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Sample records for acute behavioural effects

  1. Domestication effects on behavioural and hormonal responses to acute stress in chickens.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Maria; Fallahsharoudi, Amir; Bergquist, Jonas; Kushnir, Mark M; Jensen, Per

    2014-06-22

    Comparative studies have shown that alterations in physiology, morphology and behaviour have arisen due to the domestication. A driving factor behind many of the changes could be a shift in stress responses, with modified endocrine and behavioural profiles. In the present study we compared two breeds of chicken (Gallus gallus), the domestic White Leghorn (WL) egg laying breed and its ancestor, the Red Junglefowl (RJF). Birds were exposed to an acute stress event, invoked by 3 or 10 min of physical restraint. They were then continuously monitored for the effects on a wide range of behaviours during a 60 min recovery phase. Blood samples were collected from the chicken at baseline, and after 10 and 60 min following a similar restraint stress, and the samples were analyzed for nine endogenous steroids of the HPA and HPG axes. Concentration of the steroids was determined using validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry methods. In RJF, an immediate behavioural response was observed after release from restraint in several behaviours, with a relatively fast return to baseline within 1h. In WL, some behaviours were affected for a longer period of time, and others not at all. Concentrations of corticosterone increased more in RJF, but returned faster to baseline compared to WL. A range of baseline levels for HPG-related steroids differed between the breeds, and they were generally more affected by the stress in WL than in RJF. In conclusion, RJF reacted stronger both behaviourally and physiologically to the restraint stress, but also recovered faster. This would appear to be adaptive under natural conditions, whereas the stress recovery of domesticated birds has been altered by domestication and breeding for increased reproductive output. PMID:24878317

  2. Differential effects of naltrexone on cardiac, subjective and behavioural reactions to acute ethanol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Jordan B.; Conrod, Patricia; Vassileva, Jasmin; Gianoulakis, Christina; Pihl, Robert O.

    2006-01-01

    Objective Alcohol may have psychomotor stimulant properties during the rising limb of the blood alcohol curve at commonly self-administered doses. Increased heart rate (HR) immediately after alcohol consumption may serve as an indicator or marker of such properties, which appear to be potentially opiate-mediated and dopamine-dependent. Naltrexone, an opiate antagonist, has been used successfully in the treatment of alcoholism and may produce its therapeutic effects through its effects on alcohol metabolism or by blocking alcohol's rewarding effects. We hypothesized that, if naltrexone blocks the psychomotor stimulant properties of ethanol, then it would decrease or eliminate the HR increase associated with acute alcohol intoxication and that this would be independent of any effect on alcohol metabolism. Methods Twenty male subjects were administered placebo and alcohol (1.0 mL 95% USP ethanol/kg body weight) in a laboratory setting on one day and naltrexone (50 mg) and alcohol on another (counterbalanced). We assessed all subjects for a change in HR and for a subjective and behavioural response from 35 to 170 minutes after drug or alcohol administration. Results The placebo and alcohol mix produced a significant mean HR increase from baseline (F1,95 = 46.01, p < 0.0001, Cohen's d = 0.62), while naltrexone and alcohol did not (nonsignificant). The significant effects of naltrexone on blood alcohol level did not account for the effect of naltrexone on alcohol-induced HR change but did account for alterations in subjective and behavioural response to alcohol. Conclusions Naltrexone appears to substantially reduce the HR increase that is characteristic of alcohol intoxication. This finding appears to lend moderate support to the notions that, first, naltrexone has differential effects on alcohol reactions and, second, that it specifically blocks the acute psychomotor stimulant properties of alcohol. PMID:17136216

  3. Acute effects of bergamot oil on anxiety-related behaviour and corticosterone level in rats.

    PubMed

    Saiyudthong, Somrudee; Marsden, Charles A

    2011-06-01

    Bergamot essential oil (BEO), Citrus aurantium subsp. bergamia (Risso) Wright & Arn. (Rutaceae), is used widely in aromatherapy to reduce stress and anxiety despite limited scientific evidence. A previous study showed that BEO significantly increased gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in rat hippocampus, suggesting potential anxiolytic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BEO (1.0%, 2.5% and 5.0% w/w) administered to rats on both anxiety-related behaviours (the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and hole-board tests) and stress-induced levels of plasma corticosterone in comparison with the effects of diazepam. Inhalation of BEO (1% and 2.5%) and injection of diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased the percentage of open arm entries on the EPM. The percentage time spent in the open arms was also significantly enhanced following administration of either BEO (2.5% and 5%) or diazepam. Total arm entries were significantly increased with the highest dose (5%), suggesting an increase in locomotor activity. In the hole-board test, 2.5% BEO and diazepam significantly increased the number of head dips. 2.5% BEO and diazepam attenuated the corticosterone response to acute stress caused by exposure to the EPM. In conclusion, both BEO and diazepam exhibited anxiolytic-like behaviours and attenuated HPA axis activity by reducing the corticosterone response to stress. PMID:21105176

  4. Effects on rat sexual behaviour of acute MDMA (ecstasy) alone or in combination with loud music.

    PubMed

    Cagiano, R; Bera, I; Sabatini, R; Flace, P; Vermesan, D; Vermesan, H; Dragulescu, S I; Bottalico, L; Santacroce, L

    2008-01-01

    The effects on sexual behaviour of acute low doses of methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) (0.3, 1, 3 mg/kg/i.p.), alone or in combination with exposure to loud music (1 h stimulation), were investigated in Wistar rats. Results indicate that acute MDMA, at dose of 3 mg/kg, notably impaired copulatory behavior of sexually experienced male rats. In particular, MDMA-exposed animals exhibited a significant increase in intromission and ejaculation latencies as well as a significant decrease in percentage of rats displaying copulatory activity (one intromission at least). Surprisingly, one hour exposure to loud music, which per se resulted ineffective, antagonized the suppressive effect of MDMA by increasing the percent of animals displaying sexual activity. However, combined treatment of MDMA and music stimulation did not fully restore normal sexual behavior as the animals reaching ejaculation still showed a marked reduction of copulatory efficiency. These findings demonstrate that the systemic administration of a single low dose of MDMA, alone or in combination with loud music, which is commonly present in certain environments such as rave parties, notably impairs copulatory activity of male rats. PMID:19024211

  5. Acute effects of copper and mercury on the estuarine fish Pomatoschistus microps: linking biomarkers to behaviour.

    PubMed

    Vieira, L R; Gravato, C; Soares, A M V M; Morgado, F; Guilhermino, L

    2009-09-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate possible links between biomarkers and swimming performance in the estuarine fish Pomatoschistus microps acutely exposed to metals (copper and mercury). In independent bioassays, P. microps juveniles were individually exposed for 96 h to sub-lethal concentrations of copper or mercury. At the end of the assays, swimming performance of fish was measured using a device specially developed for epibenthic fish (SPEDE). Furthermore, the following biomarkers were measured: lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activity of the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutathione S-transferases (GST), 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). LC(50)s of copper and mercury (dissolved throughout metal concentrations) at 96h were 568 microg L(-1), and 62 microg L(-1), respectively. Significant and concentration-dependent effects of both metals on swimming resistance and covered distance against water flow were found at concentrations equal or higher than 50 microg L(-1) for copper and 3 microg L(-1) for mercury (dissolved throughout metal concentrations). These results indicate that SPEDE was efficacious to quantify behavioural alterations in the epibenthic fish P. microps at ecologically relevant concentrations. Significant alterations by both metals on biomarkers were found including: inhibition of AChE and EROD activities, induction of LDH, GST and anti-oxidant enzymes, and increased LPO levels, with LOEC values ranging from 25 to 200 microg L(-1), for copper and from 3 to 25 microg L(-1) for mercury (dissolved throughout metal concentrations). Furthermore, significant and positive correlations were found between some biomarkers (AChE and EROD) and behavioural parameters, while negative correlations were found for others (LPO, anti-oxidant enzymes and LDH) suggesting that disruption of cholinergic

  6. Short-term effect of acute and repeated urinary bladder inflammation on thigmotactic behaviour in the laboratory rat

    PubMed Central

    Morland, Rosemary H; Novejarque, Amparo; Huang, Wenlong; Wodarski, Rachel; Denk, Franziska; Dawes, John D; Pheby, Tim; McMahon, Stephen B; Rice, Andrew SC

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the non-sensory components of the pain experience is crucial to developing effective treatments for pain conditions. Chronic pain is associated with increased incidence of anxio-depressive disorders, and patients often report feelings of vulnerability which can decrease quality of life. In animal models of pain, observation of behaviours such as thigmotaxis can be used to detect such affective disturbances by exploiting the influence of nociceptive stimuli on the innate behavioural conflict between exploration of a novel space and predator avoidance behaviour. This study investigates whether acute and repeated bladder inflammation in adult female Wistar rats increases thigmotactic behaviour in the open field paradigm, and aims to determine whether this correlates with activation in the central amygdala, as measured by c-Fos immunoreactivity. Additionally, up-regulation of inflammatory mediators in the urinary bladder was measured using RT-qPCR array featuring 92 transcripts to examine how local mediators change under experimental conditions. We found acute but not repeated turpentine inflammation of the bladder increased thigmotactic behaviour (decreased frequency of entry to the inner zone) in the open field paradigm, a result that was also observed in the catheter-only instrumentation group. Decreases in locomotor activity were also observed in both models in turpentine and instrumentation groups. No differences were observed in c-Fos activation, although a general increased in activation along the rostro-caudal axis was seen. Inflammatory mediator up-regulation was greatest following acute inflammation, with CCL12, CCL7, and IL-1β significantly up-regulated in both conditions when compared to naïve tissue. These results suggest that acute catheterisation, with or without turpentine inflammation, induces affective alterations detectable in the open field paradigm accompanied by up-regulation of multiple inflammatory mediators. PMID:27158443

  7. Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone, 'meow'): acute behavioural effects and distribution of Fos expression in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Motbey, Craig P; Hunt, Glenn E; Bowen, Michael T; Artiss, Suzanne; McGregor, Iain S

    2012-03-01

    Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) is a novel recreational drug that has rapidly increased in popularity in recent years. Users report mephedrone as having the stimulant-like qualities of methamphetamine and cocaine, combined with the prosocial, entactogenic effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Anecdotal and case study reports indicate that mephedrone may have the potential to engender compulsive patterns of use as well as toxicity in overdose. However, there have been almost no neuropharmacological investigations of the drug up to this point. Here we examined the effects of two different mephedrone doses [15 and 30 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (IP)] relative to the well-known stimulant methamphetamine (2 mg/kg IP) in adolescent rats. Rats were injected, assessed for locomotor activity for 60 minutes and then tested in a 10-minute social preference test (measuring time spent in close proximity to a real rat versus a dummy rat). Their brains were then processed using Fos immunohistochemistry to determine patterns of brain activation. Results showed that mephedrone caused profound locomotor hyperactivity at both dose levels while tending to reduce social preference. Patterns of Fos expression with mephedrone resembled a combination of those observed with methamphetamine and MDMA, with particularly strong Fos expression in the cortex, dorsal and ventral striatum, ventral tegmental area (typical of both MDMA and methamphetamine) and supraoptic nucleus (typical of MDMA). These results demonstrate for the first time the powerful stimulant effects of mephedrone in animal models and its capacity to activate mesolimbic regions. These results also provide some empirical basis to user reports that mephedrone subjectively resembles a MDMA/methamphetamine hybrid. PMID:21995495

  8. Effects of acute chemotherapy-induced mucositis on spontaneous behaviour and the grimace scale in laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, A L; Leach, M C; Preston, F L; Lymn, K A; Howarth, G S

    2016-04-01

    Intestinal mucositis is a frequent side-effect of chemotherapy treatment. Many oncological research programs aim to identify novel treatments for this distressing condition, and these programs frequently use rat models. Little is known about the presence and progression of pain in these models and how this can best be treated by analgesic therapy. We used a number of behaviour-based methods of pain assessment to determine which tools were best suited for pain identification. Baseline measures for behavioural assessment, rat grimace score and sociability were determined through analysis of continuously recorded video data and an applied social interaction test (n = 16). Mucositis was then induced by intraperitoneal injection of 5-fluorouracil (150 mg/kg) and further behavioural analyses undertaken. An assessment of enrichment interaction was also made by determining the mass of a plastic chew toy gnawed both pre- and post-chemotherapy injection. Behavioural scoring was performed 1, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after injection, with facial expression being scored at the 12, 24 and 48 h time-points. Sociability testing was performed once during the post-injection period. No significant differences were found in grimace scores between baseline and later daily measures. Behaviours similar to those previously reported post-laparotomy were observed. Writhing, twitching and back-arching behaviours were most evident in rats affected by mucositis and were increased in frequency (respectivePvalues: 0.002, 0.004 and 0.008) 48 h after chemotherapy injection compared with baseline, implying that pain onset occurred around this time-point. Social investigatory behaviour was also increased (P = 0.002) following disease onset. Each day, rats post-5FU injection gnawed a greater percentage of their nylabone enrichment by weight than the saline-injected control rats (P = 0.046). These data suggest that, of the tools tested, behavioural assessment scoring may find greatest

  9. Acute effects of advertisements on children's choices, preferences, and ratings of liking for physical activities and sedentary behaviours: a randomised controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Atlantis, Evan; Salmon, Jo; Bauman, Adrian

    2008-11-01

    The acute decision prompting effects of social marketing via television (TV) advertisements promoting physical activity to children are unknown. This pilot study aimed to determine the acute effects of an Australian government-sponsored TV advertisement (called 'Get Moving'), promoting more physical activity and less sedentary behaviour, on children's choices, preferences, and ratings of liking for physical activities and sedentary behaviours. Thirty-one children aged 10-12 years were recruited from a single public school, and randomised to one of two treatment groups or two control groups (Solomon four-group design). Treatment participants watched an episode of The Simpsons embedded every 10min with three 30s Get Moving advertisements plus standard advertisements. Control participants watched the same episode plus standard advertisements, but without the Get Moving advertisements. The following dependent variables were assessed immediately before and/or after exposure: activity preference (participants selected either verbally or by pointing to one of eight picture cards depicting four physical activities and four sedentary behaviours); ratings of liking (participants rated how much they liked or disliked each of these activities/behaviours either verbally or by pointing to one of nine values with an adjacent smile or frown on a Likert-type scale); and time spent in physical activities was assessed by direct observation during a 10min free-time session. No significant effects or trends were seen for any of the dependent variables. Further research is needed to determine whether different content and/or higher doses of exposure to physical activity promoting advertisements are needed to influence children's activity choices. PMID:17928265

  10. Tail docking in pigs: acute physiological and behavioural responses.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, M A; Bryer, P J; Krebs, N; McGlone, J J

    2008-02-01

    Tail docking of piglets is a routine procedure on farms to control tail-biting behaviour; however, docking can cause an acute stress response. The objectives of this research were to determine the stress responses to tail docking in piglets and to compare two methods of tail docking; cautery iron (CAUT) and the more commonly used blunt trauma cutters (BT). At approximately 6 days of age, piglets were tail docked using CAUT (n = 20), BT (n = 20) or sham tail docked with their tails remaining intact (CON; n = 40). Blood samples were taken prior to tail docking and at 30, 60 and 90 min after tail docking to evaluate the effect of tail docking on white blood cell (WBC) measures and cortisol concentrations. The above experiment was repeated to observe behaviour without the periodic blood sampling, so as not to confound the effects of blood sampling on piglet behaviour. Piglet behaviour was recorded in the farrowing crate using 1 min scan-samples via live observations for 60 min prior to and 90 min after tail docking. Total WBC counts were reduced (P > 0.05) among BT and CAUT compared with CON piglets 30 min after tail docking. Cortisol concentrations were higher (P < 0.01) among BT compared with CON and CAUT piglets 60 min after tail docking. Cautery and BT-docked piglets spent more (P < 0.05) time posterior scooting compared with CON piglets between 0 and 15 min, and 31 and 45 min after tail docking. Piglets tail docked using CAUT and BT tended to spend more (P < 0.07) time sitting than CON piglets between 0 and 15 min post tail docking. Elevated blood cortisol can be reduced by the use of the CAUT rather than the BT method of tail docking. Although the tail docking-induced rise in cortisol was prevented by using CAUT, the behavioural response to BT and CAUT docking methods was similar. PMID:22445023

  11. Acute and sub-chronic effects of purified cathinone from khat (Catha edulis) on behavioural profiles in vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops).

    PubMed

    Nyongesa, Albert W; Oduma, Jemimah A; Nakajima, Motohiro; Odongo, Hesbon O; Adoyo, Pius A; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the cumulative effects of cathinone on behavioural alterations in single-caged vervet monkeys. Fourteen adult vervets were divided into tests (12 animals) and controls (2 animals), and exposed to escalating doses of cathinone at alternate days of each week for 4 months in presence and absence of cage enrichment. One month of pre-treatment phase served to establish baseline values. Composite behavioural scores of aggression, anxiety, abnormal responses, withdrawal and appetite loss were done. A series of repeated measures analysis of variances were conducted to examine the extent to which cathinone administration was associated with patterns of changes in behavioural data. Results indicate a dose-dependent effect of cathinone on increases of aggression, anxiety, abnormal responses, withdrawal, and appetite loss. The findings demonstrate that at high doses and long-term exposure, cathinone causes behavioural alterations probably via changes in presynaptic striatal dopamine system. PMID:24154685

  12. Could piracetam potentiate behavioural effects of psychostimulants?

    PubMed

    Slais, Karel; Machalova, Alena; Landa, Leos; Vrskova, Dagmar; Sulcova, Alexandra

    2012-08-01

    Press and internet reports mention abuse of nootropic drug piracetam (PIR) in combination with psychostimulants methamphetamine (MET) or 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). These combinations are believed to produce more profound desirable effects, while decreasing hangover. However, there is a lack of valid experimental studies on such drug-drug interactions in the scientific literature available. Our hypothesis proposes that a functional interaction exists between PIR and amphetamine psychostimulants (MET and MDMA) which can potentiate psychostimulant behavioural effects. Our hypothesis is supported by the results of our pilot experiment testing acute effects of drugs given to mice intraperitoneally (Vehicle, n=12; MET 2.5mg/kg, n=10; MDMA 2.5mg/kg, n=11; PIR 300 mg/kg, n=12; PIR+MET, n=12; PIR+MDMA, n=11) in the Open Field Test (Actitrack, Panlab, Spain). PIR given alone caused no significant changes in mouse locomotor/exploratory behaviour, whereas the same dose combined with either MET or MDMA significantly enhanced their stimulatory effects. Different possible neurobiological mechanism underlying drug-drug interaction of PIR with MET or MDMA are discussed, as modulation of dopaminergic, glutamatergic or cholinergic brain systems. However, the interaction with membrane phospholipids seems as the most plausible mechanism explaining PIR action on activities of neurotransmitter systems. Despite that our behavioural experiment cannot serve for explanation of the pharmacological mechanisms of these functional interactions, it shows that PIR effects can increase behavioural stimulation of amphetamine drugs. Thus, the reported combining of PIR with MET or MDMA by human abusers is not perhaps a coincidental phenomenon and may be based on existing PIR potential to intensify acute psychostimulant effects of these drugs of abuse. PMID:22607774

  13. Similar effects of intranasal oxytocin administration and acute alcohol consumption on socio-cognitions, emotions and behaviour: Implications for the mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Ian J; Gillespie, Steven M; Abu-Akel, Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    Oxytocin (OT) plays a critical role in the formation of long lasting social attachments across a range of mammalian species. Raising intracerebral OT levels by intranasal administration of the neuropeptide (inOT) can also have pronounced effects on human sociocognitive functioning. inOT has been associated with increasing altruism, generosity, empathy and trust while decreasing fear, anxiety and stress reactions via neural mechanisms which are yet to be fully elucidated. The observation of the prosocial effects of OT has led to speculation about the role the peptide might play in some psychiatric conditions and debate as to its potential therapeutic uses. Here we note the great similarity in the sociocognitive effects that can be induced by inOT and the effects of acute consumption of modest does of alcohol. We further reflect on how both compounds may act on limbic and prefrontal cortical structures to increase GABAergic transmission, thereby facilitating the release of prepotent responses, that is, more automatic responses which are associated with earlier developmental stages. PMID:25956250

  14. The non-advertising effects of screen-based sedentary activities on acute eating behaviours in children, adolescents, and young adults. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Samantha; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Maddison, Ralph

    2013-12-01

    Sedentary screen time may be an important determinant of childhood obesity. A number of potential mechanisms to explain the link between screen time and increased bodyweight have been proposed; however, the relationship appears to be best explained by the effects on dietary intake, which is attributed to either food advertising or effects independent of food advertising. Technological advances have allowed for greater accessibility and exposure to advertisement-free screen-based media. This review was conducted to systematically synthesise the evidence from laboratory based studies which have investigated the non-advertising effects of screen time (TV viewing, sedentary video games, and computer use) on dietary intake in children, adolescents, and young adults. MEDLINE, PubMed, PsychInfo, CINAHL, and Embase were searched from inception through 5 July 2013. Ten trials met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Risk of study bias was judged to range from low to high. Screen time in the absence of food advertising was consistently found to be associated with increased dietary intake compared with non-screen behaviours. Suggested explanations for this relationship included: distraction, interruption of physiologic food regulation, screen time as a conditioned cue to eat, disruption of memory formation, and the effects of the stress-induced reward system. Due to the limited number of high-quality studies available for this review, our findings are preliminary. More work is required to better establish the link between dietary intake and advertisement-free screen time and assess whether differences exist between the different screen-based activities. PMID:24001394

  15. Frutalin reduces acute and neuropathic nociceptive behaviours in rodent models of orofacial pain.

    PubMed

    Damasceno, Marina B M V; de Melo Júnior, José de Maria A; Santos, Sacha Aubrey A R; Melo, Luana T M; Leite, Laura Hévila I; Vieira-Neto, Antonio E; Moreira, Renato de A; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina de O; Campos, Adriana R

    2016-08-25

    Orofacial pain is a highly prevalent clinical condition, yet difficult to control effectively with available drugs. Much attention is currently focused on the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of lectins. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of frutalin (FTL) using rodent models of inflammatory and neuropathic orofacial pain. Acute pain was induced by formalin, glutamate or capsaicin (orofacial model) and hypertonic saline (corneal model). In one experiment, animals were pretreated with l-NAME and naloxone to investigate the mechanism of antinociception. The involvement of the lectin domain in the antinociceptive effect of FTL was verified by allowing the lectin to bind to its specific ligand. In another experiment, animals pretreated with FTL or saline were submitted to the temporomandibular joint formalin test. In yet another, animals were submitted to infraorbital nerve transection to induce chronic pain, followed by induction of thermal hypersensitivity using acetone. Motor activity was evaluated with the rotarod test. A molecular docking was performed using the TRPV1 channel. Pretreatment with FTL significantly reduced nociceptive behaviour associated with acute and neuropathic pain, especially at 0.5 mg/kg. Antinociception was effectively inhibited by l-NAME and d-galactose. In line with in vivo experiments, docking studies indicated that FTL may interact with TRPV1. Our results confirm the potential pharmacological relevance of FTL as an inhibitor of orofacial nociception in acute and chronic pain mediated by TRPA1, TRPV1 and TRPM8 receptor. PMID:27302204

  16. Pre-natal stress amplifies the immediate behavioural responses to acute pain in piglets.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Kenneth M D; Robson, Sheena K; Donald, Ramona D; Jarvis, Susan; Sandercock, Dale A; Scott, E Marian; Nolan, Andrea M; Lawrence, Alistair B

    2009-08-23

    Pre-natal stress (PNS) or undernutrition can have numerous effects on an individual's biology throughout their lifetime. Some of these effects may be adaptive by allowing individuals to tailor their phenotype to environmental conditions. Here we investigated, in the domestic pig Sus scrofa, whether one possible consequence of a predicted adverse environment could be altered pain perception. The behavioural response of piglets to the surgical amputation ('docking') of their tail or a sham procedure was measured for 1 min in piglets born to mothers who either experienced mid-gestation social stress or were left undisturbed throughout pregnancy. A behavioural pain score was found to predict the docked status of piglets with high discriminant accuracy. Piglets exposed to PNS had a significantly higher pain score than controls, and for each litter of tail-docked piglets, the average pain score was correlated with mid-gestation maternal cortisol levels. The data presented here provide evidence that the experience of stress in utero can result in a heightened acute response to injury in early life. Speculatively, this may represent an adaptive alteration occurring as a consequence of a pre-natal 'early warning' of environmental adversity. PMID:19411272

  17. A case-control study of alcohol consumption and drinking behaviour in patients with acute gout.

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, C R

    1984-01-01

    The alcohol intake and drinking behaviour of 24 patients who presented with acute gout in a family practice over a 5-year period were compared with these features of a control population matched for sex, age, weight and use of hyperuricemia-inducing diuretics. The average weekly alcohol intake of the group with gout was twice that of the control group (p less than 0.02), and a statistically significant relation was found between alcohol abuse and acute gout (p less than 0.05). About half of the patients with gout drank excessively. Acute gout should be considered a possible clinical sign of alcohol abuse. PMID:6478339

  18. Acute fluoxetine exposure alters crab anxiety-like behaviour, but not aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Trevor James; Kwan, Garfield T.; Gallup, Joshua; Tresguerres, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Aggression and responsiveness to noxious stimuli are adaptable traits that are ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. Like vertebrate animals, some invertebrates have been shown to exhibit anxiety-like behaviour and altered levels of aggression that are modulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin. To investigate whether this influence of serotonin is conserved in crabs and whether these behaviours are sensitive to human antidepressant drugs; the striped shore crab, Pachygrapsus crassipes, was studied using anxiety (light/dark test) and aggression (mirror test) paradigms. Crabs were individually exposed to acute doses of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine (5 or 25 mg/L), commonly known as Prozac®, followed by behavioural testing. The high dose of fluoxetine significantly decreased anxiety-like behaviour but had no impact on mobility or aggression. These results suggest that anxiety-like behaviour is more sensitive to modulation of serotonin than is aggressiveness in the shore crab. PMID:26806870

  19. Acute behavioural comparisons of toluene and ethanol in human subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Echeverria, D; Fine, L; Langolf, G; Schork, T; Sampaio, C

    1991-01-01

    and eye irritation also increased in a dose-response manner. The greatest effect was found for an increasing number of observations of sleep. A range of 2 to 7% decrements suggest the ACGIH TLV of 100 ppm toluene may be a good estimate of the biological threshold supporting a re-evaluation of the TLV. At 0.66 g EtOH/kg body weight symptoms and performance decrements were 6.6% for digit span, 9.2% for pattern recognition, 4.0% for continuous performance, 7.9% for symbol-digit, 16.5% for finger tapping, 6.2% for critical tracking, and 5.2% for the one hole test. The EtOH equivalents at 150 ppm toluene for digit span (0.56g EtOH/kg/body weight), the latency for pattern recognition (0.66 g EtOH kg body weight), and the one hole element "move" (0.37 g EtOH kg body weight) show that the first two measures would be affected at or above the 50 mg% blood alcohol concentration. This concentration is recognised as the lowest alcohol concentration associated with increased numbers of automobile accidents. The results suggest that EtOH may be a useful acute standard to compare the effects of various industrial solvents and support investigating an association between exposure to solvents and increased risk to safety in industry. PMID:1954153

  20. Effect of pre-weaning concentrate supplementation on peripheral distribution of leukocytes, functional activity of neutrophils, acute phase protein and behavioural responses of abruptly weaned and housed beef calves

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The effect of pre-weaning concentrate supplementation on peripheral distribution of leukocytes, functional activity of neutrophils, acute phase protein response, metabolic and behavioural response, and performance of abruptly weaned and housed beef calves was investigated. Calves were grazed with their dams until the end of the grazing season when they were weaned and housed (day (d) 0) in a concrete slatted floor shed, and offered grass silage ad libitum plus supplementary concentrates. Twenty-six days prior to weaning and housing, 20 singled suckled, pure-bred Simmental male (non-castrated), (n = 10, m) and female (n = 10, f) calves were assigned to one of two treatments (i) concentrate supplement (CS: n = 10 (5 m and 5 f), mean age (s.d.) 201 (12.8) d, mean weight (s.d.) 258 (20.2) kg) or (ii) no concentrate supplement (controls) (NCS: n = 10, (5 m and 5 f), mean age (s.d.) 201 (13.4) d, mean weight (s.d.) 257 (19.6) kg) pre-weaning. Results There was a treatment × sampling time interaction (P < 0.05) for percentage CD4+ and WC1+ (γδ T cells) lymphocytes and concentration of plasma globulin. On d 2, percentage CD4+ lymphocytes decreased (P < 0.001) in both treatments. Subsequently on d 7, percentage of CD4+ lymphocytes increased (P < 0.01) in CS compared with d 0, whereas percentage of CD4+ lymphocytes in NCS did not differ (P > 0.05) from d 0. On d 2, WC1+ lymphocytes decreased (P < 0.05) in both treatments but the decrease was greater (P <0.05) in NCS than CS. Subsequently, percentages did not differ (P > 0.05) from pre-weaning baseline. On d 2, the increase in concentration of globulin was greater (P < 0.05) in CS compared with NCS, and subsequently there was no difference between treatments. Pre-weaning ADG was 1.07 (s.e.m.) (0.26) kg and 0.99 (s.e.m.) (0.26) kg for CS and NCS, respectively. Post-weaning, CS calves spent more time lying compared with NCS calves. Conclusions Calves supplemented with concentrate prior to weaning had a lesser

  1. Acute impacts of the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) infestation on reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kynkäänniemi, Sanna-Mari; Kettu, Maria; Kortet, Raine; Härkönen, Laura; Kaitala, Arja; Paakkonen, Tommi; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Nieminen, Petteri; Härkönen, Sauli; Ylönen, Hannu; Laaksonen, Sauli

    2014-04-01

    Blood-sucking ectoparasites have often a strong impact on the behaviour of their hosts. The annual insect harassment of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) has increased in the southern part of the Finnish reindeer herding area because of the recent invasion of a blood-feeding ectoparasitic louse-fly, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi). We studied the impact of the deer ked on the behaviour of reindeer. Twelve reindeer were infested with a total of 300 keds/reindeer on six occasions in a 5-week period during the deer ked flight season in autumn, while six non-infested reindeer were used as controls. Behavioural patterns indicating potential stress were monitored by visual observation from August to December. The infested reindeer displayed more incidences of restless behaviour than the controls. Shaking and scratching were the most common forms of restless behaviour after infestation of deer keds. Increased grooming was also observed after the transplantation and also later, 1 month after the infestation. Based on the results, the deer ked infestation can cause acute behavioural disturbance in reindeer and, thus, could pose a potential threat to reindeer welfare. Antiparasitic treatment with, e.g. ivermectin, may increase the welfare of parasitized reindeer by reducing deer keds. If the deer ked infestation intensity on the reindeer herding area increases and restless behaviour of reindeer becomes more common, the present results can help in further evaluation of the duration and magnitude of behavioural changes. PMID:24562815

  2. Glucose Effect in the Acute Porphyrias

    MedlinePlus

    ... You are here Home Diet and Nutrition The glucose effect in acute porphyrias The disorders Acute Intermittent ... are treated initially with the administration of carbohydrate/glucose. This therapy has its basis in the ability ...

  3. Effect of toloxatone on behaviour of primates.

    PubMed

    Giono-Barber, H; Giono-Barber, P; Milhaud, C L; Klein, M J; Gouret, C; Raynaud, G

    1977-01-01

    1. The effects of (3-methyl)-3-phenyl-5-hydroxy-methyl-2-oxazolidinone (toloxatone) were studied on the behaviour of three species of primates: baboon, rhesus monkeys and chimpanzee. 2. The activity against reserpine-induced depression is observed in baboon as in rodents. 2. The administration of toloxatone induces three effects which probably have the same origin: suppression of feeding inhibition of the subordinate baboon, improvement of escape reaction in the conditioned chimpanzee, increase in general activity and the active component of social behaviour in grouped rhesus monkeys. These three effects can be interpreted as resulting from the stimulating effect of toloxatone, or more precisely from a disinhibiting effect. 4. Contrary to amphetamine, toloxatone does not induce, even at high or repeated doses, behavioural disturbances. PMID:409416

  4. A behavioural comparison of acute and chronic Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in C57BL/6JArc mice.

    PubMed

    Long, Leonora E; Chesworth, Rose; Huang, Xu-Feng; McGregor, Iain S; Arnold, Jonathon C; Karl, Tim

    2010-08-01

    Cannabis contains over 70 unique compounds and its abuse is linked to an increased risk of developing schizophrenia. The behavioural profiles of the psychotropic cannabis constituent Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC) and the non-psychotomimetic constituent cannabidiol (CBD) were investigated with a battery of behavioural tests relevant to anxiety and positive, negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. Male adult C57BL/6JArc mice were given 21 daily intraperitoneal injections of vehicle, Delta9-THC (0.3, 1, 3 or 10 mg/kg) or CBD (1, 5, 10 or 50 mg/kg). Delta9-THC produced the classic cannabinoid CB1 receptor-mediated tetrad of hypolocomotion, analgesia, catalepsy and hypothermia while CBD had modest hyperthermic effects. While sedative at this dose, Delta9-THC (10 mg/kg) produced locomotor-independent anxiogenic effects in the open-field and light-dark tests. Chronic CBD produced moderate anxiolytic-like effects in the open-field test at 50 mg/kg and in the light-dark test at a low dose (1 mg/kg). Acute and chronic Delta9-THC (10 mg/kg) decreased the startle response while CBD had no effect. Prepulse inhibition was increased by acute treatment with Delta9-THC (0.3, 3 and 10 mg/kg) or CBD (1, 5 and 50 mg/kg) and by chronic CBD (1 mg/kg). Chronic CBD (50 mg/kg) attenuated dexamphetamine (5 mg/kg)-induced hyperlocomotion, suggesting an antipsychotic-like action for this cannabinoid. Chronic Delta9-THC decreased locomotor activity before and after dexamphetamine administration suggesting functional antagonism of the locomotor stimulant effect. These data provide the first evidence of anxiolytic- and antipsychotic-like effects of chronic but not acute CBD in C57BL/6JArc mice, extending findings from acute studies in other inbred mouse strains and rats. PMID:19785914

  5. Thinking styles and doctors' knowledge and behaviours relating to acute coronary syndromes guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Sladek, Ruth M; Bond, Malcolm J; Huynh, Luan T; Chew, Derek PB; Phillips, Paddy A

    2008-01-01

    Background How humans think and make decisions is important in understanding behaviour. Hence an understanding of cognitive processes among physicians may inform our understanding of behaviour in relation to evidence implementation strategies. A personality theory, Cognitive-Experiential Self Theory (CEST) proposes a relationship between different ways of thinking and behaviour, and articulates pathways for behaviour change. However prior to the empirical testing of interventions based on CEST, it is first necessary to demonstrate its suitability among a sample of healthcare workers. Objectives To investigate the relationship between thinking styles and the knowledge and clinical practices of doctors directly involved in the management of acute coronary syndromes. Methods Self-reported doctors' thinking styles (N = 74) were correlated with results from a survey investigating knowledge, attitudes, and clinical practice, and evaluated against recently published acute coronary syndrome clinical guidelines. Results Guideline-discordant practice was associated with an experiential style of thinking. Conversely, guideline-concordant practice was associated with a higher preference for a rational style of reasoning. Conclusion Findings support that while guidelines might be necessary to communicate evidence, other strategies may be necessary to target discordant behaviours. Further research designed to examine the relationships found in the current study is required. PMID:18439250

  6. Parents' help-seeking behaviours during acute childhood illness at home: A contribution to explanatory theory.

    PubMed

    Neill, Sarah J; Jones, Caroline H D; Lakhanpaul, Monica; Roland, Damian T; Thompson, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Uncertainty and anxiety surround parents' decisions to seek medical help for an acutely ill child. Consultation rates for children are rising, yet little is known about factors that influence parents' help-seeking behaviours. We used focus groups and interviews to examine how 27 parents of children under five years, from a range of socioeconomic groups in the East Midlands of England, use information to make decisions during acute childhood illness at home. This article reports findings elucidating factors that influence help-seeking behaviours. Parents reported that decision-making during acute childhood illness was influenced by a range of personal, social and health service factors. Principal among these was parents' concern to do the right thing for their child. Their ability to assess the severity of the illness was influenced by knowledge and experience of childhood illness. When parents were unable to access their general practitioner (GP), feared criticism from or had lost trust in their GP, some parents reported using services elsewhere such as Accident and Emergency. These findings contribute to explanatory theory concerning parents' help-seeking behaviours. Professional and political solutions have not reduced demand; therefore, collaborative approaches involving the public and professionals are now needed to improve parents' access to information. PMID:25296933

  7. Intrinsic factors influencing help-seeking behaviour in an acute stroke situation.

    PubMed

    Zock, Elles; Kerkhoff, Henk; Kleyweg, Ruud Peter; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-09-01

    The proportion of stroke patients eligible for intravenous or intra-arterial treatment is still limited because many patients do not seek medical help immediately after stroke onset. The aim of our study was to explore which intrinsic factors and considerations influence help-seeking behaviour of relatively healthy participants, confronted with stroke situations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 non-stroke participants aged 50 years or older. We presented 5 clinical stroke situations as if experienced by the participants themselves. Recognition and interpretation of symptoms were evaluated and various factors influencing help-seeking behaviour were explored in-depth. We used the thematic synthesis method for data analysis. Five themes influencing help-seeking behaviour in a stroke situation were identified: influence of knowledge, views about seriousness, ideas about illness and health, attitudes towards others and beliefs about the emergency medical system. A correct recognition of stroke symptoms or a correct interpretation of the stroke situations did not automatically result in seeking medical help. Interestingly, similar factors could lead to different types of actions between participants. Many intrinsic, as well as social and environmental factors are of influence on help-seeking behaviour in an acute stroke situation. All these factors seem to play a complex role in help-seeking behaviour with considerable inter-individual variations. Accomplishing more patients eligible for acute stroke treatment, future research should focus on better understanding of all factors at various levels grounded in a theory of help-seeking behaviour. PMID:26732617

  8. Prior exposure to capture heightens the corticosterone and behavioural responses of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) to acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Gemma; Turner, Emma; Dann, Peter; Harcourt, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Studies of physiology can provide important insight into how animals are coping with challenges in their environment and can signal the potential effects of exposure to human activity in both the short and long term. In this study, we measured the physiological and behavioural response of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) that were naïve to human activity over 30 min of capture and handling. We assessed relationships between corticosterone secretion, behaviour, sex and time of day in order to characterize the determinants of the natural stress response. We then compared the response of these naïve penguins with the responses of female little penguins that had been exposed to research activity (bimonthly nest check and weighing) and to both research activity (monthly nest check and weighing) and evening viewing by tourists. We found that corticosterone concentrations increased significantly over 30 min of capture, with naïve penguins demonstrating a more acute stress response during the day than at night. Penguins that had previously been exposed to handling at the research and research/visitor sites showed elevated corticosterone concentrations and consistently more aggressive behaviour after 30 min compared with naïve birds, although there were no significant differences in baseline corticosterone concentrations. Our findings demonstrate that these little penguins have not habituated to routine capture, but rather mount a heightened physiological and behavioural response to handling by humans. Less invasive research monitoring techniques, such as individual identification with PIT tags and automatic recording and weighing, and a reduction in handling during the day should be considered to mitigate some of the potentially negative effects of disturbance. Given the paucity of data on the long-term consequences of heightened stress on animal physiology, our study highlights the need for further investigation of the relationship between the corticosterone

  9. Prior exposure to capture heightens the corticosterone and behavioural responses of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Gemma; Turner, Emma; Dann, Peter; Harcourt, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Studies of physiology can provide important insight into how animals are coping with challenges in their environment and can signal the potential effects of exposure to human activity in both the short and long term. In this study, we measured the physiological and behavioural response of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) that were naïve to human activity over 30 min of capture and handling. We assessed relationships between corticosterone secretion, behaviour, sex and time of day in order to characterize the determinants of the natural stress response. We then compared the response of these naïve penguins with the responses of female little penguins that had been exposed to research activity (bimonthly nest check and weighing) and to both research activity (monthly nest check and weighing) and evening viewing by tourists. We found that corticosterone concentrations increased significantly over 30 min of capture, with naïve penguins demonstrating a more acute stress response during the day than at night. Penguins that had previously been exposed to handling at the research and research/visitor sites showed elevated corticosterone concentrations and consistently more aggressive behaviour after 30 min compared with naïve birds, although there were no significant differences in baseline corticosterone concentrations. Our findings demonstrate that these little penguins have not habituated to routine capture, but rather mount a heightened physiological and behavioural response to handling by humans. Less invasive research monitoring techniques, such as individual identification with PIT tags and automatic recording and weighing, and a reduction in handling during the day should be considered to mitigate some of the potentially negative effects of disturbance. Given the paucity of data on the long-term consequences of heightened stress on animal physiology, our study highlights the need for further investigation of the relationship between the corticosterone

  10. Outcome Prediction of Consciousness Disorders in the Acute Stage Based on a Complementary Motor Behavioural Tool

    PubMed Central

    Jöhr, Jane; Gilart de Keranflec'h, Charlotte; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Preti, Maria Giulia; Meskaldji, Djalel E.; Hömberg, Volker; Laureys, Steven; Draganski, Bogdan; Frackowiak, Richard; Diserens, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Attaining an accurate diagnosis in the acute phase for severely brain-damaged patients presenting Disorders of Consciousness (DOC) is crucial for prognostic validity; such a diagnosis determines further medical management, in terms of therapeutic choices and end-of-life decisions. However, DOC evaluation based on validated scales, such as the Revised Coma Recovery Scale (CRS-R), can lead to an underestimation of consciousness and to frequent misdiagnoses particularly in cases of cognitive motor dissociation due to other aetiologies. The purpose of this study is to determine the clinical signs that lead to a more accurate consciousness assessment allowing more reliable outcome prediction. Methods From the Unit of Acute Neurorehabilitation (University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland) between 2011 and 2014, we enrolled 33 DOC patients with a DOC diagnosis according to the CRS-R that had been established within 28 days of brain damage. The first CRS-R assessment established the initial diagnosis of Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS) in 20 patients and a Minimally Consciousness State (MCS) in the remaining13 patients. We clinically evaluated the patients over time using the CRS-R scale and concurrently from the beginning with complementary clinical items of a new observational Motor Behaviour Tool (MBT). Primary endpoint was outcome at unit discharge distinguishing two main classes of patients (DOC patients having emerged from DOC and those remaining in DOC) and 6 subclasses detailing the outcome of UWS and MCS patients, respectively. Based on CRS-R and MBT scores assessed separately and jointly, statistical testing was performed in the acute phase using a non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test; longitudinal CRS-R data were modelled with a Generalized Linear Model. Results Fifty-five per cent of the UWS patients and 77% of the MCS patients had emerged from DOC. First, statistical prediction of the first CRS-R scores did not permit outcome differentiation

  11. The Effectiveness of the Behavioural Training for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the short-term effects of behavioural training for preschool children. The goals of this programme were to reduce disruptive behaviour as well as shy and withdrawn behaviour, and to promote social-emotional competencies. In young children, insufficient emotional competencies and difficulties concerning adequate conflict…

  12. Increasing the Teacher Rate of Behaviour Specific Praise and its Effect on a Child with Aggressive Behaviour Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffat, Thecla Kudakwashe

    2011-01-01

    A single subject design was used to investigate the effectiveness of an increase in teacher behaviour-specific praise statements to address anti-social behaviours demonstrated by a student who displays aggressive behaviours. Researchers agree that praise is effective in improving problem behaviours. They also agree that training teachers to use…

  13. Retrospective analysis of absconding behaviour by acute care consumers in one psychiatric hospital campus in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mosel, Krista A; Gerace, Adam; Muir-Cochrane, Eimear

    2010-06-01

    Absconding is increasingly being recognized as a problem within mental health settings with significant risks for consumers. This study examines absconding behaviours across three acute care wards within an Australian psychiatric hospital campus over a 12-month period. A descriptive statistical analysis determined the rate of absconding from 49 consumers who absconded 64 times. The absconding rate was 13.33% (absconding events), with most absconding events arising from males diagnosed with schizophrenia (57.14%) aged between 20 and 29 years, and with 62.50% of absconding events occurring whilst consumers were on their first 21-day detention order. Nearly half of all absconding events were by consumers who had absconded previously, with the highest proportion of events occurring during nursing handover. A profile of people who abscond, time of day of absconding, legal status and repeated absconding behaviours are described. The emergent profile of consumers who absconded within this study bears some similarities to that described in overseas research, although in this study consumers were slightly older and 25% of absconders were female. Of particular interest are findings that identify the timings of absconding events in relation to a consumer's legal status. Implications for practice, including assessment of risk of absconding and management, are considered. PMID:20550641

  14. Effective Intervention for School Refusal Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Clare; Woods, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of successful professional intervention for two case studies of female adolescents' school refusal behaviour is presented. Data gathered from the young person, professionals, and parents in each case are synthesised to propose a multi-level, ecologically situated model of intervention for school refusal behaviour. The proposed…

  15. Acute off-target effects of neural circuit manipulations.

    PubMed

    Otchy, Timothy M; Wolff, Steffen B E; Rhee, Juliana Y; Pehlevan, Cengiz; Kawai, Risa; Kempf, Alexandre; Gobes, Sharon M H; Ölveczky, Bence P

    2015-12-17

    Rapid and reversible manipulations of neural activity in behaving animals are transforming our understanding of brain function. An important assumption underlying much of this work is that evoked behavioural changes reflect the function of the manipulated circuits. We show that this assumption is problematic because it disregards indirect effects on the independent functions of downstream circuits. Transient inactivations of motor cortex in rats and nucleus interface (Nif) in songbirds severely degraded task-specific movement patterns and courtship songs, respectively, which are learned skills that recover spontaneously after permanent lesions of the same areas. We resolve this discrepancy in songbirds, showing that Nif silencing acutely affects the function of HVC, a downstream song control nucleus. Paralleling song recovery, the off-target effects resolved within days of Nif lesions, a recovery consistent with homeostatic regulation of neural activity in HVC. These results have implications for interpreting transient circuit manipulations and for understanding recovery after brain lesions. PMID:26649821

  16. How to Support Colleagues With...Effective Behaviour Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Inappropriate behaviour from students and/or a teacher's inability to manage such behaviour effectively is one of the major contributors to stress amongst teachers and to poor learning by students. It is important for science leaders to support members of their department, and, critically, have systems that work. Their aim should be to create an…

  17. A meta-analysis of the effects of measuring theory of planned behaviour constructs on behaviour within prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Mankarious, Evon; Kothe, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Measurement reactivity effects, such as the mere measurement effect, have been proposed as a reason for behavioural changes in a number of theory of planned behaviour intervention studies. However, it is unclear whether such changes are the result of the mere measurement effect or of other artefacts of intervention study design. The aim of this study is to determine the size and direction of changes in health behaviours from baseline to follow-up in prospective studies using the theory of planned behaviour. Electronic databases were searched for the theory of planned behaviour studies which measured health behaviours at two or more time points. Change in behaviour was calculated for all studies. Sixty-six studies were included. Mean effect sizes across all studies were small and negative (d = -.03). Effect size was moderated by behaviour, behaviour type and follow-up length. Subgroup analyses showed significant decreases in socially undesirable behaviour (d = -.28), binge drinking (d = -.17), risk driving (d = -.20), sugar snack consumption (d = -.43) and sun-protective behaviour (d = -.18). Measurement of intention at baseline resulted in significant decreases in undesirable behaviour. Changes in undesirable behaviours reported in other studies may be the result of the mere measurement effect. PMID:26209208

  18. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca

    PubMed Central

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D.; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A.; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8–13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30–50 and 50–100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca’s chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered. PMID:26421727

  19. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca.

    PubMed

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30-50 and 50-100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca's chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered. PMID:26421727

  20. Effects of acute caffeine administration on adolescents.

    PubMed

    Temple, Jennifer L; Dewey, Amber M; Briatico, Laura N

    2010-12-01

    Acute caffeine administration has physiological, behavioral, and subjective effects. Despite its widespread use, few studies have described the impact of caffeine consumption in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute caffeine administration in adolescents. We measured cardiovascular responses and snack food intake after acute administration of 0 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, and 200 mg of caffeine. We also compared usual food intake and subjective effects of caffeine between high- and low-caffeine consumers. Finally, we conducted a detailed analysis of caffeine sources and consumption levels. We found main effects of caffeine dose on heart rate (HR) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), with HR decreasing and DBP increasing with increasing caffeine dose. There were significant interactions among gender, caffeine use, and time on DBP. High caffeine consumers (>50 mg/day) reported using caffeine to stay awake and drinking coffee, tea, soda, and energy drinks more than low consumers (<50 mg/day). Boys were more likely than girls to report using getting a rush, more energy, or improved athletic performance from caffeine. Finally, when we examined energy and macronutrient intake, we found that caffeine consumption was positively associated with laboratory energy intake, specifically from high-sugar, low-fat foods and also positively associated with protein and fat consumption outside of the laboratory. When taken together, these data suggest that acute caffeine administration has a broad range of effects in adolescents and that the magnitude of these effects is moderated by gender and chronic caffeine consumption. PMID:21186925

  1. Behavioural biology: an effective and relevant conservation tool.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Richard

    2007-08-01

    'Conservation behaviour' is a young discipline that investigates how proximate and ultimate aspects of the behaviour of an animal can be of value in preventing the loss of biodiversity. Rumours of its demise are unfounded. Conservation behaviour is quickly building a capacity to positively influence environmental decision making. The theoretical framework used by animal behaviourists is uniquely valuable to elucidating integrative solutions to human-wildlife conflicts, efforts to reintroduce endangered species and reducing the deleterious effects of ecotourism. Conservation behaviourists must join with other scientists under the multidisciplinary umbrella of conservation biology without giving up on their focus: the mechanisms, development, function and evolutionary history of individual differences in behaviour. Conservation behaviour is an increasingly relevant tool in the preservation of nature. PMID:17590477

  2. [Effect of snoezelen on the behaviour of demented elderly].

    PubMed

    Holtkamp, C C; Kragt, K; van Dongen, M C; van Rossum, E; Salentijn, C

    1997-06-01

    A randomised cross-over trial was carried out at nursing home Bernardus in Amsterdam to investigate the effect of 'snoezelen' in a specially furnished room on the well-being of demented elderly people. The behaviour during the experimental intervention 'snoezelen' was compared with the behaviour during the control intervention, consisting of standard activities in the livingroom. Sixteen elderly persons participated in the study. They were all in a very advanced stage of dementia, requiring a high level of care and nursing. The occurrence of behavioural problems was registered, using video cameras and assessed with four subscales of the Gedragsobservatieschaal voor de Intramurale Psychogeriatrie (GIP) (behavioural observation scale for intramural psychogeriatrics). During the experimental intervention a relatively low level of behavioural problems was observed. This could indicate that snoezelen increases the wellbeing of demented elderly. The outcome of this study indicates the need of a larger-scale study in which additional outcome parameters should be included. PMID:9381521

  3. [Acute tonsillopharyngitis: the effectiveness of topical therapy].

    PubMed

    Nosulya, E V; Kim, I A; Chernykh, N M; Karnoukhova, O A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a furasol sore throat gargle solution for the treatment of acute tonsillopharyngitis. Forty patients presenting with acute tonsillopharyngitis were allocated to two groups, 20 subjects in each, by means of independent sequential randomization. Prior to the onset of the treatment, all the patients were examined for determining the species composition of pharyngeal microflora with the use of an «AutoScan4 System» analyzer («Siemens», USA) and estimating the resistance to antibacterial preparations (by the disk diffusion method). All the participants of the study were prescribed antibacterial therapy. In the patients of group 1 (study group), the antibacterial treatment of acute tonsillopharyngitis was supplemented by a furasol sore throat gargle solution whereas those of group 2 (controls) were treated without topical therapy. The quantitative evaluation of the severity of manifestations of the disease before and after the treatment was based on a 5-point visual-analog scale. It was shown that systemic antibacterial therapy resulted in the consistent decrease of the frequency of occurrence of pathogenic and potentially pathogenic microflora in the patients comprising both groups. Treatment with a furasol sore throat gargle solution did not lead to the appearance of bacterial species alien to the oropharynx, nor was it accompanied by the impairment of resistance of its mucous membrane to the colonization by microorganisms. The results of the study give evidence of the well apparent regression of the subjective signs of tonsillopharyngitis and the inflammatory changes in the mucous membrane of the pharynx in the patients given the topical treatment in the form of a furasol sore throat gargle solution in addition to antibacterial therapy. It is concluded that a furasol sore throat gargle solution can be recommended for the introduction into the combined treatment of the patients

  4. Differential effects of trait anger on optimism and risk behaviour.

    PubMed

    Pietruska, Karin; Armony, Jorge L

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that angry people exhibit optimistic risk estimates about future events and, consequently, are biased towards making risk-seeking choices. The goal of this study was to directly test the hypothesised effect of trait anger on optimism and risk-taking behaviour. One hundred healthy volunteers completed questionnaires about personality traits, optimism and risk behaviour. In addition their risk tendency was assessed with the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), which provides an online measure of risk behaviour. Our results partly confirmed the relation between trait anger and outcome expectations of future life events, but suggest that this optimism does not necessarily translate into actual risk-seeking behaviour. PMID:22780446

  5. Differential effects of safety behaviour subtypes in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Plasencia, M Leili; Alden, Lynn E; Taylor, Charles T

    2011-10-01

    Clinical observations indicate that individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) use a variety of safety behaviours; however, virtually no research has examined the functional effect of different safety-seeking strategies. Accordingly, we conducted two studies to address this issue. Study 1 measured global patterns of safety behaviour use in a large analogue sample. Factor analysis revealed two primary safety behaviour categories, avoidance and impression management. Study 2 assessed situational use of safety behaviours during a controlled social interaction in a clinical sample of 93 patients with Generalised SAD. Factor analysis again revealed support for avoidance and impression-management subtypes. Notably, the two types of safety behaviours were associated with different social outcomes. Avoidance safety behaviours were associated with higher state anxiety during the interaction and negative reactions from participants' interaction partners. Impression-management strategies appeared to impede corrections in negative predictions about subsequent interactions. These findings suggest that it may be beneficial to consider the unique effects of different safety-seeking strategies when assessing and treating SAD. PMID:21831356

  6. Genetic or pharmacological blockade of noradrenaline synthesis enhances the neurochemical, behavioural, and neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Weinshenker, David; Ferrucci, Michela; Busceti, Carla L.; Biagioni, Francesca; Lazzeri, Gloria; Liles, L. Cameron; Lenzi, Paola; Murri, Luigi; Paparelli, Antonio; Fornai, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) lesions of the locus coeruleus (LC), the major brain noradrenergic nucleus, exacerbate the damage to nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) terminals caused by the psychostimulant methamphetamine (METH). However, because noradrenergic terminals contain other neuromodulators and the noradrenaline (NA) transporter, which may act as a neuroprotective buffer, it was unclear whether this enhancement of METH neurotoxicity was caused by the loss of noradrenergic innervation or the loss of NA itself. We addressed the specific role of NA by comparing the effects of METH in mice with noradrenergic lesions (DSP-4) and those with intact noradrenergic terminals but specifically lacking NA (genetic or acute pharmacological blockade of the NA biosynthetic enzyme dopamine β-hydroxylase; DBH). We found that genetic deletion of DBH (DBH −/− mice) and acute treatment of wild-type mice with a DBH inhibitor (fusaric acid) recapitulated the effects of DSP-4 lesions on METH responses. All three methods of NA depletion enhanced striatal DA release, extracellular oxidative stress (as measured by in vivo microdialysis of DA and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid), and behavioural stereotypies following repeated METH administration. These effects accompanied a worsening of the striatal DA neuron terminal damage and ultrastructural changes to medium spiny neurons. We conclude that NA itself is neuroprotective and plays a fundamental role in the sensitivity of striatal DA terminals to the neurochemical, behavioural, and neurotoxic effects of METH. PMID:18042179

  7. Stress and the social brain: behavioural effects and neurobiological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sandi, Carmen; Haller, József

    2015-05-01

    Stress often affects our social lives. When undergoing high-level or persistent stress, individuals frequently retract from social interactions and become irritable and hostile. Predisposition to antisocial behaviours - including social detachment and violence - is also modulated by early life adversity; however, the effects of early life stress depend on the timing of exposure and genetic factors. Research in animals and humans has revealed some of the structural, functional and molecular changes in the brain that underlie the effects of stress on social behaviour. Findings in this emerging field will have implications both for the clinic and for society. PMID:25891510

  8. Effectiveness of external inspection of compliance with standards in improving healthcare organisation behaviour, healthcare professional behaviour or patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Flodgren, Gerd; Pomey, Marie-Pascale; Taber, Sarah A; Eccles, Martin P

    2014-01-01

    Background Inspection systems are used in health care to promote quality improvements, i.e. to achieve changes in organisational structures or processes, healthcare provider behaviour and patient outcomes. These systems are based on the assumption that externally promoted adherence to evidence-based standards (through inspection/assessment) will result in higher quality of health care. However, the benefits of external inspection in terms of organisational, provider and patient level outcomes are not clear. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of external inspection of compliance with standards in improving healthcare organisation behaviour, healthcare professional behaviour and patient outcomes. Search methods We searched the following electronic databases for studies: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, Scopus, HMIC, Index to Theses and Intute from their inception dates up to May 2011. There was no language restriction and studies were included regardless of publication status. We searched the reference lists of included studies and contacted authors of relevant papers, accreditation bodies and the International Organization for Standardisation (ISO), regarding any further published or unpublished work. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCTs), interrupted time-series (ITSs) and controlled before and after studies (CBAs) evaluating the effect of external inspection against external standards on healthcare organisation change, healthcare professional behaviour or patient outcomes in hospitals, primary healthcare organisations and other community-based healthcare organisations. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently applied eligibility criteria, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of each included study. Since meta-analysis was

  9. The contribution of electrophysiology to knowledge of the acute and chronic effects of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Little, H J

    1999-12-01

    This review describes the effects of ethanol on the components of neuronal transmission and the relationship of such effects to the behavioural actions of ethanol. The concentrations of ethanol with acute actions on voltage-sensitive ion channels are first described, then the actions of ethanol on ligand-gated ion channels, including those controlled by cholinergic receptors, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors, the various excitatory amino acid receptors, and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors. Acute effects of ethanol are then described on brain areas thought to be involved in arousal and attention, the reinforcing effects of ethanol, the production of euphoria, the actions of ethanol on motor control, and the amnesic effects of ethanol; the acute effects of ethanol demonstrated by EEG studies are also discussed. Chronic effects of alcohol on neuronal transmission are described in the context of the various components of the ethanol withdrawal syndrome, withdrawal hyperexcitability, dysphoria and anhedonia, withdrawal anxiety, craving, and relapse drinking. Electrophysiological studies on the genetic influences on the effects of ethanol are discussed, particularly the acute actions of ethanol and electrophysiological differences reported in individuals predisposed to alcoholism. The conclusion notes the concentration of studies on the classical transmitters, with relative neglect of the effects of ethanol on peptides and on neuronal interactions between brain areas and integrated patterns of neuronal activity. PMID:10665833

  10. Classroom Behaviour Management: Educational Psychologists' Views on Effective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The behaviour of children and young people in schools is a perennial concern to educators and the wider public alike. It also represents a significant focus for the work of educational psychologists (EPs). Research evidence has identified a number of strategies that teachers, students and school inspectors believe contribute to effective classroom…

  11. Hydrokinetic turbine effects on fish swimming behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hammar, Linus; Andersson, Sandra; Eggertsen, Linda; Haglund, Johan; Gullström, Martin; Ehnberg, Jimmy; Molander, Sverker

    2013-01-01

    Hydrokinetic turbines, targeting the kinetic energy of fast-flowing currents, are under development with some turbines already deployed at ocean sites around the world. It remains virtually unknown as to how these technologies affect fish, and rotor collisions have been postulated as a major concern. In this study the effects of a vertical axis hydrokinetic rotor with rotational speeds up to 70 rpm were tested on the swimming patterns of naturally occurring fish in a subtropical tidal channel. Fish movements were recorded with and without the rotor in place. Results showed that no fish collided with the rotor and only a few specimens passed through rotor blades. Overall, fish reduced their movements through the area when the rotor was present. This deterrent effect on fish increased with current speed. Fish that passed the rotor avoided the near-field, about 0.3 m from the rotor for benthic reef fish. Large predatory fish were particularly cautious of the rotor and never moved closer than 1.7 m in current speeds above 0.6 ms(-1). The effects of the rotor differed among taxa and feeding guilds and it is suggested that fish boldness and body shape influenced responses. In conclusion, the tested hydrokinetic turbine rotor proved non-hazardous to fish during the investigated conditions. However, the results indicate that arrays comprising multiple turbines may restrict fish movements, particularly for large species, with possible effects on habitat connectivity if migration routes are exploited. Arrays of the investigated turbine type and comparable systems should therefore be designed with gaps of several metres width to allow large fish to pass through. In combination with further research the insights from this study can be used for guiding the design of hydrokinetic turbine arrays where needed, so preventing ecological impacts. PMID:24358334

  12. Hydrokinetic Turbine Effects on Fish Swimming Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Hammar, Linus; Andersson, Sandra; Eggertsen, Linda; Haglund, Johan; Gullström, Martin; Ehnberg, Jimmy; Molander, Sverker

    2013-01-01

    Hydrokinetic turbines, targeting the kinetic energy of fast-flowing currents, are under development with some turbines already deployed at ocean sites around the world. It remains virtually unknown as to how these technologies affect fish, and rotor collisions have been postulated as a major concern. In this study the effects of a vertical axis hydrokinetic rotor with rotational speeds up to 70 rpm were tested on the swimming patterns of naturally occurring fish in a subtropical tidal channel. Fish movements were recorded with and without the rotor in place. Results showed that no fish collided with the rotor and only a few specimens passed through rotor blades. Overall, fish reduced their movements through the area when the rotor was present. This deterrent effect on fish increased with current speed. Fish that passed the rotor avoided the near-field, about 0.3 m from the rotor for benthic reef fish. Large predatory fish were particularly cautious of the rotor and never moved closer than 1.7 m in current speeds above 0.6 ms-1. The effects of the rotor differed among taxa and feeding guilds and it is suggested that fish boldness and body shape influenced responses. In conclusion, the tested hydrokinetic turbine rotor proved non-hazardous to fish during the investigated conditions. However, the results indicate that arrays comprising multiple turbines may restrict fish movements, particularly for large species, with possible effects on habitat connectivity if migration routes are exploited. Arrays of the investigated turbine type and comparable systems should therefore be designed with gaps of several metres width to allow large fish to pass through. In combination with further research the insights from this study can be used for guiding the design of hydrokinetic turbine arrays where needed, so preventing ecological impacts. PMID:24358334

  13. Morphological effect on swelling behaviour of hydrogel

    SciTech Connect

    Yacob, Norzita; Hashim, Kamaruddin

    2014-02-12

    Hydrogels are hydrophilic polymer networks that are capable of imbibing large amounts of water. In this work, hydrogels prepared from natural and synthetic polymers were irradiated by using electron beam irradiation. The morphology of hydrogel inter-polymeric network (IPN) was investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The studies reveal correlations between pore sizes of IPN with degree of cross-linking. This relation also has an effect on swelling properties of the hydrogel. The results indicated that hydrogel with smaller pore size, as a result of much dense IPN, would decrease water uptake capacity. Combination of natural and synthetic polymers to form hydrogel affects the pore size and swelling property of the hydrogel as compared to each component of polymer.

  14. Morphological effect on swelling behaviour of hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yacob, Norzita; Hashim, Kamaruddin

    2014-02-01

    Hydrogels are hydrophilic polymer networks that are capable of imbibing large amounts of water. In this work, hydrogels prepared from natural and synthetic polymers were irradiated by using electron beam irradiation. The morphology of hydrogel inter-polymeric network (IPN) was investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The studies reveal correlations between pore sizes of IPN with degree of cross-linking. This relation also has an effect on swelling properties of the hydrogel. The results indicated that hydrogel with smaller pore size, as a result of much dense IPN, would decrease water uptake capacity. Combination of natural and synthetic polymers to form hydrogel affects the pore size and swelling property of the hydrogel as compared to each component of polymer.

  15. Acute Whiplash Injury Study (AWIS): a protocol for a cluster randomised pilot and feasibility trial of an Active Behavioural Physiotherapy Intervention in an insurance private setting

    PubMed Central

    Wiangkham, Taweewat; Duda, Joan; Haque, M Sayeed; Price, Jonathan; Rushton, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) causes substantial social and economic burden internationally. Up to 60% of patients with WAD progress to chronicity. Research therefore needs to focus on effective management in the acute stage to prevent the development of chronicity. Approximately 93% of patients are classified as WADII (neck complaint and musculoskeletal sign(s)), and in the UK, most are managed in the private sector. In our recent systematic review, a combination of active and behavioural physiotherapy was identified as potentially effective in the acute stage. An Active Behavioural Physiotherapy Intervention (ABPI) was developed through combining empirical (modified Delphi study) and theoretical (social cognitive theory focusing on self-efficacy) evidence. This pilot and feasibility trial has been designed to inform the design of an adequately powered definitive randomised controlled trial. Methods and analysis Two parallel phases. (1) An external pilot and feasibility cluster randomised double-blind (assessor and participants), parallel two-arm (ABPI vs standard physiotherapy) clinical trial to evaluate procedures and feasibility. Six UK private physiotherapy clinics will be recruited and cluster randomised by a computer-generated randomisation sequence. Sixty participants (30 each arm) will be assessed at recruitment (baseline) and at 3 months postbaseline. The planned primary outcome measure is the neck disability index. (2) An embedded exploratory qualitative study using semistructured indepth interviews (n=3–4 physiotherapists) and a focus group (n=6–8 patients) and entailing the recruitment of purposive samples will explore perceptions of the ABPI. Quantitative data will be analysed descriptively. Qualitative data will be coded and analysed deductively (identify themes) and inductively (identify additional themes). Ethics and dissemination This trial is approved by the University of Birmingham Ethics Committee (ERN_15-0542). Trial

  16. The effect of water temperature on routine swimming behaviour of new born guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Kent, Maud; Ojanguren, Alfredo F

    2015-01-01

    Guppies have successfully established populations in places with thermal regimes very different from the Tropical conditions in their native range. This indicates a remarkable capacity for thermal adaptation. Given their vulnerability to predation as juveniles, acute changes in temperature, which can alter predator-prey relationships, can impact juvenile survival and have amplified consequences at the population level. To understand how temperature may impact juvenile survival and gain insight into their success as an invasive species, we researched the effect of acute temperature changes on the routine swimming behaviour of juvenile guppies. Using a novel 3-dimensional tracking technique, we calculated 4 routine swimming parameters, speed, depth, and variation in speed or depth, at 6 different test temperatures (17, 20, 23, 26, 29, or 32°C). These temperatures cover their natural thermal range and also extended past it in order to include upper and lower thermal limits. Using model selection, we found that body length and temperature had a significant positive relationship with speed. Variation in speed decreased with rising temperatures and fish swam slightly closer to the bottom at higher temperatures. All juveniles increased variation in depth at higher temperatures, though larger individuals maintained slightly more consistent depths. Our results indicate that guppies have a large thermal range and show substantial plasticity in routine swimming behaviours, which may account for their success as an invasive species. PMID:25750437

  17. The effect of water temperature on routine swimming behaviour of new born guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Maud; Ojanguren, Alfredo F.

