Science.gov

Sample records for acute animal experiments

  1. Microgravity Experiments On Animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, B. P.; Leon, H.; Hogan, R.; Clarke, B.; Tollinger, D.

    1991-01-01

    Paper describes experiments on animal subjects planned for Spacelab Life Sciences 1 mission. Laboratory equipment evaluated, and physiological experiments performed. Represents first step in establishing technology for maintaining and manipulating rodents, nonhuman primates, amphibians, and plants during space flight without jeopardizing crew's environment. In addition, experiments focus on effects of microgravity on cardiopulmonary, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal systems; on regulation of volume of blood and production of red blood cells; and on calcium metabolism and gravity receptors.

  2. Experiments in Animal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polt, James M.

    1971-01-01

    Describes experiments in conditioning, sensory processes, social behavior, imprinting, innate preferences for color and form, and discrimination learning suitable for secondary school students. Mealworms, crickets, and chicks are used as subjects. (AL)

  3. Animal habitats for space experiments.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Keiji; Shimazu, Toru

    2004-11-01

    There has been little opportunity for flight experiments using small animals, due to delay of construction of the International Space Station. Therefore, proposals using small animals have been unfortunately excepted from International Space Life Sciences Experiment application opportunity since 2001. Moreover, NASA has changed their development plan of animal habitats for space experiments according to changes of the U.S. space policy and the outlook is not so bright. However, international researchers have been strongly requesting the opportunity for space experiments using small animals. It will be also important for Japanese researchers to make a request for the opportunity. At the same time, researchers have to make an advance in ground based studies toward space experiments and to respond future application opportunities immediately. In this symposium, we explain the AEM (Animal Enclosure Module), the RAHF (Research Animal Holding Facility), and the AAH (Advanced Animal Habitat). It will be helpful for investigators to have wide knowledge of what space experiment is technically possible. In addition, the sample share program will be introduced into our communities. The program will provide many researchers with the organs and tissues from space-flown animals. We will explain the technical aspect of sample share program. PMID:15858343

  4. Animal models of acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Matute-Bello, Gustavo; Frevert, Charles W.; Martin, Thomas R.

    2008-01-01

    Acute lung injury in humans is characterized histopathologically by neutrophilic alveolitis, injury of the alveolar epithelium and endothelium, hyaline membrane formation, and microvascular thrombi. Different animal models of experimental lung injury have been used to investigate mechanisms of lung injury. Most are based on reproducing in animals known risk factors for ARDS, such as sepsis, lipid embolism secondary to bone fracture, acid aspiration, ischemia-reperfusion of pulmonary or distal vascular beds, and other clinical risks. However, none of these models fully reproduces the features of human lung injury. The goal of this review is to summarize the strengths and weaknesses of existing models of lung injury. We review the specific features of human ARDS that should be modeled in experimental lung injury and then discuss specific characteristics of animal species that may affect the pulmonary host response to noxious stimuli. We emphasize those models of lung injury that are based on reproducing risk factors for human ARDS in animals and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each model and the extent to which each model reproduces human ARDS. The present review will help guide investigators in the design and interpretation of animal studies of acute lung injury. PMID:18621912

  5. [Animal experiments: legal, scientific and ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Houvenaghel, A

    2000-01-01

    Among the legal aspects the following topics are treated: the definitions of an experimental animal, an animal experiment and alternative methods with special reference to the 3 R's (replacement, reduction and refinement of animal experiments); the qualifications, education and training of researchers and animal technicians; the licence for animal experimentation; the control on animal welfare; the origin and identification of experimental animals; statistical data on the number of experimental animals; ethics committees and their structure and functions in The Netherlands and Flanders. Extrapolation, species specificity and variability are the most important scientific limitations of animal experimentation. After a short historical survey on the man-animal relation, the following ethical aspects are discussed: the instrumental versus intrinsic value of an experimental animal; the hybrid status of the animal; the objectives of animal rights movements; the balance between the human benefit of an animal experiment and the discomfort for the animal; the problem of animal rights and animal suffering and pain. PMID:10818819

  6. Non-animal Replacements for Acute Toxicity Testing.

    PubMed

    Barker-Treasure, Carol; Coll, Kevin; Belot, Nathalie; Longmore, Chris; Bygrave, Karl; Avey, Suzanne; Clothier, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Current approaches to predicting adverse effects in humans from acute toxic exposure to cosmetic ingredients still heavily necessitate the use of animals under EU legislation, particularly in the context of the REACH system, when cosmetic ingredients are also destined for use in other industries. These include the LD50 test, the Up-and-Down Procedure and the Fixed Dose Procedure, which are regarded as having notable scientific deficiencies and low transferability to humans. By expanding on previous in vitro tests, such as the animal cell-based 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) assay, this project aims to develop a truly animal-free predictive test for the acute toxicity of cosmetic ingredients in humans, by using human-derived cells and a prediction model that does not rely on animal data. The project, funded by Innovate UK, will incorporate the NRU assay with human dermal fibroblasts in animal product-free culture, to generate an in vitro protocol that can be validated as an accepted replacement for the currently available in vivo tests. To date, the project has successfully completed an assessment of the robustness and reproducibility of the method, by using sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) as a positive control, and displaying analogous results to those of the original studies with mouse 3T3 cells. Currently, the testing of five known ingredients from key groups (a surfactant, a preservative, a fragrance, a colour and an emulsifier) is under way. The testing consists of initial range-finding runs followed by three valid runs of a main experiment with the appropriate concentration ranges, to generate IC50 values. Expanded blind trials of 20 ingredients will follow. Early results indicate that this human cell-based test holds the potential to replace aspects of in vivo animal acute toxicity testing, particularly with reference to cosmetic ingredients. PMID:26256397

  7. Animal Model of Acute Deep Vein Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Sumit; Laerum, Frode; Brosstad, Frank; Kvernebo, Knut; Sakariassen, Kjell S.

    1998-07-15

    Purpose: To develop an animal model of acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Methods: In part I of the study nine juvenile domestic pigs were used. Each external iliac vein was transluminally occluded with a balloon catheter. Thrombin was infused through a microcatheter in one leg according to one of the following protocols: (1) intraarterial (IA): 1250 U at 25 U/min in the common femoral artery (n= 3); (2) intravenous (IV): 5000 U in the popliteal vein at 500 U/min (n= 3), or at 100 U/min (n= 3). Saline was administered in the opposite leg. After the animals were killed, the mass of thrombus in the iliofemoral veins was measured. The pudendoepiploic (PEV), profunda femoris (PF), and popliteal veins (PV) were examined. Thrombosis in the tributaries of the superficial femoral vein (SFVt) was graded according to a three-point scale (0, +, ++). In part II of the study IV administration was further investigated in nine pigs using the following three regimens with 1000 U at 25 U/min serving as the control: (1) 1000 U at 100 U/min, (2) 250 U at 25 U/min, (3) 250 U at 6.25 U/min. Results: All animals survived. In part I median thrombus mass in the test limbs was 1.40 g as compared with 0.25 g in the controls (p= 0.01). PEV, PFV and PV were thrombosed in all limbs infused with thrombin. IV infusion was more effective in inducing thrombosis in both the parent veins (mass 1.32-1.78 g) and SVFt (++ in 4 of 6 legs), as compared with IA infusion (mass 0.0-1.16 g; SFVt ++ in 1 of 3 legs). In part II thrombus mass in axial veins ranged from 1.23 to 2.86 g, and showed no relationship with the dose of thrombin or the rate of infusion. Tributary thrombosis was less extensive with 250 U at 25 U/min than with the other regimens. Conclusion: Slow distal intravenous thrombin infusion in the hind legs of pigs combined with proximal venous occlusion induces thrombosis in the leg veins that closely resembles clinical DVT in distribution.

  8. ACUTE TOXICITY AND BIOCONCENTRATION OF ENDOSULFAN-EXPOSED ESTUARINE ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute (96-h) flow-through toxicity tests with endosulfan (Thiodan) were conducted with several estuarine animals. The test species and their 96-h lethal concentration for 50 percent of the organisms (LC50) values were: pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum), 0.04 micrograms/litre; grass ...

  9. A review of animal flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandler, H.

    1977-01-01

    Extensive experience with biologic systems was obtained with a variety of vertebrate species over the past 18 years. Subhuman primates were precursors to man in the American space flight program; dogs and mice were animals of choice for the Soviet program. Recent attempts to use heavily instrumented animals for observations of long-term physiological effects indicate problems which must be corrected in future experiments for monitoring the effects of environmental stresses over the longer periods required for accomplishing meaningful habitation in near-Earth orbit or for travel to nearby planets.

  10. Chronic and acute effects of stress on energy balance: are there appropriate animal models?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Stress activates multiple neural and endocrine systems to allow an animal to respond to and survive in a threatening environment. The corticotropin-releasing factor system is a primary initiator of this integrated response, which includes activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The energetic response to acute stress is determined by the nature and severity of the stressor, but a typical response to an acute stressor is inhibition of food intake, increased heat production, and increased activity with sustained changes in body weight, behavior, and HPA reactivity. The effect of chronic psychological stress is more variable. In humans, chronic stress may cause weight gain in restrained eaters who show increased HPA reactivity to acute stress. This phenotype is difficult to replicate in rodent models where chronic psychological stress is more likely to cause weight loss than weight gain. An exception may be hamsters subjected to repeated bouts of social defeat or foot shock, but the data are limited. Recent reports on the food intake and body composition of subordinate members of group-housed female monkeys indicate that these animals have a similar phenotype to human stress-induced eaters, but there are a limited number of investigators with access to the model. Few stress experiments focus on energy balance, but more information on the phenotype of both humans and animal models during and after exposure to acute or chronic stress may provide novel insight into mechanisms that normally control body weight. PMID:25519732

  11. [Family experiences post-acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Garcia, Raquel Pötter; Budó, Maria de Lourdes Denardin; Simon, Bruna Sodré; Wünsch, Simone; Oliveira, Stefanie Griebeler; Barbosa, Mariane da Silva

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to describe the family experiences post-infarction. Qualitative, descriptive and exploratory research, carried out with six families of post-infarction patients. Data collection was conducted in families' homes, in the period of February to May of 2012, through observation and interviews with the family. The software Atlas Ti 6.2 was used to code the interviews and the data were explored with thematic analysis. Two categories emerged "Difficult times": immediate consequence of acute myocardial infarction for the families; and "We reeducate ourselves--we can adapt ourselves": current experience of families. The immediate post-infarction experience is permeated by several feelings, with the need for families to adapt to fit into the needs. The current experience shows changes in families due to the disease. The family is the main responsible for the care giving, although Nursing should exchange and share knowledge. PMID:24344600

  12. [An oneiroid experience during severe acute polyradiculoneuritis].

    PubMed

    Wegener, K; Tassan, P; Josse, M O; Bolgert, F

    1995-02-01

    This study is to present a psychopathological analysis of complex hallucinatory symptoms--without consciousness breaking up in confusional state--occurring in patients with acute Guillain-Barré's syndrome diagnosis requiring neurological intensive care. Finally the patients experience an unitary and closed situation "close to dream without being dream". This experience is corresponding to the semeiology of the "oneiroid experience" (Mayer-Gross, 1924). The "oneiroid experience" appears to be of syndromic nature independent of any etiological and/or nosological classification. But its conceptualization does probably need widening: the oneiroid world appears to be a creation of a primitive function which inserts us in the world before any science or verification. PMID:7741405

  13. [Question the animal experiment in a new way].

    PubMed

    Brenner, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    When asking what the subject of an animal experiment is, you are inclined to answer that the animal is the subject of the animal experiment. However in answering this, you need to analyse the term "animal". This paper attempts to define the term "animal" by using the impression of "body" (German: "Leib"). Starting from the human body the paper shows the body's perceptive ability which entails self-perception in the sense of self-awareness as well as perception of the surroundings. Animals, which are also bodily beings, are like humans capable of self-perception in the sense of self-awareness. So the term "body" makes a connection between humans and animals. In the result of this it becomes clear that, of course, animals are the subject of animal experiments as are humans. PMID:14671706

  14. [Reduction of animal experiments in experimental drug testing].

    PubMed

    Behrensdorf-Nicol, H; Krämer, B

    2014-10-01

    In order to ensure the quality of biomedical products, an experimental test for every single manufactured batch is required for many products. Especially in vaccine testing, animal experiments are traditionally used for this purpose. For example, efficacy is often determined via challenge experiments in laboratory animals. Safety tests of vaccine batches are also mostly performed using laboratory animals. However, many animal experiments have clear inherent disadvantages (low accuracy, questionable transferability to humans, unclear significance). Furthermore, for ethical reasons and animal welfare aspects animal experiments are also seen very critical by the public. Therefore, there is a strong trend towards replacing animal experiments with methods in which no animals are used ("replacement"). If a replacement is not possible, the required animal experiments should be improved in order to minimize the number of animals necessary ("reduction") and to reduce pain and suffering caused by the experiment to a minimum ("refinement"). This "3R concept" is meanwhile firmly established in legislature. In recent years many mandatory animal experiments have been replaced by alternative in vitro methods or improved according to the 3R principles; numerous alternative methods are currently under development. Nevertheless, the process from the development of a new method to its legal implementation takes a long time. Therefore, supplementary regulatory measures to facilitate validation and acceptance of new alternative methods could contribute to a faster and more consequent implementation of the 3R concept in the testing of biomedical products. PMID:25183445

  15. Preclinical animal acute toxicity studies of new developed MRI contrast agent based on gadolinium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, I. F.; Zhuk, V. V.

    2015-04-01

    Acute toxicity test of new developed MRI contrast agent based on disodium salt of gadopentetic acid complex were carried out on Mus musculus and Sprague Dawley rats according to guidelines of preclinical studies [1]. Groups of six animals each were selected for experiment. Death and clinical symptoms of animals were recorded during 14 days. As a result the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for female mice is 2.8 mM/kg of body weight, male mice - 1.4 mM/kg, female rats - 2.8 mM/kg, male rats - 5.6 mM/kg of body weight. No Observed Adverse Effect Dose (NOAEL) for female mice is 1.4 mM/kg, male mice - 0.7 mM/kg, male and female rats - 0.7 mM/kg. According to experimental data new developed MRI contrast agent based on Gd-DTPA complex is low-toxic.

  16. Noise effects on reproduction— animal experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takigawa, H.; Sakamoto, H.; Murata, M.; Matsumura, Y.

    1988-12-01

    Noise effects on fetal development were observed in animals. While the copulatory function was not affected, birth rate decreased when the animals were exposed to noise. An increased number of stunted fetuses was observed when the animals were intermittently exposed. However, malformations in the fetuses increased with exposure to both intermittent and continuous noise. Two phases of hormonal change were observed in connection with noise exposure. One is the initial response phase, characterized by the increment of 11-OHCS in the adrenal gland. The other is the end phenomena phase, characterized by a disorder in central control. It is discussed that the disturbance of fetal development by exposure to noise is related to these changes in the hormonal condition.

  17. Science Experience Unit: Plant and Animal Adaptations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.

    GRADES OR AGES: No mention. Appears to be upper elementary. SUBJECT MATTER: Science units--plants and animals. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into 35 activities. It is mimeographed and staple-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: No objectives are mentioned. The activities suggested aim to recreate common…

  18. NASDA aquatic animal experiment facilities for space shuttle and ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Satoko; Masukawa, Mitsuyo; Kamigaichi, Shigeki

    National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has developed aquatic animal experiment facilities for NASA Space Shuttle use. Vestibular Function Experiment Unit (VFEU) was firstly designed and developed for physiological research using carp in Spacelab-J (SL-J, STS-47) mission. It was modified as Aquatic Animal Experiment Unit (AAEU) to accommodate small aquatic animals, such as medaka and newt, for second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2, STS-65) mission. Then, VFEU was improved to accommodate marine fish and to perform neurobiological experiment for Neurolab (STS-90) and STS-95 missions. We have also developed and used water purification system which was adapted to each facility. Based on these experiences of Space Shuttle missions, we are studying to develop advanced aquatic animal experiment facility for both Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS).

  19. A Malaysian Experience with Animal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Little, P. B.

    1979-01-01

    The report summarizes a one year period of investigation of death losses in West Malaysian livestock. Lesions and etiological agents are mentioned for cattle, sheep, goats, swine, poultry and companion animals as well as some miscellaneous species. Special observations related to a common paramphistome induced hepatic biliary infestation in cattle, a serious malignant head catarrh outbreak in which possible cattle to cow aerosol transmission occurred. Trismus observed in some cattle with malignant head catarrh was associated with arteriolitis and ganglioneuritis of the V cranial nerve. Parasitic, bacterial, viral toxic and neoplastic diseases are recorded in the various species. The occurrence of fatal chronic fluorosis in laboratory guinea pigs and cerebral nematodiasis in a Thoroughbred racehorse are documented. ImagesFigure 1.FIGURE 2.FIGURE 3.FIGURE 4.FIGURE 5.FIGURE 6.FIGURE 7.FIGURE 8.FIGURE 9.FIGURE 10.FIGURE 11. PMID:761153

  20. COMPARING BEHAVIORAL DOSE-EFFECT CURVES FOR HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS ACUTELY EXPOSED TO TOLUENE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The utility of laboratory animal data in toxicology depends upon the ability to generalize the results quantitatively to humans. To compare the acute behavioral effects of inhaled toluene in humans to those in animals, dose-effect curves were fitted by meta-analysis of published...

  1. ACUTE TOXICITY OF PARA-NONYLPHENOL TO SALTWATER ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ?para-Nonylphenol (PNP), a mixture of alkylphenols used in producing nonionic surfactants, is distributed widely in surface waters and aquatic sediments, where it can affect saltwater species. This article describes a database for acute toxicity of PNP derived for calculating a n...

  2. [Laser ablation of intervertebral disc: animal experiment].

    PubMed

    Qi, Q; Dang, G D; Cai, Q L

    1994-03-01

    The lumbar intervertebral discs (L3-6) were ablated through a transperitoneal approach in 12 adult dogs by using Nd: YAG laser (1.06 microns) with a 600 microns quartz fiber. The status of limbs motion and sphincter (bladder, bowel) was observed for evaluating the safety of laser irradiation. After irradiation, the animals were sacrificed at prescribed intervals of up to 40 weeks (2, 4, 8, 12 and 40 weeks after operation). The lumbar intervertebral discs were harvested and subjected to light microscopic observation. No dog had suffered from neurogenic dysfunction of limb motion and sphincter. Histological findings immediately after the irradiation showed the disc was vaporized and a cavity was made. After 2 and 4 weeks, fibrous tissues began to proliferate, but cartilaginous tissues replaced the fibrous tissues 12 weeks after the laser irradiation. No new bone formation was found within 40 weeks after operation. On the basis of this study and our previous cadaveric study, percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD) was applied in clinical practice in march of 1993. 10 patients underwent PLDD utilizing the same laser equipment. The average follow-up was 3 months. According to the Macnab's criteria, there was an excellent response in 7 patients and a good response in 3. PMID:7842915

  3. Computer simulation models are implementable as replacements for animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Badyal, Dinesh K; Modgill, Vikas; Kaur, Jasleen

    2009-04-01

    It has become increasingly difficult to perform animal experiments, because of issues related to the procurement of animals, and strict regulations and ethical issues related to their use. As a result, it is felt that the teaching of pharmacology should be more clinically oriented and that unnecessary animal experimentation should be avoided. Although a number of computer simulation models (CSMs) are available, they are not being widely used. Interactive demonstrations were conducted to encourage the departmental faculty to use CSMs. Four different animal experiments were selected, that dealt with actions of autonomic drugs. The students observed demonstrations of animal experiments involving conventional methods and the use of CSMs. This was followed by hands-on experience of the same experiment, but using CSMs in small groups, instead of hands-on experience with the animal procedures. Test scores and feedback showed that there was better understanding of the mechanisms of action of the drugs, gained in a shorter time. The majority of the students found the teaching programme used to be good to excellent. CSMs can be used repeatedly and independently by students, and this avoids unnecessary experimentation and also causing pain and trauma to animals. The CSM programme can be implemented in existing teaching schedules for pharmacology undergraduate teaching with basic infrastructure support, and is readily adaptable for use by other institutes. PMID:19453215

  4. [Possibilities and limits of the inspection of animal experiments and laboratory animal facilities].

    PubMed

    Hackbarth, H

    2002-03-01

    Animal experiments according to section 7-9 of the German animal welfare act underlie governmental inspection. Generally this inspection is taken over by the veterinary offices of the cities and districts. During the inspection of animal experiments, which have to be licensed or announced according to section 8 or 8a respectively, the main focus should be the observance of the license presumptions and conditions, the knowledge of the experimenter and the necessity of recordings. For this task specialized knowledge in laboratory animal science of the inspection office is a necessary presupposition for the effectiveness and acceptance of the inspection. As this inspection can only be spot-checking it should be done in a close and collegial cooperation with the animal welfare officer of the experimental institution. The animal welfare officer has the necessary knowledge and knows the institutional conditions, especially the time scheme, which are necessary for an effective inspection of animal experiments. Without the participation and cooperation with the animal welfare officer the inspection office runs the risk not to recognize certain interrelations, but also to give way to wrong descriptions. It is very difficult especially during the inspection of institutions, where many research groups perform animal experiments to get and to keep an overview, without not noticing important details or focussing on certain details, while others are taken no notice of. The primary goal of the inspection of animal experiments should be: 1. to understand the research goal and the methods used 2. to ask with scientific background for the purpose of research and the experimental design 3. to judge the applied experimental methods in respect to animal welfare aspects 4. to improve the animal experimentation by discussion with the experimenter Does the inspection office succeed to be accepted as a competent partner by the experimenter as well as by the animal welfare officer, the

  5. Canada's Experience with Student Use of Living Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowsell, H. C.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the importance of children developing personal associations with animals, and suggests that it is the responsibility of schools to teach students how to properly care for pets. With particular reference to Canadian experiences, criticizes the widespread neglect of pets and misuse of animals in school laboratories and science fairs. (JR)

  6. Animal Navigation in the Classroom: Lessons from a Pilot Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanini, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    In response to a direct request from science teachers, researchers initiated a pilot experience on animal orientation and navigation, which was delivered to 61 13-year-old students in Florence, Italy. The aim was to explain the approach to ethology and to link animal navigation with geography, focusing on species crossing the Italian territory.…

  7. Algorithmic Animation in Education--Review of Academic Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esponda-Arguero, Margarita

    2008-01-01

    This article is a review of the pedagogical experience obtained with systems for algorithmic animation. Algorithms consist of a sequence of operations whose effect on data structures can be visualized using a computer. Students learn algorithms by stepping the animation through the different individual operations, possibly reversing their effect.…

  8. Status of Animal Experiments on International Space Station, and Animal Care Activities in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Ryutaro; Ishioka, Noriaki; Yumoto, Akane; Ito, Isao; Shirakawa, Masaki

    We would like to introduce animal experiments status on International Space Station (ISS) of Japan. Aquatic Habitat (AQH) was launched at 2012 July, by H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV, ‘Kounotori’) from Tanegashima island in Japan, which could house small fish (Medaka, or Zebrafish) at most three months. First experiment using AQH was carried out for two months from Oct. 26, 2012, and second experiment would start from February, 2014. Mice housing hardware is now under development. For animal care activities, current topic in Japan is self-estimation for animal experiment status by each institute, and to open the result for public. JAXA conducted self-estimation of fiscal year 2011 (from 2011 April until 2012 March) for the first time, and would continue every fiscal year. JAXA already have its own animal care regulation, under animal care law and policy in Japan, and also referred COSPAR animal care guideline. And this year, JAXA made handbook for animal experiments in space (only Japanese).

  9. An Insufferable Business: Ethics, Nonhuman Animals and Biomedical Experiments.

    PubMed

    Peggs, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Each year millions of nonhuman animals suffer in biomedical experiments for human health benefits. Clinical ethics demand that nonhuman animals are used in the development of pharmaceuticals and vaccines. Nonhuman animals are also used for fundamental biomedical research. Biomedical research that uses nonhuman animals is big business but the financial gains are generally occluded. This paper explores how such research generates profits and gains for those associated with the industry. Research establishments, scientists, laboratories, companies that sell nonhuman animal subjects, that supply equipment for the research, and corporations that market the resulting products are among those that benefit financially. Given the complex articulation of ethical codes, enormous corporate profits that are secured and personal returns that are made, the accepted moral legitimacy of such experiments is compromised. In order to address this, within the confines of the moral orthodoxy, more could to be done to ensure transparency and to extricate the vested financial interests from the human health benefits. But such a determination would not address the fundamental issues that should be at the heart of human actions in respect of the nonhuman animals who are used in experiments. The paper concludes with such an address by calling for an end to the denigration of nonhuman animals as experimental subjects who can be used as commodities for profit-maximisation and as tools in experiments for human health benefits, and the implementation of a more inclusive ethic that is informed by universal concern about the suffering of and compassion for all oppressed beings. PMID:26479378

  10. [Ethical evaluation of animal experiments: theory and practice].

    PubMed

    Kolar, R

    2000-01-01

    The "ethical justifiability" of animal experiments is a requirement that has its origin in the 18th century and that has been established in relevant EU- as well as national legislation. On principal, this requirement is to be met through a well-founded explanation of the indispensability of the experiment and a weighing of the animal suffering against the relevance of the expected results. This article investigates from the animal welfare point of view the practical implementation of these conditions with the evaluation of applications for granting a licence for animal experiments as required by the German Animal Welfare Law and the examination of ethical aspects of applications for funding of research that is carried out by the European Commission. The deficits identified for both cases have various causes. These are: unsatisfactory formal and practical basic conditions, the inadequate information content of many applications as well as the unbalanced composition and lacking decision-making powers of the evaluating bodies. The lack of any quality control for the animal experiments and for the evaluation process as a whole and its single components until now have prevented a reform of the schemes in place. PMID:11178556

  11. Self-Reported Acute Health Effects and Exposure to Companion Animals.

    PubMed

    Krueger, W S; Hilborn, E D; Dufour, A P; Sams, E A; Wade, T J

    2016-06-01

    To understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms [e.g. gastrointestinal (GI), respiratory, dermatological], it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar animals can result in a variety of health symptoms related to infection, irritation and allergy; however, few studies have examined this association in a large-scale cohort setting. Cross-sectional data collected from 50 507 participants in the United States enrolled from 2003 to 2009 were used to examine associations between animal contact and acute health symptoms during a 10-12 day period. Fixed-effects multivariable logistic regression estimated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confident intervals (CI) for associations between animal exposures and outcomes of GI illness, respiratory illness and skin/eye symptoms. Two-thirds of the study population (63.2%) reported direct contact with animals, of which 7.7% had contact with at least one unfamiliar animal. Participants exposed to unfamiliar animals had significantly higher odds of self-reporting all three acute health symptoms, when compared to non-animal-exposed participants (GI: AOR = 1.4, CI = 1.2-1.7; respiratory: AOR = 1.5, CI = 1.2-1.8; and skin/eye: AOR = 1.9, CI = 1.6-2.3), as well as when compared to participants who only had contact with familiar animals. Specific contact with dogs, cats or pet birds was also significantly associated with at least one acute health symptom; AORs ranged from 1.1 to 1.5, when compared to participants not exposed to each animal. These results indicate that contact with animals, especially unfamiliar animals, was significantly associated with GI, respiratory and skin/eye symptoms. Such associations could be attributable to zoonotic infections and allergic reactions. Etiological models for acute health symptoms should consider contact with companion animals, particularly exposure to unfamiliar animals

  12. [About animal experiments for a face without wrinkles].

    PubMed

    Ruhdel, Irmela

    2004-01-01

    Botulinum toxin, a nervous poison produced by bacteria, is increasingly being used - besides its medical application - as a beauty product for smoothing facial wrinkles. It is unknown in public that each batch of the toxin has to undergo a quality control before marketing. The test used is a LD50 test using mice that is very animal consuming and causes extreme suffering. Although several alternative methods exist, none of these are have yet been adopted by the European pharmacopoeia. Consumers in the EU do not accept animal experiments for cosmetic purposes. However, Botulinum toxin does not fall under the definition of a "cosmetic product" and therefore the bans on animal experiments laid down in the EU Cosmetic Directive do not apply. Therefore on a short term scale, only the voluntarily renouncement of the use of this toxin as an anti-wrinkling agent can prevent the suffering and death of animals for a beauty product. PMID:14976586

  13. [Teratogenic and mutagenic studies with caffeine in the animal experiment].

    PubMed

    von Kreybig, T; Czok, G

    1976-03-01

    Principles of teratogenic and mutagenic actions are defined. The recent experimental studies with laboratory animals, and our investigations with caffeine-sodium benzoicum and with soluble coffee in pregnant rats and mice showed no teratogenicity. The results are compared with specific teratogenic effects of cytostatic agents. A teratogenicity of caffeine can be excluded, a mutagenicity in animal experiments can also not be proved. PMID:960793

  14. Cisplatin-Induced Non-Oliguric Acute Kidney Injury in a Pediatric Experimental Animal Model in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Lázaro, Alberto; González, Rafael; Urbano, Javier; López, Jorge; Solana, Maria José; Toledo, Blanca; del Castillo, Jimena; Tejedor, Alberto; López-Herce, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Objective To design an experimental pediatric animal model of acute kidney injury induced by cisplatin. Methods Prospective comparative observational animal study in two different phases. Acute kidney injury was induced using three different doses of cisplatin (2, 3 and 5 mg/kg). The development of nephrotoxicity was assessed 2 to 4 days after cisplatin administration by estimating biochemical parameters, diuresis and renal morphology. Analytical values and renal morphology were compared between 15 piglets treated with cisplatin 3 mg/kg and 15 control piglets in the second phase of the study. Results 41 piglets were studied. The dose of 3 mg/kg administered 48 hours before the experience induced a significant increase in serum creatinine and urea without an increase in potassium levels. Piglets treated with cisplatin 3 mg/kg had significantly higher values of creatinine, urea, phosphate and amylase, less diuresis and lower values of potassium, sodium and bicarbonate than control piglets. Histological findings showed evidence of a dose-dependent increase in renal damage. Conclusions a dose of 3 mg/kg of cisplatin induces a significant alteration in renal function 48 hours after its administration, so it can be used as a pediatric animal model of non-oliguric acute kidney injury. PMID:26871589

  15. Acute chest pain emergencies - spouses' prehospital experiences.

    PubMed

    Forslund, Kerstin; Quell, Robin; Sørlie, Venke

    2008-10-01

    The call to the Emergency Medical Dispatch Centre is often a person's first contact with the health-care system in cases of acute illness or injury and acute chest pain is a common reason for calling. The aim was to illuminate how spouses to persons with acute chest pain experienced the alarm situation, the emergency call and the prehospital emergency care. Interviews were conducted with nineteen spouses. A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach was used for the analyses. The themes responsibility and uneasiness emerged as well as an overall theme of aloneness. Being a spouse to a person in need of acute medical and nursing assistance was interpreted as "Being responsible and trying to preserve life" and "Being able to manage the uneasiness and having trust in an uncertain situation." When their partners' life was at risk the spouses were in an escalating spiral of worry, uncertainty, stress, fear of loss, feeling of loneliness and desperation. They had to manage emotional distress and felt compelled to act to preserve life, a challenging situation. PMID:18929341

  16. An Insufferable Business: Ethics, Nonhuman Animals and Biomedical Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Peggs, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary This paper explores the ways in which biomedical research that uses nonhuman animal subjects generates financial profits and gains for humans who are associated with the industry. Research establishments, scientists, regulators and persons that inspect laboratories for compliance, those associated with granting licences, companies that sell nonhuman animal subjects and that supply equipment for the research, and corporations that market the resulting products are among those that benefit financially. These profits are rarely discussed—they seem to be camouflaged by the focus of the moral convention that assumes that human health-related needs prevail over those of the nonhuman animals who are so used. The paper concludes by calling for an end to the denigration of nonhuman animals as experimental subjects who can be used as commodities for profit-maximisation and as tools in experiments for human health benefits. Abstract Each year millions of nonhuman animals suffer in biomedical experiments for human health benefits. Clinical ethics demand that nonhuman animals are used in the development of pharmaceuticals and vaccines. Nonhuman animals are also used for fundamental biomedical research. Biomedical research that uses nonhuman animals is big business but the financial gains are generally occluded. This paper explores how such research generates profits and gains for those associated with the industry. Research establishments, scientists, laboratories, companies that sell nonhuman animal subjects, that supply equipment for the research, and corporations that market the resulting products are among those that benefit financially. Given the complex articulation of ethical codes, enormous corporate profits that are secured and personal returns that are made, the accepted moral legitimacy of such experiments is compromised. In order to address this, within the confines of the moral orthodoxy, more could to be done to ensure transparency and to

  17. 21 CFR 510.301 - Records and reports concerning experience with animal feeds bearing or containing new animal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... animal feeds bearing or containing new animal drugs for which an approved medicated feed mill license... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS Records and Reports § 510.301 Records and reports concerning experience with animal feeds bearing...

  18. 21 CFR 510.301 - Records and reports concerning experience with animal feeds bearing or containing new animal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS Records and Reports § 510.301 Records and reports concerning experience with animal feeds bearing or... animal feeds bearing or containing new animal drugs for which an approved medicated feed mill...

  19. 21 CFR 510.301 - Records and reports concerning experience with animal feeds bearing or containing new animal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS Records and Reports § 510.301 Records and reports concerning experience with animal feeds bearing or... animal feeds bearing or containing new animal drugs for which an approved medicated feed mill...

  20. 21 CFR 510.301 - Records and reports concerning experience with animal feeds bearing or containing new animal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS Records and Reports § 510.301 Records and reports concerning experience with animal feeds bearing or... animal feeds bearing or containing new animal drugs for which an approved medicated feed mill...

  1. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals#

    EPA Science Inventory

    Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animalsWhitney S. Krueger1,2, Elizabeth D. Hilborn2, Timothy J. Wade21Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA2Environmental Public Health Division, Office of Research and Development, U...

  2. Oral Administration of Escin Inhibits Acute Inflammation and Reduces Intestinal Mucosal Injury in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Li, Minmin; Lu, Chengwen; Zhang, Leiming; Zhang, Jianqiao; Du, Yuan; Duan, Sijin; Wang, Tian; Fu, Fenghua

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of oral administration of escin on acute inflammation and intestinal mucosal injury in animal models. The effects of escin on carrageenan-induced paw edema in a rat model of acute inflammation, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) induced intestinal mucosal injury in a mouse model, were observed. It was shown that oral administration of escin inhibits carrageenan-induced paw edema and decreases the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2. In CLP model, low dose of escin ameliorates endotoxin induced liver injury and intestinal mucosal injury and increases the expression of tight junction protein claudin-5 in mice. These findings suggest that escin effectively inhibits acute inflammation and reduces intestinal mucosal injury in animal models. PMID:26199634

  3. Oral Administration of Escin Inhibits Acute Inflammation and Reduces Intestinal Mucosal Injury in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Li, Minmin; Lu, Chengwen; Zhang, Leiming; Zhang, Jianqiao; Du, Yuan; Duan, Sijin; Wang, Tian; Fu, Fenghua

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of oral administration of escin on acute inflammation and intestinal mucosal injury in animal models. The effects of escin on carrageenan-induced paw edema in a rat model of acute inflammation, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) induced intestinal mucosal injury in a mouse model, were observed. It was shown that oral administration of escin inhibits carrageenan-induced paw edema and decreases the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2. In CLP model, low dose of escin ameliorates endotoxin induced liver injury and intestinal mucosal injury and increases the expression of tight junction protein claudin-5 in mice. These findings suggest that escin effectively inhibits acute inflammation and reduces intestinal mucosal injury in animal models. PMID:26199634

  4. Animal models to study acute and chronic intestinal inflammation in mammals.

    PubMed

    Jiminez, Janelle A; Uwiera, Trina C; Douglas Inglis, G; Uwiera, Richard R E

    2015-01-01

    Acute and chronic inflammatory diseases of the intestine impart a significant and negative impact on the health and well-being of human and non-human mammalian animals. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of inflammatory disease is mandatory to develop effective treatment and prevention strategies. As inflammatory disease etiologies are multifactorial, the use of appropriate animal models and associated metrics of disease are essential. In this regard, animal models used alone or in combination to study acute and chronic inflammatory disease of the mammalian intestine paired with commonly used inflammation-inducing agents are reviewed. This includes both chemical and biological incitants of inflammation, and both non-mammalian (i.e. nematodes, insects, and fish) and mammalian (i.e. rodents, rabbits, pigs, ruminants, dogs, and non-human primates) models of intestinal inflammation including germ-free, gnotobiotic, as well as surgical, and genetically modified animals. Importantly, chemical and biological incitants induce inflammation via a multitude of mechanisms, and intestinal inflammation and injury can vary greatly according to the incitant and animal model used, allowing studies to ascertain both long-term and short-term effects of inflammation. Thus, researchers and clinicians should be aware of the relative strengths and limitations of the various animal models used to study acute and chronic inflammatory diseases of the mammalian intestine, and the scope and relevance of outcomes achievable based on this knowledge. The ability to induce inflammation to mimic common human diseases is an important factor of a successful animal model, however other mechanisms of disease such as the amount of infective agent to induce disease, invasion mechanisms, and the effect various physiologic changes can have on inducing damage are also important features. In many cases, the use of multiple animal models in combination with both chemical and biological incitants is

  5. [Occasional temperature rises following streptokinase infusions. Animal experiment findings].

    PubMed

    Ronneberger, V H

    1975-04-01

    The mechanism of the rises in temperature which have been observed in the clinic during long-term infusions with streptokinase (SK, Streptase-R) was clarified in animal experiments. After pyrogenic substances had been excluded as the possible cause of this side-effect and no rises in temperature in normal rabbits during SK infusions had been observed, this effect was imitated in animals immunised with SK. A clear fever reaction could be induced. Control experiments with rabbits which had been sensitised with human albumin, confirmed the hypothesis that the rise in body temperature is caused by anaphylactic fever. Neutralisation of the SK antibodies prevents the rise in temperature. Injecting high-titre gamma-globulin solution from animals immunised with SK, cannot suppress the fever reaction; this also applies to antihistamine (pheniramine-p-aminosalicylate) and hydrocortisone acetate therapy. During the lysis of thrombi induced by thrombin in the ear veins of rabbits, a rise in body temperature is obtained during the SK infusion and during treatment with a thrombolytic gel. Untreated control animals also showed the same rise in temperature during thrombolysis. The possibility that the fever reaction is set off by components of the dissolving thrombus is also discussed. PMID:1174079

  6. Acute animal and human poisonings from cyanotoxin exposure - A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wood, Roslyn

    2016-05-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms are a potential health hazard due to the ability of some species to produce toxins that are harmful to other living organisms. This review provides a comprehensive summary of anecdotal and case reports on acute poisonings in animals and humans attributable to cyanotoxin exposure in fresh- and brackish-waters. Approximately two-thirds of reported poisonings have occurred in Europe and the United States. Dogs and livestock account for the majority of reported cases involving animal exposure to cyanotoxins, while recreational activities are responsible for approximately half of reported incidents involving human exposure. Due to data limitations it is difficult to estimate the total number of animals and humans affected by cyanotoxins, however, some general observations regarding frequency and numbers affected are made. The review demonstrates that cyanotoxins have, and will likely to continue to have, potentially serious consequences for public health and animal welfare worldwide. PMID:26995270

  7. Experiments on Analysing Voice Production: Excised (Human, Animal) and In Vivo (Animal) Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Döllinger, Michael; Kobler, James; Berry, David A.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Luegmair, Georg; Bohr, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Experiments on human and on animal excised specimens as well as in vivo animal preparations are so far the most realistic approaches to simulate the in vivo process of human phonation. These experiments do not have the disadvantage of limited space within the neck and enable studies of the actual organ necessary for phonation, i.e., the larynx. The studies additionally allow the analysis of flow, vocal fold dynamics, and resulting acoustics in relation to well-defined laryngeal alterations. Purpose of Review This paper provides an overview of the applications and usefulness of excised (human/animal) specimen and in vivo animal experiments in voice research. These experiments have enabled visualization and analysis of dehydration effects, vocal fold scarring, bifurcation and chaotic vibrations, three-dimensional vibrations, aerodynamic effects, and mucosal wave propagation along the medial surface. Quantitative data will be shown to give an overview of measured laryngeal parameter values. As yet, a full understanding of all existing interactions in voice production has not been achieved, and thus, where possible, we try to indicate areas needing further study. Recent Findings A further motivation behind this review is to highlight recent findings and technologies related to the study of vocal fold dynamics and its applications. For example, studies of interactions between vocal tract airflow and generation of acoustics have recently shown that airflow superior to the glottis is governed by not only vocal fold dynamics but also by subglottal and supraglottal structures. In addition, promising new methods to investigate kinematics and dynamics have been reported recently, including dynamic optical coherence tomography, X-ray stroboscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction with laser projection systems. Finally, we touch on the relevance of vocal fold dynamics to clinical laryngology and to clinically-oriented research. PMID:26581597

  8. Relevance of experimental animal studies to the human experience

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Animal experiments are being used to examine a number of physical and biological factors that influence risk estimations though not usually in coordination with epidemiologists. It is clear that the different mechanisms involved in different types of tumors are reflected in the diversity of dose-response relationships. The forms of the dose-response relationships are influenced by both the initial events and their expression. Evidence is accumulating that many initiated cells do not get expressed as overt cancers and host factors may play a major role in the expression of potential tumor cells. There is a need for information about the relationship of the natural incidence and susceptibility to radiation induction for more tumor types. Such experiments will help answer the question of which risk estimate models are appropriate for different tumor types and can be carried out on animals. Perhaps because of the importance of host factors risk estimates as a percentage of the natural incidence appear to be similar for human beings and mice for a small number of tumor types. The elucidation of the mechanisms involved in different tissues while a slow business remains an important role of animal experiments.

  9. Acute renal failure in pregnancy: our experience.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Rohina S; Mishra, Vineet V; Jasani, Anil F; Gumber, Manoj

    2014-03-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is a serious medical complication during pregnancy, and, in the post-partum period, is associated with significant maternal morbidity and mortality as well as fetal loss. The objective of our study is to find the etiology and maternal outcome of ARF during pregnancy. The study was conducted at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Institute of Kidney Disease and Research Center, Ahmedabad, India from January 2009 to January 2011. Fifty previously healthy patients who developed ARF, diagnosed on oliguria and serum creatinine >2 mg%, were included in the study. Patients with a known history of renal disease, diabetes and hypertension were excluded from the study. All patients were followed-up for a period of six months. Patient re-cords, demographic data, urine output on admission and preceding history of antepartum hemorrhage (APH), post-partum hemorrhage (PPH), septicemia, operative interventions and retained product of conception were noted and need for dialysis was considered. Patients were thoroughly examined and baseline biochemical investigations and renal and obstetrical ultrasound were performed on each patient and bacterial culture sensitivity on blood, urine or vaginal swabs were performed in selected patients. The age range was 19-38 years (mean 26 ± 3.8). The first trimester, second trimester and puerperal groups comprised of four (8%), 25 (50%) and 21 patients (42%), respectively. Hemorrhage was the etiology for ARF in 15 (30%), APH in ten (20%) and PPH in five (10%) patients. Eleven (22%) patients had lower segment cesarian section (LSCS) while 36 (78%) patients had normal vaginal delivery. In 20 (40%) patients, puerperal sepsis was the etiological factor, while pre-eclampsia, eclampsia and HELLP syndrome accounted for 18 (36%) patients. Two (4%) patients had disseminated intravascular coagulation on presentation while one (2%) patient was diagnosed with hemolytic uremic syndrome. Maternal mortality was 12% (n = 6

  10. Testing a model of aging in animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Tyurin YuN; Yakovlev AYu; Shi, J; Bass, L

    1995-03-01

    A stochastic model of aging is developed in terms of accumulation and expression of intracellular lesions caused by environment or intrinsic genetic program. In contrast to the commonly used Gompertz-Makeham approach to the parametric analysis of mortality data, the model yields a hazard function that is bounded from above. For testing the model in experiments aimed at studying animal longevity, a Kolmogorov-type statistical test is presented with regard to the hypothesis involving unknown parameters. Examples concerning longevity of intact animals of two different species, as well as the effect of a prolonged irradiation at a low dose rate, are given to illustrate the model application and goodness-of-fit testing. The results of the analysis of published data show that the rate of lesion formation is not sustained at a constant level throughout life, though in some cases its variations with age can be considered negligible. PMID:7766791

  11. Improving patients' and staff's experiences of acute care.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, Rob; Crawshaw, Jacob; Hood, Chloe

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this audit was to assess the effect of the Quality Mark programme on the quality of acute care received by older patients by comparing the experiences of staff and older adults before and after the programme. Data from 31 wards in 12 acute hospitals were collected over two stages. Patients and staff completed questionnaires on the perceived quality of care on the ward. Patients rated improved experiences of nutrition, staff availability and dignity. Staff received an increase in training and reported better access to support, increased time and skill to deliver care and improved morale, leadership and teamwork. Problems remained with ward comfort and mealtimes. Overall, results indicated an improvement in ratings of care quality in most domains during Quality Mark data collection. Further audits need to explore ways of improving ward comfort and mealtime experience. PMID:25727634

  12. Efficacy of Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Therapy for Acute Lung Injury in Preclinical Animal Models: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Lauralyn A.; Moher, David; Fergusson, Dean A.; Sullivan, Katrina J.; Mei, Shirley H. J.; Lalu, Manoj; Marshall, John; Mcleod, Malcolm; Griffin, Gilly; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Turgeon, Alexis; Avey, Marc T.; Rudnicki, Michael A.; Jazi, Mazen; Fishman, Jason; Stewart, Duncan J.

    2016-01-01

    The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a devastating clinical condition that is associated with a 30–40% risk of death, and significant long term morbidity for those who survive. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have emerged as a potential novel treatment as in pre-clinical models they have been shown to modulate inflammation (a major pathophysiological hallmark of ARDS) while enhancing bacterial clearance and reducing organ injury and death. A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS and Web of Science was performed to identify pre-clinical studies that examined the efficacy MSCs as compared to diseased controls for the treatment of Acute Lung Injury (ALI) (the pre-clinical correlate of human ARDS) on mortality, a clinically relevant outcome. We assessed study quality and pooled results using random effect meta-analysis. A total of 54 publications met our inclusion criteria of which 17 (21 experiments) reported mortality and were included in the meta-analysis. Treatment with MSCs, as compared to controls, significantly decreased the overall odds of death in animals with ALI (Odds Ratio 0.24, 95% Confidence Interval 0.18–0.34, I2 8%). Efficacy was maintained across different types of animal models and means of ALI induction; MSC origin, source, route of administration and preparation; and the clinical relevance of the model (timing of MSC administration, administration of fluids and or antibiotics). Reporting of standard MSC characterization for experiments that used human MSCs and risks of bias was generally poor, and although not statistically significant, a funnel plot analysis for overall mortality suggested the presence of publication bias. The results from our meta-analysis support that MSCs substantially reduce the odds of death in animal models of ALI but important reporting elements were sub optimal and limit the strength of our conclusions. PMID:26821255

  13. Modelling the effects of ionizing radiation on survival of animal population: acute versus chronic exposure.

    PubMed

    Kryshev, A I; Sazykina, T G

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present paper was application of a model, which was originally developed to simulate chronic ionizing radiation effects in a generic isolated population, to the case of acute exposure, and comparison of the dynamic features of radiation effects on the population survival in cases of acute and chronic exposure. Two modes of exposure were considered: acute exposure (2-35 Gy) and chronic lifetime exposure with the same integrated dose. Calculations were made for a generic mice population; however, the model can be applied for other animals with proper selection of parameter values. In case of acute exposure, in the range 2-11 Gy, the population response was in two phases. During a first phase, there was a depletion in population survival; the second phase was a recovery period due to reparation of damage and biosynthesis of new biomass. Model predictions indicate that a generic mice population, living in ideal conditions, has the potential for recovery (within a mouse lifetime period) from acute exposure with dose up to 10-11 Gy, i.e., the population may recover from doses above an LD50 (6.2 Gy). Following acute doses above 14 Gy, however, the mice population went to extinction without recovery. In contrast, under chronic lifetime exposures (500 days), radiation had little effect on population survival up to integrated doses of 14-15 Gy, so the survival of a population subjected to chronic exposure was much better compared with that after an acute exposure with the same dose. Due to the effect of "wasted radiation", the integrated dose of chronic exposure could be about two times higher than acute dose, producing the same effect on survival. It is concluded that the developed generic population model including the repair of radiation damage can be applied both to acute and chronic modes of exposure; results of calculations for generic mice population are in qualitative agreement with published data on radiation effects in mice. PMID

  14. Molecular Ultrasound Imaging of Tissue Inflammation Using an Animal Model of Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hoyt, Kenneth; Warram, Jason M.; Wang, Dezhi; Ratnayaka, Sithira; Traylor, Amie; Agarwal, Anupam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of molecular ultrasound (US) imaging for monitoring the early inflammatory effects following acute kidney injury. Procedures A population of rats underwent 30 min of renal ischemia (acute kidney injury, N=6) or sham injury (N=4) using established surgical methods. Animals were divided and molecular US imaging was performed during the bolus injection of a targeted microbubble (MB) contrast agent to either P-selectin or vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). Imaging was performed before surgery and 4 and 24 h thereafter. After manual segmentation of renal tissue space, the molecular US signal was calculated as the difference between time-intensity curve data before MB injection and after reaching steady-state US image enhancement. All animals were terminated after the 24 h imaging time point and kidneys excised for immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. Results Renal inflammation was analyzed using molecular US imaging. While results using the P-selectin and VCAM-1 targeted MBs were comparable, it appears that the former was more sensitive to biomarker expression. All molecular US imaging measures had a positive correlation with IHC findings. Conclusions Acute kidney injury is a serious disease in need of improved noninvasive methods to help diagnose the extent of injury and monitor the tissue throughout disease progression. Molecular US imaging appears well suited to address this challenge and more research is warranted. PMID:25905474

  15. The effect of chronic vs. acute injection of vasopressin on animal learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Hamburger-Bar, R; Klein, A; Belmaker, R H

    1985-01-01

    The effect of chronic and acute treatment with DDAVP, a vasopressin analog, was studied in 2 month old male rats, using an active avoidance test in a shuttle box. The experiment lasted 6 weeks: an acquisition period of 4 weeks and an extinction period of 2 weeks. Rats were treated one hour before behavioral testing 3 times a week for 6 weeks with either DDAVP 20 micrograms/rat/day for the whole period (chronic group) or with DDAVP for the first week and again once only on the first day of the extinction period (acute group) or with saline. Chronic treatment with DDAVP resulted in better acquisition and in a marked retardation of extinction compared with the acute treatment group. These results were obtained both in normal rats and in rats pretreated at age 5 days of life with intracisternal 6-OH dopamine. PMID:3991361

  16. 017. Exogenous acute lipoid pneumonitis from animal fat aspiration (part of intestine)

    PubMed Central

    Gkika, Dimitra; Manos, Emmanouil; Kolovos, Dimitrios; Batsouli, Vassiliki; Pathiaki, Eirini; Mavromati, Evagelia; Divani, Smaroula; Vardouli, Anna; Panagopoulos, Angelos; Karkanis, Konstantinos; Angel, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Objective In the aspiration of animal fats, bronchoscopy is promptly necessary, not only for removing the foreign body but also for its therapeutic importance in order to avoid severe lipoid pneumonia, because fat acids are very toxic for the bronchial mucosa. Methods Patient 84 years old, nonsmoker, with a medical history of heart disease under acenocoumarol, referred accidental aspiration of cooked animal intestine, 12 hours ago, with rough cough and dyspnea that started instantly. To be noted, the patient presented with wheezing in both lungs. Thoracic CT scan images reveal a suspicion of aspiration, confirmed by indirectly evidence (right middle lobe atelectasis and also mediastinum transposition to the left and consolidation with atelectasis in the left lower lobe, as evidence of previous infections-possible aspirations, emerged from his case story). Therefore, urgent bronchoscopy was performed and the foreign body, that was movable with the cough, was removed. Bronchial lavage was performed due to acute infection in whole bronchial tree. A reactive granuloma tissue was noted in the entrance of the middle lobe, but because of the anticoagulant intake biopsy wasn’t performed. During his hospitalization the patient was under antibiotics, bronchodilators and corticosteroids. Results At the time of revaluation, two weeks after, the patient was non symptomatic while the new CT scan showed evidence of residual infection in the left lung and atelectasis of the right middle lobe on the left. Bronchoscopy was reperformed and biopsy was taken in the entrance of the right middle lobe because of the noted reactive granuloma tissue, seen at the first bronchoscopy. No signs of bronchial inflammation were found (impressive improvement due to immediate intervention). Conclusions Animal fat aspiration causes acute bronchial inflammation and therefore, lipoid pneumonia within a few hours, due to rapid hydrolysis of releasing fatty acids. Removing the animal fat with the

  17. Foreign animal disease outbreaks, the animal welfare implications for Canada: Risks apparent from international experience

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Terry L.

    2003-01-01

    Any outbreak of an Office International des Épizooties List A disease, such as classical swine fever or foot and mouth disease, has severe consequences for animal welfare, livestock production, exports of animals and animal products, and the environment. The public concern with the animal welfare effects of methods of disease eradication that result in the destruction of large numbers of uninfected animals has initiated a reconsideration of disease eradication policy in Europe. In many recent List A disease epizootics, the financial cost of addressing animal welfare concerns in healthy animals has greatly exceeded the cost of stamping out disease in infected herds. In the event of a similar incursion in Canada, the number of animals subject to welfare slaughter will be far greater than the number of infected animals killed. Current national disease eradication plans in Canada do not address the animal welfare component of disease control methods. PMID:14601676

  18. Management of laryngeal radionecrosis: Animal and clinical experience

    SciTech Connect

    Oppenheimer, R.W.; Krespi, Y.P.; Einhorn, R.K.

    1989-05-01

    Radiation necrosis of the laryngeal cartilages is an uncommon complication of radiotherapy for laryngeal carcinoma. It is a devastating process for which there is no one acceptable treatment. Medical management offers only temporary, symptomatic relief, which further necessitates surgical treatment. Surgical management may start with a tracheotomy; however, it often ends with a total laryngectomy. Physiologically, the necrotic cartilages are the source of the problem. It is a general surgical principle that nonviable tissue must be excised to promote healing. Therefore, if the affected laryngeal cartilages were removed, the larynx should heal. Total or near total removal of the thyroid and cricoid cartilages with preservation of the endolaryngeal soft tissues has not been reported in the literature. Theoretically, if the entire cartilaginous framework is removed, there would be no structural support for the airway. We have found using animal models, that submucosal resection of the laryngeal cartilages, leaving the perichondrium and endolaryngeal soft tissues intact can result in a competent airway. Animal and clinical experience will be presented.

  19. Hypoxic-Ischemic Neonatal Encephalopathy: Animal Experiments for Neuroprotective Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Ikenoue, Tsuyomu

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic neonatal encephalopathy and ensuing brain damage is still an important problem in modern perinatal medicine. In this paper, we would like to share some of the results of our recent studies on neuroprotective therapies in animal experiments, as well as some literature reviews. From the basic animal studies, we have now obtained some possible candidates for therapeutic measures against hypoxic-ischemic neonatal encephalopathy. For example, they are hypothermia, rehabilitation, free radical scavenger, neurotrophic factors and growth factors, steroid, calcium channel blocker, vagal stimulation, some anti apoptotic agents, pre- and post conditioning, antioxidants, cell therapy with stem cells, modulators of K(+)-ATP channels, and so on. Whether combination of these therapies may be more beneficial than any single therapy needs to be clarified. Hypoxia-ischemia is a complicated condition, in which the cause, severity, and time-course are different in each case. Likewise, each fetus has its own inherent potentials such as adaptation, preconditioning-tolerance, and intolerance. Therefore, further extensive studies are required to establish an individualized strategy for neuroprotection against perinatal hypoxic-ischemic insult. PMID:23533962

  20. Endoluminal US: experiments with nonvascular uses in animals.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, B B; Liu, J B; Merton, D A; Kurtz, A B

    1990-04-01

    Catheters containing miniature ultrasound (US) transducers, originally developed for intravascular evaluation of plaque, were used in a series of in vivo and in vitro animal experiments to image a variety of nonvascular lumina. Measurements of the wall thickness and echotexture of the urethra, urinary bladder, ureter, renal pelvis, bile ducts, small bowel, fallopian tubes, and uterus were carried out. Close correlation between the US images and actual anatomic specimens was obtained. Structures outside of the lumen were identified and confirmed with both direct visualization and radiographic localization. Two small stones artificially inserted into the renal pelvis and a polyp-like projection artificially created within the fallopian tube were clearly identified by using the US probe. These initial US studies demonstrate the potential feasibility of these miniature transducers contained within catheters for intraluminal analysis in humans. PMID:2179992

  1. [Animal experiments on cementing small osteochondral fragments with fibrin glue].

    PubMed

    Zilch, H

    1980-01-01

    An experiment on revascularization of glued osteochondral fragments was carried out. A chiseled part of the medial femoral condyle of the knee joint of the rabbit was fixed on the right side with an acryl adhesive and on the left side with a new fibrinogen adhesive system (FAS), consisting of highly concentrated fibrinogen, thrombin, and factor XIII. The animals were sacrificed after three, six, ten, and twenty eight days. The FAS is changed into granulation tissue rich in vessels and, therefore, there is a quick revascularization of the fragments soon after three days. On the contrary the acryl adhesive is a foreign body and prevents ingrowth of capillaries during the time of investigation. Immobilization with plaster is necessary to prevent the fragment from gliding off. PMID:6972890

  2. Reduction of animal use: experimental design and quality of experiments.

    PubMed

    Festing, M F

    1994-07-01

    Poorly designed and analysed experiments can lead to a waste of scientific resources, and may even reach the wrong conclusions. Surveys of published papers by a number of authors have shown that many experiments are poorly analysed statistically, and one survey suggested that about a third of experiments may be unnecessarily large. Few toxicologists attempted to control variability using blocking or covariance analysis. In this study experimental design and statistical methods in 3 papers published in toxicological journals were used as case studies and were examined in detail. The first used dogs to study the effects of ethanol on blood and hepatic parameters following chronic alcohol consumption in a 2 x 4 factorial experimental design. However, the authors used mongrel dogs of both sexes and different ages with a wide range of body weights without any attempt to control the variation. They had also attempted to analyse a factorial design using Student's t-test rather than the analysis of variance. Means of 2 blood parameters presented with one decimal place had apparently been rounded to the nearest 5 units. It is suggested that this experiment could equally well have been done in 3 blocks using 24 instead of 46 dogs. The second case study was an investigation of the response of 2 strains of mice to a toxic agent causing bladder injury. The first experiment involved 40 treatment combinations (2 strains x 4 doses x 5 days) with 3-6 mice per combination. There was no explanation of how the experiment involving approximately 180 mice had actually been done, but unequal subclass numbers suggest that the experiment may have been done on an ad hoc basis rather than being properly designed. It is suggested that the experiment could have been done as 2 blocks involving 80 instead of about 180 mice. The third study again involved a factorial design with 4 dose levels of a compound and 2 sexes, with a total of 80 mice. Open field behaviour was examined. The author

  3. Acute toxicity of 2-butyne-1,4-diol in laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Jedrychowski, R A; Czajkowska, T; Stetkiewicz, J; Stetkiewicz, I

    1992-04-01

    Acute toxicity of 2-butyne-1,4-diol (BYD) was evaluated in laboratory animals. The evaluation involved acute oral and dermal toxicity in rats, dermal and ocular irritation in rabbits and skin sensitization in guinea pigs. The oral LD50 values for BYD were 132 mg kg-1 in male rats and 176 mg kg-1 in female rats. Post-mortem histology showed severe damage in lungs, liver and kidneys. In surviving rats, moderate to severe degenerative changes were observed in the liver but only mild lesions in the kidneys. In acute dermal toxicity studies the test chemical was applied either as a solid substance or as 40% aqueous solution at a dose of 5 g kg-1 for 24 h. Within 48 h of application of the diluted test material, half of the rats died. Liver and kidneys were the primary targets and different stages of degeneration, including necrosis, were observed. No deaths occurred after application of the solid substance. In rabbits, BYD was slightly irritant to skin and eyes. No allergic contact dermatitis was observed in guinea pigs. PMID:1556377

  4. Transforming growth factor beta 1 suppresses acute and chronic arthritis in experimental animals.

    PubMed Central

    Brandes, M E; Allen, J B; Ogawa, Y; Wahl, S M

    1991-01-01

    Systemic administration of the cytokine, TGF beta 1, profoundly antagonized the development of polyarthritis in susceptible rats. TGF beta 1 administration (1 or 5 micrograms/animal), initiated one day before an arthritogenic dose of streptococcal cell wall (SCW) fragments, virtually eliminated the joint swelling and distortion typically observed during both the acute phase (articular index, AI = 2.5 vs. 11; P less than 0.025) and the chronic phase (AI = 0 vs. 12.5) of the disease. Moreover, TGF beta 1 suppressed the evolution of arthritis even when administration was begun after the acute phase of the disease. Histopathological examination of the joint revealed the systemic TGF beta 1 treatment greatly reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, pannus formation, and joint erosion. Consistent with the inhibition of inflammatory cell recruitment into the synovium, TGF beta 1 reversed the leukocytosis associated with the chronic phase of the arthritis. Control animals subjected to the same TGF beta 1 dosing regimen displayed no discernable immunosuppressive or toxic effects even after 4 wk of treatment. These observations not only provide insight into the immunoregulatory effects of TGF beta, but also implicate this cytokine as a potentially important therapeutic agent. Images PMID:1999490

  5. Salivary biochemical markers as potential acute toxicity parameters for acute radiation injury: A study on small experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Soni, S; Agrawal, P; Kumar, N; Mittal, G; Nishad, D K; Chaudhury, N K; Bhatnagar, A; Basu, M; Chhillar, N

    2016-03-01

    Researchers have been evaluating several biodosimetric/screening approaches to assess acute radiation injury, related to mass causality. Keeping in mind this background, we hypothesized that effect of whole-body irradiation in single fraction in graded doses can affect the secretion of various salivary components that could be used as acute radiation injury/toxicity marker, which can be used in screening of large population at the time of nuclear accidents/disaster. Thirty Sprague Dawley rats treated with whole-body cobalt-60 gamma irradiation of dose 1-5 Gy (dose rate: 0.95 Gy/min) were included in this study. Whole mixed saliva was collected from all animals before and after radiation up to 72 h postradiation. Saliva was analyzed for electrolytes, total protein, urea, and amylase. Intragroup comparison of salivary parameters at different radiation doses showed significant differences. Potassium was significantly increased as the dose increased from 1 Gy to 5 Gy (p < 0.01) with effect size of difference (r > 0.5). Sodium was significantly altered after 3-5 Gy (p < 0.01, r > 0.5), except 1 and 2 Gy, whereas changes in sodium level were nonsignificant (p > 0.5). Urea, total protein, and amylase levels were also significantly increased as the radiation dose increased (p < 0.01) with large effect size of difference (r > 0.5). This study suggests that salivary parameters were sensitive toward radiation even at low radiation dose which can be used as a predictor of radiation injury. PMID:25813962

  6. [Christian responsibility and experimental medicine. Experiments with and on humans, experiments on animals].

    PubMed

    Grosse, Heinrich W

    2002-01-01

    The Jewish-Christian convictions that man was created as the image of God founded the "ethics of unavailability" which contrast with the utilitarian "ethics of interests." As man s nature is imperfect according to biblical understanding, those responsible in the field of experimental medicine should counteract all tendencies in society which promote an utopian definition of health and an eugenic mentality (idea of the "perfection of mankind"). Consequently, scientists must reflect their own image of man and the effects of their actions on this image. The goals of experimental medicine must also be examined under the aspect of fairness: do they only benefit a minority in the rich industrial nations? As in research on humans, the ethical evaluation of animal experiments must consider the question of the underlying image of humanity and the responsibility of mankind connected to it. Because of changes in society's values, the validity of traditional anthropocentrism is increasingly questioned. However, this does not affect the view of the special position of man as the bearer of responsibility. Even though there are different biblical statements on the relationship between man and animal, the Christian maxim to minimise violence towards animals can be derived from them. In the case of animal experiments this means: experiments which cause the animals severe suffering must be avoided by waiving the potential gain of knowledge from them. In general: in an ethical discussion on medical experiments using humans or animals, the public must be informed completely and involved effectively. A moratorium must be possible before plans become facts. Thinking about ethical problems in the area of experimental medicine should not be separated from the far-reaching questions about changes in our lifestyle and consumer behaviour. PMID:12457205

  7. Acute and chronic animal models for the evaluation of anti-diabetic agents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a potentially morbid condition with high prevalence worldwide thus being a major medical concern. Experimental induction of diabetes mellitus in animal models is essential for the advancement of our knowledge and understanding of the various aspects of its pathogenesis and ultimately finding new therapies and cure. Experimental diabetes mellitus is generally induced in laboratory animals by several methods that include: chemical, surgical and genetic (immunological) manipulations. Most of the experiments in diabetes are carried out in rodents, although some studies are still performed in larger animals. The present review highlights the various methods of inducing diabetes in experimental animals in order to test the newer drugs for their anti-diabetic potential. PMID:22257465

  8. Development of aquatic animal experiment facility, Aquatic Habitat (AQH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, S.; Kono, Y.; Sakimura, T.; Nishikawa, W.; Fujimoto, N.; Murakami, K.; Nakamura, T.

