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Sample records for acute ascending aortic

  1. Coronary stenting with cardiogenic shock due to acute ascending aortic dissection

    PubMed Central

    Hanaki, Yuichi; Yumoto, Kazuhiko; I, Seigen; Aoki, Hajime; Fukuzawa, Tomoyuki; Watanabe, Takahiro; Kato, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    A 65-year-old man developed chest pain under cardiogenic shock. Coronary angiography revealed severe stenosis from the ostium of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) to the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) identified a large hematoma that originated from the aorta and extended into the LAD, thereby compressing the true lumen. Type A aortic dissection (TAAD) that involved the LMCA was diagnosed by IVUS. Coronary stenting was performed via the LMCA to the proximal LAD, which resulted in coronary blood flow restoration and no further propagation of dissection. Elective surgical aortic repair was performed 2 wk after the stenting. LMCA stenting under IVUS guidance is effective for prompt diagnosis and precise stent deployment in patients with cardiogenic shock due to TAAD with LMCA dissection. PMID:25717358

  2. Coronary stenting with cardiogenic shock due to acute ascending aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    Hanaki, Yuichi; Yumoto, Kazuhiko; I, Seigen; Aoki, Hajime; Fukuzawa, Tomoyuki; Watanabe, Takahiro; Kato, Kenichi

    2015-02-26

    A 65-year-old man developed chest pain under cardiogenic shock. Coronary angiography revealed severe stenosis from the ostium of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) to the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) identified a large hematoma that originated from the aorta and extended into the LAD, thereby compressing the true lumen. Type A aortic dissection (TAAD) that involved the LMCA was diagnosed by IVUS. Coronary stenting was performed via the LMCA to the proximal LAD, which resulted in coronary blood flow restoration and no further propagation of dissection. Elective surgical aortic repair was performed 2 wk after the stenting. LMCA stenting under IVUS guidance is effective for prompt diagnosis and precise stent deployment in patients with cardiogenic shock due to TAAD with LMCA dissection. PMID:25717358

  3. Acute aortic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is a term used to describe a constellation of life-threatening aortic diseases that have similar presentation, but appear to have distinct demographic, clinical, pathological and survival characteristics. Many believe that the three major entities that comprise AAS: aortic dissection (AD), intramural hematoma (IMH) and penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU), make up a spectrum of aortic disease in which one entity may evolve into or coexist with another. Much of the confusion in accurately classifying an AAS is that they present with similar symptoms: typically acute onset of severe chest or back pain, and may have similar radiographic features, since the disease entities all involve injury or disruption of the medial layer of the aortic wall. The accurate diagnosis of an AAS is often made at operation. This manuscript will attempt to clarify the similarities and differences between AD, IMH and PAU of the ascending aorta and describe the challenges in distinguishing them from one another. PMID:27386405

  4. Acute aortic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Corvera, Joel S

    2016-05-01

    Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is a term used to describe a constellation of life-threatening aortic diseases that have similar presentation, but appear to have distinct demographic, clinical, pathological and survival characteristics. Many believe that the three major entities that comprise AAS: aortic dissection (AD), intramural hematoma (IMH) and penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU), make up a spectrum of aortic disease in which one entity may evolve into or coexist with another. Much of the confusion in accurately classifying an AAS is that they present with similar symptoms: typically acute onset of severe chest or back pain, and may have similar radiographic features, since the disease entities all involve injury or disruption of the medial layer of the aortic wall. The accurate diagnosis of an AAS is often made at operation. This manuscript will attempt to clarify the similarities and differences between AD, IMH and PAU of the ascending aorta and describe the challenges in distinguishing them from one another. PMID:27386405

  5. [Acute aortic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Nienaber, Christoph A

    2016-06-01

    Acute aortic syndrome is the common denominator for acute events to the aortic wall and encompasses dissection of the aorta, intramural hematoma, formation of aortic ulcers and trauma to the aorta with an annual incidence of up to 35 cases/100.000 between 65 and 75 years of age. Both, inflammation and/or microtrauma at the level of the aortic media layer, and a genetic disposition are promoting elements of AAS, while the extent and anatomic involvement of the ascending aorta call for either surgical resection/repair in the proximal part of the aorta, or an endovascular solution for pathologies in the distal aorta; in all cases of dissection (regardless of location) reconstruction/realignment has been proven to portend better long-term outcomes (in addition to medical management of blood pressure). PMID:27254622

  6. Ascending Aortic Slide for Interrupted Aortic Arch Repair.

    PubMed

    Urencio, Miguel; Dodge-Khatami, Ali; Greenleaf, Chris E; Aru, Giorgio; Salazar, Jorge D

    2016-09-01

    For repair of interrupted aortic arch, unfavorable anatomy challenges a tension-free anastomosis. We describe a useful alternative surgical technique used in five neonates/infants, involving splitting the ascending aorta from the sinotubular junction to the arch origin, leftward and posterior "sliding" of the flap with anastomosis to the distal arch creating a native tissue bridge, and reconstruction with a patch. With wide interruption gaps between proximal and distal aortic portions, the ascending aortic slide is a safe and reproducible technique, providing a tension-free native tissue bridge with potential for growth, and a scaffold for patch augmentation in biventricular hearts, or for Norwood stage I in univentricular palliation. PMID:27587504

  7. Contained Ascending Aortic Rupture Disguised as a Right Atrial Mass

    PubMed Central

    Marzolino, Philip S.; Reynolds, Justin H.; Coselli, Joseph S.; Grigore, Alina M.

    2008-01-01

    Transesophageal echocardiography can incidentally detect cardiac masses. A right atrial mass has many possible causes, including metastatic extension from various solid organs, malignant melanoma, mediastinal cysts, hematoma, myxoma, lipoma, and artifact. Herein, we report our discovery of a right atrial mass during the initial intraoperative transesophageal echocardiographic examination of a patient who was undergoing repair of an ascending aortic aneurysm. The mass, with a smooth border and homogenous grayscale density, showed no flow during color-flow Doppler echocardiography. Further examination revealed tricuspid annular dilation and severe tricuspid insufficiency. When the mediastinum was opened, we found a large extracardiac hematoma along the right atrium within the pericardial space. These findings suggested an acute, contained rupture of the ascending aorta. After the hematoma was evacuated, imaging revealed complete resolution of the mass and reduction of tricuspid insufficiency. The patient underwent the scheduled aortic repair and was discharged from the hospital in good condition. In order to ensure an accurate diagnosis and to gain appropriate clinical guidance that can lead to a successful outcome, we suggest performing a thorough echocardiographic investigation to identify any such mass before planned surgery proceeds. PMID:18427651

  8. Aortic Root Enlargement with Ascending-to-Descending Aortic Bypass in Repair of Coarctation.

    PubMed

    Perry, Paul A; Young, Nilas

    2015-07-01

    Ascending-to-descending aortic bypass is a valuable technique for addressing coarctation of the aorta when additional cardiac procedures are indicated in adults. Among these, aortic valve replacement is one of the most commonly performed concomitant procedures, and there are instances in which aortic root enlargement is required. Herein, a novel technique is described for performing simultaneous ascending-to-descending aortic bypass in conjunction with aortic root enlargement which incorporates the bypass graft as part of the aortic root enlargement. PMID:26897826

  9. Management of Traumatic Aortic and Splenic Rupture in a Patient With Ascending Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Topcu, Ahmet Can; Ciloglu, Ufuk; Bolukcu, Ahmet; Dagsali, Sabri

    2016-08-01

    Traumatic aortic rupture is rupture of all or part of the aortic wall, mostly resulting from blunt trauma to the chest. The most common site of rupture is the aortic isthmus. Traumatic rupture of the ascending aorta is rare. A 62-year-old man with a family history of ascending aortic aneurysm was referred to our hospital after a motor vehicle accident. He had symptoms of cardiogenic shock. A contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scan revealed rupture of the proximal ascending aorta and an ascending aortic aneurysm with a diameter of 55 mm at the level of the sinuses of Valsalva. Transthoracic echocardiography at the bedside revealed severe aortic valvular insufficiency. We performed a successful Bentall procedure. During postoperative recovery, the patient experienced a cerebrovascular accident. Transesophageal echocardiography did not reveal thrombosis of the mechanical prosthesis. The patient's symptoms resolved in time, and he was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 47 without any sequelae. He has been symptom free during a 6-month follow-up period. We suggest that individuals who have experienced blunt trauma to the chest and have symptoms of traumatic aortic rupture and a known medical history of ascending aortic aneurysm should be evaluated for a rupture at the ascending aorta and the aortic isthmus. PMID:27449463

  10. Successful in situ treatment of an infected ascending aortic graft.

    PubMed

    Mathes, D W; Yaremchuk, M J; Isselbacher, E M; Madsen, J C

    2000-10-01

    Infection of an ascending aortic prosthesis is a grave complication associated with a high mortality. In most cases, extraanatomic bypass and removal of the infected vascular graft are not possible. Furthermore, the standard approach to this problem, which includes excision and replacement or debridement and repair of infected thoracic aortic grafts, carries a high early mortality. We report the successful treatment of this life-threatening complication using a conservative strategy in which the aortic prosthesis was salvaged by in situ disinfection followed by coverage with tissue flaps. PMID:11081915

  11. Constitutive modeling of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms using microstructural parameters.

    PubMed

    Pasta, Salvatore; Phillippi, Julie A; Tsamis, Alkiviadis; D'Amore, Antonio; Raffa, Giuseppe M; Pilato, Michele; Scardulla, Cesare; Watkins, Simon C; Wagner, William R; Gleason, Thomas G; Vorp, David A

    2016-02-01

    Ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm (ATAA) has been associated with diminished biomechanical strength and disruption in the collagen fiber microarchitecture. Additionally, the congenital bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) leads to a distinct extracellular matrix structure that may be related to ATAA development at an earlier age than degenerative aneurysms arising in patients with the morphological normal tricuspid aortic valve (TAV). The purpose of this study was to model the fiber-reinforced mechanical response of ATAA specimens from patients with either BAV or TAV. This was achieved by combining image-analysis derived parameters of collagen fiber dispersion and alignment with tensile testing data. Then, numerical simulations were performed to assess the role of anisotropic constitutive formulation on the wall stress distribution of aneurysmal aorta. Results indicate that both BAV ATAA and TAV ATAA have altered collagen fiber architecture in the medial plane of experimentally-dissected aortic tissues when compared to normal ascending aortic specimens. The study findings highlight that differences in the collagen fiber distribution mostly influences the resulting wall stress distribution rather than the peak stress. We conclude that fiber-reinforced constitutive modeling that takes into account the collagen fiber defect inherent to the aneurysmal ascending aorta is paramount for accurate finite element predictions and ultimately for biomechanical-based indicators to reliably distinguish the more from the less 'malignant' ATAAs. PMID:26669606

  12. Acute Aortic Syndromes and Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Ramanath, Vijay S.; Oh, Jae K.; Sundt, Thoralf M.; Eagle, Kim A.

    2009-01-01

    Acute and chronic aortic diseases have been diagnosed and studied by physicians for centuries. Both the diagnosis and treatment of aortic diseases have been steadily improving over time, largely because of increased physician awareness and improvements in diagnostic modalities. This comprehensive review discusses the pathophysiology and risk factors, classification schemes, epidemiology, clinical presentations, diagnostic modalities, management options, and outcomes of various aortic conditions, including acute aortic dissection (and its variants intramural hematoma and penetrating aortic ulcers) and thoracic aortic aneurysms. Literature searches of the PubMed database were conducted using the following keywords: aortic dissection, intramural hematoma, aortic ulcer, and thoracic aortic aneurysm. Retrospective and prospective studies performed within the past 20 years were included in the review; however, most data are from the past 15 years. PMID:19411444

  13. [Surgical aspects of acute aortic dissection].

    PubMed

    Laas, J; Heinemann, M; Jurmann, M; Borst, H G

    1992-12-01

    This paper highlights some of the surgical aspects of acute aortic dissections such as: emergency diagnosis, indications for surgery, reconstructive operative techniques, malperfusion phenomena and necessity for follow-up. Aortic dissection is caused by an intimal tear, called the "entry", and subsequent splitting of the media by the stream of blood. Two lumina are thus created, which may communicate through "re-entries". As this creates severe weakness of the aortic wall, rupture and/or dilatation are the imminent dangers of acute aortic dissection. Acute aortic dissection type A, by definition involving the ascending aorta (Figures 1 and 2), is an absolute indication for emergency surgical treatment, because its natural history shows an extremely poor outcome (Figure 3). Due to impending (intrapericardial) aortic rupture, it may be necessary to limit diagnostic procedures to a minimum. Transesophageal echocardiography is the method of choice for establishing a quick, precise and reliable diagnosis (Figure 4). In stable patients, computed tomography gives additional information about aortic diameters or sites of extrapericardial perforation. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) shows perfusion of the lumina and dependent organs. The surgical strategy in acute aortic dissection type A aims at replacement of the ascending aorta. Reconstructive techniques have to be considered, especially in aortic valve regurgitation without annuloectasia (Figures 5 and 6). In recent times, the use of GRF tissue glue has reduced the need for teflon felt. Involvement of the aortic arch should be treated aggressively up to the point of total arch replacement in deep hypothermic circulatory arrest as part of the primary procedure (Figure 7). Malperfusion phenomena of aortic branches remain risk-factors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1483624

  14. Protective effect of angulated aorta for saving coronary artery during endovascular repair for ascending aortic pseudoaneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myeong Gun; Oh, Pyung Chun; Jeon, Yang Bin; Lee, Ji Yeon; Shin, Eak Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Ascending aortic pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication after cardiothoracic surgery and the open surgical repair for this complication is challenging. We report on a patient who developed an ascending aortic pseudoaneurysm after aortic valve replacement (AVR), which was treated successfully with endovascular therapy. Our case showed that angulation of the ascending aorta is one of factors for consideration in application of endovascular therapy and endovascular therapy might be an option for management of ascending aortic pathology in patients with high surgical risk, particularly patients with a severely angulated proximal ascending aorta. PMID:27621896

  15. Characteristics and Outcomes of Ascending Versus Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Vapnik, Joshua S; Kim, Joon Bum; Isselbacher, Eric M; Ghoshhajra, Brian B; Cheng, Yisha; Sundt, Thoralf M; MacGillivray, Thomas E; Cambria, Richard P; Lindsay, Mark E

    2016-05-15

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAs) occur in reproducible patterns, but etiologic factors determining the anatomic distribution of these aneurysms are not well understood. This study sought to gain insight into etiologic differences and clinical outcomes associated with repetitive anatomic distributions of TAs. From 3,247 patients registered in an institutional Thoracic Aortic Center database from July 1992 to August 2013, we identified 844 patients with full aortic dimensional imaging by computerized axial tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scan (mean age 62.8 ± 14 years, 37% women, median follow-up 40 months) with TA diameter >4.0 cm and without evidence of previous aortic dissection. Patient demographic and imaging data were analyzed in 3 groups: isolated ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (AAs; n = 628), isolated descending TAs (DTAs; n = 130), and combined AA and DTA (mixed thoracic aortic aneurysm, MTA; n = 86). Patients with DTA had more hypertension (82% vs 59%, p <0.001) and a higher burden of atherosclerosis (88% vs 9%, p <0.001) than AA. Conversely, patients with isolated AA were younger (59.5 ± 13.5 vs 71.0 ± 11.8 years, p <0.001) and contained almost every case of overt, genetically triggered TA. Patients with isolated DTA were demographically indistinguishable from patients with MTA. In follow-up, patients with DTA/MTA experienced more aortic events (aortic dissection/rupture) and had higher mortality than patients with isolated AA. In multivariate analysis, aneurysm size (odds ratio 1.1, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.16, p <0.001) and the presence of atherosclerosis (odds ratio 5.7, 95% CI 2.02 to 16.15, p <0.001) independently predicted adverse aortic events. We find that DTA with or without associated AA appears to be a disease more highly associated with atherosclerosis, hypertension, and advanced age. In contrast, isolated AA appears to be a clinically distinct entity with a greater burden of genetically triggered disease. PMID:27015890

  16. Long Telomeres in Blood Leukocytes Are Associated with a High Risk of Ascending Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Huusko, Tuija J.; Santaniemi, Merja; Kakko, Sakari; Taskinen, Panu; Ukkola, Olavi; Kesäniemi, Y. Antero; Savolainen, Markku J.; Salonurmi, Tuire

    2012-01-01

    Ascending aortic aneurysm is a connective tissue disorder. Even though multiple novel gene mutations have been identified, risk profiling and diagnosis before rupture still represent a challenge. There are studies demonstrating shorter telomere lengths in the blood leukocytes of abdominal aortic aneurysm patients. The aim of this study was to measure whether relative telomere lengths are changed in the blood leukocytes of ascending aortic aneurysm patients. We also studied the expression of telomerase in aortic tissue samples of ascending aortic aneurysms. Relative lengths of leukocyte telomeres were determined from blood samples of patients with ascending aortic aneurysms and compared with healthy controls. Telomerase expression, both at the level of mRNA and protein, was quantified from the aortic tissue samples. Mean relative telomere length was significantly longer in ascending aortic aneurysm blood samples compared with controls (T/S ratio 0.87 vs. 0.61, p<0.001). Expressions of telomerase mRNA and protein were elevated in the aortic aneurysm samples (p<0.05 and p<0.01). Our study reveals a significant difference in the mean length of blood leukocyte telomeres in ascending aortic aneurysm and controls. Furthermore, expression of telomerase, the main compensating factor for telomere loss, is elevated at both the mRNA and protein level in the samples of aneurysmal aorta. Further studies will be needed to confirm if this change in telomere length can serve as a tool for assessing the risk of ascending aortic aneurysm. PMID:23209831

  17. Causes and histopathology of ascending aortic disease in children and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Deepali; Dietz, Harry C.; Oswald, Gretchen L.; Maleszewski, Joseph J.; Halushka, Marc K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Ascending aortic diseases (aneurysms, dissections, and stenosis) and associated aortic valve disease are rare but important causes of morbidity and mortality in children and young adults. Certain genetic causes, such as Marfan syndrome and congenital bicuspid aortic valve disease, are well known. However, other rarer genetic and nongenetic causes of aortic disease exist. Methods We performed an extensive literature search to identify known causes of ascending aortic pathology in children and young adults. We catalogued both aortic pathologies and other defining systemic features of these diseases. Results We describe 17 predominantly genetic entities that have been associated with thoracic aortic disease in this age group. Conclusions While extensive literature on the common causes of ascending aortic disease exists, there is a need for better histologic documentation of aortic pathology in rarer diseases. PMID:19926309

  18. Long-Term Changes in the Distal Aorta after Aortic Arch Replacement in Acute DeBakey Type I Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kwangjo; Jeong, Jeahwa; Park, Jongyoon; Yun, Sungsil; Woo, Jongsu

    2016-01-01

    Background We analyzed the long-term results of ascending aortic replacement and arch aortic replacement in acute DeBakey type I aortic dissections to measure the differences in the distal aortic changes with extension of the aortic replacement. Methods We reviewed 142 cases of acute DeBakey type I aortic dissections (1996–2015). Seventy percent of the cases were ascending aortic replacements, and 30% of the cases underwent total arch aortic replacement, which includes the aorta from the root to the beginning of the descending aorta with the 3 arch branches. Fourteen percent (20 cases) resulted in surgical mortality and 86% of cases that survived had a mean follow-up period of 6.6±4.6 years. Among these cases, 64% of the patients were followed up with computed tomography (CT) angiograms with the duration of the final CT check period of 4.9±2.9 years. Results There were 15 cases of reoperation in 13 patients. Of these 15 cases, 13 cases were in the ascending aortic replacement group and 2 cases were in the total arch aortic replacement group. Late mortality occurred in 13 cases; 10 cases were in the ascending aortic replacement group and 3 cases were in the total arch aortic replacement group. Eight patients died of a distal aortic problem in the ascending aortic replacement group, and 1 patient died of distal aortic rupture in the total arch aortic replacement group. The follow-up CT angiogram showed that 69.8% of the ascending aortic replacement group and 35.7% of the total arch aortic replacement group developed distal aortic dilatation (p=0.0022). Conclusion The total arch aortic replacement procedure developed fewer distal remnant aortic problems from dilatation than the ascending aortic replacement procedure in acute type I aortic dissections. PMID:27525235

  19. Surgical repair for giant ascending aortic aneurysm to superior vena cava fistula with positive syphilitic test.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Yuji; Yamamoto, Shin; Fujikawa, Takuya; Oshima, Susumu; Ono, Makoto; Sasaguri, Shiro

    2015-10-01

    Syphilitic aortitis is usually associated with thoracic aortic saccular aneurysm, aortic regurgitation and coronary ostial stenosis. However, syphilitic aneurysms have rarely been reported today. Here, we report a patient with ascending aortic aneurysm with aorta-superior vena cava (SVC) fistula with positive syphilitic test. A 52-year-old man was admitted to our institution with a giant ascending aortic aneurysm complicated with SVC syndrome. Computed tomography revealed a giant ascending aneurysm 79 mm in diameter. The result of serodiagnostic tests for syphilis had not been judged yet preoperatively. Total arch replacement concomitant with elephant trunk was performed. Intraoperatively, we detected the ascending aorta to SVC fistula. Postoperatively, we suspected the syphilitic aneurysm strongly, because preoperative serodiagnostic test was concluded to be positive. However, histological examination did not show typical syphilitic features. The patient remains asymptomatic 1 year later. Although extremely rarely today, syphilitic aneurysm should be still considered in the differential diagnosis of ascending aortic aneurysm. PMID:24000069

  20. An alternate solution for the treatment of ascending aortic aneurysms: the wrapping technique

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aortic Dacron wrapping technique is a surgical technique used under certain circumstances in cases of ascending aorta dilatation. Herein, we are presenting our experience on the method performed on multimorbid patients who denied major aortic surgery. Methods We included in our series 7 patients (5 male-2 female) with mild to moderate ascending aortic dilatation, who were operated with the wrapping technique. One patient was submitted to biological aortic valve replacement during the same procedure. The number of conventionally operated patients during the same period (2 years) was 21. Results Mortality during the 18-months follow-up control was 0%. One patient had to be operated with biological aortic valve replacement 18 months after the initial wrapping operation, although the diameter of her ascending aorta remained stable. Conclusions The Dacron wrapping technique is a method that can alternatively be used in multimorbid patients with mild to moderate ascending aortic dilatation without dissecting elements and has generally good results. PMID:21047398

  1. Acute Aortic Dissection Extending Into the Lung.

    PubMed

    Makdisi, George; Said, Sameh M; Schaff, Hartzell V

    2015-07-01

    The radiologic manifestations of ruptured acute aortic dissection, Stanford type A aortic dissection, DeBakey type 1 can present in different radiographic scenarios with devastating outcomes. Here, we present a rare case of a 70-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with chest pain radiating to the back. A chest computed tomography scan showed a Stanford type A, DeBakey type 1, acute aortic dissection ruptured into the aortopulmonary window and stenosing the pulmonary trunk, both main pulmonary arteries, and dissecting the bronchovascular sheaths and flow into the pulmonary interstitium, causing pulmonary interstitial hemorrhage. The patient underwent emergent ascending aorta replacement with hemiarch replacement with circulatory arrest. The postoperative course was unremarkable. PMID:26140779

  2. Ascending aortitis: a clinicopathological study of 21 cases in a series of 300 aortic repairs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lauren; Heath, Jonathon; Burke, Allen

    2014-06-01

    There are few single-institution clinicopathological series of aortitis. In this study, all ascending aneurysms were prospectively evaluated pathologically with ≥6 aortic sections over a 6-year period.Of 300 ascending aortic resections, there were 21 cases of aortitis (7%), in 11 women and 10 men (mean 67, range 41-88 years). There were 19 patients with aneurysms, and two patients with sclerosing periaortitis, clinically suspected to have intramural haematoma. Of the 19 patients with aneurysms (11 women), two had prior temporal arteritis, one ankylosing spondylitis, one IgA nephropathy, one undifferentiated autoimmune disease, one Lyme disease, and one fibromyalgia. In only two patients was aortitis suspected before surgery as the cause of aneurysm. Four patients developed distal aortic aneurysm requiring repeat surgery. Valve replacement or repair was necessary in nine patients, and two patients died after surgery. There were no significant differences between patients with and without autoimmune disease. The histological features were necrotising aortitis in 18 of 19 patients with aneurysmal aortitis, and there was one case of non-necrotising aortitis. One valve showed autoimmune valvulitis, congenitally bicuspid associated with ankylosing spondylitis. Necrotising aortitis was classified as acute (n = 5), healing (n = 9), and healed (n = 4). Acute necrotising aortitis was associated with need for valve replacement (p = 0.01) and younger age (p = 0.01). The healed phase had subtle histological features, sparse medial inflammation, marked medial attenuation, and chronic adventitial inflammation. Two patients with periaortitis demonstrated marked fibroinflammatory thickening of the adventitia with histological features typical of IgG4-related disease; neither had systemic symptoms. Ascending aortitis is histologically diverse, most frequently of the medial necrotising type, and is usually not suspected pre-operatively. Awareness of the

  3. Study of ascending aortic elasticity in the Chinese population with a high risk of aortic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Guo, Wei; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Jia, Xin; Zhang, Hong-Peng; Zhang, Min-Hong; Du, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze aortic elastic properties (AEP) characteristics, dissection and elastic data of ascending aorta (AA) in the population with a high risk of aortic diseases. Methods: Forty five patients with artery diseases undergoing aortic digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were enrolled in this study. The maximal, minimal diameter and changes in diameter of ascending and descending aorta were measured, and the aortic stiffness index (ASI) and aortic distensibility (AD) were calculated. Results: The mean changes in diameter were (2.34 ± 0.95), (1.6 ± 0.71), (1.65 ± 0.68) and (0.99 ± 0.28) mm. The ASI of D1-D4 aorta was (9.67 ± 5.02), (15.54 ± 7.85), (13.78 ± 6.45) and (15.53 ± 4.74). AD (mmHg-1) × 10-3 of D1-D4 aorta was (2.76 ± 1.65), (1.76 ± 1.15), (1.94 ± 1.23) and (1.33 ± 0.40). The ratio of diameter difference/minimal diameter was (7.18 ± 3.21), (4.6 ± 2.3), (4.96 ± 2.22) and (3.86 ± 1.16). The tapered angle of D2-D3 aorta was (2.47 ± 1.80)°. The maximal and minimal diameters of D1 aorta significantly differed between male and female subjects. Conclusion: DSA and artery pressure accurately measure the changes in diameter and artery pressure of aorta along with single beat. Aortic ASI and AD could be accurately calculated to precisely analyze AEP. Over aging and arteriosclerosis development, D2 aorta is the most vulnerable to elasticity attenuation, whereas D1 aorta is the least vulnerable part with certain elasticity. PMID:26064228

  4. Diagnosis and management of acute aortic syndromes: dissection, intramural hematoma, and penetrating aortic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Bonaca, Marc P; O'Gara, Patrick T

    2014-01-01

    Acute aortic syndromes constitute a spectrum of conditions characterized by disruptions in the integrity of the aortic wall that may lead to potentially catastrophic outcomes. They include classic aortic dissection, intramural hematoma, and penetrating aortic ulcer. Although imaging studies are sensitive and specific, timely diagnosis can be delayed because of variability in presenting symptoms and the relatively low frequency with which acute aortic syndromes are seen in the emergency setting. Traditional classification systems, such as the Stanford system, facilitate early treatment decision-making through recognition of the high risk of death and major complications associated with involvement of the ascending aorta (type A). These patients are treated surgically unless intractable and severe co-morbidities are present. Outcomes with dissections that do not involve the ascending aorta (type B) depend on the presence of acute complications (e.g., malperfusion, early aneurysm formation, leakage), the patency and size of the false lumen, and patient co-morbidities. Patients with uncomplicated type B dissections are initially treated medically. Endovascular techniques have emerged as an alternative to surgery for the management of complicated type B dissections when intervention is necessary. Patients with acute aortic syndromes require aggressive medical care, risk stratification for additional complications and targeted genetic assessment as well as careful long-term monitoring to assess for evolving complications. The optimal care of patients with acute aortic syndrome requires the cooperation of members of an experienced multidisciplinary team both in the acute and chronic setting. PMID:25156302

  5. 'Non-hypotensive' hypovolaemia reduces ascending aortic dimensions in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, J. A.; Halliwill, J. R.; Brown, T. E.; Hayano, J.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1995-01-01

    1. The notion that small, 'non-hypotensive' reductions of effective blood volume alter neither arterial pressure nor arterial baroreceptor activity is pervasive in the experimental literature. We tested two hypotheses: (a) that minute arterial pressure and cardiac autonomic outflow changes during hypovolaemia induced by lower body suction in humans are masked by alterations in breathing, and (b) that evidence for arterial baroreflex engagement might be obtained from measurements of thoracic aorta dimensions. 2. In two studies, responses to graded lower body suction at 0 (control), 5, 10, 15, 20 and 40 mmHg were examined in twelve and ten healthy young men, respectively. In the first, arterial pressure (photoplethysmograph), R-R interval, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia amplitude (complex demodulation) were measured during uncontrolled and controlled breathing (constant breathing frequency and tidal volume). In the second, cross-sectional areas of the ascending thoracic aorta were calculated from nuclear magnetic resonance images. 3. Lower body suction with controlled breathing resulted in an increased arterial pulse pressure at mild levels (5-20 mmHg; ANOVA, P < 0.05) and a decreased arterial pulse pressure at moderate levels (40 mmHg; ANOVA, P < 0.05). Both R-R intervals and respiratory sinus arrhythmia were negatively related to lower body suction level, whether group averages (general linear regression, r > 0.92) or individual subjects (orthogonal polynomials, 12 of 12 subjects) were assessed. 4. Aortic pulse area decreased progressively and significantly during mild lower body suction, with 47% of the total decline occurring by 5 mmHg. 5. These results suggest that small reductions of effective blood volume reduce aortic baroreceptive areas and trigger haemodynamic adjustments which are so efficient that alterations in arterial pressure escape detection by conventional means.

  6. Acute Type A Aortic Dissection Missed as Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ansari-Ramandi, Mohammad Mostafa; Firoozi, Ata

    2016-01-01

    Although the aortic dissection is not common, its outcome is frequently fatal, and many patients with aortic dissection die before referral to the hospital or any diagnostic testing. The symptoms of aortic dissection can be similar to myocardial ischemia. A 66-year-old male was referred to our hospital with suspicion of aortic dissection after echocardiography done for evaluating his high blood pressure. He had symptoms of acute coronary syndrome two years before and had done coronary angiography. On presentation to our hospital he had a high blood pressure. On reviewing his past medical history and examining, in the film of coronary angiography, the dissection flap in ascending aorta was identified. Although type A aortic dissection is a catastrophic condition with high mortality and requires prompt surgical treatment but in some cases it may be misdiagnosed as acute coronary syndrome. Sometimes against its high mortality when left untreated, patients survive and are diagnosed later in life incidentally. So it is of great importance to have great clinical suspicion for aortic dissection in patients referring to the hospital with chest pain and the predisposing factors. PMID:27437290

  7. CT-Guided Thrombin Injection to Control Rapid Expansion of Ascending Aortic False Aneurysm 15 Months After Bentall-Bono Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Perek, Bartlomiej Urbanowicz, Tomasz; Zabicki, Bartosz; Puslecki, Mateusz; Juszkat, Robert; Jemielity, Marek

    2011-02-15

    We report a case of 57-year-old man treated emergently with CT-guided local thrombin injection as the first, life-saving step for control rapid expansion of the aortic pseudoaneurysm. Fifteen months earlier, he was operated on for ascending aortic true aneurysm and coronary artery disease. Upon admission, he had an anterior thoracic wall pulsatile tumor. Due to critical status, definite surgery was postponed and thrombin was injected close to the origin of pseudoaneurysm. It controlled successfully, bleeding from the ascending aorta and enabled the patient to survive the acute phase.

  8. Transapical Endovascular Repair of an Ascending Aortic Pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    Howell, Eric; Sweet, Matthew P; Pal, Jay D

    2016-07-01

    Proximal aortic pathology provides a technical challenge for endovascular repair. We present a case of successful transapical endovascular aortic repair in a patient with a proximal suture line pseudoaneurysm who was not a candidate for open surgical repair. doi: 10.1111/jocs.12766 (J Card Surg 2016;31:456-460). PMID:27183897

  9. Downregulation of the Yes-Associated Protein Is Associated with Extracellular Matrix Disorders in Ascending Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haiyang; Jiang, Wenjian; Ren, Weihong; Guo, Dong; Guo, Jialong; Wang, Xiaolong; Liu, Yuyong; Lan, Feng; Du, Jie; Zhang, Hongjia

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that extracellular matrix (ECM) disorders lead to the apoptosis of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMCs), which impairs the aortic wall by reducing the generation of elastic fibers, and ultimately result in ascending aortic aneurysm. The critical role of the Yes-associated protein (YAP) has been elucidated in cardiac/SMC proliferation during cardiovascular development. However, the association of YAP expression and extracellular matrix disorders in ascending aortic aneurysms is not clear. Here, we present for the first time that the downregulation of YAP in VSMCs is associated with ECM disorders of the media in ascending aortic aneurysms. We found that aortic ECM deteriorated with increased apoptotic VSMCs. Moreover, expression of YAP was dramatically reduced in the aortic walls of patients with ascending aortic aneurysms, while the normal aortic samples exhibited abundant YAP in the VSMCs. These results suggest that downregulation of YAP leads to apoptosis of VSMCs, which are essential for the homeostasis of the aortic wall. The resultant ECM disorders affect aortic structure and function and contribute to the development of ascending aortic aneurysms. In summary, through assessment of clinical samples, we revealed the association between downregulation of YAP in VSMCs and the development of ascending aortic aneurysms, providing new insight into the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:26904131

  10. Ascending aortic graft thrombosis and diffuse embolization from early endoluminal Aspergillus infection.

    PubMed

    Calcaterra, Domenico; Bashir, Mohammad; Gailey, Michael P

    2012-10-01

    We present a 43-year-old man who underwent emergent replacement of the ascending aorta for type A dissection and hemiarch reconstruction with a 28-mm prosthetic graft. Dramatic neurologic symptoms, renal failure, and bowel ischemia developed on postoperative day 5. A computed tomography scan showed a large floating thrombus in the ascending aortic graft and massive peripheral embolization throughout the body. PMID:23006693

  11. Blood flow characteristics in the ascending aorta after TAVI compared to surgical aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Trauzeddel, Ralf Felix; Löbe, Ulrike; Barker, Alex J; Gelsinger, Carmen; Butter, Christian; Markl, Michael; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian

    2016-03-01

    Ascending aortic blood flow characteristics are altered after aortic valve surgery, but the effect of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is unknown. Abnormal flow may be associated with aortic and cardiac remodeling. We analyzed blood flow characteristics in the ascending aorta after TAVI in comparison to conventional stented aortic bioprostheses (AVR) and healthy subjects using time-resolved three-dimensional flow-sensitive cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (4D-flow MRI). Seventeen patients with TAVI (Edwards Sapien XT), 12 with AVR and 9 healthy controls underwent 4D-flow MRI of the ascending aorta. Target parameters were: severity of vortical and helical flow pattern (semiquantitative grading from 0 = none to 3 = severe) and the local distribution of systolic wall shear stress (WSSsystole). AVR revealed significantly more extensive vortical and helical flow pattern than TAVI (p = 0.042 and p = 0.002) and controls (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001). TAVI showed significantly more extensive vortical flow than controls (p < 0.001). Both TAVI and AVR revealed marked blood flow eccentricity (64.7 and 66.7 %, respectively), whereas controls showed central blood flow (88.9 %). TAVI and AVR exhibited an asymmetric distribution of WSSsystole in the mid-ascending aorta with local maxima at the right anterior aortic wall and local minima at the left posterior wall. In contrast, controls showed a symmetric distribution of WSSsystole along the aortic circumference. Blood flow was significantly altered in the ascending aorta after TAVI and AVR. Changes were similar regarding WSSsystole distribution, while TAVI resulted in less helical and vortical blood flow. PMID:26493195

  12. Traumatic rupture of the ascending aorta and aortic valve following blunt chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Charles, K P; Davidson, K G; Miller, H; Caves, P K

    1977-02-01

    Traumatic rupture of the aorta at the level of the isthmus is a well-recognized injury following blunt chest trauma. By contrast, rupture of the ascending aorta and of the aortic valve in a road traffic accident is rare and does not appear to have been previously reported. The occurrence of such an injury in a 56-year-old man involved in a road traffic accident is reported. The diagnosis was made preoperatively following aortography and successful surgical correction involved aortic valve replacement with resection and grafting of the damaged area of the ascending aorta. The probable mechanisms involved in the production of this unusual injury are discussed. PMID:834060

  13. Mechanical behaviour and rupture of normal and pathological human ascending aortic wall.

    PubMed

    García-Herrera, C M; Atienza, J M; Rojo, F J; Claes, E; Guinea, G V; Celentano, D J; García-Montero, C; Burgos, R L

    2012-06-01

    The mechanical properties of aortic wall, both healthy and pathological, are needed in order to develop and improve diagnostic and interventional criteria, and for the development of mechanical models to assess arterial integrity. This study focuses on the mechanical behaviour and rupture conditions of the human ascending aorta and its relationship with age and pathologies. Fresh ascending aortic specimens harvested from 23 healthy donors, 12 patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and 14 with aneurysm were tensile-tested in vitro under physiological conditions. Tensile strength, stretch at failure and elbow stress were measured. The obtained results showed that age causes a major reduction in the mechanical parameters of healthy ascending aortic tissue, and that no significant differences are found between the mechanical strength of aneurysmal or BAV aortic specimens and the corresponding age-matched control group. The physiological level of the stress in the circumferential direction was also computed to assess the physiological operation range of healthy and diseased ascending aortas. The mean physiological wall stress acting on pathologic aortas was found to be far from rupture, with factors of safety (defined as the ratio of tensile strength to the mean wall stress) larger than six. In contrast, the physiological operation of pathologic vessels lays in the stiff part of the response curve, losing part of its function of damping the pressure waves from the heart. PMID:22391945

  14. Acute aortic syndromes: new insights from electrocardiographically gated computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, Dominik; Mitchell, R Scott; Miller, D Craig

    2008-01-01

    The development of retrospective electrocardiographic (ECG)-gating has proved to be a diagnostic and therapeutic boon for computed tomography (CT) imaging of patients with acute thoracic aortic diseases, such as aortic dissection/intramural hematoma (AD/IMH), penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (APU), and ruptured/leaking aneurysm. The notorious pulsation motion artifacts in the ascending aorta confounding regular CT scanning can be eliminated, and involvement of the sinuses of Valsalva, the valve cusps, the aortic annulus, and the coronary arteries in aortic dissection can be clearly depicted or excluded. Motion-free images also allow reliable identification of the site of the primary intimal tear, the location, and extent of the intimomedial flap, and branch artery involvement. ECG-gated CTA also allows the detection of more subtle lesions and variants of aortic dissection, which may ultimately expand our understanding of these complex, life-threatening disorders. PMID:19251175

  15. The mild form of mucopolysaccharidosis type I (Scheie syndrome) is associated with increased ascending aortic stiffness.

    PubMed

    Nemes, Attila; Timmermans, Remco G M; Wilson, J H Paul; Soliman, Osama I I; Krenning, Boudewijn J; ten Cate, Folkert J; Geleijnse, Marcel L

    2008-03-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS IS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-L-iduronidase, which is involved in the degradation of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). The deficiency results in the intra-and pericellular accumulation of the GAGs heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate. Eight adult patients with typical features of MPS IS aged 31.5 +/- 6.8 years (five men) were included and compared to age-and gender-matched controls. With transthoracic echocardiography, cyclic ascending aortic diameter changes were measured and ascending aortic elastic properties were calculated to characterize aortic elasticity. In MPS IS patients, aortic stiffness index was significantly increased (23.1 +/- 10.4 vs 3.9 +/- 1.5, P < 0.001), while aortic distensibility was significantly decreased (1.6 +/- 0.8 vs 4.6 [corrected] +/- 1.9 cm(2)/dynes [corrected] 10(-6), P < 0.001) compared to age-and sex-matched controls. The results of the present study demonstrate that in addition to the known cardiac complications, MPS IS patients have an impairment of ascending aortic elasticity. Further follow-up studies are needed to examine arterial elasticity using other methods in this patient population, and to detect possible effects of enzyme replacement therapy. PMID:18389335

  16. Angiotensin II Induces Region-Specific Medial Disruption during Evolution of Ascending Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Rateri, Debra L.; Davis, Frank M.; Balakrishnan, Anju; Howatt, Deborah A.; Moorleghen, Jessica J.; O’Connor, William N.; Charnigo, Richard; Cassis, Lisa A.; Daugherty, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) promotes development of ascending aortic aneurysms (AAs), but progression of this pathology is undefined. We evaluated factors potentially involved in progression, and determined the temporal sequence of tissue changes during development of Ang II–induced ascending AAs. Ang II infusion into C57BL/6J mice promoted rapid expansion of the ascending aorta, with significant increases within 5 days, as determined by both in vivo ultrasonography and ex vivo sequential acquisition of tissues. Rates of expansion were not significantly different in LDL receptor–null mice fed a saturated fat-enriched diet, demonstrating a lack of effect of hypercholesterolemia. Augmenting systolic blood pressure with norepinephrine infusion had no significant effect on ascending aortic expansion. Pathological changes observed within 5 days of Ang II infusion included increased medial thickness and intramural hemorrhage characterized by erythrocyte extravasation in outer lamellar layers of the media. Intramedial hemorrhage was not observed after prolonged Ang II infusion, although partial medial disruption was present. Elastin fragmentation and transmural medial breaks of the ascending aorta were observed with continued Ang II infusion, which were restricted to anterior aspects. CD45+ cells accumulated in adventitia but were minimal in media. Similar pathology was observed in tissues obtained from patients with ascending AAs. In conclusion, Ang II promotes ascending AAs through region-specific changes that are independent of hypercholesterolemia or systolic blood pressure. PMID:25038458

  17. Angiotensin II induces region-specific medial disruption during evolution of ascending aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Rateri, Debra L; Davis, Frank M; Balakrishnan, Anju; Howatt, Deborah A; Moorleghen, Jessica J; O'Connor, William N; Charnigo, Richard; Cassis, Lisa A; Daugherty, Alan

    2014-09-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) promotes development of ascending aortic aneurysms (AAs), but progression of this pathology is undefined. We evaluated factors potentially involved in progression, and determined the temporal sequence of tissue changes during development of Ang II-induced ascending AAs. Ang II infusion into C57BL/6J mice promoted rapid expansion of the ascending aorta, with significant increases within 5 days, as determined by both in vivo ultrasonography and ex vivo sequential acquisition of tissues. Rates of expansion were not significantly different in LDL receptor-null mice fed a saturated fat-enriched diet, demonstrating a lack of effect of hypercholesterolemia. Augmenting systolic blood pressure with norepinephrine infusion had no significant effect on ascending aortic expansion. Pathological changes observed within 5 days of Ang II infusion included increased medial thickness and intramural hemorrhage characterized by erythrocyte extravasation in outer lamellar layers of the media. Intramedial hemorrhage was not observed after prolonged Ang II infusion, although partial medial disruption was present. Elastin fragmentation and transmural medial breaks of the ascending aorta were observed with continued Ang II infusion, which were restricted to anterior aspects. CD45(+) cells accumulated in adventitia but were minimal in media. Similar pathology was observed in tissues obtained from patients with ascending AAs. In conclusion, Ang II promotes ascending AAs through region-specific changes that are independent of hypercholesterolemia or systolic blood pressure. PMID:25038458

  18. [Twenty Years' Experience of the Surgical Treatment of Giant Ascending Aortic Aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Charchan, E R; Stepanenko, A B; Gens, A P; Skvorstov, A A; Galeev, N A; Belov, Yu V

    2015-01-01

    Giant ascending aortic aneurysm is one of the worst lesions of the cardiovascular system. Timely surgical treatment provides the only chance to prolong the lives of such patients. Life expectancy without surgery in these patients is minimal; they die from a ruptured aneurysm or decompensation of organs and systems. In this paper, based on two decades' experience of treating patients with giant aneurysms of ascending aorta and aortic arch in B.V. Petrovsky National Research Center of Surgery we have assessed evaluated immediate results of surgery and proposed measures for prevention of possible complications. Out of 53 patients with giant. ascending aortic aneurysms spontaneous rupture after sternotomy or opening of the pericardium occurred in 5 cases. Overall hospital mortality was 1.9%. Our results indicate that with the right tactics surgical repair of giant ascending aortic aneurysms can be performed with a low mortality. Preliminary cardiopulmonary bypass with peripheral cannulation and cooling prior to sternotomy for the possibility of circulatory arrest is a prerequisite of the prevention of fatal massive hemorrhage. PMID:26898093

  19. Ascending aortic blood flow dynamics following intense exercise.

    PubMed

    Kilgour, R D; Sellers, W R

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast aortic blood flow kinetics during recovery from intense aerobic (maximal oxygen uptake test) and anaerobic (Wingate anaerobic power test) exercise. Fifteen healthy male subjects (VO2max = 56.1 +/- 5.8 mk/kg/min) participated in this study. Beat-to-beat peak aortic blood flow velocity (pkV) and acceleration (pkA) measurements were obtained by placing a 3.0 MHz continuous-wave ultrasonic transducer on the suprasternal notch at rest and during recovery (immediately post-exercise, 2.5 min, and 5.0 min) following the two exercise conditions. Peak velocity and acceleration significantly increased (p less than 0.01) from rest to immediately post-exercise and remained elevated throughout the 5-min recovery period. No differences were observed between the aerobic and anaerobic tests. Stroke distance significantly declined (p less than 0.01) immediately following exercise and progressively rose during the 5-min recovery period. The results indicate that: 1) aortic blood flow kinetics remained elevated during short-term recovery, and 2) intense aerobic and anaerobic exercise exhibit similar post-exercise aortic blood flow kinetics. PMID:2262232

  20. CT of acute abdominal aortic disorders.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Sanjeev; Menias, Christine O; Heiken, Jay P

    2003-11-01

    Aortic aneurysm rupture, aortic dissection, PAU, acute aortic occlusion, traumatic aortic injury, and aortic fistula represent acute abdominal aortic conditions. Because of its speed and proximity to the emergency department, helical CT is the imaging test of choice for these conditions. MR imaging also plays an important role in the imaging of aortic dissection and PAU, particularly when the patient is unable to receive intravenous contrast material. In this era of MDCT, conventional angiography is used as a secondary diagnostic tool to clarify equivocal findings on cross-sectional imaging. Ultrasound is helpful when CT is not readily available and the patient is unable or too unstable to undergo MR imaging. PMID:14661663

  1. The imaging assessment and specific endograft design for the endovascular repair of ascending aortic dissection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yepeng; Tang, Hanfei; Zhou, JianPing; Liu, Zhao; Liu, Changjian; Qiao, Tong; Zhou, Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Endovascular option has been proposed for a very limited and selected number of Stanford type A aortic dissection (TAAD) patients. We have performed a computed tomography (CT)-based TAAD study to explore appropriate endograft configurations for the ascending aortic pathology. Methods TAAD patients treated with optimal CT scans were retrospectively reviewed, and their entry tears (ETs) were identified using three-dimensional and multiplanar reconstructions in an EndoSize workstation. After generating a centerline of flow, measurements, including numerous morphologic characteristics of anatomy, were evaluated and a selected subset of patients were determined to be suitable for endovascular treatments. Proximal diameter and distal diameter of endograft were selected based on diameters measured at the ET level and at the innominate artery (IA) level, with 10% oversizing with respect to the true lumen, but not exceeding the original aortic diameter. The length of the endograft was determined by the distance from the sinotubular junction to IA. Results This study covered 126 TAAD patients with primary ET in ascending aorta, among which, according to the assumed criteria, 48 (38.1%) patients were deemed to be suitable for endovascular treatment. The diameters of ascending aorta from the sinotubular junction to the IA level presented a downward trend, and the proximal diameters differed significantly from distal diameters of the endograft for TAAD (39.9 versus 36.2 mm, P<0.01), implying that the conical endograft might be compatible with the ascending pathology. In the ascending aorta, lengths of the endograft should be 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 mm in five (10.4%), 22 (45.9%), 13 (27.1%), six (12.5%), and two (4.2%) patients, respectively. Conclusion In this selected number of Chinese patients, the suitability of endovascular repair has been demonstrated based on the CT imaging. Shorter, larger, and bare spring-free conical endografts were preferred in the

  2. Approach to the patient with bicuspid aortic valve and ascending aorta aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, José T; Shin, David D; Rajamannan, Nalini M

    2006-12-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) disease is a common congenital heart valve abnormality accounting for a large number of valve replacements in the United States. Although still incompletely understood, the natural history of BAV disease is severe aortic stenosis and associated ascending aortic dilatation. In addition to the increased risk of endocarditis, aortic dissection and severe aortic valve dysfunction are responsible for most fatal complications. Thus, early and precise recognition of this condition is mandatory. The new American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association recommendations highlight the role of MRI and CT as complimentary tools to echocardiography for the diagnosis and surveillance of the morphology of the aortic valve and ascending aorta. Moreover, better understanding of the cellular mechanisms, including inflammation, bone formation, atherosclerotic-like processes, and aortic wall abnormalities, as well as the heritability and genetic predisposition for the disease, will define the potential for targeted medical therapies in the future. Currently, the treatment of this condition is primarily surgical. Although combined valve and ascending aorta replacement has been the most common surgical approach in the past, the increased cumulative risk of thrombotic and embolic events among these young patients has led to more conservative approaches. Several valve-sparing approaches with comparable mid-term results compared with the classic procedures have recently been reported. However, longer follow-up studies will be helpful to better define the advantages of these new surgical options. After a quick overview of the natural history of the BAV, this article provides an updated approximation of the current knowledge of the pathophysiology as well as the recommendations for the management and treatment of this disease. PMID:17078910

  3. Ascending Aortic Constriction in Rats for Creation of Pressure Overload Cardiac Hypertrophy Model

    PubMed Central

    S, Santhosh Kumar; G, Sanjay; Kartha, Chandrasekharan Cheranellore

    2014-01-01

    Ascending aortic constriction is the most common and successful surgical model for creating pressure overload induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Here, we describe a detailed surgical procedure for creating pressure overload and cardiac hypertrophy in rats by constriction of the ascending aorta using a small metallic clip. After anesthesia, the trachea is intubated by inserting a cannula through a half way incision made between two cartilage rings of trachea. Then a skin incision is made at the level of the second intercostal space on the left chest wall and muscle layers are cleared to locate the ascending portion of aorta. The ascending aorta is constricted to 50–60% of its original diameter by application of a small sized titanium clip. Following aortic constriction, the second and third ribs are approximated with prolene sutures. The tracheal cannula is removed once spontaneous breathing was re-established. The animal is allowed to recover on the heating pad by gradually lowering anesthesia. The intensity of pressure overload created by constriction of the ascending aorta is determined by recording the pressure gradient using trans-thoracic two dimensional Doppler-echocardiography. Overall this protocol is useful to study the remodeling events and contractile properties of the heart during the gradual onset and progression from compensated cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure stage. PMID:24998889

  4. Differential aspects of ascending thoracic aortic dissection and its treatment: the North American experience

    PubMed Central

    Coselli, Joseph S.

    2016-01-01

    Acute type A aortic dissection is a deadly disease with significant morbidity and mortality. We describe the differential aspects of the disease and the North American experience with its treatment. PMID:27563548

  5. Branched endograft repair of mycotic ascending aortic aneurysm using the snorkel technique.

    PubMed

    Quinney, Brenton Ellisor; Jordan, William

    2011-07-01

    Mycotic aneurysms are difficult clinical cases that can be approached by several methods. Debridement of infected tissue with in situ or extra-anatomic bypass is the traditional treatment. In poor operative candidates or reoperative cases, endovascular therapies can be an alternative. We present a 9-year-old with an ascending aortic mycotic aneurysm temporized with an endovascular repair as a bridge to definitive open surgery. PMID:21719552

  6. Biomechanical properties of the Marfan's aortic root and ascending aorta before and after personalised external aortic root support surgery.

    PubMed

    Singh, S D; Xu, X Y; Pepper, J R; Treasure, T; Mohiaddin, R H

    2015-08-01

    Marfan syndrome is an inherited systemic connective tissue disease which may lead to aortic root disease causing dilatation, dissection and rupture of the aorta. The standard treatment is a major operation involving either an artificial valve and aorta or a complex valve repair. More recently, a personalised external aortic root support (PEARS) has been used to strengthen the aorta at an earlier stage of the disease avoiding risk of both rupture and major surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the stress and strain fields of the Marfan aortic root and ascending aorta before and after insertion of PEARS in order to understand its biomechanical implications. Finite element (FE) models were developed using patient-specific aortic geometries reconstructed from pre and post-PEARS magnetic resonance images in three Marfan patients. For the post-PEARS model, two scenarios were investigated-a bilayer model where PEARS and the aortic wall were treated as separate layers, and a single-layer model where PEARS was incorporated into the aortic wall. The wall and PEARS materials were assumed to be isotropic, incompressible and linearly elastic. A static load on the inner wall corresponding to the patients' pulse pressure was applied. Results from our FE models with patient-specific geometries show that peak aortic stresses and displacements before PEARS were located at the sinuses of Valsalva but following PEARS surgery, these peak values were shifted to the aortic arch, particularly at the interface between the supported and unsupported aorta. Further studies are required to assess the statistical significance of these findings and how PEARS compares with the standard treatment. PMID:26054807

  7. Management of Acute Aortic Syndrome and Chronic Aortic Dissection

    SciTech Connect

    Nordon, Ian M. Hinchliffe, Robert J.; Loftus, Ian M.; Morgan, Robert A.; Thompson, Matt M.

    2011-10-15

    Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) describes several life-threatening aortic pathologies. These include intramural hematoma, penetrating aortic ulcer, and acute aortic dissection (AAD). Advances in both imaging and endovascular treatment have led to an increase in diagnosis and improved management of these often catastrophic pathologies. Patients, who were previously consigned to medical management or high-risk open surgical repair, can now be offered minimally invasive solutions with reduced morbidity and mortality. Information from the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (IRAD) database demonstrates how in selected patients with complicated AAD the 30-day mortality from open surgery is 17% and endovascular stenting is 6%. Despite these improvements in perioperative deaths, the risks of stroke and paraplegia remain with endovascular treatment (combined outcome risk 4%). The pathophysiology of each aspect of AAS is described. The best imaging techniques and the evolving role of endovascular techniques in the definitive management of AAS are discussed incorporating strategies to reduce perioperative morbidity.

  8. Transcatheter valve implantation can alter fluid flow fields in aortic sinuses and ascending aorta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Yoganathan, Ajit

    2012-11-01

    Transcatheter aortic valves (TAVs) are valve replacements used to treat aortic stenosis. Currently, these have been used in elderly patients at high-risk for open-heart procedures. Since these devices are implanted under fluoroscopic guidance, the implantation position of the valve can vary with respect to the native aortic valve annulus. The current study characterizes the altered hemodynamics in the aortic sinus and ascending aorta under different implantation (high and low) and cardiac output (2.5 and 5.0 L/min) conditions. Two commonly used TAV designs are studied using 2-D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). 200 phase locked images are obtained at every 25ms in the cardiac cycle, and the resulting vector fields are ensemble averaged. High implantation of the TAV with respect to the annulus causes weaker sinus washout and weaker sinus vortex formation. Additionally, the longer TAV leaflets can also result in a weaker sinus vortex. The level of turbulent fluctuations in the ascending aorta did not appear to be affected by axial positioning of the valve, but varied with cardiac output. The results of this study indicates that TAV positioning is important to be considered clinically, since this can affect coronary perfusion and potential flow stagnation near the valve.

  9. Blunt traumatic aortic rupture of the proximal ascending aorta repaired by resection and direct anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Harmouche, Majid; Slimani, Eric Karim; Heraudeau, Adeline; Verhoye, Jean-Philippe

    2013-10-01

    Traumatic aortic injury represents 15% of motor vehicle related deaths with death occurring at the scene in 85% of the cases. Aortic disruptions usually occur at the isthmus in a transverse fashion with all three of the aortic layers being involved. Herein, we report the case of a 68-year old man with no prior medical history who was struck by a vehicle while riding his bicycle. The ruptured segment of aorta was resected circumferentially and interrupted horizontal mattress pledgeted prolene sutures were used to ensure full thickness aortic integrity of the proximal and distal aortic segments. The aorta was closed with a single-layer technique using 4/0 prolene suture. There were no postoperative complications and patient was discharged on Day 44. The case here discussed demonstrates a rare presentation of blunt aortic injury. The proximal ascending aorta is an unusual site of transection following blunt trauma with few reports in the literature. We were able to repair the aorta with direct suture, thus avoiding the use of artificial material. PMID:23838337

  10. On-Pump Beating Heart Extraanatomical Ascending-Descending Aortic Bypass Using a Beating Heart Positioner in an Adult with Aortic Coarctation

    PubMed Central

    Gyoten, Takayuki; Nagura, Saori; Yamashita, Akio; Fukahara, Kazuaki; Kotoh, Keiju; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    The prognosis of uncorrected aortic coarctation is poor due to development of heart failure. We performed an on-pump beating heart extraanatomical ascending-descending aortic bypass using a beating heart positioner in an adult with coarctation complicated by severe left ventricular hypertrophy. A 51-year-old woman was referred with severe hypertension. Computed tomography demonstrated severe distal aortic arch narrowing. Coarctation of the aorta was diagnosed. A posterior pericardial beating heart extraanatomical bypass via median sternotomy was performed from the ascending to descending aorta using a heart positioner. Her postoperative course was uneventful and blood pressure was normal on a low-dose beta-blocker. PMID:27087874

  11. Aortic valve replacement and ascending aorta replacement in ankylosing spondylitis: report of three surgical cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kawasuji, M; Hetzer, R; Oelert, H; Stauch, G; Borst, H G

    1982-10-01

    Out of 887 consecutive patients who underwent aortic valve replacement between January 1976 and December 1981 at Hannover Medical School Hospital, 3 patients had severe aortic valve insufficiency associated with ankylosing spondylitis (Morbus Bechterew). One of them had huge aneurysmatic dilatation of the ascending aorta and successfully underwent replacement of the ascending aorta by a vascular prosthesis. Microscopical examination of the resected aortic wall showed characteristic findings of aortitis in ankylosing spondylitis. The 3 patients are in good clinical condition at 5 and 6 months, and 2 1/2 years, respectively, after uneventful surgery. It is concluded that aortic valve replacement in patients with ankylosing spondylitis can be performed feasibly and clinical results have been satisfactory. The risk of aneurysmatic dilatation of the ascending aorta resulting from aortitis associated with ankylosing spondylitis is emphasized. PMID:6183782

  12. Ministernotomy approach for surgery of the aortic root and ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Perrotta, Sossio; Lentini, Salvatore

    2009-11-01

    Different minimally invasive approaches have been proposed for cardiac surgery. Between those, the ministernotomy finds wide consensus for the treatment of the aortic disease, being both the upper reversed T and the upper J the mostly used type of incisions. The authors review the literature on the use of ministernotomy in the treatment of the ascending aorta and arch pathology. The scientific literature was reviewed by searching Medline, the Cochrane Library and the CINAHL database. A total of 1411 papers were found in Medline, 186 in the Cochrane database and 514 in CINAHL database; 50 papers were used to write the article; of which seven represent the most significant papers on the subject. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patients group studied, relevant outcomes, and the results of these papers are tabulated. The ministernotomy is gaining consensus among surgeons. The indication to surgery, initially restricted only to selected elective patients, is now extended to more complex surgeries, including both the aortic root and aortic arch, redo-operations and, in minor cases, to emergency patients. Furthermore, the use of ministernotomy in redo aortic surgery with patent left internal mammary artery (LIMA) to left anterior descending (LAD) artery is a promising alternative. However, the use of this technique is still limited to few institutions and there are still a limited number of studies comparing this approach to full sternotomy in a prospective, randomized fashion. Even with those limitations, from the review of the literature, it seems that ministernotomy approach for aortic root and ascending aorta surgery is a feasible alternative, showing some advantages compared to full sternotomy. Those advantages include: reduced postoperative bleeding and pain, lower risk of mediastinitis, better aesthetic results, and faster respiratory function recovery. This is true not only for first time surgery, but also, and especially, for redo cases

  13. Acute aortic dissection diagnosed after embalming: macroscopic and microscopic findings.

    PubMed

    Savall, Frédéric; Dedouit, Fabrice; Piercecchi-Marti, Marie-Dominique; Leonetti, Georges; Rougé, Daniel; Telmon, Norbert

    2014-09-01

    A 58-year-old man died suddenly in Madagascar and poisoning was suspected. The body was embalmed after death and the general state of preservation was good. We found a major aortic dissection with a large false lumen from the aortic root to the common iliac arteries and a hemopericardium with formalinized blood clot. The intimal tear was on the ascending aorta, and an intramural hemorrhage was noted at the right coronary artery, attesting to a retrograde dissection. Microscopic studies confirmed aortic dissection with extensive intramural hemorrhage and also confirmed the retrograde dissection to the right coronary artery with a reduction of 90% of the true lumen. Classically, aortic dissection occurs in individuals with hypertension and individuals with genetic disorders of collagen formation. The diagnosis is often first established at the postmortem examination. Aortic dissection is therefore dealt with largely in necropsy studies. The usual cause of death is rupture into the pericardial sac. One case of bloodless dissection has been reported but the sudden death was explained by acute myocardial ischemia secondary to dissection of the left coronary artery. In our case, we found major hemopericardium and also intramural hemorrhage at the right coronary artery. We were able to make the diagnosis of aortic dissection and exclude the suspicion of homicide 15 days after death and after embalming. PMID:24684562

  14. Total aortic repair: the new paradigm in the treatment of acute type A aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    Matalanis, George; Perera, Nisal K; Galvin, Sean D

    2016-05-01

    The surgical management of acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) is in a period of rapid evolution. Understanding the complex physiology and anatomy of both acute and chronic dissection has been enhanced by the ready availability of state of the art imaging techniques. Technical advances in the intraoperative monitoring of organ perfusion, together with adjuncts to limit organ injury and increasing sophistication in open and endovascular surgery have led to a major reduction in both perioperative morbidity and mortality. In many centers, there has been a transition in mindset and surgical approach away from a purely central aortic operation focusing on the ascending aorta and a 'live to fight another day' philosophy. The current more global perspective recognizes the importance of aortic valve function, malperfusion, false lumen (FL) patency and the potential for future complex aneurysm development. The time is now right to transition into the next phase of sophistication in the management of ATAAD with the aim of achieving not only a safe acute operation, but to either entirely prevent chronic complications or to greatly simplify their management by the creation of an anatomical situation that facilitates future endovascular intervention in place of complex re-do surgery. We present our view on the evolution of surgery for ATAAD leading to our current technique of Branch First Arch replacement and Total Aortic Repair, which not only provides a safe immediate operation, but also offers the hope of a simplified future management if not a total cure for the pathology. PMID:27386409

  15. Total aortic repair: the new paradigm in the treatment of acute type A aortic dissection

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Nisal K.; Galvin, Sean D.

    2016-01-01

    The surgical management of acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) is in a period of rapid evolution. Understanding the complex physiology and anatomy of both acute and chronic dissection has been enhanced by the ready availability of state of the art imaging techniques. Technical advances in the intraoperative monitoring of organ perfusion, together with adjuncts to limit organ injury and increasing sophistication in open and endovascular surgery have led to a major reduction in both perioperative morbidity and mortality. In many centers, there has been a transition in mindset and surgical approach away from a purely central aortic operation focusing on the ascending aorta and a ‘live to fight another day’ philosophy. The current more global perspective recognizes the importance of aortic valve function, malperfusion, false lumen (FL) patency and the potential for future complex aneurysm development. The time is now right to transition into the next phase of sophistication in the management of ATAAD with the aim of achieving not only a safe acute operation, but to either entirely prevent chronic complications or to greatly simplify their management by the creation of an anatomical situation that facilitates future endovascular intervention in place of complex re-do surgery. We present our view on the evolution of surgery for ATAAD leading to our current technique of Branch First Arch replacement and Total Aortic Repair, which not only provides a safe immediate operation, but also offers the hope of a simplified future management if not a total cure for the pathology. PMID:27386409

  16. MDCT evaluation of acute aortic syndrome (AAS).

    PubMed

    Valente, Tullio; Rossi, Giovanni; Lassandro, Francesco; Rea, Gaetano; Marino, Maurizio; Muto, Maurizio; Molino, Antonio; Scaglione, Mariano

    2016-05-01

    Non-traumatic acute thoracic aortic syndromes (AAS) describe a spectrum of life-threatening aortic pathologies with significant implications on diagnosis, therapy and management. There is a common pathway for the various manifestations of AAS that eventually leads to a breakdown of the aortic intima and media. Improvements in biology and health policy and diffusion of technology into the community resulted in an associated decrease in mortality and morbidity related to aortic therapeutic interventions. Hybrid procedures, branched and fenestrated endografts, and percutaneous aortic valves have emerged as potent and viable alternatives to traditional surgeries. In this context, current state-of-the art multidetector CT (MDCT) is actually the gold standard in the emergency setting because of its intrinsic diagnostic value. Management of acute aortic disease has changed with the increasing realization that endovascular therapies may offer distinct advantages in these situations. This article provides a summary of AAS, focusing especially on the MDCT technique, typical and atypical findings and common pitfalls of AAS, as well as recent concepts regarding the subtypes of AAS, consisting of aortic dissection, intramural haematoma, penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer and unstable aortic aneurysm or contained aortic rupture. MDCT findings will be related to pathophysiology, timing and management options to achieve a definite and timely diagnostic and therapeutic definition. In the present article, we review the aetiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, outcomes and therapeutic approaches to acute aortic syndromes. PMID:27033344

  17. Ascending aortic aneurysm in a patient with bicuspid aortic valve, positive history of systemic autoimmune diseases and common genetic factors: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Foffa, Ilenia; Festa, Pier Luigi; Ait-Ali, Lamia; Mazzone, Annamaria; Bevilacqua, Stefano; Andreassi, Maria Grazia

    2009-01-01

    The bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and specific systemic autoimmune diseases are associated with cardiovascular manifestation, including aortic aneurysm. We reported a case of 64 year-old patient with BAV and a history of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and who developed ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm. The patient presented also the homozygosity for genetic variants of MMP9, ACE, MTHFR and PAI-1 genes. Gene-environmental interactions may represent an additional pathogenetic dimension in the still challenging management of the abnormalities of the aortic wall, including dilatation, aneurysm and dissection. PMID:19580662

  18. Acute aortic dissection in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhaohua; Yang, Shouguo; Wang, Fangshun; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-05-01

    Acute aortic dissection occurring during pregnancy represents a lethal risk to both the mother and fetus. Management of parturient with acute aortic dissection is complex. We report our experience of two pregnancies with type A acute aortic dissection. One patient is a 31-year-old pregnant woman (33rd gestational week) with a bicuspid aortic valve and the other is a 32-year-old pregnant woman (30th gestational week) with the Marfan syndrome. In both cases, a combined emergency operation consisting of Cesarean section, total hysterectomy prior to corrective surgery for aortic dissection was successfully performed within a relatively short period of time after the onset. Both patients' postoperative recovery was uneventful, and we achieved a favorable maternal and fetal outcome. PMID:25085319

  19. Iatrogenic ascending aortic dissection following cannulation for arterial return and for infusion of cardioplegic solution: Prevention and repair

    PubMed Central

    Ugorji, Clement C.; Cooley, Denton A.; Norman, John C.

    1980-01-01

    Two patients are presented in whom dissection of the ascending aorta resulted from cannulation for arterial return and from the infusion of cardioplegic solution. The dissections were recognized promptly. Following dissection in the first patient, the femoral artery was used to reestablish systemic perfusion. The aortic valve and dissected ascending aorta were replaced, and three vessels were grafted. In the second patient, the dissected anterior wall of the ascending aorta was excised and replaced with a low-porosity Dacron patch into which the proximal aortocoronary anastomoses were inserted. Predisposing factors are discussed, along with preventive measures and methods of repair. PMID:15216287

  20. Complex Reoperation for Late Complications After Acute Type A Aortic Dissection Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Stöger, Guillermo; Ríos, Matías; Battellini, Roberto; Bracco, Daniel; Kotowicz, Vadim

    2015-01-01

    The correct management of acute Type A dissection continues to be a challenge. The primary goal is to save the patient´s life. However, the decision regarding the surgical approach determines possible later complications. We present the case of a 59-year-old female patient with a past history of emergent surgery for acute Type A dissection treated by supracoronary ascending and aortic valve replacement 19 years previously. Later, in a second endovascular approach, the descending aorta was treated by a thoracic endoprosthesis. During follow-up a dilated aortic root and a Type I endoleak were observed, and complex reoperation was required. We performed a total aortic arch replacement with a 4-branched graft and a complete aortic root replacement using the Cabrol technique for the reinsertion of the coronary arteries. The mechanical aortic normally functioning valve was preserved. The patient was discharged 30 days postoperatively. PMID:27390749

  1. Thoracic endovascular repair for acute type A aortic dissection: operative technique

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Aamir

    2016-01-01

    Acute type A aortic dissection is a potentially lethal condition which requires immediate diagnostic and therapeutic intervention. Open surgical repair remains the standard of care as survival rates continue to improve in the modern surgical era. Unfortunately, up to twenty percent of patients are denied surgical therapy because they are deemed medically unfit to undergo open repair. The application of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has changed the treatment paradigm for aortic disease involving the descending thoracic aorta and may be a viable rescue option for patients with type A dissection who are not eligible for open surgical repair. New endovascular devices and advanced image-guided procedures are continually evolving. This article summarizes the pathology of aortic dissection and focuses on currently available endovascular solutions for transapical and transfemoral stent graft deployment for acute aortic dissection involving the ascending aorta for selected patients who are ineligible for open surgical repair. PMID:27563553

  2. Thoracic endovascular repair for acute type A aortic dissection: operative technique.

    PubMed

    Shah, Aamir; Khoynezhad, Ali

    2016-07-01

    Acute type A aortic dissection is a potentially lethal condition which requires immediate diagnostic and therapeutic intervention. Open surgical repair remains the standard of care as survival rates continue to improve in the modern surgical era. Unfortunately, up to twenty percent of patients are denied surgical therapy because they are deemed medically unfit to undergo open repair. The application of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has changed the treatment paradigm for aortic disease involving the descending thoracic aorta and may be a viable rescue option for patients with type A dissection who are not eligible for open surgical repair. New endovascular devices and advanced image-guided procedures are continually evolving. This article summarizes the pathology of aortic dissection and focuses on currently available endovascular solutions for transapical and transfemoral stent graft deployment for acute aortic dissection involving the ascending aorta for selected patients who are ineligible for open surgical repair. PMID:27563553

  3. Peripartum presentation of an acute aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    Lewis, S; Ryder, I; Lovell, A T

    2005-04-01

    We report the case of an acute type A aortic dissection occurring in a 35-year-old parturient. The initial diagnosis was missed; a subsequent emergency Caesarean section 3 weeks after presentation was followed by the development of left ventricular failure and pulmonary oedema in the early postoperative period. Echocardiography confirmed the diagnosis of aortic dissection and the patient underwent a successful surgical repair. PMID:15640303

  4. Combination of a Giant Dissected Ascending Aortic Aneurysm with Multiple Fistulae into the Cardiac Chambers Caused by Prosthetic Aortic Valve Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Sabzi, Feridoun; Faraji, Reza

    2016-01-01

    The combination of a dissected ascending aortic aneurysm (AA) with multiple fistulae to the periaortic root structures is a life-threatening complication that occurs rarely after infective endocarditis of the prosthetic aortic valve. Many risk factors are potentially associated with this complication, including aortic diameter, connective tissue disease of the aortic wall, hypertension and infection. We report a rare case of dissected ascending AA with fistulae to the left atrium and pulmonary artery and a paravalvular leak in a 47-year-old woman with a history of an aortic valve replacement. The patient had presented to the Imam Ali Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran, in January 2015 with clinical features of heart failure. After initially being treated for congestive heart failure, she underwent open-heart surgery via a classic Bentall procedure and double fistula closure. She was discharged 23 days after the operation in good condition. A six-month follow-up showed normal functioning of the composite conduit prosthetic valve and no fistulae recurrence. PMID:26909200

  5. Identification of vessel wall degradation in ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms with OCT

    PubMed Central

    Real, Eusebio; Val-Bernal, José Fernando; Revuelta, José M.; Pontón, Alejandro; Díez, Marta Calvo; Mayorga, Marta; López-Higuera, José M.; Conde, Olga M.