    2015-01-01

    Guppies have successfully established populations in places with thermal regimes very different from the Tropical conditions in their native range. This indicates a remarkable capacity for thermal adaptation. Given their vulnerability to predation as juveniles, acute changes in temperature, which can alter predator-prey relationships, can impact juvenile survival and have amplified consequences at the population level. To understand how temperature may impact juvenile survival and gain insight into their success as an invasive species, we researched the effect of acute temperature changes on the routine swimming behaviour of juvenile guppies. Using a novel 3-dimensional tracking technique, we calculated 4 routine swimming parameters, speed, depth, and variation in speed or depth, at 6 different test temperatures (17, 20, 23, 26, 29, or 32°C). These temperatures cover their natural thermal range and also extended past it in order to include upper and lower thermal limits. Using model selection, we found that body length and temperature had a significant positive relationship with speed. Variation in speed decreased with rising temperatures and fish swam slightly closer to the bottom at higher temperatures. All juveniles increased variation in depth at higher temperatures, though larger individuals maintained slightly more consistent depths. Our results indicate that guppies have a large thermal range and show substantial plasticity in routine swimming behaviours, which may account for their success as an invasive species. PMID:25750437

  18. The Effects of Leptin on Breastfeeding Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Anna M; Kakulas, Foteini; Hepworth, Anna R; Lai, Ching Tat; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2015-10-01

    Breastfed infants have a reduced risk of becoming overweight and/or obese later in life. This protective effect has been partly attributed to leptin present in breastmilk. This study investigated 24-h variations of skim milk leptin and its relationship with breastmilk macronutrients and infant breastfeeding patterns. Exclusive breastfeeding mothers of term singletons (n = 19; age 10 ± 5 weeks) collected pre- and post-feed breastmilk samples for every breastfeed over a 24-h period and test-weighed their infants to determine milk intake at every breastfeed over a 24-h period. Samples (n = 454) were analysed for leptin, protein, lactose and fat content. Skim milk leptin concentration did not change with feeding (p = 0.184). However, larger feed volumes (>105 g) were associated with a decrease in post-feed leptin levels (p = 0.009). There was no relationship between the change in leptin levels and change in protein (p = 0.313) or lactose levels (p = 0.587) between pre- and post-feed milk, but there was a trend for a positive association with changes in milk fat content (p = 0.056). Leptin concentration significantly increased at night (p < 0.001) indicating a possible 24-h pattern. Leptin dose (ng) was not associated with the time between feeds (p = 0.232). Further research should include analysis of whole breastmilk and other breastmilk fractions to extend these findings. PMID:26437426

  19. A Concept for Optimizing Behavioural Effectiveness & Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barca, Jan Carlo; Rumantir, Grace; Li, Raymond

    Both humans and machines exhibit strengths and weaknesses that can be enhanced by merging the two entities. This research aims to provide a broader understanding of how closer interactions between these two entities can facilitate more optimal goal-directed performance through the use of artificial extensions of the human body. Such extensions may assist us in adapting to and manipulating our environments in a more effective way than any system known today. To demonstrate this concept, we have developed a simulation where a semi interactive virtual spider can be navigated through an environment consisting of several obstacles and a virtual predator capable of killing the spider. The virtual spider can be navigated through the use of three different control systems that can be used to assist in optimising overall goal directed performance. The first two control systems use, an onscreen button interface and a touch sensor, respectively to facilitate human navigation of the spider. The third control system is an autonomous navigation system through the use of machine intelligence embedded in the spider. This system enables the spider to navigate and react to changes in its local environment. The results of this study indicate that machines should be allowed to override human control in order to maximise the benefits of collaboration between man and machine. This research further indicates that the development of strong machine intelligence, sensor systems that engage all human senses, extra sensory input systems, physical remote manipulators, multiple intelligent extensions of the human body, as well as a tighter symbiosis between man and machine, can support an upgrade of the human form.

  20. Testing the bi-dimensional effects of attitudes on behavioural intentions and subsequent behaviour.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Mark A; Brewster, Sarah E; Thomson, James A; Malcolm, Carly; Rasmussen, Susan

    2015-11-01

    Attitudes are typically treated as unidimensional predictors of both behavioural intentions and subsequent behaviour. On the basis of previous research showing that attitudes comprise two independent, positive and negative dimensions, we hypothesized that attitudes would be bi-dimensional predictors of both behavioural intentions and subsequent behaviour. We focused on health-risk behaviours. We therefore also hypothesized that the positive dimension of attitude (evaluations of positive behavioural outcomes) would better predict both behavioural intentions and subsequent behaviour than would the negative dimension, consistent with the positivity bias/offset principle. In Study 1 (cross sectional design), N = 109 university students completed questionnaire measures of their intentions to binge-drink and the positive and negative dimensions of attitude. Consistent with the hypotheses, both attitude dimensions independently predicted behavioural intentions and the positive dimension was a significantly better predictor than was the negative dimension. The same pattern of findings emerged in Study 2 (cross sectional design; N = 186 university students) when we predicted intentions to binge-drink, smoke and consume a high-fat diet. Similarly, in Study 3 (prospective design; N = 1,232 speed limit offenders), both the positive and negative dimensions of attitude predicted subsequent (6-month post-baseline) speeding behaviour on two different road types and the positive dimension was the better predictor. The implications for understanding the motivation of behaviour and the development of behaviour-change interventions are discussed. PMID:25440892

  1. Effects of percutaneous needle liver biopsy on dairy cow behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mølgaard, L; Damgaard, B M; Bjerre-Harpøth, V; Herskin, M S

    2012-12-01

    In cattle, percutaneous needle liver biopsy is used for scientific examination of liver metabolism. The impact of the biopsy procedure is, however, poorly investigated. Our aim was to examine the behaviour of dairy cows during and after liver biopsy. Data were collected from 18 dry cows. Percutaneous needle liver biopsies (after administration of local anaesthesia (2% Procaine)) and blood samples were taken during restraining. During the control treatment, animals were restrained and blood sampled. During the biopsy procedure, cows showed increased restlessness (P=0.008), frequency of head shaking (P=0.016), and decreased rumination (P=0.064). After biopsies, tail pressing (P=0.016) and time spent perching (P=0.058) increased. Time spent upright (P=0.10) and number of leg movements (P=0.033) increased during the night as compared to controls. Thus, liver biopsy induced behavioural changes for up to 19 h--and particularly for behaviour previously associated with pain. Even though the exact welfare impact of percutaneous needle liver biopsies in cows is not known, and the magnitude of the behavioural changes was limited, pain always has negative effects on animal welfare. Therefore, if the present biopsy procedure--involving several biopsy passes--is to be used, improvement of the anaesthetic protocol as well as the inclusion of analgesics should be considered. PMID:22542802

  2. Acute inhalation of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane alters visual evoked potentials and signal detection behaviour of rats.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volatile organic compound 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (TMP, “isooctane”) is a primary constituent of gasoline for which the current health effects data are insufficient to permit EPA to conduct a risk assessment. We evaluated potential neurological impairment from acute inhalati...

  3. Inhalation of diethylamine--acute nasal effects and subjective response

    SciTech Connect

    Lundqvist, G.R.; Yamagiwa, M.; Pedersen, O.F.; Nielsen, G.D. )

    1992-03-01

    Adult volunteers were exposed to 25 ppm (75 mg/m3) diethylamine in a climate chamber for 15 min in order to study the acute nasal reactions to an exposure equivalent to the present threshold limit value-short-term exposure limit. Changes in nasal volume and nasal resistance were measured by acoustic rhinometry and by rhinomanometry. Acute change in nasal volume, usually seen as acute nasal mucosa response to thermal stimuli, was not observed, nor was an acute change in nasal airway resistance. In a subsequent experiment, the aim was to measure acute sensory effects. Exposure to a concentration increasing from 0 to 12 ppm took place for 60 min, equal to an average concentration of 10 ppm (30 mg/m3). A moderate to strong olfactory response and distinct nasal and eye irritation were observed. In spite of considerable individual variation, the results were in agreement with sensory effect estimates obtained from animal studies.

  4. Personalising nutritional guidance for more effective behaviour change.

    PubMed

    Celis-Morales, Carlos; Lara, Jose; Mathers, John C

    2015-05-01

    Improving diet and other lifestyle behaviours has considerable potential for reducing the global burden of non-communicable diseases, promoting better health across the life-course and increasing wellbeing. However, realising this potential will require the development, testing and implementation of much more effective behaviour change interventions than are used conventionally. Evidence-based, personalised (or stratified) interventions which incorporate effective behaviour change techniques (BCT) and which are delivered digitally are likely to be an important route to scalable and sustainable interventions. Progress in developing such interventions will depend on the outcomes of research on: (i) the best bases for personalisation of dietary advice; (ii) identification of BCT which are proven to enhance intervention efficacy; (iii) suitable platforms (digital-based tools) for collection of relevant participant characteristics (e.g. socioeconomic information, current diet and lifestyle and dietary preferences) linked with intelligent systems which use those characteristics to offer tailored feedback and advice in a cost-effective and acceptable manner. Future research should focus on such interventions aiming to reduce health inequalities and to improve overall public health. PMID:25497396

  5. Strain- and context-dependent behavioural responses of acute alarm substance exposure in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Quadros, Vanessa A; Silveira, Ariane; Giuliani, Giulie S; Didonet, Fernanda; Silveira, Alessandra S; Nunes, Mauro E; Silva, Tális O; Loro, Vania L; Rosemberg, Denis B

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the behavioural responses of wild type (WT) and leopard (leo) zebrafish elicited by alarm substances of conspecifics at three contexts: during the exposure period (Experiment 1); after exposure, in habituation to novelty (Experiment 2); or after exposure, in the light-dark preference test (Experiment 3), and analyse their influence on pigment response. During the exposure, leo showed decreased vertical drifts, increased number and duration of erratic movements, while WT had increased erratic movements and latency to enter the top. In the novel tank, we observed that angular velocity decreased in WT exposed to alarm substance, which also presented increased fear responses. Contrastingly, leo increased the number of entries and time in top, indicating differences in habituation profile. Alarm substance increased the number of erratic movements in the light-dark test, but elicited different responses between strains in scototaxis, latency to enter the dark compartment and risk assessment episodes. Moreover, the body colour of zebrafish did not change after alarm substance exposure. Principal component analyses suggest that burst swimming, anxiety-like behaviours, and locomotion/exploration were the components that most accounted for total variances of Experiments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. We conclude that chemical cue from conspecifics triggers strain- and context-dependent responses. PMID:26524408

  6. Evolving effective behaviours to interact with tag-based populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yucel, Osman; Crawford, Chad; Sen, Sandip

    2015-07-01

    Tags and other characteristics, externally perceptible features that are consistent among groups of animals or humans, can be used by others to determine appropriate response strategies in societies. This usage of tags can be extended to artificial environments, where agents can significantly reduce cognitive effort spent on appropriate strategy choice and behaviour selection by reusing strategies for interacting with new partners based on their tags. Strategy selection mechanisms developed based on this idea have successfully evolved stable cooperation in games such as the Prisoner's Dilemma game but relies upon payoff sharing and matching methods that limit the applicability of the tag framework. Our goal is to develop a general classification and behaviour selection approach based on the tag framework. We propose and evaluate alternative tag matching and adaptation schemes for a new, incoming individual to select appropriate behaviour against any population member of an existing, stable society. Our proposed approach allows agents to evolve both the optimal tag for the environment as well as appropriate strategies for existing agent groups. We show that these mechanisms will allow for robust selection of optimal strategies by agents entering a stable society and analyse the various environments where this approach is effective.

  7. Effect of acute airway inflammation on the pulmonary antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Deaton, Christopher M; Marlin, David J; Smith, Nicola C; Harris, Patricia A; Dagleish, Mark P; Schroter, Robert C; Kelly, Frank J

    2005-09-01

    Effects of acute airway inflammation induced by organic dust inhalation on pulmonary antioxidant status were investigated in healthy horses and horses affected by recurrent airway obstruction. Exposure to organic dust induced acute airway neutrophilia, which was associated with increases in elastase and decreases in ascorbic acid concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. However, markers of oxidative stress were unaffected, as was hydrogen peroxide in breath condensate. Decreases in ascorbic acid correlated with increased respiratory resistance (P = .001) when both groups were combined. In conclusion, acute neutrophilic airway inflammation does not result in significant evidence of oxidative stress in horses affected by recurrent airway obstruction. PMID:16203621

  8. Effects of Acute Alcohol Consumption on the Processing of Emotion in Faces: Implications for Understanding Alcohol-Related Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Attwood, Angela S.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    The negative consequences of chronic alcohol abuse are well known, but heavy episodic consumption ("binge drinking") is also associated with significant personal and societal harms. Aggressive tendencies are increased after alcohol but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. While effects on behavioural control are likely to be important, other effects may be involved given the widespread action of alcohol. Altered processing of social signals is associated with changes in social behaviours, including aggression, but until recently there has been little research investigating the effects of acute alcohol consumption on these outcomes. Recent work investigating the effects of acute alcohol on emotional face processing has suggested reduced sensitivity to submissive signals (sad faces) and increased perceptual bias towards provocative signals (angry faces) after alcohol consumption, which may play a role in alcohol-related aggression. Here we discuss a putative mechanism that may explain how alcohol consumption influences emotional processing and subsequent aggressive responding, via disruption of OFC-amygdala connectivity. While the importance of emotional processing on social behaviours is well established, research into acute alcohol consumption and emotional processing is still in its infancy. Further research is needed and we outline a research agenda to address gaps in the literature. PMID:24920135

  9. Pre-hospital care seeking behaviour for childhood acute respiratory infections in south-western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ukwaja, Kingsley N; Talabi, Ademola A; Aina, Olufemi B

    2012-12-01

    WHO/UNICEF currently recommend that childhood malaria and pneumonia be managed together in the community; most African countries are in the process of developing this policy. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine maternal awareness of general danger signs of childhood illnesses and the prevalence, determinants and sources of pre-hospital treatment by mothers during their child's acute respiratory illness in a poor urban community in south-western Nigeria. A total of 226 mothers were interviewed. Only 4.9% of the mothers were aware of the two pneumonia symptoms: difficult breathing and fast breathing. About 75% of the children were given pre-hospital medication at home and only 16.5% of them received the drugs within 24 hour of symptom recognition. Drug shops/patent medicine vendors (PMVs; 70.6%) were the most common source of care. Wishing to try home management first (46.6%); waiting for the child to improve (14.4%) and lack of money (31.6%) delayed care-seeking. Older maternal age (aOR 2.3; 95% CI 1.2-4.4) and having a child with cough and difficult and/or fast breathing (aOR 2.3; 95% CI 1.1-5.2) were positive predictors of pre-hospital treatment. Maternal education and adequately equipping PMVs could improve prompt access to integrated community-based child health services in Nigeria. PMID:24029675

  10. The Importance of Indirect Teaching Behaviour and Its Educational Effects in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Hyunwoo; Choi, Euichang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical education teacher behaviour has been a subject of study in physical education including physical education teacher education for 30 years. However, the research on teacher behaviour has tended to focus on direct teaching behaviour (DTB) to demonstrate the benefits of effective teaching, centred on a technical understanding of…

  11. Behavioural therapies versus other psychological therapies for depression

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, Rachel; Caldwell, Deborah; Moore, Theresa HM; Davies, Philippa; Jones, Hannah; Lewis, Glyn; Hunot, Vivien

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all BT approaches compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depressionTo examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different BT approaches (behavioural therapy, behavioural activation, social skills training and relaxation training) compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all BT approaches compared with different psychological therapy approaches (psychodynamic, humanistic, integrative, cognitive-behavioural and third wave CBT) for acute depression. PMID:25067905

  12. The effect of road tunnel environment on car following behaviour.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Jian Sheng; Wong, Yiik Diew

    2014-09-01

    In order to overcome urban space constraints, underground road systems are becoming popular options for cities. Existing literature suggests that accident rates in road tunnels are lower than those in open roads. However, there is a lack of understanding in how the road tunnel environment affects inter-vehicle interactions. In this study, car following data are obtained from traffic video footages of open and tunnel expressways in Singapore. A total of 15,325 car following headways (with car as the follower) are analysed and significant factors affecting headways are found to be speed, and lane. Significant effect of leading vehicle type is only found for tunnel expressway. Headways are generally longer in the tunnel environment. Assessment of collision time measures and safety margins also reveal safer car following behaviour and lower rear-end collision risks in the tunnel expressway. The results are discussed from a behavioural perspective. Overall, the findings show that road tunnels are superior in terms of safety but at reduced traffic capacity . PMID:24713218

  13. Stereochemistry of mephedrone neuropharmacology: enantiomer-specific behavioural and neurochemical effects in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gregg, Ryan A; Baumann, Michael H; Partilla, John S; Bonano, Julie S; Vouga, Alexandre; Tallarida, Christopher S; Velvadapu, Venkata; Smith, Garry R; Peet, M Melissa; Reitz, Allen B; Negus, S Stevens; Rawls, Scott M

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Synthetic cathinones, commonly referred to as ‘bath salts’, are a group of amphetamine-like drugs gaining popularity worldwide. 4-Methylmethcathinone (mephedrone, MEPH) is the most commonly abused synthetic cathinone in the UK, and exerts its effects by acting as a substrate-type releaser at monoamine transporters. Similar to other cathinone-related compounds, MEPH has a chiral centre and exists stably as two enantiomers: R-mephedrone (R-MEPH) and S-mephedrone (S-MEPH). Experimental Approach Here, we provide the first investigation into the neurochemical and behavioural effects of R-MEPH and S-MEPH. We analysed both enantiomers in rat brain synaptosome neurotransmitter release assays and also investigated their effects on locomotor activity (e.g. ambulatory activity and repetitive movements), behavioural sensitization and reward. Key Results Both enantiomers displayed similar potency as substrates (i.e. releasers) at dopamine transporters, but R-MEPH was much less potent than S-MEPH as a substrate at 5-HT transporters. Locomotor activity was evaluated in acute and repeated administration paradigms, with R-MEPH producing greater repetitive movements than S-MEPH across multiple doses. After repeated drug exposure, only R-MEPH produced sensitization of repetitive movements. R-MEPH produced a conditioned place preference whereas S-MEPH did not. Lastly, R-MEPH and S-MEPH produced biphasic profiles in an assay of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), but R-MEPH produced greater ICSS facilitation than S-MEPH. Conclusions and Implications Our data are the first to demonstrate stereospecific effects of MEPH enantiomers and suggest that the predominant dopaminergic actions of R-MEPH (i.e. the lack of serotonergic actions) render this stereoisomer more stimulant-like when compared with S-MEPH. This hypothesis warrants further study. PMID:25255824

  14. Effects of monetary reward and punishment on information checking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Li, Simon Y W; Cox, Anna L; Or, Calvin; Blandford, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine whether checking one's own work can be motivated by monetary reward and punishment. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a flat-rate payment for completing the task (Control); payment increased for error-free performance (Reward); payment decreased for error performance (Punishment). Experiment 1 (N = 90) was conducted with liberal arts students, using a general data-entry task. Experiment 2 (N = 90) replicated Experiment 1 with clinical students and a safety-critical 'cover story' for the task. In both studies, Reward and Punishment resulted in significantly fewer errors, more frequent and longer checking, than Control. No such differences were obtained between the Reward and Punishment conditions. It is concluded that error consequences in terms of monetary reward and punishment can result in more accurate task performance and more rigorous checking behaviour than errors without consequences. However, whether punishment is more effective than reward, or vice versa, remains inconclusive. PMID:26549151

  15. Possible role of more positive social behaviour in the clinical effect of antidepressant drugs

    PubMed Central

    Young, Simon N.; Moskowitz, Debbie S.; Rot, Marije aan het

    2014-01-01

    Increasing serotonin decreases quarrelsome behaviours and enhances agreeable behaviours in humans. Antidepressants, even those whose primary action is not on serotonin, seem to increase serotonin function. We suggest that antidepressants act in part by effects on social behaviour, which leads to a gradual improvement in mood. We review the evidence supporting the idea that anti-depressants may be moving behaviour from quarrelsome to agreeable. The more positive social responses of interaction partners would initiate a cycle of more positive social behaviour, and this iterative process would result in a clinically significant improvement in mood. PMID:24280182

  16. Acute toxicity of methyl isocyanate: a preliminary study of the dose response for eye and other effects.

    PubMed

    Salmon, A G; Kerr Muir, M; Andersson, N

    1985-12-01

    Acute toxic effects of methyl isocyanate in the rat were determined for two hour exposures to concentrations in the range 11 ppm (very slight effect) to 65 ppm (lethality: pulmonary oedema). Changes in the eye, lungs, and behaviour were noted. Eye changes were confined to erosions of the corneal epithelium and were most severe at intermediate levels of exposure. A comparison was made of the effects noted in rats with reported effects on survivors of the Bhopal disaster. Urinary thiocyanate concentrations in exposed rats were found to be reduced relative to control values. PMID:4074650

  17. Aortic wall properties and baroreceptor behaviour at normal arterial pressure and in acute hypertensive resetting in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Coleridge, H M; Coleridge, J C; Poore, E R; Roberts, A M; Schultz, H D

    1984-01-01

    In order to throw light on the mechanism of acute hypertensive baroreceptor resetting, we examined the relationship between aortic baroreceptor firing and aortic wall properties in anaesthetized dogs as pressure was varied in a number of ways. We recorded baroreceptor impulses from the left aortic nerve, and measured aortic pressure with a catheter-tip transducer and external aortic diameter with ultrasonic transit-time transducers. Narrow anticlockwise hysteresis loops were evident in the pressure-diameter relationship of the upper thoracic aorta, both during the rapid pulsatile pressure changes of the cardiac cycle and during the slow excursions of mean pressure imposed for construction of baroreceptor pressure--response curves. In contrast to the 'phase-lag' response of diameter to pressure, the baroreceptor response was 'phaselead' in character, decreasing when stress-induced creep occurred in the aortic wall. When the mean arterial pressure set-point was increased from 100 to 125 mmHg for 20 min, the hysteresis loops relating mean diameter to mean pressure in the range 60-200 mmHg were displaced along the diameter axis in the direction of wall creep. A reduction in the baroreceptor response to pressure (i.e. resetting) always accompanied this displacement. Administration of ouabain (25-35 micrograms/kg) had no consistent effect on baroreceptor resetting. It has been suggested that acute baroreceptor resetting is akin to adaptation. To investigate the possibility that the two processes are accompanied by similar changes in aortic wall properties, we converted the aorta into a closed sac and distended it with a square wave of pressure. Like resetting, adaptation of the baroreceptor response to maintained pressure was associated with a small degree of creep of the aortic wall. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis that acute hypertensive resetting of aortic baroreceptors is similar to adaptation, both phenomena being attributable to relaxation of

  18. Effects of Acute Exercise on Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labban, Jeffrey D.; Etnier, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we tested the effect of acute exercise on long-term memory, specifically the timing of exercise relative to the memory challenge. We assessed memory via paragraph recall, in which participants listened to two paragraphs (exposure) and recounted them following a 35-min delay. Participants (n = 48) were randomly assigned to one of…

  19. Acute Stressor Effects on Goal-Directed Action in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Stephanie; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Here we examined effects of acute stressors that involve either systemic coadministration of corticosterone/yohimbine (3 mg/kg each) to increase glucocorticoid/noradrenaline activity (denoted as "pharmacological" stressor) or one or several distinct restraint stressors (denoted as "single" vs. "multiple" stressor) on…

  20. The Effects of Acute Dopamine Precursor Depletion on the Reinforcing Value of Exercise in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, Caitlin B.; Keyes, Alexandra; Renwick, Bethany; Leyton, Marco; Campbell, Iain C.; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether dopaminergic systems are involved in the motivation to engage in behaviours associated with anorexia nervosa (AN), specifically, the drive to exercise. Women recovered from AN (AN REC, n = 17) and healthy controls (HC, n = 15) were recruited. The acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion (APTD) method was used to transiently decrease dopamine synthesis and transmission. The effect of dopamine precursor depletion on drive to exercise was measured using a progressive ratio (PR) exercise breakpoint task. Both groups worked for the opportunity to exercise, and, at baseline, PR breakpoint scores were higher in AN REC than HC. Compared to values on the experimental control session, APTD did not decrease PR breakpoint scores in AN REC, but significantly decreased scores in HC. These data show that women recovered from AN are more motivated to exercise than HC, although in both groups, activity is more reinforcing than inactivity. Importantly, decreasing dopamine does not reduce the motivation to exercise in people recovered from AN, but in contrast, does so in HC. It is proposed that in AN, drive to exercise develops into a behaviour that is largely independent of dopamine mediated reward processes and becomes dependent on cortico-striatal neurocircuitry that regulates automated, habit- or compulsive-like behaviours. These data strengthen the case for the involvement of reward, learning, habit, and dopaminergic systems in the aetiology of AN. PMID:26808920

  1. The Effects of Acute Dopamine Precursor Depletion on the Reinforcing Value of Exercise in Anorexia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Caitlin B; Keyes, Alexandra; Renwick, Bethany; Leyton, Marco; Campbell, Iain C; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether dopaminergic systems are involved in the motivation to engage in behaviours associated with anorexia nervosa (AN), specifically, the drive to exercise. Women recovered from AN (AN REC, n = 17) and healthy controls (HC, n = 15) were recruited. The acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion (APTD) method was used to transiently decrease dopamine synthesis and transmission. The effect of dopamine precursor depletion on drive to exercise was measured using a progressive ratio (PR) exercise breakpoint task. Both groups worked for the opportunity to exercise, and, at baseline, PR breakpoint scores were higher in AN REC than HC. Compared to values on the experimental control session, APTD did not decrease PR breakpoint scores in AN REC, but significantly decreased scores in HC. These data show that women recovered from AN are more motivated to exercise than HC, although in both groups, activity is more reinforcing than inactivity. Importantly, decreasing dopamine does not reduce the motivation to exercise in people recovered from AN, but in contrast, does so in HC. It is proposed that in AN, drive to exercise develops into a behaviour that is largely independent of dopamine mediated reward processes and becomes dependent on cortico-striatal neurocircuitry that regulates automated, habit- or compulsive-like behaviours. These data strengthen the case for the involvement of reward, learning, habit, and dopaminergic systems in the aetiology of AN. PMID:26808920

  2. Behavioural Intervention Effects in Dysarthria Following Stroke: Communication Effectiveness, Intelligibility and Dysarthria Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Catherine; Lowit, Anja

    2007-01-01

    Background: Dysarthria is a common post-stroke presentation. Its management falls within the remit of the speech and language therapy profession. Little controlled evaluation of the effects of intervention for dysarthria in stroke has been reported. Aims: The study aimed to determine the effects of a period of behavioural communication…

  3. Involvement of dopamine D2 receptors in the effect of cocaine on sexual behaviour and stretching-yawning of male rats.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, F; Giuliani, D

    1997-06-01

    The effect of cocaine (7.5, 15 and 30 mg/kg) administered in acute or subchronic mode, on the mating behaviour of sexually active male rats varied in a dose- and mode-dependent manner. Regardless of mode of treatment, 30 mg/kg markedly impaired the rats copulatory ability and impairment continued for a week after suspension of subchronic treatment. An acute dose of 15 mg/kg reduced intromission frequency, while in subchronic mode it also reduced ejaculation latency. Mount frequency was increased by 7.5 and 15 mg/kg, but only on first injection. In the case of sexually-naive male rats, acute administration of cocaine (3-30 mg/kg) stimulated penile erections at 7.5 mg/kg and motor hyperactivity at all doses. (-) Eticlopride (0.025 and 0.05 mg/kg), a DA D2 antagonist, counteracted cocaine-induced motor hyperactivity but not penile erection, which it enhanced. (-) Eticlopride at the same doses also antagonized cocaine potentiation of lisuride (0.2 mg/kg)-induced behavioural effects. When male rats treated with subchronic cocaine (15 mg/kg) were injected with the DA D2 agonist SND 919 (0.1 mg/kg), they displayed a more marked stretching-yawning behaviour than control animals receiving SND 919 at the same dose. The involvement of DA D2 receptors in cocaine-induced effects is suggested. PMID:9225304

  4. Noradrenaline effects on social behaviour, intergroup relations, and moral decisions.

    PubMed

    Terbeck, S; Savulescu, J; Chesterman, L P; Cowen, P J

    2016-07-01

    Recent research has begun to elucidate the neural basis of higher order social concepts, such as the mechanisms involved in intergroup relations, and moral judgments. Most theories have concentrated on higher order emotions, such as guilt, shame, or empathy, as core mechanisms. Accordingly, psychopharmacological and neurobiological studies have investigated the effects of manipulating serotonin or oxytocin activity on moral and social decisions and attitudes. However, recently it has been determined that changes in more basic emotions, such as fear and anger, might also have a significant role in social and moral cognition. This article summarizes psychopharmacological and fMRI research on the role of noradrenaline in higher order social cognition suggesting that indeed noradrenergic mediated affective changes might play key - and probably causal - role in certain social attitudes and moral judgments. Social judgments may also be directly influenced by numerous neurotransmitter manipulations but these effects could be mediated by modulation of basic emotions which appear to play an essential role in the formation of social concepts and moral behaviour. PMID:27126289

  5. Acute effects of tea consumption on attention and mood.

    PubMed

    Einöther, Suzanne J; Martens, Vanessa E

    2013-12-01

    Tea has historically been associated with mood and performance benefits, such as relaxation and concentration. This review summarizes the research on the acute effects of tea, and its ingredients theanine and caffeine, on attention and mood. Consistent with abundant research on the benefits of caffeine, the performance benefits of tea were identified in a number of studies, with particularly consistent evidence for improved attention. Tea consumption also consistently improved self-reported alertness and arousal, whereas effects on pleasure or relaxation were less consistent. In addition to the research on caffeine in real-life performance, 2 recent studies have provided a broader perspective on tea's effects on psychological function in that they showed beneficial effects in related areas such as work performance and creativity. These studies showed the validity of laboratory findings by supporting the idea that tea consumption has acute benefits on both mood and performance in real-life situations. PMID:24172303

  6. The effects of citicoline on acute ischemic stroke: a review.

    PubMed

    Overgaard, Karsten

    2014-08-01

    Early reopening of the occluded artery is, thus, important in ischemic stroke, and it has been calculated that 2 million neurons die every minute in an ischemic stroke if no effective therapy is given; therefore, "Time is Brain." In massive hemispheric infarction and edema, surgical decompression lowers the risk of death or severe disability defined as a modified Rankin Scale score greater than 4 in selected patients. The majority, around 80%-85% of all ischemic stroke victims, does not fulfill the criteria for revascularization therapy, and also for these patients, there is no effective acute therapy. Also there is no established effective acute treatment of spontaneous intracerebral bleeding. Therefore, an effective therapy applicable to all stroke victims is needed. The neuroprotective drug citicoline has been extensively studied in clinical trials with volunteers and more than 11,000 patients with various neurologic disorders, including acute ischemic stroke (AIS). The conclusion is that citicoline is safe to use and may have a beneficial effect in AIS patients and most beneficial in less severe stroke in older patients not treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. No other neuroprotective agent had any beneficial effect in confirmative clinical trials or had any positive effect in the subgroup analysis. Citicoline is the only drug that in a number of different clinical stroke trials continuously had some neuroprotective benefit. PMID:24739589

  7. A Longitudinal Twin Study of the Direction of Effects between Psychopathic Personality and Antisocial Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsman, Mats; Lichtenstein, Paul; Andershed, Henrik; Larsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Background: Antisocial behaviour may partly develop as a consequence of psychopathic personality. However, neither the direction of effects nor the aetiology of the association has previously been clarified. The aim in this study was to investigate the direction of effects between psychopathic personality and antisocial behaviour, and to…

  8. The effect of noncognitive traits on health behaviours in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mendolia, Silvia; Walker, Ian

    2014-09-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between personality traits and health behaviours in adolescence using a large and recent cohort study. In particular, we investigate the impact of locus of control, self-esteem and work ethics at ages 15-16 years on the incidence of health behaviours such as alcohol consumption, cannabis and other drug use, unprotected and early sexual activity and sports and physical activity. We use matching methods to control for a very rich set of adolescent and family characteristics, and we find that personality traits do affect health behaviours. In particular, individuals with external locus of control, low self-esteem or with low levels of work ethics seem more likely in engage in risky health behaviours. PMID:24677274

  9. Behavioural and neurotoxic effects of ayahuasca infusion (Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis) in female Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Pic-Taylor, Aline; da Motta, Luciana Gueiros; de Morais, Juliana Alves; Junior, Willian Melo; Santos, Alana de Fátima Andrade; Campos, Leandro Ambrósio; Mortari, Marcia Renata; von Zuben, Marcus Vinicius; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2015-09-01

    Ayahuasca, a psychoactive beverage used by indigenous and religious groups, is generally prepared by the coction of Psychotria viridis and Banisteriopsis caapi plants containing N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and β-carboline alkaloids, respectively. To investigate the acute toxicity of ayahuasca, the infusion was administered by gavage to female Wistar rats at doses of 30X and 50X the dose taken during a religious ritual, and the animals observed for 14 days. Behavioural functions were investigated one hour after dosing at 15X and 30X using the open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swimming tests. Neuronal activation (c-fos marked neurons) and toxicity (Fluoro-Jade B and Nissl/Cresyl staining) were investigated in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN), amygdaloid nucleus, and hippocampal formation brain areas of rats treated with a 30X ayahuasca dose. The actual lethal oral dose in female Wistar rats could not be determined in this study, but was shown to be higher than the 50X (which corresponds to 15.1mg/kg bw DMT). The ayahuasca and fluoxetine treated groups showed a significant decrease in locomotion in the open field and elevated plus-maze tests compared to controls. In the forced swimming test, ayahuasca treated animals swam more than controls, a behaviour that was not significant in the fluoxetine group. Treated animals showed higher neuronal activation in all brain areas involved in serotoninergic neurotransmission. Although this led to some brain injury, no permanent damage was detected. These results suggest that ayahuasca has antidepressant properties in Wistar female at high doses, an effect that should be further investigated. PMID:26049017

  10. Silver nanoparticles: behaviour and effects in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Fabrega, Julia; Luoma, Samuel N; Tyler, Charles R; Galloway, Tamara S; Lead, Jamie R

    2011-02-01

    This review summarises and evaluates the present knowledge on the behaviour, the biological effects and the routes of uptake of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to organisms, with considerations on the nanoparticle physicochemistry in the ecotoxicity testing systems used. Different types of Ag NP syntheses, characterisation techniques and predicted current and future concentrations in the environment are also outlined. Rapid progress in this area has been made over the last few years, but there is still a critical lack of understanding of the need for characterisation and synthesis in environmental and ecotoxicological studies. Concentration and form of nanomaterials in the environment are difficult to quantify and methodological progress is needed, although sophisticated exposure models show that predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) for Ag NPs in different environmental compartments are at the range of ng L(-1) to mg kg(-1). The ecotoxicological literature shows that concentrations of Ag NPs below the current and future PECs, as low as just a few ng L(-1), can affect prokaryotes, invertebrates and fish indicating a significant potential, though poorly characterised, risk to the environment. Mechanisms of toxicity are still poorly understood although it seems clear that in some cases nanoscale specific properties may cause biouptake and toxicity over and above that caused by the dissolved Ag ion. This review concludes with a set of recommendations for the advancement of understanding of the role of nanoscale silver in environmental and ecotoxicological research. PMID:21159383

  11. Authentic leadership and its effect on employees' organizational citizenship behaviours.

    PubMed

    Edú Valsania, Sergio; Moriano León, Juan A; Molero Alonso, Fernando; Topa Cantisano, Gabriela

    2012-11-01

    The studies that have verified the positive association of authentic leadership with organizational citizenship behaviours (OCBs), have used global measures of both constructs. Therefore, the goal of this work is to analyze the effect of authentic leadership on employees' OCBs, specifically focusing on the relations of the four components of authentic leadership with the individual and organizational dimensions of the OCBs. The participants of this study were 220 Spanish employees (30.9% men and 69.1% women) who completed a questionnaire that included the variables of interest in this study: Authentic Leadership, OCB and Sociobiographical control variables. The results, obtained with stepwise multiple regression analysis, show that two components of authentic leadership-moral perspective and relational transparency-present significant relationships with OCB. Moreover, authentic leadership is a better predictor of employees' OCB when these behaviors are impersonal and directed towards the organization than when they are directed towards other people. These results have practical implications for human resources management in organizations, especially in selection processes and when training top executives. PMID:23079352

  12. The effects of acute and chronic stress on diabetes control.

    PubMed

    Marcovecchio, M Loredana; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2012-10-23

    Stress is an important contributor to pathological conditions in humans. Hormonal changes that occur during acute and chronic stress situations can affect glucose homeostasis in both healthy people and in those with diabetes. Several studies have reported a negative effect of acute stress on maintenance of blood glucose concentrations in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The effect of stress on glycemic control in people with diabetes may be related to a direct effect of stress hormones on blood glucose levels and an indirect effect of stress on patient behaviors related to diabetes treatment and monitoring and meal and exercise plans. In contrast, there is no clear evidence that stressful life events promote the development of diabetes in children or in adults. Stress hyperglycemia, the development of hyperglycemia during acute illness, represents another interesting connection between the stress system and glucose homeostasis. A large body of evidence supports an association between stress hyperglycemia and increased morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Interestingly, there is some evidence supporting a beneficial effect of insulin in reducing morbidity and mortality in patients admitted to intensive care units. Finally, stress can influence the development of type 2 diabetes indirectly by promoting obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:23092890

  13. Acute effects of aflatoxins on guinea pig isolated ileum.

    PubMed

    Luzi, A; Cometa, M F; Palmery, M

    2002-10-01

    Previous studies on the aflatoxins have focused mainly on their chronic toxic effects. In this study we investigated the acute gastrointestinal effects of four common aflatoxins on isolated guinea pig ileum. AFB(1) (EC(50) 4.6+/-0.4 microM) and AFB(2) (EC(50)17+/-4.4 microM) contracted isolated guinea pig ileum in a dose-dependent manner, whereas AFG(1) and AFG(2) evoked no contractions. Atropine (5.9 nM 11.8 and 23.6 nM) antagonized AFB(1)-induced contractions in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with the nicotinic ganglionic blocker, hexamethonium (up to 55 microM), left AFB(1)-induced contractions unchanged. In contrast, tetrodotoxin (0.3 microM), blocked AFB(1) contractile activity. The two inhibitors of ACh release, morphine (0.3 microM) and clonidine (0.4 microM), antagonized EC(50) AFB(1)-induced contractions, and apamin, a drug that increases neuronal excitability, facilitated the EC(50) AFB(1)-induced contractile effect. The choline uptake blocker, hemicholinium (17.4 microM) markedly reduced AFB(1)-induced contractions. These results suggest that aflatoxins induce their contractile effect indirectly through the cholinergic system by stimulating acetylcholine release from the postganglionic parasympathetic nerve endings. The acute actions of aflatoxins on isolated guinea pig ileum could explain their acute gastrointestinal effects in humans and animals. PMID:12206819

  14. Effects of acute alcohol consumption on the perception of eye gaze direction.

    PubMed

    Penton-Voak, Ian S; Cooper, Robbie M; Roberts, Rachel E; Attwood, Angela S; Munafò, Marcus R

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increases in aggressive behaviour, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood. One mechanism by which alcohol consumption may influence behaviour is via alterations in the processing of social cues such as gaze. We investigated the effects of acute alcohol consumption on the perception of gaze, using a task in which participants determined whether a stimulus face was looking towards or away from them. Gaze direction varied across trials, allowing calculation of a threshold at which participants considered gaze to switch from direct to averted. Target faces varied in both sex and attractiveness. Thirty social drinkers attended three randomized experimental sessions. At each session, participants consumed 0.0, 0.2 or 0.4 g/kg alcohol, and completed the gaze perception task. A significant three-way interaction involving target sex, participant sex and alcohol dose indicated that alcohol increased the cone of gaze for females viewing male targets (i.e. females were biased towards making a direct gaze judgement), but decreased the cone of gaze for males viewing male targets. Our data indicate that alcohol consumption influences gaze perception, but that these effects vary across sex of both stimulus and rater. These effects may have important implications for alcohol-related violence. PMID:20937615

  15. Acute effects of cannabis on breath-holding duration.

    PubMed

    Farris, Samantha G; Metrik, Jane

    2016-08-01

    Distress intolerance (an individual's perceived or actual inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states) is associated with cannabis use. It is unknown whether a biobehavioral index of distress intolerance, breath-holding duration, is acutely influenced (increased or decreased) by cannabis. Such information may further inform understanding of the expression of psychological or physiological distress postcannabis use. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7%-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed duration of breath holding. Participants (n = 88; 65.9% male) were nontreatment-seeking frequent cannabis users who smoked placebo or active THC cigarette on two separate study days and completed a breath-holding task postsmoking. Controlling for baseline breath-holding duration and participant sex, THC produced significantly shorter breath-holding durations relative to placebo. There was a significant interaction of drug administration × frequency of cannabis use, such that THC decreased breath-holding time among less frequent but not among more frequent users. Findings indicate that cannabis may exacerbate distress intolerance (via shorter breath-holding durations). As compared to less frequent cannabis users, frequent users display tolerance to cannabis' acute effects including increased ability to tolerate respiratory distress when holding breath. Objective measures of distress intolerance are sensitive to contextual factors such as acute drug intoxication, and may inform the link between cannabis use and the expression of psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454678

  16. Norepinephrine and impulsivity: Effects of acute yohimbine

    PubMed Central

    Swann, Alan C.; Lijffijt, Marijn; Lane, Scott D.; Cox, Blake; Steinberg, Joel L.; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Rapid-response impulsivity, characterized by inability to withhold response to a stimulus until it is adequately appraised, is associated with risky behavior and may be increased in a state-dependent manner by norepinephrine. Objective We assessed effects of yohimbine, which increases norepinephrine release by blocking alpha-2 noradrenergic receptors, on plasma catecholamine metabolites, blood pressure, subjective symptoms, and laboratory-measured rapid-response impulsivity. Methods Subjects were twenty-three healthy controls recruited from the community, with normal physical examination and ECG, and negative history for hypertension, cardiovascular illness, and Axis I or II disorder. Blood pressure, pulse, and behavioral measures were obtained before and periodically after 0.4 mg/kg oral yohimbine or placebo in a randomized, counterbalanced design. Metabolites of norepinephrine (3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, MHPG; vanillylmandelic acid, VMA) and dopamine (homovanillic acid, HVA) were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Rapid-response impulsivity was measured by commission errors and reaction times on the Immediate Memory Task (IMT), a continuous performance test designed to measure impulsivity and attention. Results Yohimbine increased plasma MHPG and VMA but not HVA. Yohimbine increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate. On the IMT, yohimbine increased impulsive errors and impulsive response bias and accelerated reaction times. Yohimbine-associated increase in plasma MHPG correlated with increased impulsive response rates. Time courses varied; effects on blood pressure generally preceded those on metabolites and test performance. Conclusions These effects are consistent with increased rapid-response impulsivity after pharmacological noradrenergic stimulation in healthy controls. Labile noradrenergic responses, or increased sensitivity to norepinephrine, may increase risk for impulsive

  17. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning.

    PubMed

    Perini, Renza; Bortoletto, Marta; Capogrosso, Michela; Fertonani, Anna; Miniussi, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cortex, and the second was a simple thumb abduction motor task that relies on the primary motor cortex. Forty-four and forty volunteers participated in the first and second experiments, respectively. We found that a single bout of aerobic exercise can significantly facilitate learning mechanisms within visual and motor domains and that these positive effects can persist for at least 30 minutes following exercise. This finding suggests that physical activity, at least of moderate intensity, might promote brain plasticity. By combining physical activity-induced plasticity with specific cognitive training-induced plasticity, we favour a gradual up-regulation of a functional network due to a steady increase in synaptic strength, promoting associative Hebbian-like plasticity. PMID:27146330

  18. Formaldehyde exposure and acute health effects study

    SciTech Connect

    Quackenboss, J.J.; Lebowitz, M.D.; Michaud, J.P.; Bronnimann, D. )

    1989-01-01

    To assess the effects of formaldehyde exposures on health, exposure groups were defined using baseline exposure and health questionnaires. Formaldehyde concentrations were poorly correlated with these exposure classifications, perhaps due to the time delay between classification and monitoring. The 151 households reported here had a mean HCHO concentration of 35 (S.E. 1.5 and median 30) {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Passive samplers prepared in our lab were calibrated in a chamber to derive an estimated sampling rate of 0.311 {mu}g/(mg {center dot} m{sup {minus}3} {center dot} hr). They were also compared to commercially available samplers inside of the homes, with a correlation coefficient of 0.896 and mean difference of 2.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. In this report of initial findings from an ongoing study, daily symptoms and peak expiratory flow measurements were compared with an HCHO exposure classification based on the median measured concentrations. None of the symptoms groups were related to HCHO exposure when controlling for age and sex. There was a significant relationship between HCHO exposure and variability in peak expiratory flows that was dependent on age group. It may be especially important to assess the variability in reactive individuals and children to determine the short-term effects of HCHO exposures and possible long-term consequences.

  19. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning

    PubMed Central

    Perini, Renza; Bortoletto, Marta; Capogrosso, Michela; Fertonani, Anna; Miniussi, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cortex, and the second was a simple thumb abduction motor task that relies on the primary motor cortex. Forty-four and forty volunteers participated in the first and second experiments, respectively. We found that a single bout of aerobic exercise can significantly facilitate learning mechanisms within visual and motor domains and that these positive effects can persist for at least 30 minutes following exercise. This finding suggests that physical activity, at least of moderate intensity, might promote brain plasticity. By combining physical activity–induced plasticity with specific cognitive training–induced plasticity, we favour a gradual up-regulation of a functional network due to a steady increase in synaptic strength, promoting associative Hebbian-like plasticity. PMID:27146330

  20. The Protective Effects of Buzui on Acute Alcoholism in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Da-Chao; Gao, Shu-di; Hu, Xiao-yu; Yi, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of a traditional buzui recipe in anti-inebriation treatment. Buzui consists of Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis, Fructus Chebulae, Fructus Mume, Fructus Crataegi, Endothelium Corneum Gigeriae Galli, and Excrementum Bombycis. The buzui mixture was delivered by gavage, and ethanol was delivered subsequent to the final treatment. The effects of buzui on the righting reflex, inebriation rates, and the survival curve are depicted. Blood alcohol concentrations, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were recorded. The activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as malonaldehyde (MDA) levels, were also measured. Our results demonstrated that a traditional buzui recipe showed significant effects on promoting wakefulness and the prevention of acute alcohol intoxication, accelerating the metabolism of alcohol in the liver and reducing the oxidative damage caused by acute alcoholism. PMID:26884793

  1. Effect of Embelin Against Lipopolysaccharide-induced Sickness Behaviour in Mice.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Ashique; Dhadde, Shivsharan B; Durg, Sharanbasappa; Veerapur, V P; Badami, S; Thippeswamy, B S; Patil, Jagadevappa S

    2016-05-01

    Sickness behaviour is a coordinated set of adaptive behavioural changes that develop in ill individuals during the course of an infection. It is relevant to understanding depression and some aspects of the suffering that in cancer. Embelin has been reported to possess antiinflammatory, neuroprotective and anxiolytic assets and has been shown to inhibit nuclear factor κB pathway and cytokine production. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of embelin isolated from Embelia ribes Burm in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sickness behaviour in mice. Adult male Swiss albino mice were pre-treated with embelin (10 and 20 mg/kg, p.o.) or dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, i.p.) for 3 days and then challenged with LPS (400 µg/kg, i.p.). At different time intervals of post-LPS challenge, sickness behaviour was evaluated in the animals by battery of behavioural tests (plus maze, open field, light-dark box, forced swim, social behaviour assessment, sucrose preference and food and water intake). Levels of oxidative stress makers (reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation) in mice brain were also analysed. LPS induced behavioural alterations, anhedonia and anorexia, in mice. Pre-treatment with embelin attenuated behavioural changes induced by LPS. In addition, embelin prevented anhedonia, anorexia and ameliorated brain oxidative stress markers. The experimental outcomes of the present study demonstrated protective effect of embelin in LPS-induced sickness behaviour in mice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26890475

  2. Behavioural Effects of the Commonly Used Fish Anaesthetic Tricaine Methanesulfonate (MS-222) on Zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Its Relevance for the Acetic Acid Pain Test

    PubMed Central

    Nordgreen, Janicke; Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Janczak, Andrew M.; Horsberg, Tor Einar

    2014-01-01

    The pros and cons of using anaesthesia when handling fish in connection with experiments are debated. A widely adopted practice is to wait thirty minutes after anaesthesia before behavioural observations are initiated, but information about immediate effects of a treatment is then lost. This is pertinent for responses to acute stressors, such as acid injection in the acetic acid pain test. However, omission of anaesthetics in order to obtain data on immediate responses will compromise the welfare of fish and contribute to experimental noise due to stress. We therefore tested the effect of tricaine methanesulfonate on the behaviour of zebrafish. We predicted that tricaine (MS 222) would decrease swimming velocity and that the control fish would show an increased level of anxiety- and stress-related behaviours compared to the tricaine group. Following acclimatization to the test tank, baseline behaviour was recorded before immersion in either tricaine (168 mg l−1, treatment group, N = 8) or tank water (control group, N = 7). Latencies to lose equilibrium and to lose response to touch were registered. The fish was then returned to the test tank, and the latency to regain equilibrium was registered in anaesthetized fish. When equilibrium was regained, and at five, thirty and sixty minutes after the fish had been returned to the test tank, behaviour was recorded. The tricaine fish showed the following responses (mean ± sd): latency to lose equilibrium 22.6 s±3.9; latency to lose response to touch 101.9 s±26.8; latency to regain equilibrium 92.0 s±54.4. Contrary to our predictions, neither treatment caused a change in any of the behaviours registered. This indicates that tricaine has no effect on several commonly used behavioural parameters, and that it may be unnecessary to postpone behavioural observations to 30 min after anaesthesia. PMID:24658262

  3. Spaceflight Sensorimotor Analogs: Simulating Acute and Adaptive Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Laura C.; Harm, Deborah L.; Kozlovskaya, Inessa; Reschke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive changes in sensorimotor function during spaceflight are reflected by spatial disorientation, motion sickness, gaze destabilization and decrements in balance, locomotion and eye-hand coordination that occur during and following transitions between different gravitational states. The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-synthesis of data from spaceflight analogs to evaluate their effectiveness in simulating adaptive changes in sensorimotor function. METHODS. The analogs under review were categorized as either acute analogs used to simulate performance decrements accompanied with transient changes, or adaptive analogs used to drive sensorimotor learning to altered sensory feedback. The effectiveness of each analog was evaluated in terms of mechanisms of action, magnitude and time course of observed deficits compared to spaceflight data, and the effects of amplitude and exposure duration. RESULTS. Parabolic flight has been used extensively to examine effects of acute variation in gravitational loads, ranging from hypergravity to microgravity. More recently, galvanic vestibular stimulation has been used to elicit acute postural, locomotor and gaze dysfunction by disrupting vestibular afferents. Patient populations, e.g., with bilateral vestibular loss or cerebellar dysfunction, have been proposed to model acute sensorimotor dysfunction. Early research sponsored by NASA involved living onboard rotating rooms, which appeared to approximate the time course of adaptation and post-exposure recovery observed in astronauts following spaceflight. Exposure to different bed-rest paradigms (6 deg head down, dry immersion) result in similar motor deficits to that observed following spaceflight. Shorter adaptive analogs have incorporated virtual reality environments, visual distortion paradigms, exposure to conflicting tilt-translation cues, and exposure to 3Gx centrifugation. As with spaceflight, there is considerable variability in responses to most of the analogs

  4. Acute hemodialysis effects on doppler echocardiographic indices.

    PubMed

    Abid, Leila; Rekik, Hajer; Jarraya, Fayçal; Kharrat, Ilyes; Hachicha, Jamil; Kammoun, Samir

    2014-07-01

    Conventional echocardiographic (ECHO) parameters of systolic and diastolic function of the left ventricular (LV) have been shown to be load dependent. However, the impact of pre-load reduction on tissue Doppler (TD) parameters of LV function is incompletely understood. To evaluate the effect of a single hemodialysis (HD) session on LV systolic and diastolic function using pulsed Doppler echocardiography and pulsed tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), we studied 81 chronic HD patients (40 males; mean age 52.4 ± 16.4 years) with these tools. ECHO parameters were obtained 30 min before and 30 min after HD. Fluid volume removed by HD was 1640 ± 730 cm³. HD led to reduction in LV end-diastolic volume (P <0.001), end-systolic volume (P <0.001), left atrium area (P <0.001), peak early (E-wave) trans-mitral flow velocity (P <0.001), the ratio of early to late Doppler velocities of diastolic mitral inflow (P <0.001) and aortic time velocity integral (P <0.001). No significant change in peak S velocity of pulmonary vein flow after HD was noted. Early and late diastolic (E') TDI velocities and the ratio of early to late TDI diastolic velocities (E'/A') on the lateral side of the mitral annulus decreased significantly after HD (P = 0.013; P = 0.007 and P = 0.008, respectively). Velocity of flow progression (Vp) during diastole was not affected by pre-load reduction. Pulmonary artery systolic pressure and the diameter of the inferior vena cava decreased significantly (P <0.001 and P <0.001, respectively) after HD. We conclude that most of the Doppler-derived indices of diastolic function are pre-load-dependent and velocity of flow progression was minimally affected by pre-load reduction in HD patients. PMID:24969184

  5. A Meta-Analysis of Intervention Effects on Challenging Behaviour among Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyvaert, M.; Maes, B.; Onghena, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) often show challenging behaviour. We review distinct interventions that are applied to treat these challenging behaviours, and analyse intervention effects and moderating variables. Methods: A literature search was conducted using the databases "ERIC," "PsycINFO," "Web of Science" and…

  6. The Interactive Effects of Temperament and Maternal Parenting on Toddlers' Externalizing Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Aken, C.; Junger, M.; Verhoeven, M.; van Aken, M. A. G.; Dekovic, M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the potential moderating effects of temperamental traits on the relation between parenting and toddlers' externalizing behaviours. For that purpose, this study examined the interplay between temperament and maternal parenting behaviours in predicting the level as well as the development of toddlers'…

  7. The Effects of Servant Leadership Behaviours of School Principals on Teachers' Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerit, Yusuf

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the effects of servant leadership behaviours of primary school principals on teacher job satisfaction. The population of this study is 29 primary schools in Duzce, Turkey. Data were collected from 595 teachers working in primary schools in Duzce province of Turkey. Servant leadership behaviours of principals were determined…

  8. Effects of an Emotional Literacy Intervention for Students Identified with Bullying Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowler, Claire; Frederickson, Norah

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of a 12-week, small group emotional literacy (EL) intervention in reducing bullying behaviour in school was evaluated. Participants were 50 primary school pupils identified through peer nomination as engaging in bullying behaviours. The intervention was implemented in schools already engaged with a universal social and emotional…

  9. Effects of an Awareness Raising Campaign on Intention and Behavioural Determinants for Handwashing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seimetz, E.; Kumar, S.; Mosler, H.-J.

    2016-01-01

    This article assesses the effectiveness of The Great WASH Yatra handwashing awareness raising campaign in India on changing visitors' intention to wash hands with soap after using the toilet and the underlying behavioural determinants. Interviews based on the RANAS (Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, Self-regulation) model of behaviour change were…

  10. Effects of Conformism on the Cultural Evolution of Social Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Molleman, Lucas; Pen, Ido; Weissing, Franz J.

    2013-01-01

    Models of cultural evolution study how the distribution of cultural traits changes over time. The dynamics of cultural evolution strongly depends on the way these traits are transmitted between individuals by social learning. Two prominent forms of social learning are payoff-based learning (imitating others that have higher payoffs) and conformist learning (imitating locally common behaviours). How payoff-based and conformist learning affect the cultural evolution of cooperation is currently a matter of lively debate, but few studies systematically analyse the interplay of these forms of social learning. Here we perform such a study by investigating how the interaction of payoff-based and conformist learning affects the outcome of cultural evolution in three social contexts. First, we develop a simple argument that provides insights into how the outcome of cultural evolution will change when more and more conformist learning is added to payoff-based learning. In a social dilemma (e.g. a Prisoner’s Dilemma), conformism can turn cooperation into a stable equilibrium; in an evasion game (e.g. a Hawk-Dove game or a Snowdrift game) conformism tends to destabilize the polymorphic equilibrium; and in a coordination game (e.g. a Stag Hunt game), conformism changes the basin of attraction of the two equilibria. Second, we analyse a stochastic event-based model, revealing that conformism increases the speed of cultural evolution towards pure equilibria. Individual-based simulations as well as the analysis of the diffusion approximation of the stochastic model by and large confirm our findings. Third, we investigate the effect of an increasing degree of conformism on cultural group selection in a group-structured population. We conclude that, in contrast to statements in the literature, conformism hinders rather than promotes the evolution of cooperation. PMID:23874528

  11. REINFORCEMENT ENHANCING EFFECTS OF ACUTE NICOTINE VIA ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Kenneth A.; Karelitz, Joshua L.; Michael, Valerie C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent human studies confirm animal research showing that nicotine enhances reinforcement from rewards unrelated to nicotine. These effects of acute nicotine via tobacco smoking may also occur when consumed from non-tobacco products. Methods We assessed acute effects of nicotine via electronic cigarettes (“e-cigarettes”) on responding reinforced by music, video, or monetary rewards, or for no reward (control). In a fully within-subjects design, adult dependent smokers (N=28) participated in three similar experimental sessions, each following overnight abstinence (verified by CO≤10 ppm). Varying only in e-cigarette condition, sessions involved controlled exposure to a nicotine (labeled “36 mg/ml”) or placebo (“0”) e-cigarette, or no e-cigarette use. A fourth session involved smoking one’s own tobacco cigarette brand after no abstinence, specifically to compare responses under typical nicotine satiation with these acute e-cigarette conditions after abstinence. Results Reinforced responding for video reward, but not the other rewards, was greater due to use of the nicotine versus placebo e-cigarette (i.e., nicotine per se), while no differences were found between the placebo e-cigarette and no e-cigarette conditions (i.e., e-cigarette use per se). For nicotine via tobacco smoking, responding compared to the nicotine e-cigarette was similar for video but greater for music, while both video and music reward were enhanced relative to the non-nicotine conditions (placebo and no e-cigarette). Conclusions Acute nicotine from a non-tobacco product has some reinforcement enhancing effects in humans, in a manner partly consistent with nicotine via tobacco smoking and perhaps contributing to the rising popularity of nicotine e-cigarette use. PMID:26070455

  12. Part II - The effect of data on waste behaviour: The South African waste information system

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, Linda; Scott, Dianne; Difford, Mark; Trois, Cristina

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This empirical study explores the relationship between data and resultant waste knowledge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study shows that 'Experience, Data and Theory' account for 54.1% of the variance in knowledge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A strategic framework for Municipalities emerged from this study. - Abstract: Combining the process of learning and the theory of planned behaviour into a new theoretical framework provides an opportunity to explore the impact of data on waste behaviour, and consequently on waste management, in South Africa. Fitting the data to the theoretical framework shows that there are only three constructs which have a significant effect on behaviour, viz experience, knowledge, and perceived behavioural control (PBC). Knowledge has a significant influence on all three of the antecedents to behavioural intention (attitude, subjective norm and PBC). However, it is PBC, and not intention, that has the greatest influence on waste behaviour. While respondents may have an intention to act, this intention does not always manifest as actual waste behaviour, suggesting limited volitional control. The theoretical framework accounts for 53.7% of the variance in behaviour, suggesting significant external influences on behaviour not accounted for in the framework. While the theoretical model remains the same, respondents in public and private organisations represent two statistically significant sub-groups in the data set. The theoretical framework accounts for 47.8% of the variance in behaviour of respondents in public waste organisations and 57.6% of the variance in behaviour of respondents in private organisations. The results suggest that respondents in public and private waste organisations are subject to different structural forces that shape knowledge, intention, and resultant waste behaviour.

  13. Specific effects of acute moderate exercise on cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Davranche, Karen; McMorris, Terry

    2009-04-01

    The main issue of this study was to determine whether cognitive control is affected by acute moderate exercise. Twelve participants [4 females (VO(2 max)=42 ml/kg/min) and 8 males (VO(2 max) = 48 ml/kg/min)] performed a Simon task while cycling at a carefully controlled workload intensity corresponding to their individual ventilatory threshold. The distribution-analytical technique and the delta plot analysis [Ridderinkhof, K. R. (2002). Activation and suppression in conflict tasks: Empirical clarification through distributional analyses. In W. Prinz & B. Hommel (Eds.), Common mechanisms in perception and action. Attention and performance (Vol. 19, pp. 494-519). Oxford: Oxford University Press.] were used to assess the role of selective response inhibition in resolving response conflict. Results showed that cognitive processes appeared to be differently affected by acute moderate exercise. Reaction time results confirmed that performance is better (faster without change in accuracy) when the cognitive task is performed simultaneously with exercise. Between-trial adjustments (post-conflict and post-error) highlighted that cognitive control adjustments are also fully efficient during exercise. However, the effect of congruency (Simon effect) appeared to be more pronounced during exercise compared to rest which suggests that the response inhibition is deteriorated during exercise. The present findings suggest that acute moderate exercise differently affects some specific aspects of cognitive functions. PMID:19138814

  14. Behavioural and physiological effects of virginiamycin in the diets of horses with stereotypies.

    PubMed

    Freire, R; Clegg, H A; Buckley, P; Friend, M A; McGreevy, P D

    2008-10-01

    The effects of dietary supplements of virginiamycin on the behaviour and physiology of 17 thoroughbred geldings (five cribbers, six weavers and six control horses) were compared with the effects of a placebo over a period of 16 weeks. Virginiamycin had no effect on the horses' stereotypic behaviour, but it reduced their explorative behaviour, possibly owing to a reduction in feeding motivation. Virginiamycin increased the water intake of the cribbers and decreased the water intake of the control horses, but it was not possible to eliminate possible confounding factors for this effect. Virginiamycin had no other significant effects on the behaviour or physiology of the horses, and had no effect on the digestibility of their diets. PMID:18836155

  15. The effect of obestatin on anxiety-like behaviour in mice.

    PubMed

    Szakács, Júlia; Csabafi, Krisztina; Lipták, Nándor; Szabó, Gyula

    2015-10-15

    Obestatin is a 23 amino acid-peptide, derived from the same preproghrelin-gene as ghrelin. Obestatin was originally reported as a ghrelin antagonist with anorexigenic activity, but later it was proven to be involved in multiple processes including sleep, memory retention, anxiety, morphine-induced analgesia and withdrawal. In the present study, in male CFLP mice, by using computerised open field (OF) and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests we have investigated the behavioural effects of the acute intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of obestatin alone, and following ghrelin receptor blockage with [d-Lys3]-Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-6 ([d-Lys3]- GHRP6) or corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptor 1 antagonism with antalarmin. Plasma corticosterone levels were measured for each treatment group by using chemofluorescent assay. Our results in the EPM test showed that obestatin reduced the percent of time spent in the open arms. The basal locomotor activity (ambulation distance and time, rearing and jumping) was not influenced significantly neither in the obestatin-treated groups, nor in those receiving pre-treatment with antalarmin or [d-Lys3]-GHRP6. The percentage of central ambulation distance however was decreased by obestatin, while the percentage of time spent in the central zone showed a decreasing tendency. The administration of antalarmin or [d-Lys3]-GHRP6 have both reversed the effect of obestatin on central ambulation. Plasma corticosterone levels were elevated by obestatin, which effect was antagonised by the injection of antalarmin. These are the first results to indicate that obestatin exerts anxiogenic-like effect in mice, which might be mediated through ghrelin receptor and CRH activation. PMID:26192908

  16. Effects of Adult Familiarity on Social Behaviours in Angelman Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount, R.; Oliver, C.; Berg, K.; Horsler, K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Angelman syndrome appear strongly motivated by social contact, but there have been few studies that have examined the relationship between sociability and familiarity. In this study we compared social behaviour in Angelman syndrome when in contact with mothers and strangers. Methods: We systematically manipulated adult…

  17. Effect and Safety of Rosuvastatin in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Ji Hoe; Song, Dongbeom; Nam, Hyo Suk; Kim, Eung Yeop; Kim, Young Dae; Lee, Kyung-Yul; Lee, Ki-Jeong; Yoo, Joonsang; Kim, Youn Nam; Lee, Byung Chul; Yoon, Byung-Woo; Kim, Jong S.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose The benefit of statins in acute stroke remains uncertain. Statins may prevent stroke recurrence during the acute stage of stroke via pleiotropic effects. However, statins may increase the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. We investigated the effect and safety of rosuvastatin in acute stroke patients. Methods This randomized, double-blind, multi-center trial compared rosuvastatin 20 mg and placebo in statin-naïve stroke patients who underwent diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) within 48 hours after symptom onset. The primary outcome was occurrence of new ischemic lesions on DWI at 5 or 14 days. Results This trial was stopped early after randomization of 316 patients due to slow enrollment. Among 289 patients with at least one follow-up imaging, the frequency of new ischemic lesions on DWI was not different between groups (rosuvastatin: 27/137, 19.7% vs. placebo: 36/152, 23.6%) (relative risk 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.53–1.30). Infarct volume growth at 5 days (log-transformed volume change, rosuvastatin: 0.2±1.0 mm3 vs. placebo: 0.3±1.3 mm3; P=0.784) was not different, either. However, hemorrhagic infarction or parenchymal/subarachnoid hemorrhage on gradient-recalled echo magnetic resonance imaging occurred less frequently in the rosuvastatin group (6/137, 4.4%) than the placebo group (22/152, 14.5%, P=0.007). Among 314 patients with at least one dose of study medication, progression or clinical recurrence of stroke tended to occur less frequently in the rosuvastatin group (1/155, 0.6% vs. 7/159, 4.4%, P=0.067). Adverse events did not differ between groups. Conclusions The efficacy of rosuvastatin in reducing recurrence in acute stroke was inconclusive. However, statin use was safe and reduced hemorrhagic transformation. PMID:26846760

  18. Effects of acute oligohydramnios on respiratory system of fetal sheep.

    PubMed

    Savich, R D; Guerra, F A; Lee, C C; Padbury, J F; Kitterman, J A

    1992-08-01

    Prolonged oligohydramnios, or a lack of amniotic fluid, is associated with pulmonary hypoplasia and subsequent perinatal morbidity, but it is unclear whether short-term or acute oligohydramnios has any effect on the fetal respiratory system. To investigate the acute effects of removal of amniotic fluid, we studied nine chronically catheterized fetal sheep at 122-127 days gestation. During a control period, we measured the volume of fluid in the fetal potential airways and air spaces (VL), production rate of that fluid, incidence and amplitude of fetal breathing movements, tracheal pressures, and fetal plasma concentrations of cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. We then drained the amniotic fluid for a short period of time [24-48 h, 30.0 +/- 4.0 (SE) h] and repeated the above measurements. The volume of fluid drained for the initial studies was 1,004 +/- 236 ml. Acute oligohydramnios decreased VL from 35.4 +/- 2.9 ml/kg during control to 22.0 +/- 1.6 after oligohydramnios (P less than 0.004). Acute oligohydramnios did not affect the fetal lung fluid production rate, fetal breathing movements, or any of the other measured variables. Seven repeat studies were performed in six of the fetuses after reaccumulation of the amniotic fluid at 130-138 days, and in four of these studies the lung volume also decreased, although the overall mean for the repeat studies was not significantly different (27.0 +/- 5.2 ml/kg for control vs. 25.5 +/- 5.5 ml/kg for oligohydramnios). Again, none of the other measured variables were altered by oligohydramnios in the repeat studies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1399988

  19. Cognitive behavioural therapies versus other psychological therapies for depression

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, Rachel; Moore, Theresa HM; Caldwell, Deborah; Davies, Philippa; Jones, Hannah; Furukawa, Toshi A; Lewis, Glyn; Hunot, Vivien

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all CBT approaches compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depressionTo examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different CBT approaches (cognitive therapy, rational emotive behaviour therapy, problem-solving therapy, self-control therapy and Coping with Depression course) compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all CBT approaches compared with different psychological therapy approaches (psychodynamic, behavioural, humanistic, integrative, third wave CBT) for acute depression. PMID:25411559

  20. Behavioural therapies versus treatment as usual for depression

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Deborah; Hunot, Vivien; Moore, Theresa HM; Davies, Philippa; Jones, Hannah; Lewis, Glyn; Churchill, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all BT approaches compared with treatment as usual/waiting list/attention placebo control conditions for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different BT approaches (behavioural therapy, behavioural activation, social skills training and relaxation training) compared with treatment as usual/waiting list/attention placebo control conditions for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all BT approaches compared with different types of comparator (standard care, no treatment, waiting list, attention placebo) for acute depression. PMID:25411561

  1. Acute effect of ascorbic acid on fibrinolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Bordia, A; Paliwal, D K; Jain, K; Kothari, L K

    1978-08-01

    The acute effect of 1 g oral ascorbic acid on serum fibrinolytic activity was studied in 40 adult males. In Group I (healthy adults) administration of ascorbic acid raised the serum level by about 71%, while the fibrinolytic activity increased to a peak of 137% at 6 h. In patients with CAD (Group II) an essentially similar increase in FA was observed. In Group III, simultaneous administration of ascorbic acid with 100 g fat effectively prevented a fall in fibrinolytic activity and actually raised it by 64% above the fasting level. PMID:568476

  2. Evaluation of the antidepressant-like effects of acute and sub-acute administration of crocin and crocetin in mice

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Bahareh; Nakhsaz, Alireza; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the putative antidepressant effects of crocin and crocetin, two major active ingredients of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) using mice in two different regimens of acute and sub-acute administration. Material and Methods: In acute treatment, antidepressant-like activities of crocin and crocetin (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) were evaluated using forced swim test (FST). In sub-acute study (21 times with 24-h intervals), antidepressant-like effects of oral administration of drugs were examined using FST and tail suspension test (TST). Locomotor activity and motor coordination were studied using open field and rotarod tests, respectively. Results: Acute treatment with crocin (40 mg/kg) and crocetin (20 and 40 mg/kg) produced antidepressant-like effect in FST without affecting the baseline locomotion in mice. Sub-acute oral administration of crocin significantly decreased immobility time only at the highest dose (100 mg/kg). Crocetin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) was able to decrease immobility time in FST and TST. Locomotor activity and coordination of mice were not affected by crocin or crocetin. Conclusion: Since higher doses of crocin was required to show antidepressant effects, more efficacy of crocetin may be concluded. This observation provides further support for metabolism of crocin to crocetin following oral administration. PMID:26468466

  3. Toxicological dose assessment and acute health effect criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Stalker, A.C.; White, B.