    We have been performing technical studies to develop aquatic animal experiment facility, Aquatic Habitat (AQH), for both of short-term experiments in the Space Shuttle middeck and long-term experiments in the Space Station including the Centrifuge Accommodation Module (CAM). The AQH will have the capabilities to accommodate three-generations of small freshwater fish (medaka and zebrafish) and egg through metamorphosis of amphibian (African clawed frog). For these purposes, the AQH will have the following brand-new capabilities that the previous facilities have never had; 90days experiment duration, automatic feeding according to specimen types and their developmental stages, separation of generations for fish, specimen sample collection in various developmental stages, air/water interface control for amphibian, continuous monitoring of specimen behavior even in dark condition, and so on. We have already performed preliminary breeding tests for medaka and zebrafish with a breeding system prototype. Their mating behavior was performed successfully in the small closed chamber and the hatched larvae grew and started spawning on the 45-47th day after hatching. These results demonstrated that three generational breeding of medaka and zebrafish within 90days would be possible based on this breeding system prototype. Also, we have developed almost of the above new mechanisms, that is, an automatic feeding system, an egg separation mechanism for fish, an air stabilizer to control air/water interface, and a continuous specimen monitoring system through light/dark cycle. Based on these results, we have manufactured a BBM of AQH water circulation system and performed biological compatibility tests as a next step. For African clawed frog breeding, some problems have been revealed through the preliminary tests with the breeding system prototype. Currently, we are performing the investigations to resolve the problems and preparing to proceed to the next step.

  9. An overview of animal models for investigating the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies in acute hepatic failure

    PubMed Central

    Tuñón, María Jesús; Alvarez, Marcelino; Culebras, Jesús M; González-Gallego, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Acute hepatic failure (AHF) is a severe liver injury accompanied by hepatic encephalopathy which causes multiorgan failure with an extremely high mortality rate, even if intensive care is provided. Management of severe AHF continues to be one of the most challenging problems in clinical medicine. Liver transplantation has been shown to be the most effective therapy, but the procedure is limited by shortage of donor organs. Although a number of clinical trials testing different liver assist devices are under way, these systems alone have no significant effect on patient survival and are only regarded as a useful approach to bridge patients with AHF to liver transplantation. As a result, reproducible experimental animal models resembling the clinical conditions are still needed. The three main approaches used to create an animal model for AHF are: surgical procedures, toxic liver injury and infective procedures. Most common models are based on surgical techniques (total/partial hepatectomy, complete/transient devascularization) or the use of hepatotoxic drugs (acetaminophen, galactosamine, thioacetamide, and others), and very few satisfactory viral models are available. We have recently developed a viral model of AHF by means of the inoculation of rabbits with the virus of rabbit hemorrhagic disease. This model displays biochemical and histological characteristics, and clinical features that resemble those in human AHF. In the present article an overview is given of the most widely used animal models of AHF, and their main advantages and disadvantages are reviewed. PMID:19575487

  10. Animal Experiments of the Helical Flow Total Artificial Heart.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yusuke; Isoyama, Takashi; Saito, Itsuro; Inoue, Yusuke; Ishii, Kohei; Sato, Masami; Hara, Shintaro; Yurimoto, Terumi; Li, Xinyang; Murakami, Haruka; Ariyoshi, Koki; Kawase, Yukino; Ono, Toshiya; Fukazawa, Kyoko; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2015-08-01

    Severe cardiac failure patients require a total artificial heart (TAH) to save life. To realize a TAH that can fit a body of small stature and has high performance, high durability, good anatomical fitting, good blood compatibility, and physiological control, we have been developing the helical flow TAH (HFTAH) with two helical flow pumps with hydrodynamic levitation impeller. Animal experiments of the HFTAH were conducted to perform in vivo studies. The HFTAH was implanted in 13 adult female goats weighing 45.0-64.0 kg. After surgery, neither anti-coagulant nor anti-platelet medication was given systemically. The HFTAH was usually driven with a quasi-pulsatile mode. The 1/R control or ΔP control was applied to control the circulation. The ΔP control is a new method using simplified equation of the 1/R control. The HFTAH could be implanted in all goats with good anatomical fitting. Two goats survived for a long time (100 and 68 days). Major causes of termination were device failure and surgical complications. In the device failure, trouble with hydrodynamic bearing was conspicuous. In the two long-term survived goats, experiments were terminated with bearing instability that was probably caused by the suction effect. In these goats, hemolysis occurred on postoperative day 88 and 44, which was considered to be relevant to the bearing trouble. Thrombus was found at the broken right bearing of the 100-day survived goat. However, antithrombogenicity of the pump is expected to be good unless bearing trouble occurs. In two long-term survived goats, the 1/R control or ΔP control worked appropriately to prevent the elevation of right atrial pressure. In both goats, hemodynamic parameters changed with the condition of the animals, liver and kidney functions remained almost normal except when recovering from surgery and during hemolysis, and total protein recovered 2 weeks after surgery. Although instability of the hydrodynamic bearing should be improved, performance of

  11. Is a compromise possible in Russia between animal advocates and researchers who use animals in harmful experiments?

    PubMed

    Loukianov, Anatoly S

    2011-07-01

    The current situation relating to the use of laboratory animals in Russia, which is primarily characterised by the complete absence of legislation for their protection, is examined and discussed. This lack of regulation causes well-founded protests by animal protection organisations and a number of reputable politicians. It also has a negative influence on the quality of medical and biological research results that are obtained through the use of experimental animals in Russia. The opinion is expressed that the Russian scientific community should be able to build upon the experience of other countries - in particular, members of the European Union, where there is an effective system of self-control over the ethical and legislative regulation of animal-based research. It is suggested that, in Russia, the basic animal protection principles of the Three Rs should be introduced, when the decision on whether to finance scientific projects involving the use of animals is being made. PMID:21777037

  12. Effect of Pregnancy on Vocal Cord Histology: An Animal Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Köybaşı Şanal, Serap; Biçer, Yusuf Özgür; Kükner, Aysel; Tezcan, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Voice may be affected during the period of pregnancy, especially in the third trimester. However, the exact mechanisms leading to the phonatory changes have not yet uncovered. Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate the possible histological changes in the vocal cords of the pregnant rats in three separate trimesters. Study Design: Animal experiment. Methods: Twenty-five Wistar-Albino female rats were divided into four groups: control group, pregnancy day 7 (Group 1), pregnancy day 14 (Group 2) and pregnancy day 20 (Group 3). The laryngeal specimens were obtained under general anesthesia. Histological assessment was performed using Hematoxylin-eosin and toluidine blue. A stereological analysis of vocal cord tissue was performed using a NIS-Elements D32 Imaging Software. Results: Lamina propria was observed to be edematous, and the lamina propria area was thickened starting from the second trimester. Glycosaminoglycans were observed to increase in the second trimester. Although none was encountered in the control, mast cells were observed in the lamina propria layer of the vocal cord starting in the muscular layer in the first trimester proceed to the subepithelial region as degranulated just before term. The covering epithelium remained unchanged throughout pregnancy. Conclusion: Lamina propria thickening may be attributed to both edema and increased glycosaminoglycans. The presence of mast cells in the cordal tissue may induce edema during pregnancy in rats. PMID:27606142

  13. Experiences of the advanced nurse practitioner role in acute care.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Alison; Cooper, Joanne; Goldberg, Sarah

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the service evaluation presented in this article was to explore the multidisciplinary team's (MDT) experiences and perception of the advanced nurse practitioner (ANP) role on an acute health care of the older person ward. A qualitative case study was carried out comprising semi-structured interviews with members of the MDT, exploring their experiences of the ANP role. An overarching theme of 'Is it a nurse? Is it a doctor? No, it's an ANP' emerged from the data, with three subthemes: the missing link; facilitating and leading holistic care; and safe, high quality care. The ANP role is valued by the MDT working with them and provides a unique skill set that has the potential to enhance care of older patients living with frailty. While there are challenges to its introduction, it is a role worth introducing to older people's wards. PMID:27125941

  14. Animal Experiments in Biomedical Research: A Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Nuno Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary This article reviews the use of non-human animals in biomedical research from a historical viewpoint, providing an insight into the most relevant social and moral issues on this topic across time, as well as to how the current paradigm for ethically and publically acceptable use of animals in biomedicine has been achieved. Abstract The use of non-human animals in biomedical research has given important contributions to the medical progress achieved in our day, but it has also been a cause of heated public, scientific and philosophical discussion for hundreds of years. This review, with a mainly European outlook, addresses the history of animal use in biomedical research, some of its main protagonists and antagonists, and its effect on society from Antiquity to the present day, while providing a historical context with which to understand how we have arrived at the current paradigm regarding the ethical treatment of animals in research. PMID:26487317

  15. In vitro cytotoxicity testing of 30 reference chemicals to predict acute human and animal toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Barile, F.A.; Arjun, S.; Borges, L. )

    1991-03-11

    This study was conducted in cooperation with the Scandinavian Society of Cell Toxicology, as part of the Multicenter Evaluation for In Vitro Cytotoxicity (MEIC), and was designed to develop an in vitro model for predicting acute human and animal toxicity. The technique relies on the ability of cultured transformed rat lung epithelial cells (L2) to incorporate radiolabled amino acids into newly synthesized proteins in the absence or presence of increasing doses of the test chemical, during a 24-hr incubation. IC50 values were extrapolated from the dose-response curves after linear regression analysis. Human toxic blood concentrations estimated from rodent LD50 values suggest that our experimental IC50's are in close correlation with the former. Validation of the data by the MEIC committee shows that our IC50 values predicted human lethal dosage as efficient as rodent LD50's. It is anticipated that this and related procedures may supplement or replace currently used animal protocols for predicting human toxicity.

  16. Proposal for the composition of animal experiments committees in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van der Valk, Jan; Swart, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    The Dutch Act on Animal Experimentation (1996) requires that local animal experiments committees (AECs) review animal experiments and balance the scientific and societal benefits of the experiments against the suffering caused to the animals used. Each AEC is composed of at least seven members who provide a balance of expertise in animal experiments, alternatives to laboratory animal experiments, ethics, and animal welfare and protection. This study proposes selection criteria for individuals possessing each of the four AEC required areas of expertise. Criteria were established minding that, on the one hand, sufficient knowledge and expertise can be demonstrated whilst, on the other hand, a sufficient number of people would qualify to participate in the AECs. The results of this study may serve as a starting point for further discussion of selection criteria for members of AECs both in the Netherlands and in other countries where ethical review processes have been or are being implemented. PMID:17086349

  17. Fidelity in Animal Modeling: Prerequisite for a Mechanistic Research Front Relevant to the Inflammatory Incompetence of Acute Pediatric Malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory incompetence is characteristic of acute pediatric protein-energy malnutrition, but its underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Perhaps substantially because the research front lacks the driving force of a scholarly unifying hypothesis, it is adrift and research activity is declining. A body of animal-based research points to a unifying paradigm, the Tolerance Model, with some potential to offer coherence and a mechanistic impetus to the field. However, reasonable skepticism prevails regarding the relevance of animal models of acute pediatric malnutrition; consequently, the fundamental contributions of the animal-based component of this research front are largely overlooked. Design-related modifications to improve the relevance of animal modeling in this research front include, most notably, prioritizing essential features of pediatric malnutrition pathology rather than dietary minutiae specific to infants and children, selecting windows of experimental animal development that correspond to targeted stages of pediatric immunological ontogeny, and controlling for ontogeny-related confounders. In addition, important opportunities are presented by newer tools including the immunologically humanized mouse and outbred stocks exhibiting a magnitude of genetic heterogeneity comparable to that of human populations. Sound animal modeling is within our grasp to stimulate and support a mechanistic research front relevant to the immunological problems that accompany acute pediatric malnutrition. PMID:27077845

  18. Fidelity in Animal Modeling: Prerequisite for a Mechanistic Research Front Relevant to the Inflammatory Incompetence of Acute Pediatric Malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory incompetence is characteristic of acute pediatric protein-energy malnutrition, but its underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Perhaps substantially because the research front lacks the driving force of a scholarly unifying hypothesis, it is adrift and research activity is declining. A body of animal-based research points to a unifying paradigm, the Tolerance Model, with some potential to offer coherence and a mechanistic impetus to the field. However, reasonable skepticism prevails regarding the relevance of animal models of acute pediatric malnutrition; consequently, the fundamental contributions of the animal-based component of this research front are largely overlooked. Design-related modifications to improve the relevance of animal modeling in this research front include, most notably, prioritizing essential features of pediatric malnutrition pathology rather than dietary minutiae specific to infants and children, selecting windows of experimental animal development that correspond to targeted stages of pediatric immunological ontogeny, and controlling for ontogeny-related confounders. In addition, important opportunities are presented by newer tools including the immunologically humanized mouse and outbred stocks exhibiting a magnitude of genetic heterogeneity comparable to that of human populations. Sound animal modeling is within our grasp to stimulate and support a mechanistic research front relevant to the immunological problems that accompany acute pediatric malnutrition. PMID:27077845

  19. [Animal experiments concerning the autoimplantation of splenic tissue (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Böhles, H; Willital, G H; Krebs, C; Kaduk, B; Herzog, K H

    1981-09-01

    15 male rabbits were divided into three groups. The animals in group 1 were splenectomized. In group 2 pulpa tissue from the cut surface of the spleen was left in the abdominal cavity. Group 3 was sham operated. After 15 months all animals from group 2 showed particles of histologically intact splenic tissue mainly on the parietal peritoneum of the abdominal wall. The implications of the autoimplantation of splenic tissue during splenectomy are discussed. PMID:7314957

  20. Quality of Animal Experiments in Anti-Angiogenic Cancer Drug Development – A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Martić-Kehl, Marianne Isabelle; Wernery, Jannis; Folkers, Gerd; Schubiger, Pius August

    2015-01-01

    Translation from preclinical animal research to clinical bedside has proven to be difficult to impossible in many fields of research (e.g. acute stroke, ALS and HIV vaccination development) with oncology showing particularly low translation rates (5% vs. 20% for cardiovascular diseases). Several investigations on published preclinical animal research have revealed that apart from plain species differences, translational problems can arise from low study quality (e.g. study design) or non-representative experimental conditions (e.g. treatment schedule). This review assessed the published experimental circumstances and quality of anti-angiogenic cancer drug development in 232 in vivo studies. The quality of study design was often insufficient; at least the information published about the experiments was not satisfactory in most cases. There was no quality improvement over time, with the exception of conflict of interest statements. This increase presumably arose mainly because journal guidelines request such statements more often recently. Visual inspection of data and a cluster analysis confirmed a trend described in literature that low study quality tends to overestimate study outcome. It was also found that experimental outcome was more favorable when a potential drug was investigated as the main focus of a study, compared to drugs that were used as comparison interventions. We assume that this effect arises from the frequent neglect of blinding investigators towards treatment arms and refer to it as hypothesis bias. In conclusion, the reporting and presumably also the experimental performance of animal studies in drug development for oncology suffer from similar shortcomings as other fields of research (such as stroke or ALS). We consider it necessary to enforce experimental quality and reporting that corresponds to the level of clinical studies. It seems that only clear journal guidelines or guidelines from licensing authorities, where failure to fulfill

  1. Non-terminal animal model of post-traumatic osteoarthritis induced by acute joint injury

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, Mary K.; Trumble, Troy N.; Carlson, Cathy S.; Groschen, Donna M.; Merritt, Kelly A.; Brown, Murray P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Develop a non-terminal animal model of acute joint injury that demonstrates clinical and morphological evidence of early post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Methods An osteochondral (OC) fragment was created arthroscopically in one metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint of 11 horses and the contralateral joint was sham operated. Eleven additional horses served as unoperated controls. Every 2 weeks, force plate analysis, flexion response, joint circumference, and synovial effusion scores were recorded. At weeks 0 and 16, radiographs (all horses) and arthroscopic videos (OC injured and sham joints) were graded. At week 16, synovium and cartilage biopsies were taken arthroscopically from OC injured and sham joints for histologic evaluation and the OC fragment was removed. Results Osteochondral fragments were successfully created and horses were free of clinical lameness after fragment removal. Forelimb gait asymmetry was observed at week 2 (P=0.0012), while joint circumference (P<0.0001) and effusion scores (P<0.0001) were increased in injured limbs compared to baseline from weeks 2 to 16. Positive flexion response of injured limbs was noted at multiple time points. Capsular enthesophytes were seen radiographically in injured limbs. Articular cartilage damage was demonstrated arthroscopically as mild wear-lines and histologically as superficial zone chondrocyte death accompanied by mild proliferation. Synovial hyperemia and fibrosis were present at the site of OC injury. Conclusion Acute OC injury to the MCP joint resulted in clinical, imaging, and histologic changes in cartilage and synovium characteristic of early PTOA. This model will be useful for defining biomarkers of early osteoarthritis and for monitoring response to therapy and surgery. PMID:23467035

  2. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  3. Review of experimental animal models of biliary acute pancreatitis and recent advances in basic research

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Mei H; Huang, Wei; Latawiec, Diane; Jiang, Kun; Booth, David M; Elliott, Victoria; Mukherjee, Rajarshi; Xia, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a formidable disease, which, in severe forms, causes significant mortality. Biliary AP, or gallstone obstruction-associated AP, accounts for 30–50% of all clinical cases of AP. In biliary AP, pancreatic acinar cell (PAC) death (the initiating event in the disease) is believed to occur as acinar cells make contact with bile salts when bile refluxes into the pancreatic duct. Recent advances have unveiled an important receptor responsible for the major function of bile acids on acinar cells, namely, the cell surface G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (Gpbar1), located in the apical pole of the PAC. High concentrations of bile acids induce cytosolic Ca2+ overload and inhibit mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, resulting in cell injury to both PACs and pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. Various bile salts are employed to induce experimental AP, most commonly sodium taurocholate. Recent characterization of taurolithocholic acid 3-sulphate on PACs has led researchers to focus on this bile salt because of its potency in causing acinar cell injury at relatively low, sub-detergent concentrations, which strongly implicates action via the receptor Gpbar1. Improved surgical techniques have enabled the infusion of bile salts into the pancreatic duct to induce experimental biliary AP in mice, which allows the use of these transgenic animals as powerful tools. This review summarizes recent findings using transgenic mice in experimental biliary AP. PMID:22221567

  4. Acute brain slice methods for adult and aging animals: application of targeted patch clampanalysis and optogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Daigle, Tanya L.; Chen, Qian; Feng, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    Summary The development of the living acute brain slice preparation for analyzing synaptic function roughly a half century ago was a pivotal achievement that greatly influenced the landscape of modern neuroscience. Indeed, many neuroscientists regard brain slices as the gold-standard model system for detailed cellular, molecular, and circuitry level analysis and perturbation of neuronal function. A critical limitation of this model system is the difficulty in preparing slices from adult and aging animals, and over the past several decades few substantial methodological improvements have emerged to facilitate patch clamp analysis in the mature adult stage. In this chapter we describe a robust and practical protocol for preparing brain slices from mature adult mice that are suitable for patch clamp analysis. This method reduces swelling and damage in superficial layers of the slices and improves the success rate for targeted patch clamp recordings, including recordings from fluorescently labeled populations in slices derived from transgenic mice. This adult brain slice method is suitable for diverse experimental applications, including both monitoring and manipulating neuronal activity with genetically encoded calcium indicators and optogenetic actuators, respectively. We describe the application of this adult brain slice platform and associated methods for screening kinetic properties of Channelrhodopsin (ChR) variants expressed in genetically-defined neuronal subtypes. PMID:25023312

  5. Animated bird silhouette above the tank: Acute alcohol diminishes fear responses in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Ruxandra M.; Gerlai, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse represent major unmet medical needs. The zebrafish is considered to be a promising vertebrate species with which the effects of alcohol on brain function and behavior and the mechanisms underlying these effects may be studied. Alcohol is known to induce alterations in motor function as well as fear and anxiety. Here we present a recently developed fear paradigm in which we employ an animated (moving) image of a bird silhouette. We measure the effect of acute alcohol administration (dose range employed: 0.00 – 0.75 vol/vol percentage, bath exposure for 60 minutes) on the behavioral responses of zebrafish. We test these responses during a pre-stimulus, stimulus and post-stimulus period of the task using both a video-tracking and an observation based quantification method. The fear inducing stimulus was found to decrease the distance of the zebrafish from the bottom of the tank, to increase number of erratic movements, and to increase the number of jumps in alcohol exposed fish (versus control fish). Alcohol attenuated these fear responses in a dose dependent manner. In addition, alcohol decreased general activity at the highest dose, an effect that was independent of the presentation of the stimulus. We discuss the similarities and differences between observation and video-tracking based results and conclude that fear paradigms will be useful in revealing alcohol induced functional changes in the brain of zebrafish. PMID:22266470

  6. 21 CFR 510.301 - Records and reports concerning experience with animal feeds bearing or containing new animal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Records and reports of clinical and other experience with the new animal drug will be maintained and... any unexpected incidence or severity thereof associated with clinical uses, studies, investigations... encountered during clinical trials of the drug, or conditions or developments occurring at a rate higher...

  7. The Influence of Acute Hyperglycemia in an Animal Model of Lacunar Stroke That Is Induced by Artificial Particle Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ming-Jun; Lin, Ming-Wei; Huang, Yaw-Bin; Kuo, Yu-Min; Tsai, Yi-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Animal and clinical studies have revealed that hyperglycemia during ischemic stroke increases the stroke's severity and the infarct size in clinical and animal studies. However, no conclusive evidence demonstrates that acute hyperglycemia worsens post-stroke outcomes and increases infarct size in lacunar stroke. In this study, we developed a rat model of lacunar stroke that was induced via the injection of artificial embolic particles during full consciousness. We then used this model to compare the acute influence of hyperglycemia in lacunar stroke and diffuse infarction, by evaluating neurologic behavior and the rate, size, and location of the infarction. The time course of the neurologic deficits was clearly recorded from immediately after induction to 24 h post-stroke in both types of stroke. We found that acute hyperglycemia aggravated the neurologic deficit in diffuse infarction at 24 h after stroke, and also aggravated the cerebral infarct. Furthermore, the infarct volumes of the basal ganglion, thalamus, hippocampus, and cerebellum but not the cortex were positively correlated with serum glucose levels. In contrast, acute hyperglycemia reduced the infarct volume and neurologic symptoms in lacunar stroke within 4 min after stroke induction, and this effect persisted for up to 24 h post-stroke. In conclusion, acute hyperglycemia aggravated the neurologic outcomes in diffuse infarction, although it significantly reduced the size of the cerebral infarct and improved the neurologic deficits in lacunar stroke. PMID:27226775

  8. [Investigations of the distribution of aripiprazole in the internal organs and biological fluids of the laboratory animals in case of acute intoxication].

    PubMed

    Voronkov, A V; Remezova, I P; Lazaryan, D S; Avramenko, N S; Rybasova, A S

    2015-01-01

    Despite the present-day extensive application of aripiprazole, there are many cases of its overdose and of poisoning with this compound. The objective of the present study was to detect and quantify aripiprazole in the internal organs and biological fluids of the laboratory animals in case of acute intoxication. The experiments were carried out on white mice of both sexes weighing 20.5 and 25.7 g. Aripiprazole was isolated from the liver, kidneys, brain, and heart as described by A.A. Vasil'eva and from the plasma and urine by the newly developed original methods. Aripiprazole was identified and quantitatively determined in the extracts from the aforementioned organs and tissues with the use of HPLC. The data obtained on the completeness of extraction from the liver, kidneys , and brain of the laboratory animals indicate that aripiprazole accumulated in the highest concentrations in the brain and kidneys within 24 hours after acute poisoning. Ist content was significantly lower in the liver while no traces of aripiprazole were found in the heart of the mice. The methods for aripiprazole isolation from the urine and blood plasma are described. The maximum amounts of aripiprazole were detected in blood plasma within 24 hours after acute intoxication. It is concluded that the proposed methods for aripiprazole isolation from the biological fluids (blood plasma and urine) can be included in the scheme of the chemical toxicological analysis of this compound. PMID:26856058

  9. D-Galactosamine Intoxication in Experimental Animals: Is it Only an Experimental Model of Acute Liver Failure?

    PubMed Central

    Saracyn, Marek; Zdanowski, Robert; Brytan, Marek; Kade, Grzegorz; Nowak, Zbigniew; Patera, Janusz; Dyrla, Przemysław; Gil, Jerzy; Wańkowicz, Zofia

    2015-01-01

    Background Short-term administration of Galactosamine to experimental animals causes liver damage and acute liver failure (ALF), as well as acute renal failure in some cases. The aim of our study was to describe kidney disorders that developed in the course of galactosamine-induced liver failure. Material/Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: a study group administered galactosamine intraperitoneally and a control group administered saline. Results All the animals in the study group developed liver damage and failure within 48 h, with significant increase of alanine (p<0.001), aspartate aminotransferases (p<0.0001), bilirubin (p<0.004), and ammonia (p<0.005) and decrease of albumin (p<0.001) concentrations. Acute renal failure was observed in all test animals, with a significant increase in creatinine (p<0.001) and urea (p<0.001) concentrations and a decrease in creatinine clearance (p<0.0012). Moreover, osmotic clearance (p<0.001), daily natriuresis (p<0.003), and fractional sodium excretion (p<0.016) decreased significantly in this group of animals. The ratio of urine osmolality to serum osmolality did not change. Histopathology of the liver revealed massive necrosis of hepatocytes, whereas renal histopathology showed no changes. Conclusions Acute renal failure that developed in the course of galactosamine-induced ALF was of a functional nature, with the kidneys retaining the ability to concentrate urine and retain sodium, and there were no renal changes in the histopathological examination. It seems that the experimental model of ALF induced by galactosamine can be viewed as a model of hepatorenal syndrome that occurs in the course of acute damage and liver failure. PMID:26009004

  10. Animal Research on Effects of Experience on Brain and Behavior: Implications for Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenzweig, Mark R.

    2002-01-01

    This article first considers how plasticity of the brain in response to differential experience was discovered in research with laboratory rats around 1960. Animal research soon followed on effects of enriched experience as therapy for brain dysfunction. Relations between animal research and some human therapies are considered. (Contains…

  11. [Animal experiments on combined local immunization against influenza (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Raettig, H; Schimmrich, B

    1979-06-22

    Mice in ether narcosis were immunized 10 times by means of an inhalation spray with Begrivacs S (Behring-Werke) and then infected nasally with the virulent A/PR8 virus 7 to 12 days after the last immunization. A significant protection was achieved as gauged from the mortality rate. Furthermore, mice were nasally immunized with the polyvalent bacterial lysate vaccine IRS 19 (Sarbach, Chatillon) and subsequently infected nasally with the virulent influenza virus. A significant degree of non-specific protection also developed under these conditions, but was less effective than that after specific immunization. The best protective effect can be gained by applying both vaccines (Begrivac S and IRS 19) in combination. In this case, the mortality rate of the test animals decreases from 68% in the control to 31% in the animals receiving combined vaccination. PMID:463042

  12. The Usefulness of Systematic Reviews of Animal Experiments for the Design of Preclinical and Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Rob B. M.; Wever, Kimberley E.; Avey, Marc T.; Stephens, Martin L.; Sena, Emily S.; Leenaars, Marlies

    2014-01-01

    The question of how animal studies should be designed, conducted, and analyzed remains underexposed in societal debates on animal experimentation. This is not only a scientific but also a moral question. After all, if animal experiments are not appropriately designed, conducted, and analyzed, the results produced are unlikely to be reliable and the animals have in effect been wasted. In this article, we focus on one particular method to address this moral question, namely systematic reviews of previously performed animal experiments. We discuss how the design, conduct, and analysis of future (animal and human) experiments may be optimized through such systematic reviews. In particular, we illustrate how these reviews can help improve the methodological quality of animal experiments, make the choice of an animal model and the translation of animal data to the clinic more evidence-based, and implement the 3Rs. Moreover, we discuss which measures are being taken and which need to be taken in the future to ensure that systematic reviews will actually contribute to optimizing experimental design and thereby to meeting a necessary condition for making the use of animals in these experiments justified. PMID:25541545

  13. FDA Experience with Medical Countermeasures under the Animal Rule

    PubMed Central

    Aebersold, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration issued a final rule in May 2002 to permit the Agency to approve drugs or license biological products on the basis of animal efficacy studies for use in ameliorating or preventing serious or life-threatening conditions caused by exposure to lethal or permanently disabling toxic biological, chemical, radiological, or nuclear substances. Only two drugs were approved in the first nine years of the “Animal Rule” despite massive investment by the federal government since 2001 to stimulate development of medical countermeasures to biological threats. This article therefore examines the Food and Drug Administration reviews made public after approval of those two drugs and the public discussion at the Agency's Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee of one biological product under development under the Animal Rule. Despite the paucity of approved drugs or licensed biological products as medical countermeasures, several investigational drugs have been placed in the National Strategic Stockpile for use as medical countermeasures, if needed. PMID:21991452

  14. Comparative efficacy and the window of radioprotection for adrenergic and serotoninergic agents and aminothiols in experiments with small and large animals

    PubMed Central

    Vasin, Mikhail V.; Ushakov, Igor B.

    2015-01-01

    This review gives a comparative evaluation of the radioprotective properties and the therapeutic index (TI) of radioprotectors from various pharmacological group in experiments on both small and large animals. It presents a hypothesis explaining the decrease in the TI of cystamine and 5-methoxytryptamine (mexamine), and the retention of that of α1-adrenomimetic indralin, and also compares the effects on large and small animals. The considerable differences in the therapeutic indices of catecholamines, serotonin and cystamine are a consequence of specific features of their mechanisms of radioprotective action. Radioprotectors acting via receptor mediation tend to provide a more expanded window of protection. The reduction in the TI of cystamine in larger animals, such as dogs, may be caused by the greater increase in toxicity of aminothiols in relation to the decrease in their optimal doses for radioprotective effect in going from mice to dogs, which is a consequence of the slower metabolic processes in larger animals. The somatogenic phase of intoxication by cystamine is significantly longer than the duration of its radioprotective effect, and increases with irradiation. The decrease in the radioprotective effect and the TI of mexamine in experiments with dogs may be caused by their lower sensitivity to the acute hypoxia induced by the mexamine. This is because of lower gradient in oxygen tension between tissue cells and blood capillaries under acute hypoxia that is determined by lower initial oxygen consumption in a large animal as compared with a small animal. Indralin likely provides optimal radioprotective effects and a higher TI for large animals via the increased specificity of its adrenergic effect on tissue respiration, which supports the development of acute hypoxia in the radiosensitive tissues of large animals. The stimulatory effect of indralin on early post-irradiation haematopoietic recovery cannot provide a high level of radioprotective action for

  15. Comparative efficacy and the window of radioprotection for adrenergic and serotoninergic agents and aminothiols in experiments with small and large animals.

    PubMed

    Vasin, Mikhail V; Ushakov, Igor B

    2015-01-01

    This review gives a comparative evaluation of the radioprotective properties and the therapeutic index (TI) of radioprotectors from various pharmacological group in experiments on both small and large animals. It presents a hypothesis explaining the decrease in the TI of cystamine and 5-methoxytryptamine (mexamine), and the retention of that of α1-adrenomimetic indralin, and also compares the effects on large and small animals. The considerable differences in the therapeutic indices of catecholamines, serotonin and cystamine are a consequence of specific features of their mechanisms of radioprotective action. Radioprotectors acting via receptor mediation tend to provide a more expanded window of protection. The reduction in the TI of cystamine in larger animals, such as dogs, may be caused by the greater increase in toxicity of aminothiols in relation to the decrease in their optimal doses for radioprotective effect in going from mice to dogs, which is a consequence of the slower metabolic processes in larger animals. The somatogenic phase of intoxication by cystamine is significantly longer than the duration of its radioprotective effect, and increases with irradiation. The decrease in the radioprotective effect and the TI of mexamine in experiments with dogs may be caused by their lower sensitivity to the acute hypoxia induced by the mexamine. This is because of lower gradient in oxygen tension between tissue cells and blood capillaries under acute hypoxia that is determined by lower initial oxygen consumption in a large animal as compared with a small animal. Indralin likely provides optimal radioprotective effects and a higher TI for large animals via the increased specificity of its adrenergic effect on tissue respiration, which supports the development of acute hypoxia in the radiosensitive tissues of large animals. The stimulatory effect of indralin on early post-irradiation haematopoietic recovery cannot provide a high level of radioprotective action for

  16. If It's an Animal It Has Axons: Experience and Culture in Preschool Children's Reasoning about Animates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarlowski, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    To claim that young children's biological thought is anthropocentric or that their induction depends on similarity rather than categories is to overlook the role of experience in reasoning. We tested four groups of 4-year-olds differing in two aspects of exposure to biological information: (a) their direct experience with nature (urban versus…

  17. Review of harmful gastrointestinal effects of carrageenan in animal experiments.

    PubMed Central

    Tobacman, J K

    2001-01-01

    In this article I review the association between exposure to carrageenan and the occurrence of colonic ulcerations and gastrointestinal neoplasms in animal models. Although the International Agency for Research on Cancer in 1982 identified sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of degraded carrageenan in animals to regard it as posing a carcinogenic risk to humans, carrageenan is still used widely as a thickener, stabilizer, and texturizer in a variety of processed foods prevalent in the Western diet. I reviewed experimental data pertaining to carrageenan's effects with particular attention to the occurrence of ulcerations and neoplasms in association with exposure to carrageenan. In addition, I reviewed from established sources mechanisms for production of degraded carrageenan from undegraded or native carrageenan and data with regard to carrageenan intake. Review of these data demonstrated that exposure to undegraded as well as to degraded carrageenan was associated with the occurrence of intestinal ulcerations and neoplasms. This association may be attributed to contamination of undegraded carrageenan by components of low molecular weight, spontaneous metabolism of undegraded carrageenan by acid hydrolysis under conditions of normal digestion, or the interactions with intestinal bacteria. Although in 1972, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration considered restricting dietary carrageenan to an average molecular weight > 100,000, this resolution did not prevail, and no subsequent regulation has restricted use. Because of the acknowledged carcinogenic properties of degraded carrageenan in animal models and the cancer-promoting effects of undegraded carrageenan in experimental models, the widespread use of carrageenan in the Western diet should be reconsidered. PMID:11675262

  18. Regulation of animal care and research? Viewpoint of an agricultural experiment station scientist.

    PubMed

    Ullrey, D E

    1980-08-01

    The issue of regulating animal care in modern animal production systems and in the research laboratory is discussed from the perspective of an animal scientist with a farm background and 25 years of agricultural experiment station experience. Evidence is presented for a long-term association of humans with (and dependence on) animals, which extends into prehistory far beyond the beginnings of animal domestication some 11,000 years ago. The problem of feeding humans without animals was discussed, and it is concluded that the world population of humans cannot be adequately nourished by plant foods alone. Man's activities affect all of his companion creatures in many ways, and he is obviously a participant in a global ecosystem, not just an observer. It is vital to his welfare and to that of his fellow creatures that he manage this ecosystem fellow creatures that he manage this ecosystem correctly, including members of both the animal and vegetable kingdoms. There is a serious difference in perspective between many "animal philosophers" and professional animal scientists. The latter believe that they have an obligation to practice and to teach respect for the lives and welfare of the animals with which they work. Human qualities of kindness, mercy and compassion should govern actions toward animals. However, anthropomorphism is a philosophy to which the author and many other animal scientists do not subscribe. PMID:7440444

  19. [A case of favourable outcome of severe acute intoxication with an animal poison after a bite by the monocled cobra].

    PubMed

    Livanov, G A; Batotsyrenkov, B V; Lodiagin, A N; Andrianov, A Iu; Kuznetsov, O A; Loladze, A T; Baranov, D V

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a case of severe acute intoxication with an animal poison after a bite by the monocled cobra. Combined treatment including artificial lung ventilation, infusion-detoxication and desensitizing (hormonal) therapy, hemosorption, correction of metabolic disorders with cytoflavin, antibacterial therapy had positive effect on the patient's condition and ensured the favourable outcome ofpotentially lethal poisoning without the use ofa specific anti-snake venom serum. PMID:25790716

  20. Systematic reviews of animal experiments demonstrate poor contributions toward human healthcare.

    PubMed

    Knight, Andrew

    2008-05-01

    Widespread reliance on animal models during preclinical research and toxicity testing assumes their reasonable predictivity for human outcomes. However, of 20 published systematic reviews examining human clinical utility, located during a comprehensive literature search, animal models demonstrated significant potential to contribute toward the development of clinical interventions in only two cases, one of which was contentious. Included were experiments expected by ethics committees to lead to medical advances, highly-cited experiments published in major journals, and chimpanzee experiments-the species most generally predictive of human outcomes. Seven additional reviews failed to demonstrate utility in reliably predicting human toxicological outcomes such as carcinogenicity and teratogenicity. Results in animal models were frequently equivocal, or inconsistent with human outcomes. Consequently, animal data may not generally be considered useful for these purposes. Regulatory acceptance of non-animal models is normally conditional on formal scientific validation. In contrast, animal models are simply assumed to be predictive of human outcomes. These results demonstrate the invalidity of such assumptions. The poor human clinical and toxicological utility of animal models, combined with their generally substantial animal welfare and economic costs, necessitate considerably greater rigor within animal studies, and justify a ban on the use of animal models lacking scientific data clearly establishing their human predictivity or utility. PMID:18474018

  1. Critical periods after stroke study: translating animal stroke recovery experiments into a clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Dromerick, Alexander W.; Edwardson, Matthew A.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Giannetti, Margot L.; Barth, Jessica; Brady, Kathaleen P.; Chan, Evan; Tan, Ming T.; Tamboli, Irfan; Chia, Ruth; Orquiza, Michael; Padilla, Robert M.; Cheema, Amrita K.; Mapstone, Mark E.; Fiandaca, Massimo S.; Federoff, Howard J.; Newport, Elissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Seven hundred ninety-five thousand Americans will have a stroke this year, and half will have a chronic hemiparesis. Substantial animal literature suggests that the mammalian brain has much potential to recover from acute injury using mechanisms of neuroplasticity, and that these mechanisms can be accessed using training paradigms and neurotransmitter manipulation. However, most of these findings have not been tested or confirmed in the rehabilitation setting, in large part because of the challenges in translating a conceptually straightforward laboratory experiment into a meaningful and rigorous clinical trial in humans. Through presentation of methods for a Phase II trial, we discuss these issues and describe our approach. Methods: In rodents there is compelling evidence for timing effects in rehabilitation; motor training delivered at certain times after stroke may be more effective than the same training delivered earlier or later, suggesting that there is a critical or sensitive period for strongest rehabilitation training effects. If analogous critical/sensitive periods can be identified after human stroke, then existing clinical resources can be better utilized to promote recovery. The Critical Periods after Stroke Study (CPASS) is a phase II randomized, controlled trial designed to explore whether such a sensitive period exists. We will randomize 64 persons to receive an additional 20 h of upper extremity therapy either immediately upon rehab admission, 2–3 months after stroke onset, 6 months after onset, or to an observation-only control group. The primary outcome measure will be the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) at 1 year. Blood will be drawn at up to 3 time points for later biomarker studies. Conclusion: CPASS is an example of the translation of rodent motor recovery experiments into the clinical setting; data obtained from this single site randomized controlled trial will be used to finalize the design of a Phase III trial. PMID

  2. [Meniscal transplantation with a synovial pedicle--an animal experiment].

    PubMed

    Fukushima, K

    1993-12-01

    The effect of a meniscal transplantation with a synovial pedicle in the avascular portion of the meniscus was investigated in an animal model. An inner (free edge side) half of the middle segment of the medial meniscus, about 6 mm in length, of an adult dog was resected, and a half thickness of the remaining outer (peripheral) meniscus was advanced with a synovial pedicle to fill in the resected portion and sutured with 6-0 interrupted Nylon sutures. As a control, the same procedure without the synovial pedicle was performed for comparison. Twenty-four dogs were treated with synovial pedicle and 13 without. The treated meniscus was excised every four weeks postoperatively up to 32 weeks for gross observation and histological examination. The histological findings at the junction between the advanced meniscus and the remaining meniscus in the group with the synovial pedicle were as follows: 1) At eight to 20 weeks, vascular proliferation and fibroblasts formation were present. 2) At 24 weeks, the vascularity decreased and the junction was filled with collagen fibers. 3) At 32 weeks, the junction was almost completely repaired with chondrocytes. In contrast, in the group without the synovial pedicle, the junction was connected with fibrous tissue, but with no chondrocytes even at 32 weeks. This enhancement of the meniscus repair with the synovial pedicle was considered to be due to reparative ability of the synovial cells, neovascularization through the synovium and viability of the advanced meniscus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7508485

  3. [Animal experiments and the major achievements in the history of biomedicine].

    PubMed

    Kopaladze, R A

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that major achievements in the history of biomedicine, obtained in experiments on animals: the discovery of blood circulation, the achievements of microbiology and development of the concept of immunity, the discovery of reflex and the doctrine of higher nervous activity, achievements of genetics, formation of modeling methods on animals and drug testing. It is stressed that the benefits for science and medicine, obtained through experimentation on animals, does not relieve scientists from responsibility. PMID:25715635

  4. An animal model to study toxicity of central nervous system therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Effects on behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Mullenix, P.J.; Kernan, W.J.; Tassinari, M.S.; Schunior, A.; Waber, D.P.; Howes, A.; Tarbell, N.J. )

    1990-10-15

    Central nervous system prophylactic therapy used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia can reduce intelligence quotient scores and impair memory and attention in children. Cranial irradiation, intrathecal methotrexate, and steroids are commonly utilized in acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy. How they induce neurotoxicity is unknown. This study employs an animal model to explore the induction of neurotoxicity. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at 17 and 18 days of age were administered 18 mg/kg prednisolone, 2 mg/kg methotrexate, and 1000 cGy cranial irradiation. Another 18-day-old group was administered 1000 cGy cranial irradiation but no drugs. Matching controls received saline and/or a sham exposure to radiation. All animals at 6 weeks and 4 months of age were tested for alterations in spontaneous behavior. A computer pattern recognition system automatically recorded and classified individual behavioral acts displayed during exploration of a novel environment. Measures of behavioral initiations, total time, and time structure were used to compare treated and control animals. A permanent sex-specific change in the time structure of behavior was induced by the prednisolone, methotrexate, and radiation treatment but not by radiation alone. Unlike hyperactivity, the effect consisted of abnormal clustering and dispersion of acts in a pattern indicative of disrupted development of sexually dimorphic behavior. This study demonstrates the feasibility of an animal model delineating the agent/agents responsible for the neurotoxicity of central nervous system prophylactic therapy.

  5. The Dawn Hancock Animal Farm. Farming Experiences for Children with Mental Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ronald A.

    The Dawn Hancock Animal Farm, which was developed in 1974 with volunteer labor and over $100,000 in donations, provides farm experiences for the mentally handicapped students of the Helen J. Stewart School in Las Vegas, Nevada. The farm and animals are part of the school's emphasis on vocational training, and every effort is made to help prepare…

  6. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In order to understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms (e.g. gastrointestinal [GI], respiratory, dermatological), it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar ...

  7. Systematic reviews of animal experiments demonstrate poor human clinical and toxicological utility.

    PubMed

    Knight, Andrew

    2007-12-01

    The assumption that animal models are reasonably predictive of human outcomes provides the basis for their widespread use in toxicity testing and in biomedical research aimed at developing cures for human diseases. To investigate the validity of this assumption, the comprehensive Scopus biomedical bibliographic databases were searched for published systematic reviews of the human clinical or toxicological utility of animal experiments. In 20 reviews in which clinical utility was examined, the authors concluded that animal models were either significantly useful in contributing to the development of clinical interventions, or were substantially consistent with clinical outcomes, in only two cases, one of which was contentious. These included reviews of the clinical utility of experiments expected by ethics committees to lead to medical advances, of highly-cited experiments published in major journals, and of chimpanzee experiments--those involving the species considered most likely to be predictive of human outcomes. Seven additional reviews failed to clearly demonstrate utility in predicting human toxicological outcomes, such as carcinogenicity and teratogenicity. Consequently, animal data may not generally be assumed to be substantially useful for these purposes. Possible causes include interspecies differences, the distortion of outcomes arising from experimental environments and protocols, and the poor methodological quality of many animal experiments, which was evident in at least 11 reviews. No reviews existed in which the majority of animal experiments were of good methodological quality. Whilst the effects of some of these problems might be minimised with concerted effort (given their widespread prevalence), the limitations resulting from interspecies differences are likely to be technically and theoretically impossible to overcome. Non-animal models are generally required to pass formal scientific validation prior to their regulatory acceptance. In contrast

  8. Animal experiments scrutinised: systematic reviews demonstrate poor human clinical and toxicological utility.

    PubMed

    Knight, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The assumption that animal models are reasonably predictive of human outcomes provides the basis for their widespread use in toxicity testing and in biomedical research aimed at developing cures for human diseases. To investigate the validity of this assumption, the comprehensive "Scopus" biomedical bibliographic databases were searched for published systematic reviews of the human clinical or toxicological utility of animal experiments. Of 20 reviews examining clinical utility, authors concluded that the animal models were substantially consistent with or useful in advancing clinical outcomes in only two cases, and the conclusion in one case was contentious. Included were reviews of the clinical utility of experiments expected by ethics committees to lead to medical advances, of highly-cited experiments published in major journals, and of chimpanzee experiments - the species most likely to be predictive of human outcomes. Seven additional reviews failed to clearly demonstrate utility in predicting human toxicological outcomes such as carcinogenicity and teratogenicity. Consequently, animal data may not generally be assumed to be substantially useful for these purposes. Possible causes include interspecies differences, the distortion of experimental outcomes arising from experimental environments and protocols, and the poor methodological quality of many animal experiments evident in at least 11 reviews. No reviews existed in which a majority of animal experiments were of good quality. While the latter problems might be minimised with concerted effort, given their widespread nature, the interspecies limitations are likely to be technically and theoretically impossible to overcome. Yet, unlike non-animal models, animal models are not normally subjected to formal scientific validation. Instead of simply assuming they are predictive of human outcomes, the consistent application of formal validation studies to all test models is clearly warranted, regardless of their

  9. A survey concerning the work of ethics committees and licensing authorities for animal experiments in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Roman; Ruhdel, Irmela

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, the German Animal Welfare Federation started its 3rd survey since the establishment of ethics committees for animal experiments according to the German Animal Welfare Act in Germany in 1987. As animal welfare has been included as a "state goal" in the German constitution in 2002, the present survey aimed at an analysis of specific changes within the licensing process. A series of other aspects of the work of ethics committees and licensing authorities was also examined. The survey was based on questionnaires that had been addressed to licensing authorities and members of ethics committees. One of the main results is that the importance of animal welfare within the licensing process, after inclusion of animal welfare into the German constitution, has not changed or changed only to a small extent. It also becomes clear that ethical parameters are still of minor importance when animal experiments are licensed. The findings underline the importance to reform the German authorization system for animal experiments. The pending revision of EU-Directive 86/609 is an opportunity which should not be missed in this context. PMID:18288429

  10. One health: perspectives on ethical issues and evidence from animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Asokan, G V; Fedorowicz, Z; Tharyan, P; Vanitha, A

    2012-11-01

    Zoonoses constitute more than 60% of all known infectious diseases and 75% of emerging infectious diseases. Their impact is not monitored, prevented and treated in an integrated way. The efficacy of therapeutic interventions for zoonotic diseases is deemed to be comparable across species with scientifically valid results originating from a range of animal experiments. Ethical obligations limit the number of animals used in experiments as well as reduce repetition of studies. The evidence based on randomized controlled trails and systematic reviews for the effectiveness of health care interventions is often inconclusive. Subjecting human volunteers to risk in the absence of scientifically valid results from animal experiments is unethical. The One Health concept is a comparative, clinical approach directed towards zoonoses which present challenges to research workers and clinicians. Optimal health for all--One Health--should be underpinned by ethically conducted research in animals or humans and the results should be complementary to both. PMID:23301381

  11. An Experiment on the Short-Term Effects of Engagement and Representation in Program Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevalainen, Seppo; Sajaniemi, Jorma

    2008-01-01

    When visualization tools utilized in computer programming education have been evaluated empirically, the results have remained controversial. To address this problem, we have developed a model of short-term effects of program animation, and used it in a series of experiments. In the current experiment, we varied visual representation of an…

  12. [Ethical and legal aspects of animal experiments on non-human primates].

    PubMed

    Luy, J

    2007-03-01

    Animal experiments on non-human primates give cause for ethical concerns for three reasons (1) the inclusion of "ethical animal protection" in the German Constitution (Article 20a of the "Grundgesetz" GG, 2002) has led to real consequences for the application process with respect to the use of primates for fundamental research; (2) the legal requirements in Europe to ensure animal welfare are currently being tightened and (3) the global problem of the protection of species, especially with respect to the capturing and subsequent sale of primates is still unsolved. As a result of the way humans interpret the term justice (the principle of equality) it was to be expected that great apes, being the animals that most closely resemble humans, would play a key role in the establishment of animal protection laws. In 1997,Great Britain and Ireland made it illegal to conduct experiments on great apes. In 1999, New Zealand went even further and created a kind of basic rights for great apes. In 2003,The Netherlands forbade animal experiments using great apes as did Sweden, which also included gibbons in this ban (which is in line with current taxonomy, which considers gibbons to belong to the family Hominidae). In 2006 Austria forbade experiments carried out on chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, orang-utans, and gibbons. Only recently, a state commission on ethics in Switzerland demanded that the Swiss government do the same. And the summer of 2006 saw a debate in Spain on the inclusion of the protection of great apes in the primary goals of the state. Due to the principle of equality, a further extension (both geographically and systemically) of the exclusion of great apes from animal experiments is to be expected. Since Article 20a GG on "ethical animal protection" came into effect on August 1,2002, the regulatory authorities in Germany have the right to independently check and control animal experiments as to their ethical tenability (Administrative Court Giessen, confirmed

  13. Characterization of Ions in Urine of Animal Model with Acute Renal Failure using NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Pessoal, Edson A.; Borges, Fernanda T.

    2011-08-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine elements concentrations in urine of rats Wistar (control group) and rats Wistar with Acute Renal Failure (ARF). These data contribute for applications in health area related to biochemical analyses using urine to monitor the dialyze treatment.

  14. Acute Mediastinitis in Children: A Nine-Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Mirshemirani, Alireza; Rouzrokh, Mohsen; Mohajerzadeh, Laili; Tabari, Nasibeh Khaleghnejad; Ghaffari, Parand

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute mediastinitis is a serious medical condition with a mortality rate of 30 to 40% or even higher. Early diagnosis with prompt and aggressive treatment is essential to prevent its rapid progression. We evaluated acute mediastinitis cases and analyzed the outcomes. Materials and Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted on patients diagnosed with acute mediastinitis who were admitted to Mofid Children's Hospital from January 2001 to January 2010. Results Seventeen patients aged 1 to 10 yrs. (mean =3.8 yrs) were evaluated including 12 (70%) boys and 5 (30%) girls. The most common symptoms were fever, dyspnea, cyanosis, tachycardia and tachypnea. The etiology of mediastinitis was iatrogenic esophageal perforation (EP), and related to manipulation in 13(77%), and leakage of esophageal anastomosis in 4 cases (33%). The underlying diseases were esophageal atresia in 2(12%), corrosive injury of the esophagus in 13(76%), congenital esophageal stenosis in one (6%), and gastroesophageal reflux esophagitis also in one (6%) patient. Patients with clinical symptoms were evaluated by immediate chest radiography, and gastrografin swallow. After early diagnosis, the patients received wide spectrum antibiotics and immediate mediastinal or thoracic drainage, followed by esophagostomy and gastrostomy. Only one case of endoscopic perforation was managed by NG tube. Fifteen patients (88%) survived successfully. We had 2(12%) cases of mortality in our study (one patient after esophageal substitution, mediastinal abscess and septicemia, and the other one developed esophageal perforation 6 months after early management and died of cardiac arrest during endoscopic dilation). Conclusion Prevention of acute mediastinitis is still a difficult challenge. As the prognosis is not good and patients have high mortality, rapid management is mandatory. PMID:25191462

  15. In Search of Memory Tests Equivalent for Experiments on Animals and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Brodziak, Andrzej; Kołat, Estera; Różyk-Myrta, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    Older people often exhibit memory impairments. Contemporary demographic trends cause aging of the society. In this situation, it is important to conduct clinical trials of drugs and use training methods to improve memory capacity. Development of new memory tests requires experiments on animals and then clinical trials in humans. Therefore, we decided to review the assessment methods and search for tests that evaluate analogous cognitive processes in animals and humans. This review has enabled us to propose 2 pairs of tests of the efficiency of working memory capacity in animals and humans. We propose a basic set of methods for complex clinical trials of drugs and training methods to improve memory, consisting of 2 pairs of tests: 1) the Novel Object Recognition Test – Sternberg Item Recognition Test and 2) the Object-Location Test – Visuospatial Memory Test. We postulate that further investigations of methods that are equivalent in animals experiments and observations performed on humans are necessary. PMID:25524993

  16. Global decomposition experiment shows soil animal impacts on decomposition are climate-dependent

    PubMed Central

    WALL, DIANA H; BRADFORD, MARK A; ST JOHN, MARK G; TROFYMOW, JOHN A; BEHAN-PELLETIER, VALERIE; BIGNELL, DAVID E; DANGERFIELD, J MARK; PARTON, WILLIAM J; RUSEK, JOSEF; VOIGT, WINFRIED; WOLTERS, VOLKMAR; GARDEL, HOLLEY ZADEH; AYUKE, FRED O; BASHFORD, RICHARD; BELJAKOVA, OLGA I; BOHLEN, PATRICK J; BRAUMAN, ALAIN; FLEMMING, STEPHEN; HENSCHEL, JOH R; JOHNSON, DAN L; JONES, T HEFIN; KOVAROVA, MARCELA; KRANABETTER, J MARTY; KUTNY, LES; LIN, KUO-CHUAN; MARYATI, MOHAMED; MASSE, DOMINIQUE; POKARZHEVSKII, ANDREI; RAHMAN, HOMATHEVI; SABARÁ, MILLOR G; SALAMON, JOERG-ALFRED; SWIFT, MICHAEL J; VARELA, AMANDA; VASCONCELOS, HERALDO L; WHITE, DON; ZOU, XIAOMING

    2008-01-01

    Climate and litter quality are primary drivers of terrestrial decomposition and, based on evidence from multisite experiments at regional and global scales, are universally factored into global decomposition models. In contrast, soil animals are considered key regulators of decomposition at local scales but their role at larger scales is unresolved. Soil animals are consequently excluded from global models of organic mineralization processes. Incomplete assessment of the roles of soil animals stems from the difficulties of manipulating invertebrate animals experimentally across large geographic gradients. This is compounded by deficient or inconsistent taxonomy. We report a global decomposition experiment to assess the importance of soil animals in C mineralization, in which a common grass litter substrate was exposed to natural decomposition in either control or reduced animal treatments across 30 sites distributed from 43°S to 68°N on six continents. Animals in the mesofaunal size range were recovered from the litter by Tullgren extraction and identified to common specifications, mostly at the ordinal level. The design of the trials enabled faunal contribution to be evaluated against abiotic parameters between sites. Soil animals increase decomposition rates in temperate and wet tropical climates, but have neutral effects where temperature or moisture constrain biological activity. Our findings highlight that faunal influences on decomposition are dependent on prevailing climatic conditions. We conclude that (1) inclusion of soil animals will improve the predictive capabilities of region- or biome-scale decomposition models, (2) soil animal influences on decomposition are important at the regional scale when attempting to predict global change scenarios, and (3) the statistical relationship between decomposition rates and climate, at the global scale, is robust against changes in soil faunal abundance and diversity.

  17. Principles and standards for reporting animal experiments in The Journal of Physiology and Experimental Physiology.

    PubMed

    Grundy, David

    2015-07-01

    The Journal of Physiology and Experimental Physiology have always used UK legislation as the basis of their policy on ethical standards in experiments on non-human animals. However, for international journals with authors, editors and referees from outside the UK the policy can lack transparency and is sometimes cumbersome, requiring the intervention of a Senior Ethics Reviewer or advice from external experts familiar with UK legislation. The journals have therefore decided to set out detailed guidelines for how authors should report experimental procedures that involve animals. As well as helping authors, this new clarity will facilitate the review process and decision making where there are questions regarding animal ethics. PMID:26076765

  18. MREIT conductivity imaging based on the local harmonic Bz algorithm: Animal experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Kiwan; Lee, Chang-Ock; Woo, Eung Je; Kim, Hyung Joong; Seo, Jin Keun

    2010-04-01

    From numerous numerical and phantom experiments, MREIT conductivity imaging based on harmonic Bz algorithm shows that it could be yet another useful medical imaging modality. However, in animal experiments, the conventional harmonic Bz algorithm gives poor results near boundaries of problematic regions such as bones, lungs, and gas-filled stomach, and the subject boundary where electrodes are not attached. Since the amount of injected current is low enough for the safety for in vivo animal, the measured Bz data is defected by severe noise. In order to handle such problems, we use the recently developed local harmonic Bz algorithm to obtain conductivity images in our ROI(region of interest) without concerning the defected regions. Furthermore we adopt a denoising algorithm that preserves the ramp structure of Bz data, which informs of the location and size of anomaly. Incorporating these efficient techniques, we provide the conductivity imaging of post-mortem and in vivo animal experiments with high spatial resolution.

  19. Acute inhibition of neurosteroid estrogen synthesis suppresses status epilepticus in an animal model

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Satoru M; Woolley, Catherine S

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is a common neurological emergency for which new treatments are needed. In vitro studies suggest a novel approach to controlling seizures in SE: acute inhibition of estrogen synthesis in the brain. Here, we show in rats that systemic administration of an aromatase (estrogen synthase) inhibitor after seizure onset strongly suppresses both electrographic and behavioral seizures induced by kainic acid (KA). We found that KA-induced SE stimulates synthesis of estradiol (E2) in the hippocampus, a brain region commonly involved in seizures and where E2 is known to acutely promote neural activity. Hippocampal E2 levels were higher in rats experiencing more severe seizures. Consistent with a seizure-promoting effect of hippocampal estrogen synthesis, intra-hippocampal aromatase inhibition also suppressed seizures. These results reveal neurosteroid estrogen synthesis as a previously unknown factor in the escalation of seizures and suggest that acute administration of aromatase inhibitors may be an effective treatment for SE. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12917.001 PMID:27083045

  20. The Flatworm Planaria as a Toxicology and Behavioral Pharmacology Animal Model in Undergraduate Research Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Pagán, Oné R.; Coudron, Tamara; Kaneria, Tanvi

    2009-01-01

    In this work we describe a series of simple protocols using planaria as an animal model in toxicology and behavioral pharmacology. These procedures have proven useful to provide significant research experience to undergraduate students, including coauthorship in peer-reviewed publications. The methods described in this work have proven useful to allow students to visualize concepts related to concentration-effect curves for toxicity and behavioral experiments, without the need to consider factors that must be taken into account when working with vertebrate animals. PMID:23493443

  1. Monitoring of small laboratory animal experiments by a designated web-based database.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, T; Grohmann, C; Schumacher, U; Krüll, A

    2015-10-01

    Multiple-parametric small animal experiments require, by their very nature, a sufficient number of animals which may need to be large to obtain statistically significant results.(1) For this reason database-related systems are required to collect the experimental data as well as to support the later (re-) analysis of the information gained during the experiments. In particular, the monitoring of animal welfare is simplified by the inclusion of warning signals (for instance, loss in body weight >20%). Digital patient charts have been developed for human patients but are usually not able to fulfill the specific needs of animal experimentation. To address this problem a unique web-based monitoring system using standard MySQL, PHP, and nginx has been created. PHP was used to create the HTML-based user interface and outputs in a variety of proprietary file formats, namely portable document format (PDF) or spreadsheet files. This article demonstrates its fundamental features and the easy and secure access it offers to the data from any place using a web browser. This information will help other researchers create their own individual databases in a similar way. The use of QR-codes plays an important role for stress-free use of the database. We demonstrate a way to easily identify all animals and samples and data collected during the experiments. Specific ways to record animal irradiations and chemotherapy applications are shown. This new analysis tool allows the effective and detailed analysis of huge amounts of data collected through small animal experiments. It supports proper statistical evaluation of the data and provides excellent retrievable data storage. PMID:25673665

  2. [Recent developments on the European ban on animal experiments for cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Ruhdel, I W

    2001-01-01

    For the second time the European Commission has postponed the sales ban on cosmetics products that have been developed and tested in animal experiments now until 2002. In the meantime the Commission wants to adopt the Seventh Amendment of the EU Cosmetics Directive. In its draft the Commission proposes to scrap the sales ban and replace it with an animal testing ban. This change would avoid possible conflicts with the WTO, however, from the animal welfare point of view would result in animal testing moving into third countries instead of avoiding them. This is because cosmetics products tested on animals outside the EU could be sold in the EU without any restrictions. As a consequence this measure would take the pressure from authorities and industry to further develop and adopt alternative methods. Other proposed measures are not acceptable from the animal welfare point of view, e.g. because they contradict Directive 86/609 and would result in a delay of the application of validated alternative methods. The Deutscher Tierschutzbund therefore still demands an immediate and complete sales ban in connection with an animal testing ban within the EU. PMID:11248844

  3. Randomized block experimental designs can increase the power and reproducibility of laboratory animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Festing, Michael F W

    2014-01-01

    Randomized block experimental designs have been widely used in agricultural and industrial research for many decades. Usually they are more powerful, have higher external validity, are less subject to bias, and produce more reproducible results than the completely randomized designs typically used in research involving laboratory animals. Reproducibility can be further increased by using time as a blocking factor. These benefits can be achieved at no extra cost. A small experiment investigating the effect of an antioxidant on the activity of a liver enzyme in four inbred mouse strains, which had two replications (blocks) separated by a period of two months, illustrates this approach. The widespread failure to use these designs more widely in research involving laboratory animals has probably led to a substantial waste of animals, money, and scientific resources and slowed down the development of new treatments for human and animal diseases. PMID:25541548

  4. Dose estimation of animal experiments at the THOR BNCT beam by NCTPlan and Xplan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan-Hao; Lee, Pei-Yi; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Chou, Fong-In; Chen, Wei-Lin; Huang, Yu-Shiang; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2014-06-01

    Dose estimation of animal experiments affects many subsequent derived quantities, such as RBE and CBE values. It is important to ensure the trustiness of calculated dose of the irradiated animals. However, the dose estimation was normally calculated using simplified geometries and tissue compositions, which led to rough results. This paper introduces the use of treatment planning systems NCTplan and Xplan for the dose estimation. A mouse was taken as an example and it was brought to hospital for micro-PET/CT scan. It was found that the critical organ doses of an irradiated mouse calculated by simplified model were unreliable in comparison to Xplan voxel model. The difference could reach the extent of several tenths percent. It is recommended that a treatment planning system should be introduced to future animal experiments to upgrade the data quality. PMID:24630758

  5. Children's experiences of companion animal maltreatment in households characterized by intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Shelby Elaine; Collins, Elizabeth A; Nicotera, Nicole; Hageman, Tina O; Ascione, Frank R; Williams, James Herbert; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A

    2015-12-01

    Cruelty toward companion animals is a well-documented, coercive tactic used by abusive partners to intimidate and control their intimate partners. Experiences of co-occurring violence are common for children living in families with intimate partner violence (IPV) and surveys show that more than half are also exposed to abuse of their pets. Given children's relationships with their pets, witnessing such abuse may be traumatic for them. Yet little is known about the prevalence and significance of this issue for children. The present study examines the experiences of children in families with co-occurring pet abuse and IPV. Using qualitative methods, 58 children ages 7-12 who were exposed to IPV were asked to describe their experiences of threats to and harm of their companion animals. Following the interviews, template analysis was employed to systematically develop codes and themes. Coding reliability was assessed using Randolph's free-marginal multirater kappa (kfree=.90). Five themes emerged from the qualitative data, the most common being children's exposure to pet abuse as a power and control tactic against their mother in the context of IPV. Other themes were animal maltreatment to discipline or punish the pet, animal cruelty by a sibling, children intervening to prevent pet abuse, and children intervening to protect the pet during a violent episode. Results indicate that children's experiences of pet abuse are multifaceted, potentially traumatic, and may involve multiple family members with diverse motives. PMID:26520828

  6. Experiments with small animals in BIOLAB and EMCS on the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinckmann, E.; Schiller, P.

    Two ESA facilities will be available for animal research and other biological experiments on the International Space Station: the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) in the US Lab "Destiny" and BIOLAB in the European "Columbus" Laboratory. Both facilities use standard Experiment Containers, mounted on two centrifuge rotors allowing either research in microgravity or acceleration studies with variable g-levels from 0.001 to 2.0x g. Standard interface plates provide each container with power and data lines, gas supply (controlled CO 2, O 2 concentration and relative humidity), and -for EMCS only- connectors to fresh and waste water reservoirs. The experiment hardware inside the containers will be developed by the user, but ESA conducted a feasibility study for several kinds of Experiment Support Equipment with potential use for research on small animals: design concepts for experiments with insects, with aquatic organisms like rotifers and nematodes, and with small aquatic animals (sea urchin larvae, tadpoles, fish youngsters) are described in detail in this presentation. Also ESA's initial steps to support experiments with rodents on the Space Station are presented.

