence of allopurinol, plasma creatinine levels of some Urat1-Uox-DKO mice were higher than those of Uox-KO mice. Consequently, hypouricemia and normouricosuria may indicate that the Urat1-Uox-DKO mouse administered with allopurinol may represent a suitable animal model of RHUC type 1. Urat1-Uox-DKO mice without allopurinol exhibited acute kidney injury, thus providing additional benefit as a potential animal model for EIAKI. Finally, our data indicate that allopurinol appears to provide prophylactic effects for EIAKI.

  1. Engineering aspects of the experiment and results of animal tests. [Apollo 17 Biological Cosmic Ray Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Look, B. C.; Tremor, J. W.; Barrows, W. F.; Zabower, H. R.; Suri, K.; Park, E. G., Jr.; Durso, J. A.; Leon, H. A.; Haymaker, W.; Lindberg, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    A closed passive system independent of support from the spacecraft or its crew was developed to house five pocket mice for their flight on Apollo XVII. The reaction of potassium superoxide with carbon dioxide and water vapor to produce oxygen provided a habitable atmosphere within the experiment package. The performance of the system and the ability of the mice to survive the key preflight tests gave reasonable assurance that the mice would also withstand the Apollo flight.-

  2. [Assessment of carcinogenic effect of aluminosilicate ceramic fibers produced in Poland. Animal experiments].

    PubMed

    Krajnow, A; Lao, I

    2000-01-01

    The effect of aluminosilicate ceramic fibres produced in Poland was assessed. The experiment was performed on two animal species: Wistar rats and BALB/C mice. The animals were administered intraperitoneally the studied fibres and krokidolit UICC--in doses of 25 and 5 mg and left for survival. All dead and sacrificed animals were examined histopathologically. Carcinogenic properties of ceramic aluminosilicate fibres were found to be rather weak. Only in 1 (2.5%) of 39 rats under study benign mesothelioma of tunica vagiualis testis was diagnosed. Peritoneal mesothelioma was found in none of 50 mice studied. For comparison the effect of krokidolit UICC was assessed. Krokidolit UICC is characterised by strong carcinogenic properties. It induced peritoneal mesothelioma in 43 mice (44.2%) and in 29 (80.5%) of 36 rats under study.

  3. Metabolic effects of hypergravity on experimental animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oyama, J.

    1982-01-01

    Several experiments concerned with the exposure of animals to acute or chronic centrifugation are described. The effects of hypergravity particularly discussed include the decreased growth rate and body weight, increased metabolic rate, skeletal deformation, and loss of body fat.

  4. Mice Drawer System: a Long Duration Animal Experiment on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotronei, Vittorio; Liu, Yi; Pignataro, Salvatore

    Mice represent one of the most important animal models for biomedical research. In the past decade mice have been used as surrogates to understand physiological adaption and its under-lying mechanisms to orbital spaceflight. A breakthrough in this field has been achieved with the launch of MDS experiment inside Shuttle Discovery (mission STS-128) on August 28, 2009 at 23:58 EST, and its re-entry to earth by Shuttle Atlantis (mission STS-129) on November 27 2009 at 9:47 EST, marking this as the first long duration animal experiment on the Interna-tional Space Station (ISS). This presentation will provide the life history and milestones starting from the project brainstorm to the post-ground activities of the recent MDS payload mission. The Italian Space Agency (ASI) initiated and coordinated this multi-disciplinary project by focusing on five areas: the development of a multi-purpose automated payload by industry; bio-compatibility tests of subsystems throughout various critical phases of the payload development by researchers, development of a ground segment to interface with NASA Payload Operations Center and three different geographically distributed Italian Operations Centers; establishment of an international tissue sharing program; specialized bio-specimen intercontinental shipment. With close collaboration with NASA, activities such as pre-flight payload acceptance, animal preparation, in-flight crew intervention and re-entry animal recovery were smoothly and swiftly accomplished.

  5. MR-guided focused ultrasound robot for performing experiments on large animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mylonas, N.; Damianou, C.

    2011-09-01

    Introduction: In this paper an experimental MRI-guided focused ultrasound robot for large animals is presented. Materials and methods: A single element spherically focused transducer of 4 cm diameter, focusing at 10 cm and operating at 1 MHz was used. A positioning device was developed in order to scan the ultrasound transducer for performing MR-guided focused ultrasound experiments in large animals such as pig, sheep and dog. The positioning device incorporates only MRI compatible materials such as piezoelectric motors, Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) plastic, brass screws, and brass pulleys. The system is manufactured automatically using a rapid prototyping system. Results: The system was tested successfully in a number of animals for various tasks (creation of single lesions, creation of overlapping lesions, and MR compatibility). Conclusions: A simple, cost effective, portable positioning device has been developed which can be used in virtually any clinical MRI scanner since it can be sited on the scanner's table. The propagation of HIFU can be via a lateral or superior-inferior approach. This system has the potential to be marketed as a cost effective solution for performing experiments in small and large animals.

  6. Acute respiratory disease in Spain: seven years of experience.

    PubMed

    Tellez, A; Perez-Breña, P; Fernandez-Patiño, M V; León, P; Anda, P; Nájera, R

    1990-01-01

    The clinical and epidemiologic features of viral and nonviral pathogens involved in acute respiratory diseases are described in the context of cases of infection (especially atypical pneumonia and bronchiolitis) studied at the Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Virología e Immunología Sanitarias in Madrid during a 7-year period (1979-1986). These etiologies were demonstrated in 1,637 (36.2%) of 4,521 cases. Among viruses, respiratory syncytial virus most frequently infected children; influenza virus showed the same pattern of circulation as in other European countries. Of nonviral agents, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and C. burnetii were most often involved in lower respiratory tract infections, with a variable predominance in patients of different ages. A high proportion of cases of M. pneumoniae infection occurred in infants and children aged less than 1 year, and most of these cases occurred during spring and summer. The majority of Q fever cases, including those observed in two outbreaks, occurred in the northern region.

  7. Drug administration in animal studies of cardiac arrest does not reflect human clinical experience

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Joshua C.; Rittenberger, Jon C.; Menegazzi, James J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction To date, there is no evidence showing a benefit from any advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) medication in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA), despite animal data to the contrary. One explanation may be a difference in the time to first drug administration. Our previous work has shown the mean time to first drug administration in clinical trials is 19.4 minutes. We hypothesized that the average time to drug administration in large animal experiments occurs earlier than in OOHCA clinical trials. Methods We conducted a literature review between 1990 and 2006 in MEDLINE using the following MeSH headings: swine, dogs, resuscitation, heart arrest, EMS, EMT, ambulance, ventricular fibrillation, drug therapy, epinephrine, vasopressin, amiodarone, lidocaine, magnesium, and sodium bicarbonate. We reviewed the abstracts of 331 studies and 197 full manuscripts. Exclusion criteria included: non-peer reviewed, all without primary animal data, and traumatic models. From these, we identified 119 papers that contained unique information on time to medication administration. The data are reported as mean, ranges, and 95% confidence intervals. Mean time to first drug administration in animal laboratory studies and clinical trials was compared with a t-test. Regression analysis was performed to determine if time to drug predicted ROSC. Results Mean time to first drug administration in 2378 animals was 9.5 minutes (range 3.0–28.0; 95% CI around mean 2.78, 16.22). This is less than the time reported in clinical trials (19.4 min, p<0.001). Time to drug predicted ROSC (Odds Ratio 0.844; 95% CI 0.738, 0.966). Conclusion Shorter drug delivery time in animal models of cardiac arrest may be one reason for the failure of animal studies to translate successfully into the clinical arena. PMID:17360097

  8. The potential of tissue engineering for developing alternatives to animal experiments: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Rob B M; Leenaars, Marlies; Tra, Joppe; Huijbregtse, Robbertjan; Bongers, Erik; Jansen, John A; Gordijn, Bert; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2015-07-01

    An underexposed ethical issue raised by tissue engineering is the use of laboratory animals in tissue engineering research. Even though this research results in suffering and loss of life in animals, tissue engineering also has great potential for the development of alternatives to animal experiments. With the objective of promoting a joint effort of tissue engineers and alternative experts to fully realise this potential, this study provides the first comprehensive overview of the possibilities of using tissue-engineered constructs as a replacement of laboratory animals. Through searches in two large biomedical databases (PubMed, Embase) and several specialised 3R databases, 244 relevant primary scientific articles, published between 1991 and 2011, were identified. By far most articles reviewed related to the use of tissue-engineered skin/epidermis for toxicological applications such as testing for skin irritation. This review article demonstrates, however, that the potential for the development of alternatives also extends to other tissues such as other epithelia and the liver, as well as to other fields of application such as drug screening and basic physiology. This review discusses which impediments need to be overcome to maximise the contributions that the field of tissue engineering can make, through the development of alternative methods, to the reduction of the use and suffering of laboratory animals.

  9. Doing Socrates experiment right: controlled rearing studies of geometrical knowledge in animals.

    PubMed

    Vallortigara, Giorgio; Sovrano, Valeria Anna; Chiandetti, Cinzia

    2009-02-01

    The issue of whether encoding of geometric information for navigational purposes crucially depends on environmental experience or whether it is innately predisposed in the brain has been recently addressed in controlled rearing studies. Non-human animals can make use of the geometric shape of an environment for spatial reorientation and in some circumstances reliance on purely geometric information (metric properties and sense) can overcome use of local featural information. Animals reared in home cages of different geometric shapes proved to be equally capable of learning and performing navigational tasks based on geometric information. The findings suggest that effective use of geometric information for spatial reorientation does not require experience in environments with right angles and metrically distinct surfaces.

  10. Impact of the economic recession on companion animal relinquishment, adoption, and euthanasia: a Chicago animal shelter's experience.

    PubMed

    Weng, Hsin-Yi; Hart, Lynette A

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how the current economic recession (since December 2007) has affected dog and cat relinquishment, adoption, and euthanasia at the Anti-Cruelty Society animal shelter in Chicago, Illinois. The study compared temporal patterns of the investigated statistics before (2000-2007) the start of the current recession with the patterns after the start of the recession (2008-2010). The results showed that once the guardianship (ownership) of a nonhuman animal had been established, the recession did not greatly affect the owner's decision on relinquishment-except for the relinquishment of senior dogs, which may be associated with increased costs of care. However, an unfavorable economic environment may have reduced adoption of animals. The consequences of a decline in adoptions might be reflected in an increase in the proportion or number of sheltered animals euthanized. This study demonstrated how monitoring changes in temporal patterns in these shelter statistics can help guide animal shelters to better prepare for the current recession.

  11. Management of Acute Osteomyelitis: A Ten-Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Helm, Caitlin; Huschart, Emily; Kaul, Rajat; Bhumbra, Samina; Blackwood, R. Alexander; Mukundan, Deepa

    2016-01-01

    Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone; proper management requires prolonged antibiotic treatment. Controversy exists as to when a patient should transition from intravenous to oral antibiotics. However, due to the high bioavailability of some oral antibiotics, optimal time to transition from high to low bioavailability antibiotics is a more valid consideration. Additionally, there are questions surrounding the efficacy of certain antibiotics, specifically trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), in treating osteomyelitis. After obtaining Institutional Review Board approval from both universities, a retrospective chart review was conducted, utilizing an author-created severity scale, on all patients seen by Pediatric Infectious Diseases at the Universities of Michigan and Toledo with an acute osteomyelitis diagnosis from 2002-2012. There were 133 patients, 106 treated successfully. Success was defined in this study specifically as treatment of <14 weeks without recurrence within 30 days of stopping antibiotics or permanent site disability. Seventeen patients were treated with TMP-SMX at comparable cure rates. Patients with pre-existing bone defects (noted in radiological reports), initial erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)≥70, hematogenous osteomyelitis with soft tissue extension, and skull osteomyelitis were associated with increased failure rate. Switch to low bioavailability antibiotics occurred, on average, at 3.5 weeks; however, switching before then was not associated with decreased cure rate. As prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), especially clindamycin-resistant MRSA, increases, TMP-SMX appears to be an acceptable antibiotic. There does not appear to be a minimum length of high bioavailability treatment required for cure. Prior bone defect, extensive infection, ESR≥70, or skull osteomyelitis may be indications for more aggressive management.

  12. Acute and chronic toxicological studies of Ajuga iva in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    El Hilaly, Jaouad; Israili, Zafar H; Lyoussi, Badiâa

    2004-03-01

    Ajuga iva (L.) Schreber (AI), is widely used in the Moroccan pharmacopoeia as a panacea (cure-all), and specifically for gastrointestinal disorders and diabetes, and as an anthelmintic. No toxicological investigations have been carried out on this plant. We have previously observed that single oral doses (2-14 g/kg) of a lyophilised aqueous extract of AI (AI-extract) in mice or daily oral administration of 10 mg/kg of AI-extract in rats for 2 weeks did not result in any adverse effects. We have now evaluated AI-extract for its behavioural and pharmaco-toxicological effects after acute and chronic administration by the oral and intraperitoneal routes in rats and mice. No toxicity was observed in mice after single oral doses of as high as 14 g/kg of the AI-extract. However, single intraperitoneal injections of the AI-extract (1500-5500 mg/kg BW) produced a dose-dependent increase in adverse effects in the general behaviour and the mortality rate; the LD50 of acute intraperitoneal dose was 3.6 g/kg. In chronic toxicological studies in rats, the AI-extract (administered orally at daily doses of 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg for 3 months), did not cause any changes in haematological and biochemical parameters, with the exception of a transient rise in platelet counts and a short-term decrease in serum glucose levels. Histopathological examination of the brain, liver and the kidneys at the end of the study (3 months) showed normal architecture suggesting no morphological disturbances.

  13. Protective effects of hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oil in animal models of acute inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Silva, S; Sepodes, B; Rocha, J; Direito, R; Fernandes, A; Brites, D; Freitas, M; Fernandes, E; Bronze, M R; Figueira, M E

    2015-04-01

    Virgin olive oil is the primary source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, and its beneficial health effects have been related with oleic acid and phenolic compounds content. Hydroxytyrosol, a typical virgin olive oil phenolic compound, has beneficial antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as previously reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oil at 0.5 and 5 mg/kg in a rodent model of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis was induced by intradermic administration, in male Wistar rats, of Freund's adjuvant with collagen type II on days 1 and 21. Hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oils were administrated by gavage from day 23 until day 35. The treatment at 5-mg/kg dose significantly decreased paw edema (P<.01), histological damage, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and markedly reduced the degree of bone resorption, soft tissue swelling and osteophyte formation, improving articular function in treated animals. Acute inflammation, induced by carrageenan, was also evaluated for hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oils at 0.5 and 5 mg/kg. Both doses significantly reduced paw edema (P<.001). Our results suggest that the supplementation of refined olive oil with hydroxytyrosol may be advantageous in rheumatoid arthritis with significant impact not only on chronic inflammation but also on acute inflammatory processes.

  14. [Experiences with acute moderate controlled hemodilution (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Orlowski, T; Lepert, L; Modrzewski, A

    1976-01-01

    The authors present an own method of hemodilution and experiences gained from 10 patients operated for chronic gastric or duodenal ulcer. The therapuetic results of the method show that it can be applied easely and safely in everyday surgical practice. In the patients treated with it no surgical and anaesthesiological complications could be observed during the operations as well as after them. The autors believe that the method of hemodilution for planned surgical operations will contribute to a more economical use of blood transfusions and to reduction in the occurrence of virus hepatitis.

  15. [Experiences with polychemotherapy of acute leukemias in adults with special reference to the COAP combination].

    PubMed

    Gürtler, R; Raderecht, C

    1975-01-01

    The authors give a report on their experiences with polychemotherapy in 77 acute leukaemias in adults. On this occasion the COAP combination was identified to be well effective and to be an enrichment of therapy because of its low side effects.

  16. Cognitive endophenotypes, gene-environment interactions and experience-dependent plasticity in animal models of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Emma L; Hannan, Anthony J

    2016-04-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating brain disorder caused by a complex and heterogeneous combination of genetic and environmental factors. In order to develop effective new strategies to prevent and treat schizophrenia, valid animal models are required which accurately model the disorder, and ideally provide construct, face and predictive validity. The cognitive deficits in schizophrenia represent some of the most debilitating symptoms and are also currently the most poorly treated. Therefore it is crucial that animal models are able to capture the cognitive dysfunction that characterizes schizophrenia, as well as the negative and psychotic symptoms. The genomes of mice have, prior to the recent gene-editing revolution, proven the most easily manipulable of mammalian laboratory species, and hence most genetic targeting has been performed using mouse models. Importantly, when key environmental factors of relevance to schizophrenia are experimentally manipulated, dramatic changes in the phenotypes of these animal models are often observed. We will review recent studies in rodent models which provide insight into gene-environment interactions in schizophrenia. We will focus specifically on environmental factors which modulate levels of experience-dependent plasticity, including environmental enrichment, cognitive stimulation, physical activity and stress. The insights provided by this research will not only help refine the establishment of optimally valid animal models which facilitate development of novel therapeutics, but will also provide insight into the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, thus identifying molecular and cellular targets for future preclinical and clinical investigations.

  17. A Magnetic Rotary Optical Fiber Connector for Optogenetic Experiments in Freely Moving Animals

    PubMed Central

    Klorig, David C; Godwin, Dwayne W

    2014-01-01

    Background Performing optogenetic experiments in a behaving animal presents a unique technical challenge. In order to provide an optical path between a fixed light source and a chronically implanted fiber in a freely moving animal, a typical experimental set-up includes a detachable connection between the light source and the head of the animal, as well as a rotary joint to relieve torsional stress during movement. New Method We have combined the functionality of the head mounted connector and the rotary joint into a single integrated device that is inexpensive, simple to build and easy to use. Results A typical rotary connector has a transmission efficiency of 80% with a rotational variability of 4%, but can be configured to have a rotational variability of 2% at the expense of lower transmission efficiency. Depending on configuration, rotational torque ranges from 14 - 180 μN*m, making the rotary connector suitable for use with small animals such as mice. Comparison with Existing Methods Benchmark tests demonstrate that our connectors perform similarly to commercially available solutions in terms of transmission efficiency, rotational variability, and torque but at a fraction of the cost. Unlike currently available solutions, our unique design requires a single optical junction which significantly reduces overall light loss. In addition, magnets allow the connectors and caps to “snap into place” for quick yet reliable connection and disconnection. Conclusions Our rotary connector system offers superior performance, reduced cost, and is easily incorporated into existing optogenetic set-ups. PMID:24613796

  18. A Knockout Experiment: Disciplinary Divides and Experimental Skill in Animal Behaviour Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Nicole C.

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1990s, a set of new techniques for manipulating mouse DNA allowed researchers to ‘knock out’ specific genes and observe the effects of removing them on a live mouse. In animal behaviour genetics, questions about how to deploy these techniques to study the molecular basis of behaviour became quite controversial, with a number of key methodological issues dissecting the interdisciplinary research field along disciplinary lines. This paper examines debates that took place during the 1990s between a predominately North American group of molecular biologists and animal behaviourists around how to design, conduct, and interpret behavioural knockout experiments. Drawing from and extending Harry Collins’s work on how research communities negotiate what counts as a ‘well-done experiment,’ I argue that the positions practitioners took on questions of experimental skill reflected not only the experimental traditions they were trained in but also their differing ontological and epistemological commitments. Different assumptions about the nature of gene action, eg., were tied to different positions in the knockout mouse debates on how to implement experimental controls. I conclude by showing that examining representations of skill in the context of a community’s knowledge commitments sheds light on some of the contradictory ways in which contemporary animal behaviour geneticists talk about their own laboratory work as a highly skilled endeavour that also could be mechanised, as easy to perform and yet difficult to perform well. PMID:26090739

  19. A Knockout Experiment: Disciplinary Divides and Experimental Skill in Animal Behaviour Genetics.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Nicole C

    2015-07-01

    In the early 1990s, a set of new techniques for manipulating mouse DNA allowed researchers to 'knock out' specific genes and observe the effects of removing them on a live mouse. In animal behaviour genetics, questions about how to deploy these techniques to study the molecular basis of behaviour became quite controversial, with a number of key methodological issues dissecting the interdisciplinary research field along disciplinary lines. This paper examines debates that took place during the 1990s between a predominately North American group of molecular biologists and animal behaviourists around how to design, conduct, and interpret behavioural knockout experiments. Drawing from and extending Harry Collins's work on how research communities negotiate what counts as a 'well-done experiment,' I argue that the positions practitioners took on questions of experimental skill reflected not only the experimental traditions they were trained in but also their differing ontological and epistemological commitments. Different assumptions about the nature of gene action, eg., were tied to different positions in the knockout mouse debates on how to implement experimental controls. I conclude by showing that examining representations of skill in the context of a community's knowledge commitments sheds light on some of the contradictory ways in which contemporary animal behaviour geneticists talk about their own laboratory work as a highly skilled endeavour that also could be mechanised, as easy to perform and yet difficult to perform well.

  20. Acute Morbidity of Proton Therapy for Prostate Cancer: The Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Mayahara, Hiroshi Murakami, Masao; Kagawa, Kazufumi; Kawaguchi, Atsuya; Oda, Yasue; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Sasaki, Ryohei; Sugimura, Kazuro; Hishikawa, Yoshio

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence and influencing factors of acute genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal morbidities in patients with prostate cancer treated with proton therapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 287 patients with histologically proven Stage cT1-T4N0M0 prostate cancer were treated with proton therapy between 2003 and 2004. Of these, 204 (71%) received neoadjuvant androgen suppression therapy. The patients were treated with 190-230-MeV protons using lateral-opposed techniques to a dose of 74 GyE. Dose-volume histogram analyses were performed. The incidence of acute morbidity was evaluated using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2.0. Clinical factors, including age, clinical target volume, initial prostate-specific antigen level, T stage, presence of diabetes mellitus, and the use of androgen suppression therapy, were investigated to determine whether those affected the incidence of acute GU morbidity. Results: None developed Grade 2 or higher acute gastrointestinal morbidity. In contrast, 111 (39%) and 4 (1%) patients experienced acute Grade 2 and Grade 3 GU morbidities, respectively. However, 87% of the patients were successfully relieved by the administration of a selective {alpha}-1 blocker. Multivariate analysis showed that a larger clinical target volume (p = 0.001) and the use of androgen suppression therapy (p = 0.017) were significant factors for the prediction of acute Grade 2-3 GU morbidity. Conclusion: In our experience with proton therapy, a low incidence of acute gastrointestinal morbidity was observed. In contrast, the incidence of acute GU morbidity was similar to that in other reports of photon radiotherapy. Additional follow-up is warranted to elucidate the long-term safety and efficacy of proton therapy for prostate cancer.

  1. Changes in optical properties of tissue during acute wound healing in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Papazoglou, Elisabeth S; Weingarten, Michael S; Zubkov, Leonid; Neidrauer, Michael; Zhu, Linda; Tyagi, Som; Pourrezaei, Kambiz

    2008-01-01

    Changes of optical properties of wound tissue in hairless rats were quantified by diffuse photon density wave methodology at near-infrared frequencies. The diffusion equation for semi-infinite media was used to calculate the absorption and scattering coefficients based on measurements of phase and amplitude with a frequency domain device. There was an increase in the absorption and scattering coefficients and a decrease in blood saturation of the wounds compared with the nonwounded sites. The changes correlated with the healing stage of the wound. The data obtained were supported by immunohistochemical analysis of wound tissue. These results verified now by two independent animal studies could suggest a noninvasive method to detect the progress of wound healing.

  2. Review. Establishing an experimental science of culture: animal social diffusion experiments.

    PubMed

    Whiten, Andrew; Mesoudi, Alex

    2008-11-12

    A growing set of observational studies documenting putative cultural variations in wild animal populations has been complemented by experimental studies that can more rigorously distinguish between social and individual learning. However, these experiments typically examine only what one animal learns from another. Since the spread of culture is inherently a group-level phenomenon, greater validity can be achieved through 'diffusion experiments', in which founder behaviours are experimentally manipulated and their spread across multiple individuals tested. Here we review the existing corpus of 33 such studies in fishes, birds, rodents and primates and offer the first systematic analysis of the diversity of experimental designs that have arisen. We distinguish three main transmission designs and seven different experimental/control approaches, generating an array with 21 possible cells, 15 of which are currently represented by published studies. Most but not all of the adequately controlled diffusion experiments have provided robust evidence for cultural transmission in at least some taxa, with transmission spreading across populations of up to 24 individuals and along chains of up to 14 transmission events. We survey the achievements of this work, its prospects for the future and its relationship to diffusion studies with humans discussed in this theme issue and elsewhere.

  3. Ethics control of vertebrate animals experiments in biosatellite BION-M1 project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyin, Eugene

    During April 19-May 19, 2013 it was realized 30-days flight of Russian biosatellite Bion-M1. The main goal of this flight was to study effects of microgravity upon behavior and structural-functional state of different physiological systems of vertebrates. The folloving species were accommodated aboard of biosatellite: 45 mice C57bl/6, 8 Mongolian gerbils Meriones unguiculatus, 15 lizards, i.e. geckos Chondrodctylus turneri Gray, and fish Oreochromis mossambicus. The selection and traing of mice for the flight and ground-based control experiments was carried out at the Research Institute of Mitoengineering by Moscow State University. The protocols for animals care and reserch were revised and adopted by Bioethics Commission of above mentioned institute (decision on November 01, 2013, N35). The final version of Bion-M1 Scientific Reseach Program and protocols for separate experiments were discussed and adopted by Biomedical Ethics Commission of Institute of Biomedical Problems (decision on April 4, 2014, N317). The IMBP Commission has a status of Physiological Section of Russian Bioethics Committee by Russian Commision for UNESCO affairs and follows the Russian Bioethical Guidelines for Experiments in Aerospace and Naval Medicine and other national and international rules including COSPAR International Policy and Guidelines for Animal Care and Use in Space-born Research. Because US-scientists were the main partners in mice investigations the decision of IMBP Biomedical Commission related to Bion-M1 project was sended for information to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of NASA Ames Research Center. Postflight estimation of mice was done by Russian veterinary with the participation of NASA Chief veterinary.

  4. Symptom Recognition and Healthcare Experiences of Young Women with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Lichtman, Judith H.; Leifheit-Limson, Erica C.; Watanabe, Emi; Allen, Norrina B.; Garavalia, Brian; Garavalia, Linda S.; Spertus, John A.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Curry, Leslie A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Prompt recognition of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) symptoms and timely care-seeking behavior are critical to optimize acute medical therapies. Relatively little is known about the symptom presentation and care-seeking experiences of women aged ≤55 years with AMI, a group shown to have increased mortality risk as compared with similarly aged men. Understanding symptom recognition and experiences engaging the healthcare system may provide opportunities to reduce delays and improve acute care for this population. Methods and Results We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with 30 women (aged 30-55 years) hospitalized with AMI to explore their experiences with prodromal symptoms and their decision-making process to seek medical care. Five themes characterized their experiences: 1) prodromal symptoms varied substantially in both nature and duration; 2) they inaccurately assessed personal risk of heart disease and commonly attributed symptoms to non-cardiac causes; 3) competing and conflicting priorities influenced decisions about seeking acute care; 4) the healthcare system was not consistently responsive to them, resulting in delays in workup and diagnosis; and 5) they did not routinely access primary care, including preventive care for heart disease. Conclusions Participants did not accurately assess their cardiovascular risk, reported poor preventive health behaviors, and delayed seeking care for symptoms, suggesting that differences in both prevention and acute care may be contributing to young women's elevated AMI mortality relative to men. Identifying factors that promote better cardiovascular knowledge, improved preventive health care, and prompt care-seeking behaviors represent important targets for this population. PMID:25714826

  5. [CT contrast administration of iodine, gadolinium and ytterbium. In-vitro studies and animal experiments].

    PubMed

    Zwicker, C; Langer, M; Urich, V; Felix, R

    1993-03-01

    The absorption of the elements iodine, gadolinium and ytterbium in various dilutions was studied in relation to CT. Regression analysis and specific CT density measurements showed that absorption decreases from gadolinium to ytterbium and iodine. These results were confirmed by experiments using ten dogs. Boli of 0.5 molar gadolinium used for angio-CT without table movement showed the largest increase in density in the aorta and liver with an average of 190HU and 21HU respectively compared with iodine which gave 157HU and 12HU respectively. The animal experimental studies suggest that gadolinium and ytterbium are suitable contrast media for dynamic CT investigations.

  6. An animal model of prophylactic cranial irradiation: Histologic effects at acute, early and delayed stages

    SciTech Connect

    Mildenberger, M.; Beach, T.G.; McGeer, E.G.; Ludgate, C.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Wistar rats (body wt. 200 g) were subjected to a fractionated course of radiation similar to that used in prophylactic brain irradiation for small cell carcinoma of the lung (2000 cGy in 5 fractions over 5 days with {sup 60}Co). Effects of this regimen were assessed by histologic examination of brain sections at 1 week, 1 month and 6 months post-irradiation. With conventional stains there were no apparent differences between control and irradiated brains at any of the post-irradiation intervals. Immunohistochemistry for neurotransmitter synthetic enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and glutamate decarboxylase, as well as histochemistry for acetylcholinesterase, failed to uncover any changes in the irradiated animals. Immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein, an astrocyte marker, also showed no differences in the irradiated groups. However, an antibody against a major histocompatibility complex, class II antigen (OX-6) revealed a microglial response in grey and white matter beginning at 1 month and increasing up to the 6 month post-irradiation interval. The neuroanatomical basis for this microglial response was suggested by the results of silver stains for nerve axons, which revealed axonal loss in striatal white matter bundles in a pattern implicating vascular insufficiency.

  7. Flupirtine effectively prevents development of acute neonatal seizures in an animal model of global hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Dayalan; Shmueli, Doron; White, Andrew M; Raol, Yogendra H

    2015-10-21

    Current first-line drugs for the treatment of neonatal seizures have limited efficacy and are associated with side effects. Uncontrolled seizures may exacerbate brain injury and contribute to later-life neurological disability. Therefore, it is critical to develop a treatment for neonatal seizures that is effective and safe. In early-life, when the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibitory system is not fully developed, potassium channels play an important role in controlling excitability. An earlier study demonstrated that flupirtine, a KCNQ potassium channel opener, is more efficacious than diazepam and phenobarbital for the treatment of chemoconvulsant-induced neonatal seizures. In newborns, seizures are most commonly associated with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Thus, in the present study, we examined the efficacy of flupirtine to treat neonatal seizures in an animal model of global hypoxia. Our results showed that flupirtine dose dependently blocks the occurrence of behavioral seizures in pups during hypoxia. Additionally, flupirtine inhibits the development of hypoxia-induced clinical seizures and associated epileptiform discharges, as well as purely electrographic (subclinical) seizures. These results suggest that flupirtine is an effective anti-seizure drug, and that further studies should be conducted to determine the time window within which it's administration can effectively treat neonatal seizures.

  8. Parecoxib Reduces Systemic Inflammation and Acute Lung Injury in Burned Animals with Delayed Fluid Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Si Jack; Wu, Jian; Lu, Jia; Moochhala, Shabbir M.

    2014-01-01

    Burn injuries result in the release of proinflammatory mediators causing both local and systemic inflammation. Multiple organ dysfunctions secondary to systemic inflammation after severe burn contribute to adverse outcome, with the lungs being the first organ to fail. In this study, we evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of Parecoxib, a parenteral COX-2 inhibitor, in a delayed fluid resuscitation burned rat model. Anaesthetized Sprague Dawley rats were inflicted with 45% total body surface area full-thickness scald burns and subsequently subjected to delayed resuscitation with Hartmann's solution. Parecoxib (0.1, 1.0, and 10 mg/kg) was delivered intramuscularly 20 min after injury followed by 12 h interval and the rats were sacrificed at 6 h, 24 h, and 48 h. Burn rats developed elevated blood cytokines, transaminase, creatinine, and increased lung MPO levels. Animals treated with 1 mg/kg Parecoxib showed significantly reduced plasma level of CINC-1, IL-6, PGEM, and lung MPO. Treatment of 1 mg/kg Parecoxib is shown to mitigate systemic and lung inflammation without significantly affecting other organs. At present, no specific therapeutic agent is available to attenuate the systemic inflammatory response secondary to burn injury. The results suggest that Parecoxib may have the potential to be used both as an analgesic and ameliorate the effects of lung injury following burn. PMID:24579056

  9. Hemodynamic monitoring of large animal chronic studies after median sternotomy: experiences with different telemetric physiological devices.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yasuhiro; Pitsillides, Koullis; Ferro, Giuseppe; Kagawa, Hiroshi; Centola, Luca; Kinouchi, Katsushi; Zhu, Liqun; Ferrier, William T; Talken, Linda; Nasirov, Teimour; Riemer, R Kirk; Reinhartz, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Telemetric physiological monitoring systems (TPMS) have enabled accurate continuous measurement of animal blood pressures and flows. However, few studies describe approaches for use of TPMS in the great vessels or inside the heart. We describe our initial experiences using two types of TPMSs. Twelve lambs (20-37 kg) underwent sternotomy. Two lambs were not instrumented and were killed at 14 days to confirm normal sternal wound healing (sham group, n = 2). Ten lambs underwent placement of either standard indwelling pressure-monitoring catheter and perivascular-flow-probe (CFP group, n = 3) or TPMS implantation (TPMS group, n = 7). The TPMS used were EG1-V3S2T-M2 (EG1, n = 5; Transonic Endogear Inc.) and Physio Tel Digital L21 (PTD, n = 2; Data Sciences Inc.). Two deaths because of respiratory problems occurred in TPMS group, attributed to lung compression by the implanted device. In TPMS group, more consistent trends of blood pressures and flows were recorded, and management of animals was easier and less labor-intensive. Comparing the two TPMSs, the initiation and renewal costs for each case was $28 K vs. $20 K and $1,700 vs. $0, (PTD versus EG1, respectively). In conclusion, TPMS implantation was feasible via median sternotomy in lambs. Telemetric physiological monitoring systems significantly improve reliability of hemodynamic monitoring in chronic survival animal study. EG1 was less costly than PTD.

  10. Experiences of the REACH testing proposals system to reduce animal testing.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Katy; Stengel, Wolfgang; Casalegno, Carlotta; Andrew, David

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce animal testing, companies registering chemical substances under the EU REACH legislation must propose rather than conduct certain tests on animals. Third parties can submit 'scientifically valid information' relevant to these proposals to the Agency responsible, the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), who are obliged to take the information into account. The European Coalition to End Animal Experiments (ECEAE) provided comments on nearly half of the 817 proposals for vertebrate tests on 480 substances published for comment for the first REACH deadline (between 1 August 2009 and 31 July 2012). The paper summarises the response by registrants and the Agency to third party comments and highlights issues with the use of read across, in vitro tests, QSAR and weight of evidence approaches. Use of existing data and evidence that testing is legally or scientifically unjustified remain the most successful comments for third parties to submit. There is a worrying conservatism within the Agency regarding the acceptance of alternative approaches and examples of where registrants have also failed to maximise opportunities to avoid testing.

  11. A new educational resource to improve veterinary students' animal welfare learning experience.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Annie J; Mullan, Siobhan M; Main, David C J

    2013-01-01

    A computer-aided learning (CAL) educational resource based on experiential learning principles has been developed. Its aim is to improve veterinary students' ability to critically review the effect on welfare of husbandry systems observed during their work placement on sheep farms. The CAL consisted of lectures, multiple-choice questions, video recordings of animals in various husbandry conditions, open questions, and concept maps. An intervention group of first-year veterinary students (N=31) was selected randomly to access the CAL before their sheep farm placement, and a control group (N=50) received CAL training after placement. Assessment criteria for the categories remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate, and create, based on Bloom's revised taxonomy, were used to evaluate farm reports submitted by all students after their 2-week placement. Students in the intervention group were more likely than their untrained colleagues (p<.05) to remember and understand animal-based measurements relating to the freedom from hunger and thirst; the freedom from discomfort; and the freedom from pain, injury, or disease. Intervention group students were also more likely to analyze the freedom from pain, injury, or disease and the freedom to exhibit normal behavior and to evaluate the freedom from fear and distress. Relatively few students in each group exhibited creativity in their reports. These findings indicate that use of CAL before farm placement improved students' ability to assess and report animal welfare as part of their extramural work experience.

  12. A new mechanism of macrophyte mitigation: how submerged plants reduce malathion's acute toxicity to aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Brogan, William R; Relyea, Rick A

    2014-08-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that aquatic plants can mitigate the toxicity of insecticides to sensitive aquatic animals. The current paradigm is that this ability is driven primarily by insecticide sorption to plant tissues, especially for hydrophobic compounds. However, recent work shows that submerged plants can strongly mitigate the toxicity of the relatively hydrophilic insecticide malathion, despite the fact that this compound exhibits a slow sorption rate to plants. To examine this disparity, we tested the hypothesis that the mitigating effect of submerged plants on malathion's toxicity is driven primarily by the increased water pH from plant photosynthesis causing the hydrolysis of malathion, rather than by sorption. To do this, we compared zooplankton (Daphnia magna) survival across five environmentally relevant malathion concentrations (0, 1, 4, 6, or 36 μg L(-1)) in test containers where we chemically manipulated water pH in the absence of plants or added the submerged plant (Elodea canadensis) but manipulated plant photosynthetic activity via shading or no shading. We discovered that malathion was equally lethal to Daphnia at all concentrations tested when photosynthetically inactive (i.e. shaded) plants were present (pH at time of dosing=7.8) or when pH was chemically decreased (pH=7.7). In contrast, when photosynthetically active (i.e. unshaded) plants were present (pH=9.8) or when pH was chemically increased (pH=9.5), the effects of 4 and 6 μg L(-1) of malathion on Daphnia were mitigated strongly and to an equal degree. These results demonstrate that the mitigating effect of submerged plants on malathion's toxicity can be explained entirely by a mechanism of photosynthesizing plants causing an increase in water pH, resulting in rapid malathion hydrolysis. Our findings suggest that current ecotoxicological models and phytoremediation strategies may be overlooking a critical mechanism for mitigating pesticides.

  13. A perception experiment with time-critical graphics animation on the World-Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Hecht, H; Oesker, M; Kaiser, A; Civelek, H; Stecker, T

    1999-08-01

    The World-Wide Web offers a potentially interesting tool to collect data from a large and heterogeneous audience. While questionnaires have become rather common on the Internet, its potential reaches far beyond text processing. In principle, it is possible not only to perform interactive, dynamic experiments on the Web, but also to include graphical animation and time-critical responses, such as reaction times. We implemented a visual motion extrapolation task on the Web using the programming language Java, which can be interpreted by standard Web browsers such as Netscape or Internet Explorer. The data collected with this method turned out to be reliable and differed little from data obtained in a controlled laboratory setting, with the exception of conditions with fixation instruction. Thus, the Web can, generally speaking, be used for data collection of large sample sizes. The strengths and weaknesses of dynamic visual simulation experiments on the Internet are discussed.

  14. Animal Magnetism, Psychiatry and Subjective Experience in Nineteenth-Century Germany: Friedrich Krauß and his Nothschrei.

    PubMed

    Brückner, Burkhart

    2016-01-01

    Friedrich Krauß (1791-1868) is the author of Nothschrei eines Magnetisch-Vergifteten [Cry of Distress by a Victim of Magnetic Poisoning] (1852), which has been considered one of the most comprehensive self-narratives of madness published in the German language. In this 1018-page work Krauß documents his acute fears of 'mesmerist' influence and persecution, his detainment in an Antwerp asylum and his encounter with various illustrious physicians across Europe. Though in many ways comparable to other prominent nineteenth-century first-person accounts (eg. John Thomas Perceval's 1838 Narrative of the Treatment Experienced by a Gentleman or Daniel Paul Schreber's 1903 Memoirs of my Nervous Illness), Krauß's story has received comparatively little scholarly attention. This is especially the case in the English-speaking world. In this article I reconstruct Krauß's biography by emphasising his relationship with physicians and his under-explored stay at the asylum. I then investigate the ways in which Krauß appropriated nascent theories about 'animal magnetism' to cope with his disturbing experiences. Finally, I address Krauß's recently discovered calligraphic oeuvre, which bears traces of his typical fears all the while showcasing his artistic skills. By moving away from the predominantly clinical perspective that has characterised earlier studies, this article reveals how Friedrich Krauß sought to make sense of his experience by selectively appropriating both orthodox and non-orthodox forms of medical knowledge. In so doing, it highlights the mutual interaction of discourses 'from above' and 'from below' as well as the influence of broader cultural forces on conceptions of self and illness during that seminal period.

  15. Animal Magnetism, Psychiatry and Subjective Experience in Nineteenth-Century Germany: Friedrich Krauß and his Nothschrei

    PubMed Central

    Brückner, Burkhart

    2016-01-01

    Friedrich Krauß (1791–1868) is the author of Nothschrei eines Magnetisch-Vergifteten [Cry of Distress by a Victim of Magnetic Poisoning] (1852), which has been considered one of the most comprehensive self-narratives of madness published in the German language. In this 1018-page work Krauß documents his acute fears of ‘mesmerist’ influence and persecution, his detainment in an Antwerp asylum and his encounter with various illustrious physicians across Europe. Though in many ways comparable to other prominent nineteenth-century first-person accounts (eg. John Thomas Perceval’s 1838 Narrative of the Treatment Experienced by a Gentleman or Daniel Paul Schreber’s 1903 Memoirs of my Nervous Illness), Krauß’s story has received comparatively little scholarly attention. This is especially the case in the English-speaking world. In this article I reconstruct Krauß’s biography by emphasising his relationship with physicians and his under-explored stay at the asylum. I then investigate the ways in which Krauß appropriated nascent theories about ‘animal magnetism’ to cope with his disturbing experiences. Finally, I address Krauß’s recently discovered calligraphic oeuvre, which bears traces of his typical fears all the while showcasing his artistic skills. By moving away from the predominantly clinical perspective that has characterised earlier studies, this article reveals how Friedrich Krauß sought to make sense of his experience by selectively appropriating both orthodox and non-orthodox forms of medical knowledge. In so doing, it highlights the mutual interaction of discourses ‘from above’ and ‘from below’ as well as the influence of broader cultural forces on conceptions of self and illness during that seminal period. PMID:26651186

  16. Cross-Species Affective Neuroscience Decoding of the Primal Affective Experiences of Humans and Related Animals

    PubMed Central

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-01-01

    Background The issue of whether other animals have internally felt experiences has vexed animal behavioral science since its inception. Although most investigators remain agnostic on such contentious issues, there is now abundant experimental evidence indicating that all mammals have negatively and positively-valenced emotional networks concentrated in homologous brain regions that mediate affective experiences when animals are emotionally aroused. That is what the neuroscientific evidence indicates. Principal Findings The relevant lines of evidence are as follows: 1) It is easy to elicit powerful unconditioned emotional responses using localized electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB); these effects are concentrated in ancient subcortical brain regions. Seven types of emotional arousals have been described; using a special capitalized nomenclature for such primary process emotional systems, they are SEEKING, RAGE, FEAR, LUST, CARE, PANIC/GRIEF and PLAY. 2) These brain circuits are situated in homologous subcortical brain regions in all vertebrates tested. Thus, if one activates FEAR arousal circuits in rats, cats or primates, all exhibit similar fear responses. 3) All primary-process emotional-instinctual urges, even ones as complex as social PLAY, remain intact after radical neo-decortication early in life; thus, the neocortex is not essential for the generation of primary-process emotionality. 4) Using diverse measures, one can demonstrate that animals like and dislike ESB of brain regions that evoke unconditioned instinctual emotional behaviors: Such ESBs can serve as ‘rewards’ and ‘punishments’ in diverse approach and escape/avoidance learning tasks. 5) Comparable ESB of human brains yield comparable affective experiences. Thus, robust evidence indicates that raw primary-process (i.e., instinctual, unconditioned) emotional behaviors and feelings emanate from homologous brain functions in all mammals (see Appendix S1), which are regulated by higher

  17. Intravenous Lipid Emulsion as an Antidote for the Treatment of Acute Poisoning: A Bibliometric Analysis of Human and Animal Studies.

    PubMed

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Waring, W Stephen; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sweileh, Waleed M; Rahhal, Belal; Awang, Rahmat

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the role of intravenous lipid formulations as potential antidotes in patients with severe cardiotoxicity caused by drug toxicity. The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive bibliometric analysis of all human and animal studies featuring lipid emulsion as an antidote for the treatment of acute poisoning. The Scopus database search was performed on 5 February 2016 to analyse the research output related to intravenous lipid emulsion as an antidote for the treatment of acute poisoning. Research indicators used for analysis included total number of articles, date (year) of publication, total citations, value of the h-index, document types, countries of publication, journal names, collaboration patterns and institutions. A total of 594 articles were retrieved from Scopus database for the period of 1955-2015. The percentage share of global intravenous lipid emulsion research output showed that research output was 85.86% in 2006-2015 with yearly average growth in this field of 51 articles per year. The USA, United Kingdom (UK), France, Canada, New Zealand, Germany, Australia, China, Turkey and Japan accounted for 449 (75.6%) of all the publications. The total number of citations for all documents was 9,333, with an average of 15.7 citations per document. The h-index of the retrieved documents for lipid emulsion research as antidote for the treatment of acute poisoning was 49. The USA and the UK achieved the highest h-indices, 34 and 14, respectively. New Zealand produced the greatest number of documents with international collaboration (51.9%) followed by Australia (50%) and Canada (41.4%) out of the total number of publications for each country. In summary, we found an increase in the number of publications in the field of lipid emulsion after 2006. The results of this study demonstrate that the majority of publications in the field of lipid emulsion were published by high-income countries. Researchers from

  18. Sulphur tracer experiments in laboratory animals using 34S-labelled yeast.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sierra, J Giner; Moreno Sanz, F; Herrero Espílez, P; Marchante Gayón, J M; Rodríguez Fernández, J; García Alonso, J I

    2013-03-01

    We have evaluated the use of (34)S-labelled yeast to perform sulphur metabolic tracer experiments in laboratory animals. The proof of principle work included the selection of the culture conditions for the preparation of sulphur labelled yeast, the study of the suitability of this labelled yeast as sulphur source for tracer studies using in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and the administration of the (34)S-labelled yeast to laboratory animals to follow the fate and distribution of (34)S in the organism. For in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, the combination of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) showed that labelled methionine, cysteine and other low molecular weight sulphur-containing biomolecules were the major components in the digested extracts of the labelled yeast. Next, in vivo kinetic experiments were performed in healthy Wistar rats after the oral administration of (34)S-labelled yeast. The isotopic composition of total sulphur in tissues, urine and faeces was measured by double-focusing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after microwave digestion. It was observed that measurable isotopic enrichments were detected in all samples. Finally, initial investigations on sulphur isotopic composition of serum and urine samples by HPLC-ICP-MS have been carried out. For serum samples, no conclusive data were obtained. Interestingly, chromatographic analysis of urine samples showed differential isotope enrichment for several sulphur-containing biomolecules.