    1992-01-01

    The use of hazardous materials requires the means of assessing doses from postulated accidental exposures to the hazardous materials. Hazardous materials include radiological and toxicological substances. Health effects are often divided into either acute (short term exposure) or chronic (long-term-exposure)-categories. Dose assessments and health effects are used in Hazard Classification, Safety Analysis Reports and Unreviewed Safety Question Determinations. The use of hazardous substances requires a means of assessing the potential health effects from exposure. Two types of toxicological data exist. The first is measured effects from human exposure, either accidentally or studies. The second consists of data from toxicity and lethality studies on mammals, often mice or rats. Because the data for human exposure is severely limited, an approach is needed that uses basic toxicity and lethality data from animal studies to estimate acute health effects in humans. The approach chosen is the one suggested jointly by the EPA, FEMA, and DOT in their Technical Guidance for Hazards Analysis'', December 1987.

  4. Toxicological dose assessment and acute health effect criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Stalker, A.C.; White, B.

    1992-09-01

    The use of hazardous materials requires the means of assessing doses from postulated accidental exposures to the hazardous materials. Hazardous materials include radiological and toxicological substances. Health effects are often divided into either acute (short term exposure) or chronic (long-term-exposure)-categories. Dose assessments and health effects are used in Hazard Classification, Safety Analysis Reports and Unreviewed Safety Question Determinations. The use of hazardous substances requires a means of assessing the potential health effects from exposure. Two types of toxicological data exist. The first is measured effects from human exposure, either accidentally or studies. The second consists of data from toxicity and lethality studies on mammals, often mice or rats. Because the data for human exposure is severely limited, an approach is needed that uses basic toxicity and lethality data from animal studies to estimate acute health effects in humans. The approach chosen is the one suggested jointly by the EPA, FEMA, and DOT in their ``Technical Guidance for Hazards Analysis``, December 1987.

  5. Domestication effects on behavioural synchronization and individual distances in chickens (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Eklund, Beatrix; Jensen, Per

    2011-02-01

    Behavioural synchrony (allelomimetic behaviour), and inter-individual distances are aspects of social and anti-predator strategies which may have been affected by domestication. Chickens are known to adjust synchronization and inter-individual distances depending on behaviour. We hypothesized that White Leghorn (WL) chickens would show less synchronized behaviour than the ancestor, the red jungle fowl (RJF). Sixty birds, 15 female and 15 male WL and the same number of RJF (28 weeks old) were studied in groups of three in furnished pens (1 m×2 m) for 24 consecutive hours per group, following 24 h of habituation. Video tapes covering 4 h per group (dawn, 9-10 am, 1-2 pm and dusk) were analysed. Red junglefowl perched significantly more, but there were no breed effects on the frequency or daily rhythm of any other activities, or on average inter-individual distances. Red junglefowl were more synchronized during perching and a tendency for the same was found for social behaviour. After performance of the two most synchronized behaviours, perching and comfort behaviour, individual distance increased more for RJF than WL. According to this study domestication of chickens appears not to have significantly altered the relative frequencies of different activities or average inter-individual distances, but have caused some changes in behavioural synchronization and maintenance of activity-specific inter-individual distances in chickens. The changes may indicate an adaptive response to captivity and domestication. PMID:21187131

  6. Effect of drugs of abuse on social behaviour: a review of animal models.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Gandía, Maria C; Mateos-García, Ana; García-Pardo, Maria P; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Miñarro, José; Aguilar, María A

    2015-09-01

    Social behaviour is disturbed in many substance abuse and psychiatric disorders. Given the consensus that social behaviours of lower mammals may help to understand some human emotional reactions, the aim of the present work was to provide an up-to-date review of studies on the changes in social behaviour induced by drugs of abuse. Various animal models have been used to study the relationship between drugs of abuse and social behaviour. Herein, we describe the effects of different substances of abuse on the three most commonly used animal models of social behaviour: the social play test, the social interaction test and the resident-intruder paradigm. The first is the most widely used test to assess adolescent behaviour in rodents, the second is generally used to evaluate a wide repertoire of behaviours in adulthood and the latter is specific to aggressive behaviour. Throughout the review we will explore the most relevant studies carried out to date to evaluate the effects of alcohol, cocaine, opioids, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), cannabinoids, nicotine and other drugs of abuse on these three paradigms, taking into account the influence of different variables, such as social history, age and type of exposure. Drugs of diverse pharmacological classes induce alterations in social behaviour, although they can be contrasting depending on several factors (drug, individual differences and environmental conditions). Ethanol and nicotine increase social interaction at low doses but reduce it at high doses. Psychostimulants, MDMA and cannabinoids reduce social interaction, whereas opiates increase it. Ethanol and psychostimulants enhance aggression, whereas MDMA, opiates, cannabinoids and nicotine reduce it. Prenatal drug exposure alters social behaviour, whereas drug withdrawal decreases sociability and enhances aggression. As a whole, this evidence has improved our understanding of the social dimension of drug addiction. PMID:26221831

  7. Acute effects of cigarette smoking on microcirculation of the thumb.

    PubMed

    van Adrichem, L N; Hovius, S E; van Strik, R; van der Meulen, J C

    1992-01-01

    The acute effect of smoking on the microcirculation of the skin of the thumb was investigated in healthy volunteers. Twenty-two were smokers and 10 were non-smokers. The flow was assessed by means of laser Doppler flowmetry. The smokers inhaled 2 cigarettes. During smoking of their first and second cigarette respectively, a mean decrease in laser Doppler flow of 23.8% and 29.0% was seen (p = 0.03; p = 0.01). Ten minutes after smoking this decrease was recovered by half. This experiment confirms that one should prohibit smoking of cigarettes pre- and postoperatively for optimal wound healing conditions. PMID:1737221

  8. Acute interactive motoric effects of permethrin and xylene

    SciTech Connect

    Durnam, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    The potential interactive motoric effects of permethrin (a type I pyrethroid pesticide) and xylene (an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent) were assessed in male CD-I mice following acute exposure. The hypothesis was that these two compounds would interact (the effects would be more than additive) to disrupt motor performance on inverted screen tent performance and/or locomotor activity. The data obtained from this experiment do not support this hypothesis. The results failed to show a significant interaction between the permethrin and xylene on either task, however, the combination of these compounds altered the time course of motoric effects. The peak effect on the inverted screen test occurred earlier for xylene and permethrin than for permethrin alone. The xylene probably increased the rate of absorption of xylene. On locomotor activity, permethrin and xylene when given separately increased activity, however, the highest dose combination of permethrin and xylene produced a strong decrease in activity at all time points.

  9. Single case evaluation of the effects of aromatherapy and massage on disturbed behaviour in severe dementia.

    PubMed

    Brooker, D J; Snape, M; Johnson, E; Ward, D; Payne, M

    1997-05-01

    Aromatherapy and massage could provide a useful addition to psychological therapeutic interventions with clients suffering from dementia. The effects of aromatherapy and massage on disturbed behaviour in four individuals with severe dementia were evaluated using a single-case research design. Each participant received 10 treatment sessions of aromatherapy, aromatherapy and massage combined, and massage alone. The effects on each individual's behaviour in the hour following treatment were assessed against 10 'no treatment' control sessions. Reliable individualized disturbed behaviour scales were designed. The effects of the treatments were mixed. The opinion of the staff providing treatment was that all participants benefited. On close scrutiny, only one of the participants benefited from the aromatherapy and massage to a degree that reached statistical significance. In two of the cases aromatherapy and massage led to an increase in agitated behaviour. The importance of the single case study approach with this client group is discussed. PMID:9167869

  10. Acute effects of bright light exposure on cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Jung, Christopher M; Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Scheer, Frank A J L; Cajochen, Christian; Lockley, Steven W; Czeisler, Charles A; Wright, Kenneth P

    2010-06-01

    Multisynaptic neural and endocrine pathways from the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus have been hypothesized to communicate circadian and photic information to the adrenal glands. In humans, light exposure has been reported to have no effect, increase, or decrease cortisol levels. These inconsistent findings in humans may be related to differences among studies including the intensity (approximately 500 to 5500 lux), duration (15 min to 4 h), and circadian phase of light exposure. The authors assessed the influence of exposure to bright light on cortisol levels in humans during the rising and descending phases of the circadian rhythm of cortisol, that is, when cortisol levels are high. Twenty healthy men and women were studied using a within-subject research design. Subjects were studied in an environment free of time cues for 9 to 10 days. Subjects received a 6.7-h exposure of bright light (approximately 10,000 lux; equivalent to ambient light intensity just after sunrise or just before sunset) or dim light (approximately 3 lux; equivalent to candle light) during the biological night and morning. Bright light exposure significantly reduced plasma cortisol levels at both circadian phases studied, whereas dim light exposure had little effect on cortisol levels. The finding of an acute suppressive effect of bright light exposure on cortisol levels supports the existence of a mechanism by which photic information can acutely influence the human adrenal glands. PMID:20484692

  11. Cognitive behavioural therapies versus treatment as usual for depression

    PubMed Central

    Hunot, Vivien; Moore, Theresa HM; Caldwell, Deborah; Davies, Philippa; Jones, Hannah; Furukawa, Toshi A; Lewis, Glyn; Churchill, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all cognitive behavioural therapies compared with treatment as usual/waiting list/attention placebo control conditions for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different cognitive behavioural therapy models (cognitive therapy, rational emotive behaviour therapy, problem-solving therapy, self-control therapy and the Coping with Depression course) compared with treatment as usual/waiting list/attention placebo control conditions for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all cognitive behavioural therapies compared with different types of comparator (standard care, no treatment, waiting list, attention placebo) for acute depression. PMID:25411558

  12. Elephant behaviour and conservation: social relationships, the effects of poaching, and genetic tools for management.

    PubMed

    Archie, Elizabeth A; Chiyo, Patrick I

    2012-02-01

    Genetic tools are increasingly valuable for understanding the behaviour, evolution, and conservation of social species. In African elephants, for instance, genetic data provide basic information on the population genetic causes and consequences of social behaviour, and how human activities alter elephants' social and genetic structures. As such, African elephants provide a useful case study to understand the relationships between social behaviour and population genetic structure in a conservation framework. Here, we review three areas where genetic methods have made important contributions to elephant behavioural ecology and conservation: (1) understanding kin-based relationships in females and the effects of poaching on the adaptive value of elephant relationships, (2) understanding patterns of paternity in elephants and how poaching can alter these patterns, and (3) conservation genetic tools to census elusive populations, track ivory, and understand the behavioural ecology of crop-raiding. By comparing studies from populations that have experienced a range of poaching intensities, we find that human activities have a large effect on elephant behaviour and genetic structure. Poaching disrupts kin-based association patterns, decreases the quality of elephant social relationships, and increases male reproductive skew, with important consequences for population health and the maintenance of genetic diversity. In addition, we find that genetic tools to census populations or gather forensic information are almost always more accurate than non-genetic alternatives. These results contribute to a growing understanding of poaching on animal behaviour, and how genetic tools can be used to understand and conserve social species. PMID:21880086

  13. Effect of railway safety education on the safety knowledge and behaviour intention of schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Silla, Anne; Kallberg, Veli-Pekka

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate whether railway safety lessons are effective in increasing schoolchildren's safety knowledge and behaviour intention. The railway safety education in schools included a 45-min lesson on safe behaviour in a railway environment directed at 8-11 year old schoolchildren. The lessons were held in four schools located near railway lines in Finland. The effectiveness of this measure was evaluated based on a short survey directed at pupils before the lesson (base level) and around 2-3 months later (post-lesson) based on three variables which are considered as strong determinants of actual behaviour: behaviour intention, estimated dangerousness of the behaviour, and level of knowledge on the legality of the behaviour. The results show that the change in the share of correct answers was positive regarding all questions except for one question in which the difference was not significant. Based on this we can reasonably assume that railway safety education in schools can have a positive effect for all the measured variables, although the effect is not necessarily large. The results indicate that these positive changes can have a positive effect on the frequency of trespassing (i.e. fewer unsafe crossings in the future). We can further assume that reduction in the frequency of trespassing would reduce the frequency of trespassing accidents. PMID:26690273

  14. The effects of acute nicotine on contextual safety discrimination.

    PubMed

    Kutlu, Munir G; Oliver, Chicora; Gould, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), may be related to an inability to distinguish safe versus threatening environments and to extinguish fear memories. Given the high rate of cigarette smoking in patients with PTSD, as well as the recent finding that an acute dose of nicotine impairs extinction of contextual fear memory, we conducted a series of experiments to investigate the effect of acute nicotine in an animal model of contextual safety discrimination. Following saline or nicotine (at 0.0275, 0.045, 0.09 and 0.18 mg/kg) administration, C57BL/6J mice were trained in a contextual discrimination paradigm, in which the subjects received presentations of conditioned stimuli (CS) that co-terminated with a foot-shock in one context (context A (CXA)) and only CS presentations without foot-shock in a different context (context B (CXB)). Therefore, CXA was designated as the 'dangerous context', whereas CXB was designated as the 'safe context'. Our results suggested that saline-treated animals showed a strong discrimination between dangerous and safe contexts, while acute nicotine dose-dependently impaired contextual safety discrimination (Experiment 1). Furthermore, our results demonstrate that nicotine-induced impairment of contextual safety discrimination learning was not a result of increased generalized freezing (Experiment 2) or contingent on the common CS presentations in both contexts (Experiment 3). Finally, our results show that increasing the temporal gap between CXA and CXB during training abolished the impairing effects of nicotine (Experiment 4). The findings of this study may help link nicotine exposure to the safety learning deficits seen in anxiety disorder and PTSD patients. PMID:25271215

  15. The effect of the palmitoylethanolamide analogue, palmitoylallylamide (L-29) on pain behaviour in rodent models of neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, V C J; Segerdahl, A R; Lambert, D M; Vandevoorde, S; Blackbeard, J; Pheby, T; Hasnie, F; Rice, A S C

    2007-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Cannabinoids are associated with analgesia in acute and chronic pain states. A spectrum of central cannabinoid (CB1) receptor-mediated motor and psychotropic side effects limit their therapeutic potential. Here, we investigate the analgesic effect of the palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) analogue, palmitoylallylamide (L-29), which via inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) may potentiate endocannabinoids thereby avoiding psychotropic side effects. Experimental Approach: The in vivo analysis of the effect of L-29 on measures of pain behaviour in three rat models of neuropathic pain. Key Results: Systemically administered L-29 (10 mg kg−1) reduced hypersensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimuli in the partial sciatic nerve injury (PSNI) model of neuropathic pain; and mechanical hypersensitivity in a model of antiretroviral (ddC)-associated hypersensitivity and a model of varicella zoster virus (VZV)-associated hypersensitivity. The effects of L-29 were comparable to those of gabapentin (50 mg kg−1). The CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716a (1 mg kg−1) and the CB2 receptor antagonist SR144528 (1 mg kg−1) reduced the effect of L-29 on hypersensitivity in the PSNI and ddC models, but not in the VZV model. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α antagonist, MK-886 (1 mg kg−1), partially attenuated the effect of L-29 on hypersensitivity in the PSNI model. L-29 (10 mg kg−1) significantly attenuated thigmotactic behaviour in the open field arena without effect on locomotor activity. Conclusions and Implications: L-29 produces analgesia in a range of neuropathic pain models. This presents L-29 as a novel analgesic compound that may target the endogenous cannabinoid system while avoiding undesirable side effects associated with direct cannabinoid receptor activation. PMID:17558434

  16. Sintering behaviour of feldspar and influence of electric charge effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallala, W.; Gaied, M. E.

    2011-04-01

    The characterization of feldspar for electric porcelain and the behaviour of these materials after heating at 1230°C were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) were used to identify the present phases and the densification level. Feldspar sand was treated by flotation. The floated feldspar is constituted by microcline, quartz, and minor amounts of albite. The microstructure of sintered feldspar at 1230°C is essentially vitreous with open microporosities. The dielectrical properties of composites were characterized by using the induced courant method (ICM), which indicates that the charge trapping capacity depends on the mineralogical and chemical composition of feldspar.

  17. Acute effects of carbon monoxide on cardiac electrical stability

    SciTech Connect

    Verrier, R.L.; Mills, A.K.; Skornik, W.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the effects of acute carbon monoxide exposure on cardiac electrical stability. To obtain a comprehensive assessment, diverse biological models were employed. These involved cardiac electrical testing in the normal and ischemic heart in anesthetized and conscious dogs. The experimental plan was designed both to examine the direct effects of carbon monoxide exposure on the myocardium and to evaluate possible indirect influences through alterations in platelet aggregability or changes in central nervous system activity in the conscious animal. Our results indicate that exposure to relatively high levels of carbon monoxide, leading to carboxyhemoglobin concentrations of up to 20 percent, is without significant effect on ventricular electrical stability. This appears to be the case in the acutely ischemic heart as well as in the normal heart. It is important to note that the total exposure period was in the range of 90 to 124 minutes. The possibility that longer periods of exposure or exacerbation from nicotine in cigarette smoke could have a deleterious effect cannot be excluded. We also examined whether or not alterations in platelet aggregability due to carbon monoxide exposure could be a predisposing factor for cardiac arrhythmias. A model involving partial coronary artery stenosis was used to simulate the conditions under which platelet plugs could lead to myocardial ischemia and life-threatening arrhythmias. We found no changes either in the cycle frequency of coronary blood flow oscillations or in platelet aggregability during carbon monoxide exposure. Thus, carbon monoxide exposure does not appear to alter platelet aggregability or its effect on coronary blood flow during stenosis. In the final series of experiments, we examined the effects of carbon monoxide exposure in the conscious state.

  18. Neurobehavioral effects of acute styrene exposure in fiberglass boatbuilders

    SciTech Connect

    Letz, R.; Mahoney, F.C.; Hershman, D.L.; Woskie, S.; Smith, T.J. )

    1990-11-01

    A field investigation of the effects of acute exposure to styrene among fiberglass boatbuilders was performed. Personal samples of styrene in breathing zone air and postshift urinary mandelic acid were collected for 105 workers exposed and not exposed to styrene in 6 fiberglass boatbuilding companies in New England. Three tests from the computerized Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES) were performed by the subjects in the morning before exposure to styrene, near midday, and at the end of the work day. Duration of exposure averaged 2.9 years (SD = 4.6), 8-hour TWA styrene exposure averaged 29.9 ppm (SD = 36.2), and urinary mandelic acid averaged 347 mg/g creatinine (SD = 465). Regression analyses indicated a statistically significant relationship between postshift performance on the Symbol-Digit test and both acute styrene exposure and mandelic acid. Other analyses comparing workers exposed to less than 50 ppm and greater than 50 ppm styrene also showed a significant effect on Symbol-Digit performance. All three NES tests showed test-retest correlation coefficients above .80, and ease of use for collection of neurobehavioral data under field conditions was demonstrated.

  19. Effects of age on hemorheological responses to acute endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Ahmadizad, Sajad; Moradi, Akram; Nikookheslat, Saeed; Ebrahimi, Hadi; Rahbaran, Adel; Connes, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of age on the acute responses of hemorheological variables and biochemical parameters to a single bout of sub-maximal endurance exercise. Fifteen young (20-30 years), 15 middle-aged (40-50 years) and 12 old (60-70 years) male subjects participated in the study. All subjects performed one single bout of endurance exercise encompassed 30-min cycling at 70-75% of maximal heart rate which was followed by 30-min recovery. Three blood samples were taken before, immediately after exercise and after 30-min recovery. Resting levels of hematocrit, red blood cells count, plasma albumin and fibrinogen concentrations, plasma viscosity and whole blood viscosity were significantly different among the three groups (P < 0.01). Thirty minutes of cycling resulted in significant increases (P < 0.05) in all parameters; while these changes were temporary and returned to pre-exercise level at the end of recovery. Responses of all parameters to exercise and recovery were not significantly different among the three groups (P > 0.05). Fibrinogen changes during exercise and recovery were corrected for exercise- and recovery-induced changes in plasma volume. Data analysis showed effects of exercise and recovery only for raw data (P > 0.05). In addition, raw and corrected fibrinogen data in response to exercise and recovery were not age-related. Our results demonstrate that age does not affect the hemorheological responses to an acute endurance exercise in healthy men. PMID:22214687

  20. Effectiveness of chelation therapy with time after acute uranium intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Domingo, J.L.; Ortega, A.; Llobet, J.M.; Corbella, J. )

    1990-01-01

    The effect of increasing the time interval between acute uranium exposure and chelation therapy was studied in male Swiss mice. Gallic acid, 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3- benzenedisulfonic acid (Tiron), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-AS) were administered ip at 0, 0.25, 1, 4, and 24 hr after sc injection of 10 mg/kg of uranyl acetate dihydrate. Chelating agents were given at doses equal to one-fourth of their respective LD50 values. Daily elimination of uranium into urine and feces was determined for 4 days after which time the mice were killed, and the concentration of uranium was measured in kidney, spleen, and bone. The excretion of uranium was especially rapid in the first 24 hr. Treatment with Tiron or gallic acid at 0, 0.25, or 1 hr after uranium exposure significantly increased the total excretion of the metal. In kidney and bone, only administration of Tiron at 0, 0.25, or 1 hr after uranium injection, or gallic acid at 1 hr after uranium exposure significantly reduced tissue uranium concentrations. Treatment at later times (4 to 24 hr) did not increase the total excretion of the metal and did not decrease the tissue uranium concentrations 4 days after uranyl acetate administration. The results show that the length of time before initiating chelation therapy for acute uranium intoxication greatly influences the effectiveness of this therapy.

  1. Impaired insight in cocaine addiction: laboratory evidence and effects on cocaine-seeking behaviour

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, S.J.; Moeller, S.J.; Maloney, T.; Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2010-04-15

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are often characterized by impaired insight into behaviour. Such an insight deficit has been suggested, but never directly tested, in drug addiction. Here we tested for the first time this impaired insight hypothesis in drug addiction, and examined its potential association with drug-seeking behaviour. We also tested potential modulation of these effects by cocaine urine status, an individual difference known to impact underlying cognitive functions and prognosis. Sixteen cocaine addicted individuals testing positive for cocaine in urine, 26 cocaine addicted individuals testing negative for cocaine in urine, and 23 healthy controls completed a probabilistic choice task that assessed objective preference for viewing four types of pictures (pleasant, unpleasant, neutral and cocaine). This choice task concluded by asking subjects to report their most selected picture type; correspondence between subjects self-reports with their objective choice behaviour provided our index of behavioural insight. Results showed that the urine positive cocaine subjects exhibited impaired insight into their own choice behaviour compared with healthy controls; this same study group also selected the most cocaine pictures (and fewest pleasant pictures) for viewing. Importantly, however, it was the urine negative cocaine subjects whose behaviour was most influenced by insight, such that impaired insight in this subgroup only was associated with higher cocaine-related choice on the task and more severe actual cocaine use. These findings suggest that interventions to enhance insight may decrease drug-seeking behaviour, especially in urine negative cocaine subjects, potentially to improve their longer-term clinical outcomes.

  2. Impaired insight in cocaine addiction: laboratory evidence and effects on cocaine-seeking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Scott J; Maloney, Thomas; Parvaz, Muhammad A; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Woicik, Patricia A; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2010-05-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are often characterized by impaired insight into behaviour. Such an insight deficit has been suggested, but never directly tested, in drug addiction. Here we tested for the first time this impaired insight hypothesis in drug addiction, and examined its potential association with drug-seeking behaviour. We also tested potential modulation of these effects by cocaine urine status, an individual difference known to impact underlying cognitive functions and prognosis. Sixteen cocaine addicted individuals testing positive for cocaine in urine, 26 cocaine addicted individuals testing negative for cocaine in urine, and 23 healthy controls completed a probabilistic choice task that assessed objective preference for viewing four types of pictures (pleasant, unpleasant, neutral and cocaine). This choice task concluded by asking subjects to report their most selected picture type; correspondence between subjects' self-reports with their objective choice behaviour provided our index of behavioural insight. Results showed that the urine positive cocaine subjects exhibited impaired insight into their own choice behaviour compared with healthy controls; this same study group also selected the most cocaine pictures (and fewest pleasant pictures) for viewing. Importantly, however, it was the urine negative cocaine subjects whose behaviour was most influenced by insight, such that impaired insight in this subgroup only was associated with higher cocaine-related choice on the task and more severe actual cocaine use. These findings suggest that interventions to enhance insight may decrease drug-seeking behaviour, especially in urine negative cocaine subjects, potentially to improve their longer-term clinical outcomes. PMID:20395264

  3. Impaired insight in cocaine addiction: laboratory evidence and effects on cocaine-seeking behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, Thomas; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Woicik, Patricia A.; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2010-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are often characterized by impaired insight into behaviour. Such an insight deficit has been suggested, but never directly tested, in drug addiction. Here we tested for the first time this impaired insight hypothesis in drug addiction, and examined its potential association with drug-seeking behaviour. We also tested potential modulation of these effects by cocaine urine status, an individual difference known to impact underlying cognitive functions and prognosis. Sixteen cocaine addicted individuals testing positive for cocaine in urine, 26 cocaine addicted individuals testing negative for cocaine in urine, and 23 healthy controls completed a probabilistic choice task that assessed objective preference for viewing four types of pictures (pleasant, unpleasant, neutral and cocaine). This choice task concluded by asking subjects to report their most selected picture type; correspondence between subjects’ self-reports with their objective choice behaviour provided our index of behavioural insight. Results showed that the urine positive cocaine subjects exhibited impaired insight into their own choice behaviour compared with healthy controls; this same study group also selected the most cocaine pictures (and fewest pleasant pictures) for viewing. Importantly, however, it was the urine negative cocaine subjects whose behaviour was most influenced by insight, such that impaired insight in this subgroup only was associated with higher cocaine-related choice on the task and more severe actual cocaine use. These findings suggest that interventions to enhance insight may decrease drug-seeking behaviour, especially in urine negative cocaine subjects, potentially to improve their longer-term clinical outcomes. PMID:20395264

  4. Side effects of using nitrates to treat heart failure and the acute coronary syndromes, unstable angina and acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Thadani, Udho; Ripley, Toni L

    2007-07-01

    Nitrates are potent venous dilators and anti-ischemic agents. They are widely used for the relief of chest pain and pulmonary congestion in patients with acute coronary syndromes and heart failure. Nitrates, however, do not reduce mortality in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Combination of nitrates and hydralazine when given in addition to beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduce mortality and heart failure hospitalizations in patients with heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction who are of African-American origin. Side effects during nitrate therapy are common but are less well described in the literature compared with the reported side effects in patients with stable angina pectoris. The reported incidence of side effects varies highly among different studies and among various disease states. Headache is the most commonly reported side effect with an incidence of 12% in acute heart failure, 41-73% in chronic heart failure, 3-19% in unstable angina and 2-26% in acute myocardial infarction. The reported incidence of hypotension also differs: 5-10% in acute heart failure, 20% in chronic heart failure, 9% in unstable angina and < 1-48% in acute myocardial infarction, with the incidence being much higher with concomitant nitrate therapy plus angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Reported incidence of dizziness is as low as 1% in patients with acute myocardial infarction to as high as 29% in patients with heart failure. Severe headaches and/or symptomatic hypotension may necessitate discontinuation of nitrate therapy. Severe life threatening hypotension or even death may occur when nitrates are used in patients with acute inferior myocardial infarction associated with right ventricular dysfunction or infarction, or with concomitant use of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors or N-acetylcysteine. Despite the disturbing observational reports in the literature that continuous and prolonged use of nitrates may lead to

  5. Cost effectiveness of internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy and behavioural stress management for severe health anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Hedman, Erik; Andersson, Erik; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Axelsson, Erland; Lekander, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Internet-delivered exposure-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of severe health anxiety. The health economic effects of the treatment have, however, been insufficiently studied and no prior study has investigated the effect of ICBT compared with an active psychological treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cost effectiveness of ICBT compared with internet-delivered behavioural stress management (IBSM) for adults with severe health anxiety defined as Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) hypochondriasis. ICBT was hypothesised to be the more cost-effective treatment. Setting This was a cost-effectiveness study within the context of a randomised controlled trial conducted in a primary care/university setting. Participants from all of Sweden could apply to participate. Participants Self-referred adults (N=158) with a principal diagnosis of DSM-IV hypochondriasis, of whom 151 (96%) provided baseline and post-treatment data. Interventions ICBT or IBSM for 12 weeks. Primary and secondary measures The primary outcome was the Health Anxiety Inventory. The secondary outcome was the EQ-5D. Other secondary measures were used in the main outcome study but were not relevant for the present health economic analysis. Results Both treatments led to significant reductions in gross total costs, costs of healthcare visits, direct non-medical costs and costs of domestic work cutback (p=0.000–0.035). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) indicated that the cost of one additional case of clinically significant improvement in ICBT compared with IBSM was $2214. The cost-utility ICER, that is, the cost of one additional quality-adjusted life year, was estimated to be $10 000. Conclusions ICBT is a cost-effective treatment compared with IBSM and treatment costs are offset by societal net cost reductions in a short time. A cost-benefit analysis

  6. The effect of the antipsychotic drug quetiapine and its metabolite norquetiapine on acute inflammation, memory and anhedonia.

    PubMed

    Jaehne, Emily J; Corrigan, Frances; Toben, Catherine; Jawahar, M Catharine; Baune, Bernhard T

    2015-08-01

    The atypical antipsychotic drug, quetiapine, has recently been suggested to not only show efficacy in schizophrenia, bipolar, major depressive and general anxiety disorders, but to also have a possible anti-inflammatory effect, which could be important in the treatment of the inflammatory aspects of psychiatric diseases. Male C57BL/6 mice were given either quetiapine (i.p. 10mg/kg), its main active metabolite norquetiapine (i.p. 10mg/kg), or saline as a vehicle control, once a day for 14days. On the 14th day, this dose was followed by a single dose of either LPS (i.p. 1mg/kg) or saline. 24h post LPS short-term recognition memory and anhedonia behaviour were measured using the Y-maze and saccharin preference test respectively. Immediately following behavioural testing, mice were culled before serum, prefrontal cortex and hippocampal analysis of cytokine levels was conducted. It was found that LPS challenge led to increased serum and brain cytokine levels as well as anhedonia, with no significant effect on recognition memory. Quetiapine and norquetiapine both increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and decreased levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ in serum 4h post LPS. Within the brain, a similar pattern was seen in gene expression in the hippocampus at 4h for Il-10 and Ifn-γ, however norquetiapine led to an increase in Il-1β expression in the PFC at 4h, while both drugs attenuated the increased Il-10 in different regions of the brain at 24h. These effects in the serum and brain, however, had no effect on the observed LPS induced changes in behaviour. Both quetiapine and its metabolite norquetiapine appear to have a partial anti-inflammatory effect on IL-10 and IFN-γ following acute LPS challenge in serum and brain, however these effects did not translate into behavioural changes. PMID:26047769

  7. The effects of hypothalamic implants of ovarian steroids on oestrous behaviour in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Palka, Yvonne S.; Sawyer, Charles H.

    1966-01-01

    1. The brains of ovariectomized female rabbits which were anoestrous in behaviour when tested with vigorous males were implanted either bilaterally or unilaterally with 10% oestradiol benzoate in cholestrol. 2. Rabbits with implants in the ventromedial-premammillary hypothalamus ca. 1 mm lateral to the mid line became highly oestrous in behaviour within 1-2 days of implantation and mated 100% of the times tested. Implants of blank tubing, cholesterol or progesterone in this area, or oestrogen implants elsewhere in the hypothalamus had no effect on sexual behaviour. 3. The uteri of all females implanted with diluted oestrogen were atrophic and similar to those of castrate controls, indicating that the effects of hypothalamic implants on sexual behaviour were direct local effects of oestrogen on the C.N.S. 4. Rabbits implanted bilaterally with undiluted oestradiol benzoate showed some slight systemic spread of the implanted oestrogen. Oestrous behaviour was evoked within an average of 3·4 days by implantation into a large hypothalamic area, presumably as a result of oestrogen diffusing from the site of implantation to the critical ventromedial-premammillary region. 5. Injections of progesterone in dosages known to block oestrous behaviour in intact or oestrogen-primed rabbits, failed to block this behaviour in females implanted with pure oestrogen in the ventromedial-premammillary hypothalamus. 6. Implantation of progestins into the ventromedial-premammillary area in overiectomized rabbits did not usually inhibit oestrous behaviour induced by small threshold doses of systemically administered oestrogen. The possibilities that oestrogen and progesterone (1) interact in different areas of the C.N.S. or (2) compete for `steroid receptors' in the ventromedial-premammillary hypothalamus are discussed. PMID:16992222

  8. Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment for Men with Intellectual Disabilities at Risk of Sexual Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Background: For non-disabled men, group cognitive-behaviour therapy is a successful form of treatment when men have committed sexual offences. However, men with intellectual disabilities and sexually abusive behaviour are rarely offered treatment for their sexual behaviour and little research data on the effectiveness of such treatment has been…

  9. The Treatment of Challenging Behaviour in Intellectual Disabilities: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romeo, R.; Knapp, M.; Tyrer, P.; Crawford, M.; Oliver-Africano, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Antipsychotic drugs are used in the routine treatment of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and challenging behaviour in the UK despite limited evidence of their effectiveness. There is no evidence on their cost-effectiveness. Methods: The relative cost-effectiveness of risperidone, haloperidol and placebo in treating…

  10. The effectiveness of interventions to change six health behaviours: a review of reviews

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several World Health Organisation reports over recent years have highlighted the high incidence of chronic diseases such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and cancer. Contributory factors include unhealthy diets, alcohol and tobacco use and sedentary lifestyles. This paper reports the findings of a review of reviews of behavioural change interventions to reduce unhealthy behaviours or promote healthy behaviours. We included six different health-related behaviours in the review: healthy eating, physical exercise, smoking, alcohol misuse, sexual risk taking (in young people) and illicit drug use. We excluded reviews which focussed on pharmacological treatments or those which required intensive treatments (e.g. for drug or alcohol dependency). Methods The Cochrane Library, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE) and several Ovid databases were searched for systematic reviews of interventions for the six behaviours (updated search 2008). Two reviewers applied the inclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed the quality of the reviews. The results were discussed in a narrative synthesis. Results We included 103 reviews published between 1995 and 2008. The focus of interventions varied, but those targeting specific individuals were generally designed to change an existing behaviour (e.g. cigarette smoking, alcohol misuse), whilst those aimed at the general population or groups such as school children were designed to promote positive behaviours (e.g. healthy eating). Almost 50% (n = 48) of the reviews focussed on smoking (either prevention or cessation). Interventions that were most effective across a range of health behaviours included physician advice or individual counselling, and workplace- and school-based activities. Mass media campaigns and legislative interventions also showed small to moderate effects in changing health behaviours. Generally, the evidence related to short-term effects rather than sustained/longer-term impact and

  11. Visualising future behaviour: Effects for snacking on biscuit bars, but no effects for snacking on fruit.

    PubMed

    Adams, Catherine; Rennie, Laura; Uskul, Ayse K; Appleton, Katherine M

    2015-08-01

    In this study, participants (N = 223) were randomised to visualise snacking on fruit, visualise snacking on biscuit bars or no visualisation, and intentions and attitudes towards fruit and biscuit bars, immediate selection of fruit or biscuit bars and subsequent consumption were measured. No effects of visualising snacking on fruit were found once background variables were taken into account. Visualising snacking on biscuit bars, however, resulted in greater intentions to consume biscuit bars (smallest β = 0.19, p < 0.01). These findings suggest that specifics of the visualised target behaviour may be important in visualisation. Further investigation is needed before recommending visualisation for increasing fruit consumption. PMID:24217063

  12. The effects of enhancing cage complexity on the behaviour and welfare of laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Abou-Ismail, Usama A; Burman, Oliver H P; Nicol, Christine J; Mendl, Michael

    2010-10-01

    This experiment was carried out to investigate the long-term effects of enhancing cage complexity on behavioural measures of welfare in laboratory rats. We housed 72 rats in groups of four in either 'enriched' or 'unenriched' cages for six weeks. Scan and focal animal sampling were conducted in both the light and dark phase of the second, fourth and sixth weeks. Results revealed that rats in the 'enriched' cages showed longer durations of sleep behaviour, and low levels of agonistic behaviour compared to rats in the 'unenriched' cages. Results importantly demonstrated that the behavioural changes observed in the enriched environment were due to the presence of the enrichments themselves in the cages (indirect effects) and not due merely to rats interacting with the enrichment items in their environment. Thus, enhancing the complexity of conventional laboratory cages can promote behaviour such as longer bouts of sleep that is likely to be indicative of good welfare, and diminish levels of behaviour such as aggression that is likely to lead to poor welfare. PMID:20637270

  13. The Effects of Breeding Protocol in C57BL/6J Mice on Adult Offspring Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Foldi, Claire J.; Eyles, Darryl W.; McGrath, John J.; Burne, Thomas H. J.

    2011-01-01

    Animal experiments have demonstrated that a wide range of prenatal exposures can impact on the behaviour of the offspring. However, there is a lack of evidence as to whether the duration of sire exposure could affect such outcomes. We compared two widely used methods for breeding offspring for behavioural studies. The first involved housing male and female C57Bl/6J mice together for a period of time (usually 10–12 days) and checking for pregnancy by the presence of a distended abdomen (Pair-housed; PH). The second involved daily introduction of female breeders to the male homecage followed by daily checks for pregnancy by the presence of vaginal plugs (Time-mated; TM). Male and female offspring were tested at 10 weeks of age on a behavioural test battery including the elevated plus-maze, hole board, light/dark emergence, forced swim test, novelty-suppressed feeding, active avoidance and extinction, tests for nociception and for prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response. We found that length of sire exposure (LSE) had no significant effects on offspring behaviour, suggesting that the two breeding protocols do not differentially affect the behavioural outcomes of interest. The absence of LSE effects on the selected variables examined does not detract from the relevance of this study. Information regarding the potential influences of breeding protocol is not only absent from the literature, but also likely to be of particular interest to researchers studying the influence of prenatal manipulations on adult behaviour. PMID:21448436

  14. Changes in testosterone mediate the effect of winning on subsequent aggressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Carré, Justin M; Campbell, Jocelyn A; Lozoya, Elianna; Goetz, Stefan M M; Welker, Keith M

    2013-10-01

    Testosterone concentrations rise rapidly in the context of competitive interactions and remain elevated in winners relative to losers. Theoretical models suggest that this divergent neuroendocrine response serves to mediate future dominance behaviours. Although research in animal models provides compelling support for this model, evidence for its applicability to human social behaviour is limited. In the current study, men and women were randomly assigned to experience a series of victories or defeats, after which aggressive behaviour was assessed using a well-validated behavioural measure. Winning produced elevated testosterone concentrations relative to losing in men, but not women. More importantly, testosterone reactivity to competition mediated the effect of winning on subsequent aggressive behaviour in men, but not women. We discuss limitations of the current study (e.g., the status manipulation may have affected other variables not measured in the study including competitiveness and physical activity expended), as well as discuss a potential neural mechanism underlying the effect of testosterone reactivity on aggressive behaviour. PMID:23587440

  15. Diurnal Spectral Sensitivity of the Acute Alerting Effects of Light

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shadab A.; Flynn-Evans, Erin E.; Aeschbach, Daniel; Brainard, George C.; Czeisler, Charles A.; Lockley, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Previous studies have demonstrated short-wavelength sensitivity for the acute alerting response to nocturnal light exposure. We assessed daytime spectral sensitivity in alertness, performance, and waking electroencephalogram (EEG). Design: Between-subjects (n = 8 per group). Setting: Inpatient intensive physiologic monitoring unit. Participants: Sixteen healthy young adults (mean age ± standard deviation = 23.8 ± 2.7 y). Interventions: Equal photon density exposure (2.8 × 1013 photons/cm2/s) to monochromatic 460 nm (blue) or 555 nm (green) light for 6.5 h centered in the middle of the 16-h episode of wakefulness during the biological day. Results were compared retrospectively to 16 individuals who were administered the same light exposure during the night. Measurements and Results: Daytime and nighttime 460-nm light exposure significantly improved auditory reaction time (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) and reduced attentional lapses (P < 0.05), and improved EEG correlates of alertness compared to 555-nm exposure. Whereas subjective sleepiness ratings did not differ between the two spectral conditions during the daytime (P > 0.05), 460-nm light exposure at night significantly reduced subjective sleepiness compared to 555-nm light exposure at night (P < 0.05). Moreover, nighttime 460-nm exposure improved alertness to near-daytime levels. Conclusions: The alerting effects of short-wavelength 460-nm light are mediated by counteracting both the circadian drive for sleepiness and homeostatic sleep pressure at night, but only via reducing the effects of homeostatic sleep pressure during the day. Citation: Rahman SA; Flynn-Evans EE; Aeschbach D; Brainard GC; Czeisler CA; Lockley SW. Diurnal spectral sensitivity of the acute alerting effects of light. SLEEP 2014;37(2):271-281. PMID:24501435

  16. Acute Physiological and Behavioral Effects of Intranasal Methamphetamine in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Carl L; Gunderson, Erik W; Perez, Audrey; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Thurmond, Andrew; Comer, Sandra D; Foltin, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    Intranasal methamphetamine abuse has increased dramatically in the past decade, yet only one published study has investigated its acute effects under controlled laboratory conditions. Thus, the current study examined the effects of single-dose intranasal methamphetamine administration on a broad range of behavioral and physiological measures. Eleven nontreatment-seeking methamphetamine abusers (two females, nine males) completed this four-session, in-patient, within-participant, double-blind study. During each session, one of four intranasal methamphetamine doses (0, 12, 25, and 50 mg/70 kg) was administered and methamphetamine plasma concentrations, cardiovascular, subjective, and psychomotor/cognitive performance effects were assessed before drug administration and repeatedly thereafter. Following drug administration, methamphetamine plasma concentrations systematically increased for 4 h postdrug administration then declined. Methamphetamine dose dependently increased cardiovascular measures and ‘positive’ subjective effects, with peaks occurring approximately 5–15 min after drug administration, when plasma levels were still ascending. In addition, cognitive performance on less complicated tasks was improved by all active methamphetamine doses, whereas performance on more complicated tasks was improved only by the intermediate doses (12 and 25 mg). These results show that intranasal methamphetamine produced predictable effects on multiple behavioral and physiological measures before peak plasma levels were observed. Of interest is the dissociation between methamphetamine plasma concentrations with cardiovascular measures and positive subjective effects, which might have important implications for potential toxicity after repeated doses. PMID:17851535

  17. Short-term effects of neuroactive pharmaceutical drugs on a fish species: biochemical and behavioural effects.

    PubMed

    Brandão, F P; Rodrigues, S; Castro, B B; Gonçalves, F; Antunes, S C; Nunes, B

    2013-11-15

    The presence of pharmaceutical residues in the aquatic environment is receiving great attention since significant levels of contamination have been found, not only in sewage treatment plant effluents, but also in open waters. In our study, the toxicity of three anticonvulsant drugs commonly found in the environment (diazepam, carbamazepine, and phenytoin) was evaluated in Lepomis gibbosus (pumpkinseed sunfish). This study focused on oxidative stress parameters, namely: glutathione reductase (GRed), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), catalase (CAT), and lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) in the hepatic, digestive, and gill tissues of exposed animals. Simultaneously, we assessed the effects of these drugs in terms of behavioural parameters, such as scototaxis and activity. Exposure to diazepam caused an increase in GST activities in the gills and an inhibition of GRed in the digestive tract, relative to control, suggesting an antioxidant response. It also caused fish to spend more time swimming and less time in a refuge area (black compartment of an aquarium). Exposure to carbamazepine caused an increase in GSTs and GRed activity in the digestive tract, which is not always consistent with the literature. A significant positive correlation was found between carbamazepine concentration and time spent in motion and a negative correlation with time spent in black compartment. Exposure to phenytoin was responsible for adaptive responses in the activities of CAT and GSTs (in the liver), but it did not elicit any behavioural alterations. Although all three drugs seemed to induce oxidative stress in some organs, peroxidative damage (measured as TBARS concentrations) was not found at the selected range of concentrations. Our results enlighten the need for more research on the ecological consequences of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment, especially drugs that interfere with the CNS and behaviour, because the net outcome of these

  18. Effect of light sources and light intensity on growth performance and behaviour of female turkeys.

    PubMed

    Denbow, D M; Leighton, A T; Hulet, R M

    1990-09-01

    1. The effect of different light sources (incandescent, sodium vapour, daylight fluorescent and warm fluorescent) and light intensities (10.8 and 86.1 lux) on growth performance and behaviour of female turkeys was investigated in two experiments conducted at different times of the year. 2. Although light source influenced body weight and efficiency of food utilisation, there was no consistent effect between experiments in favour of any particular source. 3. Light intensity had no effect on body weight, efficiency of food utilisation or behaviour. PMID:2245342

  19. Investigation of acute stroke: what is the most effective strategy?

    PubMed Central

    Dunbabin, D. W.; Sandercock, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    Techniques of investigation of acute stroke syndromes have progressed rapidly in recent years, outpacing developments in effective stroke treatment. The clinician is thus faced with a variety of tests, each with different cost implications and each altering management to a greater or lesser extent. This review will concentrate on the basic tests which should be performed for all strokes (full blood count, ESR, biochemical screen, blood glucose, cholesterol, syphilis serology, chest X-ray and electrocardiogram). Additional tests may be required in selected cases: CT scan to diagnose 'non-stroke' lesions, to exclude cerebral haemorrhage if anti-haemostatic therapy is planned, and to detect strokes which may require emergency intervention (such as cerebellar stroke with hydrocephalus); echocardiography to detect cardiac sources of emboli; and in a few cases lumbar puncture and specialized haematological tests. Other tests, which are currently research tools, may be suitable for widespread use in the future including NMR, SPECT and PET scanning. PMID:2062773

  20. The effects of an acute psychosocial stressor on episodic memory

    PubMed Central

    Stawski, Robert S.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Smyth, Joshua M.

    2009-01-01

    Although stressors are believed to impair memory, experimental studies with humans have provided inconsistent support for this conclusion. The current study was designed to examine the effect of an acute psychosocial stressor, and subsequent reactivity, on episodic memory. One hundred participants completed a list-recall task before and after random assignment into a stressor or nonstressor condition. Participants assigned to the stressor condition exhibited both impaired delayed and immediate recall, and also exhibited increasesin the commission of intrusions and perseverations. The experience of off-task thoughts and intentional suppression of such thoughts, were associated with greater impairment of immediate recall. Changes in state anxiety, negative mood, and heart rate were unrelated to changes in memory. These data indicate that exposure to a stressor impaired the recall of previously learned information, and compromised the recall of newly acquired information. Furthermore, cognitive interference is an important factor regarding stress-related impairments of episodic memory. memory. PMID:19727439

  1. The effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on behavioural responses of captive female hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas).

    PubMed

    Guy, Amanda J; Schuerch, Franziska S; Heffernan, Scott; Thomson, Peter C; O'Brien, Justine K; McGreevy, Paul D

    2008-11-01

    Female hormonal contraception is considered here as an alternative to vasectomy for population control in social groups of captive hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas). While female hormonal contraceptive methods have been successful, behavioural effects of such agents represent a potential welfare concern. This study examined the effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; 3.5mg/kg) on perineal tumescence and behaviour in three social groups (total of 3 males, 22 females) of captive hamadryas baboons. The agent had little effect on social interactions such as grooming relationships, aggression and affiliation (all P>0.05), but did cause a reduction in sexual behaviour (P<0.001). Females-mounting-females and females receiving mounting was decreased during MPA treatment compared with the minimal tumescence phase (P<0.001). Age strongly influenced the contraceptive's duration: there was a significant correlation between age and latency of return to oestrus post-MPA (r=0.832, P<0.001) with the latency increasing by 2.61 days per year of age on average. Age also influenced the frequency of behaviours such as affiliation and aggression (P<0.001 and P=0.044, respectively). The absence of adverse behavioural effects further supports the use of MPA in the hamadryas baboon, and its potential use in other non-human primates. PMID:17980521

  2. Effects of altered gravity on the swimming behaviour of fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbig, R.; Anken, R. H.; Sonntag, G.; Höhne, S.; Henneberg, J.; Kretschmer, N.; Rahmann, H.

    Humans taking part in parabolic aircraft flights (PAFs) may suffer from space motion sickness-phenomena (SMS, a kinetosis). It has been argued that SMS during PAFs might not be based on microgravity alone but rather on changing accelerations from 0g to 2g. We test here the hypothesis that PAF-induced kinetosis is based on asymmetric statoliths (i.e., differently weighed statoliths on the right and the left side of the head), with asymmetric inputs to the brain being disclosed at microgravity. Since fish frequently reveal kinetotic behaviour during PAFs (especially so-called spinning movements and looping responses), we investigated (1) whether or not kinetotically swimming fish at microgravity would have a pronounced inner ear otolith asymmetry and (2) whether or not slow translational and continuously changing linear (vertical) acceleration on ground induced kinetosis. These latter accelerations were applied using a specially developed parabel-animal-container (PAC) to stimulate the cupular organs. The results suggest that the fish tested on ground can counter changing accelerations successfully without revealing kinetotic swimming patterns. Kinetosis could only be induced by PAFs. This finding suggests that it is indeed microgravity rather than changing accelerations, which induces kinetosis. Moreover, we demonstrate that fish swimming kinetotically during PAFs correlates with a higher otolith asymmetry in comparison to normally behaving animals in PAFs.

  3. Acute Effects of Marijuana Smoking on Negative and Positive Affect

    PubMed Central

    Metrik, Jane; Kahler, Christopher W.; McGeary, John E.; Monti, Peter M.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2013-01-01

    Human studies and animal experiments present a complex and often contradictory picture of the acute impact of marijuana on emotions. The few human studies specifically examining changes in negative affect find either increases or reductions following delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration. In a 2 × 2, instructional set (told THC vs. told no THC) by drug administration (smoked marijuana with 2.8% THC vs. placebo) between-subjects design, we examined the pharmacologic effect of marijuana on physiological and subjective stimulation, subjective intoxication, and self-reported negative and positive affect with 114 weekly marijuana smokers. Individuals were first tested under a baseline/no smoking condition and again under experimental condition. Relative to placebo, THC significantly increased arousal and confusion/bewilderment. However, the direction of effect on anxiety varied depending on instructional set: Anxiety increased after THC for those told placebo but decreased among other participants. Furthermore, marijuana users who expected more impairment from marijuana displayed more anxiety after smoking active marijuana, whereas those who did not expect the impairment became less anxious after marijuana. Both pharmacologic and stimulus expectancy main effects significantly increased positive affect. Frequent marijuana users were less anxious after smoking as compared to less frequent smokers. These findings show that expectancy instructions and pharmacology play independent roles in effects of marijuana on negative affect. Further studies examining how other individual difference factors impact marijuana's effects on mood are needed. PMID:24319318

  4. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lindsay B; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2015-07-01

    Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1-2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30-60 g/h in the form of a 6%-7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a game

  5. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Lindsay B.; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W.; Jeukendrup, Asker E.

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a

  6. Interaction effects in the theory of planned behaviour: studying cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Conner, M; McMillan, B

    1999-06-01

    This study employed the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to investigate the factors underlying intentions and frequency of use of cannabis over a three-month period in a population of students (N = 249). In addition, several hypotheses in relation to the TPB were investigated. The TPB provided good predictions of both intentions (R2 = 0.653; attitude, injunctive norms and perceived behavioural control significant) and behaviour (R2 = 0.711; intentions significant). Other norm measures (descriptive and moral norms) explained additional variance in intentions (p < .01). In addition, habit strength and self-identity explained significant additional portions of the variance in intentions (p < .001), but not behaviour, over and above the TPB variables. Several interactions among these variables were also tested. Attitude moderated the impact of perceived behavioural control (PBC) on intentions (p < .001). Moral norms moderated the impact of attitudes on intentions (p < .001). Habit strength moderated the impact of self-identity on intentions (p < .001). PBC was found to moderate the impact of intentions on behaviour (p < .05). The findings are discussed in relation to how interaction effects further our understanding of the social processes by which variables are related in the TPB. PMID:10392450

  7. Ecological effects of pharmaceuticals in aquatic systems—impacts through behavioural alterations

    PubMed Central

    Brodin, Tomas; Piovano, Susanna; Fick, Jerker; Klaminder, Jonatan; Heynen, Martina; Jonsson, Micael

    2014-01-01

    The study of animal behaviour is important for both ecology and ecotoxicology, yet research in these two fields is currently developing independently. Here, we synthesize the available knowledge on drug-induced behavioural alterations in fish, discuss potential ecological consequences and report results from an experiment in which we quantify both uptake and behavioural impact of a psychiatric drug on a predatory fish (Perca fluviatilis) and its invertebrate prey (Coenagrion hastulatum). We show that perch became more active while damselfly behaviour was unaffected, illustrating that behavioural effects of pharmaceuticals can differ between species. Furthermore, we demonstrate that prey consumption can be an important exposure route as on average 46% of the pharmaceutical in ingested prey accumulated in the predator. This suggests that investigations of exposure through bioconcentration, where trophic interactions and subsequent bioaccumulation of exposed individuals are ignored, underestimate exposure. Wildlife may therefore be exposed to higher levels of behaviourally altering pharmaceuticals than predictions based on commonly used exposure assays and pharmaceutical concentrations found in environmental monitoring programmes. PMID:25405968

  8. The Effectiveness of Financial Incentives for Health Behaviour Change: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Emma L.; Robalino, Shannon; McColl, Elaine; Sniehotta, Falko F.; Adams, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background Financial incentive interventions have been suggested as one method of promoting healthy behaviour change. Objectives To conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of financial incentive interventions for encouraging healthy behaviour change; to explore whether effects vary according to the type of behaviour incentivised, post-intervention follow-up time, or incentive value. Data Sources Searches were of relevant electronic databases, research registers, www.google.com, and the reference lists of previous reviews; and requests for information sent to relevant mailing lists. Eligibility Criteria Controlled evaluations of the effectiveness of financial incentive interventions, compared to no intervention or usual care, to encourage healthy behaviour change, in non-clinical adult populations, living in high-income countries, were included. Study Appraisal and Synthesis The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used to assess all included studies. Meta-analysis was used to explore the effect of financial incentive interventions within groups of similar behaviours and overall. Meta-regression was used to determine if effect varied according to post-intervention follow up time, or incentive value. Results Seventeen papers reporting on 16 studies on smoking cessation (n = 10), attendance for vaccination or screening (n = 5), and physical activity (n = 1) were included. In meta-analyses, the average effect of incentive interventions was greater than control for short-term (≤six months) smoking cessation (relative risk (95% confidence intervals): 2.48 (1.77 to 3.46); long-term (>six months) smoking cessation (1.50 (1.05 to 2.14)); attendance for vaccination or screening (1.92 (1.46 to 2.53)); and for all behaviours combined (1.62 (1.38 to 1.91)). There was not convincing evidence that effects were different between different groups of behaviours. Meta-regression found some, limited, evidence that effect sizes decreased as post-intervention follow

  9. Mindfulness-based ‘third wave’ cognitive and behavioural therapies versus other psychological therapies for depression

    PubMed Central

    Hunot, Vivien; Moore, Theresa HM; Caldwell, Deborah; Davies, Philippa; Jones, Hannah; Lewis, Glyn; Churchill, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all third wave CBT approaches compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different third wave CBT approaches (ACT,compassionate mind training, functional analytic psychotherapy, extended behavioural activation and meta-cognitive therapy) compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all third wave CBT approaches compared with different psychological therapy approaches (psychodynamic, behavioural, humanistic, integrative, cognitive-behavioural) for acute depression. PMID:25067906

  10. Behavioural and physiological effects of electrical stimulation in the nucleus accumbens: a review.

    PubMed

    van Kuyck, K; Gabriëls, L; Cosyns, P; Arckens, L; Sturm, V; Rasmussen, S; Nuttin, B

    2007-01-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) in the brain is becoming a new treatment option in patients with treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A possible brain target might be the nucleus accumbens (NACC). This review aims to summarise the behavioural and physiological effects of ES in the NACC in humans and in animals and to discuss these findings with regard to neuroanatomical, electrophysiological and behavioural insights. The results clearly demonstrate that ES in the NACC has an effect on reward, activity, fight-or-flight, exploratory behaviour and food intake, with evidence for only moderate physiological effects. Seizures were rarely observed. Finally, the results of ES studies in patients with treatment-resistant OCD and in animal models for OCD are promising. PMID:17691326

  11. Paying people to eat or not to eat? Carryover effects of monetary incentives on eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Paul; Galizzi, Matteo M; Navarro-Martinez, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    There is no evidence comparing head-to-head the effects of monetary incentives to act and to abstain from acting on behaviour. We present an experiment, conducted between June and September 2012, that directly compares the effects of those two different monetary incentive schemes on eating behaviour: we evaluate incentives to eat against incentives not to eat. A large number of participants (n = 353) had bowls of sweets next to them while they watched different videos over two experimental sessions that were two days apart. Sweets eating was monitored and monetary incentives to eat or not to eat were introduced during one of the videos for participants randomly allocated to these conditions. Our results show that, while both types of incentives were effective in changing sweets-eating behaviour when they were in place, only incentives not to eat had significant carryover effects after they were removed. Those effects were still significant two days after the monetary incentives had been eliminated. We also present some additional results on personality and health-related variables that shed further light on these effects. Overall, our study shows that incentives not to eat can be more effective in producing carryover effects on behaviour in domains like the one explored here. PMID:25864152

  12. The Effect of Eco-Schools on Children's Environmental Values and Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle; Van Petegem, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the effectiveness of eco-schools concerning their students' environmental values and environmental behaviour, and includes 1287 children from fifty-nine schools (thirty-eight eco-schools and twenty-one control schools) in Flanders. Controlling for effects of gender and socio-economic status, analyses show that eco-schools have…

  13. Whole-School Positive Behaviour Support: Effects on Student Discipline Problems and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luiselli, James K.; Putnam, Robert F.; Handler, Marcie W.; Feinberg, Adam B.

    2005-01-01

    Many students attending public schools exhibit discipline problems such as disruptive classroom behaviour, vandalism, bullying, and violence. Establishing effective discipline practices is critical to ensure academic success and to provide a safe learning environment. In this article, we describe the effects of whole-school positive behaviour…

  14. From neurotoxic to chemosensory effects: new insights on acute solvent neurotoxicity exemplified by acute effects of 2-ethylhexanol.

    PubMed

    van Thriel, Christoph; Kiesswetter, Ernst; Schäper, Michael; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Golka, Klaus; Juran, Stephanie; Kleinbeck, Stefan; Seeber, Andreas

    2007-03-01

    Historically, acute solvent neurotoxicity was strongly related to reversible narcotic states that could be detected by neurobehavioral tests (e.g., simple reaction time). Nowadays, the occupational exposure to chemicals is markedly reduced and the avoidance of chemosensory effects is more important for the regulation of solvents. Exemplarily, this study examines if the chemosensory perception of 2-ethylhexanol is capable to distract performance in demanding neurobehavioral tasks. In two experiments three time-weighted average concentrations of 2-ethylhexanol (C(TWA): 1.5, 10, and 20 ppm) were investigated. In experiment A (n=24) variable concentrations over time (4h) were used, experiment B (n=22) investigated constant concentrations. The experiments were conducted in a 29 m3 exposure laboratory. Cross-over designs with randomized sequences of exposures were used. Among the 46 male participants 19 subjects reported enhanced chemical sensitivity; the other 27 subjects did not show this personality feature. During the exposure periods neurobehavioral tests were presented twice (beginning; end), the intensity of chemosensory perceptions were rated thrice. The intensity of chemosensory perceptions showed a clear dose-dependency. Subjects' performance in the vigilance test was not affected by the different exposures. Moreover, the results of neurobehavioral tests measuring executive function were neither affected by the C(TWA) concentration nor by the exposure peaks. With increasing C(TWA), a subgroup of the chemically sensitive subjects showed deteriorated accuracy in a divided attention task. Especially the 20 ppm conditions were very annoying. Only during the constant 10 ppm condition the time courses of the annoyance and nasal irritation ratings indicated some adaptation. In general, with the applied neurobehavioral tests distractive effects of acute 2-ethylhexanol exposures up to 20 ppm could not be confirmed. In sensitive groups such distractive effects of

  15. Acute side effects of homologous interleukin-3 in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    van Gils, F. C.; Mulder, A. H.; van den Bos, C.; Burger, H.; van Leen, R. W.; Wagemaker, G.

    1993-01-01

    Interleukin-3 treatment of juvenile rhesus monkeys elicits a dose- and time-dependent syndrome that includes urticaria, palpable lymph nodes, splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, anemia, vomiting, diarrhea, intestinal bleeding, edema, and arthritis, apart from a strong stimulation of hemopoiesis. Arthritis was found to occur significantly more often in animals expressing the major histocompatibility complex alleles B9 and Dr5. Histological analysis revealed an abundance of mast cells in urticaria and, to a lesser extent, in lungs and synovia of arthritic joints. Active osteoclasts were abundant in ribs and arthritic joints. Extramedullary hemopoiesis was encountered in liver, spleen, and kidneys. The spleen showed deposits of hemosiderin, and in the liver, Kupffer cells were loaded with iron, indicating enhanced turnover of hemoglobin. Lymph nodes and bone marrow showed macrophages involved in hemophagocytosis, which probably contributed to the development of anemia and thrombopenia. Biochemical parameters in sera were indicative of parenchymal liver damage, with cholestasis and increased erythrocyte destruction. The side effects were strongly reduced in monkeys subjected to total body irradiation just before interleukin-3 treatment. Histamine antagonists were not significantly effective in preventing side effects, which is explained by the perpetual stimulation of basophilic granulocytes by exogenous interleukin-3. The nature of the side effects indicates that interleukin-3 may be involved in the pathogenesis of acute type hypersensitivity reactions and arthritis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8256852

  16. Sustained Effects of Developmental Exposure to Ethanol on Zebrafish Anxiety-Like Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Baiamonte, Matteo; Parker, Matthew O.; Vinson, Gavin P.; Brennan, Caroline H.

    2016-01-01

    In zebrafish developmentally exposed to ambient ethanol (20mM-50mM) 1–9 days post fertilization (dpf), the cortisol response to stress has been shown to be significantly attenuated in larvae, juveniles and 6 month old adults. These data are somewhat at variance with similar studies in mammals, which often show heightened stress responses. To test whether these cortisol data correlate with behavioural changes in treated animals, anxiety-like behaviour of zebrafish larvae (9dpf and 10dpf) and juveniles (23dpf) was tested in locomotor assays designed to this end. In open field tests treated animals were more exploratory, spending significantly less time at the periphery of the arena. Behavioural effects of developmental exposure to ethanol were sustained in 6-month-old adults, as judged by assessment of thigmotaxis, novel tank diving and scototaxis. Like larvae and juveniles, developmentally treated adults were generally more exploratory, and spent less time at the periphery of the arena in thigmotaxis tests, less time at the bottom of the tank in the novel tank diving tests, and less time in the dark area in scototaxis tests. The conclusion that ethanol-exposed animals showed less anxiety-like behaviour was validated by comparison with the effects of diazepam treatment, which in thigmotaxis and novel tank diving tests had similar effects to ethanol pretreatment. There is thus a possible link between the hypophyseal-pituitary-interrenal axis and the behavioural actions of developmental ethanol exposure. The mechanisms require further elucidation. PMID:26862749

  17. The effectiveness of common thermo-regulatory behaviours in a cool temperate grasshopper.

    PubMed

    Harris, Rebecca M B; McQuillan, Peter; Hughes, Lesley

    2015-08-01

    Behavioural thermoregulation has the potential to alleviate the short-term impacts of climate change on some small ectotherms, without the need for changes to species distributions or genetic adaptation. We illustrate this by measuring the effect of behaviour in a cool temperate species of grasshopper (Phaulacridium vittatum) over a range of spatial and temporal scales in laboratory and natural field experiments. Microhabitat selection at the site scale was tested in free-ranging grasshoppers and related to changing thermal quality over a daily period. Artificial warming experiments were then used to measure the temperature at which common thermoregulatory behaviours are initiated and the subsequent reductions in body temperature. Behavioural means such as timing of activity, choice of substrates with optimum surface temperatures, shade seeking and postural adjustments (e.g. stilting, vertical orientation) were found to be highly effective at maintaining preferred body temperature. The maximum voluntarily tolerated temperature (MVT) was determined to be 44°C±0.4°C, indicating the upper bounds of thermal flexibility in this species. Behavioural thermoregulation effectively enables small ectotherms to regulate exposure to changing environmental temperatures and utilize the spatially and temporally heterogeneous environments they occupy. Species such as the wingless grasshopper, although adapted to cool temperate conditions, are likely to be well equipped to respond successfully to coarse scale climate change. PMID:26267501

  18. Reprint of: The effectiveness of common thermo-regulatory behaviours in a cool temperate grasshopper.

    PubMed

    Harris, Rebecca M B; McQuillan, Peter; Hughes, Lesley

    2015-12-01

    Behavioural thermoregulation has the potential to alleviate the short-term impacts of climate change on some small ectotherms, without the need for changes to species distributions or genetic adaptation. We illustrate this by measuring the effect of behaviour in a cool temperate species of grasshopper (Phaulacridium vittatum) over a range of spatial and temporal scales in laboratory and natural field experiments. Microhabitat selection at the site scale was tested in free-ranging grasshoppers and related to changing thermal quality over a daily period. Artificial warming experiments were then used to measure the temperature at which common thermoregulatory behaviours are initiated and the subsequent reductions in body temperature. Behavioural means such as timing of activity, choice of substrates with optimum surface temperatures, shade seeking and postural adjustments (e.g. stilting, vertical orientation) were found to be highly effective at maintaining preferred body temperature. The maximum voluntarily tolerated temperature (MVT) was determined to be 44 °C ± 0.4 °C, indicating the upper bounds of thermal flexibility in this species. Behavioural thermoregulation effectively enables small ectotherms to regulate exposure to changing environmental temperatures and utilize the spatially and temporally heterogeneous environments they occupy. Species such as the wingless grasshopper, although adapted to cool temperate conditions, are likely to be well equipped to respond successfully to coarse scale climate change. PMID:26615722

  19. Effects of an awareness raising campaign on intention and behavioural determinants for handwashing.

    PubMed

    Seimetz, E; Kumar, S; Mosler, H-J

    2016-04-01

    This article assesses the effectiveness of The Great WASH Yatra handwashing awareness raising campaign in India on changing visitors' intention to wash hands with soap after using the toilet and the underlying behavioural determinants. Interviews based on the RANAS (Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, Self-regulation) model of behaviour change were conducted with 687 visitors before and after their visit to the campaign. Data showed that a campaign visit had little effect on the intention to wash hands with soap, even when comparing visitors who had actively participated in handwashing games with those who had not. After a campaign visit, knowledge about the benefits of washing hands had increased by almost half a standard deviation. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that when considering all behavioural determinants change scores simultaneously, they were able to explain 57% of the variance in the intention change score. These findings suggest that substantively changing behaviour requires more than improving knowledge and emphasizing the importance of washing hands. Identifying the crucial behavioural determinants for handwashing may be an important first step in planning effective large-scale promotion programmes. PMID:26936481

  20. Sustained Effects of Developmental Exposure to Ethanol on Zebrafish Anxiety-Like Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Baiamonte, Matteo; Parker, Matthew O; Vinson, Gavin P; Brennan, Caroline H

    2016-01-01

    In zebrafish developmentally exposed to ambient ethanol (20mM-50mM) 1-9 days post fertilization (dpf), the cortisol response to stress has been shown to be significantly attenuated in larvae, juveniles and 6 month old adults. These data are somewhat at variance with similar studies in mammals, which often show heightened stress responses. To test whether these cortisol data correlate with behavioural changes in treated animals, anxiety-like behaviour of zebrafish larvae (9dpf and 10dpf) and juveniles (23dpf) was tested in locomotor assays designed to this end. In open field tests treated animals were more exploratory, spending significantly less time at the periphery of the arena. Behavioural effects of developmental exposure to ethanol were sustained in 6-month-old adults, as judged by assessment of thigmotaxis, novel tank diving and scototaxis. Like larvae and juveniles, developmentally treated adults were generally more exploratory, and spent less time at the periphery of the arena in thigmotaxis tests, less time at the bottom of the tank in the novel tank diving tests, and less time in the dark area in scototaxis tests. The conclusion that ethanol-exposed animals showed less anxiety-like behaviour was validated by comparison with the effects of diazepam treatment, which in thigmotaxis and novel tank diving tests had similar effects to ethanol pretreatment. There is thus a possible link between the hypophyseal-pituitary-interrenal axis and the behavioural actions of developmental ethanol exposure. The mechanisms require further elucidation. PMID:26862749

  1. Acute and Chronic Effects of Cocaine on the Spontaneous Behavior of Pigeons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkston, Jonathan W.; Branch, Marc N.