  7. Metabolic effects of hypergravity on experimental animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oyama, J.

    1982-01-01

    Several experiments concerned with the exposure of animals to acute or chronic centrifugation are described. The effects of hypergravity particularly discussed include the decreased growth rate and body weight, increased metabolic rate, skeletal deformation, and loss of body fat.

  8. Experience based co-design reduces formal complaints on an acute mental health ward

    PubMed Central

    Springham, Neil; Robert, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    An acute mental health triage ward at Oxleas NHS Foundation Trust was attracting high levels of formal service user and family complaints. The Trust used experience based co-design to examine the issues and redesign procedures. This resulted in an immediate eradication of formal complaints for a period of 23 months. This paper describes two outcomes: firstly, the successful adaptations made to the experience based co-design methodology from its origins in physical care, in order to ensure it was safe and effective in an acute mental health setting; and, secondly, the changes made to the ward as a result of this quality improvement intervention. PMID:26734433

  9. Effects of virtual human animation on emotion contagion in simulated inter-personal experiences.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanxiang; Babu, Sabarish V; Armstrong, Rowan; Bertrand, Jeffrey W; Luo, Jun; Roy, Tania; Daily, Shaundra B; Dukes, Lauren Cairco; Hodges, Larry F; Fasolino, Tracy

    2014-04-01

    We empirically examined the impact of virtual human animation on the emotional responses of participants in a medical virtual reality system for education in the signs and symptoms of patient deterioration. Participants were presented with one of two virtual human conditions in a between-subjects experiment, static (non-animated) and dynamic (animated). Our objective measures included the use of psycho-physical Electro Dermal Activity (EDA) sensors, and subjective measures inspired by social psychology research included the Differential Emotions Survey (DES IV) and Positive and Negative Affect Survey (PANAS). We analyzed the quantitative and qualitative measures associated with participants’ emotional state at four distinct time-steps in the simulated interpersonal experience as the virtual patient’s medical condition deteriorated. Results suggest that participants in the dynamic condition with animations exhibited a higher sense of co-presence and greater emotional response as compared to participants in the static condition, corresponding to the deterioration in the medical condition of the virtual patient. Negative affect of participants in the dynamic condition increased at a higher rate than for participants in the static condition. The virtual human animations elicited a stronger response in negative emotions such as anguish, fear, and anger as the virtual patient’s medical condition worsened. PMID:24650990

  10. Acute and Subacute Toxicity Studies on Rutin-Rich Tartary Buckwheat Dough in Experimental Animals.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tatsuro; Morishita, Toshikazu; Noda, Takahiro; Ishiguro, Koji

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the toxicity of rutin-rich dough from the Tartary buckwheat variety 'Manten-Kirari,' acute and subacute toxicity studies (10,000 and 5,000 mg/kg flour, respectively) were performed using rats. In the acute toxicity study, no toxic symptoms were observed and no rats died during the test. Body weight in the 'Manten-Kirari'-treated group was not significantly different when compared with that of the control group. On pathologico-anatomic observation, no unusual symptoms were observed in the 'Manten-Kirari'-treated group when compared with the control group. In the subacute toxicity study, no toxic symptoms were observed and no rats died during the test. Body weight and food intake in the 'Manten-Kirari'-treated and common buckwheat groups were not significantly different when compared with the control group. However, some investigated properties, such as urine protein and serum albumin, were significantly different in the 'Manten-Kirari' and common buckwheat groups when compared with the control group. However, these changes were not caused by toxicity, but by transient changes. On pathologico-anatomic observation, some abnormalities were observed in the liver, kidneys, heart, lung, bronchi and pituitary gland in some rats. However, the incidental rates in the 'Manten-Kirari' and common buckwheat groups did not differ when compared to controls. Therefore, these abnormalities may be caused by natural generation. Based on these results, we concluded that dough at a dose of 5,000 mg flour/kg is at a non effect level. PMID:26052149

  11. Acute, sub-chronic oral toxicity studies and evaluation of antiulcer activity of Sooktyn in experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Phool; Sachan, Neetu; Kishore, Kamal; Ghosh, Ashoke Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Sooktyn (SKN), mineralo-herbal drug which is being used largely by the patients for its extremely good therapeutic value to treat the gastric ulcers. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity studies and antiulcer activity of SKN. Acute and sub-chronic toxicities were studied in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute SKN of 2 000 mg/kg was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Sub-chronic doses were 400 and 800 mg/kg/day. The major toxicological end points examined included animal body weight and food intake, selected tissue weights, and detailed gross necropsy. In addition, we examined blood elements: hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count and MCH, MCHC and platelets as well as biochemical parameters: urea, sugar, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins, and creatinine. Also, anti-ulcer activity was carried out by employing indomethacin, ethanol, pylorus ligation, and hypothermic-stress-induced ulcer models. LD50 may be greater than 2 000 mg/kg (orally) for SKN and there were no signs of toxicity on 28 days sub-chronic oral administration of 400 and 800 mg/kg of SKN in rats on the basis of blood elements and biochemical parameters. The ulcer indices decrease in all ulcer models with 66.62%, 61.24%, 80.18%, and 74.76% in indomethacin, ethanol, pylorus ligation, and hypothermic-stress-induced ulcer models, respectively. The results suggest that SKN has no signs of toxicity at 2 000 mg/kg body weight of rats orally; sub-chronically. The drug is safe and has antiulcer activity. PMID:22837960

  12. Living with companion animals after stroke: experiences of older people in community and primary care nursing.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Maria; Ahlström, Gerd; Jönsson, Ann-Cathrin

    2014-12-01

    Older people often have companion animals, and the significance of animals in human lives should be considered by nurses-particularly in relation to older people's health, which can be affected by diseases. The incidence of stroke increases with age and disabilities as a result of stroke are common. This study aimed to explore older people's experiences of living with companion animals after stroke, and their life situation with the animals in relation to the physical, psychological and social aspects of recovery after stroke. The study was performed using individual interviews approximately 2 years after stroke with 17 participants (10 women and 7 men) aged 62-88 years. An overarching theme arising from the content analysis was contribution to a meaningful life. This theme was generated from four categories: motivation for physical and psychosocial recovery after stroke; someone to care for who cares for you; animals as family members; and providers of safety and protection. The main conclusion was that companion animals are experienced as physical and psychosocial contributors to recovery and a meaningful life after stroke. PMID:25475671

  13. What’s the Big Deal? Responder Experiences of Large Animal Rescue in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Bradley; Thompson, Kirrilly; Taylor, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Background: The management of large animals during disasters and emergencies creates difficult operational environments for responders. The aims of this study were to identify the exact challenges faced by Australian emergency response personnel in their interactions with large animals and their owners, and to determine the readiness for large animal rescue (LAR) in Australia. Methods: A survey tool collected the views and experiences of a broad cross section of emergency services personnel operating across Australia and across all hazards. Data were collected from 156 responders including Australian emergency services personnel, emergency managers such as federal agricultural departments, and local government. Results: Overall, many of the respondents had serious concerns, and felt that there were significant issues in relation to LAR in Australia. These included the coordination of emergency care for animals, physical management of large animals, inter-agency coordination, and dealing with animal owners. Very few respondents had received any formal training in LAR, with an overwhelming majority indicating they would attend formal training if it were made available. Discussion: Results help to guide the development of evidence-informed support tools to assist operational response and community engagement, and the production of professional development resources. PMID:25685637

  14. Acute Neuroimmune Modulation Attenuates the Development of Anxiety-Like Freezing Behavior in an Animal Model of Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Krista M.; Bercum, Florencia M.; McCallum, Danielle L.; Rudy, Jerry W.; Frey, Lauren C.; Johnson, Kirk W.; Watkins, Linda R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Chronic anxiety is a common and debilitating result of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in humans. While little is known about the neural mechanisms of this disorder, inflammation resulting from activation of the brain's immune response to insult has been implicated in both human post-traumatic anxiety and in recently developed animal models. In this study, we used a lateral fluid percussion injury (LFPI) model of TBI in the rat and examined freezing behavior as a measure of post-traumatic anxiety. We found that LFPI produced anxiety-like freezing behavior accompanied by increased reactive gliosis (reflecting neuroimmune inflammatory responses) in key brain structures associated with anxiety: the amygdala, insula, and hippocampus. Acute peri-injury administration of ibudilast (MN166), a glial cell activation inhibitor, suppressed both reactive gliosis and freezing behavior, and continued neuroprotective effects were apparent several months post-injury. These results support the conclusion that inflammation produced by neuroimmune responses to TBI play a role in post-traumatic anxiety, and that acute suppression of injury-induced glial cell activation may have promise for the prevention of post-traumatic anxiety in humans. PMID:22435644

  15. Environmental control and life support systems analysis for a Space Station life sciences animal experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    So, Kenneth T.; Hall, John B., Jr.; Thompson, Clifford D.

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Langley and Goddard facilities have evaluated the effects of animal science experiments on the Space Station's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) by means of computer-aided analysis, assuming an animal colony consisting of 96 rodents and eight squirrel monkeys. Thirteen ECLSS options were established for the reclamation of metabolic oxygen and waste water. Minimum cost and weight impacts on the ECLSS are found to accrue to the system's operation in off-nominal mode, using electrochemical CO2 removal and a static feed electrolyzer for O2 generation.

  16. Chlorine gas inhalation: human clinical evidence of toxicity and experience in animal models.

    PubMed

    White, Carl W; Martin, James G

    2010-07-01

    Humans can come into contact with chlorine gas during short-term, high-level exposures due to traffic or rail accidents, spills, or other disasters. By contrast, workplace and public (swimming pools, etc.) exposures are more frequently long-term, low-level exposures, occasionally punctuated by unintentional transient increases. Acute exposures can result in symptoms of acute airway obstruction including wheezing, cough, chest tightness, and/or dyspnea. These findings are fairly nonspecific, and might be present after exposures to a number of inhaled chemical irritants. Clinical signs, including hypoxemia, wheezes, rales, and/or abnormal chest radiographs may be present. More severely affected individuals may suffer acute lung injury (ALI) and/or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Up to 1% of exposed individuals die. Humidified oxygen and inhaled beta-adrenergic agents are appropriate therapies for victims with respiratory symptoms while assessments are underway. Inhaled bicarbonate and systemic or inhaled glucocorticoids also have been reported anecdotally to be beneficial. Chronic sequelae may include increased airways reactivity, which tends to diminish over time. Airways hyperreactivity may be more of a problem among those survivors that are older, have smoked, and/or have pre-existing chronic lung disease. Individuals suffering from irritant-induced asthma (IIA) due to workplace exposures to chlorine also tend to have similar characteristics, such as airways hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, and to be older and to have smoked. Other workplace studies, however, have indicated that workers exposed to chlorine dioxide/sulfur dioxide have tended to have increased risk for chronic bronchitis and/or recurrent wheezing attacks (one or more episodes) but not asthma, while those exposed to ozone have a greater incidence of asthma. Specific biomarkers for acute and chronic exposures to chlorine gas are currently lacking. Animal models for chlorine gas

  17. Activated protein C attenuates acute lung injury and apoptosis in a hyperoxic animal model.

    PubMed

    Husari, Ahmad W; Khayat, Aline; Awdeh, Haitham; Hatoum, Hadi; Nasser, Michel; Mroueh, Salman M; Zaatari, Ghazi; El-Sabban, Marwan; Dbaibo, Ghassan S

    2010-05-01

    Evidence suggests that activated protein C (APC) attenuates acute lung injury (ALI) through antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of APC on ALI in adult rats exposed to hyperoxic environment. Rats were divided into control, hyperoxia, hyperoxia + APC, and APC. Hyperoxia and hyperoxia + APC were exposed to 1, 3, and 5 days of hyperoxia. Hyperoxia + APC and APC were injected with APC (5 mg/kg, i.p.) every 12 h. Control and hyperoxia received isotonic sodium chloride solution injection. Measurement of wet to dry ratio and albumin leak demonstrated significant improvement in hyperoxia + APC when compared with hyperoxia. Apoptosis, as measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay, was significantly reduced in hyperoxia + APC when compared with hyperoxia. Histological evaluation of lung sections showed significant reduction in inflammation, edema, and in the number of marginating neutrophils in hyperoxia + APC as compared with hyperoxia. Transcriptional expression of lung inflammatory mediators demonstrated a time-dependent surge in the levels TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 in response to hyperoxia that was attenuated with APC administration in the presence of hyperoxia. In this rat model, APC attenuates lung injury and the expression of inflammatory mediators in ALI secondary to hyperoxia. PMID:19851127

  18. Acute Severe Animal Model of Muscle-Specific Kinase Myasthenia: Combined Postsynaptic and Presynaptic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Richman, David P.; Nishi, Kayoko; Morell, Stuart W.; Chang, Jolene Mi; Ferns, Michael J.; Wollmann, Robert L.; Maselli, Ricardo A.; Schnier, Joachim; Agius, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the pathogenesis of anti-muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) myasthenia, a newly described severe form of myasthenia gravis associated with MuSK antibodies, characterized by focal muscle weakness and wasting, and absence of acetylcholine receptor antibodies; also to determine whether antibodies to MuSK, a crucial protein in the formation of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) during development, can induce disease in the mature NMJ. Design/Methods Lewis rats were immunized with a single injection of a newly discovered splicing variant of MuSK, MuSK 60, which has been demonstrated to be expressed primarily in the mature NMJ. Animals were assessed clinically, serologically and by repetitive stimulation of median nerve. Muscle tissue was examined immunohistochemically and by electron microscopy. Results Animals immunized with 100ug of MuSK 60 develop severe progressive weakness, starting at day 16, with 100% mortality by day 27. The weakness is associated with high MuSK antibody titers, weight loss, axial muscle wasting and decrementing compound muscle action potentials. Light and electron microscopy demonstrate fragmented NMJs with varying degrees of postsynaptic muscle endplate destruction along with abnormal nerve terminals, lack of registration between endplates and nerve terminals, local axon sprouting and extrajunctional dispersion of cholinesterase activity. Conclusions These findings: 1) support the role of MuSK antibodies in the human disease; 2) demonstrate the role of MuSK, not only in the development of the NMJ, but also in the maintenance of the mature synapse; and 3) demonstrate involvement in this disease of both pre- and post-synaptic components of the NMJ. PMID:22158720

  19. Drug administration in animal studies of cardiac arrest does not reflect human clinical experience

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Joshua C.; Rittenberger, Jon C.; Menegazzi, James J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction To date, there is no evidence showing a benefit from any advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) medication in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA), despite animal data to the contrary. One explanation may be a difference in the time to first drug administration. Our previous work has shown the mean time to first drug administration in clinical trials is 19.4 minutes. We hypothesized that the average time to drug administration in large animal experiments occurs earlier than in OOHCA clinical trials. Methods We conducted a literature review between 1990 and 2006 in MEDLINE using the following MeSH headings: swine, dogs, resuscitation, heart arrest, EMS, EMT, ambulance, ventricular fibrillation, drug therapy, epinephrine, vasopressin, amiodarone, lidocaine, magnesium, and sodium bicarbonate. We reviewed the abstracts of 331 studies and 197 full manuscripts. Exclusion criteria included: non-peer reviewed, all without primary animal data, and traumatic models. From these, we identified 119 papers that contained unique information on time to medication administration. The data are reported as mean, ranges, and 95% confidence intervals. Mean time to first drug administration in animal laboratory studies and clinical trials was compared with a t-test. Regression analysis was performed to determine if time to drug predicted ROSC. Results Mean time to first drug administration in 2378 animals was 9.5 minutes (range 3.0–28.0; 95% CI around mean 2.78, 16.22). This is less than the time reported in clinical trials (19.4 min, p<0.001). Time to drug predicted ROSC (Odds Ratio 0.844; 95% CI 0.738, 0.966). Conclusion Shorter drug delivery time in animal models of cardiac arrest may be one reason for the failure of animal studies to translate successfully into the clinical arena. PMID:17360097

  20. Mice Drawer System: a Long Duration Animal Experiment on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotronei, Vittorio; Liu, Yi; Pignataro, Salvatore

    Mice represent one of the most important animal models for biomedical research. In the past decade mice have been used as surrogates to understand physiological adaption and its under-lying mechanisms to orbital spaceflight. A breakthrough in this field has been achieved with the launch of MDS experiment inside Shuttle Discovery (mission STS-128) on August 28, 2009 at 23:58 EST, and its re-entry to earth by Shuttle Atlantis (mission STS-129) on November 27 2009 at 9:47 EST, marking this as the first long duration animal experiment on the Interna-tional Space Station (ISS). This presentation will provide the life history and milestones starting from the project brainstorm to the post-ground activities of the recent MDS payload mission. The Italian Space Agency (ASI) initiated and coordinated this multi-disciplinary project by focusing on five areas: the development of a multi-purpose automated payload by industry; bio-compatibility tests of subsystems throughout various critical phases of the payload development by researchers, development of a ground segment to interface with NASA Payload Operations Center and three different geographically distributed Italian Operations Centers; establishment of an international tissue sharing program; specialized bio-specimen intercontinental shipment. With close collaboration with NASA, activities such as pre-flight payload acceptance, animal preparation, in-flight crew intervention and re-entry animal recovery were smoothly and swiftly accomplished.

  1. MR-guided focused ultrasound robot for performing experiments on large animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mylonas, N.; Damianou, C.

    2011-09-01

    Introduction: In this paper an experimental MRI-guided focused ultrasound robot for large animals is presented. Materials and methods: A single element spherically focused transducer of 4 cm diameter, focusing at 10 cm and operating at 1 MHz was used. A positioning device was developed in order to scan the ultrasound transducer for performing MR-guided focused ultrasound experiments in large animals such as pig, sheep and dog. The positioning device incorporates only MRI compatible materials such as piezoelectric motors, Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) plastic, brass screws, and brass pulleys. The system is manufactured automatically using a rapid prototyping system. Results: The system was tested successfully in a number of animals for various tasks (creation of single lesions, creation of overlapping lesions, and MR compatibility). Conclusions: A simple, cost effective, portable positioning device has been developed which can be used in virtually any clinical MRI scanner since it can be sited on the scanner's table. The propagation of HIFU can be via a lateral or superior-inferior approach. This system has the potential to be marketed as a cost effective solution for performing experiments in small and large animals.

  2. The potential of tissue engineering for developing alternatives to animal experiments: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Rob B M; Leenaars, Marlies; Tra, Joppe; Huijbregtse, Robbertjan; Bongers, Erik; Jansen, John A; Gordijn, Bert; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2015-07-01

    An underexposed ethical issue raised by tissue engineering is the use of laboratory animals in tissue engineering research. Even though this research results in suffering and loss of life in animals, tissue engineering also has great potential for the development of alternatives to animal experiments. With the objective of promoting a joint effort of tissue engineers and alternative experts to fully realise this potential, this study provides the first comprehensive overview of the possibilities of using tissue-engineered constructs as a replacement of laboratory animals. Through searches in two large biomedical databases (PubMed, Embase) and several specialised 3R databases, 244 relevant primary scientific articles, published between 1991 and 2011, were identified. By far most articles reviewed related to the use of tissue-engineered skin/epidermis for toxicological applications such as testing for skin irritation. This review article demonstrates, however, that the potential for the development of alternatives also extends to other tissues such as other epithelia and the liver, as well as to other fields of application such as drug screening and basic physiology. This review discusses which impediments need to be overcome to maximise the contributions that the field of tissue engineering can make, through the development of alternative methods, to the reduction of the use and suffering of laboratory animals. PMID:23554402

  3. Engineering aspects of the experiment and results of animal tests. [Apollo 17 Biological Cosmic Ray Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Look, B. C.; Tremor, J. W.; Barrows, W. F.; Zabower, H. R.; Suri, K.; Park, E. G., Jr.; Durso, J. A.; Leon, H. A.; Haymaker, W.; Lindberg, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    A closed passive system independent of support from the spacecraft or its crew was developed to house five pocket mice for their flight on Apollo XVII. The reaction of potassium superoxide with carbon dioxide and water vapor to produce oxygen provided a habitable atmosphere within the experiment package. The performance of the system and the ability of the mice to survive the key preflight tests gave reasonable assurance that the mice would also withstand the Apollo flight.-

  4. [Value of results of animal experiments for the evaluation of drugs. 3. Animal trials and subjective probability].

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, R; Kienle, G; Knipping, W

    1976-04-22

    Inasmuch as the findings in pharmacology and toxicology are based on animal trials these disciplines have to be considered as subjective sciences, since the experimentally obtained objective data become medically relevant only on the basis of subjective probabilities. The value of pharmacological and toxicological tests is dependent on the quality of the investigator. Data obtained in animals trials are of no relevance for human medicine unless the investigator substantiates his subjective probabilities and at the same time demonstrates how the hypotheses won in animal trials can be verified in man. Toxicological testing methods allowing the "preselection" of drugs or any other kind of deductions without verification in man do not exist. Animal studies which are not based on the principles of decision theory serve merely as an alibi and may lead to wrong conclusions. Besides, they interfere with the German Animal Protection Law. Methodological problems can neither be solved by normative regulations of an administrative authority nor by increasing experimental activity. PMID:964836

  5. An animal model of prophylactic cranial irradiation: Histologic effects at acute, early and delayed stages

    SciTech Connect

    Mildenberger, M.; Beach, T.G.; McGeer, E.G.; Ludgate, C.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Wistar rats (body wt. 200 g) were subjected to a fractionated course of radiation similar to that used in prophylactic brain irradiation for small cell carcinoma of the lung (2000 cGy in 5 fractions over 5 days with {sup 60}Co). Effects of this regimen were assessed by histologic examination of brain sections at 1 week, 1 month and 6 months post-irradiation. With conventional stains there were no apparent differences between control and irradiated brains at any of the post-irradiation intervals. Immunohistochemistry for neurotransmitter synthetic enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and glutamate decarboxylase, as well as histochemistry for acetylcholinesterase, failed to uncover any changes in the irradiated animals. Immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein, an astrocyte marker, also showed no differences in the irradiated groups. However, an antibody against a major histocompatibility complex, class II antigen (OX-6) revealed a microglial response in grey and white matter beginning at 1 month and increasing up to the 6 month post-irradiation interval. The neuroanatomical basis for this microglial response was suggested by the results of silver stains for nerve axons, which revealed axonal loss in striatal white matter bundles in a pattern implicating vascular insufficiency.

  6. Flupirtine effectively prevents development of acute neonatal seizures in an animal model of global hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Dayalan; Shmueli, Doron; White, Andrew M; Raol, Yogendra H

    2015-10-21

    Current first-line drugs for the treatment of neonatal seizures have limited efficacy and are associated with side effects. Uncontrolled seizures may exacerbate brain injury and contribute to later-life neurological disability. Therefore, it is critical to develop a treatment for neonatal seizures that is effective and safe. In early-life, when the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibitory system is not fully developed, potassium channels play an important role in controlling excitability. An earlier study demonstrated that flupirtine, a KCNQ potassium channel opener, is more efficacious than diazepam and phenobarbital for the treatment of chemoconvulsant-induced neonatal seizures. In newborns, seizures are most commonly associated with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Thus, in the present study, we examined the efficacy of flupirtine to treat neonatal seizures in an animal model of global hypoxia. Our results showed that flupirtine dose dependently blocks the occurrence of behavioral seizures in pups during hypoxia. Additionally, flupirtine inhibits the development of hypoxia-induced clinical seizures and associated epileptiform discharges, as well as purely electrographic (subclinical) seizures. These results suggest that flupirtine is an effective anti-seizure drug, and that further studies should be conducted to determine the time window within which it's administration can effectively treat neonatal seizures. PMID:26365409

  7. Ethical review of regulatory toxicology guidelines involving experiments on animals: the example of endocrine disrupters.

    PubMed

    Purchase, I F

    1999-12-01

    The safety assessment of new chemicals (including medicines, pesticides, food additives, and industrial chemicals) relies on the results of animal experiments. Because the safety of those exposed to these products and the welfare of the experimental animals used are considered critically important, both testing requirements and the welfare of experimental animals are controlled by law. In the U.K., projects that propose to use animals for experimental purposes, including for the testing of chemicals, have been controlled by law for over a century, with the most recent legislation (Animals [Scientific Procedures] Act of 1986) requiring a cost/benefit assessment before it may proceed. New regulations introduced in 1998 will require an ethical review process for all projects from April 1999. Such ethical review will have to take account of the toxicity testing methods and schemes that are required by the legislation aimed at protecting human health. Neither national nor international proposals for toxicity testing methods and schemes are generally subjected to ethical review from the point of protecting animal welfare. The international nature of the chemical and pharmaceutical industry means that testing requirements from one of the major national regulatory agencies (USA, EU, or Japan) or the international organizations (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD]or the International Conference on Harmonization [ICH]) have an impact on the testing carried out by industrial organizations in all countries. The recent proposals for screening and testing chemicals to identify endocrine disrupters (ED) from the Endocrine Disrupter Screening and Testing Advisory Committee (EDSTAC) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are used as an example of the interaction between regulatory proposals and animal welfare issues. The current proposals are the most extravagant in the use of animals. Between 0.6 and 1.2 million animals would be required for

  8. Quantitative analysis of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in acute radiation-induced liver injury: An animal model

    PubMed Central

    FENG, JUN; CHEN, SHU-BO; WU, SHU-JUN; SUN, PING; XIN, TIAN-YOU; CHEN, YING-ZHEN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine and assess contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the early diagnosis of acute radiation-induced liver injury in a rat model. Sixty female rats were used, with 50 rats being utilized to produce an animal model of liver injury with a single dose of stereotactic X-ray irradiation of 20 Gy. Ten rats from the injury group and 2 rats from the control group were randomly selected on days 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28, and examined by contrast-enhanced ultrasound and histopathology of liver specimens. The rats were divided into four groups: the normal control group, mild, moderate, and severe radioactive liver injury groups based on the histopathological examination results. Hepatic artery arriving time (HAAT) and hepatic vein arriving time (HVAT) were recorded, and hepatic artery to vein transit time (HA-HVTT) was calculated. The time-intensity curve of liver parenchyma, the time to peak (TTP) and peak intensity (PI) were also obtained. Significant differences were observed between liver injury and control groups for PI and HA-HVTT (P<0.05). PI and HA-HVTT were shorter in the severe liver injury group compared to the mild and moderate liver injury groups (P<0.05). Compared to the control group, higher TTP was recorded in all the liver injury groups (P<0.05), and the highest TTP level was observed in the severe liver injury group compared to the mild or moderate group (P<0.05). However, no significant difference was observed between the mild and moderate groups for PI, HA-HVTT and TTP. In conclusion, the results showed that contrast-enhanced ultrasonography is useful for an earlier diagnosis in a rat model of acute radiation-induced liver injury. PMID:26640553

  9. Cognitive endophenotypes, gene-environment interactions and experience-dependent plasticity in animal models of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Emma L; Hannan, Anthony J

    2016-04-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating brain disorder caused by a complex and heterogeneous combination of genetic and environmental factors. In order to develop effective new strategies to prevent and treat schizophrenia, valid animal models are required which accurately model the disorder, and ideally provide construct, face and predictive validity. The cognitive deficits in schizophrenia represent some of the most debilitating symptoms and are also currently the most poorly treated. Therefore it is crucial that animal models are able to capture the cognitive dysfunction that characterizes schizophrenia, as well as the negative and psychotic symptoms. The genomes of mice have, prior to the recent gene-editing revolution, proven the most easily manipulable of mammalian laboratory species, and hence most genetic targeting has been performed using mouse models. Importantly, when key environmental factors of relevance to schizophrenia are experimentally manipulated, dramatic changes in the phenotypes of these animal models are often observed. We will review recent studies in rodent models which provide insight into gene-environment interactions in schizophrenia. We will focus specifically on environmental factors which modulate levels of experience-dependent plasticity, including environmental enrichment, cognitive stimulation, physical activity and stress. The insights provided by this research will not only help refine the establishment of optimally valid animal models which facilitate development of novel therapeutics, but will also provide insight into the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, thus identifying molecular and cellular targets for future preclinical and clinical investigations. PMID:26687973

  10. A Magnetic Rotary Optical Fiber Connector for Optogenetic Experiments in Freely Moving Animals

    PubMed Central

    Klorig, David C; Godwin, Dwayne W

    2014-01-01

    Background Performing optogenetic experiments in a behaving animal presents a unique technical challenge. In order to provide an optical path between a fixed light source and a chronically implanted fiber in a freely moving animal, a typical experimental set-up includes a detachable connection between the light source and the head of the animal, as well as a rotary joint to relieve torsional stress during movement. New Method We have combined the functionality of the head mounted connector and the rotary joint into a single integrated device that is inexpensive, simple to build and easy to use. Results A typical rotary connector has a transmission efficiency of 80% with a rotational variability of 4%, but can be configured to have a rotational variability of 2% at the expense of lower transmission efficiency. Depending on configuration, rotational torque ranges from 14 - 180 μN*m, making the rotary connector suitable for use with small animals such as mice. Comparison with Existing Methods Benchmark tests demonstrate that our connectors perform similarly to commercially available solutions in terms of transmission efficiency, rotational variability, and torque but at a fraction of the cost. Unlike currently available solutions, our unique design requires a single optical junction which significantly reduces overall light loss. In addition, magnets allow the connectors and caps to “snap into place” for quick yet reliable connection and disconnection. Conclusions Our rotary connector system offers superior performance, reduced cost, and is easily incorporated into existing optogenetic set-ups. PMID:24613796

  11. An animal model of eating disorders associated with stressful experience in early life.

    PubMed

    Jahng, Jeong Won

    2011-02-01

    Experience of childhood abuse is prevalent among patients with eating disorders, and dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is implicated in its pathophysiology. Neonatal maternal separation is considered as an animal model of stressful experience early in life. Many of studies have demonstrated its impact both on the activity of HPA axis and the development of psycho-emotional disorders later in life. In this paper, a series of our researches on developing an animal model of eating disorders is reviewed. An animal model of neonatal maternal separation was used; Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam daily for 180 min during the first 2 weeks of life (MS) or undisturbed. Anxiety-/depression-like behaviors were observed in MS rats at the age of two months with decreased serotonergic activity in the hippocampus and the raphe. Post-weaning social isolation promoted food intake and weight gain of adolescent MS pups, with impacts on anxiety-like behaviors. Sustained hyperphagia was observed in the MS pups subjected to a fasting/refeeding cycle repeatedly during adolescence, with increased plasma corticosterone levels. Anhedonia, major symptom of depression, to palatable food was observed in adolescent MS pups with blunted response of the mesolimbic dopaminergic activity to stress. Results suggest that neonatal maternal separation lead to the development of eating disorders when it is challenged with social or metabolic stressors later in life, in which dysfunctions in the HPA axis and the brain monoaminergic systems may play important roles. PMID:21093444

  12. A Knockout Experiment: Disciplinary Divides and Experimental Skill in Animal Behaviour Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Nicole C.

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1990s, a set of new techniques for manipulating mouse DNA allowed researchers to ‘knock out’ specific genes and observe the effects of removing them on a live mouse. In animal behaviour genetics, questions about how to deploy these techniques to study the molecular basis of behaviour became quite controversial, with a number of key methodological issues dissecting the interdisciplinary research field along disciplinary lines. This paper examines debates that took place during the 1990s between a predominately North American group of molecular biologists and animal behaviourists around how to design, conduct, and interpret behavioural knockout experiments. Drawing from and extending Harry Collins’s work on how research communities negotiate what counts as a ‘well-done experiment,’ I argue that the positions practitioners took on questions of experimental skill reflected not only the experimental traditions they were trained in but also their differing ontological and epistemological commitments. Different assumptions about the nature of gene action, eg., were tied to different positions in the knockout mouse debates on how to implement experimental controls. I conclude by showing that examining representations of skill in the context of a community’s knowledge commitments sheds light on some of the contradictory ways in which contemporary animal behaviour geneticists talk about their own laboratory work as a highly skilled endeavour that also could be mechanised, as easy to perform and yet difficult to perform well. PMID:26090739

  13. Preliminary experience with small animal SPECT imaging on clinical gamma cameras.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, P; Silva-Rodríguez, J; Herranz, M; Ruibal, A

    2014-01-01

    The traditional lack of techniques suitable for in vivo imaging has induced a great interest in molecular imaging for preclinical research. Nevertheless, its use spreads slowly due to the difficulties in justifying the high cost of the current dedicated preclinical scanners. An alternative for lowering the costs is to repurpose old clinical gamma cameras to be used for preclinical imaging. In this paper we assess the performance of a portable device, that is, working coupled to a single-head clinical gamma camera, and we present our preliminary experience in several small animal applications. Our findings, based on phantom experiments and animal studies, provided an image quality, in terms of contrast-noise trade-off, comparable to dedicated preclinical pinhole-based scanners. We feel that our portable device offers an opportunity for recycling the widespread availability of clinical gamma cameras in nuclear medicine departments to be used in small animal SPECT imaging and we hope that it can contribute to spreading the use of preclinical imaging within institutions on tight budgets. PMID:24963478

  14. [Experiences with an Internet-based lecture script on animal obstetrics].

    PubMed

    Rother, M; Heuwieser, W; Hallmann, T

    1999-02-01

    An internet based lecture script was developed on animal obstetrics to enhance the traditional lecture. The script summarizes the manuscript of the lecturer and contains additional information and reading materials. The script has approximately 600 pages and shows 400 slides, graphs and animations. Students' perception was surveyed by means of a questionnaire. 152 of 201 students (75.6%) in the 3rd and 5th year participated in the survey. Overall, the script was rated 1.9 on a 5-point scale (1 = excellent, 5 = poor). Our experiences with the internet based script were primarily positive. However, the curriculum of the veterinary education and technical prerequisites will effect the long-term success of such systems. PMID:10077809

  15. Setting ventilation parameters guided by electrical impedance tomography in an animal trial of acute respiratory distress syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaplik, Michael; Biener, Ingeborg; Leonhardt, Steffen; Rossaint, Rolf

    2014-03-01

    Since mechanical ventilation can cause harm to lung tissue it should be as protective as possible. Whereas numerous options exist to set ventilator parameters, an adequate monitoring is lacking up to date. The Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) provides a non-invasive visualization of ventilation which is relatively easy to apply and commercially available. Although there are a number of published measures and parameters derived from EIT, it is not clear how to use EIT to improve clinical outcome of e.g. patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a severe disease with a high mortality rate. On the one hand, parameters should be easy to obtain, on the other hand clinical algorithms should consider them to optimize ventilator settings. The so called Global inhomogeneity (GI) index bases on the fact that ARDS is characterized by an inhomogeneous injury pattern. By applying positive endexpiratory pressures (PEEP), homogeneity should be attained. In this study, ARDS was induced by a double hit procedure in six pigs. They were randomly assigned to either the EIT or the control group. Whereas in the control group the ARDS network table was used to set the PEEP according to the current inspiratory oxygen fraction, in the EIT group the GI index was calculated during a decremental PEEP trial. PEEP was kept when GI index was lowest. Interestingly, PEEP was significantly higher in the EIT group. Additionally, two of these animals died ahead of the schedule. Obviously, not only homogeneity of ventilation distribution matters but also limitation of over-distension.

  16. Ethics control of vertebrate animals experiments in biosatellite BION-M1 project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyin, Eugene

    During April 19-May 19, 2013 it was realized 30-days flight of Russian biosatellite Bion-M1. The main goal of this flight was to study effects of microgravity upon behavior and structural-functional state of different physiological systems of vertebrates. The folloving species were accommodated aboard of biosatellite: 45 mice C57bl/6, 8 Mongolian gerbils Meriones unguiculatus, 15 lizards, i.e. geckos Chondrodctylus turneri Gray, and fish Oreochromis mossambicus. The selection and traing of mice for the flight and ground-based control experiments was carried out at the Research Institute of Mitoengineering by Moscow State University. The protocols for animals care and reserch were revised and adopted by Bioethics Commission of above mentioned institute (decision on November 01, 2013, N35). The final version of Bion-M1 Scientific Reseach Program and protocols for separate experiments were discussed and adopted by Biomedical Ethics Commission of Institute of Biomedical Problems (decision on April 4, 2014, N317). The IMBP Commission has a status of Physiological Section of Russian Bioethics Committee by Russian Commision for UNESCO affairs and follows the Russian Bioethical Guidelines for Experiments in Aerospace and Naval Medicine and other national and international rules including COSPAR International Policy and Guidelines for Animal Care and Use in Space-born Research. Because US-scientists were the main partners in mice investigations the decision of IMBP Biomedical Commission related to Bion-M1 project was sended for information to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of NASA Ames Research Center. Postflight estimation of mice was done by Russian veterinary with the participation of NASA Chief veterinary.

  17. Animal Magnetism, Psychiatry and Subjective Experience in Nineteenth-Century Germany: Friedrich Krauß and his Nothschrei.

    PubMed

    Brückner, Burkhart

    2016-01-01

    Friedrich Krauß (1791-1868) is the author of Nothschrei eines Magnetisch-Vergifteten [Cry of Distress by a Victim of Magnetic Poisoning] (1852), which has been considered one of the most comprehensive self-narratives of madness published in the German language. In this 1018-page work Krauß documents his acute fears of 'mesmerist' influence and persecution, his detainment in an Antwerp asylum and his encounter with various illustrious physicians across Europe. Though in many ways comparable to other prominent nineteenth-century first-person accounts (eg. John Thomas Perceval's 1838 Narrative of the Treatment Experienced by a Gentleman or Daniel Paul Schreber's 1903 Memoirs of my Nervous Illness), Krauß's story has received comparatively little scholarly attention. This is especially the case in the English-speaking world. In this article I reconstruct Krauß's biography by emphasising his relationship with physicians and his under-explored stay at the asylum. I then investigate the ways in which Krauß appropriated nascent theories about 'animal magnetism' to cope with his disturbing experiences. Finally, I address Krauß's recently discovered calligraphic oeuvre, which bears traces of his typical fears all the while showcasing his artistic skills. By moving away from the predominantly clinical perspective that has characterised earlier studies, this article reveals how Friedrich Krauß sought to make sense of his experience by selectively appropriating both orthodox and non-orthodox forms of medical knowledge. In so doing, it highlights the mutual interaction of discourses 'from above' and 'from below' as well as the influence of broader cultural forces on conceptions of self and illness during that seminal period. PMID:26651186

  18. Animal Magnetism, Psychiatry and Subjective Experience in Nineteenth-Century Germany: Friedrich Krauß and his Nothschrei

    PubMed Central

    Brückner, Burkhart

    2016-01-01

    Friedrich Krauß (1791–1868) is the author of Nothschrei eines Magnetisch-Vergifteten [Cry of Distress by a Victim of Magnetic Poisoning] (1852), which has been considered one of the most comprehensive self-narratives of madness published in the German language. In this 1018-page work Krauß documents his acute fears of ‘mesmerist’ influence and persecution, his detainment in an Antwerp asylum and his encounter with various illustrious physicians across Europe. Though in many ways comparable to other prominent nineteenth-century first-person accounts (eg. John Thomas Perceval’s 1838 Narrative of the Treatment Experienced by a Gentleman or Daniel Paul Schreber’s 1903 Memoirs of my Nervous Illness), Krauß’s story has received comparatively little scholarly attention. This is especially the case in the English-speaking world. In this article I reconstruct Krauß’s biography by emphasising his relationship with physicians and his under-explored stay at the asylum. I then investigate the ways in which Krauß appropriated nascent theories about ‘animal magnetism’ to cope with his disturbing experiences. Finally, I address Krauß’s recently discovered calligraphic oeuvre, which bears traces of his typical fears all the while showcasing his artistic skills. By moving away from the predominantly clinical perspective that has characterised earlier studies, this article reveals how Friedrich Krauß sought to make sense of his experience by selectively appropriating both orthodox and non-orthodox forms of medical knowledge. In so doing, it highlights the mutual interaction of discourses ‘from above’ and ‘from below’ as well as the influence of broader cultural forces on conceptions of self and illness during that seminal period. PMID:26651186

  19. In Vitro Acute Exposure to DEHP Affects Oocyte Meiotic Maturation, Energy and Oxidative Stress Parameters in a Large Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Sardanelli, Anna Maria; Pocar, Paola; Martino, Nicola Antonio; Paternoster, Maria Stefania; Amati, Francesca; Dell'Aquila, Maria Elena

    2011-01-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants because of their use in plastics and other common consumer products. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most abundant phthalate and it impairs fertility by acting as an endocrine disruptor. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of in vitro acute exposure to DEHP on oocyte maturation, energy and oxidative status in the horse, a large animal model. Cumulus cell (CC) apoptosis and oxidative status were also investigated. Cumulus-oocyte complexes from the ovaries of slaughtered mares were cultured in vitro in presence of 0.12, 12 and 1200 µM DEHP. After in vitro maturation (IVM), CCs were removed and evaluated for apoptosis (cytological assessment and TUNEL) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Oocytes were evaluated for nuclear chromatin configuration. Matured (Metaphase II stage; MII) oocytes were further evaluated for cytoplasmic energy and oxidative parameters. DEHP significantly inhibited oocyte maturation when added at low doses (0.12 µM; P<0.05). This effect was related to increased CC apoptosis (P<0.001) and reduced ROS levels (P<0.0001). At higher doses (12 and 1200 µM), DEHP induced apoptosis (P<0.0001) and ROS increase (P<0.0001) in CCs without affecting oocyte maturation. In DEHP-exposed MII oocytes, mitochondrial distribution patterns, apparent energy status (MitoTracker fluorescence intensity), intracellular ROS localization and levels, mt/ROS colocalization and total SOD activity did not vary, whereas increased ATP content (P<0.05), possibly of glycolytic origin, was found. Co-treatment with N-Acetyl-Cysteine reversed apoptosis and efficiently scavenged excessive ROS in DEHP-treated CCs without enhancing oocyte maturation. In conclusion, acute in vitro exposure to DEHP inhibits equine oocyte maturation without altering ooplasmic energy and oxidative stress parameters in matured oocytes which retain the potential to be fertilized and develop into embryos

  20. Acute intraperitoneal rupture of hydatid cysts: a surgical experience with 14 cases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in endemic areas. The operative procedures, either radical or conservative, should be based on the patient’s condition, the regional characteristics, and the surgeon’s experience. The morbidity and mortality rates of surgical interventions for ruptured hydatid cysts are higher than the rates for elective uncomplicated cases. PMID:23885766

  1. Cross-Species Affective Neuroscience Decoding of the Primal Affective Experiences of Humans and Related Animals

    PubMed Central

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-01-01

    Background The issue of whether other animals have internally felt experiences has vexed animal behavioral science since its inception. Although most investigators remain agnostic on such contentious issues, there is now abundant experimental evidence indicating that all mammals have negatively and positively-valenced emotional networks concentrated in homologous brain regions that mediate affective experiences when animals are emotionally aroused. That is what the neuroscientific evidence indicates. Principal Findings The relevant lines of evidence are as follows: 1) It is easy to elicit powerful unconditioned emotional responses using localized electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB); these effects are concentrated in ancient subcortical brain regions. Seven types of emotional arousals have been described; using a special capitalized nomenclature for such primary process emotional systems, they are SEEKING, RAGE, FEAR, LUST, CARE, PANIC/GRIEF and PLAY. 2) These brain circuits are situated in homologous subcortical brain regions in all vertebrates tested. Thus, if one activates FEAR arousal circuits in rats, cats or primates, all exhibit similar fear responses. 3) All primary-process emotional-instinctual urges, even ones as complex as social PLAY, remain intact after radical neo-decortication early in life; thus, the neocortex is not essential for the generation of primary-process emotionality. 4) Using diverse measures, one can demonstrate that animals like and dislike ESB of brain regions that evoke unconditioned instinctual emotional behaviors: Such ESBs can serve as ‘rewards’ and ‘punishments’ in diverse approach and escape/avoidance learning tasks. 5) Comparable ESB of human brains yield comparable affective experiences. Thus, robust evidence indicates that raw primary-process (i.e., instinctual, unconditioned) emotional behaviors and feelings emanate from homologous brain functions in all mammals (see Appendix S1), which are regulated by higher

  2. Impact of publicly sponsored neutering programs on animal population dynamics at animal shelters: the New Hampshire and Austin experiences.

    PubMed

    White, Sara C; Jefferson, Ellen; Levy, Julie K

    2010-01-01

    This study found that government-funded surgical sterilization of companion animals has been widely promoted as a means of decreasing shelter intake and euthanasia. However, little information is available about the true impact of these programs on community and shelter nonhuman animal population dynamics. This study estimated the impact of the Animal Population Control Program in New Hampshire by comparing shelter intake and euthanasia data before and after the onset of the neutering initiative. Regression analysis demonstrated a significant decrease in cat intake and euthanasia during the years after program onset, a trend that appears to begin prior to the program's initiation; however, there was no decrease in dog intake or euthanasia. This study also estimated the impact of the Austin-based EmanciPET Free Spay/Neuter Program by comparing shelter intake and euthanasia data from the targeted program areas versus nonprogram areas within the city. Regression analysis demonstrated a significantly lower rate of increase for dog and cat intake and euthanasia in the program areas. Prospective studies should determine the effectiveness and affordability of different models for funding and delivering neutering services. PMID:20563902

  3. The Effect of Experiences with Animals on the Reading Comprehension Skills of Students in the Seventh Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Annie

    2008-01-01

    The Problem: The study examined the difference that animal interactions had on the reading comprehension growth skills of students in the seventh grade. Method: A quasiexperimental study was conducted with two seventh-grade classes at William Howard Taft Middle School. One class received daily 20-minute animal interaction experiences for 5 days.…

  4. A Selective Critique of Animal Experiments in Human-Orientated Biological Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, G. P.

    1990-01-01

    The advantages and justifications for using small animals in human-oriented research are reviewed. Some of the pitfalls of extrapolating animal-derived data to humans are discussed. Several specific problems with animal experimentation are highlighted. (CW)

  5. Interim report on the genetic and animal toxicity testing of SRC-I products, intermediates, and waste materials. Appendix D. Acute animal studies reports

    SciTech Connect

    Drozdowicz, B.Z.; Kelly, C.M.

    1983-09-01

    Appendix D is a collection of 25 individual reports on the toxicity of SRC-I products, intermediates and residues to rabbits, rats and guinea pigs with acute oral, dermal and inhalation exposure. It includes also eye and dermal irritation tests in rabbits and guinea pigs and dermal sensitization studies in albino guinea pigs. (LTN)

  6. Differential Effects of Acute (Extenuating) and Chronic (Training) Exercise on Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Status in an Animal Model of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira de Lemos, Edite; Pinto, Rui; Oliveira, Jorge; Garrido, Patrícia; Sereno, José; Mascarenhas-Melo, Filipa; Páscoa-Pinheiro, João; Teixeira, Frederico; Reis, Flávio

    2011-01-01

    This study compares the effects of a single bout of exercise (acute extenuating) with those promoted by an exercise training program (chronic), focusing on low-grade chronic inflammation profile and on oxidative stress status, using the obese ZDF rats as a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Animals were sacrificed after 12 weeks of a swimming training program and after a single bout of acute extenuating exercise. Glycaemic, insulinemic, and lipidic profile (triglycerides, total-cholesterol) were evaluated, as well as inflammatory (serum CRPhs, TNF-α, adiponectin) and oxidative (lipidic peroxidation and uric acid) status. When compared to obese diabetic sedentary rats, the animals submitted to acute exercise presented significantly lower values of glycaemia and insulinaemia, with inflammatory profile and oxidative stress significantly aggravated. The trained animals showed amelioration of glycaemic and lipidic dysmetabolism, accompanied by remarkable reduction of inflammatory and oxidative markers. In conclusion, the results presented herein suggessted that exercise pathogenesis-oriented interventions should not exacerbate underlying inflammatory stress associated with T2DM. PMID:22174491

  7. Effect of chromium (VI) exposure on antioxidant defense status and trace element homeostasis in acute experiment in rat.

    PubMed

    Kotyzová, Dana; Hodková, Anna; Bludovská, Monika; Eybl, Vladislav

    2015-11-01

    Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds is of concern in many Cr-related industries and their surrounding environment. Cr(VI) is a proven toxin and carcinogen. The Cr(VI) compounds are easily absorbed, can diffuse across cell membranes, and have strong oxidative potential. Despite intensive studies of Cr(VI) pro-oxidative effects, limited data exist on the influence of Cr(VI) on selenoenzymes thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-important components of antioxidant defense system. This study investigates the effect of Cr(VI) exposure on antioxidant defense status, with focus on these selenoenzymes, and on trace element homeostasis in an acute experiment in rat. Male Wistar rats (130-140g) were assigned to two groups of 8 animals: I. control; and II. Cr(VI) treated. The animals in Cr(VI) group were administered a single dose of K2Cr2O7 (20 mg /kg, intraperitoneally (ip)). The control group received saline solution. After 24 h, the animals were sacrificed and the liver and kidneys were examined for lipid peroxidation (LP; thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration), the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activities of GPx-1, TrxR-1, and glutathione reductase (GR). Samples of tissues were also used to estimate Cr accumulation and alterations in zinc, copper, and iron levels. The acute Cr(VI) exposure caused an increase in both hepatic and renal LP (by 70%, p < 0.01 and by 15%, p < 0.05, respectively), increased hepatic GSH level and GPx-1 activity, and decreased renal GPx-1 activity. The activity of GR was not changed. A significant inhibitory effect of Cr(VI) was found on TrxR-1 activity in both the liver and the kidneys. The ability of Cr(VI) to cause TrxR inhibition could contribute to its cytotoxic effects. Further investigation of oxidative responses in different in vivo models may enable the development of strategies to protect against Cr(VI) oxidative damage. PMID:23625905

  8. Modulation of Intestinal Functions Following Mycotoxin Ingestion: Meta-Analysis of Published Experiments in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Grenier, Bertrand; Applegate, Todd J.

    2013-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that can cause serious health problems in animals, and may result in severe economic losses. Deleterious effects of these feed contaminants in animals are well documented, ranging from growth impairment, decreased resistance to pathogens, hepato- and nephrotoxicity to death. By contrast, data with regard to their impact on intestinal functions are more limited. However, intestinal cells are the first cells to be exposed to mycotoxins, and often at higher concentrations than other tissues. In addition, mycotoxins specifically target high protein turnover- and activated-cells, which are predominant in gut epithelium. Therefore, intestinal investigations have gained significant interest over the last decade, and some publications have demonstrated that mycotoxins are able to compromise several key functions of the gastrointestinal tract, including decreased surface area available for nutrient absorption, modulation of nutrient transporters, or loss of barrier function. In addition some mycotoxins facilitate persistence of intestinal pathogens and potentiate intestinal inflammation. By contrast, the effect of these fungal metabolites on the intestinal microbiota is largely unknown. This review focuses on mycotoxins which are of concern in terms of occurrence and toxicity, namely: aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and Fusarium toxins. Results from nearly 100 published experiments (in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo) were analyzed with a special attention to the doses used. PMID:23430606

  9. Interaction between Japanese flowering cherry trees and some wild animals observed during physiological experiment in fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Teruko

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the weeping habit of Japanese flowering cherry tree in the field of Tama Forest Science Garden, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute at the foot of Mt. Takao. Since cherry trees at various age were the materials for our plant physiology experiments, our studies were conducted in the fields where we experienced certain difficulties. Even under such difficult environment that was rather unexpected and uncontrollable, we could obtain fruitful results on the growth of cherry tree, and found them scientifically significant, especially in terms of biological effects of gravity on earth. Moreover, a lot of interesting interactions of cherry trees with various kinds of animals were observed in parallel to the plant physiology.

  10. The validity of an animal model for experiments related to weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Animal evolution has witnessed morphological and physiological adaptations to gravitational forces. In the rat, hind limb muscles can be used to illustrate a range of load bearing functions: soleus - gastrocnemius = plantaris - extensor digitorum longus (EDL). A harness suspension apparatus is used to induce hypokinesia and hypodynamia (H&H) and to simulate responses comparable to those seen in weightlessness (i.e., COSMOS experiments). After one and two weeks of suspension H&H, there is muscle atrophy with a loss in muscle mass; the result of loss in muscle protein. Concommitantly, there is a decrease in RNA, but not in DNA content. The effects are greatest in the soleus and least in the EDL. These recent findings, in concert with earlier reports of increased nitrogenous excretion, suggest that both decreased protein synthesis and increased protein catabolism are characteristic of muscle atrophy. Recovery is seen in terms of reversal of these effects after removal from suspension.

  11. The lived experience of new graduate nurses working in an acute care setting.

    PubMed

    McCalla-Graham, James A; De Gagne, Jennie C

    2015-03-01

    The high attrition rate of graduate nurses will exacerbate the current nursing shortage as Baby Boomer nurses (born between 1946 and 1964) retire, negatively affecting the quality of patient care and increasing employer costs. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the lived experiences of new graduate nurses employed in an acute care setting in southwest Florida. This information provides further guidance to nurse educators as they develop curricula, support graduate nurses to transition into professional practice, and create strategies to increase retention. Ten participants who were traditional students in generic baccalaureate nursing programs, selected through purposeful and snowball sampling, were interviewed via open-ended questions. Using Colaizzi's classic phenomenological method of data analysis and NVivo 10 software, three over-arching themes emerged-knowledge, skills, and environment-which were interpreted in relation to graduates' lived experience. Recommendations include implementation of innovative initiatives that address new graduates' experience and increase retention. PMID:25723333

  12. Baccalaureate nursing students' experience of dyadic learning in an acute care setting.

    PubMed

    Trueman, Gregg; Osuji, Joseph; El-Hussein, Mohamed Toufic

    2014-09-01

    This article describes a unique learning project designed to address the praxis gap between baccalaureate nursing students' clinical learning and theoretic principles of collaborative practice on an acute medical-surgical unit in Canada. The study was framed by the active engagement model to provide second-year nursing students a nontraditional approach to develop their nursing practice. Clinical faculty partnered with medical-surgical nursing staff and eight baccalaureate nursing students to explore the experience of collaborative learning and stakeholders' anticipated learning outcomes while working in dyads. A modified phenomenological approach was used in understanding the experience of dyadic learning through reflective journals, course evaluation data, and a semistructured exit interview for analysis. Four themes were revealed based on students' reflection of their experience: work engagement, relational practice, autonomy, and empowerment. These themes underscore the strengths and opportunities associated with this nontraditional approach to clinical learning. PMID:25199158

  13. Experiences with Capnography in Acute Care Settings: A Mixed-Methods Analysis of Clinical Staff

    PubMed Central

    Langhan, Melissa L.; Kurtz, Jordan C.; Schaeffer, Paula; Asnes, Andrea G.; Riera, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Purpose While capnography is being incorporated into clinical guidelines, it is not used to it's full potential. We investigated reasons for limited implementation of capnography in acute care areas and explored facilitators and barriers to its implementation. Methods A purposeful sample of physicians and nurses in emergency departments (ED) and intensive care units (ICU) participated in semistructured interviews. Grounded theory, iterative data analysis and the constant comparative method were used to analyze the data to inductively generate ideas and build theories. Results Nineteen providers were interviewed from five hospitals. Six themes were identified: variability in use of capnography among acute care units, availability and accessibility of capnography equipment, the evidence behind capnography use, the impact of capnography on patient care, personal experiences impacting use of capnography, and variable knowledge about capnography. Barriers and facilitators to use were found within each theme. Conclusions We observed varied responsiveness to capnography and identified factors that work to foster or discourage its use. This data can guide future implementation strategies. A deliberate strategy to foster utilization, mitigate barriers and broadly accelerate implementation has the potential to profoundly impact use of capnography in acute care areas with the goal of improving patient care. PMID:25129575

  14. Evaluation of Fibrogenic Potential of Industrial Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Acute Aspiration Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Khaliullin, T. O.; Shvedova, A. A.; Kisin, E. R.; Zalyalov, R. R.; Fatkhutdinova, L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Local inflammatory response in the lungs and fibrogenic potential of multi-walled carbon nanotubes were studied in an acute aspiration experiment in mice. The doses were chosen based on the concentration of nanotubes in the air at a workplace of the company-producer. ELISA, flow cytometry, enhanced darkfield microscopy, and histological examination showed that multi-walled carbon nanotubes induced local inflammation, oxidative stress, and connective tissue growth (fibrosis). Serum levels of TGF-β1 and osteopontin proteins can serve as potential exposure biomarkers. PMID:25778660

  15. Talking therapy groups on acute psychiatric wards: patients' experience of two structured group formats

    PubMed Central

    Radcliffe, Jonathan; Bird, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method We report the results of a clinical audit of patients' reactions to two types of talking therapy groups facilitated by assistant psychologists and psychology graduates on three acute wards. Patients' experiences of problem-solving and interpersonal group formats were explored via focus groups and structured interviews with 29 group participants. Results Both group formats generated high satisfaction ratings, with benefits related mostly to generic factors. Clinical implications Adequately trained and supported assistant psychologists and psychology graduates can provide supportive talking groups that patients find helpful. PMID:27512586

  16. Talking therapy groups on acute psychiatric wards: patients' experience of two structured group formats.

    PubMed

    Radcliffe, Jonathan; Bird, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Aims and method We report the results of a clinical audit of patients' reactions to two types of talking therapy groups facilitated by assistant psychologists and psychology graduates on three acute wards. Patients' experiences of problem-solving and interpersonal group formats were explored via focus groups and structured interviews with 29 group participants. Results Both group formats generated high satisfaction ratings, with benefits related mostly to generic factors. Clinical implications Adequately trained and supported assistant psychologists and psychology graduates can provide supportive talking groups that patients find helpful. PMID:27512586

  17. Experiences of parenting a child with medical complexity in need of acute hospital care.

    PubMed

    Hagvall, Monica; Ehnfors, Margareta; Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta

    2016-03-01

    Parents of children with medical complexity have described being responsible for providing advanced care for the child. When the child is acutely ill, they must rely on the health-care services during short or long periods of hospitalization. The purpose of this study was to describe parental experiences of caring for their child with medical complexity during hospitalization for acute deterioration, specifically focussing on parental needs and their experiences of the attitudes of staff. Data were gathered through individual interviews and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The care period can be interpreted as a balancing act between acting as a caregiver and being in need of care. The parents needed skilled staff who could relieve them of medical responsibility, but they wanted to be involved in the care and in the decisions taken. They needed support, including relief, in order to meet their own needs and to be able to take care of their children. It was important that the child was treated with respect in order for the parent to trust the staff. An approach where staff view parents and children as a single unit, as recipients of care, would probably make the situation easier for these parents and children. PMID:25352538

  18. Head-mounted LED for optogenetic experiments of freely-behaving animal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Ki Yong; Gnade, Andrew G.; Rush, Alexander D.; Patten, Craig D.

    2016-03-01

    Recent developments in optogenetics have demonstrated the ability to target specific types of neurons with sub-millisecond temporal precision via direct optical stimulation of genetically modified neurons in the brain. In most applications, the beam of a laser is coupled to an optical fiber, which guides and delivers the optical power to the region of interest. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are an alternative light source for optogenetics and they provide many advantages over a laser based system including cost, size, illumination stability, and fast modulation. Their compact size and low power consumption make LEDs suitable light sources for a wireless optogenetic stimulation system. However, the coupling efficiency of an LED's output light into an optical fiber is lower than a laser due to its noncollimated output light. In typical chronic optogenetic experiment, the output of the light source is transmitted to the brain through a patch cable and a fiber stub implant, and this configuration requires two fiber-to-fiber couplings. Attenuation within the patch cable is potential source of optical power loss. In this study, we report and characterize a recently developed light delivery method for freely-behaving animal experiments. We have developed a head-mounted light source that maximizes the coupling efficiency of an LED light source by eliminating the need for a fiber optic cable. This miniaturized LED is designed to couple directly to the fiber stub implant. Depending on the desired optical power output, the head-mounted LED can be controlled by either a tethered (high power) or battery-powered wireless (moderate power) controller. In the tethered system, the LED is controlled through 40 gauge micro coaxial cable which is thinner, more flexible, and more durable than a fiber optic cable. The battery-powered wireless system uses either infrared or radio frequency transmission to achieve real-time control. Optical, electrical, mechanical, and thermal

  19. Tritium release from Ti-T layers in air, in aqueous media and in animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Bíró, J; Fehér, I; Máté, L; Varga, L

    1978-01-01

    In connection with Ti-T incorporation hazard to which operators of neutron generators are exposed the release of tritium from Ti-T preparations of different ages was studied in experiments carried out in air, in aqueous media and in living animals. Samples were prepared with activities from 10 to 30 mCi and the effect of storage on the tritium release rate was also observed. In 250 days a fraction of 10(-3) of the tritium activity was absorbed by aqueous liquids. In air the release varied from 10(-6) to 10(-7) per hour. The Ti-T samples of different ages, introduced surgically into the abdominal cavity of rats, showed the tritium release rate to decrease with time. The tritium activity observable in the circulation was 5 to 6 orders of magnitude smaller compared with the introduced value. The observations permit the inference that in the case of Ti-T incorporation only a minor fraction of the tritium burden can be assessed from the activity measured in the urine. PMID:754442

  20. Initial Management of Childhood Acute Immune Thrombocytopenia: Single-Center Experience of 32 Years.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Inci; Ozdemir, Nihal; Celkan, Tiraje; Soylu, Selen; Karaman, Serap; Canbolat, Aylin; Dogru, Omer; Erginoz, Ethem; Apak, Hilmi

    2015-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acute self-limited disease of childhood, mostly resolving within 6 months irrespective of whether therapy is given or not. Treatment options when indicated include corticosteroids, intravenous immune globulin (IVIG), and anti-RhD immunoglobulin. We reviewed our 32 years' experience for first-line therapy of acute ITP. Five hundred forty-one children (mean age: 5.3 years) diagnosed and treated for ITP were evaluated retrospectively. Among 491 acute ITP patients, IVIG was used in 27%, high-dose steroids in 27%, low-dose steroids in 20%, anti-D immunoglobulin G (IgG) in 2%, and no therapy in 22%. When the initial response (platelets >50 × 10(9)/L) to first-line treatment modalities were compared, 89%, 84%, and 78% patients treated by low-dose steroids, high-dose steroids, and IVIG responded to treatment, respectively (P > .05). Mean time to recovery of platelets was 16.8, 3.8, and 3.0 days in patients treated with low-dose steroids, high-dose steroids, and IVIG, respectively (P < .0001). Thrombocytopenia recurred in 23% of low-dose steroid, 39% of high-dose steroid, and in 36% of IVIG (P < .0001) treatment groups. Of 108 patients who were observed alone, 4 (3%) had a recurrence on follow-up and only 2 of these required treatment subsequently. Recurrence was significantly less in no therapy group compared with children treated with 1 of the 3 options of pharmacotherapy (P < .0001). Response rates were similar between patients treated by IVIG and low- and high-dose steroids; however, time to response was slower in patients treated with low-dose steroids compared with IVIG and high-dose steroids. PMID:26154620

  1. The Impact of Specific Prior Experiences on Infants' Extension of Animal Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furrer, Stephanie D.; Younger, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the influence of prior exposure to specific animal properties on 15-month-old infants' inductive generalization. Using picture books, 29 infants were trained on properties linked in a congruent or incongruent manner with four animal categories. A generalized imitation task was then administered to assess patterns of property extension…

  2. 21 CFR 514.80 - Records and reports concerning experience with approved new animal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...: Purpose 21 CFR Paragraph and Title What information must be reported concerning approved NADAs or ANADAs... new animal drug so that the same information is required to be reported for more than one application... approved new animal drugs. 514.80 Section 514.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  3. Public Concern with Animal Well-Being: Place, Social Structural Location, and Individual Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Holli A.; Lobao, Linda M.; Sharp, Jeff S.

    2006-01-01

    While sociologists and the public at large are increasingly interested in the life conditions of animals, conceptual and empirical development of the topic is limited. This paper seeks to further develop the sociological research on attitudes toward animal well-being. We build on insights from contemporary stratification theory to explain the…

  4. Acute epiglottitis in a rural area: experiences with an anesthesiologist-staffed ambulance helicopter.

    PubMed

    Søreide, E; Smedvig, J P; Harboe, S; Mikkelsen, H; Eielsen, O V

    1994-01-01

    The majority of fatalities due to acute epiglottitis (AE) result from prehospital airway problems. We reviewed the courses of 14 patients with AE treated by an aeromedical team consisting of an anesthesiologist and a paramedic. Eight patients were transported from a physician's office or from the patient's own home. One patient was intubated at the scene, and two received ventilatory support with mask and bag en route to the hospital. Two patients suffered cardiopulmonary arrest before arrival of the aeromedical team, both resulting in severe hypoxic encephalopathy. All six patients transported from hospitals were intubated prior to the helicopter transport. Based on our own experience and a review of the literature, we discuss prehospital airway management in this group of patients. PMID:8207158

  5. Communicating with culturally and linguistically diverse patients in an acute care setting: nurses' experiences.

    PubMed

    Cioffi, R N Jane

    2003-03-01

    Communication with culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) patients has been shown to be difficult. This study describes nurses' experiences of communicating with CLD patients in an acute care setting. A purposive sample of registered nurses and certified midwives (n=23) were interviewed. Main findings were: interpreters, bilingual health workers and combinations of different strategies were used to communicate with CLD patients; some nurses showed empathy, respect and a willingness to make an effort in the communication process with others showing an ethnocentric orientation. Main recommendations were: prioritising access to appropriate linguistic services, providing nurses with support from health care workers, e.g., bilingual health care workers who are able to provide more in-depth information, increasing nurses' understanding of legal issues within patient encounters, supporting nurses to translate their awareness of cultural diversity into acceptance of, appreciation for and commitment to CLD patients and their families. PMID:12605952

  6. Animal experiments by K-edge subtraction angiography by using SR (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anno, I.; Akisada, M.; Takeda, T.; Sugishita, Y.; Kakihana, M.; Ohtsuka, S.; Nishimura, K.; Hasegawa, S.; Takenaka, E.; Hyodo, K.; Ando, M.