  19. A systematic review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of animal experiments with guidelines for reporting.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jaime L; Sutton, Alex J; Jones, David R; Rushton, Lesley; Abrams, Keith R

    2006-01-01

    To maximize the findings of animal experiments to inform likely health effects in humans, a thorough review and evaluation of the animal evidence is required. Systematic reviews and, where appropriate, meta-analyses have great potential in facilitating such an evaluation, making efficient use of the animal evidence while minimizing possible sources of bias. The extent to which systematic review and meta-analysis methods have been applied to evaluate animal experiments to inform human health is unknown. Using systematic review methods, we examine the extent and quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of in vivo animal experiments carried out to inform human health. We identified 103 articles meeting the inclusion criteria: 57 reported a systematic review, 29 a systematic review and a meta-analysis, and 17 reported a meta-analysis only. The use of these methods to evaluate animal evidence has increased over time. Although the reporting of systematic reviews is of adequate quality, the reporting of meta-analyses is poor. The inadequate reporting of meta-analyses observed here leads to questions on whether the most appropriate methods were used to maximize the use of the animal evidence to inform policy or decision-making. We recommend that guidelines proposed here be used to help improve the reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of animal experiments. Further consideration of the use and methodological quality and reporting of such studies is needed.

  20. The Effect of Experiences with Animals on the Reading Comprehension Skills of Students in the Seventh Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Annie

    2008-01-01

    The Problem: The study examined the difference that animal interactions had on the reading comprehension growth skills of students in the seventh grade. Method: A quasiexperimental study was conducted with two seventh-grade classes at William Howard Taft Middle School. One class received daily 20-minute animal interaction experiences for 5 days.…

  1. A Selective Critique of Animal Experiments in Human-Orientated Biological Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, G. P.

    1990-01-01

    The advantages and justifications for using small animals in human-oriented research are reviewed. Some of the pitfalls of extrapolating animal-derived data to humans are discussed. Several specific problems with animal experimentation are highlighted. (CW)

  2. Behavioural effects of near-term acute fetal hypoxia in a small precocial animal, the spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus).

    PubMed

    Ireland, Zoe; Dickinson, Hayley; Fleiss, Bobbi; Hutton, Lisa C; Walker, David W

    2010-01-01

    We have previously developed a model of near-term intra-uterine hypoxia producing significant neonatal mortality (37%) in a small laboratory animal - the spiny mouse - which has precocial offspring at birth. The aim of the present study was to determine if this insult resulted in the appearance of behavioural abnormalities in those offspring which survived the hypoxic delivery. Behavioural tests assessed gait (using footprint patterns), motor coordination and balance on an accelerating rotarod, and spontaneous locomotion and exploration in an open field. We found that the near-term acute hypoxic episode produced a mild neurological deficit in the early postnatal period. In comparison to vaginally delivered controls, hypoxia pups were able to remain on the accelerating rotarod for significantly shorter durations on postnatal days 1-2, and in the open field they travelled significantly shorter distances, jumped less, and spent a greater percentage of time stationary on postnatal days 5 and 15. No changes were observed in gait. Unlike some rodent models of cerebral hypoxia-ischaemia, macroscopic examination of the brain on postnatal day 5 showed no gross cystic lesions, oedema or infarct. Future studies should be directed at identifying hypoxia-induced alterations in the function of specific brain regions, and assessing if maternal administration of neuroprotective agents can prevent against hypoxia-induced neurological deficits and brain damage that occur at birth.

  3. Setting ventilation parameters guided by electrical impedance tomography in an animal trial of acute respiratory distress syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaplik, Michael; Biener, Ingeborg; Leonhardt, Steffen; Rossaint, Rolf

    2014-03-01

    Since mechanical ventilation can cause harm to lung tissue it should be as protective as possible. Whereas numerous options exist to set ventilator parameters, an adequate monitoring is lacking up to date. The Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) provides a non-invasive visualization of ventilation which is relatively easy to apply and commercially available. Although there are a number of published measures and parameters derived from EIT, it is not clear how to use EIT to improve clinical outcome of e.g. patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a severe disease with a high mortality rate. On the one hand, parameters should be easy to obtain, on the other hand clinical algorithms should consider them to optimize ventilator settings. The so called Global inhomogeneity (GI) index bases on the fact that ARDS is characterized by an inhomogeneous injury pattern. By applying positive endexpiratory pressures (PEEP), homogeneity should be attained. In this study, ARDS was induced by a double hit procedure in six pigs. They were randomly assigned to either the EIT or the control group. Whereas in the control group the ARDS network table was used to set the PEEP according to the current inspiratory oxygen fraction, in the EIT group the GI index was calculated during a decremental PEEP trial. PEEP was kept when GI index was lowest. Interestingly, PEEP was significantly higher in the EIT group. Additionally, two of these animals died ahead of the schedule. Obviously, not only homogeneity of ventilation distribution matters but also limitation of over-distension.

  4. Histopathology Image Analysis in Two Long-Term Animal Experiments with Helical Flow Total Artificial Heart.

    PubMed

    Wotke, Jiri; Homolka, Pavel; Vasku, Jaromír; Dobsak, Petr; Palanova, Petra; Mrkvicova, Veronika; Konecny, Petr; Soska, Vladimir; Pohanka, Michal; Novakova, Marie; Yurimoto, Terumi; Saito, Itsuro; Inoue, Yusuke; Isoyama, Takashi; Abe, Yusuke

    2016-12-01

    Histopathological analysis can provide important information in long-term experiments with total artificial heart (TAH). Recently, a new type of blood pump, the helical flow total artificial heart (HF-TAH) was developed. This study aimed to investigate the changes in selected vital organs in animal experiments with implanted HF-TAH. Samples from lung, liver, and kidneys from two female goats (No. 1301 and No. 1304) with implanted HF-TAH were analyzed. Tissue samples were fixed in 10% formaldehyde and 4 µm thick transverse sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE). Additional staining was done for detection of connective tissue (Masson-Goldner stain) and for detection of iron (hemosiderin) deposits (Perls stain). Sections were scanned at 100× and 500× magnification with a light microscope. Experiment no. 1301 survived 100 days (cause of termination was heavy damage of the right pump); experimental goat no.1304 survived 68 days and was sacrificed due to severe right hydrodynamic bearing malfunction. Histopathological analysis of liver samples proved signs of chronic venostasis with limited focal necrotic zones. Dilated tubules, proteinaceous material in tubular lumen, and hemosiderin deposits were detected in kidney samples. Contamination of the organs by embolized micro-particles was suspected at the autopsy after discovery of visible damage (scratches) of the pump impeller surface (made from titanium alloy) in both experiments. Sporadic deposits of foreign micro-particles (presumably titanium) were observed in most of the analyzed parenchymal organs. However, the described deposits were not in direct connection with inflammatory reactions in the analyzed tissues. Histopathological analysis showed the presence of minimal contamination of the lung, kidney, and liver tissue samples by foreign material (titanium very likely). The analysis showed only limited pathological changes, especially in liver and kidneys, which might be attributed to the influence of

  5. Plasticity in animal personality traits: does prior experience alter the degree of boldness?

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Ashley J; Winrow-Giffen, Alexandria; Ashley, Paul J; Sneddon, Lynne U

    2006-01-01

    Theoreticians predict that animal ‘personality’ traits may be maladaptive if fixed throughout different contexts, so the present study aimed to test whether these traits are fixed or plastic. Rainbow trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss) were given emboldening or negative experiences in the forms of watching bold or shy individuals responding to novelty or winning or losing fights to examine whether prior experience affected boldness. Bold individuals that lost fights or watched shy demonstrators became more shy by increasing their latency to approach a novel object, whereas shy observers that watched bold demonstrators remained cautious and did not modify their responses to novelty. Shy winners became bolder and decreased their latency to approach a novel object, but shy losers also displayed this shift. In comparison, control groups showed no change in behaviour. Bold fishes given negative experiences reduced their boldness which may be an adaptive response; however, shy fishes may base their strategic decisions upon self-assessment of their relative competitive ability and increase their boldness in situations where getting to resources more quickly ensures they outcompete better competitors. PMID:17164196

  6. Comparison of Early and Delayed Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Acute Cholecystitis: Experience from A Single Center

    PubMed Central

    Gul, Rouf; Dar, Rayees Ahmad; Sheikh, Riyaz Ahmad; Salroo, Nazir Ahmad; Matoo, Adnan Rashid; Wani, Sabiya Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstones is mainly performed after the acute cholecystitis episode settles because of the fear of higher morbidity and conversion from laparoscopic cholecystectomy to open cholecystectomy during acute cholecystitis. Aims: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis and to compare the results with delayed cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective and randomized study. For patients assigned to early group, laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed as soon as possible within 72 hours of admission. Patients in the delayed group were treated conservatively and discharged as soon as the acute attack subsided. They were subsequently readmitted for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy 6-12 weeks later. Results: There was no significant difference in the conversion rates, postoperative analgesia requirements, or postoperative complications. However, the early group had significantly more blood loss, more operating time, and shorter hospital stay. Conclusion: Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy within 72 hours of onset of symptoms has both medical as well as socioeconomic benefits and should be the preferred approach for patients managed by surgeons with adequate experience in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:24020050

  7. Animal health policy principles for highly pathogenic avian influenza: shared experience from China and Canada.

    PubMed

    Stephen, C; Ninghui, L; Yeh, F; Zhang, L

    2011-08-01

    Animal health policy for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) must, for the time being, be based on expert opinion and shared international experience. We used the intellectual capital and knowledge of experienced Chinese and Canadian practitioners and policy makers to inform policy options for China and find shared policy elements applicable to both countries. No peer-reviewed comprehensive evaluations or systematic regulatory impact assessments of animal health policies were found. Sixteen guiding policy principles emerged from our thematic analysis of Chinese and Canadian policies. We provide a list of shared policy goals, targets and elements for HPAI preparedness, response and recovery. Policy elements clustered in a manner consistent with core public health competencies. Complex situations like HPAI require complex and adaptive policies, yet policies that cross jurisdictions and are fully integrated across agencies are rare. We encourage countries to develop or deploy capacity to undertake and publish regulatory impact assessments and policy evaluation to identify policy needs and provide a basis for evidence-based policy development.

  8. Modulation of intestinal functions following mycotoxin ingestion: meta-analysis of published experiments in animals.

    PubMed

    Grenier, Bertrand; Applegate, Todd J

    2013-02-21

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that can cause serious health problems in animals, and may result in severe economic losses. Deleterious effects of these feed contaminants in animals are well documented, ranging from growth impairment, decreased resistance to pathogens, hepato- and nephrotoxicity to death. By contrast, data with regard to their impact on intestinal functions are more limited. However, intestinal cells are the first cells to be exposed to mycotoxins, and often at higher concentrations than other tissues. In addition, mycotoxins specifically target high protein turnover- and activated-cells, which are predominant in gut epithelium. Therefore, intestinal investigations have gained significant interest over the last decade, and some publications have demonstrated that mycotoxins are able to compromise several key functions of the gastrointestinal tract, including decreased surface area available for nutrient absorption, modulation of nutrient transporters, or loss of barrier function. In addition some mycotoxins facilitate persistence of intestinal pathogens and potentiate intestinal inflammation. By contrast, the effect of these fungal metabolites on the intestinal microbiota is largely unknown. This review focuses on mycotoxins which are of concern in terms of occurrence and toxicity, namely: aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and Fusarium toxins. Results from nearly 100 published experiments (in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo) were analyzed with a special attention to the doses used.

  9. Guidance on determining indispensability and balancing potential benefits of animal experiments with costs to the animals with specific consideration of EU directive 2010/63/EU.

    PubMed

    Lindl, Toni; Gross, Ulrike; Ruhdel, Irmela; von Aulock, Sonja; Völkel, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Within the context of a workshop, a concept and practical guidance were developed that seek to balance potential benefits of animal experiments to humans, other animals, and the environment against the pain, suffering, and distress caused to the experimental animals. The aim was to achieve transparent decisions that can be communicated in a concise manner that is accessible to a layperson and is in accordance with German national law and EU Directive 2010/63/EU. The steps of the resulting decision process deal with the classification of procedures into the four severity levels, the consideration of humane endpoints, determination of the indispensability of the procedure on the basis of sound scientific argument, classification into applied or basic research, determination of the probability of success in the case of applied research, and the cost-benefit analysis, culminating in a decision on the approval or denial of the procedure.

  10. The validity of an animal model for experiments related to weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Animal evolution has witnessed morphological and physiological adaptations to gravitational forces. In the rat, hind limb muscles can be used to illustrate a range of load bearing functions: soleus - gastrocnemius = plantaris - extensor digitorum longus (EDL). A harness suspension apparatus is used to induce hypokinesia and hypodynamia (H&H) and to simulate responses comparable to those seen in weightlessness (i.e., COSMOS experiments). After one and two weeks of suspension H&H, there is muscle atrophy with a loss in muscle mass; the result of loss in muscle protein. Concommitantly, there is a decrease in RNA, but not in DNA content. The effects are greatest in the soleus and least in the EDL. These recent findings, in concert with earlier reports of increased nitrogenous excretion, suggest that both decreased protein synthesis and increased protein catabolism are characteristic of muscle atrophy. Recovery is seen in terms of reversal of these effects after removal from suspension.

  11. Interaction between Japanese flowering cherry trees and some wild animals observed during physiological experiment in fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Teruko

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the weeping habit of Japanese flowering cherry tree in the field of Tama Forest Science Garden, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute at the foot of Mt. Takao. Since cherry trees at various age were the materials for our plant physiology experiments, our studies were conducted in the fields where we experienced certain difficulties. Even under such difficult environment that was rather unexpected and uncontrollable, we could obtain fruitful results on the growth of cherry tree, and found them scientifically significant, especially in terms of biological effects of gravity on earth. Moreover, a lot of interesting interactions of cherry trees with various kinds of animals were observed in parallel to the plant physiology.

  12. The remarkable Dr. Abildgaard and countershock. The bicentennial of his electrical experiments on animals.

    PubMed

    Driscol, T E; Ratnoff, O D; Nygaard, O F

    1975-12-01

    In 1775 Peter Christian Abildgaard, a Danish veterinarian and physician, conducted experiments on electrical countershock on animals. He succeeded in first rendering fowl lifeless by an electric shock and then reviving them by a countershock applied to the chest. Ventricular fibrillation and defibrillation were not known and could not be documented at that early date, but his report suggests he accomplished these changes long before other physiologists described them. Dr. Abildgaard's long and varied career included many significant contributions to veterinary and human medicine, biology, zoology, botany, physics, chemistry, and mineralogy. He also took an interest and was active in politics, economics, and community affairs. This short biography is intended as a fitting, though belated, tribute to his pioneer work on effects of electric shock.

  13. In Vitro Acute Exposure to DEHP Affects Oocyte Meiotic Maturation, Energy and Oxidative Stress Parameters in a Large Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Sardanelli, Anna Maria; Pocar, Paola; Martino, Nicola Antonio; Paternoster, Maria Stefania; Amati, Francesca; Dell'Aquila, Maria Elena

    2011-01-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants because of their use in plastics and other common consumer products. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most abundant phthalate and it impairs fertility by acting as an endocrine disruptor. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of in vitro acute exposure to DEHP on oocyte maturation, energy and oxidative status in the horse, a large animal model. Cumulus cell (CC) apoptosis and oxidative status were also investigated. Cumulus-oocyte complexes from the ovaries of slaughtered mares were cultured in vitro in presence of 0.12, 12 and 1200 µM DEHP. After in vitro maturation (IVM), CCs were removed and evaluated for apoptosis (cytological assessment and TUNEL) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Oocytes were evaluated for nuclear chromatin configuration. Matured (Metaphase II stage; MII) oocytes were further evaluated for cytoplasmic energy and oxidative parameters. DEHP significantly inhibited oocyte maturation when added at low doses (0.12 µM; P<0.05). This effect was related to increased CC apoptosis (P<0.001) and reduced ROS levels (P<0.0001). At higher doses (12 and 1200 µM), DEHP induced apoptosis (P<0.0001) and ROS increase (P<0.0001) in CCs without affecting oocyte maturation. In DEHP-exposed MII oocytes, mitochondrial distribution patterns, apparent energy status (MitoTracker fluorescence intensity), intracellular ROS localization and levels, mt/ROS colocalization and total SOD activity did not vary, whereas increased ATP content (P<0.05), possibly of glycolytic origin, was found. Co-treatment with N-Acetyl-Cysteine reversed apoptosis and efficiently scavenged excessive ROS in DEHP-treated CCs without enhancing oocyte maturation. In conclusion, acute in vitro exposure to DEHP inhibits equine oocyte maturation without altering ooplasmic energy and oxidative stress parameters in matured oocytes which retain the potential to be fertilized and develop into embryos

  14. Effect of chromium (VI) exposure on antioxidant defense status and trace element homeostasis in acute experiment in rat.

    PubMed

    Kotyzová, Dana; Hodková, Anna; Bludovská, Monika; Eybl, Vladislav

    2015-11-01

    Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds is of concern in many Cr-related industries and their surrounding environment. Cr(VI) is a proven toxin and carcinogen. The Cr(VI) compounds are easily absorbed, can diffuse across cell membranes, and have strong oxidative potential. Despite intensive studies of Cr(VI) pro-oxidative effects, limited data exist on the influence of Cr(VI) on selenoenzymes thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-important components of antioxidant defense system. This study investigates the effect of Cr(VI) exposure on antioxidant defense status, with focus on these selenoenzymes, and on trace element homeostasis in an acute experiment in rat. Male Wistar rats (130-140g) were assigned to two groups of 8 animals: I. control; and II. Cr(VI) treated. The animals in Cr(VI) group were administered a single dose of K2Cr2O7 (20 mg /kg, intraperitoneally (ip)). The control group received saline solution. After 24 h, the animals were sacrificed and the liver and kidneys were examined for lipid peroxidation (LP; thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration), the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activities of GPx-1, TrxR-1, and glutathione reductase (GR). Samples of tissues were also used to estimate Cr accumulation and alterations in zinc, copper, and iron levels. The acute Cr(VI) exposure caused an increase in both hepatic and renal LP (by 70%, p < 0.01 and by 15%, p < 0.05, respectively), increased hepatic GSH level and GPx-1 activity, and decreased renal GPx-1 activity. The activity of GR was not changed. A significant inhibitory effect of Cr(VI) was found on TrxR-1 activity in both the liver and the kidneys. The ability of Cr(VI) to cause TrxR inhibition could contribute to its cytotoxic effects. Further investigation of oxidative responses in different in vivo models may enable the development of strategies to protect against Cr(VI) oxidative damage.

  15. University Counseling Centers' Perceptions and Experiences Pertaining to Emotional Support Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Lori R.; Schaefer, Karen; Erdman, Phyllis; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of students are requesting accommodations for emotional support animals (ESAs) in higher education settings. Since the legislation pertaining to this type of service animal differs from the laws governing disability service animals, colleges and universities are faced with developing new policies and guidelines. A sample of 248…

  16. Acute Exercise in Vietnam Veterans is Associated with Positive Subjective Experiences.

    PubMed

    Sealey, Rebecca M

    A person's subjective experience to their first exercise session is likely to influence their long-term adherence to regular exercise. The aim of the current pilot study therefore is to quantify the subjective exercise experience of previously sedentary Vietnam War Veterans undertaking an initial bout of one of three different exercise interventions. Thirty-two Vietnam Veterans presenting with one or more chronic diseases/conditions participated in one of three acute exercise bouts: 1) lower-body vibration, upper-body resistance and stretching (WBVT); 2) lower-body vibration, upper-body resistance, aerobic exercise and stretching (WBVT+CV); and 3) full-body resistance, aerobic exercise and stretching (R+CV). Pre and post acute exercise measures of positive well being, psychological distress and fatigue were assessed with the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale (SEES). A 3(conditions) × 2(time) repeated measures ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey HSD was used to identify any significant differences in SEES between exercise groups and pre and post-exercise. All interventions increased positive well being, with WBVT and R+CV reporting improvements across all areas of the SEES. The WBVT+CV group reported slightly increased psychological distress and the greatest increase in fatigue. An acute bout of exercise increases positive well-being in previously sedentary War Veterans however a longer-duration exercise bout containing multiple exercise modes may be too demanding for this population. Exercise professionals should consider commencing with a simple program to minimise psychological distress and fatigue as this may negatively impact on exercise adherence.

  17. Patients with acute chest pain - experiences of emergency calls and pre-hospital care.

    PubMed

    Forslund, Kerstin; Kihlgren, Mona; Ostman, Ingela; Sørlie, Venke

    2005-01-01

    Acute chest pain is a common reason why people call an emergency medical dispatch (EMD) centre. We examined how patients with acute chest pain experience the emergency call and their pre-hospital care. A qualitative design was used with a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach. Thirteen patients were interviewed, three women and 10 men. The patients were grateful that their lives had been saved and in general were satisfied with their pre-hospital contact. Sometimes they felt that it took too long for the emergency operators to answer and to understand the urgency. They were in a life-threatening situation and their feeling of vulnerability and dependency was great. Time seemed to stand still while they were waiting for help during their traumatic experience. The situation was fraught with pain, fear and an experience of loneliness. A sense of individualized care is important to strengthen trust and confidence between the patient and the pre-hospital personnel. Patients were aware of what number to call to reach the EMD centre, but were uncertain about when to call. More lives can be saved if people do not hesitate to call for help.

  18. Talking therapy groups on acute psychiatric wards: patients' experience of two structured group formats.

    PubMed

    Radcliffe, Jonathan; Bird, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Aims and method We report the results of a clinical audit of patients' reactions to two types of talking therapy groups facilitated by assistant psychologists and psychology graduates on three acute wards. Patients' experiences of problem-solving and interpersonal group formats were explored via focus groups and structured interviews with 29 group participants. Results Both group formats generated high satisfaction ratings, with benefits related mostly to generic factors. Clinical implications Adequately trained and supported assistant psychologists and psychology graduates can provide supportive talking groups that patients find helpful.

  19. Investigation of the degree of organisational influence on patient experience scores in acute medical admission units in all acute hospitals in England using multilevel hierarchical regression modelling

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies found that hospital and specialty have limited influence on patient experience scores, and patient level factors are more important. This could be due to heterogeneity of experience delivery across subunits within organisations. We aimed to determine whether organisation level factors have greater impact if scores for the same subspecialty microsystem are analysed in each hospital. Setting Acute medical admission units in all NHS Acute Trusts in England. Participants We analysed patient experience data from the English Adult Inpatient Survey which is administered to 850 patients annually in each acute NHS Trusts in England. We selected all 8753 patients who returned the survey and who were emergency medical admissions and stayed in their admission unit for 1–2 nights, so as to isolate the experience delivered during the acute admission process. Primary and secondary outcome measures We used multilevel logistic regression to determine the apportioned influence of host organisation and of organisation level factors (size and teaching status), and patient level factors (demographics, presence of long-term conditions and disabilities). We selected ‘being treated with respect and dignity’ and ‘pain control’ as primary outcome parameters. Other Picker Domain question scores were analysed as secondary parameters. Results The proportion of overall variance attributable at organisational level was small; 0.5% (NS) for respect and dignity, 0.4% (NS) for pain control. Long-standing conditions and consequent disabilities were associated with low scores. Other item scores also showed that most influence was from patient level factors. Conclusions When a single microsystem, the acute medical admission process, is isolated, variance in experience scores is mainly explainable by patient level factors with limited organisational level influence. This has implications for the use of generic patient experience surveys for comparison between

  20. Comparative Toxicity Assessment of Nanosilver on Three Daphnia Species in Acute, Chronic and Multi-Generation Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Völker, Carolin; Boedicker, Cathinka; Daubenthaler, Jan; Oetken, Matthias; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    The antibacterial properties of nanosilver have led to a versatile application spectrum including medical purposes and personal care products. However, the increasing use of nanosilver has raised concerns about its environmental impacts. Long-term exposure studies with aquatic invertebrates are essential to assess possible adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, acute (48 h), chronic (21 d) and long-term effects of nanosilver (primary size 15 nm) on five successive generations of three Daphnia species (D. magna, D. pulex, and D. galeata) were investigated. Acute EC50 values of nanosilver were 121 µg Ag L−1 for D. magna being the least sensitive species and 8.95 and 13.9 µg Ag L−1 for D. pulex and D. galeata, respectively. Chronic exposure provided EC10 values of 0.92 µg Ag L−1 for D. magna showing the most sensitive chronic reaction and 2.25 and 3.45 µg Ag L−1 for D. pulex and D. galeata, respectively. Comparative exposure to AgNO3 revealed a generally higher toxicity of the soluble form of silver. The multi-generation experiments resulted in effects on the population level for all tested species. Exposure of D. magna indicated an increased toxicity of nanosilver in the fifth generation of animals exposed to 10 µg Ag L−1. Neonates from pre-exposed parental daphnids did not completely recover when transferred into clean water. Exposure of D. pulex and D. galeata revealed not only increasing toxicity in some generations, but also greater tolerance to nanosilver. This study contributes to the assessment of the risk potential of nanosilver on aquatic ecosystems. It shows that effects of nanosilver vary within one genus and change with exposure duration. Therefore, long-term studies considering different aquatic species are needed to better understand the possible effects of nanosilver on aquatic ecosystems. PMID:24116021

  1. Comparative toxicity assessment of nanosilver on three Daphnia species in acute, chronic and multi-generation experiments.

    PubMed

    Völker, Carolin; Boedicker, Cathinka; Daubenthaler, Jan; Oetken, Matthias; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    The antibacterial properties of nanosilver have led to a versatile application spectrum including medical purposes and personal care products. However, the increasing use of nanosilver has raised concerns about its environmental impacts. Long-term exposure studies with aquatic invertebrates are essential to assess possible adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, acute (48 h), chronic (21 d) and long-term effects of nanosilver (primary size 15 nm) on five successive generations of three Daphnia species (D. magna, D. pulex, and D. galeata) were investigated. Acute EC50 values of nanosilver were 121 µg Ag L(-1) for D. magna being the least sensitive species and 8.95 and 13.9 µg Ag L(-1) for D. pulex and D. galeata, respectively. Chronic exposure provided EC10 values of 0.92 µg Ag L(-1) for D. magna showing the most sensitive chronic reaction and 2.25 and 3.45 µg Ag L(-1) for D. pulex and D. galeata, respectively. Comparative exposure to AgNO3 revealed a generally higher toxicity of the soluble form of silver. The multi-generation experiments resulted in effects on the population level for all tested species. Exposure of D. magna indicated an increased toxicity of nanosilver in the fifth generation of animals exposed to 10 µg Ag L(-1). Neonates from pre-exposed parental daphnids did not completely recover when transferred into clean water. Exposure of D. pulex and D. galeata revealed not only increasing toxicity in some generations, but also greater tolerance to nanosilver. This study contributes to the assessment of the risk potential of nanosilver on aquatic ecosystems. It shows that effects of nanosilver vary within one genus and change with exposure duration. Therefore, long-term studies considering different aquatic species are needed to better understand the possible effects of nanosilver on aquatic ecosystems.

  2. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of preclinical studies: publication bias in laboratory animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Korevaar, D A; Hooft, L; ter Riet, G

    2011-10-01

    In 2006, Peters et al. identified 86 systematic reviews (SRs) of laboratory animal experiments (LAEs). They found 46 LAE meta-analyses (MAs), often of poor quality. Six of these 46 MAs tried to assess publication bias. Publication bias is the phenomenon of an experiment's results determining its likelihood of publication, often over-representing positive findings. As such, publication bias is the Achilles heel of any SR. Since researchers increasingly become aware of the fact that SRs directly support the 'three Rs', we expect the number of SRs of LAEs will sharply increase. Therefore, it is useful to see how publication bias is dealt with. Our objective was to identify all SRs and MAs of LAEs where the purpose was to inform human health published between July 2005 and 2010 with special attention to MAs' quality features and publication bias. We systematically searched Medline, Embase, Toxline and ScienceDirect from July 2005 to 2010, updating Peters' review. LAEs not directly informing human health or concerning fundamental biology were excluded. We found 2780 references of which 163 met the inclusion criteria: 158 SRs, of which 30 performed an MA, and five MAs without an SR. The number of SRs roughly doubled every three years since 1997. The number of MAs roughly doubled every five years since 1999. Compared with before July 2005, more MAs were preceded by SR and reported on (quality) features of included studies and heterogeneity. A statistically significant proportion of MAs considered publication bias (26/35) and tried to formally assess it (21/35).

  3. Renal and extrarenal effects of gum arabic ( Acacia senegal )--what can be learned from animal experiments?

    PubMed

    Nasir, Omaima

    2013-01-01

    Gum arabic (GA), a water-soluble dietary fiber rich in Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and K(+), is used in Middle Eastern countries for the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease. Recent animal experiments shed some light into mechanisms involved in the therapeutic action of GA. According to experiments in healthy mice, GA treatment increases creatinine clearance, enhances renal excretion of ADH, Mg(2+) and Ca(2+), decreases plasma phosphate concentration as well as urinary excretion of phosphate and Na(+). In diabetic mice GA treatment increases urinary Ca(2+) excretion, and decreases plasma phosphate concentration, plasma urea concentration, urinary flow rate, natriuresis, phosphaturia, glucosuria, proteinuria as well as blood pressure. Extrarenal effects of GA treatment in mice include decreased expression of intestinal Na(+) coupled glucose carrier SGLT1 with subsequent delay of electrogenic intestinal glucose transport, glucose-induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and body weight gain. GA treatment decreases colonic transcription of the angiogenetic factors angiogenin 1, angiogenin 3 and angiogenin 4, of CD38 antigen, aquaporin4, interleukin18, vav-3-oncogene, y(+)-amino acid-transporter, sulfatase1, ubiquitinD and chemokine ligand5. Moreover, GA treatment decreases angiogenin and ß-catenin protein expression. Accordingly, GA treatment counteracts the development of tumors following chemical cancerogenesis. In mouse dendritic cells, antigen-presenting cells linking innate and adaptive immunity, GA treatment modifies maturation and cytokine release. GA treatment further favourably influences the course of murine malaria. The effects of GA treatment on plasma phosphate concentration, blood pressure and proteinuria may prove beneficial in chronic renal failure and diabetic nephropathy. The effect of GA on intestinal glucose transport may be useful in the prophylaxis and treatment of obesity and diabetes, the effect of GA on angiogenin and ß-catenin expression

  4. Head-mounted LED for optogenetic experiments of freely-behaving animal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Ki Yong; Gnade, Andrew G.; Rush, Alexander D.; Patten, Craig D.

    2016-03-01

    Recent developments in optogenetics have demonstrated the ability to target specific types of neurons with sub-millisecond temporal precision via direct optical stimulation of genetically modified neurons in the brain. In most applications, the beam of a laser is coupled to an optical fiber, which guides and delivers the optical power to the region of interest. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are an alternative light source for optogenetics and they provide many advantages over a laser based system including cost, size, illumination stability, and fast modulation. Their compact size and low power consumption make LEDs suitable light sources for a wireless optogenetic stimulation system. However, the coupling efficiency of an LED's output light into an optical fiber is lower than a laser due to its noncollimated output light. In typical chronic optogenetic experiment, the output of the light source is transmitted to the brain through a patch cable and a fiber stub implant, and this configuration requires two fiber-to-fiber couplings. Attenuation within the patch cable is potential source of optical power loss. In this study, we report and characterize a recently developed light delivery method for freely-behaving animal experiments. We have developed a head-mounted light source that maximizes the coupling efficiency of an LED light source by eliminating the need for a fiber optic cable. This miniaturized LED is designed to couple directly to the fiber stub implant. Depending on the desired optical power output, the head-mounted LED can be controlled by either a tethered (high power) or battery-powered wireless (moderate power) controller. In the tethered system, the LED is controlled through 40 gauge micro coaxial cable which is thinner, more flexible, and more durable than a fiber optic cable. The battery-powered wireless system uses either infrared or radio frequency transmission to achieve real-time control. Optical, electrical, mechanical, and thermal

  5. Principles and practice in ethical review of animal experiments across Europe: summary of the report of a FELASA working group on ethical evaluation of animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Smith, J A; van den Broek, F A R; Martorell, J Cantó; Hackbarth, H; Ruksenas, O; Zeller, W

    2007-04-01

    This paper summarizes a more detailed report produced by the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations (FELASA 2005), which describes and explores a set of principles for the conduct of ethical review of laboratory animal use. It presents a synopsis of results from a questionnaire that elicited information on how each of 20 countries represented in FELASA currently approaches such ethical review. This information suggests that, although local practices differ, there is an emerging consensus on the key elements that any ethical review process should involve. Drawing on the questionnaire findings, this summary also includes a brief discussion to support and amplify a series of recommendations, covering the objectives of ethical review; legal requirements; the scope of work reviewed and the 'level' at which review is approached; general principles for the organization of ethical review processes; the factors considered in the review; needs for ongoing review after initial authorization; participants in the review process; wider impacts of the review process; and strategies that can help to ensure quality and consistency of review outcomes. For further information and examples of current practice, as well as more detailed discussion to support the recommendations, readers are urged to refer to the complete report, available at http://www.lal.org.uk/pdffiles/FELASA_ethics_FULL_Report. pdf or via: http://www.felasa.eu/recommendations.htm.

  6. Difference of auditory brainstem responses by stimulating to round and oval window in animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jyung Hyun; Park, Hyo Soon; Wei, Qun; Kim, Myoung Nam; Cho, Jin-Ho

    2017-01-02

    ABSTACT To ensure the safety and efficacy of implantable hearing aids, animal experiments are an essential developmental procedure, in particular, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) can be used to verify the objective effectiveness of implantable hearing aids. This study measured and compared the ABRs generated when applying the same vibration stimuli to an oval window and round window. The ABRs were measured using a TDT system 3 (TDT, USA), while the vibration stimuli were applied to a round window and oval window in 4 guinea pigs using a piezo-electric transducer with a proper contact tip. A paired t-test was used to determine any differences between the ABR amplitudes when applying the stimulation to an oval window and round window. The paired t-test revealed a significant difference between the ABR amplitudes generated by the round and oval window stimulation (t = 10.079, α < .0001). Therefore, the results confirmed that the biological response to round window stimulation was not the same as that to oval window stimulation.

  7. Feasibility of male hormonal contraception: lessons from clinical trials and animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Oduwole, Olayiwola O; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T

    2014-01-01

    The general interest in the availability of male contraceptives is on the increase across different cultures and ethnic backgrounds, due in part to the fact that men are now willing more than ever, to share the responsibility of family planning. Despite the expression of interest and tremendous advances in research however, a modern male hormonal contraceptive method has remained an elusive goal. Testosterone (T) alone, or in combination with a progestin currently provides the most promising lead to male hormonal contraception. The principle relies on enhanced negative feedback of exogenous T to suppress gonadotropins, thereby blocking the endocrine stimulus for the process of spermatogenesis. A serious drawback is the inconsistent suppression among men of different ethnic backgrounds. This has increased the quest for development to include other nonhormonal methods. In reality many obstacles still have to be overcome before an acceptable method is available. In this review, we highlight recent developments in male hormonal contraceptives methods. Based on our recent findings from animal experiment, we shed light on why the method is not achieving the intended results, and suggest possible ways forward.

  8. Survey study of challenging experiences after ingesting psilocybin mushrooms: Acute and enduring positive and negative consequences.

    PubMed

    Carbonaro, Theresa M; Bradstreet, Matthew P; Barrett, Frederick S; MacLean, Katherine A; Jesse, Robert; Johnson, Matthew W; Griffiths, Roland R

    2016-12-01

    Acute and enduring adverse effects of psilocybin have been reported anecdotally, but have not been well characterized. For this study, 1993 individuals (mean age 30 yrs; 78% male) completed an online survey about their single most psychologically difficult or challenging experience (worst "bad trip") after consuming psilocybin mushrooms. Thirty-nine percent rated it among the top five most challenging experiences of his/her lifetime. Eleven percent put self or others at risk of physical harm; factors increasing the likelihood of risk included estimated dose, duration and difficulty of the experience, and absence of physical comfort and social support. Of the respondents, 2.6% behaved in a physically aggressive or violent manner and 2.7% received medical help. Of those whose experience occurred >1 year before, 7.6% sought treatment for enduring psychological symptoms. Three cases appeared associated with onset of enduring psychotic symptoms and three cases with attempted suicide. Multiple regression analysis showed degree of difficulty was positively associated, and duration was negatively associated, with enduring increases in well-being. Difficulty of experience was positively associated with dose. Despite difficulties, 84% endorsed benefiting from the experience. The incidence of risky behavior or enduring psychological distress is extremely low when psilocybin is given in laboratory studies to screened, prepared, and supported participants.

  9. Experiences of parenting a child with medical complexity in need of acute hospital care.

    PubMed

    Hagvall, Monica; Ehnfors, Margareta; Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta

    2016-03-01

    Parents of children with medical complexity have described being responsible for providing advanced care for the child. When the child is acutely ill, they must rely on the health-care services during short or long periods of hospitalization. The purpose of this study was to describe parental experiences of caring for their child with medical complexity during hospitalization for acute deterioration, specifically focussing on parental needs and their experiences of the attitudes of staff. Data were gathered through individual interviews and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The care period can be interpreted as a balancing act between acting as a caregiver and being in need of care. The parents needed skilled staff who could relieve them of medical responsibility, but they wanted to be involved in the care and in the decisions taken. They needed support, including relief, in order to meet their own needs and to be able to take care of their children. It was important that the child was treated with respect in order for the parent to trust the staff. An approach where staff view parents and children as a single unit, as recipients of care, would probably make the situation easier for these parents and children.

  10. Neurofeedback therapy in patients with acute and chronic pain syndromes--literature review and own experience.

    PubMed

    Kubik, Alicja; Biedroń, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Pain management is based mainly on pharmacotherapy which has many limitations. Non-pharmacological techniques, like neurofeedback (EEG-biofeedback) are alternative methods of pain treatment. Data from literature confirm high efficacy of neurofeedback in pain syndromes treatment, chronic and acute as well. Neurofeedback plays an important role in management of post stroke, post traumatic headaches and in primary headaches like tension type headaches or migraine. Literature review and own experience indicate importance of number and frequency of performed neurofeedback trainings on treatment effectiveness. Satisfactory results have already been observed after 30 trainings however usually 40-60 training have to be performed. Effectiveness of such therapy in pain syndromes is usually good or less often acceptable (50% reduction of headaches). Children with tension type headaches (differently than adults) need reminder therapy every 6-12 months, otherwise recurrence of headaches is observed. Based on our own experience neurofeedback therapy seems to play role in neuropathic pain and cancer pain management.

  11. 21 CFR 514.80 - Records and reports concerning experience with approved new animal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUG... data? 514.80(b)(4)(iii)(B). When must results of clinical trials conducted by or for the applicant be... trials? 514.80(b)(4)(iv)(C). What are the requirements for reporting increases in the frequency...

  12. 21 CFR 514.80 - Records and reports concerning experience with approved new animal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUG... data? 514.80(b)(4)(iii)(B). When must results of clinical trials conducted by or for the applicant be... trials? 514.80(b)(4)(iv)(C). What are the requirements for reporting increases in the frequency...

  13. 21 CFR 514.80 - Records and reports concerning experience with approved new animal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUG... data? 514.80(b)(4)(iii)(B). When must results of clinical trials conducted by or for the applicant be... trials? 514.80(b)(4)(iv)(C). What are the requirements for reporting increases in the frequency...

  14. The Impact of Specific Prior Experiences on Infants' Extension of Animal Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furrer, Stephanie D.; Younger, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the influence of prior exposure to specific animal properties on 15-month-old infants' inductive generalization. Using picture books, 29 infants were trained on properties linked in a congruent or incongruent manner with four animal categories. A generalized imitation task was then administered to assess patterns of property extension…

  15. Public Concern with Animal Well-Being: Place, Social Structural Location, and Individual Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Holli A.; Lobao, Linda M.; Sharp, Jeff S.

    2006-01-01

    While sociologists and the public at large are increasingly interested in the life conditions of animals, conceptual and empirical development of the topic is limited. This paper seeks to further develop the sociological research on attitudes toward animal well-being. We build on insights from contemporary stratification theory to explain the…

  16. Animal experiments by K-edge subtraction angiography by using SR (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anno, I.; Akisada, M.; Takeda, T.; Sugishita, Y.; Kakihana, M.; Ohtsuka, S.; Nishimura, K.; Hasegawa, S.; Takenaka, E.; Hyodo, K.; Ando, M.

    1989-07-01

    Ischemic heart disease is one of the most popular and lethal diseases for aged peoples in the world, and is usually diagnosed by transarterial selective coronary arteriography. However, it is rather invasive and somewhat dangerous, so that the selective coronary arteriography is not feasible for prospective screening of coronary occlusive heart disease. Conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is widely known as a relatively noninvasive and useful technique is making a diagnosis of arterial occlusive disease, especially in making the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. Conventional intravenous subtraction angiography by temporal subtraction, however, has several problems when applying to the moving objects. Digital subtraction method using high-speed switching above and below the K edge could be the ideal approach to this solution. We intend to make a synchrotron radiation digital K-edge subtraction angiography in the above policy, and to apply it to the human coronary ischemic disease on an outpatient basis. The principles and experimental systems have already been described in detail by our coworkers. Our prototype experimental system is situated at the AR (accumulation ring) for TRISTAN project of high energy physics. The available beam size is 70 mm by 120 mm. The electron energy of AR is 6.5 GeV and average beam current is approximately 10 mA. This paper will show the animal experiments of our K-edge subtraction system, and discuss some problems and technical difficulties. Three dogs, weighing approximately 15 kg, were examined to evaluate the ability of our prototype synchrotron radiation DSA unit, that we are now constructing. The dogs were anaesthetized with pentobarbital sodium, intravenously (30 mg/kg). Six french-sized (1.52 mm i.d.) pigtail catheter with multiple side holes were introduced via the right femoral vein into the right atrium by the cutdown technique under conventional x-ray fluoroscopic control. Respiration of the dogs was

  17. 'Ghost' experiments and the dissection of social learning in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Hopper, Lydia M

    2010-11-01

    The focus of this review is the experimental techniques used to identify forms of social learning shown by humans and nonhuman animals. Specifically, the 'ghost display' and 'end-state' conditions, which have been used to tease apart imitative and emulative learning are evaluated. In a ghost display, the movements of an apparatus are demonstrated, often through the discrete use of fishing-line or hidden mechanisms, without a live model acting directly upon the apparatus so that the apparatus appears to be operated as if by a 'ghostly' agent. In an end-state condition, an observing individual is shown the initial state of the test apparatus, the apparatus is then manipulated out-of-sight and then represented to the individual in its final state. The aim of the ghost display condition is to determine whether individuals are able to emulate by replicating the movements of an apparatus, or perform a task, without requiring information about the bodily movements required to do so (imitation). The end-state condition is used to identify goal-emulation by assessing whether the observer can replicate the steps required to solve the task without having been shown the required body actions or task movements. The responses of individuals tested with either the ghost display and/or end-state conditions are compared to those of further individuals who have observed a full demonstration by either a human experimenter or a conspecific. The responses of a control group, to whom no information has been provided about the test apparatus or required actions, are also compared and evaluated. The efficacy of these experimental techniques employed with humans, nonhuman primates, dogs, rats and birds are discussed and evaluated. The experiments reviewed herein emphasise the need to provide ghost displays and end-state conditions in combination, along with full live demonstrations and a no-information control. Future research directions are proposed.

  18. Reproductive Experience Alters Neural and Behavioural Responses to Acute Oestrogen Receptor α Activation

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, E. M.; Casey, K.; Carini, L. M.; Bridges, R. S.

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive experience (i.e. parturition and lactation) leads to persistent alterations in anxietylike behaviour that are influenced by the oestrous cycle. We recently found that repeated administration of the selective oestrogen receptors (ER)α agonist propyl-pyrazole triol (PPT) results in anxiolytic-like behaviours on the elevated plus maze (EPM) in primiparous (but not nulliparous) female rats. The present study examined the effects of the acute administration of PPT on EPM behaviour in primiparous and aged-matched, nulliparous female rats. In addition, corticosterone secretion, corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) gene expression and expression of the immediate early gene product Fos in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and amygdala were measured either after EPM testing or in home cage controls. Acute PPT administration significantly modified EPM behaviour as a function of reproductive experience, with nulliparous females tending toward increased anxiety-like behaviours and primiparous females tending toward decreased anxiety-like behaviours. In home cage controls, PPT increased corticosterone secretion in all females; however, both vehicle- and PPT-treated, primiparous females had reduced corticosterone levels compared to their nulliparous counterparts. Significant effects of PPT on CRH mRNA within the PVN were observed after the administration of PPT but only in primiparous females tested on the EPM. PPT also increased Fos expression within the PVN of EPM-exposed females; however, both vehicle- and PPT-treated primiparous females had reduced Fos expression compared to nulliparous females. In the amygdala, PPT increased Fos immunore-activity in the central but not the medial or basolateral amygdala, although these effects were only observed in home cage females. Additionally, both vehicle- and PPT-treated home cage, primiparous females had increased Fos in the central nucleus of the amygdala compared to nullip-arous controls. Overall, these data

  19. TISSUE CONCENTRATION OF PCBS IN ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS AS COMPARED WITH THOSE IN HUMANS WITH BACKGROUND-LEVEL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    TISSUE CONCENTRATION OF PCBS IN ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS AS COMPARED WITH THOSE IN HUMANS WITH BACKGROUND-LEVEL EXPOSURE. M J DeVito1 and M P Longnecker2. 1NHEERL, ORD, USEPA; Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 2Epidemiology
    Branch, NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.

    To ...

  20. More Ideas for Monitoring Biological Experiments with the BBC Computer: Absorption Spectra, Yeast Growth, Enzyme Reactions and Animal Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Presented are five ideas for A-level biology experiments using a laboratory computer interface. Topics investigated include photosynthesis, yeast growth, animal movements, pulse rates, and oxygen consumption and production by organisms. Includes instructions specific to the BBC computer system. (CW)

  1. Acute symptomatic Meckel diverticulum management. Our experience on seven consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Robustelli, Umberto; Manguso, Francesco; Armellino, Mariano Fortunato; Mannelli, Maria Pia; Massa, Maria Rosaria; Forner, Anna Lucia; Bellotti, Roberto; Ambrosino, Francesco; Severino, Beatrice Ulloa

    2014-01-01

    Meckel's diverticulum (MD ) is the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract. We revalued clinical records of patients discharged from Unit of Urgent and General Surgery of Highly Specialized Hospital "A.O.R.N. Antonio Cardarelli" of Naples with diagnosis of acute pathology associated to complicated MD from 1(st) January 2011 to 30(th) November 2012. Seven consecutive cases have been chosen: five males (71,4%) and two females (28,6%). The age ranges over from 13 to 50 years with a 28 years average. Four of them were submitted to emergency surgical intervention for hemorrhage from gastro-enteric tract (57%), two for bowel obstruction (29%) and one for acute appendicitis (14%). In all cases sample was send to histological examination. Two samples showed normal epithelial mucosa. Four of them showed ectopic mucosa inside the diverticulum: three gastric and one pancreatic ectopic mucosa focal areas. The last case showed normal epithelial cells but with ulcerated and hemorrhagic areas. Four samples of patients with hemorrhage from gastroenteric tract showed at histological examination: a case of normal mucosa, a case of gastric mucosa areas, one of pancreatic ectopic tissue and the last with normal mucosa but ulcerated and with bleeding areas.In our experience we never speculated that acute symptomatology depended on complicated MD and diagnosis was always done during laparotomy. We think that MD removal is always the correct choice, so that future complications such as neoplasm can be avoided. MD simple resection by Stapler at the base of diverticulum is the correct choice.