    2010-01-01

    The present experiment examined the effects of acute and daily cocaine on spontaneous behavior patterns of pigeons. After determining the acute effects of a range of doses, 9 pigeons were divided into three groups that received one of three doses of cocaine daily, either 1.0, 3.0, or 10.0 mg/kg cocaine. Measures were taken of spontaneous…

  2. 21 CFR 320.28 - Correlation of bioavailability with an acute pharmacological effect or clinical evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Correlation of bioavailability with an acute pharmacological effect or clinical evidence. 320.28 Section 320.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Correlation of bioavailability with an acute pharmacological effect or clinical evidence. Correlation of...

  3. 21 CFR 320.28 - Correlation of bioavailability with an acute pharmacological effect or clinical evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Correlation of bioavailability with an acute pharmacological effect or clinical evidence. 320.28 Section 320.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Correlation of bioavailability with an acute pharmacological effect or clinical evidence. Correlation of...

  4. Effect of clay induced morphological transitions on behaviour of epoxy/PCL nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelnar, Ivan; Rotrekl, Jakub

    2012-07-01

    Effect of organophilized montmorillonite (MMT) on structure formed by reactively induced phase separation (RIPS) and related properties of epoxy containing 5-30% polycaprolactone (PCL) was studied. The effect of clay is significant especially with supercritical PCL concentration, the radical change in morphology with 15% and 20% PCL leads to substantial improvement of mechanical behaviour. The main reason is change in epoxy phase parameters by clay, supporting its continuity. The mechanical behaviour is further influenced by change in coexisting phases composition due to reduced degree of phase separation caused by clay. The results indicate the potential of clay to tailor structure and properties of RIPS system with significant dynamic asymmetry of components.

  5. Effect of strain path change on precipitation behaviour of Al-Cu-Mg-Si alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S.; Kulkarni, K.; Gurao, N. P.

    2015-04-01

    The effect of strain path change on precipitation behaviour of Al- Cu-Mg-Si alloy was investigated. Two different types of crystallographic textures were produced by changing the strain path during rolling. The deformed samples were subjected to a short recrystallization treatment and ageing to identify the effect of strain path change manifested in terms of crystallographic texture on precipitation behaviour. Preliminary characterization indicates that ageing kinetics as well as precipitate morphology vary depending upon the mode of rolling. The coherency strains associated with a coherent interface is relieved in a unlike manner for differently rolled samples.

  6. Effects of acute cooling on fish electroretinogram: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Gačić, Zoran; Milošević, Milena; Mićković, Branislav; Nikčević, Miroslav; Damjanović, Ilija

    2015-06-01

    Temperature dependence of electroretinogram (ERG) was investigated in 3 fish species occupying different habitats--dogfish shark (Scyliorhinus canicula), Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio) and European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Acute cooling of the shark isolated eyecup from 23°C down to 6°C induced suppression of the electroretinographic b-wave--a complete degradation of this component was observed at 6°C. On the other hand, photoreceptor component of the ERG, the negative late receptor potential was not affected by cooling. The fact that the suppression of the dogfish shark b-wave at low temperatures was as a rule irreversible testifies about breakdown of neural retinal function at cold temperature extremes. Although in vivo experiments on immobilized Prussian carps have never resulted in complete deterioration of the b-wave at low temperatures, significant suppression of this ERG component by cooling was detected. Suppressing the effect of low temperatures on Prussian carp ERG might be due to the fact that C. gibelio, as well as other cyprinids, can be characterized as a warmwater species preferring temperatures well above cold extremes. The ERG of the eel, the third examined species, exhibited the strongest resistance to extremely low temperatures. During acute cooling of in situ eyecup preparations of migrating silver eels from 30°C down to 2°C the form of ERG became wider, but the amplitude of the b-wave only slightly decreased. High tolerance of eel b-wave to cold extremes shown in our study complies with ecological data confirming eurythermia in migrating silver eels remarkably adapted to cold-water environment as well. PMID:25759261

  7. Effects of acute restraint stress on set-shifting and reversal learning in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Thai, Chester A.; Zhang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to acute stress alters cognition; however, few studies have examined the effects of acute stress on executive functions such as behavioral flexibility. The goal of the present experiments was to determine the effects of acute periods of stress on two distinct forms of behavioral flexibility: set-shifting and reversal learning. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained and tested in an operant-chamber-based task. Some of the rats were exposed to acute restraint stress (30 min) immediately before either the set-shifting test day or the reversal learning test day. Acute stress had no effect on set-shifting, but it significantly facilitated reversal learning, as assessed by both trials to criterion and total errors. In a second experiment, the roles of glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in the acute-stress-induced facilitation of reversal learning were examined. Systemic administration of the GR-selective antagonist RU38486 (10 mg/kg) or the MR-selective antagonist spironolactone (50 mg/kg) 30 min prior to acute stress failed to block the facilitation on reversal learning. The present results demonstrate a dissociable effect of acute stress on set-shifting and reversal learning and suggest that the facilitation of reversal learning by acute stress may be mediated by factors other than corticosterone. PMID:23055093

  8. Antitumoral effect of Ocoxin on acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Rodríguez, Elena; Hernández-García, Susana; Sanz, Eduardo; Pandiella, Atanasio

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous hematological malignancy whose incidence is growing in developed countries. In the relapse setting, very limited therapeutic options are available and in most cases only palliative care can be offered to patients. The effect of a composite formulation that contains several antioxidants, Ocoxin Oral solution (OOS), was tested in this condition. When analyzed in vitro, OOS exhibited anti-AML action that was both time and dose dependent. In vivo OOS induced a ralentization of tumor growth that was due to a decrease in cell proliferation. Such effect could, at least partially, be due to an increase in the cell cycle inhibitor p27, although other cell cycle proteins seemed to be altered. Besides, OOS induced an immunomodulatory effect through the induction of IL6. When tested in combination with other therapeutic agents normally used in the treatment of AML patients, OOS demonstrated a higher antiproliferative action, suggesting that it may be used in combination with those standard of care treatments to potentiate their antiproliferative action in the AML clinic. PMID:26756220

  9. Effects of an emotional literacy intervention for students identified with bullying behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Knowler, Claire; Frederickson, Norah

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of a 12-week, small group emotional literacy (EL) intervention in reducing bullying behaviour in school was evaluated. Participants were 50 primary school pupils identified through peer nomination as engaging in bullying behaviours. The intervention was implemented in schools already engaged with a universal social and emotional learning initiative, including an anti-bullying component. Within schools, participants were randomly assigned to an intervention or a wait-list comparison group. Response to the intervention was found to be dependent on baseline levels of EL. Only children whose baseline level was low showed a significant reduction in peer-rated bullying behaviour. No effect of the intervention was detected on victimisation or adjustment scores, although positive changes in adjustment were associated with increased EL. PMID:26494932

  10. Youth hedonistic behaviour: moderating role of peer attachment on the effect of religiosity and worldview

    PubMed Central

    Hamzah, Siti Raba'ah; Suandi, Turiman; Krauss, Steven Eric; Hamzah, Azimi; Tamam, Ezhar

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out on the moderating effect of peer attachment on the relationships between religiosity and worldview, and on how hedonistic behaviour among Malaysian undergraduate students is shaped by such influences. With regard to peer attachment, the study focused on the influences of communication, trust and alienation among youth. Bronfenbrenner's theory of human ecology and Armsden and Greenberg's attachment model were used as the framework. Drawing on a quantitative survey of 394 Malaysian university students (M age = 21.0, SD = 0.40), structural equation modelling and path analysis revealed a significant relationship between worldview and hedonistic behaviour. Peer attachment moderated the relationships between religiosity and religious worldview. The results further showed that the unique moderating effect of the lower level of attachment with peers is positively related to the hedonistic behaviour. Implications from the findings are discussed. PMID:25431513

  11. Effect of soccer shoe upper on ball behaviour in curve kicks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Hideyuki; Sakurai, Yoshihisa; Maruyama, Takeo

    2014-08-01

    New soccer shoes have been developed by considering various concepts related to kicking, such as curving a soccer ball. However, the effects of shoes on ball behaviour remain unclear. In this study, by using a finite element simulation, we investigated the factors that affect ball behaviour immediately after impact in a curve kick. Five experienced male university soccer players performed one curve kick. We developed a finite element model of the foot and ball and evaluated the validity of the model by comparing the finite element results for the ball behaviour immediately after impact with the experimental results. The launch angle, ball velocity, and ball rotation in the finite element analysis were all in general agreement with the experimental results. Using the validated finite element model, we simulated the ball behaviour. The simulation results indicated that the larger the foot velocity immediately before impact, the larger the ball velocity and ball rotation. Furthermore, the Young's modulus of the shoe upper and the coefficient of friction between the shoe upper and the ball had little effect on the launch angle, ball velocity, and ball rotation. The results of this study suggest that the shoe upper does not significantly influence ball behaviour.

  12. Parental effects and flight behaviour in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides

    PubMed Central

    Attisano, Alfredo; Kilner, Rebecca M.

    2015-01-01

    Parents play a key role in determining the phenotype of their offspring. However, relatively few studies have investigated whether parents can change their offspring's behaviour in a sustained way that persists into adulthood. With experiments on the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides, we investigated how the developmental environment created by parents affects their offspring's wing morphology in adulthood, and the correlated effects on adult flight behaviour. Burying beetles exhibit complex biparental care, but offspring can survive without parental provisioning. By removing parents just prior to hatching, while holding the nutritional environment constant, we investigated the downstream consequences for offspring morphology and behaviour. Larvae that developed in the absence of their parents had relatively long and more slender wings than those that developed in their parents' presence. Flight mill tests revealed that flight performance was dependent on the presence of parents during development but not on wing shape. Our results demonstrate that parents have long-lasting effects on the behaviour of their offspring, by influencing the morphology and flight behaviour of their young even after they have matured into adults. PMID:26681810

  13. The behavioural toxicity of antidepressants: effects on cognition and sexual function.

    PubMed

    Hindmarch, I

    1998-07-01

    The cognitive system is structured from sets of schema, patterns of neural activity that allow the assimilation or accommodation of new experiences and so, by a process of consolidation, the gradual development of knowledge and understanding. As well as schema for purely cognitive processes, there are similar structures that enable individuals to deal with sexual behaviour and affectual relationships (e.g. hedonia, self-esteem, personal preferences and body image). In depression, there is a well established disruption of cognitive function that results in anhedonia and a loss of pleasure, including that from sexual activities. Many antidepressants also have a direct pharmacological action on the central nervous system and disrupt cognitive function, so increasing anhedonia and impairing sexual function. Drug actions on cognitive structures, which in turn increase anhedonia and reduce sexual libido, are over and above any direct pharmacological effects on the more overt behavioural activities associated with sex, including orgasm, erectile function, potency and ejaculation. The tricyclic antidepressants, for example, destroy the cognitive structures that are vital to maintain normal libido as well as disturbing overt sexual behaviours. Some selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; paroxetine and sertraline) are associated with behavioural activation that is also responsible for an impairment of sexual function. However, there are clear differences between the SSRIs, and fluvoxamine (relative to the other SSRIs) has little effect on objective measures of cognition or on cerebral and behavioural components of sexual function. PMID:9728668

  14. [Acute Toxic Effects of Bromate on Aquatic Organisms].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-wei; Liu, Dong-mei; Zhang, Wen-juan; Cui, Fu-yi

    2016-02-15

    Acute toxic effects of potassium bromate, sodium bromate and potassium bromide on luminescent bacteria, water flea, green alga and zebrafish were studied using standard toxic testing methods. The results showed that the pollutants had no effect on the luminous intensity of luminescent bacteria. The 96 h EC5. of potassium bromate on Scenedesmus obliquus was 738.18 mg x L(-1), 48 h EC50 on Daphnia magna and Moina was 154.01 mg x L(-1) was 161.80 mg x L(-1), while 48 h LC50 was 198 52 mg x L(-1), 175.68 mg x L(-1), and 96 h LC50 on zebrafish was 931.4 mg x L(-1). The 96 h EC50 of sodium bromate on Scenedesmus obliquus was 540.26 mg x L(-1), 48 h EC50 Daphnia magna and Moina was 127.90 mg x L(-1), 111.07 mg x L(-1), while 48 h LC50 was 161.80 mg x L(-1), 123.47 mg x L(-1), and 96 h LC50 on zebrafish was 1065.6 mg x L(-1). But the effects of potassium bromide on the above several kinds of aquatic organisms were far smaller than those of potassium bromate and sodium bromate. The toxic effects on test organisms were due to the impacts of bromate after the comparison of different pollutants, and the effects were more obvious with the increase of exposure time. The order of sensitivity to the toxic effects of bromate was Daphnia magna, Moina > Scenedesmus obliquus > zebrafish > Chlorella vulgaris, luminescent bacteria. PMID:27363170

  15. Sensory and Cognitive Effects of Acute Exposure to Hydrogen Sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Nancy; Kipen, Howard; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Zhang, Junfeng; Weisel, Clifford; Laumbach, Robert; Kelly-McNeil, Kathie; Olejeme, Kelechi; Lioy, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Background Some epidemiologic studies have reported compromised cognitive and sensory performance among individuals exposed to low concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Objectives We hypothesized a dose–response increase in symptom severity and reduction in sensory and cognitive performance in response to controlled H2S exposures. Methods In separate exposure sessions administered in random order over three consecutive weeks, 74 healthy subjects [35 females, 39 males; mean age (± SD) = 24.7 ± 4.2; mean years of education = 16.5 ± 2.4], were exposed to 0.05, 0.5, and 5 ppm H2S. During each exposure session, subjects completed ratings and tests before H2S exposure (baseline) and during the final hour of the 2-hr exposure period. Results Dose–response reduction in air quality and increases in ratings of odor intensity, irritation, and unpleasantness were observed. Total symptom severity was not significantly elevated across any exposure condition, but anxiety symptoms were significantly greater in the 5-ppm than in the 0.05-ppm condition. No dose–response effect was observed for sensory or cognitive measures. Verbal learning was compromised during each exposure condition. Conclusions Although some symptoms increased with exposure, the magnitude of these changes was relatively minor. Increased anxiety was significantly related to ratings of irritation due to odor. Whether the effect on verbal learning represents a threshold effect of H2S or an effect due to fatigue across exposure requires further investigation. These acute effects in a healthy sample cannot be directly generalized to communities where individuals have other health conditions and concomitant exposures. PMID:18197303

  16. Aflatrem: a tremorgenic mycotoxin with acute neurotoxic effects.

    PubMed Central

    Valdes, J J; Cameron, J E; Cole, R J

    1985-01-01

    Tremorgenic mycotoxins induce neurologic symptoms ranging from mental confusion to tremors, seizures and death, and are apparently the only class of mycotoxins with significant central nervous system activity. Tremorgens have been implicated in a number of neurologic diseases of cattle collectively known as staggers syndromes, and pose significant agricultural and health problems for both cattle and humans. Although the effects of tremorgens are thought to result from transient perturbations of amino acid neurotransmitter release mechanisms, there is reason to believe that acute exposures to toxins with such synaptic effects may result in degeneration of neuronal fiber processes. To test this hypothesis, rats were given a single tremorgenic (3 mg/kg, IP) dose of aflatrem, and kinetics of amino acid neurotransmitter uptake was assessed in isolated hippocampal nerve terminals at 1 day, 1 week, and 2 weeks after injection. Results indicate a decrease in the capacity of the GABA and glutamate uptake systems, which was interpreted as a loss of nerve terminals. The affinity constants suggest a decrease in release of these transmitters as well. In addition to its transient influence on transmitter release, a single low dose of aflatrem is able to induce degeneration of neuronal processes in hippocampal neurotransmitter systems and therefore represents a long-term health threat. PMID:2867895

  17. Effects of melatonin implants in pony mares. 1. Acute effects.

    PubMed

    Peltier, M R; Robinson, G; Sharp, D C

    1998-04-15

    The effects of melatonin implant treatment over a four week period on LH, estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) secretion during the breeding season were studied in ovary-intact and ovariectomized pony mares. Mares with melatonin implants had significantly higher daytime melatonin concentrations than mares with sharm implants (P = 0.0065). In ovariectomized mares, LH secretion did not differ between mares with melatonin and sham implants. In ovary-intact mares, melatonin implants altered the pattern of LH secretion (P = 0.0023) in such a way that an increase in LH secretion was observed during the periovulatory period. Estradiol and P4 secretion were unaffected by melatonin implants. These results suggest that constant administration of melatonin may enhance the secretion of LH during the periovulatory surge but does not adversely affect E2, P4 or basal LH secretion in mares during the breeding season. PMID:10732050

  18. Acute Effect of Hookah Smoking on the Human Coronary Microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michael D; Rezk-Hanna, Mary; Rader, Florian; Mason, O'Neil R; Tang, Xiu; Shidban, Sarah; Rosenberry, Ryan; Benowitz, Neal L; Tashkin, Donald P; Elashoff, Robert M; Lindner, Jonathan R; Victor, Ronald G

    2016-06-01

    Hookah (water pipe) smoking is a major new understudied epidemic affecting youth. Because burning charcoal is used to heat the tobacco product, hookah smoke delivers not only nicotine but also large amounts of charcoal combustion products, including carbon-rich nanoparticles that constitute putative coronary vasoconstrictor stimuli and carbon monoxide, a known coronary vasodilator. We used myocardial contrast echocardiography perfusion imaging with intravenous lipid shelled microbubbles in young adult hookah smokers to determine the net effect of smoking hookah on myocardial blood flow. In 9 hookah smokers (age 27 ± 5 years, mean ± SD), we measured myocardial blood flow velocity (β), myocardial blood volume (A), myocardial blood flow (A × β) as well as myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) before and immediately after 30 minutes of ad lib hookah smoking. Myocardial blood flow did not decrease with hookah smoking but rather increased acutely (88 ± 10 to 120 ± 19 a.u./s, mean ± SE, p = 0.02), matching a mild increase in MVO2 (6.5 ± 0.3 to 7.6 ± 0.4 ml·minute(-1), p <0.001). This was manifested primarily by increased myocardial blood flow velocity (0.7 ± 0.1 to 0.9 ± 0.1 second(-1), p = 0.01) with unchanged myocardial blood volume (133 ± 7 to 137 ± 7 a.u., p = ns), the same pattern of coronary microvascular response seen with a low-dose β-adrenergic agonist. Indeed, with hookah, the increased MVO2 was accompanied by decreased heart rate variability, an indirect index of adrenergic overactivity, and eliminated by β-adrenergic blockade (i.v. propranolol). In conclusion, nanoparticle-enriched hookah smoke either is not an acute coronary vasoconstrictor stimulus or its vasoconstrictor effect is too weak to overcome the physiologic dilation of coronary microvessels matching mild cardiac β-adrenergic stimulation. PMID:27067622

  19. Are antibiotics a safe and effective treatment for acute uncomplicated appendicitis?

    PubMed

    Moraga, Felipe; Ahumada, Vanessa; Crovari, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is a common cause of acute abdominal pain and the most frequent cause of emergency abdominal surgery. In the last two decades, growing evidence has been published about the use of antibiotics as the exclusive treatment for acute appendicitis. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified only one systematic review including one pertinent randomized trial. We generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach. We concluded the use of antibiotics to treat acute uncomplicated appendicitis may be less effective than appendectomy and probably increases major complications compared with appendectomy. PMID:26817927

  20. Effect of changes in milking routine on milking related behaviour and milk removal in Tunisian dairy dromedary camels.

    PubMed

    Atigui, Moufida; Marnet, Pierre-Guy; Ayeb, Naziha; Khorchani, Touhami; Hammadi, Mohamed

    2014-11-01

    We studied the effects of changes in the milking routine (lack or presence of 30-s prestimulation, 0 or 1, 2 or 4-min delay between preparation and cluster attachment) and environmental perturbation (unusual loud sounds capable of frightening animals just after stall entry or during the course of milking) on milk removal and milking-related behaviour in dairy dromedary camels. A 30-s prestimulation decreased incidence of bimodal milk flow curves and increased occurrence of the best milk ejection patterns with higher milk flow but had limited effect on milk production in our well-trained animals within a good machine milking setting. However, unusual sounds heard from the beginning of milking or even after milk ejection caused inhibition or disruption of milk removal and modification of camels' behaviour. Milk ejection was significantly delayed (1·58±0·17 min), residual milk increased over 40% of total milk yield and average and peak milk flow rates were significantly lowered when unusual noises were heard from the beginning of milking. These environmental perturbations increased signs of vigilance and the number of attempts to escape the milking parlour. Delaying cluster attachment for over 1 min after the end of udder preparation caused serious milk losses. Up to 62% of total milk was withheld in the udder when the delay reached 4 min. Average and peak milk flow rates also decreased significantly with delayed milking. Signs of vigilance and attempts to escape from the milking parlour appeared when camels waited for over 2 min. After a 4-min delay, camels showed signs of acute stress. Defaecation prior to milk ejection (solid faeces) and rumination during milking can be used to assess camels' milk ejection during milking. Animal welfare and milking efficiency can be ensured when camels are pre-stimulated, milked in calm conditions and with cluster attachment within a maximum of a 1-min delay after stimulation. PMID:25234858

  1. Generic Behavioural Criteria of Managerial Effectiveness: An Empirical and Comparative Case Study of UK Local Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Robert G.; Serventi, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of a "partnership-research" study of effective and ineffective managerial behaviour within the "local government" setting of the Wolverhampton City Council Social Care Department, and to describe how the research supports and challenges the organisation's existing "leadership and…

  2. Examining the Effect of Positive Behaviour Support on Academic Achievement of Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitiyo, Morgan; Makweche-Chitiyo, Plaxedes; Park, Meungguk; Ametepee, Lawrence K.; Chitiyo, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Students who engage in challenging behaviour compromise the fundamental ability of schools to educate children. Consequently, teachers face the daunting task of designing effective strategies to promote positive educational outcomes for their students. Since the 1997 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act amendments, the use of positive…

  3. Effects of Variations in Toy Presentation on Social Behaviour of Infants and Toddlers in Childcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shohet, Cilly; Klein, Pnina S.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of variations in presentation of play materials on social behaviour of 18- to 30-month-old children. The study group included 102 children attending infant and toddler classes in 14 public childcare centres in Israel. Play materials were presented to the children either in a suggestive manner…

  4. Teacher-Reported Effects of the Playing-2-Gether Intervention on Child Externalising Problem Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vancraeyveldt, Caroline; Verschueren, Karine; Van Craeyevelt, Sanne; Wouters, Sofie; Colpin, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the teacher-perceived effect of a school-based intervention (i.e. Playing-2-gether) targeting teacher-child interactions to reduce externalising problem behaviour (EPB) amongst preschoolers. Boys with the highest score for EPB in the classroom and their teacher participated in the study. Teacher-child dyads…

  5. The Effect of Entrepreneurship Education Programmes on Satisfaction with Innovation Behaviour and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Natalia Martin; Escudero, Ana Isabel Rodriguez; Barahona, Juan Hernangomez; Leitao, Fernando Saboia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper attempts to shed light on the effect of educational programmes aimed at entrepreneurs on innovation and business success. Design/methodology/approach: We use as theoretical framework the theory of planned behaviour. We use a sample of 354 entrepreneurs from Castile and Leon, Spain. To estimate the model we use a path analysis…

  6. Effects of Test Format, Self Concept and Anxiety on Item Response Changing Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afolabi, E. R. I.

    2007-01-01

    The study examined the effects of item format, self-concept and anxiety on response changing behaviour. Four hundred undergraduate students who offered a counseling psychology course in a Nigerian university participated in the study. Students' answers in multiple--choice and true--false formats of an achievement test were observed for response…

  7. Parental effects alter the adaptive value of an adult behavioural trait

    PubMed Central

    Kilner, Rebecca M; Boncoraglio, Giuseppe; Henshaw, Jonathan M; Jarrett, Benjamin JM; De Gasperin, Ornela; Attisano, Alfredo; Kokko, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    The parents' phenotype, or the environment they create for their young, can have long-lasting effects on their offspring, with profound evolutionary consequences. Yet, virtually no work has considered how such parental effects might change the adaptive value of behavioural traits expressed by offspring upon reaching adulthood. To address this problem, we combined experiments on burying beetles (Nicrophorus vespilloides) with theoretical modelling and focussed on one adult behavioural trait in particular: the supply of parental care. We manipulated the early-life environment and measured the fitness payoffs associated with the supply of parental care when larvae reached maturity. We found that (1) adults that received low levels of care as larvae were less successful at raising larger broods and suffered greater mortality as a result: they were low-quality parents. Furthermore, (2) high-quality males that raised offspring with low-quality females subsequently suffered greater mortality than brothers of equivalent quality, which reared larvae with higher quality females. Our analyses identify three general ways in which parental effects can change the adaptive value of an adult behavioural trait: by influencing the associated fitness benefits and costs; by consequently changing the evolutionary outcome of social interactions; and by modifying the evolutionarily stable expression of behavioural traits that are themselves parental effects. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07340.001 PMID:26393686

  8. The Effect of Light Intensity and Noise on the Classroom Behaviour of Pupils with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menzinger, Bernhard; Jackson, Robin

    2009-01-01

    The focus of the study reported in this article is the behavioural response of pupils with Asperger syndrome to light and sound intensity and the development of ways to help them to cope with such sensory stimuli. A number of practical ways of minimising the negative effects of various sensory stimuli are noted: (1) the establishment of "a place…

  9. Leadership Behaviour and Effectiveness of Academic Program Directors in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilkinas, Tricia; Ladyshewsky, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on leadership behaviour and effectiveness of university academic program directors who have responsibility for managing a program or course of study. The leadership capabilities were assessed using the Integrated Competing Values Framework as its theoretical foundation. Data from 90 academic program directors and 710…

  10. The Effects of Using a Model-Reinforced Video on Information-Seeking Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHugh, Elizabeth A.; Lenz, Janet G.; Reardon, Robert C.; Peterson, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of viewing a ten-minute model-reinforced video on careers information-seeking behaviour of 280 students in ten sections of a university careers course randomly assigned to treatment or control conditions. The video portrayed an undergraduate student seeking careers counselling services and a counsellor using…

  11. The Effects of Family Cultural Capital and Reading Motivation on Reading Behaviour in Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Shao-I; Hong, Fu-Yuan; Hu, Hsiu-yuan

    2015-01-01

    This study proposed and tested a structural model of the effects of family cultural capital and reading motivation on reading behaviour in elementary school students. Participants were 467 fifth and sixth graders from elementary schools in Changhua County, Taiwan. The instruments employed in this study included the Family Cultural Capital Scale,…

  12. Toothbrushing at School: Effects on Toothbrushing Behaviour, Cognitions and Habit Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wind, Marianne; Kremers, Stef; Thijs, Carel; Brug, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of a school-based toothbrushing intervention aimed at encouraging primary school children to brush their teeth daily at school, on cognitions, toothbrushing behaviour and habit strength. Design/methodology/approach: The effects of an intervention were examined in a quasi-experimental trial among 296 fifth-graders in…

  13. School Effects on Pupils' Health Behaviours: Evidence in Support of the Health Promoting School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, P.; Sweeting, H.; Leyland, A.

    2004-01-01

    Compared with the volume of research on school effects on educational outcomes, and in spite of growing interest in the health promoting school, there are very few studies that have investigated the way schools influence pupils' health behaviours. This paper reports the results of a longitudinal study of over 2000 young people in the West of…

  14. Effects of acidification on olfactory-mediated behaviour in freshwater and marine ecosystems: a synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Leduc, Antoine O. H. C.; Munday, Philip L.; Brown, Grant E.; Ferrari, Maud C. O.

    2013-01-01

    For many aquatic organisms, olfactory-mediated behaviour is essential to the maintenance of numerous fitness-enhancing activities, including foraging, reproduction and predator avoidance. Studies in both freshwater and marine ecosystems have demonstrated significant impacts of anthropogenic acidification on olfactory abilities of fish and macroinvertebrates, leading to impaired behavioural responses, with potentially far-reaching consequences to population dynamics and community structure. Whereas the ecological impacts of impaired olfactory-mediated behaviour may be similar between freshwater and marine ecosystems, the underlying mechanisms are quite distinct. In acidified freshwater, molecular change to chemical cues along with reduced olfaction sensitivity appear to be the primary causes of olfactory-mediated behavioural impairment. By contrast, experiments simulating future ocean acidification suggest that interference of high CO2 with brain neurotransmitter function is the primary cause for olfactory-mediated behavioural impairment in fish. Different physico-chemical characteristics between marine and freshwater systems are probably responsible for these distinct mechanisms of impairment, which, under globally rising CO2 levels, may lead to strikingly different consequences to olfaction. While fluctuations in pH may occur in both freshwater and marine ecosystems, marine habitat will remain alkaline despite future ocean acidification caused by globally rising CO2 levels. In this synthesis, we argue that ecosystem-specific mechanisms affecting olfaction need to be considered for effective management and conservation practices. PMID:23980246

  15. Effects of acidification on olfactory-mediated behaviour in freshwater and marine ecosystems: a synthesis.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Antoine O H C; Munday, Philip L; Brown, Grant E; Ferrari, Maud C O

    2013-01-01

    For many aquatic organisms, olfactory-mediated behaviour is essential to the maintenance of numerous fitness-enhancing activities, including foraging, reproduction and predator avoidance. Studies in both freshwater and marine ecosystems have demonstrated significant impacts of anthropogenic acidification on olfactory abilities of fish and macroinvertebrates, leading to impaired behavioural responses, with potentially far-reaching consequences to population dynamics and community structure. Whereas the ecological impacts of impaired olfactory-mediated behaviour may be similar between freshwater and marine ecosystems, the underlying mechanisms are quite distinct. In acidified freshwater, molecular change to chemical cues along with reduced olfaction sensitivity appear to be the primary causes of olfactory-mediated behavioural impairment. By contrast, experiments simulating future ocean acidification suggest that interference of high CO2 with brain neurotransmitter function is the primary cause for olfactory-mediated behavioural impairment in fish. Different physico-chemical characteristics between marine and freshwater systems are probably responsible for these distinct mechanisms of impairment, which, under globally rising CO2 levels, may lead to strikingly different consequences to olfaction. While fluctuations in pH may occur in both freshwater and marine ecosystems, marine habitat will remain alkaline despite future ocean acidification caused by globally rising CO2 levels. In this synthesis, we argue that ecosystem-specific mechanisms affecting olfaction need to be considered for effective management and conservation practices. PMID:23980246

  16. Effects of elevated CO2 on fish behaviour undiminished by transgenerational acclimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Megan J.; Watson, Sue-Ann; Welsh, Justin Q.; McCormick, Mark I.; Munday, Philip L.

    2014-12-01

    Behaviour and sensory performance of marine fishes are impaired at CO2 levels projected to occur in the ocean in the next 50-100 years, and there is limited potential for within-generation acclimation to elevated CO2 (refs , ). However, whether fish behaviour can acclimate or adapt to elevated CO2 over multiple generations remains unanswered. We tested for transgenerational acclimation of reef fish olfactory preferences and behavioural lateralization at moderate (656 μatm) and high (912 μatm) end-of-century CO2 projections. Juvenile spiny damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, from control parents (446 μatm) exhibited an innate avoidance to chemical alarm cue (CAC) when reared in control conditions. In contrast, juveniles lost their innate avoidance of CAC and even became strongly attracted to CAC when reared at elevated CO2 levels. Juveniles from parents maintained at mid-CO2 and high-CO2 levels also lost their innate avoidance of CAC when reared in elevated CO2, demonstrating no capacity for transgenerational acclimation of olfactory responses. Behavioural lateralization was also disrupted for juveniles reared under elevated CO2, regardless of parental conditioning. Our results show minimal potential for transgenerational acclimation in this fish, suggesting that genetic adaptation will be necessary to overcome the effects of ocean acidification on behaviour.

  17. Acute effects of acrolein in human volunteers during controlled exposure

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Aishwarya M.; Johanson, Gunnar; Lorentzen, Johnny C.; Palmberg, Lena; Sjögren, Bengt; Ernstgård, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context: Acrolein is a reactive aldehyde mainly formed by combustion. The critical effect is considered to be irritation of the eyes and airways; however, the scarce data available make it difficult to assess effect levels. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine thresholds for acute irritation for acrolein. Methods: Nine healthy volunteers of each sex were exposed at six occasions for 2 h at rest to: clean air, 15 ppm ethyl acetate (EA), and 0.05 ppm and 0.1 ppm acrolein with and without EA (15 ppm) to mask the potential influence of odor. Symptoms related to irritation and central nervous system effects were rated on 100-mm Visual Analogue Scales. Results: The ratings of eye irritation were slightly but significantly increased during exposure to acrolein in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.001, Friedman test) with a median rating of 8 mm (corresponding to “hardly at all”) at the 0.1 ppm condition and with no influence from EA. No significant exposure-related effects were found for pulmonary function, or nasal swelling, nor for markers of inflammation and coagulation in blood (IL-6, C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, fibrinogen, factor VIII, von Willebrand factor, and Clara cell protein) or induced sputum (cell count, differential cell count, IL-6 and IL-8). Blink frequency recorded by electromyography was increased during exposure to 0.1 ppm acrolein alone but not during any of the other five exposure conditions. Conclusion: Based on subjective ratings, the present study showed minor eye irritation by exposure to 0.1 ppm acrolein. PMID:26635308

  18. Effect of ventricle motion on the dynamic behaviour of chorded mitral valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watton, P. N.; Luo, X. Y.; Yin, M.; Bernacca, G. M.; Wheatley, D. J.

    2008-01-01

    An Immersed Boundary (IB) model is employed to investigate the dynamic behaviour of a novel chorded mitral prosthesis, which is in the early stages of its development, under physiological flow conditions. In vivo magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of the left ventricle are analysed to determine the relative motion of the mitral annulus and the papillary muscle regions of the ventricle. The dynamic boundary conditions are incorporated into IB simulations to test the valve in a more realistic dynamic geometric environment. The IB model has successfully identified the effect of the dynamic boundary conditions on the mechanical behaviour of the valve and revealed the strengths and weaknesses of the current mitral design. The mechanical performance of the prosthesis is compared with recent studies of native porcine valves; differences in mechanical behaviour are observed. Potential improvements for the design of the prosthesis are proposed.

  19. Australian Teachers' Views of Their Effectiveness in Behaviour Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.

    1989-01-01

    Teachers (N=125) in Brisbane (Queensland, Australia) completing the Teacher Manageability Scale rated themselves as more effective in behavior management than 182 Ohio teachers. Behaviors difficult to manage included lack of communication, task dependency, negative aggressiveness, cognitive confusion, and inattention. Personal efficacy was the…

  20. Direct investment by stepfathers can mitigate effects on educational outcomes but does not improve behavioural difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Emmott, Emily H.; Mace, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    In contemporary developed populations, stepfather presence has been associated with detrimental effects on child development. However, the proximate mechanisms behind such effects are yet to be fully explored. From a behavioural ecological perspective, the negative effects associated with stepfathers may be due to the reduced quantity and quality of investments children receive within stepfather households. Here, we build on previous studies by investigating whether the effects of stepfather presence on child outcomes are driven by differences in maternal and partner (i.e., father or stepfather) direct investments. We use data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children to explore stepfather effects on children’s educational achievement and behavioural difficulties at age 7. Our results indicate that, for educational achievement, stepfather effects are due to the lower levels of direct investments children receive. For behavioural difficulty, stepfather effects are due to multiple factors whereby stepfather presence is associated with greater difficulties independent of investment levels, and direct investments from stepfathers are ineffective. Our results suggest that the negative effects of stepfathers on child outcomes can be explained, in part, by the reduced quantity and the ineffectiveness of direct investments children receive from stepfathers. Furthermore, the effects of stepfather direct investments seem to vary between child outcomes. PMID:25214758

  1. Genotype effect on regulation of behaviour by vitellogenin supports reproductive origin of honeybee foraging bias

    PubMed Central

    Ihle, Kate E.; Page, Robert E.; Frederick, Katy; Fondrk, M. Kim; Amdam, Gro V.

    2010-01-01

    In honeybee colonies, food collection is performed by a group of mostly sterile females called workers. After an initial nest phase, workers begin foraging for nectar and pollen, but tend to bias their collection towards one or the other. The foraging choice of honeybees is influenced by vitellogenin (vg), an egg-yolk precursor protein that is expressed although workers typically do not lay eggs. The forager reproductive ground plan hypothesis (RGPH) proposes an evolutionary path in which the behavioural bias toward collecting nectar or pollen on foraging trips is influenced by variation in reproductive physiology, such as hormone levels and vg gene expression. Recently, the connections between vg and foraging behaviour were challenged by Oldroyd and Beekman (2008), who concluded from their study that the ovary, and especially vg, played no role in foraging behaviour of bees. We address their challenge directly by manipulating vg expression by RNA interference- (RNAi) mediated gene knockdown in two honeybee genotypes with different foraging behaviour and reproductive physiology. We show that the effect of vg on the food-loading decisions of the workers occurs only in the genotype where timing of foraging onset (by age) is also sensitive to vg levels. In the second genotype, changing vg levels do not affect foraging onset or bias. The effect of vg on workers' age at foraging onset is explained by the well-supported double repressor hypothesis (DHR), which describes a mutually inhibitory relationship between vg and juvenile hormone (JH) — an endocrine factor that influences development, reproduction, and behaviour in many insects. These results support the RGPH and demonstrate how it intersects with an established mechanism of honeybee behavioural control. PMID:20454635

  2. Liver irradiation causes distal bystander effects in the rat brain and affects animal behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Kovalchuk, Anna; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Muhammad, Arif; Hossain, Shakhawat; Ilnytskyy, Slava; Ghose, Abhijit; Kirkby, Charles; Ghasroddashti, Esmaeel; Kovalchuk, Olga; Kolb, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy can not only produce effects on targeted organs, but can also influence shielded bystander organs, such as the brain in targeted liver irradiation. The brain is sensitive to radiation exposure, and irradiation causes significant neuro-cognitive deficits, including deficits in attention, concentration, memory, and executive and visuospatial functions. The mechanisms of their occurrence are not understood, although they may be related to the bystander effects. We analyzed the induction, mechanisms, and behavioural repercussions of bystander effects in the brain upon liver irradiation in a well-established rat model. Here, we show for the first time that bystander effects occur in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus regions upon liver irradiation, where they manifest as altered gene expression and somewhat increased levels of γH2AX. We also report that bystander effects in the brain are associated with neuroanatomical and behavioural changes, and are more pronounced in females than in males. PMID:26678032

  3. Effect of prolonged use of altrenogest on behaviour in mares.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, David; Howe, Stephanie; Jeffcott, Leo; Reid, Stuart; Mellor, Dominic; Higgins, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Oral administration of altrenogest for oestrus suppression in competition horses is believed to be widespread in some equestrian disciplines, and can be administered continuously for several months during a competition season. To examine whether altrenogest has any anabolic or other potential performance enhancing properties that may give a horse an unfair advantage, we examined the effect of oral altrenogest (0.044 mg/kg), given daily for a period of eight weeks, on social hierarchy, activity budget, body-mass and body condition score of 12 sedentary mares. We concluded that prolonged oral administration of altrenogest at recommended dose rates to sedentary mares resulted in no effect on dominance hierarchies, body mass or condition score. PMID:15683772

  4. Effect of prolonged use of altrenogest on behaviour in mares.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, David; Howe, Stephanie; Jeffcott, Leo; Reid, Stuart; Mellor, Dominic; Higgins, Andrew

    2005-05-01

    Oral administration of altrenogest for oestrus suppression in competition horses is believed to be widespread in some equestrian disciplines, and can be administered continuously for several months during a competition season. To examine whether altrenogest has any anabolic or other potential performance enhancing properties that may give a horse an unfair advantage, we examined the effect of oral altrenogest (0.044 mg/kg), given daily for a period of eight weeks, on social hierarchy, activity budget, body-mass and body condition score of 12 sedentary mares. It was concluded that prolonged oral administration of altrenogest at recommended dose rate to sedentary mares had no effect on dominance hierarchies, body-mass or condition score. PMID:15912604

  5. U.S. tobacco taxes: behavioural effects and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Lewit, E M

    1989-10-01

    This paper examines U.S. tobacco taxation, the effect of cigarette taxes on smoking and on the health effects of smoking, and equity and efficiency considerations that arise when cigarette excise taxes are used to reduce smoking. Cigarette excise taxes, imposed by the Federal Government, all State governments, and nearly 400 cities and counties, add approximately 34 cents per pack to the price of cigarettes. Real cigarette excise tax rates have fallen because tax increases have not kept pace with inflation. Increases in the price of cigarettes decrease smoking, particularly by adolescents. An estimated 100,000 additional persons may live to the age of 65 as a result of doubling the Federal cigarette tax in 1983. Because cigarette taxes are regressive and are borne primarily by smokers, inequities may arise when they are used to reduce smoking. Success in achieving a tobacco-free society will require that tobacco taxes be replaced with alternative sources of revenue. PMID:2819277

  6. Effect of Acute and Chronic Calcium Administration on Plasma Renin

    PubMed Central

    Kotchen, Theodore A.; Mauli, Kimball I.; Luke, Robert; Rees, Douglas; Flamenbaum, Walter

    1974-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of Ca++ on renin release, plasma renin activity (PRA) was measured after acute and chronic Ca++ administration. 1% CaCl2 was infused into one renal artery of 10 anesthetized dogs (0.3 mg/kg/min). The excreted fraction of filtered calcium (EFca++) and EFNa+ from the infused kidney were elevated (P < 0.04) during three successive 15-min infusion periods. Serum calcium concentration was significantly elevated (P < 0.001). Creatinine clearance, systemic arterial pressure, and renal blood flow did not change (P > 0.10). Compared to control (45 ng/ml/h±5.2 SE), renal venous PRA was suppressed (P < 0.0001) after infusion of Ca++ for 15, 30, and 45 min (20 ng/ml/h±4.6, 16 ng/ml/h±4.0, and 13 ng/ml/h±2.7, respectively). 15 and 30-min after infusion, PRA did not differ from control (P > 0.20). Chronic Ca++ loading was achieved in Sprague-Dawley rats by replacing drinking water with 1% CaCl2 for 17 days. At sacrifice, serum Ca++, Na+, and K+ of controls (n = 12) did not differ (P > 0.60) from Ca++-loaded rats (n = 12). Ca++ excretion (467 μeq/24 h±51) was elevated (P < 0.001) compared to controls (85 μeq/24 h±12). PRA (8.6 ng/ml/h±1.4) and renal renin content of Ca++-loaded rats did not differ from controls (P > 0.80). However, after 8 days of sodium deprivation, both PRA and renal renin content of calcium-loaded animals were significantly lower than the respective values in pair-fed controls (P < 0.005). During the period of sodium deprivation, calcium-drinking animals were in greater negative sodium balance than controls (P < 0.005). The data are consistent with the hypothesis that acute and chronic calcium administration inhibit renin secretion. PMID:4436432

  7. Protective Effects of Hydrogen Gas on Experimental Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hao-xin; Han, Bing; Hou, Li-Min; An, Ting-Ting; Jia, Guang; Cheng, Zhuo-Xin; Ma, Yong; Zhou, Yi-Nan; Kong, Rui; Wang, Shuang-Jia; Wang, Yong-Wei; Sun, Xue-Jun; Pan, Shang-Ha; Sun, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease mediated by damage to acinar cells and pancreatic inflammation. In patients with AP, subsequent systemic inflammatory responses and multiple organs dysfunction commonly occur. Interactions between cytokines and oxidative stress greatly contribute to the amplification of uncontrolled inflammatory responses. Molecular hydrogen (H2) is a potent free radical scavenger that not only ameliorates oxidative stress but also lowers cytokine levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of H2 gas on AP both in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro assessment, AR42J cells were treated with cerulein and then incubated in H2-rich or normal medium for 24 h, and for the in vivo experiment, AP was induced through a retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate into the pancreatobiliary duct (0.1 mL/100 g body weight). Wistar rats were treated with inhaled air or 2% H2 gas and sacrificed 12 h following the induction of pancreatitis. Specimens were collected and processed to measure the amylase and lipase activity levels; the myeloperoxidase activity and production levels; the cytokine mRNA expression levels; the 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, malondialdehyde, and glutathione levels; and the cell survival rate. Histological examinations and immunohistochemical analyses were then conducted. The results revealed significant reductions in inflammation and oxidative stress both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of H2 gas were associated with reductions in AR42J cell and pancreatic tissue damage. In conclusion, our results suggest that H2 gas is capable of ameliorating damage to the pancreas and AR42J cells and that H2 exerts protective effects both in vitro and in vivo on subjects with AP. Thus, the results obtained indicate that this gas may represent a novel therapy agent in the management of AP. PMID:27115738

  8. The effects of acute hyperinsulinemia on bone metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Ivaska, Kaisa K; Heliövaara, Maikki K; Ebeling, Pertti; Bucci, Marco; Huovinen, Ville; Väänänen, H Kalervo; Nuutila, Pirjo; Koistinen, Heikki A

    2015-01-01

    Insulin signaling in bone-forming osteoblasts stimulates bone formation and promotes the release of osteocalcin (OC) in mice. Only a few studies have assessed the direct effect of insulin on bone metabolism in humans. Here, we studied markers of bone metabolism in response to acute hyperinsulinemia in men and women. Thirty-three subjects from three separate cohorts (n=8, n=12 and n=13) participated in a euglycaemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study. Blood samples were collected before and at the end of infusions to determine the markers of bone formation (PINP, total OC, uncarboxylated form of OC (ucOC)) and resorption (CTX, TRAcP5b). During 4 h insulin infusion (40 mU/m2 per min, low insulin), CTX level decreased by 11% (P<0.05). High insulin infusion rate (72 mU/m2 per min) for 4 h resulted in more pronounced decrease (−32%, P<0.01) whereas shorter insulin exposure (40 mU/m2 per min for 2 h) had no effect (P=0.61). Markers of osteoblast activity remained unchanged during 4 h insulin, but the ratio of uncarboxylated-to-total OC decreased in response to insulin (P<0.05 and P<0.01 for low and high insulin for 4 h respectively). During 2 h low insulin infusion, both total OC and ucOC decreased significantly (P<0.01 for both). In conclusion, insulin decreases bone resorption and circulating levels of total OC and ucOC. Insulin has direct effects on bone metabolism in humans and changes in the circulating levels of bone markers can be seen within a few hours after administration of insulin. PMID:26047829

  9. Acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, J. R.; Gottesdiener, K.; Jordan, J.; Chen, K.; Flattery, S.; Larson, P. J.; Candelore, M. R.; Gertz, B.; Robertson, D.; Sun, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ephedrine is used to help achieve weight control. Data on its true efficacy and mechanisms in altering energy balance in human subjects are limited. We aimed to determine the acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work and urinary catecholamines in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover study. Ten healthy volunteers were given ephedrine (50 mg) or placebo thrice daily during each of two 24-h periods (ephedrine and placebo) in a whole-room indirect calorimeter, which accurately measures minute-by-minute energy expenditure and mechanical work. Measurements were taken of 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work, urinary catecholamines and binding of (+/-)ephedrine in vitro to human beta1-, beta2- and beta3-adrenoreceptors. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure was 3.6% greater (8965+/-1301 versus 8648+/-1347 kJ, P<0.05) with ephedrine than with placebo, but mechanical work was not different between the ephedrine and placebo periods. Noradrenaline excretion was lower with ephedrine (0.032+/-0.011 microg/mg creatinine) compared with placebo (0.044+/-0.012 microg/mg creatinine) (P<0.05). (+/-)Ephedrine is a relatively weak partial agonist of human beta1- and beta2-adrenoreceptors, and had no detectable activity at human beta3-adrenoreceptors. Ephedrine (50 mg thrice daily) modestly increases energy expenditure in normal human subjects. A lack of binding of ephedrine to beta3-adrenoreceptors and the observed decrease in urinary noradrenaline during ephedrine treatment suggest that the thermogenic effect of ephedrine results from direct beta1-/beta2-adrenoreceptor agonism. An indirect beta3-adrenergic effect through the release of noradrenaline seems unlikely as urinary noradrenaline decreased significantly with ephedrine.

  10. Mechanisms of interleukin-22's beneficial effects in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Huan, Chongmin; Kim, Daniel; Ou, Peiqi; Alfonso, Antonio; Stanek, Albert

    2016-02-15

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a disorder characterized by parenchymal injury of the pancreas controlled by immune cell-mediated inflammation. AP remains a significant challenge in the clinic due to a lack of specific and effective treatment. Knowledge of the complex mechanisms that regulate the inflammatory response in AP is needed for the development of new approaches to treatment, since immune cell-derived inflammatory cytokines have been recognized to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of the disease. Recent studies have shown that interleukin (IL)-22, a cytokine secreted by leukocytes, when applied in the severe animal models of AP, protects against the inflammation-mediated acinar injury. In contrast, in a mild AP model, endogenous IL-22 has been found to be a predominantly anti-inflammatory mediator that inhibits inflammatory cell infiltration via the induction of Reg3 proteins in acinar cells, but does not protect against acinar injury in the early stage of AP. However, constitutively over-expressed IL-22 can prevent the initial acinar injury caused by excessive autophagy through the induction of the anti-autophagic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Thus IL-22 plays different roles in AP depending on the severity of the AP model. This review focuses on these recently reported findings for the purpose of better understanding IL-22's regulatory roles in AP which could help to develop a novel therapeutic strategy. PMID:26909233

  11. Effects of acute spinalization on neurons of postural networks

    PubMed Central

    Zelenin, Pavel V.; Lyalka, Vladimir F.; Hsu, Li-Ju; Orlovsky, Grigori N.; Deliagina, Tatiana G.

    2016-01-01

    Postural limb reflexes (PLRs) represent a substantial component of postural corrections. Spinalization results in loss of postural functions, including disappearance of PLRs. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of acute spinalization on two populations of spinal neurons (F and E) mediating PLRs, which we characterized previously. For this purpose, in decerebrate rabbits spinalized at T12, responses of interneurons from L5 to stimulation causing PLRs before spinalization, were recorded. The results were compared to control data obtained in our previous study. We found that spinalization affected the distribution of F- and E-neurons across the spinal grey matter, caused a significant decrease in their activity, as well as disturbances in processing of posture-related sensory inputs. A two-fold decrease in the proportion of F-neurons in the intermediate grey matter was observed. Location of populations of F- and E-neurons exhibiting significant decrease in their activity was determined. A dramatic decrease of the efficacy of sensory input from the ipsilateral limb to F-neurons, and from the contralateral limb to E-neurons was found. These changes in operation of postural networks underlie the loss of postural control after spinalization, and represent a starting point for the development of spasticity. PMID:27302149

  12. Antinatriuretic effect of acute morphine administration in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Walker, L A; Murphy, J C

    1984-05-01

    The renal response to the acute administration of morphine was examined in conscious, chronically catheterized, nonhydrated rats. After control clearance periods, morphine sulfate was injected i.v. at 4 mg/kg followed by an infusion of 2 mg/kg X hr. Morphine caused an increase in urine flow which was variable in magnitude and duration. The initial diuresis was not maintained despite continued morphine administration and replacement of lost fluid. Compared to vehicle treatment morphine also induced marked sodium and chloride retention which was sustained throughout the 2-hr infusion period. There were no changes in blood pressure or heart during the clearance periods, although an initial transient hypotension and bradycardia were observed with morphine injection. There were no changes in glomerular filtration rate which could account for the antinatriuresis. Naloxone pretreatment blocked all of the observed renal responses. The results indicate that morphine exerts its effects on electrolyte excretion by enhancing renal tubular sodium or chloride reabsorption rather than changes in systemic hemodynamics or glomerular filtration rate. In a separate series of experiments, urine osmolality, osmolar clearance and free water clearance were estimated. All rats receiving morphine transiently excreted a hypotonic urine (minimum 183 +/- 23 mOsmol/kg of H2O) with a reduction in osmolar clearance and a sharp increase in free water clearance. These findings are consistent with a temporary inhibition of vasopressin release by morphine. PMID:6716265

  13. Plasmapheresis in Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy: An Effective Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Seyyed Majidi, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) is an idiopathic disorder with an unknown cause occurring in late pregnancy. The treatment in these patients is often immediate termination of pregnancy, and plasmapheresis provides an effective treatment option. In this paper, we introduce three pregnant women treated with plasmapheresis. The first case was a 22-year-old primigravida woman treated with 22 sessions of plasmapheresis due to AFLP, hepatic and renal failure, coagulopathy, and ventilator-dependent respiratory failure. The second case was a 23-year-old woman in her second pregnancy treated with 4 plasmapheresis sessions due to AFLP, hepatic and renal failure, coagulopathy, and hypoglycemia. The third patient was a 23-year-old primigravida woman treated with 3 plasmapheresis sessions due to AFLP, renal failure, and coagulopathy. Plasmapheresis can be a life-saving treatment in patients with AFLP and is strongly recommended for patients with severity of their disease accompanied by other organ disorders. In addition, shortening the time interval between the termination of pregnancy and initializing plasmapheresis improves the outcome and reduces the duration of hospital stay and sessions of plasmapheresis. PMID:23424692

  14. Effects of acute spinalization on neurons of postural networks.

    PubMed

    Zelenin, Pavel V; Lyalka, Vladimir F; Hsu, Li-Ju; Orlovsky, Grigori N; Deliagina, Tatiana G

    2016-01-01

    Postural limb reflexes (PLRs) represent a substantial component of postural corrections. Spinalization results in loss of postural functions, including disappearance of PLRs. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of acute spinalization on two populations of spinal neurons (F and E) mediating PLRs, which we characterized previously. For this purpose, in decerebrate rabbits spinalized at T12, responses of interneurons from L5 to stimulation causing PLRs before spinalization, were recorded. The results were compared to control data obtained in our previous study. We found that spinalization affected the distribution of F- and E-neurons across the spinal grey matter, caused a significant decrease in their activity, as well as disturbances in processing of posture-related sensory inputs. A two-fold decrease in the proportion of F-neurons in the intermediate grey matter was observed. Location of populations of F- and E-neurons exhibiting significant decrease in their activity was determined. A dramatic decrease of the efficacy of sensory input from the ipsilateral limb to F-neurons, and from the contralateral limb to E-neurons was found. These changes in operation of postural networks underlie the loss of postural control after spinalization, and represent a starting point for the development of spasticity. PMID:27302149

  15. Identifying effective behavioural models and behaviour change strategies underpinning preschool- and school-based obesity prevention interventions aimed at 4-6-year-olds: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nixon, C A; Moore, H J; Douthwaite, W; Gibson, E L; Vogele, C; Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; Manios, Y; Summerbell, C D

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this comprehensive systematic review was to identify the most effective behavioural models and behaviour change strategies, underpinning preschool- and school-based interventions aimed at preventing obesity in 4-6-year-olds. Searching was conducted from April 1995 to April 2010 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and The Cochrane Library. Epidemiological studies relevant to the research question with controlled assignment of participants were included in the review, if they had follow-up periods of 6 months or longer. Outcomes included markers of weight gain; markers of body composition; physical activity behaviour changes and dietary behaviour changes. Twelve studies were included in the review. The most commonly used model was social cognitive theory (SCT)/social learning theory (SLT) either as a single model or in combination with other behavioural models. Studies that used SCT/SLT in the development of the intervention had significant favourable changes in one, or more, outcome measures. In addition, interventions that (i) combined high levels of parental involvement and interactive school-based learning; (ii) targeted physical activity and dietary change; and (iii) included long-term follow-up, appeared most effective. It is suggested that interventions should also be focused on developing children's (and parents') perceived competence at making dietary and physical changes. PMID:22309069

  16. A Meta-Analytic Review of the Effectiveness of Behavioural Early Intervention Programs for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makrygianni, Maria K.; Reed, Phil

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of behavioural intervention programs for children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders was addressed by a meta-analysis, which reviewed 14 studies. The findings suggest that the behavioural programs are effective in improving several developmental aspects in the children, in terms of their treatment gains, and also relative to…

  17. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Family-Centred Positive Behaviour Support of Young Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Szu-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Positive Behaviour Intervention and Support (PBIS) is an evidence-based approach that has been proven to be effective in remediating problem behaviours in children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the family-centred PBIS approach when involving Taiwanese families in the treatment of off-task and non-compliant…

  18. Modeling the effect of sedentary behaviour on the prevention of population obesity using the system dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura; Zulkepli, Jafri Hj

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is a medical condition where an individual has an excessive amount of body fat. There are many factors contributing to obesity and one of them is the sedentary behaviour. Rapid development in industrialization and urbanization has brought changes to Malaysia's socioeconomic, especially the lifestyles of Malaysians. With this lifestyle transition, one of the impact is on weight and obesity. How does sedentary behaviour have an impact on the growth of Malaysian population's weight and obesity? What is the most effective sedentary behaviour preventing strategy to obesity? Is it through reduction in duration or frequency of sedentary behaviour? Thus, the aim of this paper is to design an intervention to analyse the effect of decreasing duration and frequency of sedentary behaviour on the population reversion trends of average weight (AW), average body mass index (ABMI), and prevalence of overweight and obesity (POVB). This study combines the different strands of sub-models comprised of nutrition, physical activity and body metabolism, and then synthesis these knowledge into a system dynamics of weight behaviour model, namely SIMULObese. Findings from this study revealed that Malaysian's adults spend a lot of time engaged in sedentary behaviour and this resulted in weight gain and obesity. Comparing between frequency and duration of sedentary behaviour, this study reported that reduced in duration or time spend in sedentary behaviour is a better preventing strategy to obesity compared to duration. As a summary, this study highlighted the importance of decreasing the frequency and duration of sedentary behaviour in developing guidelines to prevent obesity.

  19. The effects of goal variation on adult physical activity behaviour.

    PubMed

    Moon, Dal-Hyun; Yun, Joonkoo; McNamee, Jeff

    2016-10-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of varying levels of goals on increasing daily steps and the frequency of goal achievement among middle-aged adults. Ninety-six adults participated in a randomised control study. Participants were randomly assigned to five different step goal groups: (1) Easy (n = 19), (2) Medium (n = 19), (3) Difficult (n = 19), (4) Do-your-best (n = 19), and (5) No goal (n = 20) based on previous research. The participants wore a pedometer and were asked to reach a pre-established goal during the experimental period. In order to examine the effectiveness of the goal difficulty, (a) an average number of steps taken by different goal conditions and (b) the number of days meeting the assigned goal were tested. A one-way ANCOVA revealed significant step count differences among goal groups. Post hoc analyses indicated that the change in step count in both the Medium and Difficult goal groups was significantly greater than the remaining groups. However, there was no significant difference between the medium and difficult goal conditions. In addition, a one-way ANOVA indicated that there were no significant differences in the frequency of goal achievement among the Easy, Medium, and Difficult goal groups. Results suggest that when promoting physical activity through increasing step counts, researchers and clinicians should design goals that are specific and challenging. PMID:26860430

  20. Effects of oral montelukast on airway function in acute asthma.

    PubMed

    Cýllý, A; Kara, A; Ozdemir, T; Oğüş, C; Gülkesen, K H

    2003-05-01

    Montelukast, a specific cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist, has been shown to improve pulmonary function within 1 h of ingestion. This study was undertaken to compare the effects on peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) of oral montelukast added to intravenous steroid, intravenous steroid alone and placebo during the 24 h period following administration. Seventy asthmatic patients (FEV1 40-80% predicted and > or = 15% improvement after inhaled beta agonist) were enrolled in a single blind study to receive oral montelukast (10 mg) plus intravenous prednisolone (1 mg/kg), intravenous prednisolone (1 mg/kg) or placebo in a randomised fashion. The patients received one ofthe above three groups of medication before any other treatments. This was immediately followed by the aerosol treatments of 100 mcg of terbutaline sulphate divided into three doses during 1 h as described in the consensus statement. Thereafter, patients were observed for 24 h to document the effects on PEFR, Borg dyspnoea score and need for rescue medication. The primary end point was percentage change at different time points. Secondary end points were Borg dyspnoea score and use of rescue medication. Compared with placebo, montelukast added to the prednisolone group and the prednisolone alone group had significant percentage change from baseline in PEFR in the entire 24 h period (P<0.05). The difference in PEFR between montelukast plus prednisolone group and prednisolone group favoured the montelukast plus prednisolone group but did not reach statistical significance. Furthermore, montelukast plus prednisolone group required less inhaled short-acting beta agonistthan other two groups. The results of this study indicate that adding montelukast to steroid in acute asthma may have some additive improvement in lung functions. PMID:12735671

  1. Effect of fluid ingestion on orthostatic responses following acute exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. E.; Fortney, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Orthostatic tolerance is impaired following an acute bout of exercise. This study examined the effect of fluid ingestion following treadmill exercise in restoring the cardiovascular responses to an orthostatic stress. Five men (age, 29.6 +/- 3.4 yrs) were exposed to a graded lower body negative (LBNP) pressure protocol (0 to -50 mmHg) during euhydration without exercise (C), 20 minutes after exercise dehydration (D), 20 minutes after exercise and fluid ingestion (FI20), and 60 minutes after exercise and fluid ingestion (FI60). Fluid ingestion (mean +/- SE) consisted of water-ingestion equivalent to 50% of the body weight lost during exercise (520 +/- 15 ml). Exercise dehydration resulted in significantly higher heart rates (119 +/- 8 vs 82 +/- 7 bpm), lower systolic blood pressures (95 +/- 1.7 vs 108 +/- 2.3 mmHg), a smaller increase in leg circumference (3.7 +/- 4 vs 6.9 +/- 1.0 mm), and an attenuated increase in total peripheral resistance (2.58 +/- 1.2 vs 4.28 +/- 0.9 mmHg/L/min) at -50 mmHg LBNP compared to the C condition. Fluid ingestion (both 20 and 60), partially restored the heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance responses to LBNP, but did not influence the change in leg circumference during LBNP (4 +/- 0.3 for R20 and 2.8 +/- 0.4 mm for R60). These data illustrate the effectiveness of fluid ingestion on improving orthostatic responses following exercise, and suggest that dehydration is a contributing factor to orthostatic intolerance following exercise.

  2. Anxiety-like behaviour in mice exposed to tannery wastewater: The effect of photoelectrooxidation treatment.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues; Vanzella, Cláudia; Bianchetti, Paula; Rodrigues, Marco Antonio Siqueira; Stülp, Simone

    2011-01-01

    The leather industry is a major producer of wastewaters and releases large quantities of many different chemical agents used in hide processing into the environment. Since the central nervous system is sensitive to many different contaminants, our aim was to investigate the neurobehavioral effects of exposure of mice to tannery effluents using animal models of depression and anxiety, namely forced swim and elevated plus-maze. In order to propose a clean technology for the treatment of this effluent, we also investigated the exposure of mice to effluents treated by photoelectrooxidation process (PEO). Adult male Swiss albino mice (CF1 strain) were given free access to water bottles containing an effluent treated by a tannery (non-PEO) or PEO-treated tannery wastewater (0.1 and 1% in drinking water). Exposure to tannery wastewater induced behavioural changes in the mice in elevated plus-maze. Exposure to non-PEO 1% decreased the percentage of time spent in the open arms, indicating anxiety-like behaviour. Exposure to tannery wastewater did not alter immobility time in the forced swim test, suggesting that tannery effluents did not induce depression-like behaviour in the mice. These behavioural data suggest that non-PEO tannery effluent has an anxiogenic effect, whereas PEO-treated tannery effluents do not alter anxiety levels. PMID:21664271

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on the wear behaviour of human tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing, Ping; Huang, Shengbin; Gao, Shanshan; Qian, Linmao; Yu, Haiyang

    2015-06-01

    Radiotherapy is a frequently used treatment for oral cancer. Extensive research has been conducted to detect the mechanical properties of dental hard tissues after irradiation at the macroscale. However, little is known about the influence of irradiation on the tribological properties of enamel at the micro- or nanoscale. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the wear behaviour of human tooth enamel in relation to prism orientation. Nanoscratch tests, surface profilometer and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis were used to evaluate the friction behaviour of enamel slabs before and after treatment with identical irradiation procedures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were performed to analyse the changes in crystallography and chemical composition induced by irradiation. Surface microhardness (SMH) alteration was also evaluated. The results showed that irradiation resulted in different scratch morphologies, friction coefficients and remnant depth and width at different loads. An inferior nanoscratch resistance was observed independent of prism orientation. Moreover, the variation of wear behaviours was closely related to changes in the crystallography, chemical composition and SMH of the enamel. Together, these measures indicated that irradiation had a direct deleterious effect on the wear behaviour of human tooth enamel.

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on the wear behaviour of human tooth enamel

    PubMed Central

    Qing, Ping; Huang, Shengbin; Gao, ShanShan; Qian, LinMao; Yu, HaiYang

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a frequently used treatment for oral cancer. Extensive research has been conducted to detect the mechanical properties of dental hard tissues after irradiation at the macroscale. However, little is known about the influence of irradiation on the tribological properties of enamel at the micro- or nanoscale. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the wear behaviour of human tooth enamel in relation to prism orientation. Nanoscratch tests, surface profilometer and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis were used to evaluate the friction behaviour of enamel slabs before and after treatment with identical irradiation procedures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were performed to analyse the changes in crystallography and chemical composition induced by irradiation. Surface microhardness (SMH) alteration was also evaluated. The results showed that irradiation resulted in different scratch morphologies, friction coefficients and remnant depth and width at different loads. An inferior nanoscratch resistance was observed independent of prism orientation. Moreover, the variation of wear behaviours was closely related to changes in the crystallography, chemical composition and SMH of the enamel. Together, these measures indicated that irradiation had a direct deleterious effect on the wear behaviour of human tooth enamel. PMID:26099692

  5. Effect of boat noise and angling on lake fish behaviour.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, L; Baktoft, H; Jepsen, N; Aarestrup, K; Berg, S; Skov, C

    2014-06-01

    The effects of disturbances from recreational activities on the swimming speed and habitat use of roach Rutilus rutilus, perch Perca fluviatilis and pike Esox lucius were explored. Disturbances were applied for 4 h as (1) boating in short intervals with a small outboard internal combustion engine or (2) boating in short intervals combined with angling with artificial lures between engine runs. The response of the fish species was evaluated by high-resolution tracking using an automatic acoustic telemetry system and transmitters with sub-minute burst rates. Rutilus rutilus swimming speed was significantly higher during disturbances [both (1) and (2)] with an immediate reaction shortly after the engine started. Perca fluviatilis displayed increased swimming activity during the first hour of disturbance but not during the following hours. Swimming activity of E. lucius was not significantly different between disturbance periods and the same periods on days without disturbance (control). Rutilus rutilus increased their use of the central part of the lake during disturbances, whereas no habitat change was observed in P. fluviatilis and E. lucius. No difference in fish response was detected between the two types of disturbances (boating with and without angling), indicating that boating was the primary source of disturbance. This study highlights species-specific responses to recreational boating and may have implications for management of human recreational activities in lakes. PMID:24813930

  6. Lifespan Psychomotor Behaviour Profiles of Multigenerational Prenatal Stress and Artificial Food Dye Effects in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Zachary T.; Falkenberg, Erin A.; Metz, Gerlinde A. S.