    2014-01-01

    Degradation of the wall of human ascending thoracic aorta has been assessed through Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). OCT images of the media layer of the aortic wall exhibit micro-structure degradation in case of diseased aortas from aneurysmal vessels. The OCT indicator of degradation depends on the dimension of areas of the media layer where backscattered reflectivity becomes smaller due to a disorder on the morphology of elastin, collagen and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Efficient pre-processing of the OCT images is required to accurately extract the dimension of degraded areas after an optimized thresholding procedure. OCT results have been validated against conventional histological analysis. The OCT qualitative assessment has achieved a pair sensitivity-specificity of 100%-91.6% in low-high degradation discrimination when a threshold of 4965.88µm2 is selected. This threshold suggests to have physiological meaning. The OCT quantitative evaluation of degradation achieves a correlation of 0.736 between the OCT indicator and the histological score. This in-vitro study can be transferred to the clinical scenario to provide an intraoperative assessment tool to guide cardiovascular surgeons in open repair interventions. PMID:25426332

  6. Left ventricular hypertrophy in ascending aortic stenosis mice: anoikis and the progression to early failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, B.; Price, R. L.; Goldsmith, E. C.; Borg, T. K.; Yan, X.; Douglas, P. S.; Weinberg, E. O.; Bartunek, J.; Thielen, T.; Didenko, V. V.; Lorell, B. H.; Schneider, M. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To determine potential mechanisms of the transition from hypertrophy to very early failure, we examined apoptosis in a model of ascending aortic stenosis (AS) in male FVB/n mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Compared with age-matched controls, 4-week and 7-week AS animals (n=12 to 16 per group) had increased ratios of left ventricular weight to body weight (4.7+/-0.7 versus 3.1+/-0.2 and 5. 7+/-0.4 versus 2.7+/-0.1 mg/g, respectively, P<0.05) with similar body weights. Myocyte width was also increased in 4-week and 7-week AS mice compared with controls (19.0+/-0.8 and 25.2+/-1.8 versus 14. 1+/-0.5 microm, respectively, P<0.01). By 7 weeks, AS myocytes displayed branching with distinct differences in intercalated disk size and staining for beta(1)-integrin on both cell surface and adjacent extracellular matrix. In vivo left ventricular systolic developed pressure per gram as well as endocardial fractional shortening were similar in 4-week AS and controls but depressed in 7-week AS mice. Myocyte apoptosis estimated by in situ nick end-labeling (TUNEL) was extremely rare in 4-week AS and control mice; however, a low prevalence of TUNEL-positive myocytes and DNA laddering were detected in 7-week AS mice. The specificity of TUNEL labeling was confirmed by in situ ligation of hairpin oligonucleotides. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that myocyte apoptosis develops during the transition from hypertrophy to early failure in mice with chronic biomechanical stress and support the hypothesis that the disruption of normal myocyte anchorage to adjacent extracellular matrix and cells, a process called anoikis, may signal apoptosis.

  7. Stenotic and obstructive lesions in acute dissecting thoracic aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Shumacker, H B; Isch, J H; Jolly, W W

    1975-05-01

    The present study of 33 operatively treated patients, 88 per cent of whom survived the procedure, is concerned with an important problem associated with acute thoracic aortic dissection, the stenotic and obstructive lesions of the aorta and its branches. Their variety and nature are described, as are the additional operative procedures deemed necessary at the time of the operation, immediately thereafter, or later on. Much has been learned about these difficulties from clinical and autopsy observations and especially from careful arteriographic surveys. They seem to be generally well withstood following resectional and grafting procedures upon the affected segment of the thoracic aorta. Occasionally, additional operative manipulations may be necessary at the same time, for example, interpolation of grafts between the ascending aortic graft and a coronary when the origin of the latter is sheared off by the dissection, and distal arterial manipulations when the patient still has ischemic lower extremities immediately after the primary procedure. Later operations must sometimes be performed because of persistence of complaints such as intermittent claudication. It is extremely rare that immediate reoperation is advisable because of indications of intra-abdominal ischemia. Much more can be learned from careful pre- and postoperative arteriographic study. PMID:1130882

  8. Stenotic and obstructive lesions in acute dissecting thoracic aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed Central

    Shumacker, H B; Isch, J H; Jolly, W W

    1975-01-01

    The present study of 33 operatively treated patients, 88 per cent of whom survived the procedure, is concerned with an important problem associated with acute thoracic aortic dissection, the stenotic and obstructive lesions of the aorta and its branches. Their variety and nature are described, as are the additional operative procedures deemed necessary at the time of the operation, immediately thereafter, or later on. Much has been learned about these difficulties from clinical and autopsy observations and especially from careful arteriographic surveys. They seem to be generally well withstood following resectional and grafting procedures upon the affected segment of the thoracic aorta. Occasionally, additional operative manipulations may be necessary at the same time, for example, interpolation of grafts between the ascending aortic graft and a coronary when the origin of the latter is sheared off by the dissection, and distal arterial manipulations when the patient still has ischemic lower extremities immediately after the primary procedure. Later operations must sometimes be performed because of persistence of complaints such as intermittent claudication. It is extremely rare that immediate reoperation is advisable because of indications of intra-abdominal ischemia. Much more can be learned from careful pre- and postoperative arteriographic study. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:1130882

  9. Surgical management of acute type A aortic dissection: branch-first arch replacement with total aortic repair

    PubMed Central

    Galvin, Sean D.; Perera, Nisal K.

    2016-01-01

    Acute type A dissection (ATAAD) remains a morbid condition with reported surgical mortality as high as 25%. We describe our surgical approach to ATAAD and discuss the indications for adjunct techniques such as the frozen elephant trunk or complete aortic repair with endovascular methods. Arch replacement using the “branch-first technique” allows for complete root, ascending aorta, and arch replacement. A long landing zone is created for proximal endografting with a covered stent. Balloon-assisted intimal disruption and bare metal stenting of all residual dissected aorta to the level of the aortic bifurcation is then performed to obliterate the false lumen (FL) and achieve single true lumen (TL) flow. Additional branch vessel stenting is performed as required. PMID:27386413

  10. Acute Aortic Occlusion Presenting as Flaccid Paraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Kilany, Ayman; Al-Hashel, Jasem Y.; Rady, Azza

    2015-01-01

    A 67-year-old male known to be hypertensive and diabetic had a sudden onset of severe low back pain and flaccid paraplegia with no sensory level or bladder affection and the distal pulsations were felt. Acute compressive myelopathy was excluded by MRI of the dorsal and lumbar spines. The nerve conduction study and CSF analysis was suggestive of acute demyelinating polyneuropathy. The patient developed ischemic changes of the lower limb and CT angiography revealed severe stenosis of the abdominal aorta and both common iliac arteries. We emphasize the importance of including acute aortic occlusion in the differential diagnosis of acute flaccid paraplegia especially in the presence of severe back pain even if the distal pulsations were felt. PMID:25866688

  11. Huge dissected ascending aorta associated with pseudo aneurysm and aortic coarctation feridoun.

    PubMed

    Sabzi, Feridoun; Khosravi, Donya

    2015-07-01

    We report a unique case of chronic dissection of the ascending aorta complicated with huge and thrombotic pseudoaneurysm in a patient with coarctation of descending aorta. Preoperative investigations such as transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) confirmed the diagnosis of dissection. Intraoperative findings included a12 cm eccentric bulge of the right lateral side of dilated the ascending aorta filled with the clot and a circular shaped intimal tear communicating with an extended hematoma and dissection of the media layer. The rarity of the report is an association of the chronic dissection with huge pseudoaneurysm and coarctation. The patient underwent staged repair of an aneurysm and coarctation and had an uneventful postoperative recovery period. PMID:26520633

  12. Chest radiography in acute aortic syndrome: pearls and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Ashish; Rajendran, Surendran; Yung, Wai Heng; Babu, Suresh Balasubramanian; Peh, Wilfred C

    2016-08-01

    Acute aortic syndrome is a group of life-threatening diseases of the thoracic aorta that usually present to the emergency department. It includes aortic dissection, aortic intramural hematoma, and penetrating aortic ulcer. Rare aortic pathologies of aorto-esophageal fistula and mycotic aneurysm may also be included in this list. All these conditions require urgent treatment with complex clinical care and management. Most patients who present with chest pain are evaluated with a chest radiograph in the emergency department. It is important that maximum diagnostic information is extracted from the chest radiograph as certain signs on the chest radiograph are extremely useful in pointing towards the diagnosis of acute aortic syndrome. PMID:27282377

  13. Pulmonary multislice computed tomography findings in acute aortic dissection

    PubMed Central

    Okur, Aysegul; Sahin, Sinan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To document the type and incidence of pulmonary multislice computed tomography (CT) findings at presentation in patients with acute aortic dissection. Materials and methods Multidetector CT scans of 36 patients with a diagnosis of acute aortic dissection or intramural hematoma were retrospectively reviewed. Results Pleural effusion, dependent stasis, mosaic attenuation, interlobular septal thickening, thickening of the peribronchovascular interstitium, vascular enlargement, compression atelectasis were common findings. Additionally air trapping, emphysema, consolidation, nodules, bronchiectasis or scarring were also noted. Conclusions Various pulmonary imaging findings may accompany acute aortic dissection. These findings and their clinical significance should be further investigated. PMID:23050112

  14. Differential expression of microRNAs in aortic tissue and plasma in patients with acute aortic dissection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Jian; Huang, Bi; Yang, Yan-Min; Zhang, Liang; Su, Wen-Jun; Tian, Li; Lu, Tian-Yi; Zhang, Shu; Fan, Xiao-Han; Hui, Ru-Tai

    2015-01-01

    Background Biomarker-assisted diagnosis of acute aortic dissection (AAD) is important for diagnosis and treatment. However, identification of biomarkers for AAD in blood is a challenging task. The aim of this study is to search for new potentially microRNA (miRNAs) biomarkers in AAD. Methods The miRNAs expression profiles in ascending aortic tissue and plasma were examined by microarray analysis in two sets or groups. The tissue group was composed of four patients with AAD and four controls of healthy male organ donors. The plasma group included 20 patients with AAD and 20 controls without cardiovascular disease. Bioinformatics was used to analyze the potential targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs. Results Our study revealed that in AAD patients, the aortic tissue had 30 differentially expressed miRNAs with 13 up-regulated and 17 down-regulated, and plasma had 93 differentially expressed miRNAs, of which 33 were up-regulated and 60 were down-regulated. Four miRNAs were found to be up-regulated in both aortic tissue and plasma in AAD patients. The predicted miRNA targets indicated the four dysregulated miRNAs mainly targeted genes that were associated with cell-cell adhesion, extracellular matrix metabolism, cytoskeleton organization, inflammation, and multiple signaling pathways related to cellular cycles. Conclusions Four miRNAs, which are up-regulated both in aortic tissue and in plasma in AAD patients, have been identified in this study. These miRNAs might be potential diagnostic biomarkers for AAD. Larger sample investigations are needed for further verification. PMID:26788043

  15. Advances in the diagnosis of acute aortic syndromes: Role of imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Ciccone, Marco Matteo; Dentamaro, Ilaria; Masi, Filippo; Carbonara, Santa; Ricci, Gabriella

    2016-06-01

    Aortic diseases include a wide range of pathological conditions: aortic aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms, acute aortic syndromes, atherosclerotic and inflammatory conditions, genetic diseases and congenital anomalies. Acute aortic syndromes have acute onset and may be life-threatening. They include aortic dissection, intramural haematoma, penetrating aortic ulcer and traumatic aortic injury. Pain is the common denominator to all acute aortic syndromes. Pain occurs regardless of age, gender and other associated clinical conditions. In this review, we deal with the main findings in the clinical setting and the most recent indications for diagnostic imaging, which are aimed to start an appropriate treatment and improve the short- and long-term prognosis of these patients. PMID:26957573

  16. Acute abdominal aortic thrombosis caused by paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Riccioni, G; Bucciarelli, V; Bisceglia, N; Totaro, G; Scotti, L; Aceto, A; Martini, F; Gallina, S; Bucciarelli, T; Macarini, L

    2013-01-01

    Acute abdominal aortic thrombosis is a rare and potential fatal event, which occurs in adult subjects. We present the case of a 72-year-old-man, who referred to the emergency Department of our hospital because of persistent severe abdominal and perineal pain. Doppler ultrasounds and computerized tomography angiography revealed the acute thrombosis of the abdominal aorta. Immediate revascularization through aortic thrombo-endoarterectomy resolved the disease. PMID:23830410

  17. Endovascular repair of a ruptured descending thoracic aortic aneurysm in a patient with an ascending aortic aneurysm: hybrid open arch reconstruction with simultaneous thoracic stent-graft deployment within elephant trunk.

    PubMed

    Abou-Zamzam, Ahmed M; Zhang, Wayne; Wang, Nan; Razzouk, Anees

    2008-03-01

    Endovascular repair of the thoracic aorta is now widely practiced. The extension of this technique to emergent settings is in evolution. Pathology of the ascending and transverse aortic arch may preclude thoracic aortic stent grafting due to the lack of a proximal seal zone. Several hybrid open/endovascular approaches have been described. We recently encountered the difficult case of a contained rupture of a 6.8 cm descending thoracic aortic aneurysm in a 60-year-old patient with aneurysmal degeneration of the ascending and transverse aortic arch. This patient was treated with a hybrid approach of open ascending and transverse arch reconstruction along with simultaneous stent-graft repair of the descending thoracic aorta. The open repair established an excellent proximal landing zone by use of the "elephant trunk" technique. This technique also allowed direct suture fixation of the stent graft to the arch graft to prevent stent-graft migration. This hybrid surgical approach was successful and avoided the cumulative morbidity that a left thoracoabdominal approach would have added to the sternotomy. Further creative uses of these hybrid techniques will undoubtedly serve a larger role in the treatment of thoracic aortic pathology. PMID:18346569

  18. [A case of tracheo-bronchial stenosis after extended end-to-end aortic arch anastomosis for interrupted aortic arch treated with suspension of the ascending artery and pulmonary artery].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Hoshino, S; Iwaya, F; Igari, T; Ono, T; Takahashi, K

    2001-02-01

    A 9-day-old boy had pulmonary artery banding and extended end-to-end aortic arch anastomosis for ventricular septal defect (VSD) and type A interrupted aortic arch. Severe dyspnea gradually developed. At 3 months of age, intracardiac repair of VSD was performed. Weaning from the ventilator was difficult. Endoscopic examination and chest CT revealed stenosis of the right and left main bronchi and compression of tracheal bifurcation and the right and left main bronchi by the ascending aorta and pulmonary artery. Suspension of the ascending aorta and pulmonary artery was performed 15 days after VSD closure. Nine days after this procedure, the patient was weaned from respirator. Postoperative course was uneventful. Bronchial stenosis may be caused from extended end-to-end aortic arch anastomosis. PMID:11211771

  19. Layer- and region-specific material characterization of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms by microstructure-based models.

    PubMed

    Sassani, Sophia G; Tsangaris, Sokrates; Sokolis, Dimitrios P

    2015-11-01

    Material characterization of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms is indispensable for the determination of stress distributions across wall thickness and the different aneurysm regions that may be responsible for their catastrophic rupture or dissection, but only few studies have addressed this issue hitherto. In this article, we are presenting our findings of implementing microstructure-based formulations for characterizing layer- and region-specific variations in wall properties, which is a reasonable consensus today. Together, we performed image-based analysis to derive collagen-fiber orientation angles that may serve as validation of the preferred candidate for a fiber-reinforced constitutive descriptor. We considered a four-fiber model with dispersions of fiber angles about the main directions, based on our histological observations, demonstrating a wide distribution of fiber orientations spanning circumferential to longitudinal directions, and its successful implementation to our biomechanical data from tensile testing. However, an in-depth parametric analysis showed that a condensed model without longitudinal-fiber family described the data just as well and did not omit essential histological organization of collagen fibers, while reserving a smaller number of parameters, which makes it advantageous for computational applications. A major aberration from almost all existing models in the literature is the hypothesis made that fibers can support compressive stresses. Such a hypothesis needs further examination but it has the benefits of allowing improved fits to the vanishing transverse stresses under uniaxial test conditions and of properly reflecting the exponential nature of the compressive stress-strain response of aortic tissue, being consistent with observations of collagen being under compression in the unloaded wall. PMID:26476765

  20. Acute Type A Aortic Dissection Presenting as ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Referred for Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Liung; Chen, Chun-Chi; Wang, Chao-Yung Wang; Hsieh, Ming-Jer; Chang, Shang-Hung; Lee, Cheng-Hung; Chen, Dong-Yi; Hsieh, I-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Background When acute aortic dissection is complicated with acute myocardial infarction, the diagnosis of dissection can be problematic. In these cases, patients might be treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and suffer acatastrophic outcome. However, there are few reports or algorithm to facilitate the accurate management of this clinical situation. Methods We evaluated 385 consecutive patients who underwent primary PCI arising from an initial diagnosis of STEMI at our hospitalbetween January 2006 and March 2011. Clinical characteristics, coronary angiographic findings, and outcomes were obtained from medical charts and databases. Results Five patients (1.3%) with STEMI secondary to aortic dissection were identified. All patients (100%) had sudden-onset of chest pain and a history of hypertension without diabetes or hyperlipidemia. An increased resistance while advancing the diagnostic catheter was reported by the operators in 3 of 5 patients (60%). Aortography performed by manual contrast-medium injection showed the discrepancy in the diameter between the aortic root and the ascending aorta in 4 patients (100%), and ascending aortic intimal flap dissections were noted in 3 patients (75%). Alternating appearance and disappearance of the coronary artery ostium was observed in 2 patients, and bedside echocardiography showed intimal flap extension inall 4 patients (100%) who underwent this examination. The mortality rate at 30days was 40%. Conclusions We construct an algorithm that incorporated factors including careful history evaluation, bedside echocardiography, resistance encountered while advancing a catheter, and findings of aortography performed with manual injection,which could b evaluable for this clinical situation.

  1. Rare Seagull Cooing Murmur from Acute Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, J; Cheng, Z; Quan, X; Zhao, Z

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acute aortic dissection is a rare but potentially fatal disease. The early recognition of this disease is important for timely treatment. Some signs and symptoms, such as past history of hypertension, tearing pain and pulselessness, can provide valuable clues to the diagnosis of this disease. In this case study, the mechanism of a seagull murmur from aortic dissection is first described. This information is potentially useful for the differential diagnosis of dissection. PMID:26426186

  2. Evolution of surgical therapy for Stanford acute type A aortic dissection

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Acute type A aortic dissection (AcA-AoD) is a surgical emergency associated with very high morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, the early outcome of emergency surgical repair has not improved substantially over the last 20 years. Many of the same debates occur repeatedly regarding operative extent and optimal conduct of the operation. The question remains: are patients suffering from too large an operation or too small? The pendulum favoring routine aortic valve resuspension, when feasible, has swung towards frequent aortic root replacement. This already aggressive approach is now being challenged with the even more extensive valve-sparing aortic root replacement (V-SARR) in selected patients. Distally, open replacement of most of the transverse arch is best in most patients. The need for late aortic re-intervention has not been shown to be affected by more extensive distal operative procedures, but the contemporary enthusiasm for a distal frozen elephant trunk (FET) only seems to build. It must be remembered that the first and foremost goal of the operation is to have an operative survivor; additional measures to reduce late morbidity are secondary aspirations. With increasing experience, true contraindications to emergency surgical operation have dwindled, but patients with advanced age, multiple comorbidities, and major neurological deficits do not fare well. The endovascular revolution, moreover, has spawned innovative options for modern practice, including ascending stent graft and adaptations of the old flap fenestration technique. Despite the increasingly complex operations and ever expanding therapies, this life-threatening disease remains a stubborn challenge for all cardiovascular surgeons. Development of specialized thoracic aortic teams and regionalization of care for patients with AcA-AoD offers the most promise to improve overall results. PMID:27563541

  3. Evolution of surgical therapy for Stanford acute type A aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Peter; Miller, D Craig

    2016-07-01

    Acute type A aortic dissection (AcA-AoD) is a surgical emergency associated with very high morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, the early outcome of emergency surgical repair has not improved substantially over the last 20 years. Many of the same debates occur repeatedly regarding operative extent and optimal conduct of the operation. The question remains: are patients suffering from too large an operation or too small? The pendulum favoring routine aortic valve resuspension, when feasible, has swung towards frequent aortic root replacement. This already aggressive approach is now being challenged with the even more extensive valve-sparing aortic root replacement (V-SARR) in selected patients. Distally, open replacement of most of the transverse arch is best in most patients. The need for late aortic re-intervention has not been shown to be affected by more extensive distal operative procedures, but the contemporary enthusiasm for a distal frozen elephant trunk (FET) only seems to build. It must be remembered that the first and foremost goal of the operation is to have an operative survivor; additional measures to reduce late morbidity are secondary aspirations. With increasing experience, true contraindications to emergency surgical operation have dwindled, but patients with advanced age, multiple comorbidities, and major neurological deficits do not fare well. The endovascular revolution, moreover, has spawned innovative options for modern practice, including ascending stent graft and adaptations of the old flap fenestration technique. Despite the increasingly complex operations and ever expanding therapies, this life-threatening disease remains a stubborn challenge for all cardiovascular surgeons. Development of specialized thoracic aortic teams and regionalization of care for patients with AcA-AoD offers the most promise to improve overall results. PMID:27563541

  4. Smooth Muscle Cell Deletion of LDL Receptor Related Protein-1 Augments AngII-Induced Superior Mesenteric Arterial and Ascending Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Frank M.; Rateri, Debra L.; Balakrishnan, Anju; Howatt, Deborah A.; Strickland, Dudley K.; Muratoglu, Selen C.; Haggerty, Christopher M.; Fornwalt, Brandon K.; Cassis, Lisa A.; Daugherty, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Objective LRP1, a multifunctional protein involved in endocytosis and cell signaling pathways, leads to a range of vascular pathologies when deleted in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). The purpose of this study was to determine whether LRP1 deletion in SMCs influenced AngII-induced arterial pathologies. Approach and Results LRP1 protein abundance was equivalent in selected arterial-regions, but SMC-specific LRP1 depletion had no effect on abdominal and ascending aortic diameters in young mice. To determine the effects of LRP1 deficiency on AngII vascular responses, SMC-specific LRP1 (smLRP1) +/+ and -/- mice were infused with saline, AngII, or norepinephrine (NE). Several smLRP-/- mice died of superior mesenteric arterial (SMA) rupture during AngII infusion. In surviving mice, AngII profoundly augmented SMA dilation in smLRP1-/- mice. SMA dilation was blood pressure-dependent as demonstrated by a similar response during NE infusion. SMA dilation was also associated with profound macrophage accumulation, but minimal elastin fragmentation. AngII infusion led to no significant differences in abdominal aorta diameters between smLRP1+/+ and -/- mice. In contrast, ascending aortic dilation was exacerbated markedly in AngII-infused smLRP1-/- mice, but NE had no significant effect on either aortic region. Ascending aortas of smLRP1-/- mice infused with AngII had minimal macrophage accumulation but significantly increased elastin fragmentation and mRNA abundance of several LRP1 ligands including MMP-2 and uPA. Conclusions smLRP1 deficiency had no effect on AngII-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm formation. Conversely, AngII infusion in smLRP1-/- mice exacerbated SMA and ascending aorta dilation. Dilation in these two regions had differential association with blood pressure and divergent pathologic characteristics. PMID:25395615

  5. Echocardiographic detection of intimo-intimal intussusception in a patient with acute Stanford type A aortic dissection

    PubMed Central

    Thunberg, Christopher A.; Ramakrishna, Harish

    2015-01-01

    Intimo-intimal intussusception is a very rare and unusual complication of type A dissections, typically noted on TEE exam. It has been reported in a few cases in the cardiothoracic surgical and radiology literature, and even more rarely in the cardiac anesthesia/TEE literature. This uncommon variation occurs in severe, acute, type A dissections when the ascending aortic intima circumferentially strips and detaches from the media and forms a tube-like structure which may either prolapse antegrade into the ascending aortic lumen or retrograde into the left ventricular (LV) outflow tract and LV cavity. Antegrade intussusceptions may be severe enough to partially or completely occlude the ostia of the innominate, left common carotid, and left subclavian arteries producing acute neurologic symptoms. Retrograde intussusceptions may severely impair LV filling in diastole, can worsen aortic insufficiency, mitral regurgitation, as well as produce occlusion of the coronary ostia and acute coronary ischemia. Here, we describe the incidental finding of a retrograde intussusception that was not visualized on computed tomography scan but by intraoperative TEE examination, in a patient with a severe, extensive type A dissection. PMID:25849697

  6. Treatment of acute thoracic aortic syndromes using endovascular techniques

    PubMed Central

    Uğuz, Emrah; Canyiğit, Murat; Hıdıroğlu, Mete; Şener, Erol

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Acute thoracic aortic syndrome (ATAS) is a novel term to define emergency aortic conditions with common clinical features and challenges. Traditional management of ATAS includes surgical replacement of the aorta and is correlated with high perioperative mortality and morbidity. We aimed to evaluate our experience and outcomes in patients presenting with ATAS, managed by endovascular techniques. METHODS This cohort consisted of 31 consecutive patients (24 males; mean age, 57.5±13.81 years; range, 19–84 years) with acute thoracic aortic pathologies who underwent endovascular repair between January 2011 and January 2015. The study was designed as a retrospective analysis of prospectively maintained data. RESULTS Complicated acute type-B aortic dissection was the most common pathology (35.5%). All aortic stent-grafts (n=37) and dissection stents (n=9) were implanted with 100% procedural success. The overall in-hospital mortality was 9.7%. The mean follow-up duration of patients who were alive at 30 days was 25.9±11.49 months (3–53 months). So far, there have been no late deaths after 30 days. CONCLUSION In the high-risk setting of ATAS, endovascular procedures come forward as novel therapeutic strategies with promising results. Endovascular repair of ATAS can be considered as a first-line treatment alternative under emergency conditions with encouraging results, particularly when conventional surgical repair cannot be implemented due to prohibitive comorbidities. PMID:27113420

  7. Total Aortic Repair for Acute Type A Aortic Dissection Complicated by Malperfusion or Symptomatic Branch Vessel Malalignment.

    PubMed

    Perera, Nisal K; Galvin, Sean D; Brooks, Mark; Seevanayagam, Siven; Matalanis, George

    2016-06-01

    Malperfusion or persistent perfusion of the false lumen with acute type A aortic dissections is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. We describe our experience with total aortic repair in patients with acute type A dissection with recurrent or ongoing branch ischemia, true lumen collapse, or rapid dilatation of a false lumen after initial surgical repair. PMID:27211962

  8. [Emergency Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair of Ruptured Kommerell's Diverticulum with an Acute Aortic Dissection].

    PubMed

    Seguchi, Ryuta; Ohtake, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Takahiro; Shintani, Yoshiko; Nishida, Yuji; Kiuchi, Ryuta; Yamaguchi, Shojiro; Tomita, Shigeyuki; Sanada, Junichiro; Matsui, Osamu; Watanabe, Go

    2016-06-01

    This case report describes emergency thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) of a ruptured Kommerell's diverticulum associated with a type B acute aortic dissection in a patient with a right aortic arch. A 64-year-old male was admitted with symptoms of sudden paraplegia and shock. The computed tomography imaging showed right aortic arch anomaly, with mirror image branching of the major arteries. The aorta was dissected from the origin of the right subclavian artery to the terminal aorta, with a thrombosed false lumen. Rupture was found in a 6.3 cm aneurysm located in the distal arch, which was diagnosed as Kommerell's diverticulum. We performed emergency TEVAR, and the aneurysm was successfully excluded using deployment of a Gore Tag stent-graft. At 3 months' follow-up, the patient was doing well and showed shrinkage of the aneurysm was confirmed. TEVAR is considered to be a suitable procedure for an emergency aortic catastrophe even in patients with aortic anomaly. PMID:27246128

  9. Endovascular Treatment of Acute and Chronic Thoracic Aortic Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Raupach, Jan Ferko, Alexander; Lojik, Miroslav; Krajina, Antonin; Harrer, Jan; Dominik, Jan

    2007-11-15

    Our aim is to present midterm results after endovascular repair of acute and chronic blunt aortic injury. Between December 1999 and December 2005, 13 patients were endovascularly treated for blunt aortic injury. Ten patients, 8 men and 2 women, mean age 38.7 years, were treated for acute traumatic injury in the isthmus region of thoracic aorta. Stent-graftings were performed between the fifth hour and the sixth day after injury. Three patients (all males; mean age, 66 years; range, 59-71 years) were treated due to the presence of symptoms of chronic posttraumatic pseudoaneurysm of the thoracic aorta (mean time after injury, 29.4 years, range, 28-32). Fifteen stent-grafts were implanted in 13 patients. In the group with acute aortic injury one patient died due to failure of endovascular technique. Lower leg paraparesis appeared in one patient; the other eight patients were regularly followed up (1-72 months; mean, 35.6 months), without complications. In the group with posttraumatic pseudoaneurysms all three patients are alive. One patient suffered postoperatively from upper arm claudication, which was treated by carotidosubclavian bypass. We conclude that the endoluminal technique can be used successfully in the acute repair of aortic trauma and its consequences. Midterm results are satisfactory, with a low incidence of neurologic complications.

  10. Utility of Proximal Stepwise Technique for Acute Aortic Dissection Involving the Aortic Root.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yosuke; Minatoya, Kenji; Itonaga, Tatsuya; Oda, Tatsuya; Seike, Yoshimasa; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Junjiro

    2016-05-01

    Proximal anastomosis is an important operative procedure in type A acute aortic dissection. We report our experience with the proximal stepwise technique, which is widely used during distal anastomosis in total arch replacement, in a series of 53 patients. We treated 53 patients for aortic dissection using this technique in our center. There were no bleeding adverse events during the operations and no early death caused by bleeding. This hemostatic technique was simple to use and demonstrated excellent early and midterm operative results. PMID:27106475

  11. Incidence of high altitude illnesses among unacclimatized persons who acutely ascended to Tibet.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yusheng; Fu, Zhongming; Shen, Weimin; Jiang, Ping; He, Yanlin; Peng, Shaojun; Wu, Zonggui; Cui, Bo

    2010-01-01

    High altitude illnesses pose health threats to unwary travelers after their acute ascent to high altitude locations. The incidence of high altitude illnesses among unacclimatized persons who acutely ascend to Tibet has not been previously reported. In the present study, we surveyed the incidence of high altitude illness among 3628 unacclimatized persons who had no previous high altitude experience and who traveled to Tibet by air to an altitude of 3600 m. These subjects were asked to answer questions in a written questionnaire about symptoms associated with high altitude illnesses that occurred within 2 weeks of their first arrival, their severity, and possible contributing factors. Physical examination and appropriate laboratory tests were also performed for hospitalized subjects. We found that 2063 respondents had mild acute mountain sickness with an incidence of 57.2%, and 249 (12.07%) of them were hospitalized for treatment. The incidence of high altitude pulmonary edema was 1.9%, while no case of high altitude cerebral edema was found. Additionally, there was no report of death. Psychological stresses and excessive physical exertions possibly contributed to the onset of HAPE. Acute mountain sickness is common among unacclimatized persons after their acute ascent to Tibet. The incidence of HAPE and HACE, however, is very low among them. PMID:20367487

  12. Predicting long-term outcomes of acute aortic dissection: a focus on gender.

    PubMed

    Divchev, Dimitar; Najjar, Tarek; Tillwich, Falko; Rehders, Tim; Palisch, Holger; Nienaber, Christoph A

    2015-03-01

    Acute aortic disease ranks as the 19th leading cause of death with steadily increasing incidence. The prevalence of aneurysms varies depending on the localization along the aorta with a mortality of aortic rupture of around 80%. Traditionally, aortic disease affects men more frequently than women, however, with a varying gender ratio. Nevertheless, in the setting of acute aortic dissection, the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissections identified significant gender-related differences in the management of both sexes with acute aortic conditions. Current data suggest that women are at an increased risk of both dying from aortic dissection and having aorta-related complications than men. This review aims to report on current evidence of gender impact on natural history, treatment and outcomes in patients with acute aortic dissection. PMID:25608580

  13. Painless Type B Aortic Dissection: Insights From the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Tolenaar, Jip L.; Hutchison, Stuart J.; Montgomery, Dan; O'Gara, Patrick; Fattori, Rosella; Pyeritz, Reed E.; Pape, Linda; Suzuki, Toru; Evangelista, Arturo; Moll, Frans L.; Rampoldi, Vincenzo; Isselbacher, Eric M.; Nienaber, Cristoph A.; Eagle, Kim A.; Trimarchi, Santi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The classical presentation of a patient with Type B acute aortic dissection (TBAAD) is characterized by severe chest, back, or abdominal pain, ripping or tearing in nature. However, some patients present with painless acute aortic dissection, which can lead to a delay in diagnosis and treatment. We utilized the International Registry on Acute Aortic Dissections (IRAD) database to study these patients. Methods: We analyzed 43 painless TBAAD patients enrolled in the database between January 1996 and July 2012. The differences in presentation, diagnostics, management, and outcome were compared with patients presenting with painful TBAAD. Results: Among the 1162 TBAAD patients enrolled in IRAD, 43 patients presented with painless TBAAD (3.7%). The mean age of patients with painless TBAAD was significantly higher than normal TBAAD patients (69.2 versus 63.3 years, P = 0.020). The presence of atherosclerosis (46.4% versus 30.1%, P = 0.022), diabetes (17.9% versus 7.5%; P = 0.018), and other aortic diseases (8.6% versus 2.3%, P= 0.051), such as prior aortic aneurysm (31% versus 18.8% P = 0.049) was more common in these patients. Median delay time between presentation and diagnosis was longer in painless patients (median 34.0 versus 19.0 hours; P = 0.006). Dissection of iatrogenic origin (19.5% versus 1.3%; P < 0.001) was significantly more frequent in the painless group. The in-hospital mortality was 18.6% in the painless group, compared with an in-hospital mortality of 9.9% in the control group (P = 0.063). Conclusion: Painless TBAAD is a relatively rare presentation (3.7%) of aortic dissection, and is often associated with a history of atherosclerosis, diabetes, prior aortic disease including aortic aneurysm, and an iatrogenic origin. We observed a trend for increased in-hospital mortality in painless TBAAD patients, which may be the result of a delay in diagnosis and management. Therefore, physicians should be aware of this relative rare presentation of

  14. Retrograde dissection of the ascending aorta during diagnostic coronary angiography in a patient who previously had resection of the aortic adventitia tumor and coronary bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Olędzki, Szymon; Czechowska, Małgorzata; Chlasta, Jacek; Gorący, Jarosław

    2016-03-01

    Retrograde dissection of ascending aorta is a very rare but life threating complication of coronary catheterization. Despite the seriousness of the complication, there is little data on the subject. Majority of case reports in literature includes patients without comorbidities that may affect the management. We experienced the retrograde dissection of the ascending aorta in a patient who previously had resection of the tumor originating from aortic root and coronary bypass grafting. No similar case has been reported in literature. The data from literature does not include the patients with comorbidities like previous coronary bypass grafting. For that reason we had hesitation in decision making. Wherefore, the aim of this article is to share our experience in this matter. PMID:27088202

  15. Acute aortic dissection from cross-clamp injury.

    PubMed

    Litchford, B; Okies, J E; Sugimura, S; Starr, A

    1976-11-01

    Acute dissection of the ascending aorta secondary to cross-clamp injury can be successfully managed if the problem is recognized immediately. Bypass must be instituted after recannulation at a point distal to the innominate artery so that proper exposure of the site of injury can be obtained. Systemic as well as local hypothermia for myocardial preservation are both necessary. Direct suture closure of all layers at the site of dissection over Teflon felt can terminate this process. PMID:979312

  16. [Coronary Embolism Probably Caused by Surgical Glue after Operation for Acute Aortic Dissection;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Kimura, Chieri; Takihara, Hitomi; Okada, Shuichi

    2016-07-01

    A 70-year-old female underwent an emergency replacement of the ascending aorta for acute aortic dissection. We used surgical adhesive BioGlue and teflon felt strips to reinforce the dissected aortic wall. On the 5th post operative day, electrocardiogram showed ischemic inverted T wave and the serum creatine phosphokinase level elevated without any symptoms such as chest pain or low blood pressure. By coronary angiography, severe stenosis was detected of the left descending coronary artery, and percutaneous coronary intervention was performed. Intravascular ultrasound images revealed that no atherosclerotic components were present in the embolic materials. As a result of in vitro examination, that material was probably a fragment of the BioGlue. The patient was discharged on foot 23 days after surgery. PMID:27365070

  17. The importance of clinical suspicion in the diagnosis of a successfully managed case with De Bakey Type 1 acute aortic dissection: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Salman, A. Ebru; Çeliksoy, Muzaffer; Yetişir, Fahri; Atasoy, Şevket; Katırcıoğlu, Fehmi

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 aortic dissection is a catastrophic clinical entity originating from the ascending aorta. Clinical suspicion in patients with epigastric pain, chest pain and gastrointestinal symptoms might be life saving. Aortic dissection and acute mesenteric ischemia might be confusing in diagnosis of patients with epigastric pain, chest pain, gastrointestinal symptoms and high white blood cell count and D-dimer. In this case report of a patient who was admitted to the emergency room with a presentation resembling acute mesenteric ischemia, this diagnosis was excluded within the first 24 hours as a result of clinical suspicion. In this case report, the successful management in diagnosis and treatment of a 30-year-old male patient with type 1 aortic dissection is discussed in light of the literature. PMID:25931881

  18. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Coulon, Capucine

    2015-11-01

    Half of acute aortic dissection in women under the age of 40 occurs during pregnancy or peripartum period. Marfan syndrome is the most common syndromic presentation of ascending aortic aneurysm, but other syndromes such as vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome and Turner syndrome also have ascending aortic aneurysms and the associated cardiovascular risk of aortic dissection and rupture. Management of aortic root aneurysm has been established in recent recommendations, even if levels of evidence are weak. Pregnancy and postpartum period should be followed very closely and determined to be at high risk. Guidelines suggest that women with aortopathy should be counseled against the risk of pregnancy and about the heritable nature of the disease prior to pregnancy. PMID:26454306

  19. A Gly1127Ser mutation in an EGF-like domain of the Fibrillin-I gene is a risk factor for ascending aortic aneurysm and dissection

    SciTech Connect

    Francke, U.; Berg, M.A.; Tynan, K.

    1995-06-01

    Ascending aortic disease, ranging from mild aortic root enlargement to aneurysm and/or dissection, has been identified in 10 individuals of a kindred, none of whom had classical Marfan syndrome (MFS). Single-strand conformation analysis of the entire fibrillin-1 (FBN1) cDNA of an affected family member revealed a G-to-A transition at nucleotide 3379, predicting a Gly1127Ser substitution. The glycine in this position is highly conserved in EGF-like domains of FBN1 and other proteins. This mutation was present in 9 of 10 affected family members and in 1 young unaffected member but was not found in other unaffected members, in 168 chromsomes from normal controls, and in 188 chromosomes from other individuals with MFS or related phenotypes. FBN1 intragenic marker haplotypes ruled out the possibility that the other allele played a significant role in modulating the phenotype in this family. Pulse-chase studies revealed normal fibrillin synthesis but reduced fibrillin deposition into the extracellular matrix in cultured fibroblasts from a Gly1127Ser carrier. We postulate that the Gly1127Ser FBN1 mutation is responsible for reduced matrix deposition. We suggest that mutations such as this one may disrupt EFG-like domain folding less drastically than do substitutions of cysteine or of other amino acids important for calcium-binding that cause classical MFS. The Gly 1127Ser mutation, therefore, produces a mild form of autosomal dominantly inherited weakness of elastic tissue, which predisposes to ascending aortic aneurysm and dissection later in life. 33 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Prevalence and factors associated with false positive suspicion of acute aortic syndrome: experience in a patient population transferred to a specialized aortic treatment center

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Chad E.; Aggarwal, Bhuvnesh; Schoenhagen, Paul; Kralovic, Damon M.; Kormos, Kristopher; Holloway, David

    2013-01-01

    Study objective Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is a medical emergency that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment at specialized centers. We sought to determine the frequency and etiology of false positive activation of a regional AAS network in a patient population emergently transferred for suspected AAS. Methods We evaluated 150 consecutive patients transferred from community emergency departments directly to our Cardiac Intensive Care Unit (CICU) with a diagnosis of suspected AAS between March, 2010 and August, 2011. A final diagnosis of confirmed acute Type A, acute Type B dissection, and false positive suspicion of dissection was made in 63 (42%), 70 (46.7%) and 17 (11.3%) patients respectively. Results Of the 17 false positive transfers, ten (58.8%) were suspected Type A dissection and seven (41.2%) were suspected Type B dissection. The initial hospital diagnosis in 15 (88.2%) patients was made by a computed tomography (CT) scan and 10 (66.6%) of these patients required repeat imaging with an ECG-synchronized CT to definitively rule out AAS. Five (29.4%) patients had prior history of open or endovascular aortic repair. Overall in-hospital mortality was 9.3%. Conclusions The diagnosis of AAS is confirmed in most patients emergently transferred for suspected AAS. False positive activation in this setting is driven primarily by uncertainty secondary to motion-artifact of the ascending aorta and the presence of complex anatomy following prior aortic intervention. Network-wide standardization of imaging strategies, and improved sharing of imaging may further improve triage of this complex patient population. PMID:24400203

  1. Current surgical results of acute type A aortic dissection in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okita, Yutaka

    2016-07-01

    Current surgical results of acute type A aortic dissection in Japan are presented. According to the annual survey by the Japanese Association of Thoracic Surgery, 4,444 patients with acute type A aortic dissection underwent surgical procedures and the overall hospital mortality was 9.1% in 2013. The prevalence of aortic root replacement with a valve sparing technique, total arch replacement (TAR), and frozen stent graft are presented and strategies for thrombosed dissection or organ malperfusion syndrome secondary to acute aortic dissection are discussed. PMID:27563550

  2. Current surgical results of acute type A aortic dissection in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Current surgical results of acute type A aortic dissection in Japan are presented. According to the annual survey by the Japanese Association of Thoracic Surgery, 4,444 patients with acute type A aortic dissection underwent surgical procedures and the overall hospital mortality was 9.1% in 2013. The prevalence of aortic root replacement with a valve sparing technique, total arch replacement (TAR), and frozen stent graft are presented and strategies for thrombosed dissection or organ malperfusion syndrome secondary to acute aortic dissection are discussed. PMID:27563550

  3. Proteomic Alterations in Heat Shock Protein 27 and Identification of Phosphoproteins in Ascending Aortic Aneurysm Associated with Bicuspid and Tricuspid Aortic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Matt, Peter; Fu, Zongming; Carrel, Thierry; Huso, David L.; Dirnhofer, Stefan; Lefkovits, Ivan; Zerkowski, Hans-Reinhard; Van Eyk, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Whether or not there are molecular differences, at the intra- and extracellular level, between aortic dilatation in patients with bicuspid (BAV) and those with a tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) has remained controversial for years. We have performed 2-dimensional gelelectrophoresis and mass spectrometry coupled with dephosphorylation and phosphostaining experiments to reveal and define protein alterations and the high abundant structural phosphoproteins in BAV compared to TAV aortic aneurysm samples. 2-D gel patterns showed a high correlation in protein expression between BAV and TAV specimens (n=10). Few proteins showed significant differences, among those a phosphorylated form of heat shock protein (HSP) 27 with significantly lower expression in BAV compared to TAV aortic samples (p=0.02). The phosphoprotein tracing revealed four different phosphoproteins including Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor 1, calponin 3, myosin regulatory light chain 2 and four differentially phosphorylated forms of HSP27. Levels of total HSP27 and dually phosphorylated HSP27 (S78/S82) were investigated in an extended patient cohort (n=15) using ELISA. Total HSP27 was significantly lower in BAV compared to TAV patients (p=0.03), with no correlation in levels of phospho-HSP27 (S78/S82) (p=0.4). Western blots analysis showed a trend towards lower levels of phospho-HSP27 (S78) in BAV patients (p=0.07). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that differences in HSP27 occur in the cytoplasma of VSMC’s and not extracellularly. Alterations in HSP27 may give early evidence for intracellular differences in aortic aneurysm of patients with BAV and TAV. Whether HSP27 and the defined phosphoproteins have a specific role in BAV associated aortic dilatation remains to be elucidated. PMID:17949744

  4. D-dimer as a Biomarker for Acute Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jia-sen; Jing, Zai-ping; Zhuang, Shun-jiu; Qi, Shao-hong; Li, Li; Zhou, Jun-wen; Zhang, Wang; Zhao, Yun; Qi, Ning; Yin, Yang-jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To perform a meta-analysis and examine the use of D-dimer levels for diagnosing acute aortic dissection (AAD). Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were searched until April 23, 2014, using the following search terms: biomarker, acute aortic dissection, diagnosis, and D-dimer. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of acute aortic dissection, D-dimer levels obtained, 2-armed study. Outcome measures were the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of D-dimer level for the diagnosis of AAD. Sensitivity analysis was performed using the leave-one-out approach. Of 34 articles identified, 5 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. The age of participants was similar between treatments within studies. The number of AAD patients ranged from 16 to 107 (total = 274), and the number of control group patients ranged from 32 to 206 (total = 469). The pooled sensitivity of D-dimer levels in AAD patients was 94.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 78.1%–98.8%, P < 0.001), and the specificity was 69.1% (95% CI 43.7%–86.5%, P = 0.136). The pooled area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for D-dimer levels in AAD patients was 0.916 (95% CI 0.863–0.970, P < 0.001). The direction and magnitude of the combined estimates did not change markedly with the exclusion of individual studies, indicating the meta-analysis had good reliability. D-dimer levels are best used for ruling out AAD in patients with low likelihood of the disease. PMID:25634194

  5. Angiotensin II Induces an Increase in Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 Expression in Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells of Ascending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms Through JNK, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK Activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunmao; Chang, Qian; Sun, Xiaogang; Qian, Xiangyang; Liu, Penghong; Pei, Huawei; Guo, Xiaobo; Liu, Wenzhi

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that angiotensin II (Ang II) induces matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) upregulation in aneurysmal smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) derived from ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (ATAAs). We compared MMP-2 protein levels in ascending aortic specimens using Western blot and plasma concentrations by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay between ATAA (n = 40) and coronary heart disease patients (n = 40). Additionally, the protein level of angiotensinogen (AGT) in the ascending aorta and the plasma concentration of Ang II were detected by Western blot and radioimmunoassay, respectively, in ATAA and coronary heart disease patients. In ATAA patients, Ang II and MMP-2 plasma levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Additionally, AGT and MMP-2 protein levels in the aorta of ATAA patients were higher (P < 0.01). Enhanced AGT suggested that the amount of Ang II in aneurysmal aorta specimens may be also increased, which was confirmed by immunofluorescent staining for Ang II. Moreover, we investigated the effect of Ang II on MMP-2 upregulation by ASMCs and determined the Ang II receptors and intracellular signaling pathways that are involved. Our results showed that treatment with Ang II significantly increased the expression of MMP-2 through the Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and activated the 3 major mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), JNK, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK. In conclusion, these results indicate that Ang II can induce MMP-2 expression elevation through AT1R and MAPK pathways in ASMCs and suggest that there is therapeutic potential for angiotensin receptor blocker drugs and MAPK inhibitors in the prevention and treatment of ATAAs. PMID:25955575

  6. Idiopathic subvalvular aortic aneurysm masquerading as acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Balaji; Ramanathan, Sundar; Subramaniam, Natarajan; Janardhanan, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Subvalvular aneurysms are the least common type of left ventricular (LV) aneurysms and can be fatal. Subaortic LV aneurysms are much rarer than submitral LV aneurysms and mostly reported in infancy. They can be congenital or acquired secondary to infections, cardiac surgery or trauma. Here, we report a unique presentation of a large, idiopathic subaortic aneurysm in an adult masquerading as an acute coronary syndrome. Diagnosis was made with the help of a CT aortography. Aneurysm was surgically resected with good results. This case highlights the clinical presentation and management of subaortic aneurysms, an important differential for congenital aortic malformations. PMID:27591034

  7. Hybrid Treatment of Acute Abdominal Aortic Thrombosis Presenting with Paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Azzarone, Matteo; De Troia, Alessandro; Iazzolino, Luigi; Nabulsi, Bilal; Tecchio, Tiziano

    2016-05-01

    Acute thrombotic or embolic occlusion of the abdominal aorta is a rare vascular emergency associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Classically, the clinical presentation is a severe peripheral ischemia with bilateral leg pain as the predominant feature. Aortic occlusion presenting as an isolated acute onset of paraplegia due to spinal cord ischemia is very rare and requires improved awareness to prevent adverse outcomes associated with delayed diagnosis. We report the case of a 54-year-old man who presented with sudden paraplegia due to the thrombotic occlusion of the infrarenal aorta involving the first segment of the common iliac arteries on both sides; emergent transperitoneal aorto iliac thrombectomy combined with the endovascular iliac kissing-stent technique were performed achieving perioperative complete regression of the symptoms. PMID:26968371

  8. Paraplegia due to Acute Aortic Coarctation and Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chang-Bum; Kim, Min-Ki; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Coarctation and occlusion of the aorta is a rare condition that typically presents with hypertension or cardiac failure. However, neuropathy or myelopathy may be the presenting features of the condition when an intraspinal subarachnoid hemorrhage has compressed the spinal cord causing ischemia. We report two cases of middle-aged males who developed acute non-traumatic paraplegia. Undiagnosed congenital abnormalities, such as aortic coarctation and occlusion, should be considered for patients presenting with nontraumatic paraplegia in the absence of other identifiable causes. Our cases suggest that spinal cord ischemia resulting from acute spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage and can cause paraplegia, and that clinicians must carefully examine patients presenting with nontraumatic paraplegia because misdiagnosis can delay initiation of the appropriate treatment. PMID:24851152

  9. Acute Type A Aortic Dissection: for Further Improvement of Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Despite improved outcomes of acute type A aortic dissection (AAAD), many patients die at the moment of onset, and hospital mortality is still high. This article reviews the latest literature to seek the best possible way to optimize outcomes. Delayed diagnosis is caused by variation in or absence of typical symptoms, especially in patients with neurological symptoms. Misdiagnosis as acute myocardial infarction is another problem. Improved awareness by physicians is needed. On arrival, quick admission to the OR is desirable, followed by assessment with transesophageal echocardiography, and malperfusion already exists or newly develops in the OR; thus, timely diagnosis without delay with multimodality assessment is important. Although endovascular therapy is promising, careful introduction is mandatory so as not to cause complications. While various routes are used for the systemic perfusion, not a single route is perfect, and careful monitoring is essential. Surgical treatment on octogenarians is increasingly performed and produces better outcomes than conservative therapy. Complications are not rare, and consent from the family is essential. Prevention of AAAD is another important issue because more patients die at its onset than in the following treatment. In addition to hereditary diseases, including bicuspid aortic valve disease, the management of blood pressure is important. PMID:23555530

  10. Online network of subspecialty aortic disease experts: Impact of "cloud" technology on management of acute aortic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Schoenhagen, Paul; Roselli, Eric E; Harris, C Martin; Eagleton, Matthew; Menon, Venu

    2016-07-01

    For the management of acute aortic syndromes, regional treatment networks have been established to coordinate diagnosis and treatment between local emergency rooms and central specialized centers. Triage of acute aortic syndromes requires definitive imaging, resulting in complex data files. Modern information technology network structures, specifically "cloud" technology, coupled with mobile communication, increasingly support sharing of these data in a network of experts using mobile, online access and communication. Although this network is technically complex, the potential benefit of online sharing of data files between professionals at multiple locations within a treatment network appear obvious; however, clinical experience is limited, and further evaluation is needed. PMID:27012454

  11. Differential aspects of the disease and treatment of Thoracic Acute Aortic Dissection (TAAD)-the European experience.

    PubMed

    Pepper, John

    2016-07-01

    The management of patients with acute aortic dissection continues to be a challenge. It is an uncommon but lethal condition which continues to be under-diagnosed and under-treated. In this review, the term acute aortic syndrome is preferred in order to embrace the closely related pathologies of intramural hematoma (IMH) and penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU). PMID:27563549

  12. Differential aspects of the disease and treatment of Thoracic Acute Aortic Dissection (TAAD)—the European experience

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The management of patients with acute aortic dissection continues to be a challenge. It is an uncommon but lethal condition which continues to be under-diagnosed and under-treated. In this review, the term acute aortic syndrome is preferred in order to embrace the closely related pathologies of intramural hematoma (IMH) and penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU). PMID:27563549

  13. FOXE3 mutations predispose to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Shao-Qing; Medina-Martinez, Olga; Guo, Dong-chuan; Gong, Limin; Regalado, Ellen S.; Reynolds, Corey L.; Boileau, Catherine; Jondeau, Guillaume; Prakash, Siddharth K.; Kwartler, Callie S.; Zhu, Lawrence Yang; Peters, Andrew M.; Duan, Xue-Yan; Bamshad, Michael J.; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Debbie A.; Santos-Cortez, Regie L.; Dong, Xiurong; Leal, Suzanne M.; Majesky, Mark W.; Swindell, Eric C.; Jamrich, Milan; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2016-01-01

    The ascending thoracic aorta is designed to withstand biomechanical forces from pulsatile blood. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and acute aortic dissections (TAADs) occur as a result of genetically triggered defects in aortic structure and a dysfunctional response to these forces. Here, we describe mutations in the forkhead transcription factor FOXE3 that predispose mutation-bearing individuals to TAAD. We performed exome sequencing of a large family with multiple members with TAADs and identified a rare variant in FOXE3 with an altered amino acid in the DNA-binding domain (p.Asp153His) that segregated with disease in this family. Additional pathogenic FOXE3 variants were identified in unrelated TAAD families. In mice, Foxe3 deficiency reduced smooth muscle cell (SMC) density and impaired SMC differentiation in the ascending aorta. Foxe3 expression was induced in aortic SMCs after transverse aortic constriction, and Foxe3 deficiency increased SMC apoptosis and ascending aortic rupture with increased aortic pressure. These phenotypes were rescued by inhibiting p53 activity, either by administration of a p53 inhibitor (pifithrin-α), or by crossing Foxe3–/– mice with p53–/– mice. Our data demonstrate that FOXE3 mutations lead to a reduced number of aortic SMCs during development and increased SMC apoptosis in the ascending aorta in response to increased biomechanical forces, thus defining an additional molecular pathway that leads to familial thoracic aortic disease. PMID:26854927

  14. Precision medical and surgical management for thoracic aortic aneurysms and acute aortic dissections based on the causative mutant gene.

    PubMed

    Milewicz, Dianna; Hostetler, Ellen; Wallace, Stephanie; Mellor-Crummey, Lauren; Gong, Limin; Pannu, Hariyadarshi; Guo, Dong-chuan; Regalado, Ellen

    2016-04-01

    Almost one-quarter of patients presenting with thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) or acute aortic dissections (TAADs) have an underlying mutation in a specific gene. A subset of these patients will have systemic syndromic features, for example, skeletal features in patients with Marfan Syndrome. It is important to note that the majority of patients with thoracic aortic disease will not have these syndromic features but many will have a family history of the disease. The genes predisposing to these thoracic aortic diseases are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, and thirteen genes have been identified to date. As the clinical phenotype associated with each specific gene is defined, the data indicate that the underlying gene dictates associated syndromic features. More importantly, the underlying gene also dictates the aortic disease presentation, the risk for dissection at a given range of aortic diameters, the risk for additional vascular diseases and what specific vascular diseases occur associated with the gene. These results lead to the recommendation that the medical and surgical management of these patients be dictated by the underlying gene, and for patients with mutations in ACTA2, the specific mutation in the gene. PMID:26837258

  15. Recurrent Gain-of-Function Mutation in PRKG1 Causes Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Acute Aortic Dissections

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dong-chuan; Regalado, Ellen; Casteel, Darren E.; Santos-Cortez, Regie L.; Gong, Limin; Kim, Jeong Joo; Dyack, Sarah; Horne, S. Gabrielle; Chang, Guijuan; Jondeau, Guillaume; Boileau, Catherine; Coselli, Joseph S.; Li, Zhenyu; Leal, Suzanne M.; Shendure, Jay; Rieder, Mark J.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Kim, Choel; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2013-01-01

    Gene mutations that lead to decreased contraction of vascular smooth-muscle cells (SMCs) can cause inherited thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. Exome sequencing of distant relatives affected by thoracic aortic disease and subsequent Sanger sequencing of additional probands with familial thoracic aortic disease identified the same rare variant, PRKG1 c.530G>A (p.Arg177Gln), in four families. This mutation segregated with aortic disease in these families with a combined two-point LOD score of 7.88. The majority of affected individuals presented with acute aortic dissections (63%) at relatively young ages (mean 31 years, range 17–51 years). PRKG1 encodes type I cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG-1), which is activated upon binding of cGMP and controls SMC relaxation. Although the p.Arg177Gln alteration disrupts binding to the high-affinity cGMP binding site within the regulatory domain, the altered PKG-1 is constitutively active even in the absence of cGMP. The increased PKG-1 activity leads to decreased phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain in fibroblasts and is predicted to cause decreased contraction of vascular SMCs. Thus, identification of a gain-of-function mutation in PRKG1 as a cause of thoracic aortic disease provides further evidence that proper SMC contractile function is critical for maintaining the integrity of the thoracic aorta throughout a lifetime. PMID:23910461

  16. [Acute coronary artery dissection after aortic valve replacement].

    PubMed

    Machado, Fernando de Paula; Sampaio, Roney Orismar; Mazzucato, Fernanda Lopez; Tarasoutchi, Flávio; Spina, Guilherme Sobreira; Grinberg, Max

    2010-02-01

    Late aortic dissection can occur after aortic valve replacement surgery, but rarely in the first postoperative month. Coronary artery dissection is rare and usually occurs after coronary angiography. We report a rare case of coronary artery dissection followed by myocardial infarction in the immediate postoperative period of a successful aortic valve replacement with a good postoperative evolution. PMID:20428604

  17. Regional alterations of repolarizing K+ currents among the left ventricular free wall of rats with ascending aortic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Volk, Tilmann; Nguyen, Thi Hong-Diep; Schultz, Jobst-Hendrik; Faulhaber, Jörg; Ehmke, Heimo

    2001-01-01

    The effect of cardiac hypertrophy on electrocardiogram (ECG), action potential duration (APD) and repolarizing K+ currents was investigated in epicardial, midmyocardial and endocardial myocytes isolated from the rat left ventricular free wall. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by stenosis of the ascending aorta (AS), which led to an increased pressure load (+85 ± 10 mm) of the left ventricle; sham-operated animals served as controls. In ECG recordings from AS rats, the QTc interval was prolonged and the main vectors of the QRS complex and the T-wave pointed in opposite directions, indicating an abnormal sequence of repolarization. APD and K+ currents were recorded using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. In the AS group, APD90 (90 % repolarization) was significantly prolonged in epicardial and midmyocardial, but not endocardial myocytes. Corresponding to the increase in APD, the magnitude of the transient outward K+ current (Ito1) was significantly smaller (-30 %) in epicardial and midmyocardial, but not endocardial myocytes. Inactivation and steady-state inactivation of Ito1 were not affected by hypertrophy. Recovery from inactivation was slightly prolonged in endocardial myocytes from AS rats. No differences in delayed rectifier currents (IK) or inwardly rectifying K+ currents (IK1) were detected between myocytes of the three regions of sham-operated or AS animals. However, both currents were reduced by AS. The present data show that cardiac hypertrophy caused by pressure overload leads to an increase in APD and a decrease in Ito1 primarily in epicardial and midmyocardial myocytes, which implies a major role of alterations in Ito1 for the reduced gradient in APD. The effects of AS on IK1 and IK may slightly counteract the decrease in APD gradient. The observed changes in APD and underlying ionic currents could well explain the alterations in repolarization observed in the ECG induced by cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:11158275

  18. Ascending aortic Doppler velocity and the prediction of exercise capacity in post-infarction left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Coats, A J; Adamopoulos, S; Isea, J E; Conway, J; Murphy, C; Sleight, P

    1992-03-01

    A system to improve analysis of the aortic pulsed Doppler velocity signal has been developed and used to study cardiac performance during a 4 min, 25 W incremental stage supine bicycle exercise to exhaustion. Twenty-two male subjects with stable chronic ischaemic heart disease were studied (15 with NYHA class II/III heart failure, and seven age-matched class I subjects). None had evidence of reversible ischaemia. Peak velocity (PV) from the intensity weighted mean velocity profile, early acceleration (eA) and stroke distance (SD) were all significantly lower at rest in class II/III compared to class I. For the change from rest to 50 W, PV did not alter, eAC increased significantly (P less than 0.05) and to a similar extent in both groups (18.6% class II/III vs 16.4% class I) and SD was reduced from 7.8 to 5.9 in class II/III (P less than 0.01) but did not change in class I (12.4 vs 11.8, ns). There was also a greater increase in heart rate (HR) in class II/III subjects (P less than 0.05). The duration of exercise was correlated with resting PV (r = 0.48, P less than 0.025) but was correlated best with the change in blood momentum (PV x Stroke volume x HR) between rest and peak exercise (r = 0.80, P less than 0.001). Thus Doppler velocimetry can give quantitative information on the response to exercise which discriminates between grades of ventricular dysfunction and is predictive of exercise capacity. PMID:1597222

  19. Outcomes before and after the Implementation of a Critical Pathway for Patients with Acute Aortic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kyu Chul; Lee, Hye Sun; Park, Joon Min; Joo, Hyun-Chel; Ko, Young-Guk; Park, Incheol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Acute aortic diseases, such as aortic dissection and aortic aneurysm, can be life-threatening vascular conditions. In this study, we compared outcomes before and after the implementation of a critical pathway (CP) for patients with acute aortic disease at the emergency department (ED). Materials and Methods This was a retrospective observational cohort study. The CP was composed of two phases: PRE-AORTA for early diagnosis and AORTA for prompt treatment. We compared patients who were diagnosed with acute aortic disease between pre-period (January 2010 to December 2011) and post-period (July 2012 to June 2014). Results Ninety-four and 104 patients were diagnosed with acute aortic disease in the pre- and post-periods, respectively. After the implementation of the CP, 38.7% of acute aortic disease cases were diagnosed via PRE-AORTA. The door-to-CT time was reduced more in PRE-AORTA-activated patients [71.0 (61.0, 115.0) min vs. 113.0 (56.0, 170.5) min; p=0.026]. During the post-period, more patients received emergency intervention than during the pre-period (22.3% vs. 36.5%; p=0.029). Time until emergency intervention was reduced in patients, who visited the ED directly, from 378.0 (302.0, 489.0) min in the pre-period to 200.0 (170.0, 299.0) min in the post-period (p=0.001). The number of patients who died in the ED declined from 11 to 4 from the pre-period to the post-period. Hospital mortality decreased from 26.6% to 14.4% in the post-period (p=0.033). Conclusion After the implementation of a CP for patients with acute aortic disease, more patients received emergency intervention within a shorter time, resulting in improved hospital mortality. PMID:26996561

  20. Acute aortic dissection caused by Clostridium septicum aortitis.

    PubMed

    Eplinius, Franziska; Hädrich, Carsten

    2014-11-01

    Clostridium septicum aortitis is a rare cause of aortic dissection. So far, only 28 cases have been described in literature before. Most of these cases occurred in elderly patients and an association to colonic neoplasms and/or atherosclerosis has been witnessed frequently. Here we report the case of a 32-year-old man with fatal aortic dissection due to aortic infection with C. septicum. Beside a case of a 22-year-old man who died of aortic dissection due to C. septicum aortitis this is the second case of C. septicum aortitis in a young individual with no signs of colonic neoplasms or atherosclerosis. PMID:25242573

  1. Contribution of Proteus mirabilis urease to persistence, urolithiasis, and acute pyelonephritis in a mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D E; Russell, R G; Lockatell, C V; Zulty, J C; Warren, J W; Mobley, H L

    1993-07-01

    Proteus mirabilis, a significant cause of bacteriuria and acute pyelonephritis in humans, produces urease. This high-molecular-weight, multimeric, cytoplasmic enzyme hydrolyzes urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide. To assess the role of urease in colonization, urolithiasis, and acute pyelonephritis in an animal model of ascending urinary tract infection, we compared a uropathogenic strain of P. mirabilis with its isogenic urease-negative mutant, containing an insertion mutation within ureC, the gene encoding the large subunit of the enzyme. Mice challenged transurethrally with the parent strain developed significant bacteriuria and urinary stones. The urease-negative mutant had a 50% infective dose of 2.7 x 10(9) CFU, a value more than 1,000-fold greater than that of the parent strain (2.2 x 10(6) CFU). The urease-positive parent strain reached significantly higher concentrations and persisted significantly longer in the bladder and kidney than did the mutant. Indeed, in the kidney, the parent strain increased in concentration while the mutant concentration fell so that, by 1 week, the parent strain concentration was 10(6) times that of the mutant. Similarly, the urease-positive parent produced significantly more severe renal pathology than the mutant. The initial abnormalities were in and around the pelvis and consisted of acute inflammation and epithelial necrosis. By 1 week, pyelitis was more severe, crystals were seen in the pelvis, and acute pyelonephritis, with acute interstitial inflammation, tubular epithelial cell necrosis, and in some cases abscesses, had developed. By 2 weeks, more animals had renal abscesses and radial bands of fibrosis. We conclude that the urease of P. mirabilis is a critical virulence determinant for colonization, urolithiasis, and severe acute pyelonephritis. PMID:8514376

  2. Plasma Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels Predict Mortality in Acute Aortic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Morello, Fulvio; Ravetti, Anna; Nazerian, Peiman; Liedl, Giovanni; Veglio, Maria Grazia; Battista, Stefania; Vanni, Simone; Pivetta, Emanuele; Montrucchio, Giuseppe; Mengozzi, Giulio; Rinaldi, Mauro; Moiraghi, Corrado; Lupia, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In acute aortic syndromes (AAS), organ malperfusion represents a key event impacting both on diagnosis and outcome. Increased levels of plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a biomarker of malperfusion, have been reported in AAS, but the performance of LDH for the diagnosis of AAS and the relation of LDH with outcome in AAS have not been evaluated so far. This was a bi-centric prospective diagnostic accuracy study and a cohort outcome study. From 2008 to 2014, patients from 2 Emergency Departments suspected of having AAS underwent LDH assay at presentation. A final diagnosis was obtained by aortic imaging. Patients diagnosed with AAS were followed-up for in-hospital mortality. One thousand five hundred seventy-eight consecutive patients were clinically eligible, and 999 patients were included in the study. The final diagnosis was AAS in 201 (20.1%) patients. Median LDH was 424 U/L (interquartile range [IQR] 367–557) in patients with AAS and 383 U/L (IQR 331–460) in patients with alternative diagnoses (P < 0.001). Using a cutoff of 450 U/L, the sensitivity of LDH for AAS was 44% (95% confidence interval [CI] 37–51) and the specificity was 73% (95% CI 69–76). Overall in-hospital mortality for AAS was 23.8%. Mortality was 32.6% in patients with LDH ≥ 450 U/L and 16.8% in patients with LDH < 450 U/L (P = 0.006). Following stratification according to LDH quartiles, in-hospital mortality was 12% in the first (lowest) quartile, 18.4% in the second quartile, 23.5% in the third quartile, and 38% in the fourth (highest) quartile (P = 0.01). LDH ≥ 450 U/L was further identified as an independent predictor of death in AAS both in univariate and in stepwise logistic regression analyses (odds ratio 2.28, 95% CI 1.11–4.66; P = 0.025), in addition to well-established risk markers such as advanced age and hypotension. Subgroup analysis showed excess mortality in association with LDH ≥ 450 U/L in elderly, hemodynamically stable

  3. Is the outcome in acute aortic dissection type A influenced by of femoral versus central cannulation?

    PubMed Central

    Bucsky, Bence S.; Richardt, Doreen; Petersen, Michael; Sievers, Hans H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the single-center experience in initial femoral versus central cannulation of the extracorporeal circulation for acute aortic dissection type A (AADA). Methods Between January 2003 and December 2015, 235 patients underwent repair of AADA. All patients were evaluated for the type of arterial cannulation (femoral vs. central) for initial bypass. Demographic data and outcome parameters were accessed. Results One hundred and twenty seven (54.0%) were initially cannulated in the central aortic vessels (ascending aorta or subclavian/axillary artery) and 108 (46.0%) in the femoral artery. Patients were comparable between age (62.4±14.4 vs. 62.9±14.4 years, P=0.805), gender (male, 62.2 vs. 69.4%, P=0.152) and previous sternotomy (15.7 vs. 16.7%, P=0.861) between both cannulation groups; while EuroSCORE I (11.5±4.0 vs. 12.7±4.2, P=0.031) and ASA Score (3.5±0.81 vs. 3.8±0.57, P=0.011) were significantly higher in the femoral artery cannulation group. Bypass (249±102 vs. 240±81 min, P=0.474), X-clamp (166±85 vs. 157±67 min, P=0.418) and circulatory arrest time (51.6±28.7 vs. 48.3±21.7 min, P=0.365) were similar between the groups as were lowest temperature (18.1±2.0 vs. 18.1±2.2, P=0.775). Postoperative neurologic deficit and 30-day mortality were comparable between both cannulation groups (11.7 vs. 7.2%, P=0.449 and 20.2 vs. 16.9%, P=0.699, central vs. peripheral cannulation). Multivariate analysis revealed only EuroScore I above 13 as single preoperative predictor for mortality. Conclusions AADA can be operated with both femoral and central cannulation with similar results. Risk for early mortality was driven by the preoperative clinical and hemodynamic status before operation rather than the cannulation technique. PMID:27563543

  4. The hemostatic disturbance in patients with acute aortic dissection: A prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xinliang; Li, Jiachen; Gong, Ming; Lan, Feng; Zhang, Hongjia

    2016-09-01

    Coagulopathy is still a frequent complication in the surgical treatment of acute aortic dissection. However, the physiopathology of surgically induced coagulopathy has never been systematically and comprehensively studied in patients with acute aortic dissection. The aim of the present study was to describe the perioperative hemostatic system in patients with acute aortic dissection.The 87 patients who underwent aortic arch surgery for acute Stanford type A aortic dissection from January 2013 to September 2015 were enrolled in this study. The perioperative biomarkers of hemostatic system were evaluated using standard laboratory tests and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) at 5 time points: anesthesia induction (T1), lowest nasopharyngeal temperature (T2), protamine reversal (T3), 4 hours after surgery (T4), and 24 hours after surgery (T5).The ELISAs biomarkers revealed activation of coagulation (thrombin-antithrombin III complex [TAT] and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 [F1 + 2] were elevated), suppression of anticoagulation (antithrombin III [AT III] levels were depressed), and activation of fibrinolysis (plasminogen was decreased and plasmin-antiplasmin complex [PAP] was elevated). The standard laboratory tests also demonstrated that surgery resulted in a significant reduction in platelet counts and fibrinogen concentration.Systemic activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis, and inhibition of anticoagulation were observed during the perioperative period in patients with acute aortic dissection. Indeed, these patients exhibited consumption coagulopathy and procoagulant state perioperatively. Therefore, we believe that this remarkable disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)-like coagulopathy has a high risk of bleeding and may influence postoperative outcome of patients with acute aortic dissection. PMID:27603366

  5. State-of-the-Art Surgical Management of Acute Type A Aortic Dissection.

    PubMed

    El-Hamamsy, Ismail; Ouzounian, Maral; Demers, Philippe; McClure, Scott; Hassan, Ansar; Dagenais, Francois; Chu, Michael W A; Pozeg, Zlatko; Bozinovski, John; Peterson, Mark D; Boodhwani, Munir; McArthur, Roderick G G; Appoo, Jehangir J

    2016-01-01

    Acute type A aortic dissections still present a major challenge to cardiac surgeons. Although surgical management remains the gold standard, operative mortality remains high, including in experienced centres. Nevertheless, recent advances in the understanding and management of various aspects of these complex operations are expected to improve overall patient outcomes. The Canadian Thoracic Aortic Collaborative (CTAC) represents a group of surgeons with interest and expertise in the management of patients with aortic diseases. The purpose of this state-of-the-art review is to detail our approach to the contemporary surgical management of acute type A aortic dissections. We focus specifically on cannulation strategies, cerebral protection, and extent of proximal and distal resection. In addition, specific clinical scenarios-including malperfusion, intramural hematomas, and surgery in octogenarians-are explored. PMID:26604123

  6. Early diagnosis and surgical intervention of acute aortic dissection by transesophageal color flow mapping.

    PubMed

    Adachi, H; Kyo, S; Takamoto, S; Kimura, S; Yokote, Y; Omoto, R

    1990-11-01

    To determine whether transesophageal color Doppler echocardiography (TEE) is useful for the early diagnosis and surgical intervention in acute aortic dissection, 57 serial patients with acute aortic dissection were examined. These patients were evaluated by TEE with either the single-plane probe (39 patients) or the biplanar probe (18 patients) just after admission. The intimal flap was detected in all patients, and there were 18 patients with type A dissection and 39 patients with type B dissection. The entry was visualized in 83% of type A dissection cases and in 90% of type B dissection cases. In two of 18 patients examined with the biplanar probe technique, the entry was detected in the longitudinal view only. Emergency operations were performed in 18 patients with type A dissection and in 10 patients with ruptured type B dissection. Twenty-nine of 39 patients with type B dissection were treated conservatively. The operative mortality rate of patients with type A dissection was 22%, and that of patients with ruptured type B dissection was 60%. The major advantage of TEE is its ease of application at the bedside or in the operating room, which allows immediate and accurate diagnosis of acute aortic dissection for emergency surgical intervention. Biplanar TEE provides additional acoustic windows, ease of spatial orientation, and more accurate visualization of entry. TEE is a useful and powerful diagnostic tool for acute aortic dissection, and by using this method, one may achieve a more rapid and aggressive surgical approach for patients with acute aortic dissection. PMID:2225402

  7. [Surgical aortic valve replacement for acute Streptococcus viridans endocarditis with simultaneous moderate hemophilia A].