  2. Psychiatric nurse practitioners' experiences of working with mental health care users presenting with acute symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ngako, Kgalabi J; Van Rensburg, Elsie S J; Mataboge, Sanah M L

    2012-05-30

    Psychiatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) working with mental health care users presenting with acute symptoms work in a complex environment. This environment is characterised by mental health care users who may present with a history of violence, sexual assault and substance misuse. The objectives of this study were twofold: firstly, to explore and describe the experiences of PNPs working with mental health care users (MHCUs) presenting with acute symptoms; and secondly, to make recommendations for the advanced PNPs to facilitate promotion of the mental health of PNPs with reference to nursing practice, research and education. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual design was used. The target population was PNPs working with MHCUs presenting with acute symptoms in a public mental health care institution in Gauteng. Data were collected by means of four focus group interviews involving 21 PNPs. The researcher made use of drawings, naïve sketches and field notes for the purpose of data triangulation. Data were analysed in accordance with Tesch's method of open coding. The three themes that emerged were: PNPs experienced working with these MHCUs as entering an unsafe world where care became a burden; they experienced negative emotional reactions and attitudes towards these MHCUs that compromised quality nursing care; and they made a plea for a nurturing environment that would enhance quality nursing care. The PNPs suggest skills and competency development, organisational support, and a need for external resources. Creation of a positive environment and mobilisation of resources as well as the identification and bridging of obstacles are essential in the promotion of the overall wellbeing and mental health of PNPs.

  3. Computer Modeling of Microbiological Experiments in the Teaching Laboratory: Animation Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tritz, Gerald J.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of computer assisted instruction in the medical education program of the Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine (Missouri). Describes the animation techniques used in a series of simulations for microbiology. (TW)

  4. Performance of the first Japanese large-scale facility for radon inhalation experiments with small animals.

    PubMed

    Ishimori, Yuu; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro; Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kataoka, Takahiro; Sakoda, Akihiro

    2011-07-01

    A radon test facility for small animals was developed in order to increase the statistical validity of differences of the biological response in various radon environments. This paper illustrates the performances of that facility, the first large-scale facility of its kind in Japan. The facility has a capability to conduct approximately 150 mouse-scale tests at the same time. The apparatus for exposing small animals to radon has six animal chamber groups with five independent cages each. Different radon concentrations in each animal chamber group are available. Because the first target of this study is to examine the in vivo behaviour of radon and its effects, the major functions to control radon and to eliminate thoron were examined experimentally. Additionally, radon progeny concentrations and their particle size distributions in the cages were also examined experimentally to be considered in future projects.

  5. Conservation Station and Beyond: Experiences at Disney's Animal Kingdom That Make a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, Jackie; Lehnhardt, Kathy; Mellen, Jill; Dierking, Lynn; Adelman, Leslie; Burks, Kyle; Miller, Lance

    2001-01-01

    Describes a five-year plan for educational research and evaluation at the Disney Animal Kingdom. Focuses on conservation-related issues and presents some of the preliminary results from the study of visitor attitudes. (DDR)

  6. Systemic thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in acute ischemic stroke: first Croatian experiences.

    PubMed

    Matijević, Vesna; Alvir, Domagoj; Malojčić, Branko; Unušić, Lea; Supe, Svjetlana; Boban, Marina; Bujan-Kovač, Andrea; Habek, Mario; Poljaković, Zdravka

    2010-12-01

    In September 2003, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) for acute treatment of ischemic stroke was finally approved by the Croatian Ministry of Health. For the next 5 years, only three stroke units in the country implemented this therapy in their routine practice until summer 2008, when neurological wards in most Croatian hospitals started to treat acute stroke patients with systemic thrombolysis. We present a 2-year experience of thrombolytic therapy (2006-2008) in the stroke unit of the University Hospital in Zagreb, Croatian largest hospital, serving nearly one-fifth of the citizens of Croatia. Obtained data (vitals at admission and before administration of rt-PA; NIHSS and MRS scores at admission, 2 h and 7th day after rt-PA treatment, "time to door" and "door to needle" intervals, duration of hospital treatment as well as outcomes and complications of our 66 thrombolysed patients) are presented and discussed. We also present our results regarding benefits of this therapy as well as possible reasons for complications noticed.

  7. [Antiherpetic activity of netropsin derivatives as tested in experiments in laboratory animals].

    PubMed

    Andronova, V L; Grokhovskiĭ, S L; Deriabin, P G; Gurskiĭ, G V; Galegov, G A; L'vov, D K

    2012-01-01

    Two dimeric netropsin derivatives (Lys-bis-Nt 15Lys-bis-Nt) were comprehensively tested for antiviral and toxic activity in cell cultures and laboratory animals. The two compounds were found to provide effective and selective inhibition of reproduction of herpes simplex I both in cell culture Vero E6 and in brain of infected white mice, thereby increasing the survival rate and mean life expectation of treated animals as compared to control.

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of acute urogenital and genitalia tract traumas: 10-year clinical experience

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Qingsong; Fu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To report our 10-year diagnosis and treatment experience of acute urogenital and genitalia tract traumas and outline the management of the traumatic injury. Methods: We reviewed the diagnoses and treatments of 208 cases of acute kidney, ureter, bladder, urethra, or male genitalia injuries in our department between March 2002 and March 2012. The patient data including general information, injury position and mechanism, diagnosis and treatment, the follow-up information was analyzed and summarized. Results: Of 62 patients with renal injury examined by ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) examination, 45 were treated conservatively, 9 with superselective arterial embolization, and 8 with nephrectomy. Intravenous pyelogram (IVP) was conducted in two patients with ureteral injury, one was treated with cystoscopic ureteral catheterization and the other with ureteric reimplantation. Bladder injury (6 patients) confirmed with a waterflood susceptibility test combined with CT scans underwent laparotomy and the bladder suturing was done. Of 92 patients with urethral injury, 6 were treated with a nonoperative approach (indwelling catheter), 18 with urethral realignment, 35 with cystoscopic urethral realignment, 29 with end-to-end anastomotic urethroplasty, and 4 with urethral repairmen. Of the 24 cases with penile injuries, 1 underwent conservative treatment, 8 were treated with debridement and suture ligation, and 15 were managed with suture repair of the penis white membrane. Of the 24 cases with penile injuries, 1 underwent conservative treatment, 8 were treated with debridement and suture ligation, and 15 were managed with suture repair of the penis white membrane. During the follow-up period, 62 patients with renal injury had normal renal function. Neither of the two patients with ureteral injury developed hydronephrosis. Twenty-nine patients with urethral injury suffered from urethral structure. All patients with vesical or genital injury recovered

  9. Communicating with culturally and linguistically diverse patients in an acute care setting: nurses' experiences.

    PubMed

    Cioffi, R N Jane

    2003-03-01

    Communication with culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) patients has been shown to be difficult. This study describes nurses' experiences of communicating with CLD patients in an acute care setting. A purposive sample of registered nurses and certified midwives (n=23) were interviewed. Main findings were: interpreters, bilingual health workers and combinations of different strategies were used to communicate with CLD patients; some nurses showed empathy, respect and a willingness to make an effort in the communication process with others showing an ethnocentric orientation. Main recommendations were: prioritising access to appropriate linguistic services, providing nurses with support from health care workers, e.g., bilingual health care workers who are able to provide more in-depth information, increasing nurses' understanding of legal issues within patient encounters, supporting nurses to translate their awareness of cultural diversity into acceptance of, appreciation for and commitment to CLD patients and their families.

  10. Suitability of temperature-sensitive transponders to measure body temperature during animal experiments required for regulatory tests.

    PubMed

    Hartinger, Joachim; Külbs, Daniela; Volkers, Peter; Cussler, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Body temperature is a clinical parameter in vaccine quality control to detect systemic side-effects or to monitor progression of infectious diseases. Moreover, changes in body temperature are used as clinical parameters to define humane endpoints in animal experiments. However, measuring body temperature via the rectal route can be troublesome and distressing to the animal. Non-invasive measurement methods were developed in recent years. The aim of this investigation was to study and to compare rectally measured body temperature with data obtained with implanted temperature-sensitive transponders (TST) in mice, guinea pigs, rabbits and pigs under the controlled conditions of regulatory testing.

  11. Method of bioindication for evaluation of the effects of plant extracts on cell monolayer in acute and chronic experiments.

    PubMed

    Seregina, M V; Mikhailova, L P

    2002-04-01

    Acute and chronic toxicities of plant extracts for external use were studied on a model of cell monolayer. This method detects the toxic dose of the agent during the first stage of the study; the activity of this dose and severity of damaging effect can be further studied on experimental animals. An advantage of the method is high informative value of preliminary investigation in the development of new low-toxic agents.

  12. Luminescent imaging technology as an opportunity to reduce and refine animal experiments: Light at the end of the tunnel?

    PubMed

    Hagelschuer, Ina; Hauff, Peter; Strube, Anne; Käkönen, Sanna-Maria; von Degenfeld, Georges

    2009-01-01

    In vivo luminescent imaging technology was introduced in experimental life science research several years ago and has rapidly gained wide acceptance. By making use of this technology substantially more information can be gained from animal experiments than was previously possible. The concept of the 3Rs describes the aim to Refine, Reduce and Replace animal models in research. The goal of the present paper is to systematically investigate the impact of luminescent imaging on the 3Rs. In particular, three examples of applications are explained in detail so as to be accessible to the reader unfamiliar with the procedure. The examples are subsequently analysed for and categorised according to their concrete effect on animal welfare as defined by the 3Rs.

  13. From the Law of European Delegation to the Legislative Decree on experiments with animals: consequences for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Petrini, C

    2014-01-01

    The provisions contained in the Legislative Decree no.26 signed by Italy's President on 4th March 2014 will have a considerable impact on the future of experiments with animals. The article briefly describes the stages of the decree's complicated passage through Parliament and the resulting text, which includes bans on: the use of animals for xenotransplants or research on drugs of abuse; the breeding of dogs, cats and non-human primates for experimental use; research without anaesthetic or analgesics that causes pain to the animal, except when anaesthetics or analgesics are being investigated. There is widespread feeling in the scientific community that these provisions will hinder the advancement of biomedical research in Italy.

  14. Occupational therapists as dog handlers: the collective experience with animal-assisted therapy in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Fike, Lorie; Najera, Cecilia; Dougherty, David

    2012-01-01

    The first pair of US Army animal-assisted therapy (AAT) dogs deployed to Iraq in December 2007 with the 85th Medical Detachment Combat and Operational Stress Control unit. As of this writing, 6 dogs have deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, offering Soldiers a small reminder of home. Army occupational therapists led the way in this endeavor as primary handlers; the path has been rocky but ultimately rewarding. This article depicts how occupational therapists used AAT and animal-assisted activities to help Soldiers cope with the stressors of living in a deployed environment. Challenges and lessons-learned, including anecdotal examples, are discussed.

  15. [Antiherpesviral activity of acycloguanosine H-phosphonate in experiments using laboratory animals].

    PubMed

    Andronova, V L; Galegov, G A; Ias'ko, M V; Kukhanova, M K; Kochetkov, S N; Skoblov, Iu S

    2011-01-01

    A study of the antiherpesviral activity of acycloguanosine (ACG) H-phosphonate (ACG-P) on a model of fatal herpesvirus infection in inbred BALB/c albino mice has established that ACG-P reduces death rates in the animals, considerably increases their average lifespan, and significantly decreases brain virus titers with both 60% mortality in the control and 92% mortality in the control group. There was also a significant inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) replication in the brain tissue of animals receiving ACG-P on a model of ACG-resistant HSV-1/L2/RACG(TK-).

  16. Animal models of chronic tympanic membrane perforation: in response to plasminogen initiates and potentiates the healing of acute and chronic tympanic membrane perforations in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Allen Y; Shen, Yi; Wang, Jeffrey T; Eikelboom, Robert H; Dilley, Rodney J

    2014-03-26

    Tympanic membrane perforations (TMP) are relatively common but are typically not treated in their acute stage, as most will heal spontaneously in 7-10 days. Those cases which fail to heal within 3 months are called chronic TMP which attract surgical intervention (e.g. myringoplasty), typically with a temporalis fascia autograft. New materials for the repair of chronic TMP are being developed to address deficiencies in the performance of autografts by undergoing evaluation in animal models prior to clinical study. However, there is currently a lack of ideal chronic TMP animal models available, hindering the development of new treatments. Various techniques and animal species have been investigated for the creation of chronic TMP with varied success. In the present commentary, we bring to the attention of readers the recent report by Shen et al. in Journal of Translational Medicine. The study reported the creation of a chronic TMP animal model in plasminogen gene deficient mice. However, the short observation time (9, 19 days), lack of success rate and the scarcity of solid evidence (e.g. otoscopic & histologic images) to confirm the chronicity of TMP warrant a more thorough discussion.

  17. A new low-turbulence wind tunnel for animal and small vehicle flight experiments

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Anthony; Nagle, Tony; Lentink, David

    2017-01-01

    Our understanding of animal flight benefits greatly from specialized wind tunnels designed for flying animals. Existing facilities can simulate laminar flow during straight, ascending and descending flight, as well as at different altitudes. However, the atmosphere in which animals fly is even more complex. Flow can be laminar and quiet at high altitudes but highly turbulent near the ground, and gusts can rapidly change wind speed. To study flight in both laminar and turbulent environments, a multi-purpose wind tunnel for studying animal and small vehicle flight was built at Stanford University. The tunnel is closed-circuit and can produce airspeeds up to 50 m s−1 in a rectangular test section that is 1.0 m wide, 0.82 m tall and 1.73 m long. Seamless honeycomb and screens in the airline together with a carefully designed contraction reduce centreline turbulence intensities to less than or equal to 0.030% at all operating speeds. A large diameter fan and specialized acoustic treatment allow the tunnel to operate at low noise levels of 76.4 dB at 20 m s−1. To simulate high turbulence, an active turbulence grid can increase turbulence intensities up to 45%. Finally, an open jet configuration enables stereo high-speed fluoroscopy for studying musculoskeletal control in turbulent flow.

  18. A new low-turbulence wind tunnel for animal and small vehicle flight experiments.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Daniel B; Watts, Anthony; Nagle, Tony; Lentink, David

    2017-03-01

    Our understanding of animal flight benefits greatly from specialized wind tunnels designed for flying animals. Existing facilities can simulate laminar flow during straight, ascending and descending flight, as well as at different altitudes. However, the atmosphere in which animals fly is even more complex. Flow can be laminar and quiet at high altitudes but highly turbulent near the ground, and gusts can rapidly change wind speed. To study flight in both laminar and turbulent environments, a multi-purpose wind tunnel for studying animal and small vehicle flight was built at Stanford University. The tunnel is closed-circuit and can produce airspeeds up to 50 m s(-1) in a rectangular test section that is 1.0 m wide, 0.82 m tall and 1.73 m long. Seamless honeycomb and screens in the airline together with a carefully designed contraction reduce centreline turbulence intensities to less than or equal to 0.030% at all operating speeds. A large diameter fan and specialized acoustic treatment allow the tunnel to operate at low noise levels of 76.4 dB at 20 m s(-1). To simulate high turbulence, an active turbulence grid can increase turbulence intensities up to 45%. Finally, an open jet configuration enables stereo high-speed fluoroscopy for studying musculoskeletal control in turbulent flow.

  19. Can drug safety be predicted and animal experiments reduced by using isolated mitochondrial fractions?

    PubMed

    Pereira, Susana P; Pereira, Gonçalo C; Moreno, António J; Oliveira, Paulo J

    2009-09-01

    Mitochondrial toxicity has resulted in the withdrawal of several drugs from the market. One particular example is nefazodone, an anti-depressant withdrawn in the USA due to hepatoxicity caused by drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Drug development and safety testing can involve the use of large numbers of laboratory animals, which, without a decisive pre-screening for mitochondrial toxicity, are often unable to pre-empt higher mortality rates in some patient groups. The use of isolated mitochondria as a screening tool for drug safety can decrease the number of laboratory animals used in pre-clinical studies, thus improving animal welfare and healthcare outcomes and costs. Novel techniques involving high-throughput methods can be used to investigate whether a molecule is a mitochondrial toxicant. Moreover, these screens are mechanistically-based, since the effects of the drug on oxidative phosphorylation, calcium homeostasis and mitochondrial genetics can be assessed. This review is intended to demonstrate that isolated mitochondrial fractions are suitable for predicting drug and general chemical safety in toxicological screenings, thus contributing to the refinement and reduction of animal use in laboratory research.

  20. Mapping the Stacks: Sustainability and User Experience of Animated Maps in Library Discovery Interfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillin, Bill; Gibson, Sally; MacDonald, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Animated maps of the library stacks were integrated into the catalog interface at Pratt Institute and into the EBSCO Discovery Service interface at Illinois State University. The mapping feature was developed for optimal automation of the update process to enable a range of library personnel to update maps and call-number ranges. The development…

  1. SCORPI and SCORPI-T: Neurophysiological experiments on animals in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafini, L.; Ramacciotti, T.; Vigano, W.; Donati, A.; Porciani, M.; Zolesi, V.; Schulze-Varnholt, D.; Manieri, P.; El-Din Sallam, A.; Schmah, M.; Horn, E. R.

    2005-08-01

    The study of physiological adaptation to long-term space flights with special consideration of the internal clock systems of scorpions is the goal of the SCORPI and SCORPI-T experiments. SCORPI was selected for flight on the International Space Station (ISS) and will be mounted in the European facility BIOLAB, the ESA laboratory designed to support biological experiments on micro-organisms, cells, tissue, cultures, small plants and small invertebrates. SCORPI-T experiment, performed on the Russian FOTON-M2 satellite in May-June 2005, represents an important precursor for the success of the experiment SCORPI on BIOLAB. This paper outlines the main features of the hardware designed and developed in order to allow the analysis of critical aspects of experiment execution and the verification of experiment objectives. The capabilities of the hardware developed for SCORPI and SCORPI-T show its potential use for any future similar type of experiments in space.

  2. Titanium, a major constituent of blue ink, causes resistance to Nd-YAG (1064 nm) laser: results of animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jea-Wook; Lee, Jae-Wook; Won, Young Ho; Kim, Jin Hyeok; Lee, Seung-Chul

    2006-01-01

    A blue tattoo is more resistant to laser therapy than black or brown tattoos. This study aimed to confirm titanium as a key response-disturbing constituent in a blue tattoo ink after Nd-YAG (1064 nm) laser treatment by animal experiments. Rabbits' backs were tattooed with four ink colours, and the Nd-YAG (1064 nm) laser was used to remove the tattoos. The response to the laser treatment in the rabbits was evaluated and electron microscopic studies were also performed. Excellent to fair responses were observed for the black, brown and dark brown inks, but the blue ink responded poorly to the laser. Histological examination indicated that the blue pigments were unchanged even after the laser treatment. Quantitative energy dispersive spectrometry revealed that blue ink contained high amounts of titanium. Our animal experiments confirm that a blue tattoo ink containing titanium, is a key element in poor response to the Nd-YAG laser.

  3. The subjective experience of acute, experimentally-induced Salvia divinorum inebriation.

    PubMed

    Addy, Peter H; Garcia-Romeu, Albert; Metzger, Matthew; Wade, Jenny

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the overall psychological effects of inebriation facilitated by the naturally-occurring plant hallucinogen Salvia divinorum using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Thirty healthy individuals self-administered Salvia divinorum via combustion and inhalation in a quiet, comfortable research setting. Experimental sessions, post-session interviews, and 8-week follow-up meetings were audio recorded and transcribed to provide the primary qualitative material analyzed here. Additionally, post-session responses to the Hallucinogen Rating Scale provided a quantitative groundwork for mixed-methods discussion. Qualitative data underwent thematic content analysis, being coded independently by three researchers before being collaboratively integrated to provide the final results. Three main themes and 10 subthemes of acute intoxication emerged, encompassing the qualities of the experience, perceptual alterations, and cognitive-affective shifts. The experience was described as having rapid onset and being intense and unique. Participants reported marked changes in auditory, visual, and interoceptive sensory input; losing normal awareness of themselves and their surroundings; and an assortment of delusional phenomena. Additionally, the abuse potential of Salvia divinorum was examined post hoc. These findings are discussed in light of previous research, and provide an initial framework for greater understanding of the subjective effects of Salvia divinorum, an emerging drug of abuse.

  4. Fibre optic sensors for temperature and pressure monitoring in laser ablation: experiments on ex-vivo animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, Daniele; Saccomandi, Paola; Schena, Emiliano; Duraibabu, Dinesh B.; Poeggel, Sven; Adilzhan, Abzal; Aliakhmet, Kamilla; Silvestri, Sergio; Leen, Gabriel; Lewis, Elfed

    2016-05-01

    Optical fibre sensors have been applied to perform biophysical measurement in ex-vivo laser ablation (LA), on pancreas animal phantom. Experiments have been performed using Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) arrays for spatially resolved temperature detection, and an all-glass Extrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (EFPI) for pressure measurement. Results using a Nd:YAG laser source as ablation device, are presented and discussed.

  5. Ammonia Level and Mortality in Acute Liver Failure: A Single-Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Niranjan-Azadi, Ashwini M; Araz, Filiz; Patel, Yuval A; Alachkar, Nada; Alqahtani, Saleh; Cameron, Andrew M; Stevens, Robert D; Gurakar, Ahmet

    2016-08-02

    BACKGROUND Acute liver failure (ALF) is an emergent condition that requires intensive care and manifests in particular by significant elevation in serum ammonia level. Patients with ALF with concomitant renal failure experience a further rise in ammonia levels due to decreased kidney excretion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between elevated ammonia levels and mortality and to characterize the subgroup of ALF patients who develop acute kidney injury (AKI) and require renal replacement therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a retrospective study of 36 consecutive patients admitted to Johns Hopkins Hospital's intensive care units from December 2008 to May 2013 who presented with grade III and IV hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Patients who developed AKI and required hemodialysis (HD) were compared to those without AKI. Patients with chronic kidney disease were excluded. RESULTS Sixteen patients developed AKI and underwent HD (HD group). Median ammonia levels in the HD and non-HD groups were not significantly different (p=0.95). In the HD group, 4 patients underwent liver transplantation (LT) and 3 of them survived the hospitalization. Among the 12 HD patients who did not receive LT, 6 (50%) survived. Out of 20 non-HD patients, 3 were transplanted, all of whom survived the hospitalization. Among the 17 non-HD patients who did not receive LT, 14 (82%) survived. Admission ammonia level (>120 µmol/L) was associated with higher mortality rate (OR=7.188 [95% CI 1.3326-38.952], p=0.026) in all patients. CONCLUSIONS Admission ammonia level is predictive of mortality in ALF patients with grade 3-4 HE.

  6. Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI): A Single Institution Experience of 15 Years.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramesh; Sedky, Mohammed Jaber; Varghese, Sunny Joseph; Sharawy, Osama Ebrahim

    2016-09-01

    Transfusion related acute Lung injury (TRALI) though a serious blood transfusion reaction with a fatality rate of 5-25 % presents with acute respiratory distress with hypoxaemia and noncardiac pulmonary oedema within 6 h of transfusion. In non fatal cases, it may resolve within 72 h or earlier. Although reported with an incidence of 1:5000, its true occurrence is rather unknown. Pathogenesis is believed to be related to sequestration and adhesion of neutrophils to the pulmonary capillary endothelium and its activation leading to its destruction and leaks. The patient's underlying condition, anti-neutrophil antibody in the transfused donor plasma and certain lipids that accumulate in routinely stores blood and components are important in its aetiopathogenesis. Patient's predisposing conditions include haematological malignancy, major surgery (especially cardiac), trauma and infections. The more commonly incriminated products include fresh frozen plasma (FFP), platelets (whole blood derived and apheresis), whole blood and Packed RBC. Occasional cases involving cryoprecipitate and Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVig) have also been reported. We present a 15 year single institution experience of TRALI, during which we observed 9 cases among 170,871 transfusions, giving an incidence of 1:19,000. We did not encounter cases of haematological malignancy or cardiac surgery in our TRALI patients. Among the blood products, that could be related to TRALI in our patients included solitary cases receiving cryoprecipitate, IVIg, and recombinant Factor VII apart from platelets and FFP. All patients were treated with oxygen support. Six patients required mechanical ventilation. Off label hydrocortisone was given to all patients. There were no cases of fatality among our patients.

  7. A computer experiment model to investigate the effects of drug dosage in animals, for use in pharmacological education and research.

    PubMed

    Babanli, Ahmed; Gunes, Ali; Ozturk, Yusuf

    2011-12-01

    The ACD-IDEA database, which was originally developed by the authors in 2004, is an ongoing compilation of existing data on the in vivo doses of compounds at which various responses in certain animal species have been observed. It can provide an infrastructure for various research/educational efforts, and creates a synergy for new applications. In this paper, some of these applications are described. Specific interfaces within the database are designed for users who are not computer specialists. Users can search the database to find the answer to a query, or they can design a simple virtual animal experiment. In the second case, the interface is used to undertake a dialogue with the system, in order to test the user's knowledge regarding an experiment under consideration, and to allow the user to glean additional information on better experimental planning. The use of this virtual experimental tool should lead to savings in time, animals, materials, and monetary costs, while the effective learning outcomes of pharmacological experiments are maintained or enhanced.

  8. Acute O 3 damage on first year coppice sprouts of aspen and maple sprouts in an open-air experiment.

    PubMed

    Darbah, Joseph N T; Jones, Wendy S; Burton, Andrew J; Nagy, John; Kubiske, Mark E

    2011-09-01

    We studied the effect of high ozone (O(3)) concentration (110-490 nmol mol(-1)) on regenerating aspen (Populus tremuloides) and maple (Acer saccharum) trees at an open-air O(3) pollution experiment near Rhinelander WI USA. This study is the first of its kind to examine the effects of acute O(3) exposure on aspen and maple sprouts after the parent trees, which were grown under elevated O(3) and/or CO(2) for 12 years, were harvested. Acute O(3) damage was not uniform within the crowns of aspen suckers; it was most severe in the mature, fully expanded photosynthesizing leaves. Young expanding leaves showed no visible signs of acute O(3) damage contrary to expectations. Stomatal conductance played a primary role in the severity of acute O(3) damage as it directly controlled O(3) uptake. Maple sprouts, which had lower stomatal conductance, smaller stomatal aperture, higher stomatal density and larger leaf surface area, were tolerant of acute O(3) exposure. Moreover, elevated CO(2) did not ameliorate the adverse effects of acute O(3) dose on aspen and maple sprouts, in contrast to its ability to counteract the effects of long-term chronic exposure to lower O(3) levels.

  9. Acute O3 damage on first year coppice sprouts of aspen and maple sprouts in an open-air experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Darbah, J.N.; Nagy, J.; Jones, W. S.; Burton, A. J.; Kubiske, M. E.

    2011-10-01

    We studied the effect of high ozone (O{sub 3}) concentration (110-490 nmol mol{sup -1}) on regenerating aspen (Populus tremuloides) and maple (Acer saccharum) trees at an open-air O{sub 3} pollution experiment near Rhinelander WI USA. This study is the first of its kind to examine the effects of acute O{sub 3} exposure on aspen and maple sprouts after the parent trees, which were grown under elevated O{sub 3} and/or CO{sub 2} for 12 years, were harvested. Acute O{sub 3} damage was not uniform within the crowns of aspen suckers; it was most severe in the mature, fully expanded photosynthesizing leaves. Young expanding leaves showed no visible signs of acute O{sub 3} damage contrary to expectations. Stomatal conductance played a primary role in the severity of acute O{sub 3} damage as it directly controlled O{sub 3} uptake. Maple sprouts, which had lower stomatal conductance, smaller stomatal aperture, higher stomatal density and larger leaf surface area, were tolerant of acute O{sub 3} exposure. Moreover, elevated CO{sub 2} did not ameliorate the adverse effects of acute O{sub 3} dose on aspen and maple sprouts, in contrast to its ability to counteract the effects of long-term chronic exposure to lower O{sub 3} levels.

  10. A preliminary investigation of the environmental Control and Life Support Subsystems (EC/LSS) for animal and plant experiment payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary study of the environmental control and life support subsystems (EC/LSS) necessary for an earth orbital spacecraft to conduct biological experiments is presented. The primary spacecraft models available for conducting these biological experiments are the space shuttle and modular space station. The experiments would be housed in a separate module that would be contained in either the shuttle payload bay or attached to the modular space station. This module would be manned only for experiment-related tasks, and would contain a separate EC/LSS for the crew and animals. Metabolic data were tabulated on various animals that are considered useful for a typical experiment program. The minimum payload for the 30-day space shuttle module was found to require about the equivalent of a one-man EC/LSS; however, the selected two-man shuttle assemblies will give a growth and contingency factor of about 50 percent. The maximum payloads for the space station mission will require at least a seven-man EC/LSS for the laboratory colony and a nine-man EC/LSS for the centrifuge colony. There is practically no room for growth or contingencies in these areas.

  11. Can more be learned from selection experiments of value in animal breeding programmes? Or is it time for an obituary?

    PubMed

    Hill, W G

    2011-04-01

    Selection experiments in laboratory animals and livestock have provided a wealth of information on genetic parameters of quantitative traits and on the effectiveness of selection in the short and long term on both directly selected and correlated traits. They have stimulated developments in theory and tests of it, and extreme selected lines continue to be source material for biological study. Some of the main questions and findings are briefly reviewed. Yet much of successful animal breeding practice has been based essentially on statistical methods, assuming where necessary the infinitesimal model, and new developments such as genomic selection are similarly not based on selection experiments. Information on the genetic architecture of quantitative traits is provided by selection experiments, but new methods for deeper studies of the biology are available. I discuss the future role for selection experiments in view of changes in funding streams and technology and conclude that there is little case for starting new experiments, but retention of existing long-term lines is desirable and DNA should be collected from all lines on a continuing basis.

  12. Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis/drug induced acute kidney injury; an experience from a single center in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Rubina; Mubarak, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ejaz; Akhtar, Fazal; Naqvi, Anwar; Rizvi, Adib

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: There is no information in literature specifically on the prevalence and clinicopathological characteristics of acute tubulointerstitial nephritis/drug induced acute kidney injury (AKI) from Pakistan. Objectives: We aim to report a series of cases from patients developing AKI after exposure to some medications or finding of interstitial nephritis on histopathology. Patients and Methods: This is an observational study of patients identified as having AKI after exposure to medications. AKI was defined according to RIFLE criteria and all patients fell from risk to loss category on arrival. On ultrasonography, all patients had normal size non-obstructed kidneys. Renal biopsy findings were consistent with tubule interstitial nephritis. Results: Mean age of patients was 36.41 ± 17.40 years. Among total of 155, 80 were male and 75 female. Regarding drugs, most common was exposure to aminoglycoside in 34 (22%) followed by use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics in 28, contrast induced agents in 11. Renal biopsy was performed in 58 patients. In half of these, insulting agent was not known and in rest either multiple medications were ingested or there was denial to substance use or recovery was delayed despite discontinuation of responsible medication. Renal replacement therapy was required on arrival in 119/155 (hemodialysis = 115, peritoneal dialysis = 4) cases. Complete renal recovery was observed in 71%, while 7.7% expired during acute phase, partial renal recovery was seen in 15% and 5% disappeared after first discharge from the hospital. Conclusion: Tubulointerstitial nephritis may occur with many drugs of common use. Early and intensive efforts must be made to consider and then timely correct the injury to the kidney. PMID:27069962

  13. The design and statistical analysis of animal experiments: introduction to this issue.

    PubMed

    Festing, Michael F W; Nevalainen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Animal research has made major contributions to the health and welfare of humans and domestic animals. Immunization, first developed against rabies and anthrax by Pasteur using dogs, sheep, and rabbits, is now used to control many infectious diseases. The first drug, Salvarsan, was developed by Ehrlich using rabbits infected with the organism causing syphilis. This was the forerunner of the many drugs developed by the pharmaceutical industry today. The discovery of vitamins using rats has almost eliminated diseases such as scurvy and rickets; and hormones, such as insulin discovered following work in dogs, have helped to control many metabolic diseases. These and many other advances have enabled physicians to treat a wide range of human diseases. But many diseases continue to cause suffering.

  14. An absorbable intravasal stent and a silicone intravasal reversible plug. Report of experiments on animals.

    PubMed

    Farcon, E; Hotchkiss, R S; Nuwayser, E S

    1975-09-01

    The high failure rate of vasovasotomy to restore fertility in vasectomized men prompted this investigation using guinea pigs as the experimental animals. The vasa were divided and absorbable intravasal stents were inserted into the lumens of the vasa at the site of anastomosis. The success or failure to secure patency and reestablish fertility was appraised by histologic sections, vasograms, semen analyses, and breeding tests. A second group of animals had silicone plugs equipped with a detachable central pin placed in both vasa. The design of this procedure was to produce an occlusive azoospermia which might be reversed by removing the central pin. Similar tests were used to establish the effectiveness of this reversible device in producing a temporary sterilization. The procedures were controlled by sham operations and insertion of plugs without pins.

  15. Two learning tasks provide evidence for disrupted behavioural flexibility in an animal model of schizophrenia-like behaviour induced by acute MK-801: a dose-response study.

    PubMed

    Lobellova, Veronika; Entlerova, Marie; Svojanovska, Barbora; Hatalova, Hana; Prokopova, Iva; Petrasek, Tomas; Vales, Karel; Kubik, Stepan; Fajnerova, Iveta; Stuchlik, Ales

    2013-06-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic and devastating illness. Exact causes of the disease remain elusive; however, neurodevelopmental changes in the brain glutamate system are recognized to play an important role. Several animal models of the disease are induced by a systemic blockade of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. This study examined the animal model of schizophrenia-like behaviours induced by acute treatment with MK-801, a non-competitive NMDA-receptor antagonist. Behavioural flexibility is an ability to adapt to the changes in environment, and schizophrenia is often accompanied by its decrease. The study tested the effect of MK-801 on behavioural flexibility in an active place avoidance task and the Morris water maze (MWM). Flexibility was tested under reversal conditions, i.e., after changing the location of the target. Each spatial task addressed different functions; continuous coordinate-frame segregation was present in the active place avoidance and precise place representation in the MWM. Results showed that reversal was altered in both tasks by MK-801 at doses of 0.10-0.15 mgkg(-1). Some impairment was observed in the active place avoidance task at 0.08 mgkg(-1). Swimming towards a visible platform was impaired only by the highest dose (0.15 mgkg(-1)). The results demonstrate that a significant impairment of behavioural flexibility accompanies this acute animal model of schizophrenia-like behaviours, and that active place avoidance had higher sensitivity for such deficits than the MWM. This suggests the usefulness of the reversal paradigm in both tasks for examining novel drugs with antipsychotic and procognitive actions.

  16. Improving the design and analysis of animal experiments: a personal odyssey.

    PubMed

    Festing, Michael F W

    2009-12-01

    Everybody's career depends on many chance factors: the people one meets, the opportunities which are available, or the state of a scientific discipline. Mine is no exception. I started out in agriculture, obtained a PhD in quantitative genetics, and spent most of my career concerned with the use of animals in biomedical research. Soon after I joined the Medical Research Council Laboratory Animals Centre in 1966, as their geneticist in charge of many species and strains of laboratory animals, I was introduced to Russell and Burch's book, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. It had a significant effect on my future, which has encompassed two related themes: the need for better experimental design, and the conviction that, in most research, inbred strains of rats and mice should normally be used in preference to genetically undefined outbred stocks. The establishment of the FRAME Reduction Committee has helped me to pursue both of these, although toxicologists continue to ignore basic design principles, by using outbred stocks.

  17. The acute psychobiological impact of the intensive care experience on relatives

    PubMed Central

    Turner-Cobb, J.M.; Smith, P.C.; Ramchandani, P.; Begen, F.M.; Padkin, A.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing awareness amongst critical care practitioners that the impact of intensive care medicine extends beyond the patient to include the psychological impact on close family members. Several studies have addressed the needs of relatives within the intensive care context but the psychobiological impact of the experience has largely been ignored. Such impact is important in respect to health and well-being of the relative, with potential to influence patient recovery. The current feasibility study aimed to examine the acute psychobiological impact of the intensive care experience on relatives. Using a mixed methods approach, quantitative and qualitative data were collected simultaneously. Six relatives of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of a District General Hospital, were assessed within 48 h of admission. Qualitative data were provided from semi-structured interviews analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Quantitative data were collected using a range of standardised self-report questionnaires measuring coping responses, emotion, trauma symptoms and social support, and through sampling of diurnal salivary cortisol as a biomarker of stress. Four themes were identified from interview: the ICU environment, emotional responses, family relationships and support. Questionnaires identified high levels of anxiety, depression and trauma symptoms; the most commonly utilised coping techniques were acceptance, seeking support through advice and information, and substance use. Social support emerged as a key factor with focused inner circle support relating to family and ICU staff. Depressed mood and avoidance were linked to greater mean cortisol levels across the day. Greater social network and coping via self-distraction were related to lower evening cortisol, indicating them as protective factors in the ICU context. The experience of ICU has a psychological and physiological impact on relatives, suggesting the importance of

  18. Experience and Distribution of Attention: Pet Exposure and Infants' Scanning of Animal Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Karinna B.; Oakes, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Although infants' cognitions about the world must be influenced by experience, little research has directly assessed the relation between everyday experience and infants' visual cognition in the laboratory. Eye-tracking procedures were used to measure 4-month-old infants' eye movements as they visually investigated a series of…

  19. An acute multispecies episode of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever in captive wild animals in an Italian zoo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In July 2011, in a zoological garden in Rome, Italy, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a fatal, systemic disease of Artiodactyls, was suspected on the basis of neurological signs and gross lesions observed in a banteng, the first animal to die of this infection. An MCF type-specific, one-step PCR wit...

  20. Plasma and lipids from stored packed red blood cells cause acute lung injury in an animal model.

    PubMed Central

    Silliman, C C; Voelkel, N F; Allard, J D; Elzi, D J; Tuder, R M; Johnson, J L; Ambruso, D R

    1998-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a serious complication of hemotherapy. During blood storage, lipids are generated and released into the plasma. In this study, the role of these lipids in TRALI was investigated using an isolated, perfused rat lung model. Rats were pretreated with endotoxin (LPS) or saline in vivo and the lungs were isolated, ventilated, and perfused with saline, or (a) 5% (vol/ vol) fresh human plasma, (b) plasma from stored blood from the day of isolation (D.0) or from the day of outdate (D.42), (c) lipid extracts from D.42 plasma, or (d) purified lysophosphatidylcholines. Lungs from saline or LPS-pretreated rats perfused with fresh (D.0) plasma showed no pulmonary damage as compared with saline perfused controls. LPS pretreatment/D.42 plasma perfusion caused acute lung injury (ALI) manifested by dramatic changes in both pulmonary artery pressure and edema. Incubation of LPS pre-tx rats with mibefradil, a Ca2+ channel blocker, or WEB 2170, a platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonist, inhibited ALI caused by D.42 plasma. Lung histology showed neutrophil sequestration without ALI with LPS pretreatment/saline or D.0 plasma perfusion, but ALI with LPS pretreatment/D.42 plasma perfusion, and inhibition of D.42 plasma induced ALI with WEB 2170 or mibefradil. A significant increase in leukotriene E4 was present in LPS-pretreated/D.42 plasma-perfused lungs that was inhibited by WEB 2170. Lastly, significant pulmonary edema was produced when lipid extracts of D.42 plasma or lysophosphatidylcholines were perfused into LPS-pretreated lungs. Lipids caused ALI without vasoconstriction, except at the highest dose employed. In conclusion, both plasma and lipids from stored blood produced pulmonary damage in a model of acute lung injury. TRALI, like the adult respiratory distress syndrome, may be the result of two insults: one derived from stored blood and the other from the clinical condition of the patient. PMID:9525989

  1. [Contribution of abdominal sonography in acute appendicitis diagnostics--our experience].

    PubMed

    Smíd, D; Skalický, T; Treska, V

    2009-08-01

    Acute apendicitis is the most frequent case of acute abdomen. During a two year period (2006-2007) it was performed in Department of Surgery of Faculty Hospital in Pilsen 678 appendectomies, 30 days post-operative mortality rate was 0%. Abdomen ultrasonography like helping method to clinic examination was performed in 313 patients, suspect of acute appendicitis was in 191 patients (61%), in remaining patients was normal ultrasound picture.

  2. Mesenchymal stem cells provide prophylaxis against acute graft-versus-host disease following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A meta-analysis of animal models.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Haiyan; Guan, Lixun; Zhao, Shasha; Gu, Zhenyang; Wei, Huaping; Gao, Zhe; Wang, Feiyan; Yang, Nan; Luo, Lan; Li, Yonghui; Wang, Lili; Liu, Daihong; Gao, Chunji

    2016-09-20

    A meta-analysis of animal models was conducted to evaluate the prophylactic effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. A total of 50 studies involving 1848 animals were included. The pooled results showed that MSCs significantly reduced aGVHD-associated mortality (risk ratio = 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.62 to 0.79, P = 2.73×10-9) and clinical scores (standardized mean difference = -3.60, 95% confidence interval -4.43 to -2.76, P = 3.61×10-17). In addition, MSCs conferred robust favorable prophylactic effects on aGVHD across recipient species, MSC doses, and administration times, but not MSC sources. Our meta-analysis showed that MSCs significantly prevented mortality and alleviated the clinical manifestations of aGVHD in animal models. These data support further clinical trials aimed at evaluating the efficacy of using MSCs to prevent aGVHD.

  3. An animal model to study toxicity of central nervous system therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Effects on growth and craniofacial proportion

    SciTech Connect

    Schunior, A.; Zengel, A.E.; Mullenix, P.J.; Tarbell, N.J.; Howes, A.; Tassinari, M.S. )

    1990-10-15

    Many long term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia have short stature, as well as craniofacial and dental abnormalities, as side effects of central nervous system prophylactic therapy. An animal model is presented to assess these adverse effects on growth. Cranial irradiation (1000 cGy) with and without prednisolone (18 mg/kg i.p.) and methotrexate (2 mg/kg i.p.) was administered to 17- and 18-day-old Sprague-Dawley male and female rats. Animals were weighed 3 times/week. Final body weight and body length were measured at 150 days of age. Femur length and craniofacial dimensions were measured directly from the bones, using calipers. For all exposed groups there was a permanent suppression of weight gain with no catch-up growth or normal adolescent growth spurt. Body length was reduced for all treated groups, as were the ratios of body weight to body length and cranial length to body length. Animals subjected to cranial irradiation exhibited microcephaly, whereas those who received a combination of radiation and chemotherapy demonstrated altered craniofacial proportions in addition to microcephaly. Changes in growth patterns and skeletal proportions exhibited sexually dimorphic characteristics. The results indicate that cranial irradiation is a major factor in the growth failure in exposed rats, but chemotherapeutic agents contribute significantly to the outcome of growth and craniofacial dimensions.

  4. Mesenchymal stem cells provide prophylaxis against acute graft-versus-host disease following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A meta-analysis of animal models

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Lixun; Zhao, Shasha; Gu, Zhenyang; Wei, Huaping; Gao, Zhe; Wang, Feiyan; Yang, Nan; Luo, Lan; Li, Yonghui; Wang, Lili; Liu, Daihong; Gao, Chunji

    2016-01-01

    A meta-analysis of animal models was conducted to evaluate the prophylactic effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. A total of 50 studies involving 1848 animals were included. The pooled results showed that MSCs significantly reduced aGVHD-associated mortality (risk ratio = 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.62 to 0.79, P = 2.73×10−9) and clinical scores (standardized mean difference = −3.60, 95% confidence interval −4.43 to −2.76, P = 3.61×10−17). In addition, MSCs conferred robust favorable prophylactic effects on aGVHD across recipient species, MSC doses, and administration times, but not MSC sources. Our meta-analysis showed that MSCs significantly prevented mortality and alleviated the clinical manifestations of aGVHD in animal models. These data support further clinical trials aimed at evaluating the efficacy of using MSCs to prevent aGVHD. PMID:27528221

  5. Telemetric ICP measurement with the first CE-approved device: data from animal experiments and initial clinical experiences.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Michael; Antes, Sebastian; Leonhardt, Steffen; Schmitt, Melanie; Orakcioglu, Berk; Sakowitz, Oliver W; Eymann, Regina

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the qualification of the new telemetric intracranial pressure (ICP) measurement (t-ICP) device Raumedic(®) NEUROVENT P-Tel and S-Tel. The proof of concept was examined in a pilot animal study measuring intraperitoneal pressure with a telemetric and a conventional ICP measurement probe at five rates for 1 h each. Moderate external pressure load allowed measuring values between 0 and 40 mmHg. To estimate long-term performance 18 t-ICP devices were implanted subdurally or intraparenchymally into minipigs. Reference measurements were performed regularly using conventional ICP probes. From the short-term as well as from the long-term perspective t-ICP proved to have excellent dynamic ICP signal components perception (e.g. pulse amplitude). Some zero drift of static ICP was found, ranging between 5 and 8 mmHg. While all telemetric, intraparenchymal probes kept their functionality throughout the follow-up, 33% of the subdurals failed for reasons detailed in another paper. Raumedic's NEUROVENT(®) P-Tel/S-Tel proved to provide reliable data over periods of up to 18 months. Minor zero drift can be well tolerated as the dynamic ICP signal is measured with excellent stability. Clinicians should focus more on such ICP dynamic signal information than on static ICP when using the device over longer follow-up periods.

  6. Soviet experiments aimed at investigating the influence of space flight factors on the physiology of animals and man.

    PubMed

    Parin, V V; Gazenko, O G

    1963-01-01

    Results are given of biological experiments on space ship-satellites II, III, IV and V, and of scientific investigations made during the flights of Cosmonauts Gagarin and Titov aboard space ships Vostok I and Vostok II. Physiological reactions to the action of the flight stress-factors are not of a pathological character. In the post-flight period no alterations in health conditions of either cosmonauts or animals were observed. At the same time some peculiarities which were revealed while analyzing physiological reactions and a number of biological indices require further investigations. The most important tasks remaining are to study the influence of protracted weightlessness, of the biological action of space radiation, of the action of acceleration stresses after prolonged stay under zero-gravity conditions and also to analyze the influence on the organism of the whole combination of spaceflight factors, including emotional strain. In the Soviet Union, a great number of biological experiments have been conducted with a view to elucidating the action of space flight factors on living organisms and the design of systems necessary to ensure healthy activity during flight aboard rocket space vehicles. The first flight experiments with animals were conducted by means of geophysical rockets. The next step in this direction was made by the launching of Sputnik II in 1957 and by experiments on space ship-satellites in 1960-61. The main purpose of flight and laboratory investigations was to obtain the objective scientific criteria essential for ensuring the safety of manned space flight.

  7. Movement to curtail animal dissections in zoology curriculum: review of the Indian experience.

    PubMed

    Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkader

    2007-01-01

    Animal dissections have been dropped from the curriculum in several developed countries, and virtual laboratories are taking their place, or at least the concept of the "three R's" is becoming accepted. Yet, the scenario in the developing countries in this regard has been dismal. However, recently, a movement has started in India in this area, thanks to the aggressive approach of PfA, I-CARE and InterNICHE, supported by a few zoology educators and policy makers, who joined this movement as freelancers. The aggressive campaigners against animal dissections put up convincing arguments to the orthodox zoology educators and higher education planners with such veracity that the arguments cannot be ignored. The arguments, to be presented in detail at the conference, and the campaign have been rewarded with success such that a few universities and autonomous colleges have revamped their zoology curricula so as to dispense with or reduce animal dissections. The Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India, has been the trendsetter, evolving what is known as the "Bharathidasan University Model". A memorandum from I-CARE and PfA to the University Grants Commission, Government of India, New Delhi, was sent out by the UGC to the universities with a request to consider the points positively. However, there is still a need to bring about an attitudinal change in the zoology educators and higher education planners such that they participate willingly in this endeavour. The role-players at all levels are identified and approached with a language that is understandable to each and are adequately supported by hands-on training in the alternative methods. Ultimately, the responsibility in this regard lies with the educators themselves, since they are the ones who, working in the academic committees that design the curricula, can cut down on the requirement for dissections.