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of artificial food dye (AFD) during childhood and adolescence has been linked to behavioural changes, such as hyperactivity. It is possible that the vulnerability to AFDs is modified by prenatal stress. Common consequences of prenatal stress include hyperactivity, thus potentially leading to synergistic actions with AFDs. Here, we investigated the compounding effect of multigenerational prenatal stress (MPS) and AFD consumption on the development of hyperactivity and anxiety-related behaviours across the lifespan in male rats. MPS treatment involved a family history of four consecutive generations of prenatal stress (F4 generation). AFD treatment included a 4%-concentration of FD&C Red 40, FD&C Yellow 5, FD&C Yellow 6, and FD&C Blue 1 in the drinking water from postnatal days 22 to 50 to resemble juvenile and adolescent dietary exposure. Using several exploration tasks, animals were tested in motor activity and anxiety-like behaviours from adolescence to 13 months of age. MPS resulted in hyperactivity both early (50 days) and later in life (13 months), with normalized activity patterns at reproductive age. AFD consumption resulted in hyperactivity during consumption, which subsided following termination of treatment. Notably, both MPS and AFD promoted risk-taking behaviour in young adults (3 months). There were few synergistic effects between MPS and AFD in this study. The findings suggest that AFDs exert the most noticeable effects at the time of exposure. MPS, however, results in a characteristic lifespan profile of behavioural changes, indicating that development and aging represent particularly vulnerable periods in life during which a family history of prenatal stress may precipitate. PMID:24937660

  7. Multi-dimensional Treatment Foster Care in England: differential effects by level of initial antisocial behaviour.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Ian; Parry, Elizabeth; Biehal, Nina; Fresen, John; Kay, Catherine; Scott, Stephen; Green, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Multi-dimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC), recently renamed Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Adolescents (TFCO-A) is an internationally recognised intervention for troubled young people in public care. This paper seeks to explain conflicting results with MTFC by testing the hypotheses that it benefits antisocial young people more than others and does so through its effects on their behaviour. Hard-to-manage young people in English foster or residential homes were assessed at entry to a randomised and case-controlled trial of MTFC (n = 88) and usual care (TAU) (n = 83). Primary outcome was the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) at 12 months analysed according to high (n = 112) or low (n = 59) baseline level of antisocial behaviour on the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents. After adjusting for covariates, there was no overall treatment effect on CGAS. However, the High Antisocial Group receiving MTFC gained more on the CGAS than the Low group (mean improvement 9.36 points vs. 5.33 points). This difference remained significant (p < 0.05) after adjusting for propensity and covariates and was statistically explained by the reduced antisocial behaviour ratings in MTFC. These analyses support the use of MTFC for youth in public care but only for those with higher levels of antisocial behaviour. Further work is needed on whether such benefits persist, and on possible negative effects of this treatment for those with low antisocial behaviour.Trial Registry Name: ISRCTNRegistry identification number: ISRCTN 68038570Registry URL: www.isrctn.com. PMID:26662809

  8. Acute Effects of Ecstasy on Memory Are more Extensive than Chronic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Shariati, Mohamad Bakhtiar Hesam; Sohrabi, Maryam; Shahidi, Siamak; Nikkhah, Ali; Mirzaei, Fatemeh; Medizadeh, Mehdi; Asl, Sara Soleimani

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Exposure to 3, 4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) could lead to serotonergic system toxicity in the brain. This system is responsible for learning and memory functions. Studies show that MDMA causes memory impairment dose-dependently and acutely. The present study was designed to evaluate the chronic and acute effects of MDMD on spatial memory and acquisition of passive avoidance. Methods Adult male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were given single or multiple injections of MDMA (10 mg/kg, IP). Using passive avoidance and Morris Water Maze (MWM) tasks, learning and spatial memory functions were assessed. The data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software and one- way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Results Our results showed that there were significant differences in latency to enter the dark compartment (STL) between sham and MDMA- treated groups. Acute group significantly showed more STL in comparison with chronic group. Furthermore, MDMA groups spent more time in dark compartment (TDS) than the sham group. Administration of single dose of MDMA significantly caused an increase in TDS compared with the chronic group. In the MWM, MDMA treatment significantly increased the traveled distance and escaped latency compared to the sham group. Like to passive avoidance task, percentage of time spent in the target quadrant in MDMA- treated animals impaired in MWM compared with sham group. Discussion These data suggest that MDMA treatment impairs learning and memory functions that are more extensive in acute- treated rats. PMID:25337384

  9. Challenging Behaviour: Principals' Experience of Stress and Perception of the Effects of Challenging Behaviour on Staff in Special Schools in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Aine; Carey, Sean; McCarthy, Siobhan; Coyle, Ciaran

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the sources of stress and the effects of managing challenging behaviour on principals of special schools in Ireland, including schools for pupils with an intellectual disability, emotional disturbance, specific learning disability and physical and sensory disability, and children of traveller families. In this study principals…

  10. Acute stress does not affect the impairing effect of chronic stress on memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Ozbaki, Jamile; Goudarzi, Iran; Salmani, Mahmoud Elahdadi; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Due to the prevalence and pervasiveness of stress in modern life and exposure to both chronic and acute stresses, it is not clear whether prior exposure to chronic stress can influence the impairing effects of acute stress on memory retrieval. This issue was tested in this study. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: control, acute, chronic, and chronic + acute stress groups. The rats were trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. Following training, the rats were either kept in control conditions or exposed to chronic stress in a restrainer 6 hr/day for 21 days. On day 22, a probe test was done to measure memory retention. Time spent in target and opposite areas, platform location latency, and proximity were used as indices of memory retention. To induce acute stress, 30 min before the probe test, animals received a mild footshock. Results: Stressed animals spent significantly less time in the target quadrant and more time in the opposite quadrant than control animals. Moreover, the stressed animals showed significantly increased platform location latency and proximity as compared with control animals. No significant differences were found in these measures among stress exposure groups. Finally, both chronic and acute stress significantly increased corticosterone levels. Conclusion: Our results indicate that both chronic and acute stress impair memory retrieval similarly. Additionally, the impairing effects of chronic stress on memory retrieval were not influenced by acute stress.

  11. Planning to break unwanted habits: habit strength moderates implementation intention effects on behaviour change.

    PubMed

    Webb, Thomas L; Sheeran, Paschal; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2009-09-01

    Implementation intention formation promotes effective goal striving and goal attainment. However, little research has investigated whether implementation intentions promote behaviour change when people possess strong antagonistic habits. Experiment 1 developed relatively habitual responses that, after a task switch, had a detrimental impact on task performance. Forming an if-then plan reduced the negative impact of habit on performance. However, the effect of forming implementation intentions was smaller among participants who possessed strong habits as compared to participants who had weaker habits. Experiment 2 provided a field test of the role of habit strength in moderating the relationship between implementation intentions and behaviour in the context of smoking. Implementation intentions reduced smoking among participants with weak or moderate smoking habits, but not among participants with strong smoking habits. In summary, habit strength moderates the effectiveness of if-then plan formation in breaking unwanted habits. PMID:18851764

  12. Interesting Asian Plants: Their Compounds and Effects on Electrophysiology and Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2011-01-01

    There have been numerous non-scientific reports on the behavioural effects of Asian plants in humans who consumed these plants wholly or part thereof. Knowledge passed from generation to generation informs us of plants that increase effort and stamina, such as during paddy planting after the ingestion of Mitragyna speciosa Korth (ketum) as a tea supplement. Centella asiatica and Myristica fragrans are used as herbs to improve memory and to treat epilepsy, respectively. Zizyphus mauritiana is used to treat headache and burn pain, acts as an antitussive, and reduces rigor mortis immediately after death. These plants, which have been identified to exhibit analgaesic, muscle-relaxing, and nootropic effects, may contain important bio-compounds for medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical research in Malaysia. The electrophysiology properties of these plants and their effects on epilepsy, behaviour, and pain will lead Malaysia to future new drug discoveries. PMID:22589667

  13. Interesting asian plants: their compounds and effects on electrophysiology and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2011-10-01

    There have been numerous non-scientific reports on the behavioural effects of Asian plants in humans who consumed these plants wholly or part thereof. Knowledge passed from generation to generation informs us of plants that increase effort and stamina, such as during paddy planting after the ingestion of Mitragyna speciosa Korth (ketum) as a tea supplement. Centella asiatica and Myristica fragrans are used as herbs to improve memory and to treat epilepsy, respectively. Zizyphus mauritiana is used to treat headache and burn pain, acts as an antitussive, and reduces rigor mortis immediately after death. These plants, which have been identified to exhibit analgaesic, muscle-relaxing, and nootropic effects, may contain important bio-compounds for medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical research in Malaysia. The electrophysiology properties of these plants and their effects on epilepsy, behaviour, and pain will lead Malaysia to future new drug discoveries. PMID:22589667

  14. Effective anaesthesia of the acutely inflamed pulp: part 1. The acutely inflamed pulp.

    PubMed

    Virdee, S S; Seymour, D; Bhakta, S

    2015-10-23

    Achieving profound pulpal anaesthesia in a mandibular molar diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis can be argued to be the most testing of dental anaesthetic challenges. This can be attributed to the technical complexities of conventional techniques and the presence of pulp pathosis. Reasons for why the latter influences the ability to attain pulpal anaesthesia is not yet fully understood, but its frequent occurrence is well documented. In light of overcoming this it has become common practice to prescribe antibiotics, refer onto secondary care or to even commence treatment without appropriately anaesthetising the tooth. Therefore, this two part series aims to help practitioners attain clinically acceptable pulpal anaesthesia in the most testing of scenarios; the acutely inflamed mandibular molar. They should then be able to apply these same principles to other teeth presenting with similar symptoms. This section outlines the clinical presentation and pathophysiology associated with an acutely inflamed pulp, defines what it is to attain pulpal anaesthesia and critically analyses theories as to why these teeth are up to eight times more difficult to anaesthetise than their healthy counterparts. PMID:26494344

  15. Predator-Specific Effects on Incubation Behaviour and Offspring Growth in Great Tits

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Alessandra; Richner, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    In birds, different types of predators may target adults or offspring differentially and at different times of the reproductive cycle. Hence they may also differentially influence incubation behaviour and thus embryonic development and offspring phenotype. This is poorly understood, and we therefore performed a study to assess the effects of the presence of either a nest predator or a predator targeting adults and offspring after fledging on female incubation behaviour in great tits (Parus major), and the subsequent effects on offspring morphological traits. We manipulated perceived predation risk during incubation using taxidermic models of two predators: the short-tailed weasel posing a risk to incubating females and nestlings, and the sparrowhawk posing a risk to adults and offspring after fledging. To disentangle treatment effects induced during incubation from potential carry-over effects of parental behaviour after hatching, we cross-fostered whole broods from manipulated nests with broods from unmanipulated nests. Both predator treatments lead to a reduced on- and off-bout frequency, to a slower decline in on-bout temperature as incubation advanced and showed a negative effect on nestling body mass gain. At the current state of knowledge on predator-induced variation in incubation patterns alternative hypotheses are feasible, and the findings of this study will be useful for guiding future research. PMID:25830223

  16. Prehistory effects on the VHCF behaviour of engineering metallic materials with different strengthening mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, M.; Stöcker, C.; Müller-Bollenhagen, C.; Christ, H.-J.

    2010-07-01

    Engineering materials often undergo a plastic deformation during manufacturing, hence the effect of a predeformation on the subsequent fatigue behaviour has to be considered. The effect of a prestrain on the microstructure is strongly influenced by the strengthening mechanism. Different mechanisms are relevant in the materials applied in this study: a solid-solution hardened and a precipitation-hardened nickel-base alloy and a martensite-forming metastable austenitic steel. Prehistory effects become very important, when fatigue failure at very high number of cycles (N > 107) is considered, since damage mechanisms occur different to those observed in the range of conventional fatigue limit. With the global strain amplitude being well below the static elastic limit, only inhomogeneously distributed local plastic deformation takes place in the very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) region. The dislocation motion during cyclic loading thus depends on the effective flow stress, which is defined by the global cyclic stress-strain relation and the local stress distribution as a consequence of the interaction between dislocations and precipitates, grain boundaries, martensite phases and micro-notches. As a consequence, no significant prehistory effect was observed for the VHCF behaviour of the solid-solution hardening alloy, while the precipitation-hardening alloy shows a perceptible prehistory dependence. In the case of the austenitic steel, strain-hardening and the volume fraction of the deformation-induced martensite dominate the fatigue behaviour.

  17. Identifying determinants of effective complementary feeding behaviour change interventions in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Cecilia S; van Liere, Marti; Pelto, Gretel

    2014-10-01

    As stunting moves to the forefront of the global agenda, there is substantial evidence that behaviour change interventions (BCI) can improve infant feeding practices and growth. However, this evidence has not been translated into improved outcomes on a national level because we do not know enough about what makes these interventions work, for whom, when, why, at what cost and for how long. Our objective was to examine the design and implementation of complementary feeding BCI, from the peer-reviewed literature, to identify generalisable key determinants. We identified 29 studies that evaluated BCI efficacy or effectiveness, were conducted in developing countries, and reported outcomes on infant and young children aged 6-24 months. Two potential determinants emerged: (1) effective studies used formative research to identify cultural barriers and enablers to optimal feeding practices, to shape the intervention strategy, and to formulate appropriate messages and mediums for delivery; (2) effective studies delineated the programme impact pathway to the target behaviour change and assessed intermediary behaviour changes to learn what worked. We found that BCI that used these developmental and implementation processes could be effective despite heterogeneous approaches and design components. Our analysis was constrained, however, by the limited published data on how design and implementation were carried out, perhaps because of publishing space limits. Information on cost-effectiveness, sustainability and scalability was also very limited. We suggest a more comprehensive reporting process and a more strategic research agenda to enable generalisable evidence to accumulate. PMID:24798264

  18. Identifying determinants of effective complementary feeding behaviour change interventions in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Fabrizio, Cecilia S; van Liere, Marti; Pelto, Gretel

    2014-01-01

    As stunting moves to the forefront of the global agenda, there is substantial evidence that behaviour change interventions (BCI) can improve infant feeding practices and growth. However, this evidence has not been translated into improved outcomes on a national level because we do not know enough about what makes these interventions work, for whom, when, why, at what cost and for how long. Our objective was to examine the design and implementation of complementary feeding BCI, from the peer-reviewed literature, to identify generalisable key determinants. We identified 29 studies that evaluated BCI efficacy or effectiveness, were conducted in developing countries, and reported outcomes on infant and young children aged 6–24 months. Two potential determinants emerged: (1) effective studies used formative research to identify cultural barriers and enablers to optimal feeding practices, to shape the intervention strategy, and to formulate appropriate messages and mediums for delivery; (2) effective studies delineated the programme impact pathway to the target behaviour change and assessed intermediary behaviour changes to learn what worked. We found that BCI that used these developmental and implementation processes could be effective despite heterogeneous approaches and design components. Our analysis was constrained, however, by the limited published data on how design and implementation were carried out, perhaps because of publishing space limits. Information on cost-effectiveness, sustainability and scalability was also very limited. We suggest a more comprehensive reporting process and a more strategic research agenda to enable generalisable evidence to accumulate. PMID:24798264

  19. Effect of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Leão, Sílvia; Conde, Bebiana; Fontes, Paulo; Calvo, Teresa; Afonso, Abel; Moreira, Ilídio

    2016-04-01

    The effect of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on clinical outcomes after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is incompletely defined. We sought to determine the prevalence of OSA in patients with ACS and evaluate prognostic impact of OSA and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in these patients. This was a prospective longitudinal cohort study of 73 patients admitted on cardiac intensive care unit for ACS. Cardiorespiratory sleep study and/or polysomnography were performed in all patients. CPAP was recommended if Apnea-Hypopnea Index ≥5. The main study outcome was a composite of death for any cause, myocardial infarction, and myocardial revascularization. OSA was diagnosed in 46 patients (63%). Age and cardiovascular risk factors were not significantly different between groups. OSA was classified as mild (m-OSA) in 14 patients (30%) and as moderate-to-severe (s-OSA) in 32 patients (70%). After a median follow-up of 75 months (interquartile range 71 to 79), patients with s-OSA had lower event-free survival rate. After adjustment for gender, patients with s-OSA showed a significantly higher incidence of the composite end point (hazard ratio 3.58, 95% CI 1.09 to 17.73, p = 0.035). Adherence to CPAP occurred in 19 patients (41%), but compliance to CPAP therapy did not reduce the risk of composite end point (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% CI 0.31 to 2.46, p = 0.798). In conclusion, OSA is an underdiagnosed disease with high prevalence in patients with ACS. It is urgent to establish screening protocols because those have high diagnostic yield and allow identifying a group of patients with manifestly unfavorable prognosis. PMID:26857162

  20. Acute exposure to acid fog. Effects on mucociliary clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Laube, B.L.; Bowes, S.M. III; Links, J.M.; Thomas, K.K.; Frank, R. )

    1993-05-01

    Submicrometric sulfuric acid (H2SO4) aerosol can affect mucociliary clearance without eliciting irritative symptoms or changes in pulmonary function. The effect of larger fog droplets containing H2SO4 on mucociliary clearance is unknown. We quantified mucociliary clearance from the trachea (n = 4) and small airways (n = 7) of young healthy male adults after an acute exposure to H2SO4 fog (MMAD = 10.3 microns; pH = 2.0; liquid water content = 481 +/- 65 mg/m3; osmolarity = 30 mOsm). Acid fog (AF) or saline fog (SF) (10.9 microns; 492 +/- 116 mg/m3; 30 mOsm) was administered for 40 min of unencumbered breathing (no mouth-piece) at rest and for 20 min of exercise sufficient to produce oronasal breathing. Fog exposures were followed by a methacholine (MCh) challenge (a measure of airway reactivity) or inhalation of technetium-99M radioaerosol (MMAD = 3.4 microns) on 2 study days each. Changes in symptoms and forced ventilatory function were also assessed. Clearance was quantified from computer-assisted analyses of gamma camera images of the lower respiratory tract in terms of %removal/min of the radiolabel from the trachea 25 min after inhalation and from the outer zone of the right lung after 1.9 to 3 h. Symptoms, forced ventilatory function, and MCh response were unaffected by either fog. Tracheal clearance was more rapid in four of four subjects after AF (0.83 +/- 1.58% removal/min) compared with that after SF (-0.54 +/- 0.85% removal/min). Outer zone clearance was more rapid in six of seven subjects after AF (0.22 +/- 0.15% removal/min) compared with that after SF (0.01 +/- 0.09% removal/min).

  1. Effects of Montelukast in an Experimental Model of Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Angı, Serkan; Eken, Hüseyin; Kılıç, Erol; Karaköse, Oktay; Balci, Gürhan; Somuncu, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    Background We evaluated the hematological, biochemical, and histopathological effects of Montelukast on pancreatic damage in an experimental acute pancreatitis model created by cerulein in rats before and after the induction of pancreatitis. Materials/Methods Forty rats were divided into 4 groups with 10 rats each. The study groups were: the Cerulein (C) group, the Cerulein + early Montelukast (CMe) group, the Cerulein + late Montelukast (CMl) group, and the Control group. The pH, pO2, pCO2, HCO3, leukocyte, hematocrit, pancreatic amylase, and lipase values were measured in the arterial blood samples taken immediately before rats were killed. Results There were statistically significant differences between the C group and the Control group in the values of pancreatic amylase, lipase, blood leukocyte, hematocrit, pH, pO2, pCO2, HCO3, and pancreatic water content, and also in each of the values of edema, inflammation, vacuolization, necrosis, and total histopathological score (P<0.05). When the CMl group and C group were compared, no statistically significant differences were found in any parameter analyzed. When the CMe group was compared with the C group, pancreatic amylase, lipase, pH, PO2, pCO2, HCO3, pancreatic water content, histopathological edema, inflammation, and total histopathological score values were significantly different between the groups (P<0.05). Finally, when the CMe group and the Control group were compared, significant differences were found in all except 2 (leukocyte and pO2) parameters (P<0.05). Conclusions Leukotriene receptor antagonists used in the late phases of pancreatitis might not result in any benefit; however, when they are given in the early phases or prophylactically, they may decrease pancreatic damage. PMID:27479458

  2. Effects of Montelukast in an Experimental Model of Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Angı, Serkan; Eken, Hüseyin; Kılıc, Erol; Karaköse, Oktay; Balci, Gürhan; Somuncu, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND We evaluated the hematological, biochemical, and histopathological effects of Montelukast on pancreatic damage in an experimental acute pancreatitis model created by cerulein in rats before and after the induction of pancreatitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty rats were divided into 4 groups with 10 rats each. The study groups were: the Cerulein (C) group, the Cerulein + early Montelukast (CMe) group, the Cerulein + late Montelukast (CMl) group, and the Control group. The pH, pO2, pCO2, HCO3, leukocyte, hematocrit, pancreatic amylase, and lipase values were measured in the arterial blood samples taken immediately before rats were killed. RESULTS There were statistically significant differences between the C group and the Control group in the values of pancreatic amylase, lipase, blood leukocyte, hematocrit, pH, pO2, pCO2, HCO3, and pancreatic water content, and also in each of the values of edema, inflammation, vacuolization, necrosis, and total histopathological score (P<0.05). When the CMl group and C group were compared, no statistically significant differences were found in any parameter analyzed. When the CMe group was compared with the C group, pancreatic amylase, lipase, pH, PO2, pCO2, HCO3, pancreatic water content, histopathological edema, inflammation, and total histopathological score values were significantly different between the groups (P<0.05). Finally, when the CMe group and the Control group were compared, significant differences were found in all except 2 (leukocyte and pO2) parameters (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Leukotriene receptor antagonists used in the late phases of pancreatitis might not result in any benefit; however, when they are given in the early phases or prophylactically, they may decrease pancreatic damage. PMID:27479458

  3. RNAi-mediated silencing of hepatic Alas1 effectively prevents and treats the induced acute attacks in acute intermittent porphyria mice

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Makiko; Gan, Lin; Chen, Brenden; Kadirvel, Senkottuvelan; Yu, Chunli; Phillips, John D.; New, Maria I.; Liebow, Abigail; Fitzgerald, Kevin; Querbes, William; Desnick, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The acute hepatic porphyrias are inherited disorders of heme biosynthesis characterized by life-threatening acute neurovisceral attacks. Factors that induce the expression of hepatic 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase 1 (ALAS1) result in the accumulation of the neurotoxic porphyrin precursors 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and porphobilinogen (PBG), which recent studies indicate are primarily responsible for the acute attacks. Current treatment of these attacks involves i.v. administration of hemin, but a faster-acting, more effective, and safer therapy is needed. Here, we describe preclinical studies of liver-directed small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting Alas1 (Alas1-siRNAs) in a mouse model of acute intermittent porphyria, the most common acute hepatic porphyria. A single i.v. dose of Alas1-siRNA prevented the phenobarbital-induced biochemical acute attacks for approximately 2 wk. Injection of Alas1-siRNA during an induced acute attack significantly decreased plasma ALA and PBG levels within 8 h, more rapidly and effectively than a single hemin infusion. Alas1-siRNA was well tolerated and a therapeutic dose did not cause hepatic heme deficiency. These studies provide proof-of-concept for the clinical development of RNA interference therapy for the prevention and treatment of the acute attacks of the acute hepatic porphyrias. PMID:24821812

  4. Sex differences and serotonergic mechanisms in the behavioural effects of psilocin.

    PubMed

    Tylš, Filip; Páleníček, Tomáš; Kadeřábek, Lukáš; Lipski, Michaela; Kubešová, Anna; Horáček, Jiří

    2016-06-01

    Psilocybin has recently attracted a great deal of attention as a clinical research and therapeutic tool. The aim of this paper is to bridge two major knowledge gaps regarding its behavioural pharmacology - sex differences and the underlying receptor mechanisms. We used psilocin (0.25, 1 and 4 mg/kg), an active metabolite of psilocybin, in two behavioural paradigms - the open-field test and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle reaction. Sex differences were evaluated with respect to the phase of the female cycle. The contribution of serotonin receptors in the behavioural action was tested in male rats with selective serotonin receptor antagonists: 5-HT1A receptor antagonist (WAY100635 1 mg/kg), 5-HT2A receptor antagonist (MDL100907 0.5 mg/kg), 5-HT2B receptor antagonist (SB215505 1 mg/kg) and 5-HT2C receptor antagonist (SB242084 1 mg/kg). Psilocin induced dose-dependent inhibition of locomotion and suppression of normal behaviour in rats (behavioural serotonin syndrome, impaired PPI). The effects were more pronounced in male rats than in females. The inhibition of locomotion was normalized by 5-HT1A and 5-HT2B/C antagonists; however, PPI was not affected significantly by these antagonists. Our findings highlight an important issue of sex-specific reactions to psilocin and that apart from 5-HT2A-mediated effects 5-HT1A and 5-HT2C/B receptors also play an important role. These findings have implications for recent clinical trials. PMID:26461483

  5. Resiliency as a factor protecting youths from risky behaviour: Moderating effects of gender and sport.

    PubMed

    Lipowski, Mariusz; Lipowska, Małgorzata; Jochimek, Magdalena; Krokosz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesised that resiliency may protect adolescents against risky behaviours, and that both the practicing of sports, and gender are moderating variables in relationships between resiliency and risky behaviours. The study included 18-year-old pupils from a selection of secondary schools (n = 556). A total of 188 individuals practiced competitive sports and the remaining 368 participants were non-athletes. The participants were examined with the Resiliency Assessment Scale for Children and Adolescents (SPP-18) and with a survey containing questions and statements related to high-risk "experiments with adulthood". Adolescent athletes showed higher levels of resiliency than their peers. The power of the "Determination and Persistence in Action" effect on "Alcohol" scale differed significantly between male athletes and male non-athletes. Only in the athletes groups were higher scores on this scale reflected by lower values on the "Drugs" scale. Moreover, it is possible to observe differences in undertaking risky behaviour between male and female athletes. The analysis of risky sexual behaviour suggests that sport is a risk factor for men, and a protective factor for women. These data suggest that consistent prophylactic and psycho-educative activities, with a special attention to differences between genders, should be provided to all the adolescents, irrespective of their sport performance levels. PMID:25809379

  6. Acute Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution on ST Segment Height: A Longitudinal Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The mechanisms for the relationship between particulate air pollution and cardiac disease are not fully understood. Air pollution-induced myocardial ischemia is one of the potentially important mechanisms. Methods: We investigate the acute effects and the time cours...

  7. COMPARISONS OF THE ACUTE EFFECTS OF CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS USING A NEUROBEHAVIORAL SCREENING BATTERY IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The clinical signs of intoxication produced by cholinesterase inhibitors, many of which are used as pesticides, are considered important information for regulatory purposes. e conducted acute studies of cholinesterase inhibitors in order to compare their effects as determined by ...

  8. Warming increases chlorpyrifos effects on predator but not anti-predator behaviours.

    PubMed

    Dinh Van, Khuong; Janssens, Lizanne; Debecker, Sara; Stoks, Robby

    2014-07-01

    Recent insights indicate that negative effects of pesticides on aquatic biota occur at concentrations that current legislation considers environmentally protective. We here address two, potentially interacting, mechanisms that may contribute to the underestimation of the impact of sublethal pesticide effects in single species tests at room temperature: the impairment of predator and antipredator behaviours and the stronger impact of organophosphate pesticides at higher temperatures. To address these issues we assessed the effects of chlorpyrifos on the predator and antipredator behaviours of larvae of the damselfly Ischnura elegans, important intermediate predators in aquatic food webs, in a common-garden warming experiment with replicated low- and high-latitude populations along the latitudinal gradient of this species in Europe. Chlorpyrifos reduced the levels of predator behavioural endpoints, and this reduction was stronger at the higher temperature for head orientations and feeding strikes. Chlorpyrifos also impaired two key antipredator behavioural endpoints, activity reductions in response to predator cues were smaller in the presence of chlorpyrifos, and chlorpyrifos caused a lower escape swimming speed; these effects were independent of temperature. This suggests chlorpyrifos may impact food web interactions by changing predator-prey interactions both with higher (predators) and lower trophic levels (food). Given that only the interaction with the lower trophic level was more impaired at higher temperatures, the overall pesticide-induced changes in food web dynamics may be strongly temperature-dependent. These findings were consistent in damselflies from low- and high-latitude populations, illustrating that thermal adaptation will not mitigate the increased toxicity of pesticides at higher temperatures. Our study not only underscores the relevance of including temperature and prey-predator interactions in ecological risk assessment but also their potential

  9. Top-down Control of Stream Food Webs: Indirect Effects by Changed Behaviour and Species Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, C.; Petzoldt, T.; Koop, J. H.; Benndorf, J.

    2005-05-01

    Predators may directly control stream food webs by consuming invertebrates. But sub lethal effects on prey such as change of activity rhythm or feeding behaviour may lead to indirect effects of predation on other species. Thus, predators may strongly effect invertebrate community structure. The aim of a currently running paired ecosystem experiment is to detect changes of species interaction induced by benthivorous gudgeon (Gobio gobio). For this purpose we link the measurement of physiological fitness parameters to the observation of behavioural changes. Preliminary studies indicated a top-down control of the drift activity of Baetis larvae, while a bottom-up effect could not be observed. The presence of benthivorous gudgeon led to a significantly changed species composition of the invertebrate drift and reduced drift activity of Baetis larvae compared to the fish free control. The diurnal drift pattern of Baetis larvae with a nocturnal peak was observed both in the control and fish reaches. Thus benthivorous gudgeon controls the drift behaviour in a similar way as known for drift-feeding trout. The content of triglycerides and glycogen did not differ between the drifting and not-drifting individuals. Therefore their energetic status does not seem to control drift the activity of Baetis larvae.

  10. A randomised trial to demonstrate the effectiveness of electronic messages on sun protection behaviours.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Csanád; Ócsai, Henriette; Csabai, Márta; Kemény, Lajos

    2015-08-01

    Message exposure is effective at changing a variety of health behaviours. Our aim was to improve sun protection habits of a volunteer sample. We conducted a randomised, non-blinded, investigator-initiated trial (from 1st June to 31st August in 2011) on the effect of an electronic text-message system on sun protection behaviours. The assessments of 149 healthy volunteer participants took place at the Clinical Department of Dermatology and Allergology at the University of Szeged in Hungary. Psychological and medical assessments were also made. Total motivation scores for adherence to sunscreen use improved at a nearly significant level (t=-1.954, p=0.054). The intervention group used sunscreens more often than the other groups according to their sun exposure diaries (F=8.173, p<0.05) and their interview results (F=3.44, p<0.05). Using electronic messages offers an effective method to improve sun protection behaviours. Our intervention is a cost-effective method and it can easily be implemented at worksites. PMID:26114220

  11. Atypical behavioural effects of lorazepam: clues to the design of novel therapies?

    PubMed

    Giersch, Anne; Boucart, Muriel; Elliott, Mark; Vidailhet, Pierre

    2010-04-01

    Aside from their pharmacokinetic properties, e.g. their speed of action and the duration of residual effects, benzodiazepines are still considered as equivalent in terms of their effects on cognition. Here we review evidence suggesting that certain benzodiazepines, especially lorazepam, differ in a number of respects, in particular with respect to their effects on cognition. We focus this review on memory, attention and visual perception, where impairments may be brought about by only a subset of benzodiazepines in spite of their administration at doses inducing similar sedative effects. This precludes an explanation in terms of sedation. Differences in the effects of benzodiazepines have also been found in electrophysiological and animal behavioural studies. These studies are important for therapeutic approaches for two reasons: first, effects of benzodiazepine prescription on cognitive functions will differ according to the benzodiazepine, contrary to what is usually believed. Less straightforwardly are the possible therapeutic implications of specific effects on cognition following treatment with lorazepam. Indeed, the specific effects this drug has on cognition may reveal not only side-effects but also effects of potential therapeutic value. Current research concentrates on a fine scale analysis of the effects of GABA on different sub-types of GABA(A) receptors. We suggest that from looking at what makes lorazepam different in a behavioural sense from other benzodiazepines we may be in a position to design innovative treatments for major aspects of complex disorders, including schizophrenia. PMID:20138190

  12. Coping with Challenging Behaviours of Children with Autism: Effectiveness of Brief Training Workshop for Frontline Staff in Special Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, C. Y. M.; Mak, W. W. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The present study examined the effectiveness of three staff training elements: psychoeducation (PE) on autism, introduction of functional behavioural analysis (FBA) and emotional management (EM), on the reaction of challenging behaviours for frontline staff towards children with autism in Hong Kong special education settings. Methods:…

  13. School-Based Intervention for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effects on Academic, Social, and Behavioural Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; Weyandt, Lisa L.

    2006-01-01

    Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) exhibit significant academic, social, and behavioural difficulties in school settings. This article reviews empirical findings regarding the effects of classroom interventions for students with ADHD. Three major types of interventions are reviewed including behavioural (e.g., token…

  14. Effects of a Short Teacher Training Programme on the Management of Children's Sexual Behaviours: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charnaud, Jean-Paul; Turner, William

    2015-01-01

    This small-scale quasi-experimental study set out to examine the effects of a brief training programme aiming to develop primary school teachers' knowledge, attitudes and confidence in recognising and responding to children who display sexual behaviours. Data on prevalence of sexual behaviours observed by teachers in the study, their level of…

  15. Effects of a School-Based Stress Prevention Programme on Adolescents in Different Phases of Behavioural Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vierhaus, Marc; Maass, Asja; Fridrici, Mirko; Lohaus, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    This study examines whether the assumptions of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) are useful to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based stress prevention programme in adolescence to promote appropriate coping behaviour. The TTM assumes three consecutive phases in the adoption of behavioural patterns. Progress throughout the phases is promoted…

  16. Animal behaviour shapes the ecological effects of ocean acidification and warming: moving from individual to community-level responses.

    PubMed

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Munday, Philip L

    2016-03-01

    Biological communities are shaped by complex interactions between organisms and their environment as well as interactions with other species. Humans are rapidly changing the marine environment through increasing greenhouse gas emissions, resulting in ocean warming and acidification. The first response by animals to environmental change is predominantly through modification of their behaviour, which in turn affects species interactions and ecological processes. Yet, many climate change studies ignore animal behaviour. Furthermore, our current knowledge of how global change alters animal behaviour is mostly restricted to single species, life phases and stressors, leading to an incomplete view of how coinciding climate stressors can affect the ecological interactions that structure biological communities. Here, we first review studies on the effects of warming and acidification on the behaviour of marine animals. We demonstrate how pervasive the effects of global change are on a wide range of critical behaviours that determine the persistence of species and their success in ecological communities. We then evaluate several approaches to studying the ecological effects of warming and acidification, and identify knowledge gaps that need to be filled, to better understand how global change will affect marine populations and communities through altered animal behaviours. Our review provides a synthesis of the far-reaching consequences that behavioural changes could have for marine ecosystems in a rapidly changing environment. Without considering the pervasive effects of climate change on animal behaviour we will limit our ability to forecast the impacts of ocean change and provide insights that can aid management strategies. PMID:26700211

  17. Effects of Training on Controllability Attributions of Behavioural Excesses and Deficits Shown by Adults with Down Syndrome and Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsy, Sunny; Heath, Rebecca; Adams, Dawn; Oliver, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Background: Whereas there is a knowledge base on staff attributions of challenging behaviour, there has been little research on the effects of training, type of behaviour and biological context on staff attributions of controllability in the context of people with intellectual disabilities and dementia. Methods: A mixed design was used to…

  18. Effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy in schoolchildren with depressive symptoms in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Habib, D; Seif El Din, A

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy for 12-14-year-old school-children from a low socioeconomic area in Alexandria, Egypt during the academic year 2003-04. Our sample comprised 198 boys and 136 girls. Students were assessed using the Child Depression Inventory and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. The frequency of depression was 9.6%; 7.1% in boys and 13.2% in girls. The 32 children with depression were offered cognitive behaviour therapy. Only 17 accepted the offer and received 9 sessions of therapy. They were assessed 3 months after the intervention using the same tools and the results indicate the short-term effectiveness of the therapy. PMID:17687835

  19. Influence of idazoxan on the dopamine D2 receptor agonist-induced behavioural effects in rats.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, F; Giuliani, D

    1993-11-30

    The behavioural effects in rats of the dopamine D2 receptor agonists, lisuride, B-HT 920 and SND 919, were variously influenced by pre-treatment with the selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, idazoxan (2 mg/kg), depending on the nature of the effect in question and the doses of agonist employed. The influence of idazoxan on drug-induced stretching-yawning, penile erection, sedation, stereotyped behaviour, aggressiveness and mounting is described and tentatively interpreted in neurochemical terms, account being taken of the activity of respective alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist and dopamine receptor agonists used, at alpha 2-adrenoceptors and at different dopamine D2 receptor subtypes, pre- and postsynaptically located. PMID:7907024

  20. Specific Effects of Acute Moderate Exercise on Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davranche, Karen; McMorris, Terry

    2009-01-01

    The main issue of this study was to determine whether cognitive control is affected by acute moderate exercise. Twelve participants [4 females (VO[subscript 2 max]=42 ml/kg/min) and 8 males (VO[subscript 2 max]=48 ml/kg/min)] performed a Simon task while cycling at a carefully controlled workload intensity corresponding to their individual…

  1. EFFECTS OF ACUTE PYRETHROID EXPOSURE ON THERMOREGULATION IN RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pyrethroid insecticides produce acute neurotoxicity in mammals. According to the FQPA mandate, the USEPA is required to consider the risk of cumulative toxicity posed to humans through exposure to pyrethroid mixtures. Thermoregulatory response (TR) is being used to determine if t...

  2. Effect of processing parameters on the corrosion behaviour of friction stir processed AA 2219 aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surekha, K.; Murty, B. S.; Prasad Rao, K.

    2009-04-01

    The effect of processing parameters (rotation speed and traverse speed) on the corrosion behaviour of friction stir processed high strength precipitation hardenable AA 2219-T87 alloy was investigated. The results indicate that the rotation speed has a major influence in determining the rate of corrosion, which is attributed to the breaking down and dissolution of the intermetallic particles. Corrosion resistance of friction stir processed alloy was studied by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, salt spray and immersion tests.

  3. Behavioural Activation for Depression; An Update of Meta-Analysis of Effectiveness and Sub Group Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ekers, David; Webster, Lisa; Van Straten, Annemieke; Cuijpers, Pim; Richards, David; Gilbody, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression is a common, disabling condition for which psychological treatments are recommended. Behavioural activation has attracted increased interest in recent years. It has been over 5 years since our meta-analyses summarised the evidence supporting and this systematic review updates those findings and examines moderators of treatment effect. Method Randomised trials of behavioural activation for depression versus controls or anti-depressant medication were identified using electronic database searches, previous reviews and reference lists. Data on symptom level and study level moderators were extracted and analysed using meta-analysis, sub-group analysis and meta-regression respectively. Results Twenty six randomised controlled trials including 1524 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. A random effects meta-analysis of symptom level post treatment showed behavioural activation to be superior to controls (SMD −0.74 CI −0.91 to −0.56, k = 25, N = 1088) and medication (SMD −0.42 CI −0.83 to-0.00, k = 4, N = 283). Study quality was low in the majority of studies and follow- up time periods short. There was no indication of publication bias and subgroup analysis showed limited association between moderators and effect size. Conclusions The results in this meta-analysis support and strengthen the evidence base indicating Behavioural Activation is an effective treatment for depression. Further high quality research with longer term follow-up is needed to strengthen the evidence base. PMID:24936656

  4. Behavioural and Physiological Effects of Finely Balanced Decision-Making in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Anna C.; Nicol, Christine J.; Persson, Mia E.; Radford, Andrew N.

    2014-01-01

    In humans, more difficult decisions result in behavioural and physiological changes suggestive of increased arousal, but little is known about the effect of decision difficulty in other species. A difficult decision can have a number of characteristics; we aimed to monitor how finely balanced decisions, compared to unbalanced ones, affected the behaviour and physiology of chickens. An unbalanced decision was one in which the two options were of unequal net value (1 (Q1) vs. 6 (Q6) pieces of sweetcorn with no cost associated with either option); a finely balanced decision was one in which the options were of equal net value (i.e. hens were "indifferent" to both options). To identify hens' indifference, a titration procedure was used in which a cost (electromagnetic weight on an access door) was applied to the Q6 option, to find the individual point at which hens chose this option approximately equally to Q1 via a non-weighted door. We then compared behavioural and physiological indicators of arousal (head movements, latency to choose, heart-rate variability and surface body temperature) when chickens made decisions that were unbalanced or finely balanced. Significant physiological (heart-rate variability) and behavioural (latency to pen) differences were found between the finely balanced and balanced conditions, but these were likely to be artefacts of the greater time and effort required to push through the weighted doors. No other behavioural and physiological measures were significantly different between the decision categories. We suggest that more information is needed on when best to monitor likely changes in arousal during decision-making and that future studies should consider decisions defined as difficult in other ways. PMID:25275440

  5. Effects of seasonal and climate variations on calves' thermal comfort and behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripon, Iulian; Cziszter, Ludovic Toma; Bura, Marian; Sossidou, Evangelia N.

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effect of season and climate variations on thermal comfort and behaviour of 6-month-old dairy calves housed in a semi-opened shelter to develop animal-based indicators for assessing animal thermal comfort. The ultimate purpose was to further exploit the use of those indicators to prevent thermal stress by providing appropriate care to the animals. Measurements were taken for winter and summer seasons. Results showed that season significantly influenced ( P ≤ 0.01) the lying down behaviour of calves by reducing the time spent lying, from 679.9 min in winter to 554.1 min in summer. Moreover, season had a significant influence ( P ≤ 0.01) on feeding behaviour. In detail, the total length of feeding periods was shorter in winter, 442.1 min in comparison to 543.5 min in summer. Time spent drinking increased significantly ( P ≤ 0.001), from 11.9 min in winter to 26.9 min in summer. Furthermore, season had a significant influence ( P ≤ 0.001) on self grooming behaviour which was 5.5 times longer in duration in winter than in summer (1,336 s vs 244 s). It was concluded that calves' thermal comfort is affected by seasonal and climate variations and that this can be assessed by measuring behaviour with animal-based indicators, such as lying down, resting, standing up, feeding, rumination, drinking and self grooming. The indicators developed may be a useful tool to prevent animal thermal stress by providing appropriate housing and handling to calves under seasonal and climate challenge.

  6. Effect of hypoxia and anoxia on invertebrate behaviour: ecological perspectives from species to community level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, B.; Pados, T.; Pretterebner, K.; Schiemer, L.; Steckbauer, A.; Haselmair, A.; Zuschin, M.; Stachowitsch, M.

    2014-03-01

    Coastal hypoxia and anoxia have become a global key stressor to marine ecosystems, with almost 500 dead zones recorded worldwide. By triggering cascading effects from the individual organism to the community- and ecosystem level, oxygen depletions threaten marine biodiversity and can alter ecosystem structure and function. By integrating both physiological function and ecological processes, animal behaviour is ideal for assessing the stress state of benthic macrofauna to low dissolved oxygen. The initial response of organisms can serve as an early warning signal, while the successive behavioural reactions of key species indicate hypoxia levels and help assess community degradation. Here we document the behavioural responses of a representative spectrum of benthic macrofauna in the natural setting in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean). We experimentally induced small-scale anoxia with a benthic chamber in 24 m depth to overcome the difficulties in predicting the onset of hypoxia, which often hinders full documentation in the field. The behavioural reactions were documented with a time-lapse camera. Oxygen depletion elicited significant and repeatable changes in general (visibility, locomotion, body movement and posture, location) and species-specific reactions in virtually all organisms (302 individuals from 32 species and 2 species groups). Most atypical (stress) behaviours were associated with specific oxygen thresholds: arm-tipping in the ophiuroid Ophiothrix quinquemaculata, for example, with the onset of mild hypoxia (< 2 mL O2 L-1), the emergence of polychaetes on the sediment surface with moderate hypoxia (< 1 mL O2 L-1), the emergence of the infaunal sea urchin Schizaster canaliferus on the sediment with severe hypoxia (< 0.5 mL O2 L-1) and heavy body rotations in sea anemones with anoxia. Other species changed their activity patterns, for example the circadian rhythm in the hermit crab Paguristes eremita or the bioherm-associated crab Pisidia

  7. Effect of hypoxia and anoxia on invertebrate behaviour: ecological perspectives from species to community level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, B.; Pados, T.; Pretterebner, K.; Schiemer, L.; Steckbauer, A.; Haselmair, A.; Zuschin, M.; Stachowitsch, M.

    2013-08-01

    Coastal hypoxia and anoxia have become a global key stressor to marine ecosystems, with almost 500 dead zones recorded wordwide. By triggering cascading effects from the individual organism to the community and ecosystem-level, oxygen depletions threat marine biodiversity and can alter ecosystem structure and function. By integrating both physiological function and ecological processes, animal behaviour is ideal for assessing the stress state of benthic macrofauna to low dissolved oxygen. The initial response of organisms can serve as an early-warning signal, while the successive behavioural reactions of key species indicate hypoxia levels and help assess community degradation. Here we document the behavioural responses of a representative spectrum of benthic macrofauna in the natural setting in the Northern Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean. We experimentally induced small-scale anoxia with a benthic chamber in 24 m depth to overcome the difficulties in predicting the onset of hypoxia, which often hinders full documentation in the field. The behavioural reactions were documented with a time-lapse camera. Oxygen depletion elicited significant and repeatable changes in general (visibility, locomotion, body movement and posture, location) and species-specific reactions in virtually all organisms (302 individuals from 32 species and 2 species groups). Most atypical (stress) behaviours were associated with specific oxygen thresholds: arm-tipping in the ophiuroid Ophiothrix quinquemaculata, for example, with the onset of mild hypoxia (< 2 mL O2 L-1), the emergence of polychates on the sediment surface with moderate hypoxia (< 1 mL O2 L-1), the emergence of the infaunal sea urchin Schizaster canaliferus on the sediment with severe hypoxia (< 0.5 mL O2 L-1) and heavy body rotations in sea anemones with anoxia. Other species changed their activity patterns, i.e. circadian rhythm in the hermit crab Paguristes eremita or the bioherm-associated crab Pisidia longimana. Intra- and

  8. Indirect genetic effects for growth rate in domestic pigs alter aggressive and manipulative biting behaviour.

    PubMed

    Camerlink, Irene; Ursinus, Winanda W; Bijma, Piter; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) are heritable effects of an individual on phenotypic values of others, and may result from social interactions. We determined the behavioural consequences of selection for IGEs for growth (IGEg) in pigs in a G × E treatment design. Pigs (n = 480) were selected for high versus low IGEg with a contrast of 14 g average daily gain and were housed in either barren or straw-enriched pens (n = 80). High IGEg pigs showed from 8 to 23 weeks age 40% less aggressive biting (P = 0.006), 27% less ear biting (P = 0.03), and 40% less biting on enrichment material (P = 0.005). High IGEg pigs had a lower tail damage score (high 2.0; low 2.2; P = 0.004), and consumed 30 % less jute sacks (P = 0.002). Selection on high IGEg reduced biting behaviours additive to the, generally much larger, effects of straw-bedding (P < 0.01), with no G × E interactions. These results show opportunities to reduce harmful biting behaviours in pigs. PMID:25227986

  9. Prenatal Exposure to Lamotrigine: Effects on Postnatal Development and Behaviour in Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Sathiya, Sekar; Ganesh, Murugan; Kalaivani, Periyathambi; Ranju, Vijayan; Janani, Srinivasan; Pramila, Bakthavachalam; Saravana Babu, Chidambaram

    2014-01-01

    Use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in pregnancy warrants various side effects and also deleterious effects on fetal development. The present study was carried out to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to lamotrigine (LTG) on postnatal development and behavioural alterations of offspring. Adult male and female Sprague Dawley rats weighing 150–180 g b. wt. were allowed to copulate and pregnancy was confirmed by vaginal cytology. Pregnant rats were treated with LTG (11.5, 23, and 46 mg/kg, p.o) from gestational day 3 (GND 3) and this treatment continued till postnatal day 11 (PND 11). Offspring were separated from their dam on day 21 following parturition. LTG, at 46 mg/kg, p.o, produced severe clinical signs of toxicity leading to death of dam between GND 15 and 17. LTG, at 11.5 and 23 mg/kg, p.o, showed significant alterations in offspring's incisors eruption and vaginal opening when compared to age matched controls. LTG (23 mg/kg, p.o) exposed female offspring expressed hyperactive behaviour and decreased GABA-A receptor expression when compared to control rats. These results reveal that prenatal exposure to LTG may impart differential postnatal behavioural alterations between male and female rats which paves way for further investigations. PMID:24967313

  10. Predator crypsis enhances behaviourally mediated indirect effects on plants by altering bumblebee foraging preferences

    PubMed Central

    Ings, Thomas C.; Chittka, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Predators of pollinators can influence pollination services and plant fitness via both consumptive (reducing pollinator density) and non-consumptive (altering pollinator behaviour) effects. However, a better knowledge of the mechanisms underlying behaviourally mediated indirect effects of predators is necessary to properly understand their role in community dynamics. We used the tripartite relationship between bumblebees, predatory crab spiders and flowers to ask whether behaviourally mediated effects are localized to flowers harbouring predators, or whether bees extend their avoidance to entire plant species. In a tightly controlled laboratory environment, bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) were exposed to a random mixture of equally rewarding yellow and white artificial flowers, but foraging on yellow flowers was very risky: bees had a 25 per cent chance of receiving a simulated predation attempt by ‘robotic’ crab spiders. As bees learnt to avoid ‘dangerous’ flowers, their foraging preferences changed and they began to visit fewer yellow flowers than expected by chance. Bees avoided spider-free yellow flowers as well as dangerous yellow flowers when spiders were more difficult to detect (the colour of yellow spiders was indistinguishable from that of yellow flowers). Therefore, this interaction between bee learning and predator crypsis could lead flower species harbouring cryptic predators to suffer from reduced reproductive success. PMID:19324797

  11. Behavioural and physical effects of arsenic exposure in fish are aggravated by aquatic algae.

    PubMed

    Magellan, Kit; Barral-Fraga, Laura; Rovira, Marona; Srean, Pao; Urrea, Gemma; García-Berthou, Emili; Guasch, Helena

    2014-11-01

    Arsenic contamination has global impacts and freshwaters are major arsenic repositories. Arsenic toxicity depends on numerous interacting factors which makes effects difficult to estimate. The use of aquatic algae is often advocated for bioremediation of arsenic contaminated waters as they absorb arsenate and transform it into arsenite and methylated chemical species. Fish are another key constituent of aquatic ecosystems. Contamination in natural systems is often too low to cause mortality but sufficient to interfere with normal functioning. Alteration of complex, naturally occurring fish behaviours such as foraging and aggression are ecologically relevant indicators of toxicity and ideal for assessing sublethal impacts. We examined the effects of arsenic exposure in the invasive mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, in a laboratory experiment incorporating some of the complexity of natural systems by including the interacting effects of aquatic algae. Our aims were to quantify the effects of arsenic on some complex behaviours and physical parameters in mosquitofish, and to assess whether the detoxifying mechanisms of algae would ameliorate any effects of arsenic exposure. Aggression increased significantly with arsenic whereas operculum movement decreased non-significantly and neither food capture efficiency nor consumption were notably affected. Bioaccumulation increased with arsenic and unexpectedly so did fish biomass. Possibly increased aggression facilitated food resource defence allowing fish to gain weight. The presence of algae aggravated the effects of arsenic exposure. For increase in fish biomass, algae acted antagonistically with arsenic, resulting in a disadvantageous reduction in weight gained. For bioaccumulation the effects were even more severe, as algae operated additively with arsenic to increase arsenic uptake and/or assimilation. Aggression was also highest in the presence of both algae and arsenic. Bioremediation of arsenic contaminated waters

  12. The acute effects of vibration training on balance and stability amongst soccer players.

    PubMed

    Cloak, Ross; Nevill, Alan; Wyon, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Acute whole body vibration training (WBVT) is a tool used amongst coaches to improve performance prior to activity. Its effects on other fitness components, such as balance and stability, along with how different populations respond are less well understood. The aim of the current research is to determine the effect of acute WBVT on balance and stability amongst elite and amateur soccer players. Forty-four healthy male soccer players (22 elite and 22 amateur) were assigned to a treatment or control group. The intervention group then performed 3 × 60 seconds static squat on vibration platform at 40 Hz (±4 mm) with Y balance test (YBT) scores and dynamic postural stability index (DPSI) measured pre and post. DPSI was significantly lower in the elite players in the acute WBVT compared to amateur players (F1, 40= 6.80; P = 0.013). YBT anterior reach distance showed a significant improvement in both amateur and elite players in the acute WBVT group (F1, 40= 32.36; P < 0.001). The improvement in DPSI amongst the elite players indicates a difference in responses to acute high frequency vibration between elite and amateur players during a landing stability task. The results indicate that acute WBVT improves anterior YBT reach distances through a possible improvement in flexibility amongst both elite and amateur players. In conclusion, acute WBVT training appears to improve stability amongst elite soccer players in comparison to amateur players, the exact reasoning behind this difference requires further investigation. PMID:25357208

  13. Sexually dimorphic effects of neonatal immune system activation with lipopolysaccharide on the behavioural response to a homotypic adult immune challenge.

    PubMed

    Tenk, Christine M; Kavaliers, Martin; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Research has shown that acute immune activation during the early postnatal period with the Gram-negative endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), alters a variety of physiological and behavioural processes in the adult animal. For example, neonatal LPS exposure affects disease susceptibility later in life, though these effects appear to be modulated by time of exposure, sex, and immune stimulus. The current study examined sex differences in the effect of neonatal LPS treatment on the locomotor activity response to adult LPS administration. Male and female Long-Evans rats were treated systemically with either LPS (50 microg/kg) or saline (0.9%) on postnatal days 3 and 5. Later in adulthood (postnatal day 92), all animals were subjected to an adult LPS challenge and were injected (i.p.) with 200 microg/kg LPS. Two hours after injection, animals were placed in a non-novel open-field and locomotor activity was assessed for 30 min. Body weights were determined both at the time of injection and 24h later to examine LPS-induced weight loss. Adult males treated neonatally with LPS exhibited significantly less horizontal and vertical activity in response to the LPS challenge relative to males treated neonatally with saline. This effect was not observed in females. Thus, the current study provides important evidence of sexual dimorphism in the long-term effects of neonatal LPS exposure on the responses to an adult homotypic immune challenge in rats. These findings have potential clinical significance given that neonatal exposure to pathogens is a fairly common occurrence and Gram-negative bacteria are a common cause of neonatal bacterial infections. PMID:18280690

  14. Mozart, Mozart Rhythm and Retrograde Mozart Effects: Evidences from Behaviours and Neurobiology Bases.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yingshou; Xia, Yang; Kendrick, Keith; Liu, Xiuxiu; Wang, Maosen; Wu, Dan; Yang, Hua; Jing, Wei; Guo, Daqing; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenal finding that listening to Mozart K.448 enhances performance on spatial tasks has motivated a continuous surge in promoting music education over the past two decades. But there have been inconsistent reports in previous studies of the Mozart effect. Here conducted was a systematic study, with Mozart and retrograde Mozart music, Mozart music rhythm and pitch, behaviours and neurobiology tests, rats and humans subjects. We show that while the Mozart K.448 has positive cognitive effects, the retrograde version has a negative effect on rats' performance in the Morris water maze test and on human subjects' performance in the paper folding and cutting test and the pencil-and-paper maze test. Such findings are further confirmed by subsequent immunohistochemical analyses in rats on the neurogenesis and protein levels of BDNF and its receptor, TrkB. Furthermore, when the rhythm and pitch of the normal and retrograde Mozart music are manipulated independently, the learning performance of the rats in the Morris water maze test indicated that rhythm is a crucial element in producing the behavioural effects. These findings suggest that the nature of Mozart effect is the Mozart rhythm effect, and indicate that different music may have quite different to opposite effects. Further study on rhythm effect may provide clues to understand the common basis over animals from rats to humans. PMID:26795072

  15. Mozart, Mozart Rhythm and Retrograde Mozart Effects: Evidences from Behaviours and Neurobiology Bases

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yingshou; Xia, Yang; Kendrick, Keith; Liu, Xiuxiu; Wang, Maosen; Wu, Dan; Yang, Hua; Jing, Wei; Guo, Daqing; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenal finding that listening to Mozart K.448 enhances performance on spatial tasks has motivated a continuous surge in promoting music education over the past two decades. But there have been inconsistent reports in previous studies of the Mozart effect. Here conducted was a systematic study, with Mozart and retrograde Mozart music, Mozart music rhythm and pitch, behaviours and neurobiology tests, rats and humans subjects. We show that while the Mozart K.448 has positive cognitive effects, the retrograde version has a negative effect on rats’ performance in the Morris water maze test and on human subjects’ performance in the paper folding and cutting test and the pencil-and-paper maze test. Such findings are further confirmed by subsequent immunohistochemical analyses in rats on the neurogenesis and protein levels of BDNF and its receptor, TrkB. Furthermore, when the rhythm and pitch of the normal and retrograde Mozart music are manipulated independently, the learning performance of the rats in the Morris water maze test indicated that rhythm is a crucial element in producing the behavioural effects. These findings suggest that the nature of Mozart effect is the Mozart rhythm effect, and indicate that different music may have quite different to opposite effects. Further study on rhythm effect may provide clues to understand the common basis over animals from rats to humans. PMID:26795072

  16. Consensus definitions of 14 severe acute toxic effects for childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment: a Delphi consensus.

    PubMed

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Barzilai, Shlomit; Escherich, Gabriele; Frandsen, Thomas Leth; Halsey, Christina; Hough, Rachael; Jeha, Sima; Kato, Motohiro; Liang, Der-Cherng; Mikkelsen, Torben Stamm; Möricke, Anja; Niinimäki, Riitta; Piette, Caroline; Putti, Maria Caterina; Raetz, Elizabeth; Silverman, Lewis B; Skinner, Roderick; Tuckuviene, Ruta; van der Sluis, Inge; Zapotocka, Ester

    2016-06-01

    Although there are high survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, their outcome is often counterbalanced by the burden of toxic effects. This is because reported frequencies vary widely across studies, partly because of diverse definitions of toxic effects. Using the Delphi method, 15 international childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia study groups assessed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia protocols to address toxic effects that were to be considered by the Ponte di Legno working group. 14 acute toxic effects (hypersensitivity to asparaginase, hyperlipidaemia, osteonecrosis, asparaginase-associated pancreatitis, arterial hypertension, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, seizures, depressed level of consciousness, methotrexate-related stroke-like syndrome, peripheral neuropathy, high-dose methotrexate-related nephrotoxicity, sinusoidal obstructive syndrome, thromboembolism, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia) that are serious but too rare to be addressed comprehensively within any single group, or are deemed to need consensus definitions for reliable incidence comparisons, were selected for assessment. Our results showed that none of the protocols addressed all 14 toxic effects, that no two protocols shared identical definitions of all toxic effects, and that no toxic effect definition was shared by all protocols. Using the Delphi method over three face-to-face plenary meetings, consensus definitions were obtained for all 14 toxic effects. In the overall assessment of outcome of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment, these expert opinion-based definitions will allow reliable comparisons of frequencies and severities of acute toxic effects across treatment protocols, and facilitate international research on cause, guidelines for treatment adaptation, preventive strategies, and development of consensus algorithms for reporting on acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment. PMID:27299279

  17. Acute and non-acute effects of cannabis on human memory function: a critical review of neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Bossong, Matthijs G; Jager, Gerry; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Allen, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Smoking cannabis produces a diverse range of effects, including impairments in learning and memory. These effects are exerted through action on the endocannabinoid system, which suggests involvement of this system in human cognition. Learning and memory deficits are core symptoms of psychiatric and neurological disorders such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease, and may also be related to endocannabinoid dysfunction in these disorders. However, before new research can focus on potential treatments that work by manipulating the endocannabinoid system, it needs to be elucidated how this system is involved in symptoms of psychiatric disorders. Here we review neuroimaging studies that investigated acute and non-acute effects of cannabis on human learning and memory function, both in adults and in adolescents. Overall, results of these studies show that cannabis use is associated with a pattern of increased activity and a higher level of deactivation in different memory-related areas. This could reflect either increased neural effort ('neurophysiological inefficiency') or a change in strategy to maintain good task performance. However, the interpretation of these findings is significantly hampered by large differences between study populations in cannabis use in terms of frequency, age of onset, and time that subjects were abstinent from cannabis. Future neuroimaging studies should take these limitations into account, and should focus on the potential of cannabinoid compounds for treatment of cognitive symptoms in psychiatric disorders. PMID:23829369

  18. The effects of smoking on whisker movements: A quantitative measure of exploratory behaviour in rodents.

    PubMed

    Grant, Robyn A; Cielen, Nele; Maes, Karen; Heulens, Nele; Galli, Gina L J; Janssens, Wim; Gayan-Ramirez, Ghislaine; Degens, Hans

    2016-07-01

    Nicotine, an important component of cigarette smoke, is a neurotransmitter that contributes to stress, depression and anxiety in smokers. In rodents, it increases anxiety and reduces exploratory behaviours. However, so far, the measurements of exploratory behaviour in rodents have only been semi-quantitative and lacking in sufficient detail to characterise the temporal effect of smoking cessation. As rodents, such as mice and rats, primarily use whiskers to explore their environment, we studied the effect of 3 months smoking with 1 and 2 weeks smoking cessation on whisker movements in mice, using high-speed video camera footage and image analysis. Both protraction and retraction whisker velocities were increased in smoking mice (p<0.001) and returned to normal following just one week of smoking cessation. In addition, locomotion speeds were decreased in smoking mice, and returned to normal following smoking cessation. Lung function was also impacted by smoking and remained impaired even following smoking cessation. We suggest that the increased whisker velocities in the smoking mice reflect reduced exploration and impeded tactile performance. The increase in whisker velocity with smoking, and its reduction following smoking cessation, also lends support to acetylcholine being involved in awareness, attention and alertness pathways. It also shows that smoking-induced behavioural changes can be reversed with smoking cessation, which may have implications for human smokers. PMID:27045697

  19. Using implementation intentions to overcome the effect of mood on risky behaviour.

    PubMed

    Webb, Thomas L; Sheeran, Paschal; Totterdell, Peter; Miles, Eleanor; Mansell, Warren; Baker, Shyam

    2012-06-01

    Two experiments investigated whether forming an if-then plan or implementation intention could break the link between mood and risky behaviour. In Expt 1, participants planned how to deal with unpleasant moods. Next, as part of an ostensibly unrelated experiment, participants underwent a disguised mood induction before rating their willingness to perform a series of risky behaviours. Unpleasant mood increased subsequent risk willingness among participants who did not form a plan but did not influence risk willingness among participants who formed an implementation intention. In Expt 2, mood arousal was manipulated and participants then undertook a gambling task. One-half of the sample formed implementation intentions that focused attention on the odds of winning. Greater arousal led to more risky betting among control participants. However, forming an implementation intention promoted good risk awareness and, consequently, shielded participants' task performance from the effects of arousal. Taken together, the findings suggest that people can strategically avoid the detrimental effect of unpleasant mood and arousal on risk by forming implementation intentions directed at controlling either the experience of mood or the risky behaviour. PMID:22687173

  20. Effect of genes, social experience, and their interaction on the courtship behaviour of transgenic Drosophila males.

    PubMed

    Svetec, Nicolas; Houot, Benjamin; Ferveur, Jean-François

    2005-06-01

    Behaviour depends (a) on genes that specify the neural and non-neural elements involved in the perception of and responses to sensory stimuli and (b) on experience that can modulate the fine development of these elements. We exposed transgenic and control Drosophila melanogaster males, and their hybrids, to male siblings during adult development and measured the contribution of genes and of experience to their courtship behaviour. The transgene CheB42a specifically targets male gustatory sensillae and alters the perception of male inhibitory pheromones which leads to frequent male-male interactions. The age at which social experience occurred and the genotype of tester males induced a variable effect on the intensity of male homo- and heterosexual courtship. The strong interaction between the effects of genes and of social experience reveals the plasticity of the apparently stereotyped elements involved in male courtship behaviour. Finally, a high intensity of homosexual courtship was found only in males that simultaneously carried a mutation in their white gene and the CheB42a transgene. PMID:16174337

  1. Effects of Sublethal Doses of Imidacloprid on Young Adult Honeybee Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mengoni Goñalons, Carolina; Farina, Walter Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Imidacloprid (IMI), a neonicotinoid used for its high selective toxicity to insects, is one of the most commonly used pesticides. However, its effect on beneficial insects such as the honeybee Apis mellifera L is still controversial. As young adult workers perform in-hive duties that are crucial for colony maintenance and survival, we aimed to assess the effect of sublethal IMI doses on honeybee behaviour during this period. Also, because this insecticide acts as a cholinergic-nicotinic agonist and these pathways take part in insect learning and memory processes; we used IMI to assess their role and the changes they suffer along early adulthood. We focused on appetitive behaviours based on the proboscis extension response. Laboratory reared adults of 2 to 10 days of age were exposed to sublethal IMI doses (0.25 or 0.50ng) administered orally or topically prior to behavioural assessment. Modification of gustatory responsiveness and impairment of learning and memory were found as a result of IMI exposure. These outcomes differed depending on age of evaluation, type of exposure and IMI dose, being the youngest bees more sensitive and the highest oral dose more toxic. Altogether, these results imply that IMI administered at levels found in agroecosystems can reduce sensitivity to reward and impair associative learning in young honeybees. Therefore, once a nectar inflow with IMI traces is distributed within the hive, it could impair in-door duties with negative consequences on colony performance. PMID:26488410

  2. Effect of skin-core debonding on the dynamic behaviour of GFRP composite beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayatilake, Indunil; Karunasena, Karu; Lokuge, Weena

    2013-08-01

    Composites are materials made by combining two individual materials where one material forms the matrix while the other provides the reinforcement. A novel composite sandwich made up of glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) face sheets and modified phenolic core has been developed recently. Although perfect bond between the skin and the core is a common assumption, an important issue that needs to be considered in using a composite beam is the development of debonding between the skin and the core. Debonding may arise during fabrication or under service conditions, which causes changes to the dynamic behaviour in addition to the strength degradation. This paper focuses on the effect of debonding on dynamic characteristics of sandwich beams of different debonding sizes and end conditions. Strand7 software is used for 3D finite element simulation. Free vibration behaviour reported in the literature for composite beams will first be used to compare the analytical results with the fully bonded and debonded beams. Study is extended to depict the effect of debonding on free vibration behaviour of novel composite beams. It is revealed that the decrease in natural frequency with the increase in the extent of debonding is more dependent on the width of debonding across the beam than the length along the beam. It is also perceived that full width debonding leads to increased participation of twisting modes in comparison to half-width debonding in clamped-clamped end condition. End conditions of the beam are a governing factor dictating which modes are more affected.