    PubMed

    Krawietz, W; Loracher, C; Struck, E; Schlimok, G; Falk, H

    1988-07-01

    This is a report of a 25-year-old patient with known aortic valve stenosis since early youth and hemophilia A, showing recurrent joint bleeding. Acute Streptococcus endocarditis induced aortic valve insufficiency resulting in cardiac failure. Aortic valve replacement was performed after substitution of factor VIII, during which intra- and postoperative bleeding was prolonged by pericardial adhesions. Heparin was administered during cardiopulmonary-bypass as usual, but usual postoperative cumarin therapy was not initiated due to prolonged PTT time. One year postoperatively, the patient was in an excellent condition and fully rehabilitated. PMID:3145652

  8. Acute aortic syndrome-pitfalls on gated and non-gated CT scan.

    PubMed

    Husainy, Mohammad Ali; Sayyed, Farhina; Puppala, Sapna

    2016-08-01

    Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is a life-threatening condition which includes aortic dissection (AD), penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU) and intramural hematoma (IMH). Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) plays a crucial role in the diagnosis of this condition and for further clinical follow-up. It is important for radiologists to be aware of common pitfalls in cardiac-gated and non-gated CT in diagnosing AAS. They should also be wary of common mimics of AAS which may make a significant difference towards management of these patients. In this review, we present from our practice some of the common pitfalls and mimics of AAS on MDCT. PMID:27220654

  9. Aortic Disease Presentation and Outcome Associated with ACTA2 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Regalado, Ellen S.; Guo, Dongchuan; Prakash, Siddharth; Bensend, Tracy A.; Flynn, Kelly; Estrera, Anthony; Safi, Hazim; Liang, David; Hyland, James; Child, Anne; Arno, Gavin; Boileau, Catherine; Jondeau, Guillaume; Braverman, Alan; Moran, Rocio; Morisaki, Takayuki; Morisaki, Hiroko; Consortium, Montalcino Aortic; Pyeritz, Reed; Coselli, Joseph; LeMaire, Scott; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2015-01-01

    Background ACTA2 mutations are the major cause of familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. We sought to characterize these aortic diseases in a large case series of individuals with ACTA2 mutations. Methods and Results Aortic disease, management, and outcome associated with the first aortic event (aortic dissection or aneurysm repair) were abstracted from the medical records of 277 individuals with 41 various ACTA2 mutations. Aortic events occurred in 48% of these individuals, with the vast majority presenting with thoracic aortic dissections (88%) associated with 25% mortality. Type A dissections were more common than type B dissections (54% versus 21%), but the median age of onset of type B dissections was significantly younger than type A dissections (27 years, IQR 18–41 versus 36 years, IQR 26–45). Only 12% of aortic events were repair of ascending aortic aneurysms, which variably involved the aortic root, ascending aorta and aortic arch. Overall cumulative risk of an aortic event at age 85 years was 0.76 (95% CI 0.64, 0.86). After adjustment for intra-familial correlation, gender and race, mutations disrupting p.R179 and p.R258 were associated with significantly increased risk for aortic events, whereas p.R185Q and p.R118Q mutations showed significantly lower risk of aortic events compared to other mutations. Conclusions ACTA2 mutations are associated with high risk of presentation with an acute aortic dissection. The lifetime risk for an aortic event is only 76%, suggesting that additional environmental or genetic factors play a role in expression of aortic disease in individuals with ACTA2 mutations. PMID:25759435

  10. Combined venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and transcatheter aortic valve implantation for the treatment of acute aortic prosthesis dysfunction in a high-risk patient.

    PubMed

    Pergolini, Amedeo; Zampi, Giordano; Tinti, Maria Denitza; Polizzi, Vincenzo; Pino, Paolo Giuseppe; Pontillo, Daniele; Musumeci, Francesco; Luzi, Giampaolo

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of a patient with acute bioprosthesis dysfunction in cardiogenic shock, in whom hemodynamic support was provided by venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and successfully treated by transcatheter aortic valve implantation. PMID:27402446

  11. Successful bovine arch replacement for a type A acute aortic dissection in a pregnant woman with severe haemodynamic compromise

    PubMed Central

    Nonga, Bernadette Ngo; Pasquet, Agnès; Noirhomme, Philippe; El–Khoury, Gebrine

    2012-01-01

    Acute aortic dissection is very uncommon in pregnant women and the acute type A aortic dissection carries a high mortality rate outside specialized centres. There are a few cases reported with successful outcomes for the mother and the foetus from major cardiac centres. We are reporting our first experience of acute aortic dissection during the third trimester of pregnancy in a patient with Marfan features, profound haemodynamic compromise on arrival and a bovine aortic arch. Both the mother and the baby are doing well two years postoperatively. PMID:22547559

  12. Acute pulmonary edema due to stress cardiomyopathy in a patient with aortic stenosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Stress cardiomyopathy is a condition of chest pain, breathlessness, abnormal heart rhythms and sometimes congestive heart failure or shock precipitated by intense mental or physical stress. Case presentation A 64-year-old male with a known diagnosis of moderate-to-severe aortic stenosis and advised that valve replacement was not urgent, presented with acute pulmonary edema following extraordinary mental distress. The patient was misdiagnosed as having a "massive heart attack" and died when managed by a traditional protocol for acute myocardial infarction/coronary artery disease, irrespective of his known aortic stenosis. Conclusion Intense mental stress poses a considerable risk, particularly to patients with significant aortic stenosis. As described here, it can precipitate acute pulmonary edema. Importantly, effective management of acute pulmonary edema due to stress cardiomyopathy in patients with known aortic stenosis requires its distinction from acute pulmonary edema caused by an acute myocardial infarction. Treatment options include primarily urgent rhythm and/or rate control, as well as cautious vasodilation. PMID:20062645

  13. Surgical Management of Aorto-Esophageal Fistula as a Late Complication after Graft Replacement for Acute Aortic Dissection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Hong; Na, Bubse; Hwang, Yoohwa; Kim, Yong Han; Park, In Kyu; Kim, Kyung-Hwan

    2016-02-01

    A 49-year-old male presented with chills and a fever. Five years previously, he underwent ascending aorta and aortic arch replacement using the elephant trunk technique for DeBakey type 1 aortic dissection. The preoperative evaluation found an esophago-paraprosthetic fistula between the prosthetic graft and the esophagus. Multiple-stage surgery was performed with appropriate antibiotic and antifungal management. First, we performed esophageal exclusion and drainage of the perigraft abscess. Second, we removed the previous graft, debrided the abscess, and performed an in situ re-replacement of the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and proximal descending thoracic aorta, with separate replacement of the innominate artery, left common carotid artery, and extra-anatomical bypass of the left subclavian artery. Finally, staged esophageal reconstruction was performed via transthoracic anastomosis. The patient's postoperative course was unremarkable and the patient has done well without dietary problems or recurrent infections over one and a half years of follow-up. PMID:26889449

  14. Reversal of acute monoparesis following thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Naoto; Yuzaki, Mitsuru; Nasu, Michihiro; Okada, Yukikatsu

    2014-05-01

    A 67-year-old man underwent surgical repair for a Crawford extent V thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm under cerebrospinal fluid drainage and motor evoked potential monitor on distal aortic perfusion. Postoperatively, weakness of right-sided leg graded 2/5 and bladder disorder were recognized. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed hyperintensity between Th11 and L1 on T2-weighted image. Intravenous glycerin and edaravone for spinal cord ischemia had been administered. The strength of right leg resolved completely with disappearance of hyperintensity on magnetic resonance image. Finally, he could walk on foot with bladder disorder. PMID:23609482

  15. Acute Limb Ischemia from Sudden Thrombosis of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Subram, Aswath N.; Duncan, J. Michael

    1982-01-01

    Thrombosis of a previously undiagnosed aneurysm of the abdominal aorta in a 64-year-old woman resulted in acute and severe ischemia in both legs. Prompt surgical resection of the aneurysm and restoration of aortic continuity with a fabric graft brought about complete resolution of her symptoms, with excellent functional results one year after the operation. Images PMID:15226820

  16. Acute myocardial infarction due to left main compression aortic dissection treated by direct stenting.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Carlos; Riadh, Rihani; Mazen, Moukahal

    2004-02-01

    We describe a case of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) due to compression of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) by a false channel created by an acute aortic dissection (AAD). The dynamic pattern of artery obstruction is detailed as a key element to the diagnosis of extrinsic coronary compression throughout the angiography. Treatment by direct stenting restored complete anterograde coronary flow and improved myocardial perfusion. PMID:14760201

  17. Torsemide Versus Furosemide in Patients With Acute Heart Failure (from the ASCEND-HF Trial).

    PubMed

    Mentz, Robert J; Hasselblad, Vic; DeVore, Adam D; Metra, Marco; Voors, Adriaan A; Armstrong, Paul W; Ezekowitz, Justin A; Tang, W H Wilson; Schulte, Phillip J; Anstrom, Kevin J; Hernandez, Adrian F; Velazquez, Eric J; O'Connor, Christopher M

    2016-02-01

    Furosemide is the most commonly used loop diuretic in patients with heart failure (HF) despite data suggesting potential pharmacologic and antifibrotic benefits with torsemide. We investigated patients with HF in Acute Study of Clinical Effectiveness of Nesiritide in Decompensated Heart Failure who were discharged on either torsemide or furosemide. Using inverse probability weighting to account for the nonrandom selection of diuretic, we assessed the relation between choice of diuretic at discharge with 30-day mortality or HF hospitalization and 180-day mortality. Of 7,141 patients in the trial, 4,177 patients were included in this analysis, of which 87% (n = 3,620) received furosemide and 13% (n = 557) received torsemide. Torsemide-treated patients had lower ejection fraction and blood pressure and higher creatinine and natriuretic peptide level compared with furosemide. Torsemide was associated with similar outcomes on unadjusted analysis and nominally lower events on adjusted analysis (30-day mortality/HF hospitalization odds ratio 0.89, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.29, p = 0.55 and 180-day mortality hazard ratio 0.86, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.19, p = 0.37). In conclusion, these data are hypothesis-generating and randomized comparative effectiveness trials are needed to investigate the optimal diuretic choice. PMID:26704029

  18. Prognostic Implications of Acute Renal Failure after Surgery for Type A Acute Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Fabrizio; Morgante, Alessandro; Ceresa, Fabrizio; Salamone, Giovanni; Patanè, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Background “Type A” acute aortic dissection (AAAD) is the most challenging among the emergency operations in cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the role of acute renal failure (ARF) in postoperative survival of patients operated for AAAD. Methods From February 2010 to April 2012, 37 consecutive patients were operated at our department for AAAD. We studied our population by subdividing the patients within groups according to the presence of ARF requiring continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) and according to hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) times and degrees. Results The overall 30-day mortality was 27% (50% group A with ARF, 13% group B no ARF). Acute renal failure requiring CVVH was 37.8%. Multivariate analysis revealed a significant association with 30-day mortality (odds ratio 6.6 and p = 0.020). Preoperative oliguria [urine output less than 30 ml/h (odds ratio 4.7 p = 0.039)], CPB greater than 180 minutes (odds ratio 6.5 p = 0.023) and postoperative bleeding requiring a surgical reopening (odds ratio 12.2 and p = 0.021) were the variables significantly associated with acute kidney injury. Conclusions The data obtained from our analysis bring out the high incidence of renal injuries after surgery for AAAD, and indicate a negative impact on renal injuries of a preoperative oliguria, longer Cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP)/HCA times, and postoperative bleeding requiring a surgical revision. Our data also suggest a better 30-day survival and better renal outcomes in case of shorter HCA and lesser degree of hypothermia. The option of lesser and shorter hypothermia may be very useful, especially for the elderly patients and octogenarians. PMID:27069938

  19. Mechanical failure (leaflet disruption) of a porcine aortic heterograft: rare cause of acute aortic insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Housman, L B; Pitt, W A; Mazur, J H; Litchford, B; Gross, S A

    1978-08-01

    Use of the Hancock, glutaraldehyde-preserved, stented heterograft for aortic valve replacement has gained wide acceptance in the past 7 years. Nevertheless, very little is known about the long-term mechanical and pathological characteristics following implantation. A rare case is presented in which mechanical valve failure occurred secondary to leaflet disruption in the absence of infection 23 months after implantation. The literature is reviewed and the implications of this unusual complication are discussed. PMID:567263

  20. Aortic dissection presenting as acute subtotal left main coronary artery occlusion: a case approach and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ruisi, Michael; Fallahi, Arzhang; Lala, Moinakhtar; Kanei, Yumiko

    2015-05-01

    Aortic dissection is the most common fatal condition of the aorta, yet it is often missed on initial clinical presentation. Aortic dissection associated with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is relatively rare, but if it occurs, it can be diagnostically challenging, and the condition can be fatal. Here we describe a case of aortic dissection presenting as ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) managed via the transradial approach. We describe the current literature on the subject. PMID:25780485

  1. Aortic Dissection Presenting as Acute Subtotal Left Main Coronary Artery Occlusion: A Case Approach and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ruisi, Michael; Fallahi, Arzhang; Lala, Moinakhtar; Kanei, Yumiko

    2015-01-01

    Aortic dissection is the most common fatal condition of the aorta, yet it is often missed on initial clinical presentation. Aortic dissection associated with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is relatively rare, but if it occurs, it can be diagnostically challenging, and the condition can be fatal. Here we describe a case of aortic dissection presenting as ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) managed via the transradial approach. We describe the current literature on the subject. PMID:25780485

  2. Acute contained ruptured aortic aneurysm presenting as left vocal fold immobility.

    PubMed

    Gnagi, Sharon H; Howard, Brittany E; Hoxworth, Joseph M; Lott, David G

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To recognize intrathoracic abnormalities, including expansion or rupture of aortic aneurysms, as a source of acute onset vocal fold immobility. Methods. A case report and review of the literature. Results. An 85-year-old female with prior history of an aortic aneurysm presented to a tertiary care facility with sudden onset hoarseness. On laryngoscopy, the left vocal fold was immobile in the paramedian position. A CT scan obtained that day revealed a new, large hematoma surrounding the upper descending aortic stent graft consistent with an acute contained ruptured aortic aneurysm. She was referred to the emergency department for evaluation and treatment by vascular surgery. She was counseled regarding surgical options and ultimately decided not to pursue further treatment. Her vocal fold immobility was subsequently treated via office-based injection medialization two weeks after presentation and again 5 months after the initial injection which dramatically improved her voice. Follow-up CT scan at 8 months demonstrated a reduction of the hematoma. The left vocal cord remains immobile to date. Conclusion. Ortner's syndrome, or cardiovocal syndrome, is hoarseness secondary to left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy caused by cardiovascular pathology. It is a rare condition and, while typically presenting gradually, may also present with acute symptomatology. PMID:25648215

  3. Use of Arterial Catheters in the Management of Acute Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Ruszala, Michael W.; Reimer, Andrew P.; Hickman, Ronald L.; Clochesy, John M.; Hustey, Fredric M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the use of invasive arterial blood pressure (IBP) monitoring and reaching established aggressive medical management goals in acute aortic dissection. Methods Data were collected through a retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with acute aortic syndromes of the thoracic cavity who required transport to tertiary care over a 28-month period. The 2010 American Heart Association medical management goals of thoracic aortic disease were used as hemodynamic end points. Results A total of 208 patients were included, with 113 (54%) diagnosed at least in part with acute Stanford Type A aortic dissections and the remaining 95 (46%) having isolated Stanford Type B dissections. Emergency departments made up 158 (76%) of transfer departments; 129 (62%) patients had IBP catheters placed. The highest mean systolic blood pressures (SBPs) recorded were 165 mm Hg in the IBP group versus 151 mm Hg when noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP) cuffs were used (P < .01). The mean decrease in SBP during transport was 51 mm Hg in the IBP group versus 34 mm Hg in the NIBP group (P < .001). The difference between the last reported NIBP and the first IBP was noted as 19 mm Hg higher. The IBP group met the SBP goal more frequently than the NIBP group (P < .05) when the SBP was noted as greater than 140 mm Hg during transport. Bedside time increased only 6 minutes with IBP placement (P < .007). Conclusion Patients with IBP catheters were noted to be more aggressively managed with antihypertensive medications, met hemodynamic goals more frequently, and had only 6 minutes longer bedside times. These findings support the placement of IBP catheters by emergency departments and critical care transport (CCT) teams in patients with acute aortic syndromes requiring interfacility transport to definitive care. PMID:25441531

  4. Giant Aortic Root Aneurysm Presenting as Acute Type A Aortic Dissection.

    PubMed

    Raz, Guy M; Stamou, Sotiris C

    2014-06-01

    A 49-year-old woman with four months of increasing episodic palpitations, chest pain, and shortness of breath presented to an outside clinic where a new 4/6 systolic ejection murmur was identified. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a large aortic root aneurysm. The patient underwent emergent repair of the dissected root aneurysm with a modified Bentall procedure utilizing a #19 St Jude Valsalva mechanical valve conduit. Postoperatively, she required a permanent pacemaker placement. Her echo showed ejection fraction improvement from a preoperative 25% to a postoperative 35%. She was discharged home on postoperative day 7. PMID:26798728

  5. Acute Outcomes after Introduction of a Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plan (SCAMP) for Balloon Aortic Valvuloplastyin Congenital Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Porras, Diego; Brown, David W; Rathod, Rahul; Friedman, Kevin; Gauvreau, Kimberly; Lock, James E; Esch, Jesse J; Bergersen, Lisa; Marshall, Audrey C

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Standardization of care can reduce practice variation, optimize resource utilization and improve clinical outcomes. We have created a standardized clinical assessment and management plan (SCAMP) for patients having balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) for congenital aortic stenosis (AS). This study compares acute outcomes of BAV at our institution before and after introduction of this SCAMP. Methods In this retrospective matched cohort study each SCAMP patient was matched to 4 historical controls. Outcomes were categorized based on the combination of residual AS and AR as: 1)Optimal: gradient ≤ 35 mmHg and trivial or no AR, 2)Adequate: gradient ≤ 35 mmHg and mild AR, 3)Inadequate: gradient > 35 mmHg and/or moderate or severe AR. Results All 23 SCAMP patients achieved a residual AS gradient ≤ 35 mmHg; the median residual AS gradient for the SCAMP group was lower (25 (10 – 35) mmHg) than in matched controls (30 (0 – 65) mmHg; p=0.005). The two groups did not differ with regard to degree of AR grade after BAV. Compared to controls, SCAMP patients were more likely to have an optimal result, and less likely to have an inadequate result (52% versus34% and 17% versus 45%, respectively; p=0.02) Conclusions A SCAMP for BAV resulted in optimal acute results in half of the initial 23 patients enrolled, and outcomes in this group were better than those of matched historical controls. Whether these improved acute outcomes translate into better long term outcomes for this patient population remains to be seen. PMID:24127834

  6. Acute systemic hypotension after arteriovenous fistula construction in a patient with severe aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Mise, Naobumi; Uchida, Lisa; Tanaka, Mototsugu; Tanaka, Shinji; Nakajima, Hiroyoshi; Sugimoto, Tokuichiro

    2011-10-01

    We report the case of a 53-year-old hemodialysis patient with severe aortic stenosis, who developed acute systemic hypoperfusion after arteriovenous fistula (AVF) construction. He presented with hypotension and repeated syncope soon after distal radiocephalic AVF construction, and finally developed a respiratory arrest. His blood pressure and hemodynamics recovered promptly by sub-emergent aortic valve replacement surgery. In the present case, the heart with severe aortic stenosis could not increase cardiac output in response to the reduction in peripheral vascular resistance caused by the AVF. High-output heart failure, a relatively rare AVF-associated disorder, occurs with an excessive AVF flow, usually more than 3 L/min or 30% of cardiac output. However, heart failure may develop soon after construction of an AVF with a moderate blood flow if a patient's cardiac function is severely impaired. In addition, heart failure may improve with AVF preservation if the underlying heart disease is treatable. PMID:21725657

  7. [Acute post-traumatic aortic insufficiency: transesophageal echocardiography in the diagnosis and therapy of the lesions].

    PubMed

    Brandstätt, P; Carlioz, R; Fontaine, B; Hémery, Y; Pats, B; Chapuis, O; Lang-Lazdunsky, L; Jancovici, R; Burlaton, J P; Hvass, U

    1998-10-01

    A 58-year-old car driver suffered a road accident responsible for severe blunt thoraco-abdominal trauma. Transoephageal echocardiography, performed following the secondary development of a diastolic murmur, confirmed the presence of aortic incompetence due to commissural avulsion and guided the surgical treatment, which consisted of commissural suspension under cardiopulmonary bypass via a mini transverse trans-sternal incision. The rarity of acute aortic valve incompetence following non-penetrating thoracic trauma is illustrated by the data of the literature. This lesion is due to either avulsion of a sigmoid cusp or commissure, or laceration of the valvular tissue. Transthoracic echocardiography confirms the reality of aortic incompetence suggested clinically by appearance of a diastolic murmur, but confirmation of the mechanism of the lesions is based on transoesophageal echocardiography which allows perfectly safe and rapid visualization of the mechanism of the valvular lesion, investigation of associated lesions and guidance of therapeutic management. PMID:9809140

  8. Acute kidney injury after transcatheter aortic valve implantation: incidence, predictors and impact on mortality.

    PubMed

    Elhmidi, Yacine; Bleiziffer, Sabine; Deutsch, Marcus-André; Krane, Markus; Mazzitelli, Domenico; Lange, Rüdiger; Piazza, Nicolo

    2014-02-01

    There is a paucity of data describing acute kidney injury (AKI) following transcatheter aortic valve implantation and its impact on mortality remains unknown. We therefore evaluate the incidence, predictors and impact of AKI following transcatheter aortic valve implantation. We searched MEDLINE for studies from 2008 to 2013, evaluating AKI after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. All studies were compared according to the incidence, predictors and impact of AKI following transcatheter aortic valve implantation. AKI was diagnosed according to the Valve Academic Research Consortium definition using the RIFLE criteria. Thirteen studies with more than 1900 patients were included. AKI occurred in 8.3-57% of the patients. The following factors were associated with AKI: blood transfusion; transapical access; preoperative creatinine concentration; peripheral vascular disease; hypertension; and procedural bleeding events. The 30-day mortality rate in patients with AKI ranged from 13.3% to 44.4% and was 2-6-fold higher than in patients without AKI. The amount of contrast agent used was not associated with the occurrence of AKI. AKI is a common complication, with an incidence of 8.3-57% following transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Patients with AKI had higher 30-day and late mortality rates. However, AKI was related to the amount of contrast volume used in only one study. PMID:24556191

  9. Multi-detector computed tomography in the diagnosis and management of acute aortic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Hallinan, James Thomas Patrick Decourcy; Anil, Gopinathan

    2014-01-01

    Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is a spectrum of conditions, which may ultimately progress to potentially life-threatening aortic rupture. This syndrome encompasses aortic dissection (AD), intramural haematoma, penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer and unstable thoracic aortic aneurysms. Multi-detector CT (MDCT) is crucial for the diagnosis of AAS, especially in the emergency setting due to its speed, accuracy and ready availability. This review attends to the value of appropriate imaging protocols in obtaining good quality images that can permit a confident diagnosis of AAS. AD is the most commonly encountered AAS and also the one with maximum potential to cause catastrophic outcome if not diagnosed and managed promptly. Hence, this review briefly addresses certain relevant clinical perspectives on this condition. Differentiating the false from the true lumen in AD is often essential; a spectrum of CT findings, e.g., “beak sign”, aortic “cobwebs” that allows such differentiation have been described with explicit illustrations. The value of non enhanced CT scans, especially useful in the diagnosis of an intramural hematoma has also been illustrated. Overlap in the clinical and imaging features of the various conditions presenting as AAS is not unusual. However, on most instances MDCT enables the right diagnosis. On select occasions MRI or trans-esophageal echocardiography may be required as a problem solving tool. PMID:24976936

  10. Partial Aortic Occlusion and Cerebral Venous Steal: Venous Effects of Arterial Manipulation in Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Pranevicius, Osvaldas; Pranevicius, Mindaugas; Liebeskind, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke therapy emphasizes early arterial clot lysis or removal. Partial aortic occlusion has recently emerged as an alternative hemodynamic approach to augment cerebral perfusion in acute ischemic stroke. The exact mechanism of cerebral flow augmentation with partial aortic occlusion remains unclear and may involve more than simple diversion of arterial blood flow from the lower body to cerebral collateral circulation. The cerebral venous steal hypothesis suggests that even a small increase in tissue pressure in the ischemic area will divert blood flow to surrounding regions with lesser tissue pressures. This may cause no-reflow (absence of flow after restoration of arterial patency) in the ischemic core and “luxury perfusion” in the surrounding regions. Such maldistribution may be reversed with increased venous pressure titrated to avoid changes in intracranial pressure. We propose that partial aortic occlusion enhances perfusion in the brain by offsetting cerebral venous steal. Partial aortic occlusion redistributes blood volume into the upper part of the body, manifest by an increase in central venous pressure. Increased venous pressure recruits the collapsed vascular network and, by eliminating cerebral venous steal, corrects perifocal perfusion maldistribution, analogous to positive end expiratory pressure recruitment of collapsed airways to decrease ventilation/perfusion mismatch in the lungs. PMID:21441149

  11. Usefulness of cervical magnetic resonance imaging for detecting type A acute aortic dissection with acute stroke symptoms.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Yasuhisa; Hirata, Yutaka

    2016-09-01

    Type A acute aortic dissection (TAAAD) sometimes presents with acute stroke-like symptoms. When intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) therapy is considered for acute ischemic stroke, TAAAD must be excluded. Painless TAAAD presenting with acute stroke may be easily missed. Two cases of painless TAAAD presenting with acute stroke in which IV-tPA therapy was considered are reported. In these cases, cervical magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was useful for detecting TAAAD, and IV-tPA therapy was canceled. The mottled high signal ("snowstorm") in the common carotid artery on cervical MRA is specific for TAAAD. We have thus named this phenomenon the "snowstorm sign" and believe it can help diagnose TAAAD. PMID:27118510

  12. How I do it – sole innominate cannulation for acute type A aortic dissection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We describe sole direct innominate cannulation for arterial return for establishing both cardiopulmonary bypass and selective antegrade cerebral perfusion in the repair of acute type A dissection and compare it with femoral, axillary, direct aortic and apical cannulations. We believe innominate cannulation has all the advantages of right axillary cannulation and none of its disadvantages. It can be used in all patients in whom innominate artery is not dissected, obstructed, calcified or otherwise diseased. PMID:23167966

  13. Recommendations for Haemodynamic and Neurological Monitoring in Repair of Acute Type A Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Deborah K.; Ranasinghe, Aaron M.; Shah, Anwar; Oelofse, Tessa; Bonser, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    During treatment of acute type A aortic dissection there is potential for both pre- and intra-operative malperfusion. There are a number of monitoring strategies that may allow for earlier detection of potentially catastrophic malperfusion (particularly cerebral malperfusion) phenomena available for the anaesthetist and surgeon. This review article sets out to discuss the benefits of the current standard monitoring techniques available as well as desirable/experimental techniques which may serve as adjuncts in the monitoring of these complex patients. PMID:21776255

  14. Genetic Variants in LRP1 and ULK4 Are Associated with Acute Aortic Dissections.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dong-Chuan; Grove, Megan L; Prakash, Siddharth K; Eriksson, Per; Hostetler, Ellen M; LeMaire, Scott A; Body, Simon C; Shalhub, Sherene; Estrera, Anthony L; Safi, Hazim J; Regalado, Ellen S; Zhou, Wei; Mathis, Michael R; Eagle, Kim A; Yang, Bo; Willer, Cristen J; Boerwinkle, Eric; Milewicz, Dianna M

    2016-09-01

    Acute aortic dissections are a preventable cause of sudden death if individuals at risk are identified and surgically repaired in a non-emergency setting. Although mutations in single genes can be used to identify at-risk individuals, the majority of dissection case subjects do not have evidence of a single gene disorder, but rather have the other major risk factor for dissections, hypertension. Initial genome-wide association studies (GWASs) identified SNPs at the FBN1 locus associated with both thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. Here, we used the Illumina HumanExome array to genotype 753 individuals of European descent presenting specifically with non-familial, sporadic thoracic aortic dissection (STAD) and compared them to the genotypes of 2,259 control subjects from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study matched for age, gender, and, for the majority of cases, hypertension. SNPs in FBN1, LRP1, and ULK4 were identified to be significantly associated with STAD, and these results were replicated in two independent cohorts. Combining the data from all cohorts confirmed an inverse association between LRP1 rs11172113 and STAD (p = 2.74 × 10(-8); OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.76-0.89) and a direct association between ULK4 rs2272007 and STAD (p = 1.15 × 10(-9); OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.23-1.49). Genomic copy-number variation analysis independently confirmed that ULK4 deletions were significantly associated with development of thoracic aortic disease. These results indicate that genetic variations in LRP1 and ULK4 contribute to risk for presenting with an acute aortic dissection. PMID:27569546

  15. [Surgical treatment of a patient with giant false aneurysm of xenopericardial conduit of the ascending aorta].

    PubMed

    Charchian, É R; Skvortsov, A A

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with a clinical case report concerning successful secondary surgical intervention for a giant pseudoaneurysm of the xenopericardial conduit of the ascending aorta in a patient with type A chronic aortic dissection, with a history previously endured prosthetic repair of the ascending aorta and aortic valve for acute dissection. The patient underwent was subjected to repeat prosthetic repair of the aortic valve and ascending aorta according to the Cabrol's technique. The postoperative period was uneventful. The function of the aortic valve prosthesis after surgery was satisfactory. The control multispiral computed tomography showed that reconstruction zone was without deformities, with the ostia of coronary arteries patent. On day 15 postoperatively the patient was discharged from hospital to undergo rehabilitation with recommendations concerning the subsequent stage of surgical treatment. The conclusion was drawn that despite life-threatening disease and an extensive scope of reconstruction correctly chosen surgical policy makes it possible to adequately carry out the necessary operation with a good outcome. PMID:25757183

  16. TGFB2 loss of function mutations cause familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and acute aortic dissections associated with mild systemic features of the Marfan syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Boileau, Catherine; Guo, Dong-Chuan; Hanna, Nadine; Regalado, Ellen S.; Detaint, Delphine; Gong, Limin; Varret, Mathilde; Prakash, Siddharth; Li, Alexander H.; d’Indy, Hyacintha; Braverman, Alan C.; Grandchamp, Bernard; Kwartler, Callie S.; Gouya, Laurent; Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P.; Abifadel, Marianne; Leal, Suzanne M.; Muti, Christine; Shendure, Jay; Gross, Marie-Sylvie; Rieder, Mark J.; Vahanian, Alec; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Michel, Jean Baptiste; Jondeau, Guillaume; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2014-01-01

    A predisposition for thoracic aortic aneurysms leading to acute aortic dissections can be inherited in families in an autosomal dominant manner. Genome-wide linkage analysis of two large unrelated families with thoracic aortic disease, followed by whole exome sequencing of affected relatives, identified causative mutations in TGFB2. These mutations, a frameshift mutation in exon 6 and a nonsense mutation in exon 4, segregated with disease with a combined LOD score of 7.7. Sanger sequencing of 276 probands from families with inherited thoracic aortic disease identified two additional TGFB2 mutations. TGFB2 encodes the transforming growth factor beta-2 (TGF-β2) and the mutations are predicted to cause haploinsufficiency for TGFB2, but aortic tissue from cases paradoxically shows increased TGF-β2 expression and immunostaining. Thus, haploinsufficiency of TGFB2 predisposes to thoracic aortic disease, suggesting the initial pathway driving disease is decreased cellular TGF-β2 levels leading to a secondary increase in TGF-β2 production in the diseased aorta. PMID:22772371

  17. A rare variant of rapunzel syndrome-acute small bowel obstruction caused by ball of hairs in distal ileum with its tail extending in caecum and ascending colon.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nauman; Baloch, Muhammed Aslam; Baber, Khan Muhammad; Ahmed, Javaid

    2016-06-01

    Rapunzel syndrome is an extremely rare variant of Trichobezoar. Trichobezoar commonly occurs in patients with psychiatric disturbances as trichophagia (morbid habit of chewing the hair) and Trichotillomania (habit of hair pulling). Bezoars are commonly found in the stomach. In very rare cases of Rapunzel syndrome, hair extends through the pylorus into the small bowel and very uncommonly in large intestine causing symptoms and signs of partial or complete intestinal obstruction. A case report of a rare variant of Rapunzel syndrome, where ball of hairs in small bowel with its tail extending in caecum and ascending colon causing acute small bowel obstruction, is reported in a 13-year-old girl. PMID:27339585

  18. Mediastinal Packing for Intractable Coagulopathy in Acute Aortic Dissection (Types 1 and 2 DeBakey): A Life-Saving Technique—Report of Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Moeinipour, Aliasghar; Fathi, Mehdi; Sepehri Shamloo, Alireza; Amini, Shahram; Hoseinikhah, Hamid; Kianinejad, Akram

    2015-01-01

    Nonsurgical bleeding after complex thoracic aortic procedures (such as aortic dissection and aortic aneurysm) is a great challenge for cardiac surgeons because of severe coagulopathy, exsanguinous bleeding, and inevitable death. Temporary mediastinal packing (with sponge) in such cases is the only life-saving technique with good result in most cases. Herein, we presented three cases with acute aortic dissection with intractable bleeding that was successfully managed with mediastinal packing. PMID:26435855

  19. Concurrence of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Stanford Type A Acute Aortic Dissection.

    PubMed

    Inamasu, Joji; Suzuki, Takeya; Wakako, Akira; Sadato, Akiyo; Hirose, Yuichi

    2016-06-01

    We report a rare case of concurrent aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and acute aortic dissection (AAD). A 38-year-old man visited our hospital complaining of severe headache, and brain computed tomography (CT) revealed the presence of SAH. Thoracic to neck computed tomography angiography (CTA), performed in addition to brain CTA, suggested a tear in the aortic arch, and subsequent CT aortography established the diagnosis of Stanford type A AAD. The AAD in our patient, who reported no episodes of chest or back pain, was detected incidentally by thoracic to neck CTA. The imaging study has rarely been indicated for SAH except that it provides additional anatomical information in patients for whom extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery or endovascular treatment is considered. Nevertheless, our experience may highlight additional diagnostic value of thoracic to neck CTA in SAH patients. PMID:27083068

  20. Arrival by ambulance in acute heart failure: insights into the mode of presentation from Acute Studies of Nesiritide in Decompensated Heart Failure (ASCEND-HF)

    PubMed Central

    Ezekowitz, Justin A; Podder, Mohua; Hernandez, Adrian F; Armstrong, Paul W; Starling, Randall C; O'Connor, Christopher M; Califf, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Limited data exist assessing the relationship between ambulance versus self-presentation and outcomes in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). Setting Clinical trial sites in North America. Participants 1068 patients enrolled in the Acute Studies of Nesiritide in Decompensated Heart Failure (ASCEND-HF) trial. Primary and secondary outcome measures The association between ambulance use and dyspnoea improvement, 30-day mortality or HF rehospitalisation and 180-day mortality. Results Of the 1068 patients in the substudy, 832 (78%) self-presented (SP) and 236 (22%) patients presented via ambulance. Patients presenting via ambulance were older, more likely to be female, have a higher ejection fraction but similar natriuretic peptide levels as patients who SP. Patients presenting by ambulance (compared with SP) trended towards more dyspnoea improvement at 6 (p=0.09) and 24 h (p=0.10). The co-primary end point (30-day mortality or HF rehospitalisation) was similar between groups (ambulance 12.2% vs SP 11.4%, p=0.74). Patients who presented by ambulance had a higher 30-day and 180-day mortality rate than those who SP (30-day: 4.3% vs 2.2%, p=0.08; 180-day: 15.1% vs 10.3%, p=0.04). After adjustment for baseline characteristics, patients arriving by ambulance (compared with SP) had a 2-fold high risk of 30-day mortality (OR 2.12, 95% CI 0.94 to 4.79), but no relationship to the composite of 30-day mortality/HF rehospitalisation (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.63). Conclusions Among patients with AHF, 30-day and 180-day mortality is 1.5–2 times higher for those with presenting via ambulance compared with patients who self-present. Understanding patient-related and system-related factors of ambulance use for patients with AHF is important. Trial registration number NCT00475852. PMID:26988350

  1. [Endovascular repair for an acute traumatic aortic transection: a case report].

    PubMed

    Sanioğlu, Soner; Sahin, Sinan; Aydoğan, Hakki; Barutça, Hakan; Eren, Ergin

    2012-03-01

    A thirty-eight-year-old male patient who suffered from 10th and 11th thoracal vertebrae fractures, paraplegia and acute traumatic aortic transection because of accidental fall was referred to our hospital. Open surgical repair carried a very high risk due to severe coexisting injuries. Transection was treated with 30x100 mm Valiant thoracic endograft, which was deployed just distal to the ostium of the left carotid artery. The patient was transferred to the neurosurgery clinic for treatment of paraplegia after an uneventful recovery. Endovascular repair of acute transection confers substantial advantages in mortality and morbidity compared to surgical repair. However, the long-term durability of thoracic endografts remains unknown. If the long-term results are as satisfactory as the promising mid-term results, this technique may become the gold standard approach for the treatment of acute transection. PMID:22792827

  2. Surgical Management of Aorto-Esophageal Fistula as a Late Complication after Graft Replacement for Acute Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Hong; Na, Bubse; Hwang, Yoohwa; Kim, Yong Han; Park, In Kyu; Kim, Kyung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    A 49-year-old male presented with chills and a fever. Five years previously, he underwent ascending aorta and aortic arch replacement using the elephant trunk technique for DeBakey type 1 aortic dissection. The preoperative evaluation found an esophago-paraprosthetic fistula between the prosthetic graft and the esophagus. Multiple-stage surgery was performed with appropriate antibiotic and antifungal management. First, we performed esophageal exclusion and drainage of the perigraft abscess. Second, we removed the previous graft, debrided the abscess, and performed an in situ re-replacement of the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and proximal descending thoracic aorta, with separate replacement of the innominate artery, left common carotid artery, and extra-anatomical bypass of the left subclavian artery. Finally, staged esophageal reconstruction was performed via transthoracic anastomosis. The patient’s postoperative course was unremarkable and the patient has done well without dietary problems or recurrent infections over one and a half years of follow-up. PMID:26889449

  3. Aortic Valve Sparing in Different Aortic Valve and Aortic Root Conditions.

    PubMed

    David, Tirone E

    2016-08-01

    The development of aortic valve-sparing operations (reimplantation of the aortic valve and remodeling of the aortic root) expanded the surgical armamentarium for treating patients with aortic root dilation caused by a variety of disorders. Young adults with aortic root aneurysms associated with genetic syndromes are ideal candidates for reimplantation of the aortic valve, and the long-term results have been excellent. Incompetent bicuspid aortic valves with dilated aortic annuli are also satisfactorily treated with the same type of operation. Older patients with ascending aortic aneurysm and aortic insufficiency secondary to dilated sinotubular junction and a normal aortic annulus can be treated with remodeling of the aortic root or with reimplantation of the aortic valve. The first procedure is simpler, and both procedures are likely equally effective. As with any heart valve-preserving procedure, patient selection and surgical expertise are keys to successful and durable repairs. PMID:27491910

  4. Syphilitic aneurysm of the ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Nelson; Cascarejo, José; Vouga, Luís

    2012-02-01

    Syphilitic aortic aneurysm is a rare occurrence in the antibiotic era, making the diagnose assumption even more infrequent. Nonetheless, this pathology can appear and should be suspected in patients with aortic aneurysm. We report a case of a 57-year old patient who presents with neurosyphilis and, in the following study, a large ascending aorta aneurysm is identified. The authors discuss the diagnostic challenge, the epidemiologic concerns, surgical indication and treatment and subsequent follow-up. PMID:22159251

  5. Intimal Detachment of the Left Main Coronary Artery in a Marfan Patient with Acute Aortic Dissection: An Alternative Technique for Coronary Revascularization.

    PubMed

    Song, Joon Young; Kim, Tae Youn; Choi, Jong Bum; Kuh, Ja Hong

    2016-05-01

    In patients with acute type A aortic dissection, intimal detachment associated with circumferential dissection of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) is a rare but lethal complication. We report a Marfan patient with dissection and intimal detachment of the LMCA that was caused by acute aortic dissection involving the left aortic sinus and that was reconstructed using a short reversed saphenous vein graft. doi: 10.1111/jocs.12746 (J Card Surg 2016;31:348-350). PMID:27073038

  6. Long-Term Follow-Up After Endovascular Treatment of Acute Aortic Emergencies

    SciTech Connect

    Pitton, M. B. Herber, S.; Schmiedt, W.; Neufang, A.; Dorweiler, B.; Dueber, C.

    2008-01-15

    Purpose. To investigate the long-term outcome and efficacy of emergency treatment of acute aortic diseases with endovascular stent-grafts. Methods. From September 1995 to April 2007, 37 patients (21 men, 16 women; age 53.9 {+-} 19.2 years, range 18-85 years) with acute complications of diseases of the descending thoracic aorta were treated by endovascular stent-grafts: traumatic aortic ruptures (n = 9), aortobronchial fistulas due to penetrating ulcer or hematothorax (n = 6), acute type B dissections with aortic wall hematoma, penetration, or ischemia (n = 13), and symptomatic aneurysm of the thoracic aorta (n = 9) with pain, penetration, or rupture. Diagnosis was confirmed by contrast-enhanced CT. Multiplanar reformations were used for measurement of the landing zones of the stent-grafts. Stent-grafts were inserted via femoral or iliac cut-down. Two procedures required aortofemoral bypass grafting prior to stent-grafting due to extensive arteriosclerotic stenosis of the iliac arteries. In this case the bypass graft was used for introduction of the stent-graft. Results. A total of 46 stent-grafts were implanted: Vanguard/Stentor (n = 4), Talent (n = 31), and Valiant (n = 11). Stent-graft extension was necessary in 7 cases. In 3 cases primary graft extension was done during the initial procedure (in 1 case due to distal migration of the graft during stent release, in 2 cases due to the total length of the aortic aneurysm). In 4 cases secondary graft extensions were performed-for new aortic ulcers at the proximal stent struts (after 5 days) and distal to the graft (after 8 months) and recurrent aortobronchial fistulas 5 months and 9 years after the initial procedure-resulting in a total of 41 endovascular procedures. The 30-day mortality rate was 8% (3 of 37) and the overall follow-up was 29.9 {+-} 36.6 months (range 0-139 months). All patients with traumatic ruptures demonstrated an immediate sealing of bleeding. Patients with aortobronchial fistulas also

  7. [Aortic intramural hematoma. An atypical pattern equivalent to aortic dissection].

    PubMed

    López-Mínguez, J R; Merchán, A; Arrobas, J; Fernández, G; González-Egüaras, M; García-Andoaín, J M; Alonso, M; Gamero, C; Poblador, M A; Alonso, F

    1995-09-01

    A case is presented of a hypertensive woman who had suffered a stabbing back pain for some three hours, with mild irradiation to precordium and accompanied by vegetative signs. A sinusal rhythm and negative T waves of little depth were seen on the ECG. A transthoracic bidimensional echocardiogram (TTE) showed a normal left ventricle with a somewhat dilated aortic root and the existence of a double echo running parallel to the anterior wall of the aorta but non-ondulating and without a visible intimal flap. Because of suspected aortic dissection an urgent contrasted CAT and a transesophageal echocardiogram were performed. These were informed as an aneurysm of the aortic root with mural thrombus from the ascending to descending aorta, but with no existing intimal flap suggesting dissection. A cardiac catheterization showed a mildly some dilated aortic root without dissection signs and normal left ventricle and coronary arteries. The patient was presented for surgical evaluation but, since no dissection was present, was not considered urgent surgery; she was admitted to the coronary unit and died 48 hours later in a situation of acute pericardial tamponade, documented by TTE, surely due to rupture of the aortic root to pericardial sack. This way of presenting threatened aorta rupture that has been only recently recognized is discussed, as well as some misconceptions which must be avoided. PMID:7569267

  8. Novel Technique Using Polyester Fabric and Fibrin Sealant Patch for Acute Aortic Dissection.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Suguru; Fukumoto, Atsushi; Matsushiro, Takuya; Yaku, Hitoshi

    2016-08-01

    We describe a simple and effective technique for acute aortic dissection using a combination of polyester fabric and a fibrin sealant patch (FSP) to achieve effective reinforcement and haemostasis of the aortic stump. Firstly, the 0.61mm thick knitted polyester fabric sheet was cut to half of the size of the FSP. Next, fibrin glue was sprayed onto the collagen layer of the FSP. Subsequently, a fabric sheet was placed upon it, and the FSP was put together with the irrigated collagen layer, and then completely dried to bind the patch. As a result, the dry fibrinogen/thrombin layers, as an adhesive surface, faced outward. This patch was trimmed to a 10-15-mm-wide strip. The composite patch was inserted into the false lumen. The stump was gently pressed to fix the aortic intima and adventitia. There are several advantages: the combined patch can be prepared during systemic cooling, and therefore can minimise the circulatory arrest time; secondly, the false lumen is not directly exposed to fibrin glue and so the risk of embolism is extremely low; thirdly, the expected haemostatic effect is greater as FSP lines the exterior of the intima, achieving haemostasis for suture holes. PMID:27011040

  9. Repair of an acute Type A aortic dissection with LVAD patient after failed mitral and tricuspid operation.

    PubMed

    Schmitto, Jan Dieter; Fleissner, Felix; Hanke, Jasmin; Rojas, Sebastian; Avsar, Murat; Martens, Andreas; Shrestha, Malakh; Haverich, Axel; Strueber, Martin

    2016-04-01

    An acute type A dissection in a patient with a left ventricular assist device was treated by replacement of the ascending aorta and the proximal arch using a prosthesis with a side branch which was connected to the left ventricular assist device outflow branch, greatly simplifying the procedure. PMID:27099734

  10. Acute left main occlusion secondary to embolisation from an aortic valve prosthesis: successful treatment with embolectomy and percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Isuru; Yiannikas, John; Brieger, David

    2011-06-16

    Acute occlusive embolus of the left main coronary artery is a rare and usually catastrophic occurrence. We present a case report of a 59 year old with an aortic valve prosthesis presenting in cardiogenic shock following cessation of warfarin therapy. Angiography demonstrated an acute left main occlusion secondary to emboli from the aortic valve prosthesis. Successful embolectomy was performed by clot aspiration followed by percutaneous coronary angioplasty and stenting. Patient had excellent recovery of myocardial function post procedure and remained well at 6 month follow-up. PMID:19535160

  11. [DISORDERS OF LUNG FUNCTION IN THE EARLY POSTOPERATIVE PERIOD IN PATIENTS OPERATED ON THE ASCENDING AORTA WITH THE EXPANSION OF INTERVENTION ON THE AORTIC ARCH].

    PubMed

    Bokeria, L A; Nikitin, E S; Mironenko, V A; Rychin, S V; Vyganovskaya, N B; Makrushin, I M; Gordeev, S L

    2015-01-01

    Precapillary artery--arterial (bronchial artery--pulmonay artery) anastomoses, come into play in cases where the locking artery open and alveoli washed arterialized blood. Normally, these anastomoses are closed. Intrapulmonary shunts carry blood supply acinar hinder extraordinary circumstances (chronic pulmonary embolism, surgery, occurring in cardiopulmonary bypass, when the flaw of blood through the Iungs is suspended for the duration of cardiopulmonary bypass). Patients operated on the ascending aorta with the expansion of intervention on the nortic arch during the correction of pathology carry blood supply only the central nervous system. All other organs and systems at this time were protected by mild hypothermia. However, during circulatory arrest, required for correction of pathology acinar damage as a result of hypoxia, probably because there is no blood flow in the pulmonary artery and there is no blood flow in the bronchial arteries. Last, in the ordinary course of artificial circulation, capable due to arterio-arterial pulmonary anastomoses prevent hypoxic damage to acinar, not lead to persistent hypoxemia in the immediate postoperative period in these patients, as a result of violations of lung diffusion capacity. PMID:27019884

  12. Outcomes of Acute Type A Dissection Repair Before and After Implementation of a Multidisciplinary Thoracic Aortic Surgery Program

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Nicholas D.; Ganapathi, Asvin M.; Hanna, Jennifer M.; Williams, Judson B.; Gaca, Jeffrey G.; Hughes, G. Chad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the results of acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) repair before and after implementation of a multidisciplinary thoracic aortic surgery program (TASP) at our institution, with dedicated high-volume thoracic aortic surgeons, a multidisciplinary approach to thoracic aortic disease management, and a standardized protocol for ATAAD repair. Background Outcomes of ATAAD repair may be improved when operations are performed at specialized high-volume thoracic aortic surgical centers. Methods Between 1999 and 2011, 128 patients underwent ATAAD repair at our institution. Records of patients who underwent ATAAD repair 6 years before (n = 56) and 6 years after (n = 72) implementation of the TASP were retrospectively compared. Expected operative mortality rates were calculated using the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection pre-operative prediction model. Results Baseline risk profiles and expected operative mortality rates were comparable between patients who underwent surgery before and after implementation of the TASP. Operative mortality before TASP implementation was 33.9% and was statistically equivalent to the expected operative mortality rate of 26.0% (observed-to-expected mortality ratio 1.30; p = 0.54). Operative mortality after TASP implementation fell to 2.8% and was statistically improved compared with the expected operative mortality rate of 18.2% (observed-to-expected mortality ratio 0.15; p = 0.005). Differences in survival persisted over long-term follow-up, with 5-year survival rates of 85% observed for TASP patients compared with 55% for pre-TASP patients (p = 0.002). Conclusions ATAAD repair can be performed with results approximating those of elective proximal aortic surgery when operations are performed by a high-volume multidisciplinary thoracic aortic surgery team. Efforts to standardize or centralize care of patients undergoing ATAAD are warranted. PMID:24412454

  13. A Prospective Epidemiological Study of Acute Mountain Sickness in Nepalese Pilgrims Ascending to High Altitude (4380 m)

    PubMed Central

    MacInnis, Martin J.; Carter, Eric A.; Freeman, Michael G.; Pandit, Bidur Prasad; Siwakoti, Ashmita; Subedi, Ankita; Timalsina, Utsav; Widmer, Nadia; Thapa, Ghan Bahadur; Koehle, Michael S.; Rupert, Jim L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Each year, thousands of pilgrims travel to the Janai Purnima festival in Gosainkunda, Nepal (4380 m), ascending rapidly and often without the aid of pharmaceutical prophylaxis. Methods During the 2012 Janai Purnima festival, 538 subjects were recruited in Dhunche (1950 m) before ascending to Gosainkunda. Through interviews, subjects provided demographic information, ratings of AMS symptoms (Lake Louise Scores; LLS), ascent profiles, and strategies for prophylaxis. Results In the 491 subjects (91% follow-up rate) who were assessed upon arrival at Gosainkunda, the incidence of AMS was 34.0%. AMS was more common in females than in males (RR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.23, 2.00), and the AMS incidence was greater in subjects >35 years compared to subjects ≤35 years (RR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.36, 1.95). There was a greater incidence of AMS in subjects who chose to use garlic as a prophylactic compared to those who did not (RR = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.26, 2.28). Although the LLS of brothers had a moderate correlation (intraclass correlation = 0.40, p = 0.023), sibling AMS status was a weak predictor of AMS. Conclusions The incidence of AMS upon reaching 4380 m was 34% in a large population of Nepalese pilgrims. Sex, age, and ascent rate were significant factors in the development of AMS, and traditional Nepalese remedies were ineffective in the prevention of AMS. PMID:24130729

  14. Outcomes of Patients With Acute Type B (DeBakey III) Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Afifi, Rana O.; Sandhu, Harleen K.; Leake, Samuel S.; Boutrous, Mina L.; Kumar, Varsha; Azizzadeh, Ali; Charlton-Ouw, Kristofer M.; Saqib, Naveed U.; Nguyen, Tom C.; Miller, Charles C.; Safi, Hazim J.

    2015-01-01

    Background— Aortic dissection remains the most common aortic catastrophe. In the endovascular era, the management of acute type B aortic dissection (ATBAD) is undergoing dramatic changes. The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term outcomes of patients with ATBAD who were treated at our center over a 13-year period. Methods and Results— We reviewed patients with ATBAD between 2001 and 2014, analyzing variables based on status (complicated [c] versus uncomplicated [u]) and treatment modalities. We defined cATBAD as rupture, expansion of diameter on imaging during the admission, persistent pain, or clinical malperfusion leading to a deficit in cerebral, spinal, visceral, renal, or peripheral vascular territories at presentation or during initial hospitalization. Postoperative outcomes were defined as deficits not present before the intervention. Outcomes were compared between the groups by use of Kaplan-Meier and descriptive statistics. We treated 442 patients with ATBAD. Of those 442, 60.6% had uATBAD and were treated medically, and 39.4% had cATBAD, of whom 39.0% were treated medically to 30.0% with open repair, 21.3% with thoracic endovascular aortic repair, and 9.7% with other open peripheral procedures. Intervention-free survival at 1 and 5 years was 84.8% and 62.7% for uATBAD, 61.8% and 44.0% for cATBAD-medical, 69.2% and 47.2% for cATBAD-open, and 68.0% and 42.5% for cATBAD–thoracic endovascular aortic repair, respectively (P=0.001). Overall survival was significantly related primarily to complicated presentation. Conclusions— In our experience, early and late outcomes of ATBAD were dependent on the presence of complications, with cATBAD faring worse. Although uATBAD was associated with favorable early survival, late complications still occurred, mandating radiographic surveillance and open or endovascular interventions. Prospective trials are required to better determine the optimal therapy for uATBAD. PMID:26304666

  15. Combined procedure of heart transplantation and ascending aorta replacement.

    PubMed

    de Castro, João Gonçalves; Estefanía, Rafael Hernández; Delgado, Cristian; Del Barrio, Loreto García; Rábago, Gregorio

    2016-06-01

    Concomitant heart transplantation and ascending aorta replacement is infrequent. In the few cases where this simultaneous procedure was performed, most patients were diagnosed with Marfan syndrome. We report the combined procedure of heart transplantation and ascending aorta replacement using the donor's ascending aorta, in a 70-year-old man who was not diagnosed with Marfan syndrome. This combined procedure can be performed successfully, providing a potentially life-saving heart transplant for patients with aortic disease of different etiologies. PMID:25737588

  16. Aortic wall properties and baroreceptor behaviour at normal arterial pressure and in acute hypertensive resetting in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Coleridge, H M; Coleridge, J C; Poore, E R; Roberts, A M; Schultz, H D

    1984-01-01

    In order to throw light on the mechanism of acute hypertensive baroreceptor resetting, we examined the relationship between aortic baroreceptor firing and aortic wall properties in anaesthetized dogs as pressure was varied in a number of ways. We recorded baroreceptor impulses from the left aortic nerve, and measured aortic pressure with a catheter-tip transducer and external aortic diameter with ultrasonic transit-time transducers. Narrow anticlockwise hysteresis loops were evident in the pressure-diameter relationship of the upper thoracic aorta, both during the rapid pulsatile pressure changes of the cardiac cycle and during the slow excursions of mean pressure imposed for construction of baroreceptor pressure--response curves. In contrast to the 'phase-lag' response of diameter to pressure, the baroreceptor response was 'phaselead' in character, decreasing when stress-induced creep occurred in the aortic wall. When the mean arterial pressure set-point was increased from 100 to 125 mmHg for 20 min, the hysteresis loops relating mean diameter to mean pressure in the range 60-200 mmHg were displaced along the diameter axis in the direction of wall creep. A reduction in the baroreceptor response to pressure (i.e. resetting) always accompanied this displacement. Administration of ouabain (25-35 micrograms/kg) had no consistent effect on baroreceptor resetting. It has been suggested that acute baroreceptor resetting is akin to adaptation. To investigate the possibility that the two processes are accompanied by similar changes in aortic wall properties, we converted the aorta into a closed sac and distended it with a square wave of pressure. Like resetting, adaptation of the baroreceptor response to maintained pressure was associated with a small degree of creep of the aortic wall. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis that acute hypertensive resetting of aortic baroreceptors is similar to adaptation, both phenomena being attributable to relaxation of

  17. [Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair Following Axillo-femoral Bypass in a Patient with Stanford B Acute Aortic Dissection Accompanied by Abdominal Visceral Ischemia;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Takayuki; Bonkohara, Yukihiro; Azuma, Takashi; Iijima, Masaki; Higashidate, Masafumi

    2016-09-01

    A 60-year-old woman was transfer-red to the emergency department of our medical center with worsening chest and back pain. Computed tomography revealed Stanford type B aortic dissection. There was a false lumen from the distal arch to the abdominal aorta just above the celiac artery. Although she was at 1st treated conservatively, she abruptly developed acute renal failure and lower limb ischemia because of an enlarged false lumen, and emergency axillo-femoral bypass surgery was performed with an 8 mm tube graft. However, renal failure gradually worsened, which necessitated continuous hemodiafiltration was performed. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair was then performed, and her renal function recovered. PMID:27586321

  18. Sex-Related Differences Between Patients With Symptomatic Acute Aortic Dissection.

    PubMed

    Maitusong, Buamina; Sun, Hui-Ping; Xielifu, Dilidaer; Mahemuti, Maisumu; Ma, Xiang; Liu, Fen; Xie, Xiang; Azhati, Adila; Zhou, Xin-Rong; Ma, Yi-Tong

    2016-03-01

    We designed a retrospective cohort study to assess sex-related differences in clinical manifestations, incidence, and outcomes of patients with symptomatic acute aortic dissection (AAD). We collected clinical data from 2010 to 2015 of 400 patients with AAD. Patients' clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes were analyzed as a function of sex. Among 400 patients with AAD, the ratio of men to women was 3.18:1; the incidence of atherosclerosis was higher in women (P = 0.02). Dysphoria (P = 0.01), focal neurological deficits (P = 0.04), and pulse deficits (P = 0.03) were more frequent in men. Imaging findings revealed that pleural effusion (P < 0.01), celiac trunk involvement (P < 0.01), and superior mesenteric artery involvement (P = 0.02) were more frequent in men. Dissection-related pneumonia (P = 0.02), pulmonary atelectasis (P = 0.01), aortic intramural hematoma (P < 0.01), ischemic electrocardiographic changes (P = 0.03), and in-hospital complications such as myocardial ischemia (P = 0.03), hypoxemia (P < 0.01), cardiac tamponade (P = 0.01) occurred more frequently in women. Women with type A dissection had higher in-hospital mortality than men (P < 0.01). The presentation of AAD varies with a patient's sex. Women with AAD had clinical features different from men as follows: higher age of onset, more frequent inpatient complications, and higher in-hospital mortality. These findings may lead to a better understanding of aortic dissection in women that will improve their outcomes. PMID:26986151

  19. Sex-Related Differences Between Patients With Symptomatic Acute Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Maitusong, Buamina; Sun, Hui-Ping; Xielifu, Dilidaer; Mahemuti, Maisumu; Ma, Xiang; Liu, Fen; Xie, Xiang; Azhati, Adila; Zhou, Xin-Rong; Ma, Yi-Tong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We designed a retrospective cohort study to assess sex-related differences in clinical manifestations, incidence, and outcomes of patients with symptomatic acute aortic dissection (AAD). We collected clinical data from 2010 to 2015 of 400 patients with AAD. Patients’ clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes were analyzed as a function of sex. Among 400 patients with AAD, the ratio of men to women was 3.18:1; the incidence of atherosclerosis was higher in women (P = 0.02). Dysphoria (P = 0.01), focal neurological deficits (P = 0.04), and pulse deficits (P = 0.03) were more frequent in men. Imaging findings revealed that pleural effusion (P < 0.01), celiac trunk involvement (P < 0.01), and superior mesenteric artery involvement (P = 0.02) were more frequent in men. Dissection-related pneumonia (P = 0.02), pulmonary atelectasis (P = 0.01), aortic intramural hematoma (P < 0.01), ischemic electrocardiographic changes (P = 0.03), and in-hospital complications such as myocardial ischemia (P = 0.03), hypoxemia (P < 0.01), cardiac tamponade (P = 0.01) occurred more frequently in women. Women with type A dissection had higher in-hospital mortality than men (P < 0.01). The presentation of AAD varies with a patient's sex. Women with AAD had clinical features different from men as follows: higher age of onset, more frequent inpatient complications, and higher in-hospital mortality. These findings may lead to a better understanding of aortic dissection in women that will improve their outcomes. PMID:26986151

  20. Prevalence of Type A Acute Aortic Dissection in Patients With Out-Of-Hospital Cardiopulmonary Arrest.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Sakata, Kenji; Sakurai, Yasuo; Yoshimuta, Tsuyoshi; Morishita, Yuka; Nara, Satoshi; Takahashi, Isao; Hirokami, Mitsugu; Yamagishi, Masakazu

    2016-06-01

    Postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) has been recently reported to be useful for detecting causes of death in the emergency department. In this study, the incidence and causes of death of type A acute aortic dissection (AAD) were investigated in patients who experienced out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest (OHCPA) using PMCT. PMCT or enhanced computed tomography was performed in 311 of 528 consecutive patients experiencing OHCPA. A total of 23 (7%) of 311 patients were diagnosed with type A AAD based on clinical courses and CT findings. Eighteen consecutive patients who did not experience OHCPA were diagnosed with type A AAD during the same period. Pre-hospital death was observed in 21 (51%) of 41 patients with type A AAD. Bloody pericardial effusion was observed more frequently in patients who experienced OHCPA with type A AAD than in those who did not experience OHCPA with type A AAD (91% vs 28%, respectively; p <0.05). In conclusion, the incidence of type A AAD was common (7%) in patients who experienced OHCPA, with a high rate of pre-hospital death. Aortic rupture to the intrapericardial space was considered the major cause of death in patients who experienced OHCPA with type A AAD. PMID:27067619

  1. Aortic stenting.

    PubMed

    Droc, Ionel; Calinescu, Francisca Blanca; Droc, Gabriela; Blaj, Catalin; Dammrau, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    The approach to aortic pathology is nowadays more and more endovascular at both thoracic and abdominal levels. Thoracic stenting has gained worldwide acceptance as first intention to treat pathologies of the descending thoracic aorta. Indications have been extended to aortic arch aneurysms and also to diseases of the ascending aorta. The current devices in use for thoracic endovascular repair (TEVAR) are Medtronic Valiant, Gore TAG, Cook Tx2 and Jotec. The choice of the endograft depends on the thoracic aortic pathology and the anatomical suitability. The technological evolution of the abdominal aortic endografts was very rapid, arriving now at the fourth generation. We report the results of 55 elective cases of endovascular abdominal aortic repair (EVAR) performed in two vascular surgical centers in Romania and Germany. The prostheses used were 16 E-vita Abdominal XT, 12 Excluder, eight Talent, seven PowerLink, three Endurant and nine custom-made, fenestrated or branched from Jotec. The mean follow-up was 18 months with CT-scan, duplex ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound. The mortality was 2%. EVAR tends to become the gold standard for abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Technological development of the devices with lowest profile introduction systems will permit to extend the anatomical indications to new frontiers. PMID:26200430

  2. Aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    Nienaber, Christoph A; Clough, Rachel E; Sakalihasan, Natzi; Suzuki, Toru; Gibbs, Richard; Mussa, Firas; Jenkins, Michael T; Thompson, Matt M; Evangelista, Arturo; Yeh, James S M; Cheshire, Nicholas; Rosendahl, Ulrich; Pepper, John

    2016-01-01

    Aortic dissection is a life-threatening condition caused by a tear in the intimal layer of the aorta or bleeding within the aortic wall, resulting in the separation (dissection) of the layers of the aortic wall. Aortic dissection is most common in those 65-75 years of age, with an incidence of 35 cases per 100,000 people per year in this population. Other risk factors include hypertension, dyslipidaemia and genetic disorders that involve the connective tissue, such as Marfan syndrome. Swift diagnostic confirmation and adequate treatment are crucial in managing affected patients. Contemporary management is multidisciplinary and includes serial non-invasive imaging, biomarker testing and genetic risk profiling for aortopathy. The choice of approach for repairing or replacing the damaged region of the aorta depends on the severity and the location of the dissection and the risks of complication from surgery. Open surgical repair is most commonly used for dissections involving the ascending aorta and the aortic arch, whereas minimally invasive endovascular intervention is appropriate for descending aorta dissections that are complicated by rupture, malperfusion, ongoing pain, hypotension or imaging features of high risk. Recent advances in the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of aortic dissection have led to more patients being considered at substantial risk of complications and, therefore, in need of endovascular intervention rather than only medical or surgical intervention. PMID:27440162

  3. A Novel Tool to Facilitate Crimping Suture Placement for a Modified David V/Miller Aortic Root Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Boldyrev, Sergey; Barbukhatty, Kirill; Porhanov, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Surgical treatment of aortic root and ascending aorta aneurysms with aortic insufficiency is still controversial. A valve-sparing operation is the procedure of choice for such patients, and the reimplantation technique is preferable. We describe a simple technique for aortic root reconstruction that has been successfully performed for patients with aneurysms of aortic root and ascending aorta with aortic insufficiency. PMID:26798736

  4. Providing a navigable route for acute medicine nurses to advance their practice: a framework of ascending levels of practice.