    1989-07-01

    Ischemic heart disease is one of the most popular and lethal diseases for aged peoples in the world, and is usually diagnosed by transarterial selective coronary arteriography. However, it is rather invasive and somewhat dangerous, so that the selective coronary arteriography is not feasible for prospective screening of coronary occlusive heart disease. Conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is widely known as a relatively noninvasive and useful technique is making a diagnosis of arterial occlusive disease, especially in making the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. Conventional intravenous subtraction angiography by temporal subtraction, however, has several problems when applying to the moving objects. Digital subtraction method using high-speed switching above and below the K edge could be the ideal approach to this solution. We intend to make a synchrotron radiation digital K-edge subtraction angiography in the above policy, and to apply it to the human coronary ischemic disease on an outpatient basis. The principles and experimental systems have already been described in detail by our coworkers. Our prototype experimental system is situated at the AR (accumulation ring) for TRISTAN project of high energy physics. The available beam size is 70 mm by 120 mm. The electron energy of AR is 6.5 GeV and average beam current is approximately 10 mA. This paper will show the animal experiments of our K-edge subtraction system, and discuss some problems and technical difficulties. Three dogs, weighing approximately 15 kg, were examined to evaluate the ability of our prototype synchrotron radiation DSA unit, that we are now constructing. The dogs were anaesthetized with pentobarbital sodium, intravenously (30 mg/kg). Six french-sized (1.52 mm i.d.) pigtail catheter with multiple side holes were introduced via the right femoral vein into the right atrium by the cutdown technique under conventional x-ray fluoroscopic control. Respiration of the dogs was

  7. TISSUE CONCENTRATION OF PCBS IN ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS AS COMPARED WITH THOSE IN HUMANS WITH BACKGROUND-LEVEL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    TISSUE CONCENTRATION OF PCBS IN ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS AS COMPARED WITH THOSE IN HUMANS WITH BACKGROUND-LEVEL EXPOSURE. M J DeVito1 and M P Longnecker2. 1NHEERL, ORD, USEPA; Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 2Epidemiology
    Branch, NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.

    To ...

  8. More Ideas for Monitoring Biological Experiments with the BBC Computer: Absorption Spectra, Yeast Growth, Enzyme Reactions and Animal Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Presented are five ideas for A-level biology experiments using a laboratory computer interface. Topics investigated include photosynthesis, yeast growth, animal movements, pulse rates, and oxygen consumption and production by organisms. Includes instructions specific to the BBC computer system. (CW)

  9. Development of anammox process for animal waste treatment: Experiences in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research was conducted to develop process applications for anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria acclimated to animal wastewater conditions using microbial immobilization techniques. In the anammox reaction, under anaerobic and autotrophic conditions, ammonium (NH4+) serves as the electron...

  10. Conservation Station and Beyond: Experiences at Disney's Animal Kingdom That Make a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, Jackie; Lehnhardt, Kathy; Mellen, Jill; Dierking, Lynn; Adelman, Leslie; Burks, Kyle; Miller, Lance

    2001-01-01

    Describes a five-year plan for educational research and evaluation at the Disney Animal Kingdom. Focuses on conservation-related issues and presents some of the preliminary results from the study of visitor attitudes. (DDR)

  11. Acute O3 damage on first year coppice sprouts of aspen and maple sprouts in an open-air experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Darbah, J.N.; Nagy, J.; Jones, W. S.; Burton, A. J.; Kubiske, M. E.

    2011-10-01

    We studied the effect of high ozone (O{sub 3}) concentration (110-490 nmol mol{sup -1}) on regenerating aspen (Populus tremuloides) and maple (Acer saccharum) trees at an open-air O{sub 3} pollution experiment near Rhinelander WI USA. This study is the first of its kind to examine the effects of acute O{sub 3} exposure on aspen and maple sprouts after the parent trees, which were grown under elevated O{sub 3} and/or CO{sub 2} for 12 years, were harvested. Acute O{sub 3} damage was not uniform within the crowns of aspen suckers; it was most severe in the mature, fully expanded photosynthesizing leaves. Young expanding leaves showed no visible signs of acute O{sub 3} damage contrary to expectations. Stomatal conductance played a primary role in the severity of acute O{sub 3} damage as it directly controlled O{sub 3} uptake. Maple sprouts, which had lower stomatal conductance, smaller stomatal aperture, higher stomatal density and larger leaf surface area, were tolerant of acute O{sub 3} exposure. Moreover, elevated CO{sub 2} did not ameliorate the adverse effects of acute O{sub 3} dose on aspen and maple sprouts, in contrast to its ability to counteract the effects of long-term chronic exposure to lower O{sub 3} levels.

  12. Ammonia Level and Mortality in Acute Liver Failure: A Single-Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Niranjan-Azadi, Ashwini M; Araz, Filiz; Patel, Yuval A; Alachkar, Nada; Alqahtani, Saleh; Cameron, Andrew M; Stevens, Robert D; Gurakar, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acute liver failure (ALF) is an emergent condition that requires intensive care and manifests in particular by significant elevation in serum ammonia level. Patients with ALF with concomitant renal failure experience a further rise in ammonia levels due to decreased kidney excretion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between elevated ammonia levels and mortality and to characterize the subgroup of ALF patients who develop acute kidney injury (AKI) and require renal replacement therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a retrospective study of 36 consecutive patients admitted to Johns Hopkins Hospital's intensive care units from December 2008 to May 2013 who presented with grade III and IV hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Patients who developed AKI and required hemodialysis (HD) were compared to those without AKI. Patients with chronic kidney disease were excluded. RESULTS Sixteen patients developed AKI and underwent HD (HD group). Median ammonia levels in the HD and non-HD groups were not significantly different (p=0.95). In the HD group, 4 patients underwent liver transplantation (LT) and 3 of them survived the hospitalization. Among the 12 HD patients who did not receive LT, 6 (50%) survived. Out of 20 non-HD patients, 3 were transplanted, all of whom survived the hospitalization. Among the 17 non-HD patients who did not receive LT, 14 (82%) survived. Admission ammonia level (>120 µmol/L) was associated with higher mortality rate (OR=7.188 [95% CI 1.3326-38.952], p=0.026) in all patients. CONCLUSIONS Admission ammonia level is predictive of mortality in ALF patients with grade 3-4 HE. PMID:27480786

  13. Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI): A Single Institution Experience of 15 Years.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramesh; Sedky, Mohammed Jaber; Varghese, Sunny Joseph; Sharawy, Osama Ebrahim

    2016-09-01

    Transfusion related acute Lung injury (TRALI) though a serious blood transfusion reaction with a fatality rate of 5-25 % presents with acute respiratory distress with hypoxaemia and noncardiac pulmonary oedema within 6 h of transfusion. In non fatal cases, it may resolve within 72 h or earlier. Although reported with an incidence of 1:5000, its true occurrence is rather unknown. Pathogenesis is believed to be related to sequestration and adhesion of neutrophils to the pulmonary capillary endothelium and its activation leading to its destruction and leaks. The patient's underlying condition, anti-neutrophil antibody in the transfused donor plasma and certain lipids that accumulate in routinely stores blood and components are important in its aetiopathogenesis. Patient's predisposing conditions include haematological malignancy, major surgery (especially cardiac), trauma and infections. The more commonly incriminated products include fresh frozen plasma (FFP), platelets (whole blood derived and apheresis), whole blood and Packed RBC. Occasional cases involving cryoprecipitate and Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVig) have also been reported. We present a 15 year single institution experience of TRALI, during which we observed 9 cases among 170,871 transfusions, giving an incidence of 1:19,000. We did not encounter cases of haematological malignancy or cardiac surgery in our TRALI patients. Among the blood products, that could be related to TRALI in our patients included solitary cases receiving cryoprecipitate, IVIg, and recombinant Factor VII apart from platelets and FFP. All patients were treated with oxygen support. Six patients required mechanical ventilation. Off label hydrocortisone was given to all patients. There were no cases of fatality among our patients. PMID:27429525

  14. An acute multispecies episode of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever in captive wild animals in an Italian zoo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In July 2011, in a zoological garden in Rome, Italy, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a fatal, systemic disease of Artiodactyls, was suspected on the basis of neurological signs and gross lesions observed in a banteng, the first animal to die of this infection. An MCF type-specific, one-step PCR wit...

  15. An animal model to study toxicity of central nervous system therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Effects on growth and craniofacial proportion

    SciTech Connect

    Schunior, A.; Zengel, A.E.; Mullenix, P.J.; Tarbell, N.J.; Howes, A.; Tassinari, M.S. )

    1990-10-15

    Many long term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia have short stature, as well as craniofacial and dental abnormalities, as side effects of central nervous system prophylactic therapy. An animal model is presented to assess these adverse effects on growth. Cranial irradiation (1000 cGy) with and without prednisolone (18 mg/kg i.p.) and methotrexate (2 mg/kg i.p.) was administered to 17- and 18-day-old Sprague-Dawley male and female rats. Animals were weighed 3 times/week. Final body weight and body length were measured at 150 days of age. Femur length and craniofacial dimensions were measured directly from the bones, using calipers. For all exposed groups there was a permanent suppression of weight gain with no catch-up growth or normal adolescent growth spurt. Body length was reduced for all treated groups, as were the ratios of body weight to body length and cranial length to body length. Animals subjected to cranial irradiation exhibited microcephaly, whereas those who received a combination of radiation and chemotherapy demonstrated altered craniofacial proportions in addition to microcephaly. Changes in growth patterns and skeletal proportions exhibited sexually dimorphic characteristics. The results indicate that cranial irradiation is a major factor in the growth failure in exposed rats, but chemotherapeutic agents contribute significantly to the outcome of growth and craniofacial dimensions.

  16. Ultrasound strain elastography in assessment of cortical mechanical behavior in acute renal vein occlusion: in vivo animal model.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; He, Wen; Cheng, Ling-Gang; Li, Xiao-Ya; Zhang, Xiou-Ru; Juluru, Krishna; Al Khori, Noor; Coya, Adrienne; Min, Robert

    2015-01-01

    To assess the correlation of quantitative ultrasound strain parameters with the severity of cortical edema in renal vein occlusion, we prospectively performed ultrasound strain elastography on a canine acute renal vein occlusion model prior to and following 10, 20, and 40min of renal vein ligation. Strain and strain relaxation time representing the deformation and relaxation of the renal cortices and reference soft tissue were produced by the external compression with the ultrasound transducer and estimated using commercially available 2-D speckle tracking software. Cortical thickness was additionally measured. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to examine the difference in cortical thickness, strain ratio (mean cortical strain divided by mean reference tissue strain), and strain relaxation time ratio (cortical relaxation time divided by reference tissue relaxation time) prior to and after renal vein ligation. Pearson's correlation coefficient was applied to test the relationship between strain parameters and the time of the renal vein ligation. There was a strong positive correlation between the duration of renal vein ligation and strain (R(2)=0.97) and strain relaxation time (R(2)=0.98) ratios. Significant differences in strain and strain relaxation time ratios were found at all measured timepoints (all P≪.001). Cortical thickness, however, showed no significant difference between timepoints (P=.065). Our result suggest that strain and strain relaxation time ratios may be used as quantitative markers for the assessment of the renal cortical mechanical behavior in subclinical acute renal vein occlusion. PMID:25481219

  17. The role of placenta growth factor in the hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Yuan, Li-Jie; Zhao, Shuang; Shan, Yu; Wu, Hong-Min; Xue, Xin-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to hyperoxia leads to acute lung injury. Alveolar type II cells are main target of hyperoxia-induced lung injury. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of placental growth factor (PLGF) in hyperoxia-induced lung injury. Using experimental hyperoxia-induced lung injury model of neonatal rat and mouse lung epithelial type II cells (MLE-12), we examined the levels of PLGF in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in the supernatants of MLE-12 cells. Our results revealed that exogenous PLGF induced hyperoxia-induced lung injury. Furthermore, PLGF triggered a shift of vinculin from insoluble to soluble cell fraction, similar to the observation under hyperoxia stimulation. Moreover, we observed significantly reduced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and increased permeability in MLE-12 cells treated with PLGF. These results suggest that PLGF triggers focal adhesion disassembly in alveolar type II cells via inhibiting the activation of focal adhesion kinase. Our findings reveal a novel role of PLGF in hyperoxia-induced lung injury and provide a potential target for the management of hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury. PMID:25515701

  18. The acute psychobiological impact of the intensive care experience on relatives

    PubMed Central

    Turner-Cobb, J.M.; Smith, P.C.; Ramchandani, P.; Begen, F.M.; Padkin, A.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing awareness amongst critical care practitioners that the impact of intensive care medicine extends beyond the patient to include the psychological impact on close family members. Several studies have addressed the needs of relatives within the intensive care context but the psychobiological impact of the experience has largely been ignored. Such impact is important in respect to health and well-being of the relative, with potential to influence patient recovery. The current feasibility study aimed to examine the acute psychobiological impact of the intensive care experience on relatives. Using a mixed methods approach, quantitative and qualitative data were collected simultaneously. Six relatives of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of a District General Hospital, were assessed within 48 h of admission. Qualitative data were provided from semi-structured interviews analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Quantitative data were collected using a range of standardised self-report questionnaires measuring coping responses, emotion, trauma symptoms and social support, and through sampling of diurnal salivary cortisol as a biomarker of stress. Four themes were identified from interview: the ICU environment, emotional responses, family relationships and support. Questionnaires identified high levels of anxiety, depression and trauma symptoms; the most commonly utilised coping techniques were acceptance, seeking support through advice and information, and substance use. Social support emerged as a key factor with focused inner circle support relating to family and ICU staff. Depressed mood and avoidance were linked to greater mean cortisol levels across the day. Greater social network and coping via self-distraction were related to lower evening cortisol, indicating them as protective factors in the ICU context. The experience of ICU has a psychological and physiological impact on relatives, suggesting the importance of

  19. The acute psychobiological impact of the intensive care experience on relatives.

    PubMed

    Turner-Cobb, J M; Smith, P C; Ramchandani, P; Begen, F M; Padkin, A

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing awareness amongst critical care practitioners that the impact of intensive care medicine extends beyond the patient to include the psychological impact on close family members. Several studies have addressed the needs of relatives within the intensive care context but the psychobiological impact of the experience has largely been ignored. Such impact is important in respect to health and well-being of the relative, with potential to influence patient recovery. The current feasibility study aimed to examine the acute psychobiological impact of the intensive care experience on relatives. Using a mixed methods approach, quantitative and qualitative data were collected simultaneously. Six relatives of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of a District General Hospital, were assessed within 48 h of admission. Qualitative data were provided from semi-structured interviews analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Quantitative data were collected using a range of standardised self-report questionnaires measuring coping responses, emotion, trauma symptoms and social support, and through sampling of diurnal salivary cortisol as a biomarker of stress. Four themes were identified from interview: the ICU environment, emotional responses, family relationships and support. Questionnaires identified high levels of anxiety, depression and trauma symptoms; the most commonly utilised coping techniques were acceptance, seeking support through advice and information, and substance use. Social support emerged as a key factor with focused inner circle support relating to family and ICU staff. Depressed mood and avoidance were linked to greater mean cortisol levels across the day. Greater social network and coping via self-distraction were related to lower evening cortisol, indicating them as protective factors in the ICU context. The experience of ICU has a psychological and physiological impact on relatives, suggesting the importance of

  20. Intra-breath arterial oxygen oscillations detected by a fast oxygen sensor in an animal model of acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Formenti, F.; Chen, R.; McPeak, H.; Murison, P. J.; Matejovic, M.; Hahn, C. E. W.; Farmery, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is considerable interest in oxygen partial pressure (Po2) monitoring in physiology, and in tracking Po2 changes dynamically when it varies rapidly. For example, arterial Po2 (PaO2) can vary within the respiratory cycle in cyclical atelectasis (CA), where PaO2 is thought to increase and decrease during inspiration and expiration, respectively. A sensor that detects these PaO2 oscillations could become a useful diagnostic tool of CA during acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods We developed a fibreoptic Po2 sensor (<200 µm diameter), suitable for human use, that has a fast response time, and can measure Po2 continuously in blood. By altering the inspired fraction of oxygen (FIO2) from 21 to 100% in four healthy animal models, we determined the linearity of the sensor's signal over a wide range of PaO2 values in vivo. We also hypothesized that the sensor could measure rapid intra-breath PaO2 oscillations in a large animal model of ARDS. Results In the healthy animal models, PaO2 responses to changes in FIO2 were in agreement with conventional intermittent blood-gas analysis (n=39) for a wide range of PaO2 values, from 10 to 73 kPa. In the animal lavage model of CA, the sensor detected PaO2 oscillations, also at clinically relevant PaO2 levels close to 9 kPa. Conclusions We conclude that these fibreoptic PaO2 sensors have the potential to become a diagnostic tool for CA in ARDS. PMID:25631471

  1. Animal Science, Including Instruction in Agricultural Mechanics, Careers, Leadership, and Supervised Occupational Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Education, Jefferson City. Agricultural Education Section.

    Developed and reviewed by a committee of 16 teachers, the state supervisory staff, and the teacher education staff, this curriculum guide is for vocational agriculture teacher use with ninth grade students interested in agricultural occupations. Some objectives for this 1-year course in animal science are--(1) to develop competencies in…

  2. Development of anammox process for animal waste treatment: Experiences in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The isolation of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria adapted to animal wastewater environments can be of significant importance to farming systems, because excess ammonia in modern, industrial-type livestock production is a global problem, and the use of conventional biological nitrogen ...

  3. Five Design Principles for Experiments on the Effects of Animated Pedagogical Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Richard E.; Choi, Sunhee

    2005-01-01

    Research on animated pedagogical agents (agents) is viewed as a very positive attempt to introduce more pedagogical support and motivational elements into multi-media instruction. Yet, existing empirical studies that examine the learning benefits of agents have had very mixed results, largely due to the way that they are designed. This article…

  4. Interleukin-1β and Interleukin-6 in Arthritis Animal Models: Roles in the Early Phase of Transition from Acute to Chronic Inflammation and Relevance for Human Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ferraccioli, Gianfranco; Bracci-Laudiero, Luisa; Alivernini, Stefano; Gremese, Elisa; Tolusso, Barbara; De Benedetti, Fabrizio

    2010-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is the major target of the therapeutic approach in rheumatoid arthritis. A key issue in the approach to chronic arthritis is the understanding of the crucial molecules driving the transition from the acute phase to the chronic irreversible phase of the disease. In this review we analyzed five experimental arthritis animal models (antigen-induced arthritis, adjuvant-induced arthritis, streptococcal cell wall arthritis, collagen-induced arthritis and SKG) considered as possible scenarios to facilitate interpretation of the biology of human rheumatoid arthritis. The SKG model is strictly dependent on interleukin (IL)-6. In the other models, IL-1β and IL-6, more than TNF-α, appear to be relevant in driving the transition, which suggests that these should be the targets of an early intervention to stop the course toward the chronic form of the disease. PMID:20683549

  5. Fibre optic sensors for temperature and pressure monitoring in laser ablation: experiments on ex-vivo animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, Daniele; Saccomandi, Paola; Schena, Emiliano; Duraibabu, Dinesh B.; Poeggel, Sven; Adilzhan, Abzal; Aliakhmet, Kamilla; Silvestri, Sergio; Leen, Gabriel; Lewis, Elfed

    2016-05-01

    Optical fibre sensors have been applied to perform biophysical measurement in ex-vivo laser ablation (LA), on pancreas animal phantom. Experiments have been performed using Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) arrays for spatially resolved temperature detection, and an all-glass Extrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (EFPI) for pressure measurement. Results using a Nd:YAG laser source as ablation device, are presented and discussed.

  6. Modification of hippocampal markers of synaptic plasticity by memantine in animal models of acute and repeated restraint stress: implications for memory and behavior.

    PubMed

    Amin, Shaimaa Nasr; El-Aidi, Ahmed Amro; Ali, Mohamed Mostafa; Attia, Yasser Mahmoud; Rashed, Laila Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    Stress is any condition that impairs the balance of the organism physiologically or psychologically. The response to stress involves several neurohormonal consequences. Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and its release is increased by stress that predisposes to excitotoxicity in the brain. Memantine is an uncompetitive N-methyl D-aspartate glutamatergic receptors antagonist and has shown beneficial effect on cognitive function especially in Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the work was to investigate memantine effect on memory and behavior in animal models of acute and repeated restraint stress with the evaluation of serum markers of stress and the expression of hippocampal markers of synaptic plasticity. Forty-two male rats were divided into seven groups (six rats/group): control, acute restraint stress, acute restraint stress with Memantine, repeated restraint stress, repeated restraint stress with Memantine and Memantine groups (two subgroups as positive control). Spatial working memory and behavior were assessed by performance in Y-maze. We evaluated serum cortisol, tumor necrotic factor, interleukin-6 and hippocampal expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, synaptophysin and calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Our results revealed that Memantine improved spatial working memory in repeated stress, decreased serum level of stress markers and modified the hippocampal synaptic plasticity markers in both patterns of stress exposure; in ARS, Memantine upregulated the expression of synaptophysin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and downregulated the expression of calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and in repeated restraint stress, it upregulated the expression of synaptophysin and downregulated calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II expression. PMID:25680935

  7. Involvement of activated leukocytes in the regulation of plasma levels of acute phase proteins in microgravity simulation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna; Turin-Kuzmin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Earth-based studies of microgravity effects showed the induction of the mechanisms of acute phase reaction (APR). APR comprises the transition of stress-sensitive protein kinases of macrophages and other responsive cells into the active state and the phosphorylation of transcription factors which in turn stimulate the production of acute-phase reaction cytokines. Leukocyte activation is accompanied by the acceleration of the formation of oxygen radicals which can serve a functional indice of leukocyte cell state. The series of events at acute phase response result in selective changes in the synthesis of a number of secretory blood proteins (acute phase proteins, APPs) in liver cells thus contributing the recovery of homeostasis state in the organism. Earlier experiment with head-down tilt showed the increase in plasma concentrations of two cytokine mediators of acute phase response, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) being the outcome of the activation of producer cells, foremost, leukocytes. In experiment with 4-day dry immersion chemiluminescent (ChL) reply of the whole blood samples to a test stimulus were studied along with the measurements of plasma levels of APPs, namely, alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1-AT), alpha1-acid glycoprotein (alpha1-AGP), alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2-M), ceruloplasmin (Cer), haptoglobin (Hp), C3-complement component (C3), C-reactive protein (CRP). Eight individuals aged 21.2 ± 3.2 years were the test subjects in the investigation. Protein studies showed a noticeable increase in the mean plasma levels of all APPs measured in experiment thus producing the evidence of the activation of acute phase response mechanisms while individual patterns revealed variability during the immersion period. The overall trends were similar to these in the previous immersion series. The augment in the strength of signal in stimulated light emission tests was higher after 1- and 2-day of immersion exposure than before the

  8. Evaluation of negative pressure vacuum-assisted system in acute and chronic wounds closure: our experience.

    PubMed

    Chiummariello, S; Guarro, G; Pica, A; Alfano, C

    2012-10-01

    Negative-pressure therapy or vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) has been used in clinical applications since the 1940's and has increased in popularity over the past decade. This dressing technique consists of an open cell foam dressing put into the wound cavity, a vacuum pump produces a negative pressure and an adhesive drape. A controlled sub atmospheric pressure from 75 to 150 mmHg is applied. The vacuum-assisted closure has been applied by many clinicians to chronic wounds in humans; however it cannot be used as a replacement for surgical debridement. The initial treatment for every contaminated wound should be the necrosectomy. The VAC therapy has a complementary function and the range of its indications includes pressure sores, stasis ulcers, chronic wounds such as diabetic foot ulcers, post traumatic and post operative wounds, infected wounds such as necrotizing fasciitis or sternal wounds, soft-tissue injuries, bone exposed injuries, abdominal open wounds and for securing a skin graft. We describe our experience with the VAC dressing used to manage acute and chronic wounds in a series of 135 patients, with excellent results together with satisfaction of the patients. PMID:23095568

  9. A summary of antibody titration experiments in some animal species treated with ERA vaccine and an inactivated rabies vaccine.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, A; Caporale, V; Ciuchini, F; Di Trani, L; Irsara, A; Prosperi, S

    1982-01-01

    The results of antibody titrations in different animal species vaccinated against rabies are reported. The following points are considered: (1) antibody titration may be used to detect an immunity status in dogs, (2) equines should be vaccinated in infected areas, (3) experiments in progress are comparing ERA vaccine and an inactivated vaccine in bovines, and (4) the vaccination of fallow deer (Dama dama) and moufflons (Ovis ammon musimon) produced results suggesting an extension of the experiment with the purpose of vaccinating wild ruminants whenever possible. PMID:7128062

  10. A preliminary investigation of the environmental Control and Life Support Subsystems (EC/LSS) for animal and plant experiment payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary study of the environmental control and life support subsystems (EC/LSS) necessary for an earth orbital spacecraft to conduct biological experiments is presented. The primary spacecraft models available for conducting these biological experiments are the space shuttle and modular space station. The experiments would be housed in a separate module that would be contained in either the shuttle payload bay or attached to the modular space station. This module would be manned only for experiment-related tasks, and would contain a separate EC/LSS for the crew and animals. Metabolic data were tabulated on various animals that are considered useful for a typical experiment program. The minimum payload for the 30-day space shuttle module was found to require about the equivalent of a one-man EC/LSS; however, the selected two-man shuttle assemblies will give a growth and contingency factor of about 50 percent. The maximum payloads for the space station mission will require at least a seven-man EC/LSS for the laboratory colony and a nine-man EC/LSS for the centrifuge colony. There is practically no room for growth or contingencies in these areas.

  11. The Experience of Witnessing Patients' Trauma and Suffering among Acute Care Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Mary E.; Buchanan, Marla J.

    2011-01-01

    A large body of research provides evidence of workplace injuries to those in the nursing profession. Research on workplace stress and burnout among medical professionals is also well known; however, the profession of acute care nursing has not been examined with regards to work-related stress. This qualitative study focused on acute care nurses'…

  12. The design and statistical analysis of animal experiments: introduction to this issue.

    PubMed

    Festing, Michael F W; Nevalainen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Animal research has made major contributions to the health and welfare of humans and domestic animals. Immunization, first developed against rabies and anthrax by Pasteur using dogs, sheep, and rabbits, is now used to control many infectious diseases. The first drug, Salvarsan, was developed by Ehrlich using rabbits infected with the organism causing syphilis. This was the forerunner of the many drugs developed by the pharmaceutical industry today. The discovery of vitamins using rats has almost eliminated diseases such as scurvy and rickets; and hormones, such as insulin discovered following work in dogs, have helped to control many metabolic diseases. These and many other advances have enabled physicians to treat a wide range of human diseases. But many diseases continue to cause suffering. PMID:25541539

  13. Design of a testing strategy using non-animal based test methods: lessons learnt from the ACuteTox project.

    PubMed

    Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Prieto, Pilar; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Stanzel, Sven

    2013-06-01

    In the framework of toxicology, a testing strategy can be viewed as a series of steps which are taken to come to a final prediction about a characteristic of a compound under study. The testing strategy is performed as a single-step procedure, usually called a test battery, using simultaneously all information collected on different endpoints, or as tiered approach in which a decision tree is followed. Design of a testing strategy involves statistical considerations, such as the development of a statistical prediction model. During the EU FP6 ACuteTox project, several prediction models were proposed on the basis of statistical classification algorithms which we illustrate here. The final choice of testing strategies was not based on statistical considerations alone. However, without thorough statistical evaluations a testing strategy cannot be identified. We present here a number of observations made from the statistical viewpoint which relate to the development of testing strategies. The points we make were derived from problems we had to deal with during the evaluation of this large research project. A central issue during the development of a prediction model is the danger of overfitting. Procedures are presented to deal with this challenge. PMID:22951946

  14. Experience and Distribution of Attention: Pet Exposure and Infants' Scanning of Animal Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Karinna B.; Oakes, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Although infants' cognitions about the world must be influenced by experience, little research has directly assessed the relation between everyday experience and infants' visual cognition in the laboratory. Eye-tracking procedures were used to measure 4-month-old infants' eye movements as they visually investigated a series of…

  15. IRAD experience on surgical type A acute dissection patients: results and predictors of mortality

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Paolo; Patel, Himanshu J.; Gleason, Thomas G.; Sundt, Thoralf M.; Myrmel, Truls; Desai, Nimesh; Korach, Amit; Panza, Antonello; Bavaria, Joe; Khoynezhad, Ali; Woznicki, Elise; Montgomery, Dan; Isselbacher, Eric M.; Di Bartolomeo, Roberto; Fattori, Rossella; Nienaber, Christoph A.; Eagle, Kim A.; Trimarchi, Santi

    2016-01-01

    Type A acute aortic dissection (TAAD) is a disease that has a catastrophic impact on a patient’s life and emergent surgery represents a key goal of early treatment. Despite continuous improvements in imaging techniques, medical therapy and surgical management, early mortality in patients undergoing TAAD repair still remains high, ranging from 17% to 26%. In this setting, the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (IRAD), the largest worldwide registry for acute aortic dissection, was established to assess clinical characteristics, management and outcomes of TAAD patients. The present review aimed to evaluate and comment on outcomes of TAAD surgery as reported from IRAD series. PMID:27563547

  16. Diet and body lipid composition: lessons from animal and human experiments.

    PubMed

    Dutra-de-Oliveira, J E

    1992-06-01

    It is accepted that atherosclerosis begins early in life and will develop over several years. The type of diet fed to young rats and other mammals plays a role in the regulation of adult lipid homeostasis. Foods vary in fatty acid content. The importance of diet on lipid profile has been demonstrated in several animal studies and in different human population groups. Bridging the effect of early diet and later adult cardiovascular disease deserves decisive collaboration among different specialists, as well as preventive dietary intervention based on recent advances from food composition and dietotherapy. PMID:1619202

  17. [Early life stressful experiences and neuropsychiatric vulnerability: evidences from human and animal models].

    PubMed

    Rincel, Marion; Lépinay, Amandine; Gabory, Anne; Théodorou, Vassilia; Koehl, Muriel; Daugé, Valérie; Maccari, Stefania; Darnaudéry, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    The human newborn is highly dependent on parental care for its survival but also for the healthy development of its brain. A large body of literature demonstrates the impact of early life adversity, even during the prenatal period, on the adult's health. The susceptibility to neuropsychiatric diseases is often potentiated by early stress. If there is an agreement that a critical developmental period exists, the mechanisms underlying the long term effects of early life adversity are still poorly understood. Recent studies in animals highlight the involvement of epigenetic processes in the transmission of such vulnerabilities, notably via modifications in germ cells, which can be transmitted in the next generations. PMID:26850613

  18. [An animal experiment on arterial wall reaction to stents coated with gold, silver and copper].

    PubMed

    Tanigawa, N; Sawada, S; Koyama, T; Kobayashi, M; Iwamiya, T; Saito, S; Fujiwara, Y; Yoshida, K; Ohta, Y

    1991-10-25

    Expandable metallic stents coated with gold, silver, and copper, and bare stainless steel stents were implanted into the abdominal aorta of eight dogs to determine their effect on the vessel wall. The animals were observed for two weeks. Abdominal angiograms were taken every week. The dogs were then killed for macroscopic and histopathological examination. The results were as follows. (1) The stents coated with gold and the noncoated stainless steel stents showed less histopathologic change than the other stents. (2) The stents coated with copper were associated with severe erosion of the vessel wall and marked thrombus formation. PMID:1766817

  19. Selenium Inhibits Renal Oxidation and Inflammation But Not Acute Kidney Injury in an Animal Model of Rhabdomyolysis

    PubMed Central

    Shanu, Anu; Groebler, Ludwig; Kim, Hyun Bo; Wood, Sarah; Weekley, Claire M.; Aitken, Jade B.; Harris, Hugh H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a manifestation of rhabdomyolysis (RM). Extracellular myoglobin accumulating in the kidney after RM promotes oxidative damage, which is implicated in AKI. Aim: To test whether selenium (Se) supplementation diminishes AKI and improves renal function. Results: Dietary selenite increased Se in the renal cortex, as demonstrated by X-ray fluorescence microscopy. Experimental RM-stimulated AKI as judged by increased urinary protein/creatinine, clusterin, and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), decreased creatinine clearance (CCr), increased plasma urea, and damage to renal tubules. Concentrations of cholesterylester (hydro)peroxides and F2-isoprostanes increased in plasma and renal tissues after RM, while aortic and renal cyclic guanidine monophosphate (cGMP; marker of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability) decreased. Renal superoxide dismutase-1, phospho-P65, TNFα gene, MCP-1 protein, and the 3-chloro-tyrosine/tyrosine ratio (Cl-Tyr/Tyr; marker of neutrophil activation) all increased after RM. Dietary Se significantly decreased renal lipid oxidation, phospho-P65, TNFα gene expression, MCP-1 and Cl-Tyr/Tyr, improved NO bioavailability in aorta but not in the renal microvasculature, and inhibited proteinuria. However, CCr, plasma urea and creatinine, urinary clusterin, and histopathological assessment of AKI remained unchanged. Except for the Se++ group, renal angiotensin-receptor-1/2 gene/protein expression increased after RM with parallel increases in MEK1/2 inhibitor-sensitive MAPkinase (ERK) activity. Innovation: We employed synchrotron radiation to identify Se distribution in kidneys, in addition to assessing reno-protection after RM. Conclusion: Se treatment has some potential as a therapeutic for AKI as it inhibits oxidative damage and inflammation and decreases proteinuria, albeit histopathological changes to the kidney and some plasma and urinary markers of AKI remain unaffected after RM. Antioxid Redox Signal. 18, 756–769

  20. Isolation and propagation of the animal rotaviruses in MA-104 cells--30 years of practical experience.

    PubMed

    Otto, Peter H; Reetz, Jochen; Eichhorn, Werner; Herbst, Werner; Elschner, Mandy C

    2015-10-01

    A total of 136 rotavirus positive samples from diarrhoeic animals of different species were submitted for isolation and cultural propagation of rotavirus on MA-104 cells. The samples were collected from animals with diarrhoea, between 1980 and 2010, originating from herds or farms located in several parts of Germany. Rotaviruses of species A were isolated from 102 faecal samples in cultures of MA-104 cells under the following conditions: pre-treatment of virus with trypsin, incorporation of trypsin into culture medium, use of roller cultures, and centrifugation of the samples on the cells. The cell culture adapted viruses produced a cytopathic effect, accompanied by the release of cells from the glass surface of the cultivation vessels. After 10 passages the virus isolates yielded titres between 10(5.5) and 10(7.5)ml(-1) TCID50. Isolation and serial propagation of the virus in MA-104 cells was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay, transmission electron microscopy, and polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of viral dsRNA. Eight (5.9%) of the electrophoretic profiles were characteristic of species B or D rotaviruses, which were not replicated in MA-104 cells. PMID:26235236

  1. Active Compounds of Rhubarb Root and Rhizome in Animal Model Experiments of Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ai-ju; Song, Liang; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-guang; Chen, Zi-xian; Huang, Li-bo; Zhang, Hong-feng; Zheng, Guo-qing

    2015-01-01

    Rhubarb root and rhizome (RRR) has been clinically used for stroke at least 2000 years and is still used in modern times in both China and elsewhere worldwide. The objective of present study was to evaluate the efficacy of active compounds of RRR (ACRRR) for experimental ischemic stroke. Studies of ACRRR in animal models of ischemic stroke were identified from 5 databases until April 2014. Study quality for each included article was evaluated according to the CAMARADES 10-item checklist. Outcome measures were neurological deficit score and infarct size. All the data were analyzed using RevMan 5.1 software. As a result, 20 studies were identified describing procedures involving 577 animals. The quality score of studies ranges from 2 to 6, and the median was 3.4. Six studies showed significant effects of ACRRR for improving infarct size compared with model group (P < 0.01). Six studies indicated significant effects of ACRRR for improving the neurological deficit scores according to Zea longa criterion or eight-point criterion (P < 0.01). In conclusion, these findings demonstrated a possible efficacy of ACRRR that have potential neuroprotective effect for experimental ischemic stroke. However, these apparently positive findings should be interpreted with caution because of the methodological flaws. PMID:26495006

  2. [Methods for determining the glomerular filtration rate in experiments with small animals: position report of the Animal Experiment Diagnosis of Kidney Function Study Group of the Society of Nephrology of East Germany].

    PubMed

    Hagemann, I; Wüstenberg, P W

    1987-10-01

    The methods of the investigation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the animal experiment on cats and rats used at present are demonstrated as survey and the results of the basic investigations are compared. The values in cats lie between 20 and 30 ml/min/100 g kidney, in rats GFR values are between 0.6 and 1.0 ml/min/100 g body mass and 0.6-0.3 ml/min/1 g kidney. The basic values are essentially influenced by the experimental conditions and determination methods so that only clearance values within the working team concerned are comparable. PMID:3433988

  3. Early experiences with a porcine hepatocyte-based bioartificial liver in acute hepatic failure patients.

    PubMed

    Morsiani, E; Pazzi, P; Puviani, A C; Brogli, M; Valieri, L; Gorini, P; Scoletta, P; Marangoni, E; Ragazzi, R; Azzena, G; Frazzoli, E; Di Luca, D; Cassai, E; Lombardi, G; Cavallari, A; Faenza, S; Pasetto, A; Girardis, M; Jovine, E; Pinna, A D

    2002-03-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is the only effective therapeutic modality in severe acute hepatic failure (AHF). The scarcity of organs for transplantation leads to an urgent necessity for temporary liver support treatments in AHF patients. A hepatocyte-based bioartificial liver (BAL) is under investigation with the main purpose to serve as bridging treatment until a liver becomes available for OLT, or to promote spontaneous liver regeneration. We developed a novel radial-flow bioreactor (RFB) for three-dimensional, high-density hepatocyte culture and an integrated pumping apparatus in which, after plasmapheresis, the patient's plasma is recirculated through the hepatocyte-filled RFB. Two hundred thirty grams of freshly isolated porcine hepatocytes were loaded into the RFB for clinical liver support treatment. The BAL system was used 8 times in supporting 7 AHF patients in grade III-IV coma, all waiting for an urgent OLT Three patients with no history of previous liver diseases were affected by fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) due to hepatitis B virus, 3 by primary non-function (PNF) of the transplanted liver, and one by AHF due to previous abdominal trauma and liver surgery. Six out of 7 patients underwent OLT following BAL treatment(s), which lasted 6-24 hours. All patients tolerated the procedures well, as shown by an improvement in the level of encephalopathy, a decrease in serum ammonia, transaminases and an amelioration of the prothrombin time, with full neurological recovery after OLT Our initial clinical experience confirms the safety of this BAL configuration and suggests its clinical efficacy as a temporary liver support system in AHF patients. PMID:11999191

  4. Instrumentation for fast-scan cyclic voltammetry combined with electrophysiology for behavioral experiments in freely moving animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takmakov, Pavel; McKinney, Collin J.; Carelli, Regina M.; Wightman, R. Mark

    2011-07-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry is a unique technique for sampling dopamine concentration in the brain of rodents in vivo in real time. The combination of in vivo voltammetry with single-unit electrophysiological recording from the same microelectrode has proved to be useful in studying the relationship between animal behavior, dopamine release and unit activity. The instrumentation for these experiments described here has two unique features. First, a 2-electrode arrangement implemented for voltammetric measurements with the grounded reference electrode allows compatibility with electrophysiological measurements, iontophoresis, and multielectrode measurements. Second, we use miniaturized electronic components in the design of a small headstage that can be fixed on the rat's head and used in freely moving animals.

  5. Timely embolectomy in acute massive pulmonary embolism prevents catastrophe: An experience from two cases

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Dwarakaprasad; Setty, Huliyurdurga Srinivasasetty Natraj; Kumarswamy; Kumar, Sunil; Jayanth; Manjunath, Cholenahalli Nanjappa

    2016-01-01

    Acute massive pulmonary embolism is a life-threatening emergency that must be promptly diagnosed and managed. Over the last several years, the use of computed tomography scanning has improved the clinician's ability to diagnose acute pulmonary embolism. We report two cases of acute massive pulmonary embolism who presented with sudden onset of dyspnea and underwent successful open pulmonary embolectomy. The first case presented with acute onset of dyspnea of 2 days duration, in view of hemodynamic deterioration and two-dimensional echocardiography, it revealed clot in right ventricular (RV) apex and right pulmonary artery; the patient underwent cardiopulmonary bypass and open pulmonary embolectomy with RV clot extraction. The second case presented with a sudden onset of dyspnea on the 15th postoperative day for traumatic rupture of urinary bladder, in view of recent surgery, the patient was subjected to surgical embolectomy. Following surgical intervention, both the patients made a prompt recovery. PMID:27433070

  6. Acute Ataxia in Childhood: 11-Year Experience at a Major Pediatric Neurology Referral Center.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Kavita; Maricich, Stephen M; Alper, Gulay

    2016-08-01

    We categorized the causes of acute ataxia in the pediatric population-referred to the Division of Neurology-at a large, urban pediatric medical center. Of the 120 cases identified over the past 11 years, post-infectious cerebellar ataxia was the most commonly diagnosed (59%), followed by drug intoxication, opsoclonus-myoclonus ataxia syndrome, episodic ataxia, acute cerebellitis, cerebellar stroke, ADEM, meningitis, cerebral vein thrombosis, Leigh's disease, Miller-Fisher syndrome, and concussion. Among the patients with post-infectious cerebellar ataxia, 85% were 1-6 years old and all had a history of antecedent viral illness. CSF pleocytosis was present in 40% of patients; all had normal brain MRIs. The majority (91%) recovered within 30 days. We conclude that post-infectious cerebellar ataxia remains the most common cause of acute ataxia in childhood and that it carries a good prognosis. We also differentiate acute post-infectious cerebellar ataxia from other causes with similar presentations. PMID:27071467

  7. Approaches to gastrointestinal cytoprotection: from isolated cells, via animal experiments to healthy human subjects and patients with different gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Mózsik, Gyula; Szabó, Imre L; Czimmer, József

    2011-01-01

    Our clinical observations proved that the the duodenal ulcer in patients healed without any inhibition of gastric acid secretion (1965), and the healing rates of atropine vs cimetidine vs Carbenoxolone were equal and superior to that of placebo in randomized, prospective and multiclinical study of DU patients (1978). The phenomenon of gastric cytoprotection was defined by André Robert in rats (1979). The essential point of this phenomenon is that the prostaglandins prevent the chemical-induced gastric mucosal damage without affecting gastric acid secretion, this being originally suggested as a reaction specific to prostaglandins. Since then gastrointestinal cytoprotection has been shown with various agents (anticholinergic agents, H(2)RA, growth factors, body protecting compound, BPC) and retinoids in animals; the latter differing from the actions of vitamin A. In examining the various components of gastrointestinal cytoprotection , different studies have performed in isolated cells, stable cell lines, animal experiments, healthy human subjects, in patients chronic gastric and duodenal ulcers, and with different gastrointestinal disorders. Our attention has focused on the effects of cytoprotective agents on cellular viability, mitochondrial and DNA damage, oxygen free radicals, natural antioxidant systems, mucosal biochemistry, vascular events, gastrointestinal mucosal protection as well as in their prevention of different human diseases. This paper gives an overview on the different approaches for the exploring gastrointestinal cytoprotection (at the level of isolated cells, animal experiments, healthy human beings and patients with different gastrointestinal disorders). It has been indicated that the gastric cytoprotection exists in animals, human healthy subjects, patients with different gastrointestinal disorders. The our human observation in patients with duodenal ulcer healed without any changes of gastric acid secretion, there were no significant

  8. Methionine excess in diet induces acute lethal hepatitis in mice lacking cystathionine γ-lyase, an animal model of cystathioninuria.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hidenori; Akahoshi, Noriyuki; Kamata, Shotaro; Hagiya, Yoshifumi; Hishiki, Takako; Nagahata, Yoshiko; Matsuura, Tomomi; Takano, Naoharu; Mori, Masatomo; Ishizaki, Yasuki; Izumi, Takashi; Kumagai, Yoshito; Kasahara, Tadashi; Suematsu, Makoto; Ishii, Isao

    2012-05-01

    Physiological roles of the transsulfuration pathway have been recognized by its contribution to the synthesis of cytoprotective cysteine metabolites, such as glutathione, taurine/hypotaurine, and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), whereas its roles in protecting against methionine toxicity remained to be clarified. This study aimed at revealing these roles by analyzing high-methionine diet-fed transsulfuration-defective cystathionine γ-lyase-deficient (Cth(-/-)) mice. Wild-type and Cth(-/-) mice were fed a standard diet (1 × Met: 0.44%) or a high-methionine diet (3 × Met or 6 × Met), and hepatic conditions were monitored by serum biochemistry and histology. Metabolome analysis was performed for methionine derivatives using capillary electrophoresis- or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and sulfur-detecting gas chromatography. The 6 × Met-fed Cth(-/-) (not 1 × Met-fed Cth(-/-) or 6 × Met-fed wild type) mice displayed acute hepatitis, which was characterized by markedly elevated levels of serum alanine/aspartate aminotransferases and serum/hepatic lipid peroxidation, inflammatory cell infiltration, and hepatocyte ballooning; thereafter, they died of gastrointestinal bleeding due to coagulation factor deficiency. After 1 week on 6 × Met, blood levels of ammonia/homocysteine and hepatic levels of methanethiol/3-methylthiopropionate (a methionine transamination product/methanethiol precursor) became significantly higher in Cth(-/-) mice than in wild-type mice. Although hepatic levels of methionine sulfoxide became higher in 6 × Met-fed wild-type mice and Cth(-/-) mice, those of glutathione, taurine/hypotaurine, and H(2)S became lower and serum levels of homocysteine became much higher in 6 × Met-fed Cth(-/-) mice than in wild-type mice. Thus, transsulfuration plays a critical role in the detoxification of excessive methionine by circumventing aberrant accumulation of its toxic transamination metabolites, including ammonia, methanethiol, and 3-methylthiopropionate

  9. Free-zone electrophoresis of animal cells. 1: Experiments on cell-cell interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P. W.; Hjerten, S.

    1985-01-01

    The electrophoretically migrating zones wasa monitored. The absence of fluid flows in the direction of migration permits direct measurement of electrophoretic velocities of any material. Sedimentation is orthogonal to electrokinetic motion and the effects of particle-particle interaction on electrophoretic mobility is studied by free zone electrophoresis. Fixed erythrocytes at high concentrations, mixtures of fixed erythrocytes from different animal species, and mixtures of cultured human cells were studied in low ionic strength buffers. The electrophoretic velocity of fixed erythrocytes was not altered by increasing cell concentration or by the mixing of erythrocytes from different species. When zones containing cultured human glial cells and neuroblastoma cells are permitted to interact during electrophoresis, altered migration patterns occur. It is found that cell-cell interactions depends upon cell type.

  10. Intramedullary fixation with screwed, conical stems--unsolicited results from animal experiments.

    PubMed

    van Loon, P J; Weinans, H; Huiskes, R; de Groot, K; Slooff, T J

    1992-01-01

    For the purpose of studying bone remodeling around prostheses, a segmental replacement for the goat tibia was designed, using a conical, screw-threaded, hydroxyapatite-coated stem for fixation. Eight goats were provided with the implant, seven of which loosened within 10 days post-operatively, displaying progressive radiolucency and gross rotational motion. The eighth one also loosened radiographically, but developed a stabilizing callus bridge to prevent motion. A second design of similar shape and coating, but lacking the screw threads, was designed and also applied in eight animals. In this case, no loosening occurred in the first 6 weeks post-operatively. It is concluded that the application of screwed intramedullary stems for prosthetic fixation is not a viable concept, because the threads prevent the stem from subsiding and restabilizing when minor initial interface stress-relaxation and remodeling has occurred. PMID:10149986

  11. [Animal experiment studies on the topical and systemic effectiveness of prednisolone-17-ethylcarbonate-21-propionate].

    PubMed

    Alpermann, H G; Sandow, J; Vogel, H G

    1986-01-01

    Prednisolone-17-ethyl carbonate-21-propionate (PrEP, Hoe 777) was tested for antiinflammatory activity in various animal models by topical and systemic administration. In those models being indicative of topical efficacy, the potency of PrEP was the same as that of desoximetasone. However, systemic effects after topical administration of PrEP in shaved skin of the dorsum of rats were relatively weak compared with the reference compound. Moreover, there were less systemic corticoid effects after s.c. administration of PrEP than after desoximetasone. Thus, PrEP is obviously a compound with a considerable split of topical and systemic activity, suggesting its testing in man for systemic effects after topical administration. PMID:3705675

  12. Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation without total body irradiation for pediatric acute leukemia: a single-center experience

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Yanshun; Qin, Maoquan; Wang, Bin; Li, Sidan; Zhu, Guanghua; Zhou, Xuan; Yang, Jun; Wang, Kai; Lin, Wei; Zheng, Huyong

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a promising method for therapy of pediatric patients with acute leukemia. However, less availability of matched donors limited its wide application. Recently, haploidentical HSCT has become a great resource. Here, we have retrospectively reported our experience of 20 pediatric patients with acute leukemia who underwent haploidentical HSCT without total body irradiation (TBI) myeloablative regimen in our center from November 2007 to June 2014. All the patients attained successful HSCT engraftment in terms of myeloid and platelet recovery. Thirteen patients developed grade I–IV acute graft-versus-host disease (a-GVHD). The incidence of grade I–II a-GVHD, grade III–IV a-GVHD, and chronic GVHD (c-GVHD) was 45%, 20%, and 25%, respectively. The mean myeloid and platelet recovery time was 13.20±2.41 and 19.10±8.37 days. The median follow-up time was 43.95±29.26 months. During the follow-up, three patients died. The overall survival (OS) rate was 85%. The present study indicated that haploidentical HSCT without TBI myeloablative regimen significantly improved the OS rate of pediatric patients with acute leukemia. PMID:27217774

  13. A Different Kind of Animal: Liminal Experiences of Social Work Doctoral Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adorno, Gail; Cronley, Courtney; Smith, Kenneth Scott

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that social and academic integration is a vital factor in doctoral student retention. This paper describes findings from a qualitative study which explored the experiences of a cohort of social work doctoral students during the first year in their programme of study. We used the anthropological concept of liminality which…

  14. Depression Increases Sympathetic Activity and Exacerbates Myocardial Remodeling after Myocardial Infarction: Evidence from an Animal Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Yuan, Xiaoran; Ruan, Bing; Sun, Lifang; Tang, Yanhong; Yang, Bo; Hu, Dan; Huang, Congxin

    2014-01-01

    Depression is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). Excessive sympathetic activation and serious myocardial remodeling may contribute to this association. The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of depression on sympathetic activity and myocardial remodeling after MI. Wild-type (WT) rats were divided into a sham group (Sham), a myocardial infarction group (MI), a depression group (D), and a myocardial infarction plus depression group (MI+D). Compared with controls, the MI+D animals displayed depression-like behaviors and attenuated body weight gain. The evaluation of sympathetic activity showed an increased level in plasma concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine and higher expression of myocardial tyrosine hydroxylase in the MI+D group than the control groups (p<0.05 for all). Cardiac function and morphologic analyses revealed a decreased fractional shortening accompanied by increased left ventricular dimensions, thinning myocardium wall, and reduced collagen repair in the MI+D group compared with the MI group (p<0.05 for all). Frequent premature ventricular contractions, prolonged QT duration and ventricular repolarization duration, shorted effective refractory period, and increased susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmia were displayed in MI+D rats. These results indicate that sympathetic hyperactivation and exacerbated myocardial remodeling may be a plausible mechanism linking depression to an adverse prognosis after MI. PMID:25036781

  15. [Healing of a deep skin wound using a collagen sponge as dressing in the animal experiment].

    PubMed

    Sedlarik, K M; Schoots, C; Oosterbaan, J A; Klopper, J P

    1992-10-01

    The high number of available wound dressing materials as well as the scientific reports about the topic indicates that the problem of an ideal wound dressing is not jet solved. In the last thirty years lot of scientific reports about collagen as wound covering has been published. The positive effect of collagen by his application on a wound ist well known. We investigated the effect of a collagen sponge on healing of full thickness skin wound in guinea pig. The animals were divided in two control groups and two experimental groups. In the control group there were air exposed wounds and another wounds covered with paraffin gauze. In the experimental groups were such wounds covered with natural reconstituted collagen sponge as well as wounds covered with chemically prepared collagen sponge with hexamethyldiisocyanat. The results were compared. The air exposed wounds healed in 50 days, the wounds covered with paraffin gauze healed in 48 days. By covering the wounds with collagen sponge the healing was shortened in 24 or 27 days respectively. Not only the healing time was shortened but also the quality of the wound repair by dressing the wounds with collagen sponge was enhanced. PMID:1361713

  16. CSD, BBB and MMP-9 elevations: animal experiments versus clinical phenomena in migraine.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar

    2009-11-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) has been at the center stage of migraine pathophysiology for approximately six decades. Reanalysis of CSD reveals several major unbridgeable gaps in this experimental neurophysiologic concept for migraine. Key phenotypic and pharmacological features of migraine challenge the assumed pathophysiologic role of CSD. Detection of subclinical infarct-like white matter lesions (WMLs) in the brain of some migraine patients stimulated the concept of CSD-related BBB disruption. Raised plasma levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in migraine patients in the headache phase, specifically MMP-9, suggested a pathogenetic role for MMP elevation in the development of both migraine attacks and WMLs. Migraine attacks with or without aura present a unique, profound and protracted vasodilatory challenge to the homeostatic systems of the brain. To accommodate the rather sudden increase in cerebral blood flow, the brain circulatory network must dilate and the BBB must expand considerably. MMPs can influence expansion of the extracellular matrix of the BBB and loosening of the intercellular tight junctions between endothelial cells through proteolytic degradation during migrainous cerebrovascular dilatation. WMLs most probably reflect transient and discrete breakdown of the BBB consequent to sustained cerebral hyperperfusion rather than hypoperfusion. Systemic elevations of MMPs are not specific to migraine but are found in a variety of neurological and extra-neurological disorders. This perspective presents a conceptual dissociation between the effects of CSD on the brain of experimental animals and the clinical phenomena in migraine patients. PMID:19903020

  17. Neural and mesenchymal stem cells in animal models of Huntington's disease: past experiences and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Kerkis, Irina; Haddad, Monica Santoro; Valverde, Cristiane Wenceslau; Glosman, Sabina

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited disease that causes progressive nerve cell degeneration. It is triggered by a mutation in the HTT gene that strongly influences functional abilities and usually results in movement, cognitive and psychiatric disorders. HD is incurable, although treatments are available to help manage symptoms and to delay the physical, mental and behavioral declines associated with the condition. Stem cells are the essential building blocks of life, and play a crucial role in the genesis and development of all higher organisms. Ablative surgical procedures and fetal tissue cell transplantation, which are still experimental, demonstrate low rates of recovery in HD patients. Due to neuronal cell death caused by accumulation of the mutated huntingtin (mHTT) protein, it is unlikely that such brain damage can be treated solely by drug-based therapies. Stem cell-based therapies are important in order to reconstruct damaged brain areas in HD patients. These therapies have a dual role: stem cell paracrine action, stimulating local cell survival, and brain tissue regeneration through the production of new neurons from the intrinsic and likely from donor stem cells. This review summarizes current knowledge on neural stem/progenitor cell and mesenchymal stem cell transplantation, which has been carried out in several animal models of HD, discussing cell distribution, survival and differentiation after transplantation, as well as functional recovery and anatomic improvements associated with these approaches. We also discuss the usefulness of this information for future preclinical and clinical studies in HD. PMID:26667114

  18. A comparison of InVivoStat with other statistical software packages for analysis of data generated from animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Clark, Robin A; Shoaib, Mohammed; Hewitt, Katherine N; Stanford, S Clare; Bate, Simon T

    2012-08-01

    InVivoStat is a free-to-use statistical software package for analysis of data generated from animal experiments. The package is designed specifically for researchers in the behavioural sciences, where exploiting the experimental design is crucial for reliable statistical analyses. This paper compares the analysis of three experiments conducted using InVivoStat with other widely used statistical packages: SPSS (V19), PRISM (V5), UniStat (V5.6) and Statistica (V9). We show that InVivoStat provides results that are similar to those from the other packages and, in some cases, are more advanced. This investigation provides evidence of further validation of InVivoStat and should strengthen users' confidence in this new software package. PMID:22071578

  19. Transmission and dose–response experiments for social animals: a reappraisal of the colonization biology of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Conlan, Andrew J. K.; Line, John E.; Hiett, Kelli; Coward, Chris; Van Diemen, Pauline M.; Stevens, Mark P.; Jones, Michael A.; Gog, Julia R.; Maskell, Duncan J.

    2011-01-01

    Dose–response experiments characterize the relationship between infectious agents and their hosts. These experiments are routinely used to estimate the minimum effective infectious dose for an infectious agent, which is most commonly characterized by the dose at which 50 per cent of challenged hosts become infected—the ID50. In turn, the ID50 is often used to compare between different agents and quantify the effect of treatment regimes. The statistical analysis of dose–response data typically makes the assumption that hosts within a given dose group are independent. For social animals, in particular avian species, hosts are routinely housed together in groups during experimental studies. For experiments with non-infectious agents, this poses no practical or theoretical problems. However, transmission of infectious agents between co-housed animals will modify the observed dose–response relationship with implications for the estimation of the ID50 and the comparison between different agents and treatments. We derive a simple correction to the likelihood for standard dose–response models that allows us to estimate dose–response and transmission parameters simultaneously. We use this model to show that: transmission between co-housed animals reduces the apparent value of the ID50 and increases the variability between replicates leading to a distinctive all-or-nothing response; in terms of the total number of animals used, individual housing is always the most efficient experimental design for ascertaining dose–response relationships; estimates of transmission from previously published experimental data for Campylobacter spp. in chickens suggest that considerable transmission occurred, greatly increasing the uncertainty in the estimates of dose–response parameters reported in the literature. Furthermore, we demonstrate that accounting for transmission in the analysis of dose–response data for Campylobacter spp. challenges our current understanding of

  20. Soviet experiments aimed at investigating the influence of space flight factors on the physiology of animals and man.

    PubMed

    Parin, V V; Gazenko, O G

    1963-01-01

    Results are given of biological experiments on space ship-satellites II, III, IV and V, and of scientific investigations made during the flights of Cosmonauts Gagarin and Titov aboard space ships Vostok I and Vostok II. Physiological reactions to the action of the flight stress-factors are not of a pathological character. In the post-flight period no alterations in health conditions of either cosmonauts or animals were observed. At the same time some peculiarities which were revealed while analyzing physiological reactions and a number of biological indices require further investigations. The most important tasks remaining are to study the influence of protracted weightlessness, of the biological action of space radiation, of the action of acceleration stresses after prolonged stay under zero-gravity conditions and also to analyze the influence on the organism of the whole combination of spaceflight factors, including emotional strain. In the Soviet Union, a great number of biological experiments have been conducted with a view to elucidating the action of space flight factors on living organisms and the design of systems necessary to ensure healthy activity during flight aboard rocket space vehicles. The first flight experiments with animals were conducted by means of geophysical rockets. The next step in this direction was made by the launching of Sputnik II in 1957 and by experiments on space ship-satellites in 1960-61. The main purpose of flight and laboratory investigations was to obtain the objective scientific criteria essential for ensuring the safety of manned space flight. PMID:12056420

  1. A New Approach Using Manganese-Enhanced MRI to Diagnose Acute Mesenteric Ischemia in a Rabbit Model: Initial Experience

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Cheng; Kuang, Lian-qin; Zhang, Yu-long; Cheng, Hai-yun; Min, Jia-yan; Wang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) has been applied to a wide range of biological and disease research. The purpose of the study was to use MEMRI to diagnose the acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI). Methods. The institutional experimental animal ethics committee approved this study. To optimize the dose of Mn2+ infusion, a dose-dependent curve was obtained using Mn2+-enhanced T1 map MRI by an intravenous infusion 2.5–20 nmol/g body weight (BW) of 50 nmol/L MnCl2. The eighteen animals were divided into control, sham-operated, and AMI groups. AMI models were performed by ligating the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). T1 values were measured on T1 maps in regions of the small intestinal wall and relaxation rate (ΔR1) was calculated. Results. A nonlinear relationship between infused MnCl2 solution dose and increase in small intestinal wall ΔR1 was observed. Control animal exhibited significant Mn2+ clearance over time at the dose of 15 nmol/g BW. In the AMI model, ΔR1 values (0.95 ± 0.13) in the small intestinal wall were significantly lower than in control group (2.05 ± 0.19) after Mn2+ infusion (P < 0.01). Conclusion. The data suggest that MEMRI shows potential as a diagnostic technique that is directly sensitive to the poor or absent perfusion in AMI. PMID:26693487

  2. Animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation. PMID:16501652

  3. Stepping Back and Listening: Staff Experiences of Using a Coaching Approach in an Acute Rehabilitation Ward for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Gray, Debra; Ross, Kirsty; Prat-Sala, Merce; Kibble, Sharon; Harden, Beverley

    2016-08-01

    Previous research has highlighted that acute care provision can lead to a loss of confidence, control, and independent functioning in older adult patients. In addition, it is recognized that interactions between patients and health care staff are central to the prevention of functional decline in patients. In this study, we aimed to affect the staff-patient relationship by implementing a coaching intervention in an older adult acute care setting. Here, we report on staff experiences of this coaching approach. Data were collected from 16 members of staff via semi-structured interviews, which were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four themes were identified: Putting a Label on It, Stepping Back and Listening, Identifying the Opportunities, and Working as Team. Our findings show that a coaching approach can be successful in getting staff to reconsider their interactions with patients and to focus on strategies that foster the independence and autonomy of older adult patients. PMID:26481943

  4. [Nurse's experience of using music therapy to relieve acute pain in a post-orthopedic surgery patient].

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Tsai-Yun; Hsieh, Hsiu-Fang

    2009-08-01

    This article describes the experience of a nurse who used music therapy as the intervention to reduce a patient's pain during wound care after orthopedic surgery. The intervention was applied between April 8th and April 29th 2008. The nurse applied Roy's adaptation model as the assessment tool. The major and primary health problem identified was acute pain accelerated by wound care. The pain of this client not only triggered negative feelings, but also affected negatively on his daily life and feelings of self-belongingness. Through an individual-tailored music therapy, the client's pain during wound care was greatly reduced and even completely disappeared. The ultimate outcome of decrease in pain included reductions in negative feelings and increased positive spiritual strength. It is recommended that nurses who are responsible for wound care use this simple and economical music intervention to reduce acute postoperative pain. PMID:19634107

  5. Animal Models of Acute Photodamage: Comparisons of Anatomic, Cellular, and Molecular Responses in C57BL/6J, SKH-1, and Balb/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Meena R.; Werth, Benjamin; Werth, Victoria P.

    2012-01-01

    Human cutaneous photodamage is a major medical problem that includes premature aging and fragility of the skin. Non-xenografted animal models have not been comparatively evaluated for how well they resemble the changes seen in human skin. Here, we sought to identify a suitable mouse model that recapitulates key anatomic, cellular, and molecular responses observed in human skin during acute UV exposure. Adult females from three strains of mice, C57BL/6J, SKH-1, and Balb/c, were exposed to ultraviolet-B, and then evaluated 3h or 20h after the last irradiation. Skin from UVB-exposed C57BL/6J mice showed features resembling human photodamage, including epidermal thickening, infiltration of the dermis with inflammatory cells, induction of TNFα mRNA, accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), particularly hyaluronan (HA) in the epidermis, and loss of collagen. Hairless SKH1 mouse skin responded similarly, but without any induction of TNFα mRNA or chondroitin sulfate (CS). Irradiated Balb/c mice were the least similar to humans. Our results in C57BL/6J mice, and to a lesser extent in SKH-1 mice, show cutaneous responses to a course of UVB-irradiation that mirror those seen in human skin. Proper choice of model is critical for investigating cellular and molecular mechanisms of photodamage and photoaging. PMID:21332482

  6. Severe acute respiratory failure managed with continuous positive airway pressure and partial extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal by an artificial membrane lung. A controlled, randomized animal study.