  8. [Early life stressful experiences and neuropsychiatric vulnerability: evidences from human and animal models].

    PubMed

    Rincel, Marion; Lépinay, Amandine; Gabory, Anne; Théodorou, Vassilia; Koehl, Muriel; Daugé, Valérie; Maccari, Stefania; Darnaudéry, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    The human newborn is highly dependent on parental care for its survival but also for the healthy development of its brain. A large body of literature demonstrates the impact of early life adversity, even during the prenatal period, on the adult's health. The susceptibility to neuropsychiatric diseases is often potentiated by early stress. If there is an agreement that a critical developmental period exists, the mechanisms underlying the long term effects of early life adversity are still poorly understood. Recent studies in animals highlight the involvement of epigenetic processes in the transmission of such vulnerabilities, notably via modifications in germ cells, which can be transmitted in the next generations.

  9. Ultrasound strain elastography in assessment of cortical mechanical behavior in acute renal vein occlusion: in vivo animal model.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; He, Wen; Cheng, Ling-Gang; Li, Xiao-Ya; Zhang, Xiou-Ru; Juluru, Krishna; Al Khori, Noor; Coya, Adrienne; Min, Robert

    2015-01-01

    To assess the correlation of quantitative ultrasound strain parameters with the severity of cortical edema in renal vein occlusion, we prospectively performed ultrasound strain elastography on a canine acute renal vein occlusion model prior to and following 10, 20, and 40min of renal vein ligation. Strain and strain relaxation time representing the deformation and relaxation of the renal cortices and reference soft tissue were produced by the external compression with the ultrasound transducer and estimated using commercially available 2-D speckle tracking software. Cortical thickness was additionally measured. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to examine the difference in cortical thickness, strain ratio (mean cortical strain divided by mean reference tissue strain), and strain relaxation time ratio (cortical relaxation time divided by reference tissue relaxation time) prior to and after renal vein ligation. Pearson's correlation coefficient was applied to test the relationship between strain parameters and the time of the renal vein ligation. There was a strong positive correlation between the duration of renal vein ligation and strain (R(2)=0.97) and strain relaxation time (R(2)=0.98) ratios. Significant differences in strain and strain relaxation time ratios were found at all measured timepoints (all P≪.001). Cortical thickness, however, showed no significant difference between timepoints (P=.065). Our result suggest that strain and strain relaxation time ratios may be used as quantitative markers for the assessment of the renal cortical mechanical behavior in subclinical acute renal vein occlusion.

  10. Is experience on a farm an effective approach to understanding animal products and the management of dairy farming?

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Mariko; Osada, Masahiro; Ishioka, Katsumi; Matsubara, Takako; Momota, Yutaka; Yumoto, Norio; Sako, Toshinori; Kamiya, Shinji; Yoshimura, Itaru

    2014-03-01

    The understanding of animal products and dairy farming is important for the promotion of dairy farming. Thus, to examine the effects of farm experience on the understanding of animal products and the management of dairy farming, the interaction between students and dairy cows was investigated in groups of first-year veterinary nursing students in 2011 and 2012 (n = 201). These students included 181 women and 20 men. Nine items about dairy cows were presented in a questionnaire. The survey was performed before and after praxis on the educational farm attached to the authors' university. After praxis on the farm, increases occurred in the number of positive responses to the items involving the price of milk, dairy farming and the taste of milk. For these items, a significant difference (P < 0.05) was found between the scores obtained before and after training. The results of the study suggested that farm experience is useful for improving the understanding of animal products and dairy farming.

  11. Involvement of activated leukocytes in the regulation of plasma levels of acute phase proteins in microgravity simulation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna; Turin-Kuzmin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Earth-based studies of microgravity effects showed the induction of the mechanisms of acute phase reaction (APR). APR comprises the transition of stress-sensitive protein kinases of macrophages and other responsive cells into the active state and the phosphorylation of transcription factors which in turn stimulate the production of acute-phase reaction cytokines. Leukocyte activation is accompanied by the acceleration of the formation of oxygen radicals which can serve a functional indice of leukocyte cell state. The series of events at acute phase response result in selective changes in the synthesis of a number of secretory blood proteins (acute phase proteins, APPs) in liver cells thus contributing the recovery of homeostasis state in the organism. Earlier experiment with head-down tilt showed the increase in plasma concentrations of two cytokine mediators of acute phase response, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) being the outcome of the activation of producer cells, foremost, leukocytes. In experiment with 4-day dry immersion chemiluminescent (ChL) reply of the whole blood samples to a test stimulus were studied along with the measurements of plasma levels of APPs, namely, alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1-AT), alpha1-acid glycoprotein (alpha1-AGP), alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2-M), ceruloplasmin (Cer), haptoglobin (Hp), C3-complement component (C3), C-reactive protein (CRP). Eight individuals aged 21.2 ± 3.2 years were the test subjects in the investigation. Protein studies showed a noticeable increase in the mean plasma levels of all APPs measured in experiment thus producing the evidence of the activation of acute phase response mechanisms while individual patterns revealed variability during the immersion period. The overall trends were similar to these in the previous immersion series. The augment in the strength of signal in stimulated light emission tests was higher after 1- and 2-day of immersion exposure than before the

  12. Active Compounds of Rhubarb Root and Rhizome in Animal Model Experiments of Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ai-ju; Song, Liang; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-guang; Chen, Zi-xian; Huang, Li-bo; Zhang, Hong-feng; Zheng, Guo-qing

    2015-01-01

    Rhubarb root and rhizome (RRR) has been clinically used for stroke at least 2000 years and is still used in modern times in both China and elsewhere worldwide. The objective of present study was to evaluate the efficacy of active compounds of RRR (ACRRR) for experimental ischemic stroke. Studies of ACRRR in animal models of ischemic stroke were identified from 5 databases until April 2014. Study quality for each included article was evaluated according to the CAMARADES 10-item checklist. Outcome measures were neurological deficit score and infarct size. All the data were analyzed using RevMan 5.1 software. As a result, 20 studies were identified describing procedures involving 577 animals. The quality score of studies ranges from 2 to 6, and the median was 3.4. Six studies showed significant effects of ACRRR for improving infarct size compared with model group (P < 0.01). Six studies indicated significant effects of ACRRR for improving the neurological deficit scores according to Zea longa criterion or eight-point criterion (P < 0.01). In conclusion, these findings demonstrated a possible efficacy of ACRRR that have potential neuroprotective effect for experimental ischemic stroke. However, these apparently positive findings should be interpreted with caution because of the methodological flaws. PMID:26495006

  13. Isolation and propagation of the animal rotaviruses in MA-104 cells--30 years of practical experience.

    PubMed

    Otto, Peter H; Reetz, Jochen; Eichhorn, Werner; Herbst, Werner; Elschner, Mandy C

    2015-10-01

    A total of 136 rotavirus positive samples from diarrhoeic animals of different species were submitted for isolation and cultural propagation of rotavirus on MA-104 cells. The samples were collected from animals with diarrhoea, between 1980 and 2010, originating from herds or farms located in several parts of Germany. Rotaviruses of species A were isolated from 102 faecal samples in cultures of MA-104 cells under the following conditions: pre-treatment of virus with trypsin, incorporation of trypsin into culture medium, use of roller cultures, and centrifugation of the samples on the cells. The cell culture adapted viruses produced a cytopathic effect, accompanied by the release of cells from the glass surface of the cultivation vessels. After 10 passages the virus isolates yielded titres between 10(5.5) and 10(7.5)ml(-1) TCID50. Isolation and serial propagation of the virus in MA-104 cells was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay, transmission electron microscopy, and polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of viral dsRNA. Eight (5.9%) of the electrophoretic profiles were characteristic of species B or D rotaviruses, which were not replicated in MA-104 cells.

  14. An Acute Multispecies Episode of Sheep-Associated Malignant Catarrhal Fever in Captive Wild Animals in an Italian Zoo.

    PubMed

    Frontoso, R; Autorino, G L; Friedrich, K G; Li, H; Eleni, C; Cocumelli, C; Di Cerbo, P; Manna, G; Scicluna, M T

    2016-12-01

    In July 2011, in a zoological garden in Rome, Italy, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a fatal, systemic disease of Artiodactyla, was suspected on the basis of neurological signs and gross lesions observed in a banteng, the first animal to die of this infection. An MCF type-specific PCR with subsequent sequencing of the PCR amplicon confirmed the aetiological agent as ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2). Biological samples were collected from the dead animals for gross, histological, bacteriological, virological and serological examinations. An epidemiological investigation was conducted to identify the source of the outbreak, as further deaths due to OvHV-2 still occurred after the removal of the acknowledged reservoirs, domestic sheep and goats. For this purpose, samples from other susceptible species and reservoir hosts were collected for virological and serological analysis. In conjunction, a retrospective sero-investigation was conducted on sera collected between 1999 and 2010 from some of the species involved in the present episode. In total, 11 animals belonging to four different species (banteng, Himalayan tahr, Nile lechwe and sika deer) died between July 2011 and October 2012. The severe gross and histological lesions were consistent with the disease, namely haemorrhages and congestion of several organs as well as lymphoid cell infiltrates and vasculitis of varying severity. The virological tests confirmed that all animals had died of sheep-associated MCF. The investigation indicated that the OvHV-2 infection could have been due to the arrival of sheep in the petting zoo, with cases commencing after first lambing and subsequent shedding of virus. This was also supported by the serological retrospective study that indicated limited previous MCF virus circulation. Further MCF cases that occurred even after the removal of the domestic sheep and goats were attributed to the mouflon. This episode confirms the importance of biosecurity measures in zoos, which house MCF

  15. Instrumentation for fast-scan cyclic voltammetry combined with electrophysiology for behavioral experiments in freely moving animals

    PubMed Central

    Takmakov, Pavel; McKinney, Collin J.; Carelli, Regina M.; Wightman, R. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry is a unique technique for sampling dopamine concentration in the brain of rodents in vivo in real time. The combination of in vivo voltammetry with single-unit electrophysiological recording from the same microelectrode has proved to be useful in studying the relationship between animal behavior, dopamine release and unit activity. The instrumentation for these experiments described here has two unique features. First, a 2-electrode arrangement implemented for voltammetric measurements with the grounded reference electrode allows compatibility with electrophysiological measurements, iontophoresis, and multielectrode measurements. Second, we use miniaturized electronic components in the design of a small headstage that can be fixed on the rat's head and used in freely moving animals. PMID:21806203

  16. Instrumentation for fast-scan cyclic voltammetry combined with electrophysiology for behavioral experiments in freely moving animals.

    PubMed

    Takmakov, Pavel; McKinney, Collin J; Carelli, Regina M; Wightman, R Mark

    2011-07-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry is a unique technique for sampling dopamine concentration in the brain of rodents in vivo in real time. The combination of in vivo voltammetry with single-unit electrophysiological recording from the same microelectrode has proved to be useful in studying the relationship between animal behavior, dopamine release and unit activity. The instrumentation for these experiments described here has two unique features. First, a 2-electrode arrangement implemented for voltammetric measurements with the grounded reference electrode allows compatibility with electrophysiological measurements, iontophoresis, and multielectrode measurements. Second, we use miniaturized electronic components in the design of a small headstage that can be fixed on the rat's head and used in freely moving animals.

  17. The Experience of Witnessing Patients' Trauma and Suffering among Acute Care Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Mary E.; Buchanan, Marla J.

    2011-01-01

    A large body of research provides evidence of workplace injuries to those in the nursing profession. Research on workplace stress and burnout among medical professionals is also well known; however, the profession of acute care nursing has not been examined with regards to work-related stress. This qualitative study focused on acute care nurses'…

  18. Approaches to gastrointestinal cytoprotection: from isolated cells, via animal experiments to healthy human subjects and patients with different gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Mózsik, Gyula; Szabó, Imre L; Czimmer, József

    2011-01-01

    Our clinical observations proved that the the duodenal ulcer in patients healed without any inhibition of gastric acid secretion (1965), and the healing rates of atropine vs cimetidine vs Carbenoxolone were equal and superior to that of placebo in randomized, prospective and multiclinical study of DU patients (1978). The phenomenon of gastric cytoprotection was defined by André Robert in rats (1979). The essential point of this phenomenon is that the prostaglandins prevent the chemical-induced gastric mucosal damage without affecting gastric acid secretion, this being originally suggested as a reaction specific to prostaglandins. Since then gastrointestinal cytoprotection has been shown with various agents (anticholinergic agents, H(2)RA, growth factors, body protecting compound, BPC) and retinoids in animals; the latter differing from the actions of vitamin A. In examining the various components of gastrointestinal cytoprotection , different studies have performed in isolated cells, stable cell lines, animal experiments, healthy human subjects, in patients chronic gastric and duodenal ulcers, and with different gastrointestinal disorders. Our attention has focused on the effects of cytoprotective agents on cellular viability, mitochondrial and DNA damage, oxygen free radicals, natural antioxidant systems, mucosal biochemistry, vascular events, gastrointestinal mucosal protection as well as in their prevention of different human diseases. This paper gives an overview on the different approaches for the exploring gastrointestinal cytoprotection (at the level of isolated cells, animal experiments, healthy human beings and patients with different gastrointestinal disorders). It has been indicated that the gastric cytoprotection exists in animals, human healthy subjects, patients with different gastrointestinal disorders. The our human observation in patients with duodenal ulcer healed without any changes of gastric acid secretion, there were no significant

  19. High sodium causes hypertension: evidence from clinical trials and animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Vamsi; Sridhar, Arvind; Machado, Roberto F; Chen, Jiwang

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is a cardiovascular disease affecting approximately one out of every seven people worldwide. High-sodium consumption has been generally accepted as a risk factor for developing hypertension. Today, global sodium consumption greatly exceeds guidelines recommended by all medical institutions. This review synthesizes the data of landmark mammalian and human studies which investigated the role of sodium in the pathogenesis of hypertension, along with modern studies questioning this relationship. Recent studies concerning the potential pathways by which high-sodium concentration induces hypertension were reviewed. Human trials and population studies revealed a strong correlation between high blood pressure and average dietary sodium; and animal studies found a dramatic reduction in vascular function in a variety of mammals treated with high-sodium diets. In spite of a few contrarian studies, we found overwhelming evidence that elevated sodium consumption could cause hypertension.

  20. Gene therapy for the treatment of AIDS: animal models and human clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Amado, R G; Mitsuyasu, R T; Zack, J A

    1999-05-15

    Although antiretroviral drug therapy has had a significant impact on the natural history of HIV infection, complete virus eradication still remains an unattainable goal. Drug-mediated virological control only occurs transiently, in part as a result of the development of drug resistance. Gene therapy for the treatment of AIDS is a promising area of research that has as its goal the replacement of the HIV-infected cellular pool with cells engineered to resist virus replication. A variety of anti-HIV genes have been designed and tested in laboratory systems, and available results from pilot clinical trials demonstrate the safety and feasibility of this approach. Obstacles to effective application of this technology include partial protection of HIV resistance genes, lack of effective vectoring systems, and unregulated gene expression. Herein, we review recent advances in transduction methods, data from in vivo preclinical studies in relevant animal models, and emerging results derived from pilot clinical gene therapy studies.

  1. Free-zone electrophoresis of animal cells. 1: Experiments on cell-cell interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P. W.; Hjerten, S.

    1985-01-01

    The electrophoretically migrating zones wasa monitored. The absence of fluid flows in the direction of migration permits direct measurement of electrophoretic velocities of any material. Sedimentation is orthogonal to electrokinetic motion and the effects of particle-particle interaction on electrophoretic mobility is studied by free zone electrophoresis. Fixed erythrocytes at high concentrations, mixtures of fixed erythrocytes from different animal species, and mixtures of cultured human cells were studied in low ionic strength buffers. The electrophoretic velocity of fixed erythrocytes was not altered by increasing cell concentration or by the mixing of erythrocytes from different species. When zones containing cultured human glial cells and neuroblastoma cells are permitted to interact during electrophoresis, altered migration patterns occur. It is found that cell-cell interactions depends upon cell type.

  2. Frequency-dependent Effects of Vibration on Physiological Systems: Experiments with Animals and other Human Surrogates

    PubMed Central

    KRAJNAK, Kristine; RILEY, Danny A.; WU, John; MCDOWELL, Thomas; WELCOME, Daniel E.; XU, Xueyan S.; DONG, Ren G.

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure to vibration through the use of power- and pneumatic hand-tools results in cold-induced vasospasms, finger blanching, and alterations in sensorineural function. Collectively, these symptoms are referred to as hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). Currently the International Standards Organization (ISO) standard ISO 5349-1 contains a frequency-weighting curve to help workers and employers predict the risk of developing HAVS with exposure to vibration of different frequencies. However, recent epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that this curve under-represents the risk of injuries to the hands and fingers induced by exposure to vibration at higher frequencies (>100 Hz). To improve the curve, better exposure-response data need to be collected. The goal of this review is to summarize the results of animal and computational modeling studies that have examined the frequency-dependent effects of vibration, and discuss where additional research would be beneficial to fill these research gaps. PMID:23060248

  3. Scaling in neurotrauma: how do we apply animal experiments to people?

    PubMed

    Panzer, Matthew B; Wood, Garrett W; Bass, Cameron R

    2014-11-01

    Scaling is an essential component for translating the clinical outcomes of a neurotrauma model to the human equivalent. This article reviews the principles of biomechanical scaling for traumatic brain injuries, and a number of different approaches to scaling the dose (inputs) and response (outputs) of an animal model to humans are highlighted. A particular focus on blast injury scaling is given as an ongoing area of research, and discussion on the implications of scaling on the current blast TBI literature is provided. The risk of using neurotrauma models without considering an appropriate scaling method is that injuries may be induced with non-realistic loading conditions, and the injury mechanisms produced in the laboratory may not be consistent with those in the clinical setting.

  4. Antinociceptive effect of cyclic phosphatidic acid and its derivative on animal models of acute and chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    1. Abstract Background Cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) is a structural analog of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), but possesses different biological functions, such as the inhibition of autotaxin (ATX), an LPA-synthesizing enzyme. As LPA is a signaling molecule involved in nociception in the peripheral and central systems, cPA is expected to possess analgesic activity. We characterized the effects of cPA and 2-carba-cPA (2ccPA), a chemically stable cPA analog, on acute and chronic pain. Results (1) The systemic injection of 2ccPA significantly inhibited somato-cardiac and somato-somatic C-reflexes but not the corresponding A-reflexes in anesthetized rats. (2) 2ccPA reduced sensitivity measured as the paw withdrawal response to electrical stimulation applied to the hind paws of mice through the C-fiber, but not Aδ or Aβ. (3) In mice, pretreatment with 2ccPA dose-dependently inhibited the second phase of formalin-induced licking and biting responses. (4) In mice, pretreatment and repeated post-treatments with 2ccPA significantly attenuated thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia following partial ligation of the sciatic nerve. (5) In rats, repeated post-treatments with 2ccPA also significantly attenuated thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia following chronic sciatic nerve constriction. Conclusions Our results suggest that cPA and its stable analog 2ccPA inhibit chronic and acute inflammation-induced C-fiber stimulation, and that the central effects of 2ccPA following repeated treatments attenuate neuropathic pain. PMID:21569544

  5. A Different Kind of Animal: Liminal Experiences of Social Work Doctoral Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adorno, Gail; Cronley, Courtney; Smith, Kenneth Scott

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that social and academic integration is a vital factor in doctoral student retention. This paper describes findings from a qualitative study which explored the experiences of a cohort of social work doctoral students during the first year in their programme of study. We used the anthropological concept of liminality which…

  6. Modification of hippocampal markers of synaptic plasticity by memantine in animal models of acute and repeated restraint stress: implications for memory and behavior.

    PubMed

    Amin, Shaimaa Nasr; El-Aidi, Ahmed Amro; Ali, Mohamed Mostafa; Attia, Yasser Mahmoud; Rashed, Laila Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    Stress is any condition that impairs the balance of the organism physiologically or psychologically. The response to stress involves several neurohormonal consequences. Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and its release is increased by stress that predisposes to excitotoxicity in the brain. Memantine is an uncompetitive N-methyl D-aspartate glutamatergic receptors antagonist and has shown beneficial effect on cognitive function especially in Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the work was to investigate memantine effect on memory and behavior in animal models of acute and repeated restraint stress with the evaluation of serum markers of stress and the expression of hippocampal markers of synaptic plasticity. Forty-two male rats were divided into seven groups (six rats/group): control, acute restraint stress, acute restraint stress with Memantine, repeated restraint stress, repeated restraint stress with Memantine and Memantine groups (two subgroups as positive control). Spatial working memory and behavior were assessed by performance in Y-maze. We evaluated serum cortisol, tumor necrotic factor, interleukin-6 and hippocampal expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, synaptophysin and calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Our results revealed that Memantine improved spatial working memory in repeated stress, decreased serum level of stress markers and modified the hippocampal synaptic plasticity markers in both patterns of stress exposure; in ARS, Memantine upregulated the expression of synaptophysin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and downregulated the expression of calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and in repeated restraint stress, it upregulated the expression of synaptophysin and downregulated calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II expression.

  7. Development and validation of a LC-MS/MS assay for quantitation of plasma citrulline for application to animal models of the acute radiation syndrome across multiple species.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jace W; Tudor, Gregory; Bennett, Alexander; Farese, Ann M; Moroni, Maria; Booth, Catherine; MacVittie, Thomas J; Kane, Maureen A

    2014-07-01

    The potential risk of a radiological catastrophe highlights the need for identifying and validating potential biomarkers that accurately predict radiation-induced organ damage. A key target organ that is acutely sensitive to the effects of irradiation is the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, referred to as the GI acute radiation syndrome (GI-ARS). Recently, citrulline has been identified as a potential circulating biomarker for radiation-induced GI damage. Prior to biologically validating citrulline as a biomarker for radiation-induced GI injury, there is the important task of developing and validating a quantitation assay for citrulline detection within the radiation animal models used for biomarker validation. Herein, we describe the analytical development and validation of citrulline detection using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay that incorporates stable-label isotope internal standards. Analytical validation for specificity, linearity, lower limit of quantitation, accuracy, intra- and interday precision, extraction recovery, matrix effects, and stability was performed under sample collection and storage conditions according to the Guidance for Industry, Bioanalytical Methods Validation issued by the US Food and Drug Administration. In addition, the method was biologically validated using plasma from well-characterized mouse, minipig, and nonhuman primate GI-ARS models. The results demonstrated that circulating citrulline can be confidently quantified from plasma. Additionally, circulating citrulline displayed a time-dependent response for radiological doses covering GI-ARS across multiple species.

  8. CB1 receptor activation in the basolateral amygdala produces antinociception in animal models of acute and tonic nociception.

    PubMed

    Hasanein, Parisa; Parviz, Mohsen; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Javanmardi, Kazem

    2007-01-01

    1. Recent studies have suggested that the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) participates in the processing of pain information, especially noxious somatic information. Cannabinoid receptors or CB1 mRNA are expressed more in the BLA than in other nuclei of the amygdala. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine whether CB1 receptors in the BLA may be involved in modulating acute and/or tonic nociceptive processing. 2. Adult rats were exposed to intra-BLA microinjection of the cannabinoid receptor agonist (R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl) pyrrolo [1,2,3,-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-naphthalenylmethanone mesylate [WIN 55,212-2 (1, 2.5, 5 or 10 microg/side)] and subjected to the tail flick and formalin tests. 3. The rats demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in latency to withdraw from a thermal noxious stimulus in the tail flick test and a decrease in formalin-induced pain behaviours. The antinociceptive effects of the CB1 receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 (10 microg/side) in both tests were attenuated in the presence of the selective CB1 receptor antagonist, N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3- carboxamide (AM251; 0.55 ng/side). Administration of the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (0.55, 5.5, or 55.5 ng/side) alone did not alter the nociceptive thresholds in either test. Bilateral microinjection of the selective CB2 receptor antagonist N-[(1S)-endo-1,3,3-trimethyl bicyclo [2.2.1] heptan-2-yl]-5-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl)-1-(4-methylbenzyl)-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (SR144528; 1 microg/side) had no effect on the antinociception produced by WIN 55,212-2, suggesting that the antinociceptive actions of WIN 55,212-2 are mediated by CB1 receptors. 4. The findings suggest the existence of a CB1-mediated inhibitory system in the BLA that, when activated, can diminish responsivity to acute and tonic noxious stimuli, but that normally has no tonic effect on the response threshold of these stimuli.

  9. Preimplantation embryo metabolism and culture systems: experience from domestic animals and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Absalón-Medina, V A; Butler, W R; Gilbert, R O

    2014-04-01

    Despite advantages of in vitro embryo production in many species, widespread use of this technology is limited by generally lower developmental competence of in vitro derived embryos compared to in vivo counterparts. Regardless, in vivo or in vitro gametes and embryos face and must adjust to multiple microenvironments especially at preimplantation stages. Moreover, the embryo has to be able to further adapt to environmental cues in utero to result in the birth of live and healthy offspring. Enormous strides have been made in understanding and meeting stage-specific requirements of preimplantation embryos, but interpretation of the data is made difficult due to the complexity of the wide array of culture systems and the remarkable plasticity of developing embryos that seem able to develop under a variety of conditions. Nevertheless, a primary objective remains meeting, as closely as possible, the preimplantation embryo requirements as provided in vivo. In general, oocytes and embryos develop more satisfactorily when cultured in groups. However, optimization of individual culture of oocytes and embryos is an important goal and area of intensive current research for both animal and human clinical application. Successful culture of individual embryos is of primary importance in order to avoid ovarian superstimulation and the associated physiological and psychological disadvantages for patients. This review emphasizes stage specific shifts in embryo metabolism and requirements and research to optimize in vitro embryo culture conditions and supplementation, with a view to optimizing embryo culture in general, and culture of single embryos in particular.

  10. [Early postoperative intestinal motility following abdominal surgery in an animal experiment].

    PubMed

    Schippers, E; Braun, J; Erhardt, W; Schumpelick, V

    1990-01-01

    Gastrointestinal myoelectrical activity was registered in 6 dogs after different surgical procedures such as laparotomy, segmental resection of the jejunum and right hemicolectomy. Animals were studied in the fasted- and fed state and after pharmacological stimulation with Ceruletide. The electrical activity was recorded by means of 6 bipolar electrodes implanted along the intestinal wall. Abdominal surgery abolished normal motility in the stomach and small intestine only for a short period of time. The time for the reappearance of regularly recurring activity fronts varied with the type of the surgical procedure from 3 h after segmental resection of the jejunum to 49 h after colon resection. Severe disturbances of the BER (basic electrical rhythm) in the stomach as tachygastria and tachyarrhythmia persist even after restoration of the MMC (migrating motor complex) in the small intestine. Feeding induced a typical fedpattern but never before restoration of the MMC. Stimulation of the intestine during postoperative ileus with Ceruletide increases segmental myoelectrical activity. The period of postoperative ileus was not reduced.

  11. Motor evoked potentials enable differentiation between motor and sensory branches of peripheral nerves in animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Turkof, Edvin; Jurasch, Nikita; Knolle, Erik; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Habib, Danja; Unger, Ewald; Reichel, Martin; Losert, Udo

    2006-10-01

    Differentiation between motor and sensory fascicles is frequently necessary in reconstructive peripheral nerve surgery. The goal of this experimental study was to verify if centrally motor evoked potentials (MEP) could be implemented to differentiate sensory from motor fascicles, despite the well-known intermingling between nerve fascicles along their course to their distant periphery. This new procedure would enable surgeons to use MEP for placing nerve grafts at corresponding fascicles in the proximal and distal stumps without the need to use time-consuming staining. In ten sheep, both ulnar nerves were exposed at the terminal bifurcation between the last sensory and motor branch. Animals were then relaxed to avoid volume conduction. On central stimulation, the evoked nerve compound action potentials were simultaneously recorded from both terminal branches. In all cases, neurogenic motor nerve action potentials were recorded only from the terminal motor branch. The conclusion was that MEPs can be used for intraoperative differentiation between sensory and motor nerves. Further studies are necessary to develop this method for in situ measurements on intact nerve trunks.

  12. Neural and mesenchymal stem cells in animal models of Huntington's disease: past experiences and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Kerkis, Irina; Haddad, Monica Santoro; Valverde, Cristiane Wenceslau; Glosman, Sabina

    2015-12-14

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited disease that causes progressive nerve cell degeneration. It is triggered by a mutation in the HTT gene that strongly influences functional abilities and usually results in movement, cognitive and psychiatric disorders. HD is incurable, although treatments are available to help manage symptoms and to delay the physical, mental and behavioral declines associated with the condition. Stem cells are the essential building blocks of life, and play a crucial role in the genesis and development of all higher organisms. Ablative surgical procedures and fetal tissue cell transplantation, which are still experimental, demonstrate low rates of recovery in HD patients. Due to neuronal cell death caused by accumulation of the mutated huntingtin (mHTT) protein, it is unlikely that such brain damage can be treated solely by drug-based therapies. Stem cell-based therapies are important in order to reconstruct damaged brain areas in HD patients. These therapies have a dual role: stem cell paracrine action, stimulating local cell survival, and brain tissue regeneration through the production of new neurons from the intrinsic and likely from donor stem cells. This review summarizes current knowledge on neural stem/progenitor cell and mesenchymal stem cell transplantation, which has been carried out in several animal models of HD, discussing cell distribution, survival and differentiation after transplantation, as well as functional recovery and anatomic improvements associated with these approaches. We also discuss the usefulness of this information for future preclinical and clinical studies in HD.

  13. Albumen Glue, New Material for Conjunctival Graft Surgery, an Animal Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartiwa, A.; Miraprahesti, R.; Sovani, I.; Enus, S.; Boediono, A.

    2017-02-01

    Attach conjunctival graft commonly used are suture technique and fibrin glue. This study was to investigate albumen glue as an alternative to suture technique in attaching conjunctival graft in rabbits. Aim of this study was to compare the conjunctival wound healing between albumen glue and suture technique in rabbit eye as a model. There was an experimental animal study included 32 eyes (16 rabbits) in PT. Bio Farma (Persero) and Histology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Padjadjaran University from March 2014 to July 2104. The study consisted of albumen glue group and suture technique group. The examination included the comparison of conjunctival graft attachment and histologic examination by microscopically was done to obtain the wound gap, then analyze by Mann-Whitney test. The results indicated that the graft attachment was significantly better-using albumen glue (grade 4) compared to suture (grade 2-3) on day-1 after surgery (p=0,000). The wound gap was smaller using albumen glue (0-0,33 μm versus 5,33-14 μm ; p=0,0005) on 10 minutes after surgery and 0 μm versus 0,33-4 μm ; p=0,0005 on day-7 after surgery. In conclusion, the graft attachment using albumen glue was better and the wound gap was smaller using albumen glue than suture technique.

  14. Melatonin and renal protection: novel perspectives from animal experiments and human studies (review).

    PubMed

    Hrenak, Jaroslav; Paulis, Ludovit; Repova, Kristina; Aziriova, Silvia; Nagtegaal, Elsbeth J; Reiter, Russel J; Simko, Fedor

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a serious public health problem. Current therapies are designed to slow down progression of the disease and avoid the necessity of dialysis or kidney transplantation. CKD is characterized by chronic inflammation and progressive cell death resulting in fibrotic rebuilding of renal tissue. Melatonin, the primary product of the pineal gland, has been shown to have pluripotent protective effects in many organs and tissues. It exerts anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and antiremodelling actions. A principal mechanism of these numerous melatonin benefits resides in its extraordinary high efficacy as an antioxidant and scavenger protecting cells both extracellularly and in all subcellular structures. In addition to these receptor-independent actions, the effects of melatonin via specific MT-receptors may be beneficial. In several animal models of CKD, involving experimental hypertension, diabetes mellitus and various models of nephrotoxicity, melatonin reduced the oxidative burden, attenuated the chronic inflammation and limited apoptosis. These effects were associated with the reduction of proteinuria, damage of parenchymal cells and fibrosis. In humans, melatonin's chronobiological action attenuates sleep disturbances in hemodialyzed patients suffering from a relative melatonin deficiency. Moreover, melatonin reduces the oxidative burden and improves iron metabolism in hemodialyzed patients. In conclusion, the pleiotropic physiological actions of melatonin induce beneficial effects at numerous pathophysiological levels related to CKD both under experimental and clinical conditions. It is hoped that this review will prompt a large clinical trial to determine the efficacy of this nontoxic indoleamine as a potential treatment for this debilitating disease.

  15. Improving planning, design, reporting and scientific quality of animal experiments by using the Gold Standard Publication Checklist, in addition to the ARRIVE guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hooijmans, Carlijn R; de Vries, Rob; Leenaars, Marlies; Curfs, Jo; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2011-03-01

    Several studies have demonstrated serious omissions in the way research that use animals is reported. In order to improve the quality of reporting of animal experiments, the Animals in research: reporting in vivo experiments (ARRIVE) Guidelines were published in the British Journal of Pharmacology in August 2010. However, not only the quality of reporting of completed animal studies needs to be improved, but also the design and execution of new experiments. With both these goals in mind, we published the Gold Standard Publication Checklist (GSPC) in May 2010, a few months before the ARRIVE guidelines appeared. In this letter, we compare the GSPC checklist with the ARRIVE Guidelines. The GSPC describes certain items in more detail, which makes it both easier to use when designing and conducting an experiment and particularly suitable for making systematic reviews of animal studies more feasible. In order to improve not only the reporting but also the planning, design, execution and thereby, the scientific quality of animal experiments, we strongly recommend to all scientists involved in animal experimentation and to editors of journals publishing animal studies to take a closer look at the contents of both the ARRIVE guidelines and GSPC, and select the set of guidelines which is most appropriate for their particular situation.

  16. Experiences of hand hygiene among acute care nurses: An interpretative phenomenological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chatfield, Sheryl L; Nolan, Rachael; Crawford, Hannah; Hallam, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Occurrences of healthcare-associated infections are associated with substantial direct and indirect costs. Improvement in hand hygiene among acute care nurses has potential to reduce incidence of healthcare-associated infections. Findings from reviews of intervention research have not conclusively identified components that are more or less efficient or effective. Much prior qualitative research has focused on descriptive analysis of policies and practices rather than providing interpretive explorations of how individuals’ perceptions of hygiene might drive practices. Methods: We conducted qualitative interview research with eight nurses in the United States who were employed in various patient-care roles. We analyzed the data using an interpretative phenomenological analysis methodology to explore how nurses described their perceptions of, and experiences with, hygiene. We developed themes that explored individual, workplace, and management influences on perception of hygiene. Results: Developed themes include practical hygiene, risky business, and hygiene on trial; the latter theme described the conflict between how nurses perceived their own hygiene practices and how they felt hospital management perceived these practices. Other findings included that participants distinguished between policy-mandated use of sanitizer and a personal sense of cleanliness; the latter was more likely to be associated with scrubbing or removal of contaminants than with use of protectants. Conclusion: While participants asserted support for facility hand hygiene policies, their behavior in certain instances might be mediated by broadly defined emergent situations and a belief that it is not currently possible to establish a causal link between an healthcare-associated infections and a specific individual or occurrence. Researchers and infection prevention practitioners might consider soliciting greater input from nurses in planning hand hygiene improvement interventions

  17. Design of a testing strategy using non-animal based test methods: lessons learnt from the ACuteTox project.

    PubMed

    Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Prieto, Pilar; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Stanzel, Sven

    2013-06-01

    In the framework of toxicology, a testing strategy can be viewed as a series of steps which are taken to come to a final prediction about a characteristic of a compound under study. The testing strategy is performed as a single-step procedure, usually called a test battery, using simultaneously all information collected on different endpoints, or as tiered approach in which a decision tree is followed. Design of a testing strategy involves statistical considerations, such as the development of a statistical prediction model. During the EU FP6 ACuteTox project, several prediction models were proposed on the basis of statistical classification algorithms which we illustrate here. The final choice of testing strategies was not based on statistical considerations alone. However, without thorough statistical evaluations a testing strategy cannot be identified. We present here a number of observations made from the statistical viewpoint which relate to the development of testing strategies. The points we make were derived from problems we had to deal with during the evaluation of this large research project. A central issue during the development of a prediction model is the danger of overfitting. Procedures are presented to deal with this challenge.

  18. A comparison of InVivoStat with other statistical software packages for analysis of data generated from animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Clark, Robin A; Shoaib, Mohammed; Hewitt, Katherine N; Stanford, S Clare; Bate, Simon T

    2012-08-01

    InVivoStat is a free-to-use statistical software package for analysis of data generated from animal experiments. The package is designed specifically for researchers in the behavioural sciences, where exploiting the experimental design is crucial for reliable statistical analyses. This paper compares the analysis of three experiments conducted using InVivoStat with other widely used statistical packages: SPSS (V19), PRISM (V5), UniStat (V5.6) and Statistica (V9). We show that InVivoStat provides results that are similar to those from the other packages and, in some cases, are more advanced. This investigation provides evidence of further validation of InVivoStat and should strengthen users' confidence in this new software package.

  19. [Animal experiment study of performance ultrasound in the welding of liver wounds].

    PubMed

    Mikus, E

    1990-01-01

    Liver cuts were performed on 21 Mini-Leewe-pigs and than closed with suture and by ultrasonic welding with Ligament-FIMOMED and Gelaspon. The sound pressure leads to the forced penetration of the monomere into performed gaps. The application of the ultrasound is sensible in order to force the polymerisation. The experiments resulted in the succesful closure of the liver wounds in all cases where ultrasonic welding of Fimomed-Gelaspon compound was used. Application to human medicine is, however, not yet justified.

  20. [Influence of iron nanoparticles on cardiac performance and hemodynamics in rabbits after intravenous administration in acute experiment].

    PubMed

    Doroshenko, A M

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles are possessed by high potential in the creation of effective and safe antianemic drugs due to the enhanced biological activity of metal nanoparticles. As a step of intravenous dosage form development the study of short-term effects of iron nanoparticles on the cardiovascular system is important. Dose-dependent changes of systemic hemodynamics' parameters were established in acute experiment on rabbits after several intravenous injections of zero-valent iron nanoparticles solution.

  1. Transmission and dose-response experiments for social animals: a reappraisal of the colonization biology of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens.

    PubMed

    Conlan, Andrew J K; Line, John E; Hiett, Kelli; Coward, Chris; Van Diemen, Pauline M; Stevens, Mark P; Jones, Michael A; Gog, Julia R; Maskell, Duncan J

    2011-12-07

    Dose-response experiments characterize the relationship between infectious agents and their hosts. These experiments are routinely used to estimate the minimum effective infectious dose for an infectious agent, which is most commonly characterized by the dose at which 50 per cent of challenged hosts become infected-the ID(50). In turn, the ID(50) is often used to compare between different agents and quantify the effect of treatment regimes. The statistical analysis of dose-response data typically makes the assumption that hosts within a given dose group are independent. For social animals, in particular avian species, hosts are routinely housed together in groups during experimental studies. For experiments with non-infectious agents, this poses no practical or theoretical problems. However, transmission of infectious agents between co-housed animals will modify the observed dose-response relationship with implications for the estimation of the ID(50) and the comparison between different agents and treatments. We derive a simple correction to the likelihood for standard dose-response models that allows us to estimate dose-response and transmission parameters simultaneously. We use this model to show that: transmission between co-housed animals reduces the apparent value of the ID(50) and increases the variability between replicates leading to a distinctive all-or-nothing response; in terms of the total number of animals used, individual housing is always the most efficient experimental design for ascertaining dose-response relationships; estimates of transmission from previously published experimental data for Campylobacter spp. in chickens suggest that considerable transmission occurred, greatly increasing the uncertainty in the estimates of dose-response parameters reported in the literature. Furthermore, we demonstrate that accounting for transmission in the analysis of dose-response data for Campylobacter spp. challenges our current understanding of the

  2. Transmission and dose–response experiments for social animals: a reappraisal of the colonization biology of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Conlan, Andrew J. K.; Line, John E.; Hiett, Kelli; Coward, Chris; Van Diemen, Pauline M.; Stevens, Mark P.; Jones, Michael A.; Gog, Julia R.; Maskell, Duncan J.

    2011-01-01

    Dose–response experiments characterize the relationship between infectious agents and their hosts. These experiments are routinely used to estimate the minimum effective infectious dose for an infectious agent, which is most commonly characterized by the dose at which 50 per cent of challenged hosts become infected—the ID50. In turn, the ID50 is often used to compare between different agents and quantify the effect of treatment regimes. The statistical analysis of dose–response data typically makes the assumption that hosts within a given dose group are independent. For social animals, in particular avian species, hosts are routinely housed together in groups during experimental studies. For experiments with non-infectious agents, this poses no practical or theoretical problems. However, transmission of infectious agents between co-housed animals will modify the observed dose–response relationship with implications for the estimation of the ID50 and the comparison between different agents and treatments. We derive a simple correction to the likelihood for standard dose–response models that allows us to estimate dose–response and transmission parameters simultaneously. We use this model to show that: transmission between co-housed animals reduces the apparent value of the ID50 and increases the variability between replicates leading to a distinctive all-or-nothing response; in terms of the total number of animals used, individual housing is always the most efficient experimental design for ascertaining dose–response relationships; estimates of transmission from previously published experimental data for Campylobacter spp. in chickens suggest that considerable transmission occurred, greatly increasing the uncertainty in the estimates of dose–response parameters reported in the literature. Furthermore, we demonstrate that accounting for transmission in the analysis of dose–response data for Campylobacter spp. challenges our current understanding of

  3. Reduced Cortisol and Metabolic Responses of Thin Ewes to an Acute Cold Challenge in Mid-Pregnancy: Implications for Animal Physiology and Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Verbeek, Else; Oliver, Mark Hope; Waas, Joseph Rupert; McLeay, Lance Maxwell; Blache, Dominique; Matthews, Lindsay Ross

    2012-01-01

    Background Low food availability leading to reductions in Body Condition Score (BCS; 0 indicates emaciation and 5 obesity) in sheep often coincides with low temperatures associated with the onset of winter in New Zealand. The ability to adapt to reductions in environmental temperature may be impaired in animals with low BCS, in particular during pregnancy when metabolic demand is higher. Here we assess whether BCS affects a pregnant animal's ability to cope with cold challenges. Methods Eighteen pregnant ewes with a BCS of 2.7±0.1 were fed to attain low (LBC: BCS2.3±0.1), medium (MBC: BCS3.2±0.2) or high BCS (HBC: BCS3.6±0.2). Shorn ewes were exposed to a 6-h acute cold challenge in a climate-controlled room (wet and windy conditions, 4.4±0.1°C) in mid-pregnancy. Blood samples were collected during the BCS change phase, acute cold challenge and recovery phase. Results During the BCS change phase, plasma glucose and leptin concentrations declined while free fatty acids (FFA) increased in LBC compared to MBC (P<0.01, P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively) and HBC ewes (P<0.05, P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively). During the cold challenge, plasma cortisol concentrations were lower in LBC than MBC (P<0.05) and HBC ewes (P<0.05), and FFA and insulin concentrations were lower in LBC than HBC ewes (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively). Leptin concentrations declined in MBC and HBC ewes while remaining unchanged in LBC ewes (P<0.01). Glucose concentrations and internal body temperature (Tcore) increased in all treatments, although peak Tcore tended to be higher in HBC ewes (P<0.1). During the recovery phase, T4 concentrations were lower in LBC ewes (P<0.05). Conclusion Even though all ewes were able to increase Tcore and mobilize glucose, low BCS animals had considerably reduced cortisol and metabolic responses to a cold challenge in mid-pregnancy, suggesting that their ability to adapt to cold challenges through some of the expected pathways was reduced. PMID:22662144

  4. Acute schistosomiasis in travelers: 14 years' experience at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London.

    PubMed

    Logan, Sarah; Armstrong, Margaret; Moore, Elinor; Nebbia, Gaia; Jarvis, Joseph; Suvari, Muhiddin; Bligh, John; Chiodini, Peter L; Brown, Michael; Doherty, Tom

    2013-06-01

    We report 79 cases of acute schistosomiasis. Most of these cases were young, male travelers who acquired their infection in Lake Malawi. Twelve had a normal eosinophil count at presentation and 11 had negative serology, although two had neither eosinophilia nor positive serology when first seen. Acute schistosomiasis should be considered in any febrile traveler with a history of fresh water exposure in an endemic area once malaria has been excluded.

  5. "It's the people that make the environment good or bad": the patient's experience of the acute care hospital environment.

    PubMed

    Shattell, Mona; Hogan, Beverly; Thomas, Sandra P

    2005-01-01

    A review of contemporary nursing research reveals a tendency to focus on select aspects of the hospital environment such as noise, light, and music. Although studies such as these shed light on discrete aspects of the hospital environment, this body of literature contributes little to an understanding of the entirety of that world as the patient in the sickbed experiences it. The purpose of the study detailed in this article was to describe the patient's experience of the acute care hospital environment. Nondirective, in-depth phenomenological interviews were conducted, then transcribed verbatim, and analyzed for themes. Against the backdrop of "I lived and that's all that matters," there were 3 predominant themes in patients' experience of the acute care environment: (1) disconnection/connection, (2) fear/less fear, and (3) confinement/freedom. In this environment, human-to-human contact increased security and power in an environment that was described as sterile, disorienting, and untrustworthy. Acute and critical care nurses and other caregivers can use the findings to create less noxious hospital environments.

  6. Passive targeting of phosphatiosomes increases rolipram delivery to the lungs for treatment of acute lung injury: An animal study.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chia-Lang; Wen, Chih-Jen; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Sung, Calvin T; Huang, Chun-Lin; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-09-10

    A novel nanovesicle carrier, phosphatiosomes, was developed to enhance the targeting efficiency of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor to the lungs for treating acute lung injury (ALI) by intravenous administration. Phosphatiosomes were the basis of a niosomal system containing phosphatidylcholine (PC) and distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine polyethylene glycol (DSPE-PEG). Rolipram was used as the model drug loaded in the phosphatiosomes. Bioimaging, biodistribution, activated neutrophil inhibition, and ALI treatment were performed to evaluate the feasibility of phosphatiosomes as the lung-targeting carriers. An encapsulation percentage of >90% was achieved for rolipram-loaded nanovesicles. The vesicle size and zeta potential of the phosphatiosomes were 154 nm and -34 mV, respectively. Real-time imaging in rats showed a delayed and lower uptake of phosphatiosomes by the liver and spleen. Ex vivo bioimaging demonstrated a high accumulation of phosphatiosomes in the lungs. In vivo biodistribution exhibited increased lung accumulation and reduced brain penetration of rolipram in phosphatiosomes relative to the control solution. Phosphatiosomes improved the lungs/brain ratio of the drug by more than 7-fold. Interaction with pulmonary lipoprotein surfactants and the subsequent aggregation may be the mechanisms for facilitating lung targeting by phosphatiosomes. Rolipram could continue to inhibit active neutrophils after inclusion in the nanovesicles by suppressing O2(-) generation and elevating cAMP. Phosphatiosomes significantly alleviated ALI in mice as revealed by examining their pulmonary appearance, edema, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and histopathology. This study highlights the potential of nanovesicles to deliver the drug for targeting the lungs and attenuating nervous system side effects.