    PubMed

    Lees-Deutsch, Liz; Christian, Jan; Setchfield, Ian

    2016-01-01

    This article conveys concerns raised by delegates at the International SAM Conference (Manchester, 2015) regarding how to advance nursing practice in acute medicine. It endeavors to capture the essence of 'how to advance practice' and 'how to integrate advanced practice' within the workforce structures of an acute medicine unit (AMU). It addresses the production of tacit knowledge and the recognition and integration of this to developing the nursing workforce. The current context of NHS efficiencies and recruitment issues emphasize the value of retaining tacit knowledge. Uniquely, this article offers an early conceptual framework through which levels of advancement and potential transition points to advance nursing practice in acute medicine are articulated. Determining how to advance requires identification of prior accomplishments such as, tacit knowledge, experiential learning, CPD, specialist courses and management experience. This requires nurses to make judicious decisions to advance their practice and the distinction between 'amassing experience' and 'career progression'. It aims to stimulate thinking around the practicalities of advancement, the value of tacit knowledge and potential realization through the framework trajectory. PMID:27441313

  5. Acute, proximal aortic dissection with negative D-Dimer assay and normal portable chest radiograph: a case report.

    PubMed

    Thota, Darshan; Zanoni, Steve; Mells, Cary; Auten, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    Acute aortic dissection is one of the most devastating and time-sensitive diagnosis to consider in young adults with chest pain. Military medicine is represented by a larger proportion of 18- to 50-year-old individuals than is seen in the general medical population. Although uncommon in frequency, younger patients are more likely to suffer from proximal, aortic dissections. Chest radiographs and D-Dimer assays are used frequently as risk stratification tools, but have significant limitations in these more proximal dissections. Because of the frequency and lethality of nonspecific presentations, there exists a need for a sensitive screening tool. This case report presents a 43-year-old male with a concerning history and physical examination for aortic dissection, but a normal portable chest radiograph and a normal D-Dimer assay. It highlights the importance of clinical acumen in developing and maintaining a high clinical index of suspicion based on a Bayesian pretest probability model. PMID:25562879

  6. Hemiarch versus total aortic arch replacement in acute type A dissection: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Shi Sum; Theologou, Thomas; Harrington, Deborah; Kuduvalli, Manoj; Oo, Aung

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite recent advances in aortic surgery, acute type A aortic dissection remains a surgical emergency associated with high mortality and morbidity. Appropriate management is crucial to achieve satisfactory outcomes but the optimal surgical approach is controversial. The present systematic review and meta-analysis sought to access cumulative data from comparative studies between hemiarch and total aortic arch replacement in patients with acute type A aortic dissection. Methods A systematic review of the literature using six databases. Eligible studies include comparative studies on hemiarch versus total arch replacement reporting short, medium and long term outcomes. A meta-analysis was performed on eligible studies reporting outcome of interest to quantify the effects of hemiarch replacement on mortality and morbidity risk compared to total arch replacement. Result Fourteen retrospective studies met the inclusion criteria and 2,221 patients were included in the final analysis. Pooled analysis showed that hemiarch replacement was associated with a lower risk of post-operative renal dialysis [risk ratio (RR) =0.72; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.56–0.94; P=0.02; I2=0%]. There was no significant difference in terms of in-hospital mortality between the two groups (RR =0.84; 95% CI: 0.65–1.09; P=0.20; I2=0%). Cardiopulmonary bypass, aortic cross clamp and circulatory arrest times were significantly longer in total arch replacement. During follow up, no significant difference was reported from current studies between the two operative approaches in terms of aortic re-intervention and freedom from aortic reoperation. Conclusions Within the context of publication bias by high volume aortic centres and non-randomized data sets, there was no difference in mortality outcomes between the two groups. This analysis serves to demonstrate that for those centers doing sufficient total aortic arch activity to allow for publication, excellent and equivalent outcomes

  7. A Preliminary Genome-Wide Association Study of Acute Mountain Sickness Susceptibility in a Group of Nepalese Pilgrims Ascending to 4380 m.

    PubMed

    MacInnis, Martin J; Widmer, Nadia; Timulsina, Utsav; Subedi, Ankita; Siwakoti, Ashmita; Pandit, Bidur Prasad; Freeman, Michael G; Carter, Eric A; Manokhina, Irina; Thapa, Ghan Bahadur; Koehle, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    There is significant interindividual variation in acute mountain sickness (AMS) susceptibility in humans. To identify genes related to AMS susceptibility, we used a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to simultaneously test associations between genetic variants dispersed throughout the genome and the presence and severity of AMS. DNA samples were collected from subjects who ascended rapidly to Gosainkunda, Nepal (4380 m), as part of the 2005, 2010, and 2012 Janai Purnima festivals. The Lake Louise Score was used to measure AMS severity. The primary analysis was based on 99 male subjects (43 with AMS; 56 without AMS). Genotyping for the GWAS was performed using Infinium Human Core Exome Bead Chips (542,556 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were assayed), and validation genotyping was performed with pyrosequencing in two additional cohorts (n = 101 for each). In total, 270,389 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) passed quality control, and 4 SNPs (one intronic, three nonsynonymous) in the FAM149A gene were associated with AMS severity after correcting for multiple hypothesis testing (p = 1.8E-7); however, in the validation cohorts, FAM149A was not associated with the presence or severity of AMS. No other genes were associated with AMS susceptibility at the genome-wide level. Due to the large influence of environmental factors (i.e., ascent rate and altitude attained) and the difficulties associated with the AMS phenotype (i.e., low repeatability, nonspecific symptoms, potentially independent ailments), we suggest that future studies addressing the variation in the acute human hypoxia response should focus on objective responses to acute hypoxia instead of AMS. PMID:26600424

  8. Geographic Differences in Patients in a Global Acute Heart Failure Clinical Trial (from the ASCEND-HF Trial).

    PubMed

    Metra, Marco; Mentz, Robert J; Hernandez, Adrian F; Heizer, Gretchen M; Armstrong, Paul W; Clausell, Nadine; Corbalan, Ramon; Costanzo, Maria Rosa; Dickstein, Kenneth; Dunlap, Mark E; Ezekowitz, Justin A; Howlett, Jonathan G; Komajda, Michel; Krum, Henry; Lombardi, Carlo; Fonarow, Gregg C; McMurray, John J V; Nieminen, Markku S; Swedberg, Karl; Voors, Adriaan A; Starling, Randall C; Teerlink, John R; O'Connor, Christopher M

    2016-06-01

    A growing number of countries and geographical regions are involved in major clinical trials. Acute Study of Clinical Effectiveness of Nesiritide in Decompensated Heart Failure is the largest trial in acutely decompensated heart failure (HF) with patients from 5 geographical regions: North America (NA), Latin America (LA), Western Europe (WE), Central Europe (CE), and Asia-Pacific (AP). Data from the 5 geographical areas were compared including baseline characteristics, medications, 30-day outcomes (mortality and mortality or HF hospitalization), and 180-day mortality. Of the 7,141 study patients, 3,243 (45.4%) were from NA (average of 15.2 patients/site), 1,762 (24.7%) from AP (28.4 patients/site), 967 (13.5%) from CE (20.2 patients/site), 665 (9.3%) from LA (17.1 patients/site), and 504 (7.1%) from WE (14.4 patients/site). There were marked differences in co-morbidities, clinical profile, medication use, length of stay, 30-day event rates, and 180-day mortality by region. Compared with NA, the adjusted risk for death or HF hospitalization at 30 days was significantly lower in CE (odds ratio [OR] 0.46, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.64), WE (OR 0.52 95% CI 0.35 to 0.75), and AP (OR 0.62 95% CI 0.48 to 0.79) and numerically lower in LA (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.04) with similar results for 180-day mortality. In conclusion, in patients with acutely decompensated HF, major differences in baseline characteristics, treatments, length of the hospital stay, and 30-day HF rehospitalization rates, and 180-day mortality were found in patients enrolled from different geographical areas. PMID:27108685

  9. Predictive value of high sensitivity C-reactive protein in the diagnosis and outcomes of acute aortic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    AlMahameed, Soufian T; Novaro, Gian M; Asher, Craig R; Hougthaling, Penny L; Lago, Rodrigo M; Bhatt, Deepak L; AlMahameed, Amjad T; Topol, Eric J

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels differ among patients with acute aortic syndromes (AAS) and if hsCRP could predict their long-term outcomes. Design Retrospective observational study. Setting Cleveland Clinic Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio. Patients 115 consecutive patients with AAS admitted to the cardiac intensive care unit. Interventions HsCRP and other laboratory data were measured within 24 h of admission. Demographic, imaging and laboratory data were obtained at the time of presentation. For the long-term survival analysis, the social security death index was used to determine all-cause mortality. Main outcome measures HsCRP levels among AAS patients. Results Hospital mortality was 4.3% for AAS patients. HsCRP levels differed significantly among AAS; the median hsCRP was higher in the aortic dissection group (49 mg/l) than in those with penetrating aortic ulcer (28 mg/l), symptomatic aortic aneurysm (14 mg/l), and intramural haematoma (10 mg/l); (p=0.02). In multivariable analysis, aortic dissection patients had higher hsCRP levels than intramural haematoma (p=0.03) and symptomatic aortic aneurysm (p=0.04) patients, after adjusting for age and gender. Multivariable Cox regression analyses showed that elevated hsCRP levels at presentation were associated with a higher long-term mortality (p=0.007). Conclusions Among patients with AAS, those with aortic dissection have the highest hsCRP levels at presentation. Elevated hsCRP independently predicted a higher long-term mortality in AAS patients. PMID:27325965

  10. WUnicuspid Aortic Valve- An Uncommon Anomaly With a Common Presentation.

    PubMed

    Sitwala, Puja; Abusara, Ashraf; Ladia, Vatsal; Ladia, Vatsal; Panchal, Hemang B; Raudat, Charles; Paul, Timir K

    2016-01-01

    Unicuspid aortic valve (UAV), which is a rare congenital anomaly, usually presents as aortic stenosis and/or aortic regurgitation. Here we present a case of UAV co-existent with an ascending aortic aneurysm. A 26-year-old male with no significant past medical history presented to the hospital after two episodes of syncope. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed an ejection fraction of 62%, severely stenotic aortic valve, and moderate aortic regurgitation. Computed tomography revealed calcification of the aortic valve, compatible with aortic stenosis and aneurysm of the ascending aorta measuring 4.3 cm in diameter. He underwent successful aortic valve replacement and repair of ascending aortic aneurysm. He recovered well without any complications. This case suggests that any young patient who presents with syncope, aortic stenosis would be a differential and further workup by any available non-invasive modality needs to be performed. PMID:27383857

  11. [Diagnostic pathways and pitfalls in acute thoracic aortic dissection: practical recommendations and an awareness campaign].

    PubMed

    Sievers, H-H; Schmidtke, C

    2011-09-01

    Despite significant improvements in the surgical therapy of acute aortic dissection (AAD), mortality rates in the initial phase remain unacceptably high. Early diagnosis and therapy are essential to improving prognosis in these patients. A prerequisite of prompt and correct diagnosis is"thinking of it". Delayed or incorrect diagnosis can often have catastrophic results.The reported acute chest and back pain of a tearing, stabbing nature combined with the physiognomy of Marfan syndrome often arouse the clinical suspicion of AAD, prompting immediate imaging of the thoracic aorta and therapy. For less clear cases, additional hints drawn from the patient history and special findings from the medical examination are presented schematically in a diagnostic pathway. As an innovative form of diagnosis, preventive echocardiographic screening in high risk groups is discussed.To heighten awareness of AAD and the importance of its correct diagnosis, the poster campaign "Thinking of it can save lives" has been initiated. The poster depicts AAD schematically, indicates Marfan syndrome as a risk factor for AAD in young people and illustrates a CT scan as the most frequently performed imaging technique with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:21858545

  12. Thoracic Aortic Disease in Two Patients with Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome and SMAD4 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Teekakirikul, Polakit; Milewicz, Dianna M.; Miller, David T.; Lacro, Ronald V.; Regalado, Ellen S.; Rosales, Ana Maria; Ryan, Daniel P.; Toler, Tomi L.; Lin, Angela E.

    2012-01-01

    Dilation or aneurysm of the ascending aorta can progress to acute aortic dissection (Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Aortic Dissections, TAAD). Mutations in genes encoding TGF-β related proteins (TGFBR1, TGFBR2, FBN1, and SMAD3) cause syndromic and inherited TAAD. SMAD4 mutations are associated with juvenile polyposis (JPS) and a combined JPS-hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) known as JPS-HHT. A family with JPS-HHT was reported to have aortic root dilation and mitral valve abnormalities. We report on two patients with JPS-HHT with SMAD4 mutations associated with thoracic aortic disease. The first patient, an 11-year-old boy without Marfan syndrome features, had JPS and an apparently de novo SMAD4 mutation (c.1340_1367dup28). Echocardiography showed mild dilation of the aortic annulus and aortic root, and mild dilation of the sinotubular junction and ascending aorta. Computed tomography confirmed aortic dilation and showed small pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM). The second patient, a 34-year-old woman with colonic polyposis, HHT, and Marfan syndrome, had a SMAD4 mutation (c.1245_1248delCAGA). Echocardiography showed mild aortic root dilation. She also had PAVM and hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia. Her family history was significant for polyposis, HHT, thoracic aortic aneurysm, and dissection and skeletal features of Marfan syndrome in her father. These two cases confirm the association of thoracic aortic disease with JPS-HHT resulting from SMAD4 mutations. We propose that the thoracic aorta should be screened in patients with SMAD4 mutations to prevent untimely death from dissection. This report also confirms that SMAD4 mutations predispose to TAAD. PMID:23239472

  13. Upregulation of the high mobility group AT-hook 2 gene in acute aortic dissection is potentially associated with endothelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Belge, Gazanfer; Radtke, Arlo; Meyer, Anke; Stegen, Isabel; Richardt, Doreen; Nimzyk, Rolf; Nigam, Vishal; Dendorfer, Andreas; Sievers, Hans H; Tiemann, Markus; Buchwalow, Igor; Bullerdiek, Joern; Mohamed, Salah A

    2011-08-01

    The high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) gene is proposed to regulate the genes involved in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). One form of EMT is endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT). We analyzed the expression profile of the HMGA2 gene in different human aortic diseases. Aortic specimens were collected from 51 patients, including 19 with acute aortic dissection, 26 with aortic aneurysm, two with Marfan syndrome and four aortic valves. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was carried out for HMGA2 and immunohistochemical analyses were performed for HMGA2, SNAI1, Vimentin, CD34, MKI-67 and TGFB1. The expression of let-7d microRNA, which is assumed to play a role in the regulation of HMGA2, was also quantified. The level of HMGA2 gene expression was significantly higher in acute aortic dissection compared with all the other samples (193.1 vs. 8.1 fold normalized to calibrator, P<0.001). The immunohistochemical investigation showed that HMGA2, SNAI1, and Vimentin proteins were mainly detected in the endothelial cells of the vasa vasorum. The HMGA2 gene is upregulated in acute aortic dissection. This is the first report describing a link between HMGA2 and acute aortic dissection. The HMGA2, SNAI1 and Vimentin proteins were mainly detected in the endothelium of the vasa vasorum. It seems that HMGA2 overexpression in acute aortic dissection occurs in a let-7d-independent manner and is associated with EndMT of the vasa vasorum. PMID:21692035

  14. Abdominal Aortic Intimal Flap Motion Characterization in Acute Aortic Dissection: Assessed with Retrospective ECG-Gated Thoracoabdominal Aorta Dual-Source CT Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shifeng; Li, Xia; Chao, Baoting; Wu, Lebin; Cheng, Zhaoping; Duan, Yanhua; Wu, Dawei; Zhan, Yiqiang; Chen, Jiuhong; Liu, Bo; Ji, Xiaopeng; Nie, Pei; Wang, Ximing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the feasibility of dose-modulated retrospective ECG-gated thoracoabdominal aorta CT angiography (CTA) assessing abdominal aortic intimal flap motion and investigate the motion characteristics of intimal flap in acute aortic dissection (AAD). Materials and Methods 49 patients who had thoracoabdominal aorta retrospective ECG-gated CTA scan were enrolled. 20 datasets were reconstructed in 5% steps between 0 and 95% of the R-R interval in each case. The aortic intimal flap motion was assessed by measuring the short axis diameters of the true lumen and false lumen 2 cm above of celiac trunk ostium in different R-R intervals. Intimal flap motion and configuration was assessed by two independent observers. Results In these 49 patients, 37 had AAD, 7 had intramural hematoma, and 5 had negative result for acute aortic disorder. 620 datasets of 31 patients who showed double lumens in abdominal aorta were enrolled in evaluating intimal flap motion. The maximum and minimum true lumen diameter were 12.2±4.1 mm (range 2.6∼17.4) and 6.7±4.1 mm (range 0∼15.3) respectively. The range of intimal flap motion in all patients was 5.5±2.6 mm (range 1.8∼10.2). The extent of maximum true lumen diameter decreased during a cardiac cycle was 49.5%±23.5% (range 12%∼100%). The maximum motion phase of true lumen diameter was in systolic phase (5%∼40% of R-R interval). Maximum and minimum intimal flap motion was at 15% and 75% of the R-R interval respectively. Intimal flap configuration had correlation with the phase of cardiac cycle. Conclusions Abdominal intimal flap position and configuration varied greatly during a cardiac cycle. Retrospective ECG-gated thoracoabdominal aorta CTA can reflect the actual status of the true lumen and provide more information about true lumen collapse. This information may be helpful to diagnosis and differential diagnosis of dynamic abstraction. PMID:24503676

  15. Painless Aortic Dissection Presenting as Paraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Colak, Necmettin; Nazli, Yunus; Alpay, Mehmet Fatih; Akkaya, Ismail Olgun; Cakir, Omer

    2012-01-01

    Acute dissection of the aorta can be life-threatening. As a presenting manifestation of aortic dissection, neurologic complications such as paraplegia are rare. Herein, we report the case of a 51-year-old man who presented with sudden-onset paraplegia and ischemia of the legs, with no chest or back pain. His medical history included coronary artery bypass grafting. Physical examination revealed pulseless lower extremities, and computed tomography showed aortic dissection from the ascending aorta to the common iliac arteries bilaterally. A lumbar catheter was inserted for cerebrospinal fluid drainage, and axillary arterial cannulation was established. With the use of cardiopulmonary bypass, the aortic dissection was corrected, and the previous coronary artery grafts were reattached. The surgery restored spinal and lower-extremity perfusion, and the patient walked unaided from the hospital upon his discharge 5 days later. Although acute aortic dissection presenting as paraplegia is rare, it should be considered in patients who have pulseless femoral arteries bilaterally and sudden-onset paraplegia, despite no pain in the chest or back. Prompt diagnosis and intervention can prevent morbidity and death. PMID:22740752

  16. Hydatid cyst involving the aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Apaydin, Anil Z; Oguz, Emrah; Zoghi, Mehdi

    2007-03-01

    We report a very rare case of primary mediastinal hydatid cyst which invaded the ascending aorta and the aortic arch which initially presented as a cranial mass. Aortic wall is a very unusual site for the hydatid cysts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of hydatid cyst located within the aortic arch lumen. Patient underwent ascending aortic and hemiarch replacement under hypothermic circulatory arrest and removal of the cyst. Patient had an uneventful recovery and has been on follow-up. Although the literature data are very limited, we believe that the aortic procedure of choice should be graft interpositon rather than patch repair. PMID:17215134

  17. Acute Aortic Dissection Biomarkers Identified Using Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ziya; Xue, Yuan; Gu, Guorong; Zhang, Yaping; Zhang, Jin; Fan, Fan; Luan, Xiao; Deng, Zhi; Tao, Zhengang; Song, Zhen-ju; Tong, Chaoyang; Wang, Haojun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of potential serum biomarkers for acute aortic dissection (AAD) that were identified by isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) approaches. Serum samples from 20 AAD patients and 20 healthy volunteers were analyzed using iTRAQ technology. Protein validation was performed using samples from 120 patients with chest pain. A total of 355 proteins were identified with the iTRAQ approach; 164 proteins reached the strict quantitative standard, and 125 proteins were increased or decreased more than 1.2-fold (64 and 61 proteins were up- and downregulated, resp.). Lumican, C-reactive protein (CRP), thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), and D-dimer were selected as candidate biomarkers for the validation tests. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves show that Lumican and D-dimer have diagnostic value (area under the curves [AUCs] 0.895 and 0.891, P < 0.05). For Lumican, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 73.33% and 98.33%, while the corresponding values for D-dimer were 93.33% and 68.33%. For Lumican and D-dimer AAD combined diagnosis, the sensitivity and specificity were 88.33% and 95%, respectively. In conclusion, Lumican has good specificity and D-dimer has good sensitivity for the diagnosis of AAD, while the combined detection of D-dimer and Lumican has better diagnostic value. PMID:27403433

  18. Acute Aortic Dissection Biomarkers Identified Using Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ziya; Xue, Yuan; Yao, Chenling; Gu, Guorong; Zhang, Yaping; Zhang, Jin; Fan, Fan; Luan, Xiao; Deng, Zhi; Tao, Zhengang; Song, Zhen-Ju; Tong, Chaoyang; Wang, Haojun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of potential serum biomarkers for acute aortic dissection (AAD) that were identified by isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) approaches. Serum samples from 20 AAD patients and 20 healthy volunteers were analyzed using iTRAQ technology. Protein validation was performed using samples from 120 patients with chest pain. A total of 355 proteins were identified with the iTRAQ approach; 164 proteins reached the strict quantitative standard, and 125 proteins were increased or decreased more than 1.2-fold (64 and 61 proteins were up- and downregulated, resp.). Lumican, C-reactive protein (CRP), thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), and D-dimer were selected as candidate biomarkers for the validation tests. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves show that Lumican and D-dimer have diagnostic value (area under the curves [AUCs] 0.895 and 0.891, P < 0.05). For Lumican, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 73.33% and 98.33%, while the corresponding values for D-dimer were 93.33% and 68.33%. For Lumican and D-dimer AAD combined diagnosis, the sensitivity and specificity were 88.33% and 95%, respectively. In conclusion, Lumican has good specificity and D-dimer has good sensitivity for the diagnosis of AAD, while the combined detection of D-dimer and Lumican has better diagnostic value. PMID:27403433

  19. [Treatment Strategy for Acute Type B Aortic Dissection with End-organ Malperfusion].

    PubMed

    Ichihara, Toshihiko; Sasaki, Michio; Watanabe, Yoshio; Abe, Tomonobu

    2016-06-01

    Therapeutic strategies for treating Stanford type B dissection with endo-organ malperfusion remain controversial, and whether surgery or conservative treatment should be performed is a matter of ongoing debate. In this study, we examined the treatment strategies used in cases of malperfusion in which treatment was initiated conservatively at the onset of symptoms without superior mesenteric artery (SMA) or limb artery obstruction. A total of 16 patients had organ ischemia in this series. The obstructed branches were the SMA in 5 patients, the artery of Adamkiewicz in 2, the bilateral renal arteries in 3, the celiac artery in 3 and limb arteries in 3. The surgical procedure included bypass grafting in 2 patients with SMA obstruction and extra-anatomical bypass in 2 patients with limb artery obstruction. A total of 11 patients were treated without surgery. Three patients died, including 2 patients with SMA obstruction. The remaining patient who died had limb artery obstruction and did not undergo surgery. The results suggest that patients with acute type B aortic dissection with endo-organ malperfusion who develop SMA or limb artery obstruction require early surgery. PMID:27246122

  20. Modified Stumper technique for acute postoperative bifurcation stenosis causing right ventricular failure after Ross procedure

    PubMed Central

    Divekar, Abhay A

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we describe a 15-year-old patient who underwent a Ross procedure for a regurgitant bicuspid aortic valve and ascending aortic dilation. After the operation was over, he could not be separated from cardiopulmonary bypass and was noted to have isolated right ventricular failure. This report takes the reader through the diagnostic evaluation, highlights the importance of invasive assessment in the immediate postoperative period, and discusses successful transcatheter intervention in the acute postoperative setting. PMID:27625524

  1. Brain activity monitoring by compressed spectral array during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in acute aortic dissection surgery

    PubMed Central

    Budniak, Wiktor; Buczkowski, Piotr; Perek, Bartłomiej; Walczak, Maciej; Tomczyk, Jadwiga; Katarzyński, Sławomir; Jemielity, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Monitoring the central nervous system during aortic dissection repair may improve the understanding of the intraoperative changes related to its bioactivity. Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of deep hypothermia on intraoperative brain bioactivity measured by the compressed spectral array (CSA) method and to assess the influence of the operations on postoperative cognitive function. Material and methods The study enrolled 40 patients (31 men and 9 women) at the mean age of 60.2 ± 8.6 years, diagnosed with acute aortic dissection. They underwent emergency operations in deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). During the operations, brain bioactivity was monitored with the compressed spectral array method. Results There were no intraoperative deaths. Electrocerebral silence during DHCA was observed in 31 patients (74%). The lowest activity was observed during DHCA: it was 0.01 ± 0.05 nW in the left hemisphere and 0.01 ± 0.03 nW in the right hemisphere. The postoperative results of neurological tests deteriorated statistically significantly (26.9 ± 1.7 points vs. 22.0 ± 1.7 points; p < 0.001), especially among patients who exhibited brain activity during DHCA. Conclusions The compressed spectral array method is clinically useful in monitoring brain bioactivity during emergency operations of acute aortic dissections. Electrocerebral silence occurs in 75% of patients during DHCA. The cognitive function of patients deteriorates significantly after operations with DHCA. PMID:26336458

  2. Aortic angiography

    MedlinePlus

    ... with the aorta or its branches, including: Aortic aneurysm Aortic dissection Congenital (present from birth) problems AV ... Abnormal results may be due to: Abdominal aortic aneurysm Aortic dissection Aortic regurgitation Aortic stenosis Congenital (present ...

  3. Ascending aortopulmonary fistula 40 years after previous cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Maki, Alexandra C; Williams, Matthew L

    2011-03-01

    We present a case of a 64-year-old female presenting with hemoptysis and an ultimate diagnosis of ascending aortopulmonary fistula 40 years after an atrial septal defect repair. A literature review of this rare complication of ascending aortic cannulation includes the pathogenesis and etiology of this rare diagnosis. Aortobronchopulmonary fistula is a rare diagnosis with grave consequences if not treated urgently. We present a case of such diagnosis that was treated with a good outcome. PMID:21299625

  4. Early prediction of acute kidney injury biomarkers after endovascular stent graft repair of aortic aneurysm: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious condition usually detected some time after onset by changes in serum creatinine (sCr). Although stent grafting to repair aortic aneurysms is associated with AKI caused by surgical procedures or the use of contrast agents, early biomarkers for AKI have not been adequately examined in stent graft recipients. We studied biomarkers including urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), blood NGAL, N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), microalbumin (Alb), and liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) as prospective early biomarkers for AKI in patients who had received stent graft repairs of aortic aneurysms. Methods In addition to pre-surgical sampling, at 2 to 6 h and at 1, 3 to 4, and 5 days or later (until stable) after surgery, urine and serum biomarkers were sampled from 47 patients who underwent stent graft repair of aortic aneurysms. Results Using Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria, 6 (14%) of 42 retained patients developed AKI. NGAL corrected with urine Cr (NGAL/Cr) values demonstrated the best predictive value for AKI (97% specificity, 83% sensitivity at a 65.1 μg/gCr cutoff). The area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve of NGAL/Cr value 2 h after surgery was 0.9. Although NGAL/Cr, L-FABP corrected with urine Cr (L-FABP/Cr), L-FABP, NAG, and Alb corrected by urine Cr (Alb/Cr) all reached peak values before AKI detection by sCr in AKI patients, all biomarkers reached the cutoff value before AKI detection after adaption of cutoff value. Conclusions After stent graft repair of aortic aneurysm, NGAL/Cr is a potentially useful early biomarker for AKI. PMID:25960881

  5. Recent advances in aortic valve disease: highlights from a bicuspid aortic valve to transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Augoustides, John G T; Wolfe, Yanika; Walsh, Elizabeth K; Szeto, Wilson Y

    2009-08-01

    There have been major advances in the management of aortic valve disease. Because bicuspid aortic valve is common and predicts an increased risk of adverse aortic events, these patients merit aortic surveillance and consideration for ascending aortic replacement when its diameter exceeds 4.0 cm. Serial quantitative echocardiographic analysis, as compared with traditional clinical markers, can result in better timing of surgical intervention for aortic regurgitation. Furthermore, echocardiographic analysis of aortic regurgitation can classify the mechanism based on cusp mobility to guide aortic valve repair. In aortic root replacement, aortic valve preservation with reimplantation is a mainstream surgical option in Marfan syndrome to offer freedom from valve-related anticoagulation. Prosthetic aortic root replacement has further alternatives with the introduction of the aortic neosinus design and acceptable clinical outcomes with the porcine xenograft. Because aortic valve prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) may adversely affect patient outcome, its perioperative prevention is important. Furthermore, significant functional mitral regurgitation in association with aortic stenosis often resolves after aortic valve replacement. Echocardiographic assessment of the aortic valve must include valve area because the transaortic pressure gradient may be low in severe stenosis. Aortic valve replacement with partial sternotomy is safe and offers a reasonable less invasive alternative. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement, whether transfemoral or transapical, has revolutionized aortic valve replacement; it remains a major theme in the specialty for 2009 and beyond. PMID:19497768

  6. [Aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis with aorto-left atrium fistula; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Junji; Naraoka, Shuichi; Maeda, Toshiyuki; Inoue, Satomi

    2013-12-01

    An 83-year-old man had undergone aortic valve replacement (AVR)[CEP Magna 21 mm] and coronary aortic bypass grafting (CABG)[left internal thoracic artery (LITA)-left anterier descending artery( LAD)] 2 years ago in our hospital. He was admitted for fever of unknown origin and developed a stroke to another hospital. The echocardiography and computerized tomography showed an abscessaround the aortic prosthetic valve. Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) was diagnosed, and he was transferred to our hospital for surgical treatment. Three days after admission, acute heart failure developed that led to an emergency operation. When the ascending aorta was dissected, an aorto-left atrium fistula and vegetation were recognized. Aortic valve replacement and patch plasty of the aorto-left atrium fistula were performed successfully. This case was diagnosed as PVE with aorto-left atrium fistula, which is quite a rare complication of PVE. PMID:24322361

  7. Moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest in total arch repair for acute type A aortic dissection: clinical safety and efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Ming; Ma, Wei-Guo; Guan, Xin-Liang; Wang, Long-Fei; Li, Jia-Chen; Lan, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background Continued debates exist regarding the optimal temperature during hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) in aortic arch repair for patients with type A aortic dissection (TAAD). This study seeks to examine whether the use of moderate HCA in emergency aortic arch surgery provides comparable operative outcomes to deep HCA for patients with acute TAAD. Methods We prospectively enrolled 74 consecutive patients (mean age 47.7±9.8 years, 54 males) with acute TAAD, who underwent emergency total arch replacement and frozen elephant trunk implantation under HCA (18–28 °C) with unilateral selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (uSACP). Patients were divided into two groups based on the nasopharyngeal temperature at the initiation of HCA: deep HCA (DHCA, <20 °C) in 35 (47.3%) and moderate HCA (MHCA, 20–28 °C) in 39 (52.7%). Operative outcomes including mortality, morbidity and visceral organ functions were compared between the two groups. Results The mean times of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and aortic cross-clamp were 211±54 and 238±62 minutes (P=0.053) and 118±27 and 142±45 minutes (P=0.005) in the MHCA and DHCA groups, respectively. Operative mortality did not differ between two groups (10.2% in MHCA vs. 14.3% in DHCA groups, P=0.862). Nor did the incidence of morbidities differ between the two groups (P>0.05). The temporal trend in the changes of postoperative levels of creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin and lactate did not differ between two groups (P>0.05). Multivariate analysis found that the temperature during HCA (MHCA vs. DHCA) did not affect operative mortality, morbidities and neurologic complications. Instead, CPB time (in minutes) was the risk factor for operative mortality (odds ratio, 1.032; 95% confidence interval, 1.004–1.061; P=0.023). Conclusions: Moderate HCA is associated with equivalent operative mortality and morbidity and visceral organ functions compared to deep HCA in patients with acute TAAD undergoing

  8. Prognostic Usefulness of Acute Kidney Injury After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

    PubMed

    Arsalan, Mani; Squiers, John J; Farkas, Robert; Worley, Christina; Herbert, Morley; Stewart, Wells; Brinkman, William T; Ungchusri, Ethan; Brown, David L; Mack, Michael J; Holper, Elizabeth M

    2016-04-15

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been associated with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. Long-term outcomes after TAVR with the Edwards SAPIEN valve in patients who develop AKI postoperatively are currently not well described. We retrospectively reviewed 384 consecutive patients undergoing TAVR at 2 institutions from August 2006 to April 2012. AKI was defined and staged according to Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 criteria. The incidence, multivariate predictors, and association of AKI with 3-year mortality were evaluated. Stage 1 AKI occurred in 24.0% of patients (92 of 384), stage 2 in 5.5% (21 of 384), and stage 3 in 8.1% (31 of 384). The overall operative mortality rate was 7.6%, with a mortality of 3.0% in patients with no kidney injury, 7.6% in stage 1, 23.8% in stage 2, and 32.3% in stage 3. The incidence of new postoperative dialysis was 3.1%. Survival at 3 years for no-AKI/stage 1/stage 2/stage 3 was 59.2 ± 3.3%, 43.4 ± 5.2%, 27.8 ± 10.0%, and 25.4 ± 7.9%, respectively. Logistic regression modeling for the combination of stage 2 or 3 AKI after surgery demonstrated that the last preoperative creatinine (for each 1 mg/dl increase, odds ratio = 3.23, 95% CI 1.83 to 5.69; p <0.001) and dye load (for each 10 ml increase, odds ratio = 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08; p = 0.006) were significant predictors for AKI. In conclusion, AKI after TAVR is associated with increased postoperative and 3-year mortality. Significant multivariate predictors are potentially modifiable before the procedure. PMID:26976788

  9. Aortic valve replacement in rheumatoid aortic incompetence.

    PubMed Central

    Devlin, A B; Goldstraw, P; Caves, P K

    1978-01-01

    Rheumatoid aortic valve disease is uncommon. and there are few reports of valve replacement in this condition. Aortic valve replacement and partial pericardiectomy was performed in a patient with acute rheumatoid aortitis and aortic incompetence. Previous reports suggest that any patient with rheumatoid arthritis who develops cardiac symptoms should be carefully assessed for surgically treatable involvement of the pericardium or heart valves. Images PMID:725829

  10. Advanced Glycation End Products Acutely Impair Ca2+ Signaling in Bovine Aortic Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Naser, Nadim; Januszewski, Andrzej S.; Brown, Bronwyn E.; Jenkins, Alicia J.; Hill, Michael A.; Murphy, Timothy V.

    2013-01-01

    Post-translational modification of proteins in diabetes, including formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are believed to contribute to vascular dysfunction and disease. Impaired function of the endothelium is an early indicator of vascular dysfunction in diabetes and as many endothelial cell processes are dependent upon intracellular [Ca2+] and Ca2+ signaling, the aim of this study was to examine the acute effects of AGEs on Ca2+ signaling in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). Ca2+ signaling was studied using the fluorescent indicator dye Fura-2-AM. AGEs were generated by incubating bovine serum albumin with 0–250 mM glucose or glucose-6-phosphate for 0–120 days at 37°C. Under all conditions, the main AGE species generated was carboxymethyl lysine (CML) as assayed using both gas-liquid chromatograph-mass spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography. In Ca2+-replete solution, exposure of BAEC to AGEs for 5 min caused an elevation in basal [Ca2+] and attenuated the increase in intracellular [Ca2+] caused by ATP (100 μM). In the absence of extracellular Ca2+, exposure of BAEC to AGEs for 5 min caused an elevation in basal [Ca2+] and attenuated subsequent intracellular Ca2+ release caused by ATP, thapsigargin (0.1 μM), and ionomycin (3 μM), but AGEs did not affect extracellular Ca2+ entry induced by the re-addition of Ca2+ to the bathing solution in the presence of any of these agents. The anti-oxidant α-lipoic acid (2 μM) and NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitors apocynin (500 μM) and diphenyleneiodonium (1 μM) abolished these effects of AGEs on BAECs, as did the IP3 receptor antagonist xestospongin C (1 μM). In summary, AGEs caused an acute depletion of Ca2+ from the intracellular store in BAECs, such that the Ca2+ signal stimulated by the subsequent application other agents acting upon this store is reduced. The mechanism may involve generation of reactive oxygen species from NAD(P)H oxidase and possible

  11. Weather conditions and their effect on the increase of the risk of type A acute aortic dissection onset in Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri Shahraiyni, Hamid; Sodoudi, Sahar; Cubasch, Ulrich

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a minimum distance classification and forward feature selection technique are joined to determine the relationship between weather conditions and the increase of the risk of type A acute aortic dissection (AAD) events in Berlin. The results demonstrate that changes in the amount of cloudiness and air temperature are the most representative weather predictors among the studied parameters. A discrimination surface was developed for the prediction of AAD events 6 h ahead, and it is found that, under a specific amount of cloudiness and air temperature, the risk of AAD events in Berlin increases about 20 %.

  12. Weather conditions and their effect on the increase of the risk of type A acute aortic dissection onset in Berlin.

    PubMed

    Taheri Shahraiyni, Hamid; Sodoudi, Sahar; Cubasch, Ulrich

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a minimum distance classification and forward feature selection technique are joined to determine the relationship between weather conditions and the increase of the risk of type A acute aortic dissection (AAD) events in Berlin. The results demonstrate that changes in the amount of cloudiness and air temperature are the most representative weather predictors among the studied parameters. A discrimination surface was developed for the prediction of AAD events 6 h ahead, and it is found that, under a specific amount of cloudiness and air temperature, the risk of AAD events in Berlin increases about 20 %. PMID:26546312

  13. Successful Percutaneous Coronary Intervention through a Severely Bent Artificial Ascending Aorta Using the DIO Thrombus Aspiration Catheter.

    PubMed

    Fujikake, Akinori; Komatsu, Takaaki; Taguchi, Isao

    2016-01-01

    A 66-year-old man was admitted to our institute because of chest pain. He had undergone replacement of the ascending aorta due to aortic dissection 9 years previously. We made a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome, and coronary artery angiography was performed. Although the right coronary artery was successfully cannulated, a severe bend of the artificial aorta made it very difficult to advance the catheter into the left coronary artery. Ultimately, a DIO thrombus aspiration catheter was used to enter the left coronary artery, and a stent was implanted successfully. The DIO catheter is very useful when the selection of a guiding catheter is complicated, such as in the case of severe vessel tortuosity or a bend of the ascending aorta. PMID:27516912

  14. Successful Percutaneous Coronary Intervention through a Severely Bent Artificial Ascending Aorta Using the DIO Thrombus Aspiration Catheter

    PubMed Central

    Fujikake, Akinori

    2016-01-01

    A 66-year-old man was admitted to our institute because of chest pain. He had undergone replacement of the ascending aorta due to aortic dissection 9 years previously. We made a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome, and coronary artery angiography was performed. Although the right coronary artery was successfully cannulated, a severe bend of the artificial aorta made it very difficult to advance the catheter into the left coronary artery. Ultimately, a DIO thrombus aspiration catheter was used to enter the left coronary artery, and a stent was implanted successfully. The DIO catheter is very useful when the selection of a guiding catheter is complicated, such as in the case of severe vessel tortuosity or a bend of the ascending aorta. PMID:27516912

  15. Effectiveness of the Use of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Treat Acute Type A Aortic Dissection Complicated with Limb Ischemia: Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Kousuke; Chikazawa, Genta; Hiraoka, Arudo; Totsugawa, Toshinori; Sakaguchi, Taichi; Yoshitaka, Hidenori

    2015-01-01

    We report an effectiveness of the use of near-infrared spectroscopy to evaluate the limb perfusion, which helps to continuously measure the tissue oxygen index of bilateral legs in treating acute type A aortic dissection complicated with limb ischemia. A 62-year-old man underwent total arch replacement for acute type A aortic dissection with limb ischemia. Intraoperative retrograde true lumen perfusion via bilateral femoral arteries during cardiopulmonary bypass improved ischemic condition of bilateral legs before the resection of primary intimal tear, and the use of near-infrared spectroscopy made it possible to assess additional revascularizations to the lower limbs were required or not. PMID:26421076

  16. [Central cannulation of the aorta by Seldinger technique in DeBakey type I acute aortic dissection with malperfusion of internal organs].

    PubMed

    Barbukhatti, K O; Belash, S A; Kaleda, V I

    2016-01-01

    Described herein is a case report concerning the use of central cannulation of the aorta by Seldinger technique for DeBakey type I aortic dissection with the involvement of both femoral arteries and the brachiocephalic trunk, as well as with thrombosis of the false lumen from the level of the ascending aorta. This is followed by a brief review discussing the methods of instrumental control of the cannula position in the true lumen of the aorta, as well as peculiarities of using this technique of cannulation in various clinical situations. PMID:27626260

  17. Aortic Aging in ESRD: Structural, Hemodynamic, and Mortality Implications.

    PubMed

    London, Gérard M; Safar, Michel E; Pannier, Bruno

    2016-06-01

    Aging incurs aortic stiffening and dilation, but these changes are less pronounced in peripheral arteries, resulting in stiffness and geometry gradients influencing progression of the forward and reflected pressure waves. Because premature arterial aging is observed in ESRD, we determined the respective roles of stiffness and aortic geometry gradients in 73 controls and 156 patients on hemodialysis. We measured aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) and brachial PWV to evaluate the stiffness gradient [(brachial PWV/aortic PWV)(0.5)] and ascending aortic and aortic bifurcation diameters to assess aortic taper (ascending aortic diameter/aortic bifurcation diameter). The global reflection coefficient was estimated from characteristic impedance and vascular resistance. Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine mortality risk. The age-associated increase in aortic PWV was higher in patients (P<0.001). In controls, aortic ascending and bifurcation diameters increased with age, with an unchanged aortic taper. In patients on hemodialysis, age did not associate with increased ascending aortic diameter but did associate with increased aortic bifurcation diameter and decreased aortic taper, both of which also associated with abdominal aortic calcifications and smaller global reflection coefficient (P<0.001). In patients, multivariate models revealed all-cause and cardiovascular mortality associated with age, aortic PWV, and aortic bifurcation diameter with high specificity and sensitivity. Using stiffness gradient, aortic taper, or global reflection coefficient in the model produced similar results. Thus, whereas aortic stiffness is a known independent predictor of mortality, these results indicate the importance of also evaluating the aortic geometry in patients on hemodialysis. PMID:26475595

  18. Hybrid approach in an acute type B aortic dissection in a female patient after having a renal transplant.

    PubMed

    Janczak, Dariusz; Krajewska, Magdalena; Garcarek, Jerzy; Gancarek, Jerzy; Chabowski, Mariusz

    2014-04-01

    This study describes our experiences with a 44-year-old woman who developed acute type B aortic dissection and elected emergency surgery 3 years after a renal transplant. This led to acute ischemia in the right lower extremity. The first stage of surgery was to implant an extra-anatomic (pretracheal) bypass with a GORE-TEX prosthesis from the brachiocephalic trunk to the left common carotid artery. The second stage was implanting a stent graft into the aortic arch that covered the left common carotid artery and the left subclavian artery. The third stage was to insert a stent graft that involved the entire thoracic aorta and proximal segment of the abdominal aorta to the celiac trunk, with the right axillary and left femoral approach. The fourth stage was an extra-anatomic (suprapubic) bypass with the GORE-TEX prosthesis from the left femoral artery to the right femoral artery. Surgery resulted in normal blood supply to the organs and restored renal function. PMID:23647485

  19. Device occlusion of pseudoaneurysm of ascending aorta

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Mridul; Ray, Mili; Pallavi, M; Sen, Supratim; Ganguly, Debosree; Joshi, Pankaj; Tanti, Sanjay; Chattopadhyay, Amitabh; Bandyopadhyay, Biswajit

    2011-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of ascending aorta is an infrequent but well-recognized and potentially fatal complication after cardiac surgeries. The complication can develop early, delayed or late, and the presentation is also varied. We are presenting here two cases of pseudoaneurysm of ascending aorta following cardiac surgery that were successfully managed by the transcatheter method. The first one occurred following coronary artery bypass surgery and the second one occurred following double-valve replacement surgery. The aortic openings of these aneurysms were occluded with 12 mm and 10 mm atrial septal occluders, respectively, with a good outcome. An immediate postprocedure angiogram showed no residual flow into the sac. Six months of follow-up of both cases also showed excellent results. PMID:21976887

  20. Conservative Management of Chronic Aortic Dissection with Underlying Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf Beebeejaun, Mohammad; Malec, Aleksandra; Gupta, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Aortic dissection is one of the most common aortic emergencies affecting around 2000 Americans each year. It usually presents in the acute state but in a small percentage of patients aortic dissections go unnoticed and these patients survive without any adequate therapy. With recent advances in medical care and diagnostic technologies, aortic dissection can be successfully managed through surgical or medical options, consequently increasing the related survival rate. However, little is known about the optimal long-term management of patients suffering from chronic aortic dissection. The purpose of the present report is to review aortic dissection, namely its pathology and the current diagnostic tools available, and to discuss the management options for chronic aortic dissection. We report a patient in which chronic aortic dissection presented with recurring episodes of vomiting and also discuss the management plan of our patient who had a chronic aortic dissection as well as an underlying aortic aneurysm. PMID:24179638

  1. Combined Interventional and Surgical Treatment for Acute Aortic Type A Dissection

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jincheng; Zhang Jinzhou Yang Jian; Zuo Jian; Zhang Jinbao; Yu Shiqiang; Chen Tao; Xu Xuezeng; Wei Xufeng; Yi Dinghua

    2008-07-15

    Surgical repair and endovascular stent-graft placement are both therapies for thoracic aortic dissection. A combination of these two approaches may be effective in patients with type A dissection. In this study, we evaluated the prognosis of this combined technique. From December 2003 to December 2006, 15 patients with type A dissection were admitted to our institute; clinical data were retrospectively reviewed. Follow-up was performed at discharge and approximately 12 months after operation. Endovascular stent-graft placement by interventional radiology and surgical repair for reconstruction of aortic arch was performed in all patients. Total arch replacement for distal arch aneurysm was carried out under deep hypothermia with circulatory arrest; antegrade-selected cerebral perfusion was used for brain protection. Four patients concomitantly received a coronary artery bypass graft. Hospital mortality rate was 6.7%; the patient died of cerebral infarction. Neurological complications developed in two patients. Multi-detector-row computed tomography scans performed before discharge revealed complete thrombosis of the false lumen in six patients and partial thrombosis in eight patients. At the follow-up examination, complete thrombosis was found in another three patients, aortic rupture, endoleaks, or migration of the stent-graft was not observed and injuries of peripheral organs or anastomotic endoleaks did not occur. For patients with aortic type A dissection, combining intervention and surgical procedures is feasible, and complete or at least partial thrombosis of the false lumen in the descending aorta can be achieved. This combined approach simplified the surgical procedures and shortened the circulatory arrest time, minimizing the necessity for further aortic operation.

  2. Can We Really Predict Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury after Aortic Surgery? Diagnostic Accuracy of Risk Scores Using Gray Zone Approach.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Ho; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Eunhee; Kim, Gahyun; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Lim, Hyung Woo

    2016-06-01

    Background Several risk scores have been developed to predict acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery. We evaluated the accuracy of eight prediction models using the gray zone approach in patients who underwent aortic surgery. Patients and Methods We retrospectively applied the risk scores of Palomba, Wijeysundera, Mehta, Thakar, Brown, Aronson, Fortescue, and Rhamanian to 375 consecutive adult patients undergoing aortic surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and gray zone approach were used to evaluate the accuracy of the eight models for prediction of AKI, as defined by the RIFLE criteria. Results The incidence of AKI was 29% (109/375). The AUC for predicting AKI requiring dialysis ranged from 0.66 to 0.84, excluding the score described by Brown et al (0.50). The AUC for predicting the RIFLE criteria of risk and higher ranged from 0.57 to 0.68. The application of gray zone approach resulted in more than half of the patients falling in the gray zone: 275 patients (73%) for Palomba, 221 (59%) for Wijeysundera, 292 (78%) for Mehta, 311 (83%) for Thakar, 329 (88%) for Brown, 291 (78%) for Aronson, 205 (54%) for Fortescue, and 308 (82%) for Rhamanian. Conclusion More than half of the patients in our study sample were in the gray zone of eight scoring models for AKI prediction. The two cutoffs of the gray zone can be used when using risk models. A surgery-specific and more accurate prediction model with a smaller gray zone is required for patients undergoing aortic surgery. PMID:25686298

  3. Juxtarenal aortic occlusion.

    PubMed Central

    Tapper, S S; Jenkins, J M; Edwards, W H; Mulherin, J L; Martin, R S; Edwards, W H

    1992-01-01

    The authors' experience with 113 aortic occlusions in 103 patients during a 26-year period (1965 to 1991) is reviewed. The authors found three distinct patterns of presentation: group I (n = 26) presented with acute aortic occlusion, group II (n = 66) presented with chronic aortic occlusion, and group III (n = 21) presented with complete occlusion of an aortic graft. Perioperative mortality rates were 31%, 9%, and 4.7% for each respective group and achieved statistical significance when comparing group I with group II (p = 0.009) and group I with group III (p = 0.015). Group I presented with profound metabolic insults due to acute ischemia and fared poorly. Group II presented with chronic claudication and did well long-term. Group III presented with acute ischemia but did well because of established collateral circulation. The treatment and expected outcome of aortic occlusion depends on the cause. PMID:1616381

  4. [Acute Leaflet Arrest in St. Jude Medical Regent Mechanical Aortic Valve;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Morishima, Yuji; Arakaki, Katsuya

    2015-06-01

    A 61-year-old woman was diagnosed with combined valvular disease and atrial fibrillation, and was admitted for surgery. We performed double valve replacement, tricuspid annuloplasty and maze operation. At the operation, a 19 mm St. Jude Medical Regent valve was implanted with non-everting mattress sutures at the aortic supra-annular position after mitral valve replacement. Although pulling down of the prosthesis into the aortic annulus was easy, the leaflets were unable to open at all in a movability test. After removing several stitches on the mitral side of the hinges, the subvalvular tissue was seen bulging into the hinge, hindering the free movement. The prosthesis was removed and replaced with a 17 mm Regent valve by the same technique. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. We suggest it is necessary to pay special attention to the structural characteristics of the prosthesis. PMID:26066878

  5. Delayed Visceral and Spinal Cord Malperfusion after Axillo-Bifemoral Bypass for Complicated Acute Type B Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, Hideyuki; Katahira, Seiichiro; Hoshino, Takeshi; Hanzawa, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    We describe a successfully treated case of acute type B aortic dissection complicated with lower extremity, visceral, and spinal cord malperfusion. To restore perfusion to both lower extremities, we performed an emergency right axillo-bifemoral bypass. Furthermore, we performed total arch replacement, including primary entry closure, because of delayed visceral organ ischemia. Unexpectedly, delayed paraplegia occurred after hospital discharge; however, the patient recovered without any neurologic sequelae after early introduction of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Because another episode of organ malperfusion in the long term cannot be anticipated, and even though the previous organ malperfusion episode was treated successfully, close observation is mandatory for detecting clinical manifestations in combination with the availability of imaging modalities. PMID:25298840

  6. Giant Thoracic Aneurysm Following Valve Replacement for Bicuspid Aortic Valve.

    PubMed

    Tran, Cao; Ul Haq, Ehtesham; Nguyen, Ngoc; Omar, Bassam

    2015-01-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve is a common congenital anomaly associated with aortopathy, which can cause aortic root dilatation, necessitating regular screening if the aortic root is > 4.0 cm. Despite the low absolute incidence of aortic complications associated with bicuspid aortic valve in the general population, the consequences of such complications for an individual patient can be devastating. Herein we propose a balanced algorithm that incorporates recommendations from the three major guidelines for follow-up imaging of the aortic root and ascending thoracic aorta in patients with a bicuspid aortic valve, maintaining the current recommendations with regard to surgical thresholds. PMID:26827748

  7. Mean platelet volume to platelet count ratio predicts in-hospital complications and long-term mortality in type A acute aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-Ze; Chen, Qing-Jie; Sun, Hui-Ping; Zeng, Rui; Zeng, Zhi; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Ma, Yi-Tong; Yang, Yi-Ning

    2016-09-01

    Type A acute aortic dissection is a life-threatening vascular emergency because of its high morbidity and mortality. Platelet is a pivotal ingredient involved in the development of acute aortic dissection. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether mean platelet volume (MPV)/platelet count ratio predicts in-hospital complications and long-term mortality in type A acute aortic dissection. In this single-center and prospective cohort study, 106 consecutive patients with Stanford type A acute aortic dissection admitted to the hospital within 12 h after onset were recruited. The best cut-off value of MPV/platelet count ratio predicting all-cause mortality was determined by the receiver operator characteristic analysis. Patients were divided into high (H-MPV/platelet count) and low (L-MPV/platelet count) groups based on the cut-off value of 7.49 (10 fl/10/l). Patients were followed up for 3.5 years. Of the 106 acute aortic dissection patients, 71 (67.0%) died during the study period, with a median follow-up duration of 570 days. Compared to the L-MPV/platelet count group, patients with H-MPV/platelet count had a higher risk of in-hospital complications including hypotension, hypoxemia, myocardial ischemia/infarction, conscious disturbance, pericardial tamponade, paraplegia, and poor survival (all P < 0.05). In multivariable Cox regression models adjusted for potential confounders, MPV/platelet count ratio was positively associated with the hazard of all-cause mortality, irrespective of interventions either with medication only or urgent surgery, and the hazard ratios were 2.81 (95% confidence interval 1.28-4.48) for the H-MPV/platelet count group when taking L-MPV/platelet count group as the reference (P = 0.005). The MPV/platelet count ratio was a strong independent predictor for in-hospital complications and long-term mortality in patients with type A acute aortic dissection. PMID:26575495

  8. Acute Aortic Dissection Following Treatment for Castration-Resistant 
Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Horrill, Tara

    2016-07-01

    A 65-year-old man presents to the emergency department with increasing back pain. His history includes hypertension, peripheral neuropathy, duodenal ulcer, superior mesenteric vein thrombus, stage IIB colon cancer treated with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy, renal cell carcinoma treated with surgery, and prostate cancer treated with surgery and radiation. He is otherwise healthy. His family history is positive for colon cancer. Physical examination found significantly elevated blood pressure and a computed tomography scan of the thoracic and lumbar spine was performed, with findings of a type B aortic dissection extending from the aberrant right subclavian artery down to the abdominal aorta.
. PMID:27314183

  9. Use of intra-aortic balloon pump support for oozing-type cardiac rupture after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Ping; Su, Xi; Liu, Cheng-Wei; Song, Dan; Peng, Jian; Wu, Ming-Xiang; Yang, Yu-Chun; Liu, Bo; Xu, Cheng-Yi; Wang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Left ventricular free wall rupture usually leads to acute hemopericardium and sudden cardiac death resulting in cardiac tamponade. Rarely, only a few patients with subacute free wall rupture such as oozing-type ventricular rupture or left ventricular false aneurysm may permit time for pericardiocentesis and surgery. We report a 63-year-old man with ST-elevation myocardial infarction who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention about 12 hours from the onset, and cardiac tamponade occurred on the second day. An intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) was immediately inserted for hemodynamic support. After 100 mL of pericardial fresh blood was drained from the percardial cavity, his hemodynamic collapse was promptly improved with IABP support. In the following 24 hours, about 600 mL of hemorrhagic pericardial fluid was drained. The most likely diagnosis was concerning for oozing-type ventricular rupture, and a conservative approach was decided. The patient survived to the acute phase under IABP support and was discharged with complete recovery. PMID:26145582

  10. Overview of current surgical strategies for aortic disease in patients with Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, Shunsuke; Okita, Yutaka

    2016-09-01

    Marfan syndrome is a heritable, systemic disorder of the connective tissue with a high penetrance, named after Dr. Antoine Marfan. The most clinically important manifestations of this syndrome are cardiovascular pathologies which cause life-threatening events, such as acute aortic dissections, aortic rupture and regurgitation of the aortic valve or other artrioventricular valves leading to heart failure. These events play important roles in the life expectancy of patients with this disorder, especially prior to the development of effective surgical approaches for proximal ascending aortic disease. To prevent such catastrophic aortic events, a lower threshold has been recommended for prophylactic interventions on the aortic root. After prophylactic root replacement, disease in the aorta beyond the root and distal to the arch remains a cause for concern. Multiple surgeries are required throughout a patient's lifetime that can be problematic due to distal lesions complicated by dissection. Many controversies in surgical strategies remain, such as endovascular repair, to manage such complex cases. This review examines the trends in surgical strategies for the treatment of cardiovascular disease in patients with Marfan syndrome, and current perspectives in this field. PMID:26586198

  11. Contemporary Management of Type B Aortic Dissection in the Endovascular Era.

    PubMed

    Bannazadeh, Mohsen; Tadros, Rami O; McKinsey, James; Chander, Rajiv; Marin, Michael L; Faries, Peter L

    2016-04-01

    Aortic dissection (AD) is one of the most common catastrophic pathologies affecting the aorta. Anatomic classification is based on the origin of entry tear and its extension. Type A dissections originate in the ascending aorta, whereas the entry tear in Type B dissections starts distal to the left subclavian artery. The patients with aortic dissection who manifest complications such as rupture, malperfusion, aneurysmal degeneration, and intractable pain are classified as complicated AD. Risk factors for developing aortic dissection include age, male gender, and aortic wall structural abnormalities. The most common presenting symptom of acute aortic dissection is pain. Malperfusion occurs as a result of end-organ ischemia due to involvement of aortic branches from the dissecting process. This can happen in various locations causing mesenteric ischemia (mesenteric vessels), stroke (aortic arch vessels), renal failure (renal arteries), spinal ischemia, and limb ischemia (iliac or subclavian arteries). Aneurysmal degeneration is the most common complication of patients with chronic Type B dissection who are managed with medical therapy. Management of Type B aortic dissection (TBAD) remains controversial. Many groups recommend conservative therapy for newly diagnosed TBAD and reserve surgical management for patients who develop complications such as rupture, malperfusion, aneurysmal dilatation, and refractory pain. The mainstay of medical therapy includes antihypertensive medication to reduced ΔP/ ΔT by lowering blood pressure and heart rate. With the continued success of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR), this procedure has been extended to treat TBAD in selected patients. The outcomes of TEVAR are promising, with early mortality rates from 10% to 20%. With promising results from these series, some groups recommend early TEVAR in uncomplicated TBAD to prevent future adverse events. The goals of endovascular treatment of TBAD are to cover the entry tear

  12. Chronic type B aortic dissection: indications and strategies for treatment.

    PubMed

    Rohlffs, F; Tsilimparis, N; Diener, H; Larena-Avellaneda, A; Von Kodolitsch, Y; Wipper, S; Debus, E S; Kölbel, T

    2015-04-01

    Chronic type B aortic dissection is a distinctive condition that needs individual treatment strategies and different considerations than in therapy of acute or subacute type B aortic dissection. The most common indication for treatment of this complex disease is aneurysmal dilatation of the dissected aortic segment. While open repair of the enlarged dissected aorta remains the best option for good-risk patients and patients with connective tissue disorders in high-volume centers with respective expertise, endovascular management of chronic type B aortic dissection with postdissection aneurysms has significantly gained ground in the past years. But the concept of TEVAR with implantation of a tubular stent-graft into the thoracic aorta to seal the proximal entry tear and reroute the blood flow into the true lumen alone, is not associated with satisfactory results. This is mainly due to the sparse remodeling capacity of the aortic tissue compared to earlier stages of the disease as the aortic wall and the dissection membrane are thickened and more rigid. On the other hand, it is restricted by the most limiting factor for endovascular success in chronic type B aortic dissection: persistent false lumen perfusion. This problem also affects patients with residual dissection after surgical repair of a DeBakey type I aortic dissection or dissection after ascending aortic repair for other pathologies. Hence, it is evident that strategies to achieve endovascular false lumen occlusion are of increasing importance and novel techniques have been introduced to solve the problem of persisting false lumen flow. Thus, the evolution of a large variety of techniques to address the false lumen perfusion issue indicates that complicated chronic type B dissection involves a high diversity in clinical presentation and morphology. A large armamentarium of catheter skills as well as critical individualized treatment strategies are required to address the heterogenous morphological disease

  13. [Clinical study on the surgical cases of the ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Ayabe, T; Nakamura, K; Yano, M; Onitsuka, T

    2003-07-01

    The prognosis of the ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysm is poor. Even if the surgical treatment was performed, the clinical outcome does not sufficiently satisfy us. Between January 1978 to July 1999, 171 cases of thoracic aortic surgery were operated in our department, in which 12 patients were with the ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysm without acute dissection. The aneurysm was located in ascending aorta (2), aortic arch (6), descending aorta (3), and thoracoabdominal aorta (1). The aneurysm was ruptured into thorax (4), pericardium (2), mediastinum (3), lung (2), and esophagus (1). The operative procedure was artificial vascular graft replacement (9), patch closure (2), and aneurysmal interposition (1) [bypass with ascending aorta to abdominal aorta)]. The operations were performed during hypothermic circulatory arrest with antegrade selective cerebral perfusion (6), under total (1) or partial complete extracorporeal circulation (5). The hospital death was 33% (4/12). The causes of death were cerebral complication (2), sepsis (1), and multiple organ failure (1). The 12 patients were divided into 2 groups: group A; 8 cases with alive; group D; 4 cases with hospital death. We compared and analyzed the perioperative factors of these 2 groups. On intraoperative factors, operation time (minute) demonstrated a significant difference (498 +/- 129 in group A v.s. 851 +/- 227 in group D, p < 0.05). No significant difference was observed between the groups on extracorporeal circulation time, aortic clumping time, selective cerebral perfusion time, systemic circulatory arrest time, intraoperative blood loss, and blood transfusion. The postoperative major complication was revealed in 6 cases (50%, 6/12), cerebral infarction (3), sepsis (2), and hoarsness (1). In conclusions, to make an effort to shorten an operative time as possible, and to prevent the postoperative neurological dysfunction under selective cerebral perfusion, those efforts should contribute to a good

  14. Aortic insufficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart valve - aortic regurgitation; Valvular disease - aortic regurgitation; AI - aortic insufficiency ... BA. Valvular heart disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  15. Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... chest and abdomen. There are two types of aortic aneurysm: Thoracic aortic aneurysms - these occur in the part of the aorta running through the chest Abdominal aortic aneurysms - these occur in the part of the aorta ...

  16. Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... chest and abdomen. There are two types of aortic aneurysm: Thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) - these occur in the part of the aorta running through the chest Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) - these occur in the part of the ...

  17. Aortic insufficiency

    MedlinePlus

    Aortic valve prolapse; Aortic regurgitation ... Any condition that prevents the aortic valve from closing completely can cause this problem. When the valve doesn't close all the way, a small amount of blood comes ...

  18. Subacute ascending numbness.

    PubMed

    Arshi, B; Shaw, S

    2014-01-01

    A 21-year-old male presented with two weeks of ascending numbness involving all 4 limbs, and imbalance when walking. Examination revealed diminished vibration and proprioception at the fingers, toes, and ankles, a high steppage gait and a positive Romberg sign. He had no weakness in any muscle groups. Laboratory data included vitamin B12 218 pg/mL (normal range: 200-800 pg/mL), homocysteine 87 μmol/L (normal range: 2.2-13.2 μmol/L), and non-reactive RPR. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine revealed abnormal T2-weighted hyperintensity along the posterior columns extending from C2 to C7. PMID:25200456

  19. Aneurysms: thoracic aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Chun, Kevin C; Lee, Eugene S

    2015-04-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) have many possible etiologies, including congenital heart defects (eg, bicuspid aortic valves, coarctation of the aorta), inherited connective tissue disorders (eg, Marfan, Ehlers-Danlos, Loeys-Dietz syndromes), and degenerative conditions (eg, medial necrosis, atherosclerosis of the aortic wall). Symptoms of rupture include a severe tearing pain in the chest, back, or neck, sometimes associated with cardiovascular collapse. Before rupture, TAAs may exert pressure on other thoracic structures, leading to a variety of symptoms. However, most TAAs are asymptomatic and are found incidentally during imaging for other conditions. Diagnosis is confirmed with computed tomography scan or echocardiography. Asymptomatic TAAs should be monitored with imaging at specified intervals and patients referred for repair if the TAAs are enlarging rapidly (greater than 0.5 cm in diameter over 6 months for heritable etiologies; greater than 0.5 cm over 1 year for degenerative etiologies) or reach a critical aortic diameter threshold for elective surgery (5.5 cm for TAAs due to degenerative etiologies, 5.0 cm when associated with inherited syndromes). Open surgery is used most often to treat asymptomatic TAAs in the ascending aorta and aortic arch. Asymptomatic TAAs in the descending aorta often are treated medically with aggressive blood pressure control, though recent data suggest that endovascular procedures may result in better long-term survival rates. PMID:25860136

  20. Intra-aortic balloon pumping reduces the increased arterial load caused by acute cardiac depression, modifying central and peripheral load determinants in a time- and flow-related way.

    PubMed

    Bia, Daniel; Cabrera-Fischer, Edmundo I; Zócalo, Yanina; Armentano, Ricardo L

    2012-09-01

    The mechanisms that explain intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) effects are not completely understood, and attributing them only to pressure-associated changes in cardiac function would be an oversimplification. Since IABP modifies the aortic and systemic blood-flow pattern, flow-related effects could be expected. To characterize effects of acute heart failure (AHF) on the arterial biomechanics; IABP effects on the arterial biomechanics during AHF, and their potential time-dependence; the association between hemodynamics and biomechanical changes during AHF and IABP. Sheep (n = 6) aortic pressure, flow, and diameter were measured: (1) before (Basal) and (2) 1-3 (HF(1-3)) and 28-30 (HF(28-30)) min after starting halothane to induce AHF; and (3) at specific times (1-3, 14-15 and 28-30 min) during IABP assistance. Calculus: aortic characteristic impedance (Z(c)), beta stiffness (β), incremental (E(INC)) and pressure-strain elastic modulus (E(P)); total arterial compliance (C(G)), total systemic vascular resistance and wave propagation parameters. (1) AHF resulted in an acute increase in aortic and systemic stiffness (HF(28-30) % changes with respect to Basal conditions: β +217%, E (P) +143%, E(INC) +101%, Z(c) +52%, C(G) -13%), associated with the reduction in the aortic blood flow; (2) during AHF IABP resulted in acute beneficial changes aortic and systemic biomechanics (% changes in IABP(1-3) with respect HF(28-30): β -62%, E(P) -68%, E (INC) -66%, Z(c) -38%, C(G) 66%), and in wave propagation parameters, (3) IABP-related changes were time-dependent and associated with changes in aortic blood flow. Aortic and systemic biomechanical and impedance properties are detrimentally modified during AHF, being the changes rapidly reverted during IABP. IABP-related beneficial changes in arterial biomechanics were time-dependent and associated with IABP capability to increase blood flow. PMID:22068608

  1. Increased Epicardial Fat Thickness Correlates with Aortic Stiffness and N-Terminal Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide Levels in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Unal, Yasemin; Basaran, Ozcan; Akin, Fatih; Emir, Gulser Karadaban; Kutlu, Gulnihal; Biteker, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Epicardial fat, a metabolically active tissue, has emerged as a risk factor and active player in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We investigated epicardial fat thickness in patients who had sustained an acute ischemic stroke, and we evaluated the relationship of epicardial fat thickness with other prognostic factors. We enrolled 61 consecutive patients (age, ≥18 yr) who had sustained a first acute ischemic stroke and had been admitted to our hospital within 24 hours of the onset of stroke symptoms. The control group comprised 82 consecutive sex- and age-matched patients free of past or current stroke who had been admitted to our cardiology clinics. Blood samples were taken for measurement of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels at admission. Aortic stiffness indices and epicardial fat thickness were measured by means of transthoracic echocardiography within the first 48 hours. In comparison with the control group, the patients with acute ischemic stroke had significantly higher epicardial fat thickness (4.8 ± 0.9 vs 3.8 ± 0.7 mm; P <0.001), lower aortic distensibility (2.5 ± 0.8 vs 3.4 ± 0.9 cm2·dyn−1; P <0.001) and lower aortic strain (5.5% ± 1.9% vs 6.4% ± 1.8%; P=0.003). We found a significant association between epicardial fat thickness, NT-proBNP levels, and arterial dysfunction in patients who had sustained acute ischemic stroke. Increased epicardial fat thickness might be a novel risk factor and might enable evaluation of subclinical target-organ damage in these patients. PMID:27303237

  2. [Stent Grafting for Aortic Dissection].