    PubMed

    Borelli, M; Kolobow, T; Spatola, R; Prato, P; Tsuno, K

    1988-12-01

    Using an animal model of acute respiratory failure (ARF), we evaluated two treatments: conventional mechanical pulmonary ventilation (MV) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) with extracorporeal removal of CO2 by an artificial membrane lung. We developed a model of "mild" ARF and a model of "severe" ARF after ventilating healthy sheep at a peak inspiratory pressure of 50 cm H2O for various lengths of time. Sheep from either injury models were randomly assigned to one of the above treatment groups. All 16 sheep from the model with "severe" ARF died, with progressive deterioration in pulmonary function and multiorgan failure irrespective of the treatment. Of 11 sheep from the model with "mild" ARF treated by MV, only three survived, whereas all 11 sheep from the model with "mild" ARF treated with CPAP and extracorporeal removal of CO2 responded well, and nine sheep ultimately recovered. We conclude that CPAP with extracorporeal removal of CO2 provided a better environment for the recovery in our model with "mild" ARF than the conventional arrangement centered on MV alone. Our studies also suggest that lung injury can progress (i.e., model with "severe" ARF) to where neither of the two treatments can succeed. PMID:3144216

  7. Effects of escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb from horse chestnut, the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum L., on acute inflammation in animals.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, H; Li, Y; Murakami, T; Ninomiya, K; Yamahara, J; Yoshikawa, M

    1997-10-01

    We investigated the effects of escins Ia, Ib, and IIb isolated from horse chestnut, the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum L., and desacylescins I and II obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of escins on acute inflammation in animals (p.o.). Escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb (50-200 mg/kg) inhibited the increase of vascular permeability induced by both acetic acid in mice and histamine in rats. Escins Ib, IIa, and IIb (50-200 mg/kg) also inhibited that induced by serotonin in rats, but escin Ia didn't. Escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb (200 mg/kg) inhibited the hind paw edema induced by carrageenin at the first phase in rats. Escin Ia (200 mg/kg) and escins Ib, IIa, and IIb (50-200 mg/kg) inhibited the scratching behavior induced by compound 48/80 in mice, but escin Ia was weakest. Desacylescins I and II (200 mg/kg) showed no effect. With regard to the relationship between their chemical structures and activities, the acyl groups in escins were essential. Escins Ib, IIa, and IIb with either the 21-angeloyl group or the 2'-O-xylopyranosyl moiety showed more potent activities than escin Ia which had both the 21-tigloyl group and the 2'-O-glucopyranosyl moiety. PMID:9353571

  8. THE EFFECT OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE CLASS ENROLLMENT AND FARM EXPERIENCE ON ANIMAL SCIENCE KNOWLEDGE OF FIRST YEAR STUDENTS ENROLLED IN OKLAHOMA COLLEGES OF AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRUTON, JOHN C.

    A WRITTEN EXAMINATION WAS ADMINISTERED TO 605 FRESHMEN ENROLLED IN OKLAHOMA COLLEGES OFFERING AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMS TO DETERMINE WHETHER CERTAIN BACKGROUND EXPERIENCES CONTRIBUTED TO THE STUDENT'S KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING OF MAJOR CONCEPTS IN ANIMAL SCIENCE, TO MAKE INFORMATION AVAILABLE TO THE ANIMAL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT OF OKLAHOMA STATE…

  9. The experience of daily life of acutely admitted frail elderly patients one week after discharge from the hospital

    PubMed Central

    Andreasen, Jane; Lund, Hans; Aadahl, Mette; Sørensen, Erik E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Frail elderly are at higher risk of negative outcomes such as disability, low quality of life, and hospital admissions. Furthermore, a peak in readmission of acutely admitted elderly patients is seen shortly after discharge. An investigation into the daily life experiences of the frail elderly shortly after discharge seems important to address these issues. The aim of this study was to explore how frail elderly patients experience daily life 1 week after discharge from an acute admission. Methods The qualitative methodological approach was interpretive description. Data were gathered using individual interviews. The participants were frail elderly patients over 65 years of age, who were interviewed at their home 1 week after discharge from an acute admission to a medical ward. Results Four main categories were identified: “The system,” “Keeping a social life,” “Being in everyday life,” and “Handling everyday life.” These categories affected the way the frail elderly experienced daily life and these elements resulted in a general feeling of well-being or non-well-being. The transition to home was experienced as unsafe and troublesome especially for the more frail participants, whereas the less frail experienced this less. Conclusion and discussion Several elements and stressors were affecting the well-being of the participants in daily life 1 week after discharge. In particular, contact with the health care system created frustrations and worries, but also physical disability, loneliness, and inactivity were issues of concern. These elements should be addressed by health professionals in relation to the transition phase. Future interventions should incorporate a multidimensional and bio-psycho-social perspective when acutely admitted frail elderly are discharged. Stakeholders should evaluate present practice to seek to improve care across health care sectors. PMID:26037333

  10. Effect of a wildlife conservation camp experience in China on student knowledge of animals, care, propensity for environmental stewardship, and compassionate behavior toward animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bexell, Sarah M.

    The goal of conservation education is positive behavior change toward animals and the environment. This study was conducted to determine whether participation in a wildlife conservation education camp was effective in positively changing 8-12 year old students': (a) knowledge of animals, (b) care about animals, (c) propensity for environmental and wildlife stewardship, and (d) compassionate behavior toward animals. During the summer of 2005, 2 five-day camps were conducted at 2 zoological institutions in Chengdu, China. The camp curriculum was influenced by theory and research on the following: conservation psychology, social learning theory, empathy and moral development theory, socio-biological theory, constructivist theory, and conservation science. Camp activities were sensitive to Chinese culture and included Chinese conservation issues. Activities were designed to help children form bonds with animals and care enough about them to positively change their behavior toward animals and the environment. This mixed methods study triangulated quantitative and qualitative data from six sources to answer the following: (1) Did camp increase student knowledge of animals? (2) Did camp increase student caring about animals? (3) Did camp increase student propensity for environmental and wildlife stewardship? (4) Did camp affect student compassionate behavior toward animals? A conservation stewards survey revealed significant increases on pre-post, self-report of knowledge, care, and propensity. Pre-post, rubric-scored responses to human-animal interaction vignettes indicated a significant increase in knowledge, and stable scores on care and propensity. Qualitative data from student journals, vignettes, and end-of-camp questionnaires demonstrated knowledge, caring, and propensity, and revealed the emergent theme empathy. To address question 4, instructors tallied campers' behavior toward animals using a student behavior ethogram. Occurrence of positive behaviors was

  11. Changing Trends in Treatment of Acute Mania: Experience of a Tertiary Centre Over a Decade.

    PubMed

    Arıkan, Mehmet Kemal; Poyraz, Cana Aksoy; Baş, Alper; Sağlam, N Gamze Usta; Batun, Gizem Cetiner; Gültekin, Gözde; Poyraz, Burç Çağrı

    2016-06-01

    We investigated trends over a decade in the prescription of lithium, antiepileptics, and antipsychotic agents at discharge for patients hospitalised for acute mania. We conducted a retrospective review of medical records for 165 inpatients with acute mania who had been hospitalised in Cerrahpaşa Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry during 2001-2002 and 2011-2012. Among 165 patients, prescription of olanzapine at discharge increased from 3 to 46 % (p < 0.001), while prescription of haloperidol decreased from 55 to 21 % (p < 0.001). Use of other atypical antipsychotics did not change significantly (risperidone decreased from 14 to 11 %, p = 0.5; quetiapine increased from 10 to 16 %, p = 0.2). Use of valproate, carbamazepine, and lithium did not change significantly. Use of electroconvulsive therapy in acute mania decreased by half from 27 to 13 % (p = 0.02). Typical antipsychotics alone or in combination with antiepileptics were the most common treatment regimen at discharge at 2001-2002; while 10 years later, they had been largely replaced by lithium or antiepileptics combined with second generation antipsychotics. Antipsychotic agents remained to be an important component of acute treatment of mania in our practice. PMID:26220636

  12. Technetium pyrophosphate scanning in the detection of acute myocardial infarction: clinical experience.

    PubMed Central

    Ko, P.; Kostuk, W. J.; Deatrich, D.

    1977-01-01

    Technetium-99m-stannous pyrophosphate (99mTc-PYP) accumulates in acutely infarcted myocardium and can be detected by scintiscanning. The clinical value of 99mTc-PYP scintiscanning was studied in 83 patients 6 hours to 21 days after the onset of acute chest pain. In 12 patients with normal electrocardiograms and serum enzyme values no uptake of 99mTc-PYP was detected on the scintigrams. Of 44 patients with electrocardiographic or enzyme evidence, or both, of acute myocardial infarction the scintigrams were positive in 31, "questionable" in 2 and negative in 11; no positive scan was obtained within 12 hours of the onset of pain, and the scans generally remained positive for up to 5 days. In 24 patients with evidence of prolonged myocardial ischemia the scans were positive in 2, questionable in 4 and negative in 18. The scans were negative in each of three patients with acute or constrictive pericarditis. Localization by electrocardiography and scintiscanning correlated nearly perfectly for transmural infarcts but subendocardial infarcts could not always be localized precisely by scintiscanning. The infarct area (total area of 99mTc-PYP uptake) correlated well with the peak serum value of creatine phosphokinase. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 5 PMID:189887

  13. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Radiotherapy, and the Risk of Acute and Chronic Toxicity: The Mayo Clinic Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Pinn, Melva E.; Gold, Douglas G. M.; Petersen, Ivy A.; Osborn, Thomas G.; Brown, Paul D.; Miller, Robert C.

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the acute and chronic toxic effects of radiotherapy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods and Materials: Medical records of 21 consecutive patients with SLE, who had received 34 courses of external beam radiotherapy and one low-dose-rate prostate implant, were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with discoid lupus erythematosus were excluded. Results: Median survival was 2.3 years and median follow-up 5.6 years. Eight (42%) of 19 patients evaluable for acute toxicity during radiotherapy experienced acute toxicity of Grade 1 or greater, and 4 (21%) had acute toxicity of Grade 3 or greater. The 5- and 10-year incidence of chronic toxicity of Grade 1 or greater was 45% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22-72%) and 56% (95% CI, 28-81%), respectively. The 5- and 10-year incidence of chronic toxicity of Grade 3 or greater was 28% (95% CI, 18-60%) and 40% (95% CI, 16-72%), respectively. Univariate analysis showed that chronic toxicity of Grade 1 or greater correlated with SLE renal involvement (p < 0.006) and possibly with the presence of five or more American Rheumatism Association criteria (p < 0.053). Chronic toxicity of Grade 3 or greater correlated with an absence of photosensitivity (p < 0.02), absence of arthritis (p < 0.03), and presence of a malar rash (p < 0.04). Conclusions: The risk of acute and chronic toxicity in patients with SLE who received radiotherapy was moderate but was not prohibitive of the use of radiotherapy. Patients with more advanced SLE may be at increased risk for chronic toxicity.

  14. Modeling the responses to resistance training in an animal experiment study.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Antony G; Py, Guillaume; Favier, François B; Sanchez, Anthony M J; Bonnieu, Anne; Busso, Thierry; Candau, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test whether systems models of training effects on performance in athletes can be used to explore the responses to resistance training in rats. 11 Wistar Han rats (277 ± 15 g) underwent 4 weeks of resistance training consisting in climbing a ladder with progressive loads. Training amount and performance were computed from total work and mean power during each training session. Three systems models relating performance to cumulated training bouts have been tested: (i) with a single component for adaptation to training, (ii) with two components to distinguish the adaptation and fatigue produced by exercise bouts, and (iii) with an additional component to account for training-related changes in exercise-induced fatigue. Model parameters were fitted using a mixed-effects modeling approach. The model with two components was found to be the most suitable to analyze the training responses (R(2) = 0.53; P < 0.001). In conclusion, the accuracy in quantifying training loads and performance in a rodent experiment makes it possible to model the responses to resistance training. This modeling in rodents could be used in future studies in combination with biological tools for enhancing our understanding of the adaptive processes that occur during physical training. PMID:25695093

  15. Modeling the Responses to Resistance Training in an Animal Experiment Study

    PubMed Central

    Philippe, Antony G.; Py, Guillaume; Favier, François B.; Sanchez, Anthony M. J.; Bonnieu, Anne; Candau, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test whether systems models of training effects on performance in athletes can be used to explore the responses to resistance training in rats. 11 Wistar Han rats (277 ± 15 g) underwent 4 weeks of resistance training consisting in climbing a ladder with progressive loads. Training amount and performance were computed from total work and mean power during each training session. Three systems models relating performance to cumulated training bouts have been tested: (i) with a single component for adaptation to training, (ii) with two components to distinguish the adaptation and fatigue produced by exercise bouts, and (iii) with an additional component to account for training-related changes in exercise-induced fatigue. Model parameters were fitted using a mixed-effects modeling approach. The model with two components was found to be the most suitable to analyze the training responses (R2 = 0.53; P < 0.001). In conclusion, the accuracy in quantifying training loads and performance in a rodent experiment makes it possible to model the responses to resistance training. This modeling in rodents could be used in future studies in combination with biological tools for enhancing our understanding of the adaptive processes that occur during physical training. PMID:25695093

  16. Animal Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

  17. Early UK experience in the use of clofarabine in the treatment of relapsed and refractory paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, David; Sibson, Keith; Caswell, Mark; Connor, Philip; Cummins, Michelle; Mitchell, Chris; Motwani, Jayashree; Taj, Mary; Vora, Ajay; Wynn, Robert; Kearns, Pamela R

    2011-08-01

    Clofarabine is a second-generation purine nucleoside analogue, which has shown promising activity in relapsed and refractory paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). This report summarizes the early United Kingdom experience of clofarabine for the treatment of paediatric ALL in 23 patients, outside of the context of a clinical trial. Our results demonstrated that clofarabine-based chemotherapy regimes were effective and well-tolerated in this heavily pre-treated group, with an overall response rate of 67% when used in combination regimes. Responses were seen in both B and T cell disease and in patients with adverse cytogenetics. PMID:21689087

  18. Management of acute respiratory infections by community health volunteers: experience of Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC).

    PubMed Central

    Hadi, Abdullahel

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of management practices for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in improving the competency of community health volunteers in diagnosing and treating acute respiratory infections among children. METHODS: Data were collected by a group of research physicians who observed the performance of a sample of 120 health volunteers in 10 sub-districts in Bangladesh in which Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) had run a community-based ARI control programme since mid-1992. Standardized tests were conducted until the 95% interphysician reliability on the observation of clinical examination was achieved. FINDINGS:The sensitivity, specificity, and overall agreement rates in diagnosing and treating ARIs were significantly higher among the health volunteers who had basic training and were supervised routinely than among those who had not. CONCLUSION: Diagnosis and treatment of ARIs at the household level in developing countries are possible if intensive basic training and the close supervision of service providers are ensured. PMID:12764514

  19. Characteristics of Children with Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Ankara: A Single Centre Experience

    PubMed Central

    Unsal Sac, Rukiye; Bostancı, İlknur; Şimşek, Yurda; Bilge Dallar, Yıldız

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to define characteristics of children with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Eighty children hospitalized with acute carbon monoxide poisoning were recruited prospectively over a period of 12 months. Sociodemographic features, complaints and laboratory data were recorded. When the patient was discharged, necessary preventive measures to be taken were explained to parents. One month later, the parents were questioned during a control examination regarding the precautions that they took. The ages of the cases were between one month and 16 yr. Education levels were low in 86.2% of mothers and 52.6% of fathers. All families had low income and 48.8% did not have formal housing. The source of the acute carbon monoxide poisoning was stoves in 71.2% of cases and hot-water heaters in 28.8% of cases. Three or more people were poisoned at home in 85.1% of the cases. The most frequent symptoms of poisoning were headache and vertigo (58.8%). Median carboxyhemoglobin levels at admission to the hospital and discharge were measured as 19.5% and 1.1% (P < 0.001). When families were called for re-evaluation, it was determined that most of them had taken the necessary precautions after the poisoning incident (86.3%). This study determined that children with acute childhood carbon monoxide poisoning are usually from families with low socioeconomic and education levels. Education about prevention should be provided to all people who are at risk of carbon monoxide poisoning before a poisoning incident occurs. PMID:26713060

  20. Acute renal failure in pregnancy: Tertiary centre experience from north Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Munna Lal; Sachan, Rekha; Radheshyam; Sachan, Pushpalata

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obstetrical acute renal failure ARF is now a rare entity in the developed countries but still a common occurrence in developing countries. Delay in the diagnosis and late referral is associated with increased mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the contributing factors responsible for pregnancy-related acute kidney failure, its relation with mortality and morbidity and outcome measures in these patients. Materials and Methods: Total 520 patients of ARF of various aetiology were admitted, out of these 60 (11.5%) patients were pregnancy-related acute renal failure. Results: ARF Acute renal failure occurred in 32 (53.3%) cases in early part of their pregnancy, whereas in 28 (46.7%) cases in later of the pregnancy. Thirty-two (53.3%) patients had not received any antenatal visit, and had home delivery, 20 (33.4%) patients had delivered in hospitals but without antenatal care and eight (13.3%) patients received antenatal care and delivered in the hospitals. Anuria was observed in 23 (38.3%) cases, remaining 37 (61.7%) cases presented with oliguria. Septicemia was present in 25 (41.7%), hypertensive disorder of pregnancy in 20 (33.3%), haemorrhage in eight (13.3%), abortion in 5 (8.3%), haemolysis elevated liver enzymes low platelets counts (HELLP) syndrome in one (1.67%) and disseminated intravascular coagulation in one (1.67%). (61.7%) patients were not dialyzed, 33 (55%) recovered normal renal function with conservative treatment. Complete recovery was observed in 45 (75%) patients, five (8.4%) patients developed irreversible renal failure. Maternal mortality was nine (15%) and foetal loss was 25 (41.7%). Conclusion: Pregnancy-related ARF is usually a consequence of obstetric complications; it carries very high morbidity and mortality. PMID:23900700

  1. Characteristics of Children with Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Ankara: A Single Centre Experience.

    PubMed

    Unsal Sac, Rukiye; Taşar, Medine Ayşin; Bostancı, İlknur; Şimşek, Yurda; Bilge Dallar, Yıldız

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to define characteristics of children with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Eighty children hospitalized with acute carbon monoxide poisoning were recruited prospectively over a period of 12 months. Sociodemographic features, complaints and laboratory data were recorded. When the patient was discharged, necessary preventive measures to be taken were explained to parents. One month later, the parents were questioned during a control examination regarding the precautions that they took. The ages of the cases were between one month and 16 yr. Education levels were low in 86.2% of mothers and 52.6% of fathers. All families had low income and 48.8% did not have formal housing. The source of the acute carbon monoxide poisoning was stoves in 71.2% of cases and hot-water heaters in 28.8% of cases. Three or more people were poisoned at home in 85.1% of the cases. The most frequent symptoms of poisoning were headache and vertigo (58.8%). Median carboxyhemoglobin levels at admission to the hospital and discharge were measured as 19.5% and 1.1% (P < 0.001). When families were called for re-evaluation, it was determined that most of them had taken the necessary precautions after the poisoning incident (86.3%). This study determined that children with acute childhood carbon monoxide poisoning are usually from families with low socioeconomic and education levels. Education about prevention should be provided to all people who are at risk of carbon monoxide poisoning before a poisoning incident occurs. PMID:26713060

  2. Initial Acute Animal Experiment Using a New Miniature Axial Flow Pump in Series With the Natural Heart.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Eiji; Yano, Tetsuya; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Miura, Hidekazu; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2015-08-01

    We have advocated an axial flow blood pump called "valvo pump" that is implanted at the aortic valve position, and we have developed axial flow blood pumps to realize the concept of the valvo pump. The latest model of the axial flow blood pump mainly consists of a stator, a directly driven impeller, and a hydrodynamic bearing. The axial flow blood pump has a diameter of 33 mm and length of 74 mm, and the length of anatomical occupation is 33 mm. The axial flow blood pump is anastomosed to the aorta with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) cuffs worn on the inflow and outflow ports. Dp-Q curves of the axial flow blood pump are flatter than those of ordinary axial flow pumps, and pump outflow of 5 L/min was obtained against a pressure difference of 50 mm Hg at a rotational speed of 9000 rpm in vitro. The axial flow blood pump was installed in a goat by anastomosing with the thoracic descending aorta using PTFE cuffs, and it was rotated at a rotational speed of 8000 rpm. Unlike in case of the ventricular assistance in parallel with the natural heart, pulsatilities of aortic pressure and aortic flow were preserved even when the pump was on, and mean aortic flow was increased by 1.5 L/min with increase in mean aortic pressure of 30 mm Hg. In conclusion, circulatory assistance in series with the natural heart using the axial flow blood pump was able to improve hemodynamic pulsatility, and it would contribute to improvement of end-organ circulation. . PMID:26234449

  3. Delivery of the high-mobility group box 1 box A peptide using heparin in the acute lung injury animal models.

    PubMed

    Song, Ji Hyun; Kim, Ji Yeon; Piao, Chunxian; Lee, Seonyeong; Kim, Bora; Song, Su Jeong; Choi, Joon Sig; Lee, Minhyung

    2016-07-28

    In this study, the efficacy of the high-mobility group box-1 box A (HMGB1A)/heparin complex was evaluated for the treatment of acute lung injury (ALI). HMGB1A is an antagonist against wild-type high-mobility group box-1 (wtHMGB1), a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is involved in ALIs. HMGB1A has positive charges and can be captured in the mucus layer after intratracheal administration. To enhance the delivery and therapeutic efficiency of HMGB1A, the HMGB1A/heparin complex was produced using electrostatic interactions, with the expectation that the nano-sized complex with a negative surface charge could efficiently penetrate the mucus layer. Additionally, heparin itself had an anti-inflammatory effect. Complex formation with HMGB1A and heparin was confirmed by atomic force microscopy. The particle size and surface charge of the HMGB1A/heparin complex at a 1:1 weight ratio were 113nm and -25mV, respectively. Intratracheal administration of the complex was performed into an ALI animal model. The results showed that the HMGB1A/heparin complex reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-1β, more effectively than HMGB1A or heparin alone. Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed the decreased inflammatory reaction in the lungs after delivery of the HMGB1A/heparin complex. In conclusion, the HMGB1A/heparin complex might be useful to treat ALI. PMID:27196743

  4. Public Health Response Systems In-Action: Learning from Local Health Departments’ Experiences with Acute and Emergency Incidents

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Jennifer C.; Yang, Jane E.; Crawley, Adam W.; Biesiadecki, Laura; Aragón, Tomás J.

    2013-01-01

    As part of their core mission, public health agencies attend to a wide range of disease and health threats, including those that require routine, acute, and emergency responses. While each incident is unique, the number and type of response activities are finite; therefore, through comparative analysis, we can learn about commonalities in the response patterns that could improve predictions and expectations regarding the resources and capabilities required to respond to future acute events. In this study, we interviewed representatives from more than 120 local health departments regarding their recent experiences with real-world acute public health incidents, such as infectious disease outbreaks, severe weather events, chemical spills, and bioterrorism threats. We collected highly structured data on key aspects of the incident and the public health response, particularly focusing on the public health activities initiated and community partners engaged in the response efforts. As a result, we are able to make comparisons across event types, create response profiles, and identify functional and structural response patterns that have import for future public health preparedness and response. Our study contributes to clarifying the complexity of public health response systems and our analysis reveals the ways in which these systems are adaptive to the character of the threat, resulting in differential activation of functions and partners based on the type of incident. Continued and rigorous examination of the experiences of health departments throughout the nation will refine our very understanding of what the public health response system is, will enable the identification of organizational and event inputs to performance, and will allow for the construction of rich, relevant, and practical models of response operations that can be employed to strengthen public health systems. PMID:24236137

  5. Early rearing experience is associated with vasopressin immunoreactivity but not reactivity to an acute non-social stressor in the prairie vole.

    PubMed

    Perkeybile, Allison M; Bales, Karen L

    2015-08-01

    The early life experiences of an organism have the potential to alter its developmental trajectories. Perhaps one of the most powerful influences during this period is the parent-offspring relationship. Previous work in several mammalian species has demonstrated that parental care in early life and specifically maternal behavior can influence several adult outcomes in offspring, including affiliative and aggressive behavior, parental behavior, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) functioning and risk of psychopathology. We have previously demonstrated that naturally occurring variation in the type and amount of care given to offspring in a biparental species, the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), is related to social, anxiety-like, aggressive behaviors as well as HPA response to chronic and acute social stressors. Here we aim to determine the effects of early biparental care on HPA functioning and the interaction between early care and later reactivity to a forced swim test, an acute non-social stressor. Behavior during the swim test as well as several indicators of HPA activity, including plasma corticosterone (CORT), corticotropin releasing hormone immunoreactivity (CRH-ir), and vasopressin immunoreactivity (AVP-ir) were measured. Results here indicate an effect of early experience on AVP-ir but not CRH-ir or plasma CORT. There were no differences in CORT levels between high-contact (HC) and low-contact (LC) males or females for either control animals or after a swim stressor. CRH-ir was higher in the central amygdala following a swim test but was not influenced by early care. However, AVP-ir was not influenced by exposure to a swim stressor but was affected by early parental care in a sex-dependent manner. Female HC offspring had increased AVP-ir in the SON while HC male offspring had decreased AVP-ir in the PVN compared to their LC counterparts. The differential response of CRH and AVP to early experience and later stress, and the lack of an interaction

  6. EARLY REARING EXPERIENCE IS ASSOCIATED WITH VASOPRESSIN IMMUNOREACTIVITY BUT NOT REACTIVITY TO AN ACUTE NON-SOCIAL STRESSOR IN THE PRAIRIE VOLE

    PubMed Central

    Perkeybile, Allison M.; Bales, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    The early life experiences of an organism have the potential to alter their developmental trajectories. Perhaps one of the most powerful influences during this period is the parent-offspring relationship. Previous work in several mammalian species has demonstrated that parental care in early life and specifically maternal behavior can influence several adult outcomes in offspring, including affiliative and aggressive behavior, parental behavior, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) functioning and risk of psychopathology. We have previously demonstrated that naturally occurring variation in the type and amount of care given to offspring in a biparental species, the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), is related to social, anxiety-like, aggressive behaviors as well as HPA response to chronic and acute social stressors. Here we aim to determine the effects of early biparental care on HPA functioning and the interaction between early care and later reactivity to a forced swim test, an acute non-social stressor. Behavior during the swim test as well as several indicators of HPA activity, including plasma corticosterone (CORT), corticotropin releasing hormone immunoreactivity (CRH-ir), and vasopressin immunoreactivity (AVP-ir) were measured. Results here indicate an effect of early experience on AVP-ir but not CRH-ir or plasma CORT. There were no differences in CORT levels between high-contact (HC) and low-contact (LC) males or females for either control animals or after a swim stressor. CRH-ir was higher in the central amygdala following a swim test but was not influenced by early care. However, AVP-ir was not influenced by exposure to a swim stressor but was affected by early parental care in a sex-dependent manner. Female HC offspring had increased AVP-ir in the SON while HC male offspring had decreased AVP-ir in the PVN compared to their LC counterparts. The differential response of CRH and AVP to early experience and later stress, and the lack of an interaction

  7. Animal leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Ellis, William A

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a global disease of animals, which can have a major economic impact on livestock industries and is an important zoonosis. The current knowledge base is heavily biased towards the developed agricultural economies. The disease situation in the developing economies presents a major challenge as humans and animals frequently live in close association. The severity of disease varies with the infecting serovar and the affected species, but there are many common aspects across the species; for example, the acute phase of infection is mostly sub-clinical and the greatest economic losses arise from chronic infection causing reproductive wastage. The principles of, and tests for, diagnosis, treatment, control and surveillance are applicable across the species. PMID:25388134

  8. Application of arm support training in sub-acute stroke rehabilitation: first results on effectiveness and user experiences.

    PubMed

    Prange, G B Gerdienke; Kottink, Air Anke; Buurke, J H Jaap; Rietman, J S Hans

    2013-06-01

    A multi-center randomized clinical trial was performed in 7 Dutch rehabilitation centers, in the context of an implementation project (ROBAR), to compare the effect of an arm support (AS) training device to equally intensive conventional reach training (CON) on recovery of arm-hand function in sub-acute stroke. The Fugl-Meyer assessment (FM) and user experiences of therapists and patients were examined in both groups. An improvement of 10 and 8 points on the FM was found for respectively the CON and AS group. Both therapists and patients reported positive experiences on several aspects of user acceptance. These findings indicate that a low-tech system for arm support results in similar gains in arm function as conventional reach training in equal intensity, and is suitable for application in clinical practice. PMID:24187287

  9. Low risk of transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome on airplanes: the Singapore experience.

    PubMed

    Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Paton, Nicholas I; Goh, Kee Tai

    2003-11-01

    The risk of transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) on airplanes is of major concern to the public and airline industry. We examined data from flights to Singapore with SARS patients on board in order to assess this risk. In-flight transmission occurred only in one of the three flights with symptomatic SARS patients on board. The incidence was estimated to be 1 out of 156 passengers. The risk of in-flight transmission of SARS appears to be far lower than that reported for influenza, but may be increased with superspreaders on board. PMID:14629772

  10. Mechanism of Traumatic Brain Injury at Distant Locations After Exposure to Blast Waves: Preliminary Results from Animal and Phantom Experiments.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Ohtani, Kiyonobu; Goda, Keisuke; Kudo, Daisuke; Arafune, Tatsuhiko; Washio, Toshikatsu; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is the least understood of the four phases of blast injury. Distant injury induced by the blast wave, on the opposite side from the wave entry, is not well understood. This study investigated the mechanism of distant injury in bTBI. Materials and Methods Eight 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: group 1 served as the control group and did not receive any shock wave (SW) exposure; group 2 was exposed to SWs (12.5 ± 2.5 MPa). Propagation of SWs within a brain phantom was evaluated by visualization, pressure measurement, and numerical simulation. Results Intracerebral hemorrhage near the ignition site and elongation of the distant nucleus were observed, despite no apparent damage between the two locations in the animal experiment. Visualization, pressure measurement, and numerical simulation indicated the presence of complex wave dynamics accompanying a sudden increase in pressure, followed by negative pressure in the phantom experiment. Conclusion A local increase in pressure above the threshold caused by interference of reflection and rarefaction waves in the vicinity of the brain-skull surface may cause distant injury in bTBI. PMID:27165867

  11. Life in acute mental health settings: experiences and perceptions of service users and nurses.

    PubMed

    Rose, D; Evans, J; Laker, C; Wykes, T

    2015-02-01

    Background. Acute psychiatric provision in the UK today as well as globally has many critics including service users and nurses. Method. Four focus groups, each meeting twice, were held separately for service users and nurses. The analysis was not purely inductive but driven by concerns with the social position of marginalised groups - both patients and staff. Results. The main themes were nurse/patient interaction and coercion. Service users and nurses conceptualised these differently. Service users found nurses inaccessible and uncaring, whereas nurses also felt powerless because their working life was dominated by administration. Nurses saw coercive situations as a reasonable response to factors 'internal' to the patient whereas for service users they were driven to extreme behaviour by the environment of the ward and coercive interventions were unnecessary and heavy handed. Conclusion. This study sheds new light on living and working in acute mental health settings today by comparing the perceptions of service users and nurses and deploying service user and nurse researchers. The intention is to promote better practice by providing a window on the perceptions of both groups. PMID:24330951

  12. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    PubMed

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals. PMID:24660572

  13. Use of CO2 laser and AgClBr infrared transmitting fibers for tympanoplasty: experiments on animal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zilker, Zeev; Daykhovsky, Leon; Nageris, Ben I.; Feinmesser, R.; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Ravid, Avi; Kariv, Naam; Katzir, Abraham

    1999-06-01

    One of the most common ear disease is Chronic Otitis Media that leads to a tympanic membrane perforation. The treatment of this condition is by a surgical procedure, tympanoplasty that is often done under local or general anesthesia. During this procedure an autologous fascia is applied to close the perforation. Commonly, fixation of the fascia is achieved mostly by Gel-Form. During the last several years various fascia fixation techniques were suggested. These included a welding procedure based on using an Argon laser. The disadvantages of the latter is that the visible Argon laser is not absorbed well by the relatively thin tympanic membrane and the fascia. It does not lead to strong weld and it may heat the middle of the ear, causing neural hearing loss. The CO2 laser IR radiation is much more suitable for welding of these thin tissues, because of its very high absorption in tissues. There is still a need to deliver this radiation to the weld site using a thin and flexible optical fiber. In this work we have welded fascia on the tympanic membranes of guinea pigs using a CO2 laser. Holes of diameter 2-3 mm were punctured in the membranes and apiece of fascia was placed on the holes. Laser power of the order of 0.5W was delivered to the fascia using an IR transmitting AgClBr fiber. In experiments done on 11 animals and CO2 laser welding was successfully done on in 15 years. The success of these preliminary studies in the animal models shows that CO2 laser tympanoplasty could be a very valuable surgical technique.

  14. A modified algorithm for continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy applied to in-vivo animal experiments and on human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaessens, John H. G. M.; Hopman, Jeroen C. W.; Liem, K. Djien; de Roode, Rowland; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; Thijssen, Johan M.

    2008-02-01

    Continuous wave Near Infrared Spectroscopy is a well known non invasive technique for measuring changes in tissue oxygenation. Absorption changes (ΔO2Hb and ΔHHb) are calculated from the light attenuations using the modified Lambert Beer equation. Generally, the concentration changes are calculated relative to the concentration at a starting point in time (delta time method). It is also possible, under certain assumptions, to calculate the concentrations by subtracting the equations at different wavelengths (delta wavelength method). We derived a new algorithm and will show the possibilities and limitations. In the delta wavelength method, the assumption is that the oxygen independent attenuation term will be eliminated from the formula even if its value changes in time, we verified the results with the classical delta time method using extinction coefficients from different literature sources for the wavelengths 767nm, 850nm and 905nm. The different methods of calculating concentration changes were applied to the data collected from animal experiments. The animals (lambs) were in a stable normoxic condition; stepwise they were made hypoxic and thereafter they returned to normoxic condition. The two algorithms were also applied for measuring two dimensional blood oxygen saturation changes in human skin tissue. The different oxygen saturation levels were induced by alterations in the respiration and by temporary arm clamping. The new delta wavelength method yielded in a steady state measurement the same changes in oxy and deoxy hemoglobin as the classical delta time method. The advantage of the new method is the independence of eventual variation of the oxygen independent attenuations in time.

  15. Evidence of coupling to Global Alfv{acute e}ne Eigenmodes during Alfv{acute e}n wave current drive experiments on the Phaedrus-T tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Vukovic, M.; Wukitch, S.; Harper, M.; Parker, R.

    1996-02-01

    A series of experiments designed to explore mechanisms of power deposition during Alfv{acute e}n wave current drive experiments on the Phaedrus-T tokamak has shown evidence of power deposition via mode conversion of Global Alfv{acute e}n Eigenmodes at the Alfv{acute e}n resonance. Observation of radially localized RF induced density fluctuations in the plasma and their location vs. {ital B}{sub {ital T}} is in agreement with the predictions of behaviour of GAE damping on the AR by the toroidal code LION. Furthermore, the change in the time evolution of the loop voltage, is consistent with the change of effective power deposition radius, {ital r}{sub PD}, and is in agreement with the density fluctuations radius. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Bone, Calcium and Spaceflight: A Living Systems Experiment Relating Animals and Plants the Effects of Calcium on Plant Growth and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiss-Bubenheim, Debra; Navarro, B. J.; Souza, Kenneth A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This educational outreach activity provided students with information about ARC's role in conducting life sciences research in space. Students were introduced to the scientific method while conducting a plant experiment that was correlated to the flight animal experiment. Students made daily observations, collected data and reported on their findings. This classroom experiment providing a hands-on learning opportunity about terrestrial and space biology in which exposed the students to new fields of study for future endeavors.

  17. Utility of urgent colonoscopy in acute lower gastro-intestinal bleeding: a single-center experience

    PubMed Central

    Albeldawi, Mazen; Ha, Duc; Mehta, Paresh; Lopez, Rocio; Jang, Sunguk; Sanaka, Madhusudhan R.; Vargo, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The role of urgent colonoscopy in lower gastro-intestinal bleeding (LGIB) remains controversial. Over the last two decades, a number of studies have indicated that urgent colonoscopy may facilitate the identification and treatment of bleeding lesions; however, studies comparing this approach to elective colonoscopy for LGIB are limited. Aims. To determine the utility and assess the outcome of urgent colonoscopy as the initial test for patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with acute LGIB. Methods. Consecutive patients who underwent colonoscopy at our institution for the initial evaluation of acute LGIB between January 2011 and January 2012 were analysed retrospectively. Patients were grouped into urgent vs. elective colonoscopy, depending on the timing of colonoscopy after admission to the ICU. Urgent colonoscopy was defined as being performed within 24 hours of admission and those performed later than 24 hours were considered elective. Outcomes included length of hospital stay, early re-bleeding rates, and the need for additional diagnostic or therapeutic interventions. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with increased transfusion requirements. Results. Fifty-seven patients underwent colonoscopy for the evaluation of suspected LGIB, 24 of which were urgent. There was no significant difference in patient demographics, co-morbidities, or medications between the two groups. Patients who underwent urgent colonoscopy were more likely to present with hemodynamic instability (P = 0.019) and require blood transfusions (P = 0.003). No significant differences in length of hospital stay, re-bleeding rates, or the need for additional diagnostic or therapeutic interventions were found. Patients requiring blood transfusions (n = 27) were more likely to be female (P = 0.016) and diabetics (P = 0.015). Fourteen patients re-bled at a median of 2 days after index colonoscopy. Those with hemodynamic

  18. Capacity for care: meta-ethnography of acute care nurses' experiences of the nurse-patient relationship

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Jackie; Nicholson, Caroline; Maben, Jill; Pope, Catherine; Flatley, Mary; Wilkinson, Charlotte; Meyer, Julienne; Tziggili, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Aims To synthesize evidence and knowledge from published research about nurses' experiences of nurse-patient relationships with adult patients in general, acute inpatient hospital settings. Background While primary research on nurses' experiences has been reported, it has not been previously synthesized. Design Meta-ethnography. Data sources Published literature from Australia, Europe, and North America, written in English between January 1999–October 2009 was identified from databases: CINAHL, Medline, British Nursing Index and PsycINFO. Review methods Qualitative studies describing nurses' experiences of the nurse-patient relationship in acute hospital settings were reviewed and synthesized using the meta-ethnographic method. Results Sixteen primary studies (18 papers) were appraised as high quality and met the inclusion criteria. The findings show that while nurses aspire to develop therapeutic relationships with patients, the organizational setting at a unit level is strongly associated with nurses' capacity to build and sustain these relationships. The organizational conditions of critical care settings appear best suited to forming therapeutic relationships, while nurses working on general wards are more likely to report moral distress resulting from delivering unsatisfactory care. General ward nurses can then withdraw from attempting to emotionally engage with patients. Conclusion The findings of this meta-ethnography draw together the evidence from several qualitative studies and articulate how the organizational setting at a unit level can strongly influence nurses' capacity to build and sustain therapeutic relationships with patients. Service improvements need to focus on how to optimize the organizational conditions that support nurses in their relational work with patients. PMID:23163719

  19. Household bleaches based on sodium hypochlorite: review of acute toxicology and poison control center experience.

    PubMed

    Racioppi, F; Daskaleros, P A; Besbelli, N; Borges, A; Deraemaeker, C; Magalini, S I; Martinez Arrieta, R; Pulce, C; Ruggerone, M L; Vlachos, P

    1994-09-01

    Bleaches based on solutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) are widely used in the household to disinfect and clean hard surfaces and to bleach the laundry. A review of both published and unpublished toxicological data is presented. In addition, the results of a survey of human accidents with hypochlorite bleaches by the Poison Control Centers of France, Italy, Belgium, Greece, Turkey, Spain and Portugal for the period 1989-1992 are presented. The data show that acute accidental exposure to household bleach in use or in foreseeable misuse situations results, in the great majority of the cases, in minor, transient adverse effects on health, with no permanent sequelae. Ingestion is the most frequent route of exposure, followed by inhalation of gases evolved by mixing sodium hypochlorite bleach with acid or alkaline products. All evidence presented confirms the normal safety profile of hypochlorite-based bleaches to be similar to that of other 'generally recognized as safe' household products. PMID:7927083

  20. Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Children: Experience from Tertiary Cancer Centre in India.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Venkatraman; Thampy, Cherian; Ganesan, Prasanth; Rajendranath, Rejiv; Ganesan, Trivadi S; Rajalekshmy, K R; Sagar, Tenali Gnana

    2016-09-01

    There is paucity of data in pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) from developing countries. We analyzed the outcomes of 65 consecutive patients with pediatric AML treated at our centre from January-2008 to May-2013. The median event free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 12.6 and 14.6 months respectively. Patients with good-risk cytogenetics had a better EFS (p = 0.004) and OS (p = 0.01). Overall, these results are not comparable to that observed in other centres globally and leaves scope for further improvement. This includes implementing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation as a treatment for all children with high-risk AML. PMID:27429516

  1. Precipitant profile of acute heart failure: experience of a tertiary level cardiac centre in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Matthias, Anne Thushara; Ekanayaka, Ruvan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and objectives Heart failure (HF) is a common cause of hospitalisation in most countries. Data on acute precipitants of HF and hospitalisation is not available in Sri Lanka. Background and methods A prospective study of 100 sequential admissions with HF to the cardiology unit (National Hospital of Sri Lanka) to describe the precipitants and clinical outcome of HF. Results Fifty-eight male and 42 female admissions were studied. Mean age was 60.66 years. Mean hospital stay was 5.5(SD 4.6) days. Sixty had de novo HF and 40 had pre-existing HF. The most common identifiable precipitants were acute ischaemia 37 (37%), anaemia 41 (41%), respiratory tract infection 10 (10%), arrhythmia 11 (11%), worsening renal function 11 (11%) and alcohol 5 (5.7%). Non-adherence to medication 4 (4.6%), smoking 3 (3.9%), exposure to environmental stress 3 (3.4%) and uncontrolled hypertension 1 (1%) were also observed as precipitants. The most common arrhythmia was atrial fibrillation. Out of 34 patients in whom angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-converting enzyme receptor blockers were indicated, 11% were not on the drug. Among 29 patients in whom spironolactone was indicated, seven patients were not on the drug. Conclusions Most precipitating factors of HF are preventable. Early identification and prevention of anaemia, preventing respiratory tract infection by vaccination, aggressive revascularisation for patients with ischaemia, monitoring of renal functions, and patient education regarding drug and diet compliance, would reduce the number of admissions. PMID:27326091

  2. Febrile neutropenia in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Nihal; Tüysüz, Gülen; Çelik, Nigar; Yantri, Leman; Erginöz, Ethem; Apak, Hilmi; Özkan, Alp; Yıldız, İnci; Celkan, Tiraje

    2016-01-01

    Aim: An important life-threatening complication of intensive chemotherapy administered in children with leukemia is febrile neutropenia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and consequences of febrile neutropenia attacks in children who were treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Material and Methods: Nighty-six children who received chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in our center between January 1995 and December 2010 were included in the study. The data related to demographic characteristics, treatment features, relapse and febrile neutropenia incidences, risk factors, culture results and prognosis were retrospectively evaluated from the patients’ files. Results: A total of two hundred-ninety nine febrile neutropenia attacks observed in the patients during initial treatment and relapse treatment were evaluated. When the incidence of febrile neutropenia was evaluated by years, it was observed that the patients treated after year 2000 had statistically significantly more febrile neutopenia attacks compared to the patients treated before year 2000. When the incidences of febrile neutropenia during initial treatment and during relapse treatment were compared, it was observed that more febrile neutropenia attacks occured during relapse treatment. Fifty-nine percent of all febrile neutropenia attacks were fever of unknown origin. Eighty microorganisms grew in cultures during febrile neutropenia throughout treatment in 75 patients; 86% were bacterial infections (50% gram positive and 50% gram negative), 8% were viral infections and 6% were fungal infections. Coagulase negative staphylococcus (n=17) was the most frequent gram positive pathogen; E. Coli (n=17) was the most commonly grown gram negative pathogen. Conclusions: In this study, it was found that an increase in the incidence of febrile neutropenia occured in years. Increments in treatment intensities increase the incidence of febrile neutropenia while improving

  3. Peritoneal Dialysis in Childhood Acute Kidney Injury: Experience in Southwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ademola, Adebowale Dele; Asinobi, Adanze Onyenonachi; Ogunkunle, Oluwatoyin Olufunmilayo; Yusuf, Bamidele Nurudeen; Ojo, Olalekan Ezekiel

    2012-01-01

    ♦ Background: The choices for renal replacement therapy (RRT) in childhood acute kidney injury (AKI) are limited in low-resource settings. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) appears to be the most practical modality for RRT in young children with AKI in such settings. Data from sub-Saharan Africa on the use of PD in childhood AKI are few. ♦ Methods: We performed a retrospective study of children who underwent PD for AKI at a tertiary-care hospital in southwest Nigeria from February 2004 to March 2011 (85 months). ♦ Results: The study included 27 children (55.6% female). Mean age was 3.1 ± 2.6 years, with the youngest being 7 days, and the oldest, 9 years. The causes of AKI were intravascular hemolysis (n = 11), septicemia (n = 8), acute glomerulonephritis (n = 3), gastroenteritis (n = 3), and hemolytic uremic syndrome (n = 2). Peritoneal dialysis was performed manually using percutaneous or adapted catheters. Duration of PD ranged from 6 hours to 12 days (mean: 5.0 ± 3.3 days). The main complications were peritonitis (n = 10), pericatheter leakage (n = 9), and catheter outflow obstruction (n = 5). Of the 27 patients, 19 (70%) survived till discharge. ♦ Conclusions: In low-resource settings, PD can be successfully performed for the management of childhood AKI. In our hospital, the use of adapted catheters may have contributed to the high complication rates. Peritoneal dialysis should be promoted for the management of childhood AKI in low-resource settings, and access to percutaneous or Tenckhoff catheters, dialysis fluid, and automated PD should be increased. PMID:22550119

  4. Event-level associations between affect, alcohol intoxication, and acute dependence symptoms: Effects of urgency, self-control, and drinking experience

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Jeffrey S.; Dvorak, Robert D.; Batien, Bryan D.; Wray, Tyler B.

    2012-01-01

    This study used experience sampling to examine within-person associations between positive affect, anxiety, sadness, and hostility and two outcomes: alcohol intoxication and acute dependence symptoms. We examined the role of urgency, premeditation, and perseverance in predicting the alcohol outcomes and tested whether the affective associations varied as a function of urgency. Participants completed baseline assessments and 21 days of experience sampling on PDAs. Hypotheses were partially confirmed. Positive affect was positively, and sadness inversely, associated with intoxication. Hostility was associated with intoxication for men but not women. Negative urgency moderated the association between anxiety and intoxication, making it stronger. However, positive urgency did not moderate the effect of positive affect. Heavier drinkers exhibited the greatest number of symptoms, yet the association between intoxication and acute signs of alcohol disorder were attenuated among these individuals. Results support the use of experience sampling to study acute signs and symptoms of high risk drinking and dependence. PMID:20685044

  5. Breathing motion compensated reconstruction for C-arm cone beam CT imaging: initial experience based on animal data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, D.; Lin, M.; Rao, P. P.; Loffroy, R.; Liapi, E.; Noordhoek, N.; Eshuis, P.; Radaelli, A.; Grass, M.; Geschwind, J.-F. H.

    2012-03-01

    C-arm based tomographic 3D imaging is applied in an increasing number of minimal invasive procedures. Due to the limited acquisition speed for a complete projection data set required for tomographic reconstruction, breathing motion is a potential source of artifacts. This is the case for patients who cannot comply breathing commands (e.g. due to anesthesia). Intra-scan motion estimation and compensation is required. Here, a scheme for projection based local breathing motion estimation is combined with an anatomy adapted interpolation strategy and subsequent motion compensated filtered back projection. The breathing motion vector is measured as a displacement vector on the projections of a tomographic short scan acquisition using the diaphragm as a landmark. Scaling of the displacement to the acquisition iso-center and anatomy adapted volumetric motion vector field interpolation delivers a 3D motion vector per voxel. Motion compensated filtered back projection incorporates this motion vector field in the image reconstruction process. This approach is applied in animal experiments on a flat panel C-arm system delivering improved image quality (lower artifact levels, improved tumor delineation) in 3D liver tumor imaging.

  6. Is a good death possible in Australian critical and acute settings?: physician experiences with end-of-life care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Australia approximately 70% of all deaths are institutionalised but over 15% of deaths occur in intensive care settings where the ability to provide a “good death” is particularly inhibited. Yet, there is a growing trend for death and dying to be managed in the ICU and physicians are increasingly challenged to meet the new expectations of their specialty. This study examined the unexplored interface between specialised Australian palliative and intensive care and the factors influencing a physician’s ability to manage deaths well. Method A qualitative investigation was focused on palliative and critical/acute settings. A thematic analysis was conducted on semi-structured in-depth interviews with 13 specialist physicians. Attention was given to eliciting meanings and experiences in Australian end-of-life care. Results Physicians negotiated multiple influences when managing dying patients and their families in the ICU. The way they understood and experienced end-of-life care practices was affected by cultural, institutional and professional considerations, and personal values and beliefs. Interpersonal and intrapsychic aspects highlighted the emotional and psychological relationship physicians have with patients and others. Many physicians were also unaware of what their cross-disciplinary colleagues could or could not do; poor professional recognition and collaboration, and ineffective care goal transition impaired their ability to assist good deaths. Experience was subject to the efficacy of physicians in negotiating complex bedside dynamics. Conclusions Regardless of specialty, all physicians identified the problematic nature of providing expert palliation in critical and acute settings. Strategies for integrating specialised palliative and intensive care were offered with corresponding directions for future research and clinical development. PMID:25147481

  7. Intravenous Lipid Emulsion Therapy for Acute Synthetic Cannabinoid Intoxication: Clinical Experience in Four Cases

    PubMed Central

    Aksel, Gökhan; Güneysel, Özlem; Taşyürek, Tanju; Kozan, Ergül; Çevik, Şebnem Eren

    2015-01-01

    There is no specific antidote for intoxication with synthetic cannabinoids. In this case series, we considered the efficiency of intravenous lipid emulsion therapy in four cases, who presented to emergency department with synthetic cannabinoid (bonzai) intoxication. The first patient had a GCS of 3 and a left bundle branch block on electrocardiography. The electrocardiography revealed sinus rhythm with normal QRS width after the treatment. The second patient had bradycardia, hypotension, and a GCS of 14. After intravenous lipid emulsion therapy, the bradycardia resolved, and the patient's GCS improved to 15. The third patient presented with a GCS of 8, and had hypotension and bradycardia. After the treatment, not only did the bradycardia resolve, but also the GCS improved to 15. The fourth patient, whose electrocardiography revealed accelerated junctional rhythm, had a GCS of 13. The patient's rhythm was sinus after the treatment. Cardiovascular recovery was seen in all four cases, and neurological recovery was also seen in three of them. Based on the fact that intravenous lipid emulsion is beneficial in patients intoxicated with lipophilic drugs, unstable patients presenting to the emergency department with acute synthetic cannabinoid intoxication may be candidates for intravenous lipid emulsion treatment. PMID:26078891

  8. Screening of multiparous women to avoid transfusion-related acute lung injury: a single centre experience.

    PubMed

    Sachs, U J H; Link, E; Hofmann, C; Wasel, W; Bein, G

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate which approach for serological testing of multiparous donors might be feasible and effective to reduce the risk of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). TRALI is a serious adverse event of blood transfusion. Antibodies to granulocytes and human leucocyte antigens (HLAs) are frequently detected in sera of implicated donors. These donors are often multiparous women. A general deferral of female plasma or screening strategies for leucocyte antibodies has been proposed to increase blood safety. A prospective study was initiated in 2003. Until 2006, serum samples from all female donors reporting three or more pregnancies (n = 229) were screened for the presence of antibodies against granulocytes and HLAs by immunofluorescence and agglutination tests as well as by a commercial HLA enzyme immunoassay. In total, 40% of all multiparous women were reactive in one of the assays. Twenty-nine percent of the reactive sera contained antibodies to granulocytes but not to HLAs. During the observation period, three TRALI reactions occurred in our hospital, two of which would have been prevented if the screening program had been extended to all previously pregnant donors. We conclude from these data that, not unexpectedly, the number of previous pregnancies is not a reliable indicator for the likelihood of inducing TRALI. More importantly, screening strategies for antibodies that might induce TRALI should probably not be reduced to HLA antibody screening. This finding awaits further research. PMID:19140817

  9. Upper Limb Ischemia: Clinical Experiences of Acute and Chronic Upper Limb Ischemia in a Single Center

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Miju; Chung, Sung Woon; Lee, Chung Won; Choi, Jinseok; Song, Seunghwan; Kim, Sang-pil

    2015-01-01

    Background Upper limb ischemia is less common than lower limb ischemia, and relatively few cases have been reported. This paper reviews the epidemiology, etiology, and clinical characteristics of upper limb ischemia and analyzes the factors affecting functional sequelae after treatment. Methods The records of 35 patients with acute and chronic upper limb ischemia who underwent treatment from January 2007 to December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Results The median age was 55.03 years, and the number of male patients was 24 (68.6%). The most common etiology was embolism of cardiac origin, followed by thrombosis with secondary trauma, and the brachial artery was the most common location for a lesion causing obstruction. Computed tomography angiography was the first-line diagnostic tool in our center. Twenty-eight operations were performed, and conservative therapy was implemented in seven cases. Five deaths (14.3%) occurred during follow-up. Twenty patients (57.1%) complained of functional sequelae after treatment. Functional sequelae were found to be more likely in patients with a longer duration of symptoms (odds ratio, 1.251; p=0.046) and higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels (odds ratio, 1.001; p=0.031). Conclusion An increased duration of symptoms and higher initial serum LDH levels were associated with the more frequent occurrence of functional sequelae. The prognosis of upper limb ischemia is associated with prompt and proper treatment and can also be predicted by initial serum LDH levels. PMID:26290835

  10. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A single center experience with Berlin, Frankfurt, and Munster-95 protocol

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Venkatraman; Gupta, Sumant; Ganesan, Prasanth; Rajendranath, Rejiv; Ganesan, Trivadi S.; Rajalekshmy, Kamalalayan Raghavan; Sagar, Tenali Gnana

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of data on the outcome following the treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) from developing countries. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and thirty-eight consecutive patients with ALL <30 years of age diagnosed between January 2005 and December 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were treated modified Berlin, Frankfurt, and Munster 95 protocol. Event-free survival (EFS) was calculated using Kaplan–Meier survival analysis and variables were compared using log-rank test. Results: The EFS was 63.4% at a median follow-up was 32.7 months. On univariate analysis National Cancer Institute (NCI) risk stratification, sex, white blood cell count, day 8 blast clearance, and income were significantly associated with EFS. However, on multivariate analysis only female sex (P = 0.01) and day 8 blast clearance (P = 0.006) were significantly associated with EFS. Seventy-four of 238 (31%) patients had recurrent leukemia. The common sites of relapse were bone marrow in 55/74 (75%) patients and central nervous system in 11/74 (20%) patients. Conclusion: Compared to western data, there was an increased proportion of NCI high-risk patients and T-cell immunophenotype in our study. There has been an improvement in outcome of patients with ALL at our center over the last 2 decades. Female sex and clearance of blast in peripheral blood by day 8 of induction was associated with better EFS. PMID:26811597

  11. A 25 years experience of group-housed sows–reproduction in animal welfare-friendly systems

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Since January 1 2013, group housing of sows has been compulsory within the European Union (EU) in all pig holdings with more than ten sows. Sows and gilts need to be kept in groups from 4 weeks after service to 1 week before the expected time of farrowing (Article 3(4) of Directive 2008/120/EC on the protection of pigs). The legislation regarding group housing was adopted already in 2001 and a long transitional period was allowed to give member states and producers enough time for adaptation. Even so, group housing of sows still seems to be uncommon in the EU, and is also uncommon in commercial pig farming systems in the rest of the world. In this review we share our experience of the Swedish 25 years of animal welfare legislation stipulating that sows must be loose-housed which de facto means group housed. The two most important concerns related to reproductive function among group-housed sows are the occurrence of lactational oestrus when sows are group-housed during lactation, and the stress that is associated with group housing during mating and gestation. Field and clinical observations in non-lactating, group-housed sows in Sweden suggest that by making basic facts known about the pig reproductive physiology related to mating, we might achieve application of efficient batch-wise breeding without pharmacological interventions. Group housing of lactating sows has some production disadvantages and somewhat lower productivity would likely have to be expected. Recordings of behavioural indicators in different housing systems suggest a lower welfare level in stalled animals compared with group-housed ones. However, there are no consistent effects on the reproductive performance associated with different housing systems. Experimental studies suggest that the most sensitive period, regarding disturbance of reproductive functions by external stressors, is the time around oestrus. We conclude that by keeping sows according to the pig welfare-friendly Directive 2008

  12. Late Complications in acute Leukemia patients following HSCT: A single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Vaezi, Mohammad; Gharib, Cyrous; Souri, Maryam; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is currently the only curative treatment for acute leukemia. As HSCT improves the long-term survival, it is necessary to assess the late-onset complications affecting the quality of life following HSCT. Subjects and Methods: The study included 122 patients (65 male, 57 female) with leukemia (72 AML and 50 ALL) who received transplants from fully- matched siblings, unrelated donors and unrelated cord blood donors between February 2013 and August 2014 in Shariati Hospital. All study participants were over 18 years of age and had the minimum and maximum survival of 2 and 5 years, respectively. Patients who received HLA-haploidentical SCT were excluded from the study. All allogeneic recipients received busulfan and cyclophosphamide as conditioning regimen. Nobody received TBI-based conditioning regimen in this study. Patients were evaluated for cardiovascular, vision, psychological, endocrine, fertility problems and secondary malignancies one year after transplantation. Results : Data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0. Mitral and tricuspid regurgitation (TR/MR) were the most common cardiac complications (n=12, 10.5%).Thirty-nine percent of patients had psychological problems, especially depression (34%). Cataract was observed in 13% of patients and 34% complained of dry eye. Symptomatic pulmonary changes were found in 13 patients (10.6%). None of the HSCT survivors had experienced fertility before study entry. According to LH and FSH levels, 15% and 9% of females had ovarian failure, respectively. Testosterone level was less than normal in 49(84%) men and, according to their FSH and LH level, 20 (41%) had secondary hypogonadism and 29 (59%) had primary gonadal dysfunction. Conclusion: The results showed that patients who received Bu/Cy conditioning regimen experienced fewer late side effects such as cataract formation and hypothyroidism, compared to previous studies using TBI-based conditioning regimen. PMID

  13. The impact of a new acute oncology service in acute hospitals: experience from the Clatterbridge Cancer Centre and Merseyside and Cheshire Cancer Network.

    PubMed

    Neville-Webbe, H L; Carser, J E; Wong, H; Andrews, J; Poulter, T; Smith, R; Marshall, E

    2013-12-01

    The 2008 National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcomes and Death highlighted an urgent need to improve the quality, safety and efficiency of care for cancer patients following emergency presentation to acute general hospitals. A network-wide acute oncology service (AOS) was therefore commissioned and implemented on the basis of recommendations from the National Chemotherapy Advisory Group (NCAG). Through a continuous programme of raising awareness regarding both the role of the AOS and the necessity of early patient referral to acute oncology teams, we have been able to establish an AOS across all acute trusts in our cancer network. The network-wide AOS has improved communication across clinical teams, enabled rapid review of over 3,000 patients by oncology staff, reduced hospital stay, increased understanding of oncology emergencies and their treatment, and enhanced pathways for rapid diagnosis and appropriate referrals for patients presenting with malignancy of undefined origin (MUO). These achievements have been made by developing a network protocol book for managing common oncology emergencies, by introducing local pathways for managing MUO and by collaborating with palliative care teams to introduce local acute oncology (AO) multi-disciplinary team (MDT) meetings. PMID:24298102

  14. To explore and understand the leadership experiences of modern matrons, within an acute NHS Trust.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Nigel; Richardson, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Aim  The aim of this study was to explore and understand the leadership experiences of modern matrons. Background  Modern matrons were re-introduced to the National Health Service in 2002, and effective leadership has been identified as being essential for the role to be successful. However, there is minimal evidence of how modern matrons experience effective leadership. Methods  The study used a descriptive generic qualitative methodology; one-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine matrons. This was subjected to an inductive thematic analysis. Results  Three themes were found to influence modern matron's leadership experiences: leadership behaviours, negative influences and leadership investment. They did not follow one leadership style but adapted this to their situation. Various factors appeared to restrict their leadership effectiveness. Conclusions  The findings suggest that exposure to a range of leadership styles should be included in preparation and CPD for the modern matron role and a more consistent job description and job purpose should be developed. Implications for nursing management  Leadership styles such as transformational leadership alone do not meet the complex demands of nursing leaders, and therefore there is a requirement for greater flexibility in leadership development for all health care professionals. PMID:23410106

  15. Animals in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, Andrew N.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes viewpoints on the use of animals in science experiments in the biology classroom, including those of teachers, education researchers, biomedical scientists, science education administrators, and animal welfare advocates. (Author/CS)

  16. Retainer for laboratory animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Bio-retainer holds laboratory animals in fixed position for research and clinical experiments. Retainer allows full access to animals and can be rapidly opened and closed to admit and release specimens.

  17. Animals in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Angela

    1988-01-01

    Animals are indispensable to the space program. Their continued use could have many significant results. Those who are opposed to using animals in space should remember that space animals are treated humanely; they are necessary because results can be obtained from them that would be unobtainable from humans; and results from animal experiments can be applied to human systems. Therefore, NASA should continue to use animals in space research.

  18. Animal picobirnavirus.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Balasubramanian; Masachessi, Gisela; Mladenova, Zornitsa

    2014-01-01

    Picobirnavirus (PBV) is a small, non-enveloped, bisegmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus of vertebrate hosts. The name 'Picobirnavirus' derives from the prefix 'pico' (latin for 'small') in reference to the small virion size, plus the prefix 'bi' (latin for 'two') and the word 'RNA' to indicate the nature of the viral genome. The serendipitous discovery of PBV dates back to 1988 from Brazil, when human fecal samples collected during the acute gastroenteritis outbreaks were subjected for routine rotavirus surveillance by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and silver straining (S/S). The PAGE gels after silver staining showed a typical 'two RNA band' pattern, and it was identified as Picobirnavirus. Likewise, the feces of wild black-footed pigmy rice rats (Oryzomys nigripes) subjected for PAGE assay by the same research group in Brazil reported the presence of PBV (Pereira et al., J Gen Virol 69:2749-2754, 1988). PBVs have been detected in faeces of humans and wide range of animal species with or without diarrhoea, worldwide. The probable role of PBV as either a 'primary diarrhoeal agent' in 'immunocompetent children'; or a 'potential pathogen' in 'immunocompromised individuals' or an 'innocuous virus' in the intestine remains elusive and needs to be investigated despite the numerous reports of the presence of PBV in fecal samples of various species of domestic mammals, wild animals, birds and snakes; our current knowledge of their biology, etiology, pathogenicity or their transmission characteristics remains subtle. This review aims to analyse the veterinary and zoonotic aspects of animal Picobirnavirus infections since its discovery. PMID:25674589

  19. Fast Left Prefrontal rTMS Acutely Suppresses Analgesic Effects of Perceived Controllability on the Emotional Component of Pain Experience

    PubMed Central

    Borckardt, Jeffrey J.; Reeves, Scott T.; Frohman, Heather; Madan, Alok; Jensen, Mark P.; Patterson, David; Barth, Kelly; Smith, A. Richard; Gracely, Richard; George, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex may be a promising target for transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the management of pain. It is not clear how prefrontal TMS affects pain perception, but previous findings suggest that ventral lateral and medial prefrontal circuits may comprise an important part of a circuit of ‘perceived controllability’ regarding pain, stress and learned helplessness. While the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is a common TMS target for treating clinical depression as well as modulating pain, little is known about whether TMS over this area may affect perceived controllability. The present study explored the immediate effects of fast TMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on the analgesic effects of perceived pain controllability. Twenty-four healthy volunteers underwent a laboratory pain task designed to manipulate perception of pain controllability. Real TMS, compared to sham, suppressed the analgesic benefits of perceived-control on the emotional dimension of pain, but not the sensory/discriminatory dimension. Findings suggest that, at least acutely, fast TMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may interrupt the perceived-controllability effect on the emotional dimension of pain experience. While it is not clear whether this cortical area is directly involved with modulating perceived controllability or whether downstream effects are responsible for the present findings, it appears possible that left dorsolateral prefrontal TMS may produce analgesic effects by acting through a cortical ‘perceived control’ circuit regulating limbic and brainstem areas of the pain circuit. PMID:21122992

  20. Differential aspects of the disease and treatment of Thoracic Acute Aortic Dissection (TAAD)-the European experience.

    PubMed

    Pepper, John

    2016-07-01

    The management of patients with acute aortic dissection continues to be a challenge. It is an uncommon but lethal condition which continues to be under-diagnosed and under-treated. In this review, the term acute aortic syndrome is preferred in order to embrace the closely related pathologies of intramural hematoma (IMH) and penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU). PMID:27563549

  1. Differential aspects of the disease and treatment of Thoracic Acute Aortic Dissection (TAAD)—the European experience

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The management of patients with acute aortic dissection continues to be a challenge. It is an uncommon but lethal condition which continues to be under-diagnosed and under-treated. In this review, the term acute aortic syndrome is preferred in order to embrace the closely related pathologies of intramural hematoma (IMH) and penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU). PMID:27563549

  2. Do experiments with captive non-domesticated animals make sense without population field studies? A case study with blue tits' breeding time

    PubMed Central

    Lambrechts, M. M.; Perret, P.; Maistre, M.; Blondel, J.

    1999-01-01

    A complete understanding of the spatio-temporal variation in phenotypic traits in natural populations requires a combination long-term field studies with experiments using captive animals. Field studies allow the formulation of realistic hypotheses, but have the disadvantage that they do not allow the complete control of many potential confounding variables. Studies with captive animals allow tests of hypotheses that cannot be examined in the field, but have the disadvantage that artificial environments may provoke abnormal behaviour. Long-term studies that follow simultaneously captive and wild bird populations are rare. In a study lasting several years, we show here the unexpected patterns that two populations with a similar breeding time in the wild have non-overlapping breeding times in outdoor aviaries, and that two wild populations separated by a short geographical distance show differences in the expression of natural behaviour in captivity. The experimental design used is exceptional in the sense that the captive populations were held at similar latitudes and altitudes as the wild populations. Our case study shows that studies with captive animals can lead to wrong conclusions if they are carried out without population field studies, and without knowledge of the natural habits and habitats of the species involved. To examine the reliability of experiments with captive animals, comparisons with findings from population field studies are essential.