  7. Potent protection of gallic acid against DNA oxidation: results of human and animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Ferk, Franziska; Chakraborty, Asima; Jäger, Walter; Kundi, Michael; Bichler, Julia; Mišík, Miroslav; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina; Sagmeister, Sandra; Haidinger, Gerald; Hoelzl, Christine; Nersesyan, Armen; Dušinská, Maria; Simić, Tatjana; Knasmüller, Siegfried

    2011-10-01

    Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA) is a constituent of plant derived foods, beverages and herbal remedies. We investigated its DNA protective properties in a placebo controlled human intervention trial in single cell gel electrophoresis experiments. Supplementation of drinking water with GA (12.8 mg/person/d) for three days led to a significant reduction of DNA migration attributable to oxidised pyrimidines (endonuclease III sensitive sites) and oxidised purines (formamidopyrimidine glycosylase sensitive sites) in lymphocytes of healthy individuals by 75% and 64% respectively. Also DNA damage caused by treatment of the cells with reactive oxygen species (ROS) was reduced after GA consumption (by 41%). These effects were paralleled by an increase of the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathion-S-transferase-π) and a decrease of intracellular ROS concentrations in lymphocytes, while no alterations of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), of malondialdehyde levels in serum and of the urinary excretion of isoprostanes were found. Experiments with rats showed that GA reduces oxidatively damaged DNA in lymphocytes, liver, colon and lungs and protects these organs against γ-irradiation-induced strand breaks and formation of oxidatively damaged DNA-bases. Furthermore, the number of radiation-induced preneoplastic hepatic foci was decreased by 43% after oral administration of the phenolic. Since we did not find alterations of the TAC in plasma and lipid peroxidation of cell membranes but intracellular effects it is likely that the antioxidant properties of GA seen in vivo are not due to direct scavenging of radicals but rather to indirect mechanisms (e.g. protection against ROS via activation of transcription factors). As the amount of GA used in the intervention trial is similar to the daily intake in Middle Europe (18 mg/person/day), our findings indicate that it may contribute to prevention of formation

  8. Effect of a wildlife conservation camp experience in China on student knowledge of animals, care, propensity for environmental stewardship, and compassionate behavior toward animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bexell, Sarah M.

    The goal of conservation education is positive behavior change toward animals and the environment. This study was conducted to determine whether participation in a wildlife conservation education camp was effective in positively changing 8-12 year old students': (a) knowledge of animals, (b) care about animals, (c) propensity for environmental and wildlife stewardship, and (d) compassionate behavior toward animals. During the summer of 2005, 2 five-day camps were conducted at 2 zoological institutions in Chengdu, China. The camp curriculum was influenced by theory and research on the following: conservation psychology, social learning theory, empathy and moral development theory, socio-biological theory, constructivist theory, and conservation science. Camp activities were sensitive to Chinese culture and included Chinese conservation issues. Activities were designed to help children form bonds with animals and care enough about them to positively change their behavior toward animals and the environment. This mixed methods study triangulated quantitative and qualitative data from six sources to answer the following: (1) Did camp increase student knowledge of animals? (2) Did camp increase student caring about animals? (3) Did camp increase student propensity for environmental and wildlife stewardship? (4) Did camp affect student compassionate behavior toward animals? A conservation stewards survey revealed significant increases on pre-post, self-report of knowledge, care, and propensity. Pre-post, rubric-scored responses to human-animal interaction vignettes indicated a significant increase in knowledge, and stable scores on care and propensity. Qualitative data from student journals, vignettes, and end-of-camp questionnaires demonstrated knowledge, caring, and propensity, and revealed the emergent theme empathy. To address question 4, instructors tallied campers' behavior toward animals using a student behavior ethogram. Occurrence of positive behaviors was

  9. Acute renal replacement therapy in children with diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome: a single center 16 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Grisaru, Silviu; Morgunov, Melissa A; Samuel, Susan M; Midgley, Julian P; Wade, Andrew W; Tee, James B; Hamiwka, Lorraine A

    2011-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is becoming more prevalent among hospitalized children, its etiologies are shifting, and new treatment modalities are evolving; however, diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+HUS) remains the most common primary disease causing AKI in young children. Little has been published about acute renal replacement therapy (ARRT) and its challenges in this population. We describe our single center's experience managing 134 pediatric patients with D+HUS out of whom 58 (43%) required ARRT over the past 16 years. In our cohort, all but one patient were started on peritoneal dialysis (PD). Most patients, 47 (81%), received acute PD on a pediatric inpatient ward. The most common recorded complications in our cohort were peritoneal fluid leaks 13 (22%), peritonitis 11 (20%), and catheter malfunction 5 (9%). Nine patients (16%) needed surgical revision of their PD catheters. There were no bleeding events related to PD despite a mean platelets count of 40.9 (±23.5) × 10(3)/mm(3) and rare use of platelets infusions. Despite its methodological limitations, this paper adds to the limited body of evidence supporting the use of acute PD as the primary ARRT modality in children with D+HUS.

  10. Status epilepticus does not induce acute brain inflammatory response in the Amazon rodent Proechimys, an animal model resistant to epileptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Scorza, Carla A; Marques, Marcia J G; Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; Naffah-Mazzacoratti, Maria da Graça; Scorza, Fulvio A; Cavalheiro, Esper A

    2017-02-22

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy is a serious brain disorder in adults that is often preceded by an initial brain insult, such as status epilepticus (SE), that after a latent period leads to recurrent seizures. Post-SE models are widely used for studies on epileptogenic processes. Previous findings of our laboratory suggested that the Neotropical rodents Proechimys exhibit endogenous antiepileptogenic mechanisms in post-SE models. Strong body of research supports that SE triggers a rapid and dramatic upregulation of inflammatory mediators and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In this work we found that, in the epilepsy-resistant Proechimys, hippocampal and cortical levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α) and VEGF remained unchanged 24h after SE, strongly contrasting to the high levels of post-SE changes observed in Wistar rats. Furthermore, substantial differences in the brain baseline levels of these proteins were encountered between animal species studied. Since inflammatory cytokines and VEGF have been recognized as major orchestrators of the epileptogenic process, our results suggest their role in the antiepileptogenic mechanisms previously described in Proechimys.

  11. Comparison of tropical and temperate freshwater animal species' acute sensitivities to chemicals: implications for deriving safe extrapolation factors.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Kevin W H; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Lui, Gilbert S G; Chu, S Vincent K H; Lam, Paul K S; Morritt, David; Maltby, Lorraine; Brock, Theo C M; Van den Brink, Paul J; Warne, Michael St J; Crane, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Toxicity data for tropical species are often lacking for ecological risk assessment. Consequently, tropical and subtropical countries use water quality criteria (WQC) derived from temperate species (e.g., United States, Canada, or Europe) to assess ecological risks in their aquatic systems, leaving an unknown margin of uncertainty. To address this issue, we use species sensitivity distributions of freshwater animal species to determine whether temperate datasets are adequately protective of tropical species assemblages for 18 chemical substances. The results indicate that the relative sensitivities of tropical and temperate species are noticeably different for some of these chemicals. For most metals, temperate species tend to be more sensitive than their tropical counterparts. However, for un-ionized ammonia, phenol, and some pesticides (e.g., chlorpyrifos), tropical species are probably more sensitive. On the basis of the results from objective comparisons of the ratio between temperate and tropical hazardous concentration values for 10% of species, or the 90% protection level, we recommend that an extrapolation factor of 10 should be applied when such surrogate temperate WQCs are used for tropical or subtropical regions and a priori knowledge on the sensitivity of tropical species is very limited or not available.

  12. Modeling the Responses to Resistance Training in an Animal Experiment Study

    PubMed Central

    Philippe, Antony G.; Py, Guillaume; Favier, François B.; Sanchez, Anthony M. J.; Bonnieu, Anne; Candau, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test whether systems models of training effects on performance in athletes can be used to explore the responses to resistance training in rats. 11 Wistar Han rats (277 ± 15 g) underwent 4 weeks of resistance training consisting in climbing a ladder with progressive loads. Training amount and performance were computed from total work and mean power during each training session. Three systems models relating performance to cumulated training bouts have been tested: (i) with a single component for adaptation to training, (ii) with two components to distinguish the adaptation and fatigue produced by exercise bouts, and (iii) with an additional component to account for training-related changes in exercise-induced fatigue. Model parameters were fitted using a mixed-effects modeling approach. The model with two components was found to be the most suitable to analyze the training responses (R2 = 0.53; P < 0.001). In conclusion, the accuracy in quantifying training loads and performance in a rodent experiment makes it possible to model the responses to resistance training. This modeling in rodents could be used in future studies in combination with biological tools for enhancing our understanding of the adaptive processes that occur during physical training. PMID:25695093

  13. Modeling the responses to resistance training in an animal experiment study.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Antony G; Py, Guillaume; Favier, François B; Sanchez, Anthony M J; Bonnieu, Anne; Busso, Thierry; Candau, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test whether systems models of training effects on performance in athletes can be used to explore the responses to resistance training in rats. 11 Wistar Han rats (277 ± 15 g) underwent 4 weeks of resistance training consisting in climbing a ladder with progressive loads. Training amount and performance were computed from total work and mean power during each training session. Three systems models relating performance to cumulated training bouts have been tested: (i) with a single component for adaptation to training, (ii) with two components to distinguish the adaptation and fatigue produced by exercise bouts, and (iii) with an additional component to account for training-related changes in exercise-induced fatigue. Model parameters were fitted using a mixed-effects modeling approach. The model with two components was found to be the most suitable to analyze the training responses (R(2) = 0.53; P < 0.001). In conclusion, the accuracy in quantifying training loads and performance in a rodent experiment makes it possible to model the responses to resistance training. This modeling in rodents could be used in future studies in combination with biological tools for enhancing our understanding of the adaptive processes that occur during physical training.

  14. HEV infection as an aetiologic factor for acute hepatitis: experience from a tertiary hospital in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mamun-Al-Mahtab; Rahman, Salimur; Khan, Mobin; Karim, Fazal

    2009-02-01

    Acute hepatitis is seen sporadically round the year in Bangladesh. The incidence of acute viral hepatitis E increases after floods as this allows sewerage contamination of piped and groundwater. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the burden of hepatitis E virus (HEV infection) in Bangladesh. Patients attending the Hepatology Unit III of the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, during June 2004-December 2006, were included in the study. All viral markers were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The study population was divided in four groups. Group 1 included 144 patients with acute viral hepatitis. The inclusion criteria were: nausea and/or vomiting, loss of appetite, serum bilirubin >200 micromol/L, raised serum transaminases, and prothrombin time >3 seconds prolonged beyond control value. In Group 2, there were 31 pregnant women with acute viral hepatitis. All the patients had prodrome, icterus, raised serum bilirubin and raised serum transaminase levels. Group 3 included 23 patients presenting with fulminant hepatic failure. In Group 4, 69 patients with cirrhosis of liver were included. They presented with features of decompensation for the first time. The inclusion criteria were: patients with established cirrhosis with jaundice and/or ascites and/or hepatic encephalopathy. In Group 1, 58.33% of the 144 patients had acute viral hepatitis E. In Group 2, 45.16% of the pregnant women also had acute viral hepatitis E. HEV was responsible for 56.52% cases of fulminant hepatic failure in Group 3. In 21.7% cases in Group 4, decompensation of cirrhosis was due to HEV. Acute viral hepatitis E in the third trimester of pregnancy and HEV-induced fulminant hepatic failure were associated with 80% of mortality despite the best possible care. In this clinical context, acute viral hepatitis E is the leading cause of wide spectrum of liver disease ranging from severe acute viral hepatitis, fulminant hepatic failure, to decompensation of liver in

  15. Pregnancy related acute kidney injury: A single center experience from the Kashmir Valley.

    PubMed

    Najar, M Saleem; Shah, A Rashid; Wani, I A; Reshi, A Rashid; Banday, K A; Bhat, M Ashraf; Saldanha, C L

    2008-10-01

    All patients admitted with pregnancy related acute renal failure (PRAKI) from June 2005 to May 2007 were studied with respect to etiology, clinical features, and outcome of PRAKI. Of 569 cases of acute kidney injury (AKI), 40 (7.02%) cases were related to gestational problems; the age of the patients ranged from 15 to 45 years. Septic abortion was the most common cause of PRAKI, accounting for 20 (50%) cases of which 15 (75%) cases occurred in the first and five (25%) in the second trimester. Other causes were antepartum hemorrhage: six cases (15%), toxemia of pregnancy: six cases (15%), acute gastroenteritis: three cases (7.5%), postpartum hemorrhage: two cases (5%), acute pyelonephritis: two cases (5%), and postpartum, acute kidney injury: one case (2.5%). Dialysis was needed in 60% of the cases and mortality was observed in 20% of the cases. PRAKI continues to be a major concern in our society, causing a high maternal mortality. Septic abortion which has virtually disappeared from developed countries, continues to be a major cause of PRAKI in our society. Hence, there is a need to halt the practice of illegal abortions and improve antenatal care.

  16. Long-term animal experiments with an intraventricular axial flow blood pump.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, K; Kormos, R L; Litwak, P; Tagusari, O; Mori, T; Antaki, J F; Kameneva, M; Watach, M; Gordon, L; Mukuo, H; Umezu, M; Tomioka, J; Outa, E; Griffith, B P; Koyanagai, H

    1997-01-01

    A miniature intraventricular axial flow blood pump (IVAP) is undergoing in vivo evaluation in calves. The IVAP system consists of a miniature (phi 13.9 mm) axial flow pump that resides within the left ventricular (LV) chamber and a brushless DC motor. The pump is fabricated from titanium alloy, and the pump weight is 170 g. It produces a flow rate of over 5 L/min against 100 mmHg pressure at 9,000 rpm with an 8 W total power consumption. The maximum total efficiency exceeds 17%. A purged lip seal system is used in prototype no. 8, and a newly developed "Cool-Seal" (a low temperature mechanical seal) is used in prototype no. 9. In the Cool-Seal system, a large amount of purge flow is introduced behind the seal faces to augment convective heat transfer, keeping the seal face temperature at a low level for prevention of heat denaturation of blood proteins. The Cool-Seal system consumes < 10 cc purge fluid per day and has greatly extended seal life. The pumps were implanted in three calves (26, 30, and 168 days of support). The pump was inserted through a left thoracotomy at the fifth intercostal space. Two pursestring sutures were placed on the LV apex, and the apex was cored with a myocardial punch. The pump was inserted into the LV with the outlet cannula smoothly passing through the aortic valve without any difficulty. Only 5 min elapsed between the time of chest opening and initiation of pumping. Pump function remained stable throughout in all experiments. No cardiac arrhythmias were detected, even at treadmill exercise tests. The plasma free hemoglobin level remained in the acceptable range. Post mortem examination did not reveal any interference between the pump and the mitral apparatus. No major thromboembolism was detected in the vital organs in Cases 1 or 2, but a few small renal infarcts were detected in Case 3.

  17. Animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  18. Bridging therapies and liver transplantation in acute liver failure, 10 years of MARS experience from Finland.

    PubMed

    Kantola, T; Ilmakunnas, M; Koivusalo, A-M; Isoniemi, H

    2011-01-01

    Acute liver failure is a life-threatening condition in the absence of liver transplantation option. The aetiology of liver failure is the most important factor determining the probability of native liver recovery and prognosis of the patient. Extracorporeal liver assist devices like MARS (Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System) may buy time for native liver recovery or serve as bridging therapy to liver transplantation, with reduced risk of cerebral complications. MARS treatment may alleviate hepatic encephalopathy even in patients with a completely necrotic liver. Taking this into account, better prognostic markers than hepatic encephalopathy should be used to assess the need for liver transplantation in acute liver failure.

  19. Practical advice on calculating confidence intervals for radioprotection effects and reducing animal numbers in radiation countermeasure experiments.

    PubMed

    Landes, Reid D; Lensing, Shelly Y; Kodell, Ralph L; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2013-12-01

    The dose of a substance that causes death in P% of a population is called an LDP, where LD stands for lethal dose. In radiation research, a common LDP of interest is the radiation dose that kills 50% of the population by a specified time, i.e., lethal dose 50 or LD50. When comparing LD50 between two populations, relative potency is the parameter of interest. In radiation research, this is commonly known as the dose reduction factor (DRF). Unfortunately, statistical inference on dose reduction factor is seldom reported. We illustrate how to calculate confidence intervals for dose reduction factor, which may then be used for statistical inference. Further, most dose reduction factor experiments use hundreds, rather than tens of animals. Through better dosing strategies and the use of a recently available sample size formula, we also show how animal numbers may be reduced while maintaining high statistical power. The illustrations center on realistic examples comparing LD50 values between a radiation countermeasure group and a radiation-only control. We also provide easy-to-use spreadsheets for sample size calculations and confidence interval calculations, as well as SAS® and R code for the latter.

  20. Practical Advice on Calculating Confidence Intervals for Radioprotection Effects and Reducing Animal Numbers in Radiation Countermeasure Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Landes, Reid D.; Lensing, Shelly Y.; Kodell, Ralph L.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The dose of a substance that causes death in P% of a population is called an LDP, where LD stands for lethal dose. In radiation research, a common LDP of interest is the radiation dose that kills 50% of the population by a specified time, i.e., lethal dose 50 or LD50. When comparing LD50 between two populations, relative potency is the parameter of interest. In radiation research, this is commonly known as the dose reduction factor (DRF). Unfortunately, statistical inference on dose reduction factor is seldom reported. We illustrate how to calculate confidence intervals for dose reduction factor, which may then be used for statistical inference. Further, most dose reduction factor experiments use hundreds, rather than tens of animals. Through better dosing strategies and the use of a recently available sample size formula, we also show how animal numbers may be reduced while maintaining high statistical power. The illustrations center on realistic examples comparing LD50 values between a radiation countermeasure group and a radiation-only control. We also provide easy-to-use spreadsheets for sample size calculations and confidence interval calculations, as well as SAS® and R code for the latter. PMID:24164553

  1. Ambient air pollution exposure and damage to male gametes: human studies and in situ 'sentinel' animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Somers, Christopher M

    2011-02-01

    Globally there is concern that adverse reproductive outcomes and fertility impairment in humans may be caused by exposure to environmental contaminants. Air pollution in particular has been linked to DNA damage, abnormal sperm morphology, and reduced sperm performance in men. Experimental studies using model species (mice and rats) exposed in situ provide evidence that ambient air pollution can cause damage to the respiratory system and other tissues or organs. This can take the form of DNA damage and other genetic changes throughout the body, including induced mutations, DNA strand breaks, and altered methylation patterns in male germ cells. Human and animal studies together provide strong evidence that air pollution, especially airborne particulate matter, at commonly occurring ambient levels is genotoxic to male germ cells. The mechanistic link between air pollution exposure and induced genetic changes in male germ cells is currently unclear. 'Sentinel' animal experiments explicitly examining air pollution affects on sperm quality in laboratory rodents have not been conducted and would provide a critical link to observations in humans. The importance of air pollution compared to other factors affecting fertility and reproductive outcomes in humans is not clear and warrants further investigation.

  2. Scientific evidence for therapeutic effects of Chinese prescription Kangen-karyu from pre-clinical animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Yokozawa, Takako; Park, Chan Hum; Matsumoto, Kinzo

    2017-01-26

    Chinese prescription Kangen-karyu, comprised of six crude drugs, has received much attention due to its numerous biological activities. The present study reports therapeutic evidence for Kangen-karyu from pre-clinical animal experiments related to human diseases. Kangen-karyu showed beneficial effects on type 1 diabetes and related complications through the suppression of protein expression related to advanced glycation endproducts and oxidative stress. Kangen-karyu reduced oxidative stress via the regulation of dyslipidemia, and also exerted a renoprotective effect mainly through its antioxidant properties during the development of diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes. In addition, Kangen-karyu showed neuroprotective effects by attenuating the spatial memory impairment and neuronal death induced by diabetes. Kangen-karyu counteracted oxidative stress and ameliorated tissue damage possibly associated with aging. These findings provide scientific evidence to explain the efficacy of Kangen-karyu based on its underlying therapeutic effects.

  3. The experience of daily life of acutely admitted frail elderly patients one week after discharge from the hospital

    PubMed Central

    Andreasen, Jane; Lund, Hans; Aadahl, Mette; Sørensen, Erik E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Frail elderly are at higher risk of negative outcomes such as disability, low quality of life, and hospital admissions. Furthermore, a peak in readmission of acutely admitted elderly patients is seen shortly after discharge. An investigation into the daily life experiences of the frail elderly shortly after discharge seems important to address these issues. The aim of this study was to explore how frail elderly patients experience daily life 1 week after discharge from an acute admission. Methods The qualitative methodological approach was interpretive description. Data were gathered using individual interviews. The participants were frail elderly patients over 65 years of age, who were interviewed at their home 1 week after discharge from an acute admission to a medical ward. Results Four main categories were identified: “The system,” “Keeping a social life,” “Being in everyday life,” and “Handling everyday life.” These categories affected the way the frail elderly experienced daily life and these elements resulted in a general feeling of well-being or non-well-being. The transition to home was experienced as unsafe and troublesome especially for the more frail participants, whereas the less frail experienced this less. Conclusion and discussion Several elements and stressors were affecting the well-being of the participants in daily life 1 week after discharge. In particular, contact with the health care system created frustrations and worries, but also physical disability, loneliness, and inactivity were issues of concern. These elements should be addressed by health professionals in relation to the transition phase. Future interventions should incorporate a multidimensional and bio-psycho-social perspective when acutely admitted frail elderly are discharged. Stakeholders should evaluate present practice to seek to improve care across health care sectors. PMID:26037333

  4. A patient with acute aortic dissection presenting with bilateral stroke - A rare experience.

    PubMed

    Kowalska-Brozda, Olimpia; Brozda, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Acute aortic dissection is a rare, life-threatening condition requiring early recognition and proper treatment. Although chest pain remains the most frequent initial symptom, clinical manifestation of aortic dissection varies. Rarely aortic dissection starts with neurological symptoms such as ischemic stroke, which is usually right-sided. A danger of performing thrombolytic therapy in these patients exists if aortic dissection is overlooked. Herein, we present a case of a patient with acute aortic dissection without typical chest pain whose initial manifestation was bilateral stroke. The uncommon presentation which masked the underlying condition delayed implementation of appropriate management. Moreover, the late admission to hospital prevented the patient from administration of recombined tissue plasminogen activator that would certainly decrease chances of survival. Presented case highlights the need for thorough physical examination at admission to hospital in all patients with acute stroke and points out the necessity of proper clinical work-up including adequate aorta imaging modalities of patients with acute stroke and suggestive findings of aortic dissection.

  5. Acute confusion and unreal experiences in intensive care patients in relation to the ICU syndrome. Part II.

    PubMed

    Granberg, A; Engberg, I B; Lundberg, D

    1999-02-01

    The intensive care unit syndrome (ICU syndrome) is defined as an altered emotional state occurring in a highly stressful environment, which may manifest itself in various forms such as delirium, confusion, crazy dreams or unreal experiences. The purpose of this part of a study of patients' experiences is to describe and illuminate patients' experiences of acute confusion, disorientation, wakefulness, dreams and nightmares during and after their stay in the ICU. The data were obtained from 19 ventilated patients, who were interviewed twice and had stayed at least 36 hours in the ICU, the first interview being about one week after discharge from the ICU, and the second 4-8 weeks later. The hermeneutic approach used when interpreting and analysing the text from the interviews revealed that patients' experiences of unreal experiences were often associated with intense fear. Intense or continuous unbearable fear seems to result in frightening unreal experiences, which further increase the level of fear. Care actions or caring relationships with relatives or nurses can reduce this fear, which can help to prevent the occurrence and/or duration and intensity of the unreal experiences. Trust and confidence in nurses or significant others and feelings of self-control or trust in self-control seemed to reduce the risk of unreal experiences so that adverse stimuli might only trigger a mild confusion.

  6. Animal Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

  7. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Radiotherapy, and the Risk of Acute and Chronic Toxicity: The Mayo Clinic Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Pinn, Melva E.; Gold, Douglas G. M.; Petersen, Ivy A.; Osborn, Thomas G.; Brown, Paul D.; Miller, Robert C.

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the acute and chronic toxic effects of radiotherapy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods and Materials: Medical records of 21 consecutive patients with SLE, who had received 34 courses of external beam radiotherapy and one low-dose-rate prostate implant, were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with discoid lupus erythematosus were excluded. Results: Median survival was 2.3 years and median follow-up 5.6 years. Eight (42%) of 19 patients evaluable for acute toxicity during radiotherapy experienced acute toxicity of Grade 1 or greater, and 4 (21%) had acute toxicity of Grade 3 or greater. The 5- and 10-year incidence of chronic toxicity of Grade 1 or greater was 45% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22-72%) and 56% (95% CI, 28-81%), respectively. The 5- and 10-year incidence of chronic toxicity of Grade 3 or greater was 28% (95% CI, 18-60%) and 40% (95% CI, 16-72%), respectively. Univariate analysis showed that chronic toxicity of Grade 1 or greater correlated with SLE renal involvement (p < 0.006) and possibly with the presence of five or more American Rheumatism Association criteria (p < 0.053). Chronic toxicity of Grade 3 or greater correlated with an absence of photosensitivity (p < 0.02), absence of arthritis (p < 0.03), and presence of a malar rash (p < 0.04). Conclusions: The risk of acute and chronic toxicity in patients with SLE who received radiotherapy was moderate but was not prohibitive of the use of radiotherapy. Patients with more advanced SLE may be at increased risk for chronic toxicity.

  8. A qualitative study of patient experiences of decentralized acute healthcare services

    PubMed Central

    Linqvist Leonardsen, Ann-Chatrin; Del Busso, Lilliana; Abrahamsen Grøndahl, Vigdis; Ghanima, Waleed; Barach, Paul; Jelsness-Jørgensen, Lars-Petter

    2016-01-01

    Objective Municipality acute wards (MAWs) have recently been launched in Norway as an alternative to hospitalizations, and are aimed at providing treatment for patients who otherwise would have been hospitalized. The objective of this study was to explore how patients normally admitted to hospitals perceived the quality and safety of treatment in MAWs. Design The study had a qualitative design. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Setting The study was conducted in a county in south-eastern Norway and included five different MAWs. Patients Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 participants who had required acute health care and who had been discharged from the five MAWs. Results Three subthemes were identified that related to the overarching theme of hospital-like standards (“almost a hospital, but…”), namely (a) treatment and competence, (b) location and physical environment, and (c) adequate time for care. Participants reported the treatment to be comparable to hospital care, but they also experienced limitations. Participants spoke positively about MAW personnel and the advantages of having a single patient room, a calm environment, and proximity to home. Conclusions Participants felt safe when treated at MAWs, even though they realized that the diagnostic services were not similar to that in hospitals. Geographical proximity, treatment facilities and time for care positively distinguished MAWs from hospitals, while the lack of diagnostic resources was stressed as a limitation. Key Points Municipality acute wards (MAWs) have been implemented across Norway. Research on patient perspectives on the decentralization of acute healthcare in MAWs is lacking.  • Patients perceive decentralized acute healthcare and treatment as being comparable to the quality they would have expected in hospitals.  • Geographical proximity, a home-like atmosphere and time for care were aspects stressed as positive features of the decentralized

  9. Avoidance of animal experiments in the new EU Chemicals Regulation - opportunities and problems from the point of view of animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Ursula G

    2004-01-01

    On 29 October 2003, the European Commission forwarded the "Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), establishing a European Chemicals Agency and amending Directive 1999/45/EC and Regulation (EC) on Persistent Organic Pollutants" to the European Parliament and the Council for adoption under the so-called co-decision procedure. From the point of view of animal welfare it is to be welcomed that it is envisaged better to protect humans and the environment from unknown risks through chemical substances. However, in order to ensure that this goal can be met, extensive amendments to the proposed draft are requested: Instead of continuing to perform animal tests, relevant and reliable non-animal testing strategies should be implemented. Before considering testing, all existing data must be made available, shared and evaluated. This request should be enforced in the new Regulation through an adequate mandatory system. Data requirements must be tailored to the specific substance, to ensure that only such information is collected that is necessary for its safe handling by workers and consumers. Missing data should be determined with non-animal test methods. Finally, the European Union and its Member States are called to provide adequate funding for alternative method research without delay and to call for tenders on those information-gaps that currently prevent the implementation of an entirely non-animal testing strategy, so that such new methods will be available in time for application under the REACH system.

  10. The effect of left ventricular function and drive pressures on the filling and ejection of a pulsatile pediatric ventricular assist device in an acute animal model.

    PubMed

    Lukic, Branka; Zapanta, Conrad M; Khalapyan, Tigran; Connell, John; Pae, Walter E; Myers, John L; Wilson, Ronald P; Undar, Akif; Rosenberg, Gerson; Weiss, William J

    2007-01-01

    Penn State is currently developing a 12-mL, pulsatile, pneumatically driven pediatric ventricular assist device intended to be used in infants. After extensive in vitro testing of the pump in a passive-filling, mock circulatory loop, an acute animal study was performed to obtain data with a contracting ventricle. The objectives were to determine the range of pneumatic pressures and time required to completely fill and empty the pediatric ventricular assist device under various physiologic conditions, simulate reductions in ventricular contractility and blood volume, and provide data for validation of the mock circulatory loop. A 15-kg goat was used. The cannulation was achieved via left thoracotomy from the left ventricle to the descending aorta. The pump rate and systolic duration were controlled manually to maintain complete filling and ejection. The mean ejection time ranged from 280 ms to 382 ms when the systolic pressure ranged from 350 mm Hg to 200 mm Hg. The mean filling time ranged from 352 ms to 490 ms, for the diastolic pressure range of -60 mm Hg to 0 mm Hg. Esmolol produced a decrease in left ventricular pressure, required longer pump filling time, and reduced LVAD flow.

  11. Severe acute respiratory syndrome vaccine development: experiences of vaccination against avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Dave

    2003-12-01

    Vaccines against infectious bronchitis of chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) have arguably been the most successful, and certainly the most widely used, of vaccines for diseases caused by coronaviruses, the others being against bovine, canine, feline and porcine coronaviruses. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), together with the genetically related coronaviruses of turkey (Meleagris gallopovo) and ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), is a group 3 coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus being tentatively in group 4, the other known mammalian coronaviruses being in groups 1 and 2. IBV replicates not only in respiratory tissues (including the nose, trachea, lungs and airsacs, causing respiratory disease), but also in the kidney (associated with minor or major nephritis), oviduct, and in many parts of the alimentary tract--the oesophagus, proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, bursa of Fabricius, caecal tonsils (near the distal end of the tract), rectum and cloaca (the common opening for release of eggs and faeces), usually without clinical effects. The virus can persist, being re-excreted at the onset of egg laying (4 to 5 months of age), believed to be a consequence of the stress of coming into lay. Genetic lines of chickens differ in the extent to which IBV causes mortality in chicks, and in respect of clearance of the virus after the acute phase. Live attenuated (by passage in chicken embryonated eggs) IBV strains were introduced as vaccines in the 1950s, followed a couple of decades later by inactivated vaccines for boosting protection in egg-laying birds. Live vaccines are usually applied to meat-type chickens at 1 day of age. In experimental situations this can result in sterile immunity when challenged by virulent homologous virus. Although 100% of chickens may be protected (against clinical signs and loss of ciliary activity in trachea), sometimes 10% of vaccinated chicks do not respond with a protective immune response

  12. Mechanism of Traumatic Brain Injury at Distant Locations After Exposure to Blast Waves: Preliminary Results from Animal and Phantom Experiments.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Ohtani, Kiyonobu; Goda, Keisuke; Kudo, Daisuke; Arafune, Tatsuhiko; Washio, Toshikatsu; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is the least understood of the four phases of blast injury. Distant injury induced by the blast wave, on the opposite side from the wave entry, is not well understood. This study investigated the mechanism of distant injury in bTBI. Materials and Methods Eight 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: group 1 served as the control group and did not receive any shock wave (SW) exposure; group 2 was exposed to SWs (12.5 ± 2.5 MPa). Propagation of SWs within a brain phantom was evaluated by visualization, pressure measurement, and numerical simulation. Results Intracerebral hemorrhage near the ignition site and elongation of the distant nucleus were observed, despite no apparent damage between the two locations in the animal experiment. Visualization, pressure measurement, and numerical simulation indicated the presence of complex wave dynamics accompanying a sudden increase in pressure, followed by negative pressure in the phantom experiment. Conclusion A local increase in pressure above the threshold caused by interference of reflection and rarefaction waves in the vicinity of the brain-skull surface may cause distant injury in bTBI.

  13. Initial Acute Animal Experiment Using a New Miniature Axial Flow Pump in Series With the Natural Heart.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Eiji; Yano, Tetsuya; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Miura, Hidekazu; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2015-08-01

    We have advocated an axial flow blood pump called "valvo pump" that is implanted at the aortic valve position, and we have developed axial flow blood pumps to realize the concept of the valvo pump. The latest model of the axial flow blood pump mainly consists of a stator, a directly driven impeller, and a hydrodynamic bearing. The axial flow blood pump has a diameter of 33 mm and length of 74 mm, and the length of anatomical occupation is 33 mm. The axial flow blood pump is anastomosed to the aorta with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) cuffs worn on the inflow and outflow ports. Dp-Q curves of the axial flow blood pump are flatter than those of ordinary axial flow pumps, and pump outflow of 5 L/min was obtained against a pressure difference of 50 mm Hg at a rotational speed of 9000 rpm in vitro. The axial flow blood pump was installed in a goat by anastomosing with the thoracic descending aorta using PTFE cuffs, and it was rotated at a rotational speed of 8000 rpm. Unlike in case of the ventricular assistance in parallel with the natural heart, pulsatilities of aortic pressure and aortic flow were preserved even when the pump was on, and mean aortic flow was increased by 1.5 L/min with increase in mean aortic pressure of 30 mm Hg. In conclusion, circulatory assistance in series with the natural heart using the axial flow blood pump was able to improve hemodynamic pulsatility, and it would contribute to improvement of end-organ circulation. .

  14. Endovascular Management of Acute Embolic Occlusion of the Superior Mesenteric Artery: A 12-Year Single-Centre Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Raupach, J. Lojik, M. Chovanec, V. Renc, O.; Strýček, M.; Dvořák, P. Hoffmann, P.; Guňka, I. Ferko, A.; Ryška, P.; Omran, N.; Krajina, A. Čabelková, P.; Čermáková, E.; Malý, R.

    2016-02-15

    PurposeRetrospective evaluation of 12-year experience with endovascular management of acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) due to embolic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA).Materials and methodsFrom 2003 to 2014, we analysed the in-hospital mortality of 37 patients with acute mesenteric embolism who underwent primary endovascular therapy with subsequent on-demand laparotomy. Transcatheter embolus aspiration was used in all 37 patients (19 women, 18 men, median age 76 years) with embolic occlusion of the SMA. Adjunctive local thrombolysis (n = 2) and stenting (n = 2) were also utilised.ResultsWe achieved complete recanalization of the SMA stem in 91.9 %. One patient was successfully treated by surgical embolectomy due to a failed endovascular approach. Subsequent exploratory laparotomy was performed in 73.0 % (n = 27), and necrotic bowel resection in 40.5 %. The total in-hospital mortality was 27.0 %.ConclusionPrimary endovascular therapy for acute embolic SMA occlusion with on-demand laparotomy is a recommended algorithm used in our centre to treat SMA occlusion. This combined approach for the treatment of AMI is associated with in-hospital mortality rate of 27.0 %.

  15. The differentiation syndrome in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia: experience of the pethema group and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Montesinos, Pau; Sanz, Miguel A

    2011-01-01

    Differentiation syndrome (DS), formerly known as retinoic acid syndrome, is the main life-threatening complication of therapy with differentiating agents (all-trans retinoic acid [ATRA] or arsenic trioxide [ATO]) in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). The differentiation of leukemic blasts and promyelocytes induced by ATRA and/or ATO may lead to cellular migration, endothelial activation, and release of interleukins and vascular factors responsible of tissue damage. Roughly one quarter of patients with APL undergoing induction therapy will develop the DS, characterized by unexplained fever, acute respiratory distress with interstitial pulmonary infiltrates, and/or a vascular capillary leak syndrome leading to acute renal failure. Although the development of the DS, particularly of the severe form, is still associated with a significant increase in morbidity and mortality during induction, the early administration of high-dose dexamethasone at the onset of the first symptoms seems likely to have dramatically reduced the mortality rate of this complication. In this article, we will review the clinical features, incidence, prognostic factors, management, and outcome of the DS reported in the scientific literature. We will make focus in the experience of the three consecutive Programa Español de Tratamientos en Hematología trials (PETHEMA LPA96, LPA99, and LPA2005), in which more than one thousand patients were treated with ATRA plus idarubicin for induction.

  16. Intra-arterial thrombolysis in acute ischaemic stroke: experience with a superselective catheter embedded in the clot.

    PubMed Central

    Casto, L; Caverni, L; Camerlingo, M; Censori, B; Moschini, L; Servalli, M C; Partziguian, T; Belloni, G; Mamoli, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To report experience of intra-arterial thrombolysis for acute stroke, performed with a microcatheter navigated into the intracranial circulation to impale the clot. METHODS--Patients were selected on the following criteria: (1) clinical examination suggesting a large vessel occlusion in stroke patients between 18 and 75 years; (2) no radiographic signs of large actual ischaemia on CT at admission; (3) angiographically documented occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) stem or of the basilar artery (BA), without occlusion of the ipsilateral extracranial internal carotid artery or of both the vertebral arteries; (4) end of the entire procedure within six hours of stroke. 12 patients with acute stroke were recruited, eight of whom had occlusion of the MCA stem and four of the BA. Urokinase was used as the thrombolytic agent. RESULTS--Complete recanalisation in six MCA stem and in two BA occurred, and partial recanalisation in two MCA stem and one BA. There was no recanalisation in one BA. A clinically silent haemorrhage occurred in two patients, and a parenchymal haematoma in one patient, all in MCA occlusions. At four months five patients achieved self sufficiency (four with MCA and one with BA occlusion). Six patients were dependent (three totally), and one died. CONCLUSIONS--The strict criteria of eligibility allowing the enrollment of very few patients and the procedure itself, requiring particular neuroradiological expertise, make this procedure not routine. Nevertheless, the approach can be considered a possible option for patients with acute ischaemic stroke. Images PMID:8648335

  17. Management of acute respiratory infections by community health volunteers: experience of Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC).

    PubMed Central

    Hadi, Abdullahel

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of management practices for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in improving the competency of community health volunteers in diagnosing and treating acute respiratory infections among children. METHODS: Data were collected by a group of research physicians who observed the performance of a sample of 120 health volunteers in 10 sub-districts in Bangladesh in which Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) had run a community-based ARI control programme since mid-1992. Standardized tests were conducted until the 95% interphysician reliability on the observation of clinical examination was achieved. FINDINGS:The sensitivity, specificity, and overall agreement rates in diagnosing and treating ARIs were significantly higher among the health volunteers who had basic training and were supervised routinely than among those who had not. CONCLUSION: Diagnosis and treatment of ARIs at the household level in developing countries are possible if intensive basic training and the close supervision of service providers are ensured. PMID:12764514

  18. Characteristics of Children with Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Ankara: A Single Centre Experience.

    PubMed

    Unsal Sac, Rukiye; Taşar, Medine Ayşin; Bostancı, İlknur; Şimşek, Yurda; Bilge Dallar, Yıldız

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to define characteristics of children with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Eighty children hospitalized with acute carbon monoxide poisoning were recruited prospectively over a period of 12 months. Sociodemographic features, complaints and laboratory data were recorded. When the patient was discharged, necessary preventive measures to be taken were explained to parents. One month later, the parents were questioned during a control examination regarding the precautions that they took. The ages of the cases were between one month and 16 yr. Education levels were low in 86.2% of mothers and 52.6% of fathers. All families had low income and 48.8% did not have formal housing. The source of the acute carbon monoxide poisoning was stoves in 71.2% of cases and hot-water heaters in 28.8% of cases. Three or more people were poisoned at home in 85.1% of the cases. The most frequent symptoms of poisoning were headache and vertigo (58.8%). Median carboxyhemoglobin levels at admission to the hospital and discharge were measured as 19.5% and 1.1% (P < 0.001). When families were called for re-evaluation, it was determined that most of them had taken the necessary precautions after the poisoning incident (86.3%). This study determined that children with acute childhood carbon monoxide poisoning are usually from families with low socioeconomic and education levels. Education about prevention should be provided to all people who are at risk of carbon monoxide poisoning before a poisoning incident occurs.

  19. Characteristics of Children with Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Ankara: A Single Centre Experience

    PubMed Central

    Unsal Sac, Rukiye; Bostancı, İlknur; Şimşek, Yurda; Bilge Dallar, Yıldız

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to define characteristics of children with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Eighty children hospitalized with acute carbon monoxide poisoning were recruited prospectively over a period of 12 months. Sociodemographic features, complaints and laboratory data were recorded. When the patient was discharged, necessary preventive measures to be taken were explained to parents. One month later, the parents were questioned during a control examination regarding the precautions that they took. The ages of the cases were between one month and 16 yr. Education levels were low in 86.2% of mothers and 52.6% of fathers. All families had low income and 48.8% did not have formal housing. The source of the acute carbon monoxide poisoning was stoves in 71.2% of cases and hot-water heaters in 28.8% of cases. Three or more people were poisoned at home in 85.1% of the cases. The most frequent symptoms of poisoning were headache and vertigo (58.8%). Median carboxyhemoglobin levels at admission to the hospital and discharge were measured as 19.5% and 1.1% (P < 0.001). When families were called for re-evaluation, it was determined that most of them had taken the necessary precautions after the poisoning incident (86.3%). This study determined that children with acute childhood carbon monoxide poisoning are usually from families with low socioeconomic and education levels. Education about prevention should be provided to all people who are at risk of carbon monoxide poisoning before a poisoning incident occurs. PMID:26713060

  20. Patient Experiences following Acute HIV Infection Diagnosis and Counseling in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wolpaw, Benjamin J.; Mathews, Catherine; Mtshizana, Yolisa; Chopra, Mickey; Hardie, Diana; Lurie, Mark N.; De Azevedo, Virginia; Jennings, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Individuals in the acute stage of HIV infection (AHI) have an elevated potential to transmit HIV and play a critical role in the growth of the epidemic. Routine identification and counseling of individuals during AHI could decrease transmission behavior during this key period. However, diagnosis of AHI may present challenges distinct from those experienced through diagnosis of established HIV infection. A study was conducted in a public youth clinic outside of Cape Town, South Africa, to identify and counsel individuals with acute stage HIV infection. In-depth interviews were conducted with patients following diagnosis. After counseling, patients were accepting of the testing regimen used to diagnose AHI. They used the knowledge of having been recently infected to identify the source of their infection, but did not retain or place importance on information regarding the increased ability to transmit HIV during the acute stage. Future interventions directed at the reduction of HIV transmission following diagnosis with AHI will need to find ways of making this information more salient, possibly through more culturally meaningful educational approaches. PMID:25153674

  1. A modified algorithm for continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy applied to in-vivo animal experiments and on human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaessens, John H. G. M.; Hopman, Jeroen C. W.; Liem, K. Djien; de Roode, Rowland; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; Thijssen, Johan M.

    2008-02-01

    Continuous wave Near Infrared Spectroscopy is a well known non invasive technique for measuring changes in tissue oxygenation. Absorption changes (ΔO2Hb and ΔHHb) are calculated from the light attenuations using the modified Lambert Beer equation. Generally, the concentration changes are calculated relative to the concentration at a starting point in time (delta time method). It is also possible, under certain assumptions, to calculate the concentrations by subtracting the equations at different wavelengths (delta wavelength method). We derived a new algorithm and will show the possibilities and limitations. In the delta wavelength method, the assumption is that the oxygen independent attenuation term will be eliminated from the formula even if its value changes in time, we verified the results with the classical delta time method using extinction coefficients from different literature sources for the wavelengths 767nm, 850nm and 905nm. The different methods of calculating concentration changes were applied to the data collected from animal experiments. The animals (lambs) were in a stable normoxic condition; stepwise they were made hypoxic and thereafter they returned to normoxic condition. The two algorithms were also applied for measuring two dimensional blood oxygen saturation changes in human skin tissue. The different oxygen saturation levels were induced by alterations in the respiration and by temporary arm clamping. The new delta wavelength method yielded in a steady state measurement the same changes in oxy and deoxy hemoglobin as the classical delta time method. The advantage of the new method is the independence of eventual variation of the oxygen independent attenuations in time.

  2. Use of CO2 laser and AgClBr infrared transmitting fibers for tympanoplasty: experiments on animal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundfest, Warren S.

    1999-06-01

    One of the most common ear disease is Chronic Otitis Media that leads to a tympanic membrane perforation. The treatment of this condition is by a surgical procedure, tympanoplasty that is often done under local or general anesthesia. During this procedure an autologous fascia is applied to close the perforation. Commonly, fixation of the fascia is achieved mostly by Gel-Form. During the last several years various fascia fixation techniques were suggested. These included a welding procedure based on using an Argon laser. The disadvantages of the latter is that the visible Argon laser is not absorbed well by the relatively thin tympanic membrane and the fascia. It does not lead to strong weld and it may heat the middle of the ear, causing neural hearing loss. The CO2 laser IR radiation is much more suitable for welding of these thin tissues, because of its very high absorption in tissues. There is still a need to deliver this radiation to the weld site using a thin and flexible optical fiber. In this work we have welded fascia on the tympanic membranes of guinea pigs using a CO2 laser. Holes of diameter 2-3 mm were punctured in the membranes and apiece of fascia was placed on the holes. Laser power of the order of 0.5W was delivered to the fascia using an IR transmitting AgClBr fiber. In experiments done on 11 animals and CO2 laser welding was successfully done on in 15 years. The success of these preliminary studies in the animal models shows that CO2 laser tympanoplasty could be a very valuable surgical technique.

  3. Bone, Calcium and Spaceflight: A Living Systems Experiment Relating Animals and Plants the Effects of Calcium on Plant Growth and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiss-Bubenheim, Debra; Navarro, B. J.; Souza, Kenneth A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This educational outreach activity provided students with information about ARC's role in conducting life sciences research in space. Students were introduced to the scientific method while conducting a plant experiment that was correlated to the flight animal experiment. Students made daily observations, collected data and reported on their findings. This classroom experiment providing a hands-on learning opportunity about terrestrial and space biology in which exposed the students to new fields of study for future endeavors.

  4. Public Health Response Systems In-Action: Learning from Local Health Departments’ Experiences with Acute and Emergency Incidents

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Jennifer C.; Yang, Jane E.; Crawley, Adam W.; Biesiadecki, Laura; Aragón, Tomás J.