    PubMed

    Uchida, Naomichi

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of stent graft for aortic dissection is to terminate antegrade blood flow into the false lumen through primary entry. Early intervention for primary entry makes excellent aortic remodeling and emergent stent grafting for complicated acute type B aortic dissection is supported as a class I. On the other hand stent grafting for chronic aortic dissection is controversial. Early stent grafting is considered with in 6 months after on-set if the diameter of the descending aorta is more than 40 mm. Additional interventions for residual false lumen on the downstream aorta are still required. Stent graft for re-entry, candy-plug technique, and double stenting, other effective re-interventions were reported. Best treatment on the basis of each anatomical and physical characteristics should be selected in each institution. Frozen elephant trunk is alternative procedure for aortic dissection without the need to take account of proximal anatomical limitation and effective for acute type A aortic dissection. PMID:27440026

  3. A new concentric double prosthesis for sutureless, magnetic-assisted aortic arch inclusion.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Acute dissection of the ascending aorta is a life-threatening condition in which the aortic wall develops one or more tears of the intima associated with intramural rupture of the media layer with subsequent formation of a two lumina vessel. The remaining outer layer is just the adventitia, with high risk of complete rupture. Vital organs may be under-perfused. Mortality rate in this acute event is about 50% if an emergent surgical procedure is not performed as soon as possible to replace the tract affected by the primary rupture. Nevertheless, the emergent surgical procedure is affected by high risk of mortality or severe neurologic sequelae, due to the need for deep hypothermia and cardiocirculatory arrest and different methods of cerebral protection. If the patient survives the acute event, a frequent outcome is the establishment of a chronic aortic dissection in the remaining aorta and late chronic dissecting aneurysm, usually starting from the surgical suture itself. Traumatism of surgical stitches and of direct blood flow pressure on weak aortic wall can be important contributing factors of the chronic disease. In conclusions, the majority of these patients undergoes a high risk operation without a complete solution of the disease. We hypothesize that excluding the aortic layers from the blood direct flow and using an anastomotic technique which does not include surgical stitches could help to significantly reduce the recurrence of aortic dissection after the acute event and shorten hypothermic arrest duration. We devised a double tubular prosthesis consisting of two concentric artificial tubes between which the aortic wall is confined and excluded from direct blood flow. We also devised a magnetic assisted sutureless anastomotic technique that seals the aortic tissue between the two prostheses and avoids the perforation of the fragile aortic wall with surgical stitches. We are presenting here this new prototype and draw a few different models. Both acute and

  4. Successful treatment of persistent chylopericardium with somatostatin after operation on ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Saziye; Rager, Olivier; Kalangos, Afksendiyos

    2014-04-01

    Chylopericardium after intrathoracic surgical procedures rarely occurs. Optimal guidelines for the management of chylopericardium are lacking. In this case report, we describe our experience in treating chylopericadium with somatostatin in a 47-year-old man who underwent replacement of the ascending aorta and aortic valvuloplasty after aortic rupture. Postoperatively, a late tamponade was drained, and microbiologic analyses confirmed chyle. Conservative treatment including total parental nutrition failed, so we initiated somatostatin treatment as a continuous perfusion, with good results. PMID:24694457

  5. Carotid Atherosclerosis Does Not Predict Coronary, Vertebral, or Aortic Atherosclerosis in Patients with Acute Stroke Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to determine whether significant atherosclerotic disease in the carotid arteries predicts significant atherosclerotic disease in the coronary arteries, vertebral arteries, or aorta in patients with symptoms of acute ischemic stroke. METHODS Atherosclerotic disease was imaged using computed tomography angiography (CTA) in a prospective study of 120 consecutive patients undergoing emergent CT evaluation for symptoms of stroke. Using a comprehensive CTA protocol that captured the carotid arteries, coronary arteries, vertebral arteries, and aorta, we evaluated these arteries for the presence and severity of atherosclerotic disease. Significant atherosclerotic disease was defined as > 50% stenosis in the carotid, coronary, and vertebral arteries, or ≥ 4mm thickness and encroaching in the aorta. Presence of any and significant atherosclerotic disease were compared in the different types of arteries assessed. RESULTS Of these 120 patients, 79 had CTA exams of adequate image quality and were evaluated in this study. Of these 79 patients, 33 had significant atherosclerotic disease. In 26 of these 33 patients (79%), significant disease was isolated to one type of artery, most often to the coronary arteries (N = 14; 54%). Non-significant atherosclerotic disease was more systemic and involved multiple arteries. CONCLUSIONS Significant atherosclerotic disease in the carotid arteries does not predict significant atherosclerotic disease in the coronary arteries, vertebral arteries, or aorta in patients with symptoms of acute ischemic stroke. Significant atherosclerotic disease is most often isolated to one type of artery in these patients, while non-significant atherosclerotic disease tends to be more systemic. PMID:20595672

  6. Hospital mortality of patients aged 80 and older after surgical repair for type A acute aortic dissection in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohnuma, Tetsu; Shinjo, Daisuke; Fushimi, Kiyohide

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate whether patients aged 80 and older have higher risk of hospital mortality after repair of type A acute aortic dissection (TAAAD).Emergency surgery for TAAAD in patients aged 80 and older remains a controversial issue because of its high surgical risk.Data from patients who underwent surgical repair of TAAAD between April 2011 and March 2013 were retrospectively extracted from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database. The effect of age on hospital mortality was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis.A total of 5175 patients were enrolled. The mean age of patients was 67.1 ± 13.0 years, and the male:female ratio was 51:49. Patients aged 80 and older more frequently received tracheostomy than their younger counterparts (9.5% vs 5.4%, P <0.001). Intensive care unit and hospital stays were significantly longer in the elderly cohort versus the younger cohort (7.6 vs 6.7 days, P <0.001, and 42.2 vs 35.8 days, P <0.001, respectively). Logistic regression analysis showed that age ≥80 years was significantly associated with a higher risk of hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.06; P <0.001). In linear regression analysis, age ≥80 years was also significantly associated with longer hospital stay (P = 0.007).In a large, nationwide, Japanese database, patients aged 80 and older were at increased risk of hospital mortality and length of hospital stay. PMID:27495057

  7. Hospital mortality of patients aged 80 and older after surgical repair for type A acute aortic dissection in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ohnuma, Tetsu; Shinjo, Daisuke; Fushimi, Kiyohide

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate whether patients aged 80 and older have higher risk of hospital mortality after repair of type A acute aortic dissection (TAAAD). Emergency surgery for TAAAD in patients aged 80 and older remains a controversial issue because of its high surgical risk. Data from patients who underwent surgical repair of TAAAD between April 2011 and March 2013 were retrospectively extracted from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database. The effect of age on hospital mortality was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 5175 patients were enrolled. The mean age of patients was 67.1 ± 13.0 years, and the male:female ratio was 51:49. Patients aged 80 and older more frequently received tracheostomy than their younger counterparts (9.5% vs 5.4%, P <0.001). Intensive care unit and hospital stays were significantly longer in the elderly cohort versus the younger cohort (7.6 vs 6.7 days, P <0.001, and 42.2 vs 35.8 days, P <0.001, respectively). Logistic regression analysis showed that age ≥80 years was significantly associated with a higher risk of hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.28–2.06; P <0.001). In linear regression analysis, age ≥80 years was also significantly associated with longer hospital stay (P = 0.007). In a large, nationwide, Japanese database, patients aged 80 and older were at increased risk of hospital mortality and length of hospital stay. PMID:27495057

  8. [Unicuspid Aortic Valve Stenosis Combined with Aortic Coarctation;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Kubota, Takehiro; Wakasa, Satoru; Shingu, Yasushige; Matsui, Yoshiro

    2016-06-01

    Unicuspid aortic valve in an adult is extremely rare. In addition, 90% of the patients with aortic coarctation are reported to die before the age 50. A 60-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for further examination of exertional dyspnea which had begun one year before. She had been under medical treatment for hypertension since early thirties, and had been also diagnosed with moderate aortic stenosis at 50 years of age. She was at 1st diagnosed with aortic coarctation combined with bicuspid aortic valve stenosis. The aortic valve was then found unicuspid and was replaced under cardiopulmonary bypass with perfusion to both the ascending aorta and the femoral artery. Repair of aortic coarctation was performed 3 months later through left thoracotomy without extracorporeal circulation due to the rich collateral circulation. She had no postoperative complications, and hypertension as well as ankle-brachial index improved to the normal levels. PMID:27246132

  9. Supravalvular aortic stenosis after arterial switch operation.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Takuya; Koide, Masaaki; Kunii, Yoshifumi; Watanabe, Kazumasa; Kanzaki, Tomohito; Ohashi, Yuko

    2016-07-01

    Supravalvular aortic stenosis as a late complication of transposition of the great arteries is very rare, and only a few cases have been reported. We describe the case of a 14-year-old girl who developed supravalvular aortic stenosis as a late complication of the arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries. The narrowed ascending aorta was replaced with a graft. The right pulmonary artery was transected to approach the ascending aorta which adhered severely to the main pulmonary trunk, and we obtained a good operative field. PMID:25957091

  10. Deficiency of endogenous acute phase serum amyloid A protects apoE−/− mice from angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm formation

    PubMed Central

    Webb, NR; De Beer, MC; Wroblewski, JM; Ji, A; Bailey, W; Shridas, P; Charnigo, RJ; Noffsinger, VP; Witta, J; Howatt, DA; Balakrishnan, A; Rateri, DL; Daugherty, A; De Beer, FC

    2016-01-01

    Objective Rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), a major cause of death in the aged population, is characterized by vascular inflammation and matrix degradation. Serum amyloid A (SAA), an acute phase reactant linked to inflammation and matrix metalloproteinase induction, correlates with aortic dimensions before aneurysm formation in humans. We investigated whether SAA deficiency in mice impacts AAA formation during angiotensin II (AngII) infusion. Approach and Results Plasma SAA increased ~60-fold in apoE−/− mice 24 hours after i.p. AngII injection (100 μg/kg; n = 4) and ~15-fold after chronic 28-day AngII infusion (1,000 ng/kg/min; n = 9). AAA incidence and severity after 28-day AngII infusion was significantly reduced in apoE−/− mice lacking both acute phase SAA isoforms (SAAKO; n = 20) compared to apoE−/− mice (SAAWT; n = 20) as assessed by in vivo ultrasound and ex vivo morphometric analyses, despite a significant increase in systolic blood pressure in SAAKO mice compared to SAAWT mice after AngII infusion. Atherosclerotic lesion area of the aortic arch was similar in SAAKO and SAAWT mice after 28-day AngII infusion. Immunostaining detected SAA in AAA tissues of AngII-infused SAAWT mice that co-localized with macrophages, elastin breaks, and enhanced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. MMP-2 activity was significantly lower in aortas of SAAKO mice compared to SAAWT mice after 10-day AngII infusion. Conclusion Lack of endogenous acute phase SAA protects against experimental AAA through a mechanism that may involve reduced MMP-2 activity. PMID:25745063

  11. Clinical Predictors for Delayed or Inappropriate Initial Diagnosis of Type A Acute Aortic Dissection in the Emergency Room

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Kazuhito; Wake, Minoru; Takahashi, Takanori; Nakazato, Jun; Yagi, Nobuhito; Miyagi, Tadayoshi; Shimotakahara, Junichi; Mototake, Hidemitsu; Tengan, Toshiho; Takara, Tsuyoshi R.; Yamaguchi, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Background Initial diagnosis of acute aortic dissection (AAD) in the emergency room (ER) is sometimes difficult or delayed. The aim of this study is to define clinical predictors related to inappropriate or delayed diagnosis of Stanford type A AAD. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of 127 consecutive patients with type A AAD who presented to the ER within 12 h of symptom onset (age: 69.0 ± 15.4 years, male/female = 49/78). An inappropriate initial diagnosis (IID) was considered if AAD was not included in the differential diagnosis or if chest computed tomography or echocardiography was not performed as initial imaging tests. Clinical variables were compared between IID and appropriate diagnosis group. The time to final diagnosis (TFD) was also evaluated. Delayed diagnosis (DD) was defined as TFD > third quartile. Clinical factors predicting DD were evaluated in comparison with early diagnosis (defined as TFD within the third quartile). In addition, TFD was compared with respect to each clinical variable using a rank sum test. Results An IID was determined for 37% of patients. Walk-in (WI) visit to the ER [odds ratio (OR) 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01–6.72, P = 0.048] and coronary malperfusion (CM, OR = 6.48, 95% CI = 1.14–36.82, P = 0.035) were predictors for IID. Overall, the median TFD was 1.5 h (first/third quartiles = 0.5/4.0 h). DD (>4.5 h) was observed in 27 cases (21.3%). TFD was significantly longer in WI patients (median and first/third quartiles = 1.0 and 0.5/2.85 h for the ambulance group vs. 3.0 and 1.0/8.0 h for the WI group, respectively; P = 0.003). Multivariate analysis revealed that WI visit was the only predictor for DD (OR = 3.72, 95% CI = 1.39–9.9, P = 0.009). TFD was significantly shorter for appropriate diagnoses than for IIDs (1.0 vs. 6.0 h, respectively; P < 0.0001). Conclusions WI visit to the ER and CM were predictors for IID, and WI was the only predictor for DD in acute type A AAD in the community hospital

  12. Beveled reversed elephant trunk procedure for complex aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, Takuya; Yamamoto, Shin; Sekine, Yuji; Oshima, Susumu; Kasai, Reo; Sasaguri, Shiro

    2016-03-01

    The reversed elephant trunk procedure uses an inverted graft for distal aortic replacement before aortic arch replacement in patients with mega aorta, to reduce the risk in the second stage. However, the conventional technique restricts the maximum diameter of the inverted graft to the aortic graft diameter. We employed a beveled reversed elephant trunk procedure to overcome the discrepancy between graft diameters in a 54-year-old woman with a severely twisted ascending aortic graft and enlarging chronic dissection of the aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta. The patient was discharged with a satisfactory repair and no neurologic deficit. PMID:25406402

  13. Type B Aortic Dissection with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Rupture 1 Year after Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Guillaume; Ben Ahmed, Sabrina; Warein, Edouard; Gallon, Arnaud; Rosset, Eugenio

    2016-05-01

    We report a patient who developed a type B aortic dissection and ruptured his aneurysmal sac 1 year after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR), despite standard follow-up. This 79-year-old man was presented to emergency room with acute abdominal pain and an acute lower limb ischemia. Computed tomography scan showed an acute type B aortic dissection feeding the aneurysmal sac of the EVAR. The aneurysm rupture occurred during imaging. Type B aortic dissection is a rare cause of aneurysmal rupture after EVAR. The first postoperative computed tomography scan should maybe include the arch and the descending thoracic aorta to rule out an iatrogenic dissection after EVAR. PMID:26902937

  14. Point-of-care echocardiography for aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism and acute coronary syndrome in patients with killer chest pain: EASY screening focused on the assessment of effusion, aorta, ventricular size and shape and ventricular asynergy.

    PubMed

    Nishigami, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Focus assessed transthoracic echocardiography and focused cardiac ultrasound are point-of-care echo protocols for the evaluation of cardiac disease in the emergency room; however, these protocols may not adequately assess aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism, and acute coronary syndrome in patients with killer chest pain. Here, I present an echocardiography protocol focused on screening for these critical cardiovascular diseases. This protocol (termed EASY screening) consists of the assessment of effusion in the pericardial space, aortic abnormalities, the size and shape of the ventricles and asynergy of the left ventricle. Aortic dissection is suggested by positive findings for effusion and/or abnormal aortic findings. Pulmonary embolism is suggested by a dilated right ventricle and a D-shaped left ventricle in the short-axis view. Acute coronary syndrome is suggested by asynergy of left ventricular wall motion. EASY screening may facilitate the assessment of aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism and acute coronary syndrome in patients presenting to the emergency room with killer chest pain. PMID:26497152

  15. Ascending Aorta Elastography After Kawasaki Disease Compared to Systemic Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nandlall, Ian; Maurice, Roch L; Fournier, Anne; Merouani, Aïcha; Dahdah, Nagib

    2015-10-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis, classically affecting large- and medium-size arteries. The coronary arteries draw most of the clinical attention, whereas few studies have taken interest in the ascending aorta. Using a proprietary imaging-based mechanical biomarker (ImBioMark), we sought to determine aortic stiffness in KD compared to systemic hypertension (HTN) and healthy children. We evaluated parasternal long-axis views focused on the ascending aorta in 20 controls, 12 KD, and 8 HTN as a comparative clinical model of vascular stiffness. We calculated systolic and diastolic aortic wall strain with ImBioMark. Strain was tested for normality against height, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure in normal subjects. Strain from KD and HTN was normalized (Z score) accordingly. Z score comparisons were performed using nonparametric statistics. Age was similar between KD and HTN (9.1 ± 5.3 and 9.9 ± 5.3 years old; p = NS). Systolic and diastolic strain values were normally distributed against height, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure in healthy subjects. HTN subjects had abnormal systolic and diastolic strain values (p < 0.0001). Whereas KD subjects had normal diastolic strain, systolic strain was significantly lower (p < 0.001), and systolic strain was intermediate between controls and HTN. There were no significant differences in aortic strain among KD, however, according to the presence of coronary artery aneurysms. Despite normal blood pressure, the ascending aorta in KD exhibits reduced strain during systole. This may reflect in situ rigidity of the aorta. The normal diastolic strain in KD may, in contrast, reflect normal peripheral vascular resistance. PMID:25921428

  16. Anterior cerebral artery territory infarctions presenting with ascending tetraparesis.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kensho; Hamada, Eri; Okuda, Bungo

    2004-01-01

    We describe a patient with ascending tetraparesis following stroke. The patient presented initially with spastic paraparesis which acutely evolved to tetraparesis with abulia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed acute infarctions in the bilateral medial frontal regions but not in the brainstem or spinal cord. Multiple infarctions in the anterior cerebral artery territory appeared to originate from artery to artery embolism. The present case provides distinct clinical features of anterior cerebral artery syndrome which mimic myelopathy or brainstem lesions. PMID:17903956

  17. Pharmacological study of the mechanisms involved in the vasodilator effect produced by the acute application of triiodothyronine to rat aortic rings

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Cuenca, J.; López-Canales, O.A.; Aguilar-Carrasco, J.C.; Villagrana-Zesati, J.R.; López-Mayorga, R.M.; Castillo-Henkel, E.F.; López-Canales, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    A relationship between thyroid hormones and the cardiovascular system has been well established in the literature. The present in vitro study aimed to investigate the mechanisms involved in the vasodilator effect produced by the acute application of 10-8–10-4 M triiodothyronine (T3) to isolated rat aortic rings. Thoracic aortic rings from 80 adult male Wistar rats were isolated and mounted in tissue chambers filled with Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer in order to analyze the influence of endothelial tissue, inhibitors and blockers on the vascular effect produced by T3. T3 induced a vasorelaxant response in phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings at higher concentrations (10-4.5–10-4.0 M). This outcome was unaffected by 3.1×10-7 M glibenclamide, 10-3 M 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), 10-5 M indomethacin, or 10-5 M cycloheximide. Contrarily, vasorelaxant responses to T3 were significantly (P<0.05) attenuated by endothelium removal or the application of 10-6 M atropine, 10-5 M L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME), 10-7 M 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), 10-6 M (9S,10R,12R)-2,3,9,10,11,12-Hexahydro-10-methoxy-2,9-dimethyl-1-oxo-9,12-epoxy-1H-diindolo[1,2,3-fg:3′,2′,1′-kl]pyrrolo[3,4-i](1,6)benzodiazocine-10-carboxylic acid, methyl ester KT 5823, 10-2 M tetraethylammonium (TEA), or 10-7 M apamin plus 10-7 M charybdotoxin. The results suggest the involvement of endothelial mechanisms in the vasodilator effect produced by the acute in vitro application of T3 to rat aortic rings. Possible mechanisms include the stimulation of muscarinic receptors, activation of the NO-cGMP-PKG pathway, and opening of Ca2+-activated K+ channels. PMID:27464023

  18. Pharmacological study of the mechanisms involved in the vasodilator effect produced by the acute application of triiodothyronine to rat aortic rings.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Cuenca, J; López-Canales, O A; Aguilar-Carrasco, J C; Villagrana-Zesati, J R; López-Mayorga, R M; Castillo-Henkel, E F; López-Canales, J S

    2016-07-25

    A relationship between thyroid hormones and the cardiovascular system has been well established in the literature. The present in vitro study aimed to investigate the mechanisms involved in the vasodilator effect produced by the acute application of 10-8-10-4 M triiodothyronine (T3) to isolated rat aortic rings. Thoracic aortic rings from 80 adult male Wistar rats were isolated and mounted in tissue chambers filled with Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer in order to analyze the influence of endothelial tissue, inhibitors and blockers on the vascular effect produced by T3. T3 induced a vasorelaxant response in phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings at higher concentrations (10-4.5-10-4.0 M). This outcome was unaffected by 3.1×10-7 M glibenclamide, 10-3 M 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), 10-5 M indomethacin, or 10-5 M cycloheximide. Contrarily, vasorelaxant responses to T3 were significantly (P<0.05) attenuated by endothelium removal or the application of 10-6 M atropine, 10-5 M L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME), 10-7 M 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), 10-6 M (9S,10R,12R)-2,3,9,10,11,12-Hexahydro-10-methoxy-2,9-dimethyl-1-oxo-9,12-epoxy-1H-diindolo[1,2,3-fg:3',2',1'-kl]pyrrolo[3,4-i](1,6)benzodiazocine-10-carboxylic acid, methyl ester KT 5823, 10-2 M tetraethylammonium (TEA), or 10-7 M apamin plus 10-7 M charybdotoxin. The results suggest the involvement of endothelial mechanisms in the vasodilator effect produced by the acute in vitro application of T3 to rat aortic rings. Possible mechanisms include the stimulation of muscarinic receptors, activation of the NO-cGMP-PKG pathway, and opening of Ca2+-activated K+ channels. PMID:27464023

  19. Aortic dissection--an update.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Debabrata; Eagle, Kim A

    2005-06-01

    Acute aortic dissection is a medical emergency with high morbidity and mortality requiring emergent diagnosis and therapy. Rapid advances in noninvasive imaging technology have facilitated the early diagnosis of this condition and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any patient with chest, back, or abdominal pain. Emergent surgery is the treatment for patients with type A dissection while optimal medical therapy is appropriate in patients with uncomplicated type B dissection. Adequate beta-blockade is the cornerstone of medical therapy. Patients who survive acute aortic dissection need long-term medical therapy with beta-blockers and statins and appropriate serial imaging follow-up. Future advances in this field include biomarkers in the early diagnosis of acute aortic dissection and presymptomatic diagnosis with genetic screening. Overall patients with aortic dissection are at high risk for an adverse outcome and need to be managed aggressively in hospital and long term with frequent follow-up. PMID:15973249

  20. ASCENDS: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, B., III

    2014-12-01

    ASCENDS: Past,Present and Future by Berrien Moore III (University of Oklahoma) and Ken Jucks (NASA) with The ASCENDS Science Working Group The Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights,Days,and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission was recommended by the National Research Council's Decadal Survey,and it is considered the scientific and technological next step following Japan's Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) and NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO).Space agencies are commitment to CO2 observations:GOSAT-2:Japan is proceeding with its development;OCO-2:NASA has launched it into the A-Train;TanSat:China's CO2 mission is in development,and CarbonSat is being considered by ESA.Using a laser,ASCENDS will make uninterrupted CO2 observations in high-latitudes,nighttime observations,and measurements in partly cloud conditions.ASCENDS expands the sampling of the atmosphere and may avoid some of the potential biases of passive systems.An issue for any mission is the linkage of observations to information regarding the subject of interest—in this case,surface fluxes of CO2.ASCENDS and the other low-Earth orbiting CO2 missions are difference from most missions in which the subject of interest is directly observed.In the case of these missions,the purpose of the atmospheric measurement is to determine surface fluxes that are distant from where the atmosphere is observed.This distinction between the subject observed and the subject of interest places added importance on the mission's observational requirements that governs the specifications of the mission and instrument.We discuss the challenge of establishing these mission requirements and present quantitative information on mapping observations with their uncertainties to information regarding terrestrial and oceanic surface fluxes of CO2.Results from the ASCENDS Science Working Group that the link measurement requirements to flux determination (or flux uncertainty reductions) are highlighted.We discuss modeling

  1. Biomechanics of the Ascending Thoracic Aorta: A Clinical Perspective on Engineering Data.

    PubMed

    Emmott, Alexander; Garcia, Justine; Chung, Jennifer; Lachapelle, Kevin; El-Hamamsy, Ismaïl; Mongrain, Rosaire; Cartier, Raymond; Leask, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysms of the ascending thoracic aorta often require prophylactic surgical intervention to resect and replace the aortic wall with a synthetic graft to avoid the risk of dissection or rupture. The main criterion for surgical intervention is the size of the aneurysm, with elective surgery recommended with a maximal aortic diameter of 4.2-5.5 cm depending on valve type and other patient risk factors. Although the risk of dissection and rupture increases with the size of aneurysm, different pathologies, including aortic valve phenotype and connective tissue disorders uniquely influence the mechanical dysfunction of the aortic wall. Dissection and rupture are mechanical modes of failure caused by an inability of the tissue to withstand local tissue stresses. Tensile testing of aortic tissues, therefore, has been used to reveal the mechanical parameters of diseased and healthy tissues to better characterize the mechanical function of aortic tissues in different patient groups. In this review, we highlight the principles and methods of ex vivo tensile analysis as well as the composition and structural properties that contribute to the mechanical behaviour of the ascending aorta. We also present a clinically oriented description of mechanical testing along with insight into the characterization of aneurysm. Finally, we highlight recent advances in echocardiography, computer tomographic angiography, and magnetic resonance angiography that have the potential to measure biomechanical properties noninvasively and therefore help select aortas at risk. PMID:26724509

  2. Case report: Open replacement of incomplete semi-circular traumatic ruptures of the ascending and descending aorta.

    PubMed

    Mytsyk, Miroslawa; Grapow, Martin T R; Shahinian, Jasmin; Maurer, Markus; Gurke, Lorenz; Eckstein, Friedrich S

    2016-01-01

    An incomplete traumatic rupture of the ascending aorta is a rare but life-threatening condition. Hence, the assessment of the extent of the injury prior to therapy is crucial. We report a case of a 50-year-old male with traumatic aortic rupture who underwent emergency surgery after the evaluation of computed tomography scan (CT-scan). The surgical treatment involved replacement of the ascending aorta and stent implantation in descending aorta due to its covered rupture. PMID:27422556

  3. CT of nontraumatic thoracic aortic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Sanjeev; West, O Clark

    2005-10-01

    Computed tomography (CT), especially multidetector row CT (MDCT), is often the preferred imaging test used for evaluation of nontraumatic thoracic aortic abnormalities. Unenhanced images, usually followed by contrast-enhanced arterial imaging, allow for rapid detailed aortic assessment. Understanding the spectrum of acute thoracic aortic conditions which may present similarly (aortic dissection, aneurysm rupture, penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer, intramural hematoma) will ensure that patients are diagnosed and treated appropriately. Familiarity with imaging protocols and potential mimics will prevent confusion of normal anatomy and variants with aortic disease. PMID:16274000

  4. [Pentax-AWS Airwayscope for awake tracheal intubation in the face-to-face sitting position in an emergency patient with acute exacerbation of aortic stenosis].

    PubMed

    Seno, Hisayo; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Tatsumi, Shinichi; Ohchi, Fumihiro; Miyazaki, Yu; Minami, Toshiaki

    2014-08-01

    We report a successful awake tracheal intubation in an emergency patient with acute exacerbation of aortic stenosis using the Pentax-AWS Airwayscope (AWS). An 83-year-old woman was admitted to our emergency department for severe dyspnea due to exacerbation of aortic stenosis. Her Sp(O2) was 92-93% even after administration of 10 l x min(-1) oxygen through a reservoir-attached face mask. As she could not remain in the supine position, emergency tracheal intubation in the sitting position was required. After topical anesthesia with 8% lidocaine and careful administration of midazolam, the AWS was inserted into her mouth in the sitting, face-to-face position. The AWS allowed for visualization of the glottis and safe placement of the tracheal tube. Sufficient spontaneous ventilation was maintained during interventions with minimum vital sign changes. Awake intubation in the sitting position with the AWS may be helpful in resolving cardiovascular crisis in patients unable to maintain the supine position. PMID:25199329

  5. Tracheo-Bronchial Obstruction and Esophageal Perforation after TEVAR for Thoracic Aortic Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Daisuke; Tanaka, Haruki; Komatsu, Kazunori; Ohtsu, Yoshinori; Terasaki, Takamitsu; Wada, Yuko; Takano, Tamaki; Koike, Shoichiro; Amano, Jun

    2014-01-01

    A 67-year-old man was referred to our hospital for an ascending aortic aneurysm, thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm and aortic regurgitation. Graft repair of the thoracic aortic arch and aortic valve replacement was given priority and completed, however he developed descending aortic rupture before the second scheduled surgery, and endovascular stent grafting was performed. He subsequently developed tracheobronchial obstruction and esophageal perforation. The patient underwent urgent esophagectomy and enterostomy with continuity later reestablished. However, he died of sepsis 5 months after surgery. Despite the less invasive nature of endovascular treatment, esophageal perforation can nevertheless occur and postoperative vigilance is well warranted. PMID:25593630

  6. Echocardiographic detection of subvalvar aortic root aneurysm extending to mitral valve annulus as complication of aortic valve endocarditis.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, B E; Petch, M C; English, T A

    1982-01-01

    Acute aortic regurgitation as a consequence of infective endocarditis developed in a young man after peritonitis. A large subvalvar aortic root aneurysm extending to the mitral valve annulus together with features of severe acute aortic regurgitation were shown by M-mode echocardiography. The echocardiographic findings were confirmed at operation when obliteration of the aneurysmal space and aortic valve replacement were performed. Postoperative echocardiography confirmed obliteration of the aneurysmal space. Images PMID:6895998

  7. Regional aortic distensibility and its relationship with age and aortic stenosis: a computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Dennis T L; Narayan, Om; Leong, Darryl P; Bertaso, Angela G; Maia, Murilo G; Ko, Brian S H; Baillie, Timothy; Seneviratne, Sujith K; Worthley, Matthew I; Meredith, Ian T; Cameron, James D

    2015-06-01

    Aortic distensibility (AD) decreases with age and increased aortic stiffness is independently associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The association of severe aortic stenosis (AS) with AD in different aortic regions has not been evaluated. Elderly subjects with severe AS and a cohort of patients without AS of similar age were studied. Proximal aortic cross-sectional-area changes during the cardiac cycle were determined using retrospective-ECG-gating on 128-detector row computed-tomography. Using oscillometric-brachial-blood-pressure measurements, the AD at the ascending-aorta (AA), proximal-descending-aorta (PDA) and distal-descending-aorta (DDA) was determined. Linear mixed effects modelling was used to determine the association of age and aortic stenosis on regional AD. 102 patients were evaluated: 36 AS patients (70-85 years), 24 AS patients (>85 years) and 42 patients without AS (9 patients <50 years, 20 patients between 51-70 years and 13 patients 70-85 years). When comparing patients 70-85 years, AA distensibility was significantly lower in those with AS compared to those without AS (0.9 ± 0.9 vs. 1.4 ± 1.1, P = 0.03) while there was no difference in the PDA (1.0 ± 1.1 vs. 1.0 ± 1.2, P = 0.26) and DDA (1.1 ± 1.2 vs. 1.2 ± 0.8, P = 0.97). In patients without AS, AD decreased with age in all aortic regions (P < 0.001). The AA in patients <50 years were the most distensible compared to other aortic regions. There is regional variation in aortic distensibility with aging. Patients with aortic stenosis demonstrated regional differences in aortic distensibility with lower distensibility demonstrated in the proximal ascending aorta compared to an age-matched cohort. PMID:25855464

  8. Direct reperfusion of the right common carotid artery prior to cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with brain malperfusion complicated with acute aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    Okita, Yutaka; Matsumori, Masamichi; Kano, Hiroya

    2016-04-01

    The cases of 3 patients with brain malperfusion secondary to acute aortic dissection who underwent preoperative perfusion of the right common carotid artery are presented. The patients were 64, 65 and 72 years old and 2 were female. All were in a comatose or semi-comatose state with left hemiplegia. The right common carotid artery was exposed and directly cannulated, using a 12-Fr paediatric arterial cannula. The right common femoral artery was chosen for arterial drainage, using a 14-Fr double-lumen cannula. The circuit contained a small roller pump and heat exchanger coil. Target flow was set at 90 ml/min and blood temperature at 30 °C. Durations of right carotid perfusion were 120, 100 and 45 min, respectively. All underwent partial arch replacement and survived. Postoperative neurological sequelae were minimal in all cases. PMID:26003959

  9. Endovascular Repair of Acute Symptomatic Pararenal Aortic Aneurysm With Three Chimney and One Periscope Graft for Complete Visceral Artery Revascularization

    SciTech Connect

    Brechtel, Klaus Ketelsen, Dominik; Endisch, Andrea; Heller, Stephan; Heuschmid, Martin; Stock, Ulrich A.; Kalender, Guenay

    2012-04-15

    PurposeTo describe a modified endovascular technique for complete revascularization of visceral and renal arteries in symptomatic pararenal aortic aneurysm (PRAA).TechniqueArterial access was surgically established in both common femoral arteries (CFAs) and the left subclavian artery (LSA). Revascularization of the left renal artery, the celiac trunk, and the superior mesenteric artery was performed through one single sheath via the LSA. Suitable covered stents were put in the aortic branches but not deployed. The right renal artery was accessed over the left CFA. Due to the longitudinal extension of the presented aneurysm two stent-grafts were introduced via the right CFA. After deploying the aortic stent-grafts, all covered stents in the side branches were deployed consecutively with a minimum overlap of 5 mm over the cranial and caudal stent-graft edges. Simultaneous ballooning was performed to fully expand all stent-grafts and warranty patency. Conclusion: This is the first report in the literature of chimney grafting in PRAA for complete revascularization of visceral and renal branches by using more than two covered stents introduced from one side through one single sheath. However this technique is modified, it should be used only in bailout situations when branched stent-grafts are not available and/or surgery is not suitable.

  10. Angiotensin II is related to the acute aortic dissection complicated with lung injury through mediating the release of MMP9 from macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhiyong; Ruan, Yongle; Chang, Jinxing; Li, Bowen; Ren, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute aortic dissection (AAD) patients usually show concurrent lung injury mainly featured by hyoxemia. To date, no effective treatment method has been established for the AAD complicated with acute lung injury (ALI). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), especially MMP2 and MMP9, have been considered to be closely related to the onset of aortic disease including AAD. To investigate the roles of MMP in the pathogenesis of AAD complicated with ALI, we determined the expression of MMP2 and MMP9 in serum and lung tissues of AAD patients. In addition, a new rat model of AAD complicated with ALI was established to investigate the pathogenesis of such complicated conditions. Methods and results: Angiotensin II (Ang II) and MMP9 were up-regulated in the AAD complicated with ALI patients compared to those of the AAD without ALI patients, normal individuals and the patients with non-ruptured aneurysm. Besides, massive macrophages with MMP9 expression was noticed in the lung tissues in the AAD complicated with ALI patients. On this basis, AAD complicated with ALI rat model was established based on BAPN feeding and infusion of Ang II. Obvious lung injury was observed in the BAPN+Ang II group compared to that of the BAPN group, together with macrophage accumulation in lung tissues, as well as over-expression of MMP9 in lung tissues. After interference of MMP antagonist, a large number of macrophages were still accumulated in the lung tissues, but the lung injury was obviously attenuated. After the interference of AT1 receptor, the number of macrophages in the lung tissues was obviously decreased and the lung injury was obviously relieved. Conclusions: Ang II is closely related to the lung injury at the early stage of AAD through mediating the release of MMP9 in the macrophages in the lung tissues. PMID:27186269

  11. Patient-specific finite element analysis of ascending aorta aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Caitlin; Elefteriades, John

    2015-01-01

    Catastrophic ascending aorta aneurysm (AsAA) dissection and rupture can be prevented by elective surgical repair, but identifying individuals at risk remains a challenge. Typically the decision to operate is based primarily on the overall aneurysm size, which may not be a reliable indicator of risk. In this study, AsAA inflation and rupture was simulated in 27 patient-specific finite element models constructed from clinical CT imaging data and tissue mechanical testing data from matching patients. These patients included n = 8 with concomitant bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), n = 10 with bovine aortic arch (BAA), and n = 10 with neither BAV nor BAA. AsAA rupture risk was found to increase with elevated systolic wall stress and tissue stiffness. The aortic size index was sufficient for identifying the patients with the lowest risk of rupture, but unsuitable for delineating between patients at moderate and high risk. There was no correlation between BAV or BAA and AsAA rupture risk; however, the AsAA morphology was different among these patients. These results support the use of mechanical parameters such as vessel wall stress and tissue stiffness for AsAA presurgical evaluation. PMID:25770248

  12. Treatment options for postdissection aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Sobocinski, Jonathan; Patterson, Benjamin O; Clough, Rachel E; Spear, Rafaelle; Martin-Gonzalez, Teresa; Azzaoui, Richard; Hertault, Adrien; Haulon, Stéphan

    2016-04-01

    Aortic dissection is one of the most devastating catastrophes that can affect the aorta. Surgical treatment is proposed only when complications such as rupture or malperfusion occur. No clear consensus has been reached regarding the best therapy to prevent aortic rupture after the acute phase. We have performed a thorough review of the most recent literature on the strategies to treat patients in the chronic phase of aortic dissection. PMID:26771869

  13. Diagnostic test accuracy of D-dimer for acute aortic syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis of 22 studies with 5000 subjects

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Hiroki; Horita, Nobuyuki; Shibata, Yuji; Minegishi, Shintaro; Ota, Erika; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic test accuracy of D-dimer for acute aortic dissection (AAD) has not been evaluated by meta-analysis with the bivariate model methodology. Four databases were electrically searched. We included both case-control and cohort studies that could provide sufficient data concerning both sensitivity and specificity of D-dimer for AAD. Non-English language articles and conference abstract were allowed. Intramural hematoma and penetrating aortic ulcer were regarded as AAD. Based on 22 eligible articles consisting of 1140 AAD subjects and 3860 non-AAD subjects, the diagnostic odds ratio was 28.5 (95% CI 17.6–46.3, I2 = 17.4%) and the area under curve was 0.946 (95% CI 0.903–0.994). Based on 833 AAD subjects and 1994 non-AAD subjects constituting 12 studies that used the cutoff value of 500 ng/ml, the sensitivity was 0.952 (95% CI 0.901–0.978), the specificity was 0.604 (95% CI 0.485–0.712), positive likelihood ratio was 2.4 (95% CI 1.8–3.3), and negative likelihood ratio was 0.079 (95% CI 0.036–0.172). Sensitivity analysis using data of three high-quality studies almost replicated these results. In conclusion, D-dimer has very good overall accuracy. D-dimer <500 ng/ml largely decreases the possibility of AAD. D-dimer >500 ng/ml moderately increases the possibility of AAD. PMID:27230962

  14. Syphilis as a Cause of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Roberts, William C; Barbin, Clay M; Weissenborn, Matthew R; Ko, Jong M; Henry, A Carl

    2015-10-15

    In 2009, we described morphologic findings in 22 patients having resection of an ascending aortic aneurysm in the previous 11 years at the Baylor University Medical Center, and histologic examination of the aneurysmal wall disclosed classic findings of syphilitic aortitis. The major purpose of that extensively illustrated report was to describe the characteristic gross features of the aneurysm such that syphilitic aortitis might be better recognized at operation and appropriate antibiotics administered postoperatively. The aim of the present study was to emphasize that syphilis remains a major cause of ascending aortic aneurysm. From January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2014, we studied additional 23 patients who had resection of an ascending aortic aneurysm that again histologically had classic features of syphilitic aortitis. All 23 patients were found to have syphilitic aortitis grossly and histologically. The aneurysm involved the ascending portion of aorta in all 23, the arch portion in 12, and the descending thoracic portion in 10. In conclusion, syphilis has far from disappeared. It remains a major cause of ascending aortic aneurysm. PMID:26307174

  15. Successful rescue from cardiac arrest in a patient with postinfarction left ventricular blow-out rupture: "extra-pericardial aortic cannulation" for establishment total cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Suguru; Yaku, Hitoshi; Nakajima, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Akihiko

    2014-08-01

    We report a quick and simple technique to establish cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in a left ventricular (LV) blow-out rupture. A 74-year-old woman with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction suddenly collapsed and lost consciousness. A venous-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) device was inserted by femoral cannulation. Emergent median sternotomy was performed. The pericardium was not opened first, and the thymus was divided to expose the ascending aorta just above the pericardial reflection. After placing two purse-string sutures on the distal ascending aorta, a 7-mm aortic cannula (Terumo, Tokyo, Japan) was inserted. The pericardium was then incised. A large volume of blood was expelled from the pericardial space, and CPB was initiated with suction drainage. A two-stage venous drainage cannula was then inserted from the right atrial appendage without hemodynamic collapse. After cardiac arrest, closure of ruptured LV wall and concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting were performed. The patient was weaned from CPB with an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) and the previously inserted venous-arterial ECMO. Extra-pericardial aortic cannulation is an effective and reproducible method to prepare for CPB in emergent cases of LV rupture. PMID:25179976

  16. Intramural hematoma or aortic dissection – a diagnostic and therapeutic problem. A case report

    PubMed Central

    Suder, Bogdan; Wasilewski, Grzegorz; Sadowski, Jerzy; Kapelak, Bogusław

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a case report of a 60-year-old patient with an ascending aortic aneurysm along with the associated diagnostic and therapeutic problems. The choice of therapy in patients with aortic intramural hematoma is difficult and should be based on comprehensive evaluation of the patient's status as well as on the experience of the radiologist and surgeon. PMID:26702280

  17. The role of extracellular and intracellular proteolytic systems in aneurysms of the ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Werner, Isabella; Schack, Stephanie; Richter, Manfred; Stock, Ulrich A; Ahmad, Ali El-Sayed; Moritz, Anton; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres

    2016-05-01

    Aneurysms of the ascending aorta are an outstanding challenge to clinicians as they may persist asymptomatic until they present with dissection or rupture. Intensive research is performed to reveal the molecular mechanisms causing aneurysm formation. Calpains are ubiquitous non-lysosomal cysteine proteases which are classically activated by calcium signaling. The two major forms of the calpain-family are calpain-I and calpain-II. Calpastatin specifically inhibits the proteolytic activity of calpain-I and -II. Recently it has been demonstrated in aneurysm tissues from ascending aortas obtained from Marfan syndrome patients that calpain-II expression is increased and calpastatin expression is decreased. Thus, we were interested in the probable role of calpains in aneurysms of ascending aorta in non-Marfan patients. Therefore, ascending aortic samples of dilated and non-dilated aortas were analyzed according to their calpain-I, -II and calpastatin content as well as the expression levels of MMPs and elastin as well as the infiltration of inflammatory cells. We have found significant differences in calpain-I and calpastatin protein expression and serum levels in patients with aneurysm of the ascending aorta. Furthermore, MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression levels correlate with calpain-I protein levels. Due to our findings we conclude that calpain-1 seems to be related to fibrotic alteration in aortic aneurysm tissue in our experimental group. The change in calpain-1 modulates the structure of aortic tissue causing alteration in elastin structure, thus enabling macrophage infiltration and elevation of MMP levels. Circulating levels of calpain-1 may be used as a prognostic marker in the future if further correlation analyses are done. PMID:26582478

  18. Acute Calculous Cholecystitis Missed on Computed Tomography and Ultrasound but Diagnosed with Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Aparici, Carina Mari; Win, Aung Zaw

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 69-year-old patient who underwent ascending aortic aneurysm repair with aortic valve replacement. On postsurgical day 12, he developed leukocytosis and low-grade fevers. The chest computed tomography (CT) showed a periaortic hematoma which represents a postsurgical change from aortic aneurysm repair, and a small pericardial effusion. The abdominal ultrasound showed cholelithiasis without any sign of cholecystitis. Finally, a fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/CT examination was ordered to find the cause of fever of unknown origin, and it showed increased FDG uptake in the gallbladder wall, with no uptake in the lumen. FDG-PET/CT can diagnose acute cholecystitis in patients with nonspecific clinical symptoms and laboratory results. PMID:27625897

  19. Acute Calculous Cholecystitis Missed on Computed Tomography and Ultrasound but Diagnosed with Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Aparici, Carina Mari; Win, Aung Zaw

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 69-year-old patient who underwent ascending aortic aneurysm repair with aortic valve replacement. On postsurgical day 12, he developed leukocytosis and low-grade fevers. The chest computed tomography (CT) showed a periaortic hematoma which represents a postsurgical change from aortic aneurysm repair, and a small pericardial effusion. The abdominal ultrasound showed cholelithiasis without any sign of cholecystitis. Finally, a fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/CT examination was ordered to find the cause of fever of unknown origin, and it showed increased FDG uptake in the gallbladder wall, with no uptake in the lumen. FDG-PET/CT can diagnose acute cholecystitis in patients with nonspecific clinical symptoms and laboratory results. PMID:27625897

  20. Aortic Aneurysm Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Pressure Salt Cholesterol Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Aortic Aneurysm Fact Sheet Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... cause of most deaths from aortic aneurysms. Aortic Aneurysm in the United States Aortic aneurysms were the ...

  1. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when atherosclerosis ... aortic aneurysm treated? What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm? The aorta, the largest artery in the body, ...

  2. Bare Metal Stenting for Endovascular Exclusion of Aortic Arch Thrombi

    SciTech Connect

    Mahnken, Andreas H.; Hoffman, Andras; Autschbach, Ruediger; Damberg, Anneke L. M.

    2013-08-01

    BackgroundAortic thrombi in the ascending aorta or aortic arch are rare but are associated with a relevant risk of major stroke or distal embolization. Although stent grafting is commonly used as a treatment option in the descending aorta, only a few case reports discuss stenting of the aortic arch for the treatment of a thrombus. The use of bare metal stents in this setting has not yet been described.MethodsWe report two cases of ascending and aortic arch thrombus that were treated by covering the thrombus with an uncovered stent. Both procedures were performed under local anesthesia via a femoral approach. A femoral cutdown was used in one case, and a total percutaneous insertion was possible in the second case.ResultsBoth procedures were successfully performed without any periprocedural complications. Postoperative recovery was uneventful. In both cases, no late complications or recurrent embolization occurred at midterm follow-up, and control CT angiography at 1 respectively 10 months revealed no stent migration, freely perfused supra-aortic branches, and no thrombus recurrence.ConclusionTreating symptomatic thrombi in the ascending aorta or aortic arch with a bare metal stent is feasible. This technique could constitute a minimally invasive alternative to a surgical intervention or complex endovascular therapy with fenestrated or branched stent grafts.

  3. Spontaneous aortic dissecting hematoma in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Boulineau, Theresa Marie; Andrews-Jones, Lydia; Van Alstine, William

    2005-09-01

    This report describes 2 cases of spontaneous aortic dissecting hematoma in young Border Collie and Border Collie crossbred dogs. Histology was performed in one of the cases involving an unusual splitting of the elastin present within the wall of the aorta, consistent with elastin dysplasia as described in Marfan syndrome in humans. The first case involved a young purebred Border Collie that died suddenly and the second case involved a Border Collie crossbred dog that died after a 1-month history of seizures. Gross lesions included pericardial tamponade with dissection of the ascending aorta in the former case and thoracic cavity hemorrhage, mediastinal hematoma, and aortic dissection in the latter. Histologic lesions in the case of the Border Collie crossbred dog included a dissecting hematoma of the ascending aorta with elastin dysplasia and right axillary arterial intimal proliferation. PMID:16312247

  4. In-Graft Endovascular Stenting Repair for Supravalvular Stenosis From Aortic Rupture After Balloon-Expanding Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Nobuyuki; Scholtz, Werner; Haas, Nikolaus; Ensminger, Stephan; Gummert, Jan; Börgermann, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    An 81-year-old man with high-grade aortic valve stenosis and status post-coronary artery bypass grafting and supracoronary replacement of the ascending aorta was referred for transcatheter aortic valve implantation. He was in New York Heart Association class III and had dyspnea. After appropriate screening, we implanted a 29-mm SAPIEN XT valve (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA USA) through a transapical approach because of severe peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Postinterventional aortography revealed correct positioning and function of the valve and free coronary ostia but contrast extravasation in the vicinity of the interposed vascular prosthesis, resulting in severe luminal narrowing. We chose to manage the stenosis with an endovascular stent. After stenting, extravascular compression was markedly reduced, and the pressure gradient disappeared. The patient was discharged home on the 20th postoperative day. Three months later, computed tomography depicted correct positioning of both grafts. The patient's general health is good, and he is now in New York Heart Association class II. This case illustrates a complication of transcatheter aortic valve implantation specific for patients with an ascending aortic graft. Although stenting may be a good solution, as depicted by this case, self-expanding transcatheter aortic valves should be preferred in patients with ascending aortic grafts to avoid the described complication. PMID:26355692

  5. [Antegrade flow in the aorta ascendens despite aortic atresia: 2 case reports with retrograde coronary perfusion through coronary fistulas and sinusoids].

    PubMed

    Jux, C; Kaulitz, R; von Wasielewski, R; Peuster, M; Fink, C; Paul, T; Hausdorf, G

    2000-06-01

    In aortic atresia, coronary perfusion normally occurs through retrograde blood flow in the ascending aorta. We report on two patients with antegrade flow in the ascending aorta despite aortic atresia. In one patient with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (aortic atresia, severe mitral stenosis), an intact interatrial septum/premature closure of the foramen ovale was found. While no other way of left atrial or ventricular decompression was found, echocardiography, angiography and the post-mortem examination showed left ventricular to coronary sinusoids as the sole pathway for systemic oxygenation. In a second patient with complex congenital heart disease, including aortic atresia, antegrade flow in the ascending aorta was through a left coronary fistula with shunt flow originating from the pulmonary trunk. This report describes systemic perfusion depending on retrograde coronary flow due to coronary-cameral (sinusoids) and coronary arterio-venous fistulas leading to the phenomenon of antegrade blood flow in the ascending aorta despite aortic atresia. PMID:10929434

  6. Crater-Like Ulceration of Aortic Arch.

    PubMed

    Simon, Caterina; Calabrese, Alice; Canu, Gianluca; Merlo, Maurizio; Galletti, Lorenzo

    2014-12-01

    We report the case of a 78-year-old female who presented to our hospital with signs of hemorrhagic shock and breathlessness. A transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated pericardial effusion. Computed tomography of the chest showed a penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer of the aortic arch with an intramural hematoma of the ascending and descending aorta. Endovascular repair with stent-grafting was urgently performed and a pericardial window placement was done to reduce mediastinal bleeding. PMID:26798748

  7. Lumican as a novel potential clinical indicator for acute aortic dissection: A comparative study, based on multi-slice computed tomography angiography

    PubMed Central

    GU, GUORONG; WAN, FANG; XUE, YUAN; CHENG, WEIZHONG; ZHENG, HAIYIN; ZHAO, YUN; FAN, FAN; HAN, YI; TONG, CHAOYANG; YAO, CHENLING

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between serum lumican levels and acute aortic dissection (AAD) severity. A total of 82 patients with chest or back pain and 30 healthy volunteers were recruited. Among the patients, there were 70 cases of AAD and 12 cases of intramural hematoma (IMH). AAD severity was determined using multi-slice computed tomography angiography (MSCTA). Serum was collected from the patients upon admission, and lumican levels were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, correlation analyses were conducted between lumican levels and AAD severity by designing a ‘SCORE X, RANGE Y’ system to measure the number of affected vital arteries and vertical range of false lumen, based on the MSCTA. Lumican levels differed significantly among the AAD patients (2.32±4.29 ng/ml), IMH patients (0.72±0.32 ng/ml) and healthy volunteers (0.85±0.53 ng/ml; P=0.003). In the AAD patients presenting within 12–72 h of symptom onset, the Spearman's rho correlation coefficient between lumican and SCORE or RANGE was 0.373 (P=0.046) and 0.468 (P=0.010), respectively. The present results suggest that lumican may be a potential marker for aiding the diagnosis and screening for AAD, and may be used to predict the severity of AAD. PMID:26998013

  8. [Emergency stent placement after descending aortic replacement with chronic aortic dissection].

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Manabu; Muraoka, Arata; Aizawa, Kei; Sakano, Yasuhito; Kaminishi, Yuichiro; Ohki, Shinichi; Saito, Tsutomu; Misawa, Yoshio

    2011-09-01

    A 49-year-old man with asymptomatic chronic aneurysmal dissection was admitted to our hospital. He had undergone ascending aortic replacement for type A aortic dissection 7 months before. We performed descending aortic replacement for chronic aneurysmal dissection. Renal dysfunction appeared 1 day after the operation. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography indicated that the true lumen was severely compressed by a false lumen, and that the origins of the renal artery were occluded. We performed emergency endovascular stent placement to dilate the true lumen. Immediately after this procedure, renal ischemia improved. The postoperative course was uneventful. An endovascular approach using bare stent can be a treatment option that is less invasive and prompter for a patient with renal ischemia resulting from aortic dissection. PMID:21899124

  9. Pregnancy after aortic root replacement in Loeys-Dietz syndrome: High risk of aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    Braverman, Alan C; Moon, Marc R; Geraghty, Patrick; Willing, Marcia; Bach, Christopher; Kouchoukos, Nicholas T

    2016-08-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome due to mutations in TGFBR1 and 2 is associated with early and aggressive aortic aneurysm and branch vessel disease. There are reports of uncomplicated pregnancy in this condition, but there is an increased risk of aortic dissection and uterine rupture. Women with underlying aortic root aneurysm are cautioned about the risk of pregnancy-related aortic dissection. Prophylactic aortic root replacement is recommended in women with aortopathy and aortic root dilatation to lessen the risk of pregnancy. There is limited information in the literature about the outcomes of pregnancy after root replacement in Loeys-Dietz syndrome. We present a case series of three women with Loeys-Dietz syndrome who underwent elective aortic root replacement for aneurysm disease and subsequently became pregnant and underwent Cesarean section delivery. Each of these women were treated with beta blockers throughout pregnancy. Surveillance echocardiograms and noncontrast MRA studies during pregnancy remained stable demonstrating no evidence for aortic enlargement. Despite the normal aortic imaging and careful observation, two of the three women suffered acute aortic dissection in the postpartum period. These cases highlight the high risk of pregnancy following aortic root replacement in Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Women with this disorder are recommended to be counseled accordingly. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27125181

  10. When and how to replace the aortic root in type A aortic dissection

    PubMed Central

    Leshnower, Bradley G.

    2016-01-01

    Management of aortic root pathology during repair of acute type A aortic dissection (TAAD) requires a comprehensive evaluation of the patient’s anatomy, demographics, comorbidities and physiologic status at the time of emergent operative intervention. Surgical options include conservative repair of the root (CRR) (with or without replacement of the aortic valve), replacement of the native valve and aortic root using a composite valve-conduit and valve sparing root replacement (VSRR). The primary objective of this review is to provide data for surgeons to aid in their decision-making process regarding management of the aortic root during repair of TAAD. No time or language restrictions were imposed and references of the selected studies were checked for additional relevant citations. Multiple retrospective reviews have demonstrated equivalent operative mortality between aortic root repair and replacement during TAAD. There is a higher incidence of aortic root reintervention with aortic root repair compared to aortic root replacement (ARR). Experienced, high-volume aortic centers have demonstrated the safety of VSRR in young, hemodynamically stable patients presenting with TAAD. In conclusion, aortic root repair can safely be performed in the vast majority of patients with TAAD. Despite the increased surgical complexity, ARR does not increase operative mortality and improves the freedom from root reintervention. VSRR can be performed in highly selected populations of patients with TAAD with durable mid-term valve function. PMID:27563551

  11. When and how to replace the aortic root in type A aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    Leshnower, Bradley G; Chen, Edward P

    2016-07-01

    Management of aortic root pathology during repair of acute type A aortic dissection (TAAD) requires a comprehensive evaluation of the patient's anatomy, demographics, comorbidities and physiologic status at the time of emergent operative intervention. Surgical options include conservative repair of the root (CRR) (with or without replacement of the aortic valve), replacement of the native valve and aortic root using a composite valve-conduit and valve sparing root replacement (VSRR). The primary objective of this review is to provide data for surgeons to aid in their decision-making process regarding management of the aortic root during repair of TAAD. No time or language restrictions were imposed and references of the selected studies were checked for additional relevant citations. Multiple retrospective reviews have demonstrated equivalent operative mortality between aortic root repair and replacement during TAAD. There is a higher incidence of aortic root reintervention with aortic root repair compared to aortic root replacement (ARR). Experienced, high-volume aortic centers have demonstrated the safety of VSRR in young, hemodynamically stable patients presenting with TAAD. In conclusion, aortic root repair can safely be performed in the vast majority of patients with TAAD. Despite the increased surgical complexity, ARR does not increase operative mortality and improves the freedom from root reintervention. VSRR can be performed in highly selected populations of patients with TAAD with durable mid-term valve function. PMID:27563551

  12. Local mechanical properties of human ascending thoracic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Davis, Frances M; Luo, Yuanming; Avril, Stéphane; Duprey, Ambroise; Lu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    Ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (ATAAs) are focal, asymmetric dilatations of the aortic wall which are prone to rupture. To identify potential rupture locations in advance, it is necessary to consider the inhomogeneity of the ATAA at the millimeter scale. Towards this end, we have developed a combined experimental and computational approach using bulge inflation tests, digital image correlation (DIC), and an inverse membrane approach to characterize the pointwise stress, strain, and hyperelastic properties of the ATAA. Using this approach, the pointwise hyperelastic material properties were identified on 10 human ATAA samples collected from patients undergoing elective surgery to replace their ATAAs with a graft. Our method was able to capture the varying levels of heterogeneity in the ATAA from regional to local. It was shown for the first time that the material properties in the ATAA are unmistakably heterogeneous at length scales between 1mm and 1cm, which are length scales where vascular tissue is typically treated as homogeneous. The distributions of the material properties for each patient were also examined to study the inter- and intra-patient variability. Large inter-subject variability was observed in the elastic properties. PMID:27077532

  13. Aortic Dissection Type A in Alpine Skiers

    PubMed Central

    Schachner, Thomas; Fischler, Nikolaus; Dumfarth, Julia; Bonaros, Nikolaos; Krapf, Christoph; Schobersberger, Wolfgang; Grimm, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Patients and Methods. 140 patients with aortic dissection type A were admitted for cardiac surgery. Seventy-seven patients experienced their dissection in the winter season (from November to April). We analyzed cases of ascending aortic dissection associated with alpine skiing. Results. In 17 patients we found skiing-related aortic dissections. Skiers were taller (180 (172–200) cm versus 175 (157–191) cm, P = 0.008) and heavier (90 (68–125) kg versus 80 (45–110) kg, P = 0.002) than nonskiers. An extension of aortic dissection into the aortic arch, the descending thoracic aorta, and the abdominal aorta was found in 91%, 74%, and 69%, respectively, with no significant difference between skiers and nonskiers. Skiers experienced RCA ostium dissection requiring CABG in 17.6% while this was true for 5% of nonskiers (P = 0.086). Hospital mortality of skiers was 6% versus 13% in nonskiers (P = 0.399). The skiers live at an altitude of 170 (0–853) m.a.s.l. and experience their dissection at 1602 (1185–3105; P < 0.001) m.a.s.l. In 82% symptom start was during recreational skiing without any trauma. Conclusion. Skiing associated aortic dissection type A is usually nontraumatic. The persons affected live at low altitudes and practice an outdoor sport at unusual high altitude at cold temperatures. Postoperative outcome is good. PMID:23971024

  14. Heterogeneity in the Segmental Development of the Aortic Tree: Impact on Management of Genetically Triggered Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Sherif, Hisham M.F.

    2014-01-01

    An extensive search of the medical literature examining the development of the thoracic aortic tree reveals that the thoracic aorta does not develop as one unit or in one stage: the oldest part of the thoracic aorta is the descending aorta with the aortic arch being the second oldest, developing under influence from the neural crest cell. Following in chronological order are the proximal ascending aorta and aortic root, which develop from a conotruncal origin. Different areas of the thoracic aorta develop under the influence of different gene sets. These parts develop from different cell lineages: the aortic root (the conotruncus), developing from the mesoderm; the ascending aorta and aortic arch, developing from the neural crest cells; and the descending aorta from the mesoderm. Findings illustrate that the thoracic aorta is not a single entity, in developmental terms. It develops from three or four distinct areas, at different stages of embryonic life, and under different sets of genes and signaling pathways. Genetically triggered thoracic aortic aneurysms are not a monolithic group but rather share a multi-genetic origin. Identification of therapeutic targets should be based on the predilection of certain genes to cause aneurysmal disease in specific aortic segments. PMID:26798739

  15. Delayed aortic rupture resulting from postoperative superficial sternal wound infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Wan; Chang, Jee Won

    2016-01-01

    While deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) after cardiac surgery is a significant contributor to patient morbidity and mortality, superficial sternal wound infection (SSWI) mostly has a benign course. We report a mortality case of aortic rupture resulting from SSWI after cardiac surgery. A 50-year-old male underwent an aortic valve replacement (AVR). Three months after the valve operation, he presented with severe dyspnea, which had never before been observed, and chest computed tomography revealed an ascending aortic rupture with large hematoma compressing the main pulmonary artery. We performed an emergent operation for aortic rupture that possibly originated from the SSWI. Postoperatively, the patient died of hypovolemic shock due to recurrent aortic rupture despite efforts to resuscitate him. PMID:27499988

  16. Percutaneous stenting of a dissected superior mesenteric artery in a patient with previous surgical repair of Stanford type A aortic dissection.

    PubMed Central

    Hatzidakis, A; Krokidis, M; Androulakakis, Z; Rossi, M

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim We report a case of a 54-year-old male patient with background history of hypertension, which suffered a Stanford type A thoraco-abdominal aortic dissection with extension to the visceral arteries. Description of case The patient initially underwent surgical repair with replacement of the ascending aorta and of the hemiarch in the acute phase of the dissection. Postoperatively, he developed non-specific abdominal pain that was not related to meals but led to weight loss of 20 kg within the first five post-operative months. Follow-up computerized tomography scan revealed a chronic subphrenic aortic dissection extending to the celiac axis (with involvement of the left gastric and the splenic artery), the left renal artery and the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). The hepatic artery took origin from the SMA and received blood from the true lumen of the vessel, and the right renal artery was entirely supplied from the true aortic lumen. After exclusion of other causes of abdominal pain, the patient was treated with percutaneous stent placement in the dissected SMA with significant improvement of his symptoms. Conclusion This case report emphasizes the role of visceral artery endovascular techniques in the management of patients with complicated chronic aortic dissection. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (3): 270-273. PMID:27418791

  17. The risk of acute kidney injury following transapical versus transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Thongprayoon, Charat; Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Gillaspie, Erin A.; Greason, Kevin L.; Kashani, Kianoush B.

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this systematic review is to examine the literature for the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) based on transapical (TA) versus transfemoral (TF) approaches. Methods A literature search was conducted utilizing Embase, Medline, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and ClinicalTrials.gov from inception through December 2015. Studies that reported relative risk, odds ratio or hazard ratio comparing the AKI risk in patients who underwent TA-TAVR versus TF-TAVR were included. Pooled risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a random effect, generic inverse variance method. Results Seventeen cohort studies with 5085 patients were enrolled in the analysis to assess the risk of AKI in patients undergoing TA-TAVR versus TF-TAVR. The pooled RR of AKI in patients who underwent TA-TAVR was 2.26 (95% CI 1.79–2.86) when compared with TF-TAVR. When meta-analysis was confined to the studies with adjusted analysis for confounders evaluating the risk of AKI following TAVR, the pooled RR of TA-TAVR was 2.89 (95% CI 2.12–3.94). The risk for moderate to severe AKI [RR 1.02 (95% CI 0.57–1.80)] in patients who underwent TA-TAVR compared with TF-TAVR was not significantly higher. Conclusions Our meta-analysis demonstrates an association between TA-TAVR and a higher risk of AKI. Future studies are required to assess the risks of moderate to severe AKI and mortality following TA-TAVR versus TF-TAVR. PMID:27478597

  18. A Fever in Acute Aortic Dissection is Caused by Endogenous Mediators that Influence the Extrinsic Coagulation Pathway and Do Not Elevate Procalcitonin.

    PubMed

    Inoue Arita, Yoshie; Akutsu, Koichi; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Kawanaka, Hidekazu; Kitamura, Mitsunobu; Murata, Hiroshige; Miyachi, Hideki; Hosokawa, Yusuke; Tanaka, Keiji; Shimizu, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Objective A fever is observed in approximately one-third of cases of acute aortic dissection (AAD); however, the causes remain unclear. We investigated the mechanism of a fever in AAD by measuring the serum concentrations of inflammatory markers, mediators of coagulation and fibrinolysis, and procalcitonin, a marker of bacterial infection. Methods We retrospectively studied 43 patients with medically treated AAD without apparent infection. Patients were divided into those with (Group A; n=19) and without (Group B; n=24) a maximum body temperature >38°C. We established which patients fulfilled the criteria for systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and its relationship with a fever was examined. Mediators of inflammation, coagulation and fibrinolysis were compared by a univariate analysis. Factors independently associated with a fever were established by a multivariate analysis. Results The criteria for SIRS were fulfilled in a greater proportion of patients in Group A (79%) than in Group B (42%, p=0.001). There was no difference in the procalcitonin concentration between Groups A and B (0.15±0.17 ng/mL vs. 0.11±0.12 ng/mL, respectively; p=0.572). Serum procalcitonin concentrations lay within the normal range in all patients in whom it was measured, which showed that the fever was caused by endogenous mediators. On the multivariate analysis, there was a borderline significant relationship between a fever and the prothrombin time-International Normalized Ratio (p=0.065), likely reflecting the extrinsic pathway activity initiated by tissue factor. Conclusion Our findings suggest that a fever in AAD could be caused by SIRS, provoked by endogenous mediators that influence the extrinsic coagulation pathway without elevating the serum procalcitonin concentration. PMID:27432091

  19. Cardiovascular devices; reclassification of intra-aortic balloon and control systems for acute coronary syndrome, cardiac and non-cardiac surgery, or complications of heart failure; effective date of requirement for premarket approval for intra-aortic balloon and control systems for septic shock or pulsatile flow generation. Final order.

    PubMed

    2013-12-30

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final order to reclassify intra-aortic balloon and control system (IABP) devices when indicated for acute coronary syndrome, cardiac and non-cardiac surgery, or complications of heart failure, a preamendments class III device, into class II (special controls), and to require the filing of a premarket approval application (PMA) or a notice of completion of a product development protocol (PDP) for IABPs when indicated for septic shock or pulsatile flow generation. PMID:24383147

  20. Effects of aortic root motion on wall stress in the Marfan aorta before and after personalised aortic root support (PEARS) surgery.

    PubMed

    Singh, S D; Xu, X Y; Pepper, J R; Izgi, C; Treasure, T; Mohiaddin, R H

    2016-07-01

    Aortic root motion was previously identified as a risk factor for aortic dissection due to increased longitudinal stresses in the ascending aorta. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aortic root motion on wall stress and strain in the ascending aorta and evaluate changes before and after implantation of personalised external aortic root support (PEARS). Finite element (FE) models of the aortic root and thoracic aorta were developed using patient-specific geometries reconstructed from pre- and post-PEARS cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) images in three Marfan patients. The wall and PEARS materials were assumed to be isotropic, incompressible and linearly elastic. A static load on the inner wall corresponding to the patients' pulse pressure was applied. Cardiovascular MR cine images were used to quantify aortic root motion, which was imposed at the aortic root boundary of the FE model, with zero-displacement constraints at the distal ends of the aortic branches and descending aorta. Measurements of the systolic downward motion of the aortic root revealed a significant reduction in the axial displacement in all three patients post-PEARS compared with its pre-PEARS counterparts. Higher longitudinal stresses were observed in the ascending aorta when compared with models without the root motion. Implantation of PEARS reduced the longitudinal stresses in the ascending aorta by up to 52%. In contrast, the circumferential stresses at the interface between the supported and unsupported aorta were increase by up to 82%. However, all peak stresses were less than half the known yield stress for the dilated thoracic aorta. PMID:27255604

  1. Effect of Varying Definitions of Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury and Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction on One-Year Mortality in Patients Having Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Pyxaras, Stylianos A; Zhang, Yuan; Wolf, Alexander; Schmitz, Thomas; Naber, Christoph K

    2015-08-01

    The prognostic relevance of direct contrast toxicity in patients treated with transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) remains unclear because of the confounding hemodynamic effect of acute left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) impairment on kidney function estimation. In addition, different definitions of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) may have different prognostic stratification potential. In the present study, 240 consecutive patients who underwent TAVI were prospectively enrolled. CI-AKI was defined (1) according to the postprocedural creatinine increase of ≥0.3 mg/dl or (2) according to the postprocedural decrease of the creatinine clearance of at least 25%. Primary end point of the study was 1-year all-cause mortality. At a mean follow-up of 1.7 ± 1.4 years, all-cause mortality was significantly higher in the CI-AKI patient group, using both CI-AKI definitions (for (1) and (2) p = 0.025 and p <0.001, respectively). In the Cox regression multivariate analysis, CI-AKI was an independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio 2.244, 95% CI 1.064 to 4.732, p = 0.034), along with LVEF (hazard ratio 0.974, 95% CI 0.946 to 0.993, p = 0.012). Although LVEF and creatinine values at admission were not significantly associated with CI-AKI, their interaction term significantly defined CI-AKI (p = 0.033). The prognostic accuracy of definition (2) was higher (area under the curve 0.704; p <0.001) as with respect to definition (1) (area under the curve 0.602; p = 0.037) for the primary end point of 1-year mortality. In conclusion, in a nonselected patient population who underwent TAVI, CI-AKI was confirmed as an independent predictor of clinical outcome. Only the interaction between LVEF and baseline creatinine values was found to determine CI-AKI. Definition of CI-AKI based to creatinine clearance values had higher prognostic accuracy in comparison with the CI-AKI definition based on creatinine absolute value changes. PMID:26026866

  2. Angiotensin II induces apoptosis of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells in acute aortic dissection complicated with lung injury patients through modulating the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhiyong; Dai, Feifeng; Ren, Wei; Liu, Huagang; Li, Bowen; Chang, Jinxing

    2016-01-01

    Patients with acute aortic dissection (AAD) usually showed acute lung injury (ALI). However, its pathogenesis is still not well defined. Apoptosis of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) is closely related to the alveolus-capillary barrier injury and the increased vascular permeability. In this study, we aim to investigate the human PMVECs (hPMVECs) apoptosis induced by angiotensin II (AngII) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and their potential interaction in the pathogenesis of AAD complicated with ALI. Fifty-eight newly diagnosed AAD, 12 matched healthy individuals were included. Pulmonary tissues of AAD complicated with lung injury were obtained from 2 cadavers to determine the levels of AngII type 1 receptor (AT1-R) and MCP-1. Serum AngII was measured using commercial ELISA kit. H&E staining and immunohistostaining were performed to determine the expression of AT1-R and MCP-1. For the in vitro experiment, hPMVECs were divided into control, AngII group, AngII+Bindarit group and Bindarit group, respectively. Flow cytometry was performed to analyze the apoptosis in each group. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the mRNA expression of MCP-1. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of MCP-1 and apoptosis related protein. Apoptosis of hPMVECs was observed in the lung tissues in the cadavers with AAD complicated with ALI. Besides, the expression of AT1-R and MCP-1 was remarkably elevated. Compared with normal individuals and the non-lung injury AAD patients, the expression of serum AngII was remarkably elevated in AAD patients complicated with ALI. In vitro experiments showed AngII contributed to the apoptosis and elevation of MCP1 in hPMVECs. Besides, it involved in the down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein, and up-regulation of Bax and Caspase-3. Such phenomenon was completely reversed after administration of MCP-1 inhibitor (Bindarit). The production of MCP-1 and cellular

  3. Recommendations for accurate CT diagnosis of suspected acute aortic syndrome (AAS)—on behalf of the British Society of Cardiovascular Imaging (BSCI)/British Society of Cardiovascular CT (BSCCT)

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, Edward; Morgan-Hughes, Gareth; Roobottom, Carl A; Roditi, Giles; Hamilton, Mark C K; Bull, Russell K; Pugliese, Franchesca; Williams, Michelle C; Stirrup, James; Padley, Simon; Taylor, Andrew; Davies, L Ceri; Bury, Roger; Harden, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and timely assessment of suspected acute aortic syndrome is crucial in this life-threatening condition. Imaging with CT plays a central role in the diagnosis to allow expedited management. Diagnosis can be made using locally available expertise with optimized scanning parameters, making full use of recent advances in CT technology. Each imaging centre must optimize their protocols to allow accurate diagnosis, to optimize radiation dose and in particular to reduce the risk of false-positive diagnosis that may simulate disease. This document outlines the principles for the acquisition of motion-free imaging of the aorta in this context. PMID:26916280

  4. Recommendations for accurate CT diagnosis of suspected acute aortic syndrome (AAS)-on behalf of the British Society of Cardiovascular Imaging (BSCI)/British Society of Cardiovascular CT (BSCCT).

    PubMed

    Vardhanabhuti, Varut; Nicol, Edward; Morgan-Hughes, Gareth; Roobottom, Carl A; Roditi, Giles; Hamilton, Mark C K; Bull, Russell K; Pugliese, Franchesca; Williams, Michelle C; Stirrup, James; Padley, Simon; Taylor, Andrew; Davies, L Ceri; Bury, Roger; Harden, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    Accurate and timely assessment of suspected acute aortic syndrome is crucial in this life-threatening condition. Imaging with CT plays a central role in the diagnosis to allow expedited management. Diagnosis can be made using locally available expertise with optimized scanning parameters, making full use of recent advances in CT technology. Each imaging centre must optimize their protocols to allow accurate diagnosis, to optimize radiation dose and in particular to reduce the risk of false-positive diagnosis that may simulate disease. This document outlines the principles for the acquisition of motion-free imaging of the aorta in this context. PMID:26916280

  5. [Total parenteral nutrition and dialysis. Complementary importance in the therapy of acute renal insufficiency in aortic surgery].

    PubMed

    Trazzi, R; MArtello, L; Selva, S; Vaghi, G M

    1981-11-01

    The acute renal insufficiency (A.R.I.) consequent on surgical pathology of the aorta is in the Milan School, one of the most important postoperative complications and requires the use of total parenteral feeding (T.P.F.). Parenteral infusion of AAe and hypertonic glucose in patients with A.R.I. has given positive results, not only insofar as it improves the general nutritional state, but also because it facilitates recovery of renal function and improves survival. Reutilisation of endogenous nitrogen gives a synthesis of structural proteins to the benefit of metabolic homoeostasis and the patient's clinical condition. On the basis of recent nephrology studies on uraemic toxicity, the therapeutic problem of A.R.I. in surgical patients has been examined: early peritoneal dialysis associated with T.P.F. and the combination, in the postoperative stage, of parenteral feeding and periodic peritoneal dialysis. The average duration of this treatment has been personally found to be about 8-18 days. The example is given of a clinical case of A.R.I. in a patient operated by aneurysmectomy for rupture of an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta. PMID:6801545

  6. Aortic Valve Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Tricuspid Valve Disease Cardiac Rhythm Disturbances Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease Heart abnormalities that ... Disease Tricuspid Valve Disease Cardiac Rhythm Disturbances Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Aortic Valve Disease Overview The human heart has ...