  3. Behavior of Dermochelys coriacea in captivity (animal carrying dummy PTT in preliminary phase of an ARGOS experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duron-Dufrenne, M.

    The degree to which a turtle would accept the Transat-type ARGOS PTT, and the reliability of the harness securing it to the carapace were tested, using an adult kept in a swimming pool for 36 hr. Its pelagic behavior turns out to be comparable to that in the open sea, the animal appearing unperturbed by the equipment.

  4. Development of a vessel organ culture system: characterisation of the method and implications for the reduction of animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Zaniboni, Andrea; Zannoni, Augusta; Bernardini, Chiara; De Cecco, Marco; Bombardi, Cristiano; Seren, Eraldo; Forni, Monica; Bacci, Maria Laura

    2013-09-01

    In the field of cardiovascular research, the pig is considered to be an excellent animal model of human diseases. It is well-known that primary cultures of endothelial cells (ECs) are a powerful tool for the study of vascular physiology and pathology, and, according to the principles of the Three Rs, their use results in a substantial reduction in the numbers of experimental animals required. However, a limitation of EC culture is that the cells are not in their physiological context. Here, we describe and characterise a method for the culture of porcine vessels that overcomes the limitation of EC cultures, with the advantage of reducing the number of animals used for research purposes. The organ cultures were set-up by using an aortic cylinder obtained from the arteries of control pigs sacrificed for other experimental purposes. In order to characterise the method, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation and the vessel's structural features were evaluated during organ culture. These analyses confirm that the culture of aortic cylinder lumen, in a medium specific for ECs, results in a stable system in terms of VEGF and MMP secretion. The ECs do not undergo cell division during the organ culture, which is also the case in vivo, if no stimulation occurs. Overall, we show that this novel system closely resembles the in vivo context. Importantly, porcine aortas can be collected from either veterinary surgeries or slaughterhouses, without having to sacrifice animals specifically for the purposes of this type of research. PMID:24168133

  5. [Cutaneous administration of liposomes--a review of the literature with special reference to findings from keratinocyte cultures, animal experiments and clinical studies].

    PubMed

    Bonnekoh, B; Mahrle, G

    1990-01-01

    Recent findings regarding the topical application of liposomes are reviewed under 3 headings: (1) keratinocyte cultures, (2) animal experiments, and (3) clinical studies. Under cell culturing conditions, liposomes are able to get into direct contact with living keratinocytes--just as in cutaneous application when the barrier of the horny layer is missing (i.e. in case of superficial skin defects or unkeratinized mucocutaneoaus surfaces). Under these circumstances, keratinocytes show liposomal alterations of the cell structure, proliferation, and lipid fluidity. Animal experiments and clinical studies have pointed out that, in comparison with a conventional formulation, a liposomal way of application can enhance the penetration of various substances as well as their toposelective enrichment in the skin, since the dermal-vascular absorption is diminished. PMID:2183509

  6. Acute phase reaction and acute phase proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Gruys, E.; Toussaint, M.J.M.; Niewold, T.A.; Koopmans, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    A review of the systemic acute phase reaction with major cytokines involved, and the hepatic metabolic changes, negative and positive acute phase proteins (APPs) with function and associated pathology is given. It appears that APPs represent appropriate analytes for assessment of animal health. Whereas they represent non-specific markers as biological effect reactants, they can be used for assessing nutritional deficits and reactive processes, especially when positive and negative acute phase variables are combined in an index. When such acute phase index is applied to separate healthy animals from animals with some disease, much better results are obtained than with single analytes and statistically acceptable results for culling individual animals may be reached. Unfortunately at present no cheap, comprehensive and easy to use system is available for assessing various acute phase proteins in serum or blood samples at the same time. Protein microarray or fluid phase microchip technology may satisfy this need; and permit simultaneous analysis of numerous analytes in the same small volume sample and enable integration of information derived from systemic reactivity and nutrition with disease specific variables. Applying such technology may help to solve health problems in various countries not only in animal husbandry but also in human populations. PMID:16252337

  7. Animal-related injuries in a resource-limited setting: experiences from a Tertiary health institution in northwestern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Animal related injuries are a major but neglected emerging public health problem and contribute significantly to high morbidity and mortality worldwide. No prospective studies have been done on animal related injuries in our setting. This study was conducted to determine the management patterns and outcome of animal related injuries and their social impact on public health policy in the region. Methods This was a descriptive prospective study of animal related injury patients that presented to Bugando Medical Centre between September 2007 and August 2011. Statistical data analysis was done using SPSS computer software version 17.0. Results A total of 452 (8.3%) animal-related injury patients were studied. The modal age group was 21-30 years. The male to female ratio was 2.1:1. Dog-bites (61.1%) were the most common injuries. Musculoskeletal (71.7%) region was the most frequent body region injured. Soft tissue injuries (92.5%) and fractures (49.1%) were the most common type of injuries sustained. Only 140 (31.0%) patients were hospitalized and most of them (97.1%) were treated surgically. Wound debridement was the most common procedure performed in 91.2% of patients. Postoperative complication rate was 15.9%, the commonest being surgical site infections (SSI) in 55.1% of patients. SSI was significantly associated with late presentation and open fractures (P < 0.001). The overall median duration of hospitalization was 16 days. Patients who had severe injuries, long bone fractures and those with hemiplegia stayed longer in the hospital (P < 0.001). Mortality rate was 10.2% and was significantly high in patients with severe injuries, severe head injury, tetanus and admission SBP < 90 mmHg (P < 0.001). The follow up of patients was poor. Conclusion Animal related injuries constitute a major public health problem in our setting and commonly affect the young adult male in their economically productive age-group. Measures towards prevention and proper treatment

  8. Obstetric Acute Kidney Injury; A Three Year Experience at a Medical College Hospital in North Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, K.S.; Gorikhan, Gousia; M.M., Umadi; S.T., Kalsad; M.P., Madhavaranga; Dambal, Amrut; Padaki, Samata

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acute kidney injury is a rare and sometimes fatal complication of pregnancy, the incidence of which has been declining worldwide, though still high in developing countries. There are recent observations of increasing incidence in some developed countries attributed to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Materials and Methods: In this study, we have analysed the records of all patients referred to the dialysis unit of a medical college hospital in Karnataka for acute kidney injury related to pregnancy. AKIN (Acute Kidney Injury Network) criteria for the diagnosis of acute kidney injury were adapted. Age, parity, gestational age, causative factors for acute kidney injury, mode of delivery, access to antenatal care, operative procedures, blood component transfusions, number of haemodialysis, time for initiation of haemodialysis, duration of hospital stay and mortality were analysed by finding mean, standard deviation and standard error. Results: Fifteen patients out of 21563 who delivered in our hospital developed acute kidney injury. These (n=15) were out of 149 patients of acute kidney injury of various aetiologies who underwent haemodialysis between 2012 and 2014. Of these two were unregistered for antenatal care. Ten were multiparous, Eleven were from rural background, one had home delivery, six had vaginal delivery, seven had caesarean section and two had second trimester abortion. Placental abruption with intrauterine death was the commonest Cause in 9 out of 15 cases. All had severe anaemia. Patients received a mean of 3.9 (SD+/- 2.4) sessions of haemodialysis. Eleven patients recovered completely, two died and two left against medical advice. Conclusion: Obstetric acute kidney injury is associated with poor access to antenatal care, multiparity and rural background. Placental abruption is the commonest cause of obstetric acute kidney injury. Blood component transfusions, avoidance of nephrotoxic drugs and early initiation of haemodialysis are

  9. Ground and space flight experiments of the effects of light, sound and/or temperature on animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, Daniel C.; Du, Vince; Erikson, Jill; Gott, Jack; Hinchcliffe, Heather; Mele, Gary; Moeller, Karen; Nguyen, Tam; Okumura, Sarah; Robbins, Mark

    1994-01-01

    Papers on the following topics are presented: (1) rat long term habitability and breeding under low light intensity (5 lux); (2) effects of low light intensity on the rat circadian system; (3) effects of sound/noise on the circadian system of rats; (4) temperature related problems involving the animal enclosure modules (AEM) lighting system; and (5) NASA AEM filter test 92/93 (Rats).

  10. [Histological investigation of the micromorphological effects of the application of a laser needle--results of an animal experiment].

    PubMed

    Litscher, G; Nemetz, W; Smolle, J; Schwarz, G; Schikora, D; Uranüs, S

    2004-01-01

    In an experimental animal study (Sus scrofa domesticus) we investigated the effects of the new technique of laser needle stimulation (wavelength: 685 nm; energy density: 4.6 kJ/cm2 per point; application duration: 20 min). The results revealed changes in microcirculatory parameters of the skin resulting in an increase in blood flow. However, the quality and intensity of the laser light did not induce micromorphological alterations in the skin. PMID:15032490

  11. Inhalation of diethylamine--acute nasal effects and subjective response

    SciTech Connect

    Lundqvist, G.R.; Yamagiwa, M.; Pedersen, O.F.; Nielsen, G.D. )

    1992-03-01

    Adult volunteers were exposed to 25 ppm (75 mg/m3) diethylamine in a climate chamber for 15 min in order to study the acute nasal reactions to an exposure equivalent to the present threshold limit value-short-term exposure limit. Changes in nasal volume and nasal resistance were measured by acoustic rhinometry and by rhinomanometry. Acute change in nasal volume, usually seen as acute nasal mucosa response to thermal stimuli, was not observed, nor was an acute change in nasal airway resistance. In a subsequent experiment, the aim was to measure acute sensory effects. Exposure to a concentration increasing from 0 to 12 ppm took place for 60 min, equal to an average concentration of 10 ppm (30 mg/m3). A moderate to strong olfactory response and distinct nasal and eye irritation were observed. In spite of considerable individual variation, the results were in agreement with sensory effect estimates obtained from animal studies.

  12. Ethical policies on animal experiments are not compromised by whether a journal is freely accessible or charges for publication.

    PubMed

    Rands, S A

    2009-11-01

    The advent of the open access (OA) movement in publishing has been instrumental in causing a shift in the accessibility of research findings published in academic journals. The adoption of OA and other online publication models means that the results of scientific research published in journals using a free access (FA) framework are now available, free of charge, to anyone with access to the Internet. FA journals typically require a payment from the authors of a manuscript, which has raised concerns about the quality of work published in them; accepting payment from an author may compromise a journal's acceptance criteria. This study addresses whether journal policy on the treatment of animals is influenced by whether a journal follows a FA publishing model, and whether a requirement to pay for publication has an influence. A random sample of 332 biomedical journals listed in the ISI Web of Knowledge and Directory of Open Access Journals databases were assessed for whether they had an ethical policy on publishing animal studies, and what form of publication framework they used (103 of the journals followed a FA framework; 101 charged in some way for publication). Only 135 (40.7%) of the journals surveyed demanded that submissions comply with a pre-defined ethical stance. FA journals are just as likely to have an ethical policy on the treatment and presentation of animal studies as 'traditional', non-FA journals (significance of there being a difference: P = 0.98), and there is no relationship between policy and whether an author is required to pay for publication (significance of there being a difference: P = 0.57). Older journals are more likely to have an ethical policy (P = 0.03). There is, therefore, no obvious compromise shown by FA journals in the explicit policies on reporting studies involving animals. However, since anyone can read published FA studies online, FA journals that do not have an explicit policy about publishing animal research are urged to

  13. Towards An Advanced Graphene-Based Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agent: Sub-acute Toxicity and Efficacy Studies in Small Animals

    PubMed Central

    Kanakia, Shruti; Toussaint, Jimmy; Hoang, Dung Minh; Mullick Chowdhury, Sayan; Lee, Stephen; Shroyer, Kenneth R.; Moore, William; Wadghiri, Youssef Z.; Sitharaman, Balaji

    2015-01-01

    Current clinical Gd3+-based T1 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents (CAs) are suboptimal or unsuitable, especially at higher magnetic fields (>1.5 Tesla) for advanced MRI applications such as blood pool, cellular and molecular imaging. Herein, towards the goal of developing a safe and more efficacious high field T1 MRI CA for these applications, we report the sub-acute toxicity and contrast enhancing capabilities of a novel nanoparticle MRI CA comprising of manganese (Mn2+) intercalated graphene nanoparticles functionalized with dextran (hereafter, Mangradex) in rodents. Sub-acute toxicology performed on rats intravenously injected with Mangradex at 1, 50 or 100 mg/kg dosages 3 times per week for three weeks indicated that dosages ≤50 mg/kg could serve as potential diagnostic doses. Whole body 7 Tesla MRI performed on mice injected with Mangradex at a potential diagnostic dose (25 mg/kg or 455 nanomoles Mn2+/kg; ~2 orders of magnitude lower than the paramagnetic ion concentration in a typical clinical dose) showed persistent (up to at least 2 hours) contrast enhancement in the vascular branches (Mn2+ concentration in blood at steady state = 300 ppb, per voxel = 45 femtomoles). The results lay the foundations for further development of Mangradex as a vascular and cellular/ molecular MRI probe. PMID:26625867

  14. Acute and sub-chronic (28 days) oral toxicity evaluation of tincture Baccharis trimera (Less) Backer in male and female rodent animals.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Andreia R H; Reginato, Fernanda Z; Guex, Camille G; Figueredo, Kássia C; da C Araldi, Isabel C; de Freitas, Robson B; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Mazzanti, Cinthia Melazzo de Andrade; Hübscher, Gilberti H; de F Bauermann, Liliane

    2016-02-01

    The infusion of Baccharis trimera (Less) DC, popularly known as "carqueja" (broom), is popularly used in the treatment of hepatic and digestive problems. In this study, we evaluated the acute and sub-chronic oral toxicities of B. trimera tincture on male and female Wistar rats according to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, guidelines 423 e 407, respectively). The B. trimera tincture was administered by oral gavage in a single dose (2000 mg/kg) in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg daily for 28 days. Blood was collected to analyze hematological and biochemical parameters. Kidneys and liver were homogenized to determine lipid peroxidation and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) and catalase (CAT) enzyme activities. In acute treatment, tincture did not induce any signs of toxicity or mortality. Daily oral administration produced no significant changes in the hematological and biochemical parameters, except for the hepatic enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) and aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) that showed a reduction in both sexes. Moreover, the B. trimera tincture did not increase lipid peroxidation or affected ALA-D and CAT activities. In conclusion, the tincture of B. trimera may be considered relatively safe in this protocol. PMID:26522812

  15. Development and Implementation of a Simple, Engaging Acid Rain Neutralization Experiment and Corresponding Animated Instructional Video for Introductory Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Danielle; Yennie, Craig J.; Lynch, Patrick; Lowry, Gregory; Budarz, James; Zhu, Wenlei; Wang, Li-Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe an acid rain neutralization laboratory experiment and its corresponding instructional video. This experiment has been developed and implemented for use in the teaching laboratory of a large introductory chemistry course at Brown University. It provides a contextually relevant example to introduce beginner-level students with…

  16. The First Egyptian Experience Using New Self-Expandable Metal Stents in Acute Esophageal Variceal Bleeding: Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Mohamed S.; Hamza, Iman M.; Mohey, Mohamed A.; Hubamnn, Rainer G.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim: Balloon tamponade has been widely available in emergency situations of acute variceal bleeding. To lessen the complications of Balloon tamponade, a new special type of stent for exclusive use in acute variceal bleeding has been developed. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness and safety of the new self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) in the initial control of acute variceal bleeding. We also hypothesized that using SEMS can bridge the acute bleeding episode converting endoscopic management by sclerotherapy or band ligation to an elective procedure. Patients and Methods: Twenty patients with acute variceal bleeding were included in the study and 16 of them were allocated to receive stent treatment. Results: Stent deployment was successful in 15 of 16 patients (93.75%). Technical errors were reported in 3 (18.75%) patients. Initial control of variceal bleeding was reported in 14 (out of 16) (87.5%) patients. The mean duration of the procedure was 10 (±6) min. Mortality was reported in 4 (25.0%) patients. Conclusion: SEMS is a safe and effective mean to control acute variceal bleeding. PMID:23828748

  17. Animal Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  18. Telemetry and Telestimulation via Implanted Devices Necessary in Long-Term Experiments Using Conscious Untethered Animals for the Development of New Medical Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimachi, Masaru; Kawada, Toru; Uemura, Kazunori

    Effective countermeasures against explosive increase in healthcare expenditures are urgently needed. A paradigm shift in healthcare is called for, and academics and governments worldwide are working hard on the application of information and communication technologies (ICT) as a feasible and effective measure for reducing medical cost. The more prevalent the disease and the easier disease outcome can be improved, the more efficient is medical ICT in reducing healthcare cost. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are such examples. Chronic heart failure is another disease in which patients may benefit from ICT-based medical practice. It is conceivable that daily monitoring of hemodynamics together with appropriate treatments may obviate the expensive hospitalization. ICT potentially permit continuous monitoring with wearable or implantable medical devices. ICT may also help accelerate the development of new therapeutic devices. Traditionally effectiveness of treatments is sequentially examined by sacrificing a number of animals at a given time point. These inefficient and inaccurate methods can be replaced by applying ICT to the devices used in chronic animal experiments. These devices allow researchers to obtain biosignals and images from live animals without killing them. They include implantable telemetric devices, implantable telestimulation devices, and imaging devices. Implanted rather than wired monitoring and stimulation devices permit experiments to be conducted under even more physiological conditions, i.e., untethered, free-moving states. Wireless communication and ICT are indispensible technologies for the development of such telemetric and telestimulation devices.

  19. Phantom experiments on a PSAPD-based compact gamma camera with submillimeter spatial resolution for small animal SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangtaek; McClish, Mickel; Alhassen, Fares; Seo, Youngho; Shah, Kanai S.; Gould, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate a position sensitive avalanche photodiode (PSAPD) based compact gamma camera for the application of small animal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The silicon PSAPD with a two-dimensional resistive layer and four readout channels is implemented as a gamma ray detector to record the energy and position of radiation events from a radionuclide source. A 2 mm thick monolithic CsI:Tl scintillator is optically coupled to a PSAPD with a 8mm×8mm active area, providing submillimeter intrinsic spatial resolution, high energy resolution (16% full-width half maximum at 140 keV) and high gain. A mouse heart phantom filled with an aqueous solution of 370 MBq 99mTc-pertechnetate (140 keV) was imaged using the PSAPD detector module and a tungsten knife-edge pinhole collimator with a 0.5 mm diameter aperture. The PSAPD detector module was cooled with cold nitrogen gas to suppress dark current shot noise. For each projection image of the mouse heart phantom, a rotated diagonal readout algorithm was used to calculate the position of radiation events and correct for pincushion distortion. The reconstructed image of the mouse heart phantom demonstrated reproducible image quality with submillimeter spatial resolution (0.7 mm), showing the feasibility of using the compact PSAPD-based gamma camera for a small animal SPECT system. PMID:21278833

  20. Bone, Calcium and Spaceflight: A Living Systems Experiment Relating Animals and Plants the Effects of Calcium on Plant Growth and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiss-Bubenheim, D.; Navarro, B.J.; Morey-Holton, E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This NASA-sponsored educational outreach activity provided local students with information about Ames Research Center's (ARC) role in conducting life sciences research in space. Students were introduced to the scientific method while conducting a plant experiment that correlated with the Spacelab Life Sciences-2 (SLS-2) flight animal experiment of Dr. Emily Morey-Holton entitled "Bone, Calcium and Spaceflight". Students made daily observations, collected data and reported on their findings. Students also had the opportunity to witness the STS-58 landing at Edwards Air Force Base in southern California and attended a briefing given by the Payload Commander, Dr. Rhea Seddon at ARC last month. This classroom experiment providing a hands-on learning opportunity about terrestrial and space biology and, hopefully, introduced the students to new fields of study for future endeavors.

  1. [Animal experimentation in Israel].

    PubMed

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

    2002-04-01

    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries. PMID:12017891

  2. Animal experiments, vital forces and courtrooms: Mateu Orfila, François Magendie and the study of poisons in nineteenth-century France.

    PubMed

    Bertomeu-Sánchez, José Ramón

    2012-01-01

    The paper follows the lives of Mateu Orfila and François Magendie in early nineteenth-century Paris, focusing on their common interest in poisons. The first part deals with the striking similarities of their early careers: their medical training, their popular private lectures, and their first publications. The next section explores their experimental work on poisons by analyzing their views on physical and vital forces in living organisms and their ideas about the significance of animal experiments in medicine. The last part describes their contrasting research on the absorption of poisons and the divergences in their approaches, methods, aims, standards of proof, and intended audiences. The analysis highlights the connections between nineteenth-century courtrooms and experimental laboratories, and shows how forensic practice not only prompted animal experimentation but also provided a substantial body of information and new research methods for dealing with major theoretical issues like the absorption of poisons. PMID:22530381

  3. Amazing Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Kuwari, Najat Saad

    2007-01-01

    "Animals" is a three-part lesson plan for young learners with a zoo animal theme. The first lesson is full of activities to describe animals, with Simon Says, guessing games, and learning stations. The second lesson is about desert animals, but other types of animals could be chosen depending on student interest. This lesson teaches…

  4. [Comparative animal experiment studies of the effect of exogenous collagen on healing of a deep skin wound].

    PubMed

    Sedlarik, K M; Schoots, C; Fidler, V; Oosterbaan, J A; Klopper, J P

    1991-02-01

    The high number of available wound dressings as well as the scientific reports about this topic indicates that the problem of an ideal wound dressing material is not jet solved. In the last 30 years lot of scientific reports about collagen as wound covering has been published. The positive effect of collagen by this application on a wound is well-known. We investigated the effect of a collagen sponge on healing of full thickness wound in rats. The animals were divided in two control and two experimental groups. In the control groups there were air exposed wounds as well as wounds covered with paraffin gauze. In the experimental groups the wounds were covered with natural reconstituted collagen sponge as well as with chemically prepared sponge. All results were compared. The wounds with collagen sponge covering healed significantly faster. Also the quality of the wound healing was better in the experimental groups. PMID:2042253

  5. [The effect of locally applied Grisaldone or choline salicylate gel on bone healing after tooth extraction in animal experiments].

    PubMed

    Cendelin, E; Fröhlich, M

    1977-01-01

    Comparative histological and experimental animal studies of the effects upon bone wound healing of topically applied choline salicylate gel and Grisaldon showed that Grisaldon tends to hinder the course of reparation of bone, whereas choline salicylate gel has no appreciable influence upon the time course of wound healing. This essential difference is considered to be due predominantly to the exactly opposite behavior shown by the two pharmaceutical preparations in regard to their solubility in water. The difficultly watersoluble Grisaldon tends to exert a longer-drawn-out irritant effect upon the tissue and can be detected in alveoli even after twenty-eight days from administration thereof. By contrast, choline salicylate gel, which is known to be readily soluble in water, will be eliminated already after two days from administration thereof. PMID:150157

  6. [Animal experiment study of titanium with surface coatings of (Ti,Nb)ON and (Ti,Zr)O].

    PubMed

    Thull, R; Handke, K D; Karle, E J

    1995-10-01

    Titanium is considered to be biocompatible as long as the passive layer of TiO2 which is formed within the body, is not destroyed mechanically by the shearing forces acting on implants during function. Mechanically stable hard coatings on the basis of the so-called refractory metals render titanium wear-and-tear-resistant, with the added advantage for its biocompatibility of keeping its the physical and electrochemical properties constant, even in the event of relative movement against hard or soft tissue. Biological testing of coated and uncoated titanium in experimental animals shows that the deposition of new bone on (Ti,Zr)O or (Ti,Nb)ON surfaces takes place in the same way as on the surface of titanium. PMID:8527641

  7. A three-dimensional in vitro model of breast cancer: Toward replacing the need for animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Deborah L

    2010-12-01

    While the events leading to breast cancer development are not fully understood, a pre-invasive lesion, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), is recognised as the main precursor of invasive disease. Understanding how pre-invasive lesions develop into invasive breast cancer is critical, since currently there is no way of predicting which tumours are likely to progress, leading to unnecessary surgical intervention or chemotherapy. With a lack of good animal models able to mimic DCIS progression in a laboratory setting, there has been a shift toward developing in vitro human models which more accurately represent human disease. By manipulating individual cell populations in these models, we can recapitulate the complex cellular interactions involved in disease progression, an essential step in understanding breast cancer behaviour. PMID:21275482

  8. Alignment silkworms as seismic animal anomalous behavior (SAAB) and electromagnetic model of a fault: a theory and laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeya, Motoji; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Huang, Qing-Hua

    1998-05-01

    Alignment of silkworms and fish, observed as seismic anomalous animal behavior (SAAB) prior to the Kobe earthquake, were duplicated in a laboratory by applying a pulsed electric field assuming SAAB as electrophysiological responses to the stimuli of seismic electric signals (SES). The animals became aligned perpendicularly to the field direction since their skeletal muscle had a higher resistivity perpendicular to the field direction than parallel to it. An electromagnetic model of a fault is proposed in which dipolar charges, ±q are generated due to the change of seismic stress, σ(t). From a mathematical model, dq/dt=-α(dσ/dt) - q/ɛρ, where α is the charge generation constant like a piezoelectric coefficient, ɛ, the dielectric constant and ρ, the resistivity of bedrock granite. A fault having a length 2a and a displacement or rock rupture time τ, during which the stress is changed, gives pulsed dipolar charge surface densities, +q(t, x) and -q(t, x+2a), or an apparent electric dipole moment of P(t)=2aQ(t)=2aAq(t)=aM 0[ɛρ/(τ-ɛρ)](e-1/τ-e-1/σρ) using the earthquake moment M 0. The fault displacement, D, its initial velocity, D‧ and the stress drop, Δσ give τ=D/D‧=(Δσ/σ 0)(α/β). The field fintensity, F, and seismic current density at a fault zone, J were calculated as F=q/ɛ and J=F/ρ‧ using ρ‧ of water as to give J=0.1-1 A/m2 sufficient to cause SAAB experimentally. The near-field ultra low frequency (ULF) waves generated by P(t) give SES reciprocally proportional to the distance R.

  9. Small animal simultaneous PET/MRI: initial experiences in a 9.4 T microMRI.

    PubMed

    Maramraju, Sri Harsha; Smith, S David; Junnarkar, Sachin S; Schulz, Daniela; Stoll, Sean; Ravindranath, Bosky; Purschke, Martin L; Rescia, Sergio; Southekal, Sudeepti; Pratte, Jean-François; Vaska, Paul; Woody, Craig L; Schlyer, David J

    2011-04-21

    We developed a non-magnetic positron-emission tomography (PET) device based on the rat conscious animal PET that operates in a small-animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, thereby enabling us to carry out simultaneous PET/MRI studies. The PET detector comprises 12 detector blocks, each being a 4 × 8 array of lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystals (2.22 × 2.22 × 5 mm(3)) coupled to a matching non-magnetic avalanche photodiode array. The detector blocks, housed in a plastic case, form a 38 mm inner diameter ring with an 18 mm axial extent. Custom-built MRI coils fit inside the positron-emission tomography (PET) device, operating in transceiver mode. The PET insert is integrated with a Bruker 9.4 T 210 mm clear-bore diameter MRI scanner. We acquired simultaneous PET/MR images of phantoms, of in vivo rat brain, and of cardiac-gated mouse heart using [(11)C]raclopride and 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose PET radiotracers. There was minor interference between the PET electronics and the MRI during simultaneous operation, and small effects on the signal-to-noise ratio in the MR images in the presence of the PET, but no noticeable visual artifacts. Gradient echo and high-duty-cycle spin echo radio frequency (RF) pulses resulted in a 7% and a 28% loss in PET counts, respectively, due to high PET counts during the RF pulses that had to be gated out. The calibration of the activity concentration of PET data during MR pulsing is reproducible within less than 6%. Our initial results demonstrate the feasibility of performing simultaneous PET and MRI studies in adult rats and mice using the same PET insert in a small-bore 9.4 T MRI. PMID:21441651

  10. Small animal simultaneous PET/MRI: initial experiences in a 9.4T microMRI

    SciTech Connect

    Maramraju, S.H.; Schlyer, D.; Maramraju, S.H.; Smith, S.D.; Junnarkar, S.S.; Schulz, D.; Stoll, S.; Ravindranath, B.; Purschke, M.L.; Rescia, S.; Southekal, S.; Pratte, J.-F.; Vaska, P.; Woody, C.L.; Schlyer, D.J.

    2011-03-25

    We developed a non-magnetic positron-emission tomography (PET) device based on the rat conscious animal PET that operates in a small-animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, thereby enabling us to carry out simultaneous PET/MRI studies. The PET detector comprises 12 detector blocks, each being a 4 x 8 array of lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystals (2.22 x 2.22 x 5 mm{sup 3}) coupled to a matching non-magnetic avalanche photodiode array. The detector blocks, housed in a plastic case, form a 38 mm inner diameter ring with an 18 mm axial extent. Custom-built MRI coils fit inside the positron-emission tomography (PET) device, operating in transceiver mode. The PET insert is integrated with a Bruker 9.4 T 210 mm clear-bore diameter MRI scanner. We acquired simultaneous PET/MR images of phantoms, of in vivo rat brain, and of cardiac-gated mouse heart using [{sup 11}C]raclopride and 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-d-glucose PET radiotracers. There was minor interference between the PET electronics and the MRI during simultaneous operation, and small effects on the signal-to-noise ratio in the MR images in the presence of the PET, but no noticeable visual artifacts. Gradient echo and high-duty-cycle spin echo radio frequency (RF) pulses resulted in a 7% and a 28% loss in PET counts, respectively, due to high PET counts during the RF pulses that had to be gated out. The calibration of the activity concentration of PET data during MR pulsing is reproducible within less than 6%. Our initial results demonstrate the feasibility of performing simultaneous PET and MRI studies in adult rats and mice using the same PET insert in a small-bore 9.4 T MRI.

  11. Toward the Replacement of Animal Experiments through the Bioinformatics-driven Analysis of 'Omics' Data from Human Cell Cultures.

    PubMed

    Grafström, Roland C; Nymark, Penny; Hongisto, Vesa; Spjuth, Ola; Ceder, Rebecca; Willighagen, Egon; Hardy, Barry; Kaski, Samuel; Kohonen, Pekka

    2015-11-01

    This paper outlines the work for which Roland Grafström and Pekka Kohonen were awarded the 2014 Lush Science Prize. The research activities of the Grafström laboratory have, for many years, covered cancer biology studies, as well as the development and application of toxicity-predictive in vitro models to determine chemical safety. Through the integration of in silico analyses of diverse types of genomics data (transcriptomic and proteomic), their efforts have proved to fit well into the recently-developed Adverse Outcome Pathway paradigm. Genomics analysis within state-of-the-art cancer biology research and Toxicology in the 21st Century concepts share many technological tools. A key category within the Three Rs paradigm is the Replacement of animals in toxicity testing with alternative methods, such as bioinformatics-driven analyses of data obtained from human cell cultures exposed to diverse toxicants. This work was recently expanded within the pan-European SEURAT-1 project (Safety Evaluation Ultimately Replacing Animal Testing), to replace repeat-dose toxicity testing with data-rich analyses of sophisticated cell culture models. The aims and objectives of the SEURAT project have been to guide the application, analysis, interpretation and storage of 'omics' technology-derived data within the service-oriented sub-project, ToxBank. Particularly addressing the Lush Science Prize focus on the relevance of toxicity pathways, a 'data warehouse' that is under continuous expansion, coupled with the development of novel data storage and management methods for toxicology, serve to address data integration across multiple 'omics' technologies. The prize winners' guiding principles and concepts for modern knowledge management of toxicological data are summarised. The translation of basic discovery results ranged from chemical-testing and material-testing data, to information relevant to human health and environmental safety. PMID:26551289

  12. Small animal simultaneous PET/MRI: initial experiences in a 9.4 T microMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harsha Maramraju, Sri; Smith, S. David; Junnarkar, Sachin S.; Schulz, Daniela; Stoll, Sean; Ravindranath, Bosky; Purschke, Martin L.; Rescia, Sergio; Southekal, Sudeepti; Pratte, Jean-François; Vaska, Paul; Woody, Craig L.; Schlyer, David J.

    2011-04-01

    We developed a non-magnetic positron-emission tomography (PET) device based on the rat conscious animal PET that operates in a small-animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, thereby enabling us to carry out simultaneous PET/MRI studies. The PET detector comprises 12 detector blocks, each being a 4 × 8 array of lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystals (2.22 × 2.22 × 5 mm3) coupled to a matching non-magnetic avalanche photodiode array. The detector blocks, housed in a plastic case, form a 38 mm inner diameter ring with an 18 mm axial extent. Custom-built MRI coils fit inside the positron-emission tomography (PET) device, operating in transceiver mode. The PET insert is integrated with a Bruker 9.4 T 210 mm clear-bore diameter MRI scanner. We acquired simultaneous PET/MR images of phantoms, of in vivo rat brain, and of cardiac-gated mouse heart using [11C]raclopride and 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose PET radiotracers. There was minor interference between the PET electronics and the MRI during simultaneous operation, and small effects on the signal-to-noise ratio in the MR images in the presence of the PET, but no noticeable visual artifacts. Gradient echo and high-duty-cycle spin echo radio frequency (RF) pulses resulted in a 7% and a 28% loss in PET counts, respectively, due to high PET counts during the RF pulses that had to be gated out. The calibration of the activity concentration of PET data during MR pulsing is reproducible within less than 6%. Our initial results demonstrate the feasibility of performing simultaneous PET and MRI studies in adult rats and mice using the same PET insert in a small-bore 9.4 T MRI.

  13. Fate of Central Venous Catheters Used for Acute Extracorporeal Treatment in Critically Ill Pediatric Patients: A Single Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Rus, Rina R; Premru, Vladimir; Novljan, Gregor; Grošelj-Grenc, Mojca; Ponikvar, Rafael

    2016-06-01

    Renal replacement treatment (RRT) is required in severe acute kidney injury, and a functioning central venous catheter (CVC) is crucial. Twenty-eight children younger than 16 years have been treated at the University Medical Centre Ljubljana between 2003 and 2012 with either acute hemodialysis (HD) and/or plasma exchange (PE), and were included in our study. The age of the patients ranged from 2 days to 14.1 years. Sixty-six CVCs were inserted (52% de novo, 48% guide wire). The sites of insertion were the jugular vein in 20% and the femoral vein in 80%. Catheters were in function from 1 day to 27 days. The most common cause for CVC removal or exchange was catheter dysfunction (50%). CVCs were mostly inserted in the femoral vein, which is the preferred site of insertion in acute HD/PE because of the smaller number of complications. PMID:27312920

  14. Outcomes associated with nesiritide administration for acute decompensated heart failure in the emergency department observation unit: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Styron, Joseph F; Jois-Bilowich, Preeti; Tallman, Thomas; Emerman, Charles; Starling, Randall C; Frank Peacock, W

    2009-01-01

    The authors' purpose was to determine 30- and 180-day readmission and mortality rates for acutely decompensated heart failure patients receiving nesiritide in the emergency department observation unit. The authors conducted a retrospective evaluation of all patients admitted to the emergency department observation unit, stratified by nesiritide administration, from January 2002 to January 2004. Eligible patients had a primary diagnosis of acutely decompensated heart failure. Observation unit treatment was by previously published protocols, except for nesiritide administration, which was per attending physician choice. Of 595 patients, 196 (33%) received nesiritide. The crude and adjusted odds ratios comparing readmission rates and mortality rates of the nesiritide group with the control group failed to demonstrate significant differences at either the 30- or the 180-day endpoints. The use of nesiritide for acute decompensated heart failure in the emergency department observation unit is not associated with mortality or readmission differences compared with standard therapy alone. PMID:19522957

  15. Transmission and dose–response experiments for social animals: a reappraisal of the colonization biology of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dose-response experiments characterize the relationship between infectious agents and their hosts. They are used to estimate the minimum e'ective infectious dose (ID50), compare between di'erent agents and quantify the e'ect of treatment regimes. The statistical analysis of dose-response data typica...

  16. [Application of direct electric current and intravenous ozone therapy in the complex treatment of destructive forms of acute pancreatitis in experiment].

    PubMed

    Zhakiev, B S; Zhumabaeva, A N; Kaliev, A A; Kazbekova, G A

    2013-01-01

    The results of experimental study which have carried out on 40 outbread dogs were analyzed in this thesis. Modeling of destructive pancreatitis in animals has been achieved via canalicular-hypertensive model by S.A. Shalimov. 4 series of experimental study were made to achieve the targeted goal. The first series 10 dogs without treatment, the second series 10 dogs in which conventional conservative therapy was used for the treatment of acute experimental destructive pancreatitis in animals, the third series 10 dogs that underwent intravenous ozone therapy in the complex together with medication therapy, the forth series the effectiveness of combined administration of intravenous ozone therapy and small doses of direct current in 10 dogs was evaluated. Combined administration of small doses of DC and intravenous ozone therapy in the complex treatment of destructive pancreatitis shows antiphlogistic action, favors accelerated rejection of necrotic tissue, remits inflammatory process as well as encourages regeneration process in pancreas whereby allows to decrease the mortality in experimental animals from 60% to 20%. PMID:24772873

  17. ASS and SULT2A1 are Novel and Sensitive Biomarkers of Acute Hepatic Injury-A Comparative Study in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Prima, Victor; Cao, Mengde; Svetlov, Stanislav I

    2013-01-01

    Liver and kidney damage associated with polytrauma, endotoxic shock/sepsis, and organ transplantation, are among the leading causes of the multiple organ failure. Development of novel sensitive biomarkers that detect early stages of liver and kidney injury is vital for the effective diagnostics and treatment of these life-threatening conditions. Previously, we identified several hepatic proteins, including Argininosuccinate Synthase (ASS) and sulfotransferases which were degraded in the liver and rapidly released into circulation during Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here we compared sensitivity and specificity of the newly developed sandwich ELISA assays for ASS and the sulfotransferase isoform SULT2A1 with the standard clinical liver and kidney tests Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate Transaminase (AST) in various pre-clinical models of acute injury. Our data suggest that ASS and SULT2A1 have superior characteristics for liver and kidney health assessment in endotoxemia, Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R), chemical and drug-induced liver injury and may be of high potential value for clinical applications. PMID:23724364

  18. Initial ground experiments of silkworm cultures living on different feedstock for provision of high quality animal protein for human in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yunan; Tang, Liman; Tong, Ling; Liu, Yang; Liu, Hong; Li, Xiaomin

    2010-09-01

    Silkworm could be an alternative to provide edible animal protein in Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for long-term manned space missions. Silkworms can consume non-edible plant residue and convert plant nutrients to high quality edible animal protein for astronauts. The preliminary investigation of silkworm culture was carried out in earth environment. The silkworms were fed with artificial silkworm diet and the leaves of stem lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. angustana Irish) separately and the nutritional structure of silkworm was investigated and compared, The culture experiments showed that: (1) Stem lettuce leaves could be used as food of silkworm. The protein content of silkworm fed with lettuce leaves can reach 70% of dry mass. (2) The protein content of silkworm powder produced by the fifth instar silkworm larvae was 70%, which was similar to the protein content of silkworm pupae. The powder of the fifth instar silkworm larvae can be utilized by astronaut. (3) The biotransformation rate of silkworm larvae between the third instar and the fifth instar could reach above 70%. The biotransformation cycle of silkworm was determined as 24 days. (4) Using the stem lettuce leaves to raise silkworm, the coarse fiber content of silkworm excrements reached about 33%. The requirements of space silkworm culture equipment, feeding approaches and feeding conditions were also preliminarily designed and calculated. It is estimated that 2.2 m 3 of culture space could satisfy daily animal protein demand for seven astronauts.

  19. Animal and robot experiments to discover principles behind the evolution of a minimal locomotor apparatus for robust legged locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInroe, Benjamin; Astley, Henry; Kawano, Sandy; Blob, Richard; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2015-03-01

    In the evolutionary transition from an aquatic to a terrestrial environment, early walkers adapted to the challenges of locomotion on complex, flowable substrates (e.g. sand and mud). Our previous biological and robotic studies have demonstrated that locomotion on such substrates is sensitive to both limb morphology and kinematics. Although reconstructions of early vertebrate skeletal morphologies exist, the kinematic strategies required for successful locomotion by these organisms have not yet been explored. To gain insight into how early walkers contended with complex substrates, we developed a robotic model with appendage morphology inspired by a model analog organism, the mudskipper. We tested mudskippers and the robot on different substrates, including rigid ground and dry granular media, varying incline angle. The mudskippers moved effectively on all level substrates using a fin-driven gait. But as incline angle increased, the animals used their tails in concert with their fins to generate propulsion. Adding an actuated tail to the robot improved robustness, making possible locomotion on otherwise inaccessible inclines. With these discoveries, we are elucidating a minimal template that may have allowed the early walkers to adapt to locomotion on land. This work was supported by NSF PoLS.

  20. Acute and sub-acute toxicological assessment of the aqueous seed extract of Persea americana mill (Lauraceae) in rats.

    PubMed

    Ozolua, Raymond I; Anaka, Ogochukwu N; Okpo, Stephen O; Idogun, Sylvester E

    2009-01-01

    The aqueous seed extract of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) is used by herbalists in Nigeria for the management of hypertension. As part of our on-going scientific evaluation of the extract, we designed the present study to assess its acute and sub-acute toxicity profiles in rats. Experiments were conducted to determine the oral median lethal dose (LD(50)) and other gross toxicological manifestations on acute basis. In the sub-acute experiments, the animals were administered 2.5 g/kg (p.o) per day of the extract for 28 consecutive days. Animal weight and fluid intake were recorded during the 28 days period. Terminally, kidneys, hearts, blood/sera were obtained for weight, haematological and biochemical markers of toxicity. Results show that the LD(50) could not be determined after a maximum dose of 10 g/kg. Sub-acute treatment with the extract neither affected whole body weight nor organ-to-body weight ratios but significantly increased the fluid intake (P < 0.0001). Haematological parameters and the levels of ALT, AST, albumin and creatinine were not significantly altered. However, the concentration of total proteins was significantly increased in the treated group. In conclusion, the aqueous seed extract of P. americana is safe on sub-acute basis but extremely high doses may not be advisable. PMID:20606779

  1. Experiences of the Implementation of a Learning Disability Nursing Liaison Service within an Acute Hospital Setting: A Service Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castles, Amy; Bailey, Carol; Gates, Bob; Sooben, Roja

    2014-01-01

    It has been well documented that people with learning disabilities receive poor care in acute settings. Over the last few years, a number of learning disability liaison nurse services have developed in the United Kingdom as a response to this, but there has been a failure to systematically gather evidence as to their effectiveness. This article…

  2. Interaction between Analgesic Effect of Nano and Conventional size of Zinc Oxide and Opioidergic System Activity in Animal Model of Acute Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kesmati, Mahnaz; Torabi, Mozhgan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Today Nano-medicine tries to produce new drugs to reduce the dosage and side effects of their conventional forms. According to the interaction between zinc and opioidergic system activity, this study has investigated the effect of new kind of zinc supplement, nano zinc oxide (nZnO), in compared to its conventional form (cZnO), in presence and absence of opioidergic system activity on acute pain. Methods Adult male Wistar rats (weighting 200±20gr) divided into groups: control (receiving saline %0.9), nZnO (1, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg), cZnO (1, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg), naloxone 1mg/kg, morphine 6 mg/kg, and co-injected groups of morphine and/or naloxone with nZnO (5mg/kg) and/or cZnO 10 mg/kg. Hot plate assay was used to evaluation of nociception and post injected latencies were recorded every 30 min for 90 min after I.P. injections of drugs. In co-injected groups latency time recorded after 60 minutes. Results Data indicated that both of ZnO supplements reduced latency time in dose and time dependent on the effect of nZnO was higher than cZnO. Also these components could improve anti-nociception effect of morphine and naloxone could not change the effect of these supplements. Discussion It seems that nZnO has more efficacy than its conventional form to showing analgesic effect that probably is related to the physicochemical properties of nZnO. Also may be these supplements have interaction with opioideric system in body. PMID:25436088

  3. A Comparison between Mechanical Thrombectomy and Intra-arterial Fibrinolysis in Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion: Single Center Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Seunguk; Jung, Cheolkyu; Bae, Yun Jung; Choi, Byung Se; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Chang, Jun Young; Kim, Beom Joon; Han, Moon-Ku; Bae, Hee-Joon; Kwon, Bae Ju; Cha, Sang-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Recent advances in intra-arterial techniques and thrombectomy devices lead to high rate of recanalization. However, little is known regarding the effect of the evolvement of endovascular revascularization therapy (ERT) in acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO). We compared the outcome of endovascular mechanical thrombectomy (EMT) versus intra-arterial fibrinolysis (IAF)-based ERT in patients with acute BAO. Methods After retrospectively reviewed a registry of consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent ERT from September 2003 to February 2015, 57 patients with acute BAO within 12 hours from stroke onset were enrolled. They were categorized as an IAF group (n=24) and EMT group (n=33) according to the primary technical option. We compared the procedural and clinical outcomes between the groups. Results The time from groin puncture to recanalization was significantly shorter in the EMT group than in the IAF group (48.5 [25.3 to 87.8] vs. 92 [44 to 179] minutes; P=0.02) The rate of complete recanalization was significantly higher in the EMT group than in the IAF group (87.9% vs 41.7%; P<0.01). The good outcome of the modified Rankin Scale score≤2 at 3 months was more frequent in the EMT group than in the IAF group, but it was not statistically significant (39.4% vs 16.7%; P=0.06). Conclusions EMT-based ERT in patients with acute BAO is superior to IAF-based ERT in terms of the reduction of time from groin puncture to recanalization and the improvement of the rate of complete recanalization. PMID:27283281

  4. Is Satisfaction with the Acute-Care Experience Higher amongst Consumers Treated in the Private Sector? A Survey of Public and Private Sector Arthroplasty Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, Justine M.; Descallar, Joseph; Grootemaat, Mechteld; Badge, Helen; Harris, Ian A.; Simpson, Grahame; Jenkin, Deanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Consumer satisfaction with the acute-care experience could reasonably be expected to be higher amongst those treated in the private sector compared to those treated in the public sector given the former relies on high-level satisfaction of its consumers and their subsequent recommendations to thrive. The primary aims of this study were to determine, in a knee or hip arthroplasty cohort, if surgery in the private sector predicts greater overall satisfaction with the acute-care experience and greater likelihood to recommend the same hospital. A secondary aim was to determine whether satisfaction across a range of service domains is also higher in the private sector. Methods A telephone survey was conducted 35 days post-surgery. The hospital cohort comprised eight public and seven private high-volume arthroplasty providers. Consumers rated overall satisfaction with care out of 100 and likeliness to recommend their hospital on a 5-point Likert scale. Additional Likert-style questions were asked covering specific service domains. Generalized estimating equation models were used to analyse overall satisfaction (dichotomised as ≥ 90 or < 90) and future recommendations for care (dichotomised as ‘definitely recommend’ or ‘other’), whilst controlling for covariates. The proportions of consumers in each sector reporting the best Likert response for each individual domain were compared using non-parametric tests. Results 457 survey respondents (n = 210 private) were included. Less patient-reported joint impairment pre-surgery [OR 1.03 (95% CI 1.01–1.05)] and absence of an acute complication (OR 2.13 95% CI 1.41–3.23) significantly predicted higher overall satisfaction. Hip arthroplasty [OR 1.84 (1.1–2.96)] and an absence of an acute complication [OR 2.31 (1.28–4.17] significantly predicted greater likelihood for recommending the hospital. The only care domains where the private out-performed the public sector were hospitality (46.7 vs 35.6%, p <0

  5. Size-Dependent Toxicity Differences of Intratracheally Instilled Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles: Conclusions of a Subacute Animal Experiment.

    PubMed

    Máté, Zsuzsanna; Horváth, Edina; Kozma, Gábor; Simon, Tímea; Kónya, Zoltán; Paulik, Edit; Papp, András; Szabó, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Incomplete information on toxicological differences of micro- and nanometer-sized particles raised concerns about the effects of the latter on health and environment. Besides chemical composition, size and surface-to-volume ratio of nanoparticles (NPs) can affect toxicity. To investigate size-dependent toxicity differences, we used particles made of dioxide of the neurotoxic heavy metal manganese (Mn), typically found in inhaled metal fumes, in three size ranges (size A, 9.14 ± 1.98 nm; size B, 42.36 ± 8.06 nm; size C, 118.31 ± 25.37 nm). For modeling the most frequent route of exposure to Mn, NPs were given to rats for 6 weeks by intratracheal instillation. Of each NP size, 3 or 6 mg/kg body weight was given while control animals were vehicle treated. Neurotoxicity was assessed by measuring spontaneous locomotor activity in an open field and by recording spontaneous and evoked electrical activity from the somatosensory cortical area. Mn content of brain, lung, and blood, measured by ICP-MS, were correlated to the observed functional alterations to see the relationship between Mn load and toxic effects. Body weight gain and organ weights were measured as general toxicological indices. The toxicity of size A and size B NPs proved to be stronger compared to size C NPs, seen most clearly in decreased body weight gain and altered spontaneous cortical activity, which were also well correlated to the internal Mn dose. Our results showed strong effect of size on NP toxicity, thus, beyond inappropriateness of toxicity data of micrometer-sized particles in evaluation of NP exposure, differentiation within the nano range may be necessary. PMID:26384687

  6. Analysis of alpha particle-driven toroidal Alfv{acute e}n eigenmodes in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor deuterium{endash}tritium experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, G.Y.; Cheng, C.Z.; Budny, R.; Chang, Z.; Darrow, D.S.; Fredrickson, E.; Mazzucato, E.; Nazikian, R.; Wong, K.L.; Zweben, S.

    1996-11-01

    The toroidal Alfv{acute e}n eigenmodes (TAE) are calculated to be stable in the presently obtained deuterium{endash}tritium plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [Plasma Phys. Controlled Nucl. Fusion Res. {bold 26}, 11 (1984)]. However, the core localized TAE mode can exist and is less stable than the global TAE modes. The beam ion Landau damping and the radiative damping are the two main stabilizing mechanisms in the present calculation. In future deuterium{endash}tritium experiments, the alpha-driven TAE modes are predicted to occur with a weakly reversed shear profile. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Animal learning and training: implications for animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Brando, Sabrina I C A

    2012-09-01

    Exotic animals are housed in a variety of settings, from pets at home, as display animals housed in wildlife centers and zoos, to those kept for interactive and outreach programs. The behavioral management program and medical care are major parts of an excellent animal care program. Because animals learn all the time, albeit through different mechanisms, animals are almost always "in training." Understanding animal learning when caring for and treating animals can greatly improve their welfare during experiences that are often related to involuntary procedures and where animals have little control over living conditions or procedures. PMID:22998957

  8. Acute severe cardiac failure complicating myocardial infarction. Experience with 100 patients referred for consideration of mechanical left ventricular assistance.

    PubMed Central

    O'Rourke, M F; Chang, V P; Windsor, H M; Shanahan, M X; Hickie, J B; Morgan, J J; Gunning, J F; Seldon, A W; Hall, G V; Michell, G; Goldfarb, D; Harrision, D G

    1975-01-01

    One hundred patients were referred with suspected acute cardiac failure following acute myocardial infarction. The diagnosis was confirmed in 72: 31 of these patients underwent elective medical treatment, with 2 survivors (6%); 41 were accepted for counter pulsation, but 9 died before this could be initiated and another 2 died shortly after vain attempts to pass the balloon catheter were abandoned; 30 patients underwent counterpulsation with 14 hospital survivors (47%). Survivor status was usually good. Results of counter pulsation were better in patients who were not shocked (with 5/5 survivors) than in those who were in shock (with 9 of 25 survivors). Results support the view that counterpulsation (alone or combined with corrective surgery) may play an important role in the complications of myocardial infarction provided intervention is early. PMID:1078977

  9. Experience with a Simplified Computer Based Intensive Care Monitoring System in the Management of Acutely Ill Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hadley, H. Roger; Rutherford, Harold G.; Smith, Louis L.; Briggs, Burton A.; Neilsen, Ivan R.; Rau, Richard

    1979-01-01

    The need exists for a simplified and ecomonical computer based monitoring system for critically ill surgical patients. Such a system would enjoy widespread use in surgical intensive care units in regional, as well as larger community hospitals. We have assembled such a system which provides digital readout of the usual physiologic parameters, and also provide computer storage of accumulated data for review and evaluation of patient care. The computer provides graphic and digital display and digital printout for subsequent inclusion in the patient records. Most frequent indications for this system include the development of acute respiratory insufficiency or acute circulatory failure due to invasive sepsis and/or severe arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Information most beneficial in patient care included measurement of cardiac output;alveolar arterial oxygen gradient. ImagesFigure 1Figure 5Figure 9Figure 11

  10. Posaconazole prophylaxis during front-line chemotherapy of acute myeloid leukemia: a single-center, real-life experience

    PubMed Central

    Girmenia, Corrado; Frustaci, Anna Maria; Gentile, Giuseppe; Minotti, Clara; Cartoni, Claudio; Capria, Saveria; Trisolini, Silvia Maria; Matturro, Angela; Loglisci, Giuseppina; Latagliata, Roberto; Breccia, Massimo; Meloni, Giovanna; Alimena, Giuliana; Foà, Robin; Micozzi, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    Background Posaconazole is effective as primary antifungal prophylaxis of invasive fungal diseases in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Design and Methods The impact of primary antifungal prophylaxis administered during front-line chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia was evaluated by comparing 58 patients who received oral amphotericin B (control group) to 99 patients who received oral posaconazole (posaconazole group). The primary endpoint was the incidence of proven/probable invasive fungal diseases. Secondary endpoints included incidence of invasive aspergillosis, survival at 4 and 12 months after the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia and costs. Results Proven/probable invasive fungal diseases were documented in 51.7% of patients in the control group and in 23.2% in the posaconazole group (P=0.0002). Invasive aspergillosis was documented in 43% of patients in the control group and in 15% in the posaconazole group (P=0.002). No survival difference was observed in patients aged over 60 years. In patients aged 60 years or less, a statistically significant survival advantage was observed at 4 months, but no longer at 12 months, in the posaconazole group (P=0.03). It was calculated that in the posaconazole group there was a mean 50% cost reduction for the antifungal drugs. Conclusions Primary antifungal prophylaxis with posaconazole during front-line chemotherapy was effective in preventing invasive fungal diseases in a “real-life” scenario of patients with acute myeloid leukemia, resulted in an early but transitory survival advantage in younger patients and was economically advantageous. PMID:22102706

  11. Spur cell anaemia and acute haemolysis in patients with hyperreactive malarious splenomegaly. Experience in an isolated Yanomamo population of Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Torres R, J R; Magris, M; Villegas, L; Torres V, M A; Dominguez, G

    2000-12-01

    A prospective study, aimed to investigate the aetiology of an unusual clustering of cases of severe acute haemolytic anaemia affecting a high percentage of the adult population, was carried out in two isolated Yanomamo communities of the Upper Orinoco basin in Venezuela. Twenty-six patients with active or recent episodes of severe haemolysis were evaluated. All of them exhibited massive liver and spleen enlargement and fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of the hyperreactive malarious splenomegaly (HMS) syndrome. In four cases with advanced non-alcohol-related chronic liver disease, hypersplenism, severe haemolytic anaemia and acanthocytosis, the characteristic clinical and laboratory findings of spur cell anaemia were documented. Chronic infection by the HBV and HCV was present in three of them. However, in most of the 22 additional HMS cases, the acute haemolytic condition appeared associated with the occurrence of a cold agglutinin-mediated autoimmune response. The clustering of a significant number of cases of severe acute haemolysis in HMS patients from this small isolated aboriginal community is most unusual, and represents a serious complicating factor for a population already beleaguered by a high prevalence of malaria due to multiresistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Moreover, the coexistence of HMS and severe chronic HBV or HCV infection may further aggravate the course of the haemolytic disorder, because of the occurrence of spur cell anaemia. PMID:11114387

  12. Animals. Environmental Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    The material in this unit is designed to provide upper elementary students with information and experiences to develop a better understanding and appreciation of the variety of animals living today. Unit goals include fostering a better understanding of animals' roles in nature, developing observational skills, facilitating understanding of man's…

  13. Improving access to and consumption of animal source foods in rural households: the experiences of a women-focused goat development program in the highlands of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ayele, Zewdu; Peacock, Christie

    2003-11-01

    Ethiopia is one of the poorest countries in Africa and its population experiences low and falling life expectancy rates, high infant, child and maternal mortality and high rates of child malnutrition. This is exacerbated by the fact that Ethiopia is not self-sufficient in animal products and is a net importer of food. For the majority of the population, most food energy (93%) is derived from vegetable products with 7% coming from animal source foods (ASF). FARM-Africa hypothesizes that the inadequate nutritional status of the population, which contributes to the high mortality rates in the country, is related to the population's low consumption of ASF, such as milk and meat. This article presents the findings of the Dairy Goat Project, the objectives of which included the improvement of family welfare through the generation of increased income and milk consumption. The project adopted an integrated approach and increased the productivity of local goats managed by women through a combination of better management techniques, genetic improvements and information exchange. Through pre- and post-intervention analysis of data of those households within the project area, FARM-Africa demonstrated a considerable improvement in the nutritional status and family welfare of project participants. There was increased appearance of milk and meat products in local diets, and the addition of other foods, such as eggs and fresh vegetables, as a result of complementary activities established with funds generated through the principal activities of the Dairy Goat Project. PMID:14672299

  14. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  15. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... and complications from bites Never pet, handle, or feed unknown animals Leave snakes alone Watch your children closely around animals Vaccinate your cats, ferrets, and dogs against rabies Spay or neuter ...

  16. Dual-sided electrosurgery handpiece for simultaneous tissue cutting and coagulation: first report on a conceptual design validated by an animal experiment

    PubMed Central

    Tawfik, Hatem A; Fouad, Yousef A; Hafez, Rashad

    2015-01-01

    Objective To introduce and evaluate the safety of a novel dual-sided electrosurgery handpiece design for simultaneous tissue cutting and coagulation. Methods We designed a prototype double-sided handpiece allowing automatic switching between two electrodes with a simple handpiece flip. The concept of the system as a surgical instrument was assessed by an animal experiment. Results The skin of 15 Wistar albino white rats could be successfully incised and coagulated using both ends of the handpiece, thereby confirming the prospects and clinical applications of the system. Conclusion The dual-sided electrosurgery handpiece is a simple and safe alternative to the traditional electrosurgery pencil, allowing the simultaneous use of two electrodes without the hassle of frequent electrode replacement. PMID:26316827

  17. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 1 of 6. This composite image symbolizes how Advanced General Aviation Transports Experiment (AGATE) technology will contribute to a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) early in the 21st century. Image from AGATE 'business' video animation.

  18. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 5 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). 'Smart airport' technologies are expected to be available in 5-10 years for both recreational and business transportation. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  19. Outcome and prognostic factors of malaria-associated acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis: A single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Kute, V. B.; Shah, P. R.; Munjappa, B. C.; Gumber, M. R.; Patel, H. V.; Jain, S. H.; Engineer, D. P.; Naresh, V. V. Sai; Vanikar, A. V.; Trivedi, H. L.