    2013-01-01

    As part of their core mission, public health agencies attend to a wide range of disease and health threats, including those that require routine, acute, and emergency responses. While each incident is unique, the number and type of response activities are finite; therefore, through comparative analysis, we can learn about commonalities in the response patterns that could improve predictions and expectations regarding the resources and capabilities required to respond to future acute events. In this study, we interviewed representatives from more than 120 local health departments regarding their recent experiences with real-world acute public health incidents, such as infectious disease outbreaks, severe weather events, chemical spills, and bioterrorism threats. We collected highly structured data on key aspects of the incident and the public health response, particularly focusing on the public health activities initiated and community partners engaged in the response efforts. As a result, we are able to make comparisons across event types, create response profiles, and identify functional and structural response patterns that have import for future public health preparedness and response. Our study contributes to clarifying the complexity of public health response systems and our analysis reveals the ways in which these systems are adaptive to the character of the threat, resulting in differential activation of functions and partners based on the type of incident. Continued and rigorous examination of the experiences of health departments throughout the nation will refine our very understanding of what the public health response system is, will enable the identification of organizational and event inputs to performance, and will allow for the construction of rich, relevant, and practical models of response operations that can be employed to strengthen public health systems. PMID:24236137

  5. Spectrum of glomerular diseases causing acute kidney injury; 25 years experience from a single center

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Rubina; Mubarak, Muhammed; Ahmed, Ejaz; Akhtar, Fazal; Bhatti, Sajid; Naqvi, Anwar; Rizvi, Adib

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in nephro-urological practice. Its incidence, prevalence and etiology vary widely, mainly due to variations in the definitions of AKI. Objectives: We aim to report the spectrum of glomerular diseases presenting as AKI at a kidney referral center in Pakistan. Patients and Methods: An observational cohort of patients identified as having AKI which was defined according to RIFLE criteria, with normal size, non-obstructed kidneys on ultrasonography, along with active urine sediment, edema and new onset hypertension. Results: From 1990 to 2014, 236 cases of AKI secondary to acute glomerulonephritis (AGN) registered at this institution. Mean age of patients was 27.94± 12.79 years and M:F ratio was 0.77:1. Thirty percent patients revealed crescents on renal biopsy. AGN without crescents was seen in 33.05% of cases. Postinfectious GN was found in 14.4%, lupus nephritis in 8.5% and mesangiocapillary GN in 3.4% cases. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) required in 75.84% patients. Pulse steroids were given in 45.33% cases followed by oral steroids. Pulse cyclophoshphamide was given in 23.7% cases and plasmapheresis was used in 3.38% cases. Complete recovery was seen in 44%, while 11.44% died during acute phase of illness. About 19.49 % developed chronic kidney disease (CKD) and 25.84% were lost to long- term follow-up. Conclusion: Although glomerular diseases contribute only 4.19 % of total AKI at this center, morbidity associated with illness and its treatment is more marked than other AKI groups. Another notable factor is late referral of these patients to specialized centers resulting in undesirable outcome. PMID:26693497

  6. EARLY REARING EXPERIENCE IS ASSOCIATED WITH VASOPRESSIN IMMUNOREACTIVITY BUT NOT REACTIVITY TO AN ACUTE NON-SOCIAL STRESSOR IN THE PRAIRIE VOLE

    PubMed Central

    Perkeybile, Allison M.; Bales, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    The early life experiences of an organism have the potential to alter their developmental trajectories. Perhaps one of the most powerful influences during this period is the parent-offspring relationship. Previous work in several mammalian species has demonstrated that parental care in early life and specifically maternal behavior can influence several adult outcomes in offspring, including affiliative and aggressive behavior, parental behavior, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) functioning and risk of psychopathology. We have previously demonstrated that naturally occurring variation in the type and amount of care given to offspring in a biparental species, the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), is related to social, anxiety-like, aggressive behaviors as well as HPA response to chronic and acute social stressors. Here we aim to determine the effects of early biparental care on HPA functioning and the interaction between early care and later reactivity to a forced swim test, an acute non-social stressor. Behavior during the swim test as well as several indicators of HPA activity, including plasma corticosterone (CORT), corticotropin releasing hormone immunoreactivity (CRH-ir), and vasopressin immunoreactivity (AVP-ir) were measured. Results here indicate an effect of early experience on AVP-ir but not CRH-ir or plasma CORT. There were no differences in CORT levels between high-contact (HC) and low-contact (LC) males or females for either control animals or after a swim stressor. CRH-ir was higher in the central amygdala following a swim test but was not influenced by early care. However, AVP-ir was not influenced by exposure to a swim stressor but was affected by early parental care in a sex-dependent manner. Female HC offspring had increased AVP-ir in the SON while HC male offspring had decreased AVP-ir in the PVN compared to their LC counterparts. The differential response of CRH and AVP to early experience and later stress, and the lack of an interaction

  7. Herpes labialis in patients with Russell's viper bite and acute kidney injury: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Waikhom, Rajesh; Sapam, Ranjeeta; Patil, Krishna; Jadhav, Jaya Prada; Sircar, Dipankar; Roychowdhury, Arpita; Dasgupta, Sanjay; Pandey, Rajendra

    2011-06-01

    Snake bite is an important health hazard in tropical countries and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Herpes labialis is a common ailment caused by the Herpes simplex virus. There is no published data showing any association between the snake bite and development of Herpes labialis. Here, we present a series of patients who developed Herpes labialis after Russell's viper bite and had acute kidney injury. We attempted to find whether snake bite is an immunosuppressed state and whether it could have pre-disposed the patients to the development of these lesions.

  8. Preclinical Evaluation of the Accuracy of HIFU Treatments Using a Tumor-Mimic Model. Results of Animal Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melodelima, D.; N'Djin, W. A.; Parmentier, H.; Rivoire, M.; Chapelon, J. Y.

    2009-04-01

    Presented in this paper is a tumor-mimic model that allows the evaluation at a preclinical stage of the targeting accuracy of HIFU treatments in the liver. The tumor-mimics were made by injecting a warm mixture of agarose, cellulose, and glycerol that polymerizes immediately in hepatic tissue and forms a 1 cm discrete lesion that is detectable by ultrasound imaging and gross pathology. Three studies were conducted: (i) in vitro experiments were conducted to study acoustical proprieties of the tumor-mimics, (ii) animal experiments were conducted in ten pigs to evaluate the tolerance of the tumor-mimics at mid-term (30 days), (iii) ultrasound-guided HIFU ablation has been performed in ten pigs with tumor-mimics to demonstrate that it is possible to treat a predetermined zone accurately. The attenuation of tumor-mimics was 0.39 dB.cm-1 at 1 MHz, the ultrasound propagation velocity was 1523 m.s-1, and the acoustic impedance was 1.8 MRayls. The pigs tolerated tumor-mimics and treatment well over the experimental period. Tumor-mimics were visible with high contrast on ultrasound images. In addition, it has been demonstrated by using the tumor-mimic as a reference target, that tissue destruction induced by HIFU and observed on gross pathology corresponded to the targeted area on the ultrasound images. The average difference between the predetermined location of the HIFU ablation and the actual coagulated area was 16%. These tumor-mimics are identifiable by ultrasound imaging, they do not modify the geometry of HIFU lesions and thus constitutes a viable mimic of tumors indicated for HIFU therapy.

  9. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    PubMed

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals.

  10. The effects of Gamijinhae-tang on elastase/lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation in an animal model of acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gamijinhae-tang (GJHT) has long been used in Korea to treat respiratory diseases. The therapeutic effect of GJHT is likely associated with its anti-inflammatory activity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying its effects are unknown. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of GJHT in a porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) and lipopolysaccharide(LPS) induced animal model of acute lung injury (ALI). Methods In this study, mice were intranasally exposed to PPE and LPS for 4 weeks to induce chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-like lung inflammation. Two hours prior to PPE and LPS administration, the treatment group was administered GJHT extracts via an oral injection. The numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes, macrophages and total cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were counted, and pro-inflammatory cytokines were also measured. For histologic analysis, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stains and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stains were evaluated. Results After inducing ALI by treating mice with PPE and LPS for 4 weeks, the numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes and total cells were significantly lower in the GJHT group than in the ALI group. In addition, the IL-1β and IL-6 levels were significantly decreased in the GJHT group. The histological results also demonstrated the attenuation effect of GJHT on PPE- and LPS-induced lung inflammation. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that GJHT has significantly reduces PPE- and LPS-induced lung inflammation. The remarkable protective effects of GJHT suggest its therapeutic potential in COPD treatment. PMID:23866260

  11. Swine influenza H1N1 virus induces acute inflammatory immune responses in pig lungs: a potential animal model for human H1N1 influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Mahesh; Dwivedi, Varun; Krakowka, Steven; Manickam, Cordelia; Ali, Ahmed; Wang, Leyi; Qin, Zhuoming; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Lee, Chang-Won

    2010-11-01

    Pigs are capable of generating reassortant influenza viruses of pandemic potential, as both the avian and mammalian influenza viruses can infect pig epithelial cells in the respiratory tract. The source of the current influenza pandemic is H1N1 influenza A virus, possibly of swine origin. This study was conducted to understand better the pathogenesis of H1N1 influenza virus and associated host mucosal immune responses during acute infection in humans. Therefore, we chose a H1N1 swine influenza virus, Sw/OH/24366/07 (SwIV), which has a history of transmission to humans. Clinically, inoculated pigs had nasal discharge and fever and shed virus through nasal secretions. Like pandemic H1N1, SwIV also replicated extensively in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts, and lung lesions were typical of H1N1 infection. We detected innate, proinflammatory, Th1, Th2, and Th3 cytokines, as well as SwIV-specific IgA antibody in lungs of the virus-inoculated pigs. Production of IFN-γ by lymphocytes of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes was also detected. Higher frequencies of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, γδ T cells, dendritic cells, activated T cells, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were detected in SwIV-infected pig lungs. Concomitantly, higher frequencies of the immunosuppressive T regulatory cells were also detected in the virus-infected pig lungs. The findings of this study have relevance to pathogenesis of the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in humans; thus, pigs may serve as a useful animal model to design and test effective mucosal vaccines and therapeutics against influenza virus.

  12. Histogram analysis of pharmacokinetic parameters by bootstrap resampling from one-point sampling data in animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Seiji; Yamaoka, Kiyoshi; Nishikawa, Makiya; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2006-12-01

    A bootstrap method is proposed for assessing statistical histograms of pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC, MRT, CL and V(ss)) from one-point sampling data in animal experiments. A computer program, MOMENT(BS), written in Visual Basic on Microsoft Excel, was developed for the bootstrap calculation and the construction of histograms. MOMENT(BS) was applied to one-point sampling data of the blood concentration of three physiologically active proteins ((111)In labeled Hsp70, Suc(20)-BSA and Suc(40)-BSA) administered in different doses to mice. The histograms of AUC, MRT, CL and V(ss) were close to a normal (Gaussian) distribution with the bootstrap resampling number (200), or more, considering the skewness and kurtosis of the histograms. A good agreement of means and SD was obtained between the bootstrap and Bailer's approaches. The hypothesis test based on the normal distribution clearly demonstrated that the disposition of (111)In-Hsp70 and Suc(20)-BSA was almost independent of dose, whereas that of (111)In-Suc(40)-BSA was definitely dose-dependent. In conclusion, the bootstrap method was found to be an efficient method for assessing the histogram of pharmacokinetic parameters of blood or tissue disposition data by one-point sampling.

  13. Breathing motion compensated reconstruction for C-arm cone beam CT imaging: initial experience based on animal data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, D.; Lin, M.; Rao, P. P.; Loffroy, R.; Liapi, E.; Noordhoek, N.; Eshuis, P.; Radaelli, A.; Grass, M.; Geschwind, J.-F. H.

    2012-03-01

    C-arm based tomographic 3D imaging is applied in an increasing number of minimal invasive procedures. Due to the limited acquisition speed for a complete projection data set required for tomographic reconstruction, breathing motion is a potential source of artifacts. This is the case for patients who cannot comply breathing commands (e.g. due to anesthesia). Intra-scan motion estimation and compensation is required. Here, a scheme for projection based local breathing motion estimation is combined with an anatomy adapted interpolation strategy and subsequent motion compensated filtered back projection. The breathing motion vector is measured as a displacement vector on the projections of a tomographic short scan acquisition using the diaphragm as a landmark. Scaling of the displacement to the acquisition iso-center and anatomy adapted volumetric motion vector field interpolation delivers a 3D motion vector per voxel. Motion compensated filtered back projection incorporates this motion vector field in the image reconstruction process. This approach is applied in animal experiments on a flat panel C-arm system delivering improved image quality (lower artifact levels, improved tumor delineation) in 3D liver tumor imaging.

  14. Neonatal experience interacts with adult social stress to alter acute and chronic Theiler's virus infection.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R R; Maldonado Bouchard, S; Prentice, T W; Bridegam, P; Rassu, F; Young, C R; Steelman, A J; Welsh, T H; Welsh, C J; Meagher, M W

    2014-08-01

    Previous research has shown that neonatal handling has prolonged protective effects associated with stress resilience and aging, yet little is known about its effect on stress-induced modulation of infectious disease. We have previously demonstrated that social disruption stress exacerbates the acute and chronic phases of the disease when applied prior to Theiler's virus infection (PRE-SDR) whereas it attenuates disease severity when applied concurrently with infection (CON-SDR). Here, we asked whether neonatal handling would protect adult mice from the detrimental effects of PRE-SDR and attenuate the protective effects of CON-SDR on Theiler's virus infection. As expected, handling alone decreased IL-6 and corticosterone levels, protected the non-stressed adult mice from motor impairment throughout infection and reduced antibodies to myelin components (PLP, MBP) during the autoimmune phase of disease. In contrast, neonatal handling X PRE/CON-SDR elevated IL-6 and reduced corticosterone as well as increased motor impairment during the acute phase of the infection. Neonatal handling X PRE/CON-SDR continued to exacerbate motor impairment during the chronic phase, whereas only neonatal handling X PRE-SDR increased in antibodies to PLP, MOG, MBP and TMEV. Together, these results imply that while handling reduced the severity of later Theiler's virus infection in non-stressed mice, brief handling may not be protective when paired with later social stress.

  15. Acute pancreatitis patient registry to examine novel therapies in clinical experience (APPRENTICE): an international, multicenter consortium for the study of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Papachristou, Georgios I.; Machicado, Jorge D.; Stevens, Tyler; Goenka, Mahesh Kumar; Ferreira, Miguel; Gutierrez, Silvia C.; Singh, Vikesh K.; Kamal, Ayesha; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Jose A.; Pelaez-Luna, Mario; Gulla, Aiste; Zarnescu, Narcis O.; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Barbu, Sorin T.; Easler, Jeffrey; Ocampo, Carlos; Capurso, Gabriele; Archibugi, Livia; Cote, Gregory A.; Lambiase, Louis; Kochhar, Rakesh; Chua, Tiffany; Tiwari, Subhash Ch.; Nawaz, Haq; Park, Walter G.; de-Madaria, Enrique; Lee, Peter J.; Wu, Bechien U.; Greer, Phil J.; Dugum, Mohannad; Koutroumpakis, Efstratios; Akshintala, Venkata; Gougol, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Background We have established a multicenter international consortium to better understand the natural history of acute pancreatitis (AP) worldwide and to develop a platform for future randomized clinical trials. Methods The AP patient registry to examine novel therapies in clinical experience (APPRENTICE) was formed in July 2014. Detailed web-based questionnaires were then developed to prospectively capture information on demographics, etiology, pancreatitis history, comorbidities, risk factors, severity biomarkers, severity indices, health-care utilization, management strategies, and outcomes of AP patients. Results Between November 2015 and September 2016, a total of 20 sites (8 in the United States, 5 in Europe, 3 in South America, 2 in Mexico and 2 in India) prospectively enrolled 509 AP patients. All data were entered into the REDCap (Research Electronic Data Capture) database by participating centers and systematically reviewed by the coordinating site (University of Pittsburgh). The approaches and methodology are described in detail, along with an interim report on the demographic results. Conclusion APPRENTICE, an international collaboration of tertiary AP centers throughout the world, has demonstrated the feasibility of building a large, prospective, multicenter patient registry to study AP. Analysis of the collected data may provide a greater understanding of AP and APPRENTICE will serve as a future platform for randomized clinical trials. PMID:28042246

  16. A 25 years experience of group-housed sows–reproduction in animal welfare-friendly systems

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Since January 1 2013, group housing of sows has been compulsory within the European Union (EU) in all pig holdings with more than ten sows. Sows and gilts need to be kept in groups from 4 weeks after service to 1 week before the expected time of farrowing (Article 3(4) of Directive 2008/120/EC on the protection of pigs). The legislation regarding group housing was adopted already in 2001 and a long transitional period was allowed to give member states and producers enough time for adaptation. Even so, group housing of sows still seems to be uncommon in the EU, and is also uncommon in commercial pig farming systems in the rest of the world. In this review we share our experience of the Swedish 25 years of animal welfare legislation stipulating that sows must be loose-housed which de facto means group housed. The two most important concerns related to reproductive function among group-housed sows are the occurrence of lactational oestrus when sows are group-housed during lactation, and the stress that is associated with group housing during mating and gestation. Field and clinical observations in non-lactating, group-housed sows in Sweden suggest that by making basic facts known about the pig reproductive physiology related to mating, we might achieve application of efficient batch-wise breeding without pharmacological interventions. Group housing of lactating sows has some production disadvantages and somewhat lower productivity would likely have to be expected. Recordings of behavioural indicators in different housing systems suggest a lower welfare level in stalled animals compared with group-housed ones. However, there are no consistent effects on the reproductive performance associated with different housing systems. Experimental studies suggest that the most sensitive period, regarding disturbance of reproductive functions by external stressors, is the time around oestrus. We conclude that by keeping sows according to the pig welfare-friendly Directive 2008

  17. Capacity for care: meta-ethnography of acute care nurses' experiences of the nurse-patient relationship

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Jackie; Nicholson, Caroline; Maben, Jill; Pope, Catherine; Flatley, Mary; Wilkinson, Charlotte; Meyer, Julienne; Tziggili, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Aims To synthesize evidence and knowledge from published research about nurses' experiences of nurse-patient relationships with adult patients in general, acute inpatient hospital settings. Background While primary research on nurses' experiences has been reported, it has not been previously synthesized. Design Meta-ethnography. Data sources Published literature from Australia, Europe, and North America, written in English between January 1999–October 2009 was identified from databases: CINAHL, Medline, British Nursing Index and PsycINFO. Review methods Qualitative studies describing nurses' experiences of the nurse-patient relationship in acute hospital settings were reviewed and synthesized using the meta-ethnographic method. Results Sixteen primary studies (18 papers) were appraised as high quality and met the inclusion criteria. The findings show that while nurses aspire to develop therapeutic relationships with patients, the organizational setting at a unit level is strongly associated with nurses' capacity to build and sustain these relationships. The organizational conditions of critical care settings appear best suited to forming therapeutic relationships, while nurses working on general wards are more likely to report moral distress resulting from delivering unsatisfactory care. General ward nurses can then withdraw from attempting to emotionally engage with patients. Conclusion The findings of this meta-ethnography draw together the evidence from several qualitative studies and articulate how the organizational setting at a unit level can strongly influence nurses' capacity to build and sustain therapeutic relationships with patients. Service improvements need to focus on how to optimize the organizational conditions that support nurses in their relational work with patients. PMID:23163719

  18. Institutional experience with clofarabine and cytarabine in relapsed pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Lucas; Fernandez-Navarro, Jose Maria; Del Mar Andres, Maria; Bautista, Francisco; Tasso, Maria; Verdeguer, Amparo

    2012-01-01

    Cytarabine (1000 mg/m/d intravenous for 5 d) and clofarabine (40 mg/m/d intravenous for 5 d) were given every 28 days to 9 children with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia at our institution. Among 19 courses, there were 18 infectious episodes. Median hospitalization time was 13 days (7.7 to 30.5 d) per cycle. Hepatobiliary abnormalities included alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase elevation and hyperbilirubinemia. Four patients achieved complete remission (one after an earlier allogeneic Haematopoietic Progenitor Cell Transplant). Four patients are alive disease free. In summary, a proportion of children responded and was able to receive allogeneic Haematopoietic Progenitor Cell Transplant. Side effects were tolerable, although hospitalization time was prolonged.

  19. Evidence of coupling to Global Alfv{acute e}ne Eigenmodes during Alfv{acute e}n wave current drive experiments on the Phaedrus-T tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Vukovic, M.; Wukitch, S.; Harper, M.; Parker, R.

    1996-02-01

    A series of experiments designed to explore mechanisms of power deposition during Alfv{acute e}n wave current drive experiments on the Phaedrus-T tokamak has shown evidence of power deposition via mode conversion of Global Alfv{acute e}n Eigenmodes at the Alfv{acute e}n resonance. Observation of radially localized RF induced density fluctuations in the plasma and their location vs. {ital B}{sub {ital T}} is in agreement with the predictions of behaviour of GAE damping on the AR by the toroidal code LION. Furthermore, the change in the time evolution of the loop voltage, is consistent with the change of effective power deposition radius, {ital r}{sub PD}, and is in agreement with the density fluctuations radius. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Impact of acute ischemic stroke treatment in patients over age 80: the SPOTRIAS consortium experience

    PubMed Central

    Willey, Joshua Z; Ortega-Gutierrez, Santiago; Petersen, Nils; Khatri, Pooja; Ford, Andria L; Rost, Natalia S; Ali, Latisha K; Gonzales, Nichole R; Merino, Jose G; Meyer, Brett C; Marshall, Randolph S

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose Few studies have addressed outcomes among patients ≥80 years treated with acute stroke therapy. In this study, we outline in-hospital outcomes in (1) patients ≥80 years compared to their younger counterparts, and (2) those over age 80 receiving intra-arterial therapy (IAT) compared to those treated with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IVrtPA). Methods Stroke centers within the Specialized Program of Translational Research in Acute Stroke (SPOTRIAS) prospectively collected data on all patients treated with IVrtPA or IAT from 1/1/2005 to 12/31/2010. IAT was defined as receiving any endovascular therapy; IAT was further divided into bridging therapy (BT) when the patient received both IAT and IVrtPA, and endovascular therapy alone (ETA). In-hospital mortality was compared in (1) all patients age ≥80 versus younger counter-parts, and (2) IAT, BT, and ETA versus IVrtPA only among those age ≥80 using multivariable logistic regression. An age-stratified analysis was also performed. Results A total of 3768 patients were included in the study; 3378 were treated with IVrtPA alone, 808 with IAT (383 with ETA and 425 with BT). Patients ≥80 (n=1182) had a higher risk of in-hospital mortality compared to younger counterparts regardless of treatment modality (OR 2.13, 95%CI 1.60–2.84). When limited to those age ≥80, IAT (OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.60–1.49), BT (OR 0.82, 95%CI 0.47–1.45), or ETA (OR 1.15, 95%CI 0.64–2.08) versus IVrtPA were not associated with increased in-hospital mortality Conclusions IAT does not appear to increase the risk of in-hospital mortality among those over age 80 compared to intravenous thrombolysis alone. PMID:22798327

  1. Who experiences seclusion? An examination of demographics and duration in a public acute inpatient mental health service.

    PubMed

    Chavulak, Jacinta; Petrakis, Melissa

    2017-03-21

    Restrictive interventions such as seclusion may occur during an acute mental health crisis. Such interventions are experienced by people as traumatic and counter to recovery. The current study aimed to investigate the use of seclusion and who was secluded amongst patients presenting with psychotic symptomology. All acute inpatient admissions were examined across a 12-month period January-December 2013. Electronic and paper records were accessed and audited for all 655 admissions. There were 91 admissions that included a seclusion and 200 seclusion events. There were 79 unique patients who experienced seclusion. For those experiencing seclusion: two-thirds were male, 49% were either homeless or had no fixed abode, 32% received case management in the community prior to their inpatient stay, and 56% were unemployed or not in the workforce. The median and mode duration of seclusion was 4 h. By understanding seclusion interventions better, changes can be made to enhance practice. This descriptive research into seclusion has clarified the demographics of who is most likely to experience seclusion, for how long, and the implications for reducing restrictive interventions. How the social work role could contribute to reforms to protect and enhance the rights and well-being of marginalized members of our communities, at their most vulnerable, is considered.

  2. [The problems of studying the effects of far long-duration space mission factors on the higher nervous activity in model experiments with animals].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Shtemberg, A S

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the analysis of difficulty with studying the CNS functional changes caused by ionizing radiations solely and in combination with the other spaceflight factors, and discusses optional methods of modeling the basic elements of operator's work in experiments with animals, primates specifically, as well as of data extrapolation on humans.

  3. Epidemiological profile of acute respiratory distress syndrome patients: A tertiary care experience

    PubMed Central

    Magazine, Rahul; Rao, Shobitha; Chogtu, Bharti; Venkateswaran, Ramkumar; Shahul, Hameed Aboobackar; Goneppanavar, Umesh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is seen in critically ill patients. Its etiological spectrum in India is expected to be different from that seen in western countries due to the high prevalence of tropical infections. Aim: To study the epidemiological profile of ARDS patients. Setting: A tertiary care hospital in Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of 150 out of the 169 ARDS patients diagnosed during 2010–2012. Data collected included the clinical features and severity scoring parameters. Results: The mean age of the study population was 42.92 ± 13.91 years. The causes of ARDS included pneumonia (n = 35, 23.3%), scrub typhus (n = 33, 22%), leptospirosis (n = 11, 7.3%), malaria (n = 6, 4%), influenza (H1N1) (n = 10, 6.7%), pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 2, 1.3%), dengue (n = 1, 0.7%), abdominal sepsis (n = 16, 10.7%), skin infection (n = 3, 2%), unknown cause of sepsis (n = 18, 12%), and nonseptic causes (n = 15, 10%). A total of 77 (51.3%) patients survived, 66 (44%) expired, and 7 (4.7%) were discharged against medical advice (AMA). Preexisting comorbidities (46) were present in 13 survivors, 19 nonsurvivors, and four discharged AMA. History of surgery prior to the onset of ARDS was present in one survivor, 13 nonsurvivors, and one discharge AMA. Mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, APACHE III, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores in survivors were 9.06 ± 4.3, 49.22 ± 14, and 6.43 ± 2.5 and in nonsurvivors 21.11 ± 7, 86.45 ± 23.5, and 10.6 ± 10, respectively. Conclusion: The most common cause of ARDS in our study was pneumonia, but a large percentage of cases were due to the tropical infections. Preexisting comorbidity, surgery prior to the onset of ARDS, higher severity scores, and organ failure scores were more frequently observed among nonsurvivors than survivors. PMID:28144059

  4. Invasive Candidiasis in Severe Acute Pancreatitis: Experience from a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Baronia, Arvind Kumar; Azim, Afzal; Ahmed, Armin; Gurjar, Mohan; Marak, Rungmei S. K.; Yadav, Reema; Sharma, Preeti

    2017-01-01

    Background: Invasive candidiasis (IC) is associated with increased morbidity in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). There is limited information regarding the predisposing factors, Candida species distribution and in vitro susceptibility. Methodology: Current data have been derived from a larger prospective nonintervention study conducted on 200 critically ill patients which was done to study the antifungal prescription practices, collect epidemiological data, and perform an external validation of risk prediction models for IC under senior research associateship program of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research New Delhi. Of these critically ill patients, thirty had SAP and were included for analysis. Results: There were 23 males and 7 females. Out of eight patients (27%) who developed IC, three had isolated candidemia, two had isolated deep-seated candidiasis while three had both candidemia and deep-seated candidiasis. SAP patients with IC had a longer duration of Intensive Care Unit stay, hospital stay, days on mechanical ventilation and duration of shock. Mortality was not different between SAP patients with or without IC. Conclusion: There is a high rate of Candida infection in SAP. More studies are needed to generate epidemiological data and develop antifungal stewardship in this subset of high-risk population. PMID:28197050

  5. [Replantation and revascularization in acute upper limb amputation--the Sheba Medical Center experience].

    PubMed

    Oron, Amir; Yaffe, Batia

    2008-01-01

    Replantation and revascularization in acute upper-limb amputations are well-accepted surgical techniques in hand surgery. All medical staff members treating patients in emergency settings should be familiar with the indications, timetable, setup and transportation of patients rendered suitable for such surgery. While replantation surgery is not considered a simple surgical procedure by any means, viability rates approach ninety percent. The amputated part should be wrapped with gauze soaked in saline, placed in a sterile plastic bag and then put in an ice-filled container. The patient should be transferred to a medical center with a team dedicated to performing replantation procedures, following notification in advance. Time from the initial insult to the initiation of treatment should be minimized. Combined efforts employed by the primary caregivers and the microsurgical team will lead to optimization of patient treatment and improve the final outcome. During the years 1991-2007 a total of 383 upper limb replantation or revascularization procedures were performed at the Sheba Medical Center and are presented in this article.

  6. Reengineering acute episodic and chronic care delivery: the Geisinger Health System experience.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Jonathan R; Casale, Alfred S; Steele, Glenn D; Toms, Steven A

    2012-07-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) represents an evolution in clinical decision-making research that allows for the study of heterogeneous groups of patients with complex diseases processes. It has foundations in decision science, reliability science, and health care policy research. Health care finance will increasingly rely on CER for guidance in the coming years. There is increasing awareness of the importance of decreasing unwarranted variation in health care delivery. In the past 7 years, Geisinger Health System has performed broad reengineering of its acute episodic and chronic care delivery models utilizing macrosystem-level application of CER principles. These provider-driven process initiatives have resulted in significant improvement across all segments of care delivery, improved patient outcomes, and notable cost containment. These programs have led to the creation of novel pricing models, and when "hardwired" throughout a care delivery system, they can lead to correct medical decision making by 100% of providers in all patient encounters. Neurosurgery as a specialty faces unique challenges and opportunities with respect to broad adoption and application of CER techniques.

  7. Intravenous Lipid Emulsion Therapy for Acute Synthetic Cannabinoid Intoxication: Clinical Experience in Four Cases

    PubMed Central

    Aksel, Gökhan; Güneysel, Özlem; Taşyürek, Tanju; Kozan, Ergül; Çevik, Şebnem Eren

    2015-01-01

    There is no specific antidote for intoxication with synthetic cannabinoids. In this case series, we considered the efficiency of intravenous lipid emulsion therapy in four cases, who presented to emergency department with synthetic cannabinoid (bonzai) intoxication. The first patient had a GCS of 3 and a left bundle branch block on electrocardiography. The electrocardiography revealed sinus rhythm with normal QRS width after the treatment. The second patient had bradycardia, hypotension, and a GCS of 14. After intravenous lipid emulsion therapy, the bradycardia resolved, and the patient's GCS improved to 15. The third patient presented with a GCS of 8, and had hypotension and bradycardia. After the treatment, not only did the bradycardia resolve, but also the GCS improved to 15. The fourth patient, whose electrocardiography revealed accelerated junctional rhythm, had a GCS of 13. The patient's rhythm was sinus after the treatment. Cardiovascular recovery was seen in all four cases, and neurological recovery was also seen in three of them. Based on the fact that intravenous lipid emulsion is beneficial in patients intoxicated with lipophilic drugs, unstable patients presenting to the emergency department with acute synthetic cannabinoid intoxication may be candidates for intravenous lipid emulsion treatment. PMID:26078891

  8. [Antiphlogisitc-rheologic infusion therapy of acute idiopathic facial paralysis. Experiences and results of 344 cases].

    PubMed

    Sittel, C; Stennert, E

    2000-08-01

    Antiphlogistic-rheologic infusion therapy is a widespread and well-established treatment modality for acute idiopathic facial paralysis (AIFP) in many German centers of otorhinolaryngology. However, there is still a lack of convincing data concerning this regimen's functional results and side effects. The medical records of 344 patients who were treated for AIFP between 1987 and 1997 were analyzed retrospectively. In 239 cases there was reliable information on functional outcome. Therapy consisted uniformly of intravenous infusion with prednisolone (250 mg initially, then tapering over 18 days) and simultaneous administration of dextran and pentoxifylline. From 239 patients with non-recurrent palsy having received treatment within 12 days after onset, 92.1% recovered completely without sequelae. In case of incomplete palsy (House-Brackmann grade II-V), normal facial function was restored in 97.7% of cases. Results were significantly better in the group in which therapy had been started within 3 days after onset of palsy. Adverse effects occurred rarely and were transient and mild in most cases. High-dose prednisolone in combination with low-molecular dextran and pentoxifylline for AIFP is a safe treatment modality leading to recovery rates superior to the most optimistic observations of the natural course of Bell's palsy. In the absence of a definitive controlled trial, the present study, although retrospective, is considered valid to show the effectiveness of our protocol. In the light of our data and of other publications, early treatment with corticosteroids in sufficient dosage seems appropriate, while therapeutic nihilism in AIFP does not seem justified.

  9. Total Arch versus Hemiarch Replacement for Type A Acute Aortic Dissection: A Single-Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Nicolò, Francesca; Bovio, Emanuele; Serrao, Andrea; Zeitani, Jacob; Scafuri, Antonio; Chiariello, Luigi; Ruvolo, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    We retrospectively evaluated early and intermediate outcomes of aortic arch surgery in patients with type A acute aortic dissection (AAD), investigating the effect of arch surgery extension on postoperative results. From January 2006 through July 2013, 201 patients with type A AAD underwent urgent corrective surgery at our institution. Of the 92 patients chosen for this study, 59 underwent hemiarch replacement (hemiarch group), and 33 underwent total arch replacement (total arch group) in conjunction with ascending aorta replacement. The operative mortality rate was 22%. Total arch replacement was associated with a 33% risk of operative death, versus 15% for hemiarch (P=0.044). Multivariable analysis found these independent predictors of operative death: age (odds ratio [OR]=1.13/yr; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04–1.23; P=0.002), body mass index >30 kg/m2 (OR=9.9; 95% CI, 1.28–19; P=0.028), postoperative low cardiac output (OR=10.6; 95% CI, 1.18–25; P=0.035), and total arch replacement (OR=8.8; 95% CI, 1.39–15; P=0.021) The mean overall 5-year survival rate was 59.3% ± 5.5%, and mean 5-year freedom from distal reintervention was 95.4% ± 3.2% (P=NS). In type A AAD, aortic arch surgery is still associated with high operative mortality rates; hemiarch replacement can be performed more safely than total arch replacement. Rates of distal aortic reoperation were not different between the 2 surgical strategies. PMID:28100966

  10. Sarin experiences in Japan: acute toxicity and long-term effects.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, N; Morita, H; Nakajima, T

    2006-11-01

    Two terrorist attacks with the nerve agent Sarin affected citizens in Matsumoto and Tokyo, Japan in 1994 and 1995, killing 19 and injuring more the 6000. Sarin, a very potent organophosphate nerve agent, inhibits acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity within the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems. Acute and long-term Sarin effects upon humans were well documented in these two events. Sarin gas inhalation caused instantaneous death by respiratory arrest in 4 victims in Matsumoto. In Tokyo, two died in station yards and another ten victims died in hospitals within a few hours to 3 months after poisoning. Six victims with serum ChE below 20% of the lowest normal were resuscitated from cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) or coma with generalized convulsion. Five recovered completely and one remained in vegetative state due to anoxic brain damage. EEG abnormalities persisted for up to 5 years. Miosis and copious secretions from the respiratory and GI tracts (muscarinic effects) were common in severely to slightly affected victims. Weakness and twitches of muscles (nicotinic effects) appeared in severely affected victims. Neuropathy and ataxia were observed in small number (less than 10%) of victims, which findings disappeared between 3 days and 3 months. Leukocytosis and high serum CK levels were common. Hyperglycemia, ketonuria, low serum triglyceride, hypopotassemia were observed in severely affected victims, which abnormalities were attributed to damage of the adrenal medulla. Oximes, atropine sulphate, diazepam and ample intravenous infusion were effective treatments. Pralidoxime iodide IV reversed cholinesterase and symptoms quickly even if administered 6 h after exposure. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was less than 8% after 5 years. However, psychological symptoms continue in victims of both incidents. In summary, both potent toxicity and quick recovery from critical ill conditions were prominent features. Conventional therapies proved effective in

  11. Acute kidney injury and mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A single-center experience

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, B.; George, P.; John, M. J.; Samuel, C.

    2017-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is a life-saving procedure for patients with several malignant and nonmalignant hematological disorders. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication after HSCT. The aim of the study was to identify the incidence and outcomes of AKI associated with HSCT in our center. Sixty-six HSCT recipients from October 2008 to March 2014 at Christian Medical College, Ludhiana, were followed up till July 31, 2014. RIFLE criteria utilizing serum creatinine was used to diagnose and stage AKI. Mortality and AKI were the primary outcomes studied. The risk of AKI in relation to conditioning regimen, type of HSCT (allogeneic and autologous), co-morbidities, graft versus host disease, drug toxicity, and veno-occlusive disease were analyzed. Sixty-five patients were included in the study. Male: Female ratio was 3.6:1 with a median age of 17 years (1.5–62). Forty-nine (75.4%) patients had AKI over 3 months, R 17 (26.2%), I 19 (29.2%), and F 13 (20%). AKI occurred at a mean of 19.4 ± 29.2 days after the HSCT. AKI was more commonly observed in patients undergoing allogeneic versus autologous HSCT (85.2% in allogeneic vs. 27.8% in autologous, P = 0.005). Mortality was seen in 20 patients (30.8%) in 3 months. AKI in the first 2 weeks (P < 0.016) was a significant risk factor for mortality. Incidence of AKI in HSCT is high and accounts for significant mortality and morbidity. RIFLE classification of AKI has prognostic significance among HSCT patients with an incremental trend in mortality. PMID:28182036

  12. Availability of on-site acute vascular interventional radiology techniques performed by trained acute care specialists: A single–emergency center experience

    PubMed Central

    Tsurukiri, Junya; Ohta, Shoichi; Mishima, Shiro; Homma, Hiroshi; Okumura, Eitaro; Akamine, Itsuro; Ueno, Masahito; Oda, Jun; Yukioka, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Comprehensive treatment of a patient in acute medicine and surgery requires the use of both surgical techniques and other treatment methods. Recently, acute vascular interventional radiology techniques (AVIRTs) have become increasingly popular, enabling adequately trained in-house experts to improve the quality of on-site care. METHODS After obtaining approval from our institutional ethics committee, we conducted a retrospective study of AVIRT procedures performed by acute care specialists trained in acute medicine and surgery over a 1-year period, including those conducted out of hours. Trained acute care specialists were required to be certified by the Japanese Association of Acute Medicine and to have completed at least 1 year of training as a member of the endovascular team in the radiology department of another university hospital. The study was designed to ensure that at least one of the physicians was available to perform AVIRT within 1 h of a request at any time. Femoral sheath insertion was usually performed by the resident physicians under the guidance of trained acute care specialists. RESULTS The study sample comprised 77 endovascular procedures for therapeutic AVIRT (trauma, n = 29, and nontrauma, n = 48) among 62 patients (mean age, 64 years; range, 9–88 years), of which 55% were male. Of the procedures, 47% were performed out of hours (trauma, 52%; and nontrauma, 44%). Three patients underwent resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta in the emergency room. No major device-related complications were encountered, and the overall mortality rate within 60 days was 8%. The recorded causes of death included exsanguination (n = 2), pneumonia (n = 2), sepsis (n = 1), and brain death (n = 1). CONCLUSION When performed by trained acute care specialists, AVIRT seems to be advantageous for acute on-site care and provides good technical success. Therefore, a standard training program should be established for acute care specialists

  13. Acute pain experience in individuals with autism spectrum disorders: a review.

    PubMed

    Moore, David J

    2015-05-01

    In addition to the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder, a number of clinically important comorbid complaints, including sensory abnormalities, are also discussed. One difference often noted in these accounts is hyposensitivity to pain; however, evidence for this is limited. The purpose of the current review therefore was to examine sensitivity to pain of individuals with autism spectrum disorder. This review is interested in reports which consider differences in subjective experience of pain (i.e. different pain thresholds) and differences in behavioural response to pain (i.e. signs of pain-related distress). Studies were included if they were conducted with human subjects, included a clearly diagnosed autism spectrum disorder population and reported data pertaining to pain experience relative to the neurotypical population. Studies were classified as being self/parent report, clinical observations, observations of response to medical procedures or experimental examination of pain. Both self/parent report and clinical observations appeared to report hyposensitivity to pain, whereas observations of medical procedures and experimental manipulation suggested normal or hypersensitive responses to pain. This review suggests that contrary to classical reports, individuals with autism spectrum disorder do not appear to have systematically altered pain responses or thresholds. More systematic experimental examination of this area is needed to understand responses to pain of individuals with autism spectrum disorder.

  14. The Vietnamese pig as a translational animal model to evaluate tissue engineered heart valves: promising early experience.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Michele; Poser, Helen; Bottio, Tomaso; Bonetti, Antonella; Franci, Paolo; Naso, Filippo; Buratto, Edward; Zanella, Fabio; Perona, Giovanni; Dal Lin, Carlo; Bianco, Roberto; Spina, Michele; Busetto, Roberto; Marchini, Maurizio; Ortolani, Fulvia; Iop, Laura; Gerosa, Gino

    2017-03-27

    Several animal models are currently used for the surgical implantation of either biologic or biopolymeric scaffolds in order to provide in vivo assessment of tissue-engineered heart valves. The Vietnamese pig (VP) is herein proposed as a suitable recipient to test the function of novel bioengineered valve substitutes, in the reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). This review aims to provide a complete and exhaustive panel of physiological parameters and methodological information for preclinical studies of tissue-engineered heart valves in the VP animal model.

  15. Retainer for laboratory animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Bio-retainer holds laboratory animals in fixed position for research and clinical experiments. Retainer allows full access to animals and can be rapidly opened and closed to admit and release specimens.

  16. Wound healing in cell studies and animal model experiments by Low Level Laser Therapy; were clinical studies justified? a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lucas, C; Criens-Poublon, L J; Cockrell, C T; de Haan, R J

    2002-01-01

    Based on results of cell studies and animal experiments, clinical trials with Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) were performed, which finally did not demonstrate a beneficial effect on outcome of wound healing. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the evidence from cell studies and animal experiments with respect to wound healing was unequivocally in favour of LLLT, which would imply that these models might be adequate to predict treatment response in patients, or that the data of cell studies and animal experiments were inconclusive, which would mean that the clinical trials were based on insufficient evidence. We performed a systematic review of cell studies and animal experiment with LLLT on wound healing. Manuscripts were identified by searching Medline, Embase, and SPIE (the International Society for Optical Engineering). We assessed whether studies showed a beneficial effect of active treatment or not. The effect size was expressed in standardised mean difference [(SMD) the mean outcome measure of the treatment group minus the mean outcome measure of the control group, divided by the pooled standard deviation of these measurements]. In-depth analyses were performed on (1) studies in which inflicted wounds on animals were irradiated and evaluated; (2) studies with primary outcome measures on dimensions with direct reference to wound healing (ranging from acceleration of wound closure to epithelialisation, but excluding surrogate dimensions with regard to wound healing; in this case: tensile strength); (3) animal studies with 'true controls'; (4) studies in which animals functioned as their 'own controls' and (5) studies with the highest methodological quality score. The 36 included studies contained 49 outcome parameters of which 30 reported a positive effect of laser irradiation and 19 did not. Eleven studies presented exact data about the effect of active treatment and controls. The pooled effect size (SMD) over 22 outcome measures of these studies

  17. Behavior and reproduction of invertebrate animals during and after a long-term microgravity: space experiments using an Autonomous Biological System (ABS).

    PubMed

    Ijiri, K; Mizuno, R; Narita, T; Ohmura, T; Ishikawa, Y; Yamashita, M; Anderson, G; Poynter, J; MacCallum, T

    1998-12-01

    Aquatic invertebrate animals such as Amphipods, Gastropods (pond snails), Ostracods and Daphnia (water flea) were placed in water-filled cylindrical vessels together with water plant (hornwort). The vessels were sealed completely and illuminated with a fluorescent lamp to activate the photosynthesis of the plant for providing oxygen within the vessels. Such ecosystem vessels, specially termed as Autonomous Biological System or ABS units, were exposed to microgravity conditions, and the behavior of the animals and their reproduction capacity were studied. Three space experiments were carried out. The first experiment used a Space shuttle only and it was a 10-day flight. The other two space experiments were carried out in the Space station Mir (Shuttle/Mir mission), and the flight units had been kept in microgravity for 4 months. Daphnia produced their offspring during a 10-day Shuttle flight. In the first Mir experiment, no Daphnia were detected when recovered to the ground. However, they were alive in the second Mir experiment. Daphnia were the most fragile species among the invertebrate animals employed in the present experiments. All the animals, i.e., Amphipods, pond snails, Ostracods and Daphnia had survived for 4 months in space, i.e., they had produced their offspring or repeated their life-cycles under microgravity. For the two Mir experiments, in both the flight and ground control ecosystem units, an inverse relationship was noted between the number of Amphipods and pond snails in each unit. Amphipods at 10 hours after the recovery to the ground frequently exhibited a movement of dropping straight-downward to the bottom of the units. Several Amphipods had their legs bent abnormally, which probably resulted from some physiological alterations during their embryonic development under microgravity. From the analysis of the video tape recorded in space, for Ostracods and Daphnia, a half of their population were looping under microgravity. Such looping animals

  18. Do experiments with captive non-domesticated animals make sense without population field studies? A case study with blue tits' breeding time

    PubMed Central

    Lambrechts, M. M.; Perret, P.; Maistre, M.; Blondel, J.

    1999-01-01

    A complete understanding of the spatio-temporal variation in phenotypic traits in natural populations requires a combination long-term field studies with experiments using captive animals. Field studies allow the formulation of realistic hypotheses, but have the disadvantage that they do not allow the complete control of many potential confounding variables. Studies with captive animals allow tests of hypotheses that cannot be examined in the field, but have the disadvantage that artificial environments may provoke abnormal behaviour. Long-term studies that follow simultaneously captive and wild bird populations are rare. In a study lasting several years, we show here the unexpected patterns that two populations with a similar breeding time in the wild have non-overlapping breeding times in outdoor aviaries, and that two wild populations separated by a short geographical distance show differences in the expression of natural behaviour in captivity. The experimental design used is exceptional in the sense that the captive populations were held at similar latitudes and altitudes as the wild populations. Our case study shows that studies with captive animals can lead to wrong conclusions if they are carried out without population field studies, and without knowledge of the natural habits and habitats of the species involved. To examine the reliability of experiments with captive animals, comparisons with findings from population field studies are essential.

  19. Development of a vessel organ culture system: characterisation of the method and implications for the reduction of animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Zaniboni, Andrea; Zannoni, Augusta; Bernardini, Chiara; De Cecco, Marco; Bombardi, Cristiano; Seren, Eraldo; Forni, Monica; Bacci, Maria Laura

    2013-09-01

    In the field of cardiovascular research, the pig is considered to be an excellent animal model of human diseases. It is well-known that primary cultures of endothelial cells (ECs) are a powerful tool for the study of vascular physiology and pathology, and, according to the principles of the Three Rs, their use results in a substantial reduction in the numbers of experimental animals required. However, a limitation of EC culture is that the cells are not in their physiological context. Here, we describe and characterise a method for the culture of porcine vessels that overcomes the limitation of EC cultures, with the advantage of reducing the number of animals used for research purposes. The organ cultures were set-up by using an aortic cylinder obtained from the arteries of control pigs sacrificed for other experimental purposes. In order to characterise the method, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation and the vessel's structural features were evaluated during organ culture. These analyses confirm that the culture of aortic cylinder lumen, in a medium specific for ECs, results in a stable system in terms of VEGF and MMP secretion. The ECs do not undergo cell division during the organ culture, which is also the case in vivo, if no stimulation occurs. Overall, we show that this novel system closely resembles the in vivo context. Importantly, porcine aortas can be collected from either veterinary surgeries or slaughterhouses, without having to sacrifice animals specifically for the purposes of this type of research.