  7. Thoracic aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    Aortic aneurysm - thoracic; Syphilitic aneurysm; Aneurysm - thoracic aortic ... The most common cause of a thoracic aortic aneurysm is hardening of the ... with high cholesterol, long-term high blood pressure, or who ...

  8. Pericarditis as initial manifestation of proximal aortic dissection in young patients.

    PubMed

    Bains, Suchdeep Raj; Kedia, Anita; Roldan, Carlos A

    2008-03-01

    Pericarditis was the primary manifestation of aortic dissection in these 2 young men. Both patients had no phenotypic characteristics of Marfan or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. These patients had pleuritic chest pain and characteristic electrocardiographic changes consistent with pericarditis. However, timely performed transthoracic echocardiograms revealed proximal aortic dissection with hemopericardium noted at surgery in both cases. Although the sensitivity of transthoracic echocardiogram for proximal aortic dissection is approximately 60%, certain findings can alert the physician to the possibility of aortic dissection. Therefore, in young patients with suspected pericarditis, a timely performed transthoracic echocardiogram should include a careful evaluation of the ascending aorta and arch to rule out this lethal diagnosis. PMID:18358965

  9. Management of severe asymmetric pectus excavatum complicating aortic repair in a patient with Marfan's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Jonathan C; Marcuzzi, Danny; Peterson, Mark D; Ko, Michael A

    2016-05-01

    We describe the case of a 28-year old man with Marfan's syndrome and severe pectus excavatum who required an aortic root replacement for an ascending aortic aneurysm. There was a near-vertical angulation of the sternum that presented challenges with opening and exposure of the heart during aortic surgery. Furthermore, removal of the sternal retractor after aortic repair resulted in sudden loss of cardiac output. A Ravitch procedure was then performed to successfully close the chest without further cardiovascular compromise. We propose that patients with a severe pectus excavatum and mediastinal displacement seen on preoperative CT scanning should be considered for simultaneous, elective repair. PMID:26874148

  10. Hybrid treatment of aortic arch disease

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Patrick Bastos; Rossi, Fabio Henrique; Moreira, Samuel Martins; Issa, Mario; Izukawa, Nilo Mitsuru; Dinkhuysen, Jarbas J.; Spina Neto, Domingos; Kambara, Antônio Massamitsu

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The management of thoracic aortic disease involving the ascending aorta, aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta are technically challenging and is an area in constant development and innovation. Objective To analyze early and midterm results of hybrid treatment of arch aortic disease. Methods Retrospective study of procedures performed from January 2010 to December 2012. The end points were the technical success, therapeutic success, morbidity and mortality, neurologic outcomes, the rate of endoleaks and reinterventions. Results A total of 95 patients treated for thoracic aortic diseases in this period, 18 underwent hybrid treatment and entered in this study. The average ages were 62.3 years. The male was present in 66.7%. The technical and therapeutic success was 94.5% e 83.3%. The perioperative mortality rate of 11.1%. There is any death during one-year follow- up. The reoperation rates were 16.6% due 2 cases of endoleak Ia and one case of endoleak II. There is any occlusion of anatomic or extra anatomic bypass during follow up. Conclusion In our study, the hybrid treatment of aortic arch disease proved to be a feasible alternative of conventional surgery. The therapeutic success rates and re- interventions obtained demonstrate the necessity of thorough clinical follow-up of these patients in a long time. PMID:25714205

  11. Decellularized aortic homografts for aortic valve and aorta ascendens replacement†

    PubMed Central

    Tudorache, Igor; Horke, Alexander; Cebotari, Serghei; Sarikouch, Samir; Boethig, Dietmar; Breymann, Thomas; Beerbaum, Philipp; Bertram, Harald; Westhoff-Bleck, Mechthild; Theodoridis, Karolina; Bobylev, Dmitry; Cheptanaru, Eduard; Ciubotaru, Anatol; Haverich, Axel

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The choice of valve prosthesis for aortic valve replacement (AVR) in young patients is challenging. Decellularized pulmonary homografts (DPHs) have shown excellent results in pulmonary position. Here, we report our early clinical results using decellularized aortic valve homografts (DAHs) for AVR in children and mainly young adults. METHODS This prospective observational study included all 69 patients (44 males) operated from February 2008 to September 2015, with a mean age of 19.7 ± 14.6 years (range 0.2–65.3 years). In 18 patients, a long DAH was used for simultaneous replacement of a dilated ascending aorta as an extended aortic root replacement (EARR). Four patients received simultaneous pulmonary valve replacement with DPH. RESULTS Thirty-nine patients (57%) had a total of 62 previous operations. The mean aortic cross-clamp time in isolated cases was 129 ± 41 min. There was 1 conduit-unrelated death. The mean DAH diameter was 22.4 ± 3.7 mm (range, 10–29 mm), the average peak gradient was 14 ± 15 mmHg and the mean aortic regurgitation grade (0.5 = trace, 1 = mild) was 0.6 ± 0.5. The mean effective orifice area (EOA) of 25 mm diameter DAH was 3.07 ± 0.7 cm2. DAH annulus z-values were 1.1 ± 1.1 at implantation and 0.7 ± 1.3 at the last follow-up. The last mean left ventricle ejection fraction and left ventricle end diastolic volume index was 63 ± 7% and 78 ± 16 ml/m2 body surface area, respectively. To date, no dilatation has been observed at any level of the graft during follow-up; however, the observational time is short (140.4 years in total, mean 2.0 ± 1.8 years, maximum 7.6 years). One small DAH (10 mm at implantation) had to be explanted due to subvalvular stenosis and developing regurgitation after 4.5 years and was replaced with a 17 mm DAH without complication. No calcification of the explanted graft was noticed intraoperatively and after histological analysis, which revealed extensive recellularization without inflammation

  12. Repair of a recurrent pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta in an atomic bomb survivor with myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Reiji; Nakao, Yoshihisa; Okada, Takayuki; Johno, Hiroyuki; Enoki, Chiharu; Sumida, Tomohiko; Imamura, Hiroji

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of infective aortic pseudoaneurysms tends to be intractable and difficult to treat. We experienced a very rare case of a recurrent infective pseudoaneurysm in the ascending aorta that occurred after cardiac surgery in an atomic bomb survivor with myelodysplastic syndrome. The pseudoaneurysm was successfully repaired using a femoral artery autograft with an omentopexy and the patient recovered well without any recurrence. PMID:19583613

  13. The many faces of aortic dissections: Beware of unusual presentations.

    PubMed

    Scaglione, Mariano; Salvolini, Luca; Casciani, Emanuele; Giovagnoni, Andrea; Mazzei, Maria Antonietta; Volterrani, Luca

    2008-03-01

    Aortic dissection is gaining recognition in Western societies, and it is being diagnosed with increasing frequency. New diagnostic imaging modalities, longer life expectancy, as well as the increase in the number patients suffering from hypertension have all contributed to the growing awareness of aortic dissection. Nevertheless, as many as 30% of patients ultimately diagnosed with acute dissection are first thought to be suffering from something else. The increased availability and use of multidetector computed tomography has led to the incidental discovery of aortic dissection in very different settings. This article focuses on unusual presentations of painless aortic dissection. It is important for radiologists to remember that aortic dissections may present in different ways, not only as an acute, critical fatality but also with subtle, unusual signs and symptoms, which apparently do not seem to be strictly related to aortic diseases. PMID:17950552

  14. Histopathology of aortic complications in bicuspid aortic valve versus Marfan syndrome: relevance for therapy?

    PubMed

    Grewal, Nimrat; Franken, Romy; Mulder, Barbara J M; Goumans, Marie-José; Lindeman, Johannes H N; Jongbloed, Monique R M; DeRuiter, Marco C; Klautz, Robert J M; Bogers, Ad J J C; Poelmann, Robert E; Groot, Adriana C Gittenberger-de

    2016-05-01

    Patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) are more prone to develop aortic dilation and dissection compared to persons with a tricuspid aortic valve (TAV). To elucidate potential common and distinct pathways of clinical relevance, we compared the histopathological substrates of aortopathy. Ascending aortic wall biopsies were divided in five groups: BAV (n = 36) and TAV (n = 23) without and with dilation and non-dilated MFS (n = 8). General histologic features, apoptosis, the expression of markers for vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) maturation, markers predictive for ascending aortic dilation in BAV, and expression of fibrillin-1 were investigated. Both MFS and BAV showed an altered distribution and decreased fibrillin-1 expression in the aorta and a significantly lower level of differentiated VSMC markers. Interestingly, markers predictive for aortic dilation in BAV were not expressed in the MFS aorta. The aorta in MFS was similar to the aorta in dilated TAV with regard to the presence of medial degeneration and apoptosis, while other markers for degeneration and aging like inflammation and progerin expression were low in MFS, comparable to BAV. Both MFS and BAV aortas have immature VSMCs, while MFS and TAV patients have a similar increased rate of medial degeneration. However, the mechanism leading to apoptosis is expected to be different, being fibrillin-1 mutation induced increased angiotensin-receptor-pathway signaling in MFS and cardiovascular aging and increased progerin in TAV. Our findings could explain why angiotensin inhibition is successful in MFS and less effective in TAV and BAV patients. PMID:26129868

  15. Epigenetic regulation of TGF-β1 signalling in dilative aortopathy of the thoracic ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Forte, Amalia; Galderisi, Umberto; Cipollaro, Marilena; De Feo, Marisa; Corte, Alessandro Della

    2016-08-01

    The term 'epigenetics' refers to heritable, reversible DNA or histone modifications that affect gene expression without modifying the DNA sequence. Epigenetic modulation of gene expression also includes the RNA interference mechanism. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is fundamental during development and throughout life, also playing a central role in disease progression. The transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and its downstream effectors are key players in tissue repair and fibrosis, extracellular matrix remodelling, inflammation, cell proliferation and migration. TGF-β1 can also induce cell switch in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, leading to myofibroblast transdifferentiation. Cellular pathways triggered by TGF-β1 in thoracic ascending aorta dilatation have relevant roles to play in remodelling of the vascular wall by virtue of their association with monogenic syndromes that implicate an aortic aneurysm, including Loeys-Dietz and Marfan's syndromes. Several studies and reviews have focused on the progression of aneurysms in the abdominal aorta, but research efforts are now increasingly being focused on pathogenic mechanisms of thoracic ascending aorta dilatation. The present review summarizes the most recent findings concerning the epigenetic regulation of effectors of TGF-β1 pathways, triggered by sporadic dilative aortopathy of the thoracic ascending aorta in the presence of a tricuspid or bicuspid aortic valve, a congenital malformation occurring in 0.5-2% of the general population. A more in-depth comprehension of the epigenetic alterations associated with TGF-β1 canonical and non-canonical pathways in dilatation of the ascending aorta could be helpful to clarify its pathogenesis, identify early potential biomarkers of disease, and, possibly, develop preventive and therapeutic strategies. PMID:27389586

  16. Fatal aortic pseudoaneurysm from disseminated Mycobacterium kansasii infection: case report.

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Laleh; Reddy, Sujan C; Mosunjac, Mario; Kraft, Colleen S; Guarner, Jeannette

    2015-03-01

    Mycobacterium kansasii is a photochromogenic, slow-growing mycobacterium species that can cause pulmonary infection in patients with predisposing lung diseases, as well as extrapulmonary or disseminated disease in immunosuppressed patients. We describe a patient with a myelodysplastic syndrome, disseminated M kansasii infection, and ruptured aortic aneurysm. He had a recent diagnosis of mycobacterium cavitary lung lesions and was transferred to our facility for possible surgical intervention of an aortic aneurysm. Few hours after admission, the patient suddenly collapsed and died despite resuscitation efforts. A complete autopsy was performed and showed ruptured ascending aortic pseudoaneurysm with hemopericardium, disseminated necrotizing and nonnecrotizing granulomas with acid-fast bacilli in the aortic wall, lungs, heart, liver, spleen, and kidneys. Further genetic studies were consistent with monocytopenia and mycobacterial infection syndrome. PMID:25537975

  17. Aortic valve decalcification revisited.

    PubMed

    Marty, A T; Mufti, S; Murabit, I

    1989-11-01

    A 75-year-old woman with a small calcified aortic root, severe aortic stenosis and triple vessel coronary artery disease developed angina at rest. Aortic valve decalcification and quadruple aorto-coronary bypass were done as her aortic root was too small and calcified to do anything else. Postoperative clinical and hemodynamic results have been excellent. Literature review supports application of this therapy in selected patients with trileaflet senescent aortic stenosis. PMID:2614067

  18. Aortic Hemiarch Replacement through a J-Shaped Lower Partial Sternotomy

    PubMed Central

    Waterford, Stephen D.; Rastegar, Michelle; Juan, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive cardiac surgical techniques include the use of partial sternotomy for aortic valve and mitral valve replacement. Partial sternotomy is associated with less pain, better chest and upper-sternal stability, shorter hospital stays, and faster recoveries. However, aortic arch operations are still typically performed through median sternotomies. We describe the case of a 77-year-old woman who underwent elective hemiarch replacement because of an asymptomatic ascending aortic aneurysm. She requested a minimal incision. Our J-shaped partial lower sternotomy adequately exposed the proximal aorta and enabled all cannulations to be performed through the sternotomy. The patient had an uncomplicated postoperative course. We think that a partial sternotomy for ascending aortic and hemiarch replacement can be considered in selected patients for whom the procedure's benefits are important. PMID:26664318

  19. Iatrogenic aortic pseudoaneurysm: a forgotten complication.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Samuel; Bico, Pedro; Almeida, António R; Laranjeira Santos, Álvaro; Banazol, Nuno; Fragata, José; Rabaçal, Carlos

    2014-02-01

    Pseudoaneurysms of the ascending aorta are a rare complication of cardiac surgery. However, the poor prognosis associated with this condition if untreated makes early diagnosis and treatment important. We present the case of a 66-year-old woman who had undergone mitral valvuloplasty 12 days previously, who was admitted with a diagnosis of new-onset atrial fibrillation. The transthoracic echocardiogram showed a clot in the right atrium and anticoagulation was initiated, followed by antibiotic therapy. After further investigation, the patient was diagnosed with a pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta and underwent surgical repair, followed by six weeks of antibiotic therapy. She was readmitted six months later for an abscess of the lower sternum and mediastinum. After a conservative approach with antibiotics and local drainage failed, recurrence of a large pseudoaneurysm compressing the superior vena cava was documented. A third operation was performed to debride the infected tissue and to place an aortic allograft. There were no postoperative complications. PMID:24508151

  20. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention in an anomalous single coronary trunk arising anomalously from ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mohit D; Girish, M P; Bansal, Ankit; Chaturvedi, Vivek; Trehan, Vijay; Tyagi, Sanjay

    2016-07-01

    A 45-year-old male patient presented with acute anterior wall myocardial infarction. Angiography revealed a single coronary trunk arising from the ascending aorta above the coronary sinuses and giving rise to right coronary artery, left circumflex artery and critical stenosis in the left anterior descending artery. This report also highlights the feasibility of performing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in this rare anomaly and discusses the important technical considerations to be kept in mind while attempting such a case. This is the first report of such an anomalous origin of a single coronary trunk arising from ascending aorta. PMID:26138250

  1. Transesophageal echocardiography: first-line imaging for aortic diseases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yalcin, F.; Thomas, J. D.; Homa, D.; Flachskampf, F. A.

    2000-01-01

    Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is now commonly used to evaluate the thoracic aorta, because it is widely available and provides high-resolution images and flow information by Doppler. This article reviews the essential features on TEE of acute and chronic aortic diseases, such as aortic dissection, aneurysm, and atherosclerosis, and discusses its strengths, weaknesses, and indications.

  2. The use of point-of-care ultrasound by a critical care retrieval team to diagnose acute abdominal aortic aneurysm in the field.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Stefan M; Sharley, Peter

    2007-02-01

    The potential benefit of point-of-care ultrasound by medical retrieval teams is unclear. In the present case report, the diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm by a critical care retrieval team equipped with a portable ultrasound machine resulted in significant corrective alteration in patient management and subsequent disposition at the receiving institution. PMID:17305666

  3. Factors affecting a climber's ability to ascend Mont Blanc.

    PubMed

    Tsianos, G; Woolrich-Burt, L; Aitchison, T; Peacock, A; Watt, M; Montgomery, H; Watt, I; Grant, S

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the factors affecting a climber's ability to ascend Mont Blanc using a number of variables collected at the Gouter Hut (3,817 m) before and after an attempted ascent on the Mont Blanc summit. Subjects (n=285) were tested at 3,817 m prior to their ascent of Mont Blanc. Maximum height ascended in the last 14 days was recorded. End tidal CO2, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), heart rate and respiratory rate were measured using a Capnograph (Nellcor Patrick NPB75). Acute mountain sickness (AMS) was assessed using the Lake Louise scoring system. Summit information is available for 216 subjects. None of the subjects who attained 4,000 m in the previous 14 days failed to reach the summit (P=0.04). Previous recent exposure to an altitude of 4,000 m resulted in faster ascent times to the summit than those who had not been above 3,000 m in the previous 14 days (4.02+/-0.6 vs. 4.46+/-0.8 h, P=0.009), higher SaO2 on arrival at the Gouter Hut on day 1 (88.6+/-5 vs. 86.3+/-6%, P=0.004) and lower AMS scores upon arrival at the Gouter Hut after the attempted ascent to the summit 2.5+/-1.8 versus 4.7+/-2.5 U (P=0.001), respectively. It is concluded that recent exposure to 4,000 m confers an advantage to those who wish to ascend a 4,800 m peak. PMID:16235066

  4. Patient specific stress and rupture analysis of ascending thoracic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Olfa; Davis, Frances M; Rodriguez-Matas, Jose F; Duprey, Ambroise; Avril, Stéphane

    2015-07-16

    An ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm (ATAA) is a serious medical condition which, more often than not, requires surgery. Aneurysm diameter is the primary clinical criterion for determining when surgical intervention is necessary but, biomechanical studies have suggested that the diameter criterion is insufficient. This manuscript presents a method for obtaining the patient specific wall stress distribution of the ATAA and the retrospective rupture risk for each patient. Five human ATAAs and the preoperative dynamic CT scans were obtained during elective surgeries to replace each patient's aneurysm with a synthetic graft. The material properties and rupture stress for each tissue sample were identified using bulge inflation tests. The dynamic CT scans were used to generate patient specific geometries for a finite element (FE) model of each patient's aneurysm. The material properties from the bulge inflation tests were implemented in the FE model and the wall stress distribution at four different pressures was estimated. Three different rupture risk assessments were compared: the maximum diameter, the rupture risk index, and the overpressure index. The peak wall stress values for the patients ranged from 28% to 94% of the ATAA's failure stress. The rupture risk and overpressure indices were both only weakly correlated with diameter (ρ=-0.29, both cases). In the future, we plan to conduct a large experimental and computational study that includes asymptomatic patients under surveillance, patients undergoing elective surgery, and patients who have experienced rupture or dissection to determine if the rupture risk index or maximum diameter can meaningfully differentiate between the groups. PMID:25979384

  5. Surgical Management of Necrotizing Mediastinitis With Large Aortic Pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Andrew T; Khaja, Minhaj S; Yang, Bo

    2016-05-01

    We report a patient with necrotizing mediastinitis complicated by a giant retrosternal mycotic pseudoaneurysm and prosthetic valve endocarditis successfully managed with a redo sternotomy under hypothermic circulatory arrest. The approach then included extensive débridement of the mediastinum, replacement of the ascending aorta and aortic arch with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion, redo aortic valve replacement, and wound closure with omental flap and myocutaneous flap. After a 2-year survival, the patient suffered reinfection from hemodialysis. Our approach is also applicable to more common presentations of mediastinitis. PMID:27106461

  6. Aortic intimal sarcoma masquerading as bilateral renal artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Supreet; Pothineni, Naga Krishna; Syal, Gaurav; Ali, Syed Mujtaba; Krause, Michelle W

    2013-01-01

    Aortic intimal sarcoma is a rare tumor with poor prognosis. The most common manifestations are thromboembolic phenomena and vascular obstruction. We present a case of aortic intimal sarcoma causing bilateral renal artery stenosis which manifested as resistant hypertension and acute kidney inury. Multiple attempts to stent the renal arteries were unsuccessful. Eventually the patient developed acute limb ischemia and oliguric kidney failure as complications of the primary tumor. PMID:24052470

  7. An oxygen enrichment device for lowlanders ascending to high altitude

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background When ascending to the high altitude, people living in low altitude areas will suffer from acute mountain sickness. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that whether an oxygen concentration membrane can be made and used to construct a new portable oxygen enrichment device for individuals in acute exposure to the high altitude. Methods The membrane was fabricated using vinylsiloxane rubber, polyphenylene oxide hydrogen silicone polymers, chloroplatinic acid and isopropyl alcohol. The membrane was assembled in a frame and the performance was tested in terms of concentration of oxygen, flow rate of oxygen enriched air, pressure ratio across the membrane and ambient temperature. Furthermore, the oxygen concentration device was constructed using the membrane, a DC fan, vacuum pump and gas buffer. A nonrandomized preliminary field test was conducted, in which eight healthy male subjects were flown to Tibet (Lhasa, 3,700 m). First, subjects wore the oxygen enrichment device and performed an incremental exercise on cycle ergometer. The test included heart rate (HR), saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO2) and physical work capacity (PWC). Then, after a rest period of 4 hours, the experimental protocol was repeated without oxygen enrichment device. Results The testing showed that the membrane could increase the oxygen concentration by up to 30%. Simulation test indicated that although the performance of the oxygen enrichment device decreased with altitudes, the oxygen concentration could still maintain 28% with flow rate of enriched air 110 cm3/s at 5000 m. The field test showed that higher SpO2, lower HR, and better PWC (measured by the PWC-170) were observed from all the subjects using oxygen enrichment device compared with non-using (P < 0.01). Conclusions We concluded that the new portable oxygen enrichment device would be effective in improving exercise performance when ascending to the high altitude. PMID:24103365

  8. Results of "elephant trunk" total aortic arch replacement using a multi-branched, collared graft prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Stefan R B; Dell'Aquila, Angelo M; Akil, Ali; Schlarb, Dominik; Panuccio, Guiseppe; Martens, Sven; Rukosujew, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    We report on our experience with a simplified elephant trunk (ET) procedure with a multi-branched prosthesis (Vascutek(®) Siena™ Collared Graft). It consists of a proximal portion (20 cm) with prefabricated side branches, a collar and a distal portion (30 cm). The collar, which can be trimmed into any desired diameter, constitutes the suture portion to the descending aorta. Radiopaque markers in the distal portion indicate the landing zone. Between January 2011 and June 2013, 20 consecutive patients (10 women; mean age, 66 ± 9.3 years) underwent ET procedure, including 6 re-do cases. Underlying aortic diseases were acute dissection (n = 6), chronic dissection (n = 4), aneurysm (n = 8) and PAU (n = 2). Mean preoperative diameter of the descending aorta was 49.1 ± 12.9 mm (range 74.7-29.7 mm). Concomitant procedures included ascending aortic replacement in 16 patients; root replacement in 2; AVR in 2, CABG in 3 and mitral repair in 1 patient. CPB time was 263 ± 94 min; mean duration of ACP was 65 ± 14 min. Two patients died on POD 8 and 78, respectively. Major adverse events included stroke (n = 1), resternotomy for bleeding (n = 2), renal failure requiring temporary dialysis (n = 1) and recurrent nerve paresis (n = 2). After a mean follow-up of 10 ± 8 months, all discharged patients were alive. Seven patients underwent stent-graft implantation of the descending aorta and one patient underwent open descending aortic replacement. The last generation of multi-branched arch prosthesis and especially the Vascutek(®) Siena™ Collared Graft make ET procedure a reasonable treatment option even in patients with acute aortic dissection. PMID:25491933

  9. Epiaortic fat pad area: A novel index for the dimensions of the ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Toufan, Mehrnoush; Pourafkari, Leili; Boudagh, Shabnam; Nader, Nader D

    2016-06-01

    We sought to investigate the possible association between the area of the epiaortic fat pad (EAFP) and dimensions of the ascending aorta. A total of 193 individuals underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) prospectively. The area of the EAFP was traced anterior to the aortic root and correlated with the diameter of the aorta. The mean area of the EAFP was 5.16 ± 2.28 cm(2) Absolute and indexed dimensions of the ascending aorta had a significant correlation with the area of the EAFP (p <0.001 for all). In a multivariate linear regression model, age >65 (p <0.001), body mass index >30 kg/m(2) (p = 0.02) and a history of hyperlipidemia (p = 0.003) were identified as independent predictors of the area for EAFP. In conclusion, both the absolute and indexed diameters of the ascending aorta at the different segments that directly come into contact with the EAFP linearly correlate with the area of the EAFP measured by TTE. PMID:27013643

  10. Extensive spinal epidural hematoma: a rare complication of aortic coarctation.

    PubMed

    Zizka, J; Eliás, P; Michl, A; Harrer, J; Cesák, T; Herman, A

    2001-01-01

    Development of collateral circulation belongs among the typical signs of aortic coarctation. Cerebral or spinal artery aneurysm formation with increased risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage represent the most common neurovascular complication of this disease. We report a case of a 20-year-old sportsman who developed acute non-traumatic paraplegia as a result of extensive spinal epidural hemorrhage from collateral vessels accompanying aortic coarctation which was unrecognized up to that time. To the best of our knowledge, acute spinal epidural hematoma as a complication of aortic coarctation has not been previously reported. PMID:11471620

  11. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs when an area of the aorta becomes ... blood pressure Male gender Genetic factors An abdominal aortic aneurysm is most often seen in males over age ...

  12. Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular

    MedlinePlus

    ... Endovascular aneurysm repair - aorta; AAA repair - endovascular; Repair - aortic aneurysm - endovascular ... leaking or bleeding. You may have an abdominal aortic aneurysm that is not causing any symptoms or problems. ...

  13. Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular

    MedlinePlus

    EVAR; Endovascular aneurysm repair - aorta; AAA repair - endovascular; Repair - aortic aneurysm - endovascular ... leaking or bleeding. You may have an abdominal aortic aneurysm that is not causing any symptoms or problems. ...

  14. A fibrous band associated with the non-coronary aortic valve cusp in a dog.

    PubMed

    Ajithdoss, Dharani K; Arenas-Gamboa, Angela M; Edwards, John F

    2011-06-01

    A fibrous band connecting the middle of the free edge (nodulus Arantii) of the non-coronary aortic valve cusp to the ascending aorta just above the level of the non-coronary sinus of Valsalva was observed in an asymptomatic, 11-year-old, male Border Collie. The fibrous band was unrelated to the cause of the death in this dog. Such fibrous bands are usually reported in humans with congenital bicuspid aortic valves. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a fibrous band in the aortic valve in a domestic animal. PMID:21641896

  15. Aortic Dissection as a Cause of Pulsus Bisferiens: A Case Report and Review.

    PubMed

    Riojas, Christina M; Dodge, Angela; Gallo, Dominic R; White, Paul W

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 62-year-old woman who developed an aortic dissection after aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis and supracoronary replacement of the ascending aorta for aneurysmal dilation. Dynamic compression of the distal aorta by the dissection flap was identified with the detection of abnormal continuous wave Doppler signals heard while performing ankle-brachial indices. Duplex ultrasound (US) and Doppler spectral waveforms confirmed dynamic compression of the distal aorta with each cardiac cycle. We review some of the characteristics of continuous wave Doppler signals, specifically discussing the distinguishing characteristics of pulsus bisferiens, and the use of duplex US in imaging the distal aorta. PMID:26520426

  16. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... information Membership Directory (SIR login) Interventional Radiology Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Interventional Radiologists Treat Abdominal Aneurysms Nonsurgically Interventional radiologists ...

  17. Ascending placentitis in the mare: A review.

    PubMed

    Cummins, C; Carrington, S; Fitzpatrick, E; Duggan, V

    2008-01-01

    Ascending placentitis is a condition that occurs late in pregnancy when bacteria enter the sterile uterus from the lower reproductive tract. It leads to abortion or the birth of premature and weakened foals. Early detection and treatment of this condition is vital for ensuring the production of a viable foal.Mares with ascending placentitis often present in late term pregnancy with signs of premature udder development and premature lactation. There may be a vulvar discharge. Early detection of placental problems is possible using trans-abdominal or trans-rectal ultrasonography. Hormones such as progesterone and relaxin may be measured as indicators of foetal stress and placental failure. Postpartum foetal membranes may be thickened and contain a fibronecrotic exudate. The region most affected is the cervical star. Definitive diagnosis of ascending placentitis is by histopathological examination of the chorioallantoic membrane.Ideal treatment strategies are aimed at curing the infection and prolonging the pregnancy to as close to term as possible and consist of anti-microbials, anti-inflammatories and hormonal support.Swabs are taken from affected mares to determine antibiotic sensitivity and to aid in treatment of foals born from these mares which are at risk of becoming septic. If detected early enough, the chances of producing a viable foal are greatly increased. PMID:21851713

  18. Hydrodynamic evaluation of a new dispersive aortic cannula (Stealthflow).

    PubMed

    Goto, Takeshi; Inamura, Takao; Shirota, Minori; Fukuda, Wakako; Fukuda, Ikuo; Daitoku, Kazuyuki; Minakawa, Masahito; Ito, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate flow from a new dispersive aortic cannula (Stealthflow) in the aortic arch using flow visualization methods. Particle image velocimetry was used to analyze flow dynamics in the mock aortic model. Flow patterns, velocity distribution, and streamlines with different shape cannulas were evaluated in a glass aortic arch model. We compared flow parameters in two different dispersive type cannulas: the Stealthflow and the Soft-flow cannula. A large vortex and regurgitant flow were observed in the aortic arch with both cannulas. With the Stealthflow cannula, a high-velocity area with a maximum velocity of 0.68 m/s appeared on the ostium of the cannula in the longitudinal plane. With the Soft-flow cannula, 'multiple jet streams, each with a velocity less than 0.60 m/s, were observed at the cannula outlet. Regurgitant flow from the cannula to the brachiocephalic artery and to the ascending aorta on the greater curvature was specific to the Soft-flow cannula. The degree of regurgitation on the same site was lower with the Stealthflow cannula than with the Soft-flow cannula. The Stealthflow cannula has similar flow properties to those of the Soft-flow cannula according to glass aortic model analysis. It generates gentle flow in the aortic arch and slow flow around the ostia of the aortic arch vessels. The Stealthflow cannula is as effective as the Soft-flow cannula. Care must be taken when the patient has thick atheromatous plaque or frail atheroma on the lesser curvature of the aortic arch. PMID:26526561

  19. Using The Descending Aortic Wall Thickness Measured In Transesophageal Echocardiography As A Risk Marker For Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Fanari, Zaher; Hammami, Sumaya; Hammami, Muhammad Baraa; Hammami, Safa; Eze-Nliam, Chete; Weintraub, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to estimate whether aortic wall thickness is increased in patients with Aortic dissection (AD) compared to low risk control group and can be used in addition to aortic diameter as a risk marker of AD. Background AD occurs due to pathologies that may increase thickness of the aortic wall. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has the ability to visualize both the thoracic aortic wall and lumen. Aortic diameter has been used to predict aortic dissection and timing of surgery, but it is not always predictive of that risk. Methods In 48 patients with AD who underwent TEE were examined retrospectively and compared to 48 control patients with patent foramen ovale (PFO). We measured aortic diameter at different levels, intimal/medial thickness (IMT) and complete wall thickness (CMT). Demographic data and cardiovascular risk factors were reviewed. The data was analyzed using ANOVA and student t test. Results (AD) patients were older [mean age 66 AD vs. 51 PFO], had more hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and Coronary artery disease. Both IMT and CMT in the descending aorta were increased in AD group [(1.85 vs. 1.43 mm; P=0.03 and 2.93 vs. 2.46 mm; p=0.01). As expected the diameter of ascending aorta was also greater in AD (4.61 vs. 2.92 cm; P=0.004). Conclusions CMT and IMT in the descending aorta detected by TEE is greater in patients with AD when compared to control and may add prognostic data to that of aortic diameter. PMID:25984293

  20. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Oliemy, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation was developed to offer a therapeutic solution to patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis who are not candidates for conventional aortic valve replacement. The improvement in transcatheter aortic valve implantation outcomes is still of concern in the areas of stroke, vascular injury, heart block, paravalvular regurgitation and valve durability. Concomitantly, the progress, both technical and in terms of material advances of transcatheter valve systems, as well as in patient selection, renders transcatheter aortic valve implantation an increasingly viable treatment for more and more patients with structural heart disease. PMID:25374670

  1. Contributing Mechanisms of Aortic Atheroma in Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qi; Ma, Xin

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the correlation between aortic atheroma (AA) and the occurrence and recurrence of ischemic cerebrovascular disease (ICVD) has attracted much attention, but the contributory mechanisms remain controversial. This review analyzes related research on the roles of AA in ICVD, and demonstrates the correlation between the formation and development of AA and abnormal metabolism, inflammation, hemodynamic changes, and other contributory factors. The presence of complex aortic plaque (CAP) in the ascending aorta and aortic arch increases the risk of cerebral embolism and degree of injury, while the association between CAP in the descending aorta and cerebral embolism remains ambiguous. AA also functions as an indicator of atherosclerosis burden as well as hypercoagulability, which may further increase the risk of ICVD. Further study on the relationship of AA to ICVD will improve diagnosis and treatment in clinical practice. PMID:26522269

  2. Two-Stage Procedure for Infected Aortic Graft Pseudoaneurysm

    PubMed Central

    von Aspern, Konstantin; Etz, Christian D.; Mohr, Friedrich W.; Battellini, Roberto R.

    2015-01-01

    Prosthetic graft infections with mediastinitis following aortic surgery are rare, yet represent grave complications yielding high morbidity and mortality. We present the case of a 57-year-old female patient with past history of emergent surgery for iatrogenic Type A dissection treated by supracoronary ascending aortic replacement. Four months after the initial surgery, a sternal fistula had formed and due to severe bleeding emergent reoperation was required. Imaging and pathology on admission revealed an infected pseudoaneurysm at the distal aortic prosthesis and mediastinitis with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Rescue surgery was performed by means of a two-stage approach, with extensive debridement, graft replacement and continuous antiseptic lavage in a first step and an omental wrapping of the new prosthesis in a second stage 24 hours later. During 10 years of follow-up, no recurrent infection occurred. The operative approach and general considerations for management of infected pseudoaneurysms are discussed. PMID:27069945

  3. Modelling atherosclerosis by proteomics: Molecular changes in the ascending aortas of cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingshu; Jüllig, Mia; Middleditch, Martin J; Cooper, Garth J S

    2015-09-01

    The cholesterol-fed rabbit is commonly used as a model to study the vascular effects of hypercholesterolemia and resulting atherosclerotic lesions. Here we undertook a proteomic case-control investigation of ascending aortas from male New Zealand White rabbits after 10 weeks on a high-cholesterol (2% w/w) diet (HCD, n = 5) or control diet (n = 5), in order to determine the changes in response to the HCD. Histology confirmed intimal thickening in the HCD group consistent with atherosclerosis, and LC-MS/MS analysis of individually-obtained ascending aortic extracts labelled with isobaric (iTRAQ) tags enabled the identification and quantitation of 453 unique proteins above the 1% false discovery rate threshold. Of 67 proteins showing significant differences in relative abundance (p < 0.05), 62 were elevated and five decreased in ascending aortas from HCD-fed rabbits compared to controls. Six proteins were selected for validation using Multiple Reaction Monitoring, which confirmed the iTRAQ results. Many of the observed protein changes are consistent with known molecular perturbations in the ascending aorta that occur in response to hypercholesterolemia, e.g. elevation of tissue levels of apolipoproteins, extracellular matrix adhesion proteins, glycolytic enzymes, heat shock proteins and proteins involved in immune defense. We also made a number of novel observations, including a 15-fold elevation of glycoprotein (trans-membrane) nmb-like (Gpnmb) in response to HCD. Gpnmb has previously been linked to angiogenesis but not to atherosclerosis. This and additional novel observations merit further investigation as these perturbations may play important and as yet undiscovered roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in rabbits as well as humans. PMID:26232167

  4. Including aortic valve morphology in computational fluid dynamics simulations: initial findings and application to aortic coarctation.

    PubMed

    Wendell, David C; Samyn, Margaret M; Cava, Joseph R; Ellwein, Laura M; Krolikowski, Mary M; Gandy, Kimberly L; Pelech, Andrew N; Shadden, Shawn C; LaDisa, John F

    2013-06-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations quantifying thoracic aortic flow patterns have not included disturbances from the aortic valve (AoV). 80% of patients with aortic coarctation (CoA) have a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) which may cause adverse flow patterns contributing to morbidity. Our objectives were to develop a method to account for the AoV in CFD simulations, and quantify its impact on local hemodynamics. The method developed facilitates segmentation of the AoV, spatiotemporal interpolation of segments, and anatomic positioning of segments at the CFD model inlet. The AoV was included in CFD model examples of a normal (tricuspid AoV) and a post-surgical CoA patient (BAV). Velocity, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS), and oscillatory shear index (OSI) results were compared to equivalent simulations using a plug inlet profile. The plug inlet greatly underestimated TKE for both examples. TAWSS differences extended throughout the thoracic aorta for the CoA BAV, but were limited to the arch for the normal example. OSI differences existed mainly in the ascending aorta for both cases. The impact of AoV can now be included with CFD simulations to identify regions of deleterious hemodynamics thereby advancing simulations of the thoracic aorta one step closer to reality. PMID:22917990

  5. Quantifying Regional Measurement Requirements for ASCENDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mountain, M. E.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Nehrkorn, T.; Hegarty, J. D.; Aschbrenner, R.; Henderson, J.; Zaccheo, S.

    2011-12-01

    Quantification of greenhouse gas fluxes at regional and local scales is required by the Kyoto protocol and potential follow-up agreements, and their accompanying implementation mechanisms (e.g., cap-and-trade schemes and treaty verification protocols). Dedicated satellite observations, such as those provided by the Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT), the upcoming Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2), and future active missions, particularly Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) and Advanced Space Carbon and Climate Observation of Planet Earth (A-SCOPE), are poised to play a central role in this endeavor. In order to prepare for the ASCENDS mission, we are applying the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model driven by meteorological fields from a customized version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to generate surface influence functions for ASCENDS observations. These "footprints" (or adjoint) express the sensitivity of observations to surface fluxes in the upwind source regions and thus enable the computation of a posteriori flux error reductions resulting from the inclusion of satellite observations (taking into account the vertical sensitivity and error characteristics of the latter). The overarching objective of this project is the specification of the measurement requirements for the ASCENDS mission, with a focus on policy-relevant regional scales. Several features make WRF-STILT an attractive tool for regional analysis of satellite observations: 1) WRF meteorology is available at higher resolution than for global models and is thus more realistic, 2) The Lagrangian approach minimizes numerical diffusion present in Eulerian models, 3) The WRF-STILT coupling has been specifically designed to achieve good mass conservation characteristics, and 4) The receptor-oriented approach offers a relatively straightforward way to compute the adjoint of the transport model. These aspects allow

  6. Type A aortic dissection presenting with isolated paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Tsiouris, Athanasios; Morgan, Jeffrey A; Paone, Gaetano

    2012-12-01

    Acute type A thoracic aortic dissections most commonly present with sudden onset of severe chest and/or back pain. We summarize the case of a patient with an acute type A dissection who presented with acute, painless paraplegia caused by malperfusion of the artery of Adamkiewicz. Although an uncommon cause of acute paraplegia, type A dissections should be included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:23262048

  7. Molecular Mechanisms of Thoracic Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Darrell; Shen, Ying H.; Russell, Ludivine; Coselli, Joseph S.; LeMaire, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Thoracic aortic dissection (TAD) is a highly lethal vascular disease. In many patients with TAD, the aorta progressively dilates and ultimately ruptures. Dissection formation, progression, and rupture cannot be reliably prevented pharmacologically because the molecular mechanisms of aortic wall degeneration are poorly understood. The key histopathologic feature of TAD is medial degeneration, a process characterized by smooth muscle cell depletion and extracellular matrix degradation. These structural changes have a profound impact on the functional properties of the aortic wall and can result from excessive protease-mediated destruction of the extracellular matrix, altered signaling pathways, and altered gene expression. Review of the literature reveals differences in the processes that lead to ascending versus descending and sporadic versus hereditary TAD. These differences add to the complexity of this disease. Although tremendous progress has been made in diagnosing and treating TAD, a better understanding of the molecular, cellular, and genetic mechanisms that cause this disease is necessary to developing more effective preventative and therapeutic treatment strategies. PMID:23856125

  8. The outcomes of intra-aortic balloon pump usage in patients with acute myocardial infarction: a comprehensive meta-analysis of 33 clinical trials and 18,889 patients

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhong-Guo; Gao, Xiao-Fei; Chen, Li-Wen; Li, Xiao-Bo; Shao, Ming-Xue; Ji, Qian; Zhu, Hao; Ren, Yi-Zhi; Chen, Shao-Liang; Tian, Nai-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Background The effects of intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) usage in patients with acute myocardial infarction remain controversial. This study sought to evaluate the outcomes of IABP usage in these patients. Methods Medline, EMBASE, and other internet sources were searched for relevant clinical trials. The primary efficacy endpoints (in-hospital, midterm, and long-term mortality) and secondary endpoints (reinfarction, recurrent ischemia, and new heart failure in the hospital) as well as safety endpoints (severe bleeding requiring blood transfusion and stroke in-hospital) were subsequently analyzed. Results Thirty-three clinical trials involving 18,889 patients were identified. The risk of long-term mortality in patients suffering from acute myocardial infarction was significantly decreased following IABP use (odds ratio [OR] 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.48–0.91, P=0.010). Both in-hospital and midterm mortality did not differ significantly between the IABP use group and no IABP use group (in-hospital: OR 0.87, 95% CI: 0.59–1.28, P=0.479; midterm: OR 1.12, 95% CI: 0.53–2.38, P=0.768). IABP insertion was not associated with the risk reduction of reinfarction, recurrent ischemia, or new heart failure. However, IABP use increased the risk of severe bleeding requiring blood transfusion (OR 2.05, 95% CI: 1.29–3.25, P=0.002) and stroke (OR 1.71, 95% CI: 1.04–2.82, P=0.035). In the thrombolytic therapy and cardiogenic shock subgroups, reduced mortality rates following IABP use were observed. Conclusion IABP insertion is associated with feasible benefits with respect to long-term survival rates in patients suffering from acute myocardial infarction, particularly those suffering from cardiogenic shock and receiving thrombolytic therapy, but at the cost of higher incidence of severe bleeding and stroke. PMID:27042021

  9. Selection of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real Time PCR (qPCR) Assays in Tissue from Human Ascending Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Rueda-Martínez, Carmen; Lamas, Oscar; Mataró, María José; Robledo-Carmona, Juan; Sánchez-Espín, Gemma; Jiménez-Navarro, Manuel; Such-Martínez, Miguel; Fernández, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Dilatation of the ascending aorta (AAD) is a prevalent aortopathy that occurs frequently associated with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), the most common human congenital cardiac malformation. The molecular mechanisms leading to AAD associated with BAV are still poorly understood. The search for differentially expressed genes in diseased tissue by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is an invaluable tool to fill this gap. However, studies dedicated to identify reference genes necessary for normalization of mRNA expression in aortic tissue are scarce. In this report, we evaluate the qPCR expression of six candidate reference genes in tissue from the ascending aorta of 52 patients with a variety of clinical and demographic characteristics, normal and dilated aortas, and different morphologies of the aortic valve (normal aorta and normal valve n = 30; dilated aorta and normal valve n = 10; normal aorta and BAV n = 4; dilated aorta and BAV n = 8). The expression stability of the candidate reference genes was determined with three statistical algorithms, GeNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper. The expression analyses showed that the most stable genes for the three algorithms employed were CDKN1β, POLR2A and CASC3, independently of the structure of the aorta and the valve morphology. In conclusion, we propose the use of these three genes as reference genes for mRNA expression analysis in human ascending aorta. However, we suggest searching for specific reference genes when conducting qPCR experiments with new cohort of samples. PMID:24841551

  10. Recurrent autonomic dysreflexia due to chronic aortic dissection in an adult male with cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Subramanian; Hughes, Peter L; Oo, Tun; Soni, Bakul M

    2008-01-01

    Autonomic dysreflexia is a hypertensive clinical emergency for persons with spinal cord injury at T-6 level or above. Recurrent autonomic dysreflexia is uncommon in spinal cord injury patients and is usually caused by noxious stimuli that cannot be removed promptly, e.g., somatic pain, abdominal distension. A 61-year-old man, who sustained tetraplegia at C-5 (ASIA-A) 38 years ago, was admitted with chest infection. Computerised tomography (CT) of the chest showed the ascending aorta to measure 4 cm in anteroposterior diameter; descending thoracic aorta measured 3.5 cm. No dissection was seen. Normal appearances of abdominal aorta were seen. He was treated with noninvasive ventilation, antibiotics, and diuretics. Nineteen days later, when there was sudden deterioration in his clinical condition, CT of the pulmonary angiogram was performed to rule out pulmonary embolism. This showed no pulmonary embolus, but the upper abdominal aorta showed some dissection with thrombosis of the false lumen. Blood pressure was controlled with perindopril 2 mg, once a day, doxazosin 4 mg, twice a day, and furosemide 20 mg, twice a day. Since this patient did not show clinical features of mesenteric or lower limb ischaemia, the vascular surgeon did not recommend subdiaphragmatic aortic replacement. This patient subsequently developed recurrent episodes of autonomic dysreflexia. Each acute episode of dysreflexia was controlled by nifedipine given sublingually in doses varying from 5 to 20 mg. No inciting cause for autonomic dysreflexia could be found other than chronic aortic dissection. This patient's medication was then changed to doxazosin 8 mg, twice a day, and sustained-release nifedipine 10 mg, twice a day, which helped to prevent recurrent autonomic dysreflexia. Chronic aortic dissection is a very rare cause for recurrent autonomic dysreflexia in ageing spinal cord injury patients. When the inciting cause for dysreflexia is not amenable for treatment, recurrent dysreflexic

  11. Acute Arterial Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Dagnone, L. E.; Brown, P. M.

    1983-01-01

    The response of the primary care physician in the initial assessment and management of acute arterial injuries will often be the deciding factor in survival of life, limb or organ system. Most arterial emergencies occur as a result of trauma, disruption of vessel wall and/or occlusion of flow. The common clinical syndromes of acute arterial emergencies are injuries to and beyond the aorta, acute aortic dissection, ruptured aortic aneurysm, and thromboembolic occlusive arterial disease. The role of arteriography and the urgency of definitive surgical repair in acute arterial emergencies is summarized. PMID:21283323

  12. Gene expression in acute Stanford type A dissection: a comparative microarray study

    PubMed Central

    Weis-Müller, Barbara Theresia; Modlich, Olga; Drobinskaya, Irina; Unay, Derya; Huber, Rita; Bojar, Hans; Schipke, Jochen D; Feindt, Peter; Gams, Emmeran; Müller, Wolfram; Goecke, Timm; Sandmann, Wilhelm

    2006-01-01

    Background We compared gene expression profiles in acutely dissected aorta with those in normal control aorta. Materials and methods Ascending aorta specimen from patients with an acute Stanford A-dissection were taken during surgery and compared with those from normal ascending aorta from multiorgan donors using the BD Atlas™ Human1.2 Array I, BD Atlas™ Human Cardiovascular Array and the Affymetrix HG-U133A GeneChip®. For analysis only genes with strong signals of more than 70 percent of the mean signal of all spots on the array were accepted as being expressed. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to confirm regulation of expression of a subset of 24 genes known to be involved in aortic structure and function. Results According to our definition expression profiling of aorta tissue specimens revealed an expression of 19.1% to 23.5% of the genes listed on the arrays. Of those 15.7% to 28.9% were differently expressed in dissected and control aorta specimens. Several genes that encode for extracellular matrix components such as collagen IV α2 and -α5, collagen VI α3, collagen XIV α1, collagen XVIII α1 and elastin were down-regulated in aortic dissection, whereas levels of matrix metalloproteinases-11, -14 and -19 were increased. Some genes coding for cell to cell adhesion, cell to matrix signaling (e.g., polycystin1 and -2), cytoskeleton, as well as several myofibrillar genes (e.g., α-actinin, tropomyosin, gelsolin) were found to be down-regulated. Not surprisingly, some genes associated with chronic inflammation such as interleukin -2, -6 and -8, were up-regulated in dissection. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the complexity of the dissecting process on a molecular level. Genes coding for the integrity and strength of the aortic wall were down-regulated whereas components of inflammatory response were up-regulated. Altered patterns of gene expression indicate a pre-existing structural failure, which is probably a

  13. Aortic dissection with the entrance tear in transverse aorta: analysis of 12 autopsy patients.

    PubMed

    Roberts, C S; Roberts, W C

    1990-11-01

    Clinical and autopsy findings are described in 12 patients who had fatal aortic dissection with the entrance tear in the transverse aorta. The 12 patients represent 7% of 182 autopsies of spontaneous aortic dissection studied by us. The ages of the 12 patients at death ranged from 37 to 87 years (mean, 67 years). Eight were men; 8 had a history of systemic hypertension, and 10 had hearts of increased weight. Diagnosis of aortic dissection was made during life in only 4 of the 12 patients. All 12 patients died of rupture of the false channel within 2 weeks of onset of signs or symptoms compatible with dissection. The direction of aortic dissection from the entrance tear was entirely retrograde in 4 patients, entirely anterograde in 4 patients, and in both directions in 4 patients. Hemopericardium occurred in the first group, left hemothorax in the second group, and either in the last group. Of the 8 patients in whom the ascending aorta was involved, the retrograde dissection in each extended to the aortic root, 6 had pulmonary adventitial hemorrhage, and 4 had involvement of the arch arteries by dissection. In the 4 patients with strictly anterograde dissection, none had dissection in the arch arteries. Thus, tear in the transverse aorta causes a dissection that is usually fata, that often dissects retrogradely, and that may mimic dissection from a tear in ascending aorta. Aortic dissection from a tear in transverse aorta requires early operative intervention. PMID:2241339

  14. Aortic Input Impedance during Nitroprusside Infusion

    PubMed Central

    Pepine, Carl J.; Nichols, W. W.; Curry, R. C.; Conti, C. Richard

    1979-01-01

    Beneficial effects of nitroprusside infusion in heart failure are purportedly a result of decreased afterload through “impedance” reduction. To study the effect of nitroprusside on vascular factors that determine the total load opposing left ventricular ejection, the total aortic input impedance spectrum was examined in 12 patients with heart failure (cardiac index <2.0 liters/min per m2 and left ventricular end diastolic pressure >20 mm Hg). This input impedance spectrum expresses both mean flow (resistance) and pulsatile flow (compliance and wave reflections) components of vascular load. Aortic root blood flow velocity and pressure were recorded continuously with a catheter-tip electromagnetic velocity probe in addition to left ventricular pressure. Small doses of nitroprusside (9-19 μg/min) altered the total aortic input impedance spectrum as significant (P < 0.05) reductions in both mean and pulsatile components were observed within 60-90 s. With these acute changes in vascular load, left ventricular end diastolic pressure declined (44%) and stroke volume increased (20%, both P < 0.05). Larger nitroprusside doses (20-38 μg/min) caused additional alteration in the aortic input impedance spectrum with further reduction in left ventricular end diastolic pressure and increase in stroke volume but no additional changes in the impedance spectrum or stroke volume occurred with 39-77 μg/min. Improved ventricular function persisted when aortic pressure was restored to control values with simultaneous phenylephrine infusion in three patients. These data indicate that nitroprusside acutely alters both the mean and pulsatile components of vascular load to effect improvement in ventricular function in patients with heart failure. The evidence presented suggests that it may be possible to reduce vascular load and improve ventricular function independent of aortic pressure reduction. PMID:457874

  15. Predictive Models with Patient Specific Material Properties for the Biomechanical Behavior of Ascending Thoracic Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Olfa; Duprey, Ambroise; Favre, Jean-Pierre; Avril, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the patient-specific material properties of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (ATAA) using preoperative dynamic gated computed tomography (CT) scans. The identification is based on the simultaneous minimization of two cost functions, which define the difference between model predictions and gated CT measurements of the aneurysm volume at respectively systole and cardiac mid-cycle. The method is applied on five patients who underwent surgical repair of their ATAA at the University Hospital Center of St. Etienne. For these patients, the aneurysms were collected and tested mechanically using an in vitro bench. For the sake of validation, the mechanical properties found using the in vivo approach and the in vitro bench were compared. We eventually performed finite-element stress analyses based on each set of material properties. Rupture risk indexes were estimated and compared, showing promising results of the patient-specific identification method based on gated CT. PMID:26178871

  16. Assessment of Structural and Functional Abnormalities of the Myocardium and the Ascending Aorta in Fetus with Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yan; Xu, Yali; Tang, Jinliang; Xia, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To detect anatomical and intrinsic histopathological features of the ascending aorta and left ventricular (LV) myocardium and evaluate right ventricular (RV) function in fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). Methods. Twenty-five fetuses diagnosed with HLHS were followed up in the antenatal and postpartum periods. 12 necropsy heart specimens were analyzed for morphological and histological changes. Results. Prenatal echocardiography and pathologic anatomy displayed the typical characteristics of HLHS as a severe underdevelopment of the LV in the form of mitral stenosis or atresia or as aortic atresia or stenosis, with a decreased ratio of aortic diameter to pulmonary artery diameter (median of 0.49 with a range of 0.24 to 0.69, p ≤ 0.001) and a higher ratio of RV diameter to LV diameter (median of 2.44 with a range of 1.33 to 6.25, p ≤ 0.001). The RV volume, stroke volume, and cardiac output in HLHS fetuses were increased compared with the gestational age-matched normal controls (p < 0.01). Histological changes in the 12 HLHS specimens included LV myocardial fibrosis, aortic elastic fragmentation, and fibrosis. Conclusions. In addition to severe anatomical deformity, distinct histological abnormalities in the LV myocardium and aortic wall were identified in the fetuses with HLHS. RV function damage may be potentially exists. PMID:26981527

  17. A distinctive type of ascending prominence - 'Fountain'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Hansen, R. T.; Riddle, A. C.

    1975-01-01

    Cinematographic observations of solar prominences made at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, during the past few years suggest that there is a well-defined subclass of ascending prominences characterized by closed-system transference of chromospheric material along an arch or loop (up one leg and down the other). While this occurs, the entire prominence envelope steadily rises upward and expands through the corona. These prominences are denoted as 'fountains'. Several examples are described. Fountains appear to be well contained by coronal magnetic fields. Their total kinetic energy is of the order of 10 to the 30th power erg, but dissipation is typically quite slow (over time periods of 100 min or so), so that the correlative disturbances (radio bursts, coronal transients, chromospheric brightenings) are generally not spectacular or nonexistent.

  18. Amlodipine Reduces AngII-Induced Aortic Aneurysms and Atherosclerosis in Hypercholesterolemic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaofeng; Rateri, Debra L.; Howatt, Deborah A.; Balakrishnan, Anju; Moorleghen, Jessica J.; Morris, Andrew J.; Charnigo, Richard; Cassis, Lisa A.; Daugherty, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine effects of amlodipine, a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, on development of angiotensin II (AngII)-induced vascular pathologies. Methods and Results Male LDL receptor -/- mice were infused with vehicle, amlodipine (5 mg/kg/d), AngII (1,000 ng/kg/min), or AngII + amlodipine for 4 weeks through osmotic pumps (n=10/group). Mice were fed a saturated fat-enriched diet for 1 week prior to pump implantation and during 4 weeks of infusion. Infusion of amlodipine resulted in plasma concentrations of 32 ± 2 ng/ml and 27 ± 2 ng/ml for mice in saline + amlodipine and AngII + amlodipine groups, respectively. This infusion rate of amlodipine did not affect AngII-induced increases in systolic blood pressure. Three of 10 (30%) mice infused with AngII died of aortic rupture, while aortic rupture did not occur in mice co-infused with AngII + amlodipine. Suprarenal aortic width and intimal area of ascending aortas were measured to define aortic aneurysms. In the absence of AngII infusion, amlodipine did not change suprarenal aortic width and ascending aortic area. Infusion of AngII led to profound increases of suprarenal aortic width (saline + vehicle versus AngII + vehicle: 0.86 ± 0.02 versus 1.72 ± 0.26 mm; P=0.0006), whereas co-infusion of AngII and amlodipine diminished abdominal dilation (1.02 ± 0.14 mm; P=0.003). As expected, AngII infusion increased mean intimal area of ascending aortas (saline + vehicle versus AngII + vehicle: 8.5 ± 0.3 versus 12.5 ± 1.1 mm2; P=0.001), while co-infusion of AngII and amlodipine ablated dilation of the ascending aorta (8.6 ± 0.2 mm2; P=0.03). Co-administration of amlodipine also significantly attenuated AngII-induced atherosclerosis in the thoracic region as quantified by percent lesion area (AngII + vehicle versus AngII + amlodipine: 5.8 ± 2.1 % versus 0.3 ± 0.1%; P=0.05). Conclusions Amlodipine inhibited AngII-induced aortic aneurysms in both the abdominal and ascending

  19. Calcification of the aortic wall in hypercalcemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Rokita, E; Cichocki, T; Divoux, S; Gonsior, B; Höfert, M; Jarczyk, L; Strzałkowski, A

    1992-10-01

    The mineralization process was investigated in the aortic wall of hypercalcemic rabbits. The elevated calcium level in serum was induced by intramuscular injection of vitamin D3. The animals were killed at different times of the experiment (max. 246 d). The freeze-dried tissue homogenates were used for elemental composition studies by means of proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The structural information was obtained from infrared (IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra. Moreover, the ascending part of the aortic arch was separated and used for micro-PIXE (PIXE in combination with proton microprobe) and histochemical examinations. It was found that hypercalcemia (blood serum Ca content elevated by about 20%) induced calcification of the aortic wall. The mineral phase within the aortic wall consisted of Ca-P salts. The Ca/P ratio continuously increased during the experiment and approached 2 after 246 d of the vitamin D3 treatment. The IR and XRD studies made possible the identification of the complex phase composition of the samples. The hydroxyapatite crystals were detected after 196 days, however, in earlier phases of the experiment, amorphous calcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate and octacalcium phosphate were also observed. On the basis of the data obtained, the mechanism of the precipitation and growth of inorganic deposits in the tunica media of the aortic wall was discussed. PMID:1333314

  20. Pioneering transcatheter aortic valve Implant (Inovare®) via transfemoral.

    PubMed

    Pontes, José Carlos Dorsa Vieira; Duarte, João Jackson; Silva, Augusto Daige da; Dias, Amaury Mont'Serrat Ávila Souza; Benfatti, Ricardo Adala; Gardenal, Neimar; Benfatti, Amanda Ferreira Carli; Gomes, Jandir Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    We present a patient with severe aortic valvular bioprosthesis dysfunction implanted for 11 years, presenting with acute pulmonary edema due to severe valvular insufficiency with severe systolic dysfunction (EF <30%) and comorbid conditions that amounted operative risk (STS score > 10). We carried out the transcatheter aortic valve implantation (Inovare® - Braile Biomedica), which was implemented successfully by transfemoral access and good patient outcomes. PMID:23288191

  1. Enlightenment from a small but rapidly evolving penetrating aortic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Guangyi; Tang, Wenyi; Chen, Jian

    2016-07-01

    Penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU) is a pathologic type of acute aortic syndrome and usually locates in the descending aorta. The presentation, behavior and natural history of this disease process have not been clear. Here we report a case in which a rapidly evolving PAU in descending aorta needed aggressive percutaneous interventional treatment. The present case with its unique scenario might draw clinicians' attention on a "beyond the guidelines" issue. PMID:26961076

  2. Seeing the invisible: painless aortic dissection in the emergency setting.

    PubMed

    Ayrik, C; Cece, H; Aslan, O; Karcioglu, O; Yilmaz, E

    2006-03-01

    Acute dissection of the aorta can be one of the most dramatic cardiovascular emergencies. Classically, aortic dissection presents as sudden, severe chest, back, or abdominal pain that is characterised as ripping or tearing in nature. However, a timely diagnosis can be elusive in the event of an atypical presentation. In this report, the authors present two patients with painless aortic dissection who were misdiagnosed during their initial evaluation in the emergency department. PMID:16498148

  3. Seeing the invisible: painless aortic dissection in the emergency setting

    PubMed Central

    Ayrik, C; Cece, H; Aslan, O; Karcioglu, O; Yilmaz, E

    2006-01-01

    Acute dissection of the aorta can be one of the most dramatic cardiovascular emergencies. Classically, aortic dissection presents as sudden, severe chest, back, or abdominal pain that is characterised as ripping or tearing in nature. However, a timely diagnosis can be elusive in the event of an atypical presentation. In this report, the authors present two patients with painless aortic dissection who were misdiagnosed during their initial evaluation in the emergency department. PMID:16498148

  4. Subacute post-traumatic ascending myelopathy (SPAM): two cases of SPAM following surgical treatment of thoracolumbar fractures.

    PubMed

    Farooque, Kamran; Kandwal, Pankaj; Gupta, Ankit

    2014-01-01

    To report two cases of traumatic paraplegia who developed Sub-acute Post-Traumatic Ascending Myelopathy (SPAM) following surgical decompression.We hereby report two cases (both 35yr old male) with traumatic paraplegia that developed ascending weakness at 3rd and 5th Post-Op day respectively following surgical decompression. Both the patients experienced remarkable improvement in Neurology after treatment with steroids. The authors conclude by emphasizing on minimum cord handling during surgical decompression of the spinal cord to avoid this potentially life threatening complication. PMID:24823733

  5. Old Myths, New Concerns: the Long-Term Effects of Ascending Aorta Replacement with Dacron Grafts. Not All That Glitters Is Gold.

    PubMed

    Spadaccio, Cristiano; Nappi, Francesco; Al-Attar, Nawwar; Sutherland, Fraser W; Acar, Christophe; Nenna, Antonio; Trombetta, Marcella; Chello, Massimo; Rainer, Alberto

    2016-08-01

    Synthetic grafts are widely used in cardiac and vascular surgery since the mid-1970s. Despite their general good performance, inability of mimicking the elastomechanical characteristics of the native arterial tissue, and the consequent lack of adequate compliance, leads to a cascade of hemodynamic and biological alterations deeply affecting cardiovascular homeostasis. Those concerns have been reconsidered in more contemporaneous surgical and experimental reports which also triggered some research efforts in the tissue engineering field towards the realization of biomimetic arterial surrogates. The present review focuses on the significance of the "compliance mismatch" phenomenon occurring after aortic root or ascending aorta replacement with prosthetic grafts and discusses the clinical reflexes of this state of tissue incompatibility, as the loss of the native elastomechanical properties of the aorta can translate into detrimental effects on the normal efficiency of the aortic root complex with impact in the long-term results of patients undergoing aortic replacement. PMID:27245785

  6. Radiation therapy of the para-aortic lymph nodes in carcinoma of the uterine cervix: The concurrent use of cimetidine to reduce acute and subacute side effects from radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Teshima, T.; Inoue, T.; Chatani, M.; Ikeda, H.; Nishiyama, K.; Inoue, T.; Matayoshi, Y.; Hishikawa, Y.; Tanaka, S.; Kamikonya, N. )

    1990-01-01

    A prospective study of the effects of radiation therapy (RT) on para-aortic lymph nodes in uterine cervical cancer was conducted. As part of the study, cimetidine (800 mg daily) was administered during RT to relieve and prevent adverse reactions of the gastrointestinal tract caused by RT. In half of the patients, cimetidine (400 mg daily) was continued after RT was finished. The RT field was 7 to 8 cm wide and covered the area from the 4th lumbar to 11th thoracic vertebrae. The total dose administered was 45 Gy in 25 fractions over a five-week period. From September 1986 through October 1987, 89 patients were entered in this study. During RT, only slight gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, appetite loss, fatigue, and epigastralgia, were observed. These symptoms increased when cimetidine was withdrawn, but not in the patients who continued to receive cimetidine. It is concluded that cimetidine during and after RT can reduce the acute and subacute side effects of RT.

  7. [Sudden deaths due to non-traumatic aortic aneurysms rupture].

    PubMed

    Bury, Anna; Meissner, Ewa; Szram, Stefan; Berent, Jarosław

    2011-01-01

    In this work we review two cases of ruptured aortic aneurysms which arose from congenital abnormalities of the aortic wall structure. In the first case, a 16-year old, previously untreated boy died, with no previous symptoms of an aortic aneurysm. The boy was suspected of taking drugs and even of committing suicide. A young couple found the boy's body in the wood close to the bus stop. There were no signs of violence on the corpse and the body was fully and properly dressed. The autopsy revealed enlarged (true aneurysm) and ruptured ascending aorta with about 700 ml of blood in the pericardial sac. Toxicological examination was negative. Histopathology showed abnormalities in the structure of the wall of aorta in the place of the rupture. All other body organs and vessels seemed to be normal and properly developed except the thoracic aorta, and no other morphologic abnormalities were present. In the second case, the corpse of a 30-year-old man was found in his apartment (he lived with his parents). The parents claimed he did not use drugs or alcohol. The autopsy, as in the previous case, revealed a ruptured true aneurysm of the ascending aorta with 370 g of blood in the pericardial sac. The concaved thoracic cavity was also observed. After the autopsy, the man's parents reported that in childhood, their son was diagnosed to suffer from Marfan syndrome. PMID:22715682

  8. Familial Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm with Dissection Presenting as Flash Pulmonary Edema in a 26-Year-Old Man

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Sabry; Moore, Tyler; Payne, Drew; Momeni, Parastoo; Mulkey, Zachary; Nugent, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    We are reporting a case of familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection in a 26-year-old man with no significant past medical history and a family history of dissecting aortic aneurysm in his mother at the age of 40. The patient presented with cough, shortness of breath, and chest pain. Chest X-ray showed bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. CT scan of the chest showed a dissection of the ascending aorta. The patient underwent aortic dissection repair and three months later he returned to our hospital with new complaints of back pain. CT angiography showed a new aortic dissection extending from the left carotid artery through the bifurcation and into the iliac arteries. The patient underwent replacement of the aortic root, ascending aorta, total aortic arch, and aortic valve. The patient recovered well postoperatively. Genetic studies of the patient and his children revealed no mutations in ACTA2, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, TGFB2, MYH11, MYLK, SMAD3, or FBN1. This case report focuses on a patient with familial TAAD and discusses the associated genetic loci and available screening methods. It is important to recognize potential cases of familial TAAD and understand the available screening methods since early diagnosis allows appropriate management of risk factors and treatment when necessary. PMID:25104961

  9. Immersed boundary-finite element model of fluid-structure interaction in the aortic root

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flamini, Vittoria; DeAnda, Abe; Griffith, Boyce E.

    2016-04-01

    It has long been recognized that aortic root elasticity helps to ensure efficient aortic valve closure, but our understanding of the functional importance of the elasticity and geometry of the aortic root continues to evolve as increasingly detailed in vivo imaging data become available. Herein, we describe a fluid-structure interaction model of the aortic root, including the aortic valve leaflets, the sinuses of Valsalva, the aortic annulus, and the sinotubular junction, that employs a version of Peskin's immersed boundary (IB) method with a finite element description of the structural elasticity. As in earlier work, we use a fiber-based model of the valve leaflets, but this study extends earlier IB models of the aortic root by employing an incompressible hyperelastic model of the mechanics of the sinuses and ascending aorta using a constitutive law fit to experimental data from human aortic root tissue. In vivo pressure loading is accounted for by a backward displacement method that determines the unloaded configuration of the root model. Our model yields realistic cardiac output at physiological pressures, with low transvalvular pressure differences during forward flow, minimal regurgitation during valve closure, and realistic pressure loads when the valve is closed during diastole. Further, results from high-resolution computations indicate that although the detailed leaflet and root kinematics show some grid sensitivity, our IB model of the aortic root nonetheless produces essentially grid-converged flow rates and pressures at practical grid spacings for the high Reynolds number flows of the aortic root. These results thereby clarify minimum grid resolutions required by such models when used as stand-alone models of the aortic valve as well as when used to provide models of the outflow valves in models of left-ventricular fluid dynamics.

  10. [Single coronary artery and right aortic arch].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2015-01-01

    Coronary anomalies are mostly asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally during coronary angiography or echocardiography. However, they must be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of angina, dyspnea, syncope, acute myocardial infarction or sudden death in young patients. The case is presented of two rare anomalies, single coronary artery originating from right sinus of Valsalva and right aortic arch, in a 65 year-old patient with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease treated percutaneously. PMID:25304052

  11. Heat transfer of ascending cryomagma on Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quick, Lynnae C.; Marsh, Bruce D.

    2016-06-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa has a relatively young surface (60-90 Myr on average), which may be due in part to cryovolcanic processes. Current models for both effusive and explosive cryovolcanism on Europa may be expanded and enhanced by linking the potential for cryovolcanism at the surface to subsurface cryomagmatism. The success of cryomagma transport through Europa's crust depends critically on the rate of ascent relative to the rate of solidification. The final transport distance of cryomagma is thus governed by initial melt volume, ascent rate, overall ascent distance, transport mechanism (i.e., diapirism, diking, or ascent in cylindrical conduits), and melt temperature and composition. The last two factors are especially critical in determining the budget of expendable energy before complete solidification. Here we use these factors as constraints to explore conditions under which cryomagma may arrive at Europa's surface to facilitate cryovolcanism. We find that 1-5 km radius warm ice diapirs ascending from the base of a 10 km thick stagnant lid can reach the shallow subsurface in a partially molten state. Cryomagma transport may be further facilitated if diapirs travel along pre-heated ascent paths. Under certain conditions, cryolava transported from 10 km depths in tabular dikes or pipe-like conduits may reach the surface at temperatures exceeding 250 K. Ascent rates for these geometries may be high enough that isothermal transport is approached. Cryomagmas containing significant amounts of low eutectic impurities can also be delivered to Europa's surface by propagating dikes or pipe-like conduits.