    2012-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most dreaded complications of severe malaria. We carried out prospective study in 2010, to describe clinical characteristics, laboratory parameters, prognostic factors, and outcome in 59 (44 males, 15 females) smear-positive malaria patients with AKI. The severity of illness was assessed using Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score (MODS), and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores. All patients received artesunate and hemodialysis (HD). Mean age of patients was 33.63 ± 14 years. Plasmodium falciparum malaria was seen in 76.3% (n = 45), Plasmodium vivax in 16.9% (n = 10), and mixed infection in 6.8% (n = 4) patients. Presenting clinical features were fever (100%), nausea-vomiting (85%), oliguria (61%), abdominal pain/tenderness (50.8%), and jaundice (74.5%). Mean APACHE II, SOFA, MODS, and GCS scores were 18.1 ± 3, 10.16 ± 3.09, 9.71 ± 2.69, and 14.15 ± 1.67, respectively, all were higher among patients who died than among those who survived. APACHE II ≥20, SOFA and MODS scores ≥12 were associated with higher mortality (P < 0.05). 34% patients received blood component transfusion and exchange transfusion was done in 15%. Mean number of HD sessions required was 4.59 ± 3.03. Renal biopsies were performed in five patients (three with patchy cortical necrosis and two with acute tubular necrosis). 81.3% of patients had complete renal recovery and 11.8% succumbed to malaria. Prompt diagnosis, timely HD, and supportive therapy were associated with improved survival and recovery of kidney functions in malarial with AKI. Mortality was associated with higher APACHE II, SOFA, MODS, GCS scores, requirement of inotrope, and ventilator support. PMID:22279340

  20. Outcome of Acute Kidney Injury in Sudanese Children — An Experience from a Sub-Saharan African Unit

    PubMed Central

    Abdelraheem, Mohamed; Ali, El-Tigani; Osman, Rania; Ellidir, Rashid; Bushara, Amna; Hussein, Rasha; Elgailany, Shiraz; Bakhit, Yassir; Karrar, Mohamed; Watson, Alan; Abu-Aisha, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    ♦ Background: Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Although continuous renal replacement therapy is gaining more popularity worldwide, peritoneal dialysis (PD) in children remains an appropriate therapy for AKI in children for all age groups including neonates. ♦ Methodology: We retrospectively reviewed all children who have been admitted with AKI at the pediatric nephrology unit, Soba University Hospital, Khartoum, during the period from January 2005 to December 2011. ♦ Results: Over 7 years we recorded 659 children of whom 362 (54.9%) were male. The spectrum of age was variable with the majority being neonates, 178 (27.1%). The average patient admission rate was 94 patients per year, with an estimated incidence of 9.8 patients/million population/year. Common causes of AKI were sepsis 202 (30.8%), acute glomerulonephritis 75 (11.5%) and obstructive uropathy due to stones 56 (8.5%). The most common dialysis modality used was PD, 343 (52.4%), and peritonitis was reported in 53 (15.4%) patients. Recovery from AKI was achieved in 450 (68.9%) children, 37 (5.7%) went into chronic kidney disease (CKD), 33 (5.1%) referred to the pediatric surgery and 194 (29.7%) died. ♦ Conclusion: In the setting of developing countries where AKI is a common cause of morbidity and mortality, reasonably equipped renal units with adequately trained medical staff may save many lives. International funding programs for communicable diseases and charity organizations should include AKI management in their programs. Acute PD remains the treatment modality of choice for AKI in developing countries. PMID:24584611

  1. Clinical characteristics and management of patients with early acute severe pancreatitis: Experience from a medical center in China

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Hou-Quan; Zhang, Jing-Xia; Zou, Shou-Chun

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study clinical characteristics and management of patients with early severe acute pancreatitis (ESAP). METHODS: Data of 297 patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) admitted to our hospital within 72 h after onset of symptoms from January 1991 to June 2003 were reviewed for the occurrence and development of early severe acute pancreatitis (ESAP). ESAP was defined as presence of organ dysfunction within 72 h after onset of symptoms. Sixty-nine patients had ESAP, 228 patients without organ dysfunction within 72 h after onset of symptoms had SAP. The clinical characteristics, incidence of organ dysfunction during hospitalization and prognosis between ESAP and SAP were compared. RESULTS: Impairment degree of pancreas (Balthazar CT class) in ESAP was more serious than that in SAP (5.31 ± 0.68 vs 3.68 ± 0.29, P < 0.01). ESAP had a higher mortality than SAP (43.4% vs 2.6%, P < 0.01), and a higher incidence of hypoxemia (85.5% vs 25%, P < 0.01), pancreas infection (15.9% vs 7.5%, P < 0.05), abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) (78.3% vs 23.2%, P < 0.01) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS)(78.3% vs 10.1%, P < 0.01). In multiple logistic regression analysis, the main predisposing factors to ESAP were higher APACHE II score, Balthazar CT class, MODS and hypoxemia. CONCLUSION: ESAP is characterised by MODS, severe pathological changes of pancreas, early hypoxemia and abdominal compartment syndrome. Given the poor prognosis of ESAP, these patients should be treated in specialized intensive care units with special measures such as close supervision, fluid resuscitation, improvement of hypoxemia, reduction of pancreatic secretion, elimination of inflammatory mediators, prevention and treatment of pancreatic infections. PMID:15040047

  2. An Analysis of Hematological Parameters as a Diagnostic test for Malaria in Patients with Acute Febrile Illness: An Institutional Experience

    PubMed Central

    Jairajpuri, Zeeba Shamim; Rana, Safia; Hassan, Mohd Jaseem; Nabi, Farhat; Jetley, Sujata

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Hematological changes are among the most common complications encountered in malaria. This study analyzes and statistically evaluates the hematological changes as a diagnostic test for malaria in patients with acute febrile illness and whether these could guide the physician to institute specific antimalarial treatment. Methods The present study was an observational study, conducted from January to December 2012. A total of 723 patients presenting with acute febrile illness at our hospital were evaluated. A complete blood count and malarial parasite microscopy were performed for each patient. Results The findings showed that 172 out of 723 patients (24%) were diagnosed to have malaria by positive smear report. There were 121 males and 51 females with a male to female ratio of 2.3:1. Maximum number of cases were seen in the 20-30 years age group. There was a statistically significant reduction in hemoglobin (p<0.005), platelet count (p<0.001) and total leukocyte count (p<0.001) levels in patients with malaria compared to those without the disease. Likelihood ratios for a positive result of platelets (6.2) and total leukocyte count (3.4) was relevant as compared to hemoglobin (1.61) and Red cell distribution width (1.79). The negative predictive values for hemoglobin (79%), total leukocyte count (86%), platelets (94%) and Red cell distribution width (93%) were significant. Red cell distribution width values were found to be higher in patients with malaria than in patients without malaria (p<0.001). Conclusion This study revealed that routinely used laboratory findings such as hemoglobin, leukocytes, platelet counts and even red cell distribution width values can provide a diagnostic clue in a patient with acute febrile illness in endemic areas, thus increasing the probability of malaria and enhancing prompt initiation of treatment. PMID:24498476

  3. Celastrol Inhibits Lung Infiltration in Differential Syndrome Animal Models by Reducing TNF-α and ICAM-1 Levels while Preserving Differentiation in ATRA-Induced Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li-min; Zheng, Yue-juan; Wang, Ying; Yang, Yang; Cao, Fan-fan; Peng, Bin; Xu, Xiong-fei; An, Hua-zhang; Zheng, Ao-xiang; Zhang, Deng-hai; Uzan, Georges; Yu, Yi-zhi

    2014-01-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a revolutionary agent for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) treatment via differentiation induction. However, ATRA treatment also increases cytokine, chemokine, and adhesive molecule (mainly ICAM-1) expression, which can cause clinical complications, including a severe situation known as differentiation syndrome (DS) which can cause death. Therefore, it is of clinical significance to find a strategy to specifically blunt inflammatory effects while preserving differentiation. Here we report that the natural compound, celastrol, could effectively block lung infiltrations in DS animal models created by loading ATRA-induced APL cell line NB4. In ATRA-treated NB4 cells, celastrol could potently inhibit ICAM-1 elevation and partially reduce TNF-α and IL-1β secretion, though treatment showed no effects on IL-8 and MCP-1 levels. Celastrol’s effect on ICAM-1 in ATRA-treated NB4 was related to reducing MEK1/ERK1 activation. Strikingly and encouragingly, celastrol showed no obvious effects on ATRA-induced NB4 differentiation, as determined by morphology, enzymes, and surface markers. Our results show that celastrol is a promising and unique agent for managing the side effects of ATRA application on APL, and suggest that hyper-inflammatory ability is accompanied by, but not necessary for, APL differentiation. Thus we offered an encouraging novel strategy to further improve differentiation therapy. PMID:25116125

  4. Simulation and optimization of pulsed radio frequency irradiation scheme for chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI-demonstration of pH-weighted pulsed-amide proton CEST MRI in an animal model of acute cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Phillip Zhe; Wang, Enfeng; Cheung, Jerry S; Zhang, Xiaoan; Benner, Thomas; Sorensen, A Gregory

    2011-10-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is capable of measuring dilute labile protons and microenvironmental properties. However, the CEST contrast is dependent upon experimental conditions-particularly, the radiofrequency (RF) irradiation scheme. Although continuous-wave RF irradiation has been used conventionally, the limited RF pulse duration or duty cycle of most clinical systems requires the use of pulsed RF irradiation. Here, the conventional numerical simulation is extended to describe pulsed-CEST MRI contrast as a function of RF pulse parameters (i.e., RF pulse duration and flip angle) and labile proton properties (i.e., exchange rate and chemical shift). For diamagnetic CEST agents undergoing slow or intermediate chemical exchange, simulation shows a linear regression relationship between the optimal mean RF power of pulsed-CEST MRI and continuous-wave-CEST MRI. The optimized pulsed-CEST contrast is approximately equal to that of continuous-wave-CEST MRI for exchange rates less than 50 s(-1), as confirmed experimentally using a multicompartment pH phantom. In the acute stroke animals, we showed that pulsed- and continuous-wave-amide proton CEST MRI demonstrated similar contrast. In summary, our study elucidated the RF irradiation dependence of pulsed-CEST MRI contrast, providing useful insights to guide its experimental optimization and quantification. PMID:21437977

  5. Amelioration of Acute Mercury Toxicity by a Novel, Non-Toxic Lipid Soluble Chelator N,N′bis-(2-mercaptoethyl)isophthalamide: Effect on Animal Survival, Health, Mercury Excretion and Organ Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, David; Buchanan, Roger; Gupta, Niladri; Haley, Boyd

    2012-01-01

    The toxic effects of mercury are known to be complex with specific enzyme inhibitions and subsequent oxidative stress adding to the damaging effects. There are likely other factors involved, such as the development of impaired metal ion homeostasis and depletion of thiol and selenium based metabolites such as cysteine and selenium. Much of the toxicity of mercury occurs at the intracellular level via binding of Hg2+ to thiol groups in specific proteins. Therefore, amelioration of mercury toxicity by the use of chelation would likely be enhanced by the use of a chelator that could cross the cell membrane and the blood brain barrier. It would be most favorable if this compound was of low toxicity, had appropriate pharmacokinetics, bound and rendered mercury cation non-toxic and had antioxidant properties. Herein we report on such a chelator, N,N′-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)isophthalamide (NBMI), and, using an animal model, show that it prevented the toxic effects associated with acute exposure induced by injected mercury chloride. PMID:22573916

  6. Simulation and optimization of pulsed radio frequency (RF) irradiation scheme for chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI – demonstration of pH-weighted pulsed-amide proton CEST MRI in an animal model of acute cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Phillip Zhe; Wang, Enfeng; Cheung, Jerry S.; Zhang, Xiaoan; Benner, Thomas; Sorensen, A Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI is capable of measuring dilute labile protons and microenvironment properties; however, the CEST contrast is also dependent upon experimental conditions, particularly, the RF irradiation scheme. Although continuous-wave (CW) RF irradiation has been conventionally utilized, the RF pulse duration or duty cycle are limited on most clinical systems, for which pulsed RF irradiation must be chosen. Here, conventional numerical simulation was extended to describe pulsed-CEST MRI contrast as a function of RF pulse parameters (i.e., RF pulse duration and flip angle) and labile proton properties (i.e., exchange rate and chemical shift). For diamagnetic CEST agents undergoing slow/intermediate chemical exchange, our simulation showed a linear regression relationship between the optimal mean RF power for pulsed-CEST MRI and that of CW-CEST MRI. Worth noting, the optimized pulsed-CEST contrast was approximately equal to that of CW-CEST MRI for exchange rates below 50 s−1, as confirmed experimentally using a multi-compartment pH phantom. Moreover, acute stroke animals were imaged with both pulsed- and CW- amide protons CEST MRI, which showed similar contrast. In summary, our study elucidated the RF irradiation dependence of pulsed-CEST MRI contrast, providing useful insights to guide its experimental optimization and quantification. PMID:21437977

  7. It was a first class start which laid the basis for a promising future: Experience from comparative studies on gravity related behavior in animals and consequences for future experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Eberhard R.

    2000-01-01

    The main title was chosen in imitation of the headline of a lecture given by H. S. Wolff at the ESA-Symposium ``Life Odyssey'' in Maastricht/NL (1999) to contrast his pessimistic view of the science output from biological microgravity studies during the past 25 years with an optimistic view of the author who had the opportunity for studies on the gravity sensory systems of developing vertebrates and insects during the space missions STS-55, STS-84, and STS-90, and who was stimulated by this experience to undertake any effort to extend these studies on the International Space Station ISS. We studied compensatory eye and head movements induced by a lateral roll of the animals, and we found that exposure to both microgravity and hypergravity affect their development. Future studies have to consider long-term exposures to altered gravitational conditions to find answers to two questions, the mechanisms of adaptation during exposure, and the degree of residual effects after becoming an adult animal and also after re-entry to IG-conditions. The main hypothesis on the development of animals in space is that a fertilized egg will be converted to a normal adult animal guided by physiological and morphological set-points which represent the genetic program. In case of developmental retardations or accelerations or otherwise occurring deviations from normal structural and physiological development during specific periods of the embryonic and postembryonic life, these genetically defined supervisors activate readaptive mechanisms which direct the developmental processes towards normality, i.e., stability. Thus, an orbit-stabilized organism will be dramatically disturbed after return to Earth. Because this failure will need support to reach neuronal stability, research has also to consider the analysis of mechanisms which are able to overcome these disturbances. This research will open the door to applications because it forms a bridge to human medicine with its analytical

  8. Developing Children's Awareness of the Human-Animal Bond: An Assessment of the Experiences and Benefits that Children Receive in the United Animal Nation's Humane Education Ambassador Readers (HEAR) Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Laura

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, the United Animal Nations (UAN) launched the Humane Education Ambassador Readers (HEAR), an innovation that focused on mitigation of animal suffering through education. In the HEAR program, adult volunteers read carefully selected story books to children in grades 3-6 in schools or other educational settings, and hold discussions with the…

  9. Experience in the use of Actovegin in the treatment of patients with cognitive disorders in the acute period of stroke.

    PubMed

    Derev'yannykh, E A; Bel'skaya, G N; Knoll, E A; Krylova, L G; Popov, D V

    2008-10-01

    Forty-three patients with mild-moderate ischemic stroke were studied in the acute period and were divided into two groups. The experimental group consisted of 32 patients who were given Actovegin; the reference group consisted of 11 patients who were given piracetam. Patients were investigated before treatment and at 10 and 30 days; investigations included examination, points assessments of neurological disorders using the original Gusev-Skvortsova scale, neuropsychological tests using the MMSE scale, rheoencephalography, and electroencephalography. Analysis of changes in clinical features in patients treated with Actovegin during the acute period showed that Actovegin had clear positive effects both on general cerebral and on focal neurological symptoms. By the end of treatment, the extent of recovery of impaired functions, assessed in terms of total ischemic points and cognitive functions, was significantly greater in patients treated with Actovegin than in patients given piracetam. These data lead to the conclusion that Actovegin is effective in the treatment of patients with ischemic stroke. PMID:18802768

  10. Inflammation of the external ear in acute chikungunya infection: Experience from the outbreak in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, 2008.

    PubMed

    Javelle, Emilie; Tiong, Tee Hua; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Savini, Hélène; Simon, Fabrice

    2014-04-01

    The re-emerging invalidating chikungunya disease has recently extended to temperate areas. Other alphaviruses can also present with febrile arthalgias. Dengue virus transmitted by the same species of mosquitoes may cocirculate, leading to dual infections and concurrent epidemics. Although these diseases share similar clinical features, their prognoses considerably differ. Prominent and prolonged articular disorders are more consistent with chikungunya virus, whereas haemorrhages make the gravity of dengue infection. Specific symptoms are required, especially when diagnostic tests are not available or performable at a large scale. Indeed, early clinical suspicion of a vector-borne disease is crucial to isolate the first cases in the course of an outbreak, and discrimination between arboviruses help to optimal management of patients. No specific chikungunya clinical sign has been yet reported. We highlight here the high prevalence (about 25%) of acute ear redness in infected people during the 2008 chikungunya outbreak in Jahor Bahru in Malaysia. Nine consenting patients are more precisely described. Ear chondritis could be sensitive diagnostic criterion of the acute stage of chikungunya, every physician - even in occidental non endemic areas - should be aware of. PMID:24556566

  11. Is it possible to limit the use of CT scanning in acute diverticular disease without compromising outcomes? A preliminary experience.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Pierpaolo; Rovagnati, Marco; Carzaniga, Pier Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine whether the use of CT scanning in the assessment of acute diverticulitis can be reduced without a negative effect on outcome. Our series consisted of 93 out of 100 patients with acute diverticulitis admitted to the Emergency Room of our institution in the period from February 2012 to March 2013.The Hinchey classification system was used to stage disease based on findings on ultrasound (US) examination and/or computed tomography (CT) scanning. We compared the patients' Hinchey stage (HS) on admission and 72 hours later. Types of treatment were defined as emergency or delayed intervention (operative approaches (OA); ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage (UPD), and surgery. The borderline between conservative and surgical management was identified. In patients with a HS

  12. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... or though physical contact (for example, on unwashed hands). Being exposed to tobacco smoke, air pollution, dusts, vapors, and fumes can also cause acute bronchitis. Less often, bacteria can also cause acute bronchitis. To diagnose acute ...

  13. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... control. Menopause also increases the risk for a urinary tract infection. The following also increase your chances of having ...

  14. Ethical Inspection about laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nai-bin; Pan, Xiao-jun; Cheng, Jing-jing; Lin, Jia-qiang; Zhu, Jia-yin

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory animals and animal experiments are foundations and important support conditions for life sciences, especially for medical research. The animal experiments have drawn extensive attention from the society because of the ethical issue. This paper takes Wenzhou Medical University as an example to give a brief introduction to the ethical review about laboratory animals in the university so as to further draw attention and concerns from the public about the ethical issue of laboratory animals. We successively introduce its scientific projects, nurturing environment and ethical review of laboratory animals. PMID:27215017

  15. Death as a result of heat stroke in a vehicle: an adult case in winter confirmed with reconstruction and animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Ng'walali, P M; Kibayashi, K; Yonemitsu, K; Ohtsu, Y; Tsunenari, S

    1998-12-01

    A 54-year-old man was found dead in the driver's seat of his vehicle on a winter's day. Investigations of the vehicle revealed that the engine was running, and the car heater was left on with the maximum temperature and velocity. The body was found excessively sweating. Rectal temperature of the body was 43 degrees C at 10 h post mortem. In autopsy, several superficial skin burns were observed on the face, the shoulders and the legs. The lungs were heavily congested and hemorrhagic. The liver showed typical alcohol-induced micronodular cirrhosis. The alcohol concentrations were 0.17% in the blood of both the left and the right heart, 0.17% in the femoral-vein blood, 0.21% in the bladder urine and 0.34% in the gastric contents. A reconstruction experiment demonstrated that the temperature inside the vehicle rose rapidly and reached 50-58 degrees C in 3 h. Animal experiments showed that the temperature threshold for rats to succumb to heat was between 40 and 45 degrees C. This case shows that heat stroke in a vehicle can occur in adults with chronic diseases or alcoholism, such as in this particular case, even in the winter. PMID:15335516

  16. The representative animal

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The anthropocentric approach to the study of animal behavior uses representative nonhuman animals to understand human behavior. This approach raises problems concerning the comparison of the behavior of two different species. The datum of behavior analysis is the behavior of humans and representative animal phenotypes. The behavioral phenotype is the product of the ontogeny and phylogeny of each species, and this requires that contributions of genotype as well as behavioral history to experimental performance be considered. Behavior analysis tends to favor the ontogenetic over the phylogenetic component, yet both components are responsible for the performance of each individual animal. This paper raises questions about the role of genotype variables in the use of representative animals to understand human behavior. Examples indicating the role of genotype in human behavior are also discussed. The final section of the paper deals with considerations of genotype in the design of animal experiments. PMID:22478186

  17. An analysis of clinical process measures for acute healthcare delivery in Appalachia: The Roane Medical Center experience

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Karla Rae; Hancock, John S; Sills, Eric Scott

    2006-01-01

    Objective To survey management of selected emergency healthcare needs in a Tennessee community hospital. Materials and methods In this descriptive report, discharges and associated standard process measures were retrospectively studied for Roane Medical Center (RMC) in Harriman, Tennessee (pop. 6,757). Hospital data were extracted from a nationwide database of short-term acute care hospitals to measure 16 quality performance measures in myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure, and pneumonia during the 14 month interval ending March 2005. The data also permitted comparisons with state and national reference groups. Results Of RMC patients with myocardial infarction (MI), 94% received aspirin on arrival, a figure higher than both state (85%) and national (91%) averages. Assessment of left ventricular dysfunction among heart failure patients was also higher at RMC (98%) than the state (74%) or national (79%) average. For RMC pneumonia patients, 79% received antibiotics within 4 h of admission, which compared favorably with State (76%) and national (75%) average. RMC scored higher on 13 of 16 clinical process measures (p<0.01, sign test analysis, >95% CI) compared to state and national averages. Discussion Although acute health care needs are often met with limited resources in medically underserved regions, RMC performed above state and national average for most process measures assessed in this review. Our data were derived from one facility and the associated findings may not be applicable in other healthcare settings. Further studies are planned to track other parameters and specific clinical outcomes at RMC, as well as to identify specific institutional policies that facilitate attainment of target quality measures. PMID:16571127

  18. The mixed blessing of treating symptoms in acute vestibular failure--evidence from a 4-aminopyridine experiment.

    PubMed

    Beck, Roswitha; Günther, Lisa; Xiong, Guoming; Potschka, Heidrun; Böning, Guido; Bartenstein, Peter; Brandt, Thomas; Jahn, Klaus; Dieterich, Marianne; Strupp, Michael; la Fougère, Christian; Zwergal, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    Early symptomatic treatment of acute unilateral vestibulopathy is thought to impede the course of ensuing central vestibular compensation (VC). Despite the great clinical importance of this hypothesis there is no experimental evidence of its validity. The present study addressed this question by investigating the direct effect of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) on ocular motor and postural symptoms in acute unilateral vestibulopathy as well as its long-term consequences for VC in a rat model of chemical unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). After UL, one group of Sprague-Dawley rats was treated with 4-AP p.o. (1mg/kg/day), another with 0.9% NaCl solution p.o. for 3days. Behavioural testing for symptoms of vestibular tone imbalance was done 1day before and 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 15, 21, and 30days after UL. In addition, sequential whole-brain [(18)F]-FDG-μPET was performed before and 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30days after UL to examine and visualize 4-AP-induced modulation of VC. Administration of 4-AP on days 1-3 significantly improved postural imbalance 2h after administration compared to that in controls. This effect was only transient. Remarkably, the 4-AP group had a prolonged and impaired course of postural compensation compared to that of controls. The μPET revealed a significant increase of regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCGM) in the vestibulocerebellum 2h after administration of 4-AP. However, the 4-AP group exhibited a persistent asymmetry of rCGM after day 3 in the vestibular nuclei and posterolateral thalami. In conclusion, this study confirms the hypothesis that early pharmacological abatement of vestibular symptoms impedes VC. PMID:25157903

  19. [Treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia with trans-retinoic acid. Experience of the Santa Maria Hospital, Medical School of Lisbon].

    PubMed

    De Lacerda, J F; Do Carmo, J A; De Moura, M C; Guerra, M L; Lopes, C; Raposo, J; Melo, A; De Oliveira, J J; De Lacerda, J M

    1994-12-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a rare subtype of acute myelogenous leukemia that is usually associated with a fatal hemorrhagic diathesis. All trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is an active metabolite of vitamin A that differentiates the malignant cell clone, corrects the coagulopathy, and induces complete remission in the vast majority of patients with APL. Between June 1992 and September 1993, 8 patients with APL (4 previously untreated, 3 in first relapse and 1 in second relapse) received ATRA. Complete remission was achieved in 7 patients; in 5 with ATRA alone and in 2 with ATRA followed by cytotoxic chemotherapy due to the development of asymptomatic hyperleukocytosis. The earliest signs of response were the correction of the coagulopathy and an increase in the white blood cell count. Sequential morphological and immunophenotypical analyses of the bone marrow revealed differentiation of the malignant cell clone, in the absence of bone marrow hypoplasia. 4 of 5 patients treated only with ATRA until complete remission had late leukopenia. The most frequent adverse effects were dryness of skin and mucosae, hypertrigliceridemia and hypercholesterolemia, and a moderate increase in liver transaminases. An increase in the white blood cell count was common, and in two cases exceeded 35.0 x 10(9)/l. One of these patients developed multiple thrombosis of the extremities after cytotoxic chemotherapy. We frequently observed an increase in lactic dehydrogenase levels that was concomitant with the peak in the white blood cell count. The only patient on whom complete remission was not achieved was 60 years old, had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and died in the third week of therapy with a pulmonary distress syndrome.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7717119

  20. Acute kidney injury due to anti-tuberculosis drugs: a five-year experience in an aging population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients on anti-tuberculosis treatment may develop acute kidney injury (AKI), but little is known about the renal outcome and prognostic factors, especially in an aging population. This study aimed to calculate the incidence of AKI due to anti-TB drugs and analyze the outcomes and predictors of renal recovery. Methods From 2006 to 2010, patients on anti-TB treatment were identified and their medical records reviewed. Acute kidney injury was defined according to the criteria established by the AKI Network, while renal recovery was defined as a return of serum creatinine to baseline. Predictors of renal recovery were identified by Cox regression analysis. Results Ninety-nine out of 1394 (7.1%) patients on anti-TB treatment had AKI. Their median age was 68 years and there was male predominance. Sixty (61%) developed AKI within two months of anti-TB treatment, including 11 (11%) with a prior history of rifampin exposure. Thirty (30%) had co-morbid chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease. The median time of renal recovery was 39.6 days (range, 1–180 days). Factors predicting renal recovery were the presence of fever, rash, and gastro-intestinal disturbance at the onset of AKI. Sixty-two of the 71 (87%) patients who recovered from AKI had successful re-introduction or continuation of rifampin. Conclusions Renal function impairment is not a rare complication during anti-TB treatment in an elderly population. The presence of fever and rash may be associated with renal recovery. Rifampin can still be used in most patients who recover from AKI. PMID:24410958

  1. Recanalization of Acute and Subacute Femoropopliteal Artery Occlusions with the Rotarex Catheter: One Year Follow-up, Single Center Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Duc, Sylvain R. Schoch, Eric; Pfyffer, Markus; Jenelten, Regula; Zollikofer, Christoph L.

    2005-06-15

    Purpose:To assess the efficacy and safety of a new rotational catheter for percutaneous removal of fresh and organized thrombi in the femoropopliteal artery.Methods:Forty-one limbs in 38 patients (age 56-90 years, mean 75.6 years) with acute, subacute or chronic femoropopliteal occlusions of 1-180 days' duration (mean 31.6 days) were treated with the Rotarex device. The Fontaine stage was mainly IIB (Rutherford 2-3, 22 patients) or III (Rutherford 4, 14 patients). The length of occlusion varied from 2 to 35 cm (mean 13.1 cm). After recanalization percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was performed if there was a residual stenosis of >25%. Patients were followed up with color Doppler ultrasound at 48 hr and clinically with Doppler pressures and oscillometry at 3, 6, and 12 months.Results:After an average of two passages with the Rotarex catheter all but two limbs required PTA for residual stenosis >25%. Five patients needed additional stenting. Major complications were one groin hematoma requiring blood transfusion and one arteriovenous fistula spontaneously thrombosing after unsuccessful primary prolonged balloon dilation. Distal embolizations occurred in 10 patients; 6 clinically relevant emboli were aspirated. All occlusions were technically successfully recanalised there were 2 early reocclusions after 1 day and two at 2 weeks. Brachial-ankle indices improved from an average of 0.41 before to 0.93 after recanalization. Primary and secondary patency rates were 62% / 84% after 6 months and 39% / 68% after 1 year. The amputation-free survival at 12 months was 100%.Conclusion:The Rotarex mechanical thrombectomy device is an efficient, quick, easy to handle, and safe tool for the treatment of acute, subacute or even chronic peripheral arterial thromboembolic occlusions. It can be used for short or long occlusions with equal success, provided the obstruction is not heavily calcified and has been safely passed with a guidewire first.

  2. Adjudication of etiology of acute kidney injury: experience from the TRIBE-AKI multi-center study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adjudication of patient outcomes is a common practice in medical research and clinical trials. However minimal data exists on the adjudication process in the setting of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) as well as the ability to judge different etiologies (e.g. Acute Tubular Necrosis (ATN), Pre-renal Azotemia (PRA)). Methods We enrolled 475 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery at four sites of the Translational Research Investigating Biomarker Endpoints in AKI (TRIBE-AKI) study. Three expert nephrologists performed independent chart review, utilizing clinical variables and retrospective case report forms with pre intra and post-operative data, and then adjudicated all cases of AKI (n = 67). AKI was defined as a > 50% increase in serum creatinine for baseline (RIFLE Risk). We examined the patterns of AKI diagnoses made by the adjudication panel as well as association of these diagnoses with pre and postoperative kidney injury biomarkers. Results There was poor agreement across the panel of reviewers with their adjudicated diagnoses being independent of each other (Fleiss’ Kappa = 0.046). Based on the agreement of the two out of three reviewers, ATN was the adjudicated diagnosis in 41 cases (61%) while PRA occurred in 13 (19%). Neither serum creatinine or any other biomarker of AKI (urine or serum), was associated with an adjudicated diagnosis of ATN within the first 24 post-operative hours. Conclusion The etiology of AKI after cardiac surgery is probably multi-factorial and pure forms of AKI etiologies, such as ATN and PRA may not exist. Biomarkers did not appear to correlate with the adjudicated etiology of AKI; however the lack of agreement among the adjudicators impacted these results. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00774137 PMID:24996668

  3. Aetiology and Outcome of Acute Liver Failure in Children: Experience at a Tertiary Care Hospital of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, M W; Karim, A B; Rukunuzzaman, M; Rahman, M A

    2016-07-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rapidly progressive, potentially fatal syndrome resulting from rapid death or injury to a large proportion of hepatocytes, caused by a variety of insult, leaving insufficient hepatic paranchymal mass to sustain liver function. The aetiology of ALF varies according to the age of patient and development of the country. The outcome of ALF also varies according to aetiology: survival is better in paracetamol poisoning whereas it is poor in metabolic diseases. The present study was undertaken to observe the underlying aetiology and outcome of ALF in children under 18 years of age admitted at the department of Paediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. It was a retrospective review of medical records from November 2011 through October 2014. During this period a total of 35 patients were diagnosed to have ALF. Aetiology was established in 25(71.4%) cases, whereas in 10(28.6%) cases, no identifiable cause was found. Viral hepatitis was the underlying cause in 12(34.3%) cases. After treatment 15(43%) ALF patients survived, 8(23%) left hospital with risk bond (DORB), and 12(34%) patients died. The study showed that among the 12 death patients, 5(41.7%) had viral hepatitis, 3(25%) Wilson's disease, and in 4(33.3%) no cause could be identified. Viral hepatitis and Wilson disease were found to be two common causes of ALF in this study. Future studies with larger sample size are required to know the actual causes of acute liver failure in Bangladeshi children. PMID:27612896

  4. [Transgenic animals and animal welfare

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Christoph

    1998-01-01

    Under the pressure of a public vote in Switzerland (7 June 1998) on an initiative to ban the production, use and patenting of transgenic animals, their value for biomedical research and development is intensely debated. In addition, the Swiss legislation has adopted (1992) a constitutional obligation to "take into account the dignity of creatures". The term "dignity of creatures", however, can be interpreted in anthropocentric or biocentric ways. The government has now formulated the legal implications of this term for transgenic animals and plants in various laws including the animal and environmental protection laws. This paper gives arguments for a fair evaluation of trangenic animals from an animal welfare point of view where not only the costs of animal suffering must be considered but also the probability of potential benefit for man. A self-confident research community should allow such an evaluation procedure even in view of an outcome which could ban many uses of transgenic animals PMID:11208266

  5. Extensive review of fish embryo acute toxicities for the prediction of GHS acute systemic toxicity categories.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Stefan; Ortmann, Julia; Klüver, Nils; Léonard, Marc

    2014-08-01

    Distribution and marketing of chemicals require appropriate labelling of health, physical and environmental hazards according to the United Nations global harmonisation system (GHS). Labelling for (human) acute toxicity categories is based on experimental findings usually obtained by oral, dermal or inhalative exposure of rodents. There is a strong societal demand for replacing animal experiments conducted for safety assessment of chemicals. Fish embryos are considered as alternative to animal testing and are proposed as predictive model both for environmental and human health effects. Therefore, we tested whether LC50s of the fish embryo acute toxicity test would allow effectively predicting of acute mammalian toxicity categories. A database of published fish embryo LC50 containing 641 compounds was established. For these compounds corresponding rat oral LD50 were identified resulting in 364 compounds for which both fish embryo LC50 and rat LD50 was available. Only a weak correlation of fish embryo LC50 and rat oral LD50 was obtained. Fish embryos were also not able to effectively predict GHS oral acute toxicity categories. We concluded that due to fundamental exposure protocol differences (single oral dose versus water-borne exposure) a reverse dosimetry approach is needed to explore the predictive capacity of fish embryos. PMID:24929227

  6. Animals as sentinels of bioterrorism agents.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Peter; Gordon, Zimra; Chudnov, Daniel; Wilcox, Matthew; Odofin, Lynda; Liu, Ann; Dein, Joshua

    2006-04-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature from 1966 to 2005 to determine whether animals could provide early warning of a bioterrorism attack, serve as markers for ongoing exposure risk, and amplify or propagate a bioterrorism outbreak. We found evidence that, for certain bioterrorism agents, pets, wildlife, or livestock could provide early warning and that for other agents, humans would likely manifest symptoms before illness could be detected in animals. After an acute attack, active surveillance of wild or domestic animal populations could help identify many ongoing exposure risks. If certain bioterrorism agents found their way into animal populations, they could spread widely through animal-to-animal transmission and prove difficult to control. The public health infrastructure must look beyond passive surveillance of acute animal disease events to build capacity for active surveillance and intervention efforts to detect and control ongoing outbreaks of disease in domestic and wild animal populations. PMID:16704814

  7. Animals as Sentinels of Bioterrorism Agents

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Zimra; Chudnov, Daniel; Wilcox, Matthew; Odofin, Lynda; Liu, Ann; Dein, Joshua

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature from 1966 to 2005 to determine whether animals could provide early warning of a bioterrorism attack, serve as markers for ongoing exposure risk, and amplify or propagate a bioterrorism outbreak. We found evidence that, for certain bioterrorism agents, pets, wildlife, or livestock could provide early warning and that for other agents, humans would likely manifest symptoms before illness could be detected in animals. After an acute attack, active surveillance of wild or domestic animal populations could help identify many ongoing exposure risks. If certain bioterrorism agents found their way into animal populations, they could spread widely through animal-to-animal transmission and prove difficult to control. The public health infrastructure must look beyond passive surveillance of acute animal disease events to build capacity for active surveillance and intervention efforts to detect and control ongoing outbreaks of disease in domestic and wild animal populations. PMID:16704814

  8. MEDLI Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of MEDLI, the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrument, which contains multiple sophisticated temperature sensors to measure atmospheric conditions and performance o...

  9. Animal cytomegaloviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Staczek, J

    1990-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovirus infections. Recent advances in biotechnology have permitted the study of many of the animal cytomegaloviruses in vitro. Consequently, animal cytomegaloviruses can be used as model systems for studying the pathogenesis, immunobiology, and molecular biology of cytomegalovirus-host and cytomegalovirus-cell interactions. PMID:2170830

  10. Comparative study between two animal models of extrapyramidal movement disorders: prevention and reversion by pecan nut shell aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Trevizol, Fabiola; Benvegnú, Dalila M; Barcelos, Raquel C S; Pase, Camila S; Segat, Hecson J; Dias, Verônica Tironi; Dolci, Geisa S; Boufleur, Nardeli; Reckziegel, Patrícia; Bürger, Marilise E

    2011-08-01

    Acute reserpine and subchronic haloperidol are animal models of extrapyramidal disorders often used to study parkinsonism, akinesia and tardive dyskinesia. In humans, these usually irreversible and disabling extrapyramidal disorders are developed by typical antipsychotic treatment, whose pathophysiology has been related to oxidative damages development. So far, there is no treatment to prevent these problems of the psychiatric clinic, and therefore further studies are needed. Here we used the animal models of extrapyramidal disorders cited above, which were performed in two distinct experiments: orofacial dyskinesia (OD)/catalepsy induced by acute reserpine and subchronic haloperidol after (experiment 1) and before (experiment 2) oral treatment with pecan shell aqueous extract (AE), a natural and promissory antioxidant. When administered previously (exp.1), the AE prevented OD and catalepsy induced by both reserpine and haloperidol. When reserpine and haloperidol were administered before the extract (exp.2), the animals developed OD and catalepsy all the same. However, the orofacial parameter (but not catalepsy) in both animal models was reversed after 7 and 14 days of AE treatment. These results indicate that, acute reserpine and subchronic haloperidol administrations induced similar motor disorders, although through different mechanisms, and therefore are important animal models to study the physiopathology of extrapyramidal disorders. Comparatively, the pecan shell AE was able to both prevent and reverse OD but only to prevent catalepsy. These results reinforce the role of oxidative stress and validate the two animal models used here. Our findings also favor the idea of prevention of extrapyramidal disorders, rather than their reversal. PMID:21356248

  11. Outcomes in Stable Patients With Previous Atherothrombotic Events Receiving Vorapaxar Who Experience a New Acute Coronary Event (from TRA2°P-TIMI 50).

    PubMed

    Berg, David D; Bonaca, Marc P; Braunwald, Eugene; Corbalan, Ramon; Goto, Shinya; Kiss, Robert G; Murphy, Sabina A; Scirica, Benjamin M; Spinar, Jindrich; Morrow, David A

    2016-04-01

    Vorapaxar is a first-in-class protease-activated receptor-1 antagonist indicated for secondary prevention in stable patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI) or peripheral artery disease and no cerebrovascular disease. Vorapaxar is not recommended for initiation in the acute phase of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) because of an unfavorable balance between bleeding and efficacy when started in that setting. The aim of this analysis was to investigate outcomes in patients who experienced a new ACS while receiving vorapaxar for long-term secondary prevention. Thrombin Receptor Antagonist in Secondary Prevention of Atherothrombotic ischemic Events-Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction 50 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vorapaxar (n = 26,449). We evaluated bleeding and ischemic events during the acute care of patients with a new ACS during the trial. During a median follow-up of 30 months, 799 patients (8.9%) randomized to vorapaxar and 913 (10.0%) to placebo had a new ACS event (p = 0.003); 87% and 86%, respectively, were on study therapy at the time of the event. In a landmark analysis through 7 days after ACS, the rates of Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO) severe bleeding were 0.8% versus 0.8% (hazard ratio [HR] 0.99, 95% CI 0.33 to 2.94) and GUSTO moderate/severe bleeding were 2.5% versus 1.6% (HR 1.59, 95% CI 0.78 to 3.24) with vorapaxar versus placebo. The effect of vorapaxar on cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke (2.4% vs 4.4%; HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.93; p = 0.027) was consistent with the overall trial result. In conclusion, in patients who experience a new ACS event while receiving vorapaxar for secondary prevention, continuing therapy was associated with favorable efficacy without excess severe bleeding during the period of acute ACS management. PMID:26876014

  12. Animals in biomedical space research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Rat and squirrel monkeys experiments have been planned in concert with human experiments to help answer fundamental questions concerning the effect of weightlessness on mammalism function. For the most part, these experiments focus on identified changes noted in humans during space flight. Utilizing space laboratory facilities, manipulative experiments can be completed while animals are still in orbit. Other experiments are designed to study changes in gravity receptor structure and function and the effect of weightlessness on early vertibrate development. Following these preliminary animal experiments on Spacelab Shuttle flights, longer term programs of animal investigation will be conducted on Space Station.

  13. Piperidine alkaloids: Human and food animal teratogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Piperidine alkaloids are acutely toxic to adult livestock species and produce musculoskeletal deformities in neonatal animals. These teratogenic effects include multiple congenital contracture (MCC) deformities and cleft palate in cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Poisonous plants containing teratogen...

  14. Informed consent for clinical trials in acute coronary syndromes and stroke following the European Clinical Trials Directive: investigators' experiences and attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Iwanowski, Piotr; Budaj, Andrzej; Członkowska, Anna; Wąsek, Wojciech; Kozłowska-Boszko, Beata; Olędzka, Urszula; Masełbas, Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    Background During clinical trials in emergency medicine, providing appropriate oral and written information to a patient is usually a challenge. There is little published information regarding patients' opinions and competence to provide informed consent, nor on physicians' attitudes towards the process. We have investigated the problem of obtaining consent from patients in emergency-setting clinical trials (such as acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and stroke) from a physicians' perspective. Methods A standardised anonymous 14-item questionnaire was distributed to Polish cardiac and stroke centres. Results Two hundred and fourteen informative investigator responses were received. Of these investigators, 73.8% had experience with ACS and 25.2% had experience with acute stroke trials (and 1% with both fields). The complete model of informed consent (embracing all aspects required by Good Clinical Practice (GCP) and law) was used in 53.3% of cases in emergency settings, whereas the legal option of proxy consent was not used at all. While less than 15% of respondents considered written information to have been fully read by patients, 80.4% thought that the amount of information being given to emergency patients is too lengthy. Although there is no legal obligation, more than half of the investigators sought parallel consent (assent) from patients' relatives. Most investigators confirmed that they would adopt the model proposed by the GCP guidelines: abbreviated verbal and written consent in emergency conditions with obligatory "all-embracing" deferred consent to continue the trial once the patient is able to provide it. However, this model would not follow current Polish and European legislation. Conclusion An update of national and European regulations is required to enable implementation of the emergency trial consent model referred to in GCP guidelines. PMID:18644120

  15. Kindergarten Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  16. Surveillance and expected outcome of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children and adolescents: An experience from Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Ashis; Gangopadhyay, Sudeshna; Dasgupta, Swati; Paul, Samrat; Mukhopadhyay, Soma; Ray, Ujjal Kanti

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Research in Eastern India especially among children and adolescents for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have not been well documented until recently when it was conducted at a cancer institute of tertiary care with primary objectives of examining and correlating different cell surface markers involved with respect to disease surveillance thereby highlighting it as a strong prognostic marker for future diagnosis and treatment. Materials and Methods: A total of 500 consecutively selected ALL patients were diagnosed and treated according to National Cancer Institute protocol (MCP 841) for a period of 24-88 months during this hospital-based study. Results: Of the total, 50.4% had a higher incidence of T-ALL and 47.6% had pro-B, B-cell precursor ALL. Disease free survival and event free survival were remarkably higher in B-ALL adolescent patients as compared to T-ALL, who had significantly lower overall survival ratio. Prevalence of T-ALL was also observed in relapse cases for adolescent patients. Conclusions: We conclude that there is an increased prevalence of T-ALL among adolescents in Eastern India. Immunophenotypic analysis might help in proper evaluation and prediction of treatment outcomes with an increased thrust on studying age-specific incident rates enabling well planned future treatments for improved and better outcome. PMID:24604958

  17. Aetiologies of Acute Undifferentiated Febrile illness in Adult Patients – an Experience from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Northern India

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Sohaib; Agarwal, R K; Dhar, Minakshi; Mittal, Manish; Sharma, Shiwani

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acute undifferentiated febrile illness (AUFI) is a common clinical entity in most of the hospitals. The fever can be potentially fatal if the aetiology is not recognized and appropriately treated early. Aim To describe the aetiology of fever among patients in a tertiary care hospital in Northern India. Materials and Methods A one-year retro-prospective, observational study was conducted in adults (age>18years) presenting with undifferentiated febrile illness (of duration 5-14 days). Diagnosis was confirmed by suitable laboratory tests after exhaustive clinical examination. Results A total of 2547 patients with AUFI were evaluated. Of these, 1663 (65.3%) were males and 884 (34.7%) were females. Dengue (37.54%); enteric fever (16.5%); scrub typhus (14.42%); bacterial sepsis (10.3%); malaria (6.8%); hepatitis A (1.9%); hepatitis E (1.4%); leptospirosis (0.14%); were the main infections while no specific diagnosis could be delineated in 11%. Mixed infections were noted in 48 (1.9%) patients. Conclusion A good clinical acumen supported by the basic investigations can help diagnose the cause of fever with reasonable certainty. PMID:26816892

  18. The Incidence of Hypersensitivity Reactions to Pegylated Asparaginase in Children With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A City-wide Experience.

    PubMed

    Alrazzak, Muaz; Beaupin, Lynda K; Kinyoun, Peter; Barth, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Asparaginase (ASNase) is an imperative component of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) therapy. Pegylating the ASNase extends its biological half-life in vivo and has become the only ASNase available in the United States for frontline therapy of ALL and lymphoblastic lymphoma. It is either infused intravenously (IV) or injected intramuscularly (IM), administrations of which are associated with hypersensitivity reaction ranging from localized skin reaction to severe anaphylaxis. A retrospective review of 96 medical records of pediatric ALL patients was performed. We compared the incidence of hypersensitivity reaction associated with IV versus IM administration of pegylated ASNase. Ninety-one patients were included in the final analysis; 31 having received pegylated ASNase IV and 60 receiving it IM. The incidence of any grade ≥ 2 hypersensitivity reaction in patients who received IV ASNase was 32.2% compared with 13.3% in the IM group (P=0.032). There was no difference in higher grade hypersensitivity reactions (19.4% vs. 11.7%). Most reactions tended to occur during periods of leukemia therapy that did not include concomitant steroid therapy. Our retrospective analysis indicates that IV administration of pegylated ASNase increases the incidence of low-grade, but not grade 3-4, hypersensitivity reactions compared with IM administration. PMID:26558809

  19. Whole animal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Gurpreet Singh; Solorio, Luis; Broome, Ann-Marie; Salem, Nicolas; Kolthammer, Jeff; Shah, Tejas; Flask, Chris; Duerk, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Translational research plays a vital role in understanding the underlying pathophysiology of human diseases, and hence development of new diagnostic and therapeutic options for their management. After creating an animal disease model, pathophysiologic changes and effects of a therapeutic intervention on them are often evaluated on the animals using immunohistologic or imaging techniques. In contrast to the immunohistologic techniques, the imaging techniques are noninvasive and hence can be used to investigate the whole animal, oftentimes in a single exam which provides opportunities to perform longitudinal studies and dynamic imaging of the same subject, and hence minimizes the experimental variability, requirement for the number of animals, and the time to perform a given experiment. Whole animal imaging can be performed by a number of techniques including x-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, fluorescence imaging, and bioluminescence imaging, among others. Individual imaging techniques provide different kinds of information regarding the structure, metabolism, and physiology of the animal. Each technique has its own strengths and weaknesses, and none serves every purpose of image acquisition from all regions of an animal. In this review, a broad overview of basic principles, available contrast mechanisms, applications, challenges, and future prospects of many imaging techniques employed for whole animal imaging is provided. Our main goal is to briefly describe the current state of art to researchers and advanced students with a strong background in the field of animal research. PMID:20836038

  20. A Smart Cage With Uniform Wireless Power Distribution in 3D for Enabling Long-Term Experiments With Freely Moving Animals.

    PubMed

    Mirbozorgi, S Abdollah; Bahrami, Hadi; Sawan, Mohamad; Gosselin, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a novel experimental chamber with uniform wireless power distribution in 3D for enabling long-term biomedical experiments with small freely moving animal subjects. The implemented power transmission chamber prototype is based on arrays of parallel resonators and multicoil inductive links, to form a novel and highly efficient wireless power transmission system. The power transmitter unit includes several identical resonators enclosed in a scalable array of overlapping square coils which are connected in parallel to provide uniform power distribution along x and y. Moreover, the proposed chamber uses two arrays of primary resonators, facing each other, and connected in parallel to achieve uniform power distribution along the z axis. Each surface includes 9 overlapped coils connected in parallel and implemented into two layers of FR4 printed circuit board. The chamber features a natural power localization mechanism, which simplifies its implementation and ease its operation by avoiding the need for active detection and control mechanisms. A single power surface based on the proposed approach can provide a power transfer efficiency (PTE) of 69% and a power delivered to the load (PDL) of 120 mW, for a separation distance of 4 cm, whereas the complete chamber prototype provides a uniform PTE of 59% and a PDL of 100 mW in 3D, everywhere inside the chamber with a size of 27×27×16 cm(3). PMID:26011866

  1. Energy metabolic disorder is a major risk factor in severe influenza virus infection: Proposals for new therapeutic options based on animal model experiments.

    PubMed

    Kido, Hiroshi; Indalao, Irene L; Kim, Hyejin; Kimoto, Takashi; Sakai, Satoko; Takahashi, Etsuhisa

    2016-09-01

    Severe influenza is characterized by cytokine storm and multiorgan failure. Influenza patients with underlying diseases show a rapid progression in disease severity. The major mechanism that underlies multiorgan failure during the progressive stage of infection, particularly in patients with underlying risk factors, is mitochondrial energy crisis. The relationship between the factors that determine infection severity, such as influenza virus, cytokines, cellular trypsin as a hemagglutinin processing protease for viral multiplication, accumulation of metabolic intermediates and ATP crisis in mitochondria, is termed the "influenza virus-cytokine-trypsin" cycle. This occurs during the initial stages of infection, and is interconnected with the "metabolic disorders-cytokine" cycle in the middle to late phase of infection. Experiments using animal models have highlighted the complex relationship between these two cycles. New treatment options have been proposed that target the ATP crisis and multiorgan failure during the late phase of infection, rather than antiviral treatments with neuraminidase inhibitors that work during the initial phase. These options are (i) restoration of glucose oxidation in mitochondria by diisopropylamine dichloroacetate, which inhibits infection-induced pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 activity, and (ii) restoration of long-chain fatty acid oxidation in mitochondria by l-carnitine and bezafibrate, an agonist of peroxisome proliferation-activated receptors-β/δ, which transcriptionally upregulates carnitine palmitoyltransferase II. The latter is particularly effective in patients with influenza-associated encephalopathy who have thermolabile and short half-life compound variants of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II. PMID:27566378

  2. Teaching Film Animation to Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Yvonne

    Under the author's direction, students from 5 to 18 years old have been making prize-winning animated films. In this guide intended for any adult who wishes to teach film animation, she describes and illustrates the techniques she has developed in her seven years of experience teaching animation to children in a workshop setting. All essential…

  3. Haemodialysis for paediatric acute kidney injury in a low resource setting: experience from a tertiary hospital in South West Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Asinobi, Adanze O.; Ademola, Adebowale D.; Alao, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important cause of preventable mortality among children. Management of AKI may require renal replacement therapy (RRT) but access to RRT for children in low resource settings is limited. Our study explored the role of haemodialysis in the management of children with AKI in a low resource setting in terms of aetiology and outcomes. Methods A review of patients managed in the Paediatric Nephrology Unit, University College Hospital Ibadan, South-West Nigeria, who underwent haemodialysis for AKI from January 2006 to December 2014. Results Sixty-eight patients (55.9% males), aged 3–16 (mean ± standard deviation, 9.0 ± 3.4) years were studied. The causes of AKI were sepsis (22.1%), malaria (17.6%) and glomerulonephritis (17.6%), intravascular haemolysis—cause unknown (16.2%), G6PDH deficiency (7.4%), malignancy (8.8%) and haemoglobinopathy (5.9%). The number of sessions of haemodialysis ranged from 1 to 10 (mode = 2 sessions) over a period of 1–55 days. Mortality was 27.9% (n = 19) and was related to the aetiology of AKI (P = 0.000): no deaths among patients with intravascular haemolysis or malaria, six deaths among patients with sepsis (40%), six (50%) among the patients with glomerulonephritis, while all the patients with malignancies died. Conclusions The outcome of haemodialysis for AKI in Nigeria is relatively good and is related to the underlying aetiology of AKI. In addition to peritoneal dialysis, intermittent haemodialysis may have a role in the management of paediatric AKI in low resource settings and should be supported. PMID:26798463

  4. Is there an increased risk of metabolic syndrome among childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors? A developing country experience.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Sonali; Bansal, Deepak; Bhalla, A K; Verma Attri, Savita; Sachdeva, Naresh; Trehan, Amita; Marwaha, R K

    2016-03-01

    Data on metabolic syndrome (MS) in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) from developing countries are lacking. The purpose of this single-center, uncontrolled, observational study was to assess the frequency of MS in our survivors. The survivors of ALL ≤15 years at diagnosis, who had completed therapy ≥2 years earlier, were enrolled. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, waist circumference), biochemistry (glucose, insulin, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein [HDL], thyroid function tests, C-reactive protein [CRP], magnesium), measurement of blood pressure, and Tanner staging were performed. MS was defined by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel guidelines (NCEP ATP III) criteria, modified by Cook et al. (Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003;157:821-827) and Ford et al. (Diabetes Care. 2005;28:878-881). The median age of 76 survivors was 11.9 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 9.6-13.5). Twenty-four (32%) survivors were obese or overweight. The prevalence of insulin resistance (17%), hypertension (7%), hypertriglyceridemia (20%), and low HDL (37%) was comparable to the prevalence in children/adolescents in historical population-based studies from India. The prevalence of MS ranged from 1.3% to 5.2%, as per different defining criteria. Cranial radiotherapy, age at diagnosis, sex, or socioeconomic status were not risk factors for MS. The prevalence of MS in survivors of childhood ALL, at a median duration of 3 years from completion of chemotherapy, was comparable to the reference population. The prevalence of being obese or overweight was, however, greater than historical controls. PMID:26984439

  5. Clinical pathway for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: method development and five years of experience

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Koichi; Yasui, Maya; Nishimura, Takashi; Oga, Toru

    2011-01-01

    Background Randomized controlled trials, evidence-based medicine, clinical guidelines, and total quality management are some of the approaches used to render science-based health care services. The clinical pathway for hospitalized patients suffering from acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is poorly established, although a clinical pathway is an integral part of total quality management. Aim To evaluate the outcomes of patients hospitalized with AECOPD in Japan, treated with a clinical pathway following published guidelines. Methods Prospective data were collected for patients with AECOPD admitted to a general hospital over a 5-year period since 2003. The clinical pathway was designed to establish general rules for the entire treatment protocol. The clinical pathway indicates which treatments and interventions should be performed, and when. In this study, health care providers were required to check the clinical pathway sheets to determine the next step of treatment. Results This study analyzed 276 hospitalizations in 165 patients. The clinical pathway was interrupted and defined as a dropout in 45 cases (16.3%). Nine patients died during hospitalization (3.3%). Oxygen was administered in 232 hospitalizations (84.1%). Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) treatment was administered in 110 hospitalizations (39.9%). The rate of intubation in those cases where NPPV treatment had been administered was 8.2% (9 cases out of 110). The average length of stay (LOS) was 20.3 days, and the median value was 15 days. The LOS was longer than 30 days in 34 admissions (12.3%), mainly due to complications. Conclusion AECOPD can be managed using a clinical pathway. This clinical pathway could fill the gap between guidelines and clinical practice. PMID:21760723

  6. Gastrointestinal Fistulas in Acute Pancreatitis With Infected Pancreatic or Peripancreatic Necrosis: A 4-Year Single-Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Tong, Zhihui; Yang, Dongliang; Ke, Lu; Shen, Xiao; Zhou, Jing; Li, Gang; Li, Weiqin; Li, Jieshou

    2016-04-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) fistula is a well-recognized complication of acute pancreatitis (AP). However, it has been reported in limited literature. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and outcome of GI fistulas in AP patients complicated with infected pancreatic or peripancreatic necrosis (IPN).Between 2010 and 2013 AP patients with IPN who diagnosed with GI fistula in our center were analyzed in this retrospective study. And we also conducted a comparison between patients with and without GI fistula regarding the baseline characteristics and outcomes.Over 4 years, a total of 928 AP patients were admitted into our center, of whom 119 patients with IPN were diagnosed with GI fistula and they developed 160 GI fistulas in total. Colonic fistula found in 72 patients was the most common form of GI fistula followed with duodenal fistula. All duodenal fistulas were managed by nonsurgical management. Ileostomy or colostomy was performed for 44 (61.1%) of 72 colonic fistulas. Twenty-one (29.2%) colonic fistulas were successfully treated by percutaneous drainage or continuous negative pressure irrigation. Mortality of patients with GI fistula did not differ significantly from those without GI fistula (28.6% vs 21.9%, P = 0.22). However, a significantly higher mortality (34.7%) was observed in those with colonic fistula.GI fistula is a common finding in patients of AP with IPN. Most of these fistulas can be successfully managed with different procedures depending on their sites of origin. Colonic fistula is related with higher mortality than those without GI fistula. PMID:27057908

  7. Treatment of Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease in Childhood with Extracorporeal Photochemotherapy/Photopheresis: The Padova Experience.

    PubMed

    Calore, Elisabetta; Marson, Piero; Pillon, Marta; Tumino, Manuela; Tison, Tiziana; Mainardi, Chiara; De Silvestro, Giustina; Rossin, Sara; Franceschetto, Genny; Carraro, Elisa; Pescarin, Matilde; Varotto, Stefania; Destro, Roberta; Gazzola, Maria Vittoria; Basso, Giuseppe; Messina, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Systemic steroid treatment represents the first-line therapy for aGVHD and is associated with a response rate of 30% to 60%. Steroid-resistant patients have a poor prognosis with high transplantation-related mortality (TRM). Several second-line therapies have been proposed for the management of unresponsive aGVHD, without proven beneficial effects on patients' outcome or overall long-term survival. For these reasons, extracorporeal photochemotherapy/photopheresis (ECP), a cell-based approach to control GVHD that spares generalized immunosuppression, seems to be promising. In this study, we report the outcome of 72 consecutive pediatric patients treated with ECP between 1997 and 2013 for aGVHD. Among them, 21 patients had steroid-resistant aGVHD, 42 had steroid-dependent aGVHD, and 9 did not receive steroid as first-line therapy because of clinical contraindications. A complete response was obtained in 72% of patients, a partial response was observed in 11%, and there was no response in 17% of patients. At day +180, TRM was 4% in the whole cohort; TRM was 3% and 20% among responders and nonresponders to ECP, respectively (P < .0001). The 5-year overall survival was 71%, showing a difference between responders and nonresponders of 78% and 30%, respectively (P = .0004). The 5-year time to progression of primary disease was 81%, without any significant difference between the 2 groups. Moreover, the 5-year progression-free survival of primary disease was 72%, with a significant difference (P = .0007) between responders (79%) and nonresponders (30%) to ECP. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that ECP is highly effective in aGVHD without a negative impact on primary disease. PMID:26183078

  8. Animal learning.

    PubMed

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26272842

  9. Between biomedical and psychological experiments: The unexpected connections between the Pasteur Institutes and the study of animal mind in the second quarter of twentieth-century France.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Marion

    2016-02-01

    This article explores the unexpected connections between the Pasteur Institute in French Guinea and the study of animal mind in early twentieth century France. At a time when the study of animal intelligence was thriving in France and elsewhere, apes were appealing research subjects both in psychological and biomedical studies. Drawing on two case studies (Guillaume/Meyerson and Urbain), and then, on someone responding negatively to those connections, Thétard, this article shows how the long reach of biomedicine (linked to the prestige of Bernard and Pasteur) impinged on French biology and played a role in the tortuous, if not unsuccessful fate of animal psychology in France in the second quarter of the twentieth century. It shows how attempts to use apes (and other zoo animals) to yield new insights on animal psychology faced heavy restrictions or experienced false starts, and examines the reasons why animal psychology could not properly thrive at that time in France. Beyond the supremacy of biomedical interests over psychological ones, this article additionally explains that some individuals used animal behaviour studies as steppingstones in careers in which they proceeded on to other topics. Finally, it illustrates the tension between non-academic and academic people at a time when animal psychology was trying to acquire scientific legitimacy, and also highlights the difficulties attached to the scientific study of animals in a multipurpose and hybrid environment such as the early twentieth century Parisian zoo and also the Pasteur Institute of French Guinea. PMID:26707968

  10. Animals in biomedical space research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Robert W.

    The use of experimental animals has been a major component of biomedical research progress. Using animals in space presents special problems, but also provides special opportunities. Rat and squirrel monkeys experiments have been planned in concert with human experiments to help answer fundamental questions concerning the effect of weightlessness on mammalian function. For the most part, these experiments focus on identified changes noted in humans during space flight. Utilizing space laboratory facilities, manipulative experiments can be completed while animals are still in orbit. Other experiments are designed to study changes in gravity receptor structure and function and the effect of weightlessness on early vertebrate development. Following these preliminary animals experiments on Spacelab Shuttle flights, longer term programs of animal investigation will be conducted on Space Station.

  11. Animal Experimentation in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansevin, Kystyna D.

    1970-01-01

    Recommends that teacher and student be provided with the broadest possible spectrum of meaningful and feasible experiments in which the comfort of the experimental animal is protected by the design of the experiment. (BR)

  12. Suzaku Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the Suzaku spacecraft. Suzaku (originally known as Astro-E2) was launched July 10, 2005, and maintains a low-Earth orbit while it observes X-rays from the universe. The satel...

  13. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  14. Making Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, James

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author provides simple instructions for making an animation using "PowerPoint". He describes the process by walking readers through it for a sample image. (Contains 1 figure and 1 note.)

  15. Pulsar Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Pulsars are thought to emit relatively narrow radio beams, shown as green in this animation. If these beams don't sweep toward Earth, astronomers cannot detect the radio signals. Pulsar gamma-ray e...

  16. Wild Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and other resources focuses on wild animals. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources, as well as a class activity. (LRW)

  17. [Dangerous animals].

    PubMed

    Koljonen, Virve; Söderlund, Tim; Mäkisalo, Heikki; Gissler, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Contacts between humans and animals inevitably involve encounters possibly resulting in the human being injured. During the period of 2000 to 2014 almost 90 people died in this kind of conflict in Finland. Of these deaths, one third were associated with horses. In addition, over the same period 85 people died in traffic accidents in which an animal was hit by a car. Accidents requiring hospitalization occurred for approx. 8 000 people. PMID:27522833

  18. Retrospective checking of compliance with practice guidelines for acute stroke care: a novel experiment using openEHR’s Guideline Definition Language

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Providing scalable clinical decision support (CDS) across institutions that use different electronic health record (EHR) systems has been a challenge for medical informatics researchers. The lack of commonly shared EHR models and terminology bindings has been recognised as a major barrier to sharing CDS content among different organisations. The openEHR Guideline Definition Language (GDL) expresses CDS content based on openEHR archetypes and can support any clinical terminologies or natural languages. Our aim was to explore in an experimental setting the practicability of GDL and its underlying archetype formalism. A further aim was to report on the artefacts produced by this new technological approach in this particular experiment. We modelled and automatically executed compliance checking rules from clinical practice guidelines for acute stroke care. Methods We extracted rules from the European clinical practice guidelines as well as from treatment contraindications for acute stroke care and represented them using GDL. Then we executed the rules retrospectively on 49 mock patient cases to check the cases’ compliance with the guidelines, and manually validated the execution results. We used openEHR archetypes, GDL rules, the openEHR reference information model, reference terminologies and the Data Archetype Definition Language. We utilised the open-sourced GDL Editor for authoring GDL rules, the international archetype repository for reusing archetypes, the open-sourced Ocean Archetype Editor for authoring or modifying archetypes and the CDS Workbench for executing GDL rules on patient data. Results We successfully represented clinical rules about 14 out of 19 contraindications for thrombolysis and other aspects of acute stroke care with 80 GDL rules. These rules are based on 14 reused international archetypes (one of which was modified), 2 newly created archetypes and 51 terminology bindings (to three terminologies). Our manual compliance checks for

  19. Applications of intraoperative ultrasound in the treatment of complicated cases of acute and chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer – own experience

    PubMed Central

    Solecki, Michał; Wallner, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Both acute and chronic inflammation of the pancreas often lead to complications that nowadays can be resolved using endoscopic and surgical procedures. In many cases, intraoperative ultrasound examination (IOUS) enables correct assessment of the extent of the lesion, and allows for safe surgery, while also shortening its length. Aim of the research At the authors’ clinic, intraoperative ultrasound is performed in daily practice. In this paper, we try to share our experiences in the application of this particular imaging technique. Research sample and methodology Intraoperative examination conducted by a surgeon who has assessed the patient prior to surgery, which enabled the surgeon to verify the initial diagnosis. The material presented in this paper includes 145 IOUS procedures performed during laparotomy due to lesions of the pancreas, 57 of which were carried out in cases of inflammatory process. Results and conclusions IOUS is a reliable examination tool in the evaluation of acute inflammatory lesions in the pancreas, especially during the surgery of chronic, symptomatic inflammation of the organ. The procedure allows for a correct determination of the necessary scope of the planned surgery. The examination allows for the differentiation between cystic lesions and tumors of cystic nature, dictates the correct strategy for draining, as well as validates the indications for the lesion's surgical removal. IOUS also allows the estimation of place and scope of drainage procedures in cases of overpressure in the pancreatic ducts caused by calcification of the parenchyma or choledocholitiasis in chronic pancreatitis. In pancreatic cancer, IOUS provides a verification of the local extent of tumor-like lesions, allowing for the assessment of pancreatic and lymph nodes metastasis, and indicating the presence of distant and local metastases, including the liver. IOUS significantly improves the effectiveness of intraoperative BAC aspiration or drainage of fluid

  20. Project EAGLE (Early Academic Gifted Learning Experience): A Program for Gifted and Talented Students (Grades K-3)--Animals 3; Magnets; Sight; Geoboards 3; Dinosaurs 3; and Groups 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merkoski, Kay

    Six thematic activity booklets are presented for implementing Project EAGLE, an enrichment program for gifted and talented primary-level children. "Animals 3" introduces endangered animals and locates their home areas on maps or globes, using nine learning activities involving science and creative writing. "Magnets" discusses what magnets are and…

  1. Computerized clinical decision support for the early recognition and management of acute kidney injury: a qualitative evaluation of end-user experience

    PubMed Central

    Kanagasundaram, Nigel S.; Bevan, Mark T.; Sims, Andrew J.; Heed, Andrew; Price, David A.; Sheerin, Neil S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the efficacy of computerized clinical decision support (CCDS) for acute kidney injury (AKI) remains unclear, the wider literature includes examples of limited acceptability and equivocal benefit. Our single-centre study aimed to identify factors promoting or inhibiting use of in-patient AKI CCDS. Methods Targeting medical users, CCDS triggered with a serum creatinine rise of ≥25 μmol/L/day and linked to guidance and test ordering. User experience was evaluated through retrospective interviews, conducted and analysed according to Normalization Process Theory. Initial pilot ward experience allowed tool refinement. Assessments continued following CCDS activation across all adult, non-critical care wards. Results Thematic saturation was achieved with 24 interviews. The alert was accepted as a potentially useful prompt to early clinical re-assessment by many trainees. Senior staff were more sceptical, tending to view it as a hindrance. ‘Pop-ups’ and mandated engagement before alert dismissal were universally unpopular due to workflow disruption. Users were driven to close out of the alert as soon as possible to review historical creatinines and to continue with the intended workflow. Conclusions Our study revealed themes similar to those previously described in non-AKI settings. Systems intruding on workflow, particularly involving complex interactions, may be unsustainable even if there has been a positive impact on care. The optimal balance between intrusion and clinical benefit of AKI CCDS requires further evaluation. PMID:26798462

  2. Escin attenuates cerebral edema induced by acute omethoate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian; Jiang, Na; Han, Bing; Liu, Wenbo; Liu, Tongshen; Fu, Fenghua; Zhao, Delu

    2011-06-01

    Organophosphorus exposure affects different organs such as skeletal muscles, the gastrointestinal tract, liver, lung, and brain. The present experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of escin on cerebral edema induced by acute omethoate poisoning. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered subcutaneously with omethoate at a single dose of 60 mg/kg followed by escin treatment. The results showed that escin reduced the brain water content and the amount of Evans blue in omethoate-poisoned animals. Treatment with escin decreased the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) in the brain. Escin also alleviated the histopathological change induced by acute omethoate poisoning. The findings demonstrated that escin can attenuate cerebral edema induced by acute omethoate poisoning, and the underlying mechanism was associated with ameliorating the permeability of the blood-brain barrier. PMID:21417632

  3. Natural corneal cell-based microenvironment as prerequisite for balanced 3D corneal epithelial morphogenesis: a promising animal experiment-abandoning tool in ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Simon; Beck, David; Laird, Dougal; Steinberg, Thorsten; Tomakidi, Pascal; Reinhard, Thomas; Eberwein, Philipp

    2014-04-01

    To achieve durable recognition as a promising animal experiment-abandoning tool in ophthalmology, in vitro engineered tissue equivalents of the human cornea should exhibit proper morphogenesis. Regarding this issue, we were seeking for the natural cell microenvironment fulfilling the minimum requirements to allow human corneal keratinocytes to develop a balanced epithelial morphology with regular spatial appearance of tissue homeostatic biomarkers. Hence, we established cocultures of 3D cell-based collagen scaffolds comprising immortalized corneal keratinocytes combined with a gradual cornea-derived in vivo-like cell microenvironment, together with immortalized stromal fibroblasts alone (nonholistic) or fibroblasts and immortalized endothelial cells (holistic). With matched non-holistic microenvironments revealing mostly flattened cells and putative apical cell ablation foci at day 6, and 9 in HE stains, holistic counterparts yielded proper epithelial stratification with cell flattening restricted to apical layers. Concordantly, RT(2)-PCR showed a tremendous increase in gene expression for progressive and terminal biomarkers of corneal keratinocyte differentiation, cytokeratin (CK) 12, and filaggrin (FIL), in response to nonholistic environments, while involucrin (INV) was moderately but significantly upregulated. Although visible, this increase was moderate in corneal keratinocytes with a holistic environment. On the protein level, indirect immunofluorescence revealed that only epithelia of holistic environments showed diminishment in CK19, counteracted by CK12 rising over time. This time-dependent progression in differentiation coincided with declined proliferation and tissue-regular focus of differentiation biomarkers inv and fil to suprabasal and apical cell layers. Our novel findings suggest the interplay of native tissue forming cell entities, important for balanced corneal epithelial morphogenesis. In addition, they provide evidence for a holistic cell

  4. Animal Bioacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Neville H.

    Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model vocalization frequency scaling in animals hearing sound production animal animal biological biological bioacoustics whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

  5. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis ...