  20. Behavior of Dermochelys coriacea in captivity (animal carrying dummy PTT in preliminary phase of an ARGOS experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duron-Dufrenne, M.

    The degree to which a turtle would accept the Transat-type ARGOS PTT, and the reliability of the harness securing it to the carapace were tested, using an adult kept in a swimming pool for 36 hr. Its pelagic behavior turns out to be comparable to that in the open sea, the animal appearing unperturbed by the equipment.

  1. Ethical policies on animal experiments are not compromised by whether a journal is freely accessible or charges for publication.

    PubMed

    Rands, S A

    2009-11-01

    The advent of the open access (OA) movement in publishing has been instrumental in causing a shift in the accessibility of research findings published in academic journals. The adoption of OA and other online publication models means that the results of scientific research published in journals using a free access (FA) framework are now available, free of charge, to anyone with access to the Internet. FA journals typically require a payment from the authors of a manuscript, which has raised concerns about the quality of work published in them; accepting payment from an author may compromise a journal's acceptance criteria. This study addresses whether journal policy on the treatment of animals is influenced by whether a journal follows a FA publishing model, and whether a requirement to pay for publication has an influence. A random sample of 332 biomedical journals listed in the ISI Web of Knowledge and Directory of Open Access Journals databases were assessed for whether they had an ethical policy on publishing animal studies, and what form of publication framework they used (103 of the journals followed a FA framework; 101 charged in some way for publication). Only 135 (40.7%) of the journals surveyed demanded that submissions comply with a pre-defined ethical stance. FA journals are just as likely to have an ethical policy on the treatment and presentation of animal studies as 'traditional', non-FA journals (significance of there being a difference: P = 0.98), and there is no relationship between policy and whether an author is required to pay for publication (significance of there being a difference: P = 0.57). Older journals are more likely to have an ethical policy (P = 0.03). There is, therefore, no obvious compromise shown by FA journals in the explicit policies on reporting studies involving animals. However, since anyone can read published FA studies online, FA journals that do not have an explicit policy about publishing animal research are urged to

  2. Animals in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Angela

    1988-01-01

    Animals are indispensable to the space program. Their continued use could have many significant results. Those who are opposed to using animals in space should remember that space animals are treated humanely; they are necessary because results can be obtained from them that would be unobtainable from humans; and results from animal experiments can be applied to human systems. Therefore, NASA should continue to use animals in space research.

  3. Parallels in sources of trauma, pain, distress, and suffering in humans and nonhuman animals.

    PubMed

    Ferdowsian, Hope; Merskin, Debra

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that animals often experience pain and distress as a result of their use in scientific experimentation. However, unlike human suffering, the wide range of acute, recurrent, and chronic stressors and trauma on animals is rarely evaluated. In order to better understand the cumulative effects of captivity and laboratory research conditions on animals, we explore parallels between human experiences of pain and psychological distress and those of animals based on shared brain structures and physiological mechanisms. We review anatomical, physiological, and behavioral similarities between humans and other animals regarding the potential for suffering. In addition, we examine associations between research conditions and indicators of pain and distress. We include 4 case studies of common animal research protocols in order to illustrate incidental and experimental factors that can lead to animal suffering. Finally, we identify parallels between established traumatic conditions for humans and existing laboratory conditions for animals.

  4. [Alternative methods to animal experiments. What can they afford in the safety testing of chemical substances under REACH?].

    PubMed

    Lilienblum, Werner

    2008-12-01

    Alternative methods to safety studies using laboratory animals have been accepted by the OECD in areas such as local toxicity and mutagenicity. In more complex important fields, such as systemic single and repeated dose toxicity, toxicokinetics, sensitisation, reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity, it is expected that the development and validation of computerised methods, testing batteries (in vitro and in silico) and tiered testing systems will need many years and have to overcome many scientific and regulatory obstacles, which makes it extremely difficult to predict the outcome and the time needed. Therefore, the validated alternative methods available will only have a limited impact on reducing the numbers of animals required under REACH. In the midterm, the strategy should be more directed towards the refinement or reduction of in vivo testing because the replacement concerning complex toxicological endpoints is at present not in sight.

  5. [Histological investigation of the micromorphological effects of the application of a laser needle--results of an animal experiment].

    PubMed

    Litscher, G; Nemetz, W; Smolle, J; Schwarz, G; Schikora, D; Uranüs, S

    2004-01-01

    In an experimental animal study (Sus scrofa domesticus) we investigated the effects of the new technique of laser needle stimulation (wavelength: 685 nm; energy density: 4.6 kJ/cm2 per point; application duration: 20 min). The results revealed changes in microcirculatory parameters of the skin resulting in an increase in blood flow. However, the quality and intensity of the laser light did not induce micromorphological alterations in the skin.

  6. Ground and space flight experiments of the effects of light, sound and/or temperature on animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, Daniel C.; Du, Vince; Erikson, Jill; Gott, Jack; Hinchcliffe, Heather; Mele, Gary; Moeller, Karen; Nguyen, Tam; Okumura, Sarah; Robbins, Mark

    1994-01-01

    Papers on the following topics are presented: (1) rat long term habitability and breeding under low light intensity (5 lux); (2) effects of low light intensity on the rat circadian system; (3) effects of sound/noise on the circadian system of rats; (4) temperature related problems involving the animal enclosure modules (AEM) lighting system; and (5) NASA AEM filter test 92/93 (Rats).

  7. t(8;21) (q22;q22) acute myelogenous leukemia in Mexico: a single institution experience.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Argüelles, Guillermo J; Morales-Toquero, Amelia; Manzano, Carlos; Ruiz-Delgado, Guillermo J; Jaramillo, Patricia; Gonzalez-Carrillo, Martha L; Reyes-Núñez, Virginia

    2006-08-01

    We analyze the prevalence and clinical features of a group of patients with t(8;21) (q22;q22) acute myeloblastic leukemia, identified in a single institution in México over a 10-year period. Fifteen patients presented at the Centro de Hematología y Medicina Interna de Puebla from February 1995 to August 2005; only nine were treated and followed in the institution. Median age was 24 years, (range 7-49); there was only one male. According to the French-American-British (FAB) morphological classification of leukemia, the morphology was M2 in four cases, M4 in three cases, M3 in one case and M0 in one. In addition to the myeloid markers, lymphoid markers were identified in 6 patients. Patients were induced to remission with combined chemotherapy and three subsequently underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The median overall and disease-free survival has not been reached, being above 3390 days, the probability of survival at this time was 73%. In this single-center experience in México, we found that the t(8;21) (q22;q22) variant of leukemia was more frequent than in Caucasian populations, that the co-expression of lymphoid markers in the blast cells is very frequent and that this malignancy is associated with a relatively good prognosis.

  8. Development and Implementation of a Simple, Engaging Acid Rain Neutralization Experiment and Corresponding Animated Instructional Video for Introductory Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Danielle; Yennie, Craig J.; Lynch, Patrick; Lowry, Gregory; Budarz, James; Zhu, Wenlei; Wang, Li-Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe an acid rain neutralization laboratory experiment and its corresponding instructional video. This experiment has been developed and implemented for use in the teaching laboratory of a large introductory chemistry course at Brown University. It provides a contextually relevant example to introduce beginner-level students with…

  9. Estimation of the acute inhalation hazards of chemicals based on route-to-route and local endpoint extrapolation: experience from bulk maritime transport.

    PubMed

    Höfer, Thomas; James, Derek; Syversen, Tore; Bowmer, Tim

    2011-12-01

    Data on acute lethal inhalation toxicity from animal studies are commonly required for assessing the hazards to human health of volatile, gaseous and dusty chemicals or their mixtures. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) made the provision of acute inhalation toxicity data a mandatory requirement for the carriage of bulk liquid chemicals transported by sea in tank ships, thereby creating the need for inhalation data on many hundreds of chemicals in bulk maritime transport. Taking note of previously published proposals for estimating acute inhalation toxicity hazards for chemicals, and the paucity of measured experimental data, an extrapolation method has been developed by the Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection (GESAMP) to partly fulfil this need. This method should be seen as a pragmatic approach to the challenge of missing measured experimental test data, with the added benefit of reducing tests in experimental animals. The method is based on a route-to-route (i.e. between-route) extrapolation of information on acute oral and/or dermal toxicity, in combination with data on the potential for irritation and/or corrosion to skin and eyes. The validation of this method was based on the individual evaluation of inhalation toxicity studies for 330 chemicals, including mixtures and many important chemical groups, for which the IMO holds public and industry-confidential data. The authors contend that this extrapolation method offers a reliable basis for hazard evaluation in the context of bulk maritime transport, and the 'GESAMP inhalation toxicity extrapolation method' has become part of the IMO regulatory system for the carriage of bulk liquids (i.e. noxious liquid substances) on board tank ships.

  10. Telemetry and Telestimulation via Implanted Devices Necessary in Long-Term Experiments Using Conscious Untethered Animals for the Development of New Medical Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimachi, Masaru; Kawada, Toru; Uemura, Kazunori

    Effective countermeasures against explosive increase in healthcare expenditures are urgently needed. A paradigm shift in healthcare is called for, and academics and governments worldwide are working hard on the application of information and communication technologies (ICT) as a feasible and effective measure for reducing medical cost. The more prevalent the disease and the easier disease outcome can be improved, the more efficient is medical ICT in reducing healthcare cost. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are such examples. Chronic heart failure is another disease in which patients may benefit from ICT-based medical practice. It is conceivable that daily monitoring of hemodynamics together with appropriate treatments may obviate the expensive hospitalization. ICT potentially permit continuous monitoring with wearable or implantable medical devices. ICT may also help accelerate the development of new therapeutic devices. Traditionally effectiveness of treatments is sequentially examined by sacrificing a number of animals at a given time point. These inefficient and inaccurate methods can be replaced by applying ICT to the devices used in chronic animal experiments. These devices allow researchers to obtain biosignals and images from live animals without killing them. They include implantable telemetric devices, implantable telestimulation devices, and imaging devices. Implanted rather than wired monitoring and stimulation devices permit experiments to be conducted under even more physiological conditions, i.e., untethered, free-moving states. Wireless communication and ICT are indispensible technologies for the development of such telemetric and telestimulation devices.

  11. Phantom experiments on a PSAPD-based compact gamma camera with submillimeter spatial resolution for small animal SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangtaek; McClish, Mickel; Alhassen, Fares; Seo, Youngho; Shah, Kanai S.; Gould, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate a position sensitive avalanche photodiode (PSAPD) based compact gamma camera for the application of small animal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The silicon PSAPD with a two-dimensional resistive layer and four readout channels is implemented as a gamma ray detector to record the energy and position of radiation events from a radionuclide source. A 2 mm thick monolithic CsI:Tl scintillator is optically coupled to a PSAPD with a 8mm×8mm active area, providing submillimeter intrinsic spatial resolution, high energy resolution (16% full-width half maximum at 140 keV) and high gain. A mouse heart phantom filled with an aqueous solution of 370 MBq 99mTc-pertechnetate (140 keV) was imaged using the PSAPD detector module and a tungsten knife-edge pinhole collimator with a 0.5 mm diameter aperture. The PSAPD detector module was cooled with cold nitrogen gas to suppress dark current shot noise. For each projection image of the mouse heart phantom, a rotated diagonal readout algorithm was used to calculate the position of radiation events and correct for pincushion distortion. The reconstructed image of the mouse heart phantom demonstrated reproducible image quality with submillimeter spatial resolution (0.7 mm), showing the feasibility of using the compact PSAPD-based gamma camera for a small animal SPECT system. PMID:21278833

  12. Bone, Calcium and Spaceflight: A Living Systems Experiment Relating Animals and Plants the Effects of Calcium on Plant Growth and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiss-Bubenheim, D.; Navarro, B.J.; Morey-Holton, E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This NASA-sponsored educational outreach activity provided local students with information about Ames Research Center's (ARC) role in conducting life sciences research in space. Students were introduced to the scientific method while conducting a plant experiment that correlated with the Spacelab Life Sciences-2 (SLS-2) flight animal experiment of Dr. Emily Morey-Holton entitled "Bone, Calcium and Spaceflight". Students made daily observations, collected data and reported on their findings. Students also had the opportunity to witness the STS-58 landing at Edwards Air Force Base in southern California and attended a briefing given by the Payload Commander, Dr. Rhea Seddon at ARC last month. This classroom experiment providing a hands-on learning opportunity about terrestrial and space biology and, hopefully, introduced the students to new fields of study for future endeavors.

  13. Animal experiments, vital forces and courtrooms: Mateu Orfila, François Magendie and the study of poisons in nineteenth-century France.

    PubMed

    Bertomeu-Sánchez, José Ramón

    2012-01-01

    The paper follows the lives of Mateu Orfila and François Magendie in early nineteenth-century Paris, focusing on their common interest in poisons. The first part deals with the striking similarities of their early careers: their medical training, their popular private lectures, and their first publications. The next section explores their experimental work on poisons by analyzing their views on physical and vital forces in living organisms and their ideas about the significance of animal experiments in medicine. The last part describes their contrasting research on the absorption of poisons and the divergences in their approaches, methods, aims, standards of proof, and intended audiences. The analysis highlights the connections between nineteenth-century courtrooms and experimental laboratories, and shows how forensic practice not only prompted animal experimentation but also provided a substantial body of information and new research methods for dealing with major theoretical issues like the absorption of poisons.

  14. Animal Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  15. Small animal simultaneous PET/MRI: initial experiences in a 9.4T microMRI

    SciTech Connect

    Maramraju, S.H.; Schlyer, D.; Maramraju, S.H.; Smith, S.D.; Junnarkar, S.S.; Schulz, D.; Stoll, S.; Ravindranath, B.; Purschke, M.L.; Rescia, S.; Southekal, S.; Pratte, J.-F.; Vaska, P.; Woody, C.L.; Schlyer, D.J.

    2011-03-25

    We developed a non-magnetic positron-emission tomography (PET) device based on the rat conscious animal PET that operates in a small-animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, thereby enabling us to carry out simultaneous PET/MRI studies. The PET detector comprises 12 detector blocks, each being a 4 x 8 array of lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystals (2.22 x 2.22 x 5 mm{sup 3}) coupled to a matching non-magnetic avalanche photodiode array. The detector blocks, housed in a plastic case, form a 38 mm inner diameter ring with an 18 mm axial extent. Custom-built MRI coils fit inside the positron-emission tomography (PET) device, operating in transceiver mode. The PET insert is integrated with a Bruker 9.4 T 210 mm clear-bore diameter MRI scanner. We acquired simultaneous PET/MR images of phantoms, of in vivo rat brain, and of cardiac-gated mouse heart using [{sup 11}C]raclopride and 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-d-glucose PET radiotracers. There was minor interference between the PET electronics and the MRI during simultaneous operation, and small effects on the signal-to-noise ratio in the MR images in the presence of the PET, but no noticeable visual artifacts. Gradient echo and high-duty-cycle spin echo radio frequency (RF) pulses resulted in a 7% and a 28% loss in PET counts, respectively, due to high PET counts during the RF pulses that had to be gated out. The calibration of the activity concentration of PET data during MR pulsing is reproducible within less than 6%. Our initial results demonstrate the feasibility of performing simultaneous PET and MRI studies in adult rats and mice using the same PET insert in a small-bore 9.4 T MRI.

  16. [Treatment of defects of the long bones using distraction osteogenesis (Ilizarov) and intramedullary nailing. Theoretic principles, animal experiments, clinical relevance].

    PubMed

    Brunner, U; Kessler, S; Cordey, J; Rahn, B; Schweiberer, L; Perren, S M

    1990-06-01

    For large shaft defects of tibia and femur, distraction-compression osteosynthesis (Ilizarov) provides an ideal autologous bone graft. Combination of this with an intramedullary interlocking nail instead of an external fixator could improve patient comfort, because transport with a small external device takes only one-third of the total fixation period. Using 21 adult female sheep we created standardized tibia shaft defects 20 mm (medium size) and 45 mm (large size) in length. The tibiae were stabilized with non-reamed intramedullary interlocking nails. Following corticotomy by chisel, segments were transported using subcutaneous traction wires with a screw as a fulcrum to maintain stationary skin exit points without soft tissue problems. The external traction devices were removed after 12 or 16 weeks. Animals were sacrificed after 12 or 24 weeks with medium-size defects, and after 16 or 32 weeks with large defects. We evaluated the results clinically, by standardized weekly X-rays and, after sacrifice, by quantitative computed tomography (QCT). No animals had to be excluded from the study. Despite primary destruction of the intramedullary circulation all distraction gaps were spanned with bone. X-Rays showed typical signs of good quality of distraction bone regeneration (narrow radiolucent zone in the middle of the regenerate, longitudinal structure), continuous calcification, and cortex formation. QCT cross sections showed completely circular bone regeneration with small and large defects. Bone regeneration was faster on the dorsal side, where more bone was formed than ventrally. Small defects can remain ventrally in the regenerate; these close secondarily.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Small animal simultaneous PET/MRI: initial experiences in a 9.4 T microMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harsha Maramraju, Sri; Smith, S. David; Junnarkar, Sachin S.; Schulz, Daniela; Stoll, Sean; Ravindranath, Bosky; Purschke, Martin L.; Rescia, Sergio; Southekal, Sudeepti; Pratte, Jean-François; Vaska, Paul; Woody, Craig L.; Schlyer, David J.

    2011-04-01

    We developed a non-magnetic positron-emission tomography (PET) device based on the rat conscious animal PET that operates in a small-animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, thereby enabling us to carry out simultaneous PET/MRI studies. The PET detector comprises 12 detector blocks, each being a 4 × 8 array of lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystals (2.22 × 2.22 × 5 mm3) coupled to a matching non-magnetic avalanche photodiode array. The detector blocks, housed in a plastic case, form a 38 mm inner diameter ring with an 18 mm axial extent. Custom-built MRI coils fit inside the positron-emission tomography (PET) device, operating in transceiver mode. The PET insert is integrated with a Bruker 9.4 T 210 mm clear-bore diameter MRI scanner. We acquired simultaneous PET/MR images of phantoms, of in vivo rat brain, and of cardiac-gated mouse heart using [11C]raclopride and 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose PET radiotracers. There was minor interference between the PET electronics and the MRI during simultaneous operation, and small effects on the signal-to-noise ratio in the MR images in the presence of the PET, but no noticeable visual artifacts. Gradient echo and high-duty-cycle spin echo radio frequency (RF) pulses resulted in a 7% and a 28% loss in PET counts, respectively, due to high PET counts during the RF pulses that had to be gated out. The calibration of the activity concentration of PET data during MR pulsing is reproducible within less than 6%. Our initial results demonstrate the feasibility of performing simultaneous PET and MRI studies in adult rats and mice using the same PET insert in a small-bore 9.4 T MRI.

  18. Toward the Replacement of Animal Experiments through the Bioinformatics-driven Analysis of 'Omics' Data from Human Cell Cultures.

    PubMed

    Grafström, Roland C; Nymark, Penny; Hongisto, Vesa; Spjuth, Ola; Ceder, Rebecca; Willighagen, Egon; Hardy, Barry; Kaski, Samuel; Kohonen, Pekka

    2015-11-01

    This paper outlines the work for which Roland Grafström and Pekka Kohonen were awarded the 2014 Lush Science Prize. The research activities of the Grafström laboratory have, for many years, covered cancer biology studies, as well as the development and application of toxicity-predictive in vitro models to determine chemical safety. Through the integration of in silico analyses of diverse types of genomics data (transcriptomic and proteomic), their efforts have proved to fit well into the recently-developed Adverse Outcome Pathway paradigm. Genomics analysis within state-of-the-art cancer biology research and Toxicology in the 21st Century concepts share many technological tools. A key category within the Three Rs paradigm is the Replacement of animals in toxicity testing with alternative methods, such as bioinformatics-driven analyses of data obtained from human cell cultures exposed to diverse toxicants. This work was recently expanded within the pan-European SEURAT-1 project (Safety Evaluation Ultimately Replacing Animal Testing), to replace repeat-dose toxicity testing with data-rich analyses of sophisticated cell culture models. The aims and objectives of the SEURAT project have been to guide the application, analysis, interpretation and storage of 'omics' technology-derived data within the service-oriented sub-project, ToxBank. Particularly addressing the Lush Science Prize focus on the relevance of toxicity pathways, a 'data warehouse' that is under continuous expansion, coupled with the development of novel data storage and management methods for toxicology, serve to address data integration across multiple 'omics' technologies. The prize winners' guiding principles and concepts for modern knowledge management of toxicological data are summarised. The translation of basic discovery results ranged from chemical-testing and material-testing data, to information relevant to human health and environmental safety.

  19. Transmission and dose–response experiments for social animals: a reappraisal of the colonization biology of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dose-response experiments characterize the relationship between infectious agents and their hosts. They are used to estimate the minimum e'ective infectious dose (ID50), compare between di'erent agents and quantify the e'ect of treatment regimes. The statistical analysis of dose-response data typica...

  20. Apoptotic signaling pathways induced by acute administration of branched-chain amino acids in an animal model of maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Thais C; Scaini, Giselli; Furlanetto, Camila B; Pasquali, Matheus A B; Santos, João Paulo A; Gelain, Daniel P; Moreira, José Cláudio F; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Streck, Emilio L

    2017-02-01

    Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by a deficiency of the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex activity. This blockage leads to accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine, as well as their corresponding α-keto acids and α-hydroxy acids. The affected patients present severe neurological symptoms, such as coma and seizures, as well as edema and cerebral atrophy. Considering that the mechanisms of the neurological symptoms presented by MSUD patients are still poorly understood, in this study, protein levels of apoptotic factors are measured, such as Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bax, caspase-3 and -8 in hippocampus and cerebral cortex of rats submitted to acute administration of branched-chain amino acids during their development. The results in this study demonstrated that BCAA acute exposure during the early postnatal period did not significantly change Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bax and caspase-8 protein levels. However, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and procaspase-3 protein levels were decreased in hippocampus. On the other hand, acute administration of BCAA in 30-day-old rats increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio followed by an increased caspase-3 activity in cerebral cortex, whereas BCAA induces apoptosis in hippocampus through activation and cleavage of caspase-3 and -8 without changing the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. In conclusion, the results suggest that apoptosis could be of pivotal importance in the developmental neurotoxic effects of BCAA. In addition, the current studies also suggest that multiple mechanisms may be involved in BCAA-induced apoptosis in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus.

  1. [Animal experimentation in Israel].

    PubMed

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

    2002-04-01

    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries.

  2. Towards An Advanced Graphene-Based Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agent: Sub-acute Toxicity and Efficacy Studies in Small Animals

    PubMed Central

    Kanakia, Shruti; Toussaint, Jimmy; Hoang, Dung Minh; Mullick Chowdhury, Sayan; Lee, Stephen; Shroyer, Kenneth R.; Moore, William; Wadghiri, Youssef Z.; Sitharaman, Balaji

    2015-01-01

    Current clinical Gd3+-based T1 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents (CAs) are suboptimal or unsuitable, especially at higher magnetic fields (>1.5 Tesla) for advanced MRI applications such as blood pool, cellular and molecular imaging. Herein, towards the goal of developing a safe and more efficacious high field T1 MRI CA for these applications, we report the sub-acute toxicity and contrast enhancing capabilities of a novel nanoparticle MRI CA comprising of manganese (Mn2+) intercalated graphene nanoparticles functionalized with dextran (hereafter, Mangradex) in rodents. Sub-acute toxicology performed on rats intravenously injected with Mangradex at 1, 50 or 100 mg/kg dosages 3 times per week for three weeks indicated that dosages ≤50 mg/kg could serve as potential diagnostic doses. Whole body 7 Tesla MRI performed on mice injected with Mangradex at a potential diagnostic dose (25 mg/kg or 455 nanomoles Mn2+/kg; ~2 orders of magnitude lower than the paramagnetic ion concentration in a typical clinical dose) showed persistent (up to at least 2 hours) contrast enhancement in the vascular branches (Mn2+ concentration in blood at steady state = 300 ppb, per voxel = 45 femtomoles). The results lay the foundations for further development of Mangradex as a vascular and cellular/ molecular MRI probe. PMID:26625867

  3. Transthoracic single port with peroral assistance: an animal experiment to assess a less invasive technique for human esophageal atresia repair.

    PubMed

    Henriques-Coelho, Tiago; Soares, Tony R; Miranda, Alice; Moreira-Pinto, João; Correia-Pinto, Jorge

    2012-12-01

    Thoracoscopic repair of esophageal atresia has becoming the gold standard in many centers because it allows a better cosmetic result and avoids the musculoskeletal sequelae of a thoracotomy. Natural orifice translumenal endocopic surgery (NOTES) is a new surgical paradigm, and its human application has already been started in some procedures. In the present study, we explore the feasibility of performing an esophagoesophageal anastomosis using a single transthoracic single port combined with a peroral access in a rabbit model to simulate repair of esophageal atresia by hybrid NOTES in a human newborn. Adult male rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, n=28) were used to perform the surgical protocol. We used a transthoracic telescope with a 3-mm working channel and a flexible endoscope with a 2.2-mm working channel by peroral access. We performed total esophagotomy with peroral scissors followed by an esophagoesophageal anastomosis achieved with a rigid transthoracic scope helped by the peroral operator. Extracorporeal transthoracic knots were performed to complete the anastomosis. The anastomoses were examined in loco and ex loco, after animal sacrifice. We successfully accomplished a complete esophageal anastomosis in all rabbits using a combination of transthoracic and peroral 3-mm instruments. This study provides important insights for a possible translation of hybrid NOTES to human newborns with esophageal atresia. Forward studies to accomplish their feasibility in human newborns will still be necessary.

  4. Initial ground experiments of silkworm cultures living on different feedstock for provision of high quality animal protein for human in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yunan; Tang, Liman; Tong, Ling; Liu, Yang; Liu, Hong; Li, Xiaomin

    2010-09-01

    Silkworm could be an alternative to provide edible animal protein in Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for long-term manned space missions. Silkworms can consume non-edible plant residue and convert plant nutrients to high quality edible animal protein for astronauts. The preliminary investigation of silkworm culture was carried out in earth environment. The silkworms were fed with artificial silkworm diet and the leaves of stem lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. angustana Irish) separately and the nutritional structure of silkworm was investigated and compared, The culture experiments showed that: (1) Stem lettuce leaves could be used as food of silkworm. The protein content of silkworm fed with lettuce leaves can reach 70% of dry mass. (2) The protein content of silkworm powder produced by the fifth instar silkworm larvae was 70%, which was similar to the protein content of silkworm pupae. The powder of the fifth instar silkworm larvae can be utilized by astronaut. (3) The biotransformation rate of silkworm larvae between the third instar and the fifth instar could reach above 70%. The biotransformation cycle of silkworm was determined as 24 days. (4) Using the stem lettuce leaves to raise silkworm, the coarse fiber content of silkworm excrements reached about 33%. The requirements of space silkworm culture equipment, feeding approaches and feeding conditions were also preliminarily designed and calculated. It is estimated that 2.2 m 3 of culture space could satisfy daily animal protein demand for seven astronauts.

  5. Amazing Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Kuwari, Najat Saad

    2007-01-01

    "Animals" is a three-part lesson plan for young learners with a zoo animal theme. The first lesson is full of activities to describe animals, with Simon Says, guessing games, and learning stations. The second lesson is about desert animals, but other types of animals could be chosen depending on student interest. This lesson teaches…

  6. Acute phase reaction and acute phase proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Gruys, E.; Toussaint, M.J.M.; Niewold, T.A.; Koopmans, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    A review of the systemic acute phase reaction with major cytokines involved, and the hepatic metabolic changes, negative and positive acute phase proteins (APPs) with function and associated pathology is given. It appears that APPs represent appropriate analytes for assessment of animal health. Whereas they represent non-specific markers as biological effect reactants, they can be used for assessing nutritional deficits and reactive processes, especially when positive and negative acute phase variables are combined in an index. When such acute phase index is applied to separate healthy animals from animals with some disease, much better results are obtained than with single analytes and statistically acceptable results for culling individual animals may be reached. Unfortunately at present no cheap, comprehensive and easy to use system is available for assessing various acute phase proteins in serum or blood samples at the same time. Protein microarray or fluid phase microchip technology may satisfy this need; and permit simultaneous analysis of numerous analytes in the same small volume sample and enable integration of information derived from systemic reactivity and nutrition with disease specific variables. Applying such technology may help to solve health problems in various countries not only in animal husbandry but also in human populations. PMID:16252337

  7. [Experimental rationale for the use of enterosorbents in acute ethanol intoxication].

    PubMed

    Orbidans, A G; Terekhin, G A; Vladimirskiĭ, E V; Terekhina, N A

    2009-01-01

    The experiment on 83 rats has provided a rationale for the use of enterosorbents in acute ethanol intoxication. Polysorb reduces the halflife of ethanol, recovers physical fitness in the animals with acute poisoning. The enterosorbents polysorb, litovit, and sapropel have been found to have a corrective effect on the level of the major plasma antioxidant ceruloplasmin in acute ethanol intoxication. Enterosorbents are an effective detoxifying agent in this condition. Examining the mechanisms of toxic action of ethanol allows the most expedient treatment policy to be substantiated in acute poisonings.

  8. Size-Dependent Toxicity Differences of Intratracheally Instilled Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles: Conclusions of a Subacute Animal Experiment.

    PubMed

    Máté, Zsuzsanna; Horváth, Edina; Kozma, Gábor; Simon, Tímea; Kónya, Zoltán; Paulik, Edit; Papp, András; Szabó, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Incomplete information on toxicological differences of micro- and nanometer-sized particles raised concerns about the effects of the latter on health and environment. Besides chemical composition, size and surface-to-volume ratio of nanoparticles (NPs) can affect toxicity. To investigate size-dependent toxicity differences, we used particles made of dioxide of the neurotoxic heavy metal manganese (Mn), typically found in inhaled metal fumes, in three size ranges (size A, 9.14 ± 1.98 nm; size B, 42.36 ± 8.06 nm; size C, 118.31 ± 25.37 nm). For modeling the most frequent route of exposure to Mn, NPs were given to rats for 6 weeks by intratracheal instillation. Of each NP size, 3 or 6 mg/kg body weight was given while control animals were vehicle treated. Neurotoxicity was assessed by measuring spontaneous locomotor activity in an open field and by recording spontaneous and evoked electrical activity from the somatosensory cortical area. Mn content of brain, lung, and blood, measured by ICP-MS, were correlated to the observed functional alterations to see the relationship between Mn load and toxic effects. Body weight gain and organ weights were measured as general toxicological indices. The toxicity of size A and size B NPs proved to be stronger compared to size C NPs, seen most clearly in decreased body weight gain and altered spontaneous cortical activity, which were also well correlated to the internal Mn dose. Our results showed strong effect of size on NP toxicity, thus, beyond inappropriateness of toxicity data of micrometer-sized particles in evaluation of NP exposure, differentiation within the nano range may be necessary.

  9. Inhalation of diethylamine--acute nasal effects and subjective response

    SciTech Connect

    Lundqvist, G.R.; Yamagiwa, M.; Pedersen, O.F.; Nielsen, G.D. )

    1992-03-01

    Adult volunteers were exposed to 25 ppm (75 mg/m3) diethylamine in a climate chamber for 15 min in order to study the acute nasal reactions to an exposure equivalent to the present threshold limit value-short-term exposure limit. Changes in nasal volume and nasal resistance were measured by acoustic rhinometry and by rhinomanometry. Acute change in nasal volume, usually seen as acute nasal mucosa response to thermal stimuli, was not observed, nor was an acute change in nasal airway resistance. In a subsequent experiment, the aim was to measure acute sensory effects. Exposure to a concentration increasing from 0 to 12 ppm took place for 60 min, equal to an average concentration of 10 ppm (30 mg/m3). A moderate to strong olfactory response and distinct nasal and eye irritation were observed. In spite of considerable individual variation, the results were in agreement with sensory effect estimates obtained from animal studies.

  10. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ... Preventable Diseases Healthy Children > Health Issues > Conditions > From Insects or Animals > Animal Bites Health Issues Listen Español ...

  11. Threats to Validity in the Design and Conduct of Preclinical Efficacy Studies: A Systematic Review of Guidelines for In Vivo Animal Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Valerie C.; Kimmelman, Jonathan; Fergusson, Dean; Grimshaw, Jeremy M.; Hackam, Dan G.

    2013-01-01

    Background The vast majority of medical interventions introduced into clinical development prove unsafe or ineffective. One prominent explanation for the dismal success rate is flawed preclinical research. We conducted a systematic review of preclinical research guidelines and organized recommendations according to the type of validity threat (internal, construct, or external) or programmatic research activity they primarily address. Methods and Findings We searched MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Google, and the EQUATOR Network website for all preclinical guideline documents published up to April 9, 2013 that addressed the design and conduct of in vivo animal experiments aimed at supporting clinical translation. To be eligible, documents had to provide guidance on the design or execution of preclinical animal experiments and represent the aggregated consensus of four or more investigators. Data from included guidelines were independently extracted by two individuals for discrete recommendations on the design and implementation of preclinical efficacy studies. These recommendations were then organized according to the type of validity threat they addressed. A total of 2,029 citations were identified through our search strategy. From these, we identified 26 guidelines that met our eligibility criteria—most of which were directed at neurological or cerebrovascular drug development. Together, these guidelines offered 55 different recommendations. Some of the most common recommendations included performance of a power calculation to determine sample size, randomized treatment allocation, and characterization of disease phenotype in the animal model prior to experimentation. Conclusions By identifying the most recurrent recommendations among preclinical guidelines, we provide a starting point for developing preclinical guidelines in other disease domains. We also provide a basis for the study and evaluation of preclinical research practice. Please see later in the article

  12. Core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia (CBF-AML) in México: a single institution experience.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Delgado, Guillermo J; Macías-Gallardo, Julio; Lutz-Presno, Julia; Garcés-Eisele, Javier; Hernández-Arizpe, Ana; Montes-Montiel, Maryel; Ruiz-Argüelles, Guillermo J

    2011-01-01

    Twenty one patients with CBF-AML presented prospectively in the Centro de Hematología y Medicina Interna de Puebla (Puebla, México) between February 1995 and March 2010, 14 with the t(8;21)(q22;q22) and 7 with the inv(16)(p13;q22)/t(16;16)(p13;q22); they represent 13% of all cases of AML. The median age of the patients was 24 years (range 1 to 61). Seven of 14 patients with t(8;21)(q22;q22) had an M2 morphology whereas 3/7 with the inv(16) had an M4 morphology; in addition to the myeloid markers identified by flow-cytometry (surface CD13, surface CD33, and cytoplasmic myeloperoxidase) lymphoid markers were identified in the blast cells of 8/14 cases of the t(8;21) patients, but in no patient with the inv(16). Nineteen patients were treated with combined chemotherapy and 16 (84%) achieved a complete molecular remission. Seven patients were auto or allografted. Relapses presented in 10/16 patients. The median probability of overall survival (OS) has not been reached being above 165 months, whereas the 165-month probability of OS and leukemia-free survival was 52%; despite a tendency for a better outcome of patients with the t(8;21), there were no significant differences in survival of patients with either the t(8;21) or the inv(16). In this single institution experience in México, we found that the CBF variants of AML have a similar prevalence as compared with Caucasian populations, that the co-expression of lymphoid markers in the blast cells was frequent in the t(8;21) and that these two AML subtypes were associated with a relatively good long-term prognosis. Further studies are needed to describe with more detail the precise biological features of these molecular subtypes of acute leukemia.

  13. Patients admitted with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had positive experiences exercising from the beginning of their hospital stay: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Clarice Y; Taylor, Nicholas F; Blackstock, Felicity C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the experiences of inpatients with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, who participated in a very early exercise programme while acutely unwell. This qualitative study analysed responses from participant interviews as part of a mixed method trial whereby participants were randomly allocated into three groups: low intensity, moderate to high intensity aerobic and resistance exercises or a control group who received routine physiotherapy. Everyone allocated to the exercise groups were invited to participate in the qualitative study. Interviews were within a week post discharge and the results were analysed thematically. A total of 19 participants were interviewed and described their experience as positive and beneficial and reported an increased motivation towards exercising. These findings converged with the high levels of exercise adherence (83%) and within-group improvements in walking capacity observed in both exercise groups. Participants also reported commencement of a home exercise programme after discharge but intention to participate in community pulmonary rehabilitation remained low. Participation in a very early exercise programme while acutely unwell can lead to positive attitude towards exercise. The results converge with the quantitative results that provided preliminary evidence of programme feasibility and within-group improvement in exercise tolerance.

  14. The use of acute phase proteins for monitoring animal health and welfare in the pig production chain: the validation of an immunochromatographic method for the detection of elevated levels of pig-MAP.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro, Matilde; Morales, Joaquín; Vizcaíno, Elena; Murillo, José Alberto; Klauke, Thorsten; Petersen, Brigitte; Piñeiro, Carlos

    2013-11-01

    The serum concentration of acute phase proteins (APPs) increases in the presence of disease or stress, which makes APPs notable parameters for the global assessment of animal health and welfare. A rapid, immunochromatographic test (ICT) for the detection of elevated levels of pig Major Acute-phase Protein (pig-MAP), one of the main APPs in pigs, was evaluated in more than 1400 pig serum samples obtained from commercial farms. The ICT showed a good performance with a relative sensitivity (Sn) and specificity (Sp) of 94 and 97%, respectively, for a threshold of 1.5mg/mL (comparison with ELISA). Differences in the pig-MAP levels and the number of positive samples with the ICT were observed within the season of sampling, farms, and age groups at one farm, according to the presence of disease or lesions. The ICT was also evaluated in blood samples obtained at slaughter in association with the carcase inspection. The results from this study indicate that the ICT may be used for the evaluation of groups of pigs, after analysing one sub-sample of these pigs, and might be a useful tool in routine health and welfare monitoring programmes aimed to improve the quality of pig production.

  15. A Multicenter Experience from Lebanon in Childhood and Adolescent Acute Myeloid Leukemia: High rate of Early Death in Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Farah, Roula A.; Horkos, Jessy G.; Bustros, Youssef D.; Farhat, Hussein Z.; Abla, Oussama

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a disease with marked heterogeneity. Despite major improvement in outcome, it remains a life-threatening malignancy. Demographic and clinical data on pediatric AML is lacking among the Lebanese population. Purpose We aimed to identify clinical, molecular and outcome data in children with AML in Lebanon. Methods A retrospective chart review of children with AML diagnosed in three Lebanese hospitals during the past 8 years was conducted. Results From May 2002 through March 2010, we identified 24 children with AML in Saint George Hospital University Medical Center, University Medical Center Rizk Hospital, and Abou-Jaoude Hospital. Males and females were equally represented; median age at diagnosis was 9 years (range 1–24) and median WBC at diagnosis was 31 × 109/L (range: 2.1–376 × 109/L). Twenty five percent of patients (6 out of 24) had acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Karyotype was normal in 33% of patients; t(8;21), inv (16), t(8;9), t(7;11), t(9;11), complex chromosomal abnormality, monosomy 7 and trisomy 8 were the most common cytogenetic abnormalities encountered. Patients were treated on different European and North American protocols. Twelve patients (50%) achieved morphologic CR after cycle 1, 6 of them (50%) had bone marrow relapse within 11 months from diagnosis. Nine patients underwent allogeneic stem cell transplant, and 3 of them are alive at 5 years post-transplant. Early death rate was 16.6% of patients, mainly those with APL and a presenting WBC > 10 × 109/L. Fifty per cent of APL patients had an early death due to DIC despite starting ATRA therapy. Overall, median survival for AML patients who died from disease progression was 25.8 months (range: 1–60 months). Overall disease-free survival was 30.4%. Patients < 10 years of age had a 50% survival rate compared to 0% in patients > 10 years. Conclusions Our report highlights the needs in Lebanon for better supportive care of children with APL

  16. Hemodialysis among pregnancy related acute kidney injury patients: A single center experience in North-Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Makusidi, A M; Liman, H M; Yakubu, A; Hassan, M; Isah, M D; Chijioke, A

    2016-09-01

    Pregnancy related acute kidney injury (PRAKI) patients that underwent hemodialysis (HD) between May 2007 and April 2015 were studied with specific reference to clinical features, laboratory values, duration of pregnancy at the diagnosis of acute kidney injury and outcome. It involved 38 patients aged between 15 and 30 years. The main clinical features were fever, edema and oliguria. The leading etiological factors included ante/postpartum hemorrhage, septic abortion, and toxemia of pregnancy. The majority of cases occurred during the third trimester. PRAKI is a dreaded complication of pregnancy with high morbidity and mortality. HD improved patient survival in our study.

  17. [Application of direct electric current and intravenous ozone therapy in the complex treatment of destructive forms of acute pancreatitis in experiment].

    PubMed

    Zhakiev, B S; Zhumabaeva, A N; Kaliev, A A; Kazbekova, G A

    2013-01-01

    The results of experimental study which have carried out on 40 outbread dogs were analyzed in this thesis. Modeling of destructive pancreatitis in animals has been achieved via canalicular-hypertensive model by S.A. Shalimov. 4 series of experimental study were made to achieve the targeted goal. The first series 10 dogs without treatment, the second series 10 dogs in which conventional conservative therapy was used for the treatment of acute experimental destructive pancreatitis in animals, the third series 10 dogs that underwent intravenous ozone therapy in the complex together with medication therapy, the forth series the effectiveness of combined administration of intravenous ozone therapy and small doses of direct current in 10 dogs was evaluated. Combined administration of small doses of DC and intravenous ozone therapy in the complex treatment of destructive pancreatitis shows antiphlogistic action, favors accelerated rejection of necrotic tissue, remits inflammatory process as well as encourages regeneration process in pancreas whereby allows to decrease the mortality in experimental animals from 60% to 20%.

  18. Green Biosynthesis, Characterization, In vitro Antidiabetic Activity, and Investigational Acute Toxicity Studies of Some Herbal-mediated Silver Nanoparticles on Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Shanker, Kalakotla; Mohan, Gottumukkala Krishna; Hussain, Md. Ashwaq; Jayarambabu, Naradala; Pravallika, Poka Lakshmi

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, altered carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. In recent studies, Nanoscience and nanotechnology are blazing fields for researchers; for researchers; of late there has been a prodigious excitement in the field of nanopharmacology to study silver nanoparticle (SNP) synthesis using natural products. Biological methods have been used to synthesize SNPs using medicinally active plants having an antidiabetic role, and this made us to assess the biologically synthesized SNPs from the seed extract of Psoralea corylifolia using 1 mM silver nitrate solution. The synthesized herbal-mediated SNPs (HMSNPs) were subjected to various characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, transmission electron microscope (TEM), and differential light scattering (DLS), respectively. In the current study the HMSNPs were tested to observe the in vitro antidiabetic activity and possible toxic effects in healthy female albino mice by following OECD guidelines-425. Huge data from biochemical, cellular, mouse, and chemical inhibitor studies have recognized protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) as a major negative regulator of insulin signaling. In addition, corroboration suggests that insulin action can be enhanced by the inhibition of PTP1B. Keeping in view of the above fact, the PTP1B assay was done to determine the PTP1 B inhibitory effect of HMSNPs. It can be concluded that medicinal plants can be a good source for the synthe sis of HMSNPs. This study can be used for the development of valuable nanomedicines to treat various ailments, and it also highlights the safety and biocompatibility of SNPs within a biological cell; in vivo parameters need to be considered for further discoveries. SUMMARY In present research, acute oral toxicity studies and in vitro anti diabetic activity of Herbal mediated silver nanoparticles (HMSNPs) has been investigated

  19. Left Ventricular Dysfunction and CXCR3 Ligands in Hypertension: From Animal Experiments to a Population-Based Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Altara, Raffaele; Gu, Yu-Mei; Struijker-Boudier, Harry A J; Thijs, Lutgarde; Staessen, Jan A; Blankesteijn, W Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    Detecting left ventricular (LV) dysfunction at an early stage is key in addressing the heart failure epidemic. In proteome profiling experiments in mice subjected either to aortic banding or sham, the circulating CXCR3 ligands monokine induced by interferon-γ (MIG) and interferon-γ inducible protein 10 (IP10) were 5 to 40 fold up-regulated at eight weeks. We assessed the diagnostic value of circulating NT-pro BNP and CXCR3 ligands (MIG, IP10, Interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemo-attractant [I-TAC]) in patients with hypertension (≥140/90 mm Hg) associated with subclinical (n = 19) or symptomatic (n = 16) diastolic LV dysfunction on echocardiography and healthy controls. NT-pro BNP, MIG, IP10, I-TAC all increased (p ≤ 0.014) across the categories of worsening left ventricular dysfunction. In patients with symptomatic disease, MIG, IP10, and I-TAC increased 210% (p = 0.015), 140% (p = 0.007) and 120% (p = 0.035) more than NT-pro BNP. The optimal discrimination limits, obtained by maximizing Youden's index were 246 pmol/L, 65 pg/mL, 93 pg/mL, and 24 pg/mL, respectively. The odds ratios associated with the four biomarkers were significant (p ≤ 0.010), ranging from 4.00 for IP10 to 9.69 for MIG. With adjustment for NT-pro BNP, the CXCR3 ligands retained significance (p ≤ 0.028). Adding optimized thresholds for the CXCR3 ligands to NT-pro BNP enhanced (p ≤ 0.014) the integrated discrimination improvement and the net reclassification improvement. In conclusion, congruent with the concept that inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of LV dysfunction, MIG, IP10 and I-TAC add diagnostic accuracy over and beyond NT-pro BNP.

  20. [Surgical treatment in severe acute pancreatitis. Last 15 years of experience in Emergency County Hospital of Baia Mare].

    PubMed

    Leşe, Mihaela; Tămăşan, Anca; Stoicescu, B; Brânduşe, M; Puia, Ioana; Mare, C; Lazăr, C

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the particular course of the patients operated for severe acute pancreatitis in a period of 15 years in surgical department of Emergency County Hospital of Baia Mare. Medical records of 202 patients admitted and operated for severe acute pancreatitis, were studied. Follow-up parameters were: age, gender, etiology, moment of operation, the type of operations and postoperative evolution of this patients. In the group of deceased patients alcoholic etiology of pancreatitis was prevailing. Almost a half of patients were operated in the first day of admission. A high number of patients were operated for diagnosis of acute abdomen with intention of exploratory laparotomy. In the last years, besides the usual closed drainage, open drainage and planning drainage were performed. Postoperative mortality is still high. The diagnose of severe acute pancreatitis is difficult in emergency. Global mortality in pancreatitis remains high, especially in the period of enzymatic shock, and is correlated with masculine gender, alcoholic etiology and somewhat with precocity of operation.