  12. Functional annulus remodelling using a prosthetic ring in tricuspid aortic valve repair: mid-term results†

    PubMed Central

    Fattouch, Khalil; Castrovinci, Sebastiano; Murana, Giacomo; Nasso, Giuseppe; Guccione, Francesco; Dioguardi, Pietro; Salardino, Massimo; Bianco, Giuseppe; Speziale, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The functional aortic valve annulus (FAVA) is a complex unit with proximal (aorto-ventricular junction) and distal (sinotubular junction) components. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of the total FAVA remodelling, using a prosthetic ring, on mid-term clinical and echocardiographic results after aortic valve repair. METHODS Since February 2003, 250 patients with tricuspid aortic valve insufficiency (AI) underwent aortic valve repair. FAVA dilatation was treated by prosthetic ring in 52 patients, by isolated subcommissural plasty in 62, by subcommissural plasty plus ascending aortic replacement in 57 and by David's reimplantation procedure in 79. Survival rate and freedom from recurrent AI greater than or equal to moderate were evaluated by Kaplan–Meier. RESULTS Overall late survival was 90.4%. Late cardiac-related deaths occurred in 15 patients. At follow-up, 36 (16%) patients had recurrent AI greater than or equal to moderate because of cusp reprolapse and/or FAVA redilatation. Freedom from recurrent AI was significantly higher for patients who underwent David's procedure or FAVA remodelling by prosthetic ring than those who underwent isolated subcommissural plasty (P < 0.01) or subcommissural plasty plus ascending aortic replacement (P = 0.02). There was no statistical difference between David's procedure and prosthetic ring annuloplasty (P = 0.26). CONCLUSION FAVA remodelling using a prosthetic ring is a safe procedure in aortic valve repair surgery thanks to long-term annulus stabilization and it is a pliable alternative to David's procedure in selected patients. This technique may be used in all patients with slight root dilatation to avoid aggressive root reimplantation. We also recommended total FAVA annuloplasty in all patients who underwent aortic valve repair to improve long-term repair results. PMID:24065345

  13. Acute and chronic complications of laser angioplasty: vascular wall damage and formation of aneurysms in the atherosclerotic rabbit.

    PubMed

    Lee, G; Ikeda, R M; Theis, J H; Chan, M C; Stobbe, D; Ogata, C; Kumagai, A; Mason, D T

    1984-01-15

    Acute and chronic vascular responses to laser exposure in atherosclerotic rabbits were studied. In 7 rabbits fed an atherogenic diet for 3 to 5 months before the study to induce aortic atherosclerosis, a flexible quartz fiber, 400 micron core diameter, attached to an argon ion laser was passed anterogradely or retrogradely to the atherosclerotic ascending aorta. The laser was turned on using power intensities of 1 to 2 W for 3 seconds. After laser treatment, the aortas were studied acutely in 3 rabbits and chronically in 4 rabbits after recovery for 1 to 14 days. In 2 rabbits studied acutely, the argon laser produced a vaporized crater within the atherosclerotic plaque at the endothelial surface; however, in 1 there was also vascular damage extending deep into the medial layer. In addition, aortic aneurysm with muscular wall damage occurred in 2 of the 4 animals studied chronically. Thus, vascular complications may arise when catheter laser angioplasty is randomly applied without visualizing specific plaque targets or without using safe dose increments of power intensities and durations of exposure. This study suggests caution in the clinical use of intensive phototherapy to cardiovascular lesions and stresses the need for further understanding of laser vascular consequences before application of laser angioplasty in patients. PMID:6695725

  14. Critical Transitions in Early Embryonic Aortic Arch Patterning and Hemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, William J.; Dur, Onur; Wang, Yajuan; Patrick, Michael J.; Tinney, Joseph P.; Keller, Bradley B.; Pekkan, Kerem

    2013-01-01

    Transformation from the bilaterally symmetric embryonic aortic arches to the mature great vessels is a complex morphogenetic process, requiring both vasculogenic and angiogenic mechanisms. Early aortic arch development occurs simultaneously with rapid changes in pulsatile blood flow, ventricular function, and downstream impedance in both invertebrate and vertebrate species. These dynamic biomechanical environmental landscapes provide critical epigenetic cues for vascular growth and remodeling. In our previous work, we examined hemodynamic loading and aortic arch growth in the chick embryo at Hamburger-Hamilton stages 18 and 24. We provided the first quantitative correlation between wall shear stress (WSS) and aortic arch diameter in the developing embryo, and observed that these two stages contained different aortic arch patterns with no inter-embryo variation. In the present study, we investigate these biomechanical events in the intermediate stage 21 to determine insights into this critical transition. We performed fluorescent dye microinjections to identify aortic arch patterns and measured diameters using both injection recordings and high-resolution optical coherence tomography. Flow and WSS were quantified with 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Dye injections revealed that the transition in aortic arch pattern is not a uniform process and multiple configurations were documented at stage 21. CFD analysis showed that WSS is substantially elevated compared to both the previous (stage 18) and subsequent (stage 24) developmental time-points. These results demonstrate that acute increases in WSS are followed by a period of vascular remodeling to restore normative hemodynamic loading. Fluctuations in blood flow are one possible mechanism that impacts the timing of events such as aortic arch regression and generation, leading to the variable configurations at stage 21. Aortic arch variations noted during normal rapid vascular remodeling at stage 21 identify a

  15. Sutureless aortic valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The increasing incidence of aortic stenosis and greater co-morbidities and risk profiles of the contemporary patient population has driven the development of minimally invasive aortic valve surgery and percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) techniques to reduce surgical trauma. Recent technological developments have led to an alternative minimally invasive option which avoids the placement and tying of sutures, known as “sutureless” or rapid deployment aortic valves. Potential advantages for sutureless aortic prostheses include reducing cross-clamp and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) duration, facilitating minimally invasive surgery and complex cardiac interventions, whilst maintaining satisfactory hemodynamic outcomes and low paravalvular leak rates. However, given its recent developments, the majority of evidence regarding sutureless aortic valve replacement (SU-AVR) is limited to observational studies and there is a paucity of adequately-powered randomized studies. Recently, the International Valvular Surgery Study Group (IVSSG) has formulated to conduct the Sutureless Projects, set to be the largest international collaborative group to investigate this technology. This keynote lecture will overview the use, the potential advantages, the caveats, and current evidence of sutureless and rapid deployment aortic valve replacement (AVR). PMID:25870807

  16. Aortic Function’s Adaptation in Response to Exercise-Induced Stress Assessing by 1.5T MRI: A Pilot Study in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Bal-Theoleyre, Laurence; Lalande, Alain; Kober, Frank; Giorgi, Roch; Collart, Frederic; Piquet, Philippe; Habib, Gilbert; Avierinos, Jean-François; Bernard, Monique; Guye, Maxime; Jacquier, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Aim Evaluation of the aortic “elastic reserve” might be a relevant marker to assess the risk of aortic event. Our aim was to compare regional aortic elasticity at rest and during supine bicycle exercise at 1.5 T MRI in healthy individuals. Methods Fifteen volunteers (8 men), with a mean age of 29 (23–41) years, completed the entire protocol. Images were acquired immediately following maximal exercise. Retrospective cine sequences were acquired to assess compliance, distensibility, maximum rates of systolic distension and diastolic recoil at four different locations: ascending aorta, proximal descending aorta, distal descending aorta and aorta above the coeliac trunk level. Segmental aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) was assessed by through plane velocity-encoded MRI. Results Exercise induced a significant decrease of aortic compliance and distensibility, and a significant increase of the absolute values of maximum rates of systolic distension and diastolic recoil at all sites (p<10–3). At rest and during stress, ascending aortic compliance was statistically higher compared to the whole descending aorta (p≤0.0007). We found a strong correlation between the rate pressure product and aortic distensibility at all sites (r = - 0.6 to -0.75 according to the site, p<10–4). PWV measured at the proximal and distal descending aorta increased significantly during stress (p = 0.02 and p = 0.008, respectively). Conclusion Assessment of regional aortic function during exercise is feasible using MRI. During stress, aortic elasticity decreases significantly in correlation with an increase of the PWV. Further studies are required to create thresholds for ascending aorta dysfunction among patients with aneurysms, and to monitor the impact of medication on aortic remodeling. PMID:27310400

  17. Abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Keisler, Brian; Carter, Chuck

    2015-04-15

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm refers to abdominal aortic dilation of 3.0 cm or greater. The main risk factors are age older than 65 years, male sex, and smoking history. Other risk factors include a family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm, coronary artery disease, hypertension, peripheral artery disease, and previous myocardial infarction. Diagnosis may be made by physical examination, an incidental finding on imaging, or ultrasonography. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force released updated recommendations for abdominal aortic aneurysm screening in 2014. Men 65 to 75 years of age with a history of smoking should undergo one-time screening with ultrasonography based on evidence that screening will improve abdominal aortic aneurysm-related mortality in this population. Men in this age group without a history of smoking may benefit if they have other risk factors (e.g., family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm, other vascular aneurysms, coronary artery disease). There is inconclusive evidence to recommend screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in women 65 to 75 years of age with a smoking history. Women without a smoking history should not undergo screening because the harms likely outweigh the benefits. Persons who have a stable abdominal aortic aneurysm should undergo regular surveillance or operative intervention depending on aneurysm size. Surgical intervention by open or endovascular repair is the primary option and is typically reserved for aneurysms 5.5 cm in diameter or greater. There are limited options for medical treatment beyond risk factor modification. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is a medical emergency presenting with hypotension, shooting abdominal or back pain, and a pulsatile abdominal mass. It is associated with high prehospitalization mortality. Emergent surgical intervention is indicated for a rupture but has a high operative mortality rate. PMID:25884861

  18. Anti-inflammatory HDL becomes pro-inflammatory during the acute phase response. Loss of protective effect of HDL against LDL oxidation in aortic wall cell cocultures.

    PubMed Central

    Van Lenten, B J; Hama, S Y; de Beer, F C; Stafforini, D M; McIntyre, T M; Prescott, S M; La Du, B N; Fogelman, A M; Navab, M

    1995-01-01

    We previously reported that high density lipoprotein (HDL) protects against the oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) induced by artery wall cells causing these cells to produce pro-inflammatory molecules. We also reported that enzyme systems associated with HDL were responsible for this anti-inflammatory property of HDL. We now report studies comparing HDL before and during an acute phase response (APR) in both humans and a croton oil rabbit model. In rabbits, from the onset of APR the protective effect of HDL progressively decreased and was completely lost by day three. As serum amyloid A (SAA) levels in acute phase HDL (AP-HDL) increased, apo A-I levels decreased 73%. Concomitantly, paraoxonase (PON) and platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) levels in HDL declined 71 and 90%, respectively, from days one to three. After day three, there was some recovery of the protective effect of HDL. AP-HDL from human patients and rabbits but not normal or control HDL (C-HDL) exhibited increases in ceruloplasmin (CP). This increase in CP was not seen in acute phase VLDL or LDL. C-HDL incubated with purified CP and re-isolated (CP-HDL), lost its ability to inhibit LDL oxidation. Northern blot analyses demonstrated enhanced expression of MCP-1 in coculture cells treated with AP-HDL and CP-HDL compared to C-HDL. Enrichment of human AP-HDL with purified PON or PAF-AH rendered AP-HDL protective against LDL modification. We conclude that under basal conditions HDL serves an anti-inflammatory role but during APR displacement and/or exchange of proteins associated with HDL results in a pro-inflammatory molecule. Images PMID:8675645

  19. Acute upper limb ischemia, a rare presentation of giant cell arteritis.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Morais, Luís; Galego, Sofia; Marques, Nélia; Pack, Tiago; Rodrigues, Hugo; Abreu, Rodolfo; Vasconcelos, Leonor; Marques, Hugo; Sousa Guerreiro, António

    2016-04-01

    Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a systemic large vessel vasculitis, with extracranial arterial involvement described in 10-15% of cases, usually affecting the aorta and its branches. Patients with GCA are more likely to develop aortic aneurysms, but these are rarely present at the time of the diagnosis. We report the case of an 80-year-old Caucasian woman, who reported proximal muscle pain in the arms with morning stiffness of the shoulders for eight months. In the previous two months, she had developed worsening bilateral arm claudication, severe pain, cold extremities and digital necrosis. She had no palpable radial pulses and no measurable blood pressure. The patient had normochromic anemia, erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 120 mm/h, and a negative infectious and autoimmune workup. Computed tomography angiography revealed concentric wall thickening of the aorta extending to the aortic arch branches, particularly the subclavian and axillary arteries, which were severely stenotic, with areas of bilateral occlusion and an aneurysm of the ascending aorta (47 mm). Despite corticosteroid therapy there was progression to acute critical ischemia. She accordingly underwent surgical revascularization using a bilateral carotid-humeral bypass. After surgery, corticosteroid therapy was maintained and at six-month follow-up she was clinically stable with reduced inflammatory markers. GCA, usually a chronic benign vasculitis, presented exceptionally in this case as acute critical upper limb ischemia, resulting from a massive inflammatory process of the subclavian and axillary arteries, treated with salvage surgical revascularization. PMID:27006059

  20. Giant aortic aneurysm in a child with Takayasu arteritis.

    PubMed

    Halaweish, Ihab; Patel, Himanshu; Si, Ming-Sing

    2016-03-01

    Takayasu arteritis is a chronic, idiopathic, granulomatous vasculitis involving the aorta, its major branches, and occasionally the pulmonary arteries. Although rare in children, it is the third most common vasculitis in the paediatric population. Although aneurysmal disease has been reported in adults with Takayasu arteritis, it is a rare entity in children. We present the case of a 10-year-old boy with a giant ascending and arch aneurysm that necessitated follow-up surgery for a new aneurysm and occlusive disease. This is also the first published case involving endovascular aortic graft placement for the management of vascular sequela of Takayasu arteritis in a child. PMID:26365418

  1. Rare presentation of ruptured syphilitic aortic aneurysm with pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Feitosa, Israel Nilton; Dantas Leite Figueiredo, Magda; de Sousa Belem, Lucia; Evelin Soares Filho, Antônio Wilon

    2015-11-01

    We report the interesting case of a rare form of presentation of rupture of the ascending aorta with formation of a pseudoaneurysm, diagnosed following the development of a large mass on the surface of the chest over a period of about eight months. Serological tests were positive for syphilis. Echocardiography and computed tomography angiography were essential to confirm the diagnosis and therapeutic management. Cardiovascular syphilis is a rare entity since the discovery of penicillin. Rupture of an aortic aneurysm with formation of a pseudoaneurysm is a potentially fatal complication. The postoperative period was uneventful and the patient was discharged from hospital within days of surgery. PMID:26481180

  2. Syphilitic aortic aneurysm with spastic paraparesis: a novel presentation and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gugssa, Seid Ali; Johnston, James C

    2012-12-15

    Syphilitic aortic aneurismal erosion into the vertebral column with associated neurological dysfunction is extraordinarily rare, and the very few reported cases typically involve the descending aorta. We describe the novel presentation of a 55 year old man with a syphilitic aneurysm of the ascending aorta and arch causing spinal erosion with spastic paraparesis. Clinicians must remain cognizant that the resurgence of primary and secondary syphilis, exacerbated by the unrelenting HIV-AIDS epidemic, portends an increasing incidence of tertiary manifestations such as aortic aneurysm formation with its myriad complications including compressive myelopathy. PMID:22925534

  3. Complex aortic disease: changes in perception, evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Mastracci, Tara M; Greenberg, Roy K

    2008-12-01

    Complex aortic disease continues to have a high mortality and morbidity despite advances in medical and surgical treatment. Repair of thoracoabdominal aneurysms, treatment of patients with connective tissue disorders, and the approach to dissections of the ascending and descending aorta have evolved over time; however, the results of intervention in all but highly specialized centers remain poor. As vascular surgeons, our role must extend beyond that of the pure technician; we have been vested with the life-long care of these patients and, therefore, have a responsibility to the patient in addition the scientific community and society at large to create a strategy for management that serves all three interests justly. We will outline some of the changes in the conceptual approach that we consider important to the treatment of complex aortic disease. PMID:19084731

  4. A sinister cause of anterograde amnesia: painless aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    April, Michael D; Fossum, Kurt; Hounshell, Charles; Stolper, Katherine; Spear, Leigh; Semelrath, Kevin

    2015-07-01

    Aortic dissection is a frequently devastating diagnosis classically associated with severe chest pain.We present a case of painless aortic dissection with anterograde amnesia. An 84-year-old man was brought to the emergency department by ambulance, when his wife noted that he developed acute onset complete loss of short-term memory. Medical history was notable for a 4.5-cm fusiform thoracic aortic root aneurysm. On arrival,he denied pain or syncope.On examination, he was mildly hypotensive(110/59 mm Hg); and there were no murmurs, pulse deficits, or focal neurologic deficits. During his stay, he developed left flank pain. Chest radiography demonstrated subtle mediastinal widening and obscuration of the aortic knob compared with previous films. Computed tomography revealed an extensive intimal flap consistent with an aortic dissection involving the sinus of Valsalva and left renal artery. The patient subsequently developed acute onset chest pain after which he became unresponsive. Echocardiography demonstrated tamponade physiology.The family decided to transition to comfort care measures, and the patient died soon after.We identified 7 other cases in the literature of aortic dissection cases with presentations consistent with transient global amnesia,5 of which without neurologic deficits and 3 of which without pain. This case highlights the imperative of a thorough history and high index of suspicion for this catastrophic diagnosis in patients with transient global amnesia who otherwise might be expected to have an excellent prognosis and little need for diagnostic work-up. PMID:25649752

  5. Subacute posttraumatic ascending myelopathy in a 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Kovanda, Timothy J; Horn, Eric M

    2014-09-01

    Secondary injury following initial spinal cord trauma is uncommon and frequently attributed to mismanagement of an unprotected cord in the acute time period after injury. Subacute posttraumatic ascending myelopathy (SPAM) is a rare occurrence in the days to weeks following an initial spinal cord injury that is unrelated to manipulation of an unprotected cord and involves 4 or more vertebral levels above the original injury. The authors present a case of SPAM occurring in a 15-year-old boy who sustained a T3-4 fracture-dislocation resulting in a complete spinal cord injury, and they highlight the imaging findings and optimum treatment for this rare event. PMID:24905393

  6. Phenotypic and Functional Changes of Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cells in Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Malashicheva, Anna; Kostina, Daria; Kostina, Aleksandra; Irtyuga, Olga; Voronkina, Irina; Smagina, Larisa; Ignatieva, Elena; Gavriliuk, Natalia; Uspensky, Vladimir; Moiseeva, Olga; Vaage, Jarle; Kostareva, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysm develops as a result of complex series of events that alter the cellular structure and the composition of the extracellular matrix of the aortic wall. The purpose of the present work was to study the cellular functions of endothelial and smooth muscle cells from the patients with aneurysms of the thoracic aorta. We studied endothelial and smooth muscle cells from aneurysms in patients with bicuspid aortic valve and with tricuspid aortic valve. The expression of key markers of endothelial (CD31, vWF, and VE-cadherin) and smooth muscle (SMA, SM22α, calponin, and vimentin) cells as well extracellular matrix and MMP activity was studied as well as and apoptosis and cell proliferation. Expression of functional markers of endothelial and smooth muscle cells was reduced in patient cells. Cellular proliferation, migration, and synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins are attenuated in the cells of the patients. We show for the first time that aortic endothelial cell phenotype is changed in the thoracic aortic aneurysms compared to normal aortic wall. In conclusion both endothelial and smooth muscle cells from aneurysms of the ascending aorta have downregulated specific cellular markers and altered functional properties, such as growth rate, apoptosis induction, and extracellular matrix synthesis. PMID:26904289

  7. Phenotypic and Functional Changes of Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cells in Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Malashicheva, Anna; Kostina, Daria; Kostina, Aleksandra; Irtyuga, Olga; Voronkina, Irina; Smagina, Larisa; Ignatieva, Elena; Gavriliuk, Natalia; Uspensky, Vladimir; Moiseeva, Olga; Vaage, Jarle; Kostareva, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysm develops as a result of complex series of events that alter the cellular structure and the composition of the extracellular matrix of the aortic wall. The purpose of the present work was to study the cellular functions of endothelial and smooth muscle cells from the patients with aneurysms of the thoracic aorta. We studied endothelial and smooth muscle cells from aneurysms in patients with bicuspid aortic valve and with tricuspid aortic valve. The expression of key markers of endothelial (CD31, vWF, and VE-cadherin) and smooth muscle (SMA, SM22α, calponin, and vimentin) cells as well extracellular matrix and MMP activity was studied as well as and apoptosis and cell proliferation. Expression of functional markers of endothelial and smooth muscle cells was reduced in patient cells. Cellular proliferation, migration, and synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins are attenuated in the cells of the patients. We show for the first time that aortic endothelial cell phenotype is changed in the thoracic aortic aneurysms compared to normal aortic wall. In conclusion both endothelial and smooth muscle cells from aneurysms of the ascending aorta have downregulated specific cellular markers and altered functional properties, such as growth rate, apoptosis induction, and extracellular matrix synthesis. PMID:26904289

  8. Evaluation of aortic cannula jet lesions in a porcine cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) model.

    PubMed

    Schnürer, C; Hager, M; Györi, G; Velik-Salchner, C; Moser, P L; Laufer, G; Lorenz, I H; Kolbitsch, C

    2011-02-01

    In cardiosurgery patients atherosclerotic debris displaced from the cannulation site but also from the opposite aortic wall by the "sandblast-like" effect of the high-pressure jet emanating from the cannula is a potential source of intraoperative arterial embolization and consequently postoperative neurologic dysfunction. The present study examined the extent to which shear stress exerted on the intact aortic intima by an aortic cannula jet stream can cause endothelial lesions that promote thrombogenesis and consequently thrombembolism. A single-stream, straight-tip aortic cannula was used in a porcine cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) model. Following a 120-minute CPB pump run, a 60-minute stabilization period was allowed before sacrificing the pigs (N.=40) for histological evaluation of the ascending aorta and the brain. Opposite the cannulation site endothelial lesions (diameter: 3.81±1.3 mm; depth: 0.017±0.003 mm) were present in 22.5% (9/40) of aortic specimens. Cerebral thrombembolic lesions were not found. The present study showed that single-stream, straight-tip aortic cannulas caused jet lesions of the formerly intact aortic endothelium opposite the cannulation site in 22.5% of cases in a porcine CPB model. PMID:21224818

  9. Aortic valve surgery - open

    MedlinePlus

    ... choose to have your aortic valve surgery at a center that does many of these procedures. ... DA, Harken AH. Acquired heart disease: valvular. In: Townsend CM, ... Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  10. Double aortic arch

    MedlinePlus

    ... double aortic arch may press on the windpipe (trachea) and esophagus, leading to trouble breathing and swallowing. ... to relieve pressure on the esophagus and windpipe (trachea). The surgeon ties off the smaller branch and ...

  11. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... main blood vessel that supplies blood to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs ... dissection). Symptoms of rupture include: Pain in the abdomen or back. The pain may be severe, sudden, ...

  12. Theoretical analysis of magnetic field interactions with aortic blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Kinouchi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Tenforde, T.S.

    1996-04-01

    The flow of blood in the presence of a magnetic field gives rise to induced voltages in the major arteries of the central circulatory system. Under certain simplifying conditions, such as the assumption that the length of major arteries (e.g., the aorta) is infinite and that the vessel walls are not electrically conductive, the distribution of induced voltages and currents within these blood vessels can be calculated with reasonable precision. However, the propagation of magnetically induced voltages and currents from the aorta into neighboring tissue structures such as the sinuatrial node of the heart has not been previously determined by any experimental or theoretical technique. In the analysis presented in this paper, a solution of the complete Navier-Stokes equation was obtained by the finite element technique for blood flow through the ascending and descending aortic vessels in the presence of a uniform static magnetic field. Spatial distributions of the magnetically induced voltage and current were obtained for the aortic vessel and surrounding tissues under the assumption that the wall of the aorta is electrically conductive. Results are presented for the calculated values of magnetically induced voltages and current densities in the aorta and surrounding tissue structures, including the sinuatrial node, and for their field-strength dependence. In addition, an analysis is presented of magnetohydrodynamic interactions that lead to a small reduction of blood volume flow at high field levels above approximately 10 tesla (T). Quantitative results are presented on the offsetting effects of oppositely directed blood flows in the ascending and descending aortic segments, and a quantitative estimate is made of the effects of assuming an infinite vs. a finite length of the aortic vessel in calculating the magnetically induced voltage and current density distribution in tissue.

  13. Endovascular aortic aneurysm repair with chimney and snorkel grafts: indications, techniques and results.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rakesh P; Katsargyris, Athanasios; Verhoeven, Eric L G; Adam, Donald J; Hardman, John A

    2013-12-01

    The chimney technique in endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (Ch-EVAR) involves placement of a stent or stent-graft parallel to the main aortic stent-graft to extend the proximal or distal sealing zone while maintaining side branch patency. Ch-EVAR can facilitate endovascular repair of juxtarenal and aortic arch pathology using available standard aortic stent-grafts, therefore, eliminating the manufacturing delays required for customised fenestrated and branched stent-grafts. Several case series have demonstrated the feasibility of Ch-EVAR both in acute and elective cases with good early results. This review discusses indications, technique, and the current available clinical data on Ch-EVAR. PMID:23674274

  14. Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair with Chimney and Snorkel Grafts: Indications, Techniques and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Rakesh P.; Katsargyris, Athanasios Verhoeven, Eric L. G.; Adam, Donald J.; Hardman, John A.

    2013-12-15

    The chimney technique in endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (Ch-EVAR) involves placement of a stent or stent-graft parallel to the main aortic stent-graft to extend the proximal or distal sealing zone while maintaining side branch patency. Ch-EVAR can facilitate endovascular repair of juxtarenal and aortic arch pathology using available standard aortic stent-grafts, therefore, eliminating the manufacturing delays required for customised fenestrated and branched stent-grafts. Several case series have demonstrated the feasibility of Ch-EVAR both in acute and elective cases with good early results. This review discusses indications, technique, and the current available clinical data on Ch-EVAR.

  15. Abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Setacci, Francesco; Galzerano, Giuseppe; De Donato, Gianmarco; Benevento, Domenico; Guerrieri, Massimiliano W; Ruzzi, Umberto; Borrelli, Maria P; Setacci, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms has become a milestone in the treatment of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm. Technological improvement allows treatment in more and more complex cases. This review summarizes all grafts available on the market. A complete review of most important trial on this topic is provided to the best of our knowledge, and technical tips and tricks for standard cases are also included. PMID:26771730

  16. 14-3-3 in Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarti, Ritu; Gupta, Karishma; Swain, Mamuni; Willard, Belinda; Scholtz, Jaclyn; Svensson, Lars G.; Roselli, Eric E.; Pettersson, Gosta; Johnston, Douglas R.; Soltesz, Edward G.; Yamashita, Michifumi; Stuehr, Dennis; Daly, Thomas M.; Hoffman, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Large vessel vasculitides (LVV) are a group of autoimmune diseases characterized by injury to and anatomic modifications of large vessels, including the aorta and its branch vessels. Disease etiology is unknown. This study was undertaken to identify antigen targets within affected vessel walls in aortic root, ascending aorta, and aortic arch surgical specimens from patients with LVV, including giant cell arteritis, Takayasu arteritis, and isolated focal aortitis. Methods Thoracic aortic aneurysm specimens and autologous blood were acquired from consenting patients who underwent aorta reconstruction procedures. Aorta proteins were extracted from both patients with LVV and age-, race-, and sex-matched disease controls with noninflammatory aneurysms. A total of 108 serum samples from patients with LVV, matched controls, and controls with antinuclear antibodies, different forms of vasculitis, or sepsis were tested. Results Evaluation of 108 serum samples and 22 aortic tissue specimens showed that 78% of patients with LVV produced antibodies to 14-3-3 proteins in the aortic wall (93.7% specificity), whereas controls were less likely to do so (6.7% produced antibodies). LVV patient sera contained autoantibody sufficient to immunoprecipitate 14-3-3 protein(s) from aortic lysates. Three of 7 isoforms of 14-3-3 were found to be up-regulated in aorta specimens from patients with LVV, and 2 isoforms (ε and ζ) were found to be antigenic in LVV. Conclusion This is the first study to use sterile, snap-frozen thoracic aorta biopsy specimens to identify autoantigens in LVV. Our findings indicate that 78% of patients with LVV have antibody reactivity to 14-3-3 protein(s). The precise role of these antibodies and 14-3-3 proteins in LVV pathogenesis deserves further study. PMID:25917817

  17. Complex Cervical Aortic Arch With Hypoplasia: A Simple Solution to a Complex Problem.

    PubMed

    Rajbanshi, Bijoy G; Gautam, Navin C; Pradhan, Sidhartha; Sharma, Apurb; Ghimire, Ram K; Joyce, Lyle D

    2016-07-01

    We report a rare case of a 6-year-old boy with a complex right-sided cervical aortic arch, with retroesophageal hypoplastic transverse arch, left subclavian artery arising from the Kommerell diverticulum of the descending aorta, and a vascular ring formed by the ductus ligament. An extraanatomic ascending-to-descending aorta bypass was done through a median sternotomy along with division of the ductus ligament, without any complications and good results. PMID:27343523

  18. Interrupted Aortic Arch Associated with Absence of Left Common Carotid Artery: Imaging with MDCT

    SciTech Connect

    Onbas, Omer Olgun, Hasim; Ceviz, Naci; Ors, Rahmi; Okur, Adnan

    2006-06-15

    Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a rare severe congenital heart defect defined as complete luminal and anatomic discontinuity between ascending and descending aorta. Although its association with various congenital heart defects has been reported, absence of left common carotid artery (CCA) in patients with IAA has not been reported previously. We report a case of IAA associated with the absence of left CCA which was clearly shown on multidetector-row spiral CT.

  19. [Interruption of the aortic arch with no patent ductus arteriosus: is survival possible?].

    PubMed

    Boukhris, M; Hakim, K; Ouarda, F; M'saad, H; Boussaada, R

    2014-03-01

    Interruption of the aortic arch is a rare congenital disease. It is defined by the complete interruption between the ascending and descending aorta. A patent ductus arteriosus is necessary to maintain flow from the pulmonary to the descending aorta. Its closure leads to a cardiovascular collapse and this malformation is therefore duct-dependent. However, in rare cases, survival remains possible even after ductus arteriosus closure. We report such a case. PMID:24457106

  20. Cauda equina syndrome: an uncommon symptom of aortic diseases

    PubMed Central

    He, Fuliang; Xing, Tong; Yu, Fang; Li, Hongchuan; Fang, Xiutong; Song, Hongxing

    2015-01-01

    Background: In order to help diagnose and deal with the fetal aortic diseases in time, we retrospectively reviewed 8 patients who presented with cauda equina syndrome (CES) but actually suffered from low spinal nerve ischemia due to aortic diseases. Material and Methods: 8 patients were initially diagnosed as CES. 7 patients were confirmed with aortic diseases. 1 patient was confirmed with aortic saddle embolism post emergent laminectomy. Relief of CES symptoms was evaluated during preoperation and follow-up period. Results: 1 patient was diagnosed as aortic dissection and 5 patients as AAA. These 6 patients underwent endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). The CES was relieved in 5-10 d post procedure. The 7th patient was diagnosed with acute abdominal aortic occlusion and then underwent catheter directed thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rTPA) for 20 h and CES disappeared. The JOA scores of the 7 patients were recovered from preoperative 15.14±1.21 to 21.00±2.16 within 5-10 d (P<0.01), and evaluated to be 24.12±1.34, 25.88±1.21 and 26.29±1.11 at 3 m-, 6 m- and 12 m-follow-up point, respectively. The 8th patient was initially diagnosed as lumbar spinal stenosis and lumbar disc herniation. The patient underwent emergent vertebral canal decompression and presented with serious CES symptoms. CTA confirmed that the patient had been suffered from aortic saddle embolism (ASE). Conclusion: CES caused by abdominal aortic diseases is a special event with fetal consequences if it is not recognized and treated promptly. Orthopedists and neurosurgeons should pay attentions particularly to this issue to preserve the cauda equina functions to their maximums. PMID:26379869

  1. Biaxial tensile tests of the porcine ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Deplano, Valérie; Boufi, Mourad; Boiron, Olivier; Guivier-Curien, Carine; Alimi, Yves; Bertrand, Eric

    2016-07-01

    One of the aims of this work is to develop an original custom built biaxial set-up to assess mechanical behavior of soft tissues. Stretch controlled biaxial tensile tests are performed and stereoscopic digital image correlation (SDIC) is implemented to measure the 3D components of the generated displacements. Using this experimental device, the main goal is to investigate the mechanical behavior of porcine ascending aorta in the more general context of human ascending aorta pathologies. The results highlight that (i) SDIC arrangement allows accurate assessment of displacements and so stress strain curves, (ii) porcine ascending aorta has a nearly linear and anisotropic mechanical behavior until 30% of strain, (iii) porcine ascending aorta is stiffer in the circumferential direction than in the longitudinal one, (iv) the material coefficient representing the interaction between the two loading directions is thickness dependent, (v) taking into account the variability of the samples the stress values are independent of the stretch rate in the range of values from 10(-3) to 10(-1)s(-1) and finally, (vi) unlike other segments of the aorta, 4-month-old pigs ascending aorta is definitely not a relevant model to investigate the mechanical behavior of the human ascending aorta. PMID:27211783

  2. Sun's procedure for complex aortic arch repair: total arch replacement using a tetrafurcate graft with stented elephant trunk implantation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei-Guo; Zhu, Jun-Ming; Zheng, Jun; Liu, Yong-Min; Ziganshin, Bulat A; Elefteriades, John A; Sun, Li-Zhong

    2013-09-01

    The Sun's procedure is a surgical technique proposed by Dr. Li-Zhong Sun in 2002 that integrates total aortic arch replacement using a tetrafurcated graft with implantation of a specially designed frozen elephant trunk (Cronus(®)) in the descending aorta. It is used as a treatment option for extensive aortic dissections or aneurysms involving the ascending aorta, aortic arch and the descending aorta. The technical essentials of Sun's procedure include implantation of the special open stented graft into the descending aorta, total arch replacement with a 4-branched vascular graft, right axillary artery cannulation, selective antegrade cerebral perfusion for brain protection, moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest at 25 °C, a special anastomotic sequence for aortic reconstruction (i.e., proximal descending aorta → left carotid artery → ascending aorta → left subclavian artery → innominate artery), and early rewarming and reperfusion after distal anastomosis to minimize cerebral and cardiac ischemia. The core advantage of Sun's procedure lies in the use of a unique stented graft, which has superior technical simplicity, flexibility, inherent mechanical durability and an extra centimeter of attached regular vascular graft at both ends. Since its introduction in 2003, the Sun's procedure has produced satisfactory early and long-term results in over 8,000 patients in China and more than 200 patients in South American countries. In a series of 1,092 patients, the authors have achieved an in-hospital mortality rate of 6.27% (7.98% in emergent or urgent vs. 3.98% in elective cases). Given the accumulating clinical experience and the consequent, continual evolution of surgical indications, the Sun's procedure is becoming increasingly applied/used worldwide as an innovative and imaginative enhancement of surgical options for the dissected (or aneurysmal) ascending aorta, aortic arch and proximal descending aorta, and may become the next standard treatment for type

  3. Technology advancement for the ASCENDS mission using the ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obland, M. D.; Antill, C.; Browell, E. V.; Campbell, J. F.; CHEN, S.; Cleckner, C.; Dijoseph, M. S.; Harrison, F. W.; Ismail, S.; Lin, B.; Meadows, B. L.; Mills, C.; Nehrir, A. R.; Notari, A.; Prasad, N. S.; Kooi, S. A.; Vitullo, N.; Dobler, J. T.; Bender, J.; Blume, N.; Braun, M.; Horney, S.; McGregor, D.; Neal, M.; Shure, M.; Zaccheo, T.; Moore, B.; Crowell, S.; Rayner, P. J.; Welch, W.

    2013-12-01

    The ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) is a NASA Langley Research Center project funded by NASA's Earth Science Technology Office that seeks to advance technologies critical to measuring atmospheric column carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios in support of the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. The technologies being advanced are: (1) multiple transmitter and telescope-aperture operations, (2) high-efficiency CO2 laser transmitters, (3) a high bandwidth detector and transimpedance amplifier (TIA), and (4) advanced algorithms for cloud and aerosol discrimination. The instrument architecture is being developed for ACES to operate on a high-altitude aircraft, and it will be directly scalable to meet the ASCENDS mission requirements. The above technologies are critical for developing an airborne simulator and spaceborne instrument with lower platform consumption of size, mass, and power, and with improved performance. This design employs several laser transmitters and telescope-apertures to demonstrate column CO2 retrievals with alignment of multiple laser beams in the far-field. ACES will transmit five laser beams: three from commercial lasers operating near 1.57-microns, and two from the Exelis atmospheric oxygen (O2) fiber laser amplifier system operating near 1.26-microns. The Master Oscillator Power Amplifier at 1.57-microns measures CO2 column concentrations using an Integrated-Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar approach. O2 column amounts needed for calculating the CO2 mixing ratio will be retrieved using the Exelis laser system with a similar IPDA approach. The three aperture telescope design was built to meet the constraints of the Global Hawk high-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). This assembly integrates fiber-coupled transmit collimators for all of the laser transmitters and fiber-coupled optical signals from the three telescopes to the aft optics and detector package. The detector

  4. Surgical Aortic Valvuloplasty Versus Balloon Aortic Valve Dilatation in Children.

    PubMed

    Donald, Julia S; Konstantinov, Igor E

    2016-09-01

    Balloon aortic valve dilatation (BAD : is assumed to provide the same outcomes as surgical aortic valvuloplasty (SAV). However, the development of precise modern surgical valvuloplasty techniques may result in better long-term durability of the aortic valve repair. This review of the recent literature suggests that current SAV provides a safe and durable repair. Furthermore, primary SAV appears to have greater freedom from reintervention and aortic valve replacement when compared to BAD. PMID:27587493

  5. Aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Werner, Nikos; Sinning, Jan-Malte

    2014-01-01

    Paravalvular aortic regurgitation (AR) negatively affects prognosis following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). As transcatheter heart valves (THV) are anchored using a certain degree of oversizing at the level of the aortic annulus, incomplete stent frame expansion because of heavily annular calcifications, suboptimal placement of the prosthesis, and/or annulus-prosthesis size-mismatch can contribute to paravalvular AR with subsequent increased mortality risk. Echocardiography is essential to differentiate between transvalvular and paravalvular AR and to further elucidate the etiology of AR during the procedure. However, because echocardiographic quantification of AR in TAVR patients remains challenging, especially in the implantation situation, a multimodal approach to the evaluation of AR with use of hemodynamic measurements and imaging modalities is useful to precisely quantify the severity of AR immediately after valve deployment. "Next-generation" THVs are already on the market and first results show that paravalvular AR related to design modifications (eg, paravalvular space-fillers, full repositionability) are rarely seen in these valve types.  PMID:24632758

  6. Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular- discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000236.htm Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular - discharge To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. AAA repair - endovascular - discharge; Repair - aortic aneurysm - endovascular - discharge; EVAR - discharge; Endovascular aneurysm repair - discharge ...

  7. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) ... final recommendation statement on Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. This final recommendation statement applies to adults ages ...

  8. Rotenone-stimulated superoxide release from mitochondrial complex I acutely augments L-type Ca2+ current in A7r5 aortic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Rikuo; Dhagia, Vidhi; Lakhkar, Anand; Patel, Dhara; Wolin, Michael S; Gupte, Sachin A

    2016-05-01

    Voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+) current (ICa,L) induces contraction of arterial smooth muscle cells (ASMCs), and ICa,L is increased by H2O2 in ASMCs. Superoxide released from the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) is dismutated to H2O2 We studied whether superoxide per se acutely modulates ICa,L in ASMCs using cultured A7r5 cells derived from rat aorta. Rotenone is a toxin that inhibits complex I of the MRC and increases mitochondrial superoxide release. The superoxide content of mitochondria was estimated using mitochondrial-specific MitoSOX and HPLC methods, and was shown to be increased by a brief exposure to 10 μM rotenone. ICa,L was recorded with 5 mM BAPTA in the pipette solution. Rotenone administration (10 nM to 10 μM) resulted in a greater ICa,L increase in a dose-dependent manner to a maximum of 22.1% at 10 μM for 1 min, which gradually decreased to 9% after 5 min. The rotenone-induced ICa,L increase was associated with a shift in the current-voltage relationship (I-V) to a hyperpolarizing direction. DTT administration resulted in a 17.9% increase in ICa,L without a negative shift in I-V, and rotenone produced an additional increase with a shift. H2O2 (0.3 mM) inhibited ICa,L by 13%, and additional rotenone induced an increase with a negative shift. Sustained treatment with Tempol (4-hydroxy tempo) led to a significant ICa,L increase but it inhibited the rotenone-induced increase. Staurosporine, a broad-spectrum protein kinase inhibitor, partially inhibited ICa,L and completely suppressed the rotenone-induced increase. Superoxide released from mitochondria affected protein kinases and resulted in stronger ICa,L preceding its dismutation to H2O2 The removal of nitric oxide is a likely mechanism for the increase in ICa,L. PMID:26873970

  9. [Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Kalder, J; Kotelis, D; Jacobs, M J

    2016-09-01

    Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAA) are rare events with an incidence of 5.9 cases per 100,000 persons per year. In Germany approximately 940 TAAA procedures are performed annually. The cause of TAAA is mostly degenerative but they can also occur on the basis of an aortic dissection or connective tissue disease (e. g. Marfan's syndrome). Patients often have severe comorbidities and suffer from hypertension, coronary heart disease or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mostly as a result of smoking. Operative treatment is indicated when the maximum aortic diameter has reached 6 cm (> 5 cm in patients with connective tissue disease) or the aortic diameter rapidly increases (> 5 mm/year). Treatment options are open surgical aortic repair with extracorporeal circulation, endovascular repair with branched/fenestrated endografts and parallel grafts (chimneys) or a combination of open and endovascular procedures (hybrid procedures). Mortality rates after both open and endovascular procedures are approximately 8 % depending on the extent of the repair. Furthermore, there are relevant risks of complications, such as paraplegia (up to 20 %) and the necessity for dialysis. In recent years several approaches to minimize these risks have been proposed. Besides cardiopulmonary risk evaluation, clinical assessment of patients by the physician with respect to the patient-specific anatomy influences the allocation of patients to one treatment option or another. Surgery of TAAA should ideally be performed in high-volume centers in order to achieve better results. PMID:27558261

  10. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Malaisrie, S Chris; Iddriss, Adam; Flaherty, James D; Churyla, Andrei

    2016-05-01

    Severe aortic stenosis (AS) is a life-threatening condition when left untreated. Aortic valve replacement (AVR) is the gold standard treatment for the majority of patients; however, transcatheter aortic valve implantation/replacement (TAVI/TAVR) has emerged as the preferred treatment for high-risk or inoperable patients. The concept of transcatheter heart valves originated in the 1960s and has evolved into the current Edwards Sapien and Medtronic CoreValve platforms available for clinical use. Complications following TAVI, including cerebrovascular events, perivalvular regurgitation, vascular injury, and heart block have decreased with experience and evolving technology, such that ongoing trials studying TAVI in lower risk patients have become tenable. The multidisciplinary team involving the cardiac surgeon and cardiologist plays an essential role in patient selection, procedural conduct, and perioperative care. PMID:27021619

  11. Paraplegia caused by aortic coarctation complicated with spinal epidural hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yi-Da; Hsu, Chin-Wang; Hsu, Chia-Ching; Liao, Wen-I; Chen, Sy-Jou

    2016-03-01

    Aortic coarctation complicated with spinal artery aneurysm rupture is exceptionally rare and can be source of intraspinal hemorrhage with markedly poor prognosis. A 21-year-old man visited the emergency department because of chest and back pain along with immobility of bilateral lower limbs immediately after he woke up in the morning. Complete flaccid paraplegia and hypoesthesia in dermatome below bilateral T3 level and pain over axial region from neck to lumbar region were noted. A computed tomography excluded aortic dissection. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a fusiform lesion involving the anterior epidural space from C7 to T2 level suspected of epidural hemorrhage, causing compression of spinal cord. He started intravenous corticosteroid but refused operation concerning the surgical benefits. Severe chest pain occurred with newly onset right bundle branch block that developed the other day. Coronary artery angiography revealed myocardial bridge of left anterior descending coronary artery at middle third and coarctation of aorta. He underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair uneventfully. The patient was hemodynamically stable but with slow improvement in neurologic recovery of lower limbs. Aortic coarcation can cause paralysis by ruptured vascular aneurysms with spinal hemorrhage and chest pain that mimics acute aortic dissection. A history of hypertension at young age and aortic regurgitated murmurs may serve as clues for further diagnostic studies. Cautious and prudent evaluation and cross disciplines cares are essential for diagnosis and successful management of the disease. PMID:26275629

  12. Aneurysms of the ascending aorta and arch: the role of imaging in diagnosis and surgical management.

    PubMed

    Bonnichsen, Crystal R; Sundt, Thoralf M; Anavekar, Nandan S; Foley, Thomas A; Morris, Michael F; Martinez, Matthew W; Williamson, Eric E; Glockner, James F; Araoz, Philip A

    2011-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms tend to be asymptomatic and were previously often diagnosed only after a complication such as dissection or rupture occurred. Better imaging techniques and an increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging has led to an increase in the diagnosis of aortic aneurysms, which has allowed for elective treatment prior to the development of a complication. The location, size and etiology of an aneurysm all impact the clinical outcomes and these factors are used to determine the appropriate timing of surgical replacement. Surgeons often rely on the information obtained from preoperative imaging to determine when to intervene and what type of procedure will be necessary, making it important for the radiologist to understand these issues in order to provide the necessary information. Postoperative imaging after surgical replacement of the aorta is also important, as there are some common findings that occur in this patient population that can impact how they are treated. The purpose of this article is to review the etiology and associated findings of aneurysms of the ascending aorta and arch, with a focus on how computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance angiography findings are used to determine the appropriate timing for elective replacement and the type of surgical procedure, as well as the role of follow-up imaging. This will include a review of the most commonly performed types of surgical procedures, to provide an understanding of how the findings of preoperative imaging studies impact what the surgeon does in the operating room, as well as the expected findings of postoperative imaging studies. PMID:21166528

  13. Application of the Bolton Relay Device for Thoracic Endografting In or Near the Aortic Arch

    PubMed Central

    Riambau, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Endovascular correction of aortic arch pathology remains a challenge, with a variety of techniques proposed over the years to minimize complications and enhance the probability of a successful result. A variety of approaches have been developed in order to deal with the aortic arch pathology and its idiosyncrasies. We review potential interventional techniques for the repair of aortic arch pathologies, beginning with conventional aortic arch surgery, followed by hybrid treatments and those along the endovascular spectrum (parallel and fenestrated endografts, scalloped endografts, and ascending and new branched endografts). We finish with an overview of all the Bolton Medical (Barcelona, Spain and Sunrise, FL, USA) thoracic platforms. Endovascular techniques show acceptable results in selected cases. Both proximal Bolton Relay configurations (with and without a bare stent) offer conformability and accuracy on deployment with very low rates of stroke. Fenestrated and scalloped designs are also useful for selected cases. Ascending and branched Bolton devices are very promising platforms for a serious, full endovascular approach to the aorta. PMID:26798752

  14. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Fortner, George; Johansen, Kaj

    1984-01-01

    Aneurysms are common in our increasingly elderly population, and are a major threat to life and limb. Until the advent of vascular reconstructive techniques, aneurysm patients were subject to an overwhelming risk of death from exsanguination. The first successful repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm using an interposed arterial homograft was reported by Dubost in 1952. A milestone in the evolution of vascular surgery, this event and subsequent diagnostic, operative and prosthetic graft refinements have permitted patients with an unruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm to enjoy a better prognosis than patients with almost any other form of major systemic illness. Images PMID:6702193

  15. Bicuspid aortic valve hemodynamics does not promote remodeling in porcine aortic wall concavity

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Samantha K; Moore, Alison N; Sucosky, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of type-I left-right bicuspid aortic valve (LR-BAV) hemodynamic stresses in the remodeling of the thoracic ascending aorta (AA) concavity, in the absence of underlying genetic or structural defects. METHODS: Transient wall shear stress (WSS) profiles in the concavity of tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) and LR-BAV AAs were obtained computationally. Tissue specimens excised from the concavity of normal (non-dilated) porcine AAs were subjected for 48 h to those stress environments using a shear stress bioreactor. Tissue remodeling was characterized in terms of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and activity via immunostaining and gelatin zymography. RESULTS: Immunostaining semi-quantification results indicated no significant difference in MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression between the tissue groups exposed to TAV and LR-BAV AA WSS (P = 0.80 and P = 0.19, respectively). Zymography densitometry revealed no difference in MMP-2 activity (total activity, active form and latent form) between the groups subjected to TAV AA and LR-BAV AA WSS (P = 0.08, P = 0.15 and P = 0.59, respectively). CONCLUSION: The hemodynamic stress environment present in the concavity of type-I LR-BAV AA does not cause any significant change in proteolytic enzyme expression and activity as compared to that present in the TAV AA. PMID:26839660

  16. Combined Rastelli and Bentall Procedures for Pulmonary Atresia With Ventricular Septal Defect and a Large Aortopulmonary Collateral Artery and Ascending Aorta Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Chiostri, Benjamin; Piccinini, Fernando; Vrancic, Mariano; Klinger, Daniel; Navia, Daniel; Lalor, Nicolas; Longo, Francisco; Kreutzer, Christián

    2014-06-23

    We report a challenging case of a 32-year-old patient in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV with pulmonary atresia, ventricular septal defect, a left aortopulmonary collateral artery, a right modified Blalock-Taussing shunt, and a gigantic aneurysm of the ascending aorta with severe aortic valve insufficiency. A combined Rastelli and Bentall procedure was performed by a joint adult and pediatric cardiovascular surgery team. One year after the operation, the patient is in NYHA class I, working full time. PMID:24958054

  17. Fatal Delayed Esophageal Rupture Following Aortic Clamping for Treatment of Stanford Type B Dissection

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Hisao; Yamada, Takayuki; Ishibashi, Tadashi; Akiyama, Masatoshi; Nakame, Takahiko; Ito, Yasuhiro; Konnai, Toshiaki

    2003-11-15

    A 65-year-old man underwent a thromboexclusionoperation for management of chronic Stanford type B dissecting aneurysmin 1991. However, long-term follow-up CT scans after the operation revealed that the ascending aorta gradually enlarged and was eventually complicated by recurrent aortic dissection. The patient complained of frequent bloody sputum, whereas chest roentogenography showed no pulmonary abnormalities. Subsequent swallow esophagogram demonstrated that the upper esophagus was deviated to the right and the middle esophagus was greatly compressed by the aortic clamp. Esophageal endoscopy showed a bloody inner surface and marked swelling of the middle esophagus. The patient eventually died of massive hematemesis in 2001. We describe the imaging features of unanticipated complications such as recurrent dissecting aneurysm or impending esophageal rupture.Furthermore, we discuss the cause of hematemesis and document that the aortic clamp migrated and resulted in development of a recurrent aneurysmal dissection, which in turn resulted in esophageal rupture with aneurysmal disruption.

  18. A 'compare and contrast' exercise: wrapping versus personalised external aortic root support (PEARS).

    PubMed

    Treasure, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Wrapping of the aorta and personalised external aortic root support (PEARS) both have the purpose of preventing further expansion of the ascending aorta in order to reduce the risk of aortic dissection and to spare the patient the disastrous consequences of aortic rupture. For the first time, Plonek and colleagues have reported systematically the CT appearances of a series of cases of wrapping. They illustrate the important finding that there are residual spaces between the aorta and the wrap. PEARS by contrast is intimately in contact with the aorta due to its personalised design and is fully incorporated due it construction from a porous mesh. A limitation of PEARS is that it is, of its nature, a planned and elective operation while wrapping can be undertaken during an emergency operation and can be used without prior planning as an intraoperative decision. PMID:27406033

  19. Aortic arch repair today: open repair is best for most arch lesions.

    PubMed

    Coselli, J S; Green, S Y

    2015-08-01

    The transverse aortic arch is challenging to repair by either evolving open or emerging endovascular approaches. Contemporary experience in aortic arch repair can be difficult to assess because clinical practice varies substantially among centers with regard to temperature targets for hypothermic circulatory arrest, temperature monitoring sites, circulating perfusate temperatures, cerebral perfusion monitoring techniques, perfusion catheter flow rates, cannulation sites, pH management, and protective pharmacologic agents. Repair of the aortic arch has changed substantially over the last decade; these changes appear to have substantially reduced patient risk. In general, contemporary outcomes of open aortic arch repair are good to excellent. When acute aortic dissection is absent, many centers report early mortality rates below 5%; when acute aortic dissection is present, these rates are doubled or tripled. Not unexpectedly, mortality rates for total transverse aortic arch repair with elephant trunk or frozen elephant trunk approaches are greater than those for hemiarch repair (7-17% vs. 3-4%). In contemporary reports of mixed hemiarch and total arch repairs for aortic aneurysm, several authors report early mortality rates and stroke rates below 5%. Surprisingly, mortality rates for reoperation are not unlike those for primary repair and range from 8% to 9%; however, the risk of stroke appears somewhat greater and ranges from 5% to 6%. PMID:25752255

  20. TGF-β Neutralization Enhances AngII-Induced Aortic Rupture and Aneurysm in Both Thoracic and Abdominal Regions

    PubMed Central

    Howatt, Deborah A.; Balakrishnan, Anju; Moorleghen, Jessica J.; Cassis, Lisa A.; Daugherty, Alan

    2016-01-01

    AngII and TGF-β interact in development of thoracic and abdominal aortic diseases, although there are many facets of this interaction that have not been clearly defined. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of TGF-β neutralization on AngII induced-aortic pathologies. Male C57BL/6J mice were administered with either a rabbit or mouse TGF-β neutralizing antibody and then infused with AngII. The rabbit TGF-β antibody modestly reduced serum TGF-β concentrations, with no significant enhancements to AngII-induced aneurysm or rupture. Administration of this rabbit TGF-β antibody in mice led to high serum titers against rabbit IgG that may have attenuated the neutralization. In contrast, a mouse TGF-β antibody (1D11) significantly increased rupture in both the ascending and suprarenal aortic regions, but only at doses that markedly decreased serum TGF-β concentrations. High doses of 1D11 antibody significantly increased AngII-induced ascending and suprarenal aortic dilatation. To determine whether TGF-β neutralization had effects in mice previously infused with AngII, the 1D11 antibody was injected into mice that had been infused with AngII for 28 days and were observed during continued infusion for a further 28 days. Despite near ablations of serum TGF-β concentrations, the mouse TGF-β antibody had no effect on aortic rupture or dimensions in either ascending or suprarenal region. These data provide further evidence that AngII-induced aortic rupture is enhanced greatly by TGF-β neutralization when initiated before pathogenesis. PMID:27104863

  1. TGF-β Neutralization Enhances AngII-Induced Aortic Rupture and Aneurysm in Both Thoracic and Abdominal Regions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaofeng; Rateri, Debra L; Howatt, Deborah A; Balakrishnan, Anju; Moorleghen, Jessica J; Cassis, Lisa A; Daugherty, Alan

    2016-01-01

    AngII and TGF-β interact in development of thoracic and abdominal aortic diseases, although there are many facets of this interaction that have not been clearly defined. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of TGF-β neutralization on AngII induced-aortic pathologies. Male C57BL/6J mice were administered with either a rabbit or mouse TGF-β neutralizing antibody and then infused with AngII. The rabbit TGF-β antibody modestly reduced serum TGF-β concentrations, with no significant enhancements to AngII-induced aneurysm or rupture. Administration of this rabbit TGF-β antibody in mice led to high serum titers against rabbit IgG that may have attenuated the neutralization. In contrast, a mouse TGF-β antibody (1D11) significantly increased rupture in both the ascending and suprarenal aortic regions, but only at doses that markedly decreased serum TGF-β concentrations. High doses of 1D11 antibody significantly increased AngII-induced ascending and suprarenal aortic dilatation. To determine whether TGF-β neutralization had effects in mice previously infused with AngII, the 1D11 antibody was injected into mice that had been infused with AngII for 28 days and were observed during continued infusion for a further 28 days. Despite near ablations of serum TGF-β concentrations, the mouse TGF-β antibody had no effect on aortic rupture or dimensions in either ascending or suprarenal region. These data provide further evidence that AngII-induced aortic rupture is enhanced greatly by TGF-β neutralization when initiated before pathogenesis. PMID:27104863

  2. Segmental Aortic Stiffening Contributes to Experimental Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Development

    PubMed Central

    Raaz, Uwe; Zöllner, Alexander M.; Schellinger, Isabel N.; Toh, Ryuji; Nakagami, Futoshi; Brandt, Moritz; Emrich, Fabian C.; Kayama, Yosuke; Eken, Suzanne; Adam, Matti; Maegdefessel, Lars; Hertel, Thomas; Deng, Alicia; Jagger, Ann; Buerke, Michael; Dalman, Ronald L.; Spin, Joshua M.; Kuhl, Ellen; Tsao, Philip S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Stiffening of the aortic wall is a phenomenon consistently observed in age and in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). However, its role in AAA pathophysiology is largely undefined. Methods and Results Using an established murine elastase-induced AAA model, we demonstrate that segmental aortic stiffening (SAS) precedes aneurysm growth. Finite element analysis (FEA) reveals that early stiffening of the aneurysm-prone aortic segment leads to axial (longitudinal) wall stress generated by cyclic (systolic) tethering of adjacent, more compliant wall segments. Interventional stiffening of AAA-adjacent aortic segments (via external application of surgical adhesive) significantly reduces aneurysm growth. These changes correlate with reduced segmental stiffness of the AAA-prone aorta (due to equalized stiffness in adjacent segments), reduced axial wall stress, decreased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), attenuated elastin breakdown, and decreased expression of inflammatory cytokines and macrophage infiltration, as well as attenuated apoptosis within the aortic wall. Cyclic pressurization of segmentally stiffened aortic segments ex vivo increases the expression of genes related to inflammation and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Finally, human ultrasound studies reveal that aging, a significant AAA risk factor, is accompanied by segmental infrarenal aortic stiffening. Conclusions The present study introduces the novel concept of segmental aortic stiffening (SAS) as an early pathomechanism generating aortic wall stress and triggering aneurysmal growth, thereby delineating potential underlying molecular mechanisms and therapeutic targets. In addition, monitoring SAS may aid the identification of patients at risk for AAA. PMID:25904646

  3. Bicuspid aortic valve

    MedlinePlus

    ... is unclear, but it is the most common congenital heart disease . It often runs in families. The bicuspid aortic ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Congenital Heart Defects Heart Valve Diseases Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  4. Aortic Distensibility in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Turkbey, Evrim B.; Redheuil, Alban; Backlund, Jye-Yu C.; Small, Alexander C.; Cleary, Patricia A.; Lachin, John M.; Lima, Joao A.C.; Bluemke, David A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the relationship between long-term glycemia, traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and ascending aortic stiffness in type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eight hundred seventy-nine subjects in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study were evaluated. The stiffness/distensibility of the ascending thoracic aorta (AA) was measured with magnetic resonance imaging. Associations of AA distensibility and CVD risk factors, mean HbA1c, and cardiovascular complications including macroalbuminuria were assessed using multivariate linear regression models. RESULTS The mean age of the subjects was 50 ± 7 years (47% women, mean diabetes duration of 28 years). Over 22 years of follow-up, 27% of participants had cardiovascular complications. After adjusting for gender and cohort, AA distensibility was lower with increasing age, mean systolic blood pressure, LDL, and HbA1c measured over an average of 22 years (−26.3% per 10 years, −11.0% per 10 mmHg SBP, −1.8% per 10 mg/dL of LDL, and −9.3% per unit mean HbA1c [%], respectively). Patients with macroalbuminuria had 25% lower AA distensibility compared with those without (P < 0.0001). Lower AA distensibility also was associated with greater ratio of left ventricular mass to volume (−3.4% per 0.1 g/mL; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Our findings indicate strong adverse effects of hypertension, chronic hyperglycemia and macroalbuminuria on AA stiffness in type 1 diabetes in the DCCT/EDIC cohort. PMID:23474588

  5. Rectal strictures following abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, T. M.; Bentley, P. G.

    2000-01-01

    Rectal stricture formation is a rare complication of aortic aneurysm repair. Two case are described here. A combination of hypotension, a compromised internal iliac circulation and poor collateral supply following inferior mesenteric artery ligation can result in acute ischaemic proctitis--an infrequently described clinical entity. Ulceration and necrosis are the sequelae of prolonged ischaemia and fibrous stricture formation may result. One patient responded to dilatation and posterior mid-rectal myotomy; the other failed to respond to conservative measures and eventually had an end colostomy fashioned following intractable symptoms. PMID:11103163

  6. Aortic valve annuloplasty: new single suture technique.

    PubMed

    Schöllhorn, Joachim; Rylski, Bartosz; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm

    2014-06-01

    Reconstruction strategies for aortic valve insufficiency in the presence of aortic annulus dilatation are usually surgically challenging. We demonstrate a simple, modified Taylor technique of downsizing and stabilization of the aortic annulus using a single internal base suture. Since April 2011, 22 consecutive patients have undergone safe aortic valve annuloplasty. No reoperations for aortic valve insufficiency and no deaths occurred. PMID:24882316

  7. The role of oxygen-increased respirator in humans ascending to high altitude

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is common for people who live in low altitude areas ascending to the high altitude. Many instruments have been developed to treat mild cases of AMS. However, long-lasting and portable anti-hypoxia equipment for individual is not yet available. Methods Oxygen-increased respirator (OIR) has been designed to reduce the risk of acute mountain sickness in acute exposure to low air pressure. It can increase the density of oxygen by increasing total atmospheric pressure in a mask. Male subjects were screened, and eighty-eight were qualified to perform the experiments. The subjects were divided into 5 groups and were involved in some of the tests at 4 different altitudes (Group 1, 2: 3700 m; Group 3,4,5: 4000 m, 4700 m, 5380 m) with and without OIR. These tests include heart rate, saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO2), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), blood lactate (BLA) and PWC (physical work capacity) -170. Results The results showed that higher SpO2, lower heart rate (except during exercise) and better recovery of heart rate were observed from all the subjects ’with OIR’ compared with ’without OIR’ (P<0.05). Moreover, compared with ’without OIR’, subjects ’with OIR’ in Group 1 had lower concentrations of MDA and BLA, and a higher concentration of SOD (P<0.05), while subjects ’with OIR’ in Group 2 showed better physical capacity (measured by the PWC-170) (P<0.05). The additional experiment conducted in a hypobaric chamber (simulating 4,000 m) showed that the partial pressure of oxygen in blood and arterial oxygen saturation were higher ’with OIR’ than ’without OIR’ (P<0.05). Conclusions We suggested that OIR may play a useful role in protecting people ascending to high altitude before acclimatization. PMID:22898206

  8. Non coding RNAs in aortic aneurysmal disease

    PubMed Central

    Duggirala, Aparna; Delogu, Francesca; Angelini, Timothy G.; Smith, Tanya; Caputo, Massimo; Rajakaruna, Cha; Emanueli, Costanza

    2015-01-01

    An aneurysm is a local dilatation of a vessel wall which is >50% its original diameter. Within the spectrum of cardiovascular diseases, aortic aneurysms are among the most challenging to treat. Most patients present acutely after aneurysm rupture or dissection from a previous asymptomatic condition and are managed by open surgical or endovascular repair. In addition, patients may harbor concurrent disease contraindicating surgical intervention. Collectively, these factors have driven the search for alternative methods of identifying, monitoring and treating aortic aneurisms using less invasive approaches. Non-coding RNA (ncRNAs) are emerging as new fundamental regulators of gene expression. The small microRNAs have opened the field of ncRNAs capturing the attention of basic and clinical scientists for their potential to become new therapeutic targets and clinical biomarkers for aortic aneurysm. More recently, long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) have started to be actively investigated, leading to first exciting reports, which further suggest their important and yet largely unexplored contribution to vascular physiology and disease. This review introduces the different ncRNA types and focus at ncRNA roles in aorta aneurysms. We discuss the potential of therapeutic interventions targeting ncRNAs and we describe the research models allowing for mechanistic studies and clinical translation attempts for controlling aneurysm progression. Furthermore, we discuss the potential role of microRNAs and lncRNAs as clinical biomarkers. PMID:25883602

  9. Non coding RNAs in aortic aneurysmal disease.

    PubMed

    Duggirala, Aparna; Delogu, Francesca; Angelini, Timothy G; Smith, Tanya; Caputo, Massimo; Rajakaruna, Cha; Emanueli, Costanza

    2015-01-01

    An aneurysm is a local dilatation of a vessel wall which is >50% its original diameter. Within the spectrum of cardiovascular diseases, aortic aneurysms are among the most challenging to treat. Most patients present acutely after aneurysm rupture or dissection from a previous asymptomatic condition and are managed by open surgical or endovascular repair. In addition, patients may harbor concurrent disease contraindicating surgical intervention. Collectively, these factors have driven the search for alternative methods of identifying, monitoring and treating aortic aneurisms using less invasive approaches. Non-coding RNA (ncRNAs) are emerging as new fundamental regulators of gene expression. The small microRNAs have opened the field of ncRNAs capturing the attention of basic and clinical scientists for their potential to become new therapeutic targets and clinical biomarkers for aortic aneurysm. More recently, long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) have started to be actively investigated, leading to first exciting reports, which further suggest their important and yet largely unexplored contribution to vascular physiology and disease. This review introduces the different ncRNA types and focus at ncRNA roles in aorta aneurysms. We discuss the potential of therapeutic interventions targeting ncRNAs and we describe the research models allowing for mechanistic studies and clinical translation attempts for controlling aneurysm progression. Furthermore, we discuss the potential role of microRNAs and lncRNAs as clinical biomarkers. PMID:25883602

  10. Pointwise characterization of the elastic properties of planar soft tissues: application to ascending thoracic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Davis, Frances M; Luo, Yuanming; Avril, Stéphane; Duprey, Ambroise; Lu, Jia

    2015-10-01

    In this manuscript, we present a combined experimental and computational technique that can identify the heterogeneous elastic properties of planar soft tissues. By combining inverse membrane analysis, digital image correlation, and bulge inflation tests, we are able to identify a tissue's mechanical properties locally. To show how the proposed method could be implemented, we quantified the heterogeneous material properties of a human ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm (ATAA). The ATAA was inflated at a constant rate using a bulge inflation device until it ruptured. Every 3 kPa images were taken using a stereo digital image correlation system. From the images, the three-dimensional displacement of the sample surface was determined. A deforming NURBS mesh was derived from the displacement data, and the local strains were computed. The wall stresses at each pressure increment were determined using inverse membrane analysis. The local material properties of the ATAA were then identified using the pointwise stress and strain data. To show that it is necessary to consider the heterogeneous distribution of the mechanical properties in the ATAA, three different forward finite element simulations using pointwise, elementwise, and homogeneous material properties were compared. The forward finite element predictions revealed that heterogeneous nature of the ATAA must be accounted for to accurately reproduce the stress-strain response. PMID:25576390

  11. [Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Replacement Via Right Mini-thoracotomy].

    PubMed

    Totsugawa, Toshinori

    2016-07-01

    Here we demonstrate our surgical procedure of minimally invasive aortic valve replacement through right anterolateral mini-thoracotomy. Preoperative evaluation of the whole aorta by contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan is important to prevent cerebrovascular complications. The patient is set in a mild left lateral decubitus position. A skin incision is made along the anterior axillary line to the inframammary fold and the chest is opened at the 3rd or 4th intercostal space. Cardiopulmonary bypass is usually established by femoro-femoral bypass. The ascending aorta is clamped with a Chitwood clamp and antegrade or selective cardioplegia is administered. Four traction sutures placed at the aortotomy widely open the aortotomy and offer fine surgical view of the aortic valve. The annular calcifications are excised using a cavitron ultrasonic surgical aspirator. Double-needle braided sutures with pledgets are placed in a non-everting mattress manner. Then the prosthetic valve is sewn onto the aortic annulus. Finger knot tying through anterolateral mini-thoracotomy is usually challenging;therefore, all sutures are tied using a knot pusher. The aortotomy is closed and the aorta is de-clamped. The pericardium is loosely closed;chest tubes are placed;and the thoracotomy is closed in a usual manner. PMID:27440021

  12. First direct aortic retrievable transcatheter aortic valve implantation in humans.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Jaya; Glover, Chris; Labinaz, Marino; Ruel, Marc

    2014-11-01

    We describe 2 cases in which transcatheter aortic valve implantation was performed with a Portico prosthesis (St Jude Medical, St Paul, MN) through a direct aortic approach. In 1 of the cases, prosthesis retrieval was needed during the procedure and was essential to the successful outcome. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of direct aortic Portico prosthesis implantation, and it highlights the significance of the retrievable nature of this device. PMID:25442452

  13. [Total aortic arch replacement in Stanford type A aortic dissection using a new method of implanting the stented graft].

    PubMed

    Kiyama, Hiroshi; Kaki, Nobuaki; Shiomi, Daisuke; Shimada, Naohiro

    2012-07-01

    In surgery for Stanford type A aortic dissection (SAAD) with intimal tear in the arch or proximal descending aorta, we performed total arch replacement with frozen elephant trunk technique for the purpose of achieving complete exclusion of the entry. To reduce the circulatory arrest time, we developed a quick stent graft placement method in the proximal descending aorta. We reported the early results and assessed the efficacy of our new method. Between March 2006 and February 2010, 52 consecutive patients with SAAD were divided into 2 groups:group A consisted of 17 patients who received total arch replacement with our new method;group B consisted of 35 patients who received ascending aorta or partial arch replacement. The duration of operation and cardiopulmonary bypass were significantly longer in group A. However, the duration of circulatory arrest time and postoperative factors including hospital mortality did not differ in both groups. In group A, thrombus obliteration of the residual false lumen in the descending aorta was observed in 75% at 19.2±13.1 months postoperatively. Shrinkage of false lumen in the aortic arch occurred in 15 patients( 93.8%). There was no reoperation for the residual false lumen and late death. Total aortic arch replacement with our new method for SAAD is technically feasible without increasing the operative risk and might reduce the necessity for further operations. PMID:22750824

  14. Bacterial Hyaluronidase Promotes Ascending GBS Infection and Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Vornhagen, Jay; Quach, Phoenicia; Boldenow, Erica; Merillat, Sean; Whidbey, Christopher; Ngo, Lisa Y.; Adams Waldorf, K. M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Preterm birth increases the risk of adverse birth outcomes and is the leading cause of neonatal mortality. A significant cause of preterm birth is in utero infection with vaginal microorganisms. These vaginal microorganisms are often recovered from the amniotic fluid of preterm birth cases. A vaginal microorganism frequently associated with preterm birth is group B streptococcus (GBS), or Streptococcus agalactiae. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying GBS ascension are poorly understood. Here, we describe the role of the GBS hyaluronidase in ascending infection and preterm birth. We show that clinical GBS strains associated with preterm labor or neonatal infections have increased hyaluronidase activity compared to commensal strains obtained from rectovaginal swabs of healthy women. Using a murine model of ascending infection, we show that hyaluronidase activity was associated with increased ascending GBS infection, preterm birth, and fetal demise. Interestingly, hyaluronidase activity reduced uterine inflammation but did not impact placental or fetal inflammation. Our study shows that hyaluronidase activity enables GBS to subvert uterine immune responses, leading to increased rates of ascending infection and preterm birth. These findings have important implications for the development of therapies to prevent in utero infection and preterm birth. PMID:27353757

  15. Teaching Profoundly Retarded Adults to Ascend Stairs Safely.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipani, Ennio; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The study was designed to modify the stair climbing behavior of two profoundly retarded residents through backward shaping with graduated guidance, edible rewards, a correction procedure, and a 30 second timeout. Both residents showed an increase in the number of correct steps used while ascending the stairs.