  6. Animal Models of Depression: Molecular Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Vaishnav; Nestler, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    Much of the current understanding about the pathogenesis of altered mood, impaired concentration and neurovegetative symptoms in major depression has come from animal models. However, because of the unique and complex features of human depression, the generation of valid and insightful depression models has been less straightforward than modeling other disabling diseases like cancer or autoimmune conditions. Today’s popular depression models creatively merge ethologically valid behavioral assays with the latest technological advances in molecular biology and automated video-tracking. This chapter reviews depression assays involving acute stress (e.g., forced swim test), models consisting of prolonged physical or social stress (e.g., social defeat), models of secondary depression, genetic models, and experiments designed to elucidate the mechanisms of antidepressant action. These paradigms are critically evaluated in relation to their ease, validity and replicability, the molecular insights that they have provided, and their capacity to offer the next generation of therapeutics for depression. PMID:21225412

  7. Physics for Animation Artists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-11-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing (and now indispensable) component of their industry. Art students are keenly aware of these trends and understand that their future careers require them to have a broader exposure to science than in the past. Unfortunately, at present there is little overlap between art and science in the typical high school or college curriculum. This article describes our experience in bridging this gap at San Jose State University, with the hope that readers will find ideas that can be used in their own schools.

  8. Developments in the Collection of Statistical Information on the Number of Animals used in Experiments and other Scientific Purposes in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Sauer, U G; Kolar, R

    2000-01-01

    In 1999, the European Commission presented its second report on the numbers of laboratory animals used in the European Union (EU). The plausibility of the data and the usefulness of the format of the registration tables remain questionable, for reasons previously discussed in connection with the Commission` s first statistical report. In addition, it is impossible to derive sound information on trends in animal use in the EU and its Member States from the second statistical report. The European Commission and the Member States have agreed on new tables to be used for future statistics on the use of experimental animals in the EU. These new tables have been significantly extended and improved. Several categories of little relevance have been revised, and ambiguous expressions have been clarified. However, several problems either persist or have been newly created. Moreover, some important data (i.e. categories for pain and distress, as well as for several specific purposes of use; the origin of some animal species; types of institutions; and the use of genetically engineered animals) are still not required. Nevertheless, these are highly relevant to animal welfare and must be regarded as indispensable for a well-aimed application of the statistics to set priorities concerning the Three Rs. PMID:25406108

  9. Adapting Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedman, John; Wedman, Judy

    1985-01-01

    The "Animals" program found on the Apple II and IIe system master disk can be adapted for use in the mathematics classroom. Instructions for making the necessary changes and suggestions for using it in lessons related to geometric shapes are provided. (JN)

  10. Animal Bioacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Neville

    Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

  11. Transgenic Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  12. Severe acute respiratory infections during the influenza A(H1N1)2009 pandemic in Belgium: first experience of hospital-based flu surveillance

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction In September 2009, as part of the surveillance during the Influenza A(2009) pandemic, Bel-gium introduced a web-based surveillance system aimed at recording hospitalisations and deaths attributable to Influenza in real time. Methods We present the web-based application developed for the pandemic as well as a descriptive analysis of Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI) cases reported through this system. Results From 1 September to 31 December 2009, 1723 SARI-related hospitalisations potentially due to influenza were reported in Belgium. The median age of the patients was 29 years (range: < 1 year-99 years). Among SARI-hospitalised patients 68% were aged less than 45 years, 10.6% were vaccinated with the seasonal influenza vaccine and 7.5% with the pandemic influenza vaccine. No deaths were recorded. Conclusions This first experience showed the feasibility of getting real-time information from hospitals during a public health crisis. However, the absence of death detected through the system highlighted the importance of better defining the severity of the hospital cases.

  13. EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MAINTENANCE

    DOEpatents

    Finkel, M.P.

    1962-01-22

    A method of housing experimental animals such as mice in individual tube- like plastic enclosures is described. Contrary to experience, when this was tried with metal the mice did not become panicky. Group housing, with its attendant difficulties, may thus be dispensed with. (AEC)

  14. Scientific assessment of animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Hemsworth, P H; Mellor, D J; Cronin, G M; Tilbrook, A J

    2015-01-01

    Animal welfare is a state within the animal and a scientific perspective provides methodologies for evidence-based assessment of an animal's welfare. A simplistic definition of animal welfare might be how the animal feels now. Affective experiences including emotions, are subjective states so cannot be measured directly in animals, but there are informative indirect physiological and behavioural indices that can be cautiously used to interpret such experiences. This review enunciates several key science-based frameworks for understanding animal welfare. The biological functioning and affective state frameworks were initially seen as competing, but a recent more unified approach is that biological functioning is taken to include affective experiences and affective experiences are recognised as products of biological functioning, and knowledge of the dynamic interactions between the two is considered to be fundamental to managing and improving animal welfare. The value of these two frameworks in understanding the welfare of group-housed sows is reviewed. The majority of studies of the welfare of group-housed sows have employed the biological functioning framework to infer compromised sow welfare, on the basis that suboptimal biological functioning accompanies negative affective states such as sow hunger, pain, fear, helplessness, frustration and anger. Group housing facilitates social living, but group housing of gestating sows raises different welfare considerations to stall housing, such as high levels of aggression, injuries and stress, at least for several days after mixing, as well as subordinate sows being underfed due to competition at feeding. This paper highlights the challenges and potential opportunities for the continued improvement in sow management through well-focused research and multidisciplinary assessment of animal welfare. In future the management of sentient animals will require the promotion of positive affective experiences in animals and this

  15. [Dangerous animals].

    PubMed

    Hasle, Gunnar

    2002-06-30

    As travellers seek ever more exotic destinations they are more likely to encounter dangerous animals. Compared to risks such as AIDS, traffic accidents and malaria, the risk is not so great; many travellers are, however, concerned about this and those who give pre-travel vaccines and advice should know something about it. This article is mainly based on medical and zoological textbooks. Venomous stings and bites may be prevented by adequate clothing and by keeping safe distance to the animals. Listening to those who live in the area is of course important. Travellers should not carry antisera with them, but antisera should be available at local hospitals. It should be borne in mind that plant eaters cause just as many deaths as large predators. In some cases it is necessary to carry a sufficiently powerful firearm. PMID:12555616

  16. [New model of acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Cherkezova-Kinova, E; Lateva, E

    1981-01-01

    The authors propose a new model of acute pancreatitis by infusing duodenal content, obtained both from animals with experimental pancreatitis and from patients with pancreatitis, hepatitis and cholecystitis, into the duodenum of experimental animals without pressure for a period of several days. Pancreatitis was established functionally and histomorphologically. The control group of animals did not reveal deviations from the norm after infusion of duodenal content. The authors suggested the presence of pathogenic substances in the duodenal content of animals and sick persons, and these components damaged the pancreas, liver and kidneys by means of blood and lymph ways. PMID:7227280

  17. Cross-Sector Review of Drivers and Available 3Rs Approaches for Acute Systemic Toxicity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Seidle, Troy; Robinson, Sally; Holmes, Tom; Creton, Stuart; Prieto, Pilar; Scheel, Julia; Chlebus, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Acute systemic toxicity studies are carried out in many sectors in which synthetic chemicals are manufactured or used and are among the most criticized of all toxicology tests on both scientific and ethical grounds. A review of the drivers for acute toxicity testing within the pharmaceutical industry led to a paradigm shift whereby in vivo acute toxicity data are no longer routinely required in advance of human clinical trials. Based on this experience, the following review was undertaken to identify (1) regulatory and scientific drivers for acute toxicity testing in other industrial sectors, (2) activities aimed at replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, and (3) recommendations for future work in this area. PMID:20484382

  18. Acute nephritic syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Glomerulonephritis - acute; Acute glomerulonephritis; Nephritis syndrome - acute ... Acute nephritic syndrome is often caused by an immune response triggered by an infection or other disease. Common causes ...

  19. Wild Becomings: How the Everyday Experience of Common Wild Animals at Summer Camp Acts as an Entrance to the More-than-Human World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Gavan P. L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the partial results of a research project which investigated conceptions of nature and the role of place in environmental education in children who attended Camp Arowhon. Through interviews and observations, utilizing a hybrid research drawing from phenomenography and ethnography, local common wild animals emerged as playing…

  20. [Results of fluorescence microscopy studies of bone healing by direct stimulation with bipolar impulse currents and with the interference current procedure in the animal experiment].

    PubMed

    Schubert, T; Kleditzsch, J; Wolf, E

    1986-01-01

    42 cross-breed rabbit bastards of either sex were osteotomized on the left proximal third of the tibia. A teflonisolated stable plating was made by means of the polychromatically KF-AO-instrumentarium. The animals were fluorescentlabelled in weekly intervals. Tetraverinex, alizarin complexon, fluorexon, xylenol orange and calceine were used as colours. The animals were stimulated in the bipolar squaretopped pulse current procedure (1 Hz and 10 Hz, resp., +/- 25 and +/- 50 microA, resp., intensity, permanent stimulation) or in the interference current procedure (oscillation frequency 100 Hz, intensity 1 mA, 4 hours daily). An osteotomized group served as a control. The undecalcified bone sections were quantitatively measured in the area of the periosteal and endoosteal accummulation seams as well as in the area of the Haversians canals and compared by means of multiple variance analyses. A delay in the Haversian remodelling within the first 2 weeks was found in the animals only osteotomized. This delay could not be detected in all electrically stimulated groups. The electrical stimulation leads to a shortening of the fracture healing period by skipping the physiologically occurring delay of the Haversian remodelling in fractures and osteotomies. Further on there was derived a growth function of the osteones as a regression function r (t) = a + beta X e gamma t. For the rabbit the concrete formula expression r (t) = 50.9 X e-0.094 X t + 17.4 for the animals not treated and r (t) = 42.9 X e-0.067 X t + 8.5 for the electrical stimulated animals has been found.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3485862

  1. The ethics of animal experimentation.

    PubMed Central

    Lane-Petter, W.

    1976-01-01

    Animal experimentation arouses great emotion in many people, perhaps more especially in Britain, and this has increased as more sophisticated medical and non-medical animal experiments are demanded by modern research. The Cruelty to Animals Act of 1876 is the only legal regulation of experiments in animals, and many of its clauses are ambiguous. So in 1963 a committee of enquiry - the Littlewood Committee - was set up. Dr Lane-Petter examines the emotional and factual background to the enquiry, and discusses in an ethical context the usefulness and positive advantages of animal experiments compared with those of possible substitutes and in some detail three of the questions left unanswered by the Littlewood Committee. PMID:966259

  2. Role of basiliximab in the prevention of acute cellular rejection in adult to adult living-related liver transplantation: a single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Gruttadauria, S; Mandalà, L; Biondo, D; Spampinato, M; Lamonaca, V; Volpes, R; Vizzini, G; Marsh, JW; Marcos, A; Gridelli, B

    2007-01-01

    We report our single center experience with the use of basiliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against the alpha chain of the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor (CD25), in combination with a steroid- and tacrolimus-based regimen in adult to adult living-related liver transplantation (ALRLT). Sixty consecutive ALRLTs were analyzed. All patients received two 20-mg doses of basiliximab (days 0 and 4 after transplantation) followed by tacrolimus (0.15 mg/kg/day; 10–15 ng/mL target trough levels) and a dose regimen of steroids (starting with 20 mg iv, switched to po as soon as the patient was able to eat, and weaned off within 1–2 months). Follow-up ranged from 6 to 1699.4 days after transplantation (mean 517.5 days, SD ± 413.4; median 424 days). Of the recipients, 95% remained rejection-free during follow-up, with an actuarial rejection-free probability of 96.61% within 3 months. Three patients had episodes of biopsy-proven acute cellular rejection (ACR). Actuarial patient and graft survival rates at 3 years were 82.09% and 75.61%. Six patients (10%) experienced sepsis. There was no evidence of cytomegalovirus infections or side-effects related to the basiliximab. We found zero de novo malignancy, although we observed 5 patients with metastatic spread of their primary malignancy during the follow-up. Basiliximab in association with tacrolimus and steroids is effective in reducing episodes of ACR and increasing ACR-free survival after ALRLT. PMID:19707350

  3. Treatment with Low-Dose Cytarabine in Elderly Patients (Age 70 Years or Older) with Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Single Institution Experience

    PubMed Central

    Heiblig, Maël; Elhamri, Mohamed; Tigaud, Isabelle; Plesa, Adriana; Barraco, Fiorenza; Labussière, Hélène; Ducastelle, Sophie; Michallet, Mauricette; Nicolini, Franck; Plesa, Claudiu; Wattel, Eric; Salles, Gilles; Thomas, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Low-dose cytarabine (LD-AraC) is still regarded as the standard of care in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) ‘unfit’ for intensive chemotherapy. In this study, we reported our experience with LD-AraC in patients ≥ 70 years old and compared the results to those of intensive chemotherapy, best supportive care (BSC), or hypomethylating agents in the same age population. Methods Between 2000 and 2014, 60 patients received LD-AraC at 20 mg once or twice daily by subcutaneous injection for 10 consecutive days every 4–6 weeks. Results Complete remission rate with LD-AraC was 7% versus 56% with intensive chemotherapy and 21% with hypomethylating agents. Median overall survival (OS) of patients treated with LD-AraC was 9.6 months with 3-year OS of 12%. Survival with LD-AraC was better than with BSC only (P = 0.001). Although not statistically significant, intensive chemotherapy and hypomethylating agents tended to be better than LD-AraC in terms of OS (median: 12.4 months and 16.1 months, respectively). There was no clear evidence that a beneficial effect of LD-AraC was restricted to any particular subtype of patients, except for cytogenetics. There was a trend for a better OS in LD-AraC treated patients in the setting of clinical trials as compared with those treated outside of a clinical trial. Conclusions Despite a trend in favor of intensive chemotherapy and hypomethylating agents over LD-AraC, no real significant advantage could be demonstrated, while LD-AraC showed a significant advantage comparatively to BSC. All this tends to confirm that LD-AraC can still represent a baseline against which new promising agents may be compared either alone or in combination. PMID:26740870

  4. Current concepts of Harm-Benefit Analysis of Animal Experiments - Report from the AALAS-FELASA Working Group on Harm-Benefit Analysis - Part 1.

    PubMed

    Brønstad, Aurora; Newcomer, Christian E; Decelle, Thierry; Everitt, Jeffrey I; Guillen, Javier; Laber, Kathy

    2016-06-01

    International regulations and guidelines strongly suggest that the use of animal models in scientific research should be initiated only after the authority responsible for the review of animal studies has concluded a well-thought-out harm-benefit analysis (HBA) and deemed the project to be appropriate. Although the process for conducting HBAs may not be new, the relevant factors and algorithms used in conducting them during the review process are deemed to be poorly defined or lacking by committees in many institutions. This paper presents the current concept of HBAs based on a literature review. References on cost or risk benefit from clinical trials and other industries are also included. Several approaches to HBA have been discovered including algorithms, graphic presentations and generic processes. The aim of this study is to better aid and harmonize understanding of the concepts of 'harm', 'benefit' and 'harm-benefit analysis'. PMID:27188275

  5. Acute sacroiliitis.

    PubMed

    Slobodin, Gleb; Rimar, Doron; Boulman, Nina; Kaly, Lisa; Rozenbaum, Michael; Rosner, Itzhak; Odeh, Majed

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the data on the etiology, risk factors, clinical presentations, and diagnosis of acute sacroiliitis. A Pubmed search utilizing the indexing term "acute sacroiliitis" was conducted and the data pertinent to the aim of the review was extracted and organized in accordance with the preplanned structure of the manuscript. The diagnosis of acute sacroiliitis is often challenging because of both the relative rarity of this presentation and diverse character of acute sacroiliac pain, frequently mimicking other, more prevalent disorders. Technetium bone scintigraphy can localize the disease process to the sacroiliac joint, while computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging can be used for the detailed characterization and the extent of the disease as well as the diagnosis of complications. Pyogenic sacroiliitis is by far the most common cause of acute sacroiliitis. Brucellosis, acute sacroiliitis in the course of reactive arthritis, and crystalline-induced sacroiliitis frequently imitate pyogenic sacroiliitis. Acute sacroiliitis can rarely be also related to hematological malignancies or treatment with isotretinoin. Awareness to the possibility of acute sacroiliitis and a thorough physical examination are the necessary prerequisites to its timely diagnosis, while the appropriate laboratory and imaging studies should confirm the precise diagnosis and direct the appropriate treatment strategy. PMID:26847855

  6. Radiation injury and acute death in Armadillidium vulgare (terrestrial isopod, Crustacea) subjected to ionizing radiation. [/sup 137/Cs

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatsuchi, Y.; Egami, N.

    1981-01-01

    From whole- and partial-body irradiation experiments with adult Armadillidium vulgare, the following conclusions were drawn: the LD/sub 50/-30 days for this animal when subjected to ..gamma.. radiation at 25 +- 2/sup 0/C was about 30 kR. Radiosensitivity of the animal changed during the molt cycle. Ionizing radiation increased mortality at ecdysis and during intermolt stages. Anatomical and histological observations indicated that (1) gastrointestinal injury as the major cause of acute death does not apply to this animal because the intestine is not a cell-proliferative organ: (2) the epidermis may be the critical target organ.

  7. Acute Phase Proteins in Response to Dictyocaulus viviparus Infection in Calves

    PubMed Central

    Gånheim, C; Höglund, J; Waller, K Persson

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out to examine the acute phase response, as measured by the acute phase proteins (APP) haptoglobin, serum amyloid A (SAA) and fibrinogen, in calves infected with lungworm, Dictyocaulus vivparus. In addition, eosinophil counts were analysed. Three different dose models were used in 3 separate experiments: I) 250 D. viviparus infective third stage larvae (L3) once daily for 2 consecutive days, II) 100 D. viviparus L3 once daily for 5 consecutive days, and III) 2000 L3 once. All 3 dose regimes induced elevated levels of haptoglobin, SAA and fibrinogen, although there was considerable variation both between and within experiments. A significant increase was observed in all 3 APP at one or several time points in experiment I and III, whereas in experiment II, the only significant elevation was observed for fibrinogen at one occasion. The eosinophil numbers were significantly elevated in all 3 experiments. The results show that lungworm infection can induce an acute phase response, which can be monitored by the selected APP. Elevated APP levels in combination with high numbers of eosinophils in an animal with respiratory disease may be used as an indicator of lung worm infection, and help the clinician to decide on treatment. However, high numbers of eosinophils and low levels of APP do not exclude a diagnosis of lungworm. Thus, lungworm infection may not be detected if measurements of APP are used to assess calf health in herds or individual animals. PMID:15535088

  8. Animal Intuitions.

    PubMed

    Kaebnick, Gregory E

    2016-07-01

    As described by Lori Gruen in the Perspective column at the back of this issue, federally supported biomedical research conducted on chimpanzees has now come to an end in the United States, although the wind-down has taken longer than expected. The process began with a 2011 Institute of Medicine report that set up several stringent criteria that sharply limited biomedical research. The National Institutes of Health accepted the recommendations and formed a committee to determine how best to implement them. The immediate question raised by this transition was whether the IOM restrictions should be extended in some form to other nonhuman primates-and beyond them to other kinds of animals. In the lead article in this issue, Anne Barnhill, Steven Joffe, and Franklin Miller consider the status of other nonhuman primates. PMID:27417859

  9. An animal welfare perspective on animal testing of GMO crops.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Roman; Rusche, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    The public discussion on the introduction of agro-genetic engineering focuses mainly on economical, ecological and human health aspects. The fact is neglected that laboratory animals must suffer before either humans or the environment are affected. However, numerous animal experiments are conducted for toxicity testing and authorisation of genetically modified plants in the European Union. These are ethically questionable, because death and suffering of the animals for purely commercial purposes are accepted. Therefore, recent political initiatives to further increase animal testing for GMO crops must be regarded highly critically. Based on concrete examples this article demonstrates that animal experiments, on principle, cannot provide the expected protection of users and consumers despite all efforts to standardise, optimise or extend them. PMID:18551237

  10. Anticipatory behavior in animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriyama, Tohru

    1999-03-01

    In the experiments of pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare), some of them performed as if they had contained the models of themselves and the environment in view of computing their present state as a function of the prediction of the models. In a specific situation, they escaped from the experimental apparatus as if they had constituted spatial knowledge of it (open field surrounded by walls) in the process of exploratory behavior and used the knowledge. This species gets environmental information by tactile ability of antennae, not by visual one, and do not climb perpendicular walls in general condition. If they had not escaped in the experiment, they would have died of hunger or water deficit. In this paper I will present the result of this anticipatory behavior. I also discuss that the notion of anticipation, which is another name of autonomy, is inevitably introduced when one considers the process of understanding of animal behavior progressing without any common basis between animals and experimenters.

  11. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  12. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 6 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). The General Aviation Propulsion Program (GAP). AGATE and GAP are providing industry partners with technologies leading to a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) in the early 21st century. These investments support the national general aviation 'roadmap' goal to 'enable doorstep-to-destination travel at four times highway speeds to virtually all of the nation's suburban, rural and remote communities.' Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  13. Acute lung injury review.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Kenji; King, Landon S; Aggarwal, Neil R; De Gorordo, Antonio; D'Alessio, Franco R; Kubo, Keishi

    2009-01-01

    The first report of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was published in 1967, and even now acute lung injury (ALI) and ARDS are severe forms of diffuse lung disease that impose a substantial health burden all over the world. Recent estimates indicate approximately 190,000 cases per year of ALI in the United States each year, with an associated 74,500 deaths per year. Common causes of ALI/ARDS are sepsis, pneumonia, trauma, aspiration pneumonia, pancreatitis, and so on. Several pathologic stages of ALI/ARDS have been described: acute inflammation with neutrophil infiltration, fibroproliferative phase with hyaline membranes, with varying degrees of interstitial fibrosis, and resolution phase. There has been intense investigation into the pathophysiologic events relevant to each stage of ALI/ARDS, and much has been learned in the alveolar epithelial, endobronchial homeostasis, and alveolar cell immune responses, especially neutrophils and alveolar macrophages in an animal model. However, these effective results in the animal models are not equally adoptive to those in randomized, controlled trials. The clinical course of ALI/ARDS is variable with the likely pathophysiologic complexity of human ALI/ARDS. In 1994, the definition was recommended by the American-European Consensus Conference Committee, which facilitated easy nomination of patients with ALI/ARDS for a randomized, clinical trial. Here, we review the recent randomized, clinical trials of ALI/ARDS. PMID:19420806

  14. The introduction of yellow mealworm (Tenebrio Molitor L.) into BLSS as a source of animal protein for humans: experiments and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Leyuan; Liu, lh64. Hong; Ruo Zhao, Zhi

    2012-07-01

    In bioregenerative life support systems, using inedible plant biomass to feed animals can provide animal protein for astronauts, while at the same time treating with wastes so as to increase the degree of system closure and the efficiency of material cycling. In this study, an analysis and demonstration on the potential of yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) as an animal candidate in the system was presented. The feasibility of feeding T. molitor with inedible parts of wheat and vegetables was studied. Moreover, a process for straw fermentation was selected. T. molitor was fed on wheat bran for the first 10 days, and then gradually, fermented straw was added. Old leaves of Chinese cabbage were used as supplementary feedstuff. The results showed that T. molitor larvae fed on this diet survived and grew normally, their fresh and dry weight achieved 56.15% and 46.76% of the larvae fed on a conventional diet, respectively. The bioconversion rate of the larvae was 16.07%, which was 88.05% of the conventional diet group. The protein and fat contents were 76.14% and 6.44% on dry weigh, respectively. Through the processes of anaerobic fermentation and mealworm consumption, the straw lost about 47.79% of the initial dry weight, and its lignocellulose had a degradation of about 45.74%. Wheat germination test indicated that the frass of T. molitor has the potential to be utilized as plant cultivation substrate after certain treatment. Stoichiometric modeling of BLSS containing T. molitor was also conducted.

  15. Animal models of tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Brozoski, Thomas J; Bauer, Carol A

    2016-08-01

    Presented is a thematic review of animal tinnitus models from a functional perspective. Chronic tinnitus is a persistent subjective sound sensation, emergent typically after hearing loss. Although the sensation is experientially simple, it appears to have central a nervous system substrate of unexpected complexity that includes areas outside of those classically defined as auditory. Over the past 27 years animal models have significantly contributed to understanding tinnitus' complex neurophysiology. In that time, a diversity of models have been developed, each with its own strengths and limitations. None has clearly become a standard. Animal models trace their origin to the 1988 experiments of Jastreboff and colleagues. All subsequent models derive some of their features from those experiments. Common features include behavior-dependent psychophysical determination, acoustic conditions that contrast objective sound and silence, and inclusion of at least one normal-hearing control group. In the present review, animal models have been categorized as either interrogative or reflexive. Interrogative models use emitted behavior under voluntary control to indicate hearing. An example would be pressing a lever to obtain food in the presence of a particular sound. In this type of model animals are interrogated about their auditory sensations, analogous to asking a patient, "What do you hear?" These models require at least some training and motivation management, and reflect the perception of tinnitus. Reflexive models, in contrast, employ acoustic modulation of an auditory reflex, such as the acoustic startle response. An unexpected loud sound will elicit a reflexive motor response from many species, including humans. Although involuntary, acoustic startle can be modified by a lower-level preceding event, including a silent sound gap. Sound-gap modulation of acoustic startle appears to discriminate tinnitus in animals as well as humans, and requires no training or

  16. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    PubMed

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. PMID:23664009

  17. Acute malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Dupont, John S

    2006-01-01

    Acute malocclusion can result from disturbances in the maxillary/mandibular tooth relationship. These alterations in the occlusal position can result from high fillings, sinus problems, abscesses, periodontal disease, and moving or erupting teeth. Conditions seen less frequently include acute malocclusions secondary to an event (such as trauma) that make a stable dental relationship an unstable one. Patients can demonstrate any of a number of clinical conditions that interfere with their comfort and ability to function. This article provides information on some of the less familiar causes of acute malocclusion. PMID:16689064

  18. Pre-hospital diagnosis and transfer of patients with acute myocardial infarction--a decade long experience from one of Europe's largest STEMI networks.

    PubMed

    Clemmensen, Peter; Schoos, Mikkel Malby; Lindholm, Matias Greve; Rasmussen, Lars S; Steinmetz, Jacob; Hesselfeldt, Rasmus; Pedersen, Frants; Jørgensen, Erik; Holmvang, Lene; Sejersten, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Early reperfusion in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is essential. Although primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) is the preferred revascularization technique, it often involves longer primary transportation or secondary inter-hospital transfers and thus longer system related delays. The current ESC Guidelines state that PCI should be performed within 120 minutes from first medical contact, and door-to-balloon time should be <60 minutes in order to reduce long term mortality. STEMI networks should be established with regionalization of pPCI treatment to address the challenges regarding pre-hospital treatment, triage and transport of STEMI patients and collaborations between hospitals and Emergency Medical Services (EMS). We report on a regional decade long experience from one of Europe's largest STEMI networks located in Eastern Denmark, which serves a catchment area of 2.5 million inhabitants by processing ~4000 prehospital ECGs annually transmitted from 4 EMS systems to a single pPCI center treating 1100 patients per year. This organization has led to a significant improvement of the standard of therapy for acute myocardial infarction (MI) patients leading to historically low 30-day mortality for STEMI patients (<6%). About 70-80% of all STEMI patients are being triaged from the field and rerouted to the regional pPCI center. Significant delays are still found among patients who present to local hospitals and for those who are first admitted to a local emergency room and thus subject to inter-hospital transfer. In the directly transferred group, approximately 80% of patients can be treated within the current guideline time window of 120 minutes when triaged within a 185 km (~115 miles) radius. Since 2010, a Helicopter Emergency Medical Service has been implemented for air rescue. Air transfer was associated with a 20-30 minute decrease from first medical contact to pPCI, at distances down to 90 km from the pPCI center

  19. Animating Brains.

    PubMed

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-07-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title 'Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience'. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of 'soul catching', the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain's electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  20. Animating Brains

    PubMed Central

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  1. Frutalin reduces acute and neuropathic nociceptive behaviours in rodent models of orofacial pain.

    PubMed

    Damasceno, Marina B M V; de Melo Júnior, José de Maria A; Santos, Sacha Aubrey A R; Melo, Luana T M; Leite, Laura Hévila I; Vieira-Neto, Antonio E; Moreira, Renato de A; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina de O; Campos, Adriana R

    2016-08-25

    Orofacial pain is a highly prevalent clinical condition, yet difficult to control effectively with available drugs. Much attention is currently focused on the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of lectins. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of frutalin (FTL) using rodent models of inflammatory and neuropathic orofacial pain. Acute pain was induced by formalin, glutamate or capsaicin (orofacial model) and hypertonic saline (corneal model). In one experiment, animals were pretreated with l-NAME and naloxone to investigate the mechanism of antinociception. The involvement of the lectin domain in the antinociceptive effect of FTL was verified by allowing the lectin to bind to its specific ligand. In another experiment, animals pretreated with FTL or saline were submitted to the temporomandibular joint formalin test. In yet another, animals were submitted to infraorbital nerve transection to induce chronic pain, followed by induction of thermal hypersensitivity using acetone. Motor activity was evaluated with the rotarod test. A molecular docking was performed using the TRPV1 channel. Pretreatment with FTL significantly reduced nociceptive behaviour associated with acute and neuropathic pain, especially at 0.5 mg/kg. Antinociception was effectively inhibited by l-NAME and d-galactose. In line with in vivo experiments, docking studies indicated that FTL may interact with TRPV1. Our results confirm the potential pharmacological relevance of FTL as an inhibitor of orofacial nociception in acute and chronic pain mediated by TRPA1, TRPV1 and TRPM8 receptor. PMID:27302204

  2. The effects of acute nicotine on contextual safety discrimination.

    PubMed

    Kutlu, Munir G; Oliver, Chicora; Gould, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), may be related to an inability to distinguish safe versus threatening environments and to extinguish fear memories. Given the high rate of cigarette smoking in patients with PTSD, as well as the recent finding that an acute dose of nicotine impairs extinction of contextual fear memory, we conducted a series of experiments to investigate the effect of acute nicotine in an animal model of contextual safety discrimination. Following saline or nicotine (at 0.0275, 0.045, 0.09 and 0.18 mg/kg) administration, C57BL/6J mice were trained in a contextual discrimination paradigm, in which the subjects received presentations of conditioned stimuli (CS) that co-terminated with a foot-shock in one context (context A (CXA)) and only CS presentations without foot-shock in a different context (context B (CXB)). Therefore, CXA was designated as the 'dangerous context', whereas CXB was designated as the 'safe context'. Our results suggested that saline-treated animals showed a strong discrimination between dangerous and safe contexts, while acute nicotine dose-dependently impaired contextual safety discrimination (Experiment 1). Furthermore, our results demonstrate that nicotine-induced impairment of contextual safety discrimination learning was not a result of increased generalized freezing (Experiment 2) or contingent on the common CS presentations in both contexts (Experiment 3). Finally, our results show that increasing the temporal gap between CXA and CXB during training abolished the impairing effects of nicotine (Experiment 4). The findings of this study may help link nicotine exposure to the safety learning deficits seen in anxiety disorder and PTSD patients. PMID:25271215

  3. An experience with plasma exchange treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a case with fulminant hepatitis related to L-asparaginase.

    PubMed

    Bilgir, Oktay; Calan, Mehmet; Bilgir, Ferda; Cagliyan, Gulsum; Arslan, Oyku

    2013-10-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignant disorder resulting from the clonal proliferation of lymphoid precursors with arrested maturation. L-asparaginase is commonly used in combination chemotherapy of both pediatric and adult acute lymphoblastic leukemias. The most commonly encountered side effects of L-asparaginase are hypersensitivity reactions like pyrexia, urticaria, skin rash, and respiratory distress. There are also other side effects like anaphylaxis, coagulopathy, pancreatitis, thrombosis, and hepatic toxicity. Plasmapheresis can sometimes be appropriate to manage an overdose of drugs that circulate in the plasma compartment. We have reported plasmapheresis treatment of fulminant hepatitis in a patient with ALL after L-asparaginase treatment. PMID:23871581

  4. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... bronchitis? Acute bronchitis is almost always caused by viruses that attack the lining of the bronchial tree ... infection. As your body fights back against these viruses, more swelling occurs and more mucus is produced. ...

  5. Acute Pericarditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... large pericardial effusions). Acute pericarditis usually responds to colchicine or NSAIDs (such as aspirin and ibuprofen ) taken ... reduce pain but relieves it by reducing inflammation. Colchicine also decreases the chance of pericarditis returning later. ...

  6. Neuromuscular Functions on Experimental Acute Methanol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Moral, Ali Reşat; Çankayalı, İlkin; Sergin, Demet; Boyacılar, Özden

    2015-01-01

    Objective The incidence of accidental or suicidal ingestion of methyl alcohol is high and methyl alcohol intoxication has high mortality. Methyl alcohol intoxication causes severe neurological sequelae and appears to be a significant problem. Methyl alcohol causes acute metabolic acidosis, optic neuropathy leading to permanent blindness, respiratory failure, circulatory failure and death. It is metabolised in the liver, and its metabolite formic acid has direct toxic effects, causing oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and increased lipid peroxidation associated with the mechanism of neurotoxicity. Methanol is known to cause acute toxicity of the central nervous system; however, the effects on peripheral neuromuscular transmission are unknown. In our study, we aimed to investigate the electrophysiological effects of experimentally induced acute methanol intoxication on neuromuscular transmission in the early period (first 24 h). Methods After approval by the Animal Experiment Ethics Committee of Ege University, the study was carried out on 10 Wistar rats, each weighing about 200 g. During electrophysiological recordings and orogastric tube insertion, the rats were anaesthetised using intra-peritoneal (IP) injection of ketamine 100 mg kg−1 and IP injection of xylazine 10 mg kg−1. The rats were given 3 g kg−1 methyl alcohol by the orogastric tube. Electrophysiological measurements from the gastrocnemius muscle were compared with baseline. Results Latency measurements before and 24 h after methanol injection were 0.81±0.11 ms and 0.76±0.12 ms, respectively. CMAP amplitude measurements before and 24 h after methanol injection were 9.85±0.98 mV and 9.99±0.40 mV, respectively. CMAP duration measurements before and 24 h after methanol injection were 9.86±0.03 ms and 9.86±0.045 ms, respectively. Conclusion It was concluded that experimental methanol intoxication in the acute phase (first 24 h) did not affect neuromuscular function. PMID:27366524

  7. Animal Needs. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Life in Action. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. All animals need food, water, and shelter to grow, reproduce, and survive. Students learn about the needs of animals and how, over time, if…

  8. Animal Behavior & Communication. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. The way an animal acts or behaves helps it get what it needs to survive. Students find out why some animal behaviors are instinctive while…

  9. Animal models of scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Bobyn, Justin D; Little, David G; Gray, Randolph; Schindeler, Aaron

    2015-04-01

    Multiple techniques designed to induce scoliotic deformity have been applied across many animal species. We have undertaken a review of the literature regarding experimental models of scoliosis in animals to discuss their utility in comprehending disease aetiology and treatment. Models of scoliosis in animals can be broadly divided into quadrupedal and bipedal experiments. Quadrupedal models, in the absence of axial gravitation force, depend upon development of a mechanical asymmetry along the spine to initiate a scoliotic deformity. Bipedal models more accurately mimic human posture and consequently are subject to similar forces due to gravity, which have been long appreciated to be a contributing factor to the development of scoliosis. Many effective models of scoliosis in smaller animals have not been successfully translated to primates and humans. Though these models may not clarify the aetiology of human scoliosis, by providing a reliable and reproducible deformity in the spine they are a useful means with which to test interventions designed to correct and prevent deformity. PMID:25492698

  10. Acute and chronic ethanol intake: effects on spatial and non-spatial memory in rats.

    PubMed

    García-Moreno, Luis M; Cimadevilla, Jose M

    2012-12-01

    Abusive alcohol consumption produces neuronal damage and biochemical alterations in the mammal brain followed by cognitive disturbances. In this work rats receiving chronic and acute alcohol intake were evaluated in a spontaneous delayed non-matching to sample/position test. Chronic alcohol-treated rats had free access to an aqueous ethanol solution as the only available liquid source from the postnatal day 21 to the end of experiment (postnatal day 90). Acute alcoholic animals received an injection of 2 g/kg ethanol solution once per week. Subjects were evaluated in two tests (object recognition and spatial recognition) based on the spontaneous delayed non-matching to sample or to position paradigm using delays of 1 min, 15 min and 60 min. Results showed that chronic and acute alcohol intake impairs the rats' performance in both tests. Moreover, chronic alcohol-treated rats were more altered than acute treated animals in both tasks. Our results support the idea that chronic and acute alcohol administration during postnatal development caused widespread brain damage resulting in behavioral disturbances and learning disabilities. PMID:22944615

  11. Gender Differences in Animal Models of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Hagit; Yehuda, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies report higher prevalence rates of stress-related disorders such as acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women than in men following exposure to trauma. It is still not clear whether this greater prevalence in woman reflects a greater vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology. A number of individual and trauma-related characteristics have been hypothesized to contribute to these gender differences in physiological and psychological responses to trauma, differences in appraisal, interpretation or experience of threat, coping style or social support. In this context, the use of an animal model for PTSD to analyze some of these gender-related differences may be of particular utility. Animal models of PTSD offer the opportunity to distinguish between biological and socio-cultural factors, which so often enter the discussion about gender differences in PTSD prevalence. In this review, we present and discuss sex-differences in behavioral, neurochemical, neurobiological and pharmacological findings that we have collected from several different animal studies related to both basal conditions and stress responses. These models have used different paradigms and have elicited a range of behavioral and physiological manifestations associated with gender. The overall data presented demonstrate that male animals are significantly more vulnerable to acute and chronic stress, whereas females are far more resilient. The stark contradiction between these findings and contemporary epidemiological data regarding human subjects is worthy of further study. The examination of these gender-related differences can deepen our understanding of the risk or the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. PMID:21508518

  12. Animal Models of Hemophilia

    PubMed Central

    Sabatino, Denise E.; Nichols, Timothy C.; Merricks, Elizabeth; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Herzog, Roland W.; Monahan, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    The X-linked bleeding disorder hemophilia is caused by mutations in coagulation factor VIII (hemophilia A) or factor IX (hemophilia B). Unless prophylactic treatment is provided, patients with severe disease (less than 1% clotting activity) typically experience frequent spontaneous bleeds. Current treatment is largely based on intravenous infusion of recombinant or plasma-derived coagulation factor concentrate. More effective factor products are being developed. Moreover, gene therapies for sustained correction of hemophilia are showing much promise in pre-clinical studies and in clinical trials. These advances in molecular medicine heavily depend on availability of well-characterized small and large animal models of hemophilia, primarily hemophilia mice and dogs. Experiments in these animals represent important early and intermediate steps of translational research aimed at development of better and safer treatments for hemophilia, such a protein and gene therapies or immune tolerance protocols. While murine models are excellent for studies of large groups of animals using genetically defined strains, canine models are important for testing scale-up and for longer-term follow-up as well as for studies that require larger blood volumes. PMID:22137432

  13. Science Teachers to Ban Testing Harmful to Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Marjorie

    1980-01-01

    This article reports the adoption of new policies to restrict experiments on animals in the elementary or secondary school classroom. The controversy involving animal welfare groups is discussed as it relates to animal abuse by students. (SA)

  14. Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) - children

    MedlinePlus

    Acute myelogenous leukemia - children; AML; Acute myeloid leukemia - children; Acute granulocytic leukemia - children; Acute myeloblastic leukemia - children; Acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) - children

  15. Final-Year Students' and Clinical instructors' Experience of Workplace-Based Assessments Used in a Small-Animal Primary-Veterinary-Care Clinical Rotation.

    PubMed

    Weijs, Cynthia A; Coe, Jason B; Hecker, Kent G

    2015-01-01

    Final-year veterinary students must meet baseline clinical competency upon completion of their training for entry to practice. Workplace-based assessments (WBAs), widely used in human medical training to assess post-graduate students' professionalism and clinical performance, have recently been adopted in undergraduate veterinary clinical teaching environments. WBAs should support veterinary trainees' learning in a clinical teaching environment, though utility of WBAs within veterinary education may differ from that in medical training due to differences in context and in learners' stage of clinical development. We conducted focus groups with final-year veterinary students and clinical instructors following the implementation of three WBAs (Direct Observation of Procedural Skills [DOPS], the Mini-Clinical evaluation exercise [Mini-CEX], and the In-Training Evaluation Report [ITER]) during a small-animal primary-veterinary-care rotation. Students and clinical instructors viewed the DOPS and Mini-CEX as feasible and valuable learning and assessment tools that offered an overall opportunity for timely in-the-moment feedback. Instructors viewed the ITER as less feasible in the context of a service-oriented veterinary clinical teaching environment. Students believed the ITER had potential to be informative, although in its existing application the ITER had limited utility due to time constraints on instructors that prevented them from providing students with individualized and specific feedback. In service-oriented veterinary clinical teaching environments, successful implementation of WBAs requires balancing provision of feedback to students, time demands on clinical instructors, and flexibility of assessment tools. PMID:26421514

  16. Environmental exposure to BDE47 is associated with increased diabetes prevalence: Evidence from community-based case-control studies and an animal experiment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhan; Li, Shushu; Liu, Lu; Wang, Li; Xiao, Xue; Sun, Zhenzhen; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Chao; Wang, Meilin; Li, Lei; Xu, Qiujin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants exposure has been associated with increasing trends of diabetes and metabolic disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide evidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure in relation to diabetes prevalence and to reveal the potential underlying mechanism in epidemiological and animal studies. All the participants received a questionnaire, health examination, and the detection of 7 PBDE congeners in serum in two independent community-based studies from 2011 to 2012 in China. Male rats were exposed to 2,2’4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) for 8 weeks to explore its effects on glucose homeostasis and potential mechanisms using high-throughput genomic analysis. Among the 7 congeners, BDE47 showed significant high detection rate and concentration in cases in Study I and Study II. Every tertile of BDE47 exposure significantly increased the risk of diabetes prevalence in Study I (Ptrend = 0.001) and Study II (Ptrend < 0.001). Additionally, BDE47 treatments induced hyperglycemia in rats. Furthermore, gene microarray analysis showed that diabetes pathway and three gene ontology terms involved in glucose transport were enriched. The results indicated that environmental exposure to BDE47 was associated with increased diabetes prevalence. However, further prospective and mechanistic studies are needed to the causation of diabetes in relation to BDE47. PMID:27291303

  17. Environmental exposure to BDE47 is associated with increased diabetes prevalence: Evidence from community-based case-control studies and an animal experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhan; Li, Shushu; Liu, Lu; Wang, Li; Xiao, Xue; Sun, Zhenzhen; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Chao; Wang, Meilin; Li, Lei; Xu, Qiujin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants exposure has been associated with increasing trends of diabetes and metabolic disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide evidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure in relation to diabetes prevalence and to reveal the potential underlying mechanism in epidemiological and animal studies. All the participants received a questionnaire, health examination, and the detection of 7 PBDE congeners in serum in two independent community-based studies from 2011 to 2012 in China. Male rats were exposed to 2,2’4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) for 8 weeks to explore its effects on glucose homeostasis and potential mechanisms using high-throughput genomic analysis. Among the 7 congeners, BDE47 showed significant high detection rate and concentration in cases in Study I and Study II. Every tertile of BDE47 exposure significantly increased the risk of diabetes prevalence in Study I (Ptrend = 0.001) and Study II (Ptrend < 0.001). Additionally, BDE47 treatments induced hyperglycemia in rats. Furthermore, gene microarray analysis showed that diabetes pathway and three gene ontology terms involved in glucose transport were enriched. The results indicated that environmental exposure to BDE47 was associated with increased diabetes prevalence. However, further prospective and mechanistic studies are needed to the causation of diabetes in relation to BDE47.

  18. Environmental exposure to BDE47 is associated with increased diabetes prevalence: Evidence from community-based case-control studies and an animal experiment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhan; Li, Shushu; Liu, Lu; Wang, Li; Xiao, Xue; Sun, Zhenzhen; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Chao; Wang, Meilin; Li, Lei; Xu, Qiujin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants exposure has been associated with increasing trends of diabetes and metabolic disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide evidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure in relation to diabetes prevalence and to reveal the potential underlying mechanism in epidemiological and animal studies. All the participants received a questionnaire, health examination, and the detection of 7 PBDE congeners in serum in two independent community-based studies from 2011 to 2012 in China. Male rats were exposed to 2,2'4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) for 8 weeks to explore its effects on glucose homeostasis and potential mechanisms using high-throughput genomic analysis. Among the 7 congeners, BDE47 showed significant high detection rate and concentration in cases in Study I and Study II. Every tertile of BDE47 exposure significantly increased the risk of diabetes prevalence in Study I (Ptrend = 0.001) and Study II (Ptrend < 0.001). Additionally, BDE47 treatments induced hyperglycemia in rats. Furthermore, gene microarray analysis showed that diabetes pathway and three gene ontology terms involved in glucose transport were enriched. The results indicated that environmental exposure to BDE47 was associated with increased diabetes prevalence. However, further prospective and mechanistic studies are needed to the causation of diabetes in relation to BDE47. PMID:27291303

  19. Programs in Animal Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Don R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Five topics relating to programs in animal agriculture are addressed: (1) the future of animal agriculture; (2) preparing teachers in animal agriculture; (3) how animal programs help young people; (4) a nontraditional animal agriculture program; and (5) developing competencies in animal agriculture. (LRA)

  20. ANIMAL MODELS OF CHRONIC PESTICIDE NEUROTOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a wealth of literature on neurotoxicological outcomes of acute and short-term exposure to pesticides in laboratory animals, but there are relatively few studies of- long-term exposure. Many reports in the literature describing ;chronic' exposures to pesticides are, in fa...

  1. ANIMAL MODELS OF CHRONIC PESTICIDE NEUROTOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a wealth of literature on neurotoxicological outcomes of acute and short-term exposure to pesticides in laboratory animals, but there are relatively few reports of long-term exposure. Reports in the literature describing "chronic" exposures to pesticides are, in fact, a...

  2. Immunotherapy of acute radiation syndromes with antiradiation gamma G globulin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Vecheslav; Casey, Rachael; Jones, Jeffrey; Kedar, Prasad

    Introduction: If an immunotherapy treatment approach to treatment of acute radiation syndromes (ARS) were to be developed; consideration could be given to neutralization of radiation toxins (Specific Radiation Determinants- SRD) by specific antiradiation antibodies. To accomplish this objective, irradiated animals were injected with a preparation of antiradiation immunoglobulin G (IgG) obtained from hyperimmune donors. Radiation-indeced toxins that we call Specific Radiation Determinants (SRD) possess toxic (neurotoxic, haemotoxic and enterotoxic) characteristics as well as specific antigenic properties that combined with the direct physiochemical direct radiation damage, induce the development of many of the pathological processes associated with ARS. We tested several specific hyperimmune IgG preparations against these radiation toxins and observed that their toxic properties were neutralized by specific antiradiation IgGs. Material and Methods: Rabbits were inoculated with SRD radiation toxins to induce hyperimmune serum. The hyperimmune serum was pooled from several animals, purified, and concentrated. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of the hyperimmune serum revealed high titers of IgG with specific binding to radiation toxins. The antiradiation IgG preparation was injected into laboratory animals one hour before and three hours after irradiation, and was evaluated for its ability to protect inoculated animals against the development of acute radiation syndromes. Results: Animals that were inoculated with specific antiradiation antibodies before receiving lethal irradiation at LD 100/30 exhibited 60-75% survival rate at 30 days, whereas all control animals expired by 30 days following exposure. These inoculated animals also exhibited markedly reduced clinical symptoms of ARS, even those that did not survive irradiation. Discussion: The results of our experiments demonstrate that rabbit hyperimmune serum directed against SRD toxins afford significant, albeit

  3. Can Vet Schools Teach without Killing Animals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a protest by students at the University of Illinois (Urbana) College of Veterinary Medicine over the killing of animals that led to temporary curtailing of lethal animal experiments. Examines the conflict between animal rights groups and some faculty who are openly skeptical about the effectiveness of alternatives to the hands-on…

  4. Compassionate Teaching in the Animal Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansbach, Robert S.; Simmonds, Richard C.

    1986-01-01

    Recommends that an ethical approach to animal research must start early, pointing out that teachers have the opportunity and responsibility to represent the research community and to communicate the benefits of animal research to students. A list of alternatives to using animals for medical research/experiments is included. (JN)

  5. Acute two-photon imaging of the neurovascular unit in the cortex of active mice

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Cam Ha T.; Gordon, Grant R.

    2015-01-01

    In vivo two-photon scanning fluorescence imaging is a powerful technique to observe physiological processes from the millimeter to the micron scale in the intact animal. In neuroscience research, a common approach is to install an acute cranial window and head bar to explore neocortical function under anesthesia before inflammation peaks from the surgery. However, there are few detailed acute protocols for head-restrained and fully awake animal imaging of the neurovascular unit during activity. This is because acutely performed awake experiments are typically untenable when the animal is naïve to the imaging apparatus. Here we detail a method that achieves acute, deep-tissue two-photon imaging of neocortical astrocytes and microvasculature in behaving mice. A week prior to experimentation, implantation of the head bar alone allows mice to train for head-immobilization on an easy-to-learn air-supported ball treadmill. Following just two brief familiarization sessions to the treadmill on separate days, an acute cranial window can subsequently be installed for immediate imaging. We demonstrate how running and whisking data can be captured simultaneously with two-photon fluorescence signals with acceptable movement artifacts during active motion. We also show possible applications of this technique by (1) monitoring dynamic changes to microvascular diameter and red blood cells in response to vibrissa sensory stimulation, (2) examining responses of the cerebral microcirculation to the systemic delivery of pharmacological agents using a tail artery cannula during awake imaging, and (3) measuring Ca2+ signals from synthetic and genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators in astrocytes. This method will facilitate acute two-photon fluorescence imaging in awake, active mice and help link cellular events within the neurovascular unit to behavior. PMID:25698926

  6. Mediastinal Packing for Intractable Coagulopathy in Acute Aortic Dissection (Types 1 and 2 DeBakey): A Life-Saving Technique—Report of Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Moeinipour, Aliasghar; Fathi, Mehdi; Sepehri Shamloo, Alireza; Amini, Shahram; Hoseinikhah, Hamid; Kianinejad, Akram

    2015-01-01

    Nonsurgical bleeding after complex thoracic aortic procedures (such as aortic dissection and aortic aneurysm) is a great challenge for cardiac surgeons because of severe coagulopathy, exsanguinous bleeding, and inevitable death. Temporary mediastinal packing (with sponge) in such cases is the only life-saving technique with good result in most cases. Herein, we presented three cases with acute aortic dissection with intractable bleeding that was successfully managed with mediastinal packing. PMID:26435855

  7. The EndoRotor®: endoscopic mucosal resection system for non-thermal and rapid removal of esophageal, gastric, and colonic lesions: initial experience in live animals

    PubMed Central

    Hollerbach, Stephan; Wellmann, Axel; Meier, Peter; Ryan, Jeffery; Franco, Ramon; Koehler, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: The EndoRotor® is a novel, non-thermal, automated mechanical endoscopic resection system designed to remove benign mucosal neoplastic tissue throughout the gastrointestinal tract. It uses suction pressure to pull in mucosa and rapidly and precisely cut it while automatically transporting the samples to a collection trap for later histologic evaluation. Patients and methods: To study the technical properties and therapeutic potential of this new tool, we performed multiple upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopic mucosal resections in three healthy live pigs. Animals were anesthetized and kept artificially ventilated while two physicians performed multiple qualitative mucosal resections on various sites of the pigs’ esophagus, stomach, duodenum, and colon. Results: Rapid resection of flat and slightly elevated mucosa up to several centimeters in size/diameter was performed. No major bleeding occurred during and after resections. When used properly, no gastrointestinal wall perforations occurred during superficial resections. Perforations in the colon were only observed when the device was deliberately pushed against deeper sub-mucosal layers or when exceptional force was applied to penetrate the gastrointestinal wall. Histologic specimens showed complete mucosal removal at resection sites. The flexible catheter could be moved and directed towards most of the areas of interest in the gastrointestinal tract. Conclusion: The EndoRotor rapidly and easily resects flat and slightly elevated gastrointestinal mucosa with a short learning curve. Future studies in humans should be performed to prove its ability for large-area mucosal resections in benign conditions such as laterally spreading adenomas in the colon, or Barrett’s mucosa in the distal esophagus. PMID:27092332

  8. Opioid activity in behavioral and heart rate responses of tethered pigs to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Loijens, L W S; Janssens, C J J G; Schouten, W G P; Wiegant, V M

    2002-04-15

    In a longitudinal experiment, effects of long-term tether housing on heart rate and behavioral responses to an acute stressor (a 15-min challenge with a nosesling) were investigated in pigs. The animals were challenged during loose housing and again after 10-11 weeks of tether housing. To detect possible changes in endogenous opioid systems modifying these responses, the pigs were pretreated with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (0.5 mg/kg body weight, iv). In response to the nosesling challenge, the animals showed pronounced resistance behavior and a sharp rise in heart rate. Following this initial phase of resistance, the heart rate dropped to prechallenge levels or below this line, and the pigs seemed to become sedated. Pretreatment with naloxone increased the heart rate response in animals that were long-term tether housed (n=12). No such effect was found in the control group (n=5) that was loose-housed during the entire experiment, indicating that the impact of endogenous opioid systems mitigating heart rate responses to acute stress had increased as a result of long-term tether housing. Changes in the effect of naloxone on the behavioral response were not found. Adaptive changes in opioid systems may prevent excessive physiological reactions to acute stress and, thus, may serve as a coping mechanism. PMID:12020727

  9. Acute Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Hammad; Fasanya, Adebayo; Cheema, Tariq; Singh, Anil C

    2016-01-01

    Acute pneumonia is an active infection of the lungs that results when an individual at risk gets exposed to a particular microbiological pathogen. Acute pneumonia is the leading cause of death in the United States that is attributable to an infection. The risk factors, pathogenesis, and microbiological organisms involved differ if the pneumonia develops in the community versus health care-associated environment. The development of concise and comprehensive guidelines has led to an improvement in the management of the problem. However, the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms and the increase in the percentage of elderly population keep mortality risk very substantial. PMID:26919676

  10. [Whereabouts of surplus and surviving laboratory animals].

    PubMed

    Doehring, Dorothea; Erhard, Michael H

    2005-01-01

    Most research and breeding institutions have to deal with the problem of post-experimental or surplus laboratory animals. The German law on Animal Welfare (Tierschutzgesetz) forbids to kill animals without proper reason. This prohibition is valid for laboratory animals, too. If an animal survives an experiment without permanent pain or harm, the further remain must be organised. Re-homing of these animals to private people is one solution for this problem. The animals can be passed on to a family as a pet. Another possibility is to re-home the animal with the help of a welfare organisation. This way offers some advantages. The organisation seeks the new owners, gives them all necessary information and remain available for them. Using such an organisation, the re-homing process is to a great extend safe and anonymous for the research institution. Many institutions already made very good experiences in the cooperation with welfare organisations. PMID:15719145

  11. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 4 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). The AGATE program is complimented by a NASA Lewis-led program to develop safe, smooth, quiet and affordable propulsion systems for future four-to-six-seat general aviation airplanes. The General Aviation Propulsion (GAP) program is developing diesel prop and jet engines to be flight demonstrated at the year 2000 EAA AirVenture Air Show & Convention in Oshkosh, Wisc. Commericially produced engines based on these demonstrator engines and their manufacturing technologies will soon follow. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  12. Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Geokas, Michael C.

    1972-01-01

    For many decades two types of acute pancreatitis have been recognized: the edematous or interstitial and the hemorrhagic or necrotic. In most cases acute pancreatitis is associated with alcoholism or biliary tract disease. Elevated serum or urinary α-amylase is the most important finding in diagnosis. The presence of methemalbumin in serum and in peritoneal or pleural fluid supports the diagnosis of the hemorrhagic form of the disease in patients with a history and enzyme studies suggestive of pancreatitis. There is no characteristic clinical picture in acute pancreatitis, and its complications are legion. Pancreatic pseudocyst is probably the most common and pancreatic abscess is the most serious complication. The pathogenetic principle is autodigestion, but the precise sequence of biochemical events is unclear, especially the mode of trypsinogen activation and the role of lysosomal hydrolases. A host of metabolic derangements have been identified in acute pancreatitis, involving lipid, glucose, calcium and magnesium metabolism and changes of the blood clotting mechanism, to name but a few. Medical treatment includes intestinal decompression, analgesics, correction of hypovolemia and other supportive and protective measures. Surgical exploration is advisable in selected cases, when the diagnosis is in doubt, and is considered imperative in the presence of certain complications, especially pancreatic abscess. PMID:4559467

  13. The Effect of Toxic Cyanobacteria on Human and Animal Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study of environmental health typically focuses on human populations. However, companion animals, livestock and wildlife also experience adverse health effects from environmental pollutants. Animals may experience direct exposure to pollutants unlike people in most ambient ex...

  14. Prevalence and factors associated with false positive suspicion of acute aortic syndrome: experience in a patient population transferred to a specialized aortic treatment center

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Chad E.; Aggarwal, Bhuvnesh; Schoenhagen, Paul; Kralovic, Damon M.; Kormos, Kristopher; Holloway, David

    2013-01-01

    Study objective Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is a medical emergency that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment at specialized centers. We sought to determine the frequency and etiology of false positive activation of a regional AAS network in a patient population emergently transferred for suspected AAS. Methods We evaluated 150 consecutive patients transferred from community emergency departments directly to our Cardiac Intensive Care Unit (CICU) with a diagnosis of suspected AAS between March, 2010 and August, 2011. A final diagnosis of confirmed acute Type A, acute Type B dissection, and false positive suspicion of dissection was made in 63 (42%), 70 (46.7%) and 17 (11.3%) patients respectively. Results Of the 17 false positive transfers, ten (58.8%) were suspected Type A dissection and seven (41.2%) were suspected Type B dissection. The initial hospital diagnosis in 15 (88.2%) patients was made by a computed tomography (CT) scan and 10 (66.6%) of these patients required repeat imaging with an ECG-synchronized CT to definitively rule out AAS. Five (29.4%) patients had prior history of open or endovascular aortic repair. Overall in-hospital mortality was 9.3%. Conclusions The diagnosis of AAS is confirmed in most patients emergently transferred for suspected AAS. False positive activation in this setting is driven primarily by uncertainty secondary to motion-artifact of the ascending aorta and the presence of complex anatomy following prior aortic intervention. Network-wide standardization of imaging strategies, and improved sharing of imaging may further improve triage of this complex patient population. PMID:24400203

  15. Acute undifferentiated febrile illness in adult hospitalized patients: the disease spectrum and diagnostic predictors - an experience from a tertiary care hospital in South India.

    PubMed

    Chrispal, Anugrah; Boorugu, Harikishan; Gopinath, Kango Gopal; Chandy, Sara; Prakash, John Antony Jude; Thomas, Elsa Mary; Abraham, Asha Mary; Abraham, O C; Thomas, Kurien

    2010-10-01

    Local prevalences of individual diseases influence the prioritization of the differential diagnoses of a clinical syndrome of acute undifferentiated febrile illness (AFI). This study was conducted in order to delineate the aetiology of AFI that present to a tertiary hospital in southern India and to describe disease-specific clinical profiles. An 1-year prospective, observational study was conducted in adults (age >16 years) who presented with an undifferentiated febrile illness of duration 5-21 days, requiring hospitalization. Blood cultures, malarial parasites and febrile serology (acute and convalescent), in addition to clinical evaluations and basic investigations were performed. Comparisons were made between each disease and the other AFIs. A total of 398 AFI patients were diagnosed with: scrub typhus (47.5%); malaria (17.1%); enteric fever (8.0%); dengue (7.0%); leptospirosis (3.0%); spotted fever rickettsiosis (1.8%); Hantavirus (0.3%); alternate diagnosis (7.3%); and unclear diagnoses (8.0%). Leucocytosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, aseptic meningitis, mild serum transaminase elevation and hypoalbuminaemia were independently associated with scrub typhus. Normal leukocyte counts, moderate to severe thrombocytopenia, renal failure, splenomegaly and hyperbilirubinaemia with mildly elevated serum transaminases were associated with malaria. Rash, overt bleeding manifestations, normal to low leukocyte counts, moderate to severe thrombocytopenia and significantly elevated hepatic transaminases were associated with dengue. Enteric fever was associated with loose stools, normal to low leukocyte counts and normal platelet counts. It is imperative to maintain a sound epidemiological database of AFIs so that evidence-based diagnostic criteria and treatment guidelines can be developed. PMID:20870680

  16. [Administration of Palonosetron and Phenotropil for Prophylaxis of the N-V-D Stage of Acute Radiation Syndrome].

    PubMed

    Drachouv, I S; Bykov, V N; Seleznev, A B

    2016-01-01

    Experiments on small (rats) and large (dogs) animals have shown that a sequential administration of Palonosetron and Phenotropil decreases the intensity of the main manifestations of the N-V-D stage of acute radiation syndrome. These data show the appropriateness of a combined administration of Palonosetron and Phenotropil to prevent a reduced work capacity in the individuals participating in elimination of the consequences of accidents associated with overexposure to radiation. PMID:27245006

  17. First evidence of collective alpha particle effect on toroidal Alfv{acute e}n eigenmodes in the TFTR D-T experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, K.L.; Schmidt, G.L.; Batha, S.H.; Bell, R.; Chang, Z.; Chen, L.; Darrow, D.S.; Duong, H.H.; Fu, G.Y.; Hammett, G.W.; Levinton, F.; Majeski, R.; Mazzucato, E.; Nazikian, R.; Owens, D.K.; Petrov, M.; Rogers, J.H.; Schilling, G.; Wilson, J.R.

    1996-03-01

    The alpha particle effect on the excitation of toroidal Alfv{acute e}n eigenmodes (TAE) was investigated in deuterium-titrium (D-T) plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. rf power was used to position the plasma near the instability threshold, and the alpha particle effect was inferred from the reduction of rf power threshold for TAE instability in D-T plasmas. Initial calculations indicate that the alpha particles contribute 10{percent}{endash}30{percent} of the total drive in a D-T plasma with 3 MW of peak fusion power. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  18. New evidence of animal consciousness.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Donald R; Speck, Gayle B

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews evidence that increases the probability that many animals experience at least simple levels of consciousness. First, the search for neural correlates of consciousness has not found any consciousness-producing structure or process that is limited to human brains. Second, appropriate responses to novel challenges for which the animal has not been prepared by genetic programming or previous experience provide suggestive evidence of animal consciousness because such versatility is most effectively organized by conscious thinking. For example, certain types of classical conditioning require awareness of the learned contingency in human subjects, suggesting comparable awareness in similarly conditioned animals. Other significant examples of versatile behavior suggestive of conscious thinking are scrub jays that exhibit all the objective attributes of episodic memory, evidence that monkeys sometimes know what they know, creative tool-making by crows, and recent interpretation of goal-directed behavior of rats as requiring simple nonreflexive consciousness. Third, animal communication often reports subjective experiences. Apes have demonstrated increased ability to use gestures or keyboard symbols to make requests and answer questions; and parrots have refined their ability to use the imitation of human words to ask for things they want and answer moderately complex questions. New data have demonstrated increased flexibility in the gestural communication of swarming honey bees that leads to vitally important group decisions as to which cavity a swarm should select as its new home. Although no single piece of evidence provides absolute proof of consciousness, this accumulation of strongly suggestive evidence increases significantly the likelihood that some animals experience at least simple conscious thoughts and feelings. The next challenge for cognitive ethologists is to investigate for particular animals the content of their awareness and what life is

  19. Pseudotumour cerebri in acute promyelocytic leukemia on treatment with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) - an experience from a tertiary care centre.

    PubMed

    Ahmad Tali, Manzoor; Bashir, Yasir; Bhat, Shuaeb; Manzoor, Fahim; Bashir, Nusrat; Geelani, Sajad; Rasool, Javid; Waheed Mir, Abdul

    2015-08-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APML) is considered to be sensitive to all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) which acts as a differentiating agent. ATRA is considered to be a well-tolerated agent and is known to achieve complete remission in acute promyelocytic leukemia. However, a few cases on long term all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) use can develop pseudotumor cerebri. Out of 32 patients with APML who were treated in our Centre over a 4-year-period, we encountered 6 patients who developed ATRA-related pseudotumor cerebri while on maintenance treatment. The patients ranged from 12 to 40 years of age. 3 patients complained of unbearable headache, 2 of diplopia and 1 of gross reduction in visual acuity. CT scans and MRI did not reveal any intracranial lesions. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination was normal with CSF manometry revealing a high CSF pressure (average of 345mmH2O). Fundoscopy revealed papilledema in 5 patients and optic atrophy in 1 patient. The patients were successfully managed with decrease dose/discontinuation of ATRA, use of acetazolamide, corticosteroids and therapeutic CSF drainage. PMID:26277671

  20. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship.

    PubMed

    Ward, Samantha J; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI). The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2) determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3) explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), eleven Chapman's zebra (Equus burchellii), and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response) was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93). A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals' latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: "attitude towards the animals" and "knowledge and experience of the animals". In this novel study, data demonstrated unique dyads