  3. Combined effects of flow condition and parasitism on shoaling behaviour of female guppies Poecilia reticulata.

    PubMed

    Hockley, F A; Wilson, C A M E; Graham, N; Cable, J

    2014-01-01

    Group living in fish can provide benefits of protection from predators and some parasites, more efficient foraging for food, increased mating opportunities and enhanced energetic benefit when swimming. For riverine species, shoaling behaviour can be influenced by various environmental stressors, yet little is known how flow rate might influence the shoaling of diseased fish shoals. In view of the increasingly unpredictable flow rates in streams and rivers, this study aimed to assess the combined effect of flow condition and parasitism on the shoaling behaviour of a model fish species. Shoal size, shoal cohesion and time spent shoaling of female guppies Poecilia reticulata were compared when infected with the directly transmitted ectoparasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli under flow and static conditions. Flow condition was an important factor in influencing shoaling behaviour of guppies with the fish forming larger shoals in the absence of flow. When a shoal member was infected with G. turnbulli, shoal cohesion was reduced, but the magnitude of this effect was dependent on flow condition. In both flow and static conditions, bigger fish formed larger shoals than smaller counterparts. Future changes to stream hydrology with more frequent flooding and drought events will affect the shoaling tendency of fish. During high-flow events, diseased fish may not be able to keep up with shoal mates and therefore have a higher risk of predation. Additionally, these findings may be important for aquaria and farmed species where an increase in flow rate may reduce aggregation in fish. PMID:25152559

  4. Effects of Sublethal Doses of Imidacloprid on Young Adult Honeybee Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Mengoni Goñalons, Carolina; Farina, Walter Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Imidacloprid (IMI), a neonicotinoid used for its high selective toxicity to insects, is one of the most commonly used pesticides. However, its effect on beneficial insects such as the honeybee Apis mellifera L is still controversial. As young adult workers perform in-hive duties that are crucial for colony maintenance and survival, we aimed to assess the effect of sublethal IMI doses on honeybee behaviour during this period. Also, because this insecticide acts as a cholinergic-nicotinic agonist and these pathways take part in insect learning and memory processes; we used IMI to assess their role and the changes they suffer along early adulthood. We focused on appetitive behaviours based on the proboscis extension response. Laboratory reared adults of 2 to 10 days of age were exposed to sublethal IMI doses (0.25 or 0.50ng) administered orally or topically prior to behavioural assessment. Modification of gustatory responsiveness and impairment of learning and memory were found as a result of IMI exposure. These outcomes differed depending on age of evaluation, type of exposure and IMI dose, being the youngest bees more sensitive and the highest oral dose more toxic. Altogether, these results imply that IMI administered at levels found in agroecosystems can reduce sensitivity to reward and impair associative learning in young honeybees. Therefore, once a nectar inflow with IMI traces is distributed within the hive, it could impair in-door duties with negative consequences on colony performance. PMID:26488410

  5. Acute cardiorespiratory effects of intracisternal injections of mercuric chloride.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Bruna Fernandes; Futuro Neto, Henrique de Azevedo; Stefanon, Ivanita; Vassallo, Dalton Valentin

    2011-06-01

    The present studies were conducted to changes arising from mercury poisoning in the central nervous system (CNS), with a focus on determining the receptors and neurotransmitters involved. Currently, little is known regarding the neurological basis of the cardiopulmonary effects of mercury poisoning. We evaluated changes in systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), respiratory rate (RR) and heart rate (HR) following a 5 μl intracisternal (i.c) injection of mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)) and the participation of the autonomic nervous system in these responses. 58 animals were utilized and distributed randomly into 10 groups and administered a 5 μL intracisternal injection of 0.68 μg/kg HgCl(2) (n=7), 1.2 μg/kg HgCl(2) (n=7), 2.4 μg/kg HgCl(2) (n=7), 60 μg/kg HgCl(2) (n=7), 120 μg/kg HgCl(2) (n=3), saline (control) (n=7), 60 μg/kg HgCl(2) plus prazosin (n=6), saline plus prazosin (n=6), 60 μg/kg HgCl(2) plus metilatropina (n=4) or saline plus metilatropina (n=4)HgCl(2). Anesthesia was induced with halothane and maintained as needed with urethane (1.2 g/kg) administered intravenously (i.v.) through a cannula placed in the left femoral vein. The left femoral artery was also cannulated to record systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) and heart rate (HR). A tracheotomy was performed to record respiratory rate. Animals were placed in a stereotaxic frame, and the cisterna magna was exposed. After a stabilization period, solutions (saline or HgCl(2)) were injected i.c., and cardiopulmonary responses were recorded for 50 min. Involvement of the autonomic nervous system was assessed through the i.v. injection of hexamethonium (20 mg/kg), prazosin (1 mg/kg) and methylatropine (1 mg/kg) 10 min before the i.c. injection of HgCl(2) or saline. Treatment with 0.68, 1.2, 2.4 μg/kg HgCl(2) or saline did not modify basal cardiorespiratory parameters, whereas the 120 μg/kg dose induced acute toxicity, provoking respiratory

  6. Effects of calcination temperature on the drug delivery behaviour of Ibuprofen from hydroxyapatite powders.

    PubMed

    Melville, Amanda J; Rodríguez-Lorenzo, Luis M; Forsythe, John S

    2008-03-01

    The effects of heat treatment time and temperature on the delivery behaviour of Ibuprofen from hydroxyapatite particles were investigated in this study. The drug release was seen to follow Fickian diffusion for the initial period of release for all heat treatment conditions. The gradient of Fickian release increased with (1) increasing crystallite size, attributed to the decreasing amount of boundary area, and (2) with decreasing surface area, due to the reduction in porosity and hence tortuosity within the apatite particles. This study has shown that altering the heat treatment conditions used to calcine hydroxyapatite may alter its drug delivery abilities, whereby calcination temperature was noted to influence the drug release behaviour to a greater extent than calcination time. PMID:17701302

  7. The Feminization of Primary Education: Effects of Teachers' Sex on Pupil Achievement, Attitudes and Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driessen, Geert

    2007-03-01

    Since the mid-1990s, considerable concern has been expressed about the feminization of education. The underlying assumption is that the increasing number of female teachers is leading to a lack of male role models, which may then have negative consequences for the achievement and behaviour of boys in particular. For this reason, policy is currently being pursued in several countries to increase the number of male teachers. In the present article, the theoretical foundation for this policy will be shown to be weak at best. To test this empirically, a large-scale study of Dutch primary schools was conducted, which involved 5181 grade eight pupils, 251 teachers and 163 schools. This study confirmed that teacher sex has no effect whatsoever on the achievement, attitudes or behaviour of pupils. This finding holds for both boys and girls, for both minority and non-minority pupils and for both children from lower and higher social-economic milieus.

  8. The Effects of Inhaled Steroids on Recurrent Wheeze After Acute Bronchiolitis

    PubMed Central

    Green, Patricia; Aronoff, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Acute bronchiolitis infection during infancy is associated with an increased risk of asthma later in life. The objective of this study was to determine if inhaled steroids are effective in preventing the development of recurrent wheeze or asthma following acute bronchiolitis. Methods. Multiple databases and bibliographies of selected references were searched. Inclusion required (a) a randomized controlled trial of inhaled steroids and control group, (b) at least 2 weeks duration of therapy started during the acute phase of disease, and (c) identification of the rate of recurrent wheeze or asthma at least 6 months after therapy. Results. Of 1410 studies reviewed, 8 reports were included in this meta-analysis (748 patients). The overall odds ratio for developing recurrent wheeze or asthma with treatment versus without treatment was 1.02 (95% confidence interval = 0.58-1.81). Conclusions. A course of inhaled steroids after acute bronchiolitis is not effective in preventing recurrent wheeze or asthma. PMID:27335972

  9. Central nervous system effects in acute thallium poisoning.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yu-Tai; Huang, Chin-Chang; Kuo, Hung-Chou; Wang, Hsuan-Min; Shen, Wu-Shiun; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Chu, Nai-Shin

    2006-03-01

    We report the central nervous system manifestations, neuropsychological studies and brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings of two patients with acute thallium intoxication. Neurologically the patients suffered from confusion, disorientation, and hallucination in the acute stage, followed by anxiety, depression, lack of attention, and memory impairment, in addition to peripheral neuropathy. Neuropsychological tests revealed an impairment of memory function, including reversed digital span, memory registration, memory recall, memory recognition, similarity, proverb reasoning, and verbal fluency. High concentrations of thallium were found in the urine, blood, and drinking water of these two patients. Brain MRI showed lesions in the corpus striatum in one patient. During the follow-up periods, the clinical manifestations and neuropsychological studies showed a slowly progressive improvement, and a follow-up brain MRI 1.5 months later demonstrated a resolution of the lesions. We conclude that thallium intoxication might induce encephalopathy, and brain MRI studies demonstrated the acute-stage brain lesions in a severe intoxicated patient. In addition, neuropsychological tests also confirmed memory deficits, although the brain lesions in the corpus striatum might resolve. PMID:16337004

  10. The effects of vasopressin and oxytocin on methamphetamine-induced place preference behaviour in rats.

    PubMed

    Subiah, Cassandra O; Mabandla, Musa V; Phulukdaree, Alisa; Chuturgoon, Anil A; Daniels, Willie M U

    2012-09-01

    Methamphetamine is a highly addictive stimulant drug whose illicit use and resultant addiction has become an alarming global phenomenon. The mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway has been shown to be fundamental to the establishment of addictive behaviour. This pathway, as part of the reward system of the brain, has also been shown to be important in classical conditioning, which is a learnt response. Within the modulation of learning and memory, the neurohypophyseal hormones vasopressin and oxytocin have been reported to play a vital role, with vasopressin exerting a long- term facilitatory effect and oxytocin exerting an inhibitory effect. Therefore we adopted a conditioned place preference model to investigate whether vasopressin V1b receptor antagonist SSR 149415 or oxytocin treatment would cause a decrease in the seeking behaviour in a reinstatement paradigm. Behavioural findings indicated that methamphetamine induced a change in the place preference in the majority of our animals. This change in place preference was not seen when vasopressin was administered during the extinction phase. On the other hand the methamphetamine-induced change in place preference was enhanced during the reinstatement phase in the animals that were treated with oxytocin. Striatal dopamine levels were determined, as methamphetamine is known to increase dopamine transmission in this area. Significant changes in dopamine levels were observed in some of our animals. Rats that received both methamphetamine and oxytocin had significantly higher striatal dopamine than those that received oxytocin alone. Western blot analysis for hippocampal cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) was also conducted as a possible indicator of glutamatergic NMDA receptor activity, a pathway that is important for learning and memory. The Western blot analysis showed no changes in hippocampal pCREB expression. Overall our data led us to conclude that methamphetamine treatment can change place preference

  11. Effect of Yi Gong San Decoction on Iron Homeostasis in a Mouse Model of Acute Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qin; Guan, Yu; Xia, Lemin; Wang, Zhicheng; Jiang, Yiling; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Jianying; Wang, Guohua; Pu, Yiqiong; Xia, Jing; Luo, Meihong

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Yi Gong San (YGS) decoction on iron homeostasis and the possible underlying mechanisms in a mouse model of acute inflammation in this study. Our findings suggest that YGS regulates iron homeostasis by downregulating the level of HAMP mRNA, which may depend on regulation of the IL-6/STAT3 or BMP/HJV/SMAD pathway during acute inflammation. PMID:27143982

  12. Effects of guidelines on adeno-tonsillar surgery on the clinical behaviour of otorhinolaryngologists in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several guidelines on adeno-tonsillar disease have been proposed in recent years and some discrepancies in relation both to clinical manifestations and indications for surgical treatment have emerged. The aim of the study was to verify what influence (adeno)-tonsillectomy guidelines have had on the clinical behaviour of ENT specialists in Italy. Our study is a retrospective and multi-centre case series with chart review. Methods The survey involved 14,770 children, aged between the ages of 2 and 11, who had undergone adeno-tonsillar surgery between 2002 and 2008 in fourteen Italian tertiary and secondary referral centres. Anova test was used for the statistical analysis, assuming p < 0.05 as the minimum statistical significance value. Results The frequency of adeno-tonsillar surgeries did not change significantly (p>0.05) during the study period and following the Italian policy document publication. Overall, adeno-tonsillectomy was the most frequent intervention (64.1%), followed by adenoidectomy (31.1%) and tonsillectomy (4.8%). The indications for surgery did not change significantly for each of the operations (p>0.05), with the exception of adeno-tonsillectomy in case of feverish episodes due to acute recurrent tonsillitis ≥ 5 without nasal obstruction (decreased p= 0.010) , even when the feverish episodes due to acute recurrent tonsillitis were < 5 over the last year. Nasal obstruction was associated with feverish episodes due to acute recurrent tonsillitis in 65.2% of operated cases, while otitis media had been diagnosed in 43.3% of the patients studied. Conclusions The recommendations first developed in Italy in a 2003 policy document and then resumed in guidelines in 2008, were not implemented by ENT units involved in the survey. The study highlights the fact that the indications for adeno-tonsillar operations are based on the overall clinical presentation (comorbidity) rather than on a single symptom. Guidelines are necessary to give coherent

  13. Minimal Effects of Acute Liver Injury/Acute Liver Failure on Hemostasis as Assessed by Thromboelastography

    PubMed Central

    Stravitz, R. Todd; Lisman, Ton; Luketic, Velimir A.; Sterling, Richard K.; Puri, Puneet; Fuchs, Michael; Ibrahim, Ashraf; Lee, William M.; Sanyal, Arun J.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Patients with acute liver injury/failure (ALI/ALF) are assumed to have a bleeding diathesis on the basis of elevated INR; however, clinically significant bleeding is rare. We hypothesized that patients with ALI/ALF have normal hemostasis despite elevated INR Methods Fifty-one patients with ALI/ALF were studied prospectively using thromboelastography (TEG), which measures the dynamics and physical properties of clot formation in whole blood. ALI was defined as an INR ≥1.5 in a patient with no previous liver disease, and ALF as ALI with hepatic encephalopathy. Results Thirty-seven of 51 patients (73%) had ALF and 22 patients (43%) underwent liver transplantation or died. Despite a mean INR of 3.4±1.7 (range 1.5–9.6), mean TEG parameters were normal, and 5 individual TEG parameters were normal in 32 (63%). Low maximum amplitude, the measure of ultimate clot strength, was confined to patients with platelet counts <126 × 109/L. Maximum amplitude was higher in patients with ALF than ALI and correlated directly with venous ammonia concentrations and with increasing severity of liver injury assessed by elements of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. All patients had markedly decreased procoagulant factor V and VII levels, which were proportional to decreases in anticoagulant proteins and inversely proportional to elevated factor VIII levels. Conclusions Despite elevated INR, most patients with ALI/ALF maintain normal hemostasis by TEG, the mechanisms of which include an increase in clot strength with increasing severity of liver injury, increased factor VIII levels, and a commensurate decline in pro- and anticoagulant proteins. PMID:21703173

  14. The effects of acute stress on Pavlovian-instrumental transfer in rats.

    PubMed

    Pielock, Steffi M; Braun, Stephanie; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2013-03-01

    Pavlovian stimuli invigorate ongoing instrumental action, a phenomenon termed the Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) effect. Acute stressors can markedly enhance the release of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), and CRF injection into the nucleus accumbens increases the PIT effect. However, it is unknown whether acute stressors by themselves would amplify the PIT effect. Here, we examined the effects of acute stressors on PIT. Rats first received Pavlovian and instrumental training, and then the impact of the Pavlovian stimuli on instrumental responding was analyzed in the subsequent PIT test. Acute stressors were applied prior to the PIT test. Because the effects of acute stressors critically depend on stressor type and time of day, we used two acute stressors that involved one or several distinct stressors (denoted here as "single" vs. "multiple" stressors) applied either in the light or the dark period of the light:dark cycle. The results revealed that single and multiple stressors applied in the light period did not alter the PIT effect--that is, the ability of an appetitive Pavlovian stimulus to enhance leverpressing--or the basal leverpress rate. When applied in the dark period, single and multiple stressors also did not alter the PIT effect, but they did markedly reduce the basal leverpress rate. Diazepam pretreatment did not counteract the declines in basal instrumental responding in the PIT test that were induced by either a single or multiple stressors. Our findings suggest that acute stressors were unable to amplify the incentive salience of reward-predictive Pavlovian stimuli to activate instrumental responding, but, depending on the time of day of stressor exposure, they did reduce basal instrumental responding. PMID:23065681

  15. Effect of a difficult calving on the vigour of the calf, the onset of maternal behaviour, and some behavioural indicators of pain in the dam.

    PubMed

    Barrier, A C; Ruelle, E; Haskell, M J; Dwyer, C M

    2012-03-01

    The neonate's development and survival is dependent upon being vigorous at birth and receiving appropriate maternal care. However, difficulty at delivery can result in less vigorous offspring and maternal care can be altered, probably as a consequence of exhaustion, pain and human intervention. The first 3h after expulsion of the calf were observed continuously from videos following twelve natural calvings and sixteen calvings assisted by farm staff (including four malpresentations) from Holstein cows. Calvings were balanced within groups for parity of the dam, genetic group, sex and birth weight of the calf, calving pen and calving season. Assisted calves were less vigorous with higher latencies to attempt to stand, achieve standing, walk and reach the udder than unassisted calves (P<0.05). Furthermore, assisted calves also tended to be less likely to stand and walk within the first 3h after birth (P<0.1), spent more time lying on their flank (P=0.019) and had more frequent bouts of this behaviour (P=0.033). Assisted dams did not take longer to lick the calf and performed as much licking as unassisted dams (P>0.05), indicating no delayed onset or impaired expression of maternal behaviour in dams given assistance at delivery. Study of potential pain-related behaviours revealed that assisted dams spent less time self-grooming (P=0.033) than dams delivering naturally, which could suggest greater pain. However, there were no significant differences in any of the other pain-related behaviours. Our results suggest that, although maternal behaviour was unaffected by a difficult delivery, dairy calves born following difficult calvings have lower vigour in the first 3h after birth than unassisted calves. This might have longer-term effects on the health and survival of the calves. PMID:21958900

  16. Effects of nicotine on electroencephalographic (EEG) and behavioural measures of visual working memory in non-smokers during a dual-task paradigm.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Derek J; Knobelsdorf, Amy; Jaworska, Natalia; Daniels, Richelle; Knott, Verner J

    2013-01-01

    Research in smokers has shown that nicotine may have the ability to improve certain aspects of cognitive performance, including working memory and attention, processes which implicate frontal and frontal-parietal brain networks. There is limited research on the cognitive effects of nicotine and their associated neural underpinnings in non-smokers. This study examined the effects of acute nicotine on a working memory task alone or combined with a visual detection task (single- and dual-task conditions) using electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings and behavioural performance measures. Twenty non-smokers (13 females; 7 males) received nicotine gum (6 mg) in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, repeated measures design. Spectral EEG, together with response speed and accuracy measures, were obtained while participants completed a series of N-Back tasks under single- and dual-task conditions. Nicotine failed to exert any significant effects on performance measures, however, EEG changes were observed, primarily in frontal recordings, which varied with memory load, task condition and hemisphere. These findings, discussed in relation to previous studies in smokers, support the notion that nicotine may modulate central executive systems and contribute to smoking behaviour. PMID:23026057

  17. The effects of direction similarity in visual working memory: Behavioural and event-related potential studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Li, Shouxin; Wang, Xiusong; Che, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    Object similarity can improve visual working memory (VWM) performance in the change-detection task, but impair the recognition performance when it occurs at retrieval of VWM in the recognition task. The effect of direction similarity is an issue that has not been well resolved. Furthermore, electrophysiological evidence in support of the mechanisms that underlie the effects of similarity is still scarce. In the current study, we conducted three behavioural experiments to examine the effects of direction similarity on memory performance with regard to both the encoding and retrieval phases of VWM and one event-related potential (ERP) experiment to explore the neural signatures of direction similarity in VWM. Our behavioural studies indicated that direction similarity improved performance when it occurred at the encoding phase but impaired performance when it occurred at the retrieval phase. Moreover, the ERP experiment showed that the amplitude of the contralateral delay activity (CDA) increased with the increasing set size for similar but not dissimilar directions. In addition, the CDA amplitude for similar directions was lower than that for dissimilar directions at set size 2. Taken together, these findings suggest that direction similarity at encoding has a positive effect on VWM performance and at retrieval has a negative effect. Given that VWM capacity depends on information load and the number of objects, the positive effect of similarity may be attributed to reduced information load of memory objects. PMID:26443895

  18. The legacy effects of keystone individuals on collective behaviour scale to how long they remain within a group.

    PubMed

    Pruitt, Jonathan N; Pinter-Wollman, Noa

    2015-09-01

    The collective behaviour of social groups is often strongly influenced by one or few individuals, termed here 'keystone individuals'. We examined whether the influence of keystone individuals on collective behaviour lingers after their departure and whether these lingering effects scale with their tenure in the group. In the social spider, Stegodyphus dumicola, colonies' boldest individuals wield a disproportionately large influence over colony behaviour. We experimentally manipulated keystones' tenure in laboratory-housed colonies and tracked their legacy effects on collective prey capture following their removal. We found that bolder keystones caused more aggressive collective foraging behaviour and catalysed greater inter-individual variation in boldness within their colonies. The longer keystones remained in a colony, the longer both of these effects lingered after their departure. Our data demonstrate that, long after their disappearance, keystones have large and lasting effects on social dynamics at both the individual and colony levels. PMID:26336171

  19. The legacy effects of keystone individuals on collective behaviour scale to how long they remain within a group

    PubMed Central

    Pruitt, Jonathan N.; Pinter-Wollman, Noa

    2015-01-01

    The collective behaviour of social groups is often strongly influenced by one or few individuals, termed here ‘keystone individuals’. We examined whether the influence of keystone individuals on collective behaviour lingers after their departure and whether these lingering effects scale with their tenure in the group. In the social spider, Stegodyphus dumicola, colonies' boldest individuals wield a disproportionately large influence over colony behaviour. We experimentally manipulated keystones' tenure in laboratory-housed colonies and tracked their legacy effects on collective prey capture following their removal. We found that bolder keystones caused more aggressive collective foraging behaviour and catalysed greater inter-individual variation in boldness within their colonies. The longer keystones remained in a colony, the longer both of these effects lingered after their departure. Our data demonstrate that, long after their disappearance, keystones have large and lasting effects on social dynamics at both the individual and colony levels. PMID:26336171

  20. The effects of dihydropyridine compounds in behavioural tests of dopaminergic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Bourson, A.; Gower, A. J.; Mir, A. K.; Moser, P. C.

    1989-01-01

    1. The effects of the dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker nifedipine and the activator Bay K 8644 were investigated in different behavioural tests involving dopaminergic systems. These were the discriminative stimulus induced by amphetamine, rotational behaviour in rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions and apomorphine-induced yawning in rats. 2. The yawning induced by apomorphine (40 micrograms kg-1 s.c.) was significantly potentiated by nifedipine (5-10 mgkg-1 i.p.). Bay K 8644 (0.05-0.5 mgkg-1 i.p.) dose-dependently inhibited yawning induced by apomorphine (80 micrograms kg-1 s.c.) and, at 0.4 mgkg-1, inhibited the nifedipine potentiation of apomorphine-induced yawning. In contrast to their effects on apomorphine-induced yawning, nifedipine and Bay K 8644 had no effect on apomorphine-induced penile erection. 3. Bay K 8644 (0.06-0.5 mgkg-1 i.p.) and nifedipine (5-20 mgkg-1 i.p.) had no dose-related effect on the discrimination performance of rats trained to discriminate amphetamine from saline. However, nifedipine dose-dependently reduced the response rate of amphetamine-treated rats. Bay K 8644 had no effect on this measure except at high doses that also caused disruption. 4. Neither nifedipine (5-10 mgkg-1 i.p.) nor Bay K 8644 (0.06-0.5 mgkg-1 i.p.) affected the turning behaviour induced by amphetamine (1 mgkg-1 i.p.) in rats with unilateral 6-OHDA lesion of the medial forebrain bundle, and did not induce turning themselves. 5. As the dihydropyridine compounds affected apomorphine-induced yawning but not penile erection, and did not affect amphetamine-induced rotation or drug discrimination, it seems unlikely that they are affecting dopamine release in vivo. PMID:2482105

  1. Effects of Exercise Interventions on Stereotypic Behaviours in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Petrus, Christopher; Adamson, Sarah R.; Block, Laurie; Einarson, Sarah J.; Sharifnejad, Maryam

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize evidence from studies examining the effect of exercise interventions on stereotypic behaviours in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods: Only exercise-related physical therapy (PT) interventions were included. A multifaceted search strategy identified studies published between 1980 and 2007. Quality was assessed using the American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine (AACPDM) Study Quality Scale, the Clinical Relevance Tool for Case Studies, and the Quality, Rigour or Evaluative Criteria tool. Results: Seven studies (1982–2003) met our inclusion criteria; four of these used single-subject research designs, two were group studies, and one was a case study. Ages and behavioural characteristics of the children (N = 25) varied among the studies. Levels of evidence ranged from II to V (of a possible I–V). Study quality scores ranged from 2 to 5 (range: 0 to 7); mean = 3.9, mode = 5. Few studies in this area of PT practice have been published, and those identified scored low levels of rigour on the AACPDM criteria. Conclusions: Research suggests that exercise provides short-term reductions of stereotypic behaviours in children with ASD. Future research with stronger evidence levels, greater rigour, and longer-term outcome assessment is required to determine specific exercise parameters. PMID:20145777

  2. Effect of aqueous extract of Bulbine natalensis (Baker) stem on the sexual behaviour of male rats.

    PubMed

    Yakubu, M T; Afolayan, A J

    2009-12-01

    The phytochemical constituents of aqueous extract of Bulbine natalensis (Baker) stem and its effect on male rat sexual behaviour were evaluated for 7 days. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, cardiac glycoside, tannins, alkaloids and anthraquinones. Administration of the extract at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight resulted in the significant increase (p < 0.05) in mount frequency, intromission frequency, ejaculatory latency, ejaculation frequency, serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone concentrations, computed indices of sexual behaviour, erection, quick flips, long flips and total penile reflexes whereas the mount latency, intromission latency and post-ejaculatory interval were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) throughout the experimental period. The 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract produced contrasting pattern to the lower doses of the extract in all the parameters of sexual behaviour monitored throughout the experimental period. The results are indicative of prosexual stimulatory potentials of Bulbine natalensis in male rats. The aqueous extract of Bulbine natalensis stem at these doses (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) may be used in the management of disorders of desire/libido, premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction in males. PMID:18710410

  3. Effect of protic ionic liquid on the volumetric properties and taste behaviour of sucrose.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vickramjeet; Chhotaray, Pratap K; Gardas, Ramesh L

    2015-02-15

    The volumetric properties and taste behaviour of sucrose in aqueous solutions of a protic ionic liquid (3-hydroxypropylammonium acetate) have been studied at temperatures, T=(293.15-318.15)K and at atmospheric pressure. Apparent molar volumes, V2,ϕ, apparent specific volumes, ASV, apparent molar isentropic compressibilities, Ks,2,ϕ, and apparent specific isentropic compressibilities, ASIC, were calculated from measured density, ρ and speed of sound, u data. Partial molar volumes, V2(°), and partial molar isentropic compressibilities, Ks,2(°) at infinite dilution, transfer parameters (ΔtV2(°) and ΔtKs,2(°)), expansion coefficients, [(∂V2(°)/∂T)P and (∂(2)V2(°)/∂T(2))P], interaction coefficients, (YAB and YABB) and hydration numbers, Nw, were also evaluated and discussed in terms of solute-cosolute interactions. Further, the effect of protic ionic liquid on the taste behaviour of sucrose has been discussed from ASV and ASIC parameters, as these parameters, which are sensitive to solvation behaviour of solute, are divided into four basic taste qualities occupying certain ranges. PMID:25236254

  4. Effect of temperature and strain rate on the compressive behaviour of supramolecular polyurethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xuegang; Siviour, Clive R.; Buckley, C. Paul; Feula, Antonio; Hayes, Wayne

    2015-09-01

    Supramolecular polyurethanes (SPUs) possess thermoresponsive and thermoreversible properties, and those characteristics are highly desirable in both bulk commodity and value-added applications such as adhesives, shape-memory materials, healable coatings and lightweight, impact-resistant structures (e.g. protection for mobile electronics). A better understanding of the mechanical properties, especially the rate and temperature sensitivity, of these materials are required to assess their suitability for different applications. In this paper, a newly developed SPU with tuneable thermal properties was studied, and the response of this SPU to compressive loading over strain rates from 10-3 to 104 s-1 was presented. Furthermore, the effect of temperature on the mechanical response was also demonstrated. The sample was tested using an Instron mechanical testing machine for quasi-static loading, a home-made hydraulic system for moderate rates and a traditional split Hopkinson pressure bars (SHPBs) for high strain rates. Results showed that the compression stress-strain behaviour was affected significantly by the thermoresponsive nature of SPU, but that, as expected for polymeric materials, the general trends of the temperature and the rate dependence mirror each other. However, this behaviour is more complicated than observed for many other polymeric materials, as a result of the richer range of transitions that influence the behaviour over the range of temperatures and strain rates tested.

  5. The effect of seasons on behaviour during milking in buffaloes ( Bos bubalis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangwar, P. C.

    1982-06-01

    An investigation on behaviour during milking involving 200 buffaloes was carried out to study the effect of climate on milking behaviour for a period of four years. The results obtained were: (1) In extremely docile animals (temperament score I) the mean distribution was least (33.5) in hot-dry summer as compared to winter (39.2) and hot-humid summer. (2) The number of buffaloes milked after oxytocin injections was maximum (11.1%) during the hot-dry summer against other seasons for the temperament score I over temperament scores III and IV, where all buffaloes were milked with oxytocin injections. (3) The mean flow rate was least in hot-dry summer in each temperament score. (4) Milking time was higher in all the temperament scored buffaloes during the hot-dry summer than during the other seasons. It is concluded that as environmental temperature increases, there occurs an increase in thermal stress, the milking behaviour changes and animals become more hostile and excited which leads to a decrease in milk production.

  6. Using Activity-Related Behavioural Features towards More Effective Automatic Stress Detection

    PubMed Central

    Giakoumis, Dimitris; Drosou, Anastasios; Cipresso, Pietro; Tzovaras, Dimitrios; Hassapis, George; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces activity-related behavioural features that can be automatically extracted from a computer system, with the aim to increase the effectiveness of automatic stress detection. The proposed features are based on processing of appropriate video and accelerometer recordings taken from the monitored subjects. For the purposes of the present study, an experiment was conducted that utilized a stress-induction protocol based on the stroop colour word test. Video, accelerometer and biosignal (Electrocardiogram and Galvanic Skin Response) recordings were collected from nineteen participants. Then, an explorative study was conducted by following a methodology mainly based on spatiotemporal descriptors (Motion History Images) that are extracted from video sequences. A large set of activity-related behavioural features, potentially useful for automatic stress detection, were proposed and examined. Experimental evaluation showed that several of these behavioural features significantly correlate to self-reported stress. Moreover, it was found that the use of the proposed features can significantly enhance the performance of typical automatic stress detection systems, commonly based on biosignal processing. PMID:23028461

  7. Emotionality Modulates the Effect of Chronic Stress on Feeding Behaviour in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Favreau-Peigné, Angélique; Calandreau, Ludovic; Constantin, Paul; Gaultier, Bernard; Bertin, Aline; Arnould, Cécile; Laurence, Agathe; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Houdelier, Cécilia; Lumineau, Sophie; Boissy, Alain; Leterrier, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Chronic stress is a long-lasting negative emotional state that induces negative consequences on animals’ psycho-physiological state. This study aimed at assessing whether unpredictable and repeated negative stimuli (URNS) influence feeding behaviour in quail. Sixty-four quail were exposed to URNS from day 17 to 40, while 64 quail were undisturbed. Two lines divergently selected on their inherent emotionality were used to assess the effect of genetic factors on the sensitivity to URNS. All quail were submitted to a sequential feeding procedure (using two diets of different energetic values) which placed them in a contrasting situation. Behavioural tests were performed to assess the emotional reactivity of the two lines. Results confirmed that differences exist between them and that their emotional reactivity was enhanced by URNS. Diet preferences, motivation and daily intake were also measured. URNS did not change the preferences for the hypercaloric diet compared to the hypocaloric diet in choice tests, but they reduced daily intakes in both lines. Motivations for each diet were differently affected by URNS: they decreased the motivation to eat the hypercaloric diet in quail selected for their low inherent fearfulness whereas they increased the motivation to eat the hypocaloric diet in quail selected for their high inherent fearfulness, which suggested a devaluation process in the former and a compensatory behaviour in the later. Growth was furthermore reduced and laying delayed by URNS in both lines. In conclusion, the exposure to URNS induced interesting changes in feeding behaviour added with an increase in emotional reactivity and an alteration of production parameters. This confirms that both lines of quail experienced a chronic stress state. However differences in feed motivation and emotional reactivity between lines under chronic stress suggested that they experienced different emotional state and use different ways to cope with it depending on their

  8. Cumulative risk effects for the development of behaviour difficulties in children and adolescents with special educational needs and disabilities.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Jeremy; Humphrey, Neil; Hebron, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Research has identified multiple risk factors for the development of behaviour difficulties. What have been less explored are the cumulative effects of exposure to multiple risks on behavioural outcomes, with no study specifically investigating these effects within a population of young people with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND). Furthermore, it is unclear whether a threshold or linear risk model better fits the data for this population. The sample included 2660 children and 1628 adolescents with SEND. Risk factors associated with increases in behaviour difficulties over an 18-month period were summed to create a cumulative risk score, with this explanatory variable being added into a multi-level model. A quadratic term was then added to test the threshold model. There was evidence of a cumulative risk effect, suggesting that exposure to higher numbers of risk factors, regardless of their exact nature, resulted in increased behaviour difficulties. The relationship between risk and behaviour difficulties was non-linear, with exposure to increasing risk having a disproportionate and detrimental impact on behaviour difficulties in child and adolescent models. Interventions aimed at reducing behaviour difficulties need to consider the impact of multiple risk variables. Tailoring interventions towards those exposed to large numbers of risks would be advantageous. PMID:26074276

  9. From question-behaviour effects in trials to the social psychology of research participation.

    PubMed

    McCambridge, Jim

    2015-01-01

    The 'question-behaviour effect' (QBE) has attracted much recent attention within health psychology, where it has also been referred to as the 'mere measurement' effect. There are other conceptualisations of similar phenomena in related disciplines. This paper explores the implications of the QBE for the safety of inferences about intervention effectiveness within the context of randomised controlled trials evaluating health behaviour change interventions. It draws attention to poorly understood mechanisms by which bias is introduced with conventional thinking about trial design and analysis. The threat to valid inference on intervention effectiveness posed by the QBE applies even when its effects are small and regardless of the specific content of the QBE. The nature of the resulting bias does not fit well within existing bias classification schemes, such as that proposed by the Cochrane Collaboration. The QBE is one possible consequence of research participation and it is suggested that the social psychology of research participation is very much underdeveloped. Possible future directions for health psychology research in this area are considered. PMID:25146179

  10. Behavioural and cognitive effects of oligofructose-enriched inulin in rats.

    PubMed

    Messaoudi, Michaël; Rozan, Pascale; Nejdi, Amine; Hidalgo, Sophie; Desor, Didier

    2005-04-01

    The behavioural and cognitive effects of oligofructose-enriched inulin at the doses of 5 and 10 % in the diet, orally ingested daily during 2 weeks, were investigated using a functional observational battery (FOB) and the light extinction test in male Wistar rats. Control rats received a standard diet and were tested in the same test situations. The behavioural effects were assessed 2 d before and 14 d after the beginning of the treatment period and the cognitive effects were investigated after the administration period by lever-pressing activity and learning discrimination using the light extinction test paradigm. In general, the study demonstrated that oligofructose-enriched inulin at 5 % in the diet, and particularly at 10 % in the diet, caused relaxing-like effects, stimulated and increased the general activity and interest of the rats to the test environment. In addition, both doses of oligofructose-enriched inulin showed significant effects on learning discrimination in male rats, in comparison with the control diet. These results suggest that oligofructose-enriched inulin, particularly at the dose of 10 %, improves cognitive performances in the light extinction test and the well-being of male rats using the FOB. PMID:15877891

  11. [Cardioprotective effect of GABA derivatives in acute alcohol intoxication].

    PubMed

    Perfilova, V N; Tiurenkov, I N; Berestovitskaia, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2006-01-01

    Cardioprotective properties of GABA analogs under conditions of acute alcoholic intoxication have been studied using the following functional tests: volume loads, tests for adrenoreactivity, and maximum isometric load. The experiments showed that a 32% aqueous ethanol solution intraperitoneally injected in a dose of 8 g/kg produces a cardiotoxic action, which is manifested by a decrease in the inotropic reserve in load tests. Citrocard (50 mg/kg), phenibut (50 mg/kg), and piracetam (200 mg/kg) prevent the alcohol-induced myocardium injury, as shown by the heart contractility retained on a higher level in the test group than in the control group. PMID:16995433

  12. Pyrethroids and Nectar Toxins Have Subtle Effects on the Motor Function, Grooming and Wing Fanning Behaviour of Honeybees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Sally M.; Stevenson, Philip C.; Wright, Geraldine A.

    2015-01-01

    Sodium channels, found ubiquitously in animal muscle cells and neurons, are one of the main target sites of many naturally-occurring, insecticidal plant compounds and agricultural pesticides. Pyrethroids, derived from compounds found only in the Asteraceae, are particularly toxic to insects and have been successfully used as pesticides including on flowering crops that are visited by pollinators. Pyrethrins, from which they were derived, occur naturally in the nectar of some flowering plant species. We know relatively little about how such compounds—i.e., compounds that target sodium channels—influence pollinators at low or sub-lethal doses. Here, we exposed individual adult forager honeybees to several compounds that bind to sodium channels to identify whether these compounds affect motor function. Using an assay previously developed to identify the effect of drugs and toxins on individual bees, we investigated how acute exposure to 10 ng doses (1 ppm) of the pyrethroid insecticides (cyfluthrin, tau-fluvalinate, allethrin and permethrin) and the nectar toxins (aconitine and grayanotoxin I) affected honeybee locomotion, grooming and wing fanning behaviour. Bees exposed to these compounds spent more time upside down and fanning their wings. They also had longer bouts of standing still. Bees exposed to the nectar toxin, aconitine, and the pyrethroid, allethrin, also spent less time grooming their antennae. We also found that the concentration of the nectar toxin, grayanotoxin I (GTX), fed to bees affected the time spent upside down (i.e., failure to perform the righting reflex). Our data show that low doses of pyrethroids and other nectar toxins that target sodium channels mainly influence motor function through their effect on the righting reflex of adult worker honeybees. PMID:26280999

  13. Pen size and parity effects on maternal behaviour of Small-Tail Han sheep.

    PubMed

    Lv, S-J; Yang, Y; Dwyer, C M; Li, F-K

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of pen size and parity on maternal behaviour of twin-bearing Small-Tail Han ewes. A total of 24 ewes were allocated to a 2×2 design (six per pen), with parity (primiparous or multiparous) and pen size (large: 6.0×3.0 m; small: 6.0×1.5 m) as main effects at Linyi University, Shandong Province, China. Behaviour was observed from after parturition until weaning. All ewes were observed for 6 h every 5 days from 0700 to1000 h and from 1400 to 1700 h. Continuous focal animal sampling was used to quantify the duration of maternal behaviours: sucking, grooming and following as well as the frequency of udder accepting, udder refusing and low-pitched bleating. Oestradiol and cortisol concentrations in the faeces (collected in the morning every 5 days) were detected using EIA kits. All lambs were weighed 24 h after parturition and again at weaning at 35 days of age. The small pen size significantly reduced following (P<0.005), grooming (P<0.001) and suckling durations (P<0.05), as well as the frequency of udder refusals (P<0.001). However, there was a significant interaction with ewe parity, with decreased grooming and suckling in the small pen largely seen in the multiparous ewes (P<0.001). Independent of pen size, multiparous ewes accepted more sucking attempts by their lambs (P<0.05) and made more low-pitched bleats than primiparous ewes (P<0.001). Multiparous ewes had higher faecal oestradiol concentrations than primiparous ewes (P<0.001), and ewes in small pens had higher faecal cortisol levels compared with ewes in larger pens (P<0.001). As lambs increased in age, the duration of maternal grooming, following and suckling as well as frequency of udder acceptance and low-pitched bleating all declined, and the frequency of udder refusing increased (P<0.001 for all). Ewe parity, but not pen size, affected lamb weight gain during the period of observation (P<0.001). This is the first study to show that pen size

  14. Effects of acute hypercapnia with and without acidosis on lung inflammation and apoptosis in experimental acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Nardelli, L M; Rzezinski, A; Silva, J D; Maron-Gutierrez, T; Ornellas, D S; Henriques, I; Capelozzi, V L; Teodoro, W; Morales, M M; Silva, P L; Pelosi, P; Garcia, C S N B; Rocco, P R M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of acute hypercapnic acidosis and buffered hypercapnia on lung inflammation and apoptosis in experimental acute lung injury (ALI). Twenty-four hours after paraquat injection, 28 Wistar rats were randomized into four groups (n=7/group): (1) normocapnia (NC, PaCO2=35-45 mmHg), ventilated with 0.03%CO2+21%O2+balancedN2; (2) hypercapnic acidosis (HC, PaCO2=60-70 mmHg), ventilated with 5%CO2+21%O2+balancedN2; and (3) buffered hypercapnic acidosis (BHC), ventilated with 5%CO2+21%O2+balancedN2 and treated with sodium bicarbonate (8.4%). The remaining seven animals were not mechanically ventilated (NV). The mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-6 (p=0.003), IL-1β (p<0.001), and type III procollagen (PCIII) (p=0.001) in lung tissue was more reduced in the HC group in comparison with NC, with no significant differences between HC and BHC. Lung and kidney cell apoptosis was reduced in HC and BHC in comparison with NC and NV. In conclusion, in this experimental ALI model, hypercapnia, regardless of acidosis, reduced lung inflammation and lung and kidney cell apoptosis. PMID:25246186

  15. Human Motor Cortex Functional Changes in Acute Stroke: Gender Effects

    PubMed Central

    Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Pellegrino, Giovanni; Di Pino, Giovanni; Ranieri, Federico; Lotti, Fiorenza; Florio, Lucia; Capone, Fioravante

    2016-01-01

    The acute phase of stroke is accompanied by functional changes in the activity and interplay of both hemispheres. In healthy subjects, gender is known to impact the functional brain organization. We investigated whether gender influences also acute stroke functional changes. In thirty-five ischemic stroke patients, we evaluated the excitability of the affected (AH) and unaffected hemisphere (UH) by measuring resting and active motor threshold (AMT) and motor-evoked potential amplitude under baseline conditions and after intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) of AH. We also computed an index of the excitability balance between the hemispheres, laterality indexes (LI), to evidence hemispheric asymmetry. AMT differed significantly between AH and UH only in the male group (p = 0.004), not in females (p > 0.200), and both LIAMT and LIRMT were significantly higher in males than in females (respectively p = 0.033 and p = 0.042). LTP-like activity induced by iTBS in AH was more frequent in females. Gender influences the functional excitability changes that take place after human stroke and the level of LTP that can be induced by repetitive stimulation. This knowledge is of high value in the attempt of individualizing to different genders any non-invasive stimulation strategy designed to foster stroke recovery. PMID:26858590

  16. Effects of COX-2 inhibitor in temporomandibular joint acute inflammation.

    PubMed

    Schütz, T C B; Andersen, M L; Tufik, S

    2007-05-01

    Since it is recognized that cyclo-oxygenase-2 mediates nociception and the sleep-wake cycle as well, and that acute inflammation of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) results in sleep disturbances, we hypothesized that cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor would restore the sleep pattern in this inflammatory rat model. First, sleep was monitored after the injection of Freund's adjuvant (FA group) or saline (SHAM group) into the rats' temporomandibular joint. Second, etoricoxib was co-administered in these groups. The Freund's adjuvant group showed a reduction in sleep efficiency, in rapid eye movement (REM), and in non-REM sleep, and an increase in sleep and REM sleep latency when compared with the SHAM group, while etoricoxib substantially increased sleep quality in the Freund's adjuvant group. These parameters returned progressively to those found in the SHAM group. Etoricoxib improved the sleep parameters, suggesting the involvement of the cyclo-oxygenase-2 enzyme in acute inflammation of the TMJ, specifically in REM sleep. PMID:17452571

  17. Effect of Thoracentesis on Intubated Patients with Acute Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Matthew B; Serna-Gallegos, Derek; Ault, Mark; Khan, Ahsan; Chung, Rex; Ley, Eric J; Melo, Nicolas; Margulies, Daniel R

    2016-03-01

    Pleural effusions occur frequently in mechanically ventilated patients, but no consensus exists regarding the clinical benefit of effusion drainage. We sought to determine the impact of thoracentesis on gas exchange in patients with differing severities of acute lung injury (ALI). A retrospective analysis was conducted on therapeutic thoracenteses performed on intubated patients in an adult surgical intensive care unit of a tertiary center. Effusions judged by ultrasound to be 400 mL or larger were drained. Subjects were divided into groups based on their initial P:F ratios: normal >300, ALI 200 to 300, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) <200. Baseline characteristics, physiologic variables, arterial blood gases, and ventilator settings before and after the intervention were analyzed. The primary end point was the change in measures of oxygenation. Significant improvements in P:F ratios (mean ± SD) were seen only in patients with ARDS (50.4 ± 38.5, P = 0.001) and ALI (90.6 ± 161.7, P = 0.022). Statistically significant improvement was observed in the pO2 (31.1, P = 0.005) and O2 saturation (4.1, P < 0.001) of the ARDS group. The volume of effusion removed did not correlate with changes in individual patient's oxygenation. These data support the role of therapeutic thoracentesis for intubated patients with abnormal P:F ratios. PMID:27099064

  18. Effects of osmotic stress on predation behaviour of Asterias rubens L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agüera, Antonio; Schellekens, Tim; Jansen, Jeroen M.; Smaal, Aad C.

    2015-05-01

    Environmental stress plays an important role in determining ecosystem functioning and structure. In estuarine areas both tidal and seasonal salinity changes may cause osmotic stress on predators, affecting their behaviour and survival. The interaction between these predators and their prey may affect performance, thus influencing predator impact on prey populations. The common starfish, Asterias rubens, inhabits estuarine areas, such as the Dutch Wadden Sea, that exhibit large seasonal variation in salinity (10-32 PSU). In those areas A. rubens exerts top down control on its prey, thus representing an important shellfish predator. This predation may impact on cultured and natural shellfish populations. However, the effects of osmotic stress on A. rubens performance may influence its effect on prey. Although the effect of salinity in A. rubens survival has been extensively studied, the impact on its predation behaviour and acclimation capacity remains unclear. In this study, we analyse the performance of A. rubens preying on mussels (Mytilus edulis) after a salinity decrease and monitor its acclimation capacity over a period of 22 days. Our experiments demonstrated that salinity affected performance by reducing feeding activity and altering size prey selection. Moreover, as acclimation occurred, A. rubens predation performance improved in all sub-lethal treatments. We conclude that osmotic stress caused by decreasing salinity potentially influences A. rubens distribution, abundance, and potential impact on prey populations. However the magnitude of the change in salinity (from 31 to a minimum of 10 PSU) and its timescale (3 weeks) mediate this effect.

  19. Effects of suspension-induced osteopenia on the mechanical behaviour of mouse long bones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simske, S. J.; Greenberg, A. R.; Luttges, M. W.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    Whereas most studies of tail-suspension induced osteopenia have utilized rat femora, the present study investigated the effects of a 14 day tail-suspension on the mechanical behaviour of mice femora, tibiae and humeri. Force-deflection properties were obtained via three-point bending for long bones from suspended and control mice. Whole bone behaviour was characterized by converting the force-deflection values to stiffness, strength, ductility and energy parameters which were not normalized for specimen geometry. The effects of a systematic variation in the deflection rate over the range 0.1-10 mm min-1 were also evaluated. Statistical analysis indicated that the primary effect of the tail-suspension period was lowered bone mass which was manifested mechanically through lower values of the bone strength parameters. These effects were similar in the bones of both the fore and hind limbs. The results also demonstrated that the stiffness, ductility and energy characteristics were much less influenced by the tail-suspension. Whereas a significant dependence of the bone strength values upon deflection rate was observed for the femora and humeri, the other mechanical parameters were less sensitive. Based upon the nature of the physical and mechanical changes observed in the long bones following tail-suspension, the mouse appears to be a suitable animal model for the study of osteopenia.

  20. Functional biomarkers for the acute effects of alcohol on the central nervous system in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Zoethout, Remco W M; Delgado, Wilson L; Ippel, Annelies E; Dahan, Albert; van Gerven, Joop M A

    2011-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) effects of acute alcohol administration have been frequently assessed. Such studies often use a wide range of methods to study each of these effects. Unfortunately, the sensitivity of these tests has not completely been ascertained. A literature search was performed to recognize the most useful tests (or biomarkers) for identifying the acute CNS effects of alcohol in healthy volunteers. All tests were grouped in clusters and functional domains. Afterwards, the effect of alcohol administration on these tests was scored as improvement, impairment or as no effect. Furthermore, dose–response relationships were established. A total number of 218 studies, describing 342 different tests (or test variants) were evaluated. Alcohol affected a wide range of CNS domains. Divided attention, focused attention, visuo-motor control and scales of feeling high and of subjective drug effects were identified as the most sensitive functional biomarkers for the acute CNS effects of alcohol. The large number of CNS tests that are used to determine the effects of alcohol interferes with the identification of the most sensitive ones and of drug–response relationships. Our results may be helpful in selecting rational biomarkers for studies investigating the acute CNS effects of alcohol or for future alcohol- interaction studies. PMID:21284693

  1. Effects of ivermectin on Danio rerio: a multiple endpoint approach: behaviour, weight and subcellular markers.

    PubMed

    Domingues, I; Oliveira, R; Soares, A M V M; Amorim, M J B

    2016-04-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) is a broad acting antihelmintic used in various veterinary pharmaceuticals. It has been shown that IVM enters the aquatic compartment and adversely affects organisms including fish. This study is based on the hypothesis that long term exposure to IVM affects fish and thus, the main objective was to assess the chronic effects of 0.25 and 25 µg IVM/L to zebrafish using multiple endpoints representative of several levels of biological organization: weight, behaviour (swimming and feeding) and subcellular markers including biomarkers for oestrogenicity (vitellogenin-VTG), oxidative stress (catalase-CAT and glutathione-S-transferase-GST) and neurotransmission (cholinesterase-ChE). Concentrations as low as 0.25 µg IVM/L disrupted the swimming behaviour, causing fish to spend more time at the bottom of aquaria. Such reduction of the swimming performance affected the feeding ability which is likely responsible for the weight loss. The effects on weight were gender differentiated, being more pronounced in males (0.25 µg IVM/L) than in females (25 µg IVM/L). Fish exposed to 25 µg/L exhibited darker coloration and mild curvature of the spine. No effects on VTG and AChE were observed, but a reduction on CAT and GST levels was observed in fish exposed to 25 µg IVM/L, although these alterations probably only reflect the general condition of the fish which was significantly compromised at this concentration. Despite that predicted environmental concentrations of IVM are below 0.25 µg/L, the behavioural effects may be translated into important ecological impacts, e.g. at predator-prey interactions where fish competitive advantage can be decreased. Future work should address the link between behaviour disruption and population fitness. The current study was based on a one experiment and multiple endpoint (anchored) approach, allowing the results to be integrated and linked towards a mechanistic understanding. PMID:26769347

  2. The effect of perceived streakiness on the shot-taking behaviour of basketball players.

    PubMed

    Csapo, Peter; Avugos, Simcha; Raab, Markus; Bar-Eli, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We examine behavioural changes of basketball players arising from the hot-hand belief and use data of 1216 National Basketball Association games to measure the effect of cold and hot streaks on three proxies of shot difficulty. We find that the more consecutive shots players make (miss), the more difficult (easier) shots become along the three dimensions. Furthermore, most players' performance seems to improve during hot streaks because they attempt more difficult shots while no significant decrease in shooting accuracy takes place. This might explain why most previous studies could not find empirical evidence for the hot-hand belief in basketball when considering in-game field goal shooting. PMID:25427817

  3. Effects of acute and chronic inhalation of paint thinner in mice: behavioral and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Fifel, Karim; Bennis, Mohamed; Ba-M'hamed, Saâdia

    2014-06-01

    Abuse of volatile inhalants has become a worldwide issue mainly among adolescents of low income social class. Acute and chronic exposure to these substances results in serious neurological and behavioral impairments. Although real exposure consists largely of simultaneous inhalation of multiple solvents, the vast majority of basic research studies have evaluated the actions of a single volatile component leaving the behavioral and neuronal effects of chemical mixture not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the acute behavioral effects of 300, 450 and 600 ppm of paint thinner inhalation on anxiety, locomotor activity and spatial memory. Additionally, the cognitive impairments related to chronic exposure of the same concentrations of thinner for 45 days were assessed. To understand the neuronal correlates of acute exposure to thinner, we used c-Fos immunohistochemistry as an endogenous marker of neuronal activation following 600 ppm of thinner. The results reveal that (i) chronically thinner exposed mice showed cognitive deficits in Morris water maze and object recognition tasks; (ii) acute inhalation of thinner induces a wide range of behavioral changes. These changes include an anxiolytic effect toward the aversive environmental bright light and a dose dependent effect on explorative locomotion. The wide range of behavioral alterations induced by acute thinner inhalation is consistent with the widespread distribution of thinner-induced c-Fos expression in multiple brain structures. PMID:24218105

  4. Acute Effects of Exposure to (56)Fe and (16)O Particles on Learning and Memory.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Bernard M; Poulose, Shibu M; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty L; Ramirez, Francisco; Bielinski, Donna F; Heroux, Nicholas; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    Although it has been shown that exposure to HZE particles disrupts cognitive performance when tested 2-4 weeks after irradiation, it has not been determined whether exposure to HZE particles acutely affects cognitive performance, i.e., within 4-48 h after exposure. The current experiments were designed to determine the acute effects of exposure to HZE particles ((16)O and (56)Fe) on cognitive performance and whether exposure to HZE particles affected learning or memory, as well as to understand the relationship between acute changes in the levels of NOX2 (a measure of oxidative stress) and COX2 (a measure of neuroinflammation) in specific brain regions and cognitive performance. The results of these studies indicate that the acute effects of radiation exposure on cognitive performance are on memory, not learning. Further, the acute effects of exposure to HZE particles on oxidative stress and neuroinflammation and their relationship to cognitive performance indicate that, although the effects of exposure to both (56)Fe and (16)O are widespread, only changes in specific regions of the brain may be related to changes in cognitive function. PMID:26207687

  5. Effect of short term administration of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) on reproductive behaviour of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Kantak, N M; Gogate, M G

    1992-04-01

    Effect of feeding Tulsi leaves along with the normal diet, on the reproductory behaviour of adult male Wistar rats, was studied. Experimental animals were given Tulsi extract in graded doses of 100 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg along with the normal diet while control group only had similar normal diet. Each dose was given for 15 days and reproductory behaviour monitored in terms of score, on every alternative day. There was significant decrease in sexual behavioural score, when Tulsi leaves extract dose was increased to 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. PMID:1506071

  6. Parasites that change predator or prey behaviour can have keystone effects on community composition

    PubMed Central

    Hatcher, Melanie J.; Dick, Jaimie T. A.; Dunn, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    Parasites play pivotal roles in structuring communities, often via indirect interactions with non-host species. These effects can be density-mediated (through mortality) or trait-mediated (behavioural, physiological and developmental), and may be crucial to population interactions, including biological invasions. For instance, parasitism can alter intraguild predation (IGP) between native and invasive crustaceans, reversing invasion outcomes. Here, we use mathematical models to examine how parasite-induced trait changes influence the population dynamics of hosts that interact via IGP. We show that trait-mediated indirect interactions impart keystone effects, promoting or inhibiting host coexistence. Parasites can thus have strong ecological impacts, even if they have negligible virulence, underscoring the need to consider trait-mediated effects when predicting effects of parasites on community structure in general and biological invasions in particular. PMID:24429680

  7. Recognizing acute health effects of substitute fungicides: are first-aid reports effective?

    PubMed

    Teschke, K; Hertzman, C; Wiens, M; Dimich-Ward, H; Hershler, R; Ostry, A; Kelly, S J

    1992-01-01

    Recently, many British Columbia sawmills stopped using traditional chlorophenate anti-sapstain fungicides and substituted 2-(thiocyanomethylthio) benzothiazole (TCMTB) and copper-8-quinolinolate (Copper 8). We conducted a cross-sectional study with two aims: to ascertain which acute health effects, if any, were associated with the use of the substitute fungicides; and to determine the effectiveness of first-aid records as a means of detecting acute health outcomes. Workers in five coastal sawmills were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire about symptoms considered potentially related and unrelated to fungicide exposure, and about injuries commonly reported in sawmills. In addition, we collected first-aid records from the mills, and asked senior workers to estimate the duration of exposure to fungicides for each job. Symptoms found to be consistently elevated in TCMTB mills included dry skin around the eyes, blood-stained mucus from the nose, nose bleed, peeling skin, burning or itching skin, and skin redness or rash. No symptoms were consistently elevated in the Copper 8 mills. Symptoms related to TCMTB exposure were recorded only 12 times in first-aid logs during the study period (versus 335 questionnaire self-reports). This low symptom-recording frequency may be a function of established patterns of first-aid use in which illness symptoms are reported less frequently than injuries. PMID:1585948

  8. Modelling the effects of ionizing radiation on survival of animal population: acute versus chronic exposure.

    PubMed

    Kryshev, A I; Sazykina, T G

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present paper was application of a model, which was originally developed to simulate chronic ionizing radiation effects in a generic isolated population, to the case of acute exposure, and comparison of the dynamic features of radiation effects on the population survival in cases of acute and chronic exposure. Two modes of exposure were considered: acute exposure (2-35 Gy) and chronic lifetime exposure with the same integrated dose. Calculations were made for a generic mice population; however, the model can be applied for other animals with proper selection of parameter values. In case of acute exposure, in the range 2-11 Gy, the population response was in two phases. During a first phase, there was a depletion in population survival; the second phase was a recovery period due to reparation of damage and biosynthesis of new biomass. Model predictions indicate that a generic mice population, living in ideal conditions, has the potential for recovery (within a mouse lifetime period) from acute exposure with dose up to 10-11 Gy, i.e., the population may recover from doses above an LD50 (6.2 Gy). Following acute doses above 14 Gy, however, the mice population went to extinction without recovery. In contrast, under chronic lifetime exposures (500 days), radiation had little effect on population survival up to integrated doses of 14-15 Gy, so the survival of a population subjected to chronic exposure was much better compared with that after an acute exposure with the same dose. Due to the effect of "wasted radiation", the integrated dose of chronic exposure could be about two times higher than acute dose, producing the same effect on survival. It is concluded that the developed generic population model including the repair of radiation damage can be applied both to acute and chronic modes of exposure; results of calculations for generic mice population are in qualitative agreement with published data on radiation effects in mice. PMID

  9. Effect of carbonate content on the mechanical behaviour of clay fault-gouges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, Elisenda; Niemeijer, André; Hangx, Suzanne; Spiers, Chris

    2015-04-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) in depleted oil and gas reservoirs is considered to be the most promising technology to achieve large-scale reduction in anthropogenic emissions. In order to retain the stored CO2 from the atmosphere for the very long-term, i.e. on timescales of the order of 103-104 years, it is essential to maintain the integrity of the caprock, and more specifically of any faults penetrating the seal. When selecting suitable CO2-storage reservoirs, pre-exisiting faults within the caprock require close attention, as changes in the stress state resulting from CO2-injection may induce fault slip motion which might cause leakage. Little is known about the effect of fluid-rock interactions on the mineral composition, mechanical properties and the integrity and sealing capacity of the caprock. Previous studies on the effect of mineral composition on the frictional properties of fault gouges have shown that friction is controlled by the dominant phase unless there is a frictionally weak, through-going fabric. However, the effect on stability is less clear. Since long-term CO2-exposure might cause chemical reactions, potentially resulting in the dissolution or precipitation of carbonate minerals, a change in mineralogy could affect the mechanical stability of a caprock significantly. Calcite, for example, is known to be prone to micro-seismicity and shows a transition from velocity-strengthening to velocity-weakening behaviour around 100-150°C. Therefore, we investigated the effect of varying clay:carbonate ratios on fault friction behaviour, fault reactivation potential and slip stability, i.e. seismic vs. aseismic behaviour. Three types of simulated fault gouges were used: i) carbonate-free, natural clay-rich caprock samples, consisting of predominantly phyllosilicates (~80%) and quartz ~20%), ii) pure calcite, and iii) mixtures of carbonate-free clay-rich caprock and pure calcite, with predetermined clay:carbonate ratios. For the natural clay

  10. Mechanics of the left ventricular myocardial interstitium: effects of acute and chronic myocardial edema.

    PubMed

    Desai, Ketaki V; Laine, Glen A; Stewart, Randolph H; Cox, Charles S; Quick, Christopher M; Allen, Steven J; Fischer, Uwe M

    2008-06-01

    Myocardial interstitial edema forms as a result of several disease states and clinical interventions. Acute myocardial interstitial edema is associated with compromised systolic and diastolic cardiac function and increased stiffness of the left ventricular chamber. Formation of chronic myocardial interstitial edema results in deposition of interstitial collagen, which causes interstitial fibrosis. To assess the effect of myocardial interstitial edema on the mechanical properties of the left ventricle and the myocardial interstitium, we induced acute and chronic interstitial edema in dogs. Acute myocardial edema was generated by coronary sinus pressure elevation, while chronic myocardial edema was generated by chronic pulmonary artery banding. The pressure-volume relationships of the left ventricular myocardial interstitium and left ventricular chamber for control animals were compared with acutely and chronically edematous animals. Collagen content of nonedematous and chronically edematous animals was also compared. Generating acute myocardial interstitial edema resulted in decreased left ventricular chamber compliance compared with nonedematous animals. With chronic edema, the primary form of collagen changed from type I to III. Left ventricular chamber compliance in animals made chronically edematous was significantly higher than nonedematous animals. The change in primary collagen type secondary to chronic left ventricular myocardial interstitial edema provides direct evidence for structural remodeling. The resulting functional adaptation allows the chronically edematous heart to maintain left ventricular chamber compliance when challenged with acute edema, thus preserving cardiac function over a wide range of interstitial fluid pressures. PMID:18375722

  11. Effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress in rat lungs* **

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Ronaldo Lopes; Torres, Iraci Lucena da Silva; Laste, Gabriela; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Cardoso; Cardoso, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro; Belló-Klein, Adriane

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress, as quantified by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), in rat lungs. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: acute treatment, comprising rats receiving a single injection of methylprednisolone (50 mg/kg i.p.); acute control, comprising rats i.p. injected with saline; chronic treatment, comprising rats receiving methylprednisolone in drinking water (6 mg/kg per day for 30 days); and chronic control, comprising rats receiving normal drinking water. Results: The levels of TRAP were significantly higher in the acute treatment group rats than in the acute control rats, suggesting an improvement in the pulmonary defenses of the former. The levels of lung LPO were significantly higher in the chronic treatment group rats than in the chronic control rats, indicating oxidative damage in the lung tissue of the former. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the acute use of corticosteroids is beneficial to lung tissue, whereas their chronic use is not. The chronic use of methylprednisolone appears to increase lung LPO levels. PMID:25029646

  12. Effect of HIV infection on time to recovery from an acute manic episode

    PubMed Central

    Nakimuli-Mpungu, E; Mutamba, B; Nshemerirwe, S; Kiwuwa, MS; Musisi, S

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Understanding factors affecting the time to recovery from acute mania is critical in the management of manic syndromes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of HIV infection on time to recovery from acute mania. Methods We performed a retrospective study in which medical charts of individuals who were treated for acute mania were reviewed. Survival analysis with Cox regression models were used to compare time to recovery from an acute manic episode between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals and HIV-negative individuals. Results Median survival time was one week for HIV-positive individuals and more than four weeks for HIV-negative individuals (χ2 = 18.4, P value = 0.000). HIV infection was the only marginally significant independent predictor of survival probability on the acute admission ward (hazards ratio 2.87, P = 0.06). Conclusion Acute mania in HIV-infected persons responds faster to psychotropic drugs compared with that in HIV-negative persons. PMID:22096397

  13. COMPARING BEHAVIORAL DOSE-EFFECT CURVES FOR HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS ACUTELY EXPOSED TO TOLUENE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The utility of laboratory animal data in toxicology depends upon the ability to generalize the results quantitatively to humans. To compare the acute behavioral effects of inhaled toluene in humans to those in animals, dose-effect curves were fitted by meta-analysis of published...

  14. Acute effects of exposure to 56Fe and 16O particles on learning and memory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although it has been shown that exposure to HZE particles disrupts cognitive performance when tested 2-4 weeks after irradiation, it has not been determined whether exposure to HZE particles can exert acute effects on cognitive performance; i.e., effects within 4-48 hrs after exposure. The present ...

  15. A QUANTITATIVE COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF ACUTE INHALED TOLUENE IN HUMAN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of acute exposure to toluene have been explored more thoroughly than other hydrocarbon solvents. These effects have been experimentally studied in humans and other species, e.g., rats, as well as in a number of in vitro preparations. The existence ofdosimetric and eff...

  16. Acute Effect of Decaffeinated Coffee on Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, and Exercise Performance in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Ravi; Kaushik, Vidya S.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of decaffeinated coffee on the cardiovascular exercise performance in nine healthy volunteers was evaluated in a double-blind randomized fashion. The heart rate, blood pressure, and duration of exercise were unchanged, and no arrhythmias or ischemic changes were seen on the electrocardiogram after drinking decaffeinated coffee. It was concluded that decaffeinated coffee has no discernible, acute, adverse cardiovascular effects. PMID:3339645

  17. ASSESSING THE IMPORTANCE OF THE BEHAVIORAL EFFECT OF ACUTE EXPOSURE TO TOLUENE IN HUMANS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is increasing interest in being able to evaluate potential benefit-cost relationships of controlling exposure to toxic substances. Behavioral effects of acute toluene exposure could be subjected to benefit-cost analysis if it's effects were quantitatively compared to tho...

  18. Behavioural effects of juvenile hormone and their influence on division of labour in leaf-cutting ant societies.

    PubMed

    Norman, Victoria C; Hughes, William O H

    2016-01-01

    Division of labour in social insects represents a major evolutionary transition, but the physiological mechanisms that regulate this are still little understood. Experimental work with honey bees, and correlational analyses in other social insects, have implicated juvenile hormone (JH) as a regulatory factor, but direct experimental evidence of behavioural effects of JH in social insects is generally lacking. Here, we used experimental manipulation of JH to show that raised JH levels in leaf-cutting ants results in workers becoming more active, phototactic and threat responsive, and engaging in more extranidal activity - behavioural changes that we show are all characteristic of the transition from intranidal work to foraging. These behavioural effects on division of labour suggest that the JH mediation of behaviour occurs across multiple independent evolutions of eusociality, and may be a key endocrine regulator of the division of labour which has produced the remarkable ecological and evolutionary success of social insects. PMID:26739685

  19. Acute effects of cigarette smoke exposure on experimental skin flaps

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, J.; Jenkins, R.A.; Kurihara, K.; Schultz, R.C.

    1985-04-01

    Random vascular patterned caudally based McFarlane-type skin flaps were elevated in groups of Fischer 344 rats. Groups of rats were then acutely exposed on an intermittent basis to smoke generated from well-characterized research filter cigarettes. Previously developed smoke inhalation exposure protocols were employed using a Maddox-ORNL inhalation exposure system. Rats that continued smoke exposure following surgery showed a significantly greater mean percent area of flap necrosis compared with sham-exposed groups or control groups not exposed. The possible pathogenesis of this observation as well as considerations and correlations with chronic human smokers are discussed. Increased risks of flap necrosis by smoking in the perioperative period are suggested by this study.