  1. Experiences of the Implementation of a Learning Disability Nursing Liaison Service within an Acute Hospital Setting: A Service Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castles, Amy; Bailey, Carol; Gates, Bob; Sooben, Roja

    2014-01-01

    It has been well documented that people with learning disabilities receive poor care in acute settings. Over the last few years, a number of learning disability liaison nurse services have developed in the United Kingdom as a response to this, but there has been a failure to systematically gather evidence as to their effectiveness. This article…

  2. A Comparison between Mechanical Thrombectomy and Intra-arterial Fibrinolysis in Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion: Single Center Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Seunguk; Jung, Cheolkyu; Bae, Yun Jung; Choi, Byung Se; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Chang, Jun Young; Kim, Beom Joon; Han, Moon-Ku; Bae, Hee-Joon; Kwon, Bae Ju; Cha, Sang-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Recent advances in intra-arterial techniques and thrombectomy devices lead to high rate of recanalization. However, little is known regarding the effect of the evolvement of endovascular revascularization therapy (ERT) in acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO). We compared the outcome of endovascular mechanical thrombectomy (EMT) versus intra-arterial fibrinolysis (IAF)-based ERT in patients with acute BAO. Methods After retrospectively reviewed a registry of consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent ERT from September 2003 to February 2015, 57 patients with acute BAO within 12 hours from stroke onset were enrolled. They were categorized as an IAF group (n=24) and EMT group (n=33) according to the primary technical option. We compared the procedural and clinical outcomes between the groups. Results The time from groin puncture to recanalization was significantly shorter in the EMT group than in the IAF group (48.5 [25.3 to 87.8] vs. 92 [44 to 179] minutes; P=0.02) The rate of complete recanalization was significantly higher in the EMT group than in the IAF group (87.9% vs 41.7%; P<0.01). The good outcome of the modified Rankin Scale score≤2 at 3 months was more frequent in the EMT group than in the IAF group, but it was not statistically significant (39.4% vs 16.7%; P=0.06). Conclusions EMT-based ERT in patients with acute BAO is superior to IAF-based ERT in terms of the reduction of time from groin puncture to recanalization and the improvement of the rate of complete recanalization. PMID:27283281

  3. Is Satisfaction with the Acute-Care Experience Higher amongst Consumers Treated in the Private Sector? A Survey of Public and Private Sector Arthroplasty Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, Justine M.; Descallar, Joseph; Grootemaat, Mechteld; Badge, Helen; Harris, Ian A.; Simpson, Grahame; Jenkin, Deanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Consumer satisfaction with the acute-care experience could reasonably be expected to be higher amongst those treated in the private sector compared to those treated in the public sector given the former relies on high-level satisfaction of its consumers and their subsequent recommendations to thrive. The primary aims of this study were to determine, in a knee or hip arthroplasty cohort, if surgery in the private sector predicts greater overall satisfaction with the acute-care experience and greater likelihood to recommend the same hospital. A secondary aim was to determine whether satisfaction across a range of service domains is also higher in the private sector. Methods A telephone survey was conducted 35 days post-surgery. The hospital cohort comprised eight public and seven private high-volume arthroplasty providers. Consumers rated overall satisfaction with care out of 100 and likeliness to recommend their hospital on a 5-point Likert scale. Additional Likert-style questions were asked covering specific service domains. Generalized estimating equation models were used to analyse overall satisfaction (dichotomised as ≥ 90 or < 90) and future recommendations for care (dichotomised as ‘definitely recommend’ or ‘other’), whilst controlling for covariates. The proportions of consumers in each sector reporting the best Likert response for each individual domain were compared using non-parametric tests. Results 457 survey respondents (n = 210 private) were included. Less patient-reported joint impairment pre-surgery [OR 1.03 (95% CI 1.01–1.05)] and absence of an acute complication (OR 2.13 95% CI 1.41–3.23) significantly predicted higher overall satisfaction. Hip arthroplasty [OR 1.84 (1.1–2.96)] and an absence of an acute complication [OR 2.31 (1.28–4.17] significantly predicted greater likelihood for recommending the hospital. The only care domains where the private out-performed the public sector were hospitality (46.7 vs 35.6%, p <0

  4. ASS and SULT2A1 are Novel and Sensitive Biomarkers of Acute Hepatic Injury-A Comparative Study in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Prima, Victor; Cao, Mengde; Svetlov, Stanislav I

    2013-01-10

    Liver and kidney damage associated with polytrauma, endotoxic shock/sepsis, and organ transplantation, are among the leading causes of the multiple organ failure. Development of novel sensitive biomarkers that detect early stages of liver and kidney injury is vital for the effective diagnostics and treatment of these life-threatening conditions. Previously, we identified several hepatic proteins, including Argininosuccinate Synthase (ASS) and sulfotransferases which were degraded in the liver and rapidly released into circulation during Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here we compared sensitivity and specificity of the newly developed sandwich ELISA assays for ASS and the sulfotransferase isoform SULT2A1 with the standard clinical liver and kidney tests Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate Transaminase (AST) in various pre-clinical models of acute injury. Our data suggest that ASS and SULT2A1 have superior characteristics for liver and kidney health assessment in endotoxemia, Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R), chemical and drug-induced liver injury and may be of high potential value for clinical applications.

  5. [Results of animal experiments concerning the carcinogenic effect of fibrous dusts and their interpretation with regard to the carcinogenesis in humans (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Pott, F; Friedrichs, K H; Huth, F

    1976-08-01

    After reviewing the hypotheses about the pathogenesis of asbestos-induced malignant tumours we report about experimental data on animals. A high incidence of tumours (most of them mesotheliomas) was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of fibrous dusts (chrysotile, palygorscite, crocidolite, glass fibres, nemalite). Treatment with 8 types of granular dusts led though applicating a high dosage (50--100 mg) to neoplasms in only a small percentage of animals. After intraperitoneal application of 2 mg of chrysotile, crocidolite or glass fibres a tumour incidence in a range from 16% to 38% was observed and fibrous reaction was slight. 100 mg of milled chrysotile with relative short fibres (99.8% less than 5 mum, 99.5% less than 3 mum) caused no asbestosis, nevertheless tumours developed in 32% of the rats. Intraperitoneal injection of fibrous dusts also induced mesotheliomas in mice, however not in Syrian hamsters and guinea pigs. Our results point out that the fibrous shape of asbestos dust causes its carcinogenic effect and that furthermore other fibrous dusts can also lead to tumours. Prerequisites are an adequate measure of the fibres and their constancy in the tissue. For these two parameters no exact dates exist. It is estimated that a fibre with a diameter less than 1 mum and a length less than 3 mum exert a cancerogenic effect. Furthermore, a sequence of other factors has an importance for the dose-effect relationship of fibrous dusts. Material of the fibres plays a role in so far it defines the effect producing amount of fibres. The relevance of the results of animal experiments to man is discussed especially with regard to the cancerogenic effect of glass fibres.

  6. Dual-sided electrosurgery handpiece for simultaneous tissue cutting and coagulation: first report on a conceptual design validated by an animal experiment

    PubMed Central

    Tawfik, Hatem A; Fouad, Yousef A; Hafez, Rashad

    2015-01-01

    Objective To introduce and evaluate the safety of a novel dual-sided electrosurgery handpiece design for simultaneous tissue cutting and coagulation. Methods We designed a prototype double-sided handpiece allowing automatic switching between two electrodes with a simple handpiece flip. The concept of the system as a surgical instrument was assessed by an animal experiment. Results The skin of 15 Wistar albino white rats could be successfully incised and coagulated using both ends of the handpiece, thereby confirming the prospects and clinical applications of the system. Conclusion The dual-sided electrosurgery handpiece is a simple and safe alternative to the traditional electrosurgery pencil, allowing the simultaneous use of two electrodes without the hassle of frequent electrode replacement. PMID:26316827

  7. The mysterious cognitive abilities of bees: why models of visual processing need to consider experience and individual differences in animal performance.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Adrian G

    2012-02-01

    Vision is one of the most important modalities for the remote perception of biologically important stimuli. Insects like honeybees and bumblebees use their colour and spatial vision to solve tasks, such as navigation, or to recognise rewarding flowers during foraging. Bee vision is one of the most intensively studied animal visual systems, and several models have been developed to describe its function. These models have largely assumed that bee vision is determined by mechanistic hard-wired circuits, with little or no consideration for behavioural plasticity or cognitive factors. However, recent work on both bee colour vision and spatial vision suggests that cognitive factors are indeed a very significant factor in determining what a bee sees. Individual bumblebees trade-off speed for accuracy, and will decide on which criteria to prioritise depending upon contextual information. With continued visual experience, honeybees can learn to use non-elemental processing, including configural mechanisms and rule learning, and can access top-down information to enhance learning of sophisticated, novel visual tasks. Honeybees can learn delayed-matching-to-sample tasks and the rules governing this decision making, and even transfer learned rules between different sensory modalities. Finally, bees can learn complex categorisation tasks and display numerical processing abilities for numbers up to and including four. Taken together, this evidence suggests that bees do have a capacity for sophisticated visual behaviours that fit a definition for cognition, and thus simple elemental models of bee vision need to take account of how a variety of factors may influence the type of results one may gain from animal behaviour experiments.

  8. A review of three years experience using email and videoconferencing for the delivery of post-acute burns care to children in Queensland.

    PubMed

    Smith, Anthony C; Youngberry, Karen; Mill, Julie; Kimble, Roy; Wootton, Richard

    2004-05-01

    A virtual outpatient service has been established in Queensland for the delivery of post-acute burns care to children living in rural and remote areas of the state. The integration of telepaediatrics as a routine service has reduced the need for patient travel to the specialist burns unit situated in Brisbane. We have conducted 293 patient consultations over a period of 3 years. A retrospective review of our experience has shown that post-acute burns care can be delivered using videoconferencing, email and the telephone. Telepaediatric burns services have been valuable in two key areas. The first area involves a programme of routine specialist clinics via videoconference. The second area relates to ad-hoc patient consultations for collaborative management during acute presentations and at times of urgent clinical need. The families of patients have expressed a high degree of satisfaction with the service. Telepaediatric services have helped improve access to specialist services for people living in rural and remote communities throughout Queensland.

  9. Animal learning and training: implications for animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Brando, Sabrina I C A

    2012-09-01

    Exotic animals are housed in a variety of settings, from pets at home, as display animals housed in wildlife centers and zoos, to those kept for interactive and outreach programs. The behavioral management program and medical care are major parts of an excellent animal care program. Because animals learn all the time, albeit through different mechanisms, animals are almost always "in training." Understanding animal learning when caring for and treating animals can greatly improve their welfare during experiences that are often related to involuntary procedures and where animals have little control over living conditions or procedures.

  10. Experience with a Simplified Computer Based Intensive Care Monitoring System in the Management of Acutely Ill Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hadley, H. Roger; Rutherford, Harold G.; Smith, Louis L.; Briggs, Burton A.; Neilsen, Ivan R.; Rau, Richard

    1979-01-01

    The need exists for a simplified and ecomonical computer based monitoring system for critically ill surgical patients. Such a system would enjoy widespread use in surgical intensive care units in regional, as well as larger community hospitals. We have assembled such a system which provides digital readout of the usual physiologic parameters, and also provide computer storage of accumulated data for review and evaluation of patient care. The computer provides graphic and digital display and digital printout for subsequent inclusion in the patient records. Most frequent indications for this system include the development of acute respiratory insufficiency or acute circulatory failure due to invasive sepsis and/or severe arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Information most beneficial in patient care included measurement of cardiac output;alveolar arterial oxygen gradient. ImagesFigure 1Figure 5Figure 9Figure 11

  11. Plasma-exchange as a "rescue therapy" for dermato/polymyositis in acute phase. Experience in three young patients.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, Franco; Marson, Piero; Pigatto, Erika; Tison, Tiziana; Polito, Pamela; Galozzi, Paola; De Silvestro, Giustina; Punzi, Leonardo

    2015-12-01

    There are few data in the literature supporting the efficacy of plasma-exchange in dermato/polymyositis. The authors report three cases of patients with acute disease phase showing severe pharyngo-esophageal muscle weakness unresponsive to conventional therapy (corticosteroids and immunosuppressant agents) who were treated with plasma-exchange. As the patients were at high risk of "aspiration pneumonia", tracheostomy and PEG tubes were placed. The patients underwent a series of plasma-exchange for a mean of 15 weeks, during which time they progressively recovered muscle strength, their serum muscle enzyme values returned to normal levels, and MRI showed resolution of muscle edema. The tracheostomy and PEG tubes could be removed. Our findings suggest that plasma-exchange in association with immunosuppressant agents could play a relevant role in the management of dermato/polymyositis in acute phase.

  12. It was a first class start which laid the basis for a promising future: Experience from comparative studies on gravity related behavior in animals and consequences for future experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Eberhard R.

    2000-01-01

    The main title was chosen in imitation of the headline of a lecture given by H. S. Wolff at the ESA-Symposium ``Life Odyssey'' in Maastricht/NL (1999) to contrast his pessimistic view of the science output from biological microgravity studies during the past 25 years with an optimistic view of the author who had the opportunity for studies on the gravity sensory systems of developing vertebrates and insects during the space missions STS-55, STS-84, and STS-90, and who was stimulated by this experience to undertake any effort to extend these studies on the International Space Station ISS. We studied compensatory eye and head movements induced by a lateral roll of the animals, and we found that exposure to both microgravity and hypergravity affect their development. Future studies have to consider long-term exposures to altered gravitational conditions to find answers to two questions, the mechanisms of adaptation during exposure, and the degree of residual effects after becoming an adult animal and also after re-entry to IG-conditions. The main hypothesis on the development of animals in space is that a fertilized egg will be converted to a normal adult animal guided by physiological and morphological set-points which represent the genetic program. In case of developmental retardations or accelerations or otherwise occurring deviations from normal structural and physiological development during specific periods of the embryonic and postembryonic life, these genetically defined supervisors activate readaptive mechanisms which direct the developmental processes towards normality, i.e., stability. Thus, an orbit-stabilized organism will be dramatically disturbed after return to Earth. Because this failure will need support to reach neuronal stability, research has also to consider the analysis of mechanisms which are able to overcome these disturbances. This research will open the door to applications because it forms a bridge to human medicine with its analytical

  13. Acute and sub-acute toxicological assessment of the aqueous seed extract of Persea americana mill (Lauraceae) in rats.

    PubMed

    Ozolua, Raymond I; Anaka, Ogochukwu N; Okpo, Stephen O; Idogun, Sylvester E

    2009-07-03

    The aqueous seed extract of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) is used by herbalists in Nigeria for the management of hypertension. As part of our on-going scientific evaluation of the extract, we designed the present study to assess its acute and sub-acute toxicity profiles in rats. Experiments were conducted to determine the oral median lethal dose (LD(50)) and other gross toxicological manifestations on acute basis. In the sub-acute experiments, the animals were administered 2.5 g/kg (p.o) per day of the extract for 28 consecutive days. Animal weight and fluid intake were recorded during the 28 days period. Terminally, kidneys, hearts, blood/sera were obtained for weight, haematological and biochemical markers of toxicity. Results show that the LD(50) could not be determined after a maximum dose of 10 g/kg. Sub-acute treatment with the extract neither affected whole body weight nor organ-to-body weight ratios but significantly increased the fluid intake (P < 0.0001). Haematological parameters and the levels of ALT, AST, albumin and creatinine were not significantly altered. However, the concentration of total proteins was significantly increased in the treated group. In conclusion, the aqueous seed extract of P. americana is safe on sub-acute basis but extremely high doses may not be advisable.

  14. Acute administration of MK-801 in an animal model of psychosis in rats interferes with cognitively demanding forms of behavioral flexibility on a rotating arena

    PubMed Central

    Svoboda, Jan; Stankova, Anna; Entlerova, Marie; Stuchlik, Ales

    2015-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia often manifest deficits in behavioral flexibility. Non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists such as MK-801 induce schizophrenia-like symptoms in rodents, including cognitive functions. Despite work exploring flexibility has been done employing behavioral paradigms with simple stimuli, much less is known about what kinds of flexibility are affected in an MK-801 model of schizophrenia-like behavior in the spatial domain. We used a rotating arena-based apparatus (Carousel) requiring rats to avoid an unmarked sector defined in either the reference frame of the rotating arena (arena frame task, AF) or the stationary room (room frame task, RF). We investigated behavioral flexibility in four conditions involving different cognitive loads. Each condition encompassed an initial (five sessions) and a test phase (five sessions) in which some aspects of the task were changed to test flexibility and in which rats were given saline, 0.05 mg/kg or 0.1 mg/kg MK-801 thirty minutes prior to a session. In the first condition, rats acquired avoidance in RF with clockwise rotation of the arena while in the test phase the arena rotated counterclockwise. In the second condition, rats initially acquired avoidance in RF with the sector on the north and then it was reversed to south (spatial reversal). In the third and fourth conditions, rats initially performed an AF (RF, respectively) task, followed by an RF (AF, respectively) task, testing the ability of cognitive set-shifting. We found no effect of MK-801 either on simple motor adjustment after reversal of arena rotation or on spatial reversal within the RF. In contrast, administration of MK-801 at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg interfered with set-shifting in both conditions. Furthermore, we observed MK-801 0.1 mg/kg elevated locomotion in all cases. These data suggest that blockade of NMDA receptors by acute system administration of MK-801 preferentially affects set-shifting in the cognitive domain rather than

  15. Acute administration of MK-801 in an animal model of psychosis in rats interferes with cognitively demanding forms of behavioral flexibility on a rotating arena.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, Jan; Stankova, Anna; Entlerova, Marie; Stuchlik, Ales

    2015-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia often manifest deficits in behavioral flexibility. Non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists such as MK-801 induce schizophrenia-like symptoms in rodents, including cognitive functions. Despite work exploring flexibility has been done employing behavioral paradigms with simple stimuli, much less is known about what kinds of flexibility are affected in an MK-801 model of schizophrenia-like behavior in the spatial domain. We used a rotating arena-based apparatus (Carousel) requiring rats to avoid an unmarked sector defined in either the reference frame of the rotating arena (arena frame task, AF) or the stationary room (room frame task, RF). We investigated behavioral flexibility in four conditions involving different cognitive loads. Each condition encompassed an initial (five sessions) and a test phase (five sessions) in which some aspects of the task were changed to test flexibility and in which rats were given saline, 0.05 mg/kg or 0.1 mg/kg MK-801 thirty minutes prior to a session. In the first condition, rats acquired avoidance in RF with clockwise rotation of the arena while in the test phase the arena rotated counterclockwise. In the second condition, rats initially acquired avoidance in RF with the sector on the north and then it was reversed to south (spatial reversal). In the third and fourth conditions, rats initially performed an AF (RF, respectively) task, followed by an RF (AF, respectively) task, testing the ability of cognitive set-shifting. We found no effect of MK-801 either on simple motor adjustment after reversal of arena rotation or on spatial reversal within the RF. In contrast, administration of MK-801 at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg interfered with set-shifting in both conditions. Furthermore, we observed MK-801 0.1 mg/kg elevated locomotion in all cases. These data suggest that blockade of NMDA receptors by acute system administration of MK-801 preferentially affects set-shifting in the cognitive domain rather than

  16. Lights, Camera, Animation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Joan M.

    1984-01-01

    A fifth-grade class was taught how animated films are made by actually making some. Each cartoon involved four parts: title, artwork, credits, and storyboard. In addition to learning about animation, they had the experience of thinking in logical sequence and of working cooperatively. (CS)

  17. Animals. Environmental Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    The material in this unit is designed to provide upper elementary students with information and experiences to develop a better understanding and appreciation of the variety of animals living today. Unit goals include fostering a better understanding of animals' roles in nature, developing observational skills, facilitating understanding of man's…

  18. Cajon Park Animal Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Douglas M.

    1976-01-01

    Describes the development and success of a program that allows children to care for animals in the classroom and at home. Weekend leanding of animals to children is presented as a way of increasing a child's experience and sense of responsibility. (SB)

  19. Developing Children's Awareness of the Human-Animal Bond: An Assessment of the Experiences and Benefits that Children Receive in the United Animal Nation's Humane Education Ambassador Readers (HEAR) Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Laura

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, the United Animal Nations (UAN) launched the Humane Education Ambassador Readers (HEAR), an innovation that focused on mitigation of animal suffering through education. In the HEAR program, adult volunteers read carefully selected story books to children in grades 3-6 in schools or other educational settings, and hold discussions with the…

  20. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  1. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 5 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). 'Smart airport' technologies are expected to be available in 5-10 years for both recreational and business transportation. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  2. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 1 of 6. This composite image symbolizes how Advanced General Aviation Transports Experiment (AGATE) technology will contribute to a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) early in the 21st century. Image from AGATE 'business' video animation.

  3. [Experimental models of acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Ceranowicz, Piotr; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Dembiński, Artur

    2015-02-21

    Acute pancreatitis is a severe disease with high mortality. Clinical studies can bring some data about etiology, pathogenesis and the course of acute pancreatitis. However, studies concerning early events of this disease and the new concepts of treatment cannot be performed on humans, due to ethical reasons. Animal models of acute pancreatitis have been developed to solve this problem. This review presents currently used experimental models of acute pancreatitis, their properties and clinical relevance. Experimental models of acute pancreatitis can be divided into in vivo (non-invasive and invasive) and ex vivo models. The onset, development, severity and extent of acute pancreatitis, as well as the mortality, vary considerably between these different models. Animal models reproducibly produce mild, moderate or severe acute pancreatitis. One of the most commonly used models of acute pancreatitis is created by administration of supramaximal doses of cerulein, an analog of cholecystokinin. This model produces acute mild edematous pancreatitis in rats, whereas administration of cerulein in mice leads to the development of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis evoked by retrograde administration of sodium taurocholate into the pancreatic duct is the most often used model of acute severe necrotizing pancreatitis in rats. Ex vivo models allow to eliminate the influence of hormonal and nervous factors on the development of acute pancreatitis.

  4. Immunomodulatory Effects of Adjuvants CPG, MPLA, and BCG on the Derp2-Induced Acute Asthma at Early Life in an Animal Model of BALB/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi-Shahrokhi, V; Rezaei, A; Andalib, A; Rahnama, A; Jafarzadeh, A; Eskandari, N

    2017-02-01

    The Th1- and Treg cell-related immune responses play key roles in the modulation of Th2 cell-related allergic disorders. The aim was to evaluate the effects of CPG, MPLA, and BCG on the number of Th1-, Th2-, and Treg cell-related parameters in an animal model of asthma. BALB/c mice were divided into five groups and immunized subcutaneously (SC) on days 1, 15, and 22 with allergen Derp2. Three groups of mice were pretreated SC on days 0, 14, and 21 with CPG, CPG + MPLA, or CPG + BCG. All mice were then challenged intranasally with Derp2 on days 28-37. Blood samples were collected from the retro-orbital sinus, on days 0, 23, and 40. The serum levels of IL-4, IFN-γ, IgE, and IgG2a were measured using ELISA technique. The blood number of Th1 and Treg cells was determined using flow cytometry. At the sensitization phase, the number of Th1 and the serum levels of IFN-γ and IgG2a were significantly increased in the Derp2-sensitized group pretreated with CPG plus MPLA, and the number of Treg cells was significantly elevated in Derp2-sensitized mice pretreated with CPG or CPG plus MPLA as compared with that in Derp2-sensitized control mice. At the challenge phase, the number of Th1 was significantly elevated in Derp2-sensitized mice pretreated with CPG plus MPLA, CPG plus BCG, or CPG; the count of Treg cells was significantly increased in Derp2-sensitized mice pretreated with CPG plus BCG group; and the levels of IFN-γ and IgG2a were significantly enhanced in the Derp2-sensitized group pretreated with CPG plus MPLA in comparison with those in Derp2-sensitized control mice. The scores of inflammation and mucus secretion in the lung were significantly decreased in the Derp2-sensitized group pretreated with CPG, BCG, and CPG plus MPLA in comparison with those in the Derp2-sensitized control group. These results showed that BCG, MPLA, and CPG modulate Th1-, Th2-, and Treg-related parameters and ameliorate lung inflammatory parameters in a mouse model of asthma.

  5. Inhalation exposure of animals.

    PubMed Central

    Phalen, R F

    1976-01-01

    Relative advantages and disadvantages and important design criteria for various exposure methods are presented. Five types of exposures are discussed: whole-body chambers, head-only exposures, nose or mouth-only methods, lung-only exposures, and partial-lung exposures. Design considerations covered include: air cleaning and conditioning; construction materials; losses of exposure materials; evenness of exposure; sampling biases; animal observation and care; noise and vibration control, safe exhausts, chamber loading, reliability, pressure fluctuations; neck seals, masks, animal restraint methods; and animal comfort. Ethical considerations in use of animals in inhalation experiments are also discussed. PMID:1017420

  6. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation

    This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  7. Acute moderate exercise improves mnemonic discrimination in young adults.

    PubMed

    Suwabe, Kazuya; Hyodo, Kazuki; Byun, Kyeongho; Ochi, Genta; Yassa, Michael A; Soya, Hideaki

    2017-03-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that regular moderate exercise increases neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and improves memory functions in both humans and animals. The DG is known to play a role in pattern separation, which is the ability to discriminate among similar experiences, a fundamental component of episodic memory. While long-term voluntary exercise improves pattern separation, there is little evidence of alterations in DG function after an acute exercise session. Our previous studies showing acute moderate exercise-enhanced DG activation in rats, and acute moderate exercise-enhanced prefrontal activation and executive function in humans, led us to postulate that acute moderate exercise may also activate the hippocampus, including more specifically the DG, thus improving pattern separation. We thus investigated the effects of a 10-min moderate exercise (50% V̇O2peak ) session, the recommended intensity for health promotion, on mnemonic discrimination (a behavioral index of pattern separation) in young adults. An acute bout of moderate exercise improved mnemonic discrimination performance in high similarity lures. These results support our hypothesis that acute moderate exercise improves DG-mediated pattern separation in humans, proposing a useful human acute-exercise model for analyzing the neuronal substrate underlying acute and regular exercise-enhanced episodic memory based on the hippocampus. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. New EPA Guidance for Testing Pesticides Will Reduce Animal Testing

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is issuing guidance for requesting waivers of acute dermal toxicity testing requirements for pesticide formulations, which will lead to fewer animal tests for acute dermal toxicity for pesticides.

  9. Amelioration of Acute Mercury Toxicity by a Novel, Non-Toxic Lipid Soluble Chelator N,N'bis-(2-mercaptoethyl)isophthalamide: Effect on Animal Survival, Health, Mercury Excretion and Organ Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Clarke, David; Buchanan, Roger; Gupta, Niladri; Haley, Boyd

    2012-01-01

    The toxic effects of mercury are known to be complex with specific enzyme inhibitions and subsequent oxidative stress adding to the damaging effects. There are likely other factors involved, such as the development of impaired metal ion homeostasis and depletion of thiol and selenium based metabolites such as cysteine and selenium. Much of the toxicity of mercury occurs at the intracellular level via binding of Hg(2+) to thiol groups in specific proteins. Therefore, amelioration of mercury toxicity by the use of chelation would likely be enhanced by the use of a chelator that could cross the cell membrane and the blood brain barrier. It would be most favorable if this compound was of low toxicity, had appropriate pharmacokinetics, bound and rendered mercury cation non-toxic and had antioxidant properties. Herein we report on such a chelator, N,N'-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)isophthalamide (NBMI), and, using an animal model, show that it prevented the toxic effects associated with acute exposure induced by injected mercury chloride.

  10. Celastrol inhibits lung infiltration in differential syndrome animal models by reducing TNF-α and ICAM-1 levels while preserving differentiation in ATRA-induced acute promyelocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-min; Zheng, Yue-juan; Wang, Ying; Yang, Yang; Cao, Fan-fan; Peng, Bin; Xu, Xiong-fei; An, Hua-zhang; Zheng, Ao-xiang; Zhang, Deng-hai; Uzan, Georges; Yu, Yi-zhi

    2014-01-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a revolutionary agent for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) treatment via differentiation induction. However, ATRA treatment also increases cytokine, chemokine, and adhesive molecule (mainly ICAM-1) expression, which can cause clinical complications, including a severe situation known as differentiation syndrome (DS) which can cause death. Therefore, it is of clinical significance to find a strategy to specifically blunt inflammatory effects while preserving differentiation. Here we report that the natural compound, celastrol, could effectively block lung infiltrations in DS animal models created by loading ATRA-induced APL cell line NB4. In ATRA-treated NB4 cells, celastrol could potently inhibit ICAM-1 elevation and partially reduce TNF-α and IL-1β secretion, though treatment showed no effects on IL-8 and MCP-1 levels. Celastrol's effect on ICAM-1 in ATRA-treated NB4 was related to reducing MEK1/ERK1 activation. Strikingly and encouragingly, celastrol showed no obvious effects on ATRA-induced NB4 differentiation, as determined by morphology, enzymes, and surface markers. Our results show that celastrol is a promising and unique agent for managing the side effects of ATRA application on APL, and suggest that hyper-inflammatory ability is accompanied by, but not necessary for, APL differentiation. Thus we offered an encouraging novel strategy to further improve differentiation therapy.

  11. Characterization of the dose response relationship for lung injury following acute radiation exposure in three well-established murine strains: developing an interspecies bridge to link animal models with human lung.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Isabel L; Xu, Pu-Ting; Nguyen, Giao; Down, Julian D; Johnson, Cynthia S; Katz, Barry P; Hadley, Caroline C; Vujaskovic, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    Approval of radiation countermeasures through the FDA Animal Rule requires pivotal efficacy screening in one or more species that are expected to react with a response similar to humans (21 C.F.R. § 314.610, drugs; § 601.91, biologics). Animal models used in screening studies should reflect the dose response relationship (DRR), clinical presentation, and pathogenesis of lung injury in humans. Over the past 5 y, the authors have characterized systematically the temporal onset, dose-response relationship (DRR), and pathologic outcomes associated with acute, high dose radiation exposure in three diverse mouse strains. In these studies, C57L/J, CBA/J, and C57BL/6J mice received wide field irradiation to the whole thorax with shielding of the head, abdomen, and forelimbs. Doses were delivered at a rate of 69 cGy min using an x-ray source operated at 320 kVp with half-value layer (HVL) of 1 mm Cu. For all strains, radiation dose was associated significantly with 180 d mortality (p < 0.0001). The lethal dose for 50% of animals within the first 180 d (LD50/180) was 11.35 Gy (95% CI 11.1-11.6 Gy) for C57L/J mice, 14.17 Gy (95% CI 13.9-14.5 Gy) for CBA/J mice, and 14.10 Gy (95% CI 12.2-16.4 Gy) for C57BL/6J mice. The LD50/180 in the C57L/J strain was most closely analogous to the DRR for clinical incidence of pneumonitis in non-human primates (10.28 Gy; 95% CI 9.9-10.7 Gy) and humans (10.60 Gy; 95% CI 9.9-12.1 Gy). Furthermore, in the C57L/J strain, there was no gender-specific difference in DRR (p = 0.5578). The reliability of the murine models is demonstrated by the reproducibility of the dose-response and consistency of disease presentation across studies.Health Phys. 106(1):000-000; 2014.

  12. Reversal of visual discrimination and visual acute extinction in cats with poor or limited early visual experience.

    PubMed

    Zernicki, B

    1997-01-01

    Transformation of visual instrumental conditioned reflexes rewarded with food was compared in cats binocularly deprived of pattern vision in the early period of life (BD cats), control cats reared also in the laboratory but with open eyes (C cats) and cats reared in normal environment (N cats). In Expt. I the cats were given 4 sequential reversal trainings of cross vs. disc discrimination and in Expt. II a response to a gate marked with a cross or a disc was submitted to 4 sequential acute extinctions and restorations. The results show that both visual deprivation and rearing in monotonous laboratory environment moderately affect transformation of associations between visual stimuli and hunger drive and instrumental responses. However, in BD cats transformation learning is less impaired than previously studied visual discrimination learning.

  13. Incidence and management of proven and probable fungal infections in patients with acute leukemia: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Fanci, R; Casini, C; Leoni, F; Ciolli, S; Bosi, A

    2004-12-01

    The incidence of fungal infections and the role of liposomal amphotericin B (Ambisome) in proven and probable infections were evaluated in acute leukemic patients, intolerant to conventional amphotericin B. During 1999-2002, 307 febrile episodes occurred in 231 patients. Fungi were responsible for 3% of bloodstream infections. Ambisome was employed in 5 fungal sepsis (1 Candida albicans, 1 C. famata, 1 C. tropicalis, 1 C. krusei, 1 Geotrichum capitatum) 2 Aspergillosis, 2 probable fungal pneumonia cases. A favorable response was achieved in 78% of patients (4 fungemia, 2 aspergillosis, 1 probable), an unfavorable response in 1 C. krusei fungemia and in 1 probable pneumonia. Our antimicrobial pattern documented a high resistance rate to azoles. We concluded that Ambisome is an effective and well tolerated agent and its introduction has changed the outcome for many patients, although in some refractory diseases other strategies must be considered.

  14. Low-dose Ara-C in myelodysplastic syndromes and acute nonlymphoid leukemia. Experience with seven patients.

    PubMed

    Bruzzese, L; Abbadessa, A; Ottaiano, L; Arcidiacone, G

    1987-01-01

    Seven patients were treated with low dose Ara-C (LDAC). Five patients had acute nonlymphoid leukemia (ANLL), two patients had myelodisplastic syndrome (MDS): refractory anemia (RA) and refractory anemia with excess of blasts in transformation (RAEB-t). Ara-C treatment was given by s.c. injections at a dose of 10-11 mg/m2 every 12 h and only on two occasions by continuous infusion. No improvement, or limited improvement, was observed in five patients and they died of leukemia or of disease-related complications. Two patients with ANLL achieved remission: the first patient after bone marrow aplasia, the second without aplasia but with morphologic evidence of granulocytic differentiation of leukemic cells.

  15. Recanalization of Acute and Subacute Femoropopliteal Artery Occlusions with the Rotarex Catheter: One Year Follow-up, Single Center Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Duc, Sylvain R. Schoch, Eric; Pfyffer, Markus; Jenelten, Regula; Zollikofer, Christoph L.

    2005-06-15

    Purpose:To assess the efficacy and safety of a new rotational catheter for percutaneous removal of fresh and organized thrombi in the femoropopliteal artery.Methods:Forty-one limbs in 38 patients (age 56-90 years, mean 75.6 years) with acute, subacute or chronic femoropopliteal occlusions of 1-180 days' duration (mean 31.6 days) were treated with the Rotarex device. The Fontaine stage was mainly IIB (Rutherford 2-3, 22 patients) or III (Rutherford 4, 14 patients). The length of occlusion varied from 2 to 35 cm (mean 13.1 cm). After recanalization percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was performed if there was a residual stenosis of >25%. Patients were followed up with color Doppler ultrasound at 48 hr and clinically with Doppler pressures and oscillometry at 3, 6, and 12 months.Results:After an average of two passages with the Rotarex catheter all but two limbs required PTA for residual stenosis >25%. Five patients needed additional stenting. Major complications were one groin hematoma requiring blood transfusion and one arteriovenous fistula spontaneously thrombosing after unsuccessful primary prolonged balloon dilation. Distal embolizations occurred in 10 patients; 6 clinically relevant emboli were aspirated. All occlusions were technically successfully recanalised there were 2 early reocclusions after 1 day and two at 2 weeks. Brachial-ankle indices improved from an average of 0.41 before to 0.93 after recanalization. Primary and secondary patency rates were 62% / 84% after 6 months and 39% / 68% after 1 year. The amputation-free survival at 12 months was 100%.Conclusion:The Rotarex mechanical thrombectomy device is an efficient, quick, easy to handle, and safe tool for the treatment of acute, subacute or even chronic peripheral arterial thromboembolic occlusions. It can be used for short or long occlusions with equal success, provided the obstruction is not heavily calcified and has been safely passed with a guidewire first.

  16. Laparoscopic ileocecal resection in acute and chronic presentations of Crohn’s disease. A single center experience

    PubMed Central

    COCORULLO, G.; TUTINO, R.; FALCO, N.; SALAMONE, G.; FONTANA, T.; LICARI, L.; GULOTTA, G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The terminal ileum is the most involved tract in Crohn’s disease. The obstruction in this location is the most frequent complication. Acute or chronic presentations can occur. Surgery finds a role in the management of chronic strictures and in acute clinical presentations with complications not improving with conservative therapy. Patients and methods We investigate the outcome of patients with obstruction of the ileo-cecal bowel tract laparoscopically managed. It was analyzed the average operative time (OT), the conversion rate and the occurrence of re-operation due to surgical complications. Results 21 patients underwent an ileocecal resection for complicated Crohn’s disease between January 2013 and December 2014. The admissions were performed in emergency in 42% of patients. The pre-intervention hospital stay was 5.8 (Sd 6.23). The mean operative time was 154 min (Sd 41). 28% of the procedures were converted to open surgery. The average hospital stay was 10 days (Sd 5) in uncomplicated patients. The morbidity rate was 28%. In 19% of cases a re-intervention was needed due to anastomotic leakage (3pts) and one hemoperitoneum for bleeding from the suture line. Discussion Laparoscopy seems an affordable technique in the management of obstructive pattern of Crohn’s disease. It should be the preferable approach in young patients that probably will be submitted to subsequent surgery for the same disease; in fact, the reduced adhesions formation provided by the less bowel manipulation make easy the subsequent access. Older patients had usually more post-operative morbidity and mortality mostly due to pre-existing conditions; if possible in these patients the treatment should be medical. PMID:28098059

  17. Energy metabolic disorder is a major risk factor in severe influenza virus infection: Proposals for new therapeutic options based on animal model experiments.

    PubMed

    Kido, Hiroshi; Indalao, Irene L; Kim, Hyejin; Kimoto, Takashi; Sakai, Satoko; Takahashi, Etsuhisa

    2016-09-01

    Severe influenza is characterized by cytokine storm and multiorgan failure. Influenza patients with underlying diseases show a rapid progression in disease severity. The major mechanism that underlies multiorgan failure during the progressive stage of infection, particularly in patients with underlying risk factors, is mitochondrial energy crisis. The relationship between the factors that determine infection severity, such as influenza virus, cytokines, cellular trypsin as a hemagglutinin processing protease for viral multiplication, accumulation of metabolic intermediates and ATP crisis in mitochondria, is termed the "influenza virus-cytokine-trypsin" cycle. This occurs during the initial stages of infection, and is interconnected with the "metabolic disorders-cytokine" cycle in the middle to late phase of infection. Experiments using animal models have highlighted the complex relationship between these two cycles. New treatment options have been proposed that target the ATP crisis and multiorgan failure during the late phase of infection, rather than antiviral treatments with neuraminidase inhibitors that work during the initial phase. These options are (i) restoration of glucose oxidation in mitochondria by diisopropylamine dichloroacetate, which inhibits infection-induced pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 activity, and (ii) restoration of long-chain fatty acid oxidation in mitochondria by l-carnitine and bezafibrate, an agonist of peroxisome proliferation-activated receptors-β/δ, which transcriptionally upregulates carnitine palmitoyltransferase II. The latter is particularly effective in patients with influenza-associated encephalopathy who have thermolabile and short half-life compound variants of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II.

  18. Gemcitabine adsorbed onto carbon particles increases drug concentrations at the injection site and in the regional lymph nodes in an animal experiment and a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Guo, F; Mao, X; Wang, J; Luo, F; Wang, Z

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether gemcitabine, adsorbed onto activated carbon particles (GEM-AC), increased the concentration of gemcitabine at the injection site and in the regional lymph nodes in an experimental animal model and a clinical study. The adsorption isotherm for GEM-AC was defined, and the concentration and distribution of gemcitabine in rats (n = 50) and in patients with pancreatic cancer (n = 8) was investigated. Drug concentrations in plasma, tumour samples, lymph nodes and at the injection site were measured after GEM-AC or gemcitabine solution (GEM-Sol) were subcutaneously injected into the left hind foot pad in rats, or into pancreatic tumours in patients. These experiments showed that GEM-AC was selectively delivered to the regional lymph nodes and the injection site, from which it slowly released greater amounts of gemcitabine to maintain the free concentration of gemcitabine at a relatively high level for a long period of time. The administration of GEM-AC might enhance the anticancer effects of gemcitabine.

  19. The 10 basic requirements for a scientific paper reporting antioxidant, antimutagenic or anticarcinogenic potential of test substances in in vitro experiments and animal studies in vivo.

    PubMed

    Verhagen, H; Aruoma, O I; van Delft, J H M; Dragsted, L O; Ferguson, L R; Knasmüller, S; Pool-Zobel, B L; Poulsen, H E; Williamson, G; Yannai, S

    2003-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that chemicals/test substances cannot only have adverse effects, but that there are many substances that can (also) have a beneficial effect on health. As this journal regularly publishes papers in this area and has every intention in continuing to do so in the near future, it has become essential that studies reported in this journal reflect an adequate level of scientific scrutiny. Therefore a set of essential characteristics of studies has been defined. These basic requirements are default properties rather than non-negotiables: deviations are possible and useful, provided they can be justified on scientific grounds. The 10 basic requirements for a scientific paper reporting antioxidant, antimutagenic or anticarcinogenic potential of test substances in in vitro experiments and animal studies in vivo concern the following areas: (1) Hypothesis-driven study design; (2) The nature of the test substance; (3) Valid and invalid test systems; (4) The selection of dose levels and gender; (5) Reversal of the effects induced by oxidants, carcinogens and mutagens; (6) Route of administration; (7) Number and validity of test variables; (8) Repeatability and reproducibility; (9) Statistics; and (10) Quality Assurance.

  20. A Smart Cage With Uniform Wireless Power Distribution in 3D for Enabling Long-Term Experiments With Freely Moving Animals.

    PubMed

    Mirbozorgi, S Abdollah; Bahrami, Hadi; Sawan, Mohamad; Gosselin, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a novel experimental chamber with uniform wireless power distribution in 3D for enabling long-term biomedical experiments with small freely moving animal subjects. The implemented power transmission chamber prototype is based on arrays of parallel resonators and multicoil inductive links, to form a novel and highly efficient wireless power transmission system. The power transmitter unit includes several identical resonators enclosed in a scalable array of overlapping square coils which are connected in parallel to provide uniform power distribution along x and y. Moreover, the proposed chamber uses two arrays of primary resonators, facing each other, and connected in parallel to achieve uniform power distribution along the z axis. Each surface includes 9 overlapped coils connected in parallel and implemented into two layers of FR4 printed circuit board. The chamber features a natural power localization mechanism, which simplifies its implementation and ease its operation by avoiding the need for active detection and control mechanisms. A single power surface based on the proposed approach can provide a power transfer efficiency (PTE) of 69% and a power delivered to the load (PDL) of 120 mW, for a separation distance of 4 cm, whereas the complete chamber prototype provides a uniform PTE of 59% and a PDL of 100 mW in 3D, everywhere inside the chamber with a size of 27×27×16 cm(3).

  1. MEDLI Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of MEDLI, the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrument, which contains multiple sophisticated temperature sensors to measure atmospheric conditions and performance o...

  2. Coronary Reconnection in Emergency “Conduit Operation” for Acute Type-A Aortic Dissection with Aortic Insufficiency: Experience with 24 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Massimo, Carlo G.; Presenti, Luigi F.; Favi, Piero P.; Duranti, Alberto; Poma, Alberto G.; Marranci, Pierluigi; Modiano, Claudio

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-four cases of acute type-A aortic dissection with aortic valvular insufficiency were treated in our institution by means of an emergency operation in which the aortic valve, ascending aorta, and aortic arch were resected and replaced with a valved conduit that had been lengthened with a tubular Dacron graft. The procedure included the use of deep hypothermia for cerebral protection, as well as extracorporeal circulation. Aortic resection was performed from the aortic valve to the origin of the descending thoracic aorta; the aortic graft was anastomosed proximally to the valve annulus and distally to the descending aorta. The carotid orifices were connected to the side of the graft in a single tissue button. The coronary arteries were then reconnected by means of double venous bypass grafts to the innominate artery, to allow for inclusion of the graft. Within 1 month after operation, four patients died of the consequences of dissection. Six months postoperatively, one patient succumbed to an infarction. Six months to 5 years after operation, the remaining 19 patients are still alive. On the basis of this experience, we believe that acute type-A aortic dissection with aortic valvular insufficiency should be treated during the first hours after the onset of symptoms. The above-described procedure proved effective in the control of bleeding, which is the major risk in emergency operations of this type. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1987; 14:418-421) Images PMID:15227299

  3. Acute Appendicitis in Patients with Acute Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki Up; Kim, Jin Kyeung; Won, Jong Ho; Hong, Dae Sik; Park, Hee Sook; Park, Kyeung Kyu

    1993-01-01

    The decision to operate for abdominal pain in patients with leukopenia can be exceedingly difficult. Surgical exploration may be the only effective way to differentiate acute appendicitis from other causes, but it involves considerable risk of infectious complications due to immunesuppression. Leukemic patients, who presented significant RLQ pain, had been indicated for operation, despite having advanced disease or having had received chemotherapy or steroids. Four adult leukemia patients, complicated by acute appendictis, were reviewed. Two patients were in induction chemotherapy, one receiving salvage chemotheapy due to relapse and the other was in conservative treatment. Two patients were acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), one had acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and the other had aleukemic leukemia. All patients underwent appendectomy and recovered without complication. Our experience supports the theory that the surgical management of appendicitis in acute leukemia is the most effective way, in spite of leukopenia. PMID:8268146

  4. Animals in biomedical space research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Rat and squirrel monkeys experiments have been planned in concert with human experiments to help answer fundamental questions concerning the effect of weightlessness on mammalism function. For the most part, these experiments focus on identified changes noted in humans during space flight. Utilizing space laboratory facilities, manipulative experiments can be completed while animals are still in orbit. Other experiments are designed to study changes in gravity receptor structure and function and the effect of weightlessness on early vertibrate development. Following these preliminary animal experiments on Spacelab Shuttle flights, longer term programs of animal investigation will be conducted on Space Station.

  5. Impact of Global Fxr Deficiency on Experimental Acute Pancreatitis and Genetic Variation in the FXR Locus in Human Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Nijmeijer, Rian M.; Schaap, Frank G.; Smits, Alexander J. J.; Kremer, Andreas E.; Akkermans, Louis M. A.; Kroese, Alfons B. A.; Rijkers, Ger. T.; Schipper, Marguerite E. I.; Verheem, André; Wijmenga, Cisca; Gooszen, Hein G.; van Erpecum, Karel J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Infectious complications often occur in acute pancreatitis, related to impaired intestinal barrier function, with prolonged disease course and even mortality as a result. The bile salt nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR), which is expressed in the ileum, liver and other organs including the pancreas, exhibits anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting NF-κB activation and is implicated in maintaining intestinal barrier integrity and preventing bacterial overgrowth and translocation. Here we explore, with the aid of complementary animal and human experiments, the potential role of FXR in acute pancreatitis. Methods Experimental acute pancreatitis was induced using the CCK-analogue cerulein in wild-type and Fxr-/- mice. Severity of acute pancreatitis was assessed using histology and a semi-quantitative scoring system. Ileal permeability was analyzed in vitro by Ussing chambers and an in vivo permeability assay. Gene expression of Fxr and Fxr target genes was studied by quantitative RT-PCR. Serum FGF19 levels were determined by ELISA in acute pancreatitis patients and healthy volunteers. A genetic association study in 387 acute pancreatitis patients and 853 controls was performed using 9 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the complete FXR gene and two additional functional SNPs. Results In wild-type mice with acute pancreatitis, ileal transepithelial resistance was reduced and ileal mRNA expression of Fxr target genes Fgf15, SHP, and IBABP was decreased. Nevertheless, Fxr-/- mice did not exhibit a more seve