  16. Flow impeding fungal thrombus in the ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiapeng; Bouvette, Michael J; Hagi, Yousef; Subramanian, Sujata; Zhou, Jing; Austin, Erle H

    2008-10-01

    Mycotic endoaortitis is a rarely occurring infectious entity with an extremely high mortality rate. We report an uncommon case of Phialemonium endoaortits with its management. This large fungal thrombus in the ascending aorta caused significant impediment to the blood flow. PMID:18805204

  17. Analytical Description of Ascending Motion of Rockets in the Atmosphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigues, H.; de Pinho, M. O.; Portes, D., Jr.; Santiago, A.

    2009-01-01

    In continuation of a previous work, we present an analytic study of ascending vertical motion of a rocket subjected to a quadratic drag for the case where the mass-variation law is a linear function of time. We discuss the detailed analytical solution of the model differential equations in closed form. Examples of application are presented and…

  18. Renal embolism as a primary manifestation of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis endocarditis in a patient with chronic aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, Naoto; Kinami, Saori; Ohnishi, Hisashi; Takagi, Asuka; Kawamoto, Megumi; Doukuni, Ryota; Umezawa, Kanoko; Oozone, Sachiko; Yoshimura, Sho; Sakamoto, Susumu

    2015-06-01

    We report a case of renal embolism as an initial manifestation of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE) endocarditis in a patient with chronic aortic dissection. A 37-year-old man who underwent total aortic arch replacement owing to aortic dissection, presented with a 3-h history of fever, chills, and acute right-sided flank pain. The endocarditis affected the native aortic valve and was complicated by a renal embolism. Blood culture results were positive for SDSE. Intravenous penicillin resulted in satisfactory clinical and echocardiographic recovery. PMID:26110298

  19. Delayed aortic rupture after aortic endograft placement in patient with spinal hardware.

    PubMed

    Bavare, Charudatta; Kim, Min; Blackmon, Shanda; Ellsworth, Warren; Davies, Mark G; Reardon, Michael J

    2011-10-01

    Aortic injuries presenting in a delayed fashion after attempted repair of an acute injury are uncommon. We report a case of a patient presenting with an initial aortic injury associated with thoracic spinal hardware placement, which was repaired with an open and endovascular approach, and 5 months later presented with hemoptysis. The cause of hemoptysis was erosion of the descending thoracic aorta between the spinal hardware and the thoracic endograft. The patient underwent descending aorta replacement with a Dacron tube graft, removal of the hardware, and coverage with a pedicled omental flap. This is a unique presentation of erosion of the aorta between the spinal hardware and the earlier placed endovascular stent-graft. PMID:21958807

  20. Select spinal lesions reveal multiple ascending pathways in the rat conveying input from the male genitalia.

    PubMed

    Hubscher, C H; Reed, W R; Kaddumi, E G; Armstrong, J E; Johnson, R D

    2010-04-01

    The specific white matter location of all the spinal pathways conveying penile input to the rostral medulla is not known. Our previous studies using rats demonstrated the loss of low but not high threshold penile inputs to medullary reticular formation (MRF) neurons after acute and chronic dorsal column (DC) lesions of the T8 spinal cord and loss of all penile inputs after lesioning the dorsal three-fifths of the cord. In the present study, select T8 lesions were made and terminal electrophysiological recordings were performed 45-60 days later in a limited portion of the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis (Gi) and Gi pars alpha. Lesions included subtotal dorsal hemisections that spared only the lateral half of the dorsal portion of the lateral funiculus on one side, dorsal and over-dorsal hemisections, and subtotal transections that spared predominantly just the ventromedial white matter. Electrophysiological data for 448 single unit recordings obtained from 32 urethane-anaesthetized rats, when analysed in groups based upon histological lesion reconstructions, revealed (1) ascending bilateral projections in the dorsal, dorsolateral and ventrolateral white matter of the spinal cord conveying information from the male external genitalia to MRF, and (2) ascending bilateral projections in the ventrolateral white matter conveying information from the pelvic visceral organs (bladder, descending colon, urethra) to MRF. Multiple spinal pathways from the penis to the MRF may correspond to different functions, including those processing affective/pleasure/motivational, nociception, and mating-specific (such as for erection and ejaculation) inputs. PMID:20142271

  1. Left Main Coronary Artery Obstruction by Dislodged Native-Valve Calculus after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Durmaz, Tahir; Keles, Telat; Aslan, Abdullah Nabi; Erdogan, Kemal Esref; Sari, Cenk; Bilen, Emine; Akcay, Murat; Bozkurt, Engin

    2014-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement can be an effective, reliable treatment for severe aortic stenosis in surgically high-risk or ineligible patients. However, various sequelae like coronary artery obstruction can occur, not only in the long term, but also immediately after the procedure. We present the case of a 78-year-old woman whose left main coronary artery became obstructed with calculus 2 hours after the transfemoral implantation of an Edwards Sapien XT aortic valve. Despite percutaneous coronary intervention in that artery, the patient died. This case reminds us that early recognition of acute coronary obstruction and prompt intervention are crucial in patients with aortic stenosis who have undergone transcatheter aortic valve replacement. PMID:25120396

  2. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: a Kidney’s Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Thongprayoon, Charat; Kashani, Kianoush

    2016-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has now emerged as a viable treatment option for high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) who are not suitable candidates for surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Despite encouraging published outcomes, acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and lowers the survival of patients after TAVR. The pathogenesis of AKI after TAVR is multifactorial including TAVR specific factors such as the use of contrast agents, hypotension during rapid pacing, and embolization; preventive measures may include pre-procedural hydration, limitation of contrast dye exposure, and avoidance of intraprocedural hypotension. In recent years, the number of TAVR performed worldwide has been increasing, as well as published data on renal perspectives of TAVR including AKI, chronic kidney disease, end-stage kidney disease, and kidney transplantation. This review aims to present the current literature on the nephrology aspects of TAVR, ultimately to improve the patients’ quality of care and outcomes. PMID:27069960

  3. Percutaneous Transcatheter Aortic Disc Valve Prosthesis Implantation: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Sochman, Jan

    2000-09-15

    Purpose: Over the past 30 years there have been experimental efforts at catheter-based management of aortic valve regurgitation with the idea of extending treatment to nonsurgical candidates. A new catheter-based aortic valve design is described.Methods: The new catheter-delivered valve consists of a stent-based valve cage with locking mechanism and a prosthetic flexible tilting valve disc. The valve cage is delivered first followed by deployment and locking of the disc. In acute experiments, valve implantation was done in four dogs.Results: Valve implantation was successful in all four animals. The implanted valve functioned well for the duration of the experiments (up to 3 hr).Conclusion: The study showed the implantation feasibility and short-term function of the tested catheter-based aortic disc valve. Further experimental studies are warranted.

  4. Multi-modality image-based computational analysis of haemodynamics in aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    Dillon-Murphy, Desmond; Noorani, Alia; Nordsletten, David; Figueroa, C Alberto

    2016-08-01

    Aortic dissection is a disease whereby an injury in the wall of the aorta leads to the creation of a true lumen and a false lumen separated by an intimal flap which may contain multiple communicating tears between the lumina. It has a high associated morbidity and mortality, but at present, the timing of surgical intervention for stable type B dissections remains an area of debate. Detailed knowledge of haemodynamics may yield greater insight into the long-term outcomes for dissection patients by providing a greater understanding of pressures, wall shear stress and velocities in and around the dissection. In this paper, we aim to gather further insight into the complex haemodynamics in aortic dissection using medical imaging and computational fluid dynamics modelling. Towards this end, several computer models of the aorta of a patient presenting with an acute Stanford type B dissection were created whereby morphometric parameters related to the dissection septum were altered, such as removal of the septum, and the variation of the number of connecting tears between the lumina. Patient-specific flow data acquired using 2D PC-MRI in the ascending aorta were used to set the inflow boundary condition. Coupled zero-dimensional (Windkessel) models representing the distal vasculature were used to define the outlet boundary conditions and tuned to match 2D PC-MRI flow data acquired in the descending aorta. Haemodynamics in the dissected aorta were compared to those in an equivalent 'healthy aorta', created by virtually removing the intimal flap (septum). Local regions of increased velocity, pressure, wall shear stress and alterations in flow distribution were noted, particularly in the narrow true lumen and around the primary entry tear. The computed flow patterns compared favourably with those obtained using 4D PC-MRI. A lumped-parameter heart model was subsequently used to show that in this case there was an estimated 14 % increase in left ventricular stroke work with

  5. Aortic dimensions in Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Quezada, Emilio; Lapidus, Jodi; Shaughnessy, Robin; Chen, Zunqiu; Silberbach, Michael

    2015-11-01

    In Turner syndrome, linear growth is less than the general population. Consequently, to assess stature in Turner syndrome, condition-specific comparators have been employed. Similar reference curves for cardiac structures in Turner syndrome are currently unavailable. Accurate assessment of the aorta is particularly critical in Turner syndrome because aortic dissection and rupture occur more frequently than in the general population. Furthermore, comparisons to references calculated from the taller general population with the shorter Turner syndrome population can lead to over-estimation of aortic size causing stigmatization, medicalization, and potentially over-treatment. We used echocardiography to measure aortic diameters at eight levels of the thoracic aorta in 481 healthy girls and women with Turner syndrome who ranged in age from two to seventy years. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to assess the influence of karyotype, age, body mass index, bicuspid aortic valve, blood pressure, history of renal disease, thyroid disease, or growth hormone therapy. Because only bicuspid aortic valve was found to independently affect aortic size, subjects with bicuspid aortic valve were excluded from the analysis. Regression equations for aortic diameters were calculated and Z-scores corresponding to 1, 2, and 3 standard deviations from the mean were plotted against body surface area. The information presented here will allow clinicians and other caregivers to calculate aortic Z-scores using a Turner-based reference population. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26118429

  6. A Unique Case of Aortic Thrombosis With Elevated Lipoprotein(a).

    PubMed

    Ostertag-Hill, Claire A; Titus, Jessica M; Skeik, Nedaa

    2016-05-01

    Aortic thrombosis is a rare condition that can be caused by atherosclerosis, aneurysms, thrombophilia, vasculitis, trauma, and malignancy. Symptoms vary based on thrombus size and site of embolization. It can lead to devastating complications including acute limb ischemia, myocardial infarction, stroke, and other target organ ischemia. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, imaging findings, and relevant laboratory work-up. Although not well defined, management for aortic thrombosis includes surgical intervention, such as thromboembolectomy, and conservative measures, such as anticoagulation. Here, we present a unique case of aortic thrombosis causing acute lower limb ischemia with elevated lipoprotein(a) and other comorbidities. Based on our literature review, our article is the first to establish the connection between elevated lipoprotein(a) and aortic thrombosis in the nonaneurysmal aorta. PMID:27075991

  7. Paraplegic Neurodeficit Management Post Endovascular Graft: A Rare Case of Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Kanse, Vilas Yadavarao; Chongtham, Dhanaraj Singh; Nemichandra, S C; Salam, Kenny Singh

    2013-01-01

    Acute aortic dissection is a catastrophic episode that usually presents as a sudden, painful, ripping sensation in the chest or back. It is associated with neurologic sequelae in as many as one-third of patients. We report a case of aortic dissection, presenting as acute paraplegia. A 50-year-old patient presented to us with chief complaints of paraplegia and back pain. On examination, strength was 5/5 in both upper extremities and 0/5 in both lower extremities. Deep tendon reflexes were absent in her legs. CT angiogram of aorta Aortic Dissection Stanford type B / De-Bakey type –III. Patient was treated with endovascular graft for aortic dissection, paraplegia recovered completely. PMID:24298506

  8. Micromanaging abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Maegdefessel, Lars; Spin, Joshua M; Adam, Matti; Raaz, Uwe; Toh, Ryuji; Nakagami, Futoshi; Tsao, Philip S

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease to human morbidity and mortality has increased in the aging, industrialized world. In response, extraordinary efforts have been launched to determine the molecular and pathophysiological characteristics of the diseased aorta. This work aims to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to limit AAA expansion and, ultimately, rupture. Contributions from multiple research groups have uncovered a complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory milieu, which is believed to be essential for maintaining aortic vascular homeostasis. Recently, novel small noncoding RNAs, called microRNAs, have been identified as important transcriptional and post-transcriptional inhibitors of gene expression. MicroRNAs are thought to "fine tune" the translational output of their target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by promoting mRNA degradation or inhibiting translation. With the discovery that microRNAs act as powerful regulators in the context of a wide variety of diseases, it is only logical that microRNAs be thoroughly explored as potential therapeutic entities. This current review summarizes interesting findings regarding the intriguing roles and benefits of microRNA expression modulation during AAA initiation and propagation. These studies utilize disease-relevant murine models, as well as human tissue from patients undergoing surgical aortic aneurysm repair. Furthermore, we critically examine future therapeutic strategies with regard to their clinical and translational feasibility. PMID:23852016

  9. Loss of function mutation in LOX causes thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection in humans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Vivian S; Halabi, Carmen M; Hoffman, Erin P; Carmichael, Nikkola; Leshchiner, Ignaty; Lian, Christine G; Bierhals, Andrew J; Vuzman, Dana; Mecham, Robert P; Frank, Natasha Y; Stitziel, Nathan O

    2016-08-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD) represent a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Many individuals presenting with an inherited form of TAAD do not have causal mutations in the set of genes known to underlie disease. Using whole-genome sequencing in two first cousins with TAAD, we identified a missense mutation in the lysyl oxidase (LOX) gene (c.893T > G encoding p.Met298Arg) that cosegregated with disease in the family. Using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-associated protein-9 nuclease (Cas9) genome engineering tools, we introduced the human mutation into the homologous position in the mouse genome, creating mice that were heterozygous and homozygous for the human allele. Mutant mice that were heterozygous for the human allele displayed disorganized ultrastructural properties of the aortic wall characterized by fragmented elastic lamellae, whereas mice homozygous for the human allele died shortly after parturition from ascending aortic aneurysm and spontaneous hemorrhage. These data suggest that a missense mutation in LOX is associated with aortic disease in humans, likely through insufficient cross-linking of elastin and collagen in the aortic wall. Mutation carriers may be predisposed to vascular diseases because of weakened vessel walls under stress conditions. LOX sequencing for clinical TAAD may identify additional mutation carriers in the future. Additional studies using our mouse model of LOX-associated TAAD have the potential to clarify the mechanism of disease and identify novel therapeutics specific to this genetic cause. PMID:27432961

  10. A mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm caused by Listeria monocytogenes in a patient with HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Gunst, Jesper Damsgaard; Jensen-Fangel, Søren

    2014-01-01

    A 65-year-old man with HIV infection presented with acute severe abdominal pain radiating to the back. A CT scan revealed an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm, and an aortobifemoral bypass was undertaken. Subsequently, tissue specimens from the aortic wall grew Listeria monocytogenes. The patient received 8 weeks of intravenous antibiotic treatment followed by oral sulfotrim as secondary prophylaxis and made an uneventful recovery. PMID:24443338

  11. Perceval S Valve Solution for Degenerated Freestyle Root in the Presence of Chronic Aortic Dissection.

    PubMed

    Lio, Antonio; Miceli, Antonio; Ferrarini, Matteo; Glauber, Mattia

    2016-06-01

    Aortic root replacement with porcine xenograft is a valuable treatment option in acute aortic dissection, but conduits are often prone to degeneration. Reoperation is still associated with high operative mortality, and it usually requires root removal and repetition of the Bentall procedure, or a less radical option limited to valve replacement. We describe two cases of Freestyle root degeneration in patients with chronic aortic dissection, in whom we performed a valve-in-valve procedure with the Perceval S prosthesis (Sorin Group, Saluggia, Italy). PMID:27211946

  12. A simple technique to rule out occlusion of right coronary artery after aortic valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Angel L; El-Diasty, Mohammad M; Martínez, Amparo; Alvarez, Julian; García-Bengochea, José B

    2011-12-01

    Mechanical occlusion of the right coronary artery during aortic valve surgery is an infrequent but serious complication. Early recognition and expeditious management are important to reduce mortality. We developed a safe, quick, and easy technique to assess right coronary artery flow after aortic valve surgery. Direct intraoperative right coronary artery flow was measured by placing a transit-time flowmeter probe around the right coronary artery. We were able to promptly detect severe right coronary artery insufficiency in patients with acute unexpected right ventricular failure after aortic valve replacement. PMID:22115253

  13. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Hans Henrik Møller

    2012-12-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) was introduced experimentally in 1989, based on a newly developed heart valve prosthesis - the stentvalve. The valve was invented by a Danish cardiologist named Henning Rud Andersen. The new valve was revolutionary. It was foldable and could be inserted via a catheter through an artery in the groin, without the need for heart lung machine. This allowed for a new valve implantation technique, much less invasive than conventional surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Surgical aortic valve replacement is safe and improves symptoms along with survival. However, up to 1/3 of patients with aortic valve stenosis cannot complete the procedure due to frailty. The catheter technique was hoped to provide a new treatment option for these patients. The first human case was in 2002, but more widespread clinical use did not begin until 2006-2010. Today, in 2011, more than 40,000 valves have been implanted worldwide. Initially, because of the experimental character of the procedure, TAVI was reserved for patients who could not undergo SAVR due to high risk. The results in this group of patients were promising. The procedural safety was acceptable, and the patients experienced significant improvements in their symptoms. Three of the papers in this PhD-thesis are based on the outcome of TAVI at Skejby Hospital, in this high-risk population [I, II and IV]. Along with other international publications, they support TAVI as being superior to standard medical treatment, despite a high risk of prosthetic regurgitation. These results only apply to high-risk patients, who cannot undergo SAVR. The main purpose of this PhD study has been to investigate the quality of TAVI compared to SAVR, in order to define the indications for this new procedure. The article attached [V] describes a prospective clinical randomised controlled trial, between TAVI to SAVR in surgically amenable patients over 75 years of age with isolated aortic valve stenosis

  14. Impaired Collagen Biosynthesis and Cross‐linking in Aorta of Patients With Bicuspid Aortic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Wågsäter, Dick; Paloschi, Valentina; Hanemaaijer, Roeland; Hultenby, Kjell; Bank, Ruud A.; Franco‐Cereceda, Anders; Lindeman, Jan H. N.; Eriksson, Per

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) have an increased risk of developing ascending aortic aneurysm. In the present study, collagen homeostasis in nondilated and dilated aorta segments from patients with BAV was studied, with normal and dilated aortas from tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) patients as reference. Methods and Results Ascending aortas from 56 patients were used for biochemical and morphological analyses of collagen. mRNA expression was analyzed in 109 patients. Collagen turnover rates were similar in nondilated and dilated aortas of BAV patients, showing that aneurysmal formation in BAV is, in contrast to TAV, not associated with an increased collagen turnover. However, BAV in general was associated with an increased aortic collagen turnover compared with nondilated aortas of TAV patients. Importantly, the ratio of hydroxylysyl pyridinoline (HP) to lysyl pyridinoline (LP), 2 distinct forms of collagen cross‐linking, was lower in dilated aortas from patients with BAV, which suggests that BAV is associated with a defect in the posttranslational collagen modification. This suggests a deficiency at the level of lysyl hydroxylase (PLOD1), which was confirmed by mRNA and protein analyses that showed reduced PLOD1 expression but normal lysyl oxidase expression in dilated aortas from patients with BAV. This suggests that impaired collagen cross‐linking in BAV patients may be attributed to changes in the expression and/or activity of PLOD1. Conclusions Our results demonstrate an impaired biosynthesis and posttranslational modification of collagen in aortas of patients with BAV, which may explain the increased aortic aneurysm formation in BAV patients. PMID:23525417

  15. Novel endovascular procedures and new developments in aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Cheng, S W K

    2016-09-01

    Endovascular repair has evolved to become a viable mainstream treatment for aortic pathology in both acute and elective settings. As technology advanced, traditional anatomical barriers were progressively tackled using new devices and novel procedures, and there are now multiple options available to the vascular surgeon. In the abdominal aorta, advances in endovascular aneurysm repair have been in the treatment of hostile aortic necks using new sealing concepts and ancillary procedures, and in branch preservation using fenestrations and snorkels. Access challenges have been met with a percutaneous approach and low-profile devices, and standard protocols have improved mortality for ruptured aneurysms. In the thoracic aorta, more invasive hybrid procedures have given way gradually to branched endografts. Particular challenges to the anaesthetist include blood pressure control and the prevention of stroke and paraplegia. Current focus in the thoracic aorta is in treating aortic arch pathology and in optimal management of acute and chronic dissections. This review describes the latest trends in the endovascular treatment of aortic diseases and examines the current evidence for different modalities of management. PMID:27566806

  16. Occlusive ascending aorta and arch atheroma treated with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and thromboendarterectomy.

    PubMed

    O' Sullivan, Katie E; Early, Sarah A; Lawler, Leo; Hurley, John

    2013-12-01

    We describe an uncommon presentation of severely advanced aortic atherosclerosis in a 48-year old man with a history of hypertension and heavy smoking. Initial presentation with upper limb ischaemia led to the diagnosis of an aortic arch atheroma occluding 90% of the aortic lumen, managed with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and aortic thromboendarterectomy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of atherosclerotic plaque resulting in aortic occlusion and requiring emergent operative intervention. PMID:23956265

  17. Occlusive ascending aorta and arch atheroma treated with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and thromboendarterectomy

    PubMed Central

    O’ Sullivan, Katie E.; Early, Sarah A.; Lawler, Leo; Hurley, John

    2013-01-01

    We describe an uncommon presentation of severely advanced aortic atherosclerosis in a 48-year old man with a history of hypertension and heavy smoking. Initial presentation with upper limb ischaemia led to the diagnosis of an aortic arch atheroma occluding 90% of the aortic lumen, managed with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and aortic thromboendarterectomy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of atherosclerotic plaque resulting in aortic occlusion and requiring emergent operative intervention. PMID:23956265

  18. Quadricuspid Aortic Valve: A Rare Congenital Cause of Aortic Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Vasudev, Rahul; Shah, Priyank; Bikkina, Mahesh; Shamoon, Fayez

    2016-01-01

    Quadricuspid aortic valve (QAV) is a rare congenital cardiac anomaly causing aortic regurgitation usually in the fifth to sixth decade of life. Earlier, the diagnosis was mostly during postmortem or intraoperative, but now with the advent of better imaging techniques such as transthoracic echocardiography, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, more cases are being diagnosed in asymptomatic patients. We present a case of a 39-year-old male who was found to have QAV, with the help of TEE, while undergoing evaluation for a diastolic murmur. The patient was found to have Type B QAV with moderate aortic regurgitation. We also present a brief review of classification, pathophysiology, and embryological basis of this rare congenital anomaly. The importance of diagnosing QAV lies in the fact that majority of these patients will require surgery for aortic regurgitation and close follow-up so that aortic valve replacement/repair is done before the left ventricular decompensation occurs. PMID:27195176

  19. Thick Ascending Limb of the Loop of Henle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The thick ascending limb occupies a central anatomic and functional position in human renal physiology, with critical roles in the defense of the extracellular fluid volume, the urinary concentrating mechanism, calcium and magnesium homeostasis, bicarbonate and ammonium homeostasis, and urinary protein composition. The last decade has witnessed tremendous progress in the understanding of the molecular physiology and pathophysiology of this nephron segment. These advances are the subject of this review, with emphasis on particularly recent developments. PMID:25318757

  20. Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair in a Patient with Mobile Aortic Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Lohrmann, Graham M.; Peters, Ferande

    2014-01-01

    A 58-year-old female presented with acute arterial insufficiency to her left leg. Following cardiovascular evaluation using multimodality imaging, it was discovered that she had mobile thoracic thrombi overlying a normal descending thoracic aorta which had also caused a splenic infarction. This patient was treated with unfractionated heparin for three days and underwent subsequent thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) uneventfully with no subsequent complications at one-year followup. This case highlights the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in treating patients with this uncommon challenging clinical scenario. PMID:24716094

  1. Treatment with Aortic Stent Graft Placement for Stanford B-Type Aortic Dissection in a Patient with an Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery

    PubMed Central

    Kawatani, Yohei; Hayashi, Yujiro; Ito, Yujiro; Kurobe, Hirotsugu; Nakamura, Yoshitsugu; Suda, Yuji; Hori, Takaki

    2015-01-01

    A 71-year-old man visited our hospital with the chief complaint of back pain and was diagnosed with acute aortic dissection (Debakey type III, Stanford type B). He was found to have a variant branching pattern in which the right subclavian artery was the fourth branch of the aorta. We performed conservative management for uncomplicated Stanford type B aortic dissection, and the patient was discharged. An ulcer-like projection (ULP) was discovered during outpatient follow-up. Complicated type B aortic dissection was suspected, and we performed thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). The aim of operative treatment was ULP closure; thus we placed two stent grafts in the descending aorta from the distal portion of the right subclavian artery. The patient was released without complications on postoperative day 5. Deliberate sizing and examination of placement location were necessary when placing the stent graft, but operative techniques allowed the procedure to be safely completed. PMID:26558132

  2. Abnormalities in aortic properties: a potential link between left ventricular diastolic function and ventricular-aortic coupling in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Bollache, Emilie; Kachenoura, Nadjia; Lang, Roberto M; Desai, Ankit A; Mor-Avi, Victor; Patel, Amit R

    2016-06-01

    Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with increased mortality. However, its mechanisms are not well known, preventing the development of effective therapies. We hypothesized that patients with SCD have altered aortic properties despite normal blood pressure, which may contribute towards the development of diastolic dysfunction. We studied 31 stable adult patients with SCD (32 ± 7 years) and 12 healthy controls of similar age (29 ± 10 years) who underwent echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging on the same day. Echocardiographic measurements of mitral inflow and mitral annulus velocities were used to evaluate LV diastolic function. CMR imaging included standard LV function evaluation and myocardial tissue characterization as well as velocity-encoded images of the ascending aorta to measure aortic diastolic cross-sectional area, distensibility, as well as peaks and volumes of the global, forward and backward blood flow rate. Compared to controls, SCD patients had increased aortic diastolic area, global stroke volume, and both forward and backward flow, while aortic distensibility and peripheral blood pressure were similar. Furthermore, peak backward flow rate and volume were able to discriminate between patients with and without diastolic dysfunction. Our findings show that some aortic properties are altered in SCD patients and may be associated with diastolic dysfunction despite normal systolic blood pressure. If confirmed in larger studies, these aortic changes could be a novel therapeutic target to prevent or delay the development of LV diastolic dysfunction in SCD and thus potentially improve outcomes in these patients. PMID:26907920

  3. Supravalvular aortic stenosis associated to infectious endocarditis and cerebral vascular disease in a patient with Williams-Beuren Syndrome.

    PubMed

    De Rubens Figueroa, Jesús; Marhx, Alfonso; López Terrazas, Javier; Palacios Macedo, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    The Williams-Beuren syndrome is a rare genetic disease characterized by: (a) typical facial features; (b) psychomotor retardation with a specific neurocognitive profile; (c) cardiovascular condition and (d) likely transient hypocalcemia in infancy. The objective of this study was to describe the clinic evolution and diagnosis of patient with this syndrome that was associated with endocarditis caused by Streptococcus parasanguis in the ascending aorta and an aneurism located in the fronto-temporal area, which produced a parenchymal hematoma in the left lobe, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. He was treated with ceftriaxone and dicloxacillin. Then we proceeded to correct the aneurysm and perform vegetation resection in aortic arteries with supravalvular aortic stenosis correction. The evolution after one year has been favorable and is currently without neurologic sequelae. A 5-year-old male patient presented a diagnosis of supravalvular aortic stenosis. After cardiac catheterization was performed, he presented a fever and right side paresis. The echocardiogram showed multiple vegetations in the ascendant aortic arch and the supraortic arteries. The blood cultures reported S. parasanguis. The magnetic resonance showed a subarachnoid hemorrhage with an aneurysm and a hematoma. PMID:25882107

  4. A structural finite element model for lamellar unit of aortic media indicates heterogeneous stress field after collagen recruitment.

    PubMed

    Thunes, James R; Pal, Siladitya; Fortunato, Ronald N; Phillippi, Julie A; Gleason, Thomas G; Vorp, David A; Maiti, Spandan

    2016-06-14

    Incorporation of collagen structural information into the study of biomechanical behavior of ascending thoracic aortic (ATA) wall tissue should provide better insight into the pathophysiology of ATA. Structurally motivated constitutive models that include fiber dispersion and recruitment can successfully capture overall mechanical response of the arterial wall tissue. However, these models cannot examine local microarchitectural features of the collagen network, such as the effect of fiber disruptions and interaction between fibrous and non-fibrous components, which may influence emergent biomechanical properties of the tissue. Motivated by this need, we developed a finite element based three-dimensional structural model of the lamellar units of the ATA media that directly incorporates the collagen fiber microarchitecture. The fiber architecture was computer generated utilizing network features, namely fiber orientation distribution, intersection density and areal concentration, obtained from image analysis of multiphoton microscopy images taken from human aneurysmal ascending thoracic aortic media specimens with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) phenotype. Our model reproduces the typical J-shaped constitutive response of the aortic wall tissue. We found that the stress state in the non-fibrous matrix was homogeneous until the collagen fibers were recruited, but became highly heterogeneous after that event. The degree of heterogeneity was dependent upon local network architecture with high stresses observed near disrupted fibers. The magnitude of non-fibrous matrix stress at higher stretch levels was negatively correlated with local fiber density. The localized stress concentrations, elucidated by this model, may be a factor in the degenerative changes in aneurysmal ATA tissue. PMID:27113538

  5. Intraoperative aortic dissection

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajmer; Mehta, Yatin

    2015-01-01

    Intraoperative aortic dissection is a rare but fatal complication of open heart surgery. By recognizing the population at risk and by using a gentle operative technique in such patients, the surgeon can usually avoid iatrogenic injury to the aorta. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography and epiaortic scanning are invaluable for prompt diagnosis and determination of the extent of the injury. Prevention lies in the strict control of blood pressure during cannulation/decannulation, construction of proximal anastomosis, or in avoiding manipulation of the aorta in high-risk patients. Immediate repair using interposition graft or Dacron patch graft is warranted to reduce the high mortality associated with this complication. PMID:26440240

  6. [Total Aortic Arch Replacement by Minimally Invasive Approach in a Patient with Permanent Tracheostomy;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Adachi, Koichi; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Yuri, Koichi; Matsumoto, Harunobu; Kimura, Naoyuki; Okamura, Homare; Shiraishi, Manabu; Hori, Daijirou; Adachi, Hideo

    2016-06-01

    Standard full median sternotomy for total aortic arch replacement in patients with tracheostomy has higher risks for mediastinitis and graft infection. To avoid surgical site infection, it is necessary to keep a sufficient distance between the tracheostomy and the site of surgical skin incision. We herein report a case of a 74-year-old man with permanent tracheostomy after total laryngectomy, who underwent total aortic arch replacement for an aneurysm. Antero-lateral thoracotomy in the 2nd intercostal space with lower partial sternotomy( ALPS approach) provided an enough distance between the tracheostomy and the surgical field. It also provided a good view for surgical procedure and enabled the standard setup of cardiopulmonary bypass with ascending aortic cannulation, venous drainage from the right atrium and the left ventricular venting through the upper right pulmonary vein. The operation was completed in 345 minutes and the patient was discharged on the 11th postoperative day without any complications. PMID:27246136

  7. Two-Stage Procedure for Infected Aortic Graft Pseudoaneurysm: 10-Year Follow Up after Omental Prosthesis Wrapping.

    PubMed

    von Aspern, Konstantin; Etz, Christian D; Mohr, Friedrich W; Battellini, Roberto R

    2015-08-01

    Prosthetic graft infections with mediastinitis following aortic surgery are rare, yet represent grave complications yielding high morbidity and mortality. We present the case of a 57-year-old female patient with past history of emergent surgery for iatrogenic Type A dissection treated by supracoronary ascending aortic replacement. Four months after the initial surgery, a sternal fistula had formed and due to severe bleeding emergent reoperation was required. Imaging and pathology on admission revealed an infected pseudoaneurysm at the distal aortic prosthesis and mediastinitis with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Rescue surgery was performed by means of a two-stage approach, with extensive debridement, graft replacement and continuous antiseptic lavage in a first step and an omental wrapping of the new prosthesis in a second stage 24 hours later. During 10 years of follow-up, no recurrent infection occurred. The operative approach and general considerations for management of infected pseudoaneurysms are discussed. PMID:27069945

  8. Aortic biomechanics in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Badran, Hala Mahfouz; Soltan, Ghada; Faheem, Nagla; Elnoamany, Mohamed Fahmy; Tawfik, Mohamed; Yacoub, Magdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ventricular-vascular coupling is an important phenomenon in many cardiovascular diseases. The association between aortic mechanical dysfunction and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is well characterized in many disease entities, but no data are available on how these changes are related in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Aim of the work: This study examined whether HCM alone is associated with an impaired aortic mechanical function in patients without cardiovascular risk factors and the relation of these changes, if any, to LV deformation and cardiac phenotype. Methods: 141 patients with HCM were recruited and compared to 66 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects as control group. Pulse pressure, aortic strain, stiffness and distensibility were calculated from the aortic diameters measured by M-mode echocardiography and blood pressure obtained by sphygmomanometer. Aortic wall systolic and diastolic velocities were measured using pulsed wave Doppler tissue imaging (DTI). Cardiac assessment included geometric parameters and myocardial deformation (strain and strain rate) and mechanical dyssynchrony. Results: The pulsatile change in the aortic diameter, distensibility and aortic wall systolic velocity (AWS') were significantly decreased and aortic stiffness index was increased in HCM compared to control (P < .001) In HCM AWS' was inversely correlated to age(r = − .32, P < .0001), MWT (r = − .22, P < .008), LVMI (r = − .20, P < .02), E/Ea (r = − .16, P < .03) LVOT gradient (r = − 19, P < .02) and severity of mitral regurg (r = − .18, P < .03) but not to the concealed LV deformation abnormalities or mechanical dyssynchrony. On multivariate analysis, the key determinant of aortic stiffness was LV mass index and LVOT obstruction while the role LV dysfunction in aortic stiffness is not evident in this population. Conclusion: HCM is associated with abnormal aortic mechanical properties. The severity of cardiac

  9. Aortic dissection and sport: physiologic and clinical understanding provide an opportunity to save young lives.

    PubMed

    Mayerick, C; Carré, F; Elefteriades, J

    2010-10-01

    Understanding the relationship between acute type A aortic dissection and sport is crucial to prevent sudden cardiac death in seemingly healthy young individuals. Aerobic exercise produces only a modest rise in arterial blood pressure (140-160 mmHg) except at the highest levels of exertion, at which pressures between 180-220 mmHg are reached. Weight training, on the other hand, routinely produces acute rises in blood pressure to over 300 mmHg. This presents a danger for individuals with an unknown aortic aneurysm; the deteriorated mechanical properties of the aortic wall resulting from aneurysmal enlargement increase the susceptibility to aortic rupture when the high wall coincident with exertion exceeds the tensile strength of the aortic wall. Investigations by our group into the inciting events leading up to dissection have demonstrated a causal link between extreme exertion, severe emotional stress, and acute type A aortic dissection. Since aortic enlargement is often unknown to persons participating in weight training, especially in the youth population, a ìSnapShot Echocardiogramî screening program is been proposed; such a pilot program will raise awareness of the importance of pre-participation cardiac screening and allow for early detection of aneurysms as a means of preventing this ìsilent killerî from striking. As strong supporters of the numerous benefits of weight training, we encourage this activity in individuals without aneurysm; without aneurysm, wall tension does not reach dangerous levels, even at extremes of exertion. For individuals with known aortic dilatation, we recommend a program that limits their lifting to 50% of body weight in the bench press or equivalent level of perceived exertion for other specific strength exercises. PMID:20924328

  10. Unusual Case of Overt Aortic Dissection Mimicking Aortic Intramural Hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Disha, Kushtrim; Kuntze, Thomas; Girdauskas, Evaldas

    2016-01-01

    We report an interesting case in which overt aortic dissection mimicked two episodes of aortic intramural hematoma (IMH) (Stanford A, DeBakey I). This took place over the course of four days and had a major influence on the surgical treatment strategy. The first episode of IMH regressed completely within 15 hours after it was clinically diagnosed and verified using imaging techniques. The recurrence of IMH was detected three days thereafter, resulting in an urgent surgical intervention. Overt aortic dissection with evidence of an intimal tear was diagnosed intraoperatively. PMID:27066437

  11. Experience of endovascular repair of thoracic aortic dissection after blunt trauma injury in a district general hospital

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chih-Hsien; Huang, Jau-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Background Traumatic thoracic aortic dissection is uncommon in clinical practice; however, it is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Thoracic aortic dissection is usually caused by sudden deceleration resulting from a traffic accident or fall. Aortic injury after blunt trauma is a critical condition. This study reported the outcomes of endovascular repair of acute traumatic aortic dissection in patients at a district general hospital. Methods In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of eight patients with acute traumatic aortic dissection after a blunt trauma who had undergone thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) between January 2012 and December 2015 at a district general hospital in Taiwan. Results The median age of the patients was 49±22 years (range, 20–77 years), and 6 of the 8 (75%) patients were men. Five patients were involved in traffic accidents, and 3 patients had fallen from heights. The injury severity score (ISS) of the patients ranged from 17 to 66. In all patients, the aortic injury was located near the origin of the left subclavian artery (LSA). Four patients had seal ostium of subclavian artery, left. None of the patients developed paraplegia or lower extremity ischemia. Moreover, all patients had concomitant injuries, and no patients died postoperatively. Conclusions Endovascular repair is a rapid and minimally invasive therapy for patients with traumatic aortic injury and is associated with favorable technical results. PMID:27293831

  12. [Aortic inflammatory lesions in Behçet's disease].

    PubMed

    Desbois, A-C; Wechsler, B; Cacoub, P; Saadoun, D

    2016-04-01

    The arterial lesions affect about 10% of patients with Behçet's disease (BD). Aortic inflammatory involvement includes predominantly aortic aneurysmal lesions affecting most often the abdominal aorta. They account for the severity of the disease and are a leading cause of death when they hit the aorta or pulmonary arteries. Within the arterial lesions of BD, aortic involvement is, with femoral lesions, the most common site involved (18-28% of patients with vascular disease). Unlike other large vessels vasculitis (i.e. giant cell arteritis and Takayasu's arteritis) diffuse aortitis is observed in less than 5% of patients with BD. Aortic lesions of BD may be asymptomatic (systematic imaging or occasionally associated with other vascular event) or be revealed by the occurrence of abdominal, thoracic or lumbar pain, or an aortic valve insufficiency. Fever is frequently associated. Increase in acute phase reactants is common in these patients. Histological analysis may show infiltration by lymphocytes, neutrophils and plasma cells in the media and adventitia and a proliferation of the vasa vasorum in the media as well as a fibroblastic proliferation. In the later phase, a fibrous thickening of the media and adventitia is observed as well as a proliferation and thickening of the vasa vasorum. The therapeutic management should always include a medical treatment for the control of inflammation (corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs and/or biotherapy) and often an endovascular or surgical treatment if the aneurysm is threatening. The choice between endovascular or surgical treatment is considered case by case, depending on the experience of the team, anatomical conditions and of the clinical presentation. In this review, we provide a detailed and updated review of the literature to describe the aortic inflammatory damage associated with Behçet's disease. PMID:26611428

  13. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Castrovinci, Sebastiano; Emmanuel, Sam; Moscarelli, Marco; Murana, Giacomo; Caccamo, Giuseppa; Bertolino, Emanuela Clara; Nasso, Giuseppe; Speziale, Giuseppe; Fattouch, Khalil

    2016-09-01

    Aortic valve disease is a prevalent disorder that affects approximately 2% of the general adult population. Surgical aortic valve replacement is the gold standard treatment for symptomatic patients. This treatment has demonstrably proven to be both safe and effective. Over the last few decades, in an attempt to reduce surgical trauma, different minimally invasive approaches for aortic valve replacement have been developed and are now being increasingly utilized. A narrative review of the literature was carried out to describe the surgical techniques for minimally invasive aortic valve surgery and report the results from different experienced centers. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement is associated with low perioperative morbidity, mortality and a low conversion rate to full sternotomy. Long-term survival appears to be at least comparable to that reported for conventional full sternotomy. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery, either with a partial upper sternotomy or a right anterior minithoracotomy provides early- and long-term benefits. Given these benefits, it may be considered the standard of care for isolated aortic valve disease. PMID:27582764

  14. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery

    PubMed Central

    Castrovinci, Sebastiano; Emmanuel, Sam; Moscarelli, Marco; Murana, Giacomo; Caccamo, Giuseppa; Bertolino, Emanuela Clara; Nasso, Giuseppe; Speziale, Giuseppe; Fattouch, Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Aortic valve disease is a prevalent disorder that affects approximately 2% of the general adult population. Surgical aortic valve replacement is the gold standard treatment for symptomatic patients. This treatment has demonstrably proven to be both safe and effective. Over the last few decades, in an attempt to reduce surgical trauma, different minimally invasive approaches for aortic valve replacement have been developed and are now being increasingly utilized. A narrative review of the literature was carried out to describe the surgical techniques for minimally invasive aortic valve surgery and report the results from different experienced centers. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement is associated with low perioperative morbidity, mortality and a low conversion rate to full sternotomy. Long-term survival appears to be at least comparable to that reported for conventional full sternotomy. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery, either with a partial upper sternotomy or a right anterior minithoracotomy provides early- and long-term benefits. Given these benefits, it may be considered the standard of care for isolated aortic valve disease. PMID:27582764

  15. Traumatic aortic aneurysm diagnosed by computed tomography angiography in a 22-year-old man presenting with progressive dyspnea and dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiang; Ma, Yi-Tong; Liu, Ai-Hong; Wang, Yan-Lin

    2016-08-01

    Traumatic aortic aneurysm is a rare and potentially fatal complication that can occur secondary to acute chest trauma. However, early diagnosis of this complication is often neglected due to the presence of severe chest and abdominal trauma. We report a case of delayed traumatic aortic aneurysm that was diagnosed by computed tomography angiography on day 13 after a traffic accident. PMID:27209281

  16. Endogenous prostaglandin E2 mediates inhibition of rat thick ascending limb Cl reabsorption in chronic hypercalcemia.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, L N; McKay, A J; Borzecki, J S

    1993-01-01

    The hypothesis that endogenous PGE2 mediates defective thick ascending limb (TAL) Cl reabsorption (percent delivered load: FRCl%) in rats with vitamin D-induced chronic hypercalcemia (HC) was tested by measuring FRCl% in loop segments microperfused in vivo in HC and control rats treated acutely with indomethacin (Indo) or its vehicle, and obtaining the corresponding outer medullary [PGE2]. Microperfusion conditions were developed in which FRCl% was exclusively furosemide sensitive. To determine the cellular mechanism, tubules were perfused acutely with forskolin (FSK), cAMP, or the protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporine (SSP). Outer medullary [PGE2] in HC rats was 9 to 10 times greater than control and could be normalized by Indo. FRCl% was 20% lower in HC rats infused with vehicle, and Indo, FSK, and cAMP returned FRCl% to normal despite sustained HC. Indo or FSK had no effect on FRCl% in control rats and Indo did not prevent inhibition of FRCl% by luminal PGE2 (1 microM). Luminal SSP (10(-7), 10(-8) M) in HC did not return FRCl% to control values. We conclude that impaired TAL FRCl% in HC occurs at a pre-cAMP site and is due to endogenous PGE2 and not to HC. Images PMID:8390479

  17. Volvulus of the ascending colon in a non-rotated midgut: Plain film and MDCT findings

    PubMed Central

    Camera, Luigi; Calabrese, Milena; Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Masone, Stefania; Vecchio, Walter Del; Persico, Giovanni; Salvatore, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Colonic volvulus is a relatively uncommon cause of large bowel obstruction usually involving mobile, intra-peritoneal, colonic segments. Congenital or acquired anatomic variation may be associated with an increased risk of colonic volvulus which can occasionally involve retro-peritoneal segments. We report a case of 54-year-old female who presented to our Institution to perform a plain abdominal film series for acute onset of cramping abdominal pain. Both the upright and supine films showed signs of acute colonic obstruction which was thought to be due to an internal hernia of the transverse colon into the lesser sac. The patient was therefore submitted to a multi-detector contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). CT findings were initially thought to be consistent with the presumed diagnosis of internal hernia but further evaluation and coronal reformatting clearly depicted the presence of a colonic volvulus possibly resulting from a retro-gastric colon. At surgery, a volvulus of the ascending colon was found and a right hemi-colectomy had to be performed. However, a non rotated midgut with a right-sided duodeno-jejunal flexure and a left sided colon was also found at laparotomy and overlooked in the pre-operative CT. Retrospective evaluation of CT images was therefore performed and a number of CT signs of intestinal malrotation could be identified. PMID:23150768

  18. Microvascular circulation of the ascending colon in horses.

    PubMed

    Snyder, J R; Tyler, W S; Pascoe, J R; Olander, H J; Bleifer, D R; Hinds, D M; Neves, J W

    1989-12-01

    Microvascular circulation of the ascending colon in healthy horses was studied using microangiography, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The pelvic flexure with 30 cm of ventral and dorsal colon attached was removed from 14 adult horses immediately after horses were euthanatized. The lumen was flushed with warm water, and this section of the ascending colon was placed in a 37-C bath of isotonic NaCl. In sections from 8 horses, colic vessels were perfused with a radio-opaque medium for microangiography. After angiographic evaluation, tissue sections were prepared for light microscopic observation, using standard histologic methods. In sections from 6 horses, injection replicas were made by perfusing the vessels with 2 types of plastics. The results of microangiography, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy of vascular replicas were correlated, providing a comprehensive documentation of the microvasculature of the ascending colon at the pelvic flexure. Arteries branched from mesenteric colic vessels approximately every 2 cm toward the colonic tissue. Immediately after branching, arterial vessels formed an anastomotic plexus, the colonic rete. However, each branch from the colic vessel eventually continued into the colonic tissue. A second set of vessels originated from the colonic tissue. A second set of vessels originated from the colonic rete and supplied the mesenteric lymph nodes. Arterial vessels penetrated the tunica muscularis into the submucosa 3 to 4 cm toward the antimesenteric border forming a submucosal vascular network. From the submucosal arterioles, branching took place at right angles to supply the mucosal capillaries. Capillaries surrounded the colonic glands and anastomosed at the luminal surface, forming a superficial luminal honeycomb-appearing vascular plexus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2610433

  19. Anesthetic Management in a Patient With Type A Aortic Dissection and Superior Vena Cava Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Totonchi, Ziae; Givtaj, Nader; Sakhaei, Mozhgan; Foroutan, Afshin; Chitsazan, Mitra; Chitsazan, Mandana; Pouraliakbar, Hamidreza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Induction of general anesthesia in patients with superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome may cause airway obstruction and cardiovascular collapse. Case Presentation: Herein, we introduced a patient with the diagnosis of dissecting aneurysm of the ascending aorta who was candidate for emergency surgery. He also had symptoms of SVC syndrome. To maintain airway patency during anesthetic management, we decided to perform femoro-femoral cardiopulmonary bypass followed by general anesthesia and tracheal intubation. Conclusions: Femoro-femoral bypass prior to initiation of sternotomy is a safe and easy method in patients with aortic dissection and SVC syndrome in whom earlier endotracheal intubation may not be feasible. PMID:26436073

  20. JAG Tearing Technique with Radiofrequency Guide Wire for Aortic Fenestration in Thoracic Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Ricci, Carmelo; Ceccherini, Claudio Leonini, Sara; Cini, Marco; Vigni, Francesco; Neri, Eugenio; Tucci, Enrico; Benvenuti, Antonio; Tommasino, Giulio; Sassi, Carlo

    2012-02-15

    An innovative approach, the JAG tearing technique, was performed during thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair in a patient with previous surgical replacement of the ascending aorta with a residual uncomplicated type B aortic dissection who developed an aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta with its lumen divided in two parts by an intimal flap. The proximal landing zone was suitable to place a thoracic stent graft. The distal landing zone was created by cutting the intimal flap in the distal third of the descending thoracic aorta with a radiofrequency guide wire and intravascular ultrasound catheter.

  1. Emergence of Spatial Stream Segregation in the Ascending Auditory Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Justin D.; Bremen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Stream segregation enables a listener to disentangle multiple competing sequences of sounds. A recent study from our laboratory demonstrated that cortical neurons in anesthetized cats exhibit spatial stream segregation (SSS) by synchronizing preferentially to one of two sequences of noise bursts that alternate between two source locations. Here, we examine the emergence of SSS along the ascending auditory pathway. Extracellular recordings were made in anesthetized rats from the inferior colliculus (IC), the nucleus of the brachium of the IC (BIN), the medial geniculate body (MGB), and the primary auditory cortex (A1). Stimuli consisted of interleaved sequences of broadband noise bursts that alternated between two source locations. At stimulus presentation rates of 5 and 10 bursts per second, at which human listeners report robust SSS, neural SSS is weak in the central nucleus of the IC (ICC), it appears in the nucleus of the brachium of the IC (BIN) and in approximately two-thirds of neurons in the ventral MGB (MGBv), and is prominent throughout A1. The enhancement of SSS at the cortical level reflects both increased spatial sensitivity and increased forward suppression. We demonstrate that forward suppression in A1 does not result from synaptic inhibition at the cortical level. Instead, forward suppression might reflect synaptic depression in the thalamocortical projection. Together, our findings indicate that auditory streams are increasingly segregated along the ascending auditory pathway as distinct mutually synchronized neural populations. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Listeners are capable of disentangling multiple competing sequences of sounds that originate from distinct sources. This stream segregation is aided by differences in spatial location between the sources. A possible substrate of spatial stream segregation (SSS) has been described in the auditory cortex, but the mechanisms leading to those cortical responses are unknown. Here, we investigated SSS in

  2. [Evaluation after 20 years of a case of Takayasu's disease that presented with aortic regurgitation].

    PubMed

    Pierre, B; Machet, M C; Marchand, M; Alison, D; Casset-Senon, D; Fauchier, L; Charniot, J C; Babuty, D; Cosnay, P

    2005-03-01

    Takayasu's disease is a segmental multifocal affection of medium and large arteries. The diagnosis is based on the association of stenotic and aneurismal lesions of the aorta and its branches secondary to an inflammatory infiltration of the media and adventitia. Cases of aortic regurgitation associated with aneurismal dilatation of the ascending aorta as the presenting features of Takayasu's disease, as in this case, are rare. Histological examination of the aortic wall may help establish the diagnosis by showing signs of aortitis. The other usual arterial lesions are sometimes missing at the initial phase of the disease. A late histological diagnosis may be difficult as the inflammatory lesions tend to be progressively replaced by fibrotic lesions or a banal atheroma. PMID:15816330

  3. Management of an elderly patient with respiratory failure due to double aortic arch

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Changwan; Puchalski, Jonathan; Perkins, Michael; Honiden, Shyoko

    2015-01-01

    Vascular rings are congenital malformations of the aortic arch. A double aortic arch (DAA), the most common type of vascular ring, results from the failure of the fourth embryonic branchial arch to regress, leading to an ascending aorta that divides into a left and right arch that fuse together to completely encircle the trachea and esophagus. The subsequent DAA causes compressive effects on the trachea and esophagus that typically manifests in infancy or early childhood. Adult presentations, particularly in the elderly, are exceedingly rare. Historically such patients have a long-standing history of dyspnea on exertion and dysphagia, with many assumed to have obstructive lung or intrinsic cardiac disease. We describe a case of an elderly woman who presented with respiratory failure due to DAA. In her case, surgery was not feasible and we describe our experience with airway stenting.

  4. [Debranch Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Therapy for Extending Aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Shinji

    2016-07-01

    To apply endovascular aortic repair for arch or thoracoabdominal pathology, it is essential to reconstruct the branches originating in the treatment area. In cases that a stentgraft has to reach ascending aorta we perform "in situ fenestration with squid capture technique".During the procedure cerebral circulation is maintained by percutaneous cardiopulmonary bypass. After deploying the stentgraft we stab it by a needle while squeezed by snare wire and stick a covered stentgraft eventually. Unlike chimney technique which also can be applied for zone 0 thoracic endovascular aortic therapy( TEVAR),this method has no risk of gutter leak. For now there are no fenestrated nor branched grafts in Japan so that we should perform hybrid TEVAR for throacoabdominal aneurysms if patients' conditions cannot allow graft replacement. In such a case we make bypasses between the common iliac artery( or left leg of bifurcated graft) and visceral arteries using a quadrated graft. All anastomosis can be done in a retroperitoneal single plane. TEVAR shouldn't be performed simultaneously with bypass because unstable hemodynamic increase risk of paraplegia. We have never experienced paraplegia among 50 cases except for 1 case in which TEVAR had to be done urgently under critical hypotension. PMID:27440024

  5. Reoperative Aortic Root Replacement in Patients with Previous Aortic Root or Aortic Valve Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Byung Kwon; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won; Kim, Joon Bum

    2016-01-01

    Background Generalization of standardized surgical techniques to treat aortic valve (AV) and aortic root diseases has benefited large numbers of patients. As a consequence of the proliferation of patients receiving aortic root surgeries, surgeons are more frequently challenged by reoperative aortic root procedures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of redo-aortic root replacement (ARR). Methods We retrospectively reviewed 66 patients (36 male; mean age, 44.5±9.5 years) who underwent redo-ARR following AV or aortic root procedures between April 1995 and June 2015. Results Emergency surgeries comprised 43.9% (n=29). Indications for the redo-ARR were aneurysm (n=12), pseudoaneurysm (n=1), or dissection (n=6) of the residual native aortic sinus in 19 patients (28.8%), native AV dysfunction in 8 patients (12.1%), structural dysfunction of an implanted bioprosthetic AV in 19 patients (28.8%), and infection of previously replaced AV or proximal aortic grafts in 30 patients (45.5%). There were 3 early deaths (4.5%). During follow-up (median, 54.65 months; quartile 1–3, 17.93 to 95.71 months), there were 14 late deaths (21.2%), and 9 valve-related complications including reoperation of the aortic root in 1 patient, infective endocarditis in 3 patients, and hemorrhagic events in 5 patients. Overall survival and event-free survival rates at 5 years were 81.5%±5.1% and 76.4%±5.4%, respectively. Conclusion Despite technical challenges and a high rate of emergency conditions in patients requiring redo-ARR, early and late outcomes were acceptable in these patients. PMID:27525233

  6. Chronic Otitis Media Resulting in Aortic Valve Replacement: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Guler, Adem; Sahin, Mehmet Ali; Gurkan Yesil, Fahri; Yildizoglu, Uzeyir; Demirkol, Sait; Arslan, Mehmet

    2015-04-01

    The bicuspid aortic valve is known to be the most common congenital cardiac malformation, with an approximate incidence rate of 1-2% in the general population. Most patients are unaware of the disease until the onset of infective endocarditis, which is a life-threatening complication that may affect a heart valve or other cardiac structures at the site of endothelial damage. A 22-year-old man presented to our internal medicine clinic with a complaint of acute onset dyspnea and fatigue. His body temperature was 38 (°)C. A diastolic murmur was detected at the right sternal border. Two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography revealed severe aortic insufficiency, and two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography showed that the aortic valve was bicuspid. There was also a flail lesion extending the left ventricular outflow tract, resulting in pathological coaptation and severe aortic insufficiency. The patient was referred to our cardiovascular department for surgery. We herein present this case of a bicuspid aortic valve complicated by infective endocarditis due to the underlying disease of chronic otitis media related to a rare pathogen: Alloiococcus otitidis. The patient underwent a successful aortic valve replacement surgery due to aortic insufficiency following infective endocarditis. He was discharged on the 16(th) postoperative day in good condition. PMID:26110009

  7. Hybrid repair of ruptured type B aortic dissection extending into an aberrant right subclavian artery in a patient with Turner's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hamidian-Jahromi, Alireza; Carroll, Jonathan D; Doucet, Linda D; Zhang, Wayne W

    2013-11-01

    Turner's syndrome (TS) has been documented as the most common cause of aortic dissection in young women. However, little attention from vascular surgery has been paid to these patients. We report the first case of ruptured type B aortic dissection with aberrant right subclavian artery treated successfully with hybrid endovascular and open procedures in a patient with TS. Left carotid to subclavian artery bypass, thoracic endovascular aortic repair, and coil embolization of the aberrant right subclavian and left subclavian arteries were performed in an emergency setting. Literature on epidemiology, causes, and management options of acute aortic dissection in TS patients are reviewed and discussed. PMID:24011806

  8. Relationships between retinal arteriole anatomy and aortic geometry and function and peripheral resistance in hypertensives.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, David; Kachenoura, Nadjia; Koch, Edouard; Paques, Michel; Cluzel, Philippe; Redheuil, Alban; Girerd, Xavier

    2016-07-01

    Microvascular remodeling and large artery stiffness are key determinants of cardiovascular hemodynamics and can now be studied with new non-invasive methods. Our objective was to study the relationships between retinal arteriole anatomy and aortic geometry and function and peripheral resistance (total peripheral resistance (TPR)) in hypertensives. In 80 subjects (age 52±13 years; 53% males; including 23 normotensives and 57 hypertensives, among which 29 were uncontrolled hypertensives), we used: (1) the new non-invasive RTX1 adaptive optics (AO) camera (Imagine Eyes, Orsay, France) to measure the wall-to-lumen ratio (WLR) on retinal microvasculature; (2) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging to assess aortic stiffness, geometry and cardiac output; and (3) the validated SphymoCor Xcel device to measure central blood pressure (BP) and carotido-femoral pulse wave velocity (Cf-PWV). TPR was calculated as the central mean BP/cardiac output ratio. WLR and TPR were significantly higher and aortic distensibility was significantly lower in hypertensives. Aortic dilation and arch elongation were found in uncontrolled hypertensives. In the univariate analysis, WLR was positively correlated with central BP (P<0.001), TPR (P<0.001) and Cf-PWV (P<0.05), and it was negatively correlated with aortic distensibility (P=0.003); however, it was not correlated with age or cardiovascular risk factors. The multivariate analysis indicated that WLR was associated with TPR (P=0.002) independent of age, BMI, gender, antihypertensive treatments, aortic diameter and central SBP. As expected, age was the major correlate of ascending aorta distensibility and Cf-PWV. New non-invasive vascular imaging methods are complementary for the detection of the deleterious effects of aging or high BP on large and small arteries. AO examination could represent a useful tool for the study and follow-up of microvasculature anatomical changes. PMID:27009576

  9. A comparative study of ascending urethrogram and sono-urethrogram in the evaluation of stricture urethra

    PubMed Central

    B.R., Ravikumar; Tejus, Chiranjeevi; K.M., Madappa; Prashant, Dharakh; G.S., Dhayanand

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of sono-urethrogram and ascending urethrogram in the evaluation of stricture urethra. Materials and Methods In this prospective study 40 patients with obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms and suspected to be having stricture urethra were subjected to ascending urethrogram and sonourethrogram. The radiologist was blinded to the findings of ascending urethrogram. All the sonourethrograms were done by the same radiologist. The findings of sonourethrogram & ascending urethrogram were compared with the findings of cystoscopy and intra-operative findings. The specificity, sensitivity,positive predictive value and negative predictive value of each modality in the diagnosis of various urethral anomalies were estimated. Results The sonourethrogram identified stricture disease in all the patients who had abnormal ascending urethrogram. In addition, other abnormalities like spongiofibrosis, diverticula and stones which were not picked up in ascending urethrogram were diagnosed by sonourethrogram. The cystoscopic and intra-operative findings with respect to stricture length, diameter and spongiofibrosis correlated well with sono-urethrogram findings. 5 patients who had stricture in the ascending urethrogram were found to be having the normal urethra in sonourethrogram and confirmed by cystoscopy. Conclusion sonourethrogram is an effective alternative to ascending urethrogram in the evaluation of stricture urethra. It is more sensitive in the diagnosis of anterior urethral strictures than posterior urethral strictures. It is superior to ascending urethrogram in the identification of spongiofibrosis, diameter and length of the stricture. The complications were lower in sonourethrogram group compared to ascending urethrogram. PMID:26005985

  10. Maximum Aerodynamic Force on an Ascending Space Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backman, Philip

    2012-03-01

    The March 2010 issue of The Physics Teacher includes a great article by Metz and Stinner on the kinematics and dynamics of a space shuttle launch. Within those pages is a brief mention of an event known in the language of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as "maximum dynamic pressure" (called simply "Max.AirPressure" in the article), where the combined effect of air density and the shuttles speed produce the greatest aerodynamic stress on the vehicle as it ascends through the atmosphere toward orbit. Official commentary during a launch2 refers to this point in the ascent with language such as "space shuttle main engines throttling back as vehicle enters area of maximum dynamic pressure" and occurs in a range between 45 and 60 s after launch. (In dealing with this stress, the space shuttles main engines reduce their thrust at approximately 45 s to reduce acceleration, and return to normal levels again some 15 s later as maximum dynamic pressure is traversed.) This paper presents an analysis, accessible to introductory-level students, that predicts the time of Max. AirPressure for a given ascending spacecraft.

  11. Long Term Mean Local Time of the Ascending Node Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKinley, David P.

    2007-01-01

    Significant error has been observed in the long term prediction of the Mean Local Time of the Ascending Node on the Aqua spacecraft. This error of approximately 90 seconds over a two year prediction is a complication in planning and timing of maneuvers for all members of the Earth Observing System Afternoon Constellation, which use Aqua's MLTAN as the reference for their inclination maneuvers. It was determined that the source of the prediction error was the lack of a solid Earth tide model in the operational force models. The Love Model of the solid Earth tide potential was used to derive analytic corrections to the inclination and right ascension of the ascending node of Aqua's Sun-synchronous orbit. Additionally, it was determined that the resonance between the Sun and orbit plane of the Sun-synchronous orbit is the primary driver of this error. The analytic corrections have been added to the operational force models for the Aqua spacecraft reducing the two-year 90-second error to less than 7 seconds.

  12. Aortic Wall Extracellular Matrix Proteins Correlate with Syntax Score in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chiong, Terri; Cheow, Esther S. H.; Woo, Chin C.; Lin, Xiao Y.; Khin, Lay W.; Lee, Chuen N.; Hartman, Mikael; Sze, Siu K.; Sorokin, Vitaly A.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The SYNTAX score correlate with major cardiovascular events post-revascularization, although the histopathological basis is unclear. We aim to evaluate the association between syntax score and extracellular matrix histological characteristics of aortic punch tissue obtained during coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). This analysis compares coronary artery bypass surgery patients with High and Low syntax score which were followed up for one year period. Methods and Results: Patients with High (score ≥ 33, (n=77)) and Low Syntax Scores (score ≤ 22, (n=71)) undergoing elective CABG were recruited prospectively. Baseline clinical characteristics and surgical risks were well matched. At 1 year, EMACCE (Sum of cardiovascular death, stroke, congestive cardiac failure, and limb, gut and myocardial ischemia) was significantly elevated in the High syntax group (P=0.022). Mass spectrometry (MS)-based quantitative iTRAQ proteomic results validated on independent cohort by immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed that the High syntax group had significantly upraised Collagen I (P<0.0001) and Elastin (P<0.0001) content in ascending aortic wall. Conclusion: This study shows that aortic extracellular matrix (ECM) differ between High and Low syntax groups with up-regulation of Collagen I and Elastin level in High Syntax Score group. This identifies aortic punches collected during CABG as another biomarker source related with atherosclerosis severity and possible clinical outcome. PMID:27347220

  13. A Bentall Is Not a Bentall Is Not a Bentall: The Evolution of Aortic Root Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Maddalo, Scott; Beller, Jared; DeAnda, Abe

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aortic root pathology had been a known entity with a progressive and catastrophic course, long before the methods to surgically address them were first developed. Once reliable cardiopulmonary bypass was established, surgeons were able to pioneer new operative techniques, and in the half-century to follow, countless modifications and refinements have provided today's surgeons with the surgical approaches that are currently at their disposal. History: Denton Cooley and Michael De Bakey reported the first successful surgical intervention for aneurysms involving the ascending aorta in 1956. Nearly a decade later, Hugh Bentall described his modification, and provided a name that would leave a lasting mark on aneurysmal surgery. In the decades to follow, numerous innovative surgeons improved on these original procedures to allow for a more reliable and consistent operation. Further, Tirone David and Sir Magdi Yacoub each described their methods to repair the aortic root while preserving the valve, thus providing their patients with freedom from a prosthetic or mechanical valve and improved quality of life. Conclusions: The development of surgical techniques required to successfully care for patients with pathology of the aortic root has evolved considerably since Cooley and De Bakey's original report. Although it is common to hear aortic root replacement referred to as a “Bentall,” the methods currently employed have gone through considerable evolution, such that the techniques of today should not be referred to as a Bentall. PMID:26798737

  14. Observing System Simulations for ASCENDS: Synthesizing Science Measurement Requirements (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawa, S. R.; Baker, D. F.; Schuh, A. E.; Crowell, S.; Rayner, P. J.; Hammerling, D.; Michalak, A. M.; Wang, J. S.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Ott, L.; Zaccheo, T.; Abshire, J. B.; Browell, E. V.; Moore, B.; Crisp, D.

    2013-12-01

    The measurement of atmospheric CO2 from space using active (lidar) sensing techniques has several potentially significant advantages in comparison to current and planned passive CO2 instruments. Application of this new technology aims to advance CO2 measurement capability and carbon cycle science into the next decade. The NASA Active Sensing of Carbon Emissions, Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission has been recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey for the next generation of space-based CO2 observing systems. ASCENDS is currently planned for launch in 2022. Several possible lidar instrument approaches have been demonstrated in airborne campaigns and the results indicate that such sensors are quite feasible. Studies are now underway to evaluate performance requirements for space mission implementation. Satellite CO2 observations must be highly precise and unbiased in order to accurately infer global carbon source/sink fluxes. Measurement demands are likely to further increase in the wake of GOSAT, OCO-2, and enhanced ground-based in situ and remote sensing CO2 data. The objective of our work is to quantitatively and consistently evaluate the measurement capabilities and requirements for ASCENDS in the context of advancing our knowledge of carbon flux distributions and their dependence on underlying physical processes. Considerations include requirements for precision, relative accuracy, spatial/temporal coverage and resolution, vertical information content, interferences, and possibly the tradeoffs among these parameters, while at the same time framing a mission that can be implemented within a constrained budget. Here, we attempt to synthesize the results of observing system simulation studies, commissioned by the ASCENDS Science Requirements Definition Team, into a coherent set of mission performance guidelines. A variety of forward and inverse model frameworks are employed to reduce the potential dependence of the results on model

  15. Descending endograft for DeBakey type 1 aortic dissection: pro

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The surgical management of patients with DeBakey type 1 acute aortic dissection (DBT1-AAD) represents a major challenge for aortic surgeons. It has been demonstrated that the distal false lumen remains patent in about 70% to 80% of patients undergoing DBT1-AAD surgery and that a patent false lumen worsens the prognosis. In order to improve long term outcomes and reduce the frequency of late aneurysm formation and reoperation, a more aggressive primary operation involving total arch replacement (TAR) and concomitant antegrade stenting of the descending thoracic aorta (DTA) with a frozen elephant trunk (FET) has been introduced. Such extensive operations, however, remain controversial due to their increased technical complexity and perceived higher operative mortality and morbidity. This perspective article will overview the rationale behind, and the potential advantages and current evidence for, FET surgery in acute aortic dissection. PMID:27386410

  16. Coronary Flow Impacts Aortic Leaflet Mechanics and Aortic Sinus Hemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brandon L.; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical stresses on aortic valve leaflets are well-known mediators for initiating processes leading to calcific aortic valve disease. Given that non-coronary leaflets calcify first, it may be hypothesized that coronary flow originating from the ostia significantly influences aortic leaflet mechanics and sinus hemodynamics. High resolution time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were conducted to map the spatiotemporal characteristics of aortic sinus blood flow and leaflet motion with and without physiological coronary flow in a well-controlled in vitro setup. The in vitro setup consists of a porcine aortic valve mounted in a physiological aorta sinus chamber with dynamically controlled coronary resistance to emulate physiological coronary flow. Results were analyzed using qualitative streak plots illustrating the spatiotemporal complexity of blood flow patterns, and quantitative velocity vector and shear stress contour plots to show differences in the mechanical environments between the coronary and non-coronary sinuses. It is shown that the presence of coronary flow pulls the classical sinus vorticity deeper into the sinus and increases flow velocity near the leaflet base. This creates a beneficial increase in shear stress and washout near the leaflet that is not seen in the non-coronary sinus. Further, leaflet opens approximately 10% farther into the sinus with coronary flow case indicating superior valve opening area. The presence of coronary flow significantly improves leaflet mechanics and sinus hemodynamics in a manner that would reduce low wall shear stress conditions while improving washout at the base of the leaflet. PMID:25636598

  17. Hybrid procedure for a traumatic aortic rupture consisting of endovascular repair and minimally invasive arch vessel transposition without sternotomy.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Yang Gi; Choo, Suk Jung; Lim, Ju Yong; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Chung, Cheol Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Emergency surgical repair for acute traumatic aortic ruptures has been associated with a high peri-procedural mortality rate. Endovascular stent-grafting, as a less invasive procedure, has shown encouraging results. This report describes a patient with a short landing zone, who was treated by transposing the supra-aortic branch without sternotomy, followed by covered stent-grafting with an extended proximal bare portion to enhance fixation. PMID:20052360

  18. Endovascular Treatment of a Symptomatic Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysm by Chimney and Periscope Techniques for Total Visceral and Renal Artery Revascularization

    SciTech Connect

    Cariati, Maurizio; Mingazzini, Pietro; Dallatana, Raffaello; Rossi, Umberto G.; Settembrini, Alberto; Santuari, Davide

    2013-05-02

    Conventional endovascular therapy of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm with involving visceral and renal arteries is limited by the absence of a landing zone for the aortic endograft. Solutions have been proposed to overcome the problem of no landing zone; however, most of them are not feasible in urgent and high-risk patients. We describe a case that was successfully treated by total endovascular technique with a two-by-two chimney-and-periscope approach in a patient with acute symptomatic type IV thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm with supra-anastomotic aneurysm formation involving the renal and visceral arteries and a pseduaneurismatic sac localized in the left ileopsoas muscle.

  19. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    AAA - open - discharge; Repair - aortic aneurysm - open - discharge ... You had open aortic aneurysm surgery to repair an aneurysm (a widened part) in your aorta, the large artery that carries blood to your ...

  20. Numerical study on 4-1 coal seam of Xiaoming mine in ascending mining.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tianwei; Zhang, Hongwei; Li, Sheng; Han, Jun; Song, Weihua; Batugin, A C; Tang, Guoshui

    2015-01-01

    Coal seams ascending mining technology is very significant, since it influences the safety production and the liberation of dull coal, speeds up the construction of energy, improves the stability of stope, and reduces or avoids deep hard rock mining induced mine disaster. Combined with the Xiaoming ascending mining mine 4-1, by numerical calculation, the paper analyses ascending mining 4-1 factors, determines the feasibility of ascending mining 4-1 coalbed, and proposes roadway layout program about working face, which has broad economic and social benefits. PMID:25866840