  20. Behavioural and neurotoxic long-lasting effects of MDMA plus cocaine in adolescent mice.

    PubMed

    Daza-Losada, M; Rodríguez-Arias, M; Maldonado, C; Aguilar, M A; Miñarro, J

    2008-08-20

    The poly-drug pattern is the most common among MDMA users, with cocaine being a frequently associated drug. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the behavioural and neurotoxic long-term effects of exposure during adolescence to MDMA alone or plus cocaine. Mice of 28 to 30 days of age received a treatment of two daily injections of an identical dose of MDMA (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg), alone or plus cocaine (25 mg/kg), for 3 days (6 administrations). Three weeks after receiving MDMA, an increase in the time dedicated by the animals to social contacts with their conspecifics was observed, whilst their behaviour in the elevated plus maze showed no differences from that of non-treated mice. After being exposed to MDMA plus cocaine, mice spent more time in social contacts during the interaction test, as well as exhibiting an anxiolytic profile in the elevated plus maze, with an increase in the time and number of entries in the open arms. The activity of mice treated with cocaine alone or plus MDMA remained constant; the decrease observed among the rest of the animals after the second hour was absent in their case. The level of dopamine in the striatum was diminished in mice treated with 20 mg/kg of MDMA, but this neurotransmitter was not affected in animals exposed to the same dose plus cocaine. The present results highlight pronounced alterations in the behaviour of adult mice after exposure to MDMA and cocaine during adolescence, and demonstrate that these long-term effects can occur without the dopaminergic system becoming affected. PMID:18585379

  1. Effects of emphasising opposition and cooperation on collective movement behaviour during football small-sided games.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, B; Marcelino, R; Torres-Ronda, L; Torrents, C; Sampaio, J

    2016-07-01

    Optimizing collective behaviour helps to increase performance in mutual tasks. In team sports settings, the small-sided games (SSG) have been used as key context tools to stress out the players' awareness about their in-game required behaviours. Research has mostly described these behaviours when confronting teams have the same number of players, disregarding the frequent situations of low and high inequality. This study compared the players' positioning dynamics when manipulating the number of opponents and teammates during professional and amateur football SSG. The participants played 4v3, 4v5 and 4v7 games, where one team was confronted with low-superiority, low- and high-inferiority situations, and their opponents with low-, medium- and high-cooperation situations. Positional data were used to calculate effective playing space and distances from each player to team centroid, opponent team centroid and nearest opponent. Outcomes suggested that increasing the number of opponents in professional teams resulted in moderate/large decrease in approximate entropy (ApEn) values to both distance to team and opponent team centroid (i.e., the variables present higher regularity/predictability pattern). In low-cooperation game scenarios, the ApEn in amateurs' tactical variables presented a moderate/large increase. The professional teams presented an increase in the distance to nearest opponent with the increase of the cooperation level. Increasing the number of opponents was effective to overemphasise the need to use local information in the positioning decision-making process from professionals. Conversely, amateur still rely on external informational feedback. Increasing the cooperation promoted more regularity in spatial organisation in amateurs and emphasise their players' local perceptions. PMID:26928336

  2. Knowledge, Beliefs and Behaviours Regarding the Adverse Effects of Medicines in an Omani Population

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Jimmy; Jimmy, Beena; Al-Mamari, Moza N. S.; Al-Hadrami, Thuraiya S. N.; Al-Zadjali, Halima M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the knowledge, beliefs and behaviours of an Omani population with regards to the adverse effects of medicines. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted between February and June 2012. A 17-item questionnaire was designed to assess three aspects: knowledge, beliefs and behaviours related to medicine safety. A total of 740 questionnaires were distributed in three representative governorates of Oman. Median total scores for the three sections were estimated. Associations with participants’ demographic variables and medication histories were also assessed. Results: A total of 618 participants completed the survey (response rate: 83.5%). Many participants (46.4%) believed that side-effects occurred only with high doses of medication and over 30% believed that they did not occur at all with traditional and over-the-counter medicines. The median total score was 19 (interquartile range: 6) out of a maximum of 30. Inadequate knowledge, incorrect beliefs and good behaviours were observed among the participants. There was a significant association between certain demographic parameters (age, educational qualification, history of chronic use of medicines and employment status) and median total scores. Participants reported obtaining additional information on medication safety from various sources, with doctors as the most widely used source. Conclusion: Inadequate knowledge and incorrect beliefs among this Omani population indicate a need for interventions to improve public knowledge and address misconceptions regarding medication safety. These interventions could be initiated on both an individual and public scale, with patient interactions by healthcare professionals and mass education activities targeting the larger population. PMID:26052459

  3. Behavioural therapy for smoking cessation: The effectiveness of different intervention types for disadvantaged and affluent smokers☆

    PubMed Central

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Murray, Susan; Brose, Leonie S.; McEwen, Andy; Bee, Jo Leonardi; Dobbie, Fiona; Bauld, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Background Disadvantaged smokers are less likely to be successful when trying to stop smoking than more affluent smokers. In the UK, NHS Stop Smoking Services (SSS) provide a range of pharmacotherapy and behavioural support, delivered by advisors with a range of backgrounds. Whether the types of support provided and who provides it influence differences in quit rates amongst low SES smokers compared with high SES smokers has not previously been examined. Methods 202,084 records of smokers in England who attended a NHS Stop Smoking Service between July 2010 and June 2011 were acquired. Smokers were followed-up by services at four weeks post quit date. Multilevel logistic regression models of CO validated quits were employed. Disadvantage was explored through the National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification (NS-SEC) and by eligibility for free prescriptions, an indicator of low income amongst adults aged between 19 and 59 in England. Results Affluent smokers were more likely to quit than disadvantaged smokers (OR 1.38 (1.35 to 1.42) for clients who paid for prescriptions compared to those eligible for free prescriptions). 80% of service clients received one-to-one counselling but open group forms of behavioural therapy were more successful (main effect OR 1.26 (1.12 to 1.41)) except amongst some of the most disadvantaged clients (long-term unemployed and prisoners). Closed groups were little deployed and they were not significantly more successful than one-to-one behavioural therapy after controls. Who delivered treatment did make a difference for some clients, with all but the most affluent less likely to be successful if they had been treated by a nurse compared with other types of advisers, including smoking cessation specialists (main effect OR 0.73 (0.65 to 0.83)). Conclusion This study provides further evidence that disadvantaged smokers find quitting more difficult even when they have attended a smoking cessation programme. The findings suggest that open

  4. Acute health effects of accidental chlorine gas exposure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to report the course of an accidental release of chlorine gas that occurred in a factory in Gumi-si, South Korea, on March 5, 2013. We describe the analysis results of 2 patients hospitalized because of chlorine-induced acute health problems, as well as the clinical features of 209 non-hospitalized patients. Methods We analyzed the medical records of the 2 hospitalized patients admitted to the hospital, as well as the medical records and self-report questionnaires of 209 non-hospitalized patients completed during outpatient treatment. Results Immediately after the exposure, the 2 hospitalized patients developed acute asthma-like symptoms such as cough and dyspnea, and showed restrictive and combined pattern ventilatory defects on the pulmonary function test. The case 1 showed asthma-like symptoms over six months and diurnal variability in peak expiratory flow rate was 56.7%. In case 2, his FEV1 after treatment (93%) increased by 25% compared to initial FEV1 (68%). Both cases were diagnosed as chlorine-induced reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) on the basis of these clinical features. The most frequent chief complaints of the 209 non-hospitalized patients were headache (22.7%), followed by eye irritation (18.2%), nausea (11.2%), and sore throat (10.8%), with asymptomatic patients accounting for 36.5%. The multiple-response analysis of individual symptom revealed headache (42.4%) to be the most frequent symptom, followed by eye irritation (30.5%), sore throat (30.0%), cough (29.6%), nausea (27.6%), and dizziness (27.3%). Conclusions The 2 patients hospitalized after exposure to chlorine gas at the leakage site showed a clinical course corresponding to RADS. All of the 209 non-hospitalized patients only complained of symptoms of the upper airways and mucous membrane irritation. PMID:25852940

  5. Acute and medium term effects of a 10-week running intervention on mood state in apprentices

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Katrin; von Haaren, Birte; Löffler, Simone; Härtel, Sascha; Jansen, Carl-Philipp; Werner, Christian; Stumpp, Jürgen; Bös, Klaus; Hey, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Exercise and physical activity have proven benefits for physical and psychological well-being. However, it is not clear if healthy young adults can enhance mood in everyday life through regular exercise. Earlier studies mainly showed positive effects of acute exercise and exercise programs on psychological well-being in children, older people and in clinical populations. Few studies controlled participants' physical activity in daily life, performed besides the exercise program, which can impact results. In addition the transition from mood enhancement induced by acute exercise to medium or long-term effects due to regular exercise is not yet determined. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the acute effects of an aerobic running training on mood and trends in medium term changes of mood in everyday life of young adults. We conducted a 10-week aerobic endurance training with frequent mood assessments and continuous activity monitoring. 23 apprentices, separated into experimental and control group, were monitored over 12 weeks. To control the effectiveness of the aerobic exercise program, participants completed a progressive treadmill test pre and post the intervention period. The three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence and calmness were assessed via electronic diaries. Participants had to rate their mood state frequently on 3 days a week at five times of measurement within 12 weeks. Participants' physical activity was assessed with accelerometers. All mood dimensions increased immediately after acute endurance exercise but results were not significant. The highest acute mood change could be observed in valence (p = 0.07; η2 = 0.27). However, no medium term effects in mood states could be observed after a few weeks of endurance training. Future studies should focus on the interaction between acute and medium term effects of exercise training on mood. The decreasing compliance over the course of the study requires the development of

  6. Acute and training effects of resistance exercise on heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Kingsley, J Derek; Figueroa, Arturo

    2016-05-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has been used as a non-invasive method to evaluate heart rate (HR) regulation by the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system. In this review, we discuss the effect of resistance exercise both acutely and after training on HRV in healthy individuals and in those with diseases characterized by autonomic dysfunction, such as hypertension and fibromyalgia. HR recovery after exercise is influenced by parasympathetic reactivation and sympathetic recovery to resting levels. Therefore, examination of HRV in response to acute exercise yields valuable insight into autonomic cardiovascular modulation and possible underlying risk for disease. Acute resistance exercise has shown to decrease cardiac parasympathetic modulation more than aerobic exercise in young healthy adults suggesting an increased risk for cardiovascular dysfunction after resistance exercise. Resistance exercise training appears to have no effect on resting HRV in healthy young adults, while it may improve parasympathetic modulation in middle-aged adults with autonomic dysfunction. Acute resistance exercise appears to decrease parasympathetic activity regardless of age. This review examines the acute and chronic effects of resistance exercise on HRV in young and older adults. PMID:25524332

  7. Acute and Chronic Effects of Cannabinoids on Human Cognition-A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Broyd, Samantha J; van Hell, Hendrika H; Beale, Camilla; Yücel, Murat; Solowij, Nadia

    2016-04-01

    Cannabis use has been associated with impaired cognition during acute intoxication as well as in the unintoxicated state in long-term users. However, the evidence has been mixed and contested, and no systematic reviews of the literature on neuropsychological task-based measures of cognition have been conducted in an attempt to synthesize the findings. We systematically review the empirical research published in the past decade (from January 2004 to February 2015) on acute and chronic effects of cannabis and cannabinoids and on persistence or recovery after abstinence. We summarize the findings into the major categories of the cognitive domains investigated, considering sample characteristics and associations with various cannabis use parameters. Verbal learning and memory and attention are most consistently impaired by acute and chronic exposure to cannabis. Psychomotor function is most affected during acute intoxication, with some evidence for persistence in chronic users and after cessation of use. Impaired verbal memory, attention, and some executive functions may persist after prolonged abstinence, but persistence or recovery across all cognitive domains remains underresearched. Associations between poorer performance and a range of cannabis use parameters, including a younger age of onset, are frequently reported. Little further evidence has emerged for the development of tolerance to the acutely impairing effects of cannabis. Evidence for potential protection from harmful effects by cannabidiol continues to increase but is not definitive. In light of increasing trends toward legalization of cannabis, the knowledge gained from this body of research needs to be incorporated into strategies to minimize harm. PMID:26858214

  8. The effects of gonadectomy and binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence on open field behaviour in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wensheng; Kang, Jie; Zhang, Guoliang; Li, Shuangcheng; Kang, Yunxiao; Wang, Lei; Shi, Geming

    2015-09-14

    Binge drinking ethanol exposure during adolescence can lead to long-term neurobehavioural damage. It is not known whether the pubertal surge in testosterone that occurs during adolescence might impact the neurobehavioural effects of early ethanol exposure in adult animals. We examined this hypothesis by performing sham or gonadectomy surgeries on Sprague-Dawley rats around postnatal day (P) 23. From P28-65,the rats were administered 3.0g/kg ethanol using a binge-like model of exposure. Dependent measurements included tests of open field behaviour, blood ethanol concentrations, and testosterone levels. As adults, significant decreases in open field activity were observed in the GX rats. The open field behaviour of the GX rats was restored after testosterone administration. Binge-like ethanol exposure altered most of the parameters of the open field behaviour, suggestive of alcohol-induced anxiety, but rats treated with alcohol in combination with gonadectomy showed less motor behaviour and grooming behaviour and an increase in immobility, suggesting ethanol-induced depression. These results indicated that testosterone is required for ethanol-induced behavioural changes and that testicular hormones are potent stimulators of ethanol-induced behaviours. PMID:26238258

  9. Adolescent soft drink consumption, television viewing and habit strength. Investigating clustering effects in the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; van den Putte, Bas

    2009-08-01

    Clustering refers to the co-occurrence of behaviour and may be particularly relevant in light of the present obesity epidemic. Since evidence regarding clustering of motivational and habitual constructs within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) is limited, clustering effects of TPB cognitions and habit strength regarding soft drink consumption and television viewing were studied in a sample of Dutch adolescents (n = 312; mean age = 14.62; SD = 1.62) using cross-sectional data. Results showed that not only soft drink consumption and television viewing cluster (r = .42), but also their intentional (r = .36) and habitual (r = .37) constructs. Furthermore, unmediated effects were found between habit strength and its respective behaviour, whereas habit strength was associated with its clustered behaviour through decreased perceptions of controllability. Our findings suggest that interventions that aim to change habitual soft drink consumption and television viewing may need to incorporate an environmental component, as well as explore the potential usefulness of synergistic effects of incorporating multiple clustered behaviours, as well as their corresponding beliefs and habits in health behaviour change interventions. PMID:19463873

  10. A cost effectiveness analysis of the preferred antidotes for acute paracetamol poisoning patients in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute paracetamol poisoning is a rapidly increasing problem in Sri Lanka. The antidotes are expensive and yet no health economic evaluation has been done on the therapy for acute paracetamol poisoning in the developing world. The aim of this study is to determine the cost effectiveness of using N-acetylcysteine over methionine in the management of acute paracetamol poisoning in Sri Lanka. Methods Economic analysis was applied using public healthcare system payer perspective. Costs were obtained from a series of patients admitted to the National Hospital of Sri Lanka with a history of acute paracetamol overdose. Evidence on effectiveness was obtained from a systematic review of the literature. Death due to hepatotoxicity was used as the primary outcome of interest. Analysis and development of decision tree models was done using Tree Age Pro 2008. Results An affordable treatment threshold of Sri Lankan rupees 1,537,120/death prevented was set from the expected years of productive life gained and the average contribution to GDP. A cost-minimisation analysis was appropriate for patients presenting within 10 hours and methionine was the least costly antidote. For patients presenting 10-24 hours after poisoning, n-acetylcysteine was more effective and the incremental cost effectiveness ratio of Sri Lankan rupees 316,182/life saved was well under the threshold. One-way and multi-way sensitivity analysis also supported methionine for patients treated within 10 hours and n-acetylcysteine for patients treated within 10-24 hours as preferred antidotes. Conclusions Post ingestion time is an important determinant of preferred antidotal therapy for acute paracetamol poisoning patients in Sri Lanka. Using n-acetylcysteine in all patients is not cost effective. On economic grounds, methionine should become the preferred antidote for Sri Lankan patients treated within 10 hours of the acute ingestion and n-acetylcysteine should continue to be given to patients treated

  11. Effect of different housing conditions on behaviour and foot lesions in Friesian heifers.

    PubMed

    Leonard, F C; O'Connell, J; O'Farrell, K

    1994-05-01

    Spring-calving Friesian heifers were randomly allocated either to Dutch Comfort cubicles (2130 x 1160 mm) bedded with rubber mats or to modified Newton Rigg cubicles (2060 x 1090 mm) without bedding. Their behavioural activities, including lying down and standing, were monitored every 30 minutes for two days and two nights each week from November to March, and all four feet of each animal were examined at housing, at calving and monthly thereafter. During January, February and March the 22 heifers in the Dutch Comfort cubicles lay down significantly longer and spent significantly less time standing half-in the cubicles than the 21 heifers in the Newton Rigg cubicles (P < 0.01). Claw health deteriorated in all the animals after housing, but less in the heifers in the Dutch Comfort cubicles, at both one and two months after calving (P < 0.05). There were moderate correlations between the lying behaviour and the total foot lesions and the lesions in the sole ulcer area of the heifers in the Dutch Comfort cubicles but none for the heifers in the Newton Rigg cubicles, possibly because lameness is a multifactorial condition and other factors may have masked the effect of lying down on foot lesions in this group. The better conditions provided by the Dutch Comfort cubicles were associated with better claw health and this effect was partially mediated through the increased time spent lying down by the heifers in these cubicles. PMID:8073591

  12. Effect of Bombax ceiba L. on spermatogenesis, sexual behaviour and erectile function in male rats.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, C; Thakur, M; Yadav, S K

    2012-05-01

    A number of herbal drugs are advocated in the traditional Ayurvedic literature for the improvement of overall sexual function. Young roots of Bombax ceiba Linn. (Fam. Bombacaceae) [correction added after online publication 1 August 2011: the family of Bombax ceiba was incorrectly mentioned as Orchidaceae. It has been corrected to Bombacaceae] also known as Semal Musli are used traditionally in Indian subcontinent as sexual stimulant. Its juice is considered nutritive and restorative tonic. Lyophilised aqueous extract of roots was studied for effect on sexual behaviour and spermatogenesis in male albino rats. Administration of 100 mg Kg(-1) body weight of aqueous extract influenced the five parameters evaluated in vivo. Sexual behaviour analysis in the presence of a female rate, serum testosterone level, anabolic effects, epididymal sperm count and seminal fructose level were the parameters evaluated. In B. ceiba extract-treated animals, a gain in body and sexual organ weights was observed. Mount, intromission and ejaculation frequencies were significantly improved (P < 0.05). An increase in serum testosterone levels was also observed, but it was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Seminal fructose content and epididymal sperm count were significantly improved as well. Penile erection index was also higher compared to control group animals. Hesitation time was significantly reduced (P < 0.01), and copulatory rate was doubled in treated animals compared with control group animals. PMID:21806665

  13. Rejection of pharmaceuticals by nanofiltration (NF) membranes: Effect of fouling on rejection behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahlangu, T. O.; Msagati, T. A. M.; Hoek, E. M. V.; Verliefde, A. R. D.; Mamba, B. B.

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of membrane fouling by sodium alginate, latex and a combination of alginate + latex on the rejection behaviour of salts and organics. Sodium chloride and caffeine were selected to represent salts and organics, respectively. The effects of the presence of calcium chloride on the fouling behaviour and rejection of solutes were investigated. The results revealed that the salt rejection by virgin membranes was 47% while that of caffeine was 85%. Fouling by alginate, latex and combined alginate-latex resulted in flux decline of 25%, 37% and 17%, respectively. The addition of Ca2+ aggravated fouling and resulted in further flux decline to 37%. Fouling decreased salt rejection, an observation that was further aggravated by the addition on Ca2+. However, it was also observed that fouling with alginate and calcium and with latex and calcium minimised salt rejection by 30% and 31%, respectively. This reduction in salt rejection was attributed to the decrease in permeate flux (since rejection is a function of flux). There was a slight increase in caffeine rejection when the membrane was fouled with latex particles. Moreover, the presence of foulants on the membrane resulted in a decrease in the surface charge of the membrane. The results of this study have shown that the NF 270 membrane can be used to treat water samples contaminated with caffeine and other organic compounds that have physicochemical properties similar to those of caffeine.

  14. A comparative study of the effects of constructional elements on the mechanical behaviour of dragonfly wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabi, H.; Rezasefat, M.; Darvizeh, A.; Dirks, J.-H.; Eshghi, Sh.; Shafiei, A.; Mostofi, T. Mirzababaie; Gorb, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    Although wings of insects show a large variation in morphology, they are all made from a network of irregular veins interconnected through membranous areas. Depending on their shape, size, and position, wing veins are usually divided into three different groups: longitudinal veins, cross-veins and ambient veins. The veins together with the membrane and some other elements such as spines, nodus and pterostigma can be considered as the wing's "constructional elements". In spite of rather extensive literature on dragonfly wing structure, the role of each of these elements in determining the wing's function remains mostly unknown. As this question is difficult to answer in vivo using biomechanical experiments on actual wings, this study was undertaken to reveal the effects of the constructional elements on the mechanical behaviour of dragonfly wings by applying numerical simulations. An image processing technique was used to develop 12 finite element models of the insect wings with different constructional elements. The mechanical behaviour of these models was then simulated under normal and shear stresses due to tension, bending and torsion. A free vibration analysis was also performed to determine the resonant frequencies and the mode shapes of the models. For the first time, a quantitative comparison was carried out between the mechanical effects selectively caused by different elements. Our results suggest that the complex interactions of veins, membranes and corrugations may considerably affect the dynamic deformation of the insect wings during flight.

  15. Effectiveness of cognitive-behaviour therapy for hoarding disorder in people with mild intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Kellett, Stephen; Matuozzo, Heather; Kotecha, Chandanee

    2015-12-01

    Evaluations of cognitive behavioural interventions for hoarding for those with intellectual disabilities (ID) have not been previously attempted. This investigation therefore examined the acceptability and effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in a sample of N=14 adults with mild ID. All participants had hoarding as their primary problem and received twelve individual CBT sessions, all conducted via domiciliary visits. The primary outcome measure was an environmental measure (Clutter Image Rating Scale), which was scored at baseline, end of treatment and at six-month follow-up. Acceptability of CBT was measured via the treatment refusal and dropout rate. Secondary self-report outcomes included measures of hoarding, depression and anxiety. Results demonstrate that hoarding significantly reduced following treatment on both self-report and environmental assessment. No participants refused or dropped out of treatment and that there was no evidence of relapse over the follow-up period. No adverse treatment incidences were reported. This open trial suggests that CBT may be a safe and effective intervention for hoarding difficulties in people with ID, but that the evidence base in this population needs urgent and detailed attention. PMID:26479825

  16. Assessment of the Central Effects of Natural Uranium via Behavioural Performances and the Cerebrospinal Fluid Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Lestaevel, P.; Grison, S.; Favé, G.; Elie, C.; Dhieux, B.; Martin, J. C.; Tack, K.; Souidi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Natural uranium (NU), a component of the earth's crust, is not only a heavy metal but also an alpha particle emitter, with chemical and radiological toxicity. Populations may therefore be chronically exposed to NU through drinking water and food. Since the central nervous system is known to be sensitive to pollutants during its development, we assessed the effects on the behaviour and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metabolome of rats exposed for 9 months from birth to NU via lactation and drinking water (1.5, 10, or 40 mg·L−1 for male rats and 40 mg·L−1 for female rats). Medium-term memory decreased in comparison to controls in male rats exposed to 1.5, 10, or 40 mg·L−1 NU. In male rats, spatial working memory and anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour were only altered by exposure to 40 mg·L−1 NU and any significant effect was observed on locomotor activity. In female rats exposed to NU, only locomotor activity was significantly increased in comparison with controls. LC-MS metabolomics of CSF discriminated the fingerprints of the male and/or female NU-exposed and control groups. This study suggests that exposure to environmental doses of NU from development to adulthood can have an impact on rat brain function. PMID:27247806

  17. Behavioural variability and motor performance: Effect of practice specialization in front crawl swimming.

    PubMed

    Seifert, L; De Jesus, K; Komar, J; Ribeiro, J; Abraldes, J A; Figueiredo, P; Vilas-Boas, J P; Fernandes, R J

    2016-06-01

    The aim was to examine behavioural variability within and between individuals, especially in a swimming task, to explore how swimmers with various specialty (competitive short distance swimming vs. triathlon) adapt to repetitive events of sub-maximal intensity, controlled in speed but of various distances. Five swimmers and five triathletes randomly performed three variants (with steps of 200, 300 and 400m distances) of a front crawl incremental step test until exhaustion. Multi-camera system was used to collect and analyse eight kinematical and swimming efficiency parameters. Analysis of variance showed significant differences between swimmers and triathletes, with significant individual effect. Cluster analysis put these parameters together to investigate whether each individual used the same pattern(s) and one or several patterns to achieve the task goal. Results exhibited ten patterns for the whole population, with only two behavioural patterns shared between swimmers and triathletes. Swimmers tended to use higher hand velocity and index of coordination than triathletes. Mono-stability occurred in swimmers whatever the task constraint showing high stability, while triathletes revealed bi-stability because they switched to another pattern at mid-distance of the task. Finally, our analysis helped to explain and understand effect of specialty and more broadly individual adaptation to task constraint. PMID:26991729

  18. The Predictive Effects of the Behaviour Problem Variables on Peer Victimisation in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoleri, Sibel

    2014-01-01

    Behaviour problems in young children are fairly common. It has been suggested that approximately 5-14% of preschool children exhibit problem behaviour. There are many reasons for behaviour problems in preschool-aged period children. Researches reveal that link between victimisation and individual differences. However, but still, we do not know the…

  19. The effects of acute alcohol administration on the human brain: Insights from neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Bjork, James M.; Gilman, Jodi M.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last quarter century, researchers have peered into the living human brain to develop and refine mechanistic accounts of alcohol-induced behavior, as well as neurobiological mechanisms for development and maintenance of addiction. These in vivo neuroimaging studies generally show that acute alcohol administration affects brain structures implicated in motivation and behavior control, and that chronic intoxication is correlated with structural and functional abnormalities in these same structures, where some elements of these decrements normalize with extended sobriety. In this review, we will summarize recent findings about acute human brain responses to alcohol using neuroimaging techniques, and how they might explain behavioral effects of alcohol intoxication. We then briefly address how chronic alcohol intoxication (as inferred from cross-sectional differences between various drinking populations and controls) may yield individual brain differences between drinking subjects that may confound interpretation of acute alcohol administration effects. PMID:23978384

  20. Effects of cognitive enrichment on behavioural and physiological reactions of pigs.

    PubMed

    Zebunke, Manuela; Puppe, Birger; Langbein, Jan

    2013-06-13

    Cognitive enrichment, a special form of environmental enrichment, addresses the cognitive abilities of animals in captivity. Through cognitive interaction with the environment, the animals regain a certain control over their environment, and essential resources, such as food or water, act as a reward for successful coping. It is assumed that this process has important implications for animal welfare, especially in the intensive housing systems of farm animals. This study investigates the effects of cognitive enrichment on welfare-relevant behaviour (agonistic interactions and behavioural reactivity in a repeated open-field test) and autonomic control (heart rate variability during feeding, resting and in a repeated open-field test) in domestic pigs. A total of forty-eight pigs, Sus scrofa, were housed in groups of four. In six replicates, an experimental group was compared with a conventionally fed control group. The pigs in the experimental group were confronted with a cognitive challenge that was integrated into their familiar housing environment. Pigs were rewarded with food after they successfully mastered the discrimination of an individual acoustical signal followed by an operant task. The pigs in both groups reacted with sympathetic arousal to feeding announcement (increased heart rate (HR)). During feeding, the experimental pigs' HR decreased, and heart rate variability (HRV) increased, while the control pigs' HR stayed highly elevated and HRV decreased. These results are supported by a considerably larger number of agonistic interactions during feeding in the control group. During resting, the basal HRV of the experimental pigs increased (during operant conditioning) compared to the control. In the repeated open-field test, the experimental pigs displayed less locomotion and elimination as well as more contact with the wall and an unknown object compared to the control group. We conclude that cognitive enrichment leads to relaxed feeding and evokes longer

  1. Lowbury Lecture 2013. Cultural determinants of infection control behaviour: understanding drivers and implementing effective change.

    PubMed

    Borg, M A

    2014-03-01

    Despite dealing with biomedical practices, infection prevention and control (IPC) is essentially a behavioural science. Human behaviour is influenced by various factors, including culture. Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions proposes that national cultures vary along consistent dimensions which can be grouped and scored as specific constructs. Studies have reported that three Hofstede constructs--power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity--show significant association with several key performance indicators relevant to IPC and antibiotic stewardship. In addition, national meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) levels within Europe correlate well with general quality-of-care indices, including preventive strategies and patient rights. This suggests that IPC may be simply a microcosm of overall quality and safety standards within hospitals and countries. Effective improvement would therefore need to address underlying and embedded core cultural values relevant to patient safety and quality of care. Successful IPC strategies are likely to be those that are compatible with the cultural background where they are implemented. To this end, content analysis of many current IPC improvement tools identifies elements of strong compatibility with cultures that are low in uncertainty avoidance and power distance, and high in individualism and masculinity. However, this cultural combination is largely restricted to Anglo-Saxon countries, where most of the recent improvements in healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) incidence have taken place. There is a paucity of research on IPC behaviour change in different cultural backgrounds, especially countries that score high for power distance and/or uncertainty avoidance. This information is vital to inform IPC campaigns in these countries, which often show high HCAI prevalence. PMID:24534705

  2. Treatment compliance and effectiveness of a cognitive behavioural intervention for low back pain: a complier average causal effect approach to the BeST data set

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Group cognitive behavioural intervention (CBI) is effective in reducing low-back pain and disability in comparison to advice in primary care. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the impact of compliance on estimates of treatment effect and to identify factors associated with compliance. Methods In this multicentre trial, 701 adults with troublesome sub-acute or chronic low-back pain were recruited from 56 general practices. Participants were randomised to advice (control n = 233) or advice plus CBI (n = 468). Compliance was specified a priori as attending a minimum of three group sessions and the individual assessment. We estimated the complier average causal effect (CACE) of treatment. Results Comparison of the CACE estimate of the mean treatment difference to the intention-to-treat (ITT) estimate at 12 months showed a greater benefit of CBI amongst participants compliant with treatment on the Roland Morris Questionnaire (CACE: 1.6 points, 95% CI 0.51 to 2.74; ITT: 1.3 points, 95% CI 0.55 to 2.07), the Modified Von Korff disability score (CACE: 12.1 points, 95% CI 6.07 to 18.17; ITT: 8.6 points, 95% CI 4.58 to 12.64) and the Modified von Korff pain score (CACE: 10.4 points, 95% CI 4.64 to 16.10; ITT: 7.0 points, 95% CI 3.26 to 10.74). People who were non-compliant were younger and had higher pain scores at randomisation. Conclusions Treatment compliance is important in the effectiveness of group CBI. Younger people and those with more pain are at greater risk of non-compliance. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN54717854 PMID:24423146

  3. Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy with ceftriaxone for acute tonsillopharyngitis: efficacy, patient satisfaction, cost effectiveness, and safety

    PubMed Central

    Al Alawi, Samah; Abdulkarim, Somaya; Elhennawy, Hazem; Al-Mansoor, Anwar; Al Ansari, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Background Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) is the administration of intravenous antimicrobial therapy to patients in an outpatient setting. It may be used for patients who have infections that require parenteral treatment but who are otherwise stable enough to not require admission as inpatients. Objective We aimed to review the treatment of patients with acute tonsillopharyngitis at the OPAT health care clinic in the Bahrain Defense Force Royal Medical Services (BDF-RMS), with regard to efficacy, patient satisfaction, cost effectiveness, and safety. Methods A retrospective case notes review was conducted for all patients admitted to the OPAT clinic in the BDF-RMS with acute tonsillopharyngitis treated with ceftriaxone, between March 2012 and March 2014. Results In the period between March 2012 and March 2014, 97 patients with acute tonsillopharyngitis were treated with ceftriaxone for a minimum of 3 days at the OPAT clinic. In total, 94.8% of patients completed the prescribed course of ceftriaxone. Total cure was achieved in 89.7% of patients. Usage of the OPAT clinic led to cost savings of 10,693 BD, while total bed days saved were 301 over the 2-year period examined by this study. Participants in the program expressed high satisfaction rates, and the average (± standard deviation) score on a patient satisfaction survey was 4.41 (± 0.31) out of a total of 5. This study highlights the efficacy, patient satisfaction, cost effectiveness, and safety of the OPAT clinic service for the treatment of acute tonsillopharyngitis with ceftriaxone. We found a 45.5% drop in admission rate for acute tonsillopharyngitis after starting the OPAT service clinic and that 301 bed days were saved through this treatment. Conclusion This study showed that the management of acute tonsillopharyngitis with ceftriaxone in the OPAT clinic is safe, clinically effective, and cost effective, with low rates of complications/readmissions and high levels of patient

  4. Effect of reward downshift on the behaviour and physiology of chickens

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Anna C.; Nicol, Christine J.; Radford, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    When a reward is downgraded in quantity or quality from that which is expected, one of two possible outcomes can result. Acquisition responses may decline gradually, owing to a strong stimulus–response reinforcement history, and thus follow the Thorndikian law of effect. Alternatively, there may be an exaggerated reaction to a downgraded reward when it is initially altered, compared to the behaviour of individuals that have always been trained to receive the lower magnitude reward; this is known as successive negative contrast (SNC). While behavioural SNC effects have been commonly demonstrated in mammals, evidence that they occur in other taxa is more equivocal. Additionally, studies demonstrating immediate physiological reactions during reward downshifts are limited. We investigated the reaction of chickens, Gallus gallus domesticus, to a downshift in the quality of a food reward that they had been trained to expect in a runway apparatus. During a preshift phase, 16 chickens (control) were given food that was flavoured to make it less preferred, while the other 16 (contrast) were fed the same food but without flavouring. During trial 7, unflavoured food was substituted by flavoured food for contrast hens and all birds were fed the flavoured food during a postshift phase. In the contrast group, food consumption immediately decreased and heart rate increased when the reward was downshifted from unflavoured to flavoured food, but there was no evidence of SNC effects, which could stem from methodological or taxonomic differences from previous studies. The latency to reach the food appeared to follow the Thorndikian law of effect, gradually increasing following the downshift. We suggest that the disparity between the pattern shown by the latency results and other measures could relate to the time period in which measures were taken, as acquisition responses are more likely to follow the law of effect. PMID:26257402

  5. Differential effects of self-efficacy and perceived control on intention to perform skin cancer-related health behaviours.

    PubMed

    Pertl, M; Hevey, D; Thomas, K; Craig, A; Chuinneagáin, S Ní; Maher, L

    2010-10-01

    Previous research using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) for predicting skin cancer-related health behaviours has not adequately incorporated empirical advances in the conceptualization of the perceived behavioural control (PBC) component of the theory. This study examined the role of self-efficacy and controllability for predicting sunscreen and sunbed use intentions. Five hundred and ninety young adults completed a questionnaire on beliefs and intentions regarding sunscreen and sunbed use. Analysis using confirmatory factor analysis and multiple regression supported a conceptual distinction between two PBC subcomponents: controllability and self-efficacy. While self-efficacy--but not controllability--emerged as a significant predictor of intentions to use sunscreen, the opposite pattern was observed for the prediction of intentions to use sunbeds, whereby lower controllability beliefs were associated with higher intentions. Campaigns aimed at influencing health behaviours should consider the differential effects of the components of perceived control. PMID:20439349

  6. The theory of planned behaviour and healthy eating: Examining additive and moderating effects of social influence variables.

    PubMed

    Povey, R; Conner, M; Sparks, P; James, R; Shepherd, R

    2000-11-01

    Abstract This paper examines the additive and moderating effects of social influence variables (injunctive norms, descriptive norms, perceived social support) within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). The target behaviour is the decision to eat healthily. Questionnaire responses on components of the TPB, descriptive norms, perceived social support, and subsequent healthy eating were obtained from a prospective sample of 235 members of the general public. Good predictions of intentions (42% of variance explained) and behaviour (15% of variance explained) were found using the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Neither descriptive norms nor perceived social support added to these predictions of intentions over and above the TPB variables. However, perceived social support was found to act as a moderator variable on the relationship between perceived behavioral control and intention, and the relationship between attitude and intention. Implications for exploring the role of social influence variables on decisions concerning health behavioun an discussed. PMID:22175258

  7. The acute and chronic effects of "NO LOAD" resistance training.

    PubMed

    Counts, Brittany R; Buckner, Samuel L; Dankel, Scott J; Jessee, Matthew B; Mattocks, Kevin T; Mouser, J Grant; Laurentino, Gilberto C; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to remove the influence of an external load and determine if muscle growth can be elicited by maximally contracting through a full range of motion. In addition, the acute physiologic and perceptual responses to each stimulus were also investigated. Thirteen participants completed 18 sessions of unilateral elbow flexion exercise. Each arm was designated to either NO LOAD or HIGH LOAD condition (70% one repetition maximum). For the NO LOAD condition, participants repeatedly contracted as hard as they could through a full range of motion without the use of an external load. Our results show that anterior muscle thickness increased similarly from Pre to Post, with no differences between conditions for the 50% [Pre: 2.7 (0.8) vs. Post: 2.9 (0.7)], 60% [Pre: 2.9 (0.7) vs. Post: 3.1 (0.7)] or 70% [Pre: 3.2 (0.7) vs. Post: 3.5 (0.7)] sites. There was a significant condition×time interaction for one repetition maximum (p=0.017), with HIGH LOAD (+2.3kg) increasing more than the NO LOAD condition (+1kg). These results extend previous studies that have observed muscle growth across a range of external loads and muscle actions and suggest that muscle growth can occur independent of an external load provided there are enough muscle fibers undergoing mechanotransduction. PMID:27329807

  8. Effect of acute cytomegalovirus infection on drug-induced SLE.

    PubMed Central

    Schattner, A.; Sthoeger, Z.; Geltner, D.

    1994-01-01

    A 58 year old woman developed systemic symptoms, interstitial lung disease, splenomegaly, leukopenia and anti-histone and anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), while treated with hydralazine for hypertension. Five months after presentation she was admitted with high fever, skin rash and atypical lymphocytosis due to acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Worsening leukopenia and increased ANA were found, and high titres of anti-DNA antibodies, anti-cardiolipin antibodies and rheumatoid factors appeared. Hydralazine was stopped and the patient gradually became asymptomatic. All autoantibodies spontaneously disappeared (over 16 weeks), and the white cell count and spleen size became normal. The patient was found to be a slow acetylator and to have both HLA-DR4 and selective IgA deficiency. Thus, a multifactorial genetic susceptibility to develop drug-induced lupus was brought out in stages first by hydralazine and then by CMV, yet all manifestations and autoantibodies resolved spontaneously, demonstrating the complex interplay of varied environmental factors with a genetic predisposition in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. PMID:7831173

  9. Cognitive and physiological effects of an acute physical activity intervention in elementary school children

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Katja; Schmidt, Mirko; Conzelmann, Achim; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an acute physical activity intervention that included cognitive engagement on executive functions and on cortisol level in young elementary school children. Half of the 104 participating children (6–8 years old) attended a 20-min sport sequence, which included cognitively engaging and playful forms of physical activity. The other half was assigned to a resting control condition. Individual differences in children's updating, inhibition, and shifting performance as well as salivary cortisol were assessed before (pre-test), immediately after (post-test), and 40 min after (follow-up) the intervention or control condition, respectively. Results revealed a significantly stronger improvement in inhibition in the experimental group compared to the control group, while it appeared that acute physical activity had no specific effect on updating and shifting. The intervention effect on inhibition leveled out 40 min after physical activity. Salivary cortisol increased significantly more in the experimental compared to the control group between post-test and follow-up and results support partly the assumed inverted U-shaped relationship between cortisol level and cognitive performance. In conclusion, results indicate that acute physical activity that includes cognitive engagement may have immediate positive effects on inhibition, but not necessarily on updating and shifting in elementary school children. This positive effect may partly be explained through cortisol elevation after acute physical activity. PMID:25566148

  10. Cognitive behaviour therapy for improving social recovery in psychosis: cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Barton, Garry R; Hodgekins, Jo; Mugford, Miranda; Jones, Peter B; Croudace, Tim; Fowler, David

    2009-07-01

    A randomised trial was conducted in order to estimate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of social recovery orientated cognitive behavioural therapy (SRCBT) for people diagnosed with psychosis, compared to case management alone (CMA). The mean incremental health and social care cost, and the mean incremental quality adjusted life year (QALY) gain, of SRCBT was calculated over the 9 month intervention period. The cost-effectiveness of SCRBT was in turn estimated, and considered in relation to the cost-effectiveness threshold of 20000 UK pounds per QALY. The level of uncertainty associated with that decision was estimated by calculating the cost-effectiveness acceptability curve for SRCBT. N=35 received SRCBT and N=42 received CMA. The mean incremental cost was estimated to be 668 UK pounds, and the mean incremental QALY gain 0.035. SRCBT was estimated to be cost-effective as it had a cost per QALY of 18844 UK pounds, which was more favourable than the assumed cost-effectiveness threshold of 20000 UK pounds per QALY. At that threshold the probability of being cost-effective was however estimated to be 54.3% according to the CEAC, suggesting that further research may be warranted in order to reduce the level of uncertainty associated with the decision as to whether SRCBT is cost-effective. PMID:19403270

  11. Behavioural and electroencephalographic effects of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom in rats.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, M R; Dorce, V A

    1993-02-01

    This study was designed to investigate the convulsant effects of T. serrulatus scorpion venom in rats. Pretreatment of rats with venom increased the minimum convulsant dose of picrotoxin, impaired convulsion generalization and displaced to the left the dose-response curve for picrotoxin. It also decreased the intensity but prolonged the duration of seizures caused by pentylenetetrazol injection. Microinjection of the venom into the dorsal hippocampus induced behavioural alterations and epileptiform waves in the EEG. Venom also altered the threshold for, and intensity of, convulsions induced in different experimental models of epilepsy. Different fractions of the venom may be responsible for these different effects. Therefore, purification of venom toxins is necessary for the complete understanding of the present results. PMID:8456448

  12. Aggregated single-walled carbon nanotubes attenuate the behavioural and neurochemical effects of methamphetamine in mice.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xue; Yang, Jing-Yu; He, Yi; Wang, Li-Rong; Liu, Ping; Yu, Li-Sha; Bi, Guo-Hua; Zhu, Ming-Ming; Liu, Yue-Yang; Xiang, Rong-Wu; Yang, Xiao-Ting; Fan, Xin-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Min; Qi, Jia; Zhang, Hong-Jie; Wei, Tuo; Cui, Wei; Ge, Guang-Lu; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Wu, Chun-Fu; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2016-07-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is a serious social and health problem worldwide. At present, there are no effective medications to treat METH addiction. Here, we report that aggregated single-walled carbon nanotubes (aSWNTs) significantly inhibited METH self-administration, METH-induced conditioned place preference and METH- or cue-induced relapse to drug-seeking behaviour in mice. The use of aSWNTs alone did not significantly alter the mesolimbic dopamine system, whereas pretreatment with aSWNTs attenuated METH-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in the ventral striatum. Electrochemical assays suggest that aSWNTs facilitated dopamine oxidation. In addition, aSWNTs attenuated METH-induced increases in tyrosine hydroxylase or synaptic protein expression. These findings suggest that aSWNTs may have therapeutic effects for treatment of METH addiction by oxidation of METH-enhanced extracellular dopamine in the striatum. PMID:26974957

  13. Effect of simulated sampling disturbance on creep behaviour of rock salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guessous, Z.; Gill, D. E.; Ladanyi, B.

    1987-10-01

    This article presents the results of an experimental study of creep behaviour of a rock salt under uniaxial compression as a function of prestrain, simulating sampling disturbance. The prestrain was produced by radial compressive loading of the specimens prior to creep testing. The tests were conducted on an artifical salt to avoid excessive scattering of the results. The results obtained from several series of single-stage creep tests show that, at short-term, the creep response of salt is strongly affected by the preloading history of samples. The nature of this effect depends upon the intensity of radial compressive preloading, and its magnitude is a function of the creep stress level. The effect, however, decreases with increasing plastic deformation, indicating that large creep strains may eventually lead to a complete loss of preloading memory.

  14. An improved cellular automaton model considering the effect of traffic lights and driving behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hong-Di; Lu, Wei-Zhen; Dong, Li-Yun

    2011-04-01

    This paper proposes an improved cellular automaton model to describe the urban traffic flow with the consideration of traffic light and driving behaviour effects. Based on the model, the characteristics of the urban traffic flow on a single-lane road are investigated under three different control strategies, i.e., the synchronized, the green wave and the random strategies. The fundamental diagrams and time-space patterns of the traffic flows are provided for these strategies respectively. It finds that the dynamical transition to the congested flow appears when the vehicle density is higher than a critical level. The saturated flow is less dependent on the cycle time and the strategies of the traffic light control, while the critical vehicle density varies with the cycle time and the strategies. Simulated results indicate that the green wave strategy is proven to be the most effective one among the above three control strategies.

  15. Aggregated single-walled carbon nanotubes attenuate the behavioural and neurochemical effects of methamphetamine in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xue; Yang, Jing-Yu; He, Yi; Wang, Li-Rong; Liu, Ping; Yu, Li-Sha; Bi, Guo-Hua; Zhu, Ming-Ming; Liu, Yue-Yang; Xiang, Rong-Wu; Yang, Xiao-Ting; Fan, Xin-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Min; Qi, Jia; Zhang, Hong-Jie; Wei, Tuo; Cui, Wei; Ge, Guang-Lu; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Wu, Chun-Fu; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2016-07-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is a serious social and health problem worldwide. At present, there are no effective medications to treat METH addiction. Here, we report that aggregated single-walled carbon nanotubes (aSWNTs) significantly inhibited METH self-administration, METH-induced conditioned place preference and METH- or cue-induced relapse to drug-seeking behaviour in mice. The use of aSWNTs alone did not significantly alter the mesolimbic dopamine system, whereas pretreatment with aSWNTs attenuated METH-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in the ventral striatum. Electrochemical assays suggest that aSWNTs facilitated dopamine oxidation. In addition, aSWNTs attenuated METH-induced increases in tyrosine hydroxylase or synaptic protein expression. These findings suggest that aSWNTs may have therapeutic effects for treatment of METH addiction by oxidation of METH-enhanced extracellular dopamine in the striatum.

  16. The effect of interfaces on the mechanical behaviour of multilayered metallic laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobie, Cameron; McPhie, Mathieu G.; Capolungo, Laurent; Cherkaoui, Mohammed

    2014-06-01

    The mechanical response of multilayered metallic laminates is dominated by size effects through the confinement of dislocation motion within the layers. We deconvolute the contributions to the plastic behaviour resulting from dislocation-dislocation interactions and dislocation-interface interactions, using discrete dislocation dynamics and atomistic simulations. Upper and lower bounds for the material strength are found by considering two limiting cases for the influence of the interfaces: hard and shearable. Hard interfaces, preserving interfacial dislocations, are shown to significantly increase the strength of the multilayered metallic laminates, whereas a deformable interface results in lesser hardening. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the {1 1 1}Cu ∥ {1 1 0}Nb Cu/Nb interface response lies between these two cases. Additionally, the plastic response of Cu/Nb multilayered metallic laminates is studied and shown to be isotropic due to an effect of averaging among layers, despite the plastic anisotropy of the respective layer materials.

  17. Effects of Humans on Behaviour of Wildlife Exceed Those of Natural Predators in a Landscape of Fear

    PubMed Central

    Ciuti, Simone; Northrup, Joseph M.; Muhly, Tyler B.; Simi, Silvia; Musiani, Marco; Pitt, Justin A.; Boyce, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Human disturbance can influence wildlife behaviour, which can have implications for wildlife populations. For example, wildlife may be more vigilant near human disturbance, resulting in decreased forage intake and reduced reproductive success. We measured the effects of human activities compared to predator and other environmental factors on the behaviour of elk (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus 1758) in a human-dominated landscape in Alberta, Canada. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected year-round behavioural data of elk across a range of human disturbances. We estimated linear mixed models of elk behaviour and found that human factors (land-use type, traffic and distance from roads) and elk herd size accounted for more than 80% of variability in elk vigilance. Elk decreased their feeding time when closer to roads, and road traffic volumes of at least 1 vehicle every 2 hours induced elk to switch into a more vigilant behavioural mode with a subsequent loss in feeding time. Other environmental factors, thought crucial in shaping vigilance behaviour in elk (natural predators, reproductive status of females), were not important. The highest levels of vigilance were recorded on public lands where hunting and motorized recreational activities were cumulative compared to the national park during summer, which had the lowest levels of vigilance. Conclusions/Significance In a human-dominated landscape, effects of human disturbance on elk behaviour exceed those of habitat and natural predators. Humans trigger increased vigilance and decreased foraging in elk. However, it is not just the number of people but also the type of human activity that influences elk behaviour (e.g. hiking vs. hunting). Quantifying the actual fitness costs of human disturbance remains a challenge in field studies but should be a primary focus for future researches. Some species are much more likely to be disturbed by humans than by non-human predators: for these species, quantifying human

  18. Effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on isolated islets' insulin release

    PubMed Central

    Zardooz, Homeira; Zahediasl, Saleh; Rostamkhani, Fatemeh; Farrokhi, Babak; Nasiraei, Shiva; Kazeminezhad, Behrang; Gholampour, Roohollah

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from isolated pancreatic islets. Male Wistar rats were divided into two control and stressed groups; each further was allocated into fed and fasted groups. Stress was induced by communication box for one (acute), fifteen and thirty (chronic) days. After islet isolation, their number, size and insulin output were assessed. Plasma corticosterone level was determined. In fasted animals, acute stress increased basal and post stress plasma corticosterone level, while 30 days stress decreased it compared to day 1. In fed rats, acute stress increased only post stress plasma corticosterone concentration, however, after 15 days stress, it was decreased compared to day 1. Acute stress did not change insulin output; however, the insulin output was higher in the fed acutely stressed rats at 8.3 and 16.7 mM glucose than fasted ones. Chronic stress increased insulin output on day 15 in the fasted animals but decreased it on day 30 in the fed animals at 8.3 and 16.7 mM glucose. In the fasted control rats insulin output was lower than fed ones. In the chronic stressed rats insulin output at 8.3 and 16.7 mM glucose was higher in the fasted than fed rats. The number of islets increased in the fasted rats following 15 days stress. This study indicated that the response of the isolated islets from acute and chronically stressed rats are different and depends on the feeding status.

  19. Acclimation and acute temperature effects on population differences in oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Baris, Tara Z; Crawford, Douglas L; Oleksiak, Marjorie F

    2016-01-15

    Temperature changes affect metabolism on acute, acclamatory, and evolutionary time scales. To better understand temperature's affect on metabolism at these different time scales, we quantified cardiac oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) in three Fundulus taxa acclimated to 12 and 28°C and measured at three acute temperatures (12, 20, and 28°C). The Fundulus taxa (northern Maine and southern Georgia F. heteroclitus, and a sister taxa, F. grandis) were used to identify evolved changes in OxPhos. Cardiac OxPhos metabolism was quantified by measuring six traits: state 3 (ADP and substrate-dependent mitochondrial respiration); E state (uncoupled mitochondrial activity); complex I, II, and IV activities; and LEAK ratio. Acute temperature affected all OxPhos traits. Acclimation only significantly affected state 3 and LEAK ratio. Populations were significantly different for state 3. In addition to direct effects, there were significant interactions between acclimation and population for complex I and between population and acute temperature for state 3. Further analyses suggest that acclimation alters the acute temperature response for state 3, E state, and complexes I and II: at the low acclimation temperature, the acute response was dampened at low assay temperatures, and at the high acclimation temperature, the acute response was dampened at high assay temperatures. Closer examination of the data also suggests that differences in state 3 respiration and complex I activity between populations were greatest between fish acclimated to low temperatures when assayed at high temperatures, suggesting that differences between the populations become more apparent at the edges of their thermal range. PMID:26582639

  20. Contrasting effects of different cannabinoid receptor ligands on mouse ingestive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Grey, Jonathan; Terry, Phil; Higgs, Suzanne

    2012-09-01

    This study characterized the effects of seven diverse cannabinoid receptor agonists (and one antagonist) on ingestive behaviour in nondeprived adult, male CD1 mice. Microstructural analysis of licking for a range of concentrations of condensed milk (10, 15 and 20%) was carried out following administration of vehicle or: Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ⁹-THC) at 1, 3 or 6 mg/kg; CP55,940 at 10, 30 or 50 µg/kg; Win 55,212-2 at 0.5, 1 or 3 mg/kg; HU-210 at 0.01, 0.03 or 0.1 mg/kg; methanandamide at 1, 3 or 6 mg/kg; arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide at 1, 3 or 6 mg/kg and JWH133 at 1, 3 or 6 mg/kg. The cannabinoid receptor antagonist/inverse agonist rimonabant was also tested at 0.3, 1 or 3 mg/kg. Test sessions comprised three 30 s presentations of the milk concentrations separated by 10 s interpresentation intervals. The nonselective CB1 receptor agonists Δ⁹-THC, CP55,940 and Win 55,212-2 increased the number of licks for condensed milk, primarily by a significant increase in bout number. The potent and nonselective CB1 receptor agonist HU-210 and the selective CB1 receptor agonists methanandamide and arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide did not significantly affect licking behaviour but did significantly increase the latency to start licking. The CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant produced effects that were opposite in direction to those produced by Δ⁹-THC, CP55,940 and Win 55,212-2. Finally, the selective CB2 receptor agonist JWH133 had no significant effects on behaviour. These data add to reports that cannabinoid agonists can enhance the appetitive aspects of feeding, but they also demonstrate that not all CB1 receptor agonists do this, and therefore the relationship between action at CB1 receptors and appetitive feeding effects is not straightforward. PMID:22772336

  1. Chronic hyperleptinemia induces resistance to acute natriuretic and NO-mimetic effects of leptin.

    PubMed

    Bełtowski, Jerzy; Wójcicka, Grazyna; Jamroz-Wiśniewska, Anna; Wojtak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Apart from controlling energy balance, leptin, secreted by adipose tissue, is also involved in the regulation of cardiovascular function. Previous studies have demonstrated that acutely administered leptin stimulates natriuresis and vascular nitric oxide (NO) production and that these effects are impaired in obese animals. However, the mechanism of resistance to leptin is not clear. Because obesity is associated with chronically elevated leptin, we examined if long-term hyperleptinemia impairs acute effects of leptin on sodium excretion and NO production in the absence of obesity. Hyperleptinemia was induced in lean rats by administration of exogenous leptin at a dose of 0.5mg/kg/day for 7 days, and then acute effect of leptin (1mg/kg i.v.) was studied under general anesthesia. Leptin increased fractional sodium excretion and decreased Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in the renal medulla. In addition, leptin increased the level of NO metabolites and cyclic GMP in plasma and aortic wall. These acute effects of leptin were impaired in hyperleptinemic animals. In both control and hyperleptinemic groups the effect of leptin on Na(+) excretion and renal Na(+),K(+)-ATPase was abolished by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, wortmannin, but not by protein kinase B/Akt inhibitor, triciribine,. In contrast, acute effect of leptin on NO metabolites and cGMP was abolished by triciribine but not by wortmannin. Leptin stimulated Akt phosphorylation at Ser(473) in aortic tissue but not in the kidney, and this effect was comparable in control and hyperleptinemic groups. These results suggest that hyperleptinemia may mediate "renal" and "vascular" leptin resistance observed in obesity. PMID:19854228

  2. Effects of partially hydrolysed guar gum on feeding behaviour and crop emptying rate in chicks.

    PubMed

    Feruse, M; Mabayo, R T

    1996-03-01

    1. The effects of partially hydrolysed guar gum (PHGG) or intact guar gum (GG) on feeding behaviour and crop emptying rate in growing chicks were investigated. 2. Several combinations of dietary PHGG and GG at 50 g per kg diets were prepared for a feed intake experiment. Birds (1 7-d-old) were given diets for 3 h after 16 h fasting, and food consumption was measured at 1 h intervals. The food intake rapidly decreased as the dietary GG content increased even at 1 h after feeding. 3. The rate of food passage from the crop was also investigated with birds (20-d-old after 16 h fasting. Birds were tube-fed diets having several ratios of dietary PHGG and GG. After 1 h of feeding, the diet remaining in the crop was measured after drying. The crop emptying rate decreased linearly as dietary PHGG concentration decreased. 4. The present study suggests that partial hydrolysis of dietary GG improve both feeding behaviour and food passage from the crop in growing chicks. PMID:8833541

  3. Effects of acidity and alkalinity on corrosion behaviour of Al-Zn-Mg based anode alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jingling; Wen, Jiuba; Li, Quanan; Zhang, Qin

    2013-03-01

    Effects of 1 M HCl, 0.6 M NaCl with different pH values and 4 M NaOH solutions on the corrosion behaviour of Al-5Zn-1Mg-0.02In-0.05Ti-0.5Mn (wt%) alloy have been investigated using measurements of self-corrosion, potentiodynamic polarization, cyclic polarization experiment combined with open circuit potential technique and scanning electron microscopy. The corrosion behaviour of the alloy was found to be dependant on the Cl-, OH- ions and pH value. In acidic or slightly neutral solutions, general and pitting corrosion occurred simultaneously. In contrast, exposure to alkaline solutions results in general corrosion which was traced back to the dissolution of the resistive oxidation film on the surface of the alloy. Experience revealed that the alloy was susceptible to pitting corrosion in all chloride solution. The alloy undergoes two types of localized corrosion process, leading to the formation of hemispherical and crystallographic pits. Polarization resistance measurements which are in good agreement with those of self-corrosion, show that the corrosion kinetic is minimized in slightly neutral solutions (pH = 7).

  4. Effects of various cannabinoid ligands on choice behaviour in a rat model of gambling

    PubMed Central

    Gueye, Aliou B.; Trigo, Jose M.; Vemuri, Kiran V.; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    It is estimated that 0.6–1% of the population in the USA and Canada fulfil the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-5) criteria for gambling disorders (GD). To date, there are no approved pharmacological treatments for GD. The rat gambling task (rGT) is a recently developed rodent analogue of the Iowa gambling task in which rats are trained to associate four response holes with different magnitudes and probabilities of food pellet rewards and punishing time-out periods. Similar to healthy human volunteers, most rats adopt the optimal strategies (optimal group). However, a subset of animals show preference for the disadvantageous options (suboptimal group), mimicking the choice pattern of patients with GD. Here, we explored for the first time the effects of various cannabinoid ligands (WIN 55,212-2, AM 4113, AM 630 and URB 597) on the rGT. Administration of the cannabinoid agonist CB1/CB2 WIN 55,212-2 improved choice strategy and increased choice latency in the suboptimal group, but only increased perseverative behaviour, when punished, in the optimal group. Blockade of CB1 or CB2 receptors or inhibition of fatty-acid amide hydrolase did not affect rGT performance. These results suggest that stimulation of cannabinoid receptors could affect gambling choice behaviours differentially in some subgroups of subjects. PMID:26905189

  5. On the effect of unsupported sleepers on the dynamic behaviour of a railway track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J. Y.; Thompson, D. J.; Jones, C. J. C.

    2011-09-01

    The effect of unsupported sleepers on the dynamic behaviour of a railway track is studied based on vehicle-track dynamic interaction theory, using a model of the track as a Timoshenko beam supported on a periodic elastic foundation. Considering the vehicle's running speed and the number of unsupported sleepers, the track dynamic characteristics are investigated and verified in the time and frequency domains by experiments on a 1:5 scale model wheel-rail test rig. The results show that when hanging sleepers are present, leading to a discontinuous and irregular track support, additional wheel-rail interaction forces are generated. These forces increase as further sleepers become unsupported and as the vehicle's running speed increases. The adjacent supports experience increased dynamic forces which will lead to further deterioration of track quality and the formation of long wavelength track irregularities, which worsen the vehicles' running stability and riding comfort. Stationary transfer functions measurements of the dynamic behaviour of the track are also presented to support the findings.

  6. Effects of Auditory Attention Training with the Dichotic Listening Task: Behavioural and Neurophysiological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Tallus, Jussi; Soveri, Anna; Hämäläinen, Heikki; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Laine, Matti

    2015-01-01

    Facilitation of general cognitive capacities such as executive functions through training has stirred considerable research interest during the last decade. Recently we demonstrated that training of auditory attention with forced attention dichotic listening not only facilitated that performance but also generalized to an untrained attentional task. In the present study, 13 participants underwent a 4-week dichotic listening training programme with instructions to report syllables presented to the left ear (FL training group). Another group (n = 13) was trained using the non-forced instruction, asked to report whichever syllable they heard the best (NF training group). The study aimed to replicate our previous behavioural results, and to explore the neurophysiological correlates of training through event-related brain potentials (ERPs). We partially replicated our previous behavioural training effects, as the FL training group tended to show more allocation of auditory spatial attention to the left ear in a standard dichotic listening task. ERP measures showed diminished N1 and enhanced P2 responses to dichotic stimuli after training in both groups, interpreted as improvement in early perceptual processing of the stimuli. Additionally, enhanced anterior N2 amplitudes were found after training, with relatively larger changes in the FL training group in the forced-left condition, suggesting improved top-down control on the trained task. These results show that top-down cognitive training can modulate the left-right allocation of auditory spatial attention, accompanied by a change in an evoked brain potential related to cognitive control. PMID:26439112

  7. The effect of need supportive text messages on motivation and physical activity behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kinnafick, Florence-Emilie; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Duda, Joan

    2016-08-01

    Few short messaging service (SMS) studies to support behaviour change have used a theoretical underpinning. Using a self-determination theory perspective, we explored the effects of need supportive (NS) SMS on physical activity in 65 (BMI = 24.06 kg/m(2), SD = 5.49; M = 25.76 years, SD = 10.23) insufficiently active individuals embarking on an existing exercise programme. For 10 weeks participants were randomised to an intervention group (NS) or control group (neutral). SMS were sent twice weekly, randomly, via an online SMS service. Mixed design ANCOVA and MANCOVA analyses of measures taken at baseline, mid and post intervention revealed increased levels of perceived autonomy support and psychological need satisfaction in the intervention group post intervention. Both groups reported increases in intrinsic motivation from pre to post intervention. Moderate intensity physical activity was greater in the intervention than the control group at 4-month post intervention with control group returning to baseline levels. Findings provide preliminary causal evidence to support the use of NS SMS to optimise physical activity behaviour change in individuals who are insufficiently active. PMID:26915963

  8. Effects of two stall flooring systems on the behaviour of tied dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hultgren, J

    2001-08-01

    Effects on dairy cow behaviour of a new type of flooring in tie-stalls, with the ability to drain faeces and urine, was studied in a controlled randomised trial in one Swedish university herd. Forty-two Swedish Red and White cows were kept tied in traditional long-stalls (2.20m). In 21 stalls (one stall row), the rearmost 0.74m of the solid stall floor had been replaced with nine rubber-coated 53mm wide slats, divided by 29mm slots. Stalls with rubber slats were equipped with 20mm ethyl-vinyl-acetate (EVA) mats in the front part and littered with 0.7kg of wood shavings daily, while stalls with a solid floor had standard rubber mats and received 3kg of chopped straw daily as bedding. Behaviour was compared between the two stall types, using video recordings of 12 matched pairs of cows for two complete 24h periods each. Statistical analysis was done using the Student's t-test for matched pairs or the sign test. Cows on the rubber slatted flooring lie down and rise normally and without any increased risk of slipping. They lay down more comfortably, i.e. spent on an average 23% less time preparing to lie down, and slipped less frequently during rising. There was some evidence of a preference for a solid floor when lying. PMID:11376835

  9. Effects of oral tetrachlorvinphos fly control (Equitrol) administration in horses: physiological and behavioural findings.

    PubMed

    Berger, J; Valdez, S; Puschner, B; Leutenegger, C M; Gardner, I A; Madigan, J E

    2008-01-01

    Highly reactive horses may pose risks to humans involved in equestrian activities. Among the factors that may affect horses' reactivity to external stimuli are pesticides used for fly control in equine facilities. The organophosphorus (OP) insecticide tetrachlorvinphos (TCVP) is used as a feed-through larvicide to prevent completion of the fly larval life cycle in horse manure. TCVP exerts its effect by inhibiting the enzyme cholinesterase (ChE) leading to the accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (AChE) in synapses of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The aim of the present study was to investigate alterations of whole-blood ChE levels associated with feeding a commercially available product (Equitrol, Farnam Companies, Inc.) to horses for fly control. A second aim was to report neurological, physiological and behavioural findings in addition to profiles of selected immune markers (IFN-gamma, IL-12p40 and COX-2) and serum thyroid hormones during and after a 30-day treatment period of TCVP feeding. The results indicated significant decreases in whole-blood ChE activity and concomitant behavioural alterations, manifested as increased reactivity and decreased controllability in treated horses. No changes were detected in physiological or neurological parameters, immune markers or thyroid hormones in treated (n=6) or control (n=4) horses during the course of the study. PMID:17522960

  10. Effects of various cannabinoid ligands on choice behaviour in a rat model of gambling.

    PubMed

    Gueye, Aliou B; Trigo, Jose M; Vemuri, Kiran V; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Le Foll, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    It is estimated that 0.6-1% of the population in the USA and Canada fulfil the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-5) criteria for gambling disorders (GD). To date, there are no approved pharmacological treatments for GD. The rat gambling task (rGT) is a recently developed rodent analogue of the Iowa gambling task in which rats are trained to associate four response holes with different magnitudes and probabilities of food pellet rewards and punishing time-out periods. Similar to healthy human volunteers, most rats adopt the optimal strategies (optimal group). However, a subset of animals show preference for the disadvantageous options (suboptimal group), mimicking the choice pattern of patients with GD. Here, we explored for the first time the effects of various cannabinoid ligands (WIN 55,212-2, AM 4113, AM 630 and URB 597) on the rGT. Administration of the cannabinoid agonist CB1/CB2 WIN 55,212-2 improved choice strategy and increased choice latency in the suboptimal group, but only increased perseverative behaviour, when punished, in the optimal group. Blockade of CB1 or CB2 receptors or inhibition of fatty-acid amide hydrolase did not affect rGT performance. These results suggest that stimulation of cannabinoid receptors could affect gambling choice behaviours differentially in some subgroups of subjects. PMID:26905189

  11. Environmental effects of driving behaviour and congestion related to passenger cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vlieger, I.; De Keukeleere, D.; Kretzschmar, J. G.

    Using Vito's on-board measuring system the influence of track, driving behaviour and traffic conditions on fuel consumption and emissions were studied for a small test fleet of passenger cars. City traffic resulted in the highest fuel consumption and emissions. Fuel consumption was about two times higher than for ring roads, which generally gave the lowest values. This was even more pronounced for emissions. Depending on road type and technology, fuel consumption increased with up to 40% for aggressive driving compared to normal driving. Again, this was more pronounced for emissions, with increases up to a factor 8. Driving behaviour had a greater influence on petrol-fuelled than on diesel-fuelled cars.Traffic condition also has a major effect on fuel consumption and emissions. For city driving intense traffic increased fuel consumption by 20-45%. The increase in fuel consumption and emissions during rush hours were the highest on ring roads, with increases between 10 and 200%. In absolute terms, a surplus of up to 5 l fuel per 100 km was measured. More environment-friendly route option requires the use of ring roads and motorways during rush hours instead of short cuts.

  12. Effects of Auditory Attention Training with the Dichotic Listening Task: Behavioural and Neurophysiological Evidence.

    PubMed

    Tallus, Jussi; Soveri, Anna; Hämäläinen, Heikki; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Laine, Matti

    2015-01-01

    Facilitation of general cognitive capacities such as executive functions through training has stirred considerable research interest during the last decade. Recently we demonstrated that training of auditory attention with forced attention dichotic listening not only facilitated that performance but also generalized to an untrained attentional task. In the present study, 13 participants underwent a 4-week dichotic listening training programme with instructions to report syllables presented to the left ear (FL training group). Another group (n = 13) was trained using the non-forced instruction, asked to report whichever syllable they heard the best (NF training group). The study aimed to replicate our previous behavioural results, and to explore the neurophysiological correlates of training through event-related brain potentials (ERPs). We partially replicated our previous behavioural training effects, as the FL training group tended to show more allocation of auditory spatial attention to the left ear in a standard dichotic listening task. ERP measures showed diminished N1 and enhanced P2 responses to dichotic stimuli after training in both groups, interpreted as improvement in early perceptual processing of the stimuli. Additionally, enhanced anterior N2 amplitudes were found after training, with relatively larger changes in the FL training group in the forced-left condition, suggesting improved top-down control on the trained task. These results show that top-down cognitive training can modulate the left-right allocation of auditory spatial attention, accompanied by a change in an evoked brain potential related to cognitive control. PMID:26439112

  13. Effects of poor forage conditions on the behaviour of grazing ruminants.

    PubMed

    Manteca, X; Smith, A J

    1994-08-01

    This paper shows that the study of animal behaviour is a valuable aid to the improvement of the management of grazing livestock under extensive conditions. The food available to grazing animals in developing countries, and particularly in the dry season in the tropics, is often of very low quality and, in addition, is frequently available at low densities per unit area. Grazing ruminants attempt to adapt to these adverse conditions by increasing the time for which they graze each day and also by dispersing more widely. However, the time for which animals can graze may be limited by solar radiation and fly irritation in the day, and by the confining of the animals in pens at night. The adverse effects of the above limitations may be partially overcome when adapted local breeds are used. Dispersion of animals improves their ability to make use of extensive pasture and in order to encourage it, an understanding of the factors that affect it such as breed differences, social behaviour, adaptation and location of watering points and other unique environmental factors must be achieved. The paper concludes with recommendations of areas worth further research. PMID:7809984

  14. Effect of leaching behaviour by quenching of bottom ash from MSW incineration.

    PubMed

    Marchese, Franco; Genon, Giuseppe

    2011-10-01

    Bottom ashes (BA) obtained from a municipal solid waste incineration plant, have shown different pH and lead concentrations in leachate for different lines. In order to explain this behaviour, combustion tests were performed concerning the lines and the effect of the type of wastes. The BA obtained from the same waste has shown the same raw chemical composition, but different leachate characteristics for the different lines. The bottom ash from different wastes burned on the same line instead showed very similar leachate behaviour. The results suggest that the quality of leach ate depends on the plant and process conditions (in particular the ash quenching phase) and not on the composition of the waste. During ash quenching, the formation and dissolution of soluble alkalis depends on the washing ratio and on the residence time. A different washing degree leads to a different residual alkalinity in the bottom ash, and consequently to a different value of leachate pH with different metal releases. Therefore, with the practical aim of establishing the best conditions for the final disposal of bottom ash, a careful planning of this phase could be proposed as an alternative to a weathering process. PMID:21057006

  15. Effect of Sr and Ca solid-solution behaviour on superconductive properties as determined by microstructure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Zhanglian; Wang, Minquan; Xiong, Guohong; Fan, Xianping

    1997-02-01

    The effects of the Sr and Ca composition and site-selection in a solid solution of a Bi-system superconductor on the superconductive properties were studied. Results showed that the Sr and Ca solid-solution behaviour had a remarkable effect on the superconductive properties. Further analysis indicated that this effect originated from varied hole concentration which was determined by the content of Sr atoms substituting for Bi atoms within the BiO layers. This substitution was influenced by the Sr and Ca solid-solution behaviour. This result offers a new mechanism for clarifying why the bivalent Sr and Ca cations affect the superconductive properties.

  16. Shallow trench isolation-related narrow channel effect on the kink behaviour of 40 nm PD SOI NMOS device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, H. J.; Kuo, J. B.; Chen, D.; Tsai, C. T.; Yeh, C. S.

    2010-05-01

    This paper reports the shallow trench isolation (STI)-related narrow channel effect (NCE) on the kink behaviour of the 40 nm PD SOI NMOS device. As verified by the experimentally measured data, with a smaller channel width, the onset of the kink effect behaviour occurs at a higher drain voltage and the breakdown voltage is also larger due to the weaker parasitic bipolar device in the floating thin film as a result of a smaller electron recombination lifetime caused by the STI-related defect effect.

  17. Comparative Effectiveness Research: Alternatives to "Traditional" Computed Tomography Use in the Acute Care Setting.

    PubMed

    Moore, Christopher L; Broder, Joshua; Gunn, Martin L; Bhargavan-Chatfield, Mythreyi; Cody, Dianna; Cullison, Kevin; Daniels, Brock; Gans, Bradley; Kennedy Hall, M; Gaines, Barbara A; Goldman, Sarah; Heil, John; Liu, Rachel; Marin, Jennifer R; Melnick, Edward R; Novelline, Robert A; Pare, Joseph; Repplinger, Michael D; Taylor, Richard A; Sodickson, Aaron D

    2015-12-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanning is an essential diagnostic tool and has revolutionized care of patients in the acute care setting. However, there is widespread agreement that overutilization of CT, where benefits do not exceed possible costs or harms, is occurring. The goal was to seek consensus in identifying and prioritizing research questions and themes that involve the comparative effectiveness of "traditional" CT use versus alternative diagnostic strategies in the acute care setting. A modified Delphi technique was used that included input from emergency physicians, emergency radiologists, medical physicists, and an industry expert to achieve this. PMID:26576033

  18. Self-regulation strategies may enhance the acute effect of exercise on smoking delay.

    PubMed

    Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis; Pappa, Vassiliki; Tsiami, Anastasia; Tzatzaki, Theodora; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Zourbanos, Nikos; Goudas, Marios; Chatzisarantis, Nikos; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined the acute effect of a moderate intensity aerobic exercise session combined with self-regulation on smoking delay in physically inactive smokers. Participants were 11 adults (5 males and 6 females) that completed three experimental conditions: control, exercise, and exercise using self-regulation strategies (SR). Following the experimental treatment smoking for the two exercise conditions delayed significantly more than for the control condition; in addition exercise SR delayed smoking marginally more that the plain exercise condition. Findings supported previous research that acute exercise reduces cravings to smoke, and suggests that the use of self-regulation strategies may strengthen exercise for smoking cessation interventions. PMID:26851493

  19. ACUTE BEHAVORIAL EFFECTS FROM EXPOSURE TO TWO-STROKE ENGINE EXHAUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benefits of changing from two-stroke to four-stroke engines (and other remedial requirements) can be evaluated (monetized) from the standpoint of acute behavioral effects of human exposure to exhaust from these engines. The monetization process depends upon estimates of the magn...

  20. Antinociceptive, antiinflammatory and acute toxicity effects of Salvia leriifolia Benth seed extract in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Haddadkhodaparast, Mohammad H; Arash, Ali R

    2003-04-01

    The antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effects as well as the acute toxicity of Salvia leriifolia aqueous seed extract were studied in mice and rats. Antinociceptive activity was assessed using the hot-plate and tail flick tests. The effect on acute inflammation was studied using vascular permeability increased by acetic acid and xylene-induced ear oedema in mice. The activity against chronic inflammation was assessed using the cotton pellet test in rats. The LD(50) of the extract was found to be 19.5 g/kg (i.p.) in mice. The aqueous seed extract showed significant and dose-dependent (1.25-10 g/kg) antinociceptive activity over 7 h, and was inhibited by naloxone pretreatment. Significant and dose-dependent (2.5-10 g/kg) activity was observed against acute inflammation induced by acetic acid and in the xylene ear oedema test. In the chronic inflammation test the extract (2.5-5 g/kg) showed significant and dose-dependent antiinflammatory activity. The aqueous seed extract of S. leriifolia may therefore have supraspinal antinociceptive effects which may be mediated by opioid receptors, and showed considerable effects against acute and chronic inflammation. PMID:12722156

  1. The effect of acute haemorrhage in the dog and man on plasma-renin concentration

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. J.; Davies, D. L.; Lever, A. F.; Robertson, J. I. S.; Verniory, A.

    1966-01-01

    1. The effect of acute haemorrhage on the plasma renin concentration was studied in the dog and man. 2. Plasma-renin concentration was regularly increased after the larger bleeds; after the smaller haemorrhages plasma-renin concentration remained unchanged. 3. The results are discussed in relation to current hypotheses concerning the control of renin and aldosterone secretion. PMID:4287431

  2. Acute bilateral glaucoma and panuveitis as a side effect of topiramate for weight loss treatment.

    PubMed

    Pikkel, Yoav Yechezkel

    2014-01-01

    A 54-year-old male patient presented to our clinic with acute angle-closure glaucoma and panuveitis in both eyes after being treated with topiramate for binge eating and obesity. This case report emphasises the hazardous side effects of treatment with topiramate with unusual indication and the precaution a caretaker must take when treating a patient. PMID:24744070

  3. Time Scale Effects in Acute Association between Air-Pollution and Mortality

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used wavelet analysis and generalized additive models (GAM) to study timescale effects in the acute association between mortality and air-pollution. Daily averages of measured NO2 concentrations in the metropolitan Paris area are used as indicators of human exposure...

  4. The Chronic and Acute Effects of Exercise Upon Selected Blood Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roitman, J. L.; Brewer, J. P.

    This study investigated the effects of chronic and acute exercise upon selected blood measures and indices. Nine male cross-country runners were studied. Red blood count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were measured using standard laboratory techniques; mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin…

  5. State/Trait Anxiety and Anxiolytic Effects of Acute Physical Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guszkowska, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To determine anxiolytic effects of acute physical exertions in relation to the initial anxiety state and trait in women. Material and methods: A group of 163 women aged 16-56 years, attending fitness clubs in Warsaw, participated in the study. They selected a single exercise to perform--strength, aerobic or mixed, lasting 30 to over 60…

  6. NEUROCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC DIETARY AND REPEATED HIGH-LEVEL ACUTE EXPOSURE TO CHLORPYRIFOS IN RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lots of information is available surrounding the acute toxicity of anticholinesterase pesticides, but these have been very few detailed studies on the chronic effects of these pesticides. Humans are exposed on a chronic basis and some humans believe that have been affected advers...

  7. EFFECT OF ACUTE MATERNAL TOXICITY ON FETAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of acute alterations in maternal health status upon fetal development were assessed following exposure of pregnant CD-1 mice on day 8 of gestation to one of ten chemicals at a dose calculated to be the maternal LD10 or LD40. The dams were killed on day 18 of gestation...

  8. Acute Ozone-Induced Pulmonary and Systemic Metabolic Effects are Diminished in Adrenalectomized Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute ozone exposure increases circulating stress hormones and induces peripheral metabolic alterations in animals and humans. We hypothesized that the increase of adrenal-derived stress hormones is necessary for ozone-induced systemic metabolic effects and lung injury. Male Wis...

  9. Neurobehavorial effects of acute exposure to four solvents: meta-abalyses

    EPA Science Inventory

    Meta-and re-analyses of the available data for the neurobehavioral effects of acute inhalation exposure to toluene were reported by Benignus et al. (2007). The present study was designed to test the generality of the toluene results in as many other solvents as possible by furthe...

  10. COMPARISON OF ACUTE NEUROBEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF N-METHYL CARBAMATE INSECTICIDES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The acute neurobehavioral and cholinesterase (ChE)-inhibiting effects of N-methyl carbamate insecticides have not been systematically compared. We evaluated five carbamates - carbaryl (CB), propoxur (PP), oxamyl (OM), methomyl (MM), and methiocarb (MC). Adult male Long-Evans ra...

  11. Acute Alcohol Effects on Repetition Priming and Word Recognition Memory with Equivalent Memory Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Suchismita; Bates, Marsha E.

    2006-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication effects on memory were examined using a recollection-based word recognition memory task and a repetition priming task of memory for the same information without explicit reference to the study context. Memory cues were equivalent across tasks; encoding was manipulated by varying the frequency of occurrence (FOC) of words…

  12. Acute Ozone-Induced Pulmonary and Systemic Metabolic Effects are Diminished in Adrenalectomized Rats#

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute ozone exposure increases circulating stress hormones and induces metabolic alterations in animals and humans. We hypothesized that the increase of adrenal-derived stress hormones is necessary for both ozone-induced metabolic effects and lung injury. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats ...

  13. TOWARD COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF ACUTE BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF TOLUENE IN HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is increasing interest in being able to express the consequences of exposure to potentially toxic compounds in monetary terms in order to evaluate potential cost-benefit relationships of controlling exposure. Behavioral effects of acute toluene exposure could be subjected ...

  14. Acute effects of all-trans-retinoic acid in ischemic injury

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is a vitamin A derivative that is important in neuronal patterning, survival, and neurite outgrowth. We investigated the relatively acute effects of ATRA (100 nM and 1 µM) on cell swelling in ischemic injury and on key features hypothesized to contribute to cell swelli...

  15. Chinese Head Trauma Data Bank: Effect of Hyperthermia on the Outcome of Acute Head Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Hyperthermia may accentuate the detrimental consequences of brain injury and worsen the outcome of patients with acute head trauma, especially severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). We explored the effect of different magnitudes and durations of hyperthermia in the first 3 days after injury on the outcome of 7145 patients with acute head trauma, including 1626 with severe TBI. The differences in mortality and unfavorable outcome between the normothermia group, mild fever group, moderate fever group, and high fever group were statistically significant (p<0.001). The mortality and unfavorable outcome of severe TBI patients in the groups also differed significantly (p<0.001). The mortality and unfavorable outcome of patients with 1 day, 2 days, and 3 days of high fever were significantly increased (p<0.01). Our data strongly indicate that both degree and duration of early post-trauma hyperthermia are closely correlated with the outcome of acute TBI patients, especially severely injured ones, which indicates that hyperthermia may play a detrimental role in the delayed mechanisms of damage after acute TBI. Prevention of early hyperthermia after acute head trauma is therefore essential to the management of TBI patients. PMID:22026424

  16. Effect of Early Statin Treatment in Patients with Cardiogenic Shock Complicating Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Doo Sun; Cho, Kyung Hoon; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Young Jo; Chae, Shung Chull; Hong, Taek Jong; Seong, In Whan; Chae, Jei Keon; Kim, Chong Jin; Cho, Myeong Chan; Rha, Seung-Woon; Bae, Jang Ho; Seung, Ki Bae; Park, Seung Jung

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives The benefit of early statin treatment following acute myocardial infarction (MI) complicated with cardiogenic shock (CS) has not been well studied. We sought to assess the effect of early statin therapy in patients with CS complicating acute MI. Subjects and Methods We studied 553 statin-naive patients with acute MI and CS (Killip class IV) who underwent revascularization therapy between November 2005 and January 2008 at 51 hospitals in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those who received statins during hospitalization (n=280) and those who did not (n=273). The influence of statin treatment on a 12-month clinical outcome was examined using a matched-pairs analysis (n=200 in each group) based on the propensity for receiving statin therapy during hospitalization. Results Before adjustment, patients receiving statin, compared to those not receiving statin, had a more favorable clinical profile, were less likely to suffer procedural complications, and more likely to receive adequate medical therapy. Patients receiving statin had lower unadjusted in-hospital mortality and composite rate of mortality, MI, and repeat revascularization at 12 months, which remained significantly lower after adjustment for patient risk, procedural characteristics, and treatment propensity. Conclusion In CS patients with acute MI undergoing revascularization therapy, early statin treatment initiated during hospitalization was associated with lower rates of in-hospital death and 12-month adverse cardiac events. PMID:23508129

  17. The effect of obesity on inflammatory cytokine and leptin production following acute mental stress.

    PubMed

    Caslin, H L; Franco, R L; Crabb, E B; Huang, C J; Bowen, M K; Acevedo, E O

    2016-02-01

    Obesity may contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by eliciting chronic systemic inflammation and impairing the immune response to additional stressors. There has been little assessment of the effect of obesity on psychological stress, an independent risk factor for CVD. Therefore, it was of interest to examine interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and leptin following an acute mental stress task in nonobese and obese males. Twenty college-aged males (21.3 ± 0.56 years) volunteered to participate in a 20-min Stroop color-word and mirror-tracing task. Subjects were recruited for obese (body mass index: BMI > 30) and nonobese (BMI < 25) groups, and blood samples were collected for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. The acute mental stress task elicited an increase in heart rate, catecholamines, and IL-1β in all subjects. Additionally, acute mental stress increased cortisol concentrations in the nonobese group. There was a significant reduction in leptin in obese subjects 30 min posttask compared with a decrease in nonobese subjects 120 min posttask. Interestingly, the relationship between the percent change in leptin and IL-1Ra at 120 min posttask in response to an acute mental stress task was only observed in nonobese individuals. This is the first study to suggest that adiposity in males may impact leptin and inflammatory signaling mechanisms following acute mental stress. PMID:26511907

  18. Effect of low doses of cannabidiolic acid and ondansetron on LiCl-induced conditioned gaping (a model of nausea-induced behaviour) in rats

    PubMed Central

    Rock, EM; Parker, LA

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose To determine the minimally effective dose of cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) that effectively reduces lithium chloride (LiCl)-induced conditioned gaping reactions (nausea-induced behaviour) in rats and to determine if these low systemic doses of CBDA (5–0.1 μg·kg−1) relative to those of CBD could potentiate the anti-nausea effects of the classic 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist, ondansetron (OND). Experimental Approach We investigated the efficacy of low doses of CBDA to suppress acute nausea, assessed by the establishment of conditioned gaping to a LiCl-paired flavour in rats. The potential of threshold and subthreshold doses of CBDA to enhance the reduction of nausea-induced conditioned gaping by OND were then determined. Key Results CBDA (at doses as low as 0.5 μg·kg−1) suppressed nausea-induced conditioned gaping to a flavour. A low dose of OND (1.0 μg·kg−1) alone reduced nausea-induced conditioned gaping, but when it was combined with a subthreshold dose of CBDA (0.1 μg·kg−1) there was an enhancement in the suppression of LiCl-induced conditioned gaping. Conclusions and Implications CBDA potently reduced conditioned gaping in rats, even at low doses and enhanced the anti-nausea effect of a low dose of OND. These findings suggest that combining low doses of CBDA and OND will more effectively treat acute nausea in chemotherapy patients. PMID:23488964

  19. The effect of chronic vs. acute injection of vasopressin on animal learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Hamburger-Bar, R; Klein, A; Belmaker, R H

    1985-01-01

    The effect of chronic and acute treatment with DDAVP, a vasopressin analog, was studied in 2 month old male rats, using an active avoidance test in a shuttle box. The experiment lasted 6 weeks: an acquisition period of 4 weeks and an extinction period of 2 weeks. Rats were treated one hour before behavioral testing 3 times a week for 6 weeks with either DDAVP 20 micrograms/rat/day for the whole period (chronic group) or with DDAVP for the first week and again once only on the first day of the extinction period (acute group) or with saline. Chronic treatment with DDAVP resulted in better acquisition and in a marked retardation of extinction compared with the acute treatment group. These results were obtained both in normal rats and in rats pretreated at age 5 days of life with intracisternal 6-OH dopamine. PMID:3991361

  20. Effect of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function: an event-related cortical desynchronization study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Chu, Chien-Heng; Wang, Chun-Chih; Song, Tai-Fen; Wei, Gao-Xia

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effects of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function using the Stroop test and event-related desynchronization (ERD) in an aged population. Old adults (63.10 ± 2.89 years) were first assigned to either a high-fitness or a low-fitness group, and they were then subjected to an acute exercise treatment and a reading control treatment in a counterbalanced order. Alpha ERD was recorded during the Stroop test, which was administered after both treatments. Acute exercise improved cognitive performance regardless of the level of cognition, and old adults with higher fitness levels received greater benefits from acute exercise. Additionally, acute exercise, rather than overall fitness, elicited greater lower and upper alpha ERDs relative to the control condition. These findings indirectly suggest that the beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance may result from exercise-induced attentional control observed during frontal neural excitation. PMID:25308605

  1. Methylmercury effects on migratory behaviour in glass eels (Anguilla anguilla): an experimental study using isotopic tracers.

    PubMed

    Claveau, Julie; Monperrus, Mathilde; Jarry, Marc; Baudrimont, Magalie; Gonzalez, Patrice; Cavalheiro, Joana; Mesmer-Dudons, Nathalie; Bolliet, Valérie

    2015-05-01

    The effect of methylmercury (MeHg) on glass eels' propensity to migrate, mitochondrial activity and antioxidative defence systems was investigated. Marine glass eels were first sorted in an experimental flume according to their response to dusk. Fish responding to the decrease in light intensity by ascending in the water column and moving with or against the flow were considered as having a high propensity to migrate (migrant). Glass eels still sheltering at the end of the 24 h catching period were considered as having a low propensity to migrate and were called non-migrant. Migrant and non-migrant glass eels were then individually tagged and exposed to isotopically enriched (201)MeHg (50 ng L(-1)) for 11 days. The effect of contamination was studied on muscle fibre structure, and the expression level of genes involved in mitochondrial activity and antioxidative defence systems. To investigate the effect of MeHg on glass eel behaviour, migrant and non-migrant glass eels were sorted again and the bioaccumulation of (201)MeHg and its demethylation product ((201)Hg(II)) were determined for each individual. MeHg exposure increased activity in non-migrant glass eels but not migratory behaviour. Contamination affected mitochondrial structure and metabolism and suggests a higher oxidative stress and activation of antioxidative defence systems in non-migrant glass eels. Overall, our results suggest that exposure to MeHg might induce an increase in energy expenditure and a higher vulnerability to predation in non-migrant glass eels in the wild. PMID:25797033

  2. The Effects of Demand Characteristics on Research Participant Behaviours in Non-Laboratory Settings: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    McCambridge, Jim; de Bruin, Marijn; Witton, John

    2012-01-01

    Background The concept of demand characteristics, which involves research participants being aware of what the researcher is investigating, is well known and widely used within psychology, particularly in laboratory-based studies. Studies of this phenomenon may make a useful contribution to broader consideration of the effects of taking part in research on participant behaviour. This systematic review seeks to summarise data from studies of the effects of demand characteristics on participant behaviours in non-laboratory settings. Methodology/Principal Findings Electronic databases were searched to identify eligible studies. These had to be purposely designed to evaluate possible effects of demand characteristics on at least one behavioural outcome under the autonomous control of the participants and use longitudinal study designs. Only 7 studies were included, 6 providing observational data and 1 experimental study, with 5 studies involving examination of possible effects on health behaviours. Although studies provided some evidence of effects of demand characteristics on participant behaviour, heterogeneous operationalisation of the construct, the limited number of studies and poor quality of study designs made synthesis and interpretation of study findings challenging. Conclusions/Significance Although widely accepted as important in psychology, there have been few dedicated studies of the effects of demand characteristics on research participant behaviours outside laboratory settings. This body of literature does not currently contribute to the wider study of research participation effects. A systematic review of data from laboratory-based studies is needed, as are high-quality primary studies in non-laboratory settings. We suggest that unqualified use of the term demand characteristics should be abandoned. PMID:22723942

  3. The effect of sodium tetraborate and alum in the management of acute childhood diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Aung, M M; U, P P

    1986-03-01

    The effect of oral rehydration (OR) has been well established in the management of dehydration in acute childhood diarrhoea. Many authors have been trying to find additives of all types which would be effective in retaining oral fluids and promoting their active absorption into the circulation. Any agent which will effectively reduce oral rehydration requirements should be considered for prospective studies. Amongst the traditional medicines, it was noticed that sodium tetraborate (borax) and alum reduced appreciably the fluid requirement in many cases of acute childhood diarrhoea. This traditional usage of these chemicals without any noticeable side effects has been described for centuries. During preliminary observations on 26 of our children given these salts no side effects were detected. PMID:2428288

  4. Virtual design of electrospun-like gelatin scaffolds: the effect of three-dimensional fibre orientation on elasticity behaviour.

    PubMed

    Guessasma, S; Oyen, M

    2016-01-14

    Remarkable mechanical performance of biological tissues is explained by a hierarchical fibrous structure. Designing materials that have similar properties is challenging because of the need to assess complex deformation mechanisms. In order to shed more light on architectural possibilities of biopolymer fibrous networks, we propose a numerical study that relates the fibre arrangement to the elastic modulus of a gelatin scaffold obtained using electrospinning. The adopted approach is based on the virtual designing of scaffolds using all possible combinations of Euler angles that define fibre orientations including preferable alignment. The generated networks are converted into a finite element model and the predicted elastic behaviour is examined. Predictions show that the fibre alignment achieved experimentally in biopolymer fibrous networks is for most of the fibres exhibiting an orthotropic behaviour. Some particular combinations of Euler angles allow transverse isotropic architectures while only limited cases are isotropic. A large sensitivity of Young's moduli to Euler angles is achieved describing multiple scenarios of independent anisotropic behaviours. An anisotropy ratio of the elastic behaviour is suggested based on a suitable combination of elastic moduli. Such a ratio exhibits a wide variation depending on individual and coupled effects of Euler angles. The finite element model predicts 2D, 3D and 4D maps representing all possible configurations of fibre alignment and their consequences on elastic behaviour. The predicted fibre orientation representing the observed anisotropic behaviour of electrospun gelatin networks demonstrates unbalanced contributions of in-plane and out-of plane fibres for a large range of processing conditions. PMID:26508563

  5. The effect of an acute increase in central blood volume on the response of cerebral blood flow to acute hypotension.

    PubMed

    Ogoh, Shigehiko; Hirasawa, Ai; Sugawara, Jun; Nakahara, Hidehiro; Ueda, Shinya; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Miyamoto, Tadayoshi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the response of cerebral blood flow to an acute change in perfusion pressure is modified by an acute increase in central blood volume. Nine young, healthy subjects voluntarily participated in this study. To measure dynamic cerebral autoregulation during normocapnic and hypercapnic (5%) conditions, the change in middle cerebral artery mean blood flow velocity was analyzed during acute hypotension caused by two methods: 1) thigh-cuff occlusion release (without change in central blood volume); and 2) during the recovery phase immediately following release of lower body negative pressure (LBNP; -50 mmHg) that initiated an acute increase in central blood volume. In the thigh-cuff occlusion release protocol, as expected, hypercapnia decreased the rate of regulation, as an index of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (0.236 ± 0.018 and 0.167 ± 0.025 s(-1), P = 0.024). Compared with the cuff-occlusion release, the acute increase in central blood volume (relative to the LBNP condition) with LBNP release attenuated dynamic cerebral autoregulation (P = 0.009). Therefore, the hypercapnia-induced attenuation of dynamic cerebral autoregulation was not observed in the LBNP release protocol (P = 0.574). These findings suggest that an acute change in systemic blood distribution modifies dynamic cerebral autoregulation during acute hypotension. PMID:26159757

  6. Children Living with Violence against Their Mothers: The Side Effects on Their Behaviour, Self-Image and School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutselini, Mary; Valanidou, Floria

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of children's exposure to violence against their mothers. It particularly considers the sided-effects of this violence on the children's behaviour, self-image and school performance. The research indicates that (1) violence against women victimises not only the mothers but also their children, even if the…

  7. [Effect of shengmaisan on serum lipid peroxidation in acute viral myocarditis].

    PubMed

    Zhao, M H; Rong, Y Z; Lu, B J

    1996-03-01

    The effect of Shengmaisan (SMS) on 62 acute viral myocarditis patients and its peroxidation damage was studied. The results revealed that the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in blood were decreased and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma was increased in acute viral myocarditis patients in comparison with the healthy controls (P < 0.001). 62 acute viral myocarditis patients were divided into two groups: SMS group and placebo group. After treatment, both SOD and GSH-Px activities were increased and the level of MDA decreased (P < 0.001) in SMS group, while those in placebo group were not changed (P < 0.05). The results suggested that the myocardial damage of viral myocarditis is closely related with lipid peroxidation SMS acts as an effective free radical scavenger and anti-lipid peroxidation drug. SMS could prevent the damage of myocardia and might be taken as one of the effective therapeutic methods in treatment of acute viral myocarditis. PMID:9208534

  8. Effect of the addition of CMC on the aggregation behaviour of proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.; Sabato, S. F.; D'Aprano, G.; Lacroix, M.

    2004-09-01

    The effect of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on the aggregation of formulation based on calcium caseinate, commercial whey protein (WPC), and a 1:1 mixture of soy protein isolate (SPI) and whey protein isolate (WPI) was investigated. Protein aggregation could be observed upon addition of CMC, as demonstrated by size-exclusion chromatography. This aggregation behaviour was enhanced by means of physical treatments, such as heating at 90°C for 30 min or gamma-irradiation at 32 kGy. A synergy resulted from the combination of CMC to gamma-irradiation in Caseinate/CMC and SPI/WPI/CMC formulations. Furthermore, CMC prevented precipitation in irradiated protein solutions for a period of more than 3 months at 4°C.

  9. Effect of scandium on the microstructure and ageing behaviour of cast Al-6Mg alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, M.S.; Datta, S.; Roychowdhury, A. Banerjee, M.K.

    2008-11-15

    Microstructural modification and grain refinement due to addition of scandium in Al-6Mg alloy has been studied. Transmission electron microscopy is used to understand the microstructure and precipitation behaviour in Al-6Mg alloy doped with scandium. It is seen from the microstructure that the dendrites of the cast Al-6Mg alloy have been refined significantly due to addition of scandium. Increasing amount of scandium leads to a greater dendrite refinement. The age hardening effect in scandium added Al-6Mg alloys has been studied by subjecting the alloys containing varying amount of scandium ranging from 0.2 wt.% to 0.6 wt.% to isochronal and isothermal ageing at various temperatures for different times. It is observed that significant hardening takes place in the aged alloys due to the precipitation of scandium aluminides.

  10. Effects of attention training on self-reported, implicit, physiological and behavioural measures of spider fear.

    PubMed

    Van Bockstaele, Bram; Verschuere, Bruno; Koster, Ernst H W; Tibboel, Helen; De Houwer, Jan; Crombez, Geert

    2011-06-01

    Cognitive theories hold that biased attention to threat plays a prominent role in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. In support of this view, attention training has been shown to affect emotional reactivity. An important limitation of most attention training studies is that they almost exclusively rely on self-report measures to assess changes in fear. In the present study, we trained attention towards or away from spiders. We assessed not only self-reported spider fear, but also implicit spider associations, physiological, and behavioural measures of spider fear. Although we successfully changed the attentional processing of spiders, attention training had no effect on any of the outcome variables. These results indicate that changes in attentional bias are not necessarily associated with changes in fear, suggesting that attention training may be unsuitable as a clinical intervention for spider fear. PMID:21315884

  11. Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) on Sexual Behaviour of Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Muhammad; Sial, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly (P < 0.01). The extract also influenced the behaviour of treated animals in comparison to nontreated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to females. These effects were observed in sexually active male Wistar rats. PMID:24648836

  12. Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) on Sexual Behaviour of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad; Sial, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly (P < 0.01). The extract also influenced the behaviour of treated animals in comparison to nontreated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to females. These effects were observed in sexually active male Wistar rats. PMID:24648836

  13. Effect of short-term natural weathering on MSWI and wood waste bottom ash leaching behaviour.

    PubMed

    Gori, M; Bergfeldt, B; Pfrang-Stotz, G; Reichelt, J; Sirini, P

    2011-05-15

    Short term natural weathering was applied on municipal solid waste (MSW) and wood waste incinerator bottom ash (BA). The materials were analysed at different steps of treatment and characterized for chemical and mineralogical composition. Both short and long term leaching behaviour of main elements and heavy metals were investigated as well. Lead, zinc and copper were the main heavy metals to be released. After 12 weeks of treatment the concentration of leached zinc decreased. Lead concentration was not found to be influenced by pH and decreased only for the biomass samples. Weathering did not have beneficial effects on copper leaching, which was well described by complexation processes with DOC. The findings from the experimental campaign indicated that weathering reactions improved the mineral stability of the analysed materials but, in contrast with previous works, the treatment was not sufficient to guarantee pH stability and to comply with leaching law limits. PMID:21420787

  14. Behavioural Criteria of Perceived Mentoring Effectiveness: An Empirical Study of Effective and Ineffective Mentor and Mentee Behaviour within Formal Mentoring Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Robert G.; Sage, Lesley

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Most past research on formal mentoring has investigated its antecedents, outcomes and benefits with little attention given to what goes on inside the dyadic relationship. The purpose of this paper is to explore the types of mentor and mentee behaviours that are perceived as critical factors contributing to either a positive or negative…

  15. Effect of acute heat stress on plant nutrient metabolism proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abrupt heating decreased the levels (per unit total root protein) of all but one of the nutrient metabolism proteins examined, and for most of the proteins, effects were greater for severe vs. moderate heat stress. For many of the nutrient metabolism proteins, initial effects of heat (1 d) were r...

  16. The Effect of Vigorous Intensity Acute Exercise on Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, David Spencer

    2012-01-01

    The effect of physical activity (PA) and consequent influence on cognition within adult seniors has been widely published. However, there is a paucity of causal research relating PA and cognition to schoolchildren within an authentic setting. Also, little is known about the required intensity and dosage of PA to effect executive function (EF)…

  17. Effects of the School for Health network on students' behaviour in Asturias (Spain).

    PubMed

    García-Vázquez, Jose

    2014-09-10

    From 1995, Asturias participates in the European Network of Schools for Health (SHE); in 2010, the schools in net were 44 (11 of secondary school). This study evaluates the effect of SHE in secondary school students' behaviour. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with four public SHE and four non-SHE-schools; the study population consisted of the first- and fourth-year students. By questionnaire, data on socio-demographics, the school environment, well-being and behaviours were collected. In the intervention group (the SHE-schools), the percentage of students who declared that their school engaged in health activities was significantly higher. Among the first-year students, the percentages of children having breakfast daily, occasionally eating pastries and occasional consumption of soft drinks were significantly higher in the control group; among the fourth-year students, the percentages of children reporting high school satisfaction, good relations with teachers, good academic performance, no alcohol use, never having been drunk and collaboration in housework were significantly higher in the intervention group. Significant gender differences were observed among the first-year students in both groups with boys consuming more hours of electronic entertainment; among the fourth-year students, the perception of school performance was significantly better for girls, while weekly physical activity, daily breakfast and high self-esteem were more prevalent among the boys. The results suggest a positive effect of the SHE programme, because differences among the first-year students favouring the control group were not present among the fourth-year students, while the intervention group showed significantly better results in 6 of 25 compared outcome variables. PMID:25209919

  18. Effect of curing environment on mechanical properties and polymerizing behaviour of methyl-methacrylate autopolymerizing resin.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, T; Hasegawa, A

    2005-03-01

    Methyl-methacrylate autopolymerizing resin is used for multiple applications. Therefore, the mechanical properties of autopolymerizing resin should be assessed comprehensively including strength, stiffness and hardness. Any methods that effectively improve these mechanical properties are desirable. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of the curing environment: air or water with/without pressure, and air or water temperature during polymerization, on the strength, stiffness and hardness of autopolymerizing resin. In addition, we examined the polymerizing behaviour associated with the mechanical properties. Autopolymerizing methyl-methacrylate resin (Unifast II) was polymerized under the following conditions: in air and water with/without pressure at 10, 23, 30, 40, 60 and 80 degrees C. The resin specimens were subjected to a transverse test (three-point flexural test) and micro-Brinell surface hardness test. Fractured surfaces of the specimens after the transverse test were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The transverse strength and transverse modulus increased with increasing curing temperature in both wet and dry conditions. Pressured wet conditions increased transverse strength and transverse modulus over non-pressured wet and dry conditions. The resin polymerized in dry conditions showed higher surface hardness than the one polymerized in wet conditions at matching temperature. The SEM images of fractured surfaces cured at lower temperature exhibited porosity within the polymer base and cracks between the base and poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) particulates. Surfaces of the resin polymerized in wet conditions were characterized with PMMA particulates having rougher surfaces suggestive of water incorporation. Raising temperature and pressuring during polymerization increase strength and stiffness of autopolymerizing resin. However, wet condition reduces surface hardness of resin compared with dry condition. These altered

  19. The effect of seasonal temperature variation on behaviour and metabolism in the freshwater mussel (Unio tumidus).

    PubMed

    Lurman, Glenn J; Walter, Johanna; Hoppeler, Hans H

    2014-07-01

    Temperature plays a critical role in determining the biology of ectotherms. Many animals have evolved mechanisms that allow them to compensate biological rates, i.e. adjust biological rates to overcome thermodynamic effects. For low energy-organisms, such as bivalves, the costs of thermal compensation may be greater than the benefits, and thus prohibitive. To examine this, two experiments were designed to explore thermal compensation in Unio tumidus. Experiment 1 examined seasonal changes in behaviour in U. tumidus throughout a year. Temperature had a clear effect on burrowing rate with no evidence of compensation. Valve closure duration and frequency were also strongly affected by seasonal temperature change, but there was slight evidence of partial compensation. Experiment 2 examined oxygen consumption during burrowing, immediately following valve opening and at rest in summer (24 °C), autumn (14 °C), winter (4 °C), and spring (14 °C) acclimatized U. tumidus. Again, there was little evidence of burrowing rate compensation, but some evidence of partial compensation of valve closure duration and frequency. None of the oxygen compensation rates showed any evidence of thermal compensation. Thus, in general, there was only very limited evidence of thermal compensation of behaviour and no evidence of thermal compensation of oxygen compensation rates. Based upon this evidence, we argue that there is no evolutionary pressure for these bivalves to compensate these biological rates. Any pressure may be to maintain or even lower oxygen consumption as their only defence against predation is to close their valves and wait. An increase in oxygen consumption will be detrimental in this regard so the cost of thermal compensation may outweigh the benefits. PMID:24956953

  20. The Effects of Acute Exercise and Exercise Training on Plasma Homocysteine: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Deminice, Rafael; Ribeiro, Diogo Farias; Frajacomo, Fernando Tadeu Trevisan

    2016-01-01

    Background Although studies have demonstrated that physical exercise alters homocysteine levels in the blood, meta-analyses of the effects of acute exercise and exercise training on homocysteine blood concentration have not been performed, especially regarding the duration and intensity of exercise, which could affect homocysteine levels differently. Objective The aim of this meta-analysis was to ascertain the effects of acute exercise and exercise training on homocysteine levels in the blood. Method A review was conducted according to the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses using the online databases PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and SciELO to identify relevant studies published through June 2015. Review Manager was used to calculate the effect size of acute exercise and exercise training using the change in Hcy plasmaserum concentration from baseline to post-acute exercise and trained vs. sedentary control groups, respectively. Weighted mean differences were calculated using random effect models. Results Given the abundance of studies, acute exercise trials were divided into two subgroups according to exercise volume and intensity, whereas the effects of exercise training were analyzed together. Overall, 22 studies with a total of 520 participants indicated increased plasma homocysteine concentration after acute exercise (1.18 μmol/L, 95% CI: 0.71 to 1.65, p < .01). Results of a subgroup analysis indicated that either long-term exercise of low-to-moderate intensity (1.39 μmol/L, 95% CI: 0.9 to 1.89, p < .01) or short-term exercise of high intensity (0.83 μmol/L, 95% CI: 0.19 to 1.40, p < .01) elevated homocysteine levels in the blood. Increased homocysteine induced by exercise was significantly associated with volume of exercise, but not intensity. By contrast, resistance training reduced plasma homocysteine concentration (-1.53 μmol/L, 95% CI: -2.77 to -0.28, p = .02), though aerobic training did not. The cumulative

  1. Protective effects of intravenous immunoglobulin and antimicrobial agents on acute pneumonia in leukopenic mice.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Masaru; Katoh, Hideya; Hamaoka, Saeko; Kinoshita, Mao; Akiyama, Koichi; Naito, Yoshifumi; Sawa, Teiji

    2016-04-01

    Multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes the type of acute lung injury that is strongly associated with bacteremia, sepsis, and mortality, especially under immunocompromised conditions. Although administration of immunoglobulin solution is an applicable immunotherapy in immunocompromised patients, efficacy of immunoglobulin administration against multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa pneumonia has not been well evaluated. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of prophylactic administration of immunoglobulin solution (IVIG) in comparison with that of other types of antimicrobial agents, such as anti-PcrV IgG, piperacillin/tazobactam, or colistin in an immunocompromised mouse model of P. aeruginosa pneumonia. Colistin was the most effective agent for preventing acute lung injury, bacteremia, cytokinemia, and sepsis. Among the four tested antimicrobial agents, after colistin, anti-PcrV IgG and IVIG were the most effective at protecting mice from mortality. Piperacillin/tazobactam did not prevent acute lung injury or bacteremia; rather, it worsened lung histology. The data suggest that using an agent for which a positive result in an in vitro susceptibility test has been obtained may not always prevent acute lung injury in a leukopenic host infected with P. aeruginosa. Clinicians should consider the possibility of discrepancies between in vitro and in vivo tests because the absence of in vitro bactericidal activity in an antimicrobial agent is not always a reliable predictor of its lack of ability to eradicate bacteria in vivo, even in immunocompromised hosts. Based on our findings, the potential protective effects of IVIG against the acute lung injury induced by P. aeruginosa should be reevaluated. PMID:26867796

  2. Effects of copper on the acute cortisol response and associated physiology in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Tellis, Margaret S; Alsop, Derek; Wood, Chris M

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of chronic waterborne copper (Cu) exposure on the acute stress-induced cortisol response and associated physiological consequences in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Trout were exposed to 30 μg Cu/L in moderately hard water (120 mg/L as CaCO(3)) for 40 days, following which time the acute cortisol response was examined with a series of stressors. At 40 days, a 65% increase in Cu was observed in the gill, but no accumulation was observed in the liver, brain or head kidney. Stressors such as air exposure or confinement did not elicit an increase in circulating cortisol levels for Cu-exposed fish, in contrast to controls. However, this inhibitory effect on the acute cortisol response appeared to have few implications on the ability of Cu-exposed fish to maintain ion and carbohydrate homeostasis. For example, plasma Na(+), Ca(2+) and glucose levels as well as hepatic glycogen levels were the same post-stress in control and Cu-exposed fish. Trout were also challenged with exposure to 50% seawater for 48 h, where Cu-exposed trout maintained plasma Na(+), glucose and hepatic glycogen levels. However, Cu-exposed fish experienced decreased plasma K(+) levels throughout the Cu exposure and stress tests. In conclusion, chronic Cu exposure resulted in the abolition of an acute cortisol response post-stress. There was no Cu accumulation in the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI axis) suggesting this was not a direct toxic effect of Cu on the cortisol regulatory pathway. However, the lack of an acute cortisol response in Cu-exposed fish did not impair the ability of the fish to maintain ion and carbohydrate homeostasis. This effect on cortisol may be a strategy to reduce costs during the chronic stress of Cu exposure, and not endocrine disruption as a result of toxic injury. PMID:21964321

  3. Effect of Acute and Chronic Electroconvulsive Shock on 5-Hydroxytrypamine 6 Receptor Immunoreactivity in Rat Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Kang, Seungwoo; Kim, Hyun Ju; Choi, Sun-Hye; Shin, Seungkeun; Lee, Hyung Ha

    2014-01-01

    Electroconvulsive shock (ECS) induces not only an antidepressant effect but also adverse effects such as amnesia. One potential mechanism underlying both the antidepressant and amnesia effect of ECS may involve the regulation of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) 6 (5-HT6) receptor, but less is known about the effects of acute ECS on the changes in 5-HT6 receptor expression in the hippocampus. In addition, as regulation of 5-HT receptor expression is influenced by the number of ECS treatment and by interval between ECS treatment and sacrifice, it is probable that magnitude and time-dependent changes in 5-HT6 receptor expression could be influenced by repeated ECS exposure. To explore this possibility, we observed and compared the changes of 5-HT6 receptor immunoreactivity (5-HT6 IR) in rat hippocampus at 1, 8, 24, or 72 h after the treatment with either a single ECS (acute ECS) or daily ECS for 10 days (chronic ECS). We found that acute ECS increased 5-HT6 IR in the CA1, CA3, and granule cell layer of hippocampus, reaching peak levels at 8 h and returning to basal levels 72 h later. The magnitude and time-dependent changes in 5-HT6 IR observed after acute ECS were not affected by chronic ECS. These results demonstrate that both acute and chronic ECS transiently increase the 5-HT6 IR in rat hippocampus, and suggest that the magnitude and time-dependent changes in 5-HT6 IR in the hippocampus appear not to be influenced by repeated ECS treatment. PMID:25258570

  4. Aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents. Part I: A review of the effects of child and family characteristics.

    PubMed

    Fernald, L C; Ani, C; Gardner, J M

    1997-12-01

    Interpersonal violence is a major public health concern throughout the West Indies, particularly in Jamaica. Many factors contribute to a youth's violent or aggressive behaviour, ranging from individual temperament, to family structure, to large sociocultural influences. In Part I, we review the incidence and severity of violence, and discuss the effects of individual characteristics, and of family structure and discipline. In Part II, the reported effects of school structure, peer relationships and interaction, corporal punishment and the media on violent behaviour in children and adolescents are reviewed, and potential policy implications are discussed. PMID:9494402

  5. Acute effects of carbon monoxide on cardiac electrical stability. Research report, Sep 85-Jul 88

    SciTech Connect

    Verrier, R.L.; Mills, A.K.; Skornik, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the project was to determine the effects of acute carbon monoxide exposure on cardiac electrical stability in the normal and ischemic heart of anesthetized and conscious dogs. Exposure (90 to 120 minutes) to relatively high levels of carbon monoxide, leading to carboxyhemoglobin concentrations of up to 20 percent, was without significant effect on ventricular electrical stability in laboratory dogs. This appears to be the case in the acutely ischemic heart as well as in the normal heart. Using a model involving partial coronary artery stenosis, no changes were found in either the cycle frequency of coronary blood flow oscillations or in platelet aggregability during carbon monoxide exposure. Also examined were the effects of carbon monoxide exposure in the conscious state in order to take into consideration possible adverse consequences mediated by the central nervous system. The study found no adverse effects on the cardiac-excitable properties in response to either a 2-hour- or 24-hour-exposure paradigm.

  6. Chemical toxicity of uranium hexafluoride compared to acute effects of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, S.A.

    1991-02-01

    The chemical effects from acute exposures to uranium hexafluoride are compared to the nonstochastic effects from acute radiation doses of 25 rems to the whole body and 300 rems to the thyroid. The analysis concludes that an intake of about 10 mg of uranium in soluble form is roughly comparable, in terms of early effects, to an acute whole body dose of 25 rems because both are just below the threshold for significant nonstochastic effects. Similarly, an exposure to hydrogen fluoride at a concentration of 25 mg/m{sup 3} for 30 minutes is roughly comparable because there would be no significant nonstochastic effects. For times t other than 30 minutes, the concentration C of hydrogen fluoride considered to have the same effect can be calculated using a quadratic equation: C = 25 mg/m{sup 3} (30 min/t). The purpose of these analyses is to provide information for developing design and siting guideline based on chemical toxicity for enrichment plants using uranium hexafluoride. These guidelines are to be similar, in terms of stochastic health effects, to criteria in NRC regulations of nuclear power plants, which are based on radiation doses. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  7. Effect of spatial organisation behaviour on upscaling the overland flow formation in an arable land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silasari, Rasmiaditya; Blöschl, Günter

    2014-05-01

    Overland flow during rainfall events on arable land is important to investigate as it affects the land erosion process and water quality in the river. The formation of overland flow may happen through different ways (i.e. Hortonian overland flow, saturation excess overland flow) which is influenced by the surface and subsurface soil characteristics (i.e. land cover, soil infiltration rate). As the soil characteristics vary throughout the entire catchment, it will form distinct spatial patterns with organised or random behaviour. During the upscaling of hydrological processes from plot to catchment scale, this behaviour will become substantial since organised patterns will result in higher spatial connectivity and thus higher conductivity. However, very few of the existing studies explicitly address this effect of spatial organisations of the patterns in upscaling the hydrological processes to the catchment scale. This study will assess the upscaling of overland flow formation with concerns of spatial organisation behaviour of the patterns by application of direct field observations under natural conditions using video camera and soil moisture sensors and investigation of the underlying processes using a physical-based hydrology model. The study area is a Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) located at Petzenkirchen, Lower Austria. It is a 64 ha catchment with land use consisting of arable land (87%), forest (6%), pasture (5%) and paved surfaces (2%). A video camera is installed 7m above the ground on a weather station mast in the middle of the arable land to monitor the overland flow patterns during rainfall events in a 2m x 6m plot scale. Soil moisture sensors with continuous measurement at different depth (5, 10, 20 and 50cm) are installed at points where the field is monitored by the camera. The patterns of overland flow formation and subsurface flow state at the plot scale will be generated using a coupled surface-subsurface flow physical-based hydrology

  8. Acute and subacute effects of the ultrasonic blade and electrosurgery on nerve physiology

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chaoyang; Kallakuri, Srinivasu; Cavanaugh, John M.; Broughton, Duan; Clymer, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ultrasonic blades have been shown to cause less acute electrophysiological damage when applied near nerves than monopolar electrosurgery (ES). This study was performed to determine whether the acute nerve damage observed for ES, as well as the relative lack of damage observed for ultrasonic dissection, extends through a subacute timeframe. Muscle incisions were made in rat with the Harmonic® Blade (HB) and ES at a distance of 2 mm from the sciatic nerve. Sham surgery was also performed which consisted of similar exposure of the sciatic nerve without use of an energized device. Electrophysiological function was assessed acutely over a 3-h period, and subacutely after a 7-day survival, by monitoring the sciatic nerve compound action potential (CAP), conduction velocity (CV), von Frey hair (VFH) stimulation force, leukocyte infiltration, and impaired axonal transport via β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP) immunocytochemistry. During the acute period, ES produced significantly lower CAP and CV, and higher levels of leukocytes and β-APP than sham, whereas the ultrasonic blade was not significantly different from sham, and had significantly lower VFH force than ES. After the subacute survival, ES continued to display significantly lower CAP and CV, and higher levels of leukocytes and β-APP than sham, whereas ultrasonic blade had higher CAP and CV than sham, and lower VFH than ES. This study confirms that incisions made with an ultrasonic blade cause less acute nerve damage than monopolar ES, and are comparable to sham surgery at a distance of 2 mm from the sciatic nerve. The negative effects of electrosurgery extend through at least a 7-day survival period, whereas subacute recovery after application of the ultrasonic blade was comparable to that of sham surgery. For surgical procedures in the vicinity of vital nerves, use of the ultrasonic blade represents a lower risk than ES for both acute and subacute neural trauma. PMID:25812024

  9. Effects of central opiate and serotoninergic structures on heart rhythm during acute myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Prokop'eva, E V; Pivovarov, Y I

    2001-12-01

    Electrostimulation of the central gray matter in the sylvian aqueduct and nucleus raphe magnus produced an antiarrhythmic effect during acute myocardial ischemia. Stimulation and blockade of opiate receptors in the central amygdaloid nucleus and lateral hypothalamus with dalargin and naloxone induced the same effect. Destruction of the central gray matter in the sylvian aqueduct and nucleus raphe magnus decreased electrical stability of ischemic myocardium. PMID:12152875

  10. Cross-shift study of acute respiratory effects in cement production workers.

    PubMed

    Aminian, Omid; Aslani, Maryam; Sadeghniiat Haghighi, Khosro

    2014-01-01

    Cement dust exposure is associated with increased respiratory impairment. As the major occupational hazard in the cement production industry is cement particles, our aim was to more thoroughly examine the acute effects of occupational exposure to cement dust on the respiratory system. A cross-shift study was conducted in a cement factory in Iran. 100 high exposed workers from production and packing sections and 100 low exposed from office workers were included. Environmental total dust was measured in each section. Assessment of lung function was done by pre and post shift spirometry. At the end of the day shift, acute respiratory symptoms were recorded. The means of total dust among high and low exposed workers were 16.55 mg/m3 and 0.9 mg/m3, respectively. The most common acute respiratory symptoms in high exposed workers were stuffy nose (52%) and shortness of breath (49%). A statistically significant post shift reduction in PEF, FEV1, FEF 25-75, FVC and FEV1/ FVC was demonstrated in high exposed group. Multivariate linear regression showed a significant relationship between the percentage of the cross-shift decrease in spirometric indices and exposure to cement dust. We detected significant relationship between exposure to cement dust and acute respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function indices. Effective dust-control measures and preparing a suitable strategy for respiratory protection are highly recommended. PMID:24659073

  11. Linking anti-predator behaviour to prey demography reveals limited risk effects of an actively hunting large carnivore.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Arthur D; Kauffman, Matthew J; McWhirter, Douglas E; Jimenez, Michael D; Cook, Rachel C; Cook, John G; Albeke, Shannon E; Sawyer, Hall; White, P J

    2013-08-01

    Ecological theory predicts that the diffuse risk cues generated by wide-ranging, active predators should induce prey behavioural responses but not major, population- or community-level consequences. We evaluated the non-consumptive effects (NCEs) of an active predator, the grey wolf (Canis lupus), by simultaneously tracking wolves and the behaviour, body fat, and pregnancy of elk (Cervus elaphus), their primary prey in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. When wolves approached within 1 km, elk increased their rates of movement, displacement and vigilance. Even in high-risk areas, however, these encounters occurred only once every 9 days. Ultimately, despite 20-fold variation in the frequency of encounters between wolves and individual elk, the risk of predation was not associated with elk body fat or pregnancy. Our findings suggest that the ecological consequences of actively hunting large carnivores, such as the wolf, are more likely transmitted by consumptive effects on prey survival than NCEs on prey behaviour. PMID:23750905

  12. Linking anti-predator behaviour to prey demography reveals limited risk effects of an actively hunting large carnivore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Arthur D.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; McWhirter, Douglas E.; Jimenez, Michael D.; Cook, Rachel C.; Cook, John G.; Albeke, Shannon E.; Sawyer, Hall; White, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological theory predicts that the diffuse risk cues generated by wide-ranging, active predators should induce prey behavioural responses but not major, population- or community-level consequences. We evaluated the non-consumptive effects (NCEs) of an active predator, the grey wolf (Canis lupus), by simultaneously tracking wolves and the behaviour, body fat, and pregnancy of elk (Cervus elaphus), their primary prey in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. When wolves approached within 1 km, elk increased their rates of movement, displacement and vigilance. Even in high-risk areas, however, these encounters occurred only once every 9 days. Ultimately, despite 20-fold variation in the frequency of encounters between wolves and individual elk, the risk of predation was not associated with elk body fat or pregnancy. Our findings suggest that the ecological consequences of actively hunting large carnivores, such as the wolf, are more likely transmitted by consumptive effects on prey survival than NCEs on prey behaviour.

  13. The effect of large milk meals on digestive physiology and behaviour in dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Ellingsen, Kristian; Mejdell, Cecilie M; Ottesen, Nina; Larsen, Stig; Grøndahl, Ann Margaret

    2016-02-01

    It is commonly believed that young calves should not be fed more than about 2l of milk per meal. If calves are fed beyond this volume, it is said that the capacity of the abomasum may be exceeded and that milk could enter the rumen. This can disturb the microbial flora/fauna of the rumen and increase the risk of indigestion, diarrhoea and reduced growth. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of large milk meals on digestive physiology and behaviour in dairy calves. Six calves (19-23days of age at the beginning of the experiment) were fed 2l of warm whole milk by teat bottle three times per day, which was the recommended Norwegian feeding regime at the time. The calves were given free access to hay, concentrates and water. During three morning feeding sessions, each separated by 48h, all calves were offered larger meals. The offered amounts were calculated according to the within patient 3-level Response Surface Pathway (RSP) design. The milk given on the three test days contained a contrast medium (barium sulphate), and the animals were radiographed before, during and immediately after intake to reveal whether milk entered the rumen. Four out of the six calves drank more than 5l in one meal and the highest voluntary intake was 6.8l in one meal (13.2% of BW). Abdominal radiographs showed that the abomasum has a large ability for distension. Milk in the rumen was not observed in any of the calves, regardless of intake. The behaviour of the calves was observed for 2h after each test session. No behaviour indicating abdominal pain or discomfort was observed regardless of intake. The results indicate that when warm whole milk is administered from a teat bottle, farmers can increase the amount of milk they offer their calves beyond the traditionally recommended portion size without risk of milk entering the rumen. Hence, farmers who want to feed their calves more milk can do so by increasing meal sizes, and not necessarily by introducing an additional meal

  14. Inhibitory control training for appetitive behaviour change: A meta-analytic investigation of mechanisms of action and moderators of effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew; Di Lemma, Lisa C G; Robinson, Eric; Christiansen, Paul; Nolan, Sarah; Tudur-Smith, Catrin; Field, Matt

    2016-02-01

    Inhibitory control training (ICT) is a novel intervention in which participants learn to associate appetitive cues with inhibition of behaviour. We present a meta-analytic investigation of laboratory studies of ICT for appetitive behaviour change in which we investigate candidate mechanisms of action, individual differences that may moderate its effectiveness, and compare it to other psychological interventions. We conducted random-effects generic inverse variance meta-analysis on data from 14 articles (18 effect sizes in total). Participants who received ICT chose or consumed significantly less food or alcohol compared to control groups (SMD = 0.36, 95% CIs [0.24, 0.47]; Z = 6.18, p < .001; I(2) = 71%). Effect sizes were larger for motor (Go/No-Go and Stop Signal) compared to oculomotor (Antisaccade) ICT. The effects of ICT on behaviour were comparable to those produced by other psychological interventions, and effects of ICT on food intake were greater in participants who were attempting to restrict their food intake. The magnitude of the effect of ICT on behaviour was predicted by the proportion of successful inhibitions but was unrelated to the absolute number of trials in which appetitive cues were paired with the requirement to inhibit, or the contingency between appetitive cues and the requirement to inhibit. The effect of ICT on cue devaluation (primarily assessed with implicit association tests) was not statistically significant. Our analysis confirms the efficacy of ICT for short-term behaviour change in the laboratory, and we have demonstrated that its effectiveness may depend on pairings between appetitive cues and successful inhibition. We highlight the need for further research to translate these findings outside of the laboratory. PMID:26592707

  15. Urban surface temperature behaviour and heat island effect in a tropical planned city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Adeb Qaid; Ossen, Dilshan Remaz; Jamei, Elmira; Manaf, Norhashima Abd; Said, Ismail; Ahmad, Mohd Hamdan

    2015-02-01

    Putrajaya is a model city planned with concepts of a "city in the garden" and an "intelligent city" in the tropics. This study presents the behaviour of the surface temperature and the heat island effect of Putrajaya. Findings show that heat island intensity is 2 °C on average at nighttime and negligible at daytime. But high surface temperature values were recorded at the main boulevard due to direct solar radiation incident, street orientation in the direction of northeast and southwest and low building height-to-street width ratio. Buildings facing each other had cooling effect on surfaces during the morning and evening hours; conversely, they had a warming effect at noon. Clustered trees along the street are effective in reducing the surface temperature compared to scattered and isolated trees. Surface temperature of built up areas was highest at noon, while walls and sidewalks facing northwest were hottest later in the day. Walls and sidewalks that face northwest were warmer than those that face southeast. The surface temperatures of the horizontal street surfaces and of vertical façades are at acceptable levels relative to the surface temperature of similar surfaces in mature cities in subtropical, temperate and Mediterranean climates.

  16. The relative effect of behaviour in larval dispersal in a low energy embayment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daigle, Rémi M.; Chassé, Joël; Metaxas, Anna

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the relative importance of tidal phase, larval behaviour, release site, depth layer, and vertical swimming velocity on mean in-sea dispersal distance, retention, distance from shore, and population connectivity. Using a biophysical model, we simulated larval dispersal of marine benthic invertebrates for 6 taxonomic groups representing different combinations of swimming speed, and depth preference in St. George's Bay, NS, Canada, a shallow bay with low energy (e.g. lack of estuarine circulation). The biophysical model was run over a period of 3 months, from Jul to Sep, representing the period when larvae of the targeted species were present, and at each of 3 years. Overall, release site had the strongest effect of all factors on the dispersal metrics. Although less important than release site in our system, vertical distribution and swim speed had a significant effect which would likely be more pronounced in high (i.e. with features such as estuarine circulation or internal waves) than low energy environments. Retention and distance from shore were more responsive to our manipulations than dispersal distance, both in terms of the number of ecologically significant effects and the magnitudes of their effect size. These findings allow for the prioritization of biophysical model parameters and improved simulations of larval dispersal.

  17. Valuing empathy and emotional intelligence in health leadership: a study of empathy, leadership behaviour and outcome effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Skinner, C; Spurgeon, P

    2005-02-01

    This article examines the relationship between health managers' self-assessed empathy, their leadership behaviours as rated by their staff, and staff's personal ratings on a range of work satisfaction and related outcome measures. Empathy was conceived of as four distinct but related individual dispositions, namely empathic concern (EC), perspective taking (PT), personal distress (PD) and empathic matching (EM). Results showed three empathy scales (EC, PT and EM) were, as postulated, positively related to transformational behaviour (inspiring followers to achieve more than expected). The same three measures, also as expected, showed no relationship to transactional behaviour (motivating followers to achieve expected results) and were negatively associated with laissez-faire leadership (an absence of leadership style). Relationships between empathy scales and outcome measures were selective and moderate in size. Strongest empathy association was evident between the PT scale and most outcome measures. Conversely, the extra effort outcome appeared most sensitive to the range of empathy scales. Where significant relationships did exist between empathy and outcome, leadership behaviour was in all cases a perfect mediator. Whilst not denying the smaller dispositional effects on leadership outcomes, leadership behaviour itself, rather than individual traits such as empathy, appear to be major influencing factors in leadership effectiveness. PMID:15807976

  18. Comparison between the effects of quercetin on seizure threshold in acute and chronic seizure models.

    PubMed

    Nassiri-Asl, Marjan; Hajiali, Farid; Taghiloo, Mina; Abbasi, Esmail; Mohseni, Fatemeh; Yousefi, Farbod

    2016-05-01

    Flavonoids are important constituents of food and beverages, and several studies have shown that they have neuroactive properties. Many of these compounds are ligands for γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in the central nervous system. This study aimed to investigate the anticonvulsant effects of quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone), which is a flavonoid found in plants, in rats treated with pentylenetetrazole in acute and chronic seizure models. Single intraperitoneal administration of quercetin did not show anticonvulsive effects against acute seizure. Similarly, multiple oral pretreatment with quercetin did not have protective effects against acute seizure. However, multiple intraperitoneal administration of quercetin (25 and 50 mg/kg) significantly increased time to death compared with the control (p < 0.001). However, quercetin pretreatment had no significant effects on the pattern of convulsion development during all periods of kindling. But on the test day, quercetin (100 mg/kg) could significantly increase generalized tonic-clonic seizure onset (GTCS) and decrease GTCS duration compared with the control (p < 0.01, p < 0.05). We conclude that quercetin has a narrow therapeutic dose range for anticonvulsant activities in vivo, and it has different effects on the seizure threshold. The different effects of quercetin on seizure threshold may occur through several mechanisms. PMID:24442347

  19. Effects of Ozonated Olive Oil on Acute Radiation Proctitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gültekin, Fatma Ayça; Bakkal, Bekir Hakan; Sümer, Demet; Köktürk, Füruzan; Bektaş, Sibel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Acute radiation proctitis is a common complication of pelvic radiation and management of acute radiation proctitis is under evaluation. The beneficial effects of ozonated olive oil (OzOO) have already been shown in the treatment of chronic wounds. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of topical OzOO on acute radiation proctitis. Aims: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of topical OzOO on acute radiation proctitis. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Rats were divided into three groups: control; irradiation+saline (1 mL); and irradiation +OzOO (1 mL). A single fraction of 17.5 Gy was delivered to each rat. The OzOO was administered rectally each day after irradiation. Each rat was observed daily for signs of proctitis. Irradiated rats were euthanised on days 5 and 10. The mucosal changes were evaluated macroscopically and pathologically. Results: According to the clinical findings, five rats in the irradiation+saline group showed Grade 4 symptoms on the 10th day. Macroscopic finding scores on the 10th day in the irradiation+saline and irradiation+OzOO groups were statistically significantly different. On pathological examination, radiation-induced mucosal damage was the most prominent 10 days after irradiation in saline-treated rats. On the 10th day, the irradiation+OzOO group showed mild inflammation and slight crypt change, which corresponded to Grade 1 pathological findings. Conclusion: OzOO attenuates macroscopic and pathological findings of acute radiation proctitis in rats. PMID:25207143

  20. The effect of chronic and acute exercise on immunity in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y S; Jan, M S; Chen, H I

    1993-02-01

    The effects of exercise training and acute exercise on the immune system were investigated in rats. For chronic exercise training, the rats ran on a drum exerciser at the intensity of about 60-70% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) for 30 min and then extended up to 60 min per day, 5 days per week for 10 weeks. The rats were at rest for 3 days before sacrifice. The mitogenic activity of spleen lymphocytes to concanavalin A (Con A) and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) decreased as compared to the sedentary control, while proliferative response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increased. The interleukin-2 (IL-2) production in the training group was reduced. The immunomodulatory effect after acute exercise has also been investigated and it showed profound enhancement of cell proliferation to Con A, SEB and LPS in mild (50% VO2max for 10 min) and moderate (70% VO2max for 10 min) exercise groups. The enhancing activity was less prominent after severe exercise (> 75%) VO2max until exhaustion). The IL2 production increased in all of these acute exercise groups. Nevertheless, there was no significant variation between exercise and control groups in the cell number per spleen and the percentages of various lymphocyte populations, i.e., total T, CD4+, CD8+ and IL-2R+ T cells as well as B cells. In summary, this study indicates that chronic exercise training may cause the reduction of T cell activity while acute exercise manifests an enhancing effect. However, B cell proliferation was elevated in both chronic and acute exercise groups. PMID:8463030

  1. Acute effects of corticosterone injection on paternal behavior in California mouse (Peromyscus californicus) fathers.

    PubMed

    Harris, Breanna N; Perea-Rodriguez, Juan Pablo; Saltzman, Wendy

    2011-11-01

    Glucocorticoids are thought to mediate the disruption of parental behavior in response to acute and chronic stress. Previous research supports their role in chronic stress; however, no study has experimentally tested the effects of acute glucocorticoid elevation on paternal behavior. We tested the prediction that acute corticosterone (CORT) increases would decrease paternal behavior in California mouse fathers and would lead to longer-term effects on reproductive success, as even short-term increases in CORT have been shown to produce lasting effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. First-time fathers were injected with 30 mg/kg CORT, 60 mg/kg CORT or vehicle, or left unmanipulated. Interactions between the male and its pup(s) were recorded 1.5-2h after injection and scored for paternal and non-paternal behavior. Treatment groups were combined into control (unmanipulated + vehicle, n = 15) and CORT (30 mg/kg + 60 mg/kg, n = 16) for analysis based on resulting plasma CORT concentrations. CORT treatment did not alter paternal or non-paternal behaviors or any long-term measures (male body mass or temperature, pup growth rate, pup survival, interbirth interval, number or mass of pups born in the second litter). Fathers showed a significant rise in body mass at day 30 postpartum, followed by a decrease in body mass after the birth of the second litter; however, this pattern did not differ between the CORT and control groups. In summary, acute elevation of plasma CORT did not alter direct paternal behavior, body mass, or reproductive outcomes, suggesting that acute CORT elevation alone does not overtly disrupt paternal care in this biparental mammal. PMID:21939660

  2. Differential analgesic effects of morphine and gabapentin on behavioural measures of pain and disability in a model of osteoarthritis pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Vonsy, Jean Laurent; Ghandehari, Javid; Dickenson, Anthony Henry

    2009-09-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with chronic debilitating joint pain. Pain is the result of an emotional and sensory experience and preclinical models of OA can thus be useful to better understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test new therapeutic options. We induced unilateral knee OA in Sprague-Dawley rats using monosodium iodoacetate (MIA), a glycolysis inhibitor and assessed the effects of acute and chronic morphine and gabapentin using a battery of quantitative behavioural outcome measures of pain and disability. Animals received a single intra-articular injection of 2mg MIA in 25 microl saline, causing inflammation and progressive cartilage degradation. Mechanical and thermal sensitivity as well as ambulatory-evoked pain were then monitored using von Frey hairs, acetone and a rotarod. Once maximum nociceptive responses were reached, chronic bi-daily morphine (3mg/kg s.c.) or gabapentin (30 mg/kg s.c.) were administered for 5 days. We observed a marked biphasic mechanical hypersensitivity that increased and reached a plateau from day 14 (317.6% of control response, p<0.01, with von Frey 6g). Moreover we found a marked cooling hypersensitivity, and validated a novel ambulatory-evoked pain score. These measures were significantly reduced after both acute (13.3% of sham response, p<0.01, von Frey 6g) and chronic (38.3%, p<0.05) morphine whilst only chronic gabapentin (37.0%, p<0.05) had an effect. We show the reliability of the model in terms of mechanical hypersensitivity and demonstrate cooling hypersensitivity and ambulatory-evoked pain. In terms of translational research, the effects of morphine and gabapentin validate the model and suggest trials of these therapeutic approaches in OA patients. PMID:18955000

  3. The effect of food on the acute toxicity of silver nitrate to four freshwater test species and acute-to-chronic ratios.

    PubMed

    Naddy, Rami B; McNerney, Gina R; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Bell, Russell A; Kramer, James R; Wu, Kuen B; Paquin, Paul R

    2011-11-01

    Acute silver toxicity studies were conducted with and without food for four common freshwater test species: Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow-FHM), and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout-RBT) in order to generate acute-to-chronic ratios (ACR). The studies were conducted similarly (i.e., static-renewal or flow-through) to chronic/early-life stage studies that were previously performed in this laboratory. The acute toxicity (EC/LC50 values) of silver without food ranged from 0.57 μg dissolved Ag/l for C.dubia to 9.15 μg dissolved Ag/l for RBT. The presence of food resulted in an increase in EC/LC50 values from 1.25× for RBT to 22.4× for C. dubia. Invertebrate food type was also shown to effect acute silver toxicity. Food did not affect EC/LC50s or ACRs as greatly in fish studies as in invertebrate studies. ACRs for both invertebrate species were <1.0 when using acute studies without food but were 1.22 and 1.33 when using acute studies with food. ACRs for FHMs ranged from 4.06 to 7.19, while RBT ACRs ranged from 28.6 to 35.8 depending on whether food was present in acute studies. The data generated from this research program should be useful in re-determining a final ACR for silver in freshwater as well as in risk assessments. PMID:21779820

  4. Effects of oxytocin and genetic variants on brain and behaviour: Implications for treatment in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bartholomeusz, Cali F; Ganella, Eleni P; Labuschagne, Izelle; Bousman, Chad; Pantelis, Christos

    2015-11-01

    Impairments in social cognition and poor social functioning are core features of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. In recent years, there has been a move towards developing new treatment strategies that specifically target social cognitive and social behavioural deficits. Oxytocin (OXT) is one such strategy that has gained increasing attention. There is a strong rationale for studying OXT in psychosis, from both an evolutionary perspective and neurodevelopmental-cognitive model of schizophrenia. Thus, the aim of this review was to critique and examine the observational and clinical oxytocin trial literature in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. A handful of clinical trials suggest that OXT treatment may be beneficial for remediating social cognitive impairments, psychiatric symptoms, and improving social outcomes. However, inconsistencies exist in this literature, which may be explained by individual differences in the underlying neural response to OXT treatment and/or variation in the oxytocin and oxytocin receptor genes. Therefore, we additionally reviewed the evidence for structural and functional neural intermediate phenotypes in humans that link genetic variants to social behaviour/thinking, and discuss the implications of such interactions in the context of dysfunctional brain networks in schizophrenia. Factors that pose challenges for future OXT clinical research include the impact of age, sex, and ancestry, task-specific effects, bioavailability and pharmacokinetics, as well as neurotransmitter and drug interactions. While initial findings from OXT single dose/clinical trial studies are promising, more interdisciplinary research in both healthy and psychiatric populations is needed before determining whether OXT is a viable treatment option/adjunct for addressing poor illness outcomes in psychotic disorders. PMID:26123171

  5. Orcinol glucoside produces antidepressant effects by blocking the behavioural and neuronal deficits caused by chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jin-Fang; Gao, Wen-Chao; Cheng, Wen-Ming; Lu, Wei-Li; Tang, Jie; Peng, Lei; Li, Ning; Chen, Fei-Hu

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the antidepressant potential of orcinol glucoside (OG) and its possible mechanisms of action. We established a depressed rat model using 3 consecutive weeks of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). The antidepressant-like effect of OG was revealed using the sucrose preference test, the open field test, the forced swimming test (FST), and the tail suspension test (TST). The activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was evaluated by detecting the serum corticosterone (CORT) concentrations and mRNA expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the hypothalamus. The protein expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and total phosphorylated-ERK1/2 were detected by western blot. The results showed that OG treatment (1.5, 3, or 6mg/kg) alleviated the depression-like behaviour of rats under CUMS, as indicated by the increased sucrose preference and the decreased immobility in both